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ES3528
ES3528-WDM
Layer 2 Metro Access Switch
Management Guide
www.edge-core.com
Management Guide
ES3528 Fast Ethernet Switch
Layer 2 Ethernet Metro Access Switch
with 24 Fast Ethernet Ports (RJ-45),
2 Gigabit Combination Ports (RJ-45/SFP),
2 Gigabit Extender Module Slots (RJ-45/SFP),
1 Fast Ethernet Management Port (RJ-45)
ES3528-WDM Fast Ethernet Switch
Layer 2 WDM Metro Access Switch
with 24 100BASE-BX Single-Fiber Ports (SC),
2 Gigabit Combination Ports (RJ-45/SFP),
2 Gigabit Extender Module Slots (RJ-45/SFP),
1 Fast Ethernet Management Port (RJ-45)
ES3528
ES3528-WDM
F1.0.1.7 E122006/ST-R01
149100033100A
Contents
Section I: Getting Started
Chapter 1: Introduction
Key Features
Description of Software Features
System Defaults
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-6
Chapter 2: Initial Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
Configuration Options
Required Connections
Remote Connections
Basic Configuration
Console Connection
Setting Passwords
Setting an IP Address
Manual Configuration
Dynamic Configuration
Enabling SNMP Management Access
Community Strings (for SNMP version 1 and 2c clients)
Trap Receivers
Configuring Access for SNMP Version 3 Clients
Managing System Files
Saving Configuration Settings
2-1
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-8
2-9
Section II: Switch Management
Chapter 3: Configuring the Switch
Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Home Page
Configuration Options
Panel Display
Main Menu
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-4
Chapter 4: Basic Management Tasks
Displaying System Information
Configuring the Switch for Normal Operation or Tunneling Mode
Configuring the Maximum Frame Size
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
Setting the Switch’s IP Address
4-1
4-1
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
v
Contents
Manual Configuration
Using DHCP/BOOTP
Managing Firmware
Downloading System Software from a Server
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server
Console Port Settings
Telnet Settings
Configuring Event Logging
System Log Configuration
Remote Log Configuration
Displaying Log Messages
Sending Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Alerts
Resetting the System
Setting the System Clock
Configuring SNTP
Setting the Time Zone
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-18
4-20
4-20
4-21
4-23
4-23
4-25
4-26
4-26
4-27
Chapter 5: Simple Network Management Protocol
Enabling the SNMP Agent
Setting Community Access Strings
Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
Setting a Local Engine ID
Specifying a Remote Engine ID
Configuring SNMPv3 Users
Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
Setting SNMPv3 Views
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-7
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-11
5-13
5-16
Chapter 6: User Authentication
Configuring User Accounts
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
Configuring HTTPS
Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
Configuring the Secure Shell
Generating the Host Key Pair
Configuring the SSH Server
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
Displaying 802.1X Global Settings
Configuring 802.1X Global Settings
Configuring Port Settings for 802.1X
Displaying 802.1X Statistics
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-9
6-11
6-13
6-14
6-15
6-15
6-18
6-20
vi
Contents
Chapter 7: Client Security
Configuring Port Security
7-1
7-1
Chapter 8: Access Control Lists
Configuring Access Control Lists
Setting the ACL Name and Type
Configuring a Standard ACL
Configuring an Extended ACL
Configuring a MAC ACL
Configuring ACL Masks
Specifying the Mask Type
Configuring an IP ACL Mask
Configuring a MAC ACL Mask
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
8-1
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-7
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-12
8-13
Chapter 9: Port Configuration
Displaying Connection Status
Configuring Interface Connections
Creating Trunk Groups
Statically Configuring a Trunk
Enabling LACP on Selected Ports
Configuring LACP Parameters
Displaying LACP Port Counters
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Local Side
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Remote Side
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
Configuring Port Mirroring
Configuring Rate Limits
Showing Port Statistics
9-1
9-1
9-3
9-6
9-7
9-8
9-10
9-13
9-14
9-16
9-17
9-19
9-20
9-21
Chapter 10: Address Table Settings
Setting Static Addresses
Displaying the Address Table
Changing the Aging Time
10-1
10-1
10-2
10-4
Chapter 11: Spanning Tree Algorithm
Displaying Global Settings
Configuring Global Settings
Displaying Interface Settings
Configuring Interface Settings
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
Displaying Interface Settings for MSTP
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
Chapter 12: VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)
11-1
11-3
11-6
11-10
11-13
11-16
11-19
11-20
12-1
12-1
12-4
vii
Contents
Displaying Basic VLAN Information
Displaying Current VLANs
Creating VLANs
Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)
Adding Static Members to VLANs (Port Index)
Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
Adding an Interface to a QinQ Tunnel
Configuring Private VLANs
Enabling Private VLANs
Configuring Uplink and Downlink Ports
Configuring Protocol-Based VLANs
Configuring Protocol Groups
Mapping Protocols to VLANs
Chapter 13: Class of Service
Layer 2 Queue Settings
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
Selecting the Queue Mode
Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority
Mapping IP Precedence
Mapping DSCP Priority
Mapping IP Port Priority
Chapter 14: Quality of Service
Configuring Quality of Service Parameters
Configuring a Class Map
Creating QoS Policies
Attaching a Policy Map to Ingress Queues
Chapter 15: Multicast Filtering
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters
Displaying Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Services
Assigning Ports to Multicast Services
Multicast VLAN Registration
Configuring Global MVR Settings
Displaying MVR Interface Status
Configuring MVR Interface Status
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Groups
viii
12-4
12-5
12-6
12-7
12-9
12-10
12-12
12-16
12-17
12-17
12-18
12-18
12-19
12-20
13-1
13-1
13-1
13-3
13-5
13-6
13-7
13-7
13-7
13-8
13-10
13-11
14-1
14-1
14-2
14-5
14-8
15-1
15-2
15-3
15-5
15-6
15-7
15-8
15-9
15-10
15-11
15-12
15-14
Contents
Assigning Static Multicast Groups to Interfaces
Chapter 16: Domain Name Service
Configuring General DNS Service Parameters
Configuring Static DNS Host to Address Entries
Displaying the DNS Cache
15-15
16-1
16-1
16-3
16-5
Section III: Command Line Interface
Chapter 17: Overview of Command Line Interface
Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
Console Connection
Telnet Connection
Entering Commands
Keywords and Arguments
Minimum Abbreviation
Command Completion
Getting Help on Commands
Showing Commands
Partial Keyword Lookup
Negating the Effect of Commands
Using Command History
Understanding Command Modes
Exec Commands
Configuration Commands
Command Line Processing
Command Groups
17-1
17-1
17-1
17-1
17-1
17-3
17-3
17-3
17-3
17-3
17-4
17-5
17-5
17-5
17-6
17-6
17-7
17-9
17-10
Chapter 18: General Commands
enable
disable
configure
show history
reload
prompt
end
exit
quit
18-1
18-1
18-2
18-2
18-3
18-4
18-4
18-4
18-5
18-5
Chapter 19: System Management Commands
Device Designation Commands
hostname
System Status Commands
show startup-config
show running-config
19-1
19-1
19-1
19-2
19-2
19-4
ix
Contents
show system
show users
show version
System Mode Commands
system mode
show system mode
System MTU Commands
jumbo frame
system mtu
show system mtu
File Management Commands
copy
delete
dir
whichboot
boot system
Line Commands
line
login
password
timeout login response
exec-timeout
password-thresh
silent-time
databits
parity
speed
stopbits
disconnect
show line
Event Logging Commands
logging on
logging history
logging host
logging facility
logging trap
clear log
show logging
show log
SMTP Alert Commands
logging sendmail host
logging sendmail level
logging sendmail source-email
logging sendmail destination-email
logging sendmail
x
19-6
19-7
19-7
19-8
19-8
19-9
19-9
19-10
19-11
19-11
19-12
19-13
19-15
19-16
19-17
19-17
19-19
19-19
19-20
19-21
19-22
19-22
19-23
19-24
19-24
19-25
19-25
19-26
19-26
19-27
19-28
19-28
19-29
19-30
19-30
19-31
19-31
19-32
19-33
19-34
19-34
19-35
19-35
19-36
19-36
Contents
show logging sendmail
Time Commands
sntp client
sntp server
sntp poll
show sntp
clock timezone
calendar set
show calendar
19-37
19-37
19-38
19-39
19-39
19-40
19-40
19-41
19-42
Chapter 20: SNMP Commands
snmp-server
show snmp
snmp-server community
snmp-server contact
snmp-server location
snmp-server host
snmp-server enable traps
snmp-server engine-id
show snmp engine-id
snmp-server view
show snmp view
snmp-server group
show snmp group
snmp-server user
show snmp user
20-1
20-2
20-2
20-3
20-4
20-4
20-5
20-7
20-8
20-9
20-10
20-11
20-11
20-12
20-14
20-15
Chapter 21: User Authentication Commands
User Account Commands
username
enable password
Authentication Sequence
authentication login
authentication enable
RADIUS Client
radius-server host
radius-server port
radius-server key
radius-server retransmit
radius-server timeout
show radius-server
TACACS+ Client
tacacs-server host
tacacs-server port
tacacs-server key
show tacacs-server
21-1
21-1
21-2
21-3
21-4
21-4
21-5
21-6
21-6
21-7
21-7
21-8
21-8
21-8
21-9
21-9
21-10
21-10
21-11
xi
Contents
Web Server Commands
ip http port
ip http server
ip http secure-server
ip http secure-port
Telnet Server Commands
ip telnet server
Secure Shell Commands
ip ssh server
ip ssh timeout
ip ssh authentication-retries
ip ssh server-key size
delete public-key
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
ip ssh crypto zeroize
ip ssh save host-key
show ip ssh
show ssh
show public-key
802.1X Port Authentication
dot1x system-auth-control
dot1x default
dot1x max-req
dot1x port-control
dot1x operation-mode
dot1x re-authenticate
dot1x re-authentication
dot1x timeout quiet-period
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
dot1x timeout tx-period
show dot1x
Management IP Filter Commands
management
show management
Chapter 22: Client Security Commands
Port Security Commands
port security
IP Source Guard Commands
ip source-guard
ip source-guard binding
show ip source-guard
show ip source-guard binding
DHCP Snooping Commands
ip dhcp snooping
xii
21-11
21-11
21-12
21-12
21-13
21-14
21-14
21-15
21-17
21-18
21-19
21-19
21-20
21-20
21-21
21-21
21-22
21-22
21-23
21-24
21-25
21-25
21-25
21-26
21-26
21-27
21-27
21-28
21-28
21-29
21-29
21-33
21-33
21-34
22-1
22-1
22-2
22-3
22-3
22-5
22-6
22-6
22-7
22-7
Contents
ip dhcp snooping vlan
ip dhcp snooping binding
ip dhcp snooping verify mac-address
ip dhcp snooping database flash
ip dhcp snooping trust
show ip dhcp snooping
show ip dhcp snooping binding
22-9
22-10
22-11
22-12
22-12
22-13
22-13
Chapter 23: Access Control List Commands
IP ACLs
access-list ip
permit, deny (Standard ACL)
permit, deny (Extended ACL)
show ip access-list
access-list ip mask-precedence
mask (IP ACL)
show access-list ip mask-precedence
ip access-group
show ip access-group
MAC ACLs
access-list mac
permit, deny (MAC ACL)
show mac access-list
access-list mac mask-precedence
mask (MAC ACL)
show access-list mac mask-precedence
mac access-group
show mac access-group
ACL Information
show access-list
show access-group
23-1
23-1
23-2
23-2
23-3
23-5
23-6
23-6
23-10
23-11
23-11
23-12
23-12
23-13
23-14
23-15
23-15
23-17
23-18
23-18
23-19
23-19
23-19
Chapter 24: Interface Commands
interface
description
speed-duplex
negotiation
capabilities
flowcontrol
media-type
shutdown
switchport packet-rate
switchport block
clear counters
show interfaces status
show interfaces counters
24-1
24-1
24-2
24-2
24-3
24-4
24-5
24-6
24-6
24-7
24-8
24-8
24-9
24-10
xiii
Contents
show interfaces switchport
24-11
Chapter 25: Link Aggregation Commands
channel-group
lacp
lacp system-priority
lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface)
lacp admin-key (Port Channel)
lacp port-priority
show lacp
25-1
25-2
25-2
25-4
25-4
25-5
25-6
25-7
Chapter 26: Mirror Port Commands
port monitor
show port monitor
26-1
26-1
26-2
Chapter 27: Rate Limit Commands
rate-limit
rate-limit cos
show rate-limit cos
27-1
27-1
27-2
27-3
Chapter 28: Address Table Commands
mac-address-table static
clear mac-address-table dynamic
show mac-address-table
mac-address-table aging-time
show mac-address-table aging-time
28-1
28-1
28-2
28-3
28-4
28-4
Chapter 29: Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree
spanning-tree mode
spanning-tree forward-time
spanning-tree hello-time
spanning-tree max-age
spanning-tree priority
spanning-tree pathcost method
spanning-tree transmission-limit
spanning-tree mst-configuration
mst vlan
mst priority
name
revision
max-hops
spanning-tree spanning-disabled
spanning-tree cost
spanning-tree port-priority
spanning-tree edge-port
spanning-tree portfast
29-1
29-2
29-2
29-4
29-4
29-5
29-6
29-6
29-7
29-7
29-8
29-9
29-9
29-10
29-11
29-11
29-12
29-13
29-14
29-14
xiv
Contents
spanning-tree link-type
spanning-tree mst cost
spanning-tree mst port-priority
spanning-tree protocol-migration
show spanning-tree
show spanning-tree mst configuration
Chapter 30: VLAN Commands
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
bridge-ext gvrp
show bridge-ext
switchport gvrp
show gvrp configuration
garp timer
show garp timer
Editing VLAN Groups
vlan database
vlan
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
interface vlan
switchport mode
switchport acceptable-frame-types
switchport ingress-filtering
switchport native vlan
switchport allowed vlan
switchport forbidden vlan
Displaying VLAN Information
show vlan
Configuring Private VLANs
pvlan
show pvlan
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Groups)
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Interfaces)
show protocol-vlan protocol-group
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
switchport mode dot1q-tunnel
show dot1q-tunnel
switchport dot1q-ethertype
Chapter 31: Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
queue mode
show queue mode
switchport priority default
29-15
29-16
29-17
29-18
29-18
29-20
30-1
30-1
30-2
30-2
30-3
30-3
30-4
30-5
30-6
30-6
30-7
30-8
30-8
30-9
30-9
30-10
30-11
30-11
30-12
30-13
30-13
30-14
30-14
30-15
30-16
30-17
30-17
30-18
30-19
30-20
30-21
30-21
30-22
31-1
31-1
31-2
31-2
31-3
xv
Contents
queue bandwidth
queue cos-map
show queue bandwidth
show queue cos-map
vlan priority
show vlan based priority
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
map ip port (Global Configuration)
map ip port (Interface Configuration)
map ip precedence (Global Configuration)
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
show map ip port
show map ip precedence
show map ip dscp
Chapter 32: Quality of Service Commands
class-map
match
policy-map
class
set
police
service-policy
show class-map
show policy-map
show policy-map interface
Chapter 33: Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping Commands
ip igmp snooping
ip igmp snooping vlan static
ip igmp snooping version
ip igmp snooping leave-proxy
ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
show ip igmp snooping
show mac-address-table multicast
IGMP Query Commands
ip igmp snooping querier
ip igmp snooping query-count
ip igmp snooping query-interval
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
Static Multicast Routing Commands
ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
xvi
31-4
31-4
31-5
31-6
31-6
31-7
31-8
31-8
31-9
31-9
31-10
31-11
31-11
31-12
31-13
31-14
32-1
32-2
32-3
32-4
32-5
32-6
32-6
32-7
32-8
32-8
32-9
33-1
33-1
33-2
33-2
33-3
33-3
33-4
33-5
33-6
33-6
33-7
33-7
33-8
33-8
33-9
33-10
33-10
Contents
show ip igmp snooping mrouter
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands
mvr (Global Configuration)
mvr (Interface Configuration)
show mvr
33-11
33-11
33-12
33-13
33-14
Chapter 34: Domain Name Service Commands
ip host
clear host
ip domain-name
ip domain-list
ip name-server
ip domain-lookup
show hosts
show dns
show dns cache
clear dns cache
34-1
34-1
34-2
34-3
34-3
34-4
34-5
34-6
34-7
34-7
34-8
Chapter 35: IP Interface Commands
Basic IP Configuration
ip address
ip default-gateway
ip dhcp restart
show ip interface
show ip redirects
show arp
ping
35-1
35-1
35-1
35-2
35-3
35-4
35-4
35-4
35-5
Section IV: Appendices
Appendix A: Software Specifications
Software Features
Management Features
Standards
Management Information Bases
A-1
A-1
A-2
A-2
A-3
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
Problems Accessing the Management Interface
Using System Logs
B-1
B-1
B-2
Glossary
Index
xvii
Contents
xviii
Tables
Table 1-1
Table 1-2
Table 3-1
Table 3-2
Table 4-1
Table 5-1
Table 5-2
Table 6-1
Table 6-2
Table 9-1
Table 9-2
Table 9-3
Table 9-4
Table 11-1
Table 11-2
Table 11-3
Table 13-1
Table 13-2
Table 13-3
Table 13-4
Table 17-1
Table 17-2
Table 17-3
Table 17-4
Table 18-1
Table 19-1
Table 19-2
Table 19-3
Table 19-4
Table 19-5
Table 19-6
Table 19-7
Table 19-8
Table 19-9
Table 19-10
Table 19-11
Table 19-12
Table 19-13
Table 19-14
Table 20-1
Table 20-2
Table 20-3
Key Features
System Defaults
Web Page Configuration Buttons
Switch Main Menu
Logging Levels
SNMPv3 Security Models and Levels
Supported Notification Messages
HTTPS System Support
802.1X Statistics
LACP Port Counters
LACP Internal Configuration Information
LACP Neighbor Configuration Information
Port Statistics
Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Recommended STA Path Costs
Default STA Path Costs
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
CoS Priority Levels
Mapping IP Precedence
Mapping DSCP Priority
General Command Modes
Configuration Command Modes
Keystroke Commands
Command Group Index
General Commands
System Management Commands
Device Designation Commands
System Status Commands
System Mode Commands
Frame Size Commands
Flash/File Commands
File Directory Information
Line Commands
Event Logging Commands
Logging Levels
show logging flash/ram - display description
show logging trap - display description
SMTP Alert Commands
Time Commands
SNMP Commands
show snmp engine-id - display description
show snmp view - display description
1-1
1-6
3-3
3-4
4-20
5-2
5-13
6-6
6-18
9-13
9-14
9-16
9-21
11-14
11-14
11-14
13-3
13-3
13-8
13-10
17-6
17-8
17-9
17-10
18-1
19-1
19-1
19-2
19-8
19-9
19-12
19-16
19-19
19-28
19-29
19-32
19-33
19-34
19-37
20-1
20-9
20-11
xix
Tables
Table 20-4
Table 20-5
Table 21-1
Table 21-2
Table 21-3
Table 21-4
Table 21-5
Table 21-6
Table 21-7
Table 21-8
Table 21-9
Table 21-10
Table 21-11
Table 21-12
Table 21-13
Table 22-1
Table 22-2
Table 22-3
Table 22-4
Table 23-1
Table 23-2
Table 23-3
Table 23-4
Table 24-1
Table 24-2
Table 25-1
Table 25-2
Table 25-3
Table 25-4
Table 25-5
Table 26-1
Table 27-1
Table 27-2
Table 28-1
Table 29-1
Table 29-2
Table 29-3
Table 29-4
Table 30-1
Table 30-2
Table 30-3
Table 30-4
Table 30-5
Table 30-6
Table 30-7
xx
show snmp group - display description
show snmp user - display description
Authentication Commands
User Access Commands
Default Login Settings
Authentication Sequence Commands
RADIUS Client Commands
TACACS+ Client Commands
Web Server Commands
HTTPS System Support
Telnet Server Commands
Secure Shell Commands
show ssh - display description
802.1X Port Authentication Commands
Management IP Filter Commands
Client Security Commands
Port Security Commands
IP Source Guard Commands
DHCP Snooping Commands
Access Control List Commands
IP ACL Commands
MAC ACL Commands
ACL Information Commands
Interface Commands
show interfaces switchport - display description
Link Aggregation Commands
show lacp counters - display description
show lacp internal - display description
show lacp neighbors - display description
show lacp sysid - display description
Mirror Port Commands
Rate Limit Commands
Mapping Default to Per Port CoS Priority Levels
Address Table Commands
Spanning Tree Commands
Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Recommended STA Path Cost
Default STA Path Costs
VLAN Commands
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
Commands for Editing VLAN Groups
Commands for Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Commands for Displaying VLAN Information
Private VLAN Commands
Protocol-based VLAN Commands
20-13
20-15
21-1
21-1
21-2
21-4
21-6
21-9
21-11
21-13
21-14
21-15
21-22
21-24
21-33
22-1
22-1
22-3
22-7
23-1
23-1
23-12
23-19
24-1
24-12
25-1
25-7
25-8
25-9
25-10
26-1
27-1
27-2
28-1
29-1
29-12
29-12
29-12
30-1
30-1
30-6
30-8
30-13
30-14
30-16
Tables
Table 30-8
Table 31-1
Table 31-2
Table 31-3
Table 31-4
Table 31-5
Table 31-6
Table 32-1
Table 33-1
Table 33-2
Table 33-3
Table 33-4
Table 33-5
Table 33-6
Table 33-7
Table 33-8
Table 34-1
Table 34-2
Table 35-1
Table B-1
IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling Commands
Priority Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Default CoS Priority Levels
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Mapping IP Precedence to CoS Values
Mapping IP DSCP to CoS Values
Quality of Service Commands
Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping Commands
IGMP Query Commands
Static Multicast Routing Commands
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands
show mvr - display description
show mvr interface - display description
show mvr members - display description
DNS Commands
show dns cache - display description
Basic IP Configuration Commands
Troubleshooting Chart
30-20
31-1
31-1
31-5
31-8
31-10
31-12
32-1
33-1
33-1
33-6
33-10
33-11
33-15
33-15
33-16
34-1
34-7
35-1
B-1
xxi
Tables
xxii
Figures
Figure 3-1
Figure 3-2
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
Figure 4-3
Figure 4-4
Figure 4-5
Figure 4-6
Figure 4-7
Figure 4-8
Figure 4-9
Figure 4-10
Figure 4-11
Figure 4-12
Figure 4-13
Figure 4-14
Figure 4-15
Figure 4-16
Figure 4-17
Figure 4-18
Figure 4-19
Figure 4-20
Figure 4-21
Figure 4-22
Figure 5-1
Figure 5-2
Figure 5-3
Figure 5-4
Figure 5-5
Figure 5-6
Figure 5-7
Figure 5-8
Figure 5-9
Figure 6-1
Figure 6-2
Figure 6-3
Figure 6-4
Figure 6-5
Figure 6-6
Figure 6-7
Figure 6-8
Figure 6-9
Figure 6-10
Home Page
Front Panel Indicators
System Information
System Mode
System MTU
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
Switch Information
Displaying Bridge Extension Configuration
IP Interface Configuration - Manual
IP Interface Configuration - DHCP
Copy Firmware
Setting the Startup Code
Deleting Files
Downloading Configuration Settings for Start-Up
Setting the Startup Configuration Settings
Configuring the Console Port
Configuring the Telnet Interface
System Logs
Remote Logs
Displaying Logs
Enabling and Configuring SMTP Alerts
Resetting the System
SNTP Configuration
Clock Time Zone
Enabling the SNMP Agent
Configuring SNMP Community Strings
Configuring SNMP Trap Managers
Setting the SNMPv3 Engine ID
Setting an Engine ID
Configuring SNMPv3 Users
Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
Configuring SNMPv3 Views
User Accounts
Authentication Server Settings
HTTPS Settings
SSH Host-Key Settings
SSH Server Settings
802.1X Global Information
802.1X Global Configuration
802.1X Port Configuration
802.1X Port Statistics
IP Filter
3-2
3-3
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-12
4-12
4-13
4-15
4-15
4-17
4-19
4-21
4-22
4-23
4-24
4-25
4-26
4-27
5-2
5-3
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-10
5-12
5-15
5-17
6-2
6-4
6-6
6-10
6-12
6-14
6-15
6-16
6-19
6-21
xxiii
Figures
Figure 7-1
Figure 8-1
Figure 8-2
Figure 8-3
Figure 8-4
Figure 8-5
Figure 8-6
Figure 8-7
Figure 8-8
Figure 9-1
Figure 9-2
Figure 9-3
Figure 9-4
Figure 9-5
Figure 9-6
Figure 9-7
Figure 9-8
Figure 9-9
Figure 9-10
Figure 9-11
Figure 9-12
Figure 10-1
Figure 10-2
Figure 10-3
Figure 11-1
Figure 11-2
Figure 11-3
Figure 11-4
Figure 11-5
Figure 11-6
Figure 11-7
Figure 12-1
Figure 12-2
Figure 12-3
Figure 12-4
Figure 12-5
Figure 12-6
Figure 12-7
Figure 12-8
Figure 12-9
Figure 12-10
Figure 12-11
Figure 12-12
Figure 13-1
Figure 13-2
xxiv
Port Security
Selecting ACL Type
ACL Configuration - Standard IPv4
ACL Configuration - Extended IPv4
ACL Configuration - MAC
Selecting ACL Mask Types
ACL Mask Configuration - IP
ACL Mask Configuration - MAC
ACL Port Binding
Port - Port Information
Port - Port Configuration
Static Trunk Configuration
LACP Trunk Configuration
LACP - Aggregation Port
LACP - Port Counters Information
LACP - Port Internal Information
LACP - Port Neighbors Information
Port Broadcast Control
Mirror Port Configuration
Rate Limit Configuration
Port Statistics
Static Addresses
Dynamic Addresses
Address Aging
STA Information
STA Global Configuration
STA Port Information
STA Port Configuration
MSTP VLAN Configuration
MSTP Port Information
MSTP Port Configuration
Globally Enabling GVRP
VLAN Basic Information
VLAN Current Table
VLAN Static List - Creating VLANs
VLAN Static Table - Adding Static Members
VLAN Static Membership by Port
VLAN Port Configuration
Tunnel Port Configuration
Private VLAN Status
Private VLAN Link Status
Protocol VLAN Configuration
Protocol VLAN Port Configuration
Default Port Priority
Traffic Classes
7-3
8-3
8-4
8-6
8-8
8-9
8-11
8-12
8-14
9-1
9-5
9-7
9-9
9-11
9-13
9-15
9-16
9-18
9-19
9-20
9-24
10-1
10-3
10-4
11-4
11-9
11-12
11-15
11-17
11-19
11-21
12-4
12-4
12-5
12-7
12-8
12-9
12-11
12-16
12-17
12-18
12-19
12-20
13-2
13-4
Figures
Figure 13-3
Figure 13-4
Figure 13-5
Figure 13-6
Figure 13-7
Figure 13-8
Figure 13-9
Figure 14-1
Figure 14-2
Figure 14-3
Figure 15-1
Figure 15-2
Figure 15-3
Figure 15-4
Figure 15-5
Figure 15-6
Figure 15-7
Figure 15-8
Figure 15-9
Figure 15-10
Figure 16-1
Figure 16-2
Figure 16-3
Queue Mode
Queue Scheduling
IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status
IP Precedence Priority
IP DSCP Priority
IP Port Priority Status
IP Port Priority
Configuring Class Maps
Configuring Policy Maps
Service Policy Settings
IGMP Configuration
Multicast Router Port Information
Static Multicast Router Port Configuration
IP Multicast Registration Table
IGMP Member Port Table
MVR Global Configuration
MVR Port Information
MVR Port Configuration
MVR Group IP Information
MVR Group Member Configuration
DNS General Configuration
DNS Static Host Table
DNS Cache
13-5
13-6
13-8
13-9
13-10
13-11
13-12
14-4
14-7
14-8
15-4
15-5
15-6
15-7
15-8
15-10
15-11
15-13
15-14
15-15
16-2
16-4
16-5
xxv
Figures
xxvi
Section I: Getting Started
This section provides an overview of the switch, and introduces some basic
concepts about network switches. It also describes the basic settings required to
access the management interface.
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Initial Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Getting Started
Chapter 1: Introduction
This switch provides a broad range of features for Layer 2 switching. It includes a
management agent that allows you to configure the features listed in this manual.
The default configuration can be used for most of the features provided by this
switch. However, there are many options that you should configure to maximize the
switch’s performance for your particular network environment.
Key Features
Table 1-1 Key Features
Feature
Description
Configuration Backup
and Restore
Backup to TFTP server
Authentication
Console, Telnet, web – User name / password, RADIUS, TACACS+
Web – HTTPS
Telnet – SSH
SNMP v1/2c - Community strings
SNMP version 3 – MD5 or SHA password
Port – IEEE 802.1X, MAC address filtering
Access Control Lists
Supports IP or MAC ACLs
Fast Ethernet ports - 157 rules, 4 masks shared by 8-port groups
Gigabit Ethernet ports - 29 rules, 4 masks
DHCP Client
Supported
DNS
Client and proxy service
Port Configuration
Speed and duplex mode and flow control
Rate Limiting
Input and output rate limiting per port
Input rate limiting per port per CoS value
Port Mirroring
Single session, one source port to one analysis port
Port Trunking
Supports up to 12 trunks per unit, using either static or dynamic trunking (LACP)
Storm Control
Broadcast and multicast storm control
Unknown Packet
Blocking
Blocks multicast or unicast packets with unknown MAC address
Address Table
Up to 4K MAC addresses in the forwarding table, 1024 static MAC addresses
IEEE 802.1D Bridge
Supports dynamic data switching and addresses learning
Store-and-Forward
Switching
Supported to ensure wire-speed switching while eliminating bad frames
Spanning Tree
Algorithm
Supports standard STP, Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), and Multiple
Spanning Trees (MSTP)
1-1
1
Introduction
Table 1-1 Key Features (Continued)
Feature
Description
Virtual LANs
Up to 255 using IEEE 802.1Q, port-based, protocol-based VLANs, private VLANs,
and QinQ tunneling
Traffic Prioritization
Default port priority, VLAN priority, traffic class map, queue scheduling, IP
Precedence, or Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP), and TCP/UDP Port
Qualify of Service
Supports Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
Multicast Filtering
Supports IGMP snooping and query, as well as Multicast VLAN Registration
Tunneling
Supports IEEE 802.1Q tunneling (QinQ)
Description of Software Features
The switch provides a wide range of advanced performance enhancing features.
Flow control eliminates the loss of packets due to bottlenecks caused by port
saturation. Broadcast storm suppression prevents broadcast traffic storms from
engulfing the network. Untagged (port-based), tagged, and protocol-based VLANs,
plus support for automatic GVRP VLAN registration provide traffic security and
efficient use of network bandwidth. CoS priority queueing ensures the minimum
delay for moving real-time multimedia data across the network. While multicast
filtering provides support for real-time network applications. Some of the
management features are briefly described below.
Configuration Backup and Restore – You can save the current configuration
settings to a file on a TFTP server, and later download this file to restore the switch
configuration settings.
Authentication – This switch authenticates management access via the console
port, Telnet or web browser. User names and passwords can be configured locally or
can be verified via a remote authentication server (i.e., RADIUS or TACACS+).
Port-based authentication is also supported via the IEEE 802.1X protocol. This
protocol uses Extensible Authentication Protocol over LANs (EAPOL) to request
user credentials from the 802.1X client, and then uses the EAP between the switch
and the authentication server to verify the client’s right to access the network via an
authentication server (i.e., RADIUS server).
Other authentication options include HTTPS for secure management access via the
web, SSH for secure management access over a Telnet-equivalent connection,
SNMP Version 3, IP address filtering for SNMP/web/Telnet management access.
MAC address filtering and IP source guard also provide authenticated port access.
While DHCP snooping is provided to prevent malicious attacks from unsecure ports.
1-2
Description of Software Features
1
Access Control Lists – ACLs provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on
address, protocol, TCP/UDP port number or TCP control code) or any frames
(based on MAC address or Ethernet type). ACLs can by used to improve
performance by blocking unnecessary network traffic or to implement security
controls by restricting access to specific network resources or protocols.
Port Configuration – You can manually configure the speed and duplex mode, and
flow control used on specific ports, or use auto-negotiation to detect the connection
settings used by the attached device. Use the full-duplex mode on ports whenever
possible to double the throughput of switch connections. Flow control should also be
enabled to control network traffic during periods of congestion and prevent the loss
of packets when port buffer thresholds are exceeded. The switch supports flow
control based on the IEEE 802.3-2005 standard.
Rate Limiting – This feature controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or
received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at the edge of a
network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Traffic that falls within the rate limit is
transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of traffic are dropped.
Input rate limits can also be set for traffic based on Class of Service (CoS) values.
Port Mirroring – The switch can unobtrusively mirror traffic from any port to a
monitor port. You can then attach a protocol analyzer or RMON probe to this port to
perform traffic analysis and verify connection integrity.
Port Trunking – Ports can be combined into an aggregate connection. Trunks can
be manually set up or dynamically configured using IEEE 802.3-2005 (formerly
IEEE 802.3ad) Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). The additional ports
dramatically increase the throughput across any connection, and provide
redundancy by taking over the load if a port in the trunk should fail. The switch
supports up to 12 trunks.
Storm Control – Broadcast and multicast storm suppression prevents traffic from
overwhelming the network. When enabled on a port, the level of traffic passing
through the port is restricted. If traffic rises above a pre-defined threshold, it will be
throttled until the level falls back beneath the threshold.
Static MAC Addresses – A static address can be assigned to a specific interface
on this switch. Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be
moved. When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be
ignored and will not be written to the address table. Static addresses can be used to
provide network security by restricting access for a known host to a specific port.
IP Address Filtering – Access to unsecure ports can be controlled using DHCP
Snooping, and IP Source Guard which filters ingress traffic based on static IP
addresses and addresses stored in the DHCP Snooping table.
IEEE 802.1D Bridge – The switch supports IEEE 802.1D transparent bridging. The
address table facilitates data switching by learning addresses, and then filtering or
forwarding traffic based on this information. The address table supports up to 16K
addresses.
1-3
1
Introduction
Store-and-Forward Switching – The switch copies each frame into its memory
before forwarding them to another port. This ensures that all frames are a standard
Ethernet size and have been verified for accuracy with the cyclic redundancy check
(CRC). This prevents bad frames from entering the network and wasting bandwidth.
To avoid dropping frames on congested ports, the switch provides 32 MB for frame
buffering. This buffer can queue packets awaiting transmission on congested
networks.
Spanning Tree Algorithm – The switch supports these spanning tree protocols:
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D) – This protocol provides loop detection.
When there are multiple physical paths between segments, this protocol will choose
a single path and disable all others to ensure that only one route exists between any
two stations on the network. This prevents the creation of network loops. However, if
the chosen path should fail for any reason, an alternate path will be activated to
maintain the connection.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1w) – This protocol reduces the
convergence time for network topology changes to about 3 to 5 seconds, compared
to 30 seconds or more for the older IEEE 802.1D STP standard. It is intended as a
complete replacement for STP, but can still interoperate with switches running the
older standard by automatically reconfiguring ports to STP-compliant mode if they
detect STP protocol messages from attached devices.
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP, IEEE 802.1s) – This protocol is a direct
extension of RSTP. It can provide an independent spanning tree for different VLANs.
It simplifies network management, provides for even faster convergence than RSTP
by limiting the size of each region, and prevents VLAN members from being
segmented from the rest of the group (as sometimes occurs with IEEE 802.1D STP).
Virtual LANs – The switch supports up to 255 VLANs. A Virtual LAN is a collection
of network nodes that share the same collision domain regardless of their physical
location or connection point in the network. The switch supports tagged VLANs
based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard. Members of VLAN groups can be dynamically
learned via GVRP, or ports can be manually assigned to a specific set of VLANs.
This allows the switch to restrict traffic to the VLAN groups to which a user has been
assigned. By segmenting your network into VLANs, you can:
• Eliminate broadcast storms which severely degrade performance in a flat network.
• Simplify network management for node changes/moves by remotely configuring
VLAN membership for any port, rather than having to manually change the network
connection.
• Provide data security by restricting all traffic to the originating VLAN.
• Use private VLANs to restrict traffic to pass only between data ports and the uplink
ports, thereby isolating adjacent ports within the same VLAN, and allowing you to
limit the total number of VLANs that need to be configured.
• Use protocol VLANs to restrict traffic to specified interfaces based on protocol type.
Traffic Prioritization – This switch prioritizes each packet based on the required
level of service, using eight priority queues with strict or Weighted Round Robin
1-4
Description of Software Features
1
Queuing. It uses IEEE 802.1p and 802.1Q tags to prioritize incoming traffic based on
input from the end-station application. These functions can be used to provide
independent priorities for delay-sensitive data and best-effort data.
This switch also supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to
meet application requirements. Traffic can be prioritized based on the priority bits in
the IP frame’s Type of Service (ToS) octet or the number of the TCP/UDP port.
When these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service
value by the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Quality of Service – Differentiated Services (DiffServ) provides policy-based
management mechanisms used for prioritizing network resources to meet the
requirements of specific traffic types on a per-hop basis. Each packet is classified
upon entry into the network based on access lists, IP Precedence or DSCP values,
or VLAN lists. Using access lists allows you select traffic based on Layer 2, Layer 3,
or Layer 4 information contained in each packet. Based on network policies, different
kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds of forwarding.
Multicast Filtering – Specific multicast traffic can be assigned to its own VLAN to
ensure that it does not interfere with normal network traffic and to guarantee
real-time delivery by setting the required priority level for the designated VLAN. The
switch uses IGMP Snooping and Query to manage multicast group registration. It
also supports Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) which allows common multicast
traffic, such as television channels, to be transmitted across a single network-wide
multicast VLAN shared by hosts residing in other standard or private VLAN groups,
while preserving security and data isolation for normal traffic.
IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling (QinQ) – This feature is designed for service providers
carrying traffic for multiple customers across their networks. QinQ tunneling is used
to maintain customer-specific VLAN and Layer 2 protocol configurations even when
different customers use the same internal VLAN IDs. This is accomplished by
inserting Service Provider VLAN (SPVLAN) tags into the customer’s frames when
they enter the service provider’s network, and then stripping the tags when the
frames leave the network.
1-5
1
Introduction
System Defaults
The switch’s system defaults are provided in the configuration file
“Factory_Default_Config.cfg.” To reset the switch defaults, this file should be set as
the startup configuration file (page 4-15).
The following table lists some of the basic system defaults.
Table 1-2 System Defaults
Function
Parameter
Default
Console Port
Connection
Baud Rate
auto
Data bits
8
Authentication
Stop bits
1
Parity
none
Local Console Timeout
0 (disabled)
Privileged Exec Level
Username “admin”
Password “admin”
Normal Exec Level
Username “guest”
Password “guest”
Enable Privileged Exec from Normal Password “super”
Exec Level
Web Management
1-6
RADIUS Authentication
Disabled
TACACS Authentication
Disabled
802.1X Port Authentication
Disabled
HTTPS
Enabled
SSH
Disabled
Port Security
Disabled
DHCP Snooping
Disabled
IP Source Guard
Disabled
IP Filtering
Disabled
HTTP Server
Enabled
HTTP Port Number
80
HTTP Secure Server
Enabled
HTTP Secure Port Number
443
System Defaults
1
Table 1-2 System Defaults (Continued)
Function
Parameter
Default
SNMP
SNMP Agent
Enabled
Community Strings
“public” (read only)
“private” (read/write)
Traps
Authentication traps: enabled
Link-up-down events: enabled
SNMP V3
View: defaultview
Group: public (read only); private (read/write)
Admin Status
Enabled
Auto-negotiation
Enabled
Port Configuration
Flow Control
Disabled
Input and output limits
Disabled
Input limit per port per CoS value
Disabled
Port Trunking
Static Trunks
None
LACP (all ports)
Disabled
Storm Protection
Status
Broadcast: enabled (all ports)
Multicast: disabled
Rate Limiting
Rate Limit
Broadcast: 500 packets per second
Unknown Packet
Blocking
Status
Multicast: disabled
Unicast: disabled
Spanning Tree
Algorithm
Status
Enabled, RSTP
(Defaults: All values based on IEEE 802.1w)
Fast Forwarding (Edge Port)
Disabled
Address Table
Aging Time
300 seconds
Virtual LANs
Default VLAN
1
PVID
1
Acceptable Frame Type
All
Ingress Filtering
Disabled
Switchport Mode (Egress Mode)
Hybrid: tagged/untagged frames
GVRP (global)
Disabled
GVRP (port interface)
Disabled
1-7
1
Introduction
Table 1-2 System Defaults (Continued)
Function
Parameter
Default
Traffic Prioritization
Ingress Port Priority
0
Queue Mode
WRR
Weighted Round Robin
Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Weight: 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
IP Precedence Priority
Disabled
IP DSCP Priority
Disabled
IP Port Priority
Disabled
VLAN-based Priority
Disabled
Management. VLAN
Any VLAN configured with an IP address
IP Address
0.0.0.0
Subnet Mask
255.0.0.0
Default Gateway
0.0.0.0
DHCP
Client: Enabled
DNS
Service: Disabled
BOOTP
Disabled
IGMP Snooping
Snooping: Enabled
Querier: Disabled
Multicast VLAN Registration
Disabled
Status
Enabled
Messages Logged
Levels 0-7 (all)
Messages Logged to Flash
Levels 0-3
SMTP Email Alerts
Event Handler
Enabled (but no server defined)
SNTP
Clock Synchronization
Disabled
IP Settings
Multicast Filtering
System Log
1-8
Chapter 2: Initial Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
Configuration Options
The switch includes a built-in network management agent. The agent offers a variety
of management options, including SNMP, RMON and a web-based interface. A PC
may also be connected directly to the switch for configuration and monitoring via a
command line interface (CLI).
Note: An IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To change this
address, see “Setting an IP Address” on page 2-4.
The switch’s HTTP web agent allows you to configure switch parameters, monitor
port connections, and display statistics using a standard web browser such as
Netscape Navigator version 6.2 and higher or Microsoft IE version 5.0 and higher.
The switch’s web management interface can be accessed from any computer
attached to the network.
The CLI program can be accessed by a direct connection to the RS-232 serial
console port on the switch, or remotely by a Telnet or Secure Shell (SSH)
connection over the network.
The switch’s management agent also supports SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol). This SNMP agent permits the switch to be managed from
any system in the network using network management software such as
Terawave’s TMS.
The switch’s web interface, CLI configuration program, and SNMP agent allow you
to perform the following management functions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set user names and passwords
Set an IP interface for a management VLAN
Configure SNMP parameters
Enable/disable any port
Set the speed/duplex mode for any port
Configure the bandwidth of any port by limiting input or output rates
Control port access through IEEE 802.1X security or static address filtering
Filter packets using Access Control Lists (ACLs)
Configure up to 255 IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Enable GVRP automatic VLAN registration
Configure IGMP multicast filtering
Upload and download system firmware via TFTP
Upload and download switch configuration files via TFTP
Configure Spanning Tree parameters
Configure Class of Service (CoS) priority queuing
2-1
2
•
•
•
•
Initial Configuration
Configure up to 12 static or LACP trunks
Enable port mirroring
Set broadcast storm control on any port
Display system information and statistics
Required Connections
The switch provides an RS-232 serial port that enables a connection to a PC or
terminal for monitoring and configuring the switch. A null-modem console cable is
provided with the switch.
Attach a VT100-compatible terminal, or a PC running a terminal emulation program
to the switch. You can use the console cable provided with this package, or use a
null-modem cable that complies with the wiring assignments shown in the
Installation Guide.
To connect a terminal to the console port, complete the following steps:
1.
Connect the console cable to the serial port on a terminal, or a PC running
terminal emulation software, and tighten the captive retaining screws on the
DB-9 connector.
2.
Connect the other end of the cable to the RS-232 serial port on the switch.
3.
Make sure the terminal emulation software is set as follows:
• Select the appropriate serial port (COM port 1 or COM port 2).
• Set to any of the following baud rates: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200
(Note: Set to 9600 baud if want to view all the system initialization messages.).
• Set the data format to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity.
• Set flow control to none.
• Set the emulation mode to VT100.
• When using HyperTerminal, select Terminal keys, not Windows keys.
Notes: 1. When using HyperTerminal with Microsoft® Windows® 2000, make sure that
you have Windows 2000 Service Pack 2 or later installed. Windows 2000
Service Pack 2 fixes the problem of arrow keys not functioning in
HyperTerminal’s VT100 emulation. See www.microsoft.com for information
on Windows 2000 service packs.
2. Refer to “Line Commands” on page 19-19 for a complete description of
console configuration options.
3. Once you have set up the terminal correctly, the console login screen will be
displayed.
For a description of how to use the CLI, see “Using the Command Line Interface” on
page 17-1. For a list of all the CLI commands and detailed information on using the
CLI, refer to “Command Groups” on page 17-10.
2-2
Basic Configuration
2
Remote Connections
Prior to accessing the switch’s onboard agent via a network connection, you must
first configure it with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway using a
console connection, DHCP or BOOTP protocol.
An IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To manually configure
this address or enable dynamic address assignment via DHCP or BOOTP, see
“Setting an IP Address” on page 2-4.
Note: This switch supports four concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions.
After configuring the switch’s IP parameters, you can access the onboard
configuration program from anywhere within the attached network. The onboard
configuration program can be accessed using Telnet from any computer attached to
the network. The switch can also be managed by any computer using a web
browser (Internet Explorer 5.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above), or
from a network computer using SNMP network management software.
Note: The onboard program only provides access to basic configuration functions. To
access the full range of SNMP management functions, you must use
SNMP-based network management software.
Basic Configuration
Console Connection
The CLI program provides two different command levels — normal access level
(Normal Exec) and privileged access level (Privileged Exec). The commands
available at the Normal Exec level are a limited subset of those available at the
Privileged Exec level and allow you to only display information and use basic
utilities. To fully configure the switch parameters, you must access the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level.
Access to both CLI levels are controlled by user names and passwords. The switch
has a default user name and password for each level. To log into the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level using the default user name and password, perform these
steps:
1.
To initiate your console connection, press <Enter>. The “User Access
Verification” procedure starts.
2.
At the Username prompt, enter “admin.”
3.
At the Password prompt, also enter “admin.” (The password characters are not
displayed on the console screen.)
4.
The session is opened and the CLI displays the “Console#” prompt indicating
you have access at the Privileged Exec level.
2-3
2
Initial Configuration
Setting Passwords
Note: If this is your first time to log into the CLI program, you should define new
passwords for both default user names using the “username” command, record
them and put them in a safe place.
Passwords can consist of up to 8 alphanumeric characters and are case sensitive.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch, set the passwords as follows:
1.
Open the console interface with the default user name and password “admin” to
access the Privileged Exec level.
2.
Type “configure” and press <Enter>.
3.
Type “username guest password 0 password,” for the Normal Exec level, where
password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
4.
Type “username admin password 0 password,” for the Privileged Exec level,
where password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the Layer 2 Ethernet Metro Access Switch* is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#configure
Console(config)#username guest password 0 [password]
Console(config)#username admin password 0 [password]
Console(config)#
*
18-2
21-2
Most of the interface examples in this manual are based on the ES3528. There is no
significant difference in the interface provided for the ES3528 and ES3528-WDM.
Setting an IP Address
You must establish IP address information for the switch to obtain management
access through the network. This can be done in either of the following ways:
Manual — You have to input the information, including IP address and subnet mask.
If your management station is not in the same IP subnet as the switch, you will also
need to specify the default gateway router.
Dynamic — The switch sends IP configuration requests to BOOTP or DHCP
address allocation servers on the network.
Manual Configuration
You can manually assign an IP address to the switch. You may also need to specify
a default gateway that resides between this device and management stations that
exist on another network segment. Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside this format will not be
accepted by the CLI program.
Note: An IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default.
2-4
Basic Configuration
2
Before you can assign an IP address to the switch, you must obtain the following
information from your network administrator:
• IP address for the switch
• Network mask for this network
• Default gateway for the network
To assign an IP address to the switch, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2.
Type “ip address ip-address netmask,” where “ip-address” is the switch IP
address and “netmask” is the network mask for the network. Press <Enter>.
3.
Type “exit” to return to the global configuration mode prompt. Press <Enter>.
4.
To set the IP address of the default gateway for the network to which the switch
belongs, type “ip default-gateway gateway,” where “gateway” is the IP address
of the default gateway. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
Console(config)#
24-1
35-1
35-2
Dynamic Configuration
If you select the “bootp” or “dhcp” option, IP will be enabled but will not function until
a BOOTP or DHCP reply has been received. You therefore need to use the “ip dhcp
restart” command to start broadcasting service requests. Requests will be sent
periodically in an effort to obtain IP configuration information. (BOOTP and DHCP
values can include the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.)
If the “bootp” or “dhcp” option is saved to the startup-config file (step 6), then the
switch will start broadcasting service requests as soon as it is powered on.
To automatically configure the switch by communicating with BOOTP or DHCP
address allocation servers on the network, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2.
At the interface-configuration mode prompt, use one of the following commands:
• To obtain IP settings via DHCP, type “ip address dhcp” and press <Enter>.
• To obtain IP settings via BOOTP, type “ip address bootp” and press <Enter>.
3.
Type “end” to return to the Privileged Exec mode. Press <Enter>.
4.
Type “ip dhcp restart” to begin broadcasting service requests. Press <Enter>.
2-5
2
Initial Configuration
5.
Wait a few minutes, and then check the IP configuration settings by typing the
“show ip interface” command. Press <Enter>.
6.
Then save your configuration changes by typing “copy running-config
startup-config.” Enter the startup file name and press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
24-1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
35-1
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart
35-3
Console#show ip interface
35-4
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: DHCP
Console#copy running-config startup-config
19-13
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Enabling SNMP Management Access
The switch can be configured to accept management commands from Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP) applications such as HP OpenView. You
can configure the switch to (1) respond to SNMP requests or (2) generate SNMP
traps.
When SNMP management stations send requests to the switch (either to return
information or to set a parameter), the switch provides the requested data or sets the
specified parameter. The switch can also be configured to send information to
SNMP managers (without being requested by the managers) through trap
messages, which inform the manager that certain events have occurred.
The switch includes an SNMP agent that supports SNMP version 1, 2c, and 3
clients. To provide management access for version 1 or 2c clients, you must specify
a community string. The switch provides a default MIB View (i.e., an SNMPv3
construct) for the default “public” community string that provides read access to the
entire MIB tree, and a default view for the “private” community string that provides
read/write access to the entire MIB tree. However, you may assign new views to
version 1 or 2c community strings that suit your specific security requirements (see
page 5-16).
Community Strings (for SNMP version 1 and 2c clients)
Community strings are used to control management access to SNMP version 1 and
2c stations, as well as to authorize SNMP stations to receive trap messages from
the switch. You therefore need to assign community strings to specified users, and
set the access level.
2-6
Basic Configuration
2
The default strings are:
• public - with read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
• private - with read-write access. Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch from SNMP version 1 or 2c clients, it is
recommended that you change the default community strings.
To configure a community string, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type
“snmp-server community string mode,” where “string” is the community access
string and “mode” is rw (read/write) or ro (read only). Press <Enter>. (Note that
the default mode is read only.)
2.
To remove an existing string, simply type “no snmp-server community string,”
where “string” is the community access string to remove. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#snmp-server community admin rw
Console(config)#snmp-server community private
Console(config)#
20-3
Note: If you do not intend to support access to SNMP version 1 and 2c clients, we
recommend that you delete both of the default community strings. If there are no
community strings, then SNMP management access from SNMP v1 and v2c
clients is disabled.
Trap Receivers
You can also specify SNMP stations that are to receive traps from the switch. To
configure a trap receiver, use the “snmp-server host” command. From the Privileged
Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type:
“snmp-server host host-address community-string
[version {1 | 2c | 3 {auth | noauth | priv}}]”
where “host-address” is the IP address for the trap receiver, “community-string”
specifies access rights for a version 1/2c host, or is the user name of a version 3
host, “version” indicates the SNMP client version, and “auth | noauth | priv” means
that authentication, no authentication, or authentication and privacy is used for v3
clients. Then press <Enter>. For a more detailed description of these parameters,
see “snmp-server host” on page 20-5. The following example creates a trap host for
each type of SNMP client.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.98 robin version 2c
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.34 barbie version 3 auth
Console(config)#
20-5
2-7
2
Initial Configuration
Configuring Access for SNMP Version 3 Clients
To configure management access for SNMPv3 clients, you need to first create a
view that defines the portions of MIB that the client can read or write, assign the view
to a group, and then assign the user to a group. The following example creates one
view called “mib-2” that includes the entire MIB-2 tree branch, and then another view
that includes the IEEE 802.1d bridge MIB. It assigns these respective read and read/
write views to a group call “r&d” and specifies group authentication via MD5 or SHA.
In the last step, it assigns a v3 user to this group, indicating that MD5 will be used for
authentication, provides the password “greenpeace” for authentication, and the
password “einstien” for encryption.
Console(config)#snmp-server view mib-2 1.3.6.1.2.1 included
Console(config)#snmp-server view 802.1d 1.3.6.1.2.1.17 included
Console(config)#snmp-server group r&d v3 auth mib-2 802.1d
Console(config)#snmp-server user steve group r&d v3 auth md5
greenpeace priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#
20-10
20-11
20-14
For a more detailed explanation on how to configure the switch for access from
SNMP v3 clients, refer to “Simple Network Management Protocol” on page 5-1, or
refer to the specific CLI commands for SNMP starting on page 20-1.
Managing System Files
The switch’s flash memory supports three types of system files that can be managed
by the CLI program, web interface, or SNMP. The switch’s file system allows files to
be uploaded and downloaded, copied, deleted, and set as a start-up file.
The three types of files are:
• Configuration — This file type stores system configuration information and is
created when configuration settings are saved. Saved configuration files can be
selected as a system start-up file or can be uploaded via TFTP to a server for
backup. The file named “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” contains all the system
default settings and cannot be deleted from the system. If the system is booted with
the factory default settings, the master unit will also create a file named
“startup1.cfg” that contains system settings for initialization, including information
about the unit identifier, MAC address, and installed module type. The
configuration settings from the factory defaults configuration file are copied to this
file, which is then used to boot the switch. See “Saving or Restoring Configuration
Settings” on page 4-14 for more information.
• Operation Code — System software that is executed after boot-up, also known as
run-time code. This code runs the switch operations and provides the CLI and web
management interfaces. See “Managing Firmware” on page 4-11 for more
information.
• Diagnostic Code — Software that is run during system boot-up, also known as
POST (Power On Self-Test).
2-8
2
Managing System Files
Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two operation
code files. However, you can have as many diagnostic code files and configuration
files as available flash memory space allows. The switch has a total of 32 Mbytes of
flash memory for system files.
In the system flash memory, one file of each type must be set as the start-up file.
During a system boot, the diagnostic and operation code files set as the start-up file
are run, and then the start-up configuration file is loaded.
Note that configuration files should be downloaded using a file name that reflects the
contents or usage of the file settings. If you download directly to the running-config,
the system will reboot, and the settings will have to be copied from the
running-config to a permanent file.
Saving Configuration Settings
Configuration commands only modify the running configuration file and are not
saved when the switch is rebooted. To save all your configuration changes in
nonvolatile storage, you must copy the running configuration file to the start-up
configuration file using the “copy” command.
New startup configuration files must have a name specified. File names on the
switch are case-sensitive, can be from 1 to 31 characters, must not contain slashes
(\ or /), and the leading letter of the file name must not be a period (.). (Valid
characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
There can be more than one user-defined configuration file saved in the switch’s
flash memory, but only one is designated as the “startup” file that is loaded when the
switch boots. The copy running-config startup-config command always sets the
new file as the startup file. To select a previously saved configuration file, use the
boot system config:<filename> command.
The maximum number of saved configuration files depends on available flash
memory, with each configuration file normally requiring less than 20 kbytes. The
amount of available flash memory can be checked by using the dir command.
To save the current configuration settings, enter the following command:
1.
From the Privileged Exec mode prompt, type “copy running-config
startup-config” and press <Enter>.
2.
Enter the name of the start-up file. Press <Enter>.
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
19-13
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
2-9
2
2-10
Initial Configuration
Section II: Switch Management
This section describes the basic switch features, along with a detailed description of
how to configure each feature via a web browser, and a brief example for the
Command Line Interface.
Configuring the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Basic Management Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Simple Network Management Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
User Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Client Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Access Control Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Port Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Address Table Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
Spanning Tree Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
VLAN Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Class of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Multicast Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
Domain Name Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
Switch Management
Chapter 3: Configuring the Switch
Using the Web Interface
This switch provides an embedded HTTP web agent. Using a web browser you can
configure the switch and view statistics to monitor network activity. The web agent
can be accessed by any computer on the network using a standard web browser
(Internet Explorer 5.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above).
Note: You can also use the Command Line Interface (CLI) to manage the switch over a
serial connection to the console port or via Telnet. For more information on using
the CLI, refer to Chapter 17: “Overview of Command Line Interface.”
Prior to accessing the switch from a web browser, be sure you have first performed
the following tasks:
1. Configure the switch with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway
using an out-of-band serial connection, BOOTP or DHCP protocol. (See “Setting
an IP Address” on page 2-4.)
2. Set user names and passwords using an out-of-band serial connection. Access
to the web agent is controlled by the same user names and passwords as the
onboard configuration program. (See “Setting Passwords” on page 2-4.)
3. After you enter a user name and password, you will have access to the system
configuration program.
Notes: 1. You are allowed three attempts to enter the correct password; on the third
failed attempt the current connection is terminated.
2. If you log into the web interface as guest (Normal Exec level), you can view
the configuration settings or change the guest password. If you log in as
“admin” (Privileged Exec level), you can change the settings on any page.
3. If the path between your management station and this switch does not pass
through any device that uses the Spanning Tree Algorithm, then you can set
the switch port attached to your management station to fast forwarding (i.e.,
enable Admin Edge Port) to improve the switch’s response time to
management commands issued through the web interface. See “Configuring
Interface Settings” on page 11-13.
3-1
3
Configuring the Switch
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
To access the web-browser interface you must first enter a user name and
password. The administrator has Read/Write access to all configuration parameters
and statistics. The default user name and password “admin” is used for the
administrator.
Home Page
When your web browser connects with the switch’s web agent, the home page is
displayed as shown below. The home page displays the Main Menu on the left side
of the screen and System Information on the right side. The Main Menu links are
used to navigate to other menus, and display configuration parameters and
statistics.
Figure 3-1 Home Page
Note: The examples in this chapter are based on the ES3528B. Other than the
subscriber port type, there are no significant differences between the ES3528 and
ES3528-WDM. The panel graphics for both switch types are shown on the
following page.
3-2
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
3
Configuration Options
Configurable parameters have a dialog box or a drop-down list. Once a configuration
change has been made on a page, be sure to click on the Apply button to confirm
the new setting. The following table summarizes the web page configuration
buttons.
Table 3-1 Web Page Configuration Buttons
Button
Action
Apply
Sets specified values to the system.
Revert
Cancels specified values and restores current values prior to
pressing “Apply.”
Help
Links directly to web help.
Notes: 1. To ensure proper screen refresh, be sure that Internet Explorer 5.x is
configured as follows: Under the menu “Tools / Internet Options / General /
Temporary Internet Files / Settings,” the setting for item “Check for newer
versions of stored pages” should be “Every visit to the page.”
2. When using Internet Explorer 5.0, you may have to manually refresh the
screen after making configuration changes by pressing the browser’s refresh
button.
Panel Display
The web agent displays an image of the switch’s ports. The Mode can be set to
display different information for the ports, including Active (i.e., up or down), Duplex
(i.e., half or full duplex), or Flow Control (i.e., with or without flow control). Clicking on
the image of a port opens the Port Configuration page as described on page 9-3.
ES3528
ES3528-WDM
Figure 3-2 Front Panel Indicators
3-3
3
Configuring the Switch
Main Menu
Using the onboard web agent, you can define system parameters, manage and
control the switch, and all its ports, or monitor network conditions. The following
table briefly describes the selections available from this program.
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu
Menu
Description
System
Page
4-1
System Information
Provides basic system description, including contact information
4-1
System Mode
Configures the switch to operate in normal mode or QinQ
tunneling mode
4-3
System MTU
Sets the maximum transfer unit for traffic crossing the switch
4-4
Switch Information
Shows the number of ports, hardware/firmware version
numbers, and power status
4-6
Bridge Extension
Shows the bridge extension parameters
4-7
IP Configuration
Sets the IP address for management access
4-8
Jumbo Frames
Enables support for jumbo frames
File Management
4-5
4-11
Copy Operation
Allows the transfer and copying files
4-12
Delete
Allows deletion of files from the flash memory
4-12
Set Startup
Sets the startup file
4-12
Console
Sets console port connection parameters
4-16
Telnet
Sets Telnet connection parameters
4-18
Line
4-16
Log
4-20
Logs
Sends error messages to a logging process
4-23
System Logs
Stores and displays error messages
4-20
Remote Logs
Configures the logging of messages to a remote logging process
4-21
SMTP
Sends an SMTP client message to a participating server
4-23
Restarts the switch
4-25
Reset
SNTP
4-26
Configuration
Configures SNTP client settings, including a specified list of
servers
4-26
Clock Time Zone
Sets the local time zone for the system clock
4-27
SNMP
5-1
Configuration
Configures community strings and related trap functions
5-3
Agent Status
Enables or disables SNMP
5-2
3-4
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
3
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
SNMPv3
Engine ID
Page
5-7
Sets the SNMP v3 engine ID
5-7
Remote Engine ID
Sets the SNMP v3 engine ID on a remote device
5-8
Users
Configures SNMP v3 users
5-9
Remote Users
Configures SNMP v3 users on a remote device
Groups
Configures SNMP v3 groups
5-13
Views
Configures SNMP v3 views
5-16
Security
5-11
6-1
User Accounts
Configures user names, passwords, and access levels
6-1
Authentication Settings
Configures authentication sequence, RADIUS and TACACS
6-2
HTTPS Settings
Configures secure HTTP settings
6-5
SSH
6-7
Settings
Configures Secure Shell server settings
Host-Key Settings
Generates the host key pair (public and private)
6-9
Port Security
Configures per port security, including status, response for
security breach, and maximum allowed MAC addresses
7-1
802.1X
Port authentication
6-13
Information
Displays global configuration settings
6-14
Configuration
Configures global configuration parameters
6-15
Port Configuration
Sets the authentication mode for individual ports
6-15
Statistics
Displays protocol statistics for the selected port
6-18
ACL
6-11
8-1
Configuration
Configures packet filtering based on IP or MAC addresses
Mask Configuration
Controls the order in which ACL rules are checked
Port Binding
Binds a port to the specified ACL
8-13
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
6-20
IP Filter
Port
8-1
8-9
9-1
Port Information
Displays port connection status
9-1
Trunk Information
Displays trunk connection status
9-1
Port Configuration
Configures port connection settings
9-3
Trunk Configuration
Configures trunk connection settings
9-3
Trunk Membership
Specifies ports to group into static trunks
9-7
3-5
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
LACP
Configuration
Page
9-8
Allows ports to dynamically join trunks
9-8
Aggregation Port
Configures parameters for link aggregation group members
9-10
Port Counters Information
Displays statistics for LACP protocol messages
9-13
Port Internal Information
Displays settings and operational state for the local side
9-14
Port Neighbors Information Displays settings and operational state for the remote side
9-16
Port Broadcast Control
Sets the broadcast storm threshold for each port
9-17
Trunk Broadcast Control
Sets the broadcast storm threshold for each trunk
9-17
Mirror Port Configuration
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring
9-19
Sets the input rate limit for each port
9-20
Rate Limit
Input Port Configuration
9-20
Input Trunk Configuration
Sets the input rate limit for each trunk
9-20
Output Port Configuration
Sets the output rate limit for each port
9-20
Output Trunk Configuration Sets the output rate limit for each trunk
Port Statistics
Lists Ethernet and RMON port statistics
Address Table
9-20
9-21
10-1
Static Addresses
Displays entries for interface, address or VLAN
10-1
Dynamic Addresses
Displays or edits static entries in the Address Table
10-2
Address Aging
Sets timeout for dynamically learned entries
10-4
Spanning Tree
11-1
STA
Information
Displays STA values used for the bridge
11-3
Configuration
Configures global bridge settings for STP, RSTP and MSTP
Port Information
Displays individual port settings for STA
11-10
Trunk Information
Displays individual trunk settings for STA
11-10
Port Configuration
Configures individual port settings for STA
11-13
Trunk Configuration
Configures individual trunk settings for STA
11-13
Configures priority and VLANs for a spanning tree instance
11-16
11-6
MSTP
VLAN Configuration
3-6
Port Information
Displays port settings for a specified MST instance
11-19
Trunk Information
Displays trunk settings for a specified MST instance
11-19
Port Configuration
Configures port settings for a specified MST instance
11-20
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
3
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Trunk Configuration
Description
Configures trunk settings for a specified MST instance
VLAN
Page
11-20
12-1
802.1Q VLAN
12-1
GVRP Status
Enables GVRP VLAN registration protocol
12-4
Basic Information
Displays information on the VLAN type supported by this switch
12-4
Current Table
Shows the current port members of each VLAN and whether or
not the port is tagged or untagged
12-5
Static List
Used to create or remove VLAN groups
12-6
Static Table
Modifies the settings for an existing VLAN
12-7
Static Membership by Port Configures membership type for interfaces, including tagged,
untagged or forbidden
12-9
Port Configuration
Specifies default PVID and VLAN attributes
12-10
Trunk Configuration
Specifies default trunk VID and VLAN attributes
12-10
Status
Enables or disables the private VLAN
12-17
Link Status
Configures the private VLAN
12-18
Private VLAN
12-17
Protocol VLAN
12-18
Configuration
Creates a protocol group, specifying the supported protocols
12-19
Port Configuration
Maps a protocol group to a VLAN
12-20
Priority
13-1
Default Port Priority
Sets the default priority for each port
13-1
Default Trunk Priority
Sets the default priority for each trunk
13-1
Traffic Classes
Maps IEEE 802.1p priority tags to output queues
13-3
Traffic Classes Status
Enables/disables traffic class priorities (not implemented)
NA
Queue Mode
Sets queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin
13-5
Queue Scheduling
Configures Weighted Round Robin queueing
13-6
IP Precedence/
DSCP Priority Status
Globally selects IP Precedence or DSCP Priority, or disables
both.
13-7
IP Precedence Priority
Sets IP Type of Service priority, mapping the precedence tag to
a class-of-service value
13-8
IP DSCP Priority
Sets IP Differentiated Services Code Point priority, mapping a
DSCP tag to a class-of-service value
13-10
IP Port Priority Status
Globally enables or disables IP Port Priority
13-11
IP Port Priority
Sets TCP/UDP port priority, defining the socket number and
associated class-of-service value
13-8
3-7
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
QoS
Page
14-1
DiffServ
Configure QoS classification criteria and service policies
14-1
Class Map
Creates a class map for a type of traffic
14-2
Policy Map
Creates a policy map for multiple interfaces
14-5
Service Policy
Applies a policy map defined to an ingress port
14-8
IGMP Snooping
15-2
IGMP Configuration
Enables multicast filtering; configures parameters for multicast
query
15-3
Multicast Router
Port Information
Displays the ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast
router for each VLAN ID
15-5
Static Multicast Router
Port Configuration
Assigns ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast router
15-6
IP Multicast Registration
Table
Displays all multicast groups active on this switch, including
multicast IP addresses and VLAN ID
15-7
IGMP Member Port Table
Indicates multicast addresses associated with the selected
VLAN
15-7
Configuration
Globally enables MVR, sets the MVR VLAN, adds multicast
stream addresses
15-10
Port Information
Displays MVR interface type, MVR operational and activity
status, and immediate leave status
15-11
Trunk Information
Displays MVR interface type, MVR operational and activity
status, and immediate leave status
15-11
Group IP Information
Displays the ports attached to an MVR multicast stream
15-14
MVR
15-9
Port Configuration
Configures MVR interface type and immediate leave status
15-8
Trunk Configuration
Configures MVR interface type and immediate leave status
15-8
Group Member Configuration Statically assigns MVR multicast streams to an interface
DNS
15-15
16-1
General Configuration
Enables DNS; configures domain name and domain list; and
specifies IP address of name servers for dynamic lookup
16-1
Static Host Table
Configures static entries for domain name to address mapping
16-3
Cache
Displays cache entries discovered by designated name servers
16-5
3-8
Chapter 4: Basic Management Tasks
This chapter describes the basic functions required to set up management access to
the switch, display or upgrade operating software, or reset the system.
Displaying System Information
You can easily identify the system by displaying the device name, location and
contact information.
Field Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
System Name – Name assigned to the switch system.
Object ID – MIB II object ID for switch’s network management subsystem.
Location – Specifies the system location.
Contact – Administrator responsible for the system.
System Up Time – Length of time the management agent has been up.
These additional parameters are displayed for the CLI.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
System Description – Brief description of device type.
MAC Address – The physical layer address for this switch.
Web Server – Shows if management access via HTTP is enabled.
Web Server Port – Shows the TCP port number used by the web interface.
Web Secure Server – Shows if management access via HTTPS is enabled.
Web Secure Server Port – Shows the TCP port used by the HTTPS interface.
Telnet Server – Shows if management access via Telnet is enabled.
Telnet Server Port – Shows the TCP port used by the Telnet interface.
Authentication Login – Shows the user login authentication sequence.
Jumbo Frame – Shows if jumbo frames are enabled.
Power Module Status – Shows the power module status.
Power Module Type – Shows the power module type.
Fan – Shows the power fan status.
POST Result – Shows results of the power-on self-test
4-1
4
Basic Management Tasks
Web – Click System, System Information. Specify the system name, location, and
contact information for the system administrator, then click Apply. (This page also
includes a Telnet button that allows access to the Command Line Interface via Telnet.)
Figure 4-1 System Information
CLI – Specify the hostname, location and contact information.
Console(config)#hostname R&D 5
19-1
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC 9
20-4
Console(config)#snmp-server contact Ted
20-4
Console(config)#exit
Console#show system
19-6
System Description: 24 port Ethernet Metro Access Switch*
System OID String: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2†
System Information
System Up Time:
0 days, 0 hours, 24 minutes, and 7.84 seconds
System Name:
R&D 5
System Location:
WC 9
System Contact:
Ted
MAC Address (Unit1):
00-12-CF-21-DC-E0
Web Server:
Enabled
Web Server Port:
80
Web Secure Server:
Enabled
Web Secure Server Port: 443
Telnet Server:
Enable
Telnet Server Port:
23
Jumbo Frame:
Disabled
Power Module A Status
: UP
Power Module B Status
: Not present
Power Module A Type
:
Power Module B Type
: [None]
Fan(1)
: OK
Fan(2)
: OK
Fan(3)
: OK
4-2
Configuring the Switch for Normal Operation or Tunneling Mode
POST Result:
DUMMY Test 1 .................
UART Loopback Test ...........
DRAM Test ....................
Timer Test ...................
I2C Bus Initialization .......
Switch Int Loopback Test .....
4
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
Console#
* ES3528-WDM System Description: 24 port WDM Metro Access Switch
† ES3528-WDM System OID String: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.3
Configuring the Switch for
Normal Operation or Tunneling Mode
The system can be configured to operate in normal mode or IEEE 802.1Q (QinQ)
tunneling mode which is used for passing Layer 2 traffic across a service provider’s
metropolitan area network.
Command Attributes
System Mode – Sets the switch to operate in one of the following modes:
• Normal Mode – The switch functions in normal operating mode. (This is the default
operating mode.)
• QinQ Mode – Sets the switch to QinQ mode, and allows the QinQ tunnel port to
be configured. For an explanation of QinQ see “Configuring IEEE 802.1Q
Tunneling” on page 12-12.
Web – Click System, System Mode. Select the required system mode, and click
Apply.
Figure 4-2 System Mode
CLI – This example sets the switch to operate in QinQ mode.
Console(config)#system mode qinq
Console(config)#exit
Console#show system mode
19-8
19-9
System mode is QinQ mode
Console#
4-3
4
Basic Management Tasks
Configuring the Maximum Frame Size
The maximum transfer unit (or frame size) for traffic crossing the switch should be
set to minimize unnecessary fragmentation and maximize the transfer of large
sequential data streams.
Command Usage
• Fast Ethernet ports are only affected by the System MTU setting.
• Gigabit Ethernet ports are only affected by the Jumbo frame size setting.
• The switch provides more efficient throughput for large sequential data transfers
by supporting jumbo frames on Gigabit Ethernet ports of up to 9216 bytes.
Compared to standard Ethernet frames that run only up to 1.5 KB, using jumbo
frames for Gigabit Ethernet significantly reduces the per-packet overhead required
to process protocol encapsulation fields.
• Frame sizes for Fast Ethernet ports can be extended up to 1546 bytes, and are
used primarily to allow for additional header fields – not to significantly increase the
per-packet data size. These Fast Ethernet extended fames and are more often
called “baby jumbo frames.”
• To use jumbo frames, both the source and destination end nodes (such as a
computer or server) must support this feature. Also, when the connection is
operating at full duplex, all switches in the network between the two end nodes
must be able to accept the extended frame size. And for half-duplex connections,
all devices in the collision domain would need to support jumbo frames.
• After setting the jumbo frame size, remember to implement the new setting by
enabling jumbo frames as described in the next section.
Command Attributes
• System MTU (1500-1548) – Specifies the MTU size for Fast Ethernet ports.
(Range: 1500-1548 bytes)
• Jumbo (1500-9216) – Specifies the jumbo frame size (MTU) for Gigabit Ethernet
ports. (Range: 1500-9216 bytes)
Web – Click System, System MTU. Set the maximum frame size for Fast Ethernet
and Gigabit Ethernet ports, then click Apply.
Figure 4-3 System MTU
4-4
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
4
CLI – This example sets the MTU for Fast Ethernet ports to 1528 bytes.
Console(config)#system mtu 1528
Console(config)#exit
Console#show system mtu
System MTU size is 1528 Bytes
System Jumbo MTU size is 1518 Bytes
Console#
19-11
19-11
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
The switch provides more efficient throughput for large sequential data transfers by
supporting jumbo frames up to 9216 bytes for Gigabit Ethernet. Compared to
standard Ethernet frames that run only up to 1.5 KB, using jumbo frames
significantly reduces the per-packet overhead required to process protocol
encapsulation fields. Frame sizes for Fast Ethernet ports can be extended up to
1546 bytes, and are used primarily to allow for additional header fields – not to
significantly increase the per-packet data size.
Command Usage
To use jumbo frames, both the source and destination end nodes (such as a
computer or server) must support this feature. Also, when the connection is
operating at full duplex, all switches in the network between the two end nodes must
be able to accept the extended frame size. And for half-duplex connections, all
devices in the collision domain would need to support jumbo frames.
Command Attributes
Jumbo Packet Status – Configures support for jumbo frames. (Default: Disabled)
Web – Click System, Jumbo Frames. Enable or disable support for jumbo frames,
and click Apply.
Figure 4-4 Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
CLI – This example enables jumbo frames globally for the switch.
Console(config)#jumbo frame
Console(config)#
19-10
4-5
4
Basic Management Tasks
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
Use the Switch Information page to display hardware/firmware version numbers for
the main board and management software, as well as the power status of the
system.
Field Attributes
Main Board
• Serial Number – The serial number of the switch.
•
•
•
•
•
Hardware Version – Hardware version of the main board.
EPLD Version – Version number of EEPROM Programmable Logic Device.
Number of Ports – Number of built-in ports.
Main Power Status – Displays the status of the primary power supply.
Redundant Power Status – Displays the status of the redundant power supply.
Management Software
•
•
•
•
•
Unit ID – Unit number in stack.
Loader Version – Version number of loader code.
Boot-ROM Version – Version of Power-On Self-Test (POST) and boot code.
Operation Code Version – Version number of runtime code.
Role – Shows that this switch is operating as Master.
Web – Click System, Switch Information.
Figure 4-5 Switch Information
4-6
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
4
CLI – Use the following command to display version information.
19-7
Console#show version
Unit 1
Serial Number:
Hardware Version:
EPLD Version:
Number of Ports:
0000E8900000
R01
0.01
29
Agent (Master)
Unit ID:
Loader Version:
Boot ROM Version:
Operation Code Version:
1
1.0.0.1
1.0.0.7
1.0.1.7
Console#
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
The Bridge MIB includes extensions for managed devices that support Multicast
Filtering, Traffic Classes, and Virtual LANs. You can access these extensions to
display default settings for the key variables.
Field Attributes
• Extended Multicast Filtering Services – This switch does not support the filtering
of individual multicast addresses based on GMRP (GARP Multicast Registration
Protocol).
• Traffic Classes – This switch provides mapping of user priorities to multiple traffic
classes. (Refer to “Class of Service” on page 13-1.)
• Static Entry Individual Port – This switch allows static filtering for unicast and
multicast addresses. (Refer to “Setting Static Addresses” on page 10-1.)
• VLAN Learning – This switch uses Independent VLAN Learning (IVL), where each
port maintains its own filtering database.
• Configurable PVID Tagging – This switch allows you to override the default Port
VLAN ID (PVID used in frame tags) and egress status (VLAN-Tagged or
Untagged) on each port. (Refer to “VLAN Configuration” on page 12-1.)
• Local VLAN Capable – This switch does not support multiple local bridges outside
of the scope of 802.1Q defined VLANs.
• GMRP – GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network devices to
register endstations with multicast groups. This switch does not support GMRP; it
uses the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) to provide automatic
multicast filtering.
4-7
4
Basic Management Tasks
Web – Click System, Bridge Extension.
Figure 4-6 Displaying Bridge Extension Configuration
CLI – Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support VLAN numbers:
Max support VLAN ID:
Extended multicast filtering services:
Static entry individual port:
VLAN learning:
Configurable PVID tagging:
Local VLAN capable:
Traffic classes:
Global GVRP status:
GMRP:
Console#
30-2
256
4094
No
Yes
IVL
Yes
No
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Setting the Switch’s IP Address
This section describes how to configure an IP interface for management access
over the network. The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To
manually configure an address, you need to change the switch’s default settings to
values that are compatible with your network. You may also need to a establish a
default gateway between the switch and management stations that exist on another
network segment.
You can manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the device to obtain an
address from a BOOTP or DHCP server. Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside this format will not be
accepted by the CLI program.
4-8
Setting the Switch’s IP Address
4
Command Attributes
• Management VLAN – ID of the configured VLAN (1-4093). By default, all ports on
the stack are members of VLAN 1. However, the management station can be
attached to a port belonging to any VLAN, as long as that VLAN has been assigned
an IP address.
• IP Address Mode – Specifies whether IP functionality is enabled via manual
configuration (Static), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), or Boot
Protocol (BOOTP). If DHCP/BOOTP is enabled, IP will not function until a reply has
been received from the server. Requests will be broadcast periodically by the
switch for an IP address. (DHCP/BOOTP values can include the IP address,
subnet mask, and default gateway.)
• IP Address – Address of the VLAN to which the management station is attached.
Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
(Default: 0.0.0.0)
• Subnet Mask – This mask identifies the host address bits used for routing to
specific subnets. (Default: 255.0.0.0)
• Gateway IP Address – IP address of the gateway router between the stack and
management stations that exist on other network segments. (Default: 0.0.0.0)
• MAC Address – The physical layer address for this switch.
Manual Configuration
Web – Click System, System, IP Configuration. Select the VLAN through which the
management station is attached. Enter the IP address, subnet mask and gateway,
then click Apply.
Figure 4-7 IP Interface Configuration - Manual
4-9
4
Basic Management Tasks
CLI – Specify the management interface, IP address and default gateway.
Console#config
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.253 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.0.254
Console(config)#
24-1
35-1
35-2
Using DHCP/BOOTP
If your network provides DHCP/BOOTP services, you can configure the stack to be
dynamically configured by these services.
Web – Click System, IP Configuration. Specify the VLAN to which the management
station is attached, set the IP Address Mode to DHCP or BOOTP. Click Apply to
save your changes. Then click Restart DHCP to immediately request a new
address. Note that the stack will also broadcast a request for IP configuration
settings on each power reset.
Figure 4-8 IP Interface Configuration - DHCP
Note: If you lose your management connection, make a console connection to the
Master unit and enter “show ip interface” to determine the new stack address.
CLI – Specify the management interface, and set the IP address mode to DHCP or
BOOTP, and then enter the “ip dhcp restart” command.
Console#config
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP Address and Netmask: 192.168.0.100 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
Address Mode:
DHCP
Console#
4-10
24-1
35-1
35-3
35-4
Managing Firmware
4
Renewing DCHP – DHCP may lease addresses to clients indefinitely or for a
specific period of time. If the address expires or the stack is moved to another
network segment, you will lose management access to the stack. In this case, you
can reboot the stack or submit a client request to restart DHCP service via the CLI.
Web – If the address assigned by DHCP is no longer functioning, you will not be
able to renew the IP settings via the web interface. You can only restart DHCP
service via the web interface if the current address is still available.
CLI – Enter the following command to restart DHCP service.
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#
35-3
Managing Firmware
You can upload/download firmware to or from a TFTP server, or copy files to and
from switch units in a stack. By saving runtime code to a file on a TFTP server, that
file can later be downloaded to the switch to restore operation. You can also set the
switch to use new firmware without overwriting the previous version. You must
specify the method of file transfer, along with the file type and file names as required.
Command Attributes
• File Transfer Method – The firmware copy operation includes these options:
- file to file – Copies a file within the switch directory, assigning it a new name.
- file to tftp – Copies a file from the switch to a TFTP server.
- tftp to file – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the switch.
• TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of a TFTP server.
• File Type – Specify opcode (operational code) to copy firmware.
• File Name – The file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter of
the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file names on
the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on the switch.
(Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: Up to two copies of the system software (i.e., the runtime firmware) can be stored
in the file directory on the switch. The currently designated startup version of this
file cannot be deleted.
4-11
4
Basic Management Tasks
Downloading System Software from a Server
When downloading runtime code, you can specify the destination file name to
replace the current image, or first download the file using a different name from the
current runtime code file, and then set the new file as the startup file.
Web – Click System, File Management, Copy Operation. Select “tftp to file” as the
file transfer method, enter the IP address of the TFTP server, set the file type to
“opcode,” enter the file name of the software to download, select a file on the switch
to overwrite or specify a new file name, then click Apply. If you replaced the current
firmware used for startup and want to start using the new operation code, reboot the
system via the System/Reset menu.
Figure 4-9 Copy Firmware
If you download to a new destination file, go to the File Management, Set Start-Up
menu, mark the operation code file used at startup, and click Apply. To start the new
firmware, reboot the system via the System/Reset menu.
Figure 4-10 Setting the Startup Code
4-12
Managing Firmware
4
To delete a file select System, File Management, Delete. Select the file name from
the given list by checking the tick box and click Apply. Note that the file currently
designated as the startup code cannot be deleted.
Figure 4-11 Deleting Files
CLI – To download new firmware form a TFTP server, enter the IP address of the
TFTP server, select “config” as the file type, then enter the source and destination
file names. When the file has finished downloading, set the new file to start up the
system, and then restart the switch.
To start the new firmware, enter the “reload” command or reboot the system.
Console#copy tftp file
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 2
Source file name: V1.0.0.28.bix
Destination file name: V10028
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system opcode:V10028
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
19-13
19-17
18-4
4-13
4
Basic Management Tasks
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
You can upload/download configuration settings to/from a TFTP server, or copy files
to and from switch units in a stack. The configuration file can be later downloaded to
restore the switch’s settings.
Command Attributes
• File Transfer Method – The configuration copy operation includes these options:
- file to file – Copies a file within the switch directory, assigning it a new name.
- file to running-config – Copies a file in the switch to the running configuration.
- file to startup-config – Copies a file in the switch to the startup configuration.
- file to tftp – Copies a file from the switch to a TFTP server.
- running-config to file – Copies the running configuration to a file.
- running-config to startup-config – Copies the running config to the startup config.
- running-config to tftp – Copies the running configuration to a TFTP server.
- startup-config to file – Copies the startup configuration to a file on the switch.
- startup-config to running-config – Copies the startup config to the running config.
- startup-config to tftp – Copies the startup configuration to a TFTP server.
- tftp to file – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the switch.
- tftp to running-config – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the running config.
- tftp to startup-config – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the startup config.
• TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of a TFTP server.
• File Type – Specify config (configuration) to copy configuration settings.
• File Name — The configuration file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the
leading letter of the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length
for file names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on
the switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: The maximum number of user-defined configuration files is limited only by
available flash memory space.
4-14
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
4
Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server
You can download the configuration file under a new file name and then set it as the
startup file, or you can specify the current startup configuration file as the destination
file to directly replace it. Note that the file “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” can be
copied to the TFTP server, but cannot be used as the destination on the switch.
Web – Click System, File Management, Copy Operation. Choose “tftp to
startup-config” or “tftp to file,” and enter the IP address of the TFTP server. Specify
the name of the file to download, select a file on the switch to overwrite or specify a
new file name, and then click Apply.
Figure 4-12 Downloading Configuration Settings for Start-Up
If you download to a new file name using “tftp to startup-config” or “tftp to file,” the file
is automatically set as the start-up configuration file. To use the new settings, reboot
the system via the System/Reset menu. You can also select any configuration file as
the start-up configuration by using the System/File Management/Set Start-Up page.
Figure 4-13 Setting the Startup Configuration Settings
4-15
4
Basic Management Tasks
CLI – Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, specify the source file on the server,
set the startup file name on the switch, and then restart the switch.
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 192.168.1.19
Source configuration file name: config-1
Startup configuration file name [] : startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
19-13
Console#reload
To select another configuration file as the start-up configuration, use the boot
system command and then restart the switch.
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system config: startup
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
19-17
18-4
Console Port Settings
You can access the onboard configuration program by attaching a VT100
compatible device to the switch’s serial console port. Management access through
the console port is controlled by various parameters, including a password, timeouts,
and basic communication settings. These parameters can be configured via the web
or CLI interface.
Command Attributes
• Login Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into the
CLI. If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the connection is
terminated for the session. (Range: 0 - 300 seconds; Default: 0)
• Exec Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected.
If user input is not detected within the timeout interval, the current session is
terminated. (Range: 0 - 65535 seconds; Default: 0 seconds)
• Password Threshold – Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the
number of failed logon attempts. When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the
system interface becomes silent for a specified amount of time (set by the Silent
Time parameter) before allowing the next logon attempt. (Range: 0-120; Default: 3
attempts)
• Silent Time – Sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts has been exceeded.
(Range: 0-65535; Default: 0)
• Data Bits – Sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and
generated by the console port. If parity is being generated, specify 7 data bits per
character. If no parity is required, specify 8 data bits per character. (Default: 8 bits)
4-16
Console Port Settings
4
• Parity – Defines the generation of a parity bit. Communication protocols provided
by some terminals can require a specific parity bit setting. Specify Even, Odd, or
None. (Default: None)
• Speed – Sets the terminal line’s baud rate for transmit (to terminal) and receive
(from terminal). Set the speed to match the baud rate of the device connected to
the serial port. (Range: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, or 115200 baud, Auto;
Default: Auto)
• Stop Bits – Sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte.
(Range: 1-2; Default: 1 stop bit)
• Password1 – Specifies a password for the line connection. When a connection is
started on a line with password protection, the system prompts for the password.
If you enter the correct password, the system shows a prompt. (Default: No
password)
• Login1 – Enables password checking at login. You can select authentication by a
single global password as configured for the Password parameter, or by
passwords set up for specific user-name accounts. (Default: Local)
Web – Click System, Line, Console. Specify the console port connection parameters
as required, then click Apply.
Figure 4-14 Configuring the Console Port
1. CLI only.
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Basic Management Tasks
CLI – Enter Line Configuration mode for the console, then specify the connection
parameters as required. To display the current console port settings, use the show
line command from the Normal Exec level.
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#timeout login response 0
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 0
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 5
Console(config-line)#silent-time 60
Console(config-line)#databits 8
Console(config-line)#parity none
Console(config-line)#speed auto
Console(config-line)#stopbits 1
Console(config-line)#end
Console#show line console
Console configuration:
Password threshold: 5 times
Interactive timeout: Disabled
Login timeout:
Disabled
Silent time:
60
Baudrate:
auto
Databits:
8
Parity:
none
Stopbits:
1
Console#
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19-21
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19-22
19-23
19-24
19-24
19-25
19-25
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19-27
Telnet Settings
You can access the onboard configuration program over the network using Telnet
(i.e., a virtual terminal). Management access via Telnet can be enabled/disabled and
other various parameters set, including the TCP port number, timeouts, and a
password. These parameters can be configured via the web or CLI interface.
Command Attributes
• Telnet Status – Enables or disables Telnet access to the switch.
(Default: Enabled)
• Telnet Port Number – Sets the TCP port number for Telnet on the switch.
(Range: 1 - 65535; Default: 23)
• Login Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into the
CLI. If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the connection is
terminated for the session. (Range: 0 - 300 seconds; Default: 300 seconds)
• Exec Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected.
If user input is not detected within the timeout interval, the current session is
terminated. (Range: 0 - 65535 seconds; Default: 600 seconds)
• Password Threshold – Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the
number of failed logon attempts. When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the
system interface becomes silent for a specified amount of time (set by the Silent
Time parameter) before allowing the next logon attempt.
(Range: 0-120; Default: 3 attempts)
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4
Telnet Settings
• Password2 – Specifies a password for the line connection. When a connection is
started on a line with password protection, the system prompts for the password.
If you enter the correct password, the system shows a prompt. (Default: No
password)
• Login2 – Enables password checking at login. You can select authentication by a
single global password as configured for the Password parameter, or by
passwords set up for specific user-name accounts. (Default: Local)
Web – Click System, Line, Telnet. Specify the connection parameters for Telnet
access, then click Apply.
Figure 4-15 Configuring the Telnet Interface
CLI – Enter Line Configuration mode for a virtual terminal, then specify the
connection parameters as required. To display the current virtual terminal settings,
use the show line command from the Normal Exec level.
Console(config)#line vty
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#timeout login response 300
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 600
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 3
Console(config-line)#end
Console#show line vty
VTY configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: 600 sec
Login timeout:
300 sec
Console#
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19-20
19-21
19-22
19-22
19-23
19-27
2. CLI only.
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Basic Management Tasks
Configuring Event Logging
The switch allows you to control the logging of error messages, including the type of
events that are recorded in switch memory, logging to a remote System Log (syslog)
server, and displays a list of recent event messages.
System Log Configuration
The system allows you to enable or disable event logging, and specify which levels
are logged to RAM or flash memory.
Severe error messages that are logged to flash memory are permanently stored in
the switch to assist in troubleshooting network problems. Up to 4096 log entries can
be stored in the flash memory, with the oldest entries being overwritten first when the
available log memory (256 kilobytes) has been exceeded.
The System Logs page allows you to configure and limit system messages that are
logged to flash or RAM memory. The default is for event levels 0 to 3 to be logged to
flash and levels 0 to 7 to be logged to RAM.
Command Attributes
• System Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages to
the logging process. (Default: Enabled)
• Flash Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s permanent flash memory
for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is specified, all
messages from level 0 to level 3 will be logged to flash. (Range: 0-7, Default: 3)
Table 4-1 Logging Levels
Level
Severity Name
Description
7
Debug
Debugging messages
6
Informational
Informational messages only
5
Notice
Normal but significant condition, such as cold start
4
Warning
Warning conditions (e.g., return false, unexpected return)
3
Error
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default used)
2
Critical
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or free memory
error - resource exhausted)
1
Alert
Immediate action needed
0
Emergency
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware release.
• RAM Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s temporary RAM memory
for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 7 is specified, all
messages from level 0 to level 7 will be logged to RAM. (Range: 0-7, Default: 7)
Note: The Flash Level must be equal to or less than the RAM Level.
4-20
Configuring Event Logging
4
Web – Click System, Logs, System Logs. Specify System Log Status, set the level of
event messages to be logged to RAM and flash memory, then click Apply.
Figure 4-16 System Logs
CLI – Enable system logging and then specify the level of messages to be logged to
RAM and flash memory. Use the show logging command to display the current
settings.
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#
Console#show logging ram
Syslog logging:
Disabled
History logging in RAM: level emergencies
Console#
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19-32
Remote Log Configuration
The Remote Logs page allows you to configure the logging of messages that are
sent to syslog servers or other management stations. You can also limit the event
messages sent to only those messages at or above a specified level.
Command Attributes
• Remote Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages
to the remote logging process. (Default: Disabled)
• Logging Facility – Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages.
There are eight facility types specified by values of 16 to 23. The facility type is
used by the syslog server to dispatch log messages to an appropriate service.
The attribute specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages. (See RFC
3164.) This type has no effect on the kind of messages reported by the switch.
However, it may be used by the syslog server to process messages, such as sorting
or storing messages in the corresponding database. (Range: 16-23, Default: 23)
• Logging Trap – Limits log messages that are sent to the remote syslog server for
all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is specified, all messages
from level 0 to level 3 will be sent to the remote server. (Range: 0-7, Default: 7)
• Host IP List – Displays the list of remote server IP addresses that will receive
syslog messages. The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
• Host IP Address – Specifies a new server IP address to add to the Host IP List.
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Basic Management Tasks
Web – Click System, Logs, Remote Logs. To add an IP address to the Host IP List,
type the new IP address in the Host IP Address box, and then click Add. To delete
an IP address, click the entry in the Host IP List, and then click Remove.
Figure 4-17 Remote Logs
CLI – Enter the syslog server host IP address, choose the facility type and set the
logging trap.
Console(config)#logging host 10.1.0.9
Console(config)#logging facility 23
Console(config)#logging trap 4
Console(config)#logging trap
Console(config)#exit
Console#show logging trap
Syslog logging:
Enabled
REMOTELOG status:
Disabled
REMOTELOG facility type:
local use 7
REMOTELOG level type:
Warning conditions
REMOTELOG server ip address: 10.1.0.9
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
Console#
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Configuring Event Logging
4
Displaying Log Messages
Use the Logs page to scroll through the logged system and event messages. The
switch can store up to 2048 log entries in temporary random access memory (RAM;
i.e., memory flushed on power reset) and up to 4096 entries in permanent flash
memory.
Web – Click System, Log, Logs.
Figure 4-18 Displaying Logs
CLI – This example shows the event message stored in RAM.
Console#show log ram
[1] 00:01:30 2001-01-01
"VLAN 1 link-up notification."
level: 6, module: 5, function: 1, and event no.: 1
[0] 00:01:30 2001-01-01
"Unit 1, Port 1 link-up notification."
level: 6, module: 5, function: 1, and event no.: 1
Console#
19-32
Sending Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Alerts
To alert system administrators of problems, the switch can use SMTP (Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol) to send email messages when triggered by logging events of a
specified level. The messages are sent to specified SMTP servers on the network
and can be retrieved using POP or IMAP clients.
Command Attributes
• Admin Status – Enables/disables the SMTP function. (Default: Enabled)
• Email Source Address – Sets the email address used for the “From” field in alert
messages. You may use a symbolic email address that identifies the switch, or the
address of an administrator responsible for the switch.
• Severity – Sets the syslog severity threshold level (see table on page 4-20) used
to trigger alert messages. All events at this level or higher will be sent to the
configured email recipients. For example, using Level 7 will report all events from
level 7 to level 0. (Default: Level 7)
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4
Basic Management Tasks
• SMTP Server List – Specifies a list of up to three recipient SMTP servers. The
switch attempts to connect to the other listed servers if the first fails. Use the New
SMTP Server text field and the Add/Remove buttons to configure the list.
• Email Destination Address List – Specifies the email recipients of alert
messages. You can specify up to five recipients. Use the New Email Destination
Address text field and the Add/Remove buttons to configure the list.
Web – Click System, Log, SMTP. Enable SMTP, specify a source email address,
and select the minimum severity level. To add an IP address to the SMTP Server
List, type the new IP address in the SMTP Server field and click Add. To delete an IP
address, click the entry in the SMTP Server List and click Remove. Specify up to five
email addresses to receive the alert messages, and click Apply.
Figure 4-19 Enabling and Configuring SMTP Alerts
4-24
4
Resetting the System
CLI – Enter the IP address of at least one SMTP server, set the syslog severity level
to trigger an email message, and specify the switch (source) and up to five recipient
(destination) email addresses. Enable SMTP with the logging sendmail command
to complete the configuration. Use the show logging sendmail command to display
the current SMTP configuration.
Console(config)#logging sendmail host 192.168.1.4
Console(config)#logging sendmail level 3
Console(config)#logging sendmail source-email
big-wheels@matel.com
Console(config)#logging sendmail destination-email
chris@matel.com
Console(config)#logging sendmail
Console(config)#exit
Console#show logging sendmail
SMTP servers
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.4
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19-37
SMTP minimum severity level: 4
SMTP destination email addresses
----------------------------------------------1. chris@matel.com
SMTP source email address: big-wheels@matel.com
SMTP status:
Console#
Enabled
Resetting the System
Web – Click System, Reset. Click the Reset button to restart the switch. When
prompted, confirm that you want reset the switch.
Figure 4-20 Resetting the System
CLI – Use the reload command to restart the switch.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>?
18-4
Note: When restarting the system, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test.
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4
Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) allows the switch to set its internal clock
based on periodic updates from a time server (SNTP or NTP). Maintaining an
accurate time on the switch enables the system log to record meaningful dates and
times for event entries. You can also manually set the clock using the CLI. (See
“calendar set” on page 19-41.) If the clock is not set, the switch will only record the
time from the factory default set at the last bootup.
When the SNTP client is enabled, the switch periodically sends a request for a time
update to a configured time server. You can configure up to three time server IP
addresses. The switch will attempt to poll each server in the configured sequence.
Configuring SNTP
You can configure the switch to send time synchronization requests to time servers.
Command Attributes
• SNTP Client – Configures the switch to operate as an SNTP client. This requires
at least one time server to be specified in the SNTP Server field. (Default: Disabled)
• SNTP Poll Interval – Sets the interval between sending requests for a time update
from a time server. (Range: 16-16384 seconds; Default: 16 seconds)
• SNTP Server – Sets the IP address for up to three time servers. The switch
attempts to update the time from the first server, if this fails it attempts an update
from the next server in the sequence.
Web – Select SNTP, Configuration. Modify any of the required parameters, and click
Apply.
Figure 4-21 SNTP Configuration
4-26
Setting the System Clock
4
CLI – This example configures the switch to operate as an SNTP client and then
displays the current time and settings.
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#sntp poll 16
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19 137.82.140.80 128.250.36.2
Console(config)#exit
Console#show sntp
Current time: Jan 6 14:56:05 2004
Poll interval: 60
Current mode: unicast
SNTP status : Enabled
SNTP server 10.1.0.19 137.82.140.80 128.250.36.2
Current server: 128.250.36.2
Console#
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Setting the Time Zone
SNTP uses Coordinated Universal Time (or UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time,
or GMT) based on the time at the Earth’s prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To
display a time corresponding to your local time, you must indicate the number of
hours and minutes your time zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
Current Time – Displays the current time.
Name – Assigns a name to the time zone. (Range: 1-29 characters)
Hours (0-13) – The number of hours before/after UTC.
Minutes (0-59) – The number of minutes before/after UTC.
Direction – Configures the time zone to be before (east) or after (west) UTC.
Web – Select SNTP, Clock Time Zone. Set the offset for your time zone relative to
the UTC, and click Apply.
Figure 4-22 Clock Time Zone
CLI - This example shows how to set the time zone for the system clock.
Console(config)#clock timezone Dhaka hours 6 minute 0 after-UTC
Console#
19-40
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4
4-28
Basic Management Tasks
Chapter 5: Simple Network Management Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a communication protocol
designed specifically for managing devices on a network. Equipment commonly
managed with SNMP includes switches, routers and host computers. SNMP is
typically used to configure these devices for proper operation in a network
environment, as well as to monitor them to evaluate performance or detect potential
problems.
Managed devices supporting SNMP contain software, which runs locally on the
device and is referred to as an agent. A defined set of variables, known as managed
objects, is maintained by the SNMP agent and used to manage the device. These
objects are defined in a Management Information Base (MIB) that provides a
standard presentation of the information controlled by the agent. SNMP defines both
the format of the MIB specifications and the protocol used to access this information
over the network.
The switch includes an onboard agent that supports SNMP versions 1, 2c, and 3.
This agent continuously monitors the status of the switch hardware, as well as the
traffic passing through its ports. A network management station can access this
information using software such as HP OpenView. Access to the onboard agent
from clients using SNMP v1 and v2c is controlled by community strings. To
communicate with the switch, the management station must first submit a valid
community string for authentication.
Access to the switch using from clients using SNMPv3 provides additional security
features that cover message integrity, authentication, and encryption; as well as
controlling user access to specific areas of the MIB tree.
The SNMPv3 security structure consists of security models, with each model having
it’s own security levels. There are three security models defined, SNMPv1,
SNMPv2c, and SNMPv3. Users are assigned to “groups” that are defined by a
security model and specified security levels. Each group also has a defined security
access to set of MIB objects for reading and writing, which are known as “views.”
The switch has a default view (all MIB objects) and default groups defined for
security models v1 and v2c. The following table shows the security models and
levels available and the system default settings.
5-1
5
Simple Network Management Protocol
Table 5-1 SNMPv3 Security Models and Levels
Model Level
Group
Read View
Write View Notify View Security
v1
noAuthNoPriv public
(read only)
defaultview
none
none
Community string only
v1
noAuthNoPriv private
(read/write)
defaultview
defaultview none
Community string only
v1
noAuthNoPriv user defined user defined user defined user defined Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv public
(read only)
defaultview
none
none
Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv private
(read/write)
defaultview
defaultview none
Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv user defined user defined user defined user defined Community string only
v3
noAuthNoPriv user defined user defined user defined user defined A user name match only
v3
AuthNoPriv
user defined user defined user defined user defined Provides user
authentication via MD5 or
SHA algorithms
v3
AuthPriv
user defined user defined user defined user defined Provides user
authentication via MD5 or
SHA algorithms and data
privacy using DES 56-bit
encryption
Note: The predefined default groups and view can be deleted from the system. You can
then define customized groups and views for the SNMP clients that require access.
Enabling the SNMP Agent
Enables SNMPv3 service for all management clients (i.e., versions 1, 2c, 3).
Command Attributes
SNMP Agent Status – Enables SNMP on the switch.
Web – Click SNMP, Agent Status. Enable the SNMP Agent by marking the Enabled
checkbox, and click Apply.
Figure 5-1 Enabling the SNMP Agent
CLI – The following example enables SNMP on the switch.
Console(config)#snmp-server
Console(config)#
5-2
20-2
Setting Community Access Strings
5
Setting Community Access Strings
You may configure up to five community strings authorized for management access
by clients using SNMP v1 and v2c. All community strings used for IP Trap Managers
should be listed in this table. For security reasons, you should consider removing the
default strings.
Command Attributes
• SNMP Community Capability – The switch supports up to five community strings.
• Current – Displays a list of the community strings currently configured.
• Community String – A community string that acts like a password and permits
access to the SNMP protocol.
Default strings: “public” (read-only access), “private” (read/write access)
Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive
• Access Mode – Specifies the access rights for the community string:
- Read-Only – Authorized management stations are only able to retrieve MIB
objects.
- Read/Write – Authorized management stations are able to both retrieve and
modify MIB objects.
Web – Click SNMP, Configuration. Add new community strings as required, select
the access rights from the Access Mode drop-down list, then click Add.
Figure 5-2 Configuring SNMP Community Strings
CLI – The following example adds the string “spiderman” with read/write access.
Console(config)#snmp-server community spiderman rw
Console(config)#
20-3
5-3
5
Simple Network Management Protocol
Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
Traps indicating status changes are issued by the switch to specified trap managers.
You must specify trap managers so that key events are reported by this switch to
your management station (using network management platforms such as HP
OpenView). You can specify up to five management stations that will receive
authentication failure messages and other trap messages from the switch.
Command Usage
• If you specify an SNMP Version 3 host, then the “Trap Manager Community String”
is interpreted as an SNMP user name. If you use V3 authentication or encryption
options (authNoPriv or authPriv), the user name must first be defined in the
SNMPv3 Users page (page 5-9). Otherwise, the authentication password and/or
privacy password will not exist, and the switch will not authorize SNMP access for
the host. However, if you specify a V3 host with the no authentication (noAuth)
option, an SNMP user account will be automatically generated, and the switch will
authorize SNMP access for the host.
• Notifications are issued by the switch as trap messages by default. The recipient
of a trap message does not send a response to the switch. Traps are therefore not
as reliable as inform messages, which include a request for acknowledgement of
receipt. Informs can be used to ensure that critical information is received by the
host. However, note that informs consume more system resources because they
must be kept in memory until a response is received. Informs also add to network
traffic. You should consider these effects when deciding whether to issue
notifications as traps or informs.
To send an inform to a SNMPv2c host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 5-2).
2. Enable trap informs as described in the following pages.
3. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 5-16).
4. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 5-13).
To send an inform to a SNMPv3 host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 5-2).
2. Enable trap informs as described in the following pages.
3. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 5-16).
4. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 5-13).
5. Specify a remote engine ID where the user resides (page 5-8).
6. Then configure a remote user (page 5-11).
Command Attributes
• Trap Manager Capability – This switch supports up to five trap managers.
• Current – Displays a list of the trap managers currently configured.
• Trap Manager IP Address – IP address of a new management station to receive
notification messages.
• Trap Manager Community String – Specifies a valid community string for the
new trap manager entry. Though you can set this string in the Trap Managers table,
we recommend that you define this string in the SNMP Configuration page (for
5-4
Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
5
Version 1 or 2c clients), or define a corresponding “User Name” in the SNMPv3
Users page (for Version 3 clients). (Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive)
• Trap UDP Port – Specifies the UDP port number used by the trap manager.
• Trap Version – Indicates if the user is running SNMP v1, v2c, or v3. (Default: v1)
• Trap Security Level – When trap version 3 is selected, you must specify one of
the following security levels. (Default: noAuthNoPriv)
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications.
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
• Trap Inform – Notifications are sent as inform messages. Note that this option is
only available for version 2c and 3 hosts. (Default: traps are used)
- Timeout – The number of seconds to wait for an acknowledgment before
resending an inform message. (Range: 0-2147483647 centiseconds;
Default: 1500 centiseconds)
- Retry times – The maximum number of times to resend an inform message if
the recipient does not acknowledge receipt. (Range: 0-255; Default: 3)
• Enable Authentication Traps3 – Issues a notification message to specified IP
trap managers whenever authentication of an SNMP request fails.
(Default: Enabled)
• Enable Link-up and Link-down Traps3 – Issues a notification message
whenever a port link is established or broken. (Default: Enabled)
3. These are legacy notifications and therefore when used for SNMP Version 3 hosts, they must
be enabled in conjunction with the corresponding entries in the Notification View (page 5-13).
5-5
5
Simple Network Management Protocol
Web – Click SNMP, Configuration. Enter the IP address and community string for
each management station that will receive trap messages, specify the UDP port,
SNMP trap version, trap security level (for v3 clients), trap inform settings (for v2c/v3
clients), and then click Add. Select the trap types required using the check boxes for
Authentication and Link-up/down traps, and then click Apply.
Figure 5-3 Configuring SNMP Trap Managers
CLI – This example adds a trap manager and enables authentication traps.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 private version 2c
udp-port 162
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps authentication
5-6
20-5
20-7
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
To configure SNMPv3 management access to the switch, follow these steps:
1. If you want to change the default engine ID, do so before configuring other
SNMP parameters.
2. Specify read and write access views for the switch MIB tree.
3. Configure SNMP user groups with the required security model (i.e., SNMP v1,
v2c or v3) and security level (i.e., authentication and privacy).
4. Assign SNMP users to groups, along with their specific authentication and
privacy passwords.
Setting a Local Engine ID
An SNMPv3 engine is an independent SNMP agent that resides on the switch. This
engine protects against message replay, delay, and redirection. The engine ID is
also used in combination with user passwords to generate the security keys for
authenticating and encrypting SNMPv3 packets.
A local engine ID is automatically generated that is unique to the switch. This is
referred to as the default engine ID. If the local engineID is deleted or changed, all
SNMP users will be cleared. You will need to reconfigure all existing users.
A new engine ID can be specified by entering 10 to 64 hexadecimal characters. If
less than 64 characters are specified, trailing zeroes are added to the value. For
example, the value “0123456789” is equivalent to “0123456789” followed by 54
zeroes.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Engine ID. Enter an ID of up to 64 hexadecimal
characters and then click Save.
Figure 5-4 Setting the SNMPv3 Engine ID
CLI – This example sets an SNMPv3 engine ID.
Console(config)#snmp-server engine-id local 12345abcdef
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp engine-id
Local SNMP engineID: 8000002a8000000000e8666672
Local SNMP engineBoots: 1
Console#
20-8
20-9
5-7
5
Simple Network Management Protocol
Specifying a Remote Engine ID
To send inform messages to an SNMPv3 user on a remote device, you must first
specify the engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device where the
user resides. The remote engine ID is used to compute the security digest for
authenticating and encrypting packets sent to a user on the remote host.
SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the authoritative agent. For
informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote agent. You therefore need to
configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID before you can send proxy requests
or informs to it. (See “Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types” on page 5-4 and
“Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users” on page 5-11.)
The engine ID can be specified by entering 10 to 64 hexadecimal characters. If less
than 64 characters are specified, trailing zeroes are added to the value. For example,
the value “0123456789” is equivalent to “0123456789” followed by 54 zeroes.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Remote Engine ID. Enter an ID of up to 64
hexadecimal characters and then click Save.
Figure 5-5 Setting an Engine ID
CLI – This example specifies a remote SNMPv3 engine ID.
Console(config)#snmp-server engine-id remote 54321 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp engine-id
Local SNMP engineID: 8000002a8000000000e8666672
Local SNMP engineBoots: 1
Remote SNMP engineID
80000000030004e2b316c54321
Console#
5-8
20-8
20-9
IP address
192.168.1.19
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Configuring SNMPv3 Users
Each SNMPv3 user is defined by a unique name. Users must be configured with a
specific security level and assigned to a group. The SNMPv3 group restricts users to
a specific read, write, or notify view.
Command Attributes
• User Name – The name of user connecting to the SNMP agent. (Range: 1-32
characters)
• Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
• Security Level – The security level used for the user:
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications. (This is the default for SNMPv3.)
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
• Authentication Protocol – The method used for user authentication. (Options:
MD5, SHA; Default: MD5)
• Authentication Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
• Privacy Protocol – The encryption algorithm use for data privacy; only 56-bit DES
is currently available.
• Privacy Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
• Actions – Enables the user to be assigned to another SNMPv3 group.
5-9
5
Simple Network Management Protocol
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Users. Click New to configure a user name. In the
New User page, define a name and assign it to a group, then click Add to save the
configuration and return to the User Name list. To delete a user, check the box next
to the user name, then click Delete. To change the assigned group of a user, click
Change Group in the Actions column of the users table and select the new group.
Figure 5-6 Configuring SNMPv3 Users
CLI – Use the snmp-server user command to configure a new user name and
assign it to a group.
Console(config)#snmp-server user chris group r&d v3 auth md5
greenpeace priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp user
EngineId: 80000034030001f488f5200000
User Name: chris
Authentication Protocol: md5
Privacy Protocol: des56
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
5-10
20-14
20-15
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
Each SNMPv3 user is defined by a unique name. Users must be configured with a
specific security level and assigned to a group. The SNMPv3 group restricts users to
a specific read and a write view.
To send inform messages to an SNMPv3 user on a remote device, you must first
specify the engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device where the
user resides. The remote engine ID is used to compute the security digest for
authenticating and encrypting packets sent to a user on the remote host. (See
“Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types” on page 5-4 and “Specifying a Remote
Engine ID” on page 5-8.)
Command Attributes
• User Name – The name of user connecting to the SNMP agent. (Range: 1-32
characters)
• Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• Engine ID – The engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device where
the remote user resides. Note that the remote engine identifier must be specified
before you configure a remote user. (See “Specifying a Remote Engine ID” on
page 5-8.)
• Remote IP – The Internet address of the remote device where the user resides.
• Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3. (Default: v1)
• Security Level – The security level used for the user:
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications. (This is the default for SNMPv3.)
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
• Authentication Protocol – The method used for user authentication.
(Options: MD5, SHA; Default: MD5)
• Authentication Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
• Privacy Protocol – The encryption algorithm use for data privacy; only 56-bit DES
is currently available.
• Privacy Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
5-11
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Remote Users. Click New to configure a user name.
In the New User page, define a name and assign it to a group, then click Add to save
the configuration and return to the User Name list. To delete a user, check the box
next to the user name, then click Delete.
Figure 5-7 Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
CLI – Use the snmp-server user command to configure a new user name and
assign it to a group.
Console(config)#snmp-server user mark group r&d remote 192.168.1.19 v3
auth md5 greenpeace priv des56 einstien
20-14
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp user
20-15
No user exist.
SNMP remote user
EngineId: 80000000030004e2b316c54321
User Name: mark
Authentication Protocol: none
Privacy Protocol: none
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
5-12
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
An SNMPv3 group sets the access policy for its assigned users, restricting them to
specific read, write, and notify views. You can use the pre-defined default groups or
create new groups to map a set of SNMP users to SNMP views.
Command Attributes
• Group Name – The name of the SNMP group. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• Model – The group security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
• Level – The security level used for the group:
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications.
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
• Read View – The configured view for read access. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• Write View – The configured view for write access. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• Notify View – The configured view for notifications. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Table 5-2 Supported Notification Messages
Object Label
Object ID
Description
newRoot
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1
The newRoot trap indicates that the sending
agent has become the new root of the Spanning
Tree; the trap is sent by a bridge soon after its
election as the new root, e.g., upon expiration of
the Topology Change Timer immediately
subsequent to its election.
topologyChange
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2
A topologyChange trap is sent by a bridge when
any of its configured ports transitions from the
Learning state to the Forwarding state, or from
the Forwarding state to the Discarding state. The
trap is not sent if a newRoot trap is sent for the
same transition.
coldStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
A coldStart trap signifies that the SNMPv2 entity,
acting in an agent role, is reinitializing itself and
that its configuration may have been altered.
warmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
A warmStart trap signifies that the SNMPv2
entity, acting in an agent role, is reinitializing
itself such that its configuration is unaltered.
linkDown*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
A linkDown trap signifies that the SNMP entity,
acting in an agent role, has detected that the
ifOperStatus object for one of its communication
links is about to enter the down state from some
other state (but not from the notPresent state).
This other state is indicated by the included
value of ifOperStatus.
RFC 1493 Traps
SNMPv2 Traps
5-13
5
Simple Network Management Protocol
Table 5-2 Supported Notification Messages (Continued)
Object Label
Object ID
Description
linkUp*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
A linkUp trap signifies that the SNMP entity,
acting in an agent role, has detected that the
ifOperStatus object for one of its communication
links left the down state and transitioned into
some other state (but not into the notPresent
state). This other state is indicated by the
included value of ifOperStatus.
authenticationFailure*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
An authenticationFailure trap signifies that the
SNMPv2 entity, acting in an agent role, has
received a protocol message that is not properly
authenticated. While all implementations of the
SNMPv2 must be capable of generating this
trap, the snmpEnableAuthenTraps object
indicates whether this trap will be generated.
risingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm
entry crosses its rising threshold and generates
an event that is configured for sending SNMP
traps.
fallingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm
entry crosses its falling threshold and generates
an event that is configured for sending SNMP
traps.
swPowerStatus
ChangeTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2.2.1.0.1†
This trap is sent when the power state changes.
swFanFailureTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2.2.1.0.17
This trap is sent when the fan fails.
swFanRecoverTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2.2.1.0.18
This trap is sent when the fan failure has
recovered.
swIpFilterRejectTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2.2.1.0.40
This trap is sent when an incorrect IP address is
rejected by the IP Filter.
swSmtpConnFailure
Trap
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2.2.1.0.41
This trap is triggered if the SMTP system cannot
open a connection to the mail server
successfully.
swMainBoardVer
MismatchNotificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2.2.1.0.56
This trap is sent when the slave board version is
mismatched with the master board version. This
trap binds two objects, the first object indicates
the master version, whereas the second
represents the slave version.
swModuleVer
MismatchNotificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2.2.1.0.57
This trap is sent when the slide-in module
version is mismatched with the main board
version.
swThermalRising
Notification
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2.2.1.0.58
This trap is sent when the temperature exceeds
the switchThermalActionRisingThreshold.
RMON Events (V2)
Private Traps -
5-14
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Table 5-2 Supported Notification Messages (Continued)
Object Label
Object ID
Description
swThermalFalling
Notification
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2.2.1.0.59
This trap is sent when the temperature falls below
the switchThermalActionFallingThreshold.
swModuleInsertion
Notificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2.2.1.0.60
This trap is sent when a module is inserted.
swModuleRemoval
Notificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2.2.1.0.61
This trap is sent when a module is removed.
* These are legacy notifications and therefore must be enabled in conjunction with the corresponding traps on the
SNMP Configuration menu (page 5-6).
†The MIB OID for ES3528 is 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2, and for ES3528-WDM is 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.3.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Groups. Click New to configure a new group. In the
New Group page, define a name, assign a security model and level, and then select
read, write, and notify views. Click Add to save the new group and return to the
Groups list. To delete a group, check the box next to the group name, then click
Delete.
Figure 5-8 Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
5-15
5
Simple Network Management Protocol
CLI – Use the snmp-server group command to configure a new group, specifying
the security model and level, and restricting MIB access to defined read and write
views.
Console(config)#snmp-server group secure-users v3 priv read defaultview
write defaultview notify defaultview
20-11
Console(config)#exit
Console#show
snmp group
20-12
.
.
.
Group Name: secure-users
Security Model: v3
Read View: defaultview
Write View: defaultview
Notify View: defaultview
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
Setting SNMPv3 Views
SNMPv3 views are used to restrict user access to specified portions of the MIB tree.
The predefined view “defaultview” includes access to the entire MIB tree.
Command Attributes
• View Name – The name of the SNMP view. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• View OID Subtrees – Shows the currently configured object identifiers of branches
within the MIB tree that define the SNMP view.
• Edit OID Subtrees – Allows you to configure the object identifiers of branches
within the MIB tree. Wild cards can be used to mask a specific portion of the OID
string.
• Type – Indicates if the object identifier of a branch within the MIB tree is included
or excluded from the SNMP view.
5-16
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Views. Click New to configure a new view. In the New
View page, define a name and specify OID subtrees in the switch MIB to be included
or excluded in the view. Click Back to save the new view and return to the SNMPv3
Views list. For a specific view, click on View OID Subtrees to display the current
configuration, or click on Edit OID Subtrees to make changes to the view settings. To
delete a view, check the box next to the view name, then click Delete.
Figure 5-9 Configuring SNMPv3 Views
5-17
5
Simple Network Management Protocol
CLI – Use the snmp-server view command to configure a new view. This example
view includes the MIB-2 interfaces table, and the wildcard mask selects all index
entries.
Console(config)#snmp-server view ifEntry.a 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.*
included
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp view
View Name: ifEntry.a
Subtree OID: 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.*
View Type: included
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
View Name: readaccess
Subtree OID: 1.3.6.1.2
View Type: included
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
View Name: defaultview
Subtree OID: 1
View Type: included
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
5-18
20-10
20-11
Chapter 6: User Authentication
You can configure this switch to authenticate users logging into the system for
management access using local or remote authentication methods. Port-based
authentication using IEEE 802.1X can also be configured to control either
management access to the uplink ports or client access4 to the data ports. This
switch provides secure network management access using the following options:
•
•
•
•
•
•
User Accounts – Manually configure management access rights for users.
Authentication Settings – Use remote authentication to configure access rights.
HTTPS Settings – Provide a secure web connection.
SSH Settings – Provide a secure shell (for secure Telnet access).
802.1X – Use IEEE 802.1X port authentication to control access to specific ports.
IP Filter – Filters management access to the web, SNMP or Telnet interface.
Configuring User Accounts
The guest only has read access for most configuration parameters. However, the
administrator has write access for all parameters governing the onboard agent. You
should therefore assign a new administrator password as soon as possible, and
store it in a safe place.
The default guest name is “guest” with the password “guest.” The default
administrator name is “admin” with the password “admin.”
Command Attributes
• Account List – Displays the current list of user accounts and associated access
levels. (Defaults: admin, and guest)
• New Account – Displays configuration settings for a new account.
- User Name – The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters; maximum number of users: 16)
- Access Level – Specifies the user level.
(Options: Normal and Privileged)
- Password – Specifies the user password.
(Range: 0-8 characters plain text, case sensitive)
• Change Password – Sets a new password for the specified user.
4. For other methods of controlling client access, see “Client Security” on page 7-1.
6-1
6
User Authentication
Web – Click Security, User Accounts. To configure a new user account, enter the
user name, access level, and password, then click Add. To change the password for
a specific user, enter the user name and new password, confirm the password by
entering it again, then click Apply.
Figure 6-1 User Accounts
CLI – Assign a user name to access-level 15 (i.e., administrator), then specify the
password.
21-2
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
Use the Authentication Settings
menu to restrict management
access based on specified user
names and passwords. You can
manually configure access rights
on the switch, or you can use a
remote access authentication
server based on RADIUS or
TACACS+ protocols.
Web
Telnet
RADIUS/
TACACS+
server
console
1. Client attempts management access.
2. Switch contacts authentication server.
3. Authentication server challenges client.
4. Client responds with proper password or key.
5. Authentication server approves access.
6. Switch grants management access.
Remote Authentication Dial-in
User Service (RADIUS) and Terminal Access Controller Access Control System
Plus (TACACS+) are logon authentication protocols that use software running on a
central server to control access to RADIUS-aware or TACACS- aware devices on
6-2
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
6
the network. An authentication server contains a database of multiple user name/
password pairs with associated privilege levels for each user that requires
management access to the switch.
RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort delivery,
while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that RADIUS encrypts
only the password in the access-request packet from the client to the server, while
TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
Command Usage
• By default, management access is always checked against the authentication
database stored on the local switch. If a remote authentication server is used, you
must specify the authentication sequence and the corresponding parameters for
the remote authentication protocol. Local and remote logon authentication control
management access via the console port, web browser, or Telnet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assign a specific privilege level for
each user name/password pair. The user name, password, and privilege level
must be configured on the authentication server. The encryption methods used for
the authentication process must also be configured or negotiated between the
authentication server and logon client. This switch can pass authentication
messages between the server and client that have been encrypted using MD5
(Message-Digest 5), TLS (Transport Layer Security), or TTLS (Tunneled Transport
Layer Security).
• You can specify up to three authentication methods for any user to indicate the
authentication sequence. For example, if you select (1) RADIUS, (2) TACACS and
(3) Local, the user name and password on the RADIUS server is verified first. If the
RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is attempted using the
TACACS+ server, and finally the local user name and password is checked.
Command Attributes
• Authentication – Select the authentication, or authentication sequence required:
- Local – User authentication is performed only locally by the switch.
- Radius – User authentication is performed using a RADIUS server only.
- TACACS – User authentication is performed using a TACACS+ server only.
- [authentication sequence] – User authentication is performed by up to three
authentication methods in the indicated sequence.
• RADIUS Settings
- Global – Provides globally applicable RADIUS settings.
- ServerIndex – Specifies one of five RADIUS servers that may be configured.
The switch attempts authentication using the listed sequence of servers. The
process ends when a server either approves or denies access to a user.
- Server IP Address – Address of authentication server. (Default: 10.1.0.1)
- Server Port Number – Network (UDP) port of authentication server used for
authentication messages. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 1812)
- Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 48 characters)
6-3
6
User Authentication
- Number of Server Transmits – Number of times the switch tries to authenticate
logon access via the authentication server. (Range: 1-30; Default: 2)
- Timeout for a reply – The number of seconds the switch waits for a reply from
the RADIUS server before it resends the request. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 5)
• TACACS Settings
- Server IP Address – Address of the TACACS+ server. (Default: 10.11.12.13)
- Server Port Number – Network (TCP) port of TACACS+ server used for
authentication messages. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 49)
- Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 48 characters)
Note: The local switch user database has to be set up by manually entering user names
and passwords using the CLI. (See “username” on page 21-2.)
Web – Click Security, Authentication Settings. To configure local or remote
authentication preferences, specify the authentication sequence (i.e., one to three
methods), fill in the parameters for RADIUS or TACACS+ authentication if selected,
and click Apply.
Figure 6-2 Authentication Server Settings
CLI – Specify all the required parameters to enable logon authentication.
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#radius-server port 181
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console(config)#radius-server 1 host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#exit
6-4
21-4
21-7
21-7
21-8
21-8
21-9
Configuring HTTPS
Console#show radius-server
6
21-8
Remote RADIUS server configuration:
Global settings:
Communication key with RADIUS server: *****
Server port number:
181
Retransmit times:
5
Request timeout:
10
Server 1:
Server IP address: 192.168.1.25
Communication key with RADIUS server: *****
Server port number: 181
Retransmit times: 5
Request timeout: 10
Console#config
Console(config)#authentication login tacacs
Console(config)#tacacs-server host 10.20.30.40
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 200
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console(config)#exit
Console#show tacacs-server
Server IP address:
10.20.30.40
Communication key with tacacs server: *****
Server port number:
200
Console(config)#
21-4
21-9
21-10
21-10
21-11
Configuring HTTPS
You can configure the switch to enable the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTPS) over the Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an
encrypted connection) to the switch’s web interface.
Command Usage
• Both the HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure both services to use the same UDP port.
• If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in your
browser: https://device[:port_number]
• When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
- The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
- The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
- The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting data.
• The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x or above
and Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above.
6-5
6
User Authentication
• The following web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Table 6-1 HTTPS System Support
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP
Netscape Navigator 6.2 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
• To specify a secure-site certificate, see “Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate” on page 6-6.
Command Attributes
• HTTPS Status – Allows you to enable/disable the HTTPS server feature on the
switch. (Default: Enabled)
• Change HTTPS Port Number – Specifies the UDP port number used for HTTPS/
SSL connection to the switch’s web interface. (Default: Port 443)
Web – Click Security, HTTPS Settings. Enable HTTPS and specify the port number,
then click Apply.
Figure 6-3 HTTPS Settings
CLI – This example enables the HTTP secure server and modifies the port number.
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 441
Console(config)#
21-12
21-13
Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
When you log onto the web interface using HTTPS (for secure access), a Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate appears for the switch. By default, the certificate that
Netscape and Internet Explorer display will be associated with a warning that the
site is not recognized as a secure site. This is because the certificate has not been
signed by an approved certification authority. If you want this warning to be replaced
by a message confirming that the connection to the switch is secure, you must
obtain a unique certificate and a private key and password from a recognized
certification authority.
Note: For maximum security, we recommend you obtain a unique Secure Sockets Layer
certificate at the earliest opportunity. This is because the default certificate for the
switch is not unique to the hardware you have purchased.
6-6
6
Configuring the Secure Shell
When you have obtained these, place them on your TFTP server, and use the
following command at the switch's command-line interface to replace the default
(unrecognized) certificate with an authorized one:
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: <server ip-address>
Source certificate file name: <certificate file name>
Source private file name: <private key file name>
Private password: <password for private key>
19-13
Note: The switch must be reset for the new certificate to be activated. To reset the
switch, type “reload” at the command prompt: Console#reload
Configuring the Secure Shell
The Berkley-standard includes remote access tools originally designed for Unix
systems. Some of these tools have also been implemented for Microsoft Windows
and other environments. These tools, including commands such as rlogin (remote
login), rsh (remote shell), and rcp (remote copy), are not secure from hostile attacks.
The Secure Shell (SSH) includes server/client applications intended as a secure
replacement for the older Berkley remote access tools. SSH can also provide
remote management access to this switch as a secure replacement for Telnet.
When the client contacts the switch via the SSH protocol, the switch generates a
public-key that the client uses along with a local user name and password for access
authentication. SSH also encrypts all data transfers passing between the switch and
SSH-enabled management station clients, and ensures that data traveling over the
network arrives unaltered.
Note that you need to install an SSH client on the management station to access the
switch for management via the SSH protocol.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0 clients.
Command Usage
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key
authentication. If password authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the
password can be authenticated either locally or via a RADIUS or TACACS+ remote
authentication server, as specified on the Authentication Settings page (page 6-2).
If public key authentication is specified by the client, then you must configure
authentication keys on both the client and the switch as described in the following
section. Note that regardless of whether you use public key or password
authentication, you still have to generate authentication keys on the switch (SSH
Host Key Settings) and enable the SSH server (Authentication Settings).
6-7
6
User Authentication
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
1. Generate a Host Key Pair – On the SSH Host Key Settings page, create a host
public/private key pair.
2. Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically
import the host public key during the initial connection setup with the switch.
Otherwise, you need to manually create a known hosts file on the management
station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public key in the known
hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956 10825913212890233
76546801726272571413428762941301196195566782 59566410486957427888146206
519417467729848654686157177393901647793559423035774130980227370877945452
4083971752646358058176716709574804776117
3. Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – Use the copy tftp public-key
command (page 19-13) to copy a file containing the public key for all the SSH
client’s granted management access to the switch. (Note that these clients must
be configured locally on the switch via the User Accounts page as described on
page 6-1.) The clients are subsequently authenticated using these keys. The
current firmware only accepts public key files based on standard UNIX format as
shown in the following example for an RSA key:
1024 35 1341081685609893921040944920155425347631641921872958921143173880
055536161631051775940838686311092912322268285192543746031009371877211996
963178136627741416898513204911720483033925432410163799759237144901193800
609025394840848271781943722884025331159521348610229029789827213532671316
29432532818915045306393916643 steve@192.168.1.19
4. Set the Optional Parameters – On the SSH Settings page, configure the optional
parameters, including the authentication timeout, the number of retries, and the
server key size.
5. Enable SSH Service – On the SSH Settings page, enable the SSH server on the
switch.
6. Authentication – One of the following authentication methods is employed:
Password Authentication (for SSH v1.5 or V2 Clients)
a. The client sends its password to the server.
b. The switch compares the client's password to those stored in memory.
c. If a match is found, the connection is allowed.
Note: To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still be
given to the client, either during initial connection or manually entered into the
known host file. However, you do not need to configure the client’s keys.
Public Key Authentication – When an SSH client attempts to contact the switch,
the SSH server uses the host key pair to negotiate a session key and encryption
method. Only clients that have a private key corresponding to the public keys
6-8
Configuring the Secure Shell
6
stored on the switch can access it. The following exchanges take place during
this process:
Authenticating SSH v1.5 Clients
a. The client sends its RSA public key to the switch.
b. The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in memory.
c. If a match is found, the switch uses its secret key to generate a random
256-bit string as a challenge, encrypts this string with the user’s public key,
and sends it to the client.
d. The client uses its private key to decrypt the challenge string, computes the
MD5 checksum, and sends the checksum back to the switch.
e. The switch compares the checksum sent from the client against that
computed for the original string it sent. If the two checksums match, this
means that the client's private key corresponds to an authorized public key,
and the client is authenticated.
Authenticating SSH v2 Clients
a. The client first queries the switch to determine if DSA public key
authentication using a preferred algorithm is acceptable.
b. If the specified algorithm is supported by the switch, it notifies the client to
proceed with the authentication process. Otherwise, it rejects the request.
c. The client sends a signature generated using the private key to the switch.
d. When the server receives this message, it checks whether the supplied key
is acceptable for authentication, and if so, it then checks whether the
signature is correct. If both checks succeed, the client is authenticated.
Note: The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number of
client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
Generating the Host Key Pair
A host public/private key pair is used to provide secure communications between an
SSH client and the switch. After generating this key pair, you must provide the host
public key to SSH clients and import the client’s public key to the switch as
described in the preceding section (Command Usage).
Field Attributes
• Public-Key of Host-Key – The public key for the host.
- RSA: The first field indicates the size of the host key (e.g., 1024), the second
field is the encoded public exponent (e.g., 65537), and the last string is the
encoded modulus.
- DSA: The first field indicates that the encryption method used by SSH is based
on the Digital Signature Standard (DSS). The last string is the encoded modulus.
• Host-Key Type – The key type used to generate the host key pair (i.e., public and
private keys). (Range: RSA, DSA, Both: Default: Both)
The SSH server uses RSA or DSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client to
select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
6-9
6
User Authentication
Note: The switch uses only RSA Version 1 for SSHv1.5 clients and DSA Version 2 for
SSHv2 clients.
• Save Host-Key from Memory to Flash – Saves the host key from RAM (i.e.,
volatile memory to flash memory). Otherwise, the host key pair is stored to RAM
by default. Note that you must select this item prior to generating the host-key pair.
• Generate – This button is used to generate the host key pair. Note that you must
first generate the host key pair before you can enable the SSH server on the SSH
Server Settings page.
• Clear – This button clears the host key from both volatile memory (RAM) and
non-volatile memory (Flash).
Web – Click Security, SSH, Host-Key Settings. Select the host-key type from the
drop-down box, select the option to save the host key from memory to flash (if
required) prior to generating the key, and then click Generate.
Figure 6-4 SSH Host-Key Settings
6-10
Configuring the Secure Shell
6
CLI – This example generates a host-key pair using both the RSA and DSA
algorithms, stores the keys to flash memory, and then displays the host’s public keys.
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate
21-20
Console#ip ssh save host-key
21-21
Console#show public-key host
21-23
Host:
RSA:
1024 65537 127250922544926402131336514546131189679055192360076028653006761
82409690947448320102524878965977592168322225584652387791546479807396314033
86925793105105765212243052807865885485789272602937866089236841423275912127
60325919683697053439336438445223335188287173896894511729290510813919642025
190932104328579045764891
DSA:
ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAN6zwIqCqDb3869jYVXlME1sHL0EcE/Re6hlasfEthIwmj
hLY4O0jqJZpcEQUgCfYlum0Y2uoLka+Py9ieGWQ8f2gobUZKIICuKg6vjO9XTs7XKc05xfzkBi
KviDa+2OrIz6UK+6vFOgvUDFedlnixYTVo+h5v8r0ea2rpnO6DkZAAAAFQCNZn/x17dwpW8RrV
DQnSWw4Qk+6QAAAIEAptkGeB6B5hwagH4gUOCY6i1TmrmSiJgfwO9OqRPUMbCAkCC+uzxatOo7
drnIZypMx+Sx5RUdMGgKS+9ywsa1cWqHeFY5ilc3lDCNBueeLykZzVS+RS+azTKIk/zrJh8GLG
Nq375R55yRxFvmcGIn/Q7IphPqyJ3o9MK8LFDfmJEAAACAL8A6tESiswP2OFqX7VGoEbzVDSOI
RTMFy3iUXtvGyQAOVSy67Mfc3lMtgqPRUOYXDiwIBp5NXgilCg5z7VqbmRm28mWc5a//f8TUAg
PNWKV6W0hqmshQdotVzDR1e+XKNTZj0uTwWfjO5Kytdn4MdoTHgrbl/DMdAfjnte8MZZs=
Console#
Configuring the SSH Server
The SSH server includes basic settings for authentication.
Field Attributes
• SSH Server Status – Allows you to enable/disable the SSH server on the switch.
(Default: Disabled)
• Version – The Secure Shell version number. Version 2.0 is displayed, but the
switch supports management access via either SSH Version 1.5 or 2.0 clients.
• SSH Authentication Timeout – Specifies the time interval in seconds that the
SSH server waits for a response from a client during an authentication attempt.
(Range: 1 to 120 seconds; Default: 120 seconds)
• SSH Authentication Retries – Specifies the number of authentication attempts
that a client is allowed before authentication fails and the client has to restart the
authentication process. (Range: 1-5 times; Default: 3)
• SSH Server-Key Size – Specifies the SSH server key size. (Range: 512-896 bits;
Default: 768)
- The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
- The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
6-11
6
User Authentication
Web – Click Security, SSH, Settings. Enable SSH and adjust the authentication
parameters as required, then click Apply. Note that you must first generate the host
key pair on the SSH Host-Key Settings page before you can enable the SSH server.
Figure 6-5 SSH Server Settings
CLI – This example enables SSH, sets the authentication parameters, and displays
the current configuration. It shows that the administrator has made a connection via
SHH, and then disables this connection.
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 100
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retries 5
Console(config)#ip ssh server-key size 512
Console(config)#end
Console#show ip ssh
SSH Enabled - version 2.0
Negotiation timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 3
Server key size: 768 bits
Console#show ssh
Information of secure shell
Session Username Version Encrypt method Negotiation state
------- -------- ------- -------------- ----------------0
admin
2.0
cipher-3des
session-started
Console#disconnect 0
Console#
6-12
21-17
21-18
21-19
21-19
21-22
21-22
19-26
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
6
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
Network switches can provide open and easy access to network resources by
simply attaching a client PC. Although this automatic configuration and access is a
desirable feature, it also allows unauthorized personnel to easily intrude and
possibly gain access to sensitive network data.
The IEEE 802.1X (dot1x) standard defines a port-based access control procedure
that prevents unauthorized access to a network by requiring users to first submit
credentials for authentication. Access to all switch ports in a network can be
centrally controlled from a server, which means that authorized users can use the
same credentials for authentication from any point within the network.
This switch uses the
Extensible Authentication
Protocol over LANs (EAPOL)
802.1x
to exchange authentication
client
protocol messages with the
client, and a remote RADIUS
1. Client attempts to access a switch port.
authentication server to verify
2. Switch sends client an identity request.
3. Client sends back identity information.
RADIUS
user identity and access
4. Switch forwards this to authentication server.
server
5. Authentication server challenges client.
rights. When a client (i.e.,
6. Client responds with proper credentials.
Supplicant) connects to a
7. Authentication server approves access.
8. Switch grants client access to this port.
switch port, the switch (i.e.,
Authenticator) responds with an EAPOL identity request. The client provides its
identity (such as a user name) in an EAPOL response to the switch, which it
forwards to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server verifies the client identity and
sends an access challenge back to the client. The EAP packet from the RADIUS
server contains not only the challenge, but the authentication method to be used.
The client can reject the authentication method and request another, depending on
the configuration of the client software and the RADIUS server. The encryption
method used to pass authentication messages can be MD5 (Message-Digest 5),
TLS (Transport Layer Security), or TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Security).
PEAP will be supported in future releases. The client responds to the appropriate
method with its credentials, such as a password or certificate. The RADIUS server
verifies the client credentials and responds with an accept or reject packet. If
authentication is successful, the switch allows the client to access the network.
Otherwise, network access is denied and the port remains blocked.
The operation of dot1x on the switch requires the following:
•
•
•
•
•
The switch must have an IP address assigned.
The IP address of the RADIUS server must be specified.
802.1X must be enabled globally for the switch.
Each switch port that will be used must be set to dot1x “Auto” mode.
Each client that needs to be authenticated must have dot1x client software
installed and properly configured.
6-13
6
User Authentication
• The RADIUS server and 802.1X client support EAP. (The switch only supports
EAPOL in order to pass the EAP packets from the server to the client.)
• The RADIUS server and client also have to support the same EAP encryption
method for passing authentication messages – MD5, TLS or TTLS. Native support
for these encryption methods is provided in Windows XP, and in Windows 2000
with Service Pack 4. To support these encryption methods in Windows 95 and 98,
you can use the AEGIS dot1x client or other comparable client software.
Displaying 802.1X Global Settings
The 802.1X protocol provides port authentication.
Command Attributes
802.1X System Authentication Control – The global setting for 802.1X.
Web – Click Security, 802.1X, Information.
Figure 6-6 802.1X Global Information
CLI – This example shows the default global setting for 802.1X.
21-29
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
system-auth-control: enable
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name Status
1/1
disabled
1/2
disabled
.
.
.
802.1X Port Details
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
802.1X is disabled on port 1/1
.
.
.
802.1X is disabled on port 26
Console#
6-14
Mode
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
Authorized
n/a
n/a
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
6
Configuring 802.1X Global Settings
The 802.1X protocol provides port authentication. The 802.1X protocol must be
enabled globally for the switch system before port settings are active.
Command Attributes
802.1X System Authentication Control – Sets the global setting for 802.1X.
(Default: Disabled)
Web – Select Security, 802.1X, Configuration. Enable 802.1X globally for the switch,
and click Apply.
Figure 6-7 802.1X Global Configuration
CLI – This example enables 802.1X globally for the switch.
Console(config)#dot1x system-auth-control
Console(config)#
21-25
Configuring Port Settings for 802.1X
When 802.1X is enabled, you need to configure the parameters for the
authentication process that runs between the client and the switch (i.e.,
authenticator), as well as the client identity lookup process that runs between the
switch and authentication server. These parameters are described in this section.
Command Attributes
• Status – Indicates if authentication is enabled or disabled on the port.
(Default: Disabled)
• Operation Mode – Allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect to an
802.1X-authorized port. (Range: Single-Host, Multi-Host; Default: Single-Host)
• Max Count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port when the
Multi-Host operation mode is selected. (Range: 1-1024; Default: 5)
• Mode – Sets the authentication mode to one of the following options:
- Auto – Requires a dot1x-aware client to be authorized by the authentication
server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
- Force-Authorized – Forces the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise. (This is the default setting.)
- Force-Unauthorized – Forces the port to deny access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
• Re-authentication – Sets the client to be re-authenticated after the interval
specified by the Re-authentication Period. (Default: Disabled)
6-15
6
User Authentication
• Max Request – Sets the maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit
an EAP request packet to the client before it times out the authentication session.
(Range: 1-10; Default 2)
• Quiet Period – Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request count
has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client. (Range: 1-65535
seconds; Default: 60 seconds)
• Re-authentication Period – Sets the time period after which a connected client
must be re-authenticated. (Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 3600 seconds)
• TX Period – Sets the time period during an authentication session that the switch
waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 30 seconds)
• Authorized –
- Yes – Connected client is authorized.
- No – Connected client is not authorized.
- Blank – Displays nothing when dot1x is disabled on a port.
• Supplicant – Indicates the MAC address of a connected client.
• Trunk – Indicates if the port is configured as a trunk port.
Web – Click Security, 802.1X, Port Configuration. Modify the parameters required,
and click Apply.
Figure 6-8 802.1X Port Configuration
6-16
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
6
CLI – This example sets the 802.1X parameters on port 2. For a description of the
additional fields displayed in this example, see “show dot1x” on page 21-29.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config-if)#dot1x max-req 5
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 40
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 5
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout tx-period 40
Console(config-if)#end
24-1
21-26
21-27
21-25
21-28
21-28
21-29
Console#show dot1x
21-29
Global 802.1X Parameters
system-auth-control: enable
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name
1/1
1/2
.
.
.
1/27
1/28
Status
disabled
enabled
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
Auto
Authorized
yes
yes
disabled
disabled
Single-Host
Single-Host
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
n/a
n/a
802.1X Port Details
802.1X is disabled on port 1/1
802.1X is enabled on port 1/2
reauth-enabled:
Disable
reauth-period:
3600
quiet-period:
60
tx-period:
30
supplicant-timeout:
30
server-timeout:
10
reauth-max:
2
max-req:
2
Status
Authorized
Operation mode
Single-Host
Max count
5
Port-control
Auto
Supplicant
00-e0-29-94-34-65
Current Identifier
7
Authenticator State Machine
State
Authenticated
Reauth Count
0
Backend State Machine
State
Idle
Request Count
0
Identifier(Server)
6
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Initialize
.
.
.
.
802.1X is disabled on port 1/28
Console#
6-17
6
User Authentication
Displaying 802.1X Statistics
This switch can display statistics for dot1x protocol exchanges for any port.
Table 6-2 802.1X Statistics
Parameter
Description
Rx EAPOL Start
The number of EAPOL Start frames that have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Logoff
The number of EAPOL Logoff frames that have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Invalid
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this Authenticator in
which the frame type is not recognized.
Rx EAPOL Total
The number of valid EAPOL frames of any type that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Id
The number of EAP Resp/Id frames that have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Oth
The number of valid EAP Response frames (other than Resp/Id frames) that have
been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP LenError
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this Authenticator in
which the Packet Body Length field is invalid.
Rx Last EAPOLVer
The protocol version number carried in the most recently received EAPOL frame.
Rx Last EAPOLSrc
The source MAC address carried in the most recently received EAPOL frame.
Tx EAPOL Total
The number of EAPOL frames of any type that have been transmitted by this
Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Id
The number of EAP Req/Id frames that have been transmitted by this Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Oth
The number of EAP Request frames (other than Rq/Id frames) that have been
transmitted by this Authenticator.
6-18
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
6
Web – Select Security, 802.1X, Statistics. Select the required port and then click
Query. Click Refresh to update the statistics.
Figure 6-9 802.1X Port Statistics
CLI – This example displays the dot1x statistics for port 4.
Console#show dot1x statistics interface ethernet 1/4
Eth 1/4
Rx: EAPOL
Start
2
Last
EAPOLVer
1
Tx: EAPOL
Total
2017
Console#
EAPOL
Logoff
0
EAPOL
Invalid
0
EAPOL
Total
1007
EAP
Resp/Id
672
21-29
EAP
EAP
Resp/Oth LenError
0
0
Last
EAPOLSrc
00-00-E8-98-73-21
EAP
Req/Id
1005
EAP
Req/Oth
0
6-19
6
User Authentication
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
You can create a list of up to 16 IP addresses or IP address groups that are allowed
management access to the switch through the web interface, SNMP, or Telnet.
Command Usage
• The management interfaces are open to all IP addresses by default. Once you add
an entry to a filter list, access to that interface is restricted to the specified
addresses.
• If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an invalid
address, the switch will reject the connection, enter an event message in the
system log, and send a trap message to the trap manager.
• IP address can be configured for SNMP, web and Telnet access respectively. Each
of these groups can include up to five different sets of addresses, either individual
addresses or address ranges.
• When entering addresses for the same group (i.e., SNMP, web or Telnet), the
switch will not accept overlapping address ranges. When entering addresses for
different groups, the switch will accept overlapping address ranges.
• You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You must delete
the entire range, and reenter the addresses.
• You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or by
specifying both the start address and end address.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Web IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the web group.
SNMP IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the SNMP group.
Telnet IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the Telnet group.
IP Filter List – IP address which are allowed management access to this interface.
Start IP Address – A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
End IP Address – The end address of a range.
6-20
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
6
Web – Click Security, IP Filter. Enter the IP addresses or range of addresses that
are allowed management access to an interface, and click Add IP Filtering Entry.
Figure 6-10 IP Filter
CLI – This example restricts management access for Telnet clients.
Console(config)#management telnet-client 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#management telnet-client 192.168.1.25 192.168.1.30
Console(config)#exit
Console#show management all-client
Management IP Filter
HTTP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
-----------------------------------------------
21-33
21-34
SNMP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------TELNET-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
Console#
6-21
6
6-22
User Authentication
Chapter 7: Client Security
This switch supports many methods of segregating traffic for clients attached to
each of the data ports, and for ensuring that only authorized clients gain access to
the network. Private VLANs and port-based authentication using IEEE 802.1X are
commonly used for these purposes. In addition to these methods, several other
options of providing client security are supported by this switch. These include
port-based authentication, which can be configured for network client access
by specifying a fixed set of MAC addresses (either by freezing a set of dynamically
learned entries or through static configuration), or by statically configured MAC/IP
address pairs. The addresses assigned to DHCP clients can also be carefully
controlled using static or dynamic bindings with the IP Source Guard and DHCP
Snooping commands.
This switch provides client security using the following options:
• Private VLANs – Provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. (See “Configuring Private VLANs” on page 12-17.)
• 802.1X – Use IEEE 802.1X port authentication to control access to specific ports.
(See “Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication” on page 6-13.)
• Port Security – Configure secure addresses for individual ports.
• IP Source Guard5 – Filters untrusted DHCP messages on unsecure ports by
building and maintaining a DHCP snooping binding table. (See “IP Source Guard
Commands” on page 22-3.)
• DHCP Snooping5 – Filters IP traffic on unsecure ports for which the source address
cannot be identified via DHCP snooping nor static source bindings. (See “DHCP
Snooping Commands” on page 22-7.)
Configuring Port Security
Port security is a feature that allows you to configure a switch port with one or more
device MAC addresses that are authorized to access the network through that port.
When port security is enabled on a port, the switch stops learning new MAC
addresses on the specified port when it has reached a configured maximum
number. Only incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic
or static address table will be accepted as authorized to access the network through
that port. If a device with an unauthorized MAC address attempts to use the switch
port, the intrusion will be detected and the switch can automatically take action by
disabling the port and sending a trap message.
To use port security, specify a maximum number of addresses to allow on the port
and then let the switch dynamically learn the <source MAC address, VLAN> pair for
frames received on the port. Note that you can also manually add secure addresses
to the port using the Static Address Table (page 10-1). When the port has reached
the maximum number of MAC addresses the selected port will stop learning. The
5. These functions can only be configured through the Command Line Interface.
7-1
7
Client Security
MAC addresses already in the address table will be retained and will not age out.
Any other device that attempts to use the port will be prevented from accessing the
switch.
Command Usage
• A secure port has the following restrictions:
- It cannot be used as a member of a static or dynamic trunk.
- It should not be connected to a network interconnection device.
• The default maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a secure port is zero.
You must configure a maximum address count from 1 - 1024 for the port to allow
access.
• If a port is disabled (shut down) due to a security violation, it must be manually
re-enabled from the Port/Port Configuration page (page 9-3).
Command Attributes
• Port – Port number.
• Name – Descriptive text (page 24-2).
• Action – Indicates the action to be taken when a port security violation is detected:
- None: No action should be taken. (This is the default.)
- Trap: Send an SNMP trap message.
- Shutdown: Disable the port.
- Trap and Shutdown: Send an SNMP trap message and disable the port.
• Security Status – Enables or disables port security on the port. (Default: Disabled)
• Max MAC Count – The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be learned
on a port. (Range: 0 - 1024, where 0 means disabled)
• Trunk – Trunk number if port is a member (page 9-7 and 9-8).
7-2
Configuring Port Security
7
Web – Click Security, Port Security. Set the action to take when an invalid address is
detected on a port, mark the checkbox in the Status column to enable security for a
port, set the maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a port, and click Apply.
Figure 7-1 Port Security
CLI – This example selects the target port, sets the port security action to send a
trap and disable the port, specifies a maximum address count, and then enables
port security for the port.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security action trap-and-shutdown
Console(config-if)#port security max-mac-count 20
Console(config-if)#port security
Console(config-if)#
22-2
7-3
7
7-4
Client Security
Chapter 8: Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address,
protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code), or any frames (based
on MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter incoming packets, first create an access
list, add the required rules, specify a mask to modify the precedence in which the
rules are checked, and then bind the list to a specific port.
Configuring Access Control Lists
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP addresses,
MAC addresses, or other more specific criteria. This switch tests ingress or egress
packets against the conditions in an ACL one by one. A packet will be accepted as
soon as it matches a permit rule, or dropped as soon as it matches a deny rule. If no
rules match for a list of all permit rules, the packet is dropped; and if no rules match
for a list of all deny rules, the packet is accepted.
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set the
queue or frame priorities associated with the rule. This is done by specifying masks
that control the order in which ACL rules are checked. The switch includes two
system default masks that pass/filter packets matching the permit/deny rules
specified in an ingress ACL. You can also configure up to seven user-defined masks
for an ingress or egress ACL. A mask must be bound exclusively to one of the basic
ACL types (that is, Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL, Ingress MAC ACL, or Egress
MAC ACL), but a mask can be bound to up to four ACLs of the same type.
The following filtering modes are supported:
• Standard IP ACL mode (STD-ACL) filters packets based on the source IP address.
• Extended IP ACL mode (EXT-ACL) filters packets based on source or destination
IP address, as well as protocol type and protocol port number. If the TCP protocol
is specified, packets can also be filtered based on the TCP control code.
• MAC ACL mode (MAC-ACL) filters packets based on the source or destination
MAC address and the Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
Command Usage
The following restrictions apply to ACLs:
• The switch supports ACLs for both ingress and egress filtering. However, only one
IP ACL and one MAC ACL can be bound to any port for ingress filtering, and one
IP ACL and one MAC ACL to any port for egress filtering. In other words, only four
ACLs can be bound to an interface – Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL, Ingress MAC
ACL and Egress MAC ACL.
• When an ACL is bound to an interface as an egress filter, all entries in the ACL
must be deny rules. Otherwise, the bind operation will fail.
• The maximum number of ACLs is:
Fast Ethernet ports - 157 rules, 4 masks shared by 8-port groups
Gigabit Ethernet ports - 29 rules, 4 masks
8-1
8
Access Control Lists
• Each ACL can have up to 32 rules. However, due to resource restrictions, the
average number of rules bound to the ports should not exceed 20.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set
the queue or frame priorities associated with the rule.
• The switch does not support the explicit “deny any any” rule for the egress IP ACL
or the egress MAC ACLs. If these rules are included in an ACL, and you attempt
to bind the ACL to an interface for egress checking, the bind operation will fail.
• Egress MAC ACLs only work for destination-mac-known packets, not for multicast,
broadcast, or destination-mac-unknown packets.
The order in which active ACLs are checked is as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
User-defined rules in the Egress MAC ACL for egress ports.
User-defined rules in the Egress IP ACL for egress ports.
User-defined rules in the Ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
User-defined rules in the Ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
If no explicit rule is matched, the implicit default is permit all.
Setting the ACL Name and Type
Use the ACL Configuration page to designate the name and type of an ACL.
Command Attributes
• Name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• Type – There are three filtering modes:
- Standard: IP ACL mode that filters packets based on the source IP address.
- Extended: IP ACL mode that filters packets based on source or destination IP
address, as well as protocol type and protocol port number. If the “TCP” protocol
is specified, then you can also filter packets based on the TCP control code.
- MAC: MAC ACL mode that filters packets based on the source or destination
MAC address and the Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
8-2
Configuring Access Control Lists
8
Web – Click Security, ACL, Configuration. Enter an ACL name in the Name field,
select the list type (IP Standard, IP Extended, or MAC), and click Add to open the
configuration page for the new list.
Figure 8-1 Selecting ACL Type
CLI – This example creates a standard IP ACL named bill.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard bill
Console(config-std-acl)#
23-2
Configuring a Standard ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
• Address Type – Specifies the source IP address. Use “Any” to include all possible
addresses, “Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address field, or “IP” to
specify a range of addresses with the Address and SubMask fields. (Options: Any,
Host, IP; Default: Any)
• IP Address – Source IP address.
• Subnet Mask – A subnet mask containing four integers from 0 to 255, each
separated by a period. The mask uses 1 bits to indicate “match” and 0 bits to
indicate “ignore.” The mask is bitwise ANDed with the specified source IP address,
and compared with the address for each IP packet entering the port(s) to which this
ACL has been assigned.
8-3
8
Access Control Lists
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Select the address type (Any, Host,
or IP). If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a subnet
address and the mask for an address range. Then click Add.
Figure 8-2 ACL Configuration - Standard IPv4
CLI – This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21
and another rule for the address range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
23-2
Configuring an Extended ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
• Source/Destination Address Type – Specifies the source or destination IP
address. Use “Any” to include all possible addresses, “Host” to specify a specific
host address in the Address field, or “IP” to specify a range of addresses with the
Address and SubMask fields. (Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
• Source/Destination IP Address – Source or destination IP address.
• Source/Destination Subnet Mask – Subnet mask for source or destination
address. (See the description for SubMask on page 3.)
• Service Type – Packet priority settings based on the following criteria:
- Precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-8, where 8 means any)
- TOS – Type of Service level. (Range: 0-16, where 16 means any)
- DSCP – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-64, where 64 means any)
• Protocol – Specifies the protocol type to match as TCP, UDP or Others, where
others indicates a specific protocol number (0-255). (Options: TCP, UDP, Others;
Default: TCP)
8-4
Configuring Access Control Lists
8
• Source/Destination Port – Source/destination port number for the specified
protocol type. (Range: 0-65535)
• Source/Destination Port Bit Mask – Decimal number representing the port bits
to match. (Range: 0-65535)
• Control Code – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag bits
in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
• Control Code Bit Mask – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
The control bitmask is a decimal number (for an equivalent binary bit mask) that is
applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the equivalent binary
bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit. The following bits may
be specified:
- 1 (fin) – Finish
- 2 (syn) – Synchronize
- 4 (rst) – Reset
- 8 (psh) – Push
- 16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
- 32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
- SYN flag valid, use control-code 2, control bitmask 2
- Both SYN and ACK valid, use control-code 18, control bitmask 18
- SYN valid and ACK invalid, use control-code 2, control bitmask 18
8-5
8
Access Control Lists
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Specify the source and/or
destination addresses. Select the address type (Any, Host, or IP). If you select
“Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a subnet address and the
mask for an address range. Set any other required criteria, such as service type,
protocol type, or TCP control code. Then click Add.
Figure 8-3 ACL Configuration - Extended IPv4
CLI – This example adds three rules:
1. Accept any incoming packets if the source address is in subnet 10.7.1.x. For
example, if the rule is matched; i.e., the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0) equals
the masked address (10.7.1.2 & 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
2. Allow TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination
address when set for destination TCP port 80 (i.e., HTTP).
3. Permit all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP control
code set to “SYN.”
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
destination-port 80
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
control-flag 2 2
Console(config-std-acl)#
8-6
23-3
Configuring Access Control Lists
8
Configuring a MAC ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
• Source/Destination Address Type – Use “Any” to include all possible addresses,
“Host” to indicate a specific MAC address, or “MAC” to specify an address range
with the Address and Bitmask fields. (Options: Any, Host, MAC; Default: Any)
• Source/Destination MAC Address – Source or destination MAC address.
• Source/Destination MAC Bit Mask – Hexidecimal mask for source or destination
MAC address.
• VID – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4093)
• VID Bit Mask – VLAN bitmask. (Range: 1-4093)
• Ethernet Type – This option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted
packets. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few of the
more common types include 0800 (IP), 0806 (ARP), 8137 (IPX).
• Ethernet Type Bit Mask – Protocol bitmask. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
• Packet Format – This attribute includes the following packet types:
- Any – Any Ethernet packet type.
- Untagged-eth2 – Untagged Ethernet II packets.
- Untagged-802.3 – Untagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
- Tagged-eth2 – Tagged Ethernet II packets.
- Tagged-802.3 – Tagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
Command Usage
Egress MAC ACLs only work for destination-mac-known packets, not for multicast,
broadcast, or destination-mac-unknown packets.
8-7
8
Access Control Lists
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Specify the source and/or
destination addresses. Select the address type (Any, Host, or MAC). If you select
“Host,” enter a specific address (e.g., 11-22-33-44-55-66). If you select “MAC,” enter
a base address and a hexidecimal bitmask for an address range. Set any other
required criteria, such as VID, Ethernet type, or packet format. Then click Add.
Figure 8-4 ACL Configuration - MAC
CLI – This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination
address 00-e0-29-94-34-de where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de
ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
8-8
23-13
Configuring Access Control Lists
8
Configuring ACL Masks
You must specify masks that control the order in which ACL rules are checked. ACL
rules matching the first entry in the mask are checked first. Rules matching
subsequent entries in the mask are then checked in the specified order.
The switch includes two system default masks that pass/filter packets matching the
permit/deny rules specified in an ingress ACL. You can also configure up to seven
user-defined masks for an ingress or egress ACL. A mask must be bound
exclusively to one of the basic ACL types (i.e., Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL,
Ingress MAC ACL or Egress MAC ACL), but a mask can be bound to up to four
ACLs of the same type.
Command Usage
• Up to seven entries can be assigned to an ACL mask.
• Packets crossing a port are checked against all the rules in the ACL until a match
is found. The order in which these packets are checked is determined by the mask,
and not the order in which the ACL rules are entered.
• First create the required ACLs and the ingress or egress masks before mapping an
ACL to an interface.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set
the queue or frame priorities associated with the rule.
Specifying the Mask Type
Use the ACL Mask Configuration page to edit the mask for the Ingress IP ACL,
Egress IP ACL, Ingress MAC ACL or Egress MAC ACL.
Web – Click Security, ACL, Mask Configuration. Click Edit for one of the basic mask
types to open the configuration page.
Figure 8-5 Selecting ACL Mask Types
8-9
8
Access Control Lists
CLI – This example creates an IP ingress mask, and then adds two rules. Each rule
is checked in order of precedence to look for a match in the ACL entries. The first
entry matching a mask is applied to the inbound packet.
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
23-6
23-6
Configuring an IP ACL Mask
This mask defines the fields to check in the IP header.
Command Usage
• Masks that include an entry for a Layer 4 protocol source port or destination port
can only be applied to packets with a header length of exactly five bytes.
Command Attributes
• Source/Destination Address Type – Specifies the source or destination IP
address. Use “Any” to match any address, “Host” to specify a host address (not a
subnet), or “IP” to specify a range of addresses. (Options: Any, Host, IP;
Default: Any)
• Source/Destination Subnet Mask – Source or destination address of rule must
match this bitmask. (See the description for SubMask on page 3.)
• Protocol Mask – Check the protocol field.
• Service Type Mask – Check the rule for the specified priority type.
(Options: Precedence, TOS, DSCP; Default: TOS)
• Source/Destination Port Bit Mask – Protocol port of rule must match this
bitmask. (Range: 0-65535)
• Control Code Bit Mask – Control flags of rule must match this bitmask.
(Range: 0-63)
8-10
Configuring Access Control Lists
8
Web – Configure the mask to match the required rules in the IP ingress or egress
ACLs. Set the mask to check for any source or destination address, a specific host
address, or an address range. Include other criteria to search for in the rules, such
as a protocol type or one of the service types. Or use a bitmask to search for specific
protocol port(s) or TCP control code(s). Then click Add.
Figure 8-6 ACL Mask Configuration - IP
CLI – This shows that the entries in the mask override the precedence in which the
rules are entered into the ACL. In the following example, packets with the source
address 10.1.1.1 are dropped because the “deny 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255” rule
has the higher precedence according the “mask host any” entry.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard A2
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
Console(config-std-acl)#deny 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
Console(config-std-acl)#exit
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
23-2
23-2
23-6
23-6
8-11
8
Access Control Lists
Configuring a MAC ACL Mask
This mask defines the fields to check in the packet header.
Command Usage
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
Command Attributes
• Source/Destination Address Type – Use “Any” to match any address, “Host” to
specify the host address for a single node, or “MAC” to specify a range of
addresses. (Options: Any, Host, MAC; Default: Any)
• Source/Destination Bit Mask – Address of rule must match this bitmask.
• VID Bitmask – VLAN ID of rule must match this bitmask.
• Ethernet Type Bit Mask – Ethernet type of rule must match this bitmask.
• Packet Format Mask – A packet format must be specified in the rule.
Web – Configure the mask to match the required rules in the MAC ingress or egress
ACLs. Set the mask to check for any source or destination address, a host address,
or an address range. Use a bitmask to search for specific VLAN ID(s) or Ethernet
type(s). Or check for rules where a packet format was specified. Then click Add.
Figure 8-7 ACL Mask Configuration - MAC
8-12
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
8
CLI – This example shows how to create an Ingress MAC ACL and bind it to a port.
You can then see that the order of the rules have been changed by the mask.
Console(config)#access-list mac M4
23-12
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any any
23-13
Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-eth2 00-11-11-11-11-11
ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid 3
23-13
Console(config-mac-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
23-19
MAC access-list M4:
permit any any
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence in
23-15
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#mask pktformat ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid 23-15
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
24-1
Console(config-if)#mac access-group M4 in
23-18
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M4:
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
permit any any
MAC ingress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid
Console#
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
After configuring the Access Control Lists (ACL), you should bind them to the ports
that need to filter traffic. You can only bind a port to one ACL for each basic type – IP
ingress, IP egress, MAC ingress and MAC egress.
Command Usage
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
• This switch supports ACLs for both ingress and egress filtering. However, you can
only bind one IP ACL and one MAC ACL to any port for ingress filtering, and one
IP ACL and one MAC ACL to any port for egress filtering. In other words, only four
ACLs can be bound to an interface – Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL, Ingress MAC
ACL and Egress MAC ACL.
• When an ACL is bound to an interface as an egress filter, all entries in the ACL
must be deny rules. Otherwise, the bind operation will fail.
• The switch does not support the explicit “deny any any” rule for the egress IP ACL
or the egress MAC ACLs. If these rules are included in an ACL, and you attempt
to bind the ACL to an interface for egress checking, the bind operation will fail.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Port – Fixed port or SFP module. (Range: 1-28)
IP – Specifies the IP ACL to bind to a port.
MAC – Specifies the MAC ACL to bind to a port.
IN – ACL for ingress packets.
OUT – ACL for egress packets. (Egress filtering is not supported.)
ACL Name – Name of the ACL.
8-13
8
Access Control Lists
Web – Click Security, ACL, Port Binding. Mark the Enable field for the port you want
to bind to an ACL for ingress traffic, select the required ACL from the drop-down list,
then click Apply.
Figure 8-8 ACL Port Binding
CLI – This examples assigns an IP and MAC ingress ACL to port 1, and an IP
ingress ACL to port 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group tom in
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#ip access-group tom in
Console(config-if)#
8-14
24-1
23-11
23-18
Chapter 9: Port Configuration
Displaying Connection Status
You can use the Port Information or Trunk Information pages to display the current
connection status, including link state, speed/duplex mode, flow control, and
auto-negotiation.
Field Attributes (Web)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Name – Interface label.
Type – Indicates port type. (100BASE-TX6, 100BASE-BX7, 1000BASE-T, or SFP)
Admin Status – Shows if the interface is enabled or disabled.
Oper Status – Indicates if the link is Up or Down.
Speed Duplex Status – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
(Auto, or fixed choice)
Flow Control Status – Indicates the type of flow control currently in use.
(IEEE 802.3x, Back-Pressure or None)
Autonegotiation – Shows if auto-negotiation is enabled or disabled.
Media Type8 – Shows the forced/preferred port type to use for combination ports
25-28. (Copper-Forced, SFP-Forced, SFP-Preferred-Auto)
Trunk Member8 – Shows if port is a trunk member.
Creation9 – Shows if a trunk is manually configured or dynamically set via LACP.
Web – Click Port, Port Information or Trunk Information.
Figure 9-1 Port - Port Information
6.
7.
8.
9.
ES3528
ES3528-WDM
Port Information only.
Trunk Information only.
9-1
9
Port Configuration
Field Attributes (CLI)
Basic information:
• Port type – Indicates port type. (100BASE-TX10, 100BASE-BX11, 1000BASE-T,
or SFP)
• MAC address – The physical layer address for this port. (To access this item on
the web, see “Setting the Switch’s IP Address” on page 4-8.)
Configuration:
• Name – Interface label.
• Port admin – Shows if the interface is enabled or disabled (i.e., up or down).
• Speed-duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode. (Auto, or fixed choice)
• Capabilities – Specifies the capabilities to be advertised for a port during
auto-negotiation. (To access this item on the web, see “Configuring Interface
Connections” on page 3-48.) The following capabilities are supported.
• 10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
• 10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
• 100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
• Sym - Transmits and receives pause frames for flow control
• FC - Supports flow control
• Broadcast storm – Shows if broadcast storm control is enabled or disabled.
• Broadcast storm limit – Shows the broadcast storm threshold. (500 - 262143
packets per second)
• Flow control – Shows if flow control is enabled or disabled.
• LACP – Shows if LACP is enabled or disabled.
• Port security – Shows if port security is enabled or disabled.
• Max MAC count – Shows the maximum number of MAC address that can be
learned by a port. (0 - 1024 addresses)
• Port security action – Shows the response to take when a security violation is
detected. (shutdown, trap, trap-and-shutdown)
• Media Type – Shows the forced or preferred port type to use for combination ports
25-28. (copper forced, SFP forced, SFP preferred auto)
Current status:
• Link status – Indicates if the link is up or down.
• Port operation status – Provides detailed information on port state.
(Displayed only when the link is up.).
• Operation speed-duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
• Flow control type – Indicates the type of flow control currently in use.
(IEEE 802.3x, Back-Pressure or none)
10. ES3528
11. ES3528-WDM
9-2
Configuring Interface Connections
9
CLI – This example shows the connection status for Port 5.
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/13
Basic information:
Port type:
100TX
Mac address:
00-30-F1-D4-73-A5
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
Broadcast storm:
Enabled
Broadcast storm limit: 500 packets/second
Flow control:
Disabled
LACP:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Port security action:
None
Media type:
None
Current status:
Link status:
Down
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type:
None
Console#
24-9
Configuring Interface Connections
You can use the Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration page to enable/disable an
interface, set auto-negotiation and the interface capabilities to advertise, or manually
fix the speed and duplex mode, and flow control.
Command Attributes
• Name – Allows you to label an interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• Admin – Allows you to manually disable an interface. You can disable an interface
due to abnormal behavior (e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the
problem has been resolved. You may also disable an interface for security
reasons.
• Speed/Duplex – Allows you to manually set the port speed and duplex mode
(i.e., with auto-negotiation disabled).
Note: 100BASE-BX ports are fixed at 100 Mbps, full-duplex.
The 1000BASE-T standard does not support forced mode. Always use
auto-negotiation to establish a connection over any 1000BASE-T port or trunk.
• Flow Control – Allows automatic or manual selection of flow control.
• Autonegotiation (Port Capabilities) – Allows auto-negotiation to be enabled/
disabled. When auto-negotiation is enabled, you need to specify the capabilities to
be advertised. When auto-negotiation is disabled, you can force the settings for
speed, duplex mode, and flow control. The following capabilities are supported.
- 10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
- 10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
- 100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
9-3
9
Port Configuration
- 100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
- 1000full - Supports 1 Gbps full-duplex operation
- Sym (Gigabit only) - Check this item to transmit and receive pause frames, or
clear it to auto-negotiate the sender and receiver for asymmetric pause frames.
(The current switch chip only supports symmetric pause frames.)
- FC - Supports flow control
Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or
segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3x for full-duplex
operation. (Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is
actually required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure jamming signals
may degrade overall performance for the segment attached to the hub.)
(Default: Autonegotiation enabled; Advertised capabilities for
RJ-45: 100BASE-TX – 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full;
1000BASE-T – 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full;
SFP: 1000BASE-BX/SX/LX/LH – 1000full)
• Media Type – Configures the forced/preferred port type to use for the combination
ports. (Ports 25-28)
- Copper-Forced - Always uses the built-in RJ45 port.
- SFP-Forced - Always uses the SFP port (even if module is not installed).
- SFP-Preferred-Auto - Uses SFP port if both combination types are functioning
and the SFP port has a valid link. (This is the default.)
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To create trunks and select port
members, see “Creating Trunk Groups” on page 9-6.
Note: Auto-negotiation must be disabled before you can configure or force the interface
to use the Speed/Duplex Mode or Flow Control options.
9-4
Configuring Interface Connections
9
Web – Click Port, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify the required
interface settings, and click Apply.
Figure 9-2 Port - Port Configuration
CLI – Select the interface, and then enter the required settings.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#description RD SW#13
Console(config-if)#shutdown
.
Console(config-if)#no shutdown
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
.
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#capabilities flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/21
Console(config-if)#media-type copper-forced
Console(config-if)#
24-1
24-2
24-6
24-3
24-2
24-4
24-6
9-5
9
Port Configuration
Creating Trunk Groups
You can create multiple links between devices that work as one virtual, aggregate
link. A port trunk offers a dramatic increase in bandwidth for network segments
where bottlenecks exist, as well as providing a fault-tolerant link between two
devices. You can create up to 12 trunks.
The switch supports both static trunking and dynamic Link Aggregation Control
Protocol (LACP). Static trunks have to be manually configured at both ends of the
link, and the switches must comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. On the
other hand, LACP configured ports can automatically negotiate a trunked link with
LACP-configured ports on another device. You can configure any number of ports
on the switch as LACP, as long as they are not already configured as part of a static
trunk. If ports on another device are also configured as LACP, the switch and the
other device will negotiate a trunk link between them. If an LACP trunk consists of
more than eight ports, all other ports will be placed in a standby mode. Should one
link in the trunk fail, one of the standby ports will automatically be activated to
replace it.
Command Usage
Besides balancing the load across each port in the trunk, the other ports provide
redundancy by taking over the load if a port in the trunk fails. However, before
making any physical connections between devices, use the web interface or CLI to
specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When using a port trunk, take note of
the following points:
• Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
• You can create up to 12 trunks, with up to eight ports per trunk.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• When configuring static trunks on switches of different types, they must be
compatible with the Cisco EtherChannel standard.
• The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical manner,
including communication mode (i.e., speed, duplex mode and flow control), VLAN
assignments, and CoS settings.
• Any of the Gigabit ports on the front panel can be trunked together, including ports
of different media types.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to, added
or deleted from a VLAN.
• STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk.
9-6
Creating Trunk Groups
9
Statically Configuring a Trunk
Command Usage
statically
configured
}
• When configuring static trunks, you may not be
able to link switches of different types,
depending on the manufacturer’s
implementation. However, note that the static
trunks on this switch are Cisco EtherChannel
compatible.
• To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure
you add a static trunk via the configuration
interface before connecting the ports, and also
disconnect the ports before removing a static
trunk via the configuration interface.
active
links
Command Attributes
• Member List (Current) – Shows configured trunks (Trunk ID, Unit, Port).
• New – Includes entry fields for creating new trunks.
- Trunk – Trunk identifier. (Range: 1-32)
- Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-28)
Web – Click Port, Trunk Membership. Enter a trunk ID of 1-32 in the Trunk field,
select any of the switch ports from the scroll-down port list, and click Add. After you
have completed adding ports to the member list, click Apply.
Figure 9-3 Static Trunk Configuration
9-7
9
Port Configuration
CLI – This example creates trunk 1 with ports 9 and 10. Just connect these ports to
two static trunk ports on another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/9
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type:
100TX
Mac address:
00-30-F1-D4-73-A2
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
Flow control:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Current status:
Created by:
User
Link status:
Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type:
None
Member Ports: Eth1/9, Eth1/10,
Console#
24-1
24-1
25-2
24-9
Enabling LACP on Selected Ports
Command Usage
}
}
• To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure
dynamically
enabled
you enable LACP before connecting the ports,
and also disconnect the ports before disabling
LACP.
active
backup
• If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the
links
link
connected ports, the trunk will be activated
automatically.
• A trunk formed with another switch using LACP
will automatically be assigned the next available
configured
members
trunk ID.
• If more than eight ports attached to the same
target switch have LACP enabled, the additional ports will be placed in standby
mode, and will only be enabled if one of the active links fails.
• All ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex, either
by forced mode or auto-negotiation.
• Trunks dynamically established through LACP will also be shown in the Member
List on the Trunk Membership menu (see page 9-7).
9-8
Creating Trunk Groups
9
Command Attributes
• Member List (Current) – Shows configured trunks (Port).
• New – Includes entry fields for creating new trunks.
- Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-28)
Web – Click Port, LACP, Configuration. Select any of the switch ports from the
scroll-down port list and click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the
member list, click Apply.
Figure 9-4 LACP Trunk Configuration
CLI – The following example enables LACP for ports 1 to 6. Just connect these ports
to LACP-enabled trunk ports on another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
.
.
.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type:
100TX
Mac address:
00-30-F1-D4-73-A2
Configuration:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
Flow control:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Current status:
Created by:
LACP
Link status:
Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type:
None
Member Ports: Eth1/1, Eth1/2, Eth1/3, Eth1/4, Eth1/5, Eth1/6,
Console#
24-1
25-2
24-9
9-9
9
Port Configuration
Configuring LACP Parameters
Dynamically Creating a Port Channel –
Ports assigned to a common port channel must meet the following criteria:
• Ports must have the same LACP System Priority.
• Ports must have the same LACP port Admin Key.
• However, if the “port channel” Admin Key is set (page 4-142), then the port Admin
Key must be set to the same value for a port to be allowed to join a channel group.
Note – If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key, page 25-5) is not set (through the
CLI) when a channel group is formed (i.e., it has a null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key used by the interfaces that joined the group (lacp
admin key, as described in this section and on page 25-4).
Command Attributes
Set Port Actor – This menu sets the local side of an aggregate link; i.e., the ports on
this switch.
• Port – Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• System Priority – LACP system priority is used to determine link aggregation
group (LAG) membership, and to identify this device to other switches during LAG
negotiations. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
- Ports must be configured with the same system priority to join the same LAG.
- System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the LAG
identifier. This identifier is used to indicate a specific LAG during LACP
negotiations with other systems.
• Admin Key – The LACP administration key must be set to the same value for ports
that belong to the same LAG. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 1)
• Port Priority – If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select a backup
link. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
Set Port Partner – This menu sets the remote side of an aggregate link; i.e., the
ports on the attached device. The command attributes have the same meaning as
those used for the port actor. However, configuring LACP settings for the partner
only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and will only take
effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
9-10
Creating Trunk Groups
9
Web – Click Port, LACP, Aggregation Port. Set the System Priority, Admin Key, and
Port Priority for the Port Actor. You can optionally configure these settings for the
Port Partner. (Be aware that these settings only affect the administrative state of the
partner, and will not take effect until the next time an aggregate link is formed with
this device.) After you have completed setting the port LACP parameters, click Apply.
Figure 9-5 LACP - Aggregation Port
9-11
9
Port Configuration
CLI – The following example configures LACP parameters for ports 1-10. Ports 1-8
are used as active members of the LAG, ports 9 and 10 are set to backup mode.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
24-1
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
25-4
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
25-4
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 128
25-6
Console(config-if)#exit
.
.
.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 512
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show lacp sysid
25-7
Channel Group
System Priority
System MAC Address
------------------------------------------------------------------------1
3
00-00-E9-31-31-31
2
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
3
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
.
.
.
Console#show lacp 1 internal
25-7
Port channel: 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key: 120
Admin Key: 0
Eth 1/ 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal:
30 sec
LACP System Priority: 3
LACP Port Priority:
128
Admin Key:
120
Oper Key:
120
Admin State: defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
9-12
Creating Trunk Groups
9
Displaying LACP Port Counters
You can display statistics for LACP protocol messages.
Table 9-1 LACP Port Counters
Parameter
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received by this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
Marker Unknown Pkts
Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed to the Slow
Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type.
Marker Illegal Pkts
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value, but contain
a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Counters Information. Select a member port to display
the corresponding information.
Figure 9-6 LACP - Port Counters Information
CLI – The following example displays LACP counters for port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 counters
25-7
Port channel: 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 2
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Sent:
19
LACPDUs Receive:
10
Marker Sent:
0
Marker Receive:
0
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts: 0
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts: 0
.
.
.
9-13
9
Port Configuration
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Local Side
You can display configuration settings and the operational state for the local side of
an link aggregation.
Table 9-2 LACP Internal Configuration Information
Field
Description
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Internal
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
LACP System Priority
LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin State,
Oper State
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
• Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
• Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational partner
information, administratively configured for the partner.
• Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is disabled; i.e.,
distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to be enabled in the absence
of administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; i.e., collection
is currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the absence of
administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; i.e., it has
been allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group has been
associated with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link Aggregation
Group is consistent with the System ID and operational Key information
transmitted.
• Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; i.e., a potential
candidate for aggregation.
• Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow transmission rate.
• LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link.
(0: Passive; 1: Active)
9-14
Creating Trunk Groups
9
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Internal Information. Select a port channel to display
the corresponding information.
Figure 9-7 LACP - Port Internal Information
CLI – The following example displays the LACP configuration settings and
operational state for the local side of port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 internal
25-7
Port channel: 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key: 3
Admin Key: 0
Eth 1/ 2
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal:
30 sec
LACP System Priority: 32768
LACP Port Priority:
32768
Admin Key:
3
Oper Key:
3
Admin State: defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
9-15
9
Port Configuration
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Remote Side
You can display configuration settings and the operational state for the remote side
of an link aggregation.
Table 9-3 LACP Neighbor Configuration Information
Field
Description
Partner Admin System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin Port Number Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol Partner.
Partner Oper Port Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s
protocol partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Neighbors Information. Select a port channel to
display the corresponding information.
Figure 9-8 LACP - Port Neighbors Information
9-16
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
9
CLI – The following example displays the LACP configuration settings and
operational state for the remote side of port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 neighbors
25-7
Port channel 1 neighbors
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/2
------------------------------------------------------------------------Partner Admin System ID:
32768, 00-00-00-00-00-00
Partner Oper System ID:
32768, 00-01-F4-78-AE-C0
Partner Admin Port Number: 2
Partner Oper Port Number: 2
Port Admin Priority:
32768
Port Oper Priority:
32768
Admin Key:
0
Oper Key:
3
Admin State:
defaulted, distributing, collecting,
synchronization, long timeout,
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
Broadcast storms may occur when a device on your network is malfunctioning, or if
application programs are not well designed or properly configured. If there is too
much broadcast traffic on your network, performance can be severely degraded or
everything can come to complete halt.
You can protect your network from broadcast storms by setting a threshold for
broadcast traffic for each port. Any broadcast packets exceeding the specified
threshold will then be dropped.
Command Usage
• Broadcast control does not effect IP multicast traffic.
• The resolution is 1 packet per second (pps); i.e., any setting between 500-262143
is acceptable.
Note: Multicast and unicast storm thresholds can also be set using the CLI (see the
“switchport packet-rate” command on page 24-7).
Command Attributes
• Port12 – Port number.
• Trunk13 – Trunk number
• Type – Indicates port type. (100BASE-TX14, 100BASE-BX15, 1000BASE-T, or SFP)
• Protect Status – Shows whether or not broadcast storm control has been enabled.
(Default: Enabled)
12.
13.
14.
15.
Port Broadcast Control
Trunk Broadcast Control
ES3528
ES3528-WDM
9-17
9
Port Configuration
• Threshold – Threshold as percentage of port bandwidth.
(Options: 500-262143 packets per second; Default: 500 pps)
• Trunk12 – Shows if port is a trunk member.
Web – Click Port, Port Broadcast Control or Trunk Broadcast Control. Check the
Enabled box for any interface, set the threshold, and click Apply.
Figure 9-9 Port Broadcast Control
CLI – Specify any interface, and then enter the threshold. The following disables
broadcast storm control for port 1, and then sets broadcast suppression at 600
packets per second for port 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no switchport broadcast
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast packet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/2
Information of Eth 1/2
Broadcast threshold:
Enabled, 600 packets/second
LACP status:
Disabled
Ingress rate limit:
Disable, 1000M bits per second
Egress rate limit:
Disable, 1000M bits per second
VLAN membership mode:
Hybrid
Ingress rule:
Disabled
Acceptable frame type:
All frames
Native VLAN:
1
Priority for untagged traffic: 0
GVRP status:
Disabled
Allowed VLAN:
1(u),
Forbidden VLAN:
Console#
9-18
24-1
24-7
24-7
24-11
Configuring Port Mirroring
9
Configuring Port Mirroring
You can mirror traffic from any source port to a
target port for real-time analysis. You can then
attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the
target port and study the traffic crossing the
source port in a completely unobtrusive manner.
Source
port(s)
Command Usage
Single
target
port
• Monitor port speed should match or exceed source port speed, otherwise traffic
may be dropped from the monitor port.
• All mirror sessions have to share the same destination port.
• When mirroring port traffic, the target port must be included in the same VLAN as
the source port when using MSTP (see “Spanning Tree Algorithm” on page 11-1).
Command Attributes
• Mirror Sessions – Displays a list of current mirror sessions.
• Source Port – The port whose traffic will be monitored. (Range: 1-28)
• Type – Allows you to select which traffic to mirror to the target port, Rx (receive),
Tx (transmit), or Both. (Default: Rx)
• Target Port – The port that will “mirror” the traffic from the source port.
(Range: 1-28)
Web – Click Port, Mirror Port Configuration. Specify the source port, the traffic type
to be mirrored, and the monitor port, then click Add.
Figure 9-10 Mirror Port Configuration
CLI – Use the interface command to select the monitor port, then use the port
monitor command to specify the source port. Note that default mirroring under the
CLI is for both received and transmitted packets.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#
24-1
26-1
9-19
9
Port Configuration
Configuring Rate Limits
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic
transmitted or received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at
the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out of the switch. Traffic that falls within
the rate limit is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of
traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped, conforming traffic is forwarded
without any changes.
Note: Rate limits can also be based on per port CoS values using the CLI (see the “vlan
priority” command on page 31-6).
Command Attribute
Rate Limit – Sets the output rate limit for an interface.
Default Status – Disabled
Default Rate – Fast Ethernet: 100 Mbps; Gigabit Ethernet: 1000 Mbps
Range – Fast Ethernet: 1 - 1000 Mbps; Gigabit Ethernet: 1 - 1000 Mbps
Web - Click Port, Rate Limit, Input/Output Port/Trunk Configuration. Set the Input
Rate Limit Status or Output Rate Limit Status, then set the rate limit for the individual
interfaces, and click Apply.
Figure 9-11 Rate Limit Configuration
9-20
Showing Port Statistics
9
CLI - This example sets the rate limit for input and output traffic passing through
port 1 to 60 Mbps.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input 60
Console(config-if)#rate-limit output 60
Console(config-if)#
24-1
27-1
Showing Port Statistics
You can display standard statistics on network traffic from the Interfaces Group and
Ethernet-like MIBs, as well as a detailed breakdown of traffic based on the RMON
MIB. Interfaces and Ethernet-like statistics display errors on the traffic passing
through each port. This information can be used to identify potential problems with
the switch (such as a faulty port or unusually heavy loading). RMON statistics
provide access to a broad range of statistics, including a total count of different
frame types and sizes passing through each port. All values displayed have been
accumulated since the last system reboot, and are shown as counts per second.
Statistics are refreshed every 60 seconds by default.
Note: RMON groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP management
software such as HP OpenView.
Table 9-4 Port Statistics
Parameter
Description
Interface Statistics
Received Octets
The total number of octets received on the interface, including framing
characters.
Received Unicast Packets
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher-layer
protocol.
Received Multicast Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer,
which were addressed to a multicast address at this sub-layer.
Received Broadcast Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer,
which were addressed to a broadcast address at this sub-layer.
Received Discarded Packets
The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being deliverable to a
higher-layer protocol. One possible reason for discarding such a packet
could be to free up buffer space.
Received Unknown Packets
The number of packets received via the interface which were discarded
because of an unknown or unsupported protocol.
Received Errors
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them
from being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol.
Transmit Octets
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface, including
framing characters.
Transmit Unicast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those that were
discarded or not sent.
9-21
9
Port Configuration
Table 9-4 Port Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Transmit Multicast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a multicast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Transmit Broadcast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a broadcast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Transmit Discarded Packets
The number of outbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being transmitted.
One possible reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up
buffer space.
Transmit Errors
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted because of
errors.
Etherlike Statistics
Alignment Errors
The number of alignment errors (missynchronized data packets).
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times
into the transmission of a packet.
FCS Errors
A count of frames received on a particular interface that are an integral
number of octets in length but do not pass the FCS check. This count does
not include frames received with frame-too-long or frame-too-short error.
Excessive Collisions
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due
to excessive collisions. This counter does not increment when the
interface is operating in full-duplex mode.
Single Collision Frames
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by exactly one collision.
Internal MAC Transmit Errors
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due
to an internal MAC sublayer transmit error.
Multiple Collision Frames
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by more than one collision.
Carrier Sense Errors
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or never
asserted when attempting to transmit a frame.
SQE Test Errors
A count of times that the SQE TEST ERROR message is generated by the
PLS sublayer for a particular interface.
Frames Too Long
A count of frames received on a particular interface that exceed the
maximum permitted frame size.
Deferred Transmissions
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a particular
interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Internal MAC Receive Errors
A count of frames for which reception on a particular interface fails due to
an internal MAC sublayer receive error.
9-22
Showing Port Statistics
9
Table 9-4 Port Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
RMON Statistics
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to lack of
resources.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an FCS
or alignment error.
Received Bytes
Total number of bytes of data received on the network. This statistic can
be used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet utilization.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet
segment.
Received Frames
The total number of frames (bad, broadcast and multicast) received.
Broadcast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to the
broadcast address. Note that this does not include multicast packets.
Multicast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to this
multicast address.
CRC/Alignment Errors
The number of CRC/alignment errors (FCS or alignment errors).
Undersize Frames
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets long
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Oversize Frames
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either an FCS
or alignment error.
64 Bytes Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted that were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
65-127 Byte Frames
128-255 Byte Frames
256-511 Byte Frames
512-1023 Byte Frames
1024-1518 Byte Frames
1519-1536 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted where the number of octets fall within the specified range
(excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
9-23
9
Port Configuration
Web – Click Port, Port Statistics. Select the required interface, and click Query. You
can also use the Refresh button at the bottom of the page to update the screen.
Figure 9-12 Port Statistics
9-24
Showing Port Statistics
9
CLI – This example shows statistics for port 12.
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/12
24-10
Ethernet 1/12
Iftable stats:
Octets input: 868453, Octets output: 3492122
Unicast input: 7315, Unitcast output: 6658
Discard input: 0, Discard output: 0
Error input: 0, Error output: 0
Unknown protos input: 0, QLen output: 0
Extended iftable stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 17027
Broadcast input: 231, Broadcast output: 7
Ether-like stats:
Alignment errors: 0, FCS errors: 0
Single Collision frames: 0, Multiple collision frames: 0
SQE Test errors: 0, Deferred transmissions: 0
Late collisions: 0, Excessive collisions: 0
Internal mac transmit errors: 0, Internal mac receive errors: 0
Frame too longs: 0, Carrier sense errors: 0
Symbol errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop events: 0, Octets: 4422579, Packets: 31552
Broadcast pkts: 238, Multi-cast pkts: 17033
Undersize pkts: 0, Oversize pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC align errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet size <= 64 octets: 25568, Packet size 65 to 127 octets: 1616
Packet size 128 to 255 octets: 1249, Packet size 256 to 511 octets: 1449
Packet size 512 to 1023 octets: 802, Packet size 1024 to 1518 octets: 871
Console#
9-25
9
9-26
Port Configuration
Chapter 10: Address Table Settings
Switches store the addresses for all known devices. This information is used to pass
traffic directly between the inbound and outbound ports. All the addresses learned
by monitoring traffic are stored in the dynamic address table. You can also manually
configure static addresses that are bound to a specific port.
Setting Static Addresses
A static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this switch. Static
addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved. When a static
address is seen on another interface, the address will be ignored and will not be
written to the address table.
Command Attributes
• Static Address Counts16 – The number of manually configured addresses.
• Current Static Address Table – Lists all the static addresses.
• Interface – Port or trunk associated with the device assigned a static address.
• MAC Address – Physical address of a device mapped to this interface.
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
Web – Click Address Table, Static Addresses. Specify the interface, the MAC
address and VLAN, then click Add Static Address.
Figure 10-1 Static Addresses
16. Web Only.
10-1
10
Address Table Settings
CLI – This example adds an address to the static address table, but sets it to be
deleted when the switch is reset.
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface
ethernet 1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
28-1
Console(config)#
Displaying the Address Table
The Dynamic Address Table contains the MAC addresses learned by monitoring the
source address for traffic entering the switch. When the destination address for
inbound traffic is found in the database, the packets intended for that address are
forwarded directly to the associated port. Otherwise, the traffic is flooded to all ports.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
Interface – Indicates a port or trunk.
MAC Address – Physical address associated with this interface.
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
Address Table Sort Key – You can sort the information displayed based on MAC
address, VLAN or interface (port or trunk).
• Dynamic Address Counts – The number of addresses dynamically learned.
• Current Dynamic Address Table – Lists all the dynamic addresses.
10-2
Displaying the Address Table
10
Web – Click Address Table, Dynamic Addresses. Specify the search type (i.e., mark
the Interface, MAC Address, or VLAN checkbox), select the method of sorting the
displayed addresses, and then click Query.
Figure 10-2 Dynamic Addresses
CLI – This example also displays the address table entries for port 1.
Console#show mac-address-table interface ethernet 1/1
Interface Mac Address
Vlan Type
--------- ----------------- ---- ----------------Eth 1/ 1 00-E0-29-94-34-DE
1 Permanent
Eth 1/ 1 00-20-9C-23-CD-60
2 Learned
Console#
28-3
10-3
10
Address Table Settings
Changing the Aging Time
You can set the aging time for entries in the dynamic address table.
Command Attributes
• Aging Status – Enables/disables the aging function.
• Aging Time – The time after which a learned entry is discarded.
(Range: 10-1000000 seconds; Default: 300 seconds)
Web – Click Address Table, Address Aging. Specify the new aging time, click Apply.
Figure 10-3 Address Aging
CLI – This example sets the aging time to 400 seconds.
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 400
Console(config)#
10-4
28-4
Chapter 11: Spanning Tree Algorithm
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable network
loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows
the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is, an STA-compliant switch,
bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only one route exists between any
two stations on the network, and provide backup links which automatically take over
when a primary link goes down.
The spanning tree algorithms supported by this switch include these versions:
• STP – Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
• RSTP – Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
• MSTP – Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s)
STP – STP uses a distributed algorithm to select a bridging device (STP-compliant
switch, bridge or router) that serves as the root of the spanning tree network. It
selects a root port on each bridging device (except for the root device) which incurs
the lowest path cost when forwarding a packet from that device to the root device.
Then it selects a designated bridging device from each LAN which incurs the lowest
path cost when forwarding a packet from that LAN to the root device. All ports
connected to designated bridging devices are assigned as designated ports. After
determining the lowest cost spanning tree, it enables all root ports and designated
ports, and disables all other ports. Network packets are therefore only forwarded
between root ports and designated ports, eliminating any possible network loops.
Designated
Root
x
x
x
Designated
Bridge
x
Designated
Port
Root
Port
x
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the Root Bridge. If a bridge
does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined interval (Maximum Age), the bridge
assumes that the link to the Root Bridge is down. This bridge will then initiate
negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to reestablish a valid
network topology.
RSTP – RSTP is designed as a general replacement for the slower, legacy STP.
RSTP is also incorporated into MSTP. RSTP achieves must faster reconfiguration
(i.e., around 1 to 3 seconds, compared to 30 seconds or more for STP) by reducing
the number of state changes before active ports start learning, predefining an
alternate route that can be used when a node or port fails, and retaining the
forwarding database for ports insensitive to changes in the tree structure when
reconfiguration occurs.
11-1
11
Spanning Tree Algorithm
MSTP – When using STP or RSTP, it may be difficult to maintain a stable path
between all VLAN members. Frequent changes in the tree structure can easily
isolate some of the group members. MSTP (which is based on RSTP for fast
convergence) is designed to support independent spanning trees based on VLAN
groups. Using multiple spanning trees can provide multiple forwarding paths and
enable load balancing. One or more VLANs can be grouped into a Multiple Spanning
Tree Instance (MSTI). MSTP builds a separate Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) for
each instance to maintain connectivity among each of the assigned VLAN groups.
MSTP then builds a Internal Spanning Tree (IST) for the Region containing all
commonly configured MSTP bridges.
IST
(for this Region)
MST 1
Region R
MST 2
An MST Region consists of a group of interconnected bridges that have the same
MST Configuration Identifiers (including the Region Name, Revision Level and
Configuration Digest – see “Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees” on page 16). An
MST Region may contain multiple MSTP Instances. An Internal Spanning Tree (IST)
is used to connect all the MSTP switches within an MST region. A Common
Spanning Tree (CST) interconnects all adjacent MST Regions, and acts as a virtual
bridge node for communications with STP or RSTP nodes in the global network.
Region 1
Region 1
CIST
CST
IST
Region 2
Region 4
Region 4
Region 3
Region 2
Region 3
MSTP connects all bridges and LAN segments with a single Common and Internal
Spanning Tree (CIST). The CIST is formed as a result of the running spanning tree
algorithm between switches that support the STP, RSTP, MSTP protocols.
11-2
Displaying Global Settings
11
Displaying Global Settings
You can display a summary of the current bridge STA information that applies to the
entire switch using the STA Information screen.
Field Attributes
• Spanning Tree State – Shows if the switch is enabled to participate in an
STA-compliant network.
• Bridge ID – A unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of the bridge priority, the
MST Instance ID 0 for the Common Spanning Tree when spanning tree mode is
set to MSTP (page 11-6), and MAC address (where the address is taken from the
switch system).
• Max Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device ports (except
for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at regular intervals.
Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last configuration
message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a
new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the network.
(References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which includes both ports
and trunks.)
• Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
• Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Designated Root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning
Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
- Root Port – The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root. This
switch communicates with the root device through this port. If there is no root
port, then this switch has been accepted as the root device of the Spanning Tree
network.
- Root Path Cost – The path cost from the root port on this switch to the root
device.
• Configuration Changes – The number of times the Spanning Tree has been
reconfigured.
• Last Topology Change – Time since the Spanning Tree was last reconfigured.
These additional parameters are only displayed for the CLI:
• Spanning tree mode – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
- STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
- RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w)
- MSTP: Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
11-3
11
Spanning Tree Algorithm
• Instance – Instance identifier of this spanning tree. (This is always 0 for the CIST.)
• VLANs configuration – VLANs assigned to the CIST.
• Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority (i.e., lower numeric value)
becomes the STA root device. However, if all devices have the same priority, the
device with the lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
• Root Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which this device transmits a
configuration message.
• Root Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) this device can wait
without receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All
device ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages
at regular intervals. If the root port ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message), a new root port is selected from among the device ports
attached to the network. (References to “ports” in this section means “interfaces,”
which includes both ports and trunks.)
• Root Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Max hops – The max number of hop counts for the MST region.
• Remaining hops – The remaining number of hop counts for the MST instance.
• Transmission limit – The minimum interval between the transmission of
consecutive RSTP/MSTP BPDUs.
• Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between
devices. The path cost method is used to determine the range of values that can
be assigned to each interface.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Information.
Figure 11-1 STA Information
11-4
Displaying Global Settings
11
CLI – This command displays global STA settings, followed by settings for each port.
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode:
MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable:
enable
Instance:
0
Vlans configuration:
1-4093
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max hops:
20
Remaining hops:
20
Designated Root
32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Current root port:
1
Current root cost
200000
Number of topology changes:
1
Last topology changes time (sec.): 13380
Transmission limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
long
29-18
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status:
enabled
Role:
disable
State:
discarding
External admin path cost: 10000
Internal admin cost:
10000
External oper path cost: 10000
Internal oper path cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated cost:
300000
Designated port:
128.1
Designated root:
32768.0000E8AAAA00
Designated bridge:
32768.0030F1D473A0
Fast forwarding:
disabled
Forward transitions:
0
Admin edge port:
disabled
Oper edge port:
disabled
Admin Link type:
auto
Oper Link type:
point-to-point
enabled
.Spanning Tree Status:
.
.
Note: The current root port and current root cost display as zero when this device is not
connected to the network.
11-5
11
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Global Settings
Global settings apply to the entire switch.
Command Usage
• Spanning Tree Protocol17
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs. This
creates one spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple VLANs are
implemented on a network, the path between specific VLAN members may be
inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops, thus isolating group members.
When operating multiple VLANs, we recommend selecting the MSTP option.
• Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol17
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring the
incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of protocol
messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
- STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU (i.e., STP BPDU) after a
port’s migration delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an
802.1D bridge and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
- RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an RSTP
BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration delay timer
and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
• Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
- To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must configure
a related set of bridges with the same MSTP configuration, allowing them to
participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.
- A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible VLAN
instance assignments.
- Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing modes
stops all spanning-tree instances for the previous mode and restarts the system
in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user traffic.
Command Attributes
Basic Configuration of Global Settings
• Spanning Tree State – Enables/disables STA on this switch. (Default: Enabled)
• Spanning Tree Type – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
- STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D); i.e., when this option is selected,
the switch will use RSTP set to STP forced compatibility mode).
- RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w); RSTP is the default.
- MSTP: Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
• Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root device.
However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the lowest MAC
17. STP and RSTP BPDUs are transmitted as untagged frames, and will cross any VLAN
boundaries.
11-6
Configuring Global Settings
11
address will then become the root device. (Note that lower numeric values indicate
higher priority.)
• Default: 32768
• Range: 0-61440, in steps of 4096
• Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440
Root Device Configuration
• Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
• Default: 2
• Minimum: 1
• Maximum: The lower of 10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1]
• Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is
a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the
network. (References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which includes
both ports and trunks.)
• Default: 20
• Minimum: The higher of 6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)].
• Maximum: The lower of 40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)]
• Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Default: 15
• Minimum: The higher of 4 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1]
• Maximum: 30
Configuration Settings for RSTP
The following attributes apply to both RSTP and MSTP:
• Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between
devices. The path cost method is used to determine the range of values that can
be assigned to each interface.
- Long: Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
(This is the default.)
- Short: Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
• Transmission Limit – The maximum transmission rate for BPDUs is specified by
setting the minimum interval between the transmission of consecutive protocol
messages. (Range: 1-10; Default: 3)
11-7
11
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuration Settings for MSTP
• Max Instance Numbers – The maximum number of MSTP instances to which this
switch can be assigned. (Default: 65)
• Configuration Digest – An MD5 signature key that contains the VLAN ID to MST
ID mapping table. In other words, this key is a mapping of all VLANs to the CIST.
• Region Revision18 – The revision for this MSTI. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 0)
• Region Name18 – The name for this MSTI. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
• Max Hop Count – The maximum number of hops allowed in the MST region before
a BPDU is discarded. (Range: 1-40; Default: 20)
18. The MST name and revision number are both required to uniquely identify an MST region.
11-8
Configuring Global Settings
11
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Configuration. Modify the required attributes, and
click Apply.
Figure 11-2 STA Global Configuration
11-9
11
Spanning Tree Algorithm
CLI – This example enables Spanning Tree Protocol, sets the mode to MST, and
then configures the STA and MSTP parameters.
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config-mstp)#revision
Console(config-mstp)#name R&D
Console(config-mstp)#max-hops
Console(config-mstp)#
mode mstp
priority 40000
hello-time 5
max-age 38
forward-time 20
pathcost method long
transmission-limit 4
mst-configuration
1
30
29-2
29-2
29-6
29-4
29-5
29-4
29-6
29-7
29-7
29-10
29-9
29-11
Displaying Interface Settings
The STA Port Information and STA Trunk Information pages display the current
status of ports and trunks in the Spanning Tree.
Field Attributes
• Spanning Tree – Shows if STA has been enabled on this interface.
• STA Status – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree:
- Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
- Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
- Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
- A port on a network segment with no other STA compliant bridging device is
always forwarding.
- If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and there is no other
STA device attached to this segment, the port with the smaller ID forwards
packets and the other is discarding.
- All ports are discarding when the switch is booted, then some of them change
state to learning, and then to forwarding.
• Forward Transitions – The number of times this port has transitioned from the
Learning state to the Forwarding state.
• Designated Cost – The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in the
current Spanning Tree configuration. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
• Designated Bridge – The bridge priority and MAC address of the device through
which this port must communicate to reach the root of the Spanning Tree.
11-10
Displaying Interface Settings
11
• Designated Port – The port priority and number of the port on the designated
bridging device through which this switch must communicate with the root of the
Spanning Tree.
• Oper Path Cost – The contribution of this port to the path cost of paths towards
the spanning tree root which include this port.
• Oper Link Type – The operational point-to-point status of the LAN segment
attached to this interface. This parameter is determined by manual configuration or
by auto-detection, as described for Admin Link Type in STA Port Configuration on
page 11-13.
• Oper Edge Port – This parameter is initialized to the setting for Admin Edge Port
in STA Port Configuration on page 11-13 (i.e., true or false), but will be set to false
if a BPDU is received, indicating that another bridge is attached to this port.
• Port Role – Roles are assigned according to whether the port is part of the active
topology connecting the bridge to the root bridge (i.e., root port), connecting a LAN
through the bridge to the root bridge (i.e., designated port), or is the MSTI regional
root (i.e., master port); or is an alternate or backup port that may provide
connectivity if other bridges, bridge ports, or LANs fail or are removed. The role is
set to disabled (i.e., disabled port) if a port has no role within the spanning tree.
R: Root Port
A: Alternate Port
D: Designated Port
B: Backup Port
Alternate port receives more
useful BPDUs from another
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
R
port.
R
A
D
x
R
A
x
Backup port receives more
useful BPDUs from the same
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
port.
R
D
B
B
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
(STA Port Information only)
11-11
11
Spanning Tree Algorithm
These additional parameters are only displayed for the CLI:
• Admin status – Shows if this interface is enabled.
• External path cost – The path cost for the IST. This parameter is used by the
STA to determine the best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should
be assigned to ports attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports
with slower media. (Path cost takes precedence over port priority.)
• Internal path cost – The path cost for the MST. See the preceding item.
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Algorithm. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch is the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
Algorithm is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with the lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Designated root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning
Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
• Fast forwarding – This field provides the same information as Admin Edge port,
and is only included for backward compatibility with earlier products.
• Admin Edge Port – You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN
segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes
cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for devices
such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding database to reduce
the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address tables during
reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to reconfigure when the
interface changes state, and also overcomes other STA-related timeout problems.
However, remember that Edge Port should only be enabled for ports connected to
an end-node device.
• Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
- Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
- Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
- Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a
point-to-point link or to shared media.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Port Information or STA Trunk Information.
Figure 11-3 STA Port Information
11-12
Configuring Interface Settings
11
CLI – This example shows the STA attributes for port 5.
Console#show spanning-tree ethernet 1/5
Eth 1/ 5 information
-------------------------------------------------------------Admin status:
enabled
Role:
disable
State:
discarding
External admin path cost: 10000
Internal admin cost:
10000
External oper path cost: 10000
Internal oper path cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated cost:
10000
Designated port:
128.1
Designated root:
32768.0.0000E8AAAA00
Designated bridge:
32768.0.0030F1D473A0
Fast forwarding:
disabled
Forward transitions:
2
Admin edge port:
disabled
Oper edge port:
disabled
Admin Link type:
auto
Oper Link type:
point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
enabled
29-18
Console#
Configuring Interface Settings
You can configure RSTP and MSTP attributes for specific interfaces, including port
priority, path cost, link type, and edge port. You may use a different priority or path
cost for ports of the same media type to indicate the preferred path, link type to
indicate a point-to-point connection or shared-media connection, and edge port to
indicate if the attached device can support fast forwarding. (References to “ports” in
this section means “interfaces,” which includes both ports and trunks.)
Command Attributes
The following attributes are read-only and cannot be changed:
• STA State – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree.
(See Displaying Interface Settings on page 11-10 for additional information.)
• Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
• Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
• Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
• Trunk19 – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
19. STA Port Configuration only
11-13
11
Spanning Tree Algorithm
The following interface attributes can be configured:
• Spanning Tree – Enables/disables STA on this interface. (Default: Enabled)
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Default: 128
• Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
• Admin Path Cost – This parameter is used by the STA to determine the best path
between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to
faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. (Path cost
takes precedence over port priority.)
(Range: 0 for auto-configuration, 1-65535 for the short path cost method20,
1-200,000,000 for the long path cost method)
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used on
each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown below. Path
cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the short path cost
method is selected and the default path cost recommended by the IEEE 8021w
standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535.
Table 11-1 Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Port Type
IEEE 802.1D-1998
IEEE 802.1w-2001
Fast Ethernet
10-60
20,000-2,000,000
Gigabit Ethernet
3-10
2,000-200,000
Table 11-2 Recommended STA Path Costs
Port Type
Link Type
IEEE 802.1D-1998
IEEE 802.1w-2001
Fast Ethernet
Half Duplex
Full Duplex
Trunk
19
18
15
200,000
100,000
50,000
Gigabit Ethernet
Full Duplex
Trunk
4
3
10,000
5,000
Port Type
Link Type
IEEE 802.1w-2001
Fast Ethernet
Half Duplex
Full Duplex
Trunk
200,000
100,000
50,000
Gigabit Ethernet
Full Duplex
Trunk
10,000
5,000
Table 11-3 Default STA Path Costs
20. Refer to “Configuring Global Settings” on page 6 for information on setting the path cost
method.
11-14
Configuring Interface Settings
11
• Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
• Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
• Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
• Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a
point-to-point link or to shared media. (This is the default setting.)
• Admin Edge Port (Fast Forwarding) – You can enable this option if an interface is
attached to a LAN segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node.
Since end nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to
the spanning tree forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker
convergence for devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current
forwarding database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild
address tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to
initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
other STA-related timeout problems. However, remember that Edge Port should
only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device. (Default: Disabled)
• Migration – If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration
or Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected
interface to forced STP-compatible mode. However, you can also use the Protocol
Migration button to manually re-check the appropriate BPDU format (RSTP or
STP-compatible) to send on the selected interfaces. (Default: Disabled)
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify
the required attributes, then click Apply.
Figure 11-4 STA Port Configuration
CLI – This example sets STA attributes for port 7.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/7
Console(config-if)#no spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type auto
Console(config-if)#no spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree protocol-migration
Console(config-if)#
24-1
29-11
29-13
29-12
29-15
29-14
29-18
11-15
11
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
MSTP generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides multiple
pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load, preventing
wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails, and allowing for
faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
By default all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MST Instance 0)
that connects all bridges and LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up
to 65 instances. You should try to group VLANs which cover the same general area
of your network. However, remember that you must configure all bridges within the
same MSTI Region (page 11-8) with the same set of instances, and the same
instance (on each bridge) with the same set of VLANs. Also, note that RSTP treats
each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all regions to the Common Spanning
Tree.
To use multiple spanning trees:
1. Set the spanning tree type to MSTP (STA Configuration, page 11-6).
2. Enter the spanning tree priority for the selected MST instance (MSTP VLAN
Configuration).
3. Add the VLANs that will share this MSTI (MSTP VLAN Configuration).
Note: All VLANs are automatically added to the IST (Instance 0).
To ensure that the MSTI maintains connectivity across the network, you must
configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTI settings.
Command Attributes
• MST Instance – Instance identifier of this spanning tree. (Default: 0)
• Priority – The priority of a spanning tree instance. (Range: 0-61440 in steps of
4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440; Default: 32768)
• VLANs in MST Instance – VLANs assigned this instance.
• MST ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
• VLAN ID – VLAN to assign to this selected MST instance. (Range: 1-4093)
The other global attributes are described under “Displaying Global Settings,” page 11-3. The
attributes displayed by the CLI for individual interfaces are described under “Displaying Interface
Settings,” page 11-10
11-16
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
11
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, VLAN Configuration. Select an instance
identifier from the list, set the instance priority, and click Apply. To add the VLAN
members to an MSTI instance, enter the instance identifier, the VLAN identifier, and
click Add.
Figure 11-5 MSTP VLAN Configuration
CLI – This displays STA settings for instance 1, followed by settings for each port.
Console#show spanning-tree mst 1
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode:
MSTP
Spanning tree enabled/disabled:
enabled
Instance:
1
VLANs configuration:
1
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max hops:
20
Remaining hops:
20
Designated Root:
32768.1.0030F1D473A0
Current root port:
7
Current root cost:
10000
Number of topology changes:
2
Last topology changes time (sec.):85
Transmission limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
long
29-18
11-17
11
Spanning Tree Algorithm
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 7 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status:
enabled
Role:
master
State:
forwarding
External admin path cost: 10000
Internal admin path cost: 10000
External oper path cost: 10000
Internal oper path cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated cost:
0
Designated port:
128.1
Designated root:
32768.1.0030F1D473A0
Designated bridge:
32768.1.0030F1D473A0
Fast forwarding:
disabled
Forward transitions:
1
Admin edge port:
disabled
Oper edge port:
disabled
Admin Link type:
auto
Oper Link type:
point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
enabled
.
.
.
CLI – This example sets the priority for MSTI 1, and adds VLANs 1-5 to this MSTI.
Console(config)#spanning-tree mst-configuration
Console(config-mst)#mst 1 priority 4096
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 vlan 1-5
Console(config-mst)#
11-18
29-7
29-9
29-8
Displaying Interface Settings for MSTP
11
Displaying Interface Settings for MSTP
The MSTP Port Information and MSTP Trunk Information pages display the current
status of ports and trunks in the selected MST instance.
Field Attributes
MST Instance ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
The other attributes are described under “Displaying Interface Settings,” page 11-10.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, Port Information or Trunk Information. Select the
required MST instance to display the current spanning tree values.
Figure 11-6 MSTP Port Information
CLI – This displays STA settings for instance 0, followed by settings for each port.
The settings for instance 0 are global settings that apply to the IST (page 11-3), the
settings for other instances only apply to the local spanning tree.
Console#show spanning-tree mst 0
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode:
MSTP
Spanning tree enabled/disabled:
enabled
Instance:
0
VLANs configuration:
2-4093
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max hops:
20
Remaining hops:
20
Designated Root:
32768.0.0000E8AAAA00
Current root port:
1
Current root cost:
10000
Number of topology changes:
12
Last topology changes time (sec.):303
Transmission limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
long
29-18
11-19
11
Spanning Tree Algorithm
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status:
enabled
Role:
root
State:
forwarding
External admin path cost: 10000
Internal admin path cost: 10000
External oper path cost: 10000
Internal oper path cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated cost:
0
Designated port:
128.4
Designated root:
32768.0.0000E8AAAA00
Designated bridge:
32768.0.0000E8AAAA00
Fast forwarding:
disabled
Forward transitions:
2
Admin edge port:
disabled
Oper edge port:
disabled
Admin Link type:
auto
Oper Link type:
point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
enabled
.
.
.
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
You can configure the STA interface settings for an MST Instance using the MSTP
Port Configuration and MSTP Trunk Configuration pages.
Field Attributes
The following attributes are read-only and cannot be changed:
• STA State – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree.
(See Displaying Interface Settings on page 11-10 for additional information.)
• Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
• Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
• Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
(STA Port Configuration only)
The following interface attributes can be configured:
• MST Instance ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
11-20
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
11
Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Default: 128
• Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
• Admin MST Path Cost – This parameter is used by the MSTP to determine the
best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower media.
(Path cost takes precedence over port priority.) Note that when the Path Cost
Method is set to short (page 3-63), the maximum path cost is 65,535.
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used on
each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown below. Path
cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the short path cost
method is selected and the default path cost recommended by the IEEE 8021w
standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535.
The recommended range is listed in Table 11-1 on page 11-14.
The recommended path cost islisted in Table 11-2 on page 11-14.
The default path costs are listed in Table 11-3 on page 11-14.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Enter
the priority and path cost for an interface, and click Apply.
Figure 11-7 MSTP Port Configuration
CLI – This example sets the MSTP attributes for port 4.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst cost 50
Console(config-if)
24-1
29-17
29-16
11-21
11
11-22
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Chapter 12: VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
In large networks, routers are used to isolate broadcast traffic for each subnet into
separate domains. This switch provides a similar service at Layer 2 by using VLANs
to organize any group of network nodes into separate broadcast domains. VLANs
confine broadcast traffic to the originating group, and can eliminate broadcast
storms in large networks. This also provides a more secure and cleaner network
environment.
An IEEE 802.1Q VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the
network, but communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment.
VLANs help to simplify network management by allowing you to move devices to a
new VLAN without having to change any physical connections. VLANs can be easily
organized to reflect departmental groups (such as Marketing or R&D), usage groups
(such as e-mail), or multicast groups (used for multimedia applications such as
videoconferencing).
VLANs provide greater network efficiency by reducing broadcast traffic, and allow
you to make network changes without having to update IP addresses or IP subnets.
VLANs inherently provide a high level of network security since traffic must pass
through a configured Layer 3 link to reach a different VLAN.
This switch supports the following VLAN features:
• Up to 255 VLANs based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard
• Distributed VLAN learning across multiple switches using explicit or implicit tagging
and GVRP protocol
• Port overlapping, allowing a port to participate in multiple VLANs
• End stations can belong to multiple VLANs
• Passing traffic between VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices
• Priority tagging
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Before enabling VLANs for the switch, you must first assign each port to the VLAN
group(s) in which it will participate. By default all ports are assigned to VLAN 1 as
untagged ports. Add a port as a tagged port if you want it to carry traffic for one or
more VLANs, and any intermediate network devices or the host at the other end of
the connection supports VLANs. Then assign ports on the other VLAN-aware
network devices along the path that will carry this traffic to the same VLAN(s), either
manually or dynamically using GVRP. However, if you want a port on this switch to
participate in one or more VLANs, but none of the intermediate network devices nor
the host at the other end of the connection supports VLANs, then you should add
this port to the VLAN as an untagged port.
12-1
12
VLAN Configuration
Note: VLAN-tagged frames can pass through VLAN-aware or VLAN-unaware network
interconnection devices, but the VLAN tags should be stripped off before passing it
on to any end-node host that does not support VLAN tagging.
tagged frames
VA
VA
VA: VLAN Aware
VU: VLAN Unaware
tagged
frames
VA
untagged
frames
VA
VU
VLAN Classification – When the switch receives a frame, it classifies the frame in
one of two ways. If the frame is untagged, the switch assigns the frame to an
associated VLAN (based on the default VLAN ID of the receiving port). But if the
frame is tagged, the switch uses the tagged VLAN ID to identify the port broadcast
domain of the frame.
Port Overlapping – Port overlapping can be used to allow access to commonly
shared network resources among different VLAN groups, such as file servers or
printers. Note that if you implement VLANs which do not overlap, but still need to
communicate, you can connect them by enabled routing on this switch.
Untagged VLANs – Untagged (or static) VLANs are typically used to reduce
broadcast traffic and to increase security. A group of network users assigned to a
VLAN form a broadcast domain that is separate from other VLANs configured on the
switch. Packets are forwarded only between ports that are designated for the same
VLAN. Untagged VLANs can be used to manually isolate user groups or subnets.
However, you should use IEEE 802.3 tagged VLANs with GVRP whenever possible
to fully automate VLAN registration.
Automatic VLAN Registration – GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol)
defines a system whereby the switch can automatically learn the VLANs to which
each end station should be assigned. If an end station (or its network adapter)
supports the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN protocol, it can be configured to broadcast a
message to your network indicating the VLAN groups it wants to join. When this
switch receives these messages, it will automatically place the receiving port in the
specified VLANs, and then forward the message to all other ports. When the
message arrives at another switch that supports GVRP, it will also place the
receiving port in the specified VLANs, and pass the message on to all other ports.
VLAN requirements are propagated in this way throughout the network. This allows
GVRP-compliant devices to be automatically configured for VLAN groups based
solely on endstation requests.
To implement GVRP in a network, first add the host devices to the required VLANs
(using the operating system or other application software), so that these VLANs can
be propagated onto the network. For both the edge switches attached directly to
12-2
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
12
these hosts, and core switches in the network, enable GVRP on the links between
these devices. You should also determine security boundaries in the network and
disable GVRP on the boundary ports to prevent advertisements from being
propagated, or forbid those ports from joining restricted VLANs.
Note: If you have host devices that do not support GVRP, you should configure static or
untagged VLANs for the switch ports connected to these devices (as described in
“Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)” on page 12-7). But you can still
enable GVRP on these edge switches, as well as on the core switches in the
network.
Port-based VLAN
2
1
9
10 11
3
4
5
13
12
14
6
15 16
7
8
18
19
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
If you want to create a small port-based VLAN for devices attached directly to a
single switch, you can assign ports to the same untagged VLAN. However, to
participate in a VLAN group that crosses several switches, you should create a
VLAN for that group and enable tagging on all ports.
Ports can be assigned to multiple tagged or untagged VLANs. Each port on the
switch is therefore capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. When forwarding
a frame from this switch along a path that contains any VLAN-aware devices, the
switch should include VLAN tags. When forwarding a frame from this switch along a
path that does not contain any VLAN-aware devices (including the destination host),
the switch must first strip off the VLAN tag before forwarding the frame. When the
switch receives a tagged frame, it will pass this frame onto the VLAN(s) indicated by
the frame tag. However, when this switch receives an untagged frame from a
VLAN-unaware device, it first decides where to forward the frame, and then inserts a
VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port’s default VID.
12-3
12
VLAN Configuration
Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a way for switches to exchange
VLAN information in order to register VLAN members on ports across the network.
VLANs are dynamically configured based on join messages issued by host devices
and propagated throughout the network. GVRP must be enabled to permit automatic
VLAN registration, and to support VLANs which extend beyond the local switch.
(Default: Disabled)
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, GVRP Status. Enable or disable GVRP, click
Apply
Figure 12-1 Globally Enabling GVRP
CLI – This example enables GVRP for the switch.
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
30-2
Displaying Basic VLAN Information
The VLAN Basic Information page displays basic information on the VLAN type
supported by the switch.
Field Attributes
• VLAN Version Number21 – The VLAN version used by this switch as specified in
the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
• Maximum VLAN ID – Maximum VLAN ID recognized by this switch.
• Maximum Number of Supported VLANs – Maximum number of VLANs that can
be configured on this switch.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Basic Information.
Figure 12-2 VLAN Basic Information
21. Web Only.
12-4
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
12
CLI – Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support VLAN numbers:
Max support VLAN ID:
Extended multicast filtering services:
Static entry individual port:
VLAN learning:
Configurable PVID tagging:
Local VLAN capable:
Traffic classes:
Global GVRP status:
GMRP:
Console#
30-2
256
4093
No
Yes
IVL
Yes
No
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Displaying Current VLANs
The VLAN Current Table shows the current port members of each VLAN and
whether or not the port supports VLAN tagging. Ports assigned to a large VLAN
group that crosses several switches should use VLAN tagging. However, if you just
want to create a small port-based VLAN for one or two switches, you can disable
tagging.
Command Attributes (Web)
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
• Up Time at Creation – Time this VLAN was created (i.e., System Up Time).
• Status – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
- Dynamic GVRP: Automatically learned via GVRP.
- Permanent: Added as a static entry.
• Egress Ports – Shows all the VLAN port members.
• Untagged Ports – Shows the untagged VLAN port members.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Current Table. Select any ID from the scroll-down
list.
Figure 12-3 VLAN Current Table
12-5
12
VLAN Configuration
Command Attributes (CLI)
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093, no leading zeroes).
• Type – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
- Dynamic: Automatically learned via GVRP.
- Static: Added as a static entry.
• Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status – Shows if this VLAN is enabled or disabled.
- Active: VLAN is operational.
- Suspend: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Ports / Channel groups – Shows the VLAN interface members.
CLI – Current VLAN information can be displayed with the following command.
30-13
Console#show vlan id 1
VLAN ID:
Type:
Name:
Status:
Ports/Port Channels:
Console#
1
Static
DefaultVlan
Active
Eth1/ 1(S) Eth1/ 2(S)
Eth1/ 6(S) Eth1/ 7(S)
Eth1/11(S) Eth1/12(S)
Eth1/16(S) Eth1/17(S)
Eth1/21(S) Eth1/22(S)
Eth1/ 3(S)
Eth1/ 8(S)
Eth1/13(S)
Eth1/18(S)
Eth1/23(S)
Eth1/ 4(S)
Eth1/ 9(S)
Eth1/14(S)
Eth1/19(S)
Eth1/24(S)
Eth1/ 5(S)
Eth1/10(S)
Eth1/15(S)
Eth1/20(S)
Creating VLANs
Use the VLAN Static List to create or remove VLAN groups. To propagate
information about VLAN groups used on this switch to external network devices, you
must specify a VLAN ID for each of these groups.
Command Attributes
• Current – Lists all the current VLAN groups created for this system. Up to 255
VLAN groups can be defined. VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN.
• New – Allows you to specify the name and numeric identifier for a new VLAN
group. (The VLAN name is only used for management on this system; it is not
added to the VLAN tag.)
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
• VLAN Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status (Web) – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Enable: VLAN is operational.
- Disable: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• State (CLI) – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Active: VLAN is operational.
- Suspend: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Add – Adds a new VLAN group to the current list.
• Remove – Removes a VLAN group from the current list. If any port is assigned to
this group as untagged, it will be reassigned to VLAN group 1 as untagged.
12-6
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
12
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static List. To create a new VLAN, enter the
VLAN ID and VLAN name, mark the Enable checkbox to activate the VLAN, and
then click Add.
Figure 12-4 VLAN Static List - Creating VLANs
CLI – This example creates a new VLAN.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 2 name R&D media ethernet state active
Console(config-vlan)#end
Console#show vlan
VLAN ID:
Type:
Name:
Status:
Ports/Port Channels:
.
.
.
VLAN ID:
Type:
Name:
Status:
Ports/Port Channels:
1
Static
DefaultVlan
Active
Eth1/ 1(S) Eth1/ 2(S)
Eth1/ 6(S) Eth1/ 7(S)
Eth1/11(S) Eth1/12(S)
Eth1/16(S) Eth1/17(S)
Eth1/21(S) Eth1/22(S)
Eth1/ 3(S)
Eth1/ 8(S)
Eth1/13(S)
Eth1/18(S)
Eth1/23(S)
Eth1/ 4(S)
Eth1/ 9(S)
Eth1/14(S)
Eth1/19(S)
Eth1/24(S)
30-6
30-7
30-13
Eth1/ 5(S)
Eth1/10(S)
Eth1/15(S)
Eth1/20(S)
2
Static
R&D
Active
Console#
Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)
Use the VLAN Static Table to configure port members for the selected VLAN index.
Assign ports as tagged if they are connected to 802.1Q VLAN compliant devices, or
untagged they are not connected to any VLAN-aware devices. Or configure a port
as forbidden to prevent the switch from automatically adding it to a VLAN via the
GVRP protocol.
Notes: 1. You can also use the VLAN Static Membership by Port page to configure
VLAN groups based on the port index (page 9). However, note that this
configuration page can only add ports to a VLAN as tagged members.
2. VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN containing all ports on the switch, and
can only be modified by first reassigning the default port VLAN ID as
described under “Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces” on page 12-10.
12-7
12
VLAN Configuration
Command Attributes
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
• Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Enable: VLAN is operational.
- Disable: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Port – Port identifier.
• Trunk – Trunk identifier.
• Membership Type – Select VLAN membership for each interface by marking the
appropriate radio button for a port or trunk:
- Tagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the port
will be tagged, that is, carry a tag and therefore carry VLAN or CoS information.
- Untagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the
port will be untagged, that is, not carry a tag and therefore not carry VLAN or
CoS information. Note that an interface must be assigned to at least one group
as an untagged port.
- Forbidden: Interface is forbidden from automatically joining the VLAN via
GVRP. For more information, see “Automatic VLAN Registration” on page 12-2.
- None: Interface is not a member of the VLAN. Packets associated with this
VLAN will not be transmitted by the interface.
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the
selected VLAN, use the last table on the VLAN Static Table page.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static Table. Select a VLAN ID from the
scroll-down list. Modify the VLAN name and status if required. Select the
membership type by marking the appropriate radio button in the list of ports or
trunks. Click Apply.
Figure 12-5 VLAN Static Table - Adding Static Members
12-8
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
12
CLI – The following example adds tagged and untagged ports to VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 untagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
Console(config-if)#
24-1
30-11
Adding Static Members to VLANs (Port Index)
Use the VLAN Static Membership by Port menu to assign VLAN groups to the
selected interface as a tagged member.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
• Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is a tagged member.
• Non-Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is not a tagged member.
Web – Open VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static Membership by Port. Select an interface
from the scroll-down box (Port or Trunk). Click Query to display membership
information for the interface. Select a VLAN ID, and then click Add to add the
interface as a tagged member, or click Remove to remove the interface. After
configuring VLAN membership for each interface, click Apply.
Figure 12-6 VLAN Static Membership by Port
CLI – This example adds Port 3 to VLAN 1 as a tagged port, and removes Port 3
from VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1 tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan remove 2
Console(config-if)#
24-1
30-11
12-9
12
VLAN Configuration
Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces
You can configure VLAN behavior for specific interfaces, including the default VLAN
identifier (PVID), accepted frame types, ingress filtering, GVRP status, and GARP
timers.
Command Usage
• GVRP – GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to
exchange VLAN information in order to automatically register VLAN members on
interfaces across the network.
• GARP – Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP to register or
deregister client attributes for client services within a bridged LAN. The default
values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access method or data
rate. These values should not be changed unless you are experiencing difficulties
with GVRP registration/deregistration.
Command Attributes
• PVID – VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on the interface. (Default: 1)
- If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this VLAN,
the interface will automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged member. For
all other VLANs, an interface must first be configured as an untagged member
before you can assign its PVID to that group.
• Acceptable Frame Type – Sets the interface to accept all frame types, including
tagged or untagged frames, or only tagged frames. When set to receive all frame
types, any received frames that are untagged are assigned to the default VLAN.
(Option: All, Tagged; Default: All)
• Ingress Filtering – Determines how to process frames tagged for VLANs for which
the ingress port is not a member. (Default: Disabled)
- Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
- If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except
for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
- If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
- Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP
or STP. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
• GVRP Status – Enables/disables GVRP for the interface. GVRP must be globally
enabled for the switch before this setting can take effect. (See “Displaying Bridge
Extension Capabilities” on page 4-7.) When disabled, any GVRP packets received
on this port will be discarded and no GVRP registrations will be propagated from
other ports. (Default: Disabled)
• GARP Join Timer22 – The interval between transmitting requests/queries to
participate in a VLAN group. (Range: 20-1000 centiseconds; Default: 20)
• GARP Leave Timer22 – The interval a port waits before leaving a VLAN group.
This time should be set to more than twice the join time. This ensures that after a
22. Timer settings must follow this rule: 2 x (join timer) < leave timer < leaveAll timer
12-10
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
12
Leave or LeaveAll message has been issued, the applicants can rejoin before the
port actually leaves the group. (Range: 60-3000 centiseconds; Default: 60)
• GARP LeaveAll Timer22 – The interval between sending out a LeaveAll query
message for VLAN group participants and the port leaving the group. This interval
should be considerably larger than the Leave Time to minimize the amount of traffic
generated by nodes rejoining the group.
(Range: 500-18000 centiseconds; Default: 1000)
• Mode – Indicates VLAN membership mode for an interface. (Default: Hybrid)
- 1Q Trunk – Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct
link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify the
source VLAN. Note that frames belonging to the port’s default VLAN (i.e.,
associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged frames.
- Hybrid – Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged or
untagged frames.
- Dot1q-Tunnel – Configures IEEE 802.1Q tunneling (QinQ) to segregate and
preserve customer VLAN IDs for traffic crossing the service provider network.
See “Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling” on page 12-12 for a detailed
description of this feature.
• TPID (0-65535) – Tag Protocol Identifier specifies the ether-type of incoming
packets on a tunnel port. See “Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling” on page 12-12
for a detailed description of this parameter.
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the
selected VLAN, use the last table on the VLAN Static Table page.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Fill in
the required settings for each interface, click Apply.
Figure 12-7 VLAN Port Configuration
12-11
12
VLAN Configuration
CLI – This example sets port 3 to accept only tagged frames, assigns PVID 3 as the
native VLAN ID, enables GVRP, sets the GARP timers, and then sets the switchport
mode to hybrid.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 20
Console(config-if)#garp timer leave 90
Console(config-if)#garp timer leaveall 2000
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
24-1
30-9
30-10
30-11
30-3
30-4
30-9
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling (QinQ) is designed for service providers carrying traffic for
multiple customers across their networks. QinQ tunneling is used to maintain
customer-specific VLAN and Layer 2 protocol configurations even when different
customers use the same internal VLAN IDs. This is accomplished by inserting
Service Provider VLAN (SPVLAN) tags into the customer’s frames when they enter
the service provider’s network, and then stripping the tags when the frames leave
the network.
A service provider’s customers may have specific requirements for their internal
VLAN IDs and number of VLANs supported. VLAN ranges required by different
customers in the same service-provider network might easily overlap, and traffic
passing through the infrastructure might be mixed. Assigning a unique range of
VLAN IDs to each customer would restrict customer configurations, require intensive
processing of VLAN mapping tables, and could easily exceed the maximum VLAN
limit of 4096.
QinQ tunneling uses a single Service Provider VLAN (SPVLAN) for customers who
have multiple VLANs. Customer VLAN IDs are preserved and traffic from different
customers is segregated within the service provider’s network even when they use
the same customer-specific VLAN IDs. QinQ tunneling expands VLAN space by
using a VLAN-in-VLAN hierarchy, preserving the customer’s original tagged packets,
and adding SPVLAN tags to each frame (also called double tagging).
A port configured to support QinQ tunneling must be set to tunnel port mode. The
Service Provider VLAN (SPVLAN) ID for the specific customer must be assigned to
the QinQ tunnel port on the edge switch where the customer traffic enters the
service provider’s network. Each customer requires a separate SPVLAN, but this
VLAN supports all of the customer's internal VLANs. The QinQ uplink port that
passes traffic from the edge switch into the service provider’s metro network must
also be added to this SPVLAN. The uplink port can be added to multiple SPVLANs
to carry inbound traffic for different customers onto the service provider’s network.
When a double-tagged packet enters another trunk port in an intermediate or core
switch in the service provider’s network, the outer tag is stripped for packet
12-12
12
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
processing. When the packet exits another trunk port on the same core switch, the
same SPVLAN tag is again added to the packet.
When a packet enters the trunk port on the service provider’s egress switch, the
outer tag is again stripped for packet processing. However, the SPVLAN tag is not
added when it is sent out the tunnel port on the edge switch into the customer’s
network. The packet is sent as a normal IEEE 802.1Q-tagged frame, preserving the
original VLAN numbers used in the customer’s network.
Customer A
(VLANs 1-10)
Customer A
(VLANs 1-10)
QinQ Tunneling
VLAN 10
Tunnel Port
Tunnel Port
VLAN 20
Service Provider
(edge router A)
Service Provider VLAN 10
(edge router B)
Tunnel Port
Double Tagged Packets
Outer Tag - Service Provider VID
Inner Tag - Customer VID
Customer B
(VLANs 1-50)
Tunnel Port
VLAN 20
Customer B
(VLANs 1-50)
Layer 2 Flow for Packets Coming into a Tunnel Port
A QinQ tunnel port may receive either tagged or untagged packets. No matter how
many tags the incoming packet has, it is treated as tagged packet.
The ingress process does source and destination lookups. If both lookups are
successful, the ingress process writes the packet to memory. Then the egress
process transmits the packet. Packets entering a QinQ tunnel port are processed in
the following manner:
1. New SPVLAN tags are added to all incoming packets, no matter how many tags
they already have. The ingress process constructs and inserts the outer tag
(SPVLAN) into the packet based on the default VLAN ID and Tag Protocol
Identifier (TPID, that is, the ether-type of the tag). This outer tag is used for
learning and switching packets. The priority of the inner tag is copied to the outer
tag if it is a tagged or priority tagged packet.
2. After successful source and destination lookup, the ingress process sends the
packet to the switching process with two tags. If the incoming packet is
untagged, the outer tag is an SPVLAN tag, and the inner tag is a dummy tag
(8100 0000). If the incoming packet is tagged, the outer tag is an SPVLAN tag,
and the inner tag is a CVLAN tag.
3. After packet classification through the switching process, the packet is written to
memory with one tag (an outer tag) or with two tags (both an outer tag and inner
tag).
4. The switch sends the packet to the proper egress port.
12-13
12
VLAN Configuration
5. If the egress port is an untagged member of the SPVLAN, the outer tag will be
stripped. If it is a tagged member, the outgoing packets will have two tags.
Layer 2 Flow for Packets Coming into an Uplink Port
An uplink port receives one of the following packets:
• Untagged
• One tag (CVLAN or SPVLAN)
• Double tag (CVLAN + SPVLAN)
The ingress process does source and destination lookups. If both lookups are
successful, the ingress process writes the packet to memory. Then the egress
process transmits the packet. Packets entering a QinQ uplink port are processed in
the following manner:
1. If incoming packets are untagged, the PVID VLAN native tag is added.
2. If the ether-type of an incoming packet (single or double tagged) is not equal to
the TPID of the uplink port, the VLAN tag is determined to be a Customer VLAN
(CVLAN) tag. The uplink port’s PVID VLAN native tag is added to the packet.
This outer tag is used for learning and switching packets within the service
provider’s network. The TPID must be configured on a per port basis, and the
verification cannot be disabled.
3. If the ether-type of an incoming packet (single or double tagged) is equal to the
TPID of the uplink port, no new VLAN tag is added. If the uplink port is not the
member of the outer VLAN of the incoming packets, the packet will be dropped
when ingress filtering is enabled. If ingress filtering is not enabled, the packet will
still be forwarded. If the VLAN is not listed in the VLAN table, the packet will be
dropped.
4. After successful source and destination lookup, the packet is double tagged. The
switch uses the TPID of 0x8100 to indicate that an incoming packet is
double-tagged. If the outer tag of an incoming double-tagged packet is equal to
the port TPID and the inner tag is 0x8100, it is treated as a double-tagged
packet. If a single-tagged packet has 0x8100 as its TPID, and port TPID is not
0x8100, a new VLAN tag is added and it is also treated as double-tagged packet.
5. If the destination address lookup fails, the packet is sent to all member ports of
the outer tag's VLAN.
6. After packet classification, the packet is written to memory for processing as a
single-tagged or double-tagged packet.
7. The switch sends the packet to the proper egress port.
8. If the egress port is an untagged member of the SPVLAN, the outer tag will be
stripped. If it is a tagged member, the outgoing packet will have two tags.
12-14
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
12
Configuration Limitations for QinQ
• The native VLAN of uplink ports should not be used as the SPVLAN. If the SPVLAN
is the uplink port's native VLAN, the uplink port must be an untagged member of
the SPVLAN. Then the outer SPVLAN tag will be stripped when the packets are
sent out. Another reason is that it causes none-customer packets will be forwarded
to SPVLAN.
• Static trunk port groups are compatible with QinQ tunnel ports as long as the QinQ
configuration is consistent within a trunk port group.
• QinQ and L2MPLS mode cannot be supported at the same time.
• The native VLAN (VLAN 1) is not normally added to transmitted frames. Avoiding
using VLAN 1 as an SPVLAN tag for customer traffic to reduce the risk of
misconfiguration. Instead, use VLAN 1 as a management VLAN instead of a data
VLAN in the service provider network.
• There are some inherent incompatibilities between Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching:
- A tunnel port cannot be a routed port.
- Tunnel ports do not support IP Access Control Lists.
- Layer 3 Quality of Service (QoS) and other QoS features containing Layer 3
information are not supported on tunnel ports.
- Spanning tree bridge protocol data unit (BPDU) filtering is automatically disabled
on a tunnel port.
General Configuration Guidelines for QinQ
1. Configure the switch to QinQ mode (see “Configuring the Switch for Normal
Operation or Tunneling Mode” on page 4-3).
2. Create a Service Provider VLAN, also referred to as an SPVLAN (see “Creating
VLANs” on page 12-6).
3. Configure the QinQ tunnel port to dot1Q tunnel port mode (see “Adding an
Interface to a QinQ Tunnel” on page 12-16).
4. Set the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of the tunnel port. This step is
required is the attached client is using a nonstandard 2-byte ethertype to identify
802.1Q tagged frames. The standard ethertype value is 0x8100. (See “Adding an
Interface to a QinQ Tunnel” on page 12-16.)
5. Configure the QinQ tunnel port to join the SPVLAN as an untagged member (see
“Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)” on page 12-7).
6. Configure the SPVLAN ID as the native VID on the QinQ tunnel port (see
“Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces” on page 12-10).
7. Configure system MTU to 1526 if jumbo frames are not enabled (see
“Configuring the Maximum Frame Size” on page 4-4).
8. Configure the QinQ uplink port to join the SPVLAN as a tagged member (see
“Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)” on page 12-7).
12-15
12
VLAN Configuration
Adding an Interface to a QinQ Tunnel
Follow the guidelines in the preceding section to set up a QinQ tunnel on the switch.
Use the VLAN Port Configuration or VLAN Trunk Configuration screen to set the
ingress port on the edge switch to dot1Q tunnel mode. Also set the Tag Protocol
Identifier (TPID) value of the tunnel port if the attached client is using a nonstandard
2-byte ethertype to identify 802.1Q tagged frames.
Command Usage
• Use the System Mode screen to set the switch to QinQ mode before configuring a
tunnel port (see “Configuring the Switch for Normal Operation or Tunneling Mode”
on page 4-3).
• Use the TPID field to set a custom 802.1Q ethertype value on the selected
interface. This feature allows the switch to interoperate with third-party switches
that do not use the standard 0x8100 ethertype to identify 802.1Q-tagged frames.
For example, 0x1234 is set as the custom 802.1Q ethertype on a trunk port,
incoming frames containing that ethertype are assigned to the VLAN contained in
the tag following the ethertype field, as they would be with a standard 802.1Q trunk.
Frames arriving on the port containing any other ethertype are looked upon as
untagged frames, and assigned to the native VLAN of that port.
• All members of a VLAN should be set to the same ethertype.
Command Attributes
• Mode – Set the VLAN membership mode dot1Q-Tunnel. (Default: Hybrid)
- Dot1q-Tunnel – Configures IEEE 802.1Q tunneling (QinQ) to segregate and
preserve customer VLAN IDs for traffic crossing the service provider network.
• TPID (0-65535) – Tag Protocol Identifier specifies the ethertype of incoming
packets on a tunnel port.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Set
the mode for the tunnel port to Dot1q-Tunnel, and set the TPID if the client is using a
non-standard ethertype to identify 802.1Q tagged frames, then click Apply.
Figure 12-8 Tunnel Port Configuration
12-16
Configuring Private VLANs
12
CLI – This example sets port 2 to tunnel mode, indicates that the TPID used for
802.1Q tagged frames will be 9100 hexadecimal, and enables address monitor
mode to pass traffic between the management VLANs and the tunnel port.
24-1
30-21
30-22
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport mode dot1q-tunnel
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-ethertype 9100
Console(config-if)#
Console#sh dot1q-tunnel
30-21
Dot1q-Tunnel Port List
-------eth 1/2
Total 1 Dot1q-Tunnel Ports, 0 Dot1q-Tunnel Port-Channel
Console#
Configuring Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. Data traffic on downlink ports can only be forwarded to, and from,
uplink ports. (Note that private VLANs and normal VLANs can exist simultaneously
within the same switch.)
Uplink Ports
Primary VLAN
(promiscuous ports)
x
Downlink Ports
Secondary VLAN
(private ports)
Enabling Private VLANs
Use the Private VLAN Status page to enable/disable the Private VLAN function.
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Status. Select Enable or Disable from the
scroll-down box, and click Apply.
Figure 12-9 Private VLAN Status
CLI – This example enables private VLANs.
Console(config)#pvlan
Console(config)#
30-14
12-17
12
VLAN Configuration
Configuring Uplink and Downlink Ports
Use the Private VLAN Link Status page to set ports as downlink or uplink ports.
Ports designated as downlink ports can not communicate with any other ports on the
switch except for the uplink ports. Uplink ports can communicate with any other ports
on the switch and with any designated downlink ports.
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Link Status. Mark the ports that will serve as
uplinks and downlinks for the private VLAN, then click Apply.
Figure 12-10 Private VLAN Link Status
CLI – This configures port 3 as an uplink and port 5 and 6 as downlinks.
Console(config)#pvlan up-link ethernet 1/3 down-link ethernet 1/5
Console(config)#pvlan up-link ethernet 1/3 down-link ethernet 1/6
Console(config)#end
Console#show pvlan
Private VLAN status: Enabled
Up-link port:
Ethernet 1/3
Down-link port:
Ethernet 1/5
Ethernet 1/6
Console#
30-14
Configuring Protocol-Based VLANs
The network devices required to support multiple protocols cannot be easily grouped
into a common VLAN. This may require non-standard devices to pass traffic
between different VLANs in order to encompass all the devices participating in a
specific protocol. This kind of configuration deprives users of the basic benefits of
VLANs, including security and easy accessibility.
To avoid these problems, you can configure this switch with protocol-based VLANs
that divide the physical network into logical VLAN groups for each required protocol.
When a frame is received at a port, its VLAN membership can then be determined
based on the protocol type being used by the inbound packets.
12-18
Configuring Protocol-Based VLANs
12
Command Usage
To configure protocol-based VLANs, follow these steps:
1. First configure VLAN groups for the protocols you want to use (page 6). Although
not mandatory, we suggest configuring a separate VLAN for each major protocol
running on your network. Do not add port members at this time.
2. Create a protocol group for each of the protocols you want to assign to a VLAN
using the Protocol VLAN Configuration page.
3. Then map the protocol for each interface to the appropriate VLAN using the
Protocol VLAN Port Configuration page.
Configuring Protocol Groups
Create a protocol group for one or more protocols.
Command Attributes
• Protocol Group ID – Group identifier of this protocol group.
(Range: 1-2147483647)
• Frame Type23 – Frame type used by this protocol. (Options: Ethernet, RFC_1042,
LLC_other)
• Protocol Type – The only option for the LLC_other frame type is IPX_raw. The
options for all other frames types include: IP, ARP, RARP.
Web – Click VLAN, Protocol VLAN, Configuration. Enter a protocol group ID, frame
type and protocol type, then click Apply.
Figure 12-11 Protocol VLAN Configuration
CLI – The following creates protocol group 1, and then specifies Ethernet frames
with IP and ARP protocol types.
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1
add frame-type ethernet protocol-type ip
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1
add frame-type ethernet protocol-type arp
Console(config)#
30-17
23. SNAP frame types are not supported by this switch due to hardware limitations.
12-19
12
VLAN Configuration
Mapping Protocols to VLANs
Map a protocol group to a VLAN for each interface that will participate in the group.
Command Usage
• When creating a protocol-based VLAN, only assign interfaces using this
configuration screen. If you assign interfaces using any of the other VLAN menus
such as the VLAN Static Table (page 7) or VLAN Static Membership by Port menu
(page 9), these interfaces will admit traffic of any protocol type into the associated
VLAN.
• When a frame enters a port that has been assigned to a protocol VLAN, it is
processed in the following manner:
- If the frame is tagged, it will be processed according to the standard rules applied
to tagged frames.
- If the frame is untagged and the protocol type matches, the frame is forwarded
to the appropriate VLAN.
- If the frame is untagged but the protocol type does not match, the frame is
forwarded to the default VLAN for this interface.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
• Protocol Group ID – Group identifier of this protocol group.
(Range: 1-2147483647)
• VLAN ID – VLAN to which matching protocol traffic is forwarded. (Range: 1-4093)
Web – Click VLAN, Protocol VLAN, Port Configuration. Select a a port or trunk,
enter a protocol group ID, the corresponding VLAN ID, and click Apply.
Figure 12-12 Protocol VLAN Port Configuration
12-20
Configuring Protocol-Based VLANs
12
CLI – The following maps the traffic entering Port 1 which matches the protocol type
specified in protocol group 1 to VLAN 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 vlan 3
Console(config-if)#
30-17
12-21
12
12-22
VLAN Configuration
Chapter 13: Class of Service
Class of Service (CoS) allows you to specify which data packets have greater
precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion. This switch
supports CoS with eight priority queues for each port. Data packets in a port’s
high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority queues. You
can set the default priority for each interface, and configure the mapping of frame
priority tags to the switch’s priority queues.
Note: The priority for all traffic entering a VLAN can also be configured using the CLI
(see the “vlan priority” command on page 31-6
Layer 2 Queue Settings
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
You can specify the default port priority for each interface on the switch. All untagged
packets entering the switch are tagged with the specified default port priority, and
then sorted into the appropriate priority queue at the output port.
Command Usage
• This switch provides eight priority queues for each port. It uses Weighted Round
Robin to prevent head-of-queue blockage.
• The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to accept
all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This priority does
not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming frame is an IEEE
802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority bits will be used.
• If the output port is an untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are
stripped of all VLAN tags prior to transmission.
Command Attributes
• Default Priority24 – The priority that is assigned to untagged frames received on
the specified interface. (Range: 0 - 7, Default: 0)
• Number of Egress Traffic Classes – The number of queue buffers provided for
each port.
24. CLI displays this information as “Priority for untagged traffic.”
13-1
13
Class of Service
Web – Click Priority, Default Port Priority or Default Trunk Priority. Modify the default
priority for any interface, then click Apply.
Figure 13-1 Default Port Priority
CLI – This example assigns a default priority of 5 to port 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport priority default 5
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/3
Information of Eth 1/3
Broadcast threshold:
Enabled, 500 packets/second
LACP status:
Disabled
Ingress rate limit:
Disable, 1000M bits per second
Egress rate limit:
Disable, 1000M bits per second
VLAN membership mode:
Hybrid
Ingress rule:
Disabled
Acceptable frame type:
All frames
Native VLAN:
1
Priority for untagged traffic: 5
GVRP status:
Disabled
Allowed VLAN:
1(u),
Forbidden VLAN:
Console#
13-2
24-1
31-3
24-11
Layer 2 Queue Settings
13
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
This switch processes Class of Service (CoS) priority tagged traffic by using eight
priority queues for each port, with service schedules based on strict or Weighted
Round Robin (WRR). Up to eight separate traffic priorities are defined in IEEE
802.1p. The default priority levels are assigned according to recommendations in
the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown in the following table.
Table 13-1 Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
2
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
The priority levels recommended in the IEEE 802.1p standard for various network
applications are shown in the following table. However, you can map the priority
levels to the switch’s output queues in any way that benefits application traffic for
your own network.
Table 13-2 CoS Priority Levels
Priority Level
Traffic Type
1
Background
2
(Spare)
0 (default)
Best Effort
3
Excellent Effort
4
Controlled Load
5
Video, less than 100 milliseconds latency and jitter
6
Voice, less than 10 milliseconds latency and jitter
7
Network Control
Command Attributes
• Priority – CoS value. (Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest priority)
• Traffic Class25 – Output queue buffer. (Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest CoS
priority queue)
25. CLI shows Queue ID.
13-3
13
Class of Service
Web – Click Priority, Traffic Classes. Assign priorities to the traffic classes (i.e.,
output queues), then click Apply.
Figure 13-2 Traffic Classes
CLI – The following example shows how to change the CoS assignments to a
one-to-one mapping.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config)#queue cos-map 0 0
Console(config)#queue cos-map 1 1
Console(config)#queue cos-map 2 2
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue cos-map
Information of Eth 1/1
CoS Value:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Information of Eth 1/2
CoS Value:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
.
.
.
*
Mapping specific values for CoS priorities is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
13-4
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31-4
31-6
Layer 2 Queue Settings
13
Selecting the Queue Mode
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that requires all
traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed before lower priority queues are
serviced, or use Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) queuing that specifies a relative
weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative weight for each queue that
determines the percentage of service time the switch services each queue before
moving on to the next queue. This prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur
with strict priority queuing.
Command Attributes
• WRR - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 for queues 0 through 7 respectively.
(This is the default selection.)
• Strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all traffic in the
higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
Web – Click Priority, Queue Mode. Select Strict or WRR, then click Apply.
Figure 13-3 Queue Mode
CLI – The following sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode.
Console(config)#queue mode strict
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue mode
31-2
31-2
Queue mode: strict
Console#
13-5
13
Class of Service
Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes
This switch uses the Weighted Round Robin (WRR) algorithm to determine the
frequency at which it services each priority queue. As described in “Mapping CoS
Values to Egress Queues” on page 3, the traffic classes are mapped to one of the
eight egress queues provided for each port. You can assign a weight to each of
these queues (and thereby to the corresponding traffic priorities). This weight sets
the frequency at which each queue will be polled for service, and subsequently
affects the response time for software applications assigned a specific priority value.
Command Attributes
• WRR Setting Table26 – Displays a list of weights for each traffic class (i.e., queue).
• Weight Value – Set a new weight for the selected traffic class. (Range: 1-15)
Web – Click Priority, Queue Scheduling. Select the interface, highlight a traffic class
(i.e., output queue), enter a weight, then click Apply.
Figure 13-4 Queue Scheduling
26. CLI shows Queue ID.
13-6
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
13
CLI – The following example shows how to assign WRR weights to each of the
priority queues.
Console(config)#queue bandwidth 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue bandwidth
Information of Eth 1/1
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
3
2
5
3
7
4
9
5
11
6
13
7
15
Information of Eth 1/2
Queue ID Weight
.
.
.
31-4
31-5
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
This switch supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to meet
application requirements. Traffic priorities can be specified in the IP header of a
frame, using the priority bits in the Type of Service (ToS) octet or the number of the
TCP port. If priority bits are used, the ToS octet may contain three bits for IP
Precedence or six bits for Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) service. When
these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service value by
the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Because different priority information may be contained in the traffic, this switch
maps priority values to the output queues in the following manner:
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port Priority, IP Precedence or DSCP
Priority, and then Default Port Priority.
• IP Precedence and DSCP Priority cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other.
Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority
The switch allows you to choose between using IP Precedence or DSCP priority.
Select one of the methods or disable this feature.
Command Attributes
• Disabled – Disables both priority services. (This is the default setting.)
• IP Precedence – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using IP Precedence.
• IP DSCP – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using Differentiated Services Code Point
Mapping.
13-7
13
Class of Service
Web – Click Priority, IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status. Select Disabled,
IP Precedence or IP DSCP from the scroll-down menu, then click Apply.
Figure 13-5 IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status
CLI – The following example enables IP Precedence service on the switch.
31-9
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
Mapping IP Precedence
The Type of Service (ToS) octet in the IPv4 header includes three precedence bits
defining eight different priority levels ranging from highest priority for network control
packets to lowest priority for routine traffic. The default IP Precedence values are
mapped one-to-one to Class of Service values (i.e., Precedence value 0 maps to
CoS value 0, and so forth). Bits 6 and 7 are used for network control, and the other
bits for various application types. ToS bits are defined in the following table.
Table 13-3 Mapping IP Precedence
Priority Level
Traffic Type
Priority Level
Traffic Type
7
Network Control
3
Flash
6
Internetwork Control
2
Immediate
5
Critical
1
Priority
4
Flash Override
0
Routine
Command Attributes
• IP Precedence Priority Table – Shows the IP Precedence to CoS map.
• Class of Service Value – Maps a CoS value to the selected IP Precedence value.
Note that “0” represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
13-8
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
13
Web – Click Priority, IP Precedence Priority. Select an entry from the IP Precedence
Priority Table, enter a value in the Class of Service Value field, and then click Apply.
Figure 13-6 IP Precedence Priority
CLI – The following example globally enables IP Precedence service on the switch,
maps IP Precedence value 1 to CoS value 0 (on port 1), and then displays the IP
Precedence settings.
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/1
Precedence mapping status: disabled
31-9
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31-10
31-13
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
2
Eth 1/ 1
3
3
Eth 1/ 1
4
4
Eth 1/ 1
5
5
Eth 1/ 1
6
6
Eth 1/ 1
7
7
Console#
*
Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
13-9
13
Class of Service
Mapping DSCP Priority
The DSCP is six bits wide, allowing coding for up to 64 different forwarding
behaviors. The DSCP replaces the ToS bits, but it retains backward compatibility
with the three precedence bits so that non-DSCP compliant, ToS-enabled devices,
will not conflict with the DSCP mapping. Based on network policies, different kinds of
traffic can be marked for different kinds of forwarding. The DSCP default values are
defined in the following table. Note that all the DSCP values that are not specified
are mapped to CoS value 0.
Table 13-4 Mapping DSCP Priority
IP DSCP Value
CoS Value
0
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Command Attributes
• DSCP Priority Table – Shows the DSCP Priority to CoS map.
• Class of Service Value – Maps a CoS value to the selected DSCP Priority value.
Note that “0” represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Note: IP DSCP settings apply to all interfaces.
Web – Click Priority, IP DSCP Priority. Select an entry from the DSCP table, enter a
value in the Class of Service Value field, then click Apply.
Figure 13-7 IP DSCP Priority
13-10
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
13
CLI – The following example globally enables DSCP Priority service on the switch,
maps DSCP value 0 to CoS value 1 (on port 1), and then displays the DSCP Priority
settings.
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/1
DSCP mapping status: disabled
31-11
24-1
31-11
31-14
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
0
Eth 1/ 1
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 1
61
0
Eth 1/ 1
62
0
Eth 1/ 1
63
0
Console#
*
Mapping specific values for IP DSCP is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
Mapping IP Port Priority
You can also map network applications to Class of Service values based on the IP
port number (i.e., TCP/UDP port number) in the frame header. Some of the more
common TCP service ports include: HTTP: 80, FTP: 21, Telnet: 23 and POP3: 110.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
IP Port Priority Status – Enables or disables the IP port priority.
IP Port Priority Table – Shows the IP port to CoS map.
IP Port Number (TCP/UDP) – Set a new IP port number.
Class of Service Value – Sets a CoS value for a new IP port. Note that “0”
represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Note: Up to 8 entries can be specified.
IP Port Priority settings apply to all interfaces.
Web – Click Priority, IP Port Priority Status. Set IP Port Priority Status to Enabled.
Figure 13-8 IP Port Priority Status
13-11
13
Class of Service
Click Priority, IP Port Priority. Enter the port number for a network application in the
IP Port Number box and the new CoS value in the Class of Service box, and then
click Apply.
Figure 13-9 IP Port Priority
CLI – The following example globally enables IP Port Priority service on the switch,
maps HTTP traffic (on port 1) to CoS value 0, and then displays the IP Port Priority
settings.
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip port ethernet 1/5
TCP port mapping status: disabled
Port
Port no. COS
--------- -------- --Eth 1/ 1
80
0
Console#
*
Mapping specific values for IP Port Priority is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
13-12
31-8
24-1
31-9
31-12
Chapter 14: Quality of Service
The commands described in this section are used to configure Quality of Service
(QoS) classification criteria and service policies. Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
provides policy-based management mechanisms used for prioritizing network
resources to meet the requirements of specific traffic types on a per hop basis.
Each packet is classified upon entry into the network based on access lists, IP
Precedence, DSCP values, or VLAN lists. Using access lists allows you select traffic
based on Layer 2, Layer 3, or Layer 4 information contained in each packet. Based
on configured network policies, different kinds of traffic can be marked for different
kinds of forwarding.
All switches or routers that access the Internet rely on class information to provide
the same forwarding treatment to packets in the same class. Class information can
be assigned by end hosts, or switches or routers along the path. Priority can then be
assigned based on a general policy, or a detailed examination of the packet.
However, note that detailed examination of packets should take place close to the
network edge so that core switches and routers are not overloaded.
Switches and routers along the path can use class information to prioritize the
resources allocated to different traffic classes. The manner in which an individual
device handles traffic in the DiffServ architecture is called per-hop behavior. All
devices along a path should be configured in a consistent manner to construct a
consistent end-to-end QoS solution.
Notes: 1. You can configure up to 16 rules per Class Map. You can also include
multiple classes in a Policy Map.
2. You should create a Class Map before creating a Policy Map. Otherwise, you
will not be able to select a Class Map from the Policy Rule Settings screen
(see page 14-7).
Configuring Quality of Service Parameters
To create a service policy for a specific category or ingress traffic, follow these steps:
1. Use the “Class Map” to designate a class name for a specific category of traffic.
2. Edit the rules for each class to specify a type of traffic based on an access list, a
DSCP or IP Precedence value, or a VLAN.
3. Set an ACL mask to enable filtering for the criteria specified in the Class Map.
(See “Configuring an IP ACL Mask” on page 8-10 or “Configuring a MAC ACL
Mask” on page 8-12.)
4. Use the “Policy Map” to designate a policy name for a specific manner in which
ingress traffic will be handled.
5. Add one or more classes to the Policy Map. Assign policy rules to each class by
“setting” the QoS value to be assigned to the matching traffic class. The policy
rule can also be configured to monitor the average flow and burst rate, and drop
any traffic that exceeds the specified rate, or just reduce the DSCP service level
for traffic exceeding the specified rate.
14-1
14
Quality of Service
6. Use the “Service Policy” to assign a policy map to a specific interface.
Configuring a Class Map
A class map is used for matching packets to a specified class.
Command Usage
• To configure a Class Map, follow these steps:
- Open the Class Map page, and click Add Class.
- When the Class Configuration page opens, fill in the “Class Name” field, and
click Add.
- When the Match Class Settings page opens, specify type of traffic for this class
based on an access list, a DSCP or IP Precedence value, or a VLAN, and click
the Add button next to the field for the selected traffic criteria. You can only
specify one item to match when assigning ingress traffic to a class map.
• The class map uses the Access Control List filtering engine, so you must also set
an ACL mask to enable filtering for the criteria specified in the Class Map. See
“Configuring an IP ACL Mask” on page 8-10 or “Configuring a MAC ACL Mask” on
page 8-12 for information on configuring an appropriate ACL mask.
• The class map is used with a policy map (page 14-5) to create a service policy
(page 14-8) for a specific interface that defines packet classification, service
tagging, and bandwidth policing. Note that one or more class maps can be
assigned to a policy map.
Command Attributes
Class Map
• Modify Name and Description – Configures the name and a brief description of
a class map. (Range: 1-32 characters for the name; 1-256 characters for the
description)
• Edit Rules – Opens the “Match Class Settings” page for the selected class entry.
Modify the criteria used to classify ingress traffic on this page.
• Add Class – Opens the “Class Configuration” page. Enter a class name and
description on this page, and click Add to open the “Match Class Settings” page.
Enter the criteria used to classify ingress traffic on this page.
• Remove Class – Removes the selected class.
Class Configuration
• Class Name – Name of the class map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• Type – Only one match command is permitted per class map, so the match-any
field refers to the criteria specified by the lone match command.
• Description – A brief description of a class map. (Range: 1-256 characters)
• Add – Adds the specified class.
• Back – Returns to previous page with making any changes.
14-2
Configuring Quality of Service Parameters
14
Match Class Settings
• Class Name – List of class maps.
• ACL List – Name of an access control list. Any type of ACL can be specified,
including standard or extended IP ACLs and MAC ACLs. (Range: 1-16 characters)
• IP DSCP – A DSCP value. (Range: 0-63)
• IP Precedence – An IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
• VLAN – A VLAN. (Range:1-4093)
• Add – Adds specified criteria to the class. Up to 16 items are permitted per class.
• Remove – Deletes the selected criteria from the class.
14-3
14
Quality of Service
Web – Click QoS, DiffServ, then click Add Class to create a new class, or Edit Rules
to change the rules of an existing class.
Figure 14-1 Configuring Class Maps
CLI - This example creates a class map call “rd-class,” and sets it to match packets
marked for DSCP service value 3.
Console(config)#class-map rd_class match-any
Console(config-cmap)#match ip dscp 3
Console(config-cmap)#exit
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask any any dscp
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
14-4
32-2
32-3
23-6
23-6
Configuring Quality of Service Parameters
14
Creating QoS Policies
This function creates a policy map that can be attached to multiple interfaces.
Command Usage
• To configure a Policy Map, follow these steps:
- Create a Class Map as described on page 14-2.
- Open the Policy Map page, and click Add Policy.
- When the Policy Configuration page opens, fill in the “Policy Name” field, and
click Add.
- When the Policy Rule Settings page opens, select a class name from the
scroll-down list (Class Name field). Configure a policy for traffic that matches
criteria defined in this class by setting the quality of service that an IP packet will
receive (in the Action field), defining the maximum throughput and burst rate (in
the Meter field), and the action that results from a policy violation (in the Exceed
field). Then finally click Add to register the new policy.
• A policy map can contain multiple class statements that can be applied to the same
interface with the Service Policy Settings (page 14-8). You can configure up to 63
policers (i.e., class maps) for Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet ingress ports.
Policing is based on a token bucket, where bucket depth (i.e., the maximum burst
before the bucket overflows) is by specified the “Burst” field, and the average rate
tokens are removed from the bucket is by specified by the “Rate” option.
• After using the policy map to define packet classification, service tagging, and
bandwidth policing, it must be assigned to a specific interface by a service policy
(page 14-8) to take effect.
Command Attributes
Policy Map
• Modify Name and Description – Configures the name and a brief description of
a policy map. (Range: 1-16 characters for the name; 1-256 characters for the
description)
• Edit Classes – Opens the “Policy Rule Settings” page for the selected class entry.
Modify the criteria used to service ingress traffic on this page.
• Add Policy – Opens the “Policy Configuration” page. Enter a policy name and
description on this page, and click Add to open the “Policy Rule Settings” page.
Enter the criteria used to service ingress traffic on this page.
• Remove Policy – Deletes a specified policy.
Policy Configuration
•
•
•
•
Policy Name — Name of policy map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Description – A brief description of a policy map. (Range: 1-256 characters)
Add – Adds the specified policy.
Back – Returns to previous page with making any changes.
14-5
14
Quality of Service
Policy Rule Settings
- Class Settings • Class Name – Name of class map.
• Action – Shows the service provided to ingress traffic by setting a CoS, DSCP, or
IP Precedence value in a matching packet (as specified in Match Class Settings on
page 14-2).
• Meter – The maximum throughput and burst rate.
- Rate (kbps) – Rate in kilobits per second.
- Burst (byte) – Burst in bytes.
• Exceed Action – Specifies whether the traffic that exceeds the specified rate will
be dropped or the DSCP service level will be reduced.
• Remove Class – Deletes a class.
- Policy Options • Class Name – Name of class map.
• Action – Configures the service provided to ingress traffic by setting a CoS, DSCP,
or IP Precedence value in a matching packet (as specified in Match Class Settings
on page 14-2). (Range - CoS: 0-7, DSCP: 0-63, IP Precedence: 0-7,
IPv6 DSCP: 0-63)
• Meter – Check this to define the maximum throughput, burst rate, and the action
that results from a policy violation.
- Rate (kbps) – Rate in kilobits per second. (Range: 1-100000 kbps or maximum
port speed, whichever is lower)
- Burst (byte) – Burst in bytes. (Range: 64-1522)
• Exceed – Specifies whether the traffic that exceeds the specified rate or burst will
be dropped or the DSCP service level will be reduced.
- Set – Decreases DSCP priority for out of conformance traffic. (Range: 0-63).
- Drop – Drops out of conformance traffic.
• Add – Adds the specified criteria to the policy map.
14-6
Configuring Quality of Service Parameters
14
Web – Click QoS, DiffServ, Policy Map to display the list of existing policy maps. To
add a new policy map click Add Policy. To configure the policy rule settings click Edit
Classes.
Figure 14-2 Configuring Policy Maps
14-7
14
Quality of Service
CLI – This example creates a policy map called “rd-policy,” sets the average
bandwidth the 1 Mbps, the burst rate to 1522 bps, and the response to reduce the
DSCP value for violating packets to 0.
Console(config)#policy-map rd_policy#3
Console(config-pmap)#class rd_class#3
Console(config-pmap-c)#set ip dscp 4
Console(config-pmap-c)#police 100000 1522 exceed-action
set ip dscp 0
Console(config-pmap-c)#
32-4
32-5
32-6
32-6
Attaching a Policy Map to Ingress Queues
This function binds a policy map to the ingress queue of a particular interface.
Command Usage
• You must first define a class map, set an ACL mask to match the criteria defined
in the class map, then define a policy map, and finally bind the service policy to the
required interface.
• You can only bind one policy map to an interface.
• The current firmware does not allow you to bind a policy map to an egress queue.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
Ports – Specifies a port.
Ingress – Applies the rule to ingress traffic.
Enabled – Check this to enable a policy map on the specified port.
Policy Map – Select the appropriate policy map from the scroll-down box.
Web – Click QoS, DiffServ, Service Policy Settings. Check Enabled and choose a
Policy Map for a port from the scroll-down box, then click Apply.
Figure 14-3 Service Policy Settings
CLI - This example applies a service policy to an ingress interface.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#service-policy input rd_policy#3
Console(config-if)#
14-8
24-1
32-7
Chapter 15: Multicast Filtering
Multicasting is used to support real-time
applications such as videoconferencing or
streaming audio. A multicast server does not have
to establish a separate connection with each
client. It merely broadcasts its service to the
network, and any hosts that want to receive the
multicast register with their local multicast switch/
router. Although this approach reduces the
network overhead required by a multicast server,
the broadcast traffic must be carefully pruned at
every multicast switch/router it passes through to
ensure that traffic is only passed on to the hosts
which subscribed to this service.
Unicast
Flow
Multicast
Flow
This switch can use Internet Group Management
Protocol (IGMP) to filter multicast traffic. IGMP
Snooping can be used to passively monitor or
“snoop” on exchanges between attached hosts
and an IGMP-enabled device, most commonly a
multicast router. In this way, the switch can discover the ports that want to join a
multicast group, and set its filters accordingly.
If there is no multicast router attached to the local subnet, multicast traffic and query
messages may not be received by the switch. In this case (Layer 2) IGMP Query
can be used to actively ask the attached hosts if they want to receive a specific
multicast service. IGMP Query thereby identifies the ports containing hosts
requesting to join the service and sends data out to those ports only. It then
propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast switch/router to
ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service.
The purpose of IP multicast filtering is to optimize a switched network’s
performance, so multicast packets will only be forwarded to those ports containing
multicast group hosts or multicast routers/switches, instead of flooding traffic to all
ports in the subnet (VLAN).
You can also configure a single network-wide multicast VLAN shared by hosts
residing in other standard or private VLAN groups, preserving security and data
isolation “Multicast VLAN Registration” on page 15-9.
15-1
15
Multicast Filtering
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
IGMP Snooping and Query – If multicast routing is not supported on other switches
in your network, you can use IGMP Snooping and IGMP Query (page 15-3) to
monitor IGMP service requests passing between multicast clients and servers, and
dynamically configure the switch ports which need to forward multicast traffic.
When using IGMPv3 snooping, service requests from IGMP Version 1, 2 or 3 hosts
are all forwarded to the upstream router as IGMPv3 reports. The primary
enhancement provided by IGMPv3 snooping is in keeping track of information about
the specific multicast sources which downstream IGMPv3 hosts have requested or
refused. The switch maintains information about both multicast groups and
channels, where a group indicates a multicast flow for which the hosts have not
requested a specific source (the only option for IGMPv1 and v2 hosts unless
statically configured on the switch), and a channel indicates a flow for which the
hosts have requested service from a specific source.
Only IGMPv3 hosts can request service from a specific multicast source. When
downstream hosts request service from a specific source for a multicast service,
these sources are all placed in the Include list, and traffic is forwarded to the hosts
from each of these sources. IGMPv3 hosts may also request that service be
forwarded from all sources except for those specified. In this case, traffic is filtered
from sources in the Exclude list, and forwarded from all other available sources.
Notes: 1. When the switch is configured to use IGMPv3 snooping, the snooping
version may be downgraded to version 2 or version 1, depending on the
version of the IGMP query packets detected on each VLAN.
2. IGMP snooping will not function unless a multicast router port is enabled on
the switch. This can accomplished in one of two ways. A static router port
can be manually configured (see “Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast
Router” on page 15-6). Using this method, the router port is never timed out,
and will continue to function until explicitly removed. The other method relies
on the switch to dynamically create multicast routing ports whenever
multicast routing protocol packets or IGMP query packets are detected on a
port.
3. A maximum of up to 255 multicast entries can be maintained for IGMP
snooping and 255 entries for Multicast Routing when both of these features
are enabled. If the table’s capacity is exceeded, then IGMPv3 snooping will
not support multicast source filtering, but will forward multicast traffic from all
relevant sources to the requesting hosts.
Static IGMP Router Interface – If IGMP snooping cannot locate the IGMP querier,
you can manually designate a known IGMP querier (i.e., a multicast router/switch)
connected over the network to an interface on your switch (page 15-6). This
interface will then join all the current multicast groups supported by the attached
router/switch to ensure that multicast traffic is passed to all appropriate interfaces
within the switch.
15-2
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
15
Static IGMP Host Interface – For multicast applications that you need to control
more carefully, you can manually assign a multicast service to specific interfaces on
the switch (page 15-8).
Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters
You can configure the switch to forward multicast traffic intelligently. Based on the
IGMP query and report messages, the switch forwards traffic only to the ports that
request multicast traffic. This prevents the switch from broadcasting the traffic to all
ports and possibly disrupting network performance.
Command Usage
• IGMP Snooping – This switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query and Report
packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches and IP multicast host
groups to identify the IP multicast group members. It simply monitors the IGMP
packets passing through it, picks out the group registration information, and
configures the multicast filters accordingly.
Note: Unknown multicast traffic is flooded to all ports in the VLAN for several seconds
when first received. If a multicast router port exists on the VLAN, the traffic will
be filtered by subjecting it to IGMP snooping. If no router port exists on the
VLAN or the multicast filtering table is already full, the switch will continue
flooding the traffic into the VLAN.
• IGMP Querier – A router, or multicast-enabled switch, can periodically ask their
hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic. If there is more than one router/switch
on the LAN performing IP multicasting, one of these devices is elected “querier”
and assumes the role of querying the LAN for group members. It then propagates
the service requests on to any upstream multicast switch/router to ensure that it will
continue to receive the multicast service.
Note: Multicast routers use this information, along with a multicast routing protocol such
as DVMRP or PIM, to support IP multicasting across the Internet.
Command Attributes
• IGMP Status — When enabled, the switch will monitor network traffic to determine
which hosts want to receive multicast traffic. This is also referred to as IGMP
Snooping. (Default: Enabled)
• Act as IGMP Querier — When enabled, the switch can serve as the Querier,
which is responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
(Default: Disabled)
• IGMP Query Count — Sets the maximum number of queries issued for which
there has been no response before the switch takes action to drop a client from the
multicast group. (Range: 2-10, Default: 2)
• IGMP Query Interval — Sets the frequency at which the switch sends IGMP
host-query messages. (Range: 60-125 seconds, Default: 125)
• IGMP Report Delay — Sets the time between receiving an IGMP Report for an IP
multicast address on a port before the switch sends an IGMP Query out of that port
and removes the entry from its list. (Range: 5-25 seconds, Default: 10)
15-3
15
Multicast Filtering
• IGMP Query Timeout — The time the switch waits after the previous querier stops
before it considers the router port (i.e., the interface which had been receiving
query packets) to have expired. (Range: 300-500 seconds, Default: 300)
• IGMP Version — Sets the protocol version for compatibility with other devices on
the network. (Range: 1-3; Default: 3)
Notes: 1. All systems on the subnet must support the same version.
2. Some attributes are only enabled for IGMPv2 and v3, including IGMP Report
Delay and IGMP Query Timeout.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Configuration. Adjust the IGMP settings as
required, and then click Apply. (The default settings are shown below.)
Figure 15-1 IGMP Configuration
CLI – This example modifies the settings for multicast filtering, and then displays the
current status.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time 300
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 2
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service status:
Enabled
Querier status:
Enabled
Query count:
10
Query interval:
100 sec
Query max response time: 20 sec
Router port expire time: 300 sec
IGMP snooping version:
Version 2
Console#
15-4
33-2
33-7
33-7
33-8
33-8
33-9
33-3
33-5
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
15
Displaying Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Multicast routers that are attached to ports on the switch use information obtained
from IGMP, along with a multicast routing protocol such as DVMRP or PIM, to
support IP multicasting across the Internet. These routers may be dynamically
discovered by the switch or statically assigned to an interface on the switch.
You can use the Multicast Router Port Information page to display the ports on this
switch attached to a neighboring multicast router/switch for each VLAN ID.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
• Multicast Router List – Multicast routers dynamically discovered by this switch or
those that are statically assigned to an interface on this switch.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, Multicast Router Port Information. Select the required
VLAN ID from the scroll-down list to display the associated multicast routers.
Figure 15-2 Multicast Router Port Information
CLI – This example shows that Port 11 has been statically configured as a port
attached to a multicast router.
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
Console#
33-11
15-5
15
Multicast Filtering
Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be able to
locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known multicast router/
switch connected over the network to an interface (port or trunk) on your switch, you
can manually configure the interface (and a specified VLAN) to join all the current
multicast groups supported by the attached router. This can ensure that multicast
traffic is passed to all the appropriate interfaces within the switch.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the
attached multicast router.
• Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, Static Multicast Router Port Configuration. Specify the
interfaces attached to a multicast router, indicate the VLAN which will forward all the
corresponding multicast traffic, and then click Add. After you have finished adding
interfaces to the list, click Apply.
Figure 15-3 Static Multicast Router Port Configuration
CLI – This example configures port 1 as a multicast router port within VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/1
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/1
Static
Console#
15-6
33-10
33-11
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
15
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Services
You can display the port members associated with a specified VLAN and multicast
service.
Command Attribute
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN for which to display port members.
• Multicast IP Address – The IP address for a specific multicast service.
• Multicast Group Port List – Shows the interfaces that have already been
assigned to the selected VLAN to propagate a specific multicast service.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IP Multicast Registration Table. Select a VLAN ID and
the IP address for a multicast service from the scroll-down lists. The switch will
display all the interfaces that are propagating this multicast service.
Figure 15-4 IP Multicast Registration Table
CLI – This example displays all the known multicast services supported on VLAN 1,
along with the ports propagating the corresponding services. The Type field shows if
this entry was learned dynamically or was statically configured.
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.1.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
Console#
33-6
15-7
15
Multicast Filtering
Assigning Ports to Multicast Services
Multicast filtering can be dynamically configured using IGMP Snooping and IGMP
Query messages as described in “Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query
Parameters” on page 15-3. For certain applications that require tighter control, you
may need to statically configure a multicast service on the switch. First add all the
ports attached to participating hosts to a common VLAN, and then assign the
multicast service to that VLAN group.
Command Usage
• Static multicast addresses are never aged out.
• When a multicast address is assigned to an interface in a specific VLAN, the
corresponding traffic can only be forwarded to ports within that VLAN.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the
attached multicast router/switch.
• Multicast IP – The IP address for a specific multicast service
• Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router/switch.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Member Port Table. Specify the interface
attached to a multicast service (via an IGMP-enabled switch or multicast router),
indicate the VLAN that will propagate the multicast service, specify the multicast IP
address, and click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the member list,
click Apply.
Figure 15-5 IGMP Member Port Table
CLI – This example assigns a multicast address to VLAN 1, and then displays all the
known multicast services supported on VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.1.1.12
ethernet 1/12
Console(config)#exit
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.1.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
15-8
33-2
33-6
Multicast VLAN Registration
15
Multicast VLAN Registration
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) is a protocol that controls access to a single
network-wide VLAN most commonly used for transmitting multicast traffic (such as
television channels or video-on-demand) across a service provider’s network. Any
multicast traffic entering an MVR VLAN is sent to all attached subscribers. This
protocol can significantly reduce to processing overhead required to dynamically
monitor and establish the distribution tree for a normal multicast VLAN. This makes
it possible to support common multicast services over a wide part of the network
without having to use any multicast routing protocol.
MVR maintains the user isolation and data security provided by VLAN segregation
by passing only multicast traffic into other VLANs to which the subscribers belong.
Even though common multicast streams are passed onto different VLAN groups
from the MVR VLAN, users in different IEEE 802.1Q or private VLANs cannot
exchange any information (except through upper-level routing services).
Multicast Router
Satellite Services
Multicast Server
Layer 2 Switch
Source
Port
Service
Network
Receiver
Ports
Set-top Box
PC
TV
Set-top Box
TV
General Configuration Guidelines for MVR
1. Enable MVR globally on the switch, select the MVR VLAN, and add the multicast
groups that will stream traffic to attached hosts (see “Configuring Global MVR
Settings” on page 15-10).
2. Set the interfaces that will join the MVR as source ports or receiver ports (see
“Web – Click MVR, Port Information or Trunk Information.” on page 15-11).
3. Enable IGMP Snooping to a allow a subscriber to dynamically join or leave an
MVR group (see “Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters” on
page 15-3). Note that only IGMP version 2 or 3 hosts can issue multicast join or
leave messages.
4. For multicast streams that will run for a long term and be associated with a stable
set of hosts, you can statically bind the multicast group to the participating
interfaces (see “Assigning Static Multicast Groups to Interfaces” on page 15-15).
15-9
15
Multicast Filtering
Configuring Global MVR Settings
The global settings for Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) include enabling or
disabling MVR for the switch, selecting the VLAN that will serve as the sole channel
for common multicast streams supported by the service provider, and assigning the
multicast group address for each of these services to the MVR VLAN.
Command Attributes
• MVR Status – When MVR is enabled on both the switch, any multicast data
associated an MVR group is sent from all designated source ports, and to all
receiver ports that have registered to receive data from that multicast group.
(Default: Disabled)
• MVR Running Status – Indicates whether or not all necessary conditions in the
MVR environment are satisfied. (Running status is true as long as MVR Status is
enabled, and the specified MVR VLAN exists.)
• MVR VLAN – Identifier of the VLAN that serves as the channel for streaming
multicast services using MVR. (Range: 1-4094; Default: 1)
• MVR Group IP – IP address for an MVR multicast group. The IP address range of
224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 is used for multicast streams. MVR group addresses
cannot fall within the reserved IP multicast address range of 224.0.0.x. (Range:
224.0.1.0 - 239.255.255.255; Default: no groups are assigned to the MVR VLAN)
• Count – The number of contiguous MVR group addresses. (Range: 1-255;
Default: 0)
Web – Click MVR, Configuration. Enable MVR globally on the switch, select the
MVR VLAN, add the multicast groups that will stream traffic to attached hosts, and
then click Apply.
Figure 15-6 MVR Global Configuration
15-10
Multicast VLAN Registration
15
CLI – This example first enables IGMP snooping, enables MVR globally, and then
configures a range of MVR group addresses.
33-2
33-12
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#mvr
Console(config)#mvr group 228.1.23.1 10
Console(config)#
Displaying MVR Interface Status
You can display information about the interfaces attached to the MVR VLAN.
Field Attributes
• Type – Shows the MVR port type.
• Oper Status – Shows the link status.
• MVR Status – Shows the MVR status. MVR status for source ports is “ACTIVE” if
MVR is globally enabled on the switch. MVR status for receiver ports is “ACTIVE”
only if there are subscribers receiving multicast traffic from one of the MVR groups,
or a multicast group has been statically assigned to an interface.
• Immediate Leave – Shows if immediate leave is enabled or disabled.
• Trunk Member27 – Shows if port is a trunk member.
Web – Click MVR, Port Information or Trunk Information.
Figure 15-7 MVR Port Information
CLI – This example shows information about interfaces attached to the MVR VLAN.
Console#show mvr interface
Port
Type
Status
------- -------------------eth1/1 SOURCE
ACTIVE/UP
eth1/2 RECEIVER
ACTIVE/UP
Console#
33-14
Immediate Leave
--------------Disable
Disable
27. Port Information only.
15-11
15
Multicast Filtering
Configuring MVR Interface Status
Each interface that participates in the MVR VLAN must be configured as an MVR
source port or receiver port. If only one subscriber attached to an interface is
receiving multicast services, you can enable the immediate leave function.
Command Usage
• One or more interfaces may be configured as MVR source ports.
• MVR receiver ports cannot be members of a trunk. Receiver ports can belong to
different VLANs, but should not be configured as a member of the MVR VLAN.
• IGMP snooping can be used to allow a source port or receiver port to dynamically
join or leave multicast groups within the MVR VLAN using the standard rules for
multicast filtering. Multicast groups can also be statically assigned to a source port
or receiver port (see “Assigning Static Multicast Groups to Interfaces” on
page 15-15).
• Immediate leave applies only to receiver ports. When enabled, the receiver port is
immediately removed from the multicast group identified in the leave message.
When immediate leave is disabled, the switch follows the standard rules by
sending a group-specific query to the receiver port and waiting for a response to
determine if there are any remaining subscribers for that multicast group before
removing the port from the group list. Using immediate leave can speed up leave
latency, but should only be enabled on a port attached to one multicast subscriber
to avoid disrupting services to other group members attached to the same
interface. Note that immediate leave does not apply to multicast groups which have
been statically assigned to a port.
Command Attributes
• MVR Type – The following interface types are supported:
- Source – An uplink port that can send and receive multicast data for the groups
assigned to the MVR VLAN.
- Receiver – A subscriber port that can receive multicast data sent through the
MVR VLAN.
- Non-MVR – An interface that does not participate in the MVR VLAN. (This is the
default type.)
• Immediate Leave – Configures the switch to immediately remove an interface
from a multicast stream as soon as it receives a leave message for that group.
• Trunk28 – Shows if port is a trunk member.
28. Port Information only.
15-12
Multicast VLAN Registration
15
Web – Click MVR, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration.
Figure 15-8 MVR Port Configuration
CLI – This example configures an MVR source port and receiver port, and then
enables immediate leave on the receiver port.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#mvr type source
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#mvr type receiver
Console(config-if)#mvr immediate
Console(config-if)#
24-1
33-13
15-13
15
Multicast Filtering
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Groups
You can display the multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN either through
IGMP snooping or static configuration.
Field Attributes
• Group IP – Multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN.
• Group Port List – Shows the interfaces with subscribers for multicast services
provided through the MVR VLAN.
Web – Click MVR, Group IP Information.
Figure 15-9 MVR Group IP Information
CLI – This example following shows information about the interfaces associated with
multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN.
Console#show mvr members
MVR Group IP
Status
---------------- -------225.0.0.1
ACTIVE
225.0.0.2
INACTIVE
225.0.0.3
INACTIVE
225.0.0.4
INACTIVE
225.0.0.5
INACTIVE
225.0.0.6
INACTIVE
225.0.0.7
INACTIVE
225.0.0.8
INACTIVE
225.0.0.9
INACTIVE
225.0.0.10
INACTIVE
Console#
15-14
33-14
Members
------eth1/1(d), eth1/2(s)
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Multicast VLAN Registration
15
Assigning Static Multicast Groups to Interfaces
For multicast streams that will run for a long term and be associated with a stable set
of hosts, you can statically bind the multicast group to the participating interfaces.
Command Usage
• Any multicast groups that use the MVR VLAN must be statically assigned to it
under the MVR Configuration menu (see “Configuring Global MVR Settings” on
page 15-10).
• The IP address range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 is used for multicast
streams. MVR group addresses cannot fall within the reserved IP multicast
address range of 224.0.0.x.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Indicates a port or trunk.
• Member – Shows the IP addresses for MVR multicast groups which have been
statically assigned to the selected interface.
• Non-Member – Shows the IP addresses for all MVR multicast groups which have
not been statically assigned to the selected interface.
Web – Click MVR, Group Member Configuration. Select a port or trunk from the
“Interface” field, and click Query to display the assigned multicast groups. Select a
multicast address from the displayed lists, and click the Add or Remove button to
modify the Member list.
Figure 15-10 MVR Group Member Configuration
CLI – This example statically assigns a multicast group to a receiver port.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#mvr group 228.1.23.1
Console(config-if)#
24-1
33-13
15-15
15
15-16
Multicast Filtering
Chapter 16: Domain Name Service
The Domain Naming System (DNS) service on this switch allows host names to be
mapped to IP addresses using static table entries or by redirection to other name
servers on the network. When a client device designates this switch as a DNS
server, the client will attempt to resolve host names into IP addresses by forwarding
DNS queries to the switch, and waiting for a response.
You can manually configure entries in the DNS table used for mapping domain
names to IP addresses, configure default domain names, or specify one or more
name servers to use for domain name to address translation.
Configuring General DNS Service Parameters
Command Usage
• To enable DNS service on this switch, configure one or more name servers, and
enable domain lookup status.
• To append domain names to incomplete host names received from a DNS client
(i.e., not formatted with dotted notation), you can specify a default domain name or
a list of domain names to be tried in sequential order.
• If there is no domain list, the default domain name is used. If there is a domain list,
the system will search it for a corresponding entry. If none is found, it will use the
default domain name..
• When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS service on this switch and
a domain name list has been specified, the switch will work through the domain list,
appending each domain name in the list to the host name, and checking with the
specified name servers for a match.
• When more than one name server is specified, the servers are queried in the
specified sequence until a response is received, or the end of the list is reached
with no response.
• If all name servers are deleted, DNS will automatically be disabled. This is done by
disabling the domain lookup status.
Command Attributes
• Domain Lookup Status – Enables DNS host name-to-address translation.
• Default Domain Name29 – Defines the default domain name appended to
incomplete host names. (Range: 1-63 alphanumeric characters)
• Domain Name List29 – Defines a list of domain names that can be appended to
incomplete host names. (Range: 1-63 alphanumeric characters. 1-5 names)
• Name Server List – Specifies the address of one or more domain name servers
to use for name-to-address resolution. (Range: 1-6 IP addresses)
29. Do not include the initial dot that separates the host name from the domain name.
16-1
16
Domain Name Service
Web – Select DNS, General Configuration. Set the default domain name or list of
domain names, specify one or more name servers to use to use for address
resolution, enable domain lookup status, and click Apply.
Figure 16-1 DNS General Configuration
CLI - This example sets a default domain name and a domain list. However,
remember that if a domain list is specified, the default domain name is not used.
Console(config)#ip domain-name sample.com
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.uk
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.jp
Console(config)#ip name-server 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#ip domain-lookup
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.uk
.sample.com.jp
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
16-2
34-3
34-3
34-4
34-5
34-7
Configuring Static DNS Host to Address Entries
16
Configuring Static DNS Host to Address Entries
You can manually configure static entries in the DNS table that are used to map
domain names to IP addresses.
Command Usage
• Static entries may be used for local devices connected directly to the attached
network, or for commonly used resources located elsewhere on the network.
• Servers or other network devices may support one or more connections via
multiple IP addresses. If more than one IP address is associated with a host name
in the static table or via information returned from a name server, a DNS client can
try each address in succession, until it establishes a connection with the target
device.
Field Attributes
• Host Name – Name of a host device that is mapped to one or more IP addresses.
(Range: 1-127 characters)
• IP Address – Internet address(es) associated with a host name.
(Range: 1-8 addresses)
• Alias – Displays the host names that are mapped to the same address(es) as a
previously configured entry.
16-3
16
Domain Name Service
Web – Select DNS, Static Host Table. Enter a host name and one or more
corresponding addresses, then click Apply.
Figure 16-2 DNS Static Host Table
CLI - This example maps two address to a host name, and then configures an alias
host name for the same addresses.
Console(config)#ip host rd5 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#ip host rd6 10.1.0.55
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
1.rd6
Console#
16-4
34-1
34-6
Displaying the DNS Cache
16
Displaying the DNS Cache
You can display entries in the DNS cache that have been learned via the designated
name servers.
Field Attributes
• No – The entry number for each resource record.
• Flag – The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
• Type – This field includes CNAME which specifies the canonical or primary name
for the owner, and ALIAS which specifies multiple domain names which are
mapped to the same IP address as an existing entry.
• IP – The IP address associated with this record.
• TTL – The time to live reported by the name server.
• Domain – The domain name associated with this record.
Web – Select DNS, Cache.
Figure 16-3 DNS Cache
16-5
16
Domain Name Service
CLI - This example displays all the resource records learned from the designated
name servers.
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
0
4
CNAME
1
4
CNAME
2
4
CNAME
3
4
CNAME
4
4
CNAME
5
4
ALIAS
6
4
CNAME
7
4
ALIAS
8
4
CNAME
9
4
ALIAS
10
4
CNAME
Console#
16-6
IP
207.46.134.222
207.46.134.190
207.46.134.155
207.46.249.222
207.46.249.27
POINTER TO:4
207.46.68.27
POINTER TO:6
65.54.131.192
POINTER TO:8
165.193.72.190
TTL
51
51
51
51
51
51
71964
71964
605
605
87
34-7
DOMAIN
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.com
msn.com.tw
www.msn.com.tw
passportimages.com
www.passportimages.com
global.msads.net
Section III:Command Line Interface
This section provides a detailed description of the Command Line Interface, along
with examples for all of the commands.
Overview of Command Line Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
General Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
System Management Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
SNMP Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1
User Authentication Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1
Client Security Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1
Access Control List Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
Interface Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1
Link Aggregation Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1
Mirror Port Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1
Rate Limit Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-1
Address Table Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-1
Spanning Tree Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-1
VLAN Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-1
Class of Service Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-1
Quality of Service Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-1
Multicast Filtering Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-1
Domain Name Service Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-1
IP Interface Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-1
Command Line Interface
Chapter 17: Overview of Command Line Interface
This chapter describes how to use the Command Line Interface (CLI).
Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
When accessing the management interface for the switch over a direct connection
to the server’s console port, or via a Telnet connection, the switch can be managed
by entering command keywords and parameters at the prompt. Using the switch's
command-line interface (CLI) is very similar to entering commands on a UNIX
system.
Console Connection
To access the switch through the console port, perform these steps:
1.
At the console prompt, enter the user name and password. (The default user
names are “admin” and “guest” with corresponding passwords of “admin” and
“guest.”) When the administrator user name and password is entered, the CLI
displays the “Console#” prompt and enters privileged access mode
(i.e., Privileged Exec). But when the guest user name and password is entered,
the CLI displays the “Console>” prompt and enters normal access mode
(i.e., Normal Exec).
2.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
3.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After connecting to the system through the console port, the login screen displays:
User Access Verification
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the Layer 2 Ethernet Metro Access Switch* is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
* Most of the interface examples in this manual are based on the ES3528. There is no
significant difference in the interface provided for the ES3528 and ES3528-WDM.
Telnet Connection
Telnet operates over the IP transport protocol. In this environment, your
management station and any network device you want to manage over the network
must have a valid IP address. Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255,
separated by periods. Each address consists of a network portion and host portion.
For example, the IP address assigned to this switch, 10.1.0.1, consists of a network
portion (10.1.0) and a host portion (1).
17-1
17
Overview of Command Line Interface
Note: The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default.
To access the switch through a Telnet session, you must first set the IP address for
the Master unit, and set the default gateway if you are managing the switch from a
different IP subnet. For example,
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.0.254
If your corporate network is connected to another network outside your office or to
the Internet, you need to apply for a registered IP address. However, if you are
attached to an isolated network, then you can use any IP address that matches the
network segment to which you are attached.
After you configure the switch with an IP address, you can open a Telnet session by
performing these steps:
1.
From the remote host, enter the Telnet command and the IP address of the
device you want to access.
2.
At the prompt, enter the user name and system password. The CLI will display
the “Vty-n#” prompt for the administrator to show that you are using privileged
access mode (i.e., Privileged Exec), or “Vty-n>” for the guest to show that you
are using normal access mode (i.e., Normal Exec), where n indicates the
number of the current Telnet session.
3.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
4.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After entering the Telnet command, the login screen displays:
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the Layer 2 Ethernet Metro Access Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Vty-0#
Note: You can open up to four sessions to the device via Telnet.
17-2
Entering Commands
17
Entering Commands
This section describes how to enter CLI commands.
Keywords and Arguments
A CLI command is a series of keywords and arguments. Keywords identify a
command, and arguments specify configuration parameters. For example, in the
command “show interfaces status ethernet 1/5,” show interfaces and status are
keywords, ethernet is an argument that specifies the interface type, and 1/5
specifies the unit/port.
You can enter commands as follows:
• To enter a simple command, enter the command keyword.
• To enter multiple commands, enter each command in the required order. For
example, to enable Privileged Exec command mode, and display the startup
configuration, enter:
Console>enable
Console#show startup-config
• To enter commands that require parameters, enter the required parameters after
the command keyword. For example, to set a password for the administrator,
enter:
Console(config)#username admin password 0 smith
Minimum Abbreviation
The CLI will accept a minimum number of characters that uniquely identify a
command. For example, the command “configure” can be entered as con. If an
entry is ambiguous, the system will prompt for further input.
Command Completion
If you terminate input with a Tab key, the CLI will print the remaining characters of a
partial keyword up to the point of ambiguity. In the “logging history” example, typing
log followed by a tab will result in printing the command up to “logging.”
Getting Help on Commands
You can display a brief description of the help system by entering the help
command. You can also display command syntax by using the “?” character to list
keywords or parameters.
17-3
17
Overview of Command Line Interface
Showing Commands
If you enter a “?” at the command prompt, the system will display the first level of
keywords for the current command class (Normal Exec or Privileged Exec) or
configuration class (Global, ACL, Interface, Line, or VLAN Database, or MSTP). You
can also display a list of valid keywords for a specific command. For example, the
command “show ?” displays a list of possible show commands:
Console#show ?
access-group
access-list
arp
bridge-ext
calendar
class-map
dns
dot1q-tunnel
dot1x
garp
gvrp
history
hosts
interfaces
ip
lacp
line
log
logging
mac
mac-address-table
management
map
mvr
policy-map
port
protocol-vlan
public-key
pvlan
queue
radius-server
rate-limit
running-config
snmp
sntp
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
system
tacacs-server
users
version
vlan
Console#show
17-4
Access groups
Access lists
Information of ARP cache
Bridge extend information
Date information
Display class maps
DNS information
802.1Q tunnel ports information
Show 802.1x content
GARP property
Show GARP information of interface
Information of history
Host information
Information of interfaces
IP information
Show LACP statistic
TTY line information
Login records
Show the contents of logging buffers
MAC access lists
Set configuration of the address table
Show management IP filter
Map priority
Show mvr interface information
Display policy maps
Characteristics of the port
Protocol-VLAN information
Show information of public key
Information of private VLAN
Information of priority queue
RADIUS server information
Display rate limit for CoS priorities
The system configuration of running
SNMP statistics
SNTP
Specify spanning-tree
Secure shell
The system configuration of starting up
Information of system
Login by TACACS server
Display information about terminal lines
System hardware and software status
Switch VLAN Virtual Interface
Entering Commands
17
The command “show interfaces ?” will display the following information:
Console#show interfaces ?
counters
Information of interfaces counters
protocol-vlan Protocol-vlan information
status
Information of interfaces status
switchport
Information of interfaces switchport
Console#
Partial Keyword Lookup
If you terminate a partial keyword with a question mark, alternatives that match the
initial letters are provided. (Remember not to leave a space between the command
and question mark.) For example “s?” shows all the keywords starting with “s.”
Console#show s?
snmp
sntp
system
Console#sh s
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
Negating the Effect of Commands
For many configuration commands you can enter the prefix keyword “no” to cancel
the effect of a command or reset the configuration to the default value. For example,
the logging command will log system messages to a host server. To disable
logging, specify the no logging command. This guide describes the negation effect
for all applicable commands.
Using Command History
The CLI maintains a history of commands that have been entered. You can scroll
back through the history of commands by pressing the up arrow key. Any command
displayed in the history list can be executed again, or first modified and then
executed.
Using the show history command displays a longer list of recently executed
commands.
17-5
17
Overview of Command Line Interface
Understanding Command Modes
The command set is divided into Exec and Configuration classes. Exec commands
generally display information on system status or clear statistical counters.
Configuration commands, on the other hand, modify interface parameters or enable
certain switching functions. These classes are further divided into different modes.
Available commands depend on the selected mode. You can always enter a
question mark “?” at the prompt to display a list of the commands available for the
current mode. The command classes and associated modes are displayed in the
following table:
Table 17-1 General Command Modes
Class
Mode
Exec
Normal
Privileged
Configuration
Global*
Access Control List
Class Map
Interface
Line
Multiple Spanning Tree
Policy Map
VLAN Database
* You must be in Privileged Exec mode to access the Global configuration mode.
You must be in Global Configuration mode to access any of the other configuration modes.
Exec Commands
When you open a new console session on the switch with the user name and
password “guest,” the system enters the Normal Exec command mode (or guest
mode), displaying the “Console>” command prompt. Only a limited number of the
commands are available in this mode. You can access all commands only from the
Privileged Exec command mode (or administrator mode). To access Privilege Exec
mode, open a new console session with the user name and password “admin.” The
system will now display the “Console#” command prompt. You can also enter
Privileged Exec mode from within Normal Exec mode, by entering the enable
command, followed by the privileged level password “super” (page 21-3).
To enter Privileged Exec mode, enter the following user names and passwords:
Username: admin
Password: [admin login password]
CLI session with the Layer 2 Ethernet Metro Access Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
17-6
Entering Commands
17
Username: guest
Password: [guest login password]
CLI session with the Layer 2 Ethernet Metro Access Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console>enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
Configuration Commands
Configuration commands are privileged level commands used to modify switch
settings. These commands modify the running configuration only and are not saved
when the switch is rebooted. To store the running configuration in non-volatile
storage, use the copy running-config startup-config command.
The configuration commands are organized into different modes:
• Global Configuration - These commands modify the system level configuration,
and include commands such as hostname and snmp-server community.
• Access Control List Configuration - These commands are used for packet filtering.
• Class Map Configuration - Creates a DiffServ class map for a specified traffic type.
• Interface Configuration - These commands modify the port configuration such as
speed-duplex and negotiation.
• Line Configuration - These commands modify the console port and Telnet
configuration, and include command such as parity and databits.
• Multiple Spanning Tree Configuration - These commands configure settings for the
selected multiple spanning tree instance.
• Policy Map Configuration - Creates a DiffServ policy map for multiple interfaces.
• VLAN Configuration - Includes the command to create VLAN groups.
To enter the Global Configuration mode, enter the command configure in Privileged
Exec mode. The system prompt will change to “Console(config)#” which gives you
access privilege to all Global Configuration commands.
Console#configure
Console(config)#
17-7
17
Overview of Command Line Interface
To enter the other modes, at the configuration prompt type one of the following
commands. Use the exit or end command to return to the Privileged Exec mode.
Table 17-2 Configuration Command Modes
Mode
Command
Prompt
Line
line {console | vty}
Console(config-line)
Page
19-19
Access
Control List
access-list ip standard
access-list ip extended
access-list ip mask-precedence
access-list mac
access-list mac mask-precedence
Console(config-std-acl)
Console(config-ext-acl)
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)
Console(config-mac-acl)
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)
23-2
23-2
23-6
23-12
23-15
Class Map
class map
Console(config-cmap)
Interface
interface {ethernet port | port-channel id| vlan id} Console(config-if)
24-1
MSTP
spanning-tree mst-configuration
Console(config-mstp)
29-7
Policy Map
policy map
Console(config-pmap)
32-4
VLAN
vlan database
Console(config-vlan)
30-6
32-2
For example, you can use the following commands to enter interface configuration
mode, and then return to Privileged Exec mode
Console(config)#interface
ethernet 1/5
.
.
.
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#
17-8
Entering Commands
17
Command Line Processing
Commands are not case sensitive. You can abbreviate commands and parameters
as long as they contain enough letters to differentiate them from any other currently
available commands or parameters. You can use the Tab key to complete partial
commands, or enter a partial command followed by the “?” character to display a list
of possible matches. You can also use the following editing keystrokes for
command-line processing:
Table 17-3 Keystroke Commands
Keystroke
Function
Ctrl-A
Shifts cursor to start of command line.
Ctrl-B
Shifts cursor to the left one character.
Ctrl-C
Terminates the current task and displays the command prompt.
Ctrl-E
Shifts cursor to end of command line.
Ctrl-F
Shifts cursor to the right one character.
Ctrl-K
Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the line.
Ctrl-L
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-N
Enters the next command line in the history buffer.
Ctrl-P
Enters the last command.
Ctrl-R
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-U
Deletes from the cursor to the beginning of the line.
Ctrl-W
Deletes the last word typed.
Esc-B
Moves the cursor back one word.
Esc-D
Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word.
Esc-F
Moves the cursor forward one word.
Delete key or backspace key
Erases a mistake when entering a command.
17-9
17
Overview of Command Line Interface
Command Groups
The system commands can be broken down into the functional groups shown below.
Table 17-4 Command Group Index
Command Group
Description
General
Basic commands for entering privileged access mode, restarting the
system, or quitting the CLI
18-1
System Management
Display and setting of system information, basic modes of operation,
maximum frame size, file management, console port and telnet
settings, system logs, SMTP alerts, and the system clock
19-1
Simple Network
Management Protocol
Activates authentication failure traps; configures community access
strings, and trap receivers
20-1
User Authentication
Configures user names and passwords, logon access using local or
remote authentication, management access through the web server,
Telnet server and Secure Shell; as well as port security, IEEE 802.1X
port access control, and restricted access based on specified IP
addresses
21-1
Access Control List
Provides filtering for IPv4 frames (based on address, protocol, TCP/
UDP port number or TCP control code), or non-IP frames (based on
MAC address or Ethernet type)
23-1
Interface
Configures the connection parameters for all Ethernet ports,
aggregated links, and VLANs
24-1
Link Aggregation
Statically groups multiple ports into a single logical trunk; configures
Link Aggregation Control Protocol for port trunks
25-1
Mirror Port
Mirrors data to another port for analysis without affecting the data
passing through or the performance of the monitored port
26-1
Rate Limit
Controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or received on a port
27-1
Address Table
Configures the address table for filtering specified addresses, displays
current entries, clears the table, or sets the aging time
28-1
Spanning Tree
Configures Spanning Tree settings for the switch
29-1
VLANs
Configures VLAN settings, and defines port membership for VLAN
groups; also enables or configures private VLANs, protocol VLANs,
and QinQ tunneling
30-1
Class of Service
Sets port priority for untagged frames, selects strict priority or weighted
round robin, relative weight for each priority queue, also sets priority for
TCP/UDP traffic types, IP precedence, and DSCP
31-1
Quality of Service
Configures Differentiated Services
32-1
Multicast Filtering
Configures IGMP multicast filtering, query parameters, and specifies
ports attached to a multicast router
33-1
Domain Name Service
Configures DNS services.
34-1
IP Interface
Configures IP address for the switch
35-1
17-10
Page
Command Groups
17
The access mode shown in the following tables is indicated by these abbreviations:
ACL (Access Control List Configuration)
CM (Class Map Configuration)
NE (Normal Exec)
GC (Global Configuration)
IC (Interface Configuration)
LC (Line Configuration)
MST (Multiple Spanning Tree)
PE (Privileged Exec)
PM (Policy Map Configuration)
VC (VLAN Database Configuration)
17-11
17
17-12
Overview of Command Line Interface
Chapter 18: General Commands
These commands are used to control the command access mode, configuration
mode, and other basic functions.
Table 18-1 General Commands
Command
Function
Mode
enable
Activates privileged mode
NE
Page
18-1
disable
Returns to normal mode from privileged mode
PE
18-2
configure
Activates global configuration mode
PE
18-2
show history
Shows the command history buffer
NE, PE
18-3
reload
Restarts the system
PE
18-4
prompt
Customizes the CLI prompt
GC
18-4
end
Returns to Privileged Exec mode
any
config.
mode
18-4
exit
Returns to the previous configuration mode, or exits the CLI
any
18-5
quit
Exits a CLI session
NE, PE
18-5
help
Shows how to use help
any
NA
?
Shows options for command completion (context sensitive)
any
NA
enable
This command activates Privileged Exec mode. In privileged mode, additional
commands are available, and certain commands display additional information. See
“Understanding Command Modes” on page 17-6.
Syntax
enable [level]
level - Privilege level to log into the device.
The device has two predefined privilege levels: 0: Normal Exec,
15: Privileged Exec. Enter level 15 to access Privileged Exec mode.
Default Setting
Level 15
Command Mode
Normal Exec
Command Usage
• “super” is the default password required to change the command mode from
Normal Exec to Privileged Exec. (To set this password, see the enable
password command on page 21-3.)
18-1
18
General Commands
• The “#” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the
system is in privileged access mode.
Example
Console>enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
Related Commands
disable (18-2)
enable password (21-3)
disable
This command returns to Normal Exec mode from privileged mode. In normal
access mode, you can only display basic information on the switch's configuration or
Ethernet statistics. To gain access to all commands, you must use the privileged
mode. See “Understanding Command Modes” on page 17-6.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The “>” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the
system is in normal access mode.
Example
Console#disable
Console>
Related Commands
enable (18-1)
configure
This command activates Global Configuration mode. You must enter this mode to
modify any settings on the switch. You must also enter Global Configuration mode
prior to enabling some of the other configuration modes, including Interface
Configuration, Line Configuration, VLAN Database Configuration, and Multiple
Spanning Tree Configuration. See “Understanding Command Modes” on page 17-6.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
18-2
show history
18
Example
Console#configure
Console(config)#
Related Commands
end (18-4)
show history
This command shows the contents of the command history buffer.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The history buffer size is fixed at 10 Execution commands and
10 Configuration commands.
Example
In this example, the show history command lists the contents of the command
history buffer:
Console#show history
Execution command history:
2 config
1 show history
Configuration command history:
4 interface vlan 1
3 exit
2 interface vlan 1
1 end
Console#
The ! command repeats commands from the Execution command history buffer
when you are in Normal Exec or Privileged Exec Mode, and commands from the
Configuration command history buffer when you are in any of the configuration
modes. In this example, the !2 command repeats the second command in the
Execution history buffer (config).
Console#!2
Console#config
Console(config)#
18-3
18
General Commands
reload
This command restarts the system.
Note: When the system is restarted, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test. It will also
retain all configuration information stored in non-volatile memory by the copy
running-config startup-config command.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command resets the entire system.
Example
This example shows how to reset the switch:
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
prompt
This command customizes the CLI prompt. Use the no form to restore the default
prompt.
Syntax
prompt string
no prompt
string - Any alphanumeric string to use for the CLI prompt.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
Console
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#prompt RD2
RD2(config)#
end
This command returns to Privileged Exec mode.
Default Setting
None
18-4
exit
18
Command Mode
Global Configuration, Interface Configuration, Line Configuration, VLAN
Database Configuration, and Multiple Spanning Tree Configuration.
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Interface
Configuration mode:
Console(config-if)#end
Console#
exit
This command returns to the previous configuration mode or exits the configuration
program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Any
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Global
Configuration mode, and then quit the CLI session:
Console(config)#exit
Console#exit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
quit
This command exits the configuration program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The quit and exit commands can both exit the configuration program.
18-5
18
General Commands
Example
This example shows how to quit a CLI session:
Console#quit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
18-6
Chapter 19: System Management Commands
These commands are used to control system logs, passwords, user names,
management options, and display or configure a variety of other system information.
Table 19-1 System Management Commands
Command Group
Function
Device Designation
Configures information that uniquely identifies this switch
Page
19-1
System Status
Displays system configuration, active managers, and version information
19-2
System Mode
Configures the switch to operate in normal mode or QinQ mode
19-8
System MTU
Enables support for jumbo frames; sets the maximum transfer unit size
File Management
Manages code image or ECN330-switch configuration files
19-10
Line
Sets communication parameters for the serial port, including baud rate and
console time-out
19-19
19-9
Event Logging
Controls logging of error messages
19-28
SMTP Alerts
Configures SMTP email alerts
19-34
Time (System Clock)
Sets the system clock automatically via NTP/SNTP server or manually
19-37
Device Designation Commands
This section describes commands used to configure information that uniquely
identifies the switch.
Table 19-2 Device Designation Commands
Command
Function
Mode
hostname
Specifies the host name for the switch
GC
Page
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
20-4
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
20-4
19-1
hostname
This command specifies or modifies the host name for this device. Use the no form
to restore the default host name.
Syntax
hostname name
no hostname
name - The name of this host. (Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
19-1
19
System Management Commands
Example
Console(config)#hostname RD#1
Console(config)#
System Status Commands
This section describes commands used to display system information.
Table 19-3 System Status Commands
Command
Function
Mode
show startup-config
Displays the contents of the configuration file (stored in flash
memory) that is used to start up the system
PE
Page
19-2
show running-config
Displays the configuration data currently in use
PE
19-4
show system
Displays system information
NE, PE
19-6
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user
name, idle time, and IP address of Telnet clients
NE, PE
19-7
show version
Displays version information for the system
NE, PE
19-7
show startup-config
This command displays the configuration file stored in non-volatile memory that is
used to start up the system.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use this command in conjunction with the show running-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in
non-volatile memory.
• This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group
is separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command,
and corresponding commands. This command displays the following
information:
-
19-2
MAC address for the switch
SNTP server settings
SNMP community strings
Users (names and access levels)
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
Multiple spanning tree instances (name and interfaces)
System Status Commands
-
19
IP address
Layer 4 precedence settings
Spanning tree settings
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
Example
Console#show startup-config
building startup-config, please wait.....
!<stackingDB>00</stackingDB>
!<stackingMac>01_00-12-cf-21-dc-e0_01</stackingMac>
!
phymap 00-12-cf-21-dc-e0
!
SNTP server 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
!
snmp-server community public ro
snmp-server community private rw!
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 7 21232f297a57a5a743894a0e4a801fc3
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 7 084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4
enable password level 15 7 1b3231655cebb7a1f783eddf27d254ca
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
!
spanning-tree MST configuration
!
interface ethernet 1/1
switchport allowed vlan add 1 untagged
switchport native vlan 1
.
.
.
interface vlan 1
ip address dhcp
!
no map IP precedence
no map IP DSCP
!
line console
!
line VTY
!
end
Console#
Related Commands
show running-config (19-4)
19-3
19
System Management Commands
show running-config
This command displays the configuration information currently in use.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use this command in conjunction with the show startup-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in
non-volatile memory.
• This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group
is separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command,
and corresponding commands. This command displays the following
information:
-
19-4
MAC address for the switch
SNTP server settings
SNMP community strings
Users (names, access levels, and encrypted passwords)
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
Multiple spanning tree instances (name and interfaces)
IP address
Layer 4 precedence settings
Spanning tree settings
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
System Status Commands
19
Example
Console#show running-config
building running-config, please wait.....
!<stackingDB>00</stackingDB>
!<stackingMac>01_00-12-cf-21-dc-e0_01</stackingMac>
!
phymap 00-12-cf-21-dc-e0
!
SNTP server 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
!
snmp-server community private rw
snmp-server community public ro
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 7 21232f297a57a5a743894a0e4a801fc3
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 7 084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4
enable password level 15 7 1b3231655cebb7a1f783eddf27d254ca
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
!
spanning-tree MST-configuration
!
interface ethernet 1/1
switchport allowed vlan add 1 untagged
switchport native vlan 1
.
.
.
interface vlan 1
IP address DHCP
!
no map IP precedence
no map IP DSCP
!
line console
line vty
!
end
Console#
Related Commands
show startup-config (19-2)
19-5
19
System Management Commands
show system
This command displays system information.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• For a description of the items shown by this command, refer to “Displaying
System Information” on page 4-1.
• The POST results should all display “PASS.” If any POST test indicates
“FAIL,” contact your distributor for assistance.
Example
Console#show system
System Description: 24 port Ethernet Metro Access Switch*
System OID String: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.2†
System information
System Up time: 0 days, 1 hours, 23 minutes, and 44.61 seconds
System Name
: [NONE]
System Location
: [NONE]
System Contact
: [NONE]
MAC Address (Unit1):
00-20-1A-DF-9C-A0
MAC Address (Unit2):
00-20-1A-DF-9E-C0
Web Server:
Enabled
Web Server Port:
80
Web Secure Server:
Enabled
Web Secure Server Port: 443
Telnet Server:
Enable
Telnet Server Port:
23
Jumbo Frame:
Disabled
Power Module A Status
: UP
Power Module B Status
: Not present
Power Module A Type
:
Power Module B Type
: [None]
Fan(1)
: OK
Fan(2)
: OK
Fan(3)
: OK
POST Result:
DUMMY Test 1 .................
UART Loopback Test ...........
DRAM Test ....................
Timer Test ...................
PCI Device 1 Test ............
I2C Bus Initialization .......
Switch Int Loopback Test .....
Fan Speed Test ...............
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
Done All Pass.
Console#
* ES3528 System Description: 24 port WDM Metro Access Switch
† ES3528-WDM System OID String: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.8.2.3
19-6
System Status Commands
19
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user name, idle time, and IP
address of Telnet client.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The session used to execute this command is indicated by a “*” symbol next to
the Line (i.e., session) index number.
Example
Console#show users
Username accounts:
Username Privilege Public-Key
-------- --------- ---------admin
15
None
guest
0
None
steve
15
RSA
Online users:
Line
Username Idle time (h:m:s) Remote IP addr.
----------- -------- ----------------- --------------0
console
admin
0:14:14
* 1
VTY 0
admin
0:00:00
192.168.1.19
2
SSH 1
steve
0:00:06
192.168.1.19
Web online users:
Line
Remote IP addr Username Idle time (h:m:s).
----------- -------------- -------- -----------------1
HTTP
192.168.1.19
admin
0:00:00
Console#
show version
This command displays hardware and software version information for the system.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See “Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions” on page 4-6 for detailed
information on the items displayed by this command.
19-7
19
System Management Commands
Example
Console#show version
Unit 1
Serial Number:
Hardware Version:
EPLD Version:
Number of Ports:
0000E8900000
R01
0.01
29
Agent (Master)
Unit ID:
Loader Version:
Boot ROM Version:
Operation Code Version:
1
1.0.0.1
1.0.0.7
1.0.1.7
Console#
System Mode Commands
This section describes command used to configure the switch to operate in normal
mode or QinQ mode.
Table 19-4 System Mode Commands
Command
Function
system mode
Configures the switch to operate in normal mode or QinQ mode GC
Mode
19-8
show system mode
Displays the switch system mode
19-9
GC
Page
system mode
This command sets the switch to operate in QinQ mode. Use the no form to restore
the default setting of normal operating mode.
Syntax
system mode qinq
no system mode
qinq – Sets the switch to QinQ mode, and allows the dot1q tunnel port to
be configured. For an explanation of QinQ, see “Configuring IEEE 802.1Q
Tunneling” on page 30-20.
Default Setting
No system mode is set; the switch functions in normal operating mode.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Make sure that no dot1q-tunnel port is configured before exiting QinQ mode
(see “switchport mode dot1q-tunnel” on page 30-21). If there are any
dot1q-tunnel ports set on the switch, the no system mode command will fail.
19-8
System MTU Commands
19
Example
Console(config)#system mode qinq
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show system mode (19-9)
show system mode
This command displays the switch system mode.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The system mode displays as QinQ or Normal mode.
Example
Console(config)#system mode qinq
Console(config)#end
Console#show system mode
System mode is QinQ mode
Console#
Related Commands
system mode (19-8)
System MTU Commands
This section describes commands used to configure the Ethernet frame size on the
switch.
Table 19-5 Frame Size Commands
Command
Function
Mode
jumbo frame
Enables support for jumbo frames
GC
Page
19-10
system mtu
Sets the maximum transfer unit
GC
19-11
show system mtu
Shows the maximum transfer unit size for Fast Ethernet and
Gigabit Ethernet ports
GC
19-11
19-9
19
System Management Commands
jumbo frame
This command enables support for extended frame sizes on Fast Ethernet and
Gigabit Ethernet ports. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] jumbo frame
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• This switch provides more efficient throughput for large sequential data
transfers by supporting jumbo frames on Gigabit Ethernet ports of up to 9216
bytes. Compared to standard Ethernet frames that run only up to 1.5 KB,
using jumbo frames for local Gigabit Ethernet connections significantly
reduces the per-packet overhead required to process protocol encapsulation
fields.
• Frame sizes for Fast Ethernet ports can be extended up to 1546 bytes, and
are used primarily to allow for additional header fields – not to significantly
increase the per-packet data size. These Fast Ethernet extended fames and
are more often called “baby jumbo frames.”
• To use jumbo frames, both the source and destination end nodes (such as a
computer or server) must support this feature. Also, when the connection is
operating at full duplex, all switches in the network between the two end nodes
must be able to accept the extended frame size. And for half-duplex
connections, all devices in the collision domain would need to support jumbo
frames.
• After setting the jumbo frame size with the system mtu or system mtu jumbo
command (page 19-11), remember to use the jumbo frame command to
implement the new setting by enabling jumbo frames.
• The current setting for jumbo frames can be displayed with the show system
command (page 19-6).
Example
Console(config)#jumbo frame
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show system mtu (19-11)
19-10
System MTU Commands
19
system mtu
This command sets the maximum transfer unit for traffic crossing the switch. Use the
no form to restore the default settings.
Syntax
system mtu {FE-size | jumbo GE-size}
no system mtu
• FE-size - Specifies the MTU size for Fast Ethernet ports.
(Range: 1500-1546 bytes)
• GE-size - Specifies the jumbo frame size (MTU) for Gigabit Ethernet ports.
(Range: 1500-9216 bytes)
Default Setting
1522 bytes
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Gigabit Ethernet ports are not affected by the system mtu FE-size command.
Fast Ethernet ports are not affected by the system mtu jumbo command.
• After setting the jumbo frame size with the system mtu or system mtu jumbo
command, remember to use the jumbo frame command (page 19-10) to
implement the new setting by enabling jumbo frames.
Example
Console(config)#system mtu 1528
Console(config)#
Related Commands
jumbo frame (19-10)
show system mtu (19-11)
show system mtu
This command shows the maximum transfer unit size for Fast Ethernet and Gigabit
Ethernet ports.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
19-11
19
System Management Commands
Example
Console#show system mtu
System MTU size is 1500 bytes
System Jumbo MTU size is 1500 bytes
Console#
File Management Commands
Managing Firmware
Firmware can be uploaded and downloaded to or from a TFTP server. By saving
runtime code to a file on a TFTP server, that file can later be downloaded to the
switch to restore operation. The switch can also be set to use new firmware without
overwriting the previous version.
When downloading runtime code, the destination file name can be specified to
replace the current image, or the file can be first downloaded using a different name
from the current runtime code file, and then the new file set as the startup file.
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
Configuration settings can be uploaded and downloaded to and from a TFTP server.
The configuration file can be later downloaded to restore switch settings.
The configuration file can be downloaded under a new file name and then set as the
startup file, or the current startup configuration file can be specified as the
destination file to directly replace it. Note that the file “Factory_Default_Config.cfg”
can be copied to the TFTP server, but cannot be used as the destination on the
switch.
Table 19-6 Flash/File Commands
Command
Function
Mode
copy
Copies a code image or a switch configuration to or from flash
memory or a TFTP server
PE
Page
19-13
delete
Deletes a file or code image
PE
19-15
dir
Displays a list of files in flash memory
PE
19-16
whichboot
Displays the files booted
PE
19-17
boot system
Specifies the file or image used to start up the system
GC
19-17
19-12
File Management Commands
19
copy
This command moves (upload/download) a code image or configuration file
between the switch’s flash memory and a TFTP server. When you save the system
code or configuration settings to a file on a TFTP server, that file can later be
downloaded to the switch to restore system operation. The success of the file
transfer depends on the accessibility of the TFTP server and the quality of the
network connection.
Syntax
copy file {file | running-config | startup-config | tftp}
copy running-config {file | startup-config | tftp}
copy startup-config {file | running-config | tftp}
copy tftp {file | running-config | startup-config | https-certificate |
public-key}
• file - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a file.
• running-config - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from the current
running configuration.
• startup-config - The configuration used for system initialization.
• tftp - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a TFTP server.
• https-certificate - Keyword that allows you to copy the HTTPS secure site
certificate.
• public-key - Keyword that allows you to copy a SSH key from a TFTP
server. (See “Secure Shell Commands” on page 21-15.)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• The system prompts for data required to complete the copy command.
• The destination file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter
of the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file
names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on the
switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
• Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two
operation code files.
• The maximum number of user-defined configuration files depends on
available memory.
• You can use “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” as the source to copy from the
factory default configuration file, but you cannot use it as the destination.
• To replace the startup configuration, you must use startup-config as the
destination.
19-13
19
System Management Commands
• The Boot ROM and Loader cannot be uploaded or downloaded from the TFTP
server. You must follow the instructions in the release notes for new firmware,
or contact your distributor for help.
• For information on specifying an https-certificate, see “Replacing the Default
Secure-site Certificate” on page 6-6. For information on configuring the switch
to use HTTPS for a secure connection, see “ip http secure-server” on
page 21-12.
Example
The following example shows how to download new firmware from a TFTP server:
Console#copy tftp file
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 2
Source file name: V3.1.16.20.BIX
Destination file name: V311620
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to upload the configuration settings to a file on
the TFTP server:
Console#copy file tftp
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: startup
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Destination file name: startup.01
TFTP completed.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to copy the running configuration to a startup file.
Console#copy running-config file
destination file name: startup
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
19-14
File Management Commands
19
The following example shows how to download a configuration file:
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Source configuration file name: startup.01
Startup configuration file name [startup]:
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
This example shows how to copy a secure-site certificate from an TFTP server. It
then reboots the switch to activate the certificate:
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Source certificate file name: SS-certificate
Source private file name: SS-private
Private password: ********
Success.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
This example shows how to copy a public-key used by SSH from an TFTP server.
Note that public key authentication via SSH is only supported for users configured
locally on the switch.
Console#copy tftp public-key
TFTP server IP address: 192.168.1.19
Choose public key type:
1. RSA: 2. DSA: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: steve.pub
Username: steve
TFTP Download
Success.
Write to FLASH Programming.
Success.
Console#
delete
This command deletes a file or image.
Syntax
delete filename
• filename - Name of configuration file or code image.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
19-15
19
System Management Commands
Command Usage
• If the file type is used for system startup, then this file cannot be deleted.
• “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” cannot be deleted.
Example
This example shows how to delete the test2.cfg configuration file from flash memory.
Console#delete test2.cfg
Console#
Related Commands
dir (19-16)
delete public-key (21-20)
dir
This command displays a list of files in flash memory.
Syntax
dir {{boot-rom: | config: | opcode:} [filename]}
The type of file or image to display includes:
•
•
•
•
boot-rom - Boot ROM (or diagnostic) image file.
config - Switch configuration file.
opcode - Run-time operation code image file.
filename - Name of configuration file or code image. If this file exists but
contains errors, information on this file cannot be shown.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• If you enter the command dir without any parameters, the system displays all
files.
• File information is shown below:
Table 19-7 File Directory Information
19-16
Column Heading
Description
file name
The name of the file.
file type
File types: Boot-Rom, Operation Code, and Config file.
startup
Shows if this file is used when the system is started.
size
The length of the file in bytes.
File Management Commands
19
Example
The following example shows how to display all file information:
Console#dir
File name
File type
Startup Size (byte)
-------------------------------------------------- ------- ----------Unit1:
D1.0.0.7.bix
Boot-Rom Image Y
1159752
V1.0.1.7.bix
Operation Code Y
3542608
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config File
N
526
startup1.cfg
Config File
Y
3256
--------------------------------------------------------------------------Total free space: 10223616
Console#
whichboot
This command displays which files were booted when the system powered up.
Syntax
whichboot
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the information displayed by the whichboot command. See
the table under the dir command for a description of the file information displayed by
this command.
Console#whichboot
File name
File type Startup Size (byte)
-------------------------------- -------------- ------- ----------Unit1:
D1.0.0.7.bix
Boot-Rom Image Y
V1.0.1.7.bix
Operation Code Y
startup1.cfg
Config File
Y
Console#
1159752
3542608
3256
boot system
This command specifies the file or image used to start up the system.
Syntax
boot system {boot-rom| config | opcode}: filename
The type of file or image to set as a default includes:
•
•
•
•
boot-rom* - Boot ROM.
config* - Configuration file.
opcode* - Run-time operation code.
filename - Name of configuration file or code image.
19-17
19
System Management Commands
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If the file contains an error, it cannot be set as the default file.
Example
Console(config)#boot system config: startup
Console(config)#
Related Commands
dir (19-16)
whichboot (19-17)
19-18
Line Commands
19
Line Commands
You can access the onboard configuration program by attaching a VT100
compatible device to the server’s serial port. These commands are used to set
communication parameters for the serial port or Telnet (i.e., a virtual terminal).
Table 19-8 Line Commands
Command
Function
Mode
line
Identifies a specific line for configuration and starts the line
configuration mode
GC
19-19
login
Enables password checking at login
LC
19-20
password
Specifies a password on a line
LC
19-21
timeout login
response
Sets the interval that the system waits for a login attempt
LC
19-22
exec-timeout
Sets the interval that the command interpreter waits until user
input is detected
LC
19-22
password-thresh
Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the number of LC
failed logon attempts
19-23
silent-time*
Sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible LC
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the
threshold set by the password-thresh command
19-24
databits*
Sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and LC
generated by hardware
19-24
parity*
Defines the generation of a parity bit
19-25
speed*
Sets the terminal baud rate
LC
19-25
stopbits*
Sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte
LC
19-26
disconnect
Terminates a line connection
PE
19-26
show line
Displays a terminal line's parameters
NE, PE
19-27
LC
Page
* These commands only apply to the serial port.
line
This command identifies a specific line for configuration, and to process subsequent
line configuration commands.
Syntax
line {console | vty}
• console - Console terminal line.
• vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access (i.e., Telnet).
Default Setting
There is no default line.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
19-19
19
System Management Commands
Command Usage
Telnet is considered a virtual terminal connection and will be shown as “VTY”
in screen displays such as show users. However, the serial communication
parameters (e.g., databits) do not affect Telnet connections.
Example
To enter console line mode, enter the following command:
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
show line (19-27)
show users (19-7)
login
This command enables password checking at login. Use the no form to disable
password checking and allow connections without a password.
Syntax
login [local]
no login
local - Selects local password checking. Authentication is based on the
user name specified with the username command.
Default Setting
login local
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• There are three authentication modes provided by the switch itself at login:
- login selects authentication by a single global password as specified by the
password line configuration command. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
- login local selects authentication via the user name and password
specified by the username command (i.e., default setting). When using this
method, the management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) or Privileged
Exec (PE) mode, depending on the user’s privilege level (0 or 15
respectively).
- no login selects no authentication. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
• This command controls login authentication via the switch itself. To configure
user names and passwords for remote authentication servers, you must use
the RADIUS or TACACS software installed on those servers.
19-20
Line Commands
19
Example
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
username (21-2)
password (19-21)
password
This command specifies the password for a line. Use the no form to remove the
password.
Syntax
password {0 | 7} password
no password
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password
• password - Character string that specifies the line password.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
No password is specified.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• When a connection is started on a line with password protection, the system
prompts for the password. If you enter the correct password, the system
shows a prompt. You can use the password-thresh command to set the
number of times a user can enter an incorrect password before the system
terminates the line connection and returns the terminal to the idle state.
• The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file
during system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP
server. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
login (19-20)
password-thresh (19-23)
19-21
19
System Management Commands
timeout login response
This command sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into the CLI.
Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
timeout login response [seconds]
no timeout login response
seconds - Integer that specifies the timeout interval.
(Range: 0 - 300 seconds; 0: disabled)
Default Setting
• CLI: Disabled (0 seconds)
• Telnet: 300 seconds
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the connection is
terminated for the session.
• This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
• The timeout for Telnet cannot be disabled.
• Using the command without specifying a timeout restores the default setting.
Example
To set the timeout to two minutes, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#timeout login response 120
Console(config-line)#
exec-timeout
This command sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
exec-timeout [seconds]
no exec-timeout
seconds - Integer that specifies the timeout interval.
(Range: 0 - 65535 seconds; 0: no timeout)
Default Setting
CLI: No timeout
Telnet: 10 minutes
Command Mode
Line Configuration
19-22
Line Commands
19
Command Usage
• If user input is detected within the timeout interval, the session is kept open;
otherwise the session is terminated.
• This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
• The timeout for Telnet cannot be disabled.
• Using the command without specifying a timeout restores the default setting.
Example
To set the timeout to two minutes, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 120
Console(config-line)#
password-thresh
This command sets the password intrusion threshold which limits the number of
failed logon attempts. Use the no form to remove the threshold value.
Syntax
password-thresh [threshold]
no password-thresh
threshold - The number of allowed password attempts.
(Range: 1-120; 0: no threshold)
Default Setting
The default value is three attempts.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the system interface becomes
silent for a specified amount of time before allowing the next logon attempt.
(Use the silent-time command to set this interval.) When this threshold is
reached for Telnet, the Telnet logon interface shuts down.
Example
To set the password threshold to five attempts, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 5
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
silent-time (19-24)
19-23
19
System Management Commands
silent-time
This command sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the threshold set by the
password-thresh command. Use the no form to remove the silent time value.
Syntax
silent-time [seconds]
no silent-time
seconds - The number of seconds to disable console response.
(Range: 0-65535; 0: no silent-time)
Default Setting
The default value is no silent-time.
Command Mode
Line Configuration (console only)
Example
To set the silent time to 60 seconds, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#silent-time 60
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
password-thresh (19-23)
databits
This command sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and
generated by the console port. Use the no form to restore the default value.
Syntax
databits {7 | 8}
no databits
• 7 - Seven data bits per character.
• 8 - Eight data bits per character.
Default Setting
8 data bits per character
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
The databits command can be used to mask the high bit on input from
devices that generate 7 data bits with parity. If parity is being generated,
specify 7 data bits per character. If no parity is required, specify 8 data bits per
character.
19-24
Line Commands
19
Example
To specify 7 data bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#databits 7
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
parity (19-25)
parity
This command defines the generation of a parity bit. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
parity {none | even | odd}
no parity
• none - No parity
• even - Even parity
• odd - Odd parity
Default Setting
No parity
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
Communication protocols provided by devices such as terminals and modems
often require a specific parity bit setting.
Example
To specify no parity, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#parity none
Console(config-line)#
speed
This command sets the terminal line’s baud rate. This command sets both the
transmit (to terminal) and receive (from terminal) speeds. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
speed bps
no speed
bps - Baud rate in bits per second.
(Options: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200 bps, or auto)
19-25
19
System Management Commands
Default Setting
auto
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
Set the speed to match the baud rate of the device connected to the serial
port. Some baud rates available on devices connected to the port might not be
supported. The system indicates if the speed you selected is not supported. If
you select the “auto” option, the switch will automatically detect the baud rate
configured on the attached terminal, and adjust the speed accordingly.
Example
To specify 57600 bps, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#speed 57600
Console(config-line)#
stopbits
This command sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte. Use the no
form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
stopbits {1 | 2}
• 1 - One stop bit
• 2 - Two stop bits
Default Setting
1 stop bit
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
To specify 2 stop bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#stopbits 2
Console(config-line)#
disconnect
This command terminates an SSH, Telnet, or console connection.
Syntax
disconnect session-id
session-id – The session identifier for an SSH, Telnet or console
connection. (Range: 0-4)
19-26
Line Commands
19
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Specifying session identifier “0” will disconnect the console connection.
Specifying any other identifiers for an active session will disconnect an SSH or
Telnet connection.
Example
Console#disconnect 1
Console#
Related Commands
show ssh (21-22)
show users (19-7)
show line
This command displays the terminal line’s parameters.
Syntax
show line [console | vty]
• console - Console terminal line.
• vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access (i.e., Telnet).
Default Setting
Shows all lines
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
To show all lines, enter this command:
Console#show line
Console configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: Disabled
Login timeout: Disabled
Silent time:
Disabled
Baudrate:
auto
Databits:
8
Parity:
none
Stopbits:
1
VTY configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: 600 sec
Login timeout: 300 sec
Console#
19-27
19
System Management Commands
Event Logging Commands
This section describes commands used to configure event logging on the switch.
Table 19-9 Event Logging Commands
Command
Function
Mode
logging on
Controls logging of error messages
GC
Page
19-28
logging history
Limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on
severity
GC
19-29
logging host
Adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging
messages
GC
19-30
logging facility
Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages
GC
19-30
logging trap
Limits syslog messages saved to a remote server based on
severity
GC
19-31
clear log
Clears messages from the logging buffer
PE
19-31
show logging
Displays the state of logging
PE
19-32
show log
Displays log messages
PE
19-33
logging on
This command controls logging of error messages, sending debug or error
messages to a logging process. The no form disables the logging process.
Syntax
[no] logging on
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The logging process controls error messages saved to switch memory or sent
to remote syslog servers. You can use the logging history command to
control the type of error messages that are stored in memory. You can use the
logging trap command to control the type of error messages that are sent to
specified syslog servers.
Example
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#
Related Commands
logging history (19-29)
logging trap (19-31)
clear log (19-31)
19-28
Event Logging Commands
19
logging history
This command limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on severity.
The no form returns the logging of syslog messages to the default level.
Syntax
logging history {flash | ram} level
no logging history {flash | ram}
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
• level - One of the levels listed below. Messages sent include the selected
level down to level 0. (Range: 0-7)
Table 19-10 Logging Levels
Level
Severity Name
Description
7
debugging
Debugging messages
6
informational
Informational messages only
5
notifications
Normal but significant condition, such as cold start
4
warnings
Warning conditions (e.g., return false, unexpected return)
3
errors
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default used)
2
critical
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or free
memory error - resource exhausted)
1
alerts
Immediate action needed
0
emergencies
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware release.
Default Setting
Flash: errors (level 3 - 0)
RAM: warnings (level 7 - 0)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The message level specified for flash memory must be a higher priority (i.e.,
numerically lower) than that specified for RAM.
Example
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#
19-29
19
System Management Commands
logging host
This command adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging
messages. Use the no form to remove a syslog server host.
Syntax
[no] logging host host_ip_address
host_ip_address - The IP address of a syslog server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Use this command more than once to build up a list of host IP addresses.
• The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
Example
Console(config)#logging host 10.1.0.3
Console(config)#
logging facility
This command sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages. Use the
no form to return the type to the default.
Syntax
[no] logging facility type
type - A number that indicates the facility used by the syslog server to
dispatch log messages to an appropriate service. (Range: 16-23)
Default Setting
23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The command specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages. (See
RFC 3164.) This type has no effect on the kind of messages reported by the
switch. However, it may be used by the syslog server to sort messages or to
store messages in the corresponding database.
Example
Console(config)#logging facility 19
Console(config)#
19-30
Event Logging Commands
19
logging trap
This command enables the logging of system messages to a remote server, or
limits the syslog messages saved to a remote server based on severity. Use this
command without a specified level to enable remote logging. Use the no form to
disable remote logging.
Syntax
logging trap [level]
no logging trap
level - One of the syslog severity levels listed in the table on page 19-29.
Messages sent include the selected level up through level 0.
Default Setting
• Disabled
• Level 7 - 0
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Using this command with a specified level enables remote logging and sets
the minimum severity level to be saved.
• Using this command without a specified level also enables remote logging, but
restores the minimum severity level to the default.
Example
Console(config)#logging trap 4
Console(config)#
clear log
This command clears messages from the log buffer.
Syntax
clear log [flash | ram]
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
Default Setting
Flash and RAM
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear log
Console#
19-31
19
System Management Commands
Related Commands
show log (19-33)
show logging
This command displays the configuration settings for logging messages to local
switch memory, to an SMTP event handler, or to a remote syslog server.
Syntax
show logging {flash | ram | sendmail | trap}
• flash - Displays settings for storing event messages in flash memory
(i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Displays settings for storing event messages in temporary RAM
(i.e., memory flushed on power reset).
• sendmail - Displays settings for the SMTP event handler (page 19-37).
• trap - Displays settings for the trap function.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows that system logging is enabled, the message level for
flash memory is “errors” (i.e., default level 3 - 0), and the message level for RAM is
“debugging” (i.e., default level 7 - 0).
Console#show logging flash
Syslog logging:
Enabled
History logging in FLASH: level errors
Console#show logging ram
Syslog logging:
Enabled
History logging in RAM: level debugging
Console#
Table 19-11 show logging flash/ram - display description
Field
Description
Syslog logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on command.
History logging in FLASH The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
History logging in RAM
19-32
The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
Event Logging Commands
19
The following example displays settings for the trap function.
Console#show logging trap
Syslog logging: Enable
REMOTELOG status: disable
REMOTELOG facility type: local use 7
REMOTELOG level type:
Debugging messages
REMOTELOG server IP address: 1.2.3.4
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
Console#
Table 19-12 show logging trap - display description
Field
Description
Syslog logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on command.
REMOTELOG status
Shows if remote logging has been enabled via the logging trap command.
REMOTELOG
facility type
The facility type for remote logging of syslog messages as specified in the
logging facility command.
REMOTELOG level type The severity threshold for syslog messages sent to a remote server as specified
in the logging trap command.
REMOTELOG
server IP address
The address of syslog servers as specified in the logging host command.
Related Commands
show logging sendmail (19-37)
show log
This command displays the log messages stored in local memory.
Syntax
show log {flash | ram}
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
19-33
19
System Management Commands
Example
The following example shows the event message stored in RAM.
Console#show log ram
[1] 00:01:30 2001-01-01
"VLAN 1 link-up notification."
level: 6, module: 5, function: 1, and event no.: 1
[0] 00:01:30 2001-01-01
"Unit 1, Port 1 link-up notification."
level: 6, module: 5, function: 1, and event no.: 1
Console#
SMTP Alert Commands
These commands configure SMTP event handling, and forwarding of alert
messages to the specified SMTP servers and email recipients.
Table 19-13 SMTP Alert Commands
Command
Function
Mode
logging sendmail host
SMTP servers to receive alert messages
GC
Page
19-34
logging sendmail level
Severity threshold used to trigger alert messages
GC
19-35
logging sendmail
source-email
Email address used for “From” field of alert messages
GC
19-35
logging sendmail
destination-email
Email recipients of alert messages
GC
19-36
logging sendmail
Enables SMTP event handling
GC
19-36
show logging sendmail
Displays SMTP event handler settings
NE, PE
19-37
logging sendmail host
This command specifies SMTP servers that will be sent alert messages. Use the no
form to remove an SMTP server.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail host ip_address
ip_address - IP address of an SMTP server that will be sent alert
messages for event handling.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You can specify up to three SMTP servers for event handing. However, you
must enter a separate command to specify each server.
19-34
SMTP Alert Commands
19
• To send email alerts, the switch first opens a connection, sends all the email
alerts waiting in the queue one by one, and finally closes the connection.
• To open a connection, the switch first selects the server that successfully sent
mail during the last connection, or the first server configured by this command.
If it fails to send mail, the switch selects the next server in the list and tries to
send mail again. If it still fails, the system will repeat the process at a periodic
interval. (A trap will be triggered if the switch cannot successfully open a
connection.)
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail host 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#
logging sendmail level
This command sets the severity threshold used to trigger alert messages.
Syntax
logging sendmail level level
level - One of the system message levels (page 19-29). Messages sent
include the selected level down to level 0. (Range: 0-7; Default: 7)
Default Setting
Level 7
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The specified level indicates an event threshold. All events at this level or
higher will be sent to the configured email recipients. (For example, using
Level 7 will report all events from level 7 to level 0.)
Example
This example will send email alerts for system errors from level 3 through 0.
Console(config)#logging sendmail level 3
Console(config)#
logging sendmail source-email
This command sets the email address used for the “From” field in alert messages.
Syntax
logging sendmail source-email email-address
email-address - The source email address used in alert messages.
(Range: 1-41 characters)
19-35
19
System Management Commands
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You may use an symbolic email address that identifies the switch, or the
address of an administrator responsible for the switch.
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail source-email bill@this-company.com
Console(config)#
logging sendmail destination-email
This command specifies the email recipients of alert messages. Use the no form to
remove a recipient.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail destination-email email-address
email-address - The source email address used in alert messages.
(Range: 1-41 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can specify up to five recipients for alert messages. However, you must
enter a separate command to specify each recipient.
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail destination-email ted@this-company.com
Console(config)#
logging sendmail
This command enables SMTP event handling. Use the no form to disable this
function.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail
Default Setting
Enabled
19-36
Time Commands
19
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail
Console(config)#
show logging sendmail
This command displays the settings for the SMTP event handler.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show logging sendmail
SMTP servers
----------------------------------------------192.168.1.19
SMTP minimum severity level: 7
SMTP destination email addresses
----------------------------------------------ted@this-company.com
SMTP source email address: bill@this-company.com
SMTP status: Enabled
Console#
Time Commands
The system clock can be dynamically set by polling a set of specified time servers
(NTP or SNTP). Maintaining an accurate time on the switch enables the system log
to record meaningful dates and times for event entries. If the clock is not set, the
switch will only record the time from the factory default set at the last bootup.
Table 19-14 Time Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
sntp client
Accepts time from specified time servers
GC
sntp server
Specifies one or more time servers
GC
19-39
sntp poll
Sets the interval at which the client polls for time
GC
19-39
show sntp
Shows current SNTP configuration settings
NE, PE
19-40
19-38
clock timezone
Sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock
GC
19-40
calendar set
Sets the system date and time
PE
19-41
show calendar
Displays the current date and time setting
NE, PE
19-42
19-37
19
System Management Commands
sntp client
This command enables SNTP client requests for time synchronization from NTP or
SNTP time servers specified with the sntp servers command. Use the no form to
disable SNTP client requests.
Syntax
[no] sntp client
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The time acquired from time servers is used to record accurate dates and
times for log events. Without SNTP, the switch only records the time starting
from the factory default set at the last bootup (i.e., 00:00:00, Jan. 1, 2001).
• This command enables client time requests to time servers specified via the
sntp servers command. It issues time synchronization requests based on the
interval set via the sntp poll command.
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#end
Console#show sntp
Current time: Dec 23 02:52:44 2002
Poll interval: 60
Current mode: unicast
SNTP status : Enabled
SNTP server 137.92.140.80 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Current server: 137.92.140.80
Console#
Related Commands
sntp server (19-39)
sntp poll (19-39)
show sntp (19-40)
19-38
Time Commands
19
sntp server
This command sets the IP address of the servers to which SNTP time requests are
issued. Use the this command with no arguments to clear all time servers from the
current list.
Syntax
sntp server [ip1 [ip2 [ip3]]]
ip - IP address of an time server (NTP or SNTP).
(Range: 1 - 3 addresses)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command specifies time servers from which the switch will poll for time
updates when set to SNTP client mode. The client will poll the time servers in
the order specified until a response is received. It issues time synchronization
requests based on the interval set via the sntp poll command.
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client (19-38)
sntp poll (19-39)
show sntp (19-40)
sntp poll
This command sets the interval between sending time requests when the switch is
set to SNTP client mode. Use the no form to restore to the default.
Syntax
sntp poll seconds
no sntp poll
seconds - Interval between time requests. (Range: 16-16384 seconds)
Default Setting
16 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
19-39
19
System Management Commands
Example
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client (19-38)
show sntp
This command displays the current time and configuration settings for the SNTP
client, and indicates whether or not the local time has been properly updated.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the current time, the poll interval used for sending
time synchronization requests, and the current SNTP mode (i.e., unicast).
Example
Console#show sntp
Current time: Dec 23 05:13:28 2002
Poll interval: 16
Current mode: unicast
SNTP status : Enabled
SNTP server 137.92.140.80 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Current server: 137.92.140.80
Console#
clock timezone
This command sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock.
Syntax
clock timezone name hour hours minute minutes {before-utc | after-utc}
•
•
•
•
•
name - Name of timezone, usually an acronym. (Range: 1-29 characters)
hours - Number of hours before/after UTC. (Range: 0-13 hours)
minutes - Number of minutes before/after UTC. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
before-utc - Sets the local time zone before (east) of UTC.
after-utc - Sets the local time zone after (west) of UTC.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
19-40
Time Commands
19
Command Usage
This command sets the local time zone relative to the Coordinated Universal
Time (UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time or GMT), based on the earth’s
prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To display a time corresponding to
your local time, you must indicate the number of hours and minutes your time
zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Example
Console(config)#clock timezone Japan hours 8 minute 0 after-UTC
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show sntp (19-40)
calendar set
This command sets the system clock. It may be used if there is no time server on
your network, or if you have not configured the switch to receive signals from a time
server.
Syntax
calendar set hour min sec {day month year | month day year}
•
•
•
•
•
hour - Hour in 24-hour format. (Range: 0 - 23)
min - Minute. (Range: 0 - 59)
sec - Second. (Range: 0 - 59)
day - Day of month. (Range: 1 - 31)
month - january | february | march | april | may | june | july | august |
september | october | november | december
• year - Year (4-digit). (Range: 2001 - 2100)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows how to set the system clock to 15:12:34, February 1st, 2002.
Console#calendar set 15:12:34 1 February 2002
Console#
19-41
19
System Management Commands
show calendar
This command displays the system clock.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show calendar
15:12:34 February 1 2002
Console#
19-42
Chapter 20: SNMP Commands
Controls access to this switch from management stations using the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP), as well as the error types sent to trap managers.
SNMP Version 3 also provides security features that cover message integrity,
authentication, and encryption; as well as controlling user access to specific areas of
the MIB tree. To use SNMPv3, first set an SNMP engine ID (or accept the default),
specify read and write access views for the MIB tree, configure SNMP user groups
with the required security model (i.e., SNMP v1, v2c or v3) and security level (i.e.,
authentication and privacy), and then assign SNMP users to these groups, along
with their specific authentication and privacy passwords.
Table 20-1 SNMP Commands
Command
Function
Mode
snmp-server
Enables the SNMP agent
GC
Page
20-2
show snmp
Displays the status of SNMP communications
NE, PE
20-2
snmp-server community
Sets up the community access string to permit access to
SNMP commands
GC
20-3
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
20-4
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
20-4
snmp-server host
Specifies the recipient of an SNMP notification operation
GC
20-5
GC
20-7
snmp-server enable traps Enables the device to send SNMP traps (i.e., SNMP
notifications)
snmp-server engine-id
Sets the SNMP engine ID
GC
20-8
show snmp engine-id
Shows the SNMP engine ID
PE
20-9
snmp-server view
Adds an SNMP view
GC
20-10
show snmp view
Shows the SNMP views
PE
20-11
snmp-server group
Adds an SNMP group, mapping users to views
GC
20-11
show snmp group
Shows the SNMP groups
PE
20-12
snmp-server user
Adds a user to an SNMP group
GC
20-14
show snmp user
Shows the SNMP users
PE
20-15
20-1
20
SNMP Commands
snmp-server
This command enables the SNMPv3 engine and services for all management clients
(i.e., versions 1, 2c, 3). Use the no form to disable the server.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server
Console(config)#
show snmp
This command can be used to check the status of SNMP communications.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command provides information on the community access strings, counter
information for SNMP input and output protocol data units, and whether or not
SNMP logging has been enabled with the snmp-server enable traps
command.
20-2
snmp-server community
20
Example
Console#show snmp
SNMP Agent: enabled
SNMP traps:
Authentication: enable
Link-up-down: enable
SNMP communities:
1. private, and the privilege is read-write
2. public, and the privilege is read-only
0 SNMP packets input
0 Bad SNMP version errors
0 Unknown community name
0 Illegal operation for community name supplied
0 Encoding errors
0 Number of requested variables
0 Number of altered variables
0 Get-request PDUs
0 Get-next PDUs
0 Set-request PDUs
0 SNMP packets output
0 Too big errors
0 No such name errors
0 Bad values errors
0 General errors
0 Response PDUs
0 Trap PDUs
SNMP logging: disabled
Console#
snmp-server community
This command defines the SNMP v1 and v2c community access string. Use the no
form to remove the specified community string.
Syntax
snmp-server community string [ro|rw]
no snmp-server community string
• string - Community string that acts like a password and permits access to
the SNMP protocol. (Maximum length: 32 characters, case sensitive;
Maximum number of strings: 5)
• ro - Specifies read-only access. Authorized management stations are only
able to retrieve MIB objects.
• rw - Specifies read/write access. Authorized management stations are able
to both retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Default Setting
• public - Read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
20-3
20
SNMP Commands
• private - Read/write access. Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server community alpha rw
Console(config)#
snmp-server contact
This command sets the system contact string. Use the no form to remove the
system contact information.
Syntax
snmp-server contact string
no snmp-server contact
string - String that describes the system contact information.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server contact Paul
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server location (20-4)
snmp-server location
This command sets the system location string. Use the no form to remove the
location string.
Syntax
snmp-server location text
no snmp-server location
text - String that describes the system location.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
20-4
snmp-server host
20
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC-19
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server contact (20-4)
snmp-server host
This command specifies the recipient of a Simple Network Management Protocol
notification operation. Use the no form to remove the specified host.
Syntax
snmp-server host host-addr [inform [retry retries | timeout seconds]]
community-string [version {1 | 2c | 3 {auth | noauth | priv} [udp-port port]}
no snmp-server host host-addr
• host-addr - Internet address of the host (the targeted recipient).
(Maximum host addresses: 5 trap destination IP address entries)
• inform - Notifications are sent as inform messages. Note that this option is
only available for version 2c and 3 hosts. (Default: traps are used)
- retries - The maximum number of times to resend an inform message if
the recipient does not acknowledge receipt. (Range: 0-255; Default: 3)
- seconds - The number of seconds to wait for an acknowledgment before
resending an inform message. (Range: 0-2147483647 centiseconds;
Default: 1500 centiseconds)
• community-string - Password-like community string sent with the
notification operation to SNMP V1 and V2c hosts. Although you can set this
string using the snmp-server host command by itself, we recommend that
you define this string using the snmp-server community command prior
to using the snmp-server host command. (Maximum length:
32 characters)
• version - Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP Version 1, 2c or
3 traps. (Range: 1, 2c, 3; Default: 1)
- auth | noauth | priv - This group uses SNMPv3 with authentication, no
authentication, or with authentication and privacy. See “Simple Network
Management Protocol” on page 5-1 for further information about these
authentication and encryption options.
• port - Host UDP port to use. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 162)
Default Setting
• Host Address: None
• Notification Type: Traps
20-5
20
SNMP Commands
• SNMP Version: 1
• UDP Port: 162
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If you do not enter an snmp-server host command, no notifications are sent.
In order to configure the switch to send SNMP notifications, you must enter at
least one snmp-server host command. In order to enable multiple hosts, you
must issue a separate snmp-server host command for each host.
• The snmp-server host command is used in conjunction with the
snmp-server enable traps command. Use the snmp-server enable traps
command to enable the sending of traps or informs and to specify which
SNMP notifications are sent globally. For a host to receive notifications, at
least one snmp-server enable traps command and the snmp-server host
command for that host must be enabled.
• Some notification types cannot be controlled with the snmp-server enable
traps command. For example, some notification types are always enabled.
• Notifications are issued by the switch as trap messages by default. The
recipient of a trap message does not send a response to the switch. Traps are
therefore not as reliable as inform messages, which include a request for
acknowledgement of receipt. Informs can be used to ensure that critical
information is received by the host. However, note that informs consume more
system resources because they must be kept in memory until a response is
received. Informs also add to network traffic. You should consider these
effects when deciding whether to issue notifications as traps or informs.
To send an inform to a SNMPv2c host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 20-2).
2. Allow the switch to send SNMP traps; i.e., notifications (page 20-7).
3. Specify the target host that will receive inform messages with the
snmp-server host command as described in this section.
4. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 20-10).
5. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 20-11).
To send an inform to a SNMPv3 host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 20-2).
2. Allow the switch to send SNMP traps; i.e., notifications (page 20-7).
3. Specify the target host that will receive inform messages with the
snmp-server host command as described in this section.
4. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 20-10).
5. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 20-11).
6. Specify a remote engine ID where the user resides (page 20-8).
7. Then configure a remote user (page 20-14).
• The switch can send SNMP Version 1, 2c or 3 notifications to a host IP
address, depending on the SNMP version that the management station
20-6
snmp-server enable traps
20
supports. If the snmp-server host command does not specify the SNMP
version, the default is to send SNMP version 1 notifications.
• If you specify an SNMP Version 3 host, then the community string is
interpreted as an SNMP user name. If you use the V3 “auth” or “priv” options,
the user name must first be defined with the snmp-server user command.
Otherwise, the authentication password and/or privacy password will not
exist, and the switch will not authorize SNMP access for the host. However, if
you specify a V3 host with the “noauth” option, an SNMP user account will be
generated, and the switch will authorize SNMP access for the host.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server enable traps (20-7)
snmp-server enable traps
This command enables this device to send Simple Network Management Protocol
traps or informs (i.e., SNMP notifications). Use the no form to disable SNMP
notifications.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server enable traps [authentication | link-up-down]
• authentication - Keyword to issue authentication failure notifications.
• link-up-down - Keyword to issue link-up or link-down notifications.
Default Setting
Issue authentication and link-up-down traps.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If you do not enter an snmp-server enable traps command, no notifications
controlled by this command are sent. In order to configure this device to send
SNMP notifications, you must enter at least one snmp-server enable traps
command. If you enter the command with no keywords, both authentication
and link-up-down notifications are enabled. If you enter the command with a
keyword, only the notification type related to that keyword is enabled.
• The snmp-server enable traps command is used in conjunction with the
snmp-server host command. Use the snmp-server host command to
specify which host or hosts receive SNMP notifications. In order to send
notifications, you must configure at least one snmp-server host command.
• The authentication, link-up, and link-down traps are legacy notifications, and
therefore when used for SNMP Version 3 hosts, they must be enabled in
20-7
20
SNMP Commands
conjunction with the corresponding entries in the Notify View assigned by the
snmp-server group command (page 20-11).
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps link-up-down
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server host (20-5)
snmp-server engine-id
This command configures an identification string for the SNMPv3 engine. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax
snmp-server engine-id {local | remote {ip-address}} engineid-string
no snmp-server engine-id {local | remote {ip-address}}
•
•
•
•
local - Specifies the SNMP engine on this switch.
remote - Specifies an SNMP engine on a remote device.
ip-address - The Internet address of the remote device.
engineid-string - String identifying the engine ID.
(Range: 10-64 hexadecimal characters)
Default Setting
A unique engine ID is automatically generated by the switch based on its MAC
address.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• An SNMP engine is an independent SNMP agent that resides either on this
switch or on a remote device. This engine protects against message replay,
delay, and redirection. The engine ID is also used in combination with user
passwords to generate the security keys for authenticating and encrypting
SNMPv3 packets.
• A remote engine ID is required when using SNMPv3 informs. (See
snmp-server host on page 20-5.) The remote engine ID is used to compute
the security digest for authenticating and encrypting packets sent to a user on
the remote host. SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the
authoritative agent. For informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote
agent. You therefore need to configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID
before you can send proxy requests or informs to it.
• Trailing zeroes need not be entered to uniquely specify a engine ID. In other
words, the value “0123456789” is equivalent to “0123456789” followed by 22
zeroes.
20-8
show snmp engine-id
20
• A local engine ID is automatically generated that is unique to the switch. This
is referred to as the default engine ID. If the local engine ID is deleted or
changed, all SNMP users will be cleared. You will need to reconfigure all
existing users (page 20-14).
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server engine-id local 12345
Console(config)#snmp-server engineID remote 54321 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server host (20-5)
show snmp engine-id
This command shows the SNMP engine ID.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the default engine ID.
Console#show snmp engine-id
Local SNMP engineID: 8000002a8000000000e8666672
Local SNMP engineBoots: 1
Remote SNMP engineID
80000000030004e2b316c54321
Console#
IP address
192.168.1.19
Table 20-2 show snmp engine-id - display description
Field
Description
Local SNMP engineID
String identifying the engine ID.
Local SNMP engineBoots The number of times that the engine has (re-)initialized since the snmp EngineID
was last configured.
Remote SNMP engineID
String identifying an engine ID on a remote device.
IP address
IP address of the device containing the corresponding remote SNMP engine.
20-9
20
SNMP Commands
snmp-server view
This command adds an SNMP view which controls user access to the MIB. Use the
no form to remove an SNMP view.
Syntax
snmp-server view view-name oid-tree {included | excluded}
no snmp-server view view-name
• view-name - Name of an SNMP view. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• oid-tree - Object identifier of a branch within the MIB tree. Wild cards can
be used to mask a specific portion of the OID string. (Refer to the
examples.)
• included - Defines an included view.
• excluded - Defines an excluded view.
Default Setting
defaultview (includes access to the entire MIB tree)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Views are used in the snmp-server group command to restrict user access
to specified portions of the MIB tree.
• The predefined view “defaultview” includes access to the entire MIB tree.
Examples
This view includes MIB-2.
Console(config)#snmp-server view mib-2 1.3.6.1.2.1 included
Console(config)#
This view includes the MIB-2 interfaces table, ifDescr. The wild card is used to select
all the index values in this table.
Console(config)#snmp-server view ifEntry.2 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.*.2 included
Console(config)#
This view includes the MIB-2 interfaces table, and the mask selects all index entries.
Console(config)#snmp-server view ifEntry.a 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.* included
Console(config)#
20-10
show snmp view
20
show snmp view
This command shows information on the SNMP views.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp view
View Name: mib-2
Subtree OID: 1.2.2.3.6.2.1
View Type: included
Storage Type: permanent
Row Status: active
View Name: defaultview
Subtree OID: 1
View Type: included
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Console#
Table 20-3 show snmp view - display description
Field
Description
View Name
Name of an SNMP view.
Subtree OID
A branch in the MIB tree.
View Type
Indicates if the view is included or excluded.
Storage Type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
snmp-server group
This command adds an SNMP group, mapping SNMP users to SNMP views. Use
the no form to remove an SNMP group.
Syntax
snmp-server group groupname {v1 | v2c | v3 {auth | noauth | priv}}
[read readview] [write writeview] [notify notifyview]
no snmp-server group groupname
• groupname - Name of an SNMP group. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• v1 | v2c | v3 - Use SNMP version 1, 2c or 3.
• auth | noauth | priv - This group uses SNMPv3 with authentication, no
authentication, or with authentication and privacy. See “Simple Network
Management Protocol” on page 5-1 for further information about these
authentication and encryption options.
• readview - Defines the view for read access. (1-64 characters)
• writeview - Defines the view for write access. (1-64 characters)
• notifyview - Defines the view for notifications. (1-64 characters)
20-11
20
SNMP Commands
Default Setting
•
•
•
•
Default groups: public30 (read only), private31 (read/write)
readview - Every object belonging to the Internet OID space (1.3.6.1).
writeview - Nothing is defined.
notifyview - Nothing is defined.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• A group sets the access policy for the assigned users.
• When authentication is selected, the MD5 or SHA algorithm is used as
specified in the snmp-server user command.
• When privacy is selected, the DES 56-bit algorithm is used for data encryption.
• For additional information on the notification messages supported by this
switch, see “Supported Notification Messages” on page 5-13. Also, note that
the authentication, link-up and link-down messages are legacy traps and must
therefore be enabled in conjunction with the snmp-server enable traps
command (page 20-7).
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server group r&d v3 auth write daily
Console(config)#
show snmp group
Four default groups are provided – SNMPv1 read-only access and read/write
access, and SNMPv2c read-only access and read/write access.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp group
Group Name: r&d
Security Model: v3
Read View: defaultview
Write View: daily
Notify View: none
Storage Type: permanent
Row Status: active
Group Name: public
Security Model: v1
Read View: defaultview
Write View: none
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
30. No view is defined.
31. Maps to the defaultview.
20-12
show snmp group
20
Group Name: public
Security Model: v2c
Read View: defaultview
Write View: none
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Group Name: private
Security Model: v1
Read View: defaultview
Write View: defaultview
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Group Name: private
Security Model: v2c
Read View: defaultview
Write View: defaultview
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Console#
Table 20-4 show snmp group - display description
Field
Description
groupname
Name of an SNMP group.
security model
The SNMP version.
readview
The associated read view.
writeview
The associated write view.
notifyview
The associated notify view.
storage-type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
20-13
20
SNMP Commands
snmp-server user
This command adds a user to an SNMP group, restricting the user to a specific
SNMP Read, Write, or Notify View. Use the no form to remove a user from an SNMP
group.
Syntax
snmp-server user username groupname [remote ip-address] {v1 | v2c | v3
[encrypted] [auth {md5 | sha} auth-password [priv des56 priv-password]]
no snmp-server user username {v1 | v2c | v3 | remote}
• username - Name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• groupname - Name of an SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• remote - Specifies an SNMP engine on a remote device.
• ip-address - The Internet address of the remote device.
• v1 | v2c | v3 - Use SNMP version 1, 2c or 3.
• encrypted - Accepts the password as encrypted input.
• auth - Uses SNMPv3 with authentication.
• md5 | sha - Uses MD5 or SHA authentication.
• auth-password - Authentication password. Enter as plain text if the
encrypted option is not used. Otherwise, enter an encrypted password.
(A minimum of eight characters is required.)
• priv des56 - Uses SNMPv3 with privacy with DES56 encryption.
• priv-password - Privacy password. Enter as plain text if the encrypted
option is not used. Otherwise, enter an encrypted password.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The SNMP engine ID is used to compute the authentication/privacy digests
from the password. You should therefore configure the engine ID with the
snmp-server engine-id command before using this configuration command.
• Before you configure a remote user, use the snmp-server engine-id
command (page 20-8) to specify the engine ID for the remote device where
the user resides. Then use the snmp-server user command to specify the
user and the IP address for the remote device where the user resides. The
remote agent’s SNMP engine ID is used to compute authentication/privacy
digests from the user’s password. If the remote engine ID is not first configured,
the snmp-server user command specifying a remote user will fail.
• SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the authoritative agent.
For informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote agent. You therefore
20-14
show snmp user
20
need to configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID before you can send
proxy requests or informs to it.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server user steve group r&d v3 auth md5 greenpeace
priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#snmp-server user mark group r&d remote 192.168.1.19 v3
auth md5 greenpeace priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#
show snmp user
This command shows information on SNMP users.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp user
EngineId: 800000ca030030f1df9ca00000
User Name: steve
Authentication Protocol: md5
Privacy Protocol: des56
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
SNMP remote user
EngineId: 80000000030004e2b316c54321
User Name: mark
Authentication Protocol: mdt
Privacy Protocol: des56
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
Table 20-5 show snmp user - display description
Field
Description
EngineId
String identifying the engine ID.
User Name
Name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
Authentication Protocol
The authentication protocol used with SNMPv3.
Privacy Protocol
The privacy protocol used with SNMPv3.
Storage Type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
SNMP remote user
A user associated with an SNMP engine on a remote device.
20-15
20
20-16
SNMP Commands
Chapter 21: User Authentication Commands
You can configure this switch to authenticate users logging into the system for
management access using local or remote authentication methods. Port-based
authentication using IEEE 802.1X can also be configured to control either
management access to the uplink ports or client access32 to the data ports.
Table 21-1 Authentication Commands
Command Group
Function
User Accounts
Configures the basic user names and passwords for management
access
Page
21-1
Authentication Sequence
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
21-4
RADIUS Client
Configures settings for authentication via a RADIUS server
21-6
TACACS+ Client
Configures settings for authentication via a TACACS+ server
Web Server Settings
Enables management access via a web browser
21-9
Telnet Server Settings
Enables management access via Telnet
21-14
Secure Shell Settings
Provides secure replacement for Telnet
21-15
21-11
Port Authentication
Configures host authentication on specific ports using 802.1X
21-24
IP Filter
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
21-33
User Account Commands
The basic commands required for management access are listed in this section.
This switch also includes other options for password checking via the console or a
Telnet connection (page 19-19), user authentication via a remote authentication
server (page 21-1), and host access authentication for specific ports (page 21-24).
Table 21-2 User Access Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
username
Establishes a user name-based authentication system at login
GC
21-2
enable password
Sets a password to control access to the Privileged Exec level
GC
21-3
32. For other methods of controlling client access, see “Client Security Commands” on page
22-1.
21-1
21
User Authentication Commands
username
This command adds named users, requires authentication at login, specifies or
changes a user's password (or specify that no password is required), or specifies or
changes a user's access level. Use the no form to remove a user name.
Syntax
username name {access-level level | nopassword |
password {0 | 7} password}
no username name
• name - The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters, case sensitive. Maximum users: 16)
• access-level level - Specifies the user level.
The device has two predefined privilege levels:
0: Normal Exec, 15: Privileged Exec.
• nopassword - No password is required for this user to log in.
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
• password password - The authentication password for the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
• The default access level is Normal Exec.
• The factory defaults for the user names and passwords are:
Table 21-3 Default Login Settings
username
access-level
password
guest
admin
0
15
guest
admin
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file during
system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP server.
There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
This example shows how the set the access level and password for a user.
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
21-2
User Account Commands
21
enable password
After initially logging onto the system, you should set the Privileged Exec password.
Remember to record it in a safe place. This command controls access to the
Privileged Exec level from the Normal Exec level. Use the no form to reset the
default password.
Syntax
enable password [level level] {0 | 7} password
no enable password [level level]
• level level - Level 15 for Privileged Exec. (Levels 0-14 are not used.)
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
• password - password for this privilege level.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
• The default is level 15.
• The default password is “super”
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You cannot set a null password. You will have to enter a password to change
the command mode from Normal Exec to Privileged Exec with the enable
command (page 18-1).
• The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file
during system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP
server. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config)#enable password level 15 0 admin
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable (18-1)
authentication enable (21-5)
21-3
21
User Authentication Commands
Authentication Sequence
Three authentication methods can be specified to authenticate users logging into the
system for management access. The commands in this section can be used to
define the authentication method and sequence.
Table 21-4 Authentication Sequence Commands
Command
Function
Mode
authentication login
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
GC
Page
21-4
authentication enable
Defines the authentication method and precedence for
command mode change
GC
21-5
authentication login
This command defines the login authentication method and precedence. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication login {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication login
• local - Use local password.
• radius - Use RADIUS server password.
• tacacs - Use TACACS server password.
Default Setting
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort
delivery, while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that
RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the
client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level
for each user name and password pair. The user name, password, and
privilege level must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate
the authentication sequence. For example, if you enter “authentication login
radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the RADIUS server is
verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is
attempted on the TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server is not available,
the local user name and password is checked.
21-4
Authentication Sequence
21
Example
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
username - for setting the local user names and passwords (21-2)
authentication enable
This command defines the authentication method and precedence to use when
changing from Exec command mode to Privileged Exec command mode with the
enable command (see page 18-1). Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication enable {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication enable
• local - Use local password only.
• radius - Use RADIUS server password only.
• tacacs - Use TACACS server password.
Default Setting
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort
delivery, while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that
RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the
client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level
for each user name and password pair. The user name, password, and
privilege level must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate
the authentication sequence. For example, if you enter “authentication
enable radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the RADIUS
server is verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then
authentication is attempted on the TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server
is not available, the local user name and password is checked.
Example
Console(config)#authentication enable radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable password - sets the password for changing command modes (21-3)
21-5
21
User Authentication Commands
RADIUS Client
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) is a logon authentication
protocol that uses software running on a central server to control access to
RADIUS-aware devices on the network. An authentication server contains a
database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege levels for
each user or group that require management access to a switch.
Table 21-5 RADIUS Client Commands
Command
Function
Mode
radius-server host
Specifies the RADIUS server
GC
Page
21-6
radius-server port
Sets the RADIUS server network port
GC
21-7
radius-server key
Sets the RADIUS encryption key
GC
21-7
radius-server retransmit
Sets the number of retries
GC
21-8
radius-server timeout
Sets the interval between sending authentication requests GC
21-8
show radius-server
Shows the current RADIUS settings
21-8
PE
radius-server host
This command specifies primary and backup RADIUS servers and authentication
parameters that apply to each server. Use the no form to restore the default values.
Syntax
[no] radius-server index host {host_ip_address | host_alias}
[auth-port auth_port] [timeout timeout] [retransmit retransmit] [key key]
• index - Allows you to specify up to five servers. These servers are queried
in sequence until a server responds or the retransmit period expires.
• host_ip_address - IP address of server.
• host_alias - Symbolic name of server. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
• port_number - RADIUS server UDP port used for authentication
messages. (Range: 1-65535)
• timeout - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply before resending
a request. (Range: 1-65535)
• retransmit - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate logon access
via the RADIUS server. (Range: 1-30)
• key - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client. Do not
use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 48 characters)
Default Setting
• auth-port - 1812
• timeout - 5 seconds
• retransmit - 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
21-6
RADIUS Client
21
Example
Console(config)#radius-server 1 host 192.168.1.20 port 181 timeout 10
retransmit 5 key green
Console(config)#
radius-server port
This command sets the RADIUS server network port. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server port port_number
no radius-server port
port_number - RADIUS server UDP port used for authentication
messages. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
1812
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server port 181
Console(config)#
radius-server key
This command sets the RADIUS encryption key. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server key key_string
no radius-server key
key_string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client.
Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 48 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#
21-7
21
User Authentication Commands
radius-server retransmit
This command sets the number of retries. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server retransmit number_of_retries
no radius-server retransmit
number_of_retries - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate
logon access via the RADIUS server. (Range: 1 - 30)
Default Setting
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#
radius-server timeout
This command sets the interval between transmitting authentication requests to the
RADIUS server. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server timeout number_of_seconds
no radius-server timeout
number_of_seconds - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply
before resending a request. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
5
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console(config)#
show radius-server
This command displays the current settings for the RADIUS server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
21-8
TACACS+ Client
21
Example
Console#show radius-server
Remote RADIUS server configuration:
Global settings:
Communication key with RADIUS server: *****
Server port number:
1812
Retransmit times:
2
Request timeout:
5
Server 1:
Server IP address:
192.168.1.1
Communication key with RADIUS server: *****
Server port number: 1812
Retransmit times: 2
Request timeout: 5
Console#
TACACS+ Client
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS+) is a logon
authentication protocol that uses software running on a central server to control
access to TACACS-aware devices on the network. An authentication server
contains a database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege
levels for each user or group that require management access to a switch.
Table 21-6 TACACS+ Client Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
tacacs-server host
Specifies the TACACS+ server
GC
21-9
tacacs-server port
Specifies the TACACS+ server network port
GC
21-10
tacacs-server key
Sets the TACACS+ encryption key
GC
21-10
show tacacs-server
Shows the current TACACS+ settings
GC
21-11
tacacs-server host
This command specifies the TACACS+ server. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
tacacs-server host host_ip_address
no tacacs-server host
host_ip_address - IP address of a TACACS+ server.
Default Setting
10.11.12.13
21-9
21
User Authentication Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#
tacacs-server port
This command specifies the TACACS+ server network port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
tacacs-server port port_number
no tacacs-server port
port_number - TACACS+ server TCP port used for authentication
messages. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
49
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 181
Console(config)#
tacacs-server key
This command sets the TACACS+ encryption key. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
tacacs-server key key_string
no tacacs-server key
key_string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for the
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string.
(Maximum length: 48 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console(config)#
21-10
Web Server Commands
21
show tacacs-server
This command displays the current settings for the TACACS+ server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show tacacs-server
Remote TACACS server configuration:
Server IP address:
10.11.12.13
Communication key with TACACS server: *****
Server port number:
49
Console#
Web Server Commands
This section describes commands used to configure web browser management
access to the switch.
Table 21-7 Web Server Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip http port
Specifies the port to be used by the web browser interface
GC
Page
21-11
ip http server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from a browser GC
21-12
ip http secure-server
Enables HTTPS (HTTP/SSL) for encrypted communications
GC
21-12
ip http secure-port
Specifies the UDP port number for HTTPS
GC
21-13
ip http port
This command specifies the TCP port number used by the web browser interface.
Use the no form to use the default port.
Syntax
ip http port port-number
no ip http port
port-number - The TCP port to be used by the browser interface.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
80
Command Mode
Global Configuration
21-11
21
User Authentication Commands
Example
Console(config)#ip http port 769
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http server (21-12)
ip http server
This command allows this device to be monitored or configured from a browser. Use
the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip http server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http port (21-11)
ip http secure-server
This command enables the secure hypertext transfer protocol (HTTPS) over the
Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an encrypted connection)
to the switch’s web interface. Use the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http secure-server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Both HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the
same UDP port.
• If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in
your browser: https://device[:port_number]
21-12
Web Server Commands
21
• When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
- The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
- The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
- The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting
data.
• The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x and
Netscape Navigator 6.2 or later versions.
• The following web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Table 21-8 HTTPS System Support
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP
Netscape Navigator 6.2 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
• To specify a secure-site certificate, see “Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate” on page 6-6. Also refer to the copy command on page 19-13.
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-port (21-13)
copy tftp https-certificate (19-13)
ip http secure-port
This command specifies the UDP port number used for HTTPS connection to the
switch’s web interface. Use the no form to restore the default port.
Syntax
ip http secure-port port_number
no ip http secure-port
port_number – The UDP port used for HTTPS.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
443
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the same port.
21-13
21
User Authentication Commands
• If you change the HTTPS port number, clients attempting to connect to the
HTTPS server must specify the port number in the URL, in this format:
https://device:port_number
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 1000
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-server (21-12)
Telnet Server Commands
This section describes commands used to configure Telnet management access to
the switch.
Table 21-9 Telnet Server Commands
Command
Function
ip telnet server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from Telnet; also GC
specifies the port to be used by the Telnet interface
Mode
Page
21-11
ip telnet server
This command allows this device to be monitored or configured from Telnet. It also
specifies the TCP port number used by the Telnet interface. Use the no form without
the “port” keyword to disable this function. Use the no from with the “port” keyword
to use the default port.
Syntax
ip telnet server [port port-number]
no telnet server [port]
• port - The TCP port used by the Telnet interface.
• port-number - The TCP port number to be used by the browser interface.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
• Server: Enabled
• Server Port: 23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip telnet server
Console(config)#ip telnet port 123
Console(config)#
21-14
Secure Shell Commands
21
Secure Shell Commands
This section describes the commands used to configure the SSH server. Note that
you also need to install a SSH client on the management station when using this
protocol to configure the switch.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0 clients.
Table 21-10 Secure Shell Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip ssh server
Enables the SSH server on the switch
GC
Page
21-17
ip ssh timeout
Specifies the authentication timeout for the SSH server
GC
21-18
ip ssh
authentication-retries
Specifies the number of retries allowed by a client
GC
21-19
ip ssh server-key size
Sets the SSH server key size
GC
21-19
copy tftp public-key
Copies the user’s public key from a TFTP server to the switch
PE
19-13
delete public-key
Deletes the public key for the specified user
PE
21-20
ip ssh crypto host-key
generate
Generates the host key
PE
21-20
ip ssh crypto zeroize
Clear the host key from RAM
PE
21-21
ip ssh save host-key
Saves the host key from RAM to flash memory
PE
21-21
disconnect
Terminates a line connection
PE
19-26
show ip ssh
Displays the status of the SSH server and the configured values PE
for authentication timeout and retries
21-22
show ssh
Displays the status of current SSH sessions
PE
21-22
show public-key
Shows the public key for the specified user or for the host
PE
21-23
show users
Shows SSH users, including privilege level and public key type PE
19-7
Configuration Guidelines
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key
authentication. If password authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the
password can be authenticated either locally or via a RADIUS or TACACS+ remote
authentication server, as specified by the authentication login command on
page 21-4. If public key authentication is specified by the client, then you must
configure authentication keys on both the client and the switch as described in the
following section. Note that regardless of whether you use public key or password
authentication, you still have to generate authentication keys on the switch and
enable the SSH server.
21-15
21
User Authentication Commands
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
1.
Generate a Host Key Pair – Use the ip ssh crypto host-key generate
command to create a host public/private key pair.
2.
Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically
import the host public key during the initial connection setup with the switch.
Otherwise, you need to manually create a known hosts file on the management
station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public key in the known
hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956 10825913212890233
76546801726272571413428762941301196195566782 59566410486957427888146206
51941746772984865468615717739390164779355942303577413098022737087794545
24083971752646358058176716709574804776117
3.
Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – Use the copy tftp public-key
command to copy a file containing the public key for all the SSH client’s granted
management access to the switch. (Note that these clients must be configured
locally on the switch with the username command as described on page 21-2.)
The clients are subsequently authenticated using these keys. The current
firmware only accepts public key files based on standard UNIX format as shown
in the following example for an RSA key:
1024 35 1341081685609893921040944920155425347631641921872958921143173880
05553616163105177594083868631109291232226828519254374603100937187721199
69631781366277414168985132049117204830339254324101637997592371449011938
00609025394840848271781943722884025331159521348610229029789827213532671
31629432532818915045306393916643 steve@192.168.1.19
4.
Set the Optional Parameters – Set other optional parameters, including the
authentication timeout, the number of retries, and the server key size.
5.
Enable SSH Service – Use the ip ssh server command to enable the SSH
server on the switch.
6. Authentication – One of the following authentication methods is employed:
Password Authentication (for SSH v1.5 or V2 Clients)
a. The client sends its password to the server.
b. The switch compares the client's password to those stored in memory.
c. If a match is found, the connection is allowed.
Note: To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still be
given to the client, either during initial connection or manually entered into the
known host file. However, you do not need to configure the client’s keys.
Public Key Authentication – When an SSH client attempts to contact the switch,
the SSH server uses the host key pair to negotiate a session key and encryption
method. Only clients that have a private key corresponding to the public keys
21-16
Secure Shell Commands
21
stored on the switch can access it. The following exchanges take place during
this process:
Authenticating SSH v1.5 Clients
a. The client sends its RSA public key to the switch.
b. The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in memory.
c. If a match is found, the switch uses its secret key to generate a random
256-bit string as a challenge, encrypts this string with the user’s public key,
and sends it to the client.
d. The client uses its private key to decrypt the challenge string, computes the
MD5 checksum, and sends the checksum back to the switch.
e. The switch compares the checksum sent from the client against that
computed for the original string it sent. If the two checksums match, this
means that the client's private key corresponds to an authorized public key,
and the client is authenticated.
Authenticating SSH v2 Clients
a. The client first queries the switch to determine if DSA public key
authentication using a preferred algorithm is acceptable.
b. If the specified algorithm is supported by the switch, it notifies the client to
proceed with the authentication process. Otherwise, it rejects the request.
c. The client sends a signature generated using the private key to the switch.
d. When the server receives this message, it checks whether the supplied key
is acceptable for authentication, and if so, it then checks whether the
signature is correct. If both checks succeed, the client is authenticated.
Note: The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number of
client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
ip ssh server
This command enables the Secure Shell (SSH) server on this switch. Use the no
form to disable this service.
Syntax
[no] ip ssh server
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number of
client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
• The SSH server uses DSA or RSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client
to select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
• You must generate DSA and RSA host keys before enabling the SSH server.
21-17
21
User Authentication Commands
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate dsa
Console#configure
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (21-20)
show ssh (21-22)
ip ssh timeout
This command configures the timeout for the SSH server. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
ip ssh timeout seconds
no ip ssh timeout
seconds – The timeout for client response during SSH negotiation.
(Range: 1-120)
Default Setting
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The timeout specifies the interval the switch will wait for a response from the
client during the SSH negotiation phase. Once an SSH session has been
established, the timeout for user input is controlled by the exec-timeout
command for vty sessions.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
exec-timeout (19-22)
show ip ssh (21-22)
21-18
Secure Shell Commands
21
ip ssh authentication-retries
This command configures the number of times the SSH server attempts to
reauthenticate a user. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip ssh authentication-retries count
no ip ssh authentication-retries
count – The number of authentication attempts permitted after which the
interface is reset. (Range: 1-5)
Default Setting
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retires 2
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip ssh (21-22)
ip ssh server-key size
This command sets the SSH server key size. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
ip ssh server-key size key-size
no ip ssh server-key size
key-size – The size of server key. (Range: 512-896 bits)
Default Setting
768 bits
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
• The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh server-key size 512
Console(config)#
21-19
21
User Authentication Commands
delete public-key
This command deletes the specified user’s public key.
Syntax
delete public-key username [dsa | rsa]
• username – Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
• dsa – DSA public key type.
• rsa – RSA public key type.
Default Setting
Deletes both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#delete public-key admin dsa
Console#
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
This command generates the host key pair (i.e., public and private).
Syntax
ip ssh crypto host-key generate [dsa | rsa]
• dsa – DSA (Version 2) key type.
• rsa – RSA (Version 1) key type.
Default Setting
Generates both the DSA and RSA key pairs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• The switch uses only RSA Version 1 for SSHv1.5 clients and DSA Version 2
for SSHv2 clients.
• This command stores the host key pair in memory (i.e., RAM). Use the ip ssh
save host-key command to save the host key pair to flash memory.
• Some SSH client programs automatically add the public key to the known
hosts file as part of the configuration process. Otherwise, you must manually
create a known hosts file and place the host public key in it.
• The SSH server uses this host key to negotiate a session key and encryption
method with the client trying to connect to it.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate dsa
Console#
21-20
Secure Shell Commands
21
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto zeroize (21-21)
ip ssh save host-key (21-21)
ip ssh crypto zeroize
This command clears the host key from memory (i.e. RAM).
Syntax
ip ssh crypto zeroize [dsa | rsa]
• dsa – DSA key type.
• rsa – RSA key type.
Default Setting
Clears both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command clears the host key from volatile memory (RAM). Use the no
ip ssh save host-key command to clear the host key from flash memory.
• The SSH server must be disabled before you can execute this command.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto zeroize dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (21-20)
ip ssh save host-key (21-21)
no ip ssh server (21-17)
ip ssh save host-key
This command saves the host key from RAM to flash memory.
Syntax
ip ssh save host-key [dsa | rsa]
• dsa – DSA key type.
• rsa – RSA key type.
Default Setting
Saves both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
21-21
21
User Authentication Commands
Example
Console#ip ssh save host-key dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (21-20)
show ip ssh
This command displays the connection settings used when authenticating client
access to the SSH server.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip ssh
SSH Enabled - version 2.0
Negotiation timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 3
Server key size: 768 bits
Console#
show ssh
This command displays the current SSH server connections.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ssh
Connection Version State
0
2.0
Session-Started
Username Encryption
admin
ctos aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
stoc aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
Console#
Table 21-11 show ssh - display description
Field
Description
Session
The session number. (Range: 0-3)
Version
The Secure Shell version number.
State
The authentication negotiation state.
(Values: Negotiation-Started, Authentication-Started, Session-Started)
Username
The user name of the client.
21-22
Secure Shell Commands
21
Table 21-11 show ssh - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Encryption
The encryption method is automatically negotiated between the client and server.
Options for SSHv1.5 include: DES, 3DES
Options for SSHv2.0 can include different algorithms for the client-to-server (ctos)
and server-to-client (stoc):
aes128-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes192-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes256-cbc-hmac-sha1
3des-cbc-hmac-sha1
blowfish-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
aes192-cbc-hmac-md5
aes256-cbc-hmac-md5
3des-cbc-hmac-md5
blowfish-cbc-hmac-md5
Terminology:
DES – Data Encryption Standard (56-bit key)
3DES – Triple-DES (Uses three iterations of DES, 112-bit key)
aes – Advanced Encryption Standard (160 or 224-bit key)
blowfish – Blowfish (32-448 bit key)
cbc – cypher-block chaining
sha1 – Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (160-bit hashes)
md5 – Message Digest algorithm number 5 (128-bit hashes)
show public-key
This command shows the public key for the specified user or for the host.
Syntax
show public-key [user [username]| host]
username – Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
Default Setting
Shows all public keys.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• If no parameters are entered, all keys are displayed. If the user keyword is
entered, but no user name is specified, then the public keys for all users are
displayed.
• When an RSA key is displayed, the first field indicates the size of the host key
(e.g., 1024), the second field is the encoded public exponent (e.g., 35), and
the last string is the encoded modulus. When a DSA key is displayed, the first
field indicates that the encryption method used by SSH is based on the Digital
Signature Standard (DSS), and the last string is the encoded modulus.
21-23
21
User Authentication Commands
Example
Console#show public-key host
Host:
RSA:
1024 65537 13236940658254764031382795526536375927835525327972629521130241
0719421061655759424590939236096954050362775257556251003866130989393834523
1033280214988866192159556859887989191950588394018138744046890877916030583
7768185490002831341625008348718449522087429212255691665655296328163516964
0408315547660664151657116381
DSA:
ssh-dss AAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAPWKZTPbsRIB8ydEXcxM3dyV/yrDbKStIlnzD/Dg0h2Hxc
YV44sXZ2JXhamLK6P8bvuiyacWbUW/a4PAtp1KMSdqsKeh3hKoA3vRRSy1N2XFfAKxl5fwFfv
JlPdOkFgzLGMinvSNYQwiQXbKTBH0Z4mUZpE85PWxDZMaCNBPjBrRAAAAFQChb4vsdfQGNIjw
bvwrNLaQ77isiwAAAIEAsy5YWDC99ebYHNRj5kh47wY4i8cZvH+/p9cnrfwFTMU01VFDly3IR
2G395NLy5Qd7ZDxfA9mCOfT/yyEfbobMJZi8oGCstSNOxrZZVnMqWrTYfdrKX7YKBw/Kjw6Bm
iFq7O+jAhf1Dg45loAc27s6TLdtny1wRq/ow2eTCD5nekAAACBAJ8rMccXTxHLFAczWS7EjOy
DbsloBfPuSAb4oAsyjKXKVYNLQkTLZfcFRu41bS2KV5LAwecsigF/+DjKGWtPNIQqabKgYCw2
o/dVzX4Gg+yqdTlYmGA7fHGm8ARGeiG4ssFKy4Z6DmYPXFum1Yg0fhLwuHpOSKdxT3kk475S7
w0W
Console#
802.1X Port Authentication
The switch supports IEEE 802.1X (dot1x) port-based access control that prevents
unauthorized access to the network by requiring users to first submit credentials for
authentication. Client authentication is controlled centrally by a RADIUS server
using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol).
Table 21-12 802.1X Port Authentication Commands
Command
Function
Mode
dot1x system-auth-control
Enables dot1x globally on the switch.
GC
21-25
dot1x default
Resets all dot1x parameters to their default values
GC
21-25
dot1x max-req
Sets the maximum number of times that the switch
retransmits an EAP request/identity packet to the client
before it times out the authentication session
IC
21-25
dot1x port-control
Sets dot1x mode for a port interface
IC
21-26
dot1x operation-mode
Allows single or multiple hosts on an dot1x port
IC
21-26
dot1x re-authenticate
Forces re-authentication on specific ports
PE
21-27
dot1x re-authentication
Enables re-authentication for all ports
IC
21-27
dot1x timeout quiet-period
Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max
Request Count has been exceeded before attempting to
acquire a new client
IC
21-28
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
Sets the time period after which a connected client must
be re-authenticated
IC
21-28
dot1x timeout tx-period
Sets the time period during an authentication session that IC
the switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet
21-29
show dot1x
Shows all dot1x related information
21-29
21-24
PE
Page
802.1X Port Authentication
21
dot1x system-auth-control
This command enables IEEE 802.1X port authentication globally on the switch.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
[no] dot1x system-auth-control
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x system-auth-control
Console(config)#
dot1x default
This command sets all configurable dot1x global and port settings to their default
values.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x default
Console(config)#
dot1x max-req
This command sets the maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit an
EAP request/identity packet to the client before it times out the authentication
session. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
dot1x max-req count
no dot1x max-req
count – The maximum number of requests (Range: 1-10)
Default
2
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x max-req 2
Console(config-if)#
21-25
21
User Authentication Commands
dot1x port-control
This command sets the dot1x mode on a port interface. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
dot1x port-control {auto | force-authorized | force-unauthorized}
no dot1x port-control
• auto – Requires a dot1x-aware connected client to be authorized by the
RADIUS server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
• force-authorized – Configures the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
• force-unauthorized – Configures the port to deny access to all clients,
either dot1x-aware or otherwise.
Default
force-authorized
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#
dot1x operation-mode
This command allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect to an
802.1X-authorized port. Use the no form with no keywords to restore the default to
single host. Use the no form with the multi-host max-count keywords to restore the
default maximum count.
Syntax
dot1x operation-mode {single-host | multi-host [max-count count]}
no dot1x operation-mode [multi-host max-count]
• single-host – Allows only a single host to connect to this port.
• multi-host – Allows multiple host to connect to this port.
• max-count – Keyword for the maximum number of hosts.
count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port.
(Range: 1-1024; Default: 5)
Default
Single-host
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
21-26
802.1X Port Authentication
21
Command Usage
• The “max-count” parameter specified by this command is only effective if the
dot1x mode is set to “auto” by the dot1x port-control command (page 4-105).
• In “multi-host” mode, only one host connected to a port needs to pass
authentication for all other hosts to be granted network access. Similarly, a
port can become unauthorized for all hosts if one attached host fails
re-authentication or sends an EAPOL logoff message.
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x operation-mode multi-host max-count 10
Console(config-if)#
dot1x re-authenticate
This command forces re-authentication on all ports or a specific interface.
Syntax
dot1x re-authenticate [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The re-authentication process verifies the connected client’s user ID and
password on the RADIUS server. During re-authentication, the client remains
connected the network and the process is handled transparently by the dot1x
client software. Only if re-authentication fails is the port blocked.
Example
Console#dot1x re-authenticate
Console#
dot1x re-authentication
This command enables periodic re-authentication for a specified port. Use the no
form to disable re-authentication.
Syntax
[no] dot1x re-authentication
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
21-27
21
User Authentication Commands
Command Usage
• The re-authentication process verifies the connected client’s user ID and
password on the RADIUS server. During re-authentication, the client remains
connected the network and the process is handled transparently by the dot1x
client software. Only if re-authentication fails is the port blocked.
• The connected client is re-authenticated after the interval specified by the
dot1x timeout re-authperiod command. The default is 3600 seconds.
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
dot1x timeout re-authperiod (21-28)
dot1x timeout quiet-period
This command sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request Count
has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client. Use the no form to
reset the default.
Syntax
dot1x timeout quiet-period seconds
no dot1x timeout quiet-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
60 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 350
Console(config-if)#
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
This command sets the time period after which a connected client must be
re-authenticated. Use the no form of this command to reset the default.
Syntax
dot1x timeout re-authperiod seconds
no dot1x timeout re-authperiod
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
21-28
802.1X Port Authentication
21
Default
3600 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 300
Console(config-if)#
dot1x timeout tx-period
This command sets the time that an interface on the switch waits during an
authentication session before re-transmitting an EAP packet. Use the no form to
reset to the default value.
Syntax
dot1x timeout tx-period seconds
no dot1x timeout tx-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
30 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout tx-period 300
Console(config-if)#
show dot1x
This command shows general port authentication related settings on the switch or a
specific interface.
Syntax
show dot1x [statistics] [interface interface]
• statistics - Displays dot1x status for each port.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
21-29
21
User Authentication Commands
Command Usage
This command displays the following information:
• Global 802.1X Parameters – Shows whether or not 802.1X port
authentication is globally enabled on the switch.
• 802.1X Port Summary – Displays the port access control parameters for
each interface that has enabled 802.1X, including the following items:
- Status
– Administrative state for port access control.
- Operation Mode
– Allows single or multiple hosts (page 21-26).
- Mode
– Dot1x port control mode (page 21-26).
- Authorized
– Authorization status (yes or n/a - not authorized).
• 802.1X Port Details – Displays the port access control parameters for each
interface, including the following items:
- reauth-enabled
– Periodic re-authentication (page 21-27).
- reauth-period
– Time after which a connected client must be
re-authenticated (page 21-28).
- quiet-period
– Time a port waits after Max Request Count is
exceeded before attempting to acquire a new
client (page 21-28).
- tx-period
– Time a port waits during authentication session
before re-transmitting EAP packet (page 21-29).
- supplicant-timeout – Supplicant timeout.
- server-timeout
– Server timeout.
- reauth-max
– Maximum number of reauthentication attempts.
- max-req
– Maximum number of times a port will retransmit
an EAP request/identity packet to the client
before it times out the authentication session
(page 21-25).
- Status
– Authorization status (authorized or not).
- Operation Mode
– Shows if single or multiple hosts (clients) can
connect to an 802.1X-authorized port.
- Max Count
– The maximum number of hosts allowed to
access this port (page 21-26).
- Port-control
– Shows the dot1x mode on a port as auto,
force-authorized, or force-unauthorized
(page 21-26).
- Supplicant
– MAC address of authorized client.
- Current Identifier
– The integer (0-255) used by the Authenticator to
identify the current authentication session.
• Authenticator State Machine
- State
– Current state (including initialize, disconnected,
connecting, authenticating, authenticated,
aborting, held, force_authorized,
force_unauthorized).
- Reauth Count
– Number of times connecting state is re-entered.
21-30
802.1X Port Authentication
21
• Backend State Machine
- State
– Current state (including request, response,
success, fail, timeout, idle, initialize).
- Request Count
– Number of EAP Request packets sent to the
Supplicant without receiving a response.
- Identifier(Server)
– Identifier carried in the most recent EAP
Success, Failure or Request packet received
from the Authentication Server.
• Reauthentication State Machine
- State
– Current state (including initialize, reauthenticate).
21-31
21
User Authentication Commands
Example
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
system-auth-control: enable
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name
1/1
1/2
.
.
.
1/47
1/48
Status
disabled
disabled
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
Authorized
n/a
n/a
disabled
enabled
Single-Host
Single-Host
ForceAuthorized
Auto
yes
yes
802.1X Port Details
802.1X
is enabled on port 1/1
.
.
.
802.1X is enabled on port 26
reauth-enabled:
Enable
reauth-period:
3600
quiet-period:
60
tx-period:
30
supplicant-timeout:
30
server-timeout:
10
reauth-max:
2
max-req:
2
Status
Authorized
Operation mode
Multi-Host
Max count
5
Port-control
Auto
Supplicant
00-e0-29-94-34-65
Current Identifier
3
Authenticator State Machine
State
Authenticated
Reauth Count
0
Backend State Machine
State
Idle
Request Count
0
Identifier(Server) 2
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Initialize
Console#
21-32
Management IP Filter Commands
21
Management IP Filter Commands
This section describes commands used to configure IP management access to the
switch.
Table 21-13 Management IP Filter Commands
Command
Function
Mode
management
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
GC
21-33
PE
21-34
show management Displays the switch to be monitored or configured from a browser
Page
management
This command specifies the client IP addresses that are allowed management
access to the switch through various protocols. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
[no] management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnet-client}
start-address [end-address]
•
•
•
•
•
•
all-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP, web and Telnet groups.
http-client - Adds IP address(es) to the web group.
snmp-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP group.
telnet-client - Adds IP address(es) to the Telnet group.
start-address - A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
end-address - The end address of a range.
Default Setting
All addresses
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an invalid
address, the switch will reject the connection, enter an event message in the
system log, and send a trap message to the trap manager.
• IP address can be configured for SNMP, web and Telnet access respectively.
Each of these groups can include up to five different sets of addresses, either
individual addresses or address ranges.
• When entering addresses for the same group (i.e., SNMP, web or Telnet), the
switch will not accept overlapping address ranges. When entering addresses
for different groups, the switch will accept overlapping address ranges.
• You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You must
delete the entire range, and reenter the addresses.
• You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or by
specifying both the start address and end address.
21-33
21
User Authentication Commands
Example
This example restricts management access to the indicated addresses.
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.25 192.168.1.30
Console#
show management
This command displays the client IP addresses that are allowed management
access to the switch through various protocols.
Syntax
show management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnet-client}
•
•
•
•
all-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP, web and Telnet groups.
http-client - Adds IP address(es) to the web group.
snmp-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP group.
telnet-client - Adds IP address(es) to the Telnet group.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show management all-client
Management Ip Filter
HTTP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
SNMP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
TELNET-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
Console#
21-34
Chapter 22: Client Security Commands
This switch supports many methods of segregating traffic for clients attached to
each of the data ports, and for ensuring that only authorized clients gain access to
the network. Private VLANs and port-based authentication using IEEE 802.1X are
commonly used for these purposes. In addition to these methods, several other
options of providing client security are supported by this switch. These include
port-based authentication, which can be configured for network client access
by specifying a fixed set of MAC addresses (either by freezing a set of dynamically
learned entries or through static configuration), or by statically configured MAC/IP
address pairs. The addresses assigned to DHCP clients can also be carefully
controlled using static or dynamic bindings with the IP Source Guard and DHCP
Snooping commands.
Table 22-1 Client Security Commands
Command Group
Function
Private VLANs
Configures private VLANs, including uplink and downlink ports
Page
30-14
Port Authentication
Configures host authentication on specific ports using 802.1X
21-24
Port Security*
Configures secure addresses for a port
22-1
IP Source Guard*
Filters IP traffic on unsecure ports for which the source address
cannot be identified via DHCP snooping nor static source bindings
22-3
DHCP Snooping*
Filters untrusted DHCP messages on unsecure ports by building
and maintaining a DHCP snooping binding table
22-7
* The priority of execution for these filtering commands is Port Security, IP Source Guard, and then DHCP Snooping.
Port Security Commands
These commands can be used to enable port security on a port. When using port
security, the switch stops learning new MAC addresses on the specified port when it
has reached a configured maximum number. Only incoming traffic with source
addresses already stored in the dynamic or static address table for this port will be
authorized to access the network. The port will drop any incoming frames with a
source MAC address that is unknown or has been previously learned from another
port. If a device with an unauthorized MAC address attempts to use the switch port,
the intrusion will be detected and the switch can automatically take action by
disabling the port and sending a trap message.
Table 22-2 Port Security Commands
Command
Function
Mode
port security
Configures a secure port
IC
Page
22-2
mac-address-table static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
28-1
show mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
28-3
22-1
22
Client Security Commands
port security
This command enables or configures port security. Use the no form without any
keywords to disable port security. Use the no form with the appropriate keyword to
restore the default settings for a response to security violation or for the maximum
number of allowed addresses.
Syntax
port security [action {shutdown | trap | trap-and-shutdown}
| max-mac-count address-count]
no port security [action | max-mac-count]
• action - Response to take when port security is violated.
- shutdown - Disable port only.
- trap - Issue SNMP trap message only.
- trap-and-shutdown - Issue SNMP trap message and disable port.
• max-mac-count
- address-count - The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be
learned on a port. (Range: 0 - 1024, where 0 means disabled)
Default Setting
• Status: Disabled
• Action: None
• Maximum Addresses: 0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• If you enable port security, the switch stops learning new MAC addresses on
the specified port when it has reached a configured maximum number. Only
incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic or static
address table will be accepted.
• First use the port security max-mac-count command to set the number of
addresses, and then use the port security command to enable security on
the port.
• Use the no port security max-mac-count command to disable port security
and reset the maximum number of addresses to the default.
• You can also manually add secure addresses with the mac-address-table
static command.
• A secure port has the following restrictions:
- Cannot be connected to a network interconnection device.
- Cannot be a trunk port.
• If a port is disabled due to a security violation, it must be manually re-enabled
using the no shutdown command.
22-2
IP Source Guard Commands
22
Example
The following example enables port security for port 5, and sets the response to a
security violation to issue a trap message:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security action trap
Related Commands
shutdown (24-6)
mac-address-table static (28-1)
IP Source Guard Commands
IP Source Guard is a security feature that filters IP traffic on network interfaces
based on manually configured entries in the IP Source Guard table, or static and
dynamic entries in the DHCP Snooping table when enabled (see “DHCP Snooping
Commands” on page 22-7). IP source guard can be used to prevent traffic attacks
caused when a host tries to use the IP address of a neighbor to access the network.
This section describes commands used to configure IP Source Guard.
Table 22-3 IP Source Guard Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip source-guard
Configures the switch to filter inbound traffic based on source IP
address, or source IP address and corresponding MAC address
IC
Page
22-3
ip source-guard
binding
Adds a static address to the source-guard binding table
GC
22-5
show ip
source-guard
Shows whether source guard is enabled or disabled on each
interface
PE
22-6
show ip
source-guard
binding
Shows the source guard binding table
PE
22-6
ip source-guard
This command configures the switch to filter inbound traffic based source IP
address, or source IP address and corresponding MAC address. Use the no form to
disable this function.
Syntax
ip source-guard {sip | sip-mac}
no ip source-guard
• sip - Filters traffic based on IP addresses stored in the binding table.
• sip-mac - Filters traffic based on IP addresses and corresponding MAC
addresses stored in the binding table.
Default Setting
Disabled
22-3
22
Client Security Commands
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Source guard is used to filter traffic on an unsecure port which receives
messages from outside the network or firewall, and therefore may be subject
to traffic attacks caused by a host trying to use the IP address of a neighbor.
• Setting source guard mode to “sip” or “sip-mac” enables this function on the
selected port. Use the “sip” option to check the VLAN ID, source IP address,
and port number against all entries in the binding table. Use the “sip-mac”
option to check these same parameters, plus the source MAC address. Use
the no source guard command to disable this function on the selected port.
• When enabled, traffic is filtered based upon dynamic entries learned via
DHCP snooping, static entries configured in the DHCP snooping table, or
static addresses configured in the source guard binding table.
• Table entries include a MAC address, IP address, lease time, entry type
(Static-IP-SG-Binding, Dynamic-DHCP-Binding, Static-DHCP-Binding),
VLAN identifier, and port identifier.
• Static addresses entered in the source guard binding table with the ip
source-guard binding command (page 22-5) are automatically configured
with an infinite lease time. Dynamic entries learned via DHCP snooping are
configured by the DHCP server itself; static entries include a manually
configured lease time.
• If the IP source guard is enabled, an inbound packet’s IP address (sip option)
or both its IP address and corresponding MAC address (sip-mac option) will
be checked against the binding table. If no matching entry is found, the packet
will be dropped.
• Filtering rules are implemented as follows:
- If the DHCP snooping is disabled (see page 22-7), IP source guard will
check the VLAN ID, source IP address, port number, and source MAC
address (for the sip-mac option). If a matching entry is found in the binding
table and the entry type is static IP source guard binding, the packet will be
forwarded.
- If the DHCP snooping is enabled, IP source guard will check the VLAN ID,
source IP address, port number, and source MAC address (for the sip-mac
option). If a matching entry is found in the binding table and the entry type
is static IP source guard binding, static DHCP snooping binding or dynamic
DHCP snooping binding, the packet will be forwarded.
- If IP source guard if enabled on an interface for which IP source bindings
(dynamically learned via DHCP snooping or manually configured) are not
yet configured, the switch will drop all IP traffic on that port, except for
DHCP packets.
22-4
IP Source Guard Commands
22
Example
This example enables IP source guard on port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#ip source-guard sip
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip source-guard binding (22-5)
ip dhcp snooping (22-7)
ip dhcp snooping vlan (22-9)
ip source-guard binding
This command adds a static address to the source-guard binding table. Use the no
form to remove a static entry.
Syntax
ip source-guard binding mac-address vlan vlan-id ip-address
interface ethernet unit/port
no ip source-guard binding mac-address vlan vlan-id
•
•
•
•
•
mac-address - A valid unicast MAC address.
vlan-id - ID of a configured VLAN (Range: 1-4093)
ip-address - A valid unicast IP address, including classful types A, B or C.
unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
Default Setting
No configured entries
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Table entries include a MAC address, IP address, lease time, entry type
(Static-IP-SG-Binding, Dynamic-DHCP-Binding, Static-DHCP-Binding),
VLAN identifier, and port identifier.
• All static entries are configured with an infinite lease time, which is indicated
with a value of zero by the show ip source-guard command (page 22-6).
• When source guard is enabled, traffic is filtered based upon dynamic entries
learned via DHCP snooping, static entries configured in the DHCP snooping
table, or static addresses configured in the source guard binding table with
this command.
• Static bindings are processed as follows:
- If there is no entry with same VLAN ID and MAC address, a new entry is
added to binding table using the type of static IP source guard binding.
22-5
22
Client Security Commands
- If there is an entry with same VLAN ID and MAC address, and the type of
entry is static IP source guard binding, then the new entry will replace the
old one.
- If there is an entry with same VLAN ID and MAC address, and the type of
the entry is dynamic DHCP snooping binding, then the new entry will
replace the old one and the entry type will be changed to static IP source
guard binding.
Example
This example configures a static source-guard binding on port 5.
Console(config)#ip source-guard binding 11-22-33-44-55-66 vlan 1
192.168.0.99 interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip source-guard (22-3)
ip dhcp snooping (22-7)
ip dhcp snooping vlan (22-9)
show ip source-guard
This command shows whether source guard is enabled or disabled on each
interface.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip source-guard
Interface
Filter-type
------------------Eth 1/1
DISABLED
Eth 1/2
DISABLED
Eth 1/3
DISABLED
Eth 1/4
DISABLED
Eth 1/5
SIP
Eth
1/6
DISABLED
.
.
.
show ip source-guard binding
This command shows the source guard binding table.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip source-guard binding
MacAddress
IpAddress
Lease(sec) Type
VLAN Interface
----------------- --------------- ---------- -------------------- ---- --------11-22-33-44-55-66 192.168.0.99
0 Static-IP-SG-binding
1 Eth 1/5
Console#
22-6
DHCP Snooping Commands
22
DHCP Snooping Commands
DHCP snooping allows a switch to protect a network from rogue DHCP servers or
other devices which send port-related information to a DHCP server. This
information can be useful in tracking an IP address back to a physical port. This
section describes commands used to configure DHCP snooping.
Table 22-4 DHCP Snooping Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip dhcp snooping
Enables DHCP snooping globally
GC
22-7
ip dhcp snooping
vlan
Enables DHCP snooping on the specified VLAN
GC
22-9
ip dhcp snooping
binding
Adds a static address to the DHCP snooping table
GC
22-10
ip dhcp snooping
Verifies the client’s hardware address stored in the DHCP packet
verify mac-address against the source MAC address in the Ethernet header
GC
22-11
ip dhcp snooping
database flash
Writes all dynamically learned snooping entries to flash memory
GC
22-12
ip dhcp snooping
trust
Configures the specified interface as trusted
IC
22-12
show ip dhcp
snooping
Shows the DHCP snooping configuration settings
PE
22-13
show ip dhcp
snooping binding
Shows the DHCP snooping binding table entries
PE
22-12
ip dhcp snooping
This command enables DHCP snooping globally. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp snooping
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Network traffic may be disrupted when malicious DHCP messages are
received from an outside source. DHCP snooping is used to filter DHCP
messages received on an unsecure interface from outside the network or
firewall. When DHCP snooping is enabled globally by this command, and
enabled on a VLAN interface by the ip dhcp snooping vlan command
(page 22-9), DHCP messages received on an untrusted interface (as
specified by the no ip dhcp snooping trust command, page 22-12) from a
device not listed in the DHCP snooping table will be dropped.
22-7
22
Client Security Commands
• When enabled, DHCP messages entering an untrusted interface are filtered
based upon dynamic entries learned via DHCP snooping, and static entries
configured in the DHCP snooping table.
• Table entries are only learned for untrusted interfaces. Each entry includes a
MAC address, IP address, lease time, entry type (Dynamic-DHCP-Binding,
Static-DHCP-Binding), VLAN identifier, and port identifier.
• When DHCP snooping is enabled, the rate limit for the number of DHCP
messages that can be processed by the switch is 100 packets per second.
Any DHCP packets in excess of this limit are dropped.
• Filtering rules are implemented as follows:
- If the global DHCP snooping is disabled, all DHCP packets are forwarded.
- If DHCP snooping is enabled globally, and also enabled on the VLAN where
the DHCP packet is received, all DHCP packets are forwarded for a trusted
port. If the received packet is a DHCP ACK message, a dynamic DHCP
snooping entry is also added to the binding table.
- If DHCP snooping is enabled globally, and also enabled on the VLAN where
the DHCP packet is received, but the port is not trusted, it is processed as
follows:
* If the DHCP packet is a reply packet from a DHCP server (including
OFFER, ACK or NAK messages), the packet is dropped.
* If the DHCP packet is from a client, such as a DECLINE or RELEASE
message, the switch forwards the packet only if the corresponding entry
is found in the binding table.
* If the DHCP packet is from client, such as a DISCOVER, REQUEST,
INFORM, DECLINE or RELEASE message, the packet is forwarded if
MAC address verification is disabled (as specified by the ip dhcp
snooping verify mac-address command, page 22-11). However, if
MAC address verification is enabled, then the packet will only be
forwarded if the client’s hardware address stored in the DHCP packet is
the same as the source MAC address in the Ethernet header.
* If the DHCP packet is not a recognizable type, it is dropped.
- If a DHCP packet from a client passes the filtering criteria above, it will only
be forwarded to trusted ports in the same VLAN.
- If a DHCP packet is from server is received on a trusted port, it will be
forwarded to both trusted and untrusted ports in the same VLAN.
• If the DHCP snooping is globally disabled, all dynamic bindings are removed
from the binding table; all static bindings are retained in the binding table but
will have no effect until DHCP snooping is re-enabled.
• Additional considerations when the switch itself is a DHCP client – The port(s)
through which the switch submits a client request to the DHCP server must be
configured as trusted (ip dhcp snooping trust, page 22-12). Note that the
switch will not add a dynamic entry for itself to the binding table when it
receives an ACK message from a DHCP server. Also, when the switch sends
out DHCP client packets for itself, no filtering takes place. However, when the
switch receives any messages from a DHCP server, any packets received
from untrusted ports are dropped.
22-8
DHCP Snooping Commands
22
Example
This example enables DHCP snooping globally for the switch.
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp snooping vlan (22-9)
ip dhcp snooping trust (22-12)
ip dhcp snooping binding (22-10)
ip dhcp snooping vlan
This command enables DHCP snooping on the specified VLAN. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp snooping vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - ID of a configured VLAN (Range: 1-4093)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• When DHCP snooping enabled globally using the ip dhcp snooping
command (page 22-7), and enabled on a VLAN with this command, DHCP
packet filtering will be performed on any untrusted ports within the VLAN as
specified by the ip dhcp snooping trust command (page 22-12).
• When the DHCP snooping is globally disabled, DHCP snooping can still be
configured for specific VLANs, but the changes will not take effect until DHCP
snooping is globally re-enabled.
• When DHCP snooping is globally enabled, configuration changes for specific
VLANs have the following effects:
- If DHCP snooping is disabled on a VLAN, all dynamic bindings learned for
this VLAN are removed from the binding table; all static bindings configured
for this VLAN are retained in the binding table but have no effect.
- If DHCP snooping is re-enabled on a VLAN, any previously configured
static bindings stored in the binding table will take effect again.
Example
This example enables DHCP snooping for VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping vlan 1
Console(config)#
22-9
22
Client Security Commands
Related Commands
ip dhcp snooping (22-7)
ip dhcp snooping trust (22-12)
ip dhcp snooping binding (22-10)
ip dhcp snooping binding
This command adds a static address to the DHCP snooping binding table. Use the
no form to remove an entry from the binding table.
Syntax
ip dhcp binding mac-address vlan vlan-id ip-address
interface ethernet unit/port lease-time
no ip dhcp binding mac-address vlan vlan-id
•
•
•
•
•
•
mac-address - A valid unicast MAC address.
vlan-id - ID of a configured VLAN (Range: 1-4093)
ip-address - A valid unicast IP address, including classful types A, B or C.
unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
lease-time - The time after which an entry is removed from the table.
(Range: 0-4294967295, where 0 indicates a permanent entry)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If DHCP snooping is enabled globally, and also enabled on the VLAN where
the DHCP packet is received on a trusted port, a dynamic DHCP snooping
entry is added to the binding table. An entry is added or removed dynamically
whenever a client has gotten or released an IP address from a DHCP server.
• Table entries can also be statically configured using the ip dhcp binding
command. Table entries includes a MAC address, IP address, lease time,
entry type (Dynamic-DHCP-Binding, Static-DHCP-Binding), VLAN identifier,
and port identifier.
• If the DHCP snooping is disabled globally, all dynamic bindings are removed
from the binding table; all static bindings are retained in the binding table but
will have no effect until DHCP snooping is globally re-enabled.
• If DHCP snooping is enabled globally, and then disabled on a VLAN, all
dynamic bindings learned for this VLAN are removed from the binding table;
all static bindings configured for this VLAN are retained in the binding table but
will have no effect until snooping is re-enabled on the VLAN.
• A static DHCP snooping entry can be added in the binding table under any of
the following conditions:
- If there is no binding with same VLAN ID and MAC address.
22-10
DHCP Snooping Commands
22
- If there is a binding with same VLAN ID and MAC address, and the entry
type is static IP source guard binding, static DHCP snooping binding, or
dynamic DHCP snooping binding, the new entry will replace the old one.
• When the lease time for a dynamic or static DHCP binding entry expires, it is
removed from the binding table.
Example
This example configures a static DHCP binding entry on port 5, and sets the lease
time to make it a permanent entry.
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping binding 11-22-33-44-55-66 vlan 1
192.168.0.99 interface ethernet 1/5 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp snooping (22-7)
ip dhcp snooping vlan (22-9)
ip dhcp snooping trust (22-12)
ip dhcp snooping verify mac-address
This command verifies the client’s hardware address stored in the DHCP packet
against the source MAC address in the Ethernet header. Use the no form to disable
this function.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp binding verify mac-address
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
If MAC address verification is enabled, and the source MAC address in the
Ethernet header of the packet is not same as the client’s hardware address in
the DHCP packet, the packet is dropped.
Example
This example enables MAC address verification.
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping verify mac-address
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp snooping (22-7)
ip dhcp snooping vlan (22-9)
ip dhcp snooping trust (22-12)
22-11
22
Client Security Commands
ip dhcp snooping database flash
This command writes all dynamically learned snooping entries to flash memory.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command can be used to store the currently learned dynamic DHCP
snooping entries to flash memory. These entries will be restored to the
snooping table when the switch is reset. However, note that the lease time
shown for a dynamic entry that has been restored from flash memory will no
longer be valid.
Example
Console(config)#ip dhcp snooping database flash
Console(config)#
ip dhcp snooping trust
This command configures the specified interface as trusted. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp snooping trust
Default Setting
All interfaces are untrusted
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• An untrusted interface is an interface that is configured to receive messages
from outside the network or firewall. A trusted interface is an interface that is
configured to receive only messages from within the network.
• When DHCP snooping enabled globally using the ip dhcp snooping
command (page 22-7), and enabled on a VLAN with this command, DHCP
packet filtering will be performed on any untrusted ports within the VLAN
according to the default status, or as specifically configured for an interface
with the no ip dhcp snooping trust command.
• When an untrusted port is changed to a trusted port, all the dynamic DHCP
snooping bindings associated with this port are removed. All static bindings
are retained, but will have no effect unless the port is changed back to the
untrusted state.
• Additional considerations when the switch itself is a DHCP client – The port(s)
through which it submits a client request to the DHCP server must be
configured as trusted.
22-12
DHCP Snooping Commands
22
Example
This example sets port 5 to untrusted.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#no ip dhcp snooping trust
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp snooping (22-7)
ip dhcp snooping vlan (22-9)
ip dhcp snooping binding (22-10)
show ip dhcp snooping
This command shows the DHCP snooping configuration settings.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip dhcp snooping
Global DHCP Snooping status: disable
DHCP Snooping is configured on the following VLANs:
1
Verify Source Mac-Address: enable
Interface
---------Eth 1/1
Eth 1/2
Eth 1/3
Eth 1/4
Eth 1/5
.
.
.
Trusted
---------No
No
No
No
Yes
show ip dhcp snooping binding
This command shows the DHCP snooping binding table entries.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip dhcp snooping binding
MacAddress
IpAddress
Lease(sec) Type
VLAN Interface
----------------- --------------- ---------- -------------------- ---- --------11-22-33-44-55-66 192.168.0.99
0 Static-DHCPSNP
1 Eth 1/5
Console#
22-13
22
22-14
Client Security Commands
Chapter 23: Access Control List Commands
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address,
protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code), or any frames (based
on MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter packets, first create an access list, add
the required rules, specify a mask to modify the precedence in which the rules are
checked, and then bind the list to a specific port. This section describes the Access
Control List commands.
Table 23-1 Access Control List Commands
Command Groups
Function
Page
IP ACLs
Configures ACLs based on IP addresses, TCP/UDP port number,
protocol type, and TCP control code
MAC ACLs
Configures ACLs based on hardware addresses, packet format, and
Ethernet type
ACL Information
Displays ACLs and associated rules; shows ACLs assigned to each port 23-19
23-1
23-12
IP ACLs
The commands in this section configure ACLs based on IP addresses, TCP/UDP
port number, protocol type, and TCP control code. To configure IP ACLs, first create
an access list containing the required permit or deny rules, set a precedence mask
to control the filter sequence, and then bind the access list to one or more ports
Table 23-2 IP ACL Commands
Command
Function
Mode
access-list ip
Creates an IP ACL and enters configuration mode for
standard or extended IP ACLs
GC
Page
23-2
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source IP address
IPSTD-ACL
23-2
permit, deny
Filters packets meeting the specified criteria, including
IPsource and destination IP address, TCP/UDP port number, EXT-ACL
protocol type, and TCP control code
23-3
show ip access-list
Displays the rules for configured IP ACLs
PE
23-5
access-list ip
mask-precedence
Changes to the IP Mask mode used to configure access
control masks
GC
23-6
mask
Sets a precedence mask for the ACL rules
IP-Mask
23-6
show access-list ip
mask-precedence
Shows the ingress or egress rule masks for IP ACLs
PE
23-10
ip access-group
Adds a port to an IP ACL
IC
23-11
show ip access-group
Shows port assignments for IP ACLs
PE
23-11
23-1
23
Access Control List Commands
access-list ip
This command adds an IP access list and enters configuration mode for standard or
extended IP ACLs. Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list ip {standard | extended} acl_name
• standard – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source IP
address.
• extended – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source or
destination IP address, and other more specific criteria.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
• To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
• An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
Example
Console(config)#access-list ip standard david
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny 23-2
ip access-group (23-11)
show ip access-list (23-5)
permit, deny (Standard ACL)
This command adds a rule to a Standard IP ACL. The rule sets a filter condition for
packets emanating from the specified source. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny} {any | source bitmask | host source}
•
•
•
•
23-2
any – Any source IP address.
source – Source IP address.
bitmask – Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
IP ACLs
23
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Standard IP ACL
Command Usage
• New rules are appended to the end of the list.
• Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from
0 to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
Example
This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21 and
another rule for the address range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip (23-2)
permit, deny (Extended ACL)
This command adds a rule to an Extended IP ACL. The rule sets a filter condition for
packets with specific source or destination IP addresses, protocol types, source or
destination protocol ports, or TCP control codes. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny} [protocol-number | udp]
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[precedence precedence] [tos tos] [dscp dscp]
[source-port sport [bitmask]] [destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[no] {permit | deny} tcp
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[precedence precedence] [tos tos] [dscp dscp]
[source-port sport [bitmask]] [destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[control-flag control-flags flag-bitmask]
•
•
•
•
•
protocol-number – A specific protocol number. (Range: 0-255)
source – Source IP address.
destination – Destination IP address.
address-bitmask – Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
23-3
23
Access Control List Commands
•
•
•
•
•
•
precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
tos – Type of Service level. (Range: 0-15)
dscp – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
sport – Protocol33 source port number. (Range: 0-65535)
dport – Protocol33 destination port number. (Range: 0-65535)
port-bitmask – Decimal number representing the port bits to match.
(Range: 0-65535)
• control-flags – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag
bits in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
• flag-bitmask – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Extended IP ACL
Command Usage
• All new rules are appended to the end of the list.
• Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from
0 to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
• You can specify both Precedence and ToS in the same rule. However, if
DSCP is used, then neither Precedence nor ToS can be specified.
• The control-code bitmask is a decimal number (representing an equivalent bit
mask) that is applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the
equivalent binary bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit.
The following bits may be specified:
- 1 (fin) – Finish
- 2 (syn) – Synchronize
- 4 (rst) – Reset
- 8 (psh) – Push
- 16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
- 32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
- SYN flag valid, use “control-code 2 2”
- Both SYN and ACK valid, use “control-code 18 18”
- SYN valid and ACK invalid, use “control-code 2 18”
33. Includes TCP, UDP or other protocol types.
23-4
IP ACLs
23
Example
This example accepts any incoming packets if the source address is within subnet
10.7.1.x. For example, if the rule is matched; i.e., the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0)
equals the masked address (10.7.1.2 & 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This allows TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination
address when set for destination TCP port 80 (i.e., HTTP).
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
destination-port 80
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This permits all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP
control code set to “SYN.”
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
control-flag 2 2
Console(config-ext-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip (23-2)
show ip access-list
This command displays the rules for configured IP ACLs.
Syntax
show ip access-list {standard | extended} [acl_name]
• standard – Specifies a standard IP ACL.
• extended – Specifies an extended IP ACL.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-list standard
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 255.255.15.0
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny 23-2
ip access-group (23-11)
23-5
23
Access Control List Commands
access-list ip mask-precedence
This command changes to the IP Mask mode used to configure access control
masks. Use the no form to delete the mask table.
Syntax
[no] access-list ip mask-precedence {in | out}
• in – Ingress mask for ingress ACLs.
• out – Egress mask for egress ACLs.
Default Setting
Default system mask: Filter inbound packets according to specified IP ACLs.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• A mask can only be used by all ingress ACLs or all egress ACLs.
• The precedence of the ACL rules applied to a packet is not determined by
order of the rules, but instead by the order of the masks; i.e., the first mask
that matches a rule will determine the rule that is applied to a packet.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or
set the queue or frame priorities associated with the rule.
Example
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
Related Commands
mask (IP ACL) (23-6)
ip access-group (23-11)
mask (IP ACL)
This command defines a mask for IP ACLs. This mask defines the fields to check in
the IP header. Use the no form to remove a mask.
Syntax
[no] mask [protocol]
{any | host | source-bitmask}
{any | host | destination-bitmask}
[precedence] [tos] [dscp]
[source-port [port-bitmask]] [destination-port [port-bitmask]]
[control-flag [flag-bitmask]]
•
•
•
•
23-6
protocol – Check the protocol field.
any – Any address will be matched.
host – The address must be for a host device, not a subnetwork.
source-bitmask – Source address of rule must match this bitmask.
IP ACLs
23
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
destination-bitmask – Destination address of rule must match this bitmask.
precedence – Check the IP precedence field.
tos – Check the TOS field.
dscp – Check the DSCP field.
source-port – Check the protocol source port field.
destination-port – Check the protocol destination port field.
port-bitmask – Protocol port of rule must match this bitmask.
(Range: 0-65535)
• control-flag – Check the field for control flags.
• flag-bitmask – Control flags of rule must match this bitmask. (Range: 0-63)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
IP Mask
Command Usage
• Packets crossing a port are checked against all the rules in the ACL until a
match is found. The order in which these packets are checked is determined
by the mask, and not the order in which the ACL rules were entered.
• First create the required ACLs and ingress or egress masks before mapping
an ACL to an interface.
• If you enter dscp, you cannot enter tos or precedence. You can enter both
tos and precedence without dscp.
• Masks that include an entry for a Layer 4 protocol source port or destination
port can only be applied to packets with a header length of exactly five bytes.
Example
This example creates an IP ingress mask with two rules. Each rule is checked in
order of precedence to look for a match in the ACL entries. The first entry matching
a mask is applied to the inbound packet.
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
23-7
23
Access Control List Commands
This shows that the entries in the mask override the precedence in which the rules
are entered into the ACL. In the following example, packets with the source address
10.1.1.1 are dropped because the “deny 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255” rule has the
higher precedence according the “mask host any” entry.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard A2
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
Console(config-std-acl)#deny 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
Console(config-std-acl)#exit
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
This shows how to create a standard ACL with an ingress mask to deny access to
the IP host 171.69.198.102, and permit access to any others.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard A2
Console(config-std-acl)#permit any
Console(config-std-acl)#deny host 171.69.198.102
Console(config-std-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list A2:
deny host 171.69.198.102
permit any
Console#configure
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group A2 in
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list A2:
deny host 171.69.198.102
permit any
Console#
23-8
IP ACLs
23
This shows how to create an extended ACL with an egress mask to drop packets
leaving network 171.69.198.0 when the Layer 4 source port is 23.
Console(config)#access-list ip extended A3
Console(config-ext-acl)#deny host 171.69.198.5 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#deny 171.69.198.0 255.255.255.0 any source-port 23
Console(config-ext-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A3:
deny host 171.69.198.5 any
deny 171.69.198.0 255.255.255.0 any source-port 23
Console#config
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence out
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any source-port
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/15
Console(config-if)#ip access-group A3 out
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A3:
deny 171.69.198.0 255.255.255.0 any source-port 23
deny host 171.69.198.5 any
IP egress mask ACL:
mask 255.255.255.0 any source-port
Console#
23-9
23
Access Control List Commands
This is a more comprehensive example. It denies any TCP packets in which the
SYN bit is ON, and permits all other packets. It then sets the ingress mask to check
the deny rule first, and finally binds port 1 to this ACL. Note that once the ACL is
bound to an interface (i.e., the ACL is active), the order in which the rules are
displayed is determined by the associated mask.
Switch(config)#access-list ip extended 6
Switch(config-ext-acl)#permit any any
Switch(config-ext-acl)#deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
Switch(config-ext-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A6:
permit any any
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
Console#configure
Switch(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Switch(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Switch(config-ip-mask-acl)#end
Console#sh access-list
IP extended access-list A6:
permit any any
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Console#configure
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group A6 in
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A6:
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
permit any any
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Console#
show access-list ip mask-precedence
This command shows the ingress or egress rule masks for IP ACLs.
Syntax
show access-list ip mask-precedence [in | out]
• in – Ingress mask precedence for ingress ACLs.
• out – Egress mask precedence for egress ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show access-list ip mask-precedence
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask host any
mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console#
23-10
IP ACLs
23
Related Commands
mask (IP ACL) (23-6)
ip access-group
This command binds a port to an IP ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
[no] ip access-group acl_name in
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• A port can only be bound to one ACL.
• If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the
switch will replace the old binding with the new one.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
Example
Console(config)#int eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#ip access-group standard david in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show ip access-list (23-5)
show ip access-group
This command shows the ports assigned to IP ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-group
Interface ethernet 1/2
IP standard access-list david
Console#
Related Commands
ip access-group (23-11)
23-11
23
Access Control List Commands
MAC ACLs
The commands in this section configure ACLs based on hardware addresses,
packet format, and Ethernet type. To configure MAC ACLs, first create an access list
containing the required permit or deny rules, set a precedence mask to control the
filter sequence, and then bind the access list to one or more ports
Table 23-3 MAC ACL Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
access-list mac
Creates a MAC ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
23-12
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source and
destination address, packet format, and Ethernet type
MAC-ACL
23-13
show mac access-list
Displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs
PE
23-14
access-list mac
mask-precedence
Changes to the mode for configuring access control masks GC
23-15
mask
Sets a precedence mask for the ACL rules
MAC-Mask
23-15
show access-list mac
mask-precedence
Shows the ingress or egress rule masks for MAC ACLs
PE
23-17
mac access-group
Adds a port to a MAC ACL
IC
23-18
show mac access-group
Shows port assignments for MAC ACLs
PE
23-18
access-list mac
This command adds a MAC access list and enters MAC ACL configuration mode.
Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list mac acl_name
acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
• To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
• An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
23-12
MAC ACLs
23
Example
Console(config)#access-list mac jerry
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny (23-13)
mac access-group (23-18)
show mac access-list (23-14)
permit, deny (MAC ACL)
This command adds a rule to a MAC ACL. The rule filters packets matching a
specified MAC source or destination address (i.e., physical layer address), or
Ethernet protocol type. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny}
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[vid vid vid-bitmask] [ethertype protocol [protocol-bitmask]]
Note:- The default is for Ethernet II packets.
[no] {permit | deny} tagged-eth2
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[vid vid vid-bitmask] [ethertype protocol [protocol-bitmask]]
[no] {permit | deny} untagged-eth2
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[ethertype protocol [protocol-bitmask]]
[no] {permit | deny} tagged-802.3
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[vid vid vid-bitmask]
[no] {permit | deny} untagged-802.3
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
tagged-eth2 – Tagged Ethernet II packets.
untagged-eth2 – Untagged Ethernet II packets.
tagged-802.3 – Tagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
untagged-802.3 – Untagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
any – Any MAC source or destination address.
host – A specific MAC address.
source – Source MAC address.
destination – Destination MAC address range with bitmask.
23-13
23
•
•
•
•
•
Access Control List Commands
address-bitmask34 – Bitmask for MAC address (in hexidecimal format).
vid – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4093)
vid-bitmask34 – VLAN bitmask. (Range: 1-4093)
protocol – A specific Ethernet protocol number. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
protocol-bitmask34 – Protocol bitmask. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
MAC ACL
Command Usage
• New rules are added to the end of the list.
• The ethertype option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted packets.
• A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few
of the more common types include the following:
- 0800 - IP
- 0806 - ARP
- 8137 - IPX
Example
This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination address
00-e0-29-94-34-de where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list mac (23-12)
show mac access-list
This command displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs.
Syntax
show mac access-list [acl_name]
acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac access-list
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console#
34. For all bitmasks, “1” means care and “0” means ignore.
23-14
MAC ACLs
23
Related Commands
permit, deny 23-13
mac access-group (23-18)
access-list mac mask-precedence
This command changes to MAC Mask mode used to configure access control
masks. Use the no form to delete the mask table.
Syntax
[no] access-list ip mask-precedence {in | out}
• in – Ingress mask for ingress ACLs.
• out – Egress mask for egress ACLs.
Default Setting
Default system mask: Filter inbound packets according to specified MAC ACLs.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or
set the queue or frame priorities associated with the rule.
• A mask can only be used by all ingress ACLs or all egress ACLs.
• The precedence of the ACL rules applied to a packet is not determined by
order of the rules, but instead by the order of the masks; i.e., the first mask
that matches a rule will determine the rule that is applied to a packet.
Example
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence in
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#
Related Commands
mask (MAC ACL) (23-15)
mac access-group (23-18)
mask (MAC ACL)
This command defines a mask for MAC ACLs. This mask defines the fields to check
in the packet header. Use the no form to remove a mask.
Syntax
[no] mask [pktformat]
{any | host | source-bitmask} {any | host | destination-bitmask}
[vid [vid-bitmask]] [ethertype [ethertype-bitmask]]
• pktformat – Check the packet format field. (If this keyword must be used in
the mask, the packet format must be specified in ACL rule to match.)
• any – Any address will be matched.
23-15
23
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Access Control List Commands
host – The address must be for a single node.
source-bitmask – Source address of rule must match this bitmask.
destination-bitmask – Destination address of rule must match this bitmask.
vid – Check the VLAN ID field.
vid-bitmask – VLAN ID of rule must match this bitmask.
ethertype – Check the Ethernet type field.
ethertype-bitmask – Ethernet type of rule must match this bitmask.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
MAC Mask
Command Usage
• Up to seven masks can be assigned to an ingress or egress ACL.
• Packets crossing a port are checked against all the rules in the ACL until a
match is found. The order in which these packets are checked is determined
by the mask, and not the order in which the ACL rules were entered.
• First create the required ACLs and inbound or outbound masks before
mapping an ACL to an interface.
Example
This example shows how to create an Ingress MAC ACL and bind it to a port. You
can then see that the order of the rules have been changed by the mask.
Console(config)#access-list mac M4
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any any
Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-eth2 00-11-11-11-11-11
ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid 3
Console(config-mac-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M4:
permit any any
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence in
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#mask pktformat ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#mac access-group M4 in
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M4:
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
permit any any
MAC ingress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid
Console#
23-16
MAC ACLs
23
This example creates an Egress MAC ACL.
Console(config)#access-list mac M5
Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-802.3 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any
Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-eth2 00-11-11-11-11-11
ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid 3 ethertype 0806
Console(config-mac-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M5:
deny tagged-802.3 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3 ethertype 0806
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence out
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#mask pktformat ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#mac access-group M5 out
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M5:
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3 ethertype 0806
deny tagged-802.3 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any
MAC ingress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid ethertype
Console#
show access-list mac mask-precedence
This command shows the ingress or egress rule masks for MAC ACLs.
Syntax
show access-list mac mask-precedence [in | out]
• in – Ingress mask precedence for ingress ACLs.
• out – Egress mask precedence for egress ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show access-list mac mask-precedence
MAC egress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid ethertype
Console#
Related Commands
mask (MAC ACL) (23-15)
23-17
23
Access Control List Commands
mac access-group
This command binds a port to a MAC ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
mac access-group acl_name in
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• A port can only be bound to one ACL.
• If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the
switch will replace the old binding with the new one.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show mac access-list (23-14)
show mac access-group
This command shows the ports assigned to MAC ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac access-group
Interface ethernet 1/5
MAC access-list M5 in
Console#
Related Commands
mac access-group (23-18)
23-18
ACL Information
23
ACL Information
This section describes commands used to display ACL information.
Table 23-4 ACL Information Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
show access-list
Show all IP ACLs and associated rules
PE
23-19
show access-group
Shows the IP ACLs assigned to each port
PE
23-19
show access-list
This command shows all IP ACLs and associated rules.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Once the ACL is bound to an interface (i.e., the ACL is active), the order in
which the rules are displayed is determined by the associated mask.
Example
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 255.255.15.0
IP extended access-list bob:
permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any destination-port 80 80
permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any protocol tcp control-code 2 2
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any host 00-30-29-94-34-de ethertype 800 800
IP extended access-list A6:
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
permit any any
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Console#
show access-group
This command shows the port assignments of IP ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Executive
Example
Console#show access-group
Interface ethernet 1/2
IP standard access-list david
MAC access-list jerry
Console#
23-19
23
23-20
Access Control List Commands
Chapter 24: Interface Commands
These commands are used to display or set communication parameters for an
Ethernet port, aggregated link, or VLAN.
Table 24-1 Interface Commands
Command
Function
Mode
interface
Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration
mode
GC
24-1
description
Adds a description to an interface configuration
IC
24-2
speed-duplex
Configures the speed and duplex operation of a given interface IC
when autonegotiation is disabled
24-2
negotiation
Enables autonegotiation of a given interface
IC
24-3
capabilities
Advertises the capabilities of a given interface for use in
autonegotiation
IC
24-4
flowcontrol
Enables flow control on a given interface
IC
24-5
media-type
Force port type selected for combination ports
IC
24-6
shutdown
Disables an interface
switchport packet-rate Configures broadcast and multicast storm control thresholds
Page
IC
24-6
IC
24-7
switchport block
Prevents flooding of unknown unicast or multicast packets
IC
24-8
clear counters
Clears statistics on an interface
PE
24-8
show interfaces status Displays status for the specified interface
NE, PE
24-9
show interfaces
counters
Displays statistics for the specified interfaces
NE, PE
24-10
show interfaces
switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
NE, PE
24-11
interface
This command configures an interface type and enter interface configuration mode.
Use the no form to remove a trunk.
Syntax
interface interface
no interface port-channel channel-id
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4093)
Default Setting
None
24-1
24
Interface Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
To specify port 4, enter the following command:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#
description
This command adds a description to an interface. Use the no form to remove the
description.
Syntax
description string
no description
string - Comment or a description to help you remember what is attached
to this interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following example adds a description to port 4.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#description RD-SW#3
Console(config-if)#
speed-duplex
This command configures the speed and duplex mode of a given interface when
autonegotiation is disabled. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
speed-duplex {10000full | 1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half}
no speed-duplex
•
•
•
•
•
24-2
1000full - Forces 1 Gbps full-duplex operation
100full - Forces 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half - Forces 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
10full - Forces 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half - Forces 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
negotiation
24
Default Setting
• Auto-negotiation is enabled by default.
• When auto-negotiation is disabled, the default speed-duplex setting is:
- Fast Ethernet ports – 100full (100 Mbps full-duplex)
- Gigabit Ethernet ports – 1000full (1 Gbps full-duplex)
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• To force operation to the speed and duplex mode specified in a speed-duplex
command, use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
• When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the
optimal settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To set the
speed/duplex mode under auto-negotiation, the required mode must be
specified in the capabilities list for an interface.
• 100BASE-BX ports are fixed at 100 Mbps, full-duplex.
• The 1000BASE-T standard does not support forced mode. Auto-negotiation
must always be used to establish a connection over any 1000BASE-T port or
trunk.
Example
The following example configures port 5 to 100 Mbps, half-duplex operation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (24-3)
capabilities (24-4)
negotiation
This command enables autonegotiation for a given interface. Use the no form to
disable autonegotiation.
Syntax
[no] negotiation
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
24-3
24
Interface Commands
Command Usage
• When auto-negotiation is enabled the switch will negotiate the best settings
for a link based on the capabilities command. When auto-negotiation is
disabled, you must manually specify the link attributes with the speed-duplex
and flowcontrol commands.
• If autonegotiation is disabled, auto-MDI/MDI-X pin signal configuration will
also be disabled for the RJ-45 ports.
Example
The following example configures port 11 to use autonegotiation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
capabilities (24-4)
speed-duplex (24-2)
capabilities
This command advertises the port capabilities of a given interface during
autonegotiation. Use the no form with parameters to remove an advertised
capability, or the no form without parameters to restore the default values.
Syntax
[no] capabilities {1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half | flowcontrol |
symmetric}
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1000full - Supports 1 Gbps full-duplex operation
100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
flowcontrol - Supports flow control
symmetric (Gigabit only) - When specified, the port transmits and receives
pause frames; when not specified, the port will auto-negotiate to determine
the sender and receiver for asymmetric pause frames. (The current switch
ASIC only supports symmetric pause frames.)
Default Setting
• 100BASE-TX: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
• 1000BASE-T: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
• 1000BASE-SX/LX/LH (SFP): 1000full
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
24-4
flowcontrol
24
Command Usage
When auto-negotiation is enabled with the negotiation command, the switch
will negotiate the best settings for a link based on the capabilites command.
When auto-negotiation is disabled, you must manually specify the link
attributes with the speed-duplex and flowcontrol commands.
Example
The following example configures Ethernet port 5 capabilities to 100half and 100full.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (24-3)
speed-duplex (24-2)
flowcontrol (24-5)
flowcontrol
This command enables flow control. Use the no form to disable flow control.
Syntax
[no] flowcontrol
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or
segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3-2005
(formally IEEE 802.3x) for full-duplex operation.
• To force flow control on or off (with the flowcontrol or no flowcontrol
command), use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
• When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the
optimal settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To enable
flow control under auto-negotiation, “flowcontrol” must be included in the
capabilities list for any port
• Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is actually
required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure jamming signals may
degrade overall performance for the segment attached to the hub.
24-5
24
Interface Commands
Example
The following example enables flow control on port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (24-3)
capabilities (flowcontrol, symmetric) (24-4)
media-type
This command forces the port type selected for combination ports 27-28. Use the no
form to restore the default mode.
Syntax
media-type mode
no media-type
mode
• copper-forced - Always uses the built-in RJ-45 port.
• sfp-forced - Always uses the SFP port (even if module not installed).
• sfp-preferred-auto - Uses SFP port if both combination types are
functioning and the SFP port has a valid link.
Default Setting
sfp-preferred-auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet - Ports 27-28)
Example
This forces the switch to use the built-in RJ-45 port for the combination port 28.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/28
Console(config-if)#media-type copper-forced
Console(config-if)#
shutdown
This command disables an interface. To restart a disabled interface, use the no
form.
Syntax
[no] shutdown
Default Setting
All interfaces are enabled.
24-6
switchport packet-rate
24
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This command allows you to disable a port due to abnormal behavior
(e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the problem has been
resolved. You may also want to disable a port for security reasons.
Example
The following example disables port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#shutdown
Console(config-if)#
switchport packet-rate
This command configures broadcast and multicast storm control. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
switchport {broadcast | multicast} packet-rate rate
no switchport broadcast
• broadcast - Specifies storm control for broadcast traffic.
• multicast - Specifies storm control for multicast traffic.
• rate - Threshold level as a rate; i.e., packets per second.
(Range: 500-262143)
Default Setting
Broadcast Storm Control: Enabled for all ports, packet-rate limit: 500 pps
Multicast Storm Control: Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
When traffic exceeds the threshold specified for broadcast and multicast
traffic, packets exceeding the threshold are dropped until the rate falls back
down beneath the threshold.
Example
The following shows how to configure broadcast storm control at 600 packets per
second:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast packet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#
24-7
24
Interface Commands
switchport block
This command prevents flooding of unknown unicast or multicast packets to an
interface. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
[no] switchport block {unicast | multicast}
• unicast - Specifies unknown unicast packets.
• multicast - Specifies unknown multicast packets.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Default Setting
Unknown unicast and multicast packets are not blocked.
Command Usage
By default, unknown unicast or multicast traffic is flooded to all ports. This
occurs if a MAC address has been timed out or not yet learned by the switch.
If this kind of traffic is flooded to an isolated port on a private VLAN, there
could be security issues.
Example
The following example blocks unknown multicast traffic on port 5:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#switchport switchport block multicast
Console(config-if)#
clear counters
This command clears statistics on an interface.
Syntax
clear counters interface
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
24-8
show interfaces status
24
Command Usage
Statistics are only initialized for a power reset. This command sets the base
value for displayed statistics to zero for the current management session.
However, if you log out and back into the management interface, the statistics
displayed will show the absolute value accumulated since the last power reset.
Example
The following example clears statistics on port 5.
Console#clear counters ethernet 1/5
Console#
show interfaces status
This command displays the status for an interface.
Syntax
show interfaces status [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4093)
Default Setting
Shows the status for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a
description of the items displayed by this command, see “Displaying
Connection Status” on page 9-1.
24-9
24
Interface Commands
Example
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/5
Basic information:
Port type:
1000T
Mac address:
00-30-F1-D4-73-A5
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
Broadcast storm:
Enabled
Broadcast storm limit: 500 packets/second
Flow control:
Disabled
LACP:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Port security action:
None
Media type:
None
Current status:
Link status:
Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type:
None
Console#show interfaces status vlan 1
Information of VLAN 1
MAC address:
00-00-AB-CD-00-00
Console#
show interfaces counters
This command displays interface statistics.
Syntax
show interfaces counters [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
Shows the counters for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a
description of the items displayed by this command, see “Showing Port
Statistics” on page 9-21.
24-10
show interfaces switchport
24
Example
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/7
Ethernet 1/7
Iftable stats:
Octets input: 30658, Octets output: 196550
Unicast input: 6, Unicast output: 5
Discard input: 0, Discard output: 0
Error input: 0, Error output: 0
Unknown protos input: 0, QLen output: 0
Extended iftable stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 3064
Broadcast input: 262, Broadcast output: 1
Ether-like stats:
Alignment errors: 0, FCS errors: 0
Single Collision frames: 0, Multiple collision frames: 0
SQE Test errors: 0, Deferred transmissions: 0
Late collisions: 0, Excessive collisions: 0
Internal mac transmit errors: 0, Internal mac receive errors: 0
Frame too longs: 0, Carrier sense errors: 0
Symbol errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop events: 0, Octets: 227208, Packets: 3338
Broadcast pkts: 263, Multi-cast pkts: 3064
Undersize pkts: 0, Oversize pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC align errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet size <= 64 octets: 3150, Packet size 65 to 127 octets: 139
Packet size 128 to 255 octets: 49, Packet size 256 to 511 octets: 0
Packet size 512 to 1023 octets: 0, Packet size 1024 to 1518 octets: 0
Console#
show interfaces switchport
This command displays the administrative and operational status of the specified
interfaces.
Syntax
show interfaces switchport [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
Shows all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed.
24-11
24
Interface Commands
Example
This example shows the configuration setting for port 4.
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/4
Broadcast Threshold:
Enabled, 500 packets/second
Muilticast Threshold:
Disabled
LACP Status:
Disabled
Ingress Rate Limit:
Disable, 1000M bits per second
Egress Rate Limit:
Disable, 1000M bits per second
VLAN Membership Mode:
Hybrid
Ingress Rule:
Disabled
Acceptable Frame Type:
All frames
Native VLAN:
1
Priority for Untagged Traffic: 0
GVRP Status:
Disabled
Allowed VLAN:
1(u),
Forbidden VLAN:
Unknown multicast block:
Disabled
Unknown unicast block:
Disabled
Console#
Table 24-2 show interfaces switchport - display description
Field
Description
Broadcast threshold
Shows if broadcast storm suppression is enabled or disabled; if enabled it also
shows the threshold level (page 24-7).
Muilticast Threshold
Shows if multicast storm suppression is enabled or disabled; if enabled it also
shows the threshold level (page 24-7).
LACP status
Shows if Link Aggregation Control Protocol has been enabled or disabled
(page 25-2).
Ingress/Egress rate limit
Shows if rate limiting is enabled, and the current rate limit (page 27-1).
VLAN membership mode Indicates membership mode as Trunk or Hybrid (page 30-9).
Ingress rule
Shows if ingress filtering is enabled or disabled (page 30-10).
Acceptable frame type
Shows if acceptable VLAN frames include all types or tagged frames only
(page 30-9).
Native VLAN
Indicates the default Port VLAN ID (page 30-11).
Priority for untagged traffic Indicates the default priority for untagged frames (page 31-3).
GVRP status
Shows if GARP VLAN Registration Protocol is enabled or disabled (page 30-3).
Allowed VLAN
Shows the VLANs this interface has joined, where “(u)” indicates untagged and
“(t)” indicates tagged (page 30-11).
Forbidden VLAN
Shows the VLANs this interface can not dynamically join via GVRP
(page 30-12).
Unknown multicast block
Shows if the unknown multicast packets are blocked (page 24-8).
Unknown unicast block
Shows if the unknown unicast packets are blocked (page 24-8).
24-12
Chapter 25: Link Aggregation Commands
Ports can be statically grouped into an aggregate link (i.e., trunk) to increase the
bandwidth of a network connection or to ensure fault recovery. Or you can use the
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) to automatically negotiate a trunk link
between this switch and another network device. For static trunks, the switches have
to comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. For dynamic trunks, the switches
have to comply with LACP. This switch supports up to 12 trunks. For example, a
trunk consisting of two 1000 Mbps ports can support an aggregate bandwidth of
4 Gbps when operating at full duplex.
Table 25-1 Link Aggregation Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Manual Configuration Commands
interface port-channel
Configures a trunk and enters interface
configuration mode for the trunk
GC
24-1
channel-group
Adds a port to a trunk
IC (Ethernet)
25-2
Dynamic Configuration Commands
lacp
Configures LACP for the current interface
IC (Ethernet)
25-2
lacp system-priority
Configures a port's LACP system priority
IC (Ethernet)
25-4
lacp admin-key
Configures a port's administration key
IC (Ethernet)
25-4
lacp admin-key
Configures an port channel’s administration key
IC (Port Channel)
25-5
lacp port-priority
Configures a port's LACP port priority
IC (Ethernet)
25-6
Trunk Status Display Commands
show interfaces status
port-channel
Shows trunk information
NE, PE
24-9
show lacp
Shows LACP information
PE
25-7
Guidelines for Creating Trunks
General Guidelines –
• Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
• A trunk can have up to 8 ports.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• All ports in a trunk must be configured in an identical manner, including
communication mode (i.e., speed and duplex mode), VLAN assignments, and
CoS settings.
• Any of the Gigabit ports on the front panel can be trunked together, including
ports of different media types.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to,
added or deleted from a VLAN via the specified port-channel.
• STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk via the
specified port-channel.
25-1
25
Link Aggregation Commands
Dynamically Creating a Port Channel –
Ports assigned to a common port channel must meet the following criteria:
• Ports must have the same LACP system priority.
• Ports must have the same port admin key (Ethernet Interface).
• If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group.
• However, if the port channel admin key is set, then the port admin key must
be set to the same value for a port to be allowed to join a channel group.
• If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select the backup link.
channel-group
This command adds a port to a trunk. Use the no form to remove a port from a trunk.
Syntax
channel-group channel-id
no channel-group
channel-id - Trunk index (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
The current port will be added to this trunk.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• When configuring static trunks, the switches must comply with the Cisco
EtherChannel standard.
• Use no channel-group to remove a port group from a trunk.
• Use no interfaces port-channel to remove a trunk from the switch.
Example
The following example creates trunk 1 and then adds port 11:
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#
lacp
This command enables 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) for the
current interface. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] lacp
25-2
lacp
25
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• The ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex,
either by forced mode or auto-negotiation.
• A trunk formed with another switch using LACP will automatically be assigned
the next available port-channel ID.
• If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the connected ports, the trunk
will be activated automatically.
• If more than eight ports attached to the same target switch have LACP
enabled, the additional ports will be placed in standby mode, and will only be
enabled if one of the active links fails.
Example
The following shows LACP enabled on ports 46-48. Because LACP has also been
enabled on the ports at the other end of the links, the show interfaces status
port-channel 1 command shows that Trunk1 has been established.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/46
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/47
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/48
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type:
1000T
Mac address:
00-30-F1-D4-73-A4
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
Flow control:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Current status:
Created by:
Link status:
Operation speed-duplex:
Flow control type:
Member Ports:
Console#
Lacp
Up
1000full
None
Eth1/46, Eth1/47, Eth1/48,
25-3
25
Link Aggregation Commands
lacp system-priority
This command configures a port's LACP system priority. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} system-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} system-priority
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• priority - This priority is used to determine link aggregation group (LAG)
membership, and to identify this device to other switches during LAG
negotiations. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Port must be configured with the same system priority to join the same LAG.
• System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the LAG
identifier. This identifier is used to indicate a specific LAG during LACP
negotiations with other systems.
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and
will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the
partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#
lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface)
This command configures a port's LACP administration key. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} admin-key key
[no] lacp {actor | partner} admin-key
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• key - The port admin key must be set to the same value for ports that belong
to the same link aggregation group (LAG). (Range: 0-65535)
25-4
lacp admin-key (Port Channel)
25
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority
matches, (2) the LACP port admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port
channel key matches (if configured).
• If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group.
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and
will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the
partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#
lacp admin-key (Port Channel)
This command configures a port channel's LACP administration key string. Use the
no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lacp admin-key key
[no] lacp admin-key
key - The port channel admin key is used to identify a specific link
aggregation group (LAG) during local LACP setup on this switch.
(Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority
matches, (2) the LACP port admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port
channel key matches (if configured).
25-5
25
Link Aggregation Commands
• If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group. Note that when the LAG is no longer
used, the port channel admin key is reset to 0.
Example
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#lacp admin-key 3
Console(config-if)#
lacp port-priority
This command configures LACP port priority. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} port-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} port-priority
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• priority - LACP port priority is used to select a backup link. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Setting a lower value indicates a higher effective priority.
• If an active port link goes down, the backup port with the highest priority is
selected to replace the downed link. However, if two or more ports have the
same LACP port priority, the port with the lowest physical port number will be
selected as the backup port.
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and will
only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 128
25-6
show lacp
25
show lacp
This command displays LACP information.
Syntax
show lacp [port-channel] {counters | internal | neighbors | sys-id}
•
•
•
•
•
port-channel - Local identifier for a link aggregation group. (Range: 1-32)
counters - Statistics for LACP protocol messages.
internal - Configuration settings and operational state for local side.
neighbors - Configuration settings and operational state for remote side.
sys-id - Summary of system priority and MAC address for all channel groups.
Default Setting
Port Channel: all
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show lacp 1 counters
Port channel: 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 2
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Sent:
10
LACPDUs Receive:
5
Marker Sent:
0
Marker Receive:
0
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts: 0
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts: 0
.
.
.
Table 25-2 show lacp counters - display description
Field
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received on this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed to the Slow
Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type.
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value, but contain
a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
25-7
25
Link Aggregation Commands
Console#show lacp 1 internal
Port channel: 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key: 3
Admin Key: 0
Eth 1/ 2
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal:
30 sec
LACP System Priority: 32768
LACP Port Priority:
32768
Admin Key:
3
Oper Key:
3
Admin State: defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Table 25-3 show lacp internal - display description
Field
Description
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Internal
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
LACP System Priority LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin State,
Oper State
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
• Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
• Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational partner
information, administratively configured for the partner.
• Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is disabled; i.e.,
distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to be enabled in the absence
of administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; i.e., collection is
currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the absence of
administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; i.e., it has been
allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group has been associated
with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link Aggregation Group is
consistent with the System ID and operational Key information transmitted.
• Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; i.e., a potential
candidate for aggregation.
• Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow transmission rate.
• LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link. (0: Passive; 1: Active)
25-8
show lacp
25
Console#show lacp 1 neighbors
Port channel 1 neighbors
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Partner Admin System ID:
32768, 00-00-00-00-00-00
Partner Oper System ID:
32768, 00-01-F4-78-AE-C0
Partner Admin Port Number: 2
Partner Oper Port Number: 2
Port Admin Priority:
32768
Port Oper Priority:
32768
Admin Key:
0
Oper Key:
3
Admin State:
defaulted, distributing, collecting,
synchronization, long timeout,
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Table 25-4 show lacp neighbors - display description
Field
Description
Partner Admin System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin
Port Number
Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol Partner.
Partner Oper
Port Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s protocol
partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
25-9
25
Link Aggregation Commands
Console#show lacp sysid
Port Channel
System Priority
System MAC Address
------------------------------------------------------------------------1
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
2
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
3
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
4
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
5
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
6
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
7
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
8
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
9
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
10
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
11
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
12
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
.
.
.
Table 25-5 show lacp sysid - display description
Field
Description
Channel group
System
Priority*
System MAC Address*
A link aggregation group configured on this switch.
LACP system priority for this channel group.
System MAC address.
* The LACP system priority and system MAC address are concatenated to form the LAG system ID.
25-10
Chapter 26: Mirror Port Commands
This section describes how to mirror traffic from a source port to a target port.
Table 26-1 Mirror Port Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
port monitor
Configures a mirror session
IC
26-1
show port monitor
Shows the configuration for a mirror port
PE
26-2
port monitor
This command configures a mirror session. Use the no form to clear a mirror
session.
Syntax
port monitor interface [rx | tx | both]
no port monitor interface
• interface - ethernet unit/port (source port)
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• rx - Mirror received packets.
• tx - Mirror transmitted packets.
• both - Mirror both received and transmitted packets.
Default Setting
No mirror session is defined. When enabled, the default mirroring is for both
received and transmitted packets.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, destination port)
Command Usage
• You can mirror traffic from any source port to a destination port for real-time
analysis. You can then attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the
destination port and study the traffic crossing the source port in a completely
unobtrusive manner.
• The destination port is set by specifying an Ethernet interface.
• The mirror port and monitor port speeds should match, otherwise traffic may
be dropped from the monitor port.
• You can create multiple mirror sessions, but all sessions must share the same
destination port. However, you should avoid sending too much traffic to the
destination port from multiple source ports.
26-1
26
Mirror Port Commands
Example
The following example configures the switch to mirror all packets from port 6 to 11:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6 both
Console(config-if)#
show port monitor
This command displays mirror information.
Syntax
show port monitor [interface]
interface - ethernet unit/port (source port)
• unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
• port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
Default Setting
Shows all sessions.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the currently configured source port, destination port,
and mirror mode (i.e., RX, TX, RX/TX).
Example
The following shows mirroring configured from port 6 to port 11:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show port monitor
Port Mirroring
------------------------------------Destination port(listen port):Eth1/1
Source port(monitored port) :Eth1/6
Mode
:RX/TX
Console#
26-2
Chapter 27: Rate Limit Commands
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic
transmitted or received on an interface. The maximum data rate may also be set for
specific Class of Service (CoS) priorities for traffic transmitted out of an interface.
Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at the edge of a network to limit traffic into or
out of the network. Traffic that falls within the rate limit is transmitted, while packets
that exceed the acceptable amount of traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped, conforming traffic is forwarded
without any changes.
Table 27-1 Rate Limit Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
rate-limit
Configures the maximum input or output rate for a port
IC
27-1
rate-limit cos
Configures the maximum output rate based on CoS priorities IC
27-2
show rate-limit cos
Displays the output rate limit for CoS priorities
27-3
PE
rate-limit
This command defines the rate limit for a specific interface. Use this command
without specifying a rate to restore the default rate. Use the no form to restore the
default status of disabled.
Syntax
rate-limit {input | output} [rate]
no rate-limit {input | output}
• input – Input rate
• output – Output rate
• rate – Maximum value in Mbps. (Range: Fast Ethernet - 1 to 100 Mbps,
Gigabit Ethernet - 1 to 1000 Mbps)
Default Setting
• Fast Ethernet: 100 Mbps
• Gigabit Ethernet: 1000 Mbps
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input 600
Console(config-if)#
27-1
27
Rate Limit Commands
Related Command
show interfaces switchport (24-11)
rate-limit cos
This command defines the output rate limit for an interface based on specified CoS
priorities. Use the no form to restore the default status of disabled.
Syntax
rate-limit cos cos_value rate
no rate-limit cos
• cos_value – A number from 0 to 7, where 7 is the highest priority.
• rate – Maximum value in Mbps. (Range: Fast Ethernet - 1 to 100 Mbps,
Gigabit Ethernet - 1 to 1000 Mbps)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• When priority-based rate limiting is implemented, the combined rate of all traffic
matching the specified priority-based rate limits cannot exceed the overall
output rate limit specified by the rate-limit output command (see page 27-1).
• If the rate exceeds the limit set for a specific priority, frames of that type are
dropped until the rate falls below the limit. If the rate exceeds the overall limit
set the rate-limit output command, frames of any priority type may be dropped
until the rate falls back below the limit.
• This switch supports Class of Service by using eight priority queues. Eight
separate traffic classes are defined in IEEE 802.1p. The default priority levels
are assigned according to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard as
shown below. To maintain line rate throughput when setting rate limits for CoS
priorities, only four priority classes are supported by the switch, and are
mapped from the eight default priority classes as shown below.
Table 27-2 Mapping Default to Per Port CoS Priority Levels
27-2
Queue
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Priority
(default CoS)
1
2
0
3
4
5
6
7
Priority
(per port CoS)
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
show rate-limit cos
27
Example
This example sets the maximum output rate for CoS traffic of priority level 0 to
50 Mbps on Port 1.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit cos 0 50
Console(config-if)#
show rate-limit cos
This command displays the output rate limit for CoS priorities.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no rate limit is set, this command displays a value of “0” for the
corresponding interface.
Example
The following example shows that the rate limit set in the preceding example for
CoS priority class 0 affects both priority class 0 and 3, which are now effectively
treated as priority class 1. Table 27-2 on page 27-2 illustrates the priority mapping.
Console#show rate-limit cos
Interface
--------Eth 1/1
Eth 1/1
Eth 1/1
Eth 1/1
Eth 1/1
Eth 1/1
Eth
1/1
.
.
.
Cos
--0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Ratelimit
--------50
0
0
50
0
0
0
27-3
27
27-4
Rate Limit Commands
Chapter 28: Address Table Commands
These commands are used to configure the address table for filtering specified
addresses, displaying current entries, clearing the table, or setting the aging time.
Table 28-1 Address Table Commands
Command
Function
Mode
mac-address-table static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
Page
28-1
clear mac-address-table
dynamic
Removes any learned entries from the forwarding database PE
28-2
show mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
28-3
mac-address-table
aging-time
Sets the aging time of the address table
GC
28-4
show mac-address-table
aging-time
Shows the aging time for the address table
PE
28-4
mac-address-table static
This command maps a static address to a destination port in a VLAN. Use the no
form to remove an address.
Syntax
mac-address-table static mac-address interface interface
vlan vlan-id [action]
no mac-address-table static mac-address vlan vlan-id
• mac-address - MAC address.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
• action - delete-on-reset - Assignment lasts until the switch is reset.
- permanent - Assignment is permanent.
Default Setting
No static addresses are defined. The default mode is permanent.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
28-1
28
Address Table Commands
Command Usage
The static address for a host device can be assigned to a specific port within
a specific VLAN. Use this command to add static addresses to the MAC
Address Table. Static addresses have the following characteristics:
• Static addresses will not be removed from the address table when a given
interface link is down.
• Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved.
When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be
ignored and will not be written to the address table.
• A static address cannot be learned on another port until the address is
removed with the no form of this command.
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface
ethernet 1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
Console(config)#
clear mac-address-table dynamic
This command removes any learned entries from the forwarding database and
clears the transmit and receive counts for any static or system configured entries.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear mac-address-table dynamic
Console#
28-2
show mac-address-table
28
show mac-address-table
This command shows classes of entries in the bridge-forwarding database.
Syntax
show mac-address-table [address mac-address [mask]] [interface interface]
[vlan vlan-id] [sort {address | vlan | interface}]
• mac-address - MAC address.
• mask - Bits to match in the address.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
• sort - Sort by address, vlan or interface.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• The MAC Address Table contains the MAC addresses associated with each
interface. Note that the Type field may include the following types:
- Learned - Dynamic address entries
- Permanent - Static entry
- Delete-on-reset - Static entry to be deleted when system is reset
• The mask should be hexadecimal numbers (representing an equivalent bit
mask) in the form xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx that is applied to the specified MAC
address. Enter hexadecimal numbers, where an equivalent binary bit “0”
means to match a bit and “1” means to ignore a bit. For example, a mask of
00-00-00-00-00-00 means an exact match, and a mask of
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF means “any.”
• The maximum number of address entries is 8191.
Example
Console#show mac-address-table
Interface MAC Address
VLAN Type
--------- ----------------- ---- ----------------Eth 1/ 1 00-e0-29-94-34-de
1 Delete-on-reset
Console#
28-3
28
Address Table Commands
mac-address-table aging-time
This command sets the aging time for entries in the address table. Use the no form
to restore the default aging time.
Syntax
mac-address-table aging-time seconds
no mac-address-table aging-time
seconds - Aging time. (Range: 10-1000000 seconds; 0 to disable aging)
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The aging time is used to age out dynamically learned forwarding information.
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 100
Console(config)#
show mac-address-table aging-time
This command shows the aging time for entries in the address table.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac-address-table aging-time
Aging time: 300 sec.
Console#
28-4
Chapter 29: Spanning Tree Commands
This section includes commands that configure the Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA)
globally for the switch, and commands that configure STA for the selected interface.
Table 29-1 Spanning Tree Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
spanning-tree
Enables the spanning tree protocol
GC
spanning-tree mode
Configures STP, RSTP or MSTP mode
GC
29-2
spanning-tree forward-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge forward time
GC
29-4
spanning-tree hello-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge hello time
GC
29-4
spanning-tree max-age
Configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age
GC
29-5
spanning-tree priority
Configures the spanning tree bridge priority
GC
29-6
spanning-tree
path-cost method
Configures the path cost method for RSTP/MSTP
GC
29-6
spanning-tree
transmission-limit
Configures the transmission limit for RSTP/MSTP
GC
29-7
spanning-tree
mst-configuration
Changes to MSTP configuration mode
GC
29-7
29-2
mst vlan
Adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance
MST
29-8
mst priority
Configures the priority of a spanning tree instance
MST
29-9
name
Configures the name for the multiple spanning tree
MST
29-9
revision
Configures the revision number for the multiple spanning
tree
MST
29-10
max-hops
Configures the maximum number of hops allowed in the
region before a BPDU is discarded
MST
29-11
spanning-tree
spanning-disabled
Disables spanning tree for an interface
IC
29-11
spanning-tree cost
Configures the spanning tree path cost of an interface
IC
29-12
spanning-tree port-priority
Configures the spanning tree priority of an interface
IC
29-13
spanning-tree edge-port
Enables fast forwarding for edge ports
IC
29-14
spanning-tree portfast
Sets an interface to fast forwarding
IC
29-14
spanning-tree link-type
Configures the link type for RSTP/MSTP
IC
29-15
spanning-tree mst cost
Configures the path cost of an instance in the MST
IC
29-16
spanning-tree mst
port-priority
Configures the priority of an instance in the MST
IC
29-17
spanning-tree
protocol-migration
Re-checks the appropriate BPDU format
PE
29-18
29-1
29
Spanning Tree Commands
Table 29-1 Spanning Tree Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
show spanning-tree
Shows spanning tree configuration for the common
PE
spanning tree (i.e., overall bridge), a selected interface, or
an instance within the multiple spanning tree
Mode
Page
29-18
show spanning-tree mst
configuration
Shows the multiple spanning tree configuration
29-20
PE
spanning-tree
This command enables the Spanning Tree Algorithm globally for the switch. Use the
no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree
Default Setting
Spanning tree is enabled.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable
network loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. This allows the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is,
an STA-compliant switch, bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only
one route exists between any two stations on the network, and provide backup
links which automatically take over when a primary link goes down.
Example
This example shows how to enable the Spanning Tree Algorithm for the switch:
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#
spanning-tree mode
This command selects the spanning tree mode for this switch. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mode {stp | rstp | mstp}
no spanning-tree mode
• stp - Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
• rstp - Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
• mstp - Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
29-2
spanning-tree mode
29
Default Setting
rstp
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Spanning Tree Protocol
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs.
This creates one spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple
VLANs are implemented on a network, the path between specific VLAN
members may be inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops, thus
isolating group members. When operating multiple VLANs, we recommend
selecting the MSTP option.
• Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring
the incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of
protocol messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
- STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU after a port’s migration
delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an 802.1D bridge
and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
- RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an
RSTP BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration
delay timer and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
• Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
- To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must
configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTP configuration,
allowing them to participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.
- A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible
VLAN instance assignments.
- Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing modes
stops all spanning-tree instances for the previous mode and restarts the
system in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user traffic.
Example
The following example configures the switch to use Rapid Spanning Tree:
Console(config)#spanning-tree mode rstp
Console(config)#
29-3
29
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree forward-time
This command configures the spanning tree bridge forward time globally for this
switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree forward-time seconds
no spanning-tree forward-time
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 4 - 30 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 4 or [(max-age / 2) + 1].
Default Setting
15 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait
before changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is
required because every device must receive information about topology
changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to
listen for conflicting information that would make it return to the discarding
state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree forward-time 20
Console(config)#
spanning-tree hello-time
This command configures the spanning tree bridge hello time globally for this switch.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree hello-time time
no spanning-tree hello-time
time - Time in seconds. (Range: 1-10 seconds).
The maximum value is the lower of 10 or [(max-age / 2) -1].
Default Setting
2 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the time interval (in seconds) at which the root device
transmits a configuration message.
29-4
spanning-tree max-age
29
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree hello-time 5
Console(config)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree forward-time (29-4)
spanning-tree max-age (29-5)
spanning-tree max-age
This command configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age globally for this
switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree max-age seconds
no spanning-tree max-age
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 6-40 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 6 or [2 x (hello-time + 1)].
The maximum value is the lower of 40 or [2 x (forward-time - 1)].
Default Setting
20 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If
it is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports
attached to the network.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree max-age 40
Console(config)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree forward-time (29-4)
spanning-tree hello-time (29-4)
29-5
29
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree priority
This command configures the spanning tree priority globally for this switch. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree priority priority
no spanning-tree priority
priority - Priority of the bridge. (Range: 0 - 65535)
(Range – 0-61440, in steps of 4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288,
16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152,
53248, 57344, 61440)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and designated
port. The device with the highest priority (i.e., lower numeric value) becomes
the STA root device. However, if all devices have the same priority, the device
with the lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree priority 40000
Console(config)#
spanning-tree pathcost method
This command configures the path cost method used for Rapid Spanning Tree and
Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree pathcost method {long | short}
no spanning-tree pathcost method
• long - Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
This method is based on the IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol.
• short - Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
This method is based on the IEEE 802.1 Spanning Tree Protocol.
Default Setting
Long method
Command Mode
Global Configuration
29-6
spanning-tree transmission-limit
29
Command Usage
The path cost method is used to determine the best path between devices.
Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to faster media,
and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. Note that path cost
(page 29-12) takes precedence over port priority (page 29-13).
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree pathcost method long
Console(config)#
spanning-tree transmission-limit
This command configures the minimum interval between the transmission of
consecutive RSTP/MSTP BPDUs. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree transmission-limit count
no spanning-tree transmission-limit
count - The transmission limit in seconds. (Range: 1-10)
Default Setting
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command limits the maximum transmission rate for BPDUs.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree transmission-limit 4
Console(config)#
spanning-tree mst-configuration
This command changes to Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) configuration mode.
Default Setting
• No VLANs are mapped to any MST instance.
• The region name is set the switch’s MAC address.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree mst-configuration
Console(config-mstp)#
29-7
29
Spanning Tree Commands
Related Commands
mst vlan (29-8)
mst priority (29-9)
name (29-9)
revision (29-10)
max-hops (29-11)
mst vlan
This command adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance. Use the no form to remove
the specified VLANs. Using the no form without any VLAN parameters to remove all
VLANs.
Syntax
[no] mst instance_id vlan vlan-range
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
• vlan-range - Range of VLANs. (Range: 1-4093)
Default Setting
none
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
• Use this command to group VLANs into spanning tree instances. MSTP
generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides multiple
pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load, preventing
wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails, and
allowing for faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
• By default all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MSTI 0) that
connects all bridges and LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up
to 58 instances. You should try to group VLANs which cover the same general
area of your network. However, remember that you must configure all bridges
within the same MSTI Region (page 29-9) with the same set of instances, and
the same instance (on each bridge) with the same set of VLANs. Also, note
that RSTP treats each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all regions
to the Common Spanning Tree.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 vlan 2-5
Console(config-mstp)#
29-8
mst priority
29
mst priority
This command configures the priority of a spanning tree instance. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
mst instance_id priority priority
no mst instance_id priority
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
• priority - Priority of the a spanning tree instance.
(Range: 0-61440 in steps of 4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384,
20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344,
61440)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
• MST priority is used in selecting the root bridge and alternate bridge of the
specified instance. The device with the highest priority (i.e., lowest numerical
value) becomes the MSTI root device. However, if all devices have the same
priority, the device with the lowest MAC address will then become the root
device.
• You can set this switch to act as the MSTI root device by specifying a priority
of 0, or as the MSTI alternate device by specifying a priority of 16384.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 priority 4096
Console(config-mstp)#
name
This command configures the name for the multiple spanning tree region in which
this switch is located. Use the no form to clear the name.
Syntax
name name
name - Name of the spanning tree.
Default Setting
Switch’s MAC address
Command Mode
MST Configuration
29-9
29
Spanning Tree Commands
Command Usage
The MST region name and revision number (page 29-10) are used to
designate a unique MST region. A bridge (i.e., spanning-tree compliant device
such as this switch) can only belong to one MST region. And all bridges in the
same region must be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#name R&D
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
revision (29-10)
revision
This command configures the revision number for this multiple spanning tree
configuration of this switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
revision number
number - Revision number of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
The MST region name (page 29-9) and revision number are used to designate
a unique MST region. A bridge (i.e., spanning-tree compliant device such as
this switch) can only belong to one MST region. And all bridges in the same
region must be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#revision 1
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
name (29-9)
29-10
max-hops
29
max-hops
This command configures the maximum number of hops in the region before a
BPDU is discarded. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
max-hops hop-number
hop-number - Maximum hop number for multiple spanning tree.
(Range: 1-40)
Default Setting
20
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
An MSTI region is treated as a single node by the STP and RSTP protocols.
Therefore, the message age for BPDUs inside an MSTI region is never
changed. However, each spanning tree instance within a region, and the
internal spanning tree (IST) that connects these instances use a hop count to
specify the maximum number of bridges that will propagate a BPDU. Each
bridge decrements the hop count by one before passing on the BPDU. When
the hop count reaches zero, the message is dropped.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#max-hops 30
Console(config-mstp)#
spanning-tree spanning-disabled
This command disables the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface. Use
the no form to reenable the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
This example disables the spanning tree algorithm for port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Console(config-if)#
29-11
29
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree cost
This command configures the spanning tree path cost for the specified interface.
Use the no form to restore the default auto-configuration mode.
Syntax
spanning-tree cost cost
no spanning-tree cost
cost - The path cost for the port.
(Range: 0 for auto-configuration, 1-65535 for short path cost method 35,
1-200,000,000 for long path cost method)
Table 29-2 Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Port Type
IEEE 802.1D-1998
IEEE 802.1w-2001
Fast Ethernet
10-60
20,000-2,000,000
Gigabit Ethernet
3-10
2,000-200,000
Table 29-3 Recommended STA Path Cost
Port Type
Link Type
IEEE 802.1D-1998
IEEE 802.1w-2001
Fast Ethernet
Half Duplex
Full Duplex
Trunk
19
18
15
200,000
100,000
50,000
Gigabit Ethernet
Full Duplex
Trunk
4
3
10,000
5,000
Default Setting
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used
on each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown
below. Path cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the
short path cost method is selected and the default path cost recommended by
the IEEE 8021w standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535.
Table 29-4 Default STA Path Costs
Port Type
Link Type
IEEE 802.1w-2001
Fast Ethernet
Half Duplex
Full Duplex
Trunk
200,000
100,000
50,000
Gigabit Ethernet
Full Duplex
Trunk
10,000
5,000
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
35. Use the spanning-tree pathcost method command on page 29-6 to set the path cost method.
29-12
spanning-tree port-priority
29
Command Usage
• This command is used by the Spanning Tree Algorithm to determine the best
path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower
media.
• Path cost takes precedence over port priority.
• When the spanning-tree pathcost method (page 29-6) is set to short, the
maximum value for path cost is 65,535.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree port-priority
This command configures the priority for the specified interface. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree port-priority priority
no spanning-tree port-priority
priority - The priority for a port. (Range: 0-240, in steps of 16)
Default Setting
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command defines the priority for the use of a port in the Spanning Tree
Algorithm. If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with
the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as an active link in
the spanning tree.
• Where more than one port is assigned the highest priority, the port with lowest
numeric identifier will be enabled.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Related Commands
spanning-tree cost (29-12)
29-13
29
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree edge-port
This command specifies an interface as an edge port. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree edge-port
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN segment that
is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes cannot
cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for
devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding
database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address
tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to
initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
other STA-related timeout problems. However, remember that Edge Port
should only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device.
• This command has the same effect as the spanning-tree portfast.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree portfast (29-14)
spanning-tree portfast
This command sets an interface to fast forwarding. Use the no form to disable fast
forwarding.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree portfast
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
29-14
spanning-tree link-type
29
Command Usage
• This command is used to enable/disable the fast spanning-tree mode for the
selected port. In this mode, ports skip the Discarding and Learning states, and
proceed straight to Forwarding.
• Since end-nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can be passed through
the spanning tree state changes more quickly than allowed by standard
convergence time. Fast forwarding can achieve quicker convergence for
end-node workstations and servers, and also overcome other STA related
timeout problems. (Remember that fast forwarding should only be enabled for
ports connected to a LAN segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or for
an end-node device.)
• This command is the same as spanning-tree edge-port, and is only included
for backward compatibility with earlier products. Note that this command may
be removed for future software versions.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#bridge-group 1 portfast
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree edge-port (29-14)
spanning-tree link-type
This command configures the link type for Rapid Spanning Tree and Multiple
Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree link-type {auto | point-to-point | shared}
no spanning-tree link-type
• auto - Automatically derived from the duplex mode setting.
• point-to-point - Point-to-point link.
• shared - Shared medium.
Default Setting
auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Specify a point-to-point link if the interface can only be connected to exactly
one other bridge, or a shared link if it can be connected to two or more bridges.
• When automatic detection is selected, the switch derives the link type from the
duplex mode. A full-duplex interface is considered a point-to-point link, while
a half-duplex interface is assumed to be on a shared link.
29-15
29
Spanning Tree Commands
• RSTP only works on point-to-point links between two bridges. If you designate
a port as a shared link, RSTP is forbidden. Since MSTP is an extension of
RSTP, this same restriction applies.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type point-to-point
spanning-tree mst cost
This command configures the path cost on a spanning instance in the Multiple
Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mst instance_id cost cost
no spanning-tree mst instance_id cost
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree.
(Range: 0-4094, no leading zeroes)
• cost - Path cost for an interface. (Range: 0 for auto-configuration, 1-65535
for short path cost method36, 1-200,000,000 for long path cost method)
The recommended path cost range is listed in Table 29-2 on page 29-12.
The recommended path cost is listed in Table 29-3 on page 29-12.
Default Setting
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used
on each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown
below. Path cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the
short path cost method is selected and the default path cost recommended by
the IEEE 8021w standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535. The
default path costs are listed in Table 29-4 on page 29-12.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Each spanning-tree instance is associated with a unique set of VLAN IDs.
• This command is used by the multiple spanning-tree algorithm to determine
the best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned
to interfaces attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to
interfaces with slower media.
• Use the no spanning-tree mst cost command to specify auto-configuration
mode.
• Path cost takes precedence over interface priority.
36. Use the spanning-tree pathcost method command on page 29-6 to set the path cost method.
29-16
spanning-tree mst port-priority
29
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 cost 50
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst port-priority (29-17)
spanning-tree mst port-priority
This command configures the interface priority on a spanning instance in the
Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mst instance_id port-priority priority
no spanning-tree mst instance_id port-priority
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree.
(Range: 0-4094, no leading zeroes)
• priority - Priority for an interface. (Range: 0-240 in steps of 16)
Default Setting
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command defines the priority for the use of an interface in the multiple
spanning-tree. If the path cost for all interfaces on a switch are the same, the
interface with the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as
an active link in the spanning tree.
• Where more than one interface is assigned the highest priority, the interface
with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst cost (29-16)
29-17
29
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree protocol-migration
This command re-checks the appropriate BPDU format to send on the selected
interface.
Syntax
spanning-tree protocol-migration interface
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration or
Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected
interface to forced STP-compatible mode. However, you can also use the
spanning-tree protocol-migration command at any time to manually
re-check the appropriate BPDU format to send on the selected interfaces
(i.e., RSTP or STP-compatible).
Example
Console#spanning-tree protocol-migration eth 1/5
Console#
show spanning-tree
This command shows the configuration for the common spanning tree (CST) or for
an instance within the multiple spanning tree (MST).
Syntax
show spanning-tree [interface | mst instance_id]
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the multiple spanning tree.
(Range: 0-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
None
29-18
show spanning-tree
29
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use the show spanning-tree command with no parameters to display the
spanning tree configuration for the switch for the Common Spanning Tree
(CST) and for every interface in the tree.
• Use the show spanning-tree interface command to display the spanning tree
configuration for an interface within the Common Spanning Tree (CST).
• Use the show spanning-tree mst instance_id command to display the
spanning tree configuration for an instance within the Multiple Spanning Tree
(MST).
• For a description of the items displayed under “Spanning-tree information,”
see “Configuring Global Settings” on page 11-6. For a description of the items
displayed for specific interfaces, see “Displaying Interface Settings” on
page 11-10.
Example
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode:
MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable:
enable
Instance:
0
Vlans configuration:
1-4093
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max hops:
20
Remaining hops:
20
Designated Root:
32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Current root port:
1
Current root cost:
10000
Number of topology changes:
1
Last topology changes time (sec.): 22
Transmission limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
long
29-19
29
Spanning Tree Commands
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status:
enable
Role:
root
State:
forwarding
External admin path cost: 10000
Internal admin cost:
10000
External oper path cost: 10000
Internal oper path cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated cost:
200000
Designated port:
128.24
Designated root:
32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Designated bridge:
32768.0.0030F1552000
Fast forwarding:
disable
Forward transitions:
1
Admin edge port:
enable
Oper edge port:
disable
Admin Link type:
auto
Oper Link type:
point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
enable
.
.
.
show spanning-tree mst configuration
This command shows the configuration of the multiple spanning tree.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show spanning-tree mst configuration
Mstp Configuration Information
-------------------------------------------------------------Configuration name: R&D
Revision level:0
Instance Vlans
-------------------------------------------------------------1
2
Console#
29-20
Chapter 30: VLAN Commands
A VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the network, but
communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment. This section
describes commands used to create VLAN groups, add port members, specify how
VLAN tagging is used, and enable automatic VLAN registration for the selected
interface.
Table 30-1 VLAN Commands
Command Groups
Function
Page
GVRP and Bridge Extension Configures GVRP settings that permit automatic VLAN learning;
shows the configuration for bridge extension MIB
30-1
Editing VLAN Groups
Sets up VLAN groups, including name, VID and state
30-6
Configuring VLAN
Interfaces
Configures VLAN interface parameters, including ingress and egress
tagging mode, ingress filtering, PVID, and GVRP
30-8
Displaying VLAN
Information
Displays VLAN groups, status, port members, and MAC addresses
30-13
Configuring Private VLANs
Configures private VLANs, including uplink and downlink ports
30-14
Configuring Protocol VLANs Configures protocol-based VLANs based on frame type and protocol
30-16
Configuring 802.1Q
Tunneling
30-20
Configures IEEE 802.1Q tunneling (QinQ) to segregate and preserve
customer VLAN IDs for traffic crossing the service provider network
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN
information in order to automatically register VLAN members on interfaces across
the network. This section describes how to enable GVRP for individual interfaces
and globally for the switch, as well as how to display default configuration settings
for the Bridge Extension MIB.
Table 30-2 GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
Command
Function
Mode
bridge-ext gvrp
Enables GVRP globally for the switch
GC
Page
30-2
show bridge-ext
Shows the global bridge extension configuration
PE
30-2
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
30-3
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
30-12
show gvrp configuration
Displays GVRP configuration for the selected interface NE, PE
30-3
garp timer
Sets the GARP timer for the selected function
IC
30-4
show garp timer
Shows the GARP timer for the selected function
NE, PE
30-5
30-1
30
VLAN Commands
bridge-ext gvrp
This command enables GVRP globally for the switch. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] bridge-ext gvrp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
GVRP defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to
register VLAN members on ports across the network. This function should be
enabled to permit automatic VLAN registration, and to support VLANs which
extend beyond the local switch.
Example
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
show bridge-ext
This command shows the configuration for bridge extension commands.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See “Displaying Basic VLAN Information” on page 12-4 and “Displaying Bridge
Extension Capabilities” on page 4-7 for a description of the displayed items.
Example
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support VLAN numbers:
Max support VLAN ID:
Extended multicast filtering services:
Static entry individual port:
VLAN learning:
Configurable PVID tagging:
Local VLAN capable:
Traffic classes:
Global GVRP status:
GMRP:
Console#
30-2
256
4093
No
Yes
IVL
Yes
No
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
30
switchport gvrp
This command enables GVRP for a port. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] switchport gvrp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
Console(config-if)#
show gvrp configuration
This command shows if GVRP is enabled.
Syntax
show gvrp configuration [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
Shows both global and interface-specific configuration.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show gvrp configuration ethernet 1/7
Eth 1/ 7:
GVRP configuration: Disabled
Console#
30-3
30
VLAN Commands
garp timer
This command sets the values for the join, leave and leaveall timers. Use the no
form to restore the timers’ default values.
Syntax
garp timer {join | leave | leaveall} timer_value
no garp timer {join | leave | leaveall}
• {join | leave | leaveall} - Which timer to set.
• timer_value - Value of timer.
Ranges:
join: 20-1000 centiseconds
leave: 60-3000 centiseconds
leaveall: 500-18000 centiseconds
Default Setting
• join: 20 centiseconds
• leave: 60 centiseconds
• leaveall: 1000 centiseconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP and GMRP to register
or deregister client attributes for client services within a bridged LAN. The
default values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access
method or data rate. These values should not be changed unless you are
experiencing difficulties with GMRP or GVRP registration/deregistration.
• Timer values are applied to GVRP for all the ports on all VLANs.
• Timer values must meet the following restrictions:
- leave >= (2 x join)
- leaveall > leave
Note: Set GVRP timers on all Layer 2 devices connected in the same network to
the same values. Otherwise, GVRP may not operate successfully.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 100
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show garp timer (30-5)
30-4
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
30
show garp timer
This command shows the GARP timers for the selected interface.
Syntax
show garp timer [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
Shows all GARP timers.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show garp timer ethernet 1/1
Eth 1/ 1 GARP timer status:
Join timer:
20 centiseconds
Leave timer:
60 centiseconds
Leaveall timer: 1000 centiseconds
Console#
Related Commands
garp timer (30-4)
30-5
30
VLAN Commands
Editing VLAN Groups
Table 30-3 Commands for Editing VLAN Groups
Command
Function
Mode
Page
vlan database
Enters VLAN database mode to add, change, and delete
VLANs
GC
30-6
vlan
Configures a VLAN, including VID, name and state
VC
30-7
vlan database
This command enters VLAN database mode. All commands in this mode will take
effect immediately.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Use the VLAN database command mode to add, change, and delete VLANs.
After finishing configuration changes, you can display the VLAN settings by
entering the show vlan command.
• Use the interface vlan command mode to define the port membership mode
and add or remove ports from a VLAN. The results of these commands are
written to the running-configuration file, and you can display this file by
entering the show running-config command.
Example
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (30-13)
30-6
Editing VLAN Groups
30
vlan
This command configures a VLAN. Use the no form to restore the default settings or
delete a VLAN.
Syntax
vlan vlan-id [name vlan-name] media ethernet [state {active | suspend}]
no vlan vlan-id [name | state]
• vlan-id - ID of configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4093, no leading zeroes)
• name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
- vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
• media ethernet - Ethernet media type.
• state - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN state.
- active - VLAN is operational.
- suspend - VLAN is suspended. Suspended VLANs do not pass packets.
Default Setting
By default only VLAN 1 exists and is active.
Command Mode
VLAN Database Configuration
Command Usage
• no vlan vlan-id deletes the VLAN.
• no vlan vlan-id name removes the VLAN name.
• no vlan vlan-id state returns the VLAN to the default state (i.e., active).
• You can configure up to 255 VLANs on the switch.
Example
The following example adds a VLAN, using VLAN ID 105 and name RD5. The VLAN
is activated by default.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 105 name RD5 media ethernet
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (30-13)
30-7
30
VLAN Commands
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Table 30-4 Commands for Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Command
Function
Mode
Page
interface vlan
Enters interface configuration mode for a specified VLAN
IC
switchport mode
Configures VLAN membership mode for an interface
IC
30-9
switchport
acceptable-frame-types
Configures frame types to be accepted by an interface
IC
30-9
switchport ingress-filtering
Enables ingress filtering on an interface
IC
30-10
switchport native vlan
Configures the PVID (native VLAN) of an interface
IC
30-11
switchport allowed vlan
Configures the VLANs associated with an interface
IC
30-11
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
30-3
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
30-12
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
31-3
30-8
interface vlan
This command enters interface configuration mode for VLANs, which is used to
configure VLAN parameters for a physical interface.
Syntax
interface vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4093, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface configuration mode to
VLAN 1, and then assign an IP address to the VLAN:
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
shutdown (24-6)
30-8
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
30
switchport mode
This command configures the VLAN membership mode for a port. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport mode {hybrid | trunk | dot1q-tunnel}
no switchport mode
• hybrid - Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged
or untagged frames.
• trunk - Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct
link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify
the source VLAN. Note that frames belonging to the port’s default VLAN
(i.e., associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged frames.
• dot1q-tunnel - For an explanation of this command see page 30-21.
Default Setting
All ports are in hybrid mode with the PVID set to VLAN 1.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following shows how to set the configuration mode to port 1, and then set the
switchport mode to hybrid:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport acceptable-frame-types (30-9)
switchport acceptable-frame-types
This command configures the acceptable frame types for a port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
switchport acceptable-frame-types {all | tagged}
no switchport acceptable-frame-types
• all - The port accepts all frames, tagged or untagged.
• tagged - The port only receives tagged frames.
Default Setting
All frame types
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
30-9
30
VLAN Commands
Command Usage
When set to receive all frame types, any received frames that are untagged
are assigned to the default VLAN.
Example
The following example shows how to restrict the traffic received on port 1 to tagged
frames:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport mode (30-9)
switchport ingress-filtering
This command enables ingress filtering for an interface. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
[no] switchport ingress-filtering
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
• If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except
for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
• If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
• Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as
GVRP or STA. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such
as GMRP.
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface to port 1 and then enable
ingress filtering:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#
30-10
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
30
switchport native vlan
This command configures the PVID (i.e., default VLAN ID) for a port. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport native vlan vlan-id
no switchport native vlan
vlan-id - Default VLAN ID for a port. (Range: 1-4093, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
VLAN 1
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this
VLAN, the interface will automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged
member. For all other VLANs, an interface must first be configured as an
untagged member before you can assign its PVID to that group.
• If acceptable frame types is set to all or switchport mode is set to hybrid, the
PVID will be inserted into all untagged frames entering the ingress port.
Example
The following example shows how to set the PVID for port 1 to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#
switchport allowed vlan
This command configures VLAN groups on the selected interface. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport allowed vlan {add vlan-list [tagged | untagged] |
remove vlan-list}
no switchport allowed vlan
• add vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to add.
• remove vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
• vlan-list - Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no
spaces; use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading
zeros. (Range: 1-4093).
Default Setting
• All ports are assigned to VLAN 1 by default.
• The default frame type is untagged.
30-11
30
VLAN Commands
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• A port, or a trunk with switchport mode set to hybrid, must be assigned to at
least one VLAN as untagged.
• If a trunk has switchport mode set to trunk (i.e., 1Q Trunk), then you can only
assign an interface to VLAN groups as a tagged member.
• Frames are always tagged within the switch. The tagged/untagged parameter
used when adding a VLAN to an interface tells the switch whether to keep or
remove the tag from a frame on egress.
• If none of the intermediate network devices nor the host at the other end of the
connection supports VLANs, the interface should be added to these VLANs
as an untagged member. Otherwise, it is only necessary to add at most one
VLAN as untagged, and this should correspond to the native VLAN for the
interface.
• If a VLAN on the forbidden list for an interface is manually added to that
interface, the VLAN is automatically removed from the forbidden list for that
interface.
Example
The following example shows how to add VLANs 1, 2, 5 and 6 to the allowed list as
tagged VLANs for port 1:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1,2,5,6 tagged
Console(config-if)#
switchport forbidden vlan
This command configures forbidden VLANs. Use the no form to remove the list of
forbidden VLANs.
Syntax
switchport forbidden vlan {add vlan-list | remove vlan-list}
no switchport forbidden vlan
• add vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to add.
• remove vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
• vlan-list - Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no
spaces; use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading
zeros. (Range: 1-4093).
Default Setting
No VLANs are included in the forbidden list.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
30-12
Displaying VLAN Information
30
Command Usage
• This command prevents a VLAN from being automatically added to the
specified interface via GVRP.
• If a VLAN has been added to the set of allowed VLANs for an interface, then
you cannot add it to the set of forbidden VLANs for that same interface.
Example
The following example shows how to prevent port 1 from being added to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport forbidden vlan add 3
Console(config-if)#
Displaying VLAN Information
This section describes commands used to display VLAN information.
Table 30-5 Commands for Displaying VLAN Information
Command
Function
Mode
Page
show vlan
Shows VLAN information
NE, PE
show interfaces status vlan
Displays status for the specified VLAN interface
NE, PE
30-13
24-9
show interfaces switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
NE, PE
24-11
show vlan
This command shows VLAN information.
Syntax
show vlan [id vlan-id | name vlan-name]
• id - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN ID.
vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4093, no leading zeroes)
• name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
Default Setting
Shows all VLANs.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
30-13
30
VLAN Commands
Example
The following example shows how to display information for VLAN 1:
Console#show vlan id 1
VLAN ID:
Type:
Name:
Status:
Ports/Port Channels:
1
Static
DefaultVlan
Active
Eth1/ 1(S) Eth1/ 2(S)
Eth1/ 6(S) Eth1/ 7(S)
Eth1/11(S) Eth1/12(S)
Eth1/16(S) Eth1/17(S)
Eth1/21(S) Eth1/22(S)
Eth1/ 3(S)
Eth1/ 8(S)
Eth1/13(S)
Eth1/18(S)
Eth1/23(S)
Eth1/ 4(S)
Eth1/ 9(S)
Eth1/14(S)
Eth1/19(S)
Eth1/24(S)
Eth1/ 5(S)
Eth1/10(S)
Eth1/15(S)
Eth1/20(S)
Console#
Configuring Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. This section describes commands used to configure private VlANs.
Table 30-6 Private VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
pvlan
Enables and configured private VLANS
GC
Page
30-14
show pvlan
Displays the configured private VLANS
PE
30-15
pvlan
This command enables or configures a private VLAN. Use the no form to disable the
private VLAN.
Syntax
pvlan [up-link interface-list down-link interface-list]
no pvlan
• up-link – Specifies an uplink interface.
• down-link – Specifies a downlink interface.
Default Setting
No private VLANs are defined.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• A private VLAN provides port-based security and isolation between ports
within the VLAN. Data traffic on the downlink ports can only be forwarded to,
and from, the uplink port.
• Private VLANs and normal VLANs can exist simultaneously within the same
switch.
30-14
Configuring Private VLANs
30
• Entering the pvlan command without any parameters enables the private
VLAN. Entering no pvlan disables the private VLAN.
Example
This example enables the private VLAN, and then sets port 12 as the uplink and
ports 5-8 as the downlinks.
Console(config)#pvlan
Console(config)#pvlan up-link ethernet 1/12 down-link ethernet 1/5-8
Console(config)#
show pvlan
This command displays the configured private VLAN.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show pvlan
Private VLAN status: Enabled
Up-link port:
Ethernet 1/12
Down-link port:
Ethernet 1/5
Ethernet 1/6
Ethernet 1/7
Ethernet 1/8
Console#
30-15
30
VLAN Commands
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
The network devices required to support multiple protocols cannot be easily grouped
into a common VLAN. This may require non-standard devices to pass traffic
between different VLANs in order to encompass all the devices participating in a
specific protocol. This kind of configuration deprives users of the basic benefits of
VLANs, including security and easy accessibility.
To avoid these problems, you can configure this switch with protocol-based VLANs
that divide the physical network into logical VLAN groups for each required protocol.
When a frame is received at a port, its VLAN membership can then be determined
based on the protocol type in use by the inbound packets.
Table 30-7 Protocol-based VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
protocol-vlan protocol-group Create a protocol group, specifying the supported protocols GC
30-17
protocol-vlan protocol-group Maps a protocol group to a VLAN
IC
30-17
show protocol-vlan
protocol-group
PE
30-18
show interfaces
Shows the interfaces mapped to a protocol group and the PE
protocol-vlan protocol-group corresponding VLAN
30-19
Shows the configuration of protocol groups
To configure protocol-based VLANs, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
First configure VLAN groups for the protocols you want to use (page 30-7).
Although not mandatory, we suggest configuring a separate VLAN for each
major protocol running on your network. Do not add port members at this time.
Create a protocol group for each of the protocols you want to assign to a VLAN
using the protocol-vlan protocol-group command (General Configuration
mode).
Then map the protocol for each interface to the appropriate VLAN using the
protocol-vlan protocol-group command (Interface Configuration mode).
30-16
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
30
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Groups)
This command creates a protocol group, or to add specific protocols to a group. Use
the no form to remove a protocol group.
Syntax
protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id [{add | remove} frame-type frame
protocol-type protocol]
no protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id
• group-id - Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
• frame37 - Frame type used by this protocol. (Options: ethernet, rfc_1042,
llc_other)
• protocol - Protocol type. The only option for the llc_other frame type is
ipx_raw. The options for all other frames types include: ip, arp, rarp.
Default Setting
No protocol groups are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following creates protocol group 1, and specifies Ethernet frames with IP and
ARP protocol types:
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame-type ethernet
protocol-type ip
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame-type ethernet
protocol-type arp
Console(config)#
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Interfaces)
This command maps a protocol group to a VLAN for the current interface. Use the
no form to remove the protocol mapping for this interface.
Syntax
protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id vlan vlan-id
no protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id vlan
• group-id - Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
• vlan-id - VLAN to which matching protocol traffic is forwarded.
(Range: 1-4093)
Default Setting
No protocol groups are mapped for any interface.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
37. SNAP frame types are not supported by this switch due to hardware limitations.
30-17
30
VLAN Commands
Command Usage
• When creating a protocol-based VLAN, only assign interfaces via this
command. If you assign interfaces using any of the other VLAN commands
(such as vlan on page 30-7), these interfaces will admit traffic of any protocol
type into the associated VLAN.
• When a frame enters a port that has been assigned to a protocol VLAN, it is
processed in the following manner:
- If the frame is tagged, it will be processed according to the standard rules
applied to tagged frames.
- If the frame is untagged and the protocol type matches, the frame is
forwarded to the appropriate VLAN.
- If the frame is untagged but the protocol type does not match, the frame is
forwarded to the default VLAN for this interface.
Example
The following example maps the traffic entering Port 1 which matches the protocol
type specified in protocol group 1 to VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 vlan 2
Console(config-if)#
show protocol-vlan protocol-group
This command shows the frame and protocol type associated with protocol groups.
Syntax
show protocol-vlan protocol-group [group-id]
group-id - Group identifier for a protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
Default Setting
All protocol groups are displayed.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This shows protocol group 1 configured for IP over Ethernet:
Console#show protocol-vlan protocol-group
ProtocolGroup ID
Frame Type
Protocol Type
------------------ ------------- --------------1
ethernet
08 00
Console#
30-18
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
30
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
This command shows the mapping from protocol groups to VLANs for the selected
interfaces.
Syntax
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
The mapping for all interfaces is displayed.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This shows that traffic entering Port 1 that matches the specifications for protocol
group 1 will be mapped to VLAN 2:
Console#show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
Port
ProtocolGroup ID
Vlan ID
---------- ------------------ ----------Eth 1/1
1
vlan2
Console#
30-19
30
VLAN Commands
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
QinQ tunneling uses a single Service Provider VLAN (SPVLAN) for customers who
have multiple VLANs. Customer VLAN IDs are preserved and traffic from different
customers is segregated within the service provider’s network even when they use
the same customer-specific VLAN IDs. QinQ tunneling expands VLAN space by
using a VLAN-in-VLAN hierarchy, preserving the customer’s original tagged packets,
and adding SPVLAN tags to each frame (also called double tagging).
This section describes commands used to configure QinQ tunneling.
Table 30-8 IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling Commands
Command
Function
Mode
system mode
Configures the switch to operate in normal mode or QinQ
mode
GC
Page
19-8
show system mode
Displays the switch’s system mode
GC
19-9
switchport mode
dot1q-tunnel
Configures an interface as a QinQ tunnel port
IC
30-21
show dot1q-tunnel
Displays information about QinQ tunnel ports
PE
30-21
switchport dot1q-ethertype
Sets the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of a tunnel port IC
30-22
system mtu
Sets the maximum transfer unit for the switch
GC
19-11
show system mtu
Shows the maximum transfer unit size for Fast Ethernet
and Gigabit Ethernet ports
GC
19-11
General Configuration Guidelines for QinQ
1. Configure the switch to QinQ mode (system mode, page 19-8).
2. Create a SPVLAN (vlan, page 30-7).
3. Configure the QinQ tunnel port to dot1Q tunnel port mode (switchport mode
dot1q-tunnel, page 30-21).
4. Set the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of the tunnel port. This step is
required if the attached client is using a nonstandard 2-byte ethertype to identify
802.1Q tagged frames. The standard ethertype value is 0x8100. (See
switchport dot1q-ethertype, page 30-22.)
5. Configure the QinQ tunnel port to join the SPVLAN as an untagged member
(switchport allowed vlan, page 30-11).
6. Configure the SPVLAN ID as the native VID on the QinQ tunnel port
(switchport native vlan, page 30-11).
7. Configure system MTU to 1526 if jumbo frames are not enabled (see “System
MTU Commands” on page 19-9).
8. Configure the QinQ uplink port to join the SPVLAN as a tagged member
(switchport allowed vlan, page 30-11).
30-20
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
30
switchport mode dot1q-tunnel
This command configures an interface as a QinQ tunnel port. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
switchport mode dot1q-tunnel
no switchport mode
dot1q-tunnel – Sets the port as an 802.1Q tunnel port.
Default Setting
All ports are in hybrid mode.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Use the switchport mode command to set the switch to QinQ mode before
entering this command.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport mode dot1q-tunnel
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show dot1q-tunnel (page 30-21)
show interfaces switchport (24-11)
show dot1q-tunnel
This command displays information about QinQ tunnel ports.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console(config)#system mode qinq
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport mode dot1q-tunnel
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show dot1q-tunnel
Dot1q-Tunnel Port List
-------eth 1/1
Total 1 Dot1q-Tunnel Ports, 0 Dot1q-Tunnel Port-Channel
Console#
30-21
30
VLAN Commands
Related Commands
switchport mode dot1q-tunnel (page 30-21)
switchport dot1q-ethertype
This command sets the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of a tunnel port. Use the
no form. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
switchport dot1q-ethertype tpid
no switchport dot1q-ethertype
tpid – Sets the ethertype value for 802.1Q encapsulation. This identifier is
used to select a nonstandard 2-byte ethertype to identify 802.1Q tagged
frames. The standard ethertype value is 0x8100. (Range: 0-ffff
hexadecimal)
Default Setting
No dot1q-ethertype is set.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Use the switchport dot1q-ethertype command to set a custom 802.1Q
ethertype value on the selected interface. This feature allows the switch to
interoperate with third-party switches that do not use the standard 0x8100
ethertype to identify 802.1Q-tagged frames. For example, 0x1234 is set as the
custom 802.1Q ethertype on a trunk port, incoming frames containing that
ethertype are assigned to the VLAN contained in the tag following the
ethertype field, as they would be with a standard 802.1Q trunk. Frames
arriving on the port containing any other ethertype are looked upon as
untagged frames, and assigned to the native VLAN of that port.
• All members of a VLAN should be set to the same ethertype.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-ethertype 9100
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show interfaces switchport (24-11)
30-22
Chapter 31: Class of Service Commands
The commands described in this section allow you to specify which data packets
have greater precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion.
This switch supports CoS with eight priority queues for each port. Data packets in a
port’s high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority
queues. You can set the default priority for each interface, the relative weight of each
queue, and the mapping of frame priority tags to the switch’s priority queues.
Table 31-1 Priority Commands
Command Groups
Function
Priority (Layer 2)
Configures default priority for untagged frames, sets queue weights,
and maps class of service tags to hardware queues
Page
31-1
Priority (Layer 3 and 4)
Maps TCP ports, IP precedence tags, or IP DSCP tags to class of
service values
31-8
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
This section describes commands used to configure Layer 2 traffic priority on the
switch.
Table 31-2 Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Command
Function
Mode
Page
queue mode
Sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted
Round-Robin (WRR)
GC
31-2
show queue mode
Shows the current queue mode
PE
31-2
Global Priority Settings
Port-based Priority Settings
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
31-3
queue bandwidth
Assigns round-robin weights to the priority queues
IC
31-4
queue cos-map
Assigns class-of-service values to the priority queues
IC
31-4
show queue bandwidth
Shows round-robin weights assigned to the priority queues
PE
31-5
show queue cos-map
Shows the class-of-service map
PE
31-6
PE
24-11
show interfaces switchport Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
VLAN-based Priority Settings
vlan priority
Modifies the priority for frames entering a VLAN through a
selected interface
IC
31-6
show vlan based priority
Displays the modified priority for frames entering a VLAN
PE
31-7
31-1
31
Class of Service Commands
queue mode
This command sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin
(WRR) for the class of service (CoS) priority queues. Use the no form to restore the
default value.
Syntax
queue mode {strict | wrr}
no queue mode
• strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all
traffic in the higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
• wrr - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 for queues 0 - 7 respectively.
Default Setting
Weighted Round Robin
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that
requires all traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed before lower
priority queues are serviced, or use Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) queuing
that specifies a relative weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative
weight for each queue that determines the percentage of service time the
switch services each queue before moving on to the next queue. This
prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur with strict priority queuing.
Example
The following example sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode:
Console(config)#queue mode strict
Console(config)#
Related Commands
queue bandwidth (31-4)
show queue mode (31-2)
show queue mode
This command shows the current queue mode.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
31-2
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
31
Example
Console#sh queue mode
Wrr status: Enabled
Console#
switchport priority default
This command sets a priority for incoming untagged frames. Use the no form to
restore the default value.
Syntax
switchport priority default default-priority-id
no switchport priority default
default-priority-id - The priority number for untagged ingress traffic.
The priority is a number from 0 to 7. Seven is the highest priority.
Default Setting
The priority is not set, and the default value for untagged frames received on
the interface is zero.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to
accept all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This
priority does not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming
frame is an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority
bits will be used.
• This switch provides eight priority queues for each port. It is configured to use
Weighted Round Robin, which can be viewed with the show queue
bandwidth command. Inbound frames that do not have VLAN tags are
tagged with the input port’s default ingress user priority, and then placed in the
appropriate priority queue at the output port. The default priority for all ingress
ports is zero. Therefore, any inbound frames that do not have priority tags will
be placed in queue 0 of the output port. (Note that if the output port is an
untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are stripped of all
VLAN tags prior to transmission.)
Example
The following example shows how to set a default priority on port 3 to 5:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport priority default 5
31-3
31
Class of Service Commands
Related Commands
show interfaces switchport (24-11)
queue bandwidth
This command assigns weighted round-robin (WRR) weights to the eight class of
service (CoS) priority queues. Use the no form to restore the default weights.
Syntax
queue bandwidth weight1...weight4
no queue bandwidth
weight1...weight4 - The ratio of weights for queues 0 - 7 determines the
weights used by the WRR scheduler. (Range: 1 - 15)
Default Setting
Weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 are assigned to queues 0 - 7 respectively.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
WRR controls bandwidth sharing at the egress port by defining scheduling
weights.
Example
This example shows how to assign WRR weights to each of the priority queues:
Console#configure
Console(config)#int eth 1/5
Console(config-if)#queue bandwidth 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show queue bandwidth (31-5)
queue cos-map
This command assigns class of service (CoS) values to the priority queues (i.e.,
hardware output queues 0 - 7). Use the no form set the CoS map to the default
values.
Syntax
queue cos-map queue_id [cos1 ... cosn]
no queue cos-map
• queue_id - The ID of the priority queue.
Ranges are 0 to 7, where 7 is the highest priority queue.
• cos1 ... cosn - The CoS values that are mapped to the queue ID. It is a
space-separated list of numbers. The CoS value is a number from 0 to 7,
where 7 is the highest priority.
31-4
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
31
Default Setting
This switch supports Class of Service by using eight priority queues, with
Weighted Round Robin queuing for each port. Eight separate traffic classes
are defined in IEEE 802.1p. The default priority levels are assigned according
to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown below.
Table 31-3 Default CoS Priority Levels
Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
2
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• CoS values assigned at the ingress port are also used at the egress port.
• This command sets the CoS priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to change the CoS assignments to a one-to-one
mapping:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 0 0
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 1 1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 2 2
Console(config-if)#exit
Console#show queue cos-map ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
Traffic Class : 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Console#
Related Commands
show queue cos-map (31-6)
show queue bandwidth
This command displays the weighted round-robin (WRR) bandwidth allocation for
the eight priority queues.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
31-5
31
Class of Service Commands
Example
Console#show queue bandwidth
Information of Eth 1/1
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
2
2
4
3
6
4
8
5
10
6
12
7
14
.
.
.
show queue cos-map
This command shows the class of service priority map.
Syntax
show queue cos-map [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show queue
Information of Eth
CoS Value:
0
Priority Queue: 2
Console#
cos-map ethernet 1/1
1/1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 3 4 5 6 7
vlan priority
This command sets a fixed priority for all frames entering the specified VLAN
through a selected interface. Use the no form to restore the default status.
Syntax
vlan vlan-id priority cos_value
no vlan vlan-id priority
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• cos_value – A number from 0 to 7, where 7 is the highest priority.
31-6
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
31
Default Setting
The original priority value in the VLAN tag of a tagged packet, or a VLAN
priority tag inserted by another device for an untagged packet.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command can be used to set a high priority for a VLAN carrying mostly
low-latency traffic such as Voice over IP (VoIP), or to set a low priority for a
VLAN carrying normal data traffic not sensitive to latency.
• The priority can only be fixed for up to four VLANs on this switch.
• Each CoS priority maps to one transmit queue as shown in Table 31-3, “Default
CoS Priority Levels,” on page 31-5.
Example
This example sets the priority for all traffic entering VLAN 1 on port 1 to CoS 7.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#vlan 1 priority 7
Console(config-if)#
show vlan based priority
This command displays the modified CoS priority for frames entering a VLAN.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command only displays interfaces for which the egress frame priority has
been fixed on a selected VLAN.
Example
Console#show vlan based priority
Eth 1/1: Vlan
1 Priority 7
Console#
31-7
31
Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
This section describes commands used to configure Layer 3 and Layer 4 traffic
priority on the switch.
Table 31-4 Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Command
Function
Mode
map ip port
Enables TCP/UDP class of service mapping
GC
Page
31-8
map ip port
Maps TCP/UDP socket to a class of service
IC
31-9
map ip precedence
Enables IP precedence class of service mapping
GC
31-9
map ip precedence
Maps IP precedence value to a class of service
IC
31-10
map ip dscp
Enables IP DSCP class of service mapping
GC
31-11
map ip dscp
Maps IP DSCP value to a class of service
IC
31-11
show map ip port
Shows the IP port map
PE
31-12
show map ip precedence
Shows the IP precedence map
PE
31-13
show map ip dscp
Shows the IP DSCP map
PE
31-14
map ip port (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP port mapping (i.e., class of service mapping for TCP/UDP
sockets). Use the no form to disable IP port mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip port
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
Example
The following example shows how to enable TCP/UDP port mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#
31-8
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
31
map ip port (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP port priority (i.e., TCP/UDP port priority). Use the no form to
remove a specific setting.
Syntax
map ip port port-number cos cos-value
no map ip port port-number
• port-number - 16-bit TCP/UDP port number. (Range: 0-65535)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• Up to 8 entries can be specified for IP Port priority mapping.
• This command sets the IP port priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map HTTP traffic to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
map ip precedence (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP precedence mapping (i.e., IP Type of Service). Use the
no form to disable IP precedence mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip precedence
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other type.
31-9
31
Class of Service Commands
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP precedence mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP precedence priority (i.e., IP Type of Service priority). Use the
no form to restore the default table.
Syntax
map ip precedence ip-precedence-value cos cos-value
no map ip precedence
• precedence-value - 3-bit precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
The list below shows the default priority mapping.
Table 31-5 Mapping IP Precedence to CoS Values
IP Precedence Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
CoS Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence values are mapped to default Class of Service values on a
one-to-one basis according to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard,
and then subsequently mapped to the eight hardware priority queues.
• This command sets the IP Precedence for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP precedence value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
31-10
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
31
map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP DSCP mapping (i.e., Differentiated Services Code Point
mapping). Use the no form to disable IP DSCP mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip dscp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other type.
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP DSCP mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP DSCP priority (i.e., Differentiated Services Code Point
priority). Use the no form to restore the default table.
Syntax
map ip dscp dscp-value cos cos-value
no map ip dscp
• dscp-value - 8-bit DSCP value. (Range: 0-63)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
31-11
31
Class of Service Commands
Default Setting
The DSCP default values are defined in the following table. Note that all the
DSCP values that are not specified are mapped to CoS value 0.
Table 31-6 Mapping IP DSCP to CoS Values
IP DSCP Value
CoS Value
0
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• DSCP priority values are mapped to default Class of Service values according
to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard, and then subsequently
mapped to the eight hardware priority queues.
• This command sets the IP DSCP priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP DSCP value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
show map ip port
This command shows the IP port priority map.
Syntax
show map ip port [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
31-12
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
31
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following shows that HTTP traffic has been mapped to CoS value 0:
Console#show map ip port
TCP port mapping status: disabled
Port
Port no. COS
--------- -------- --Eth 1/ 5
80
0
Console#
Related Commands
map ip port (Global Configuration) (31-8)
map ip port (Interface Configuration) (31-9)
show map ip precedence
This command shows the IP precedence priority map.
Syntax
show map ip precedence [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
31-13
31
Class of Service Commands
Example
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/5
Precedence mapping status: disabled
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 5
0
0
Eth 1/ 5
1
1
Eth 1/ 5
2
2
Eth 1/ 5
3
3
Eth 1/ 5
4
4
Eth 1/ 5
5
5
Eth 1/ 5
6
6
Eth 1/ 5
7
7
Console#
Related Commands
map ip precedence (Global Configuration) (31-9)
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration) (31-10)
show map ip dscp
This command shows the IP DSCP priority map.
Syntax
show map ip dscp [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
31-14
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
31
Example
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/1
DSCP mapping status: disabled
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
0
Eth 1/ 1
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 1
61
0
Eth 1/ 1
62
0
Eth 1/ 1
63
0
Console#
Related Commands
map ip dscp (Global Configuration) (31-11)
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration) (31-11)
31-15
31
31-16
Class of Service Commands
Chapter 32: Quality of Service Commands
The commands described in this section are used to configure Differentiated
Services (DiffServ) classification criteria and service policies. You can classify traffic
based on access lists, IP Precedence or DSCP values, or VLANs. Using access lists
allows you select traffic based on Layer 2, Layer 3, or Layer 4 information contained
in each packet.
Table 32-1 Quality of Service Commands
Command
Function
Mode
class-map
Creates a class map for a type of traffic
GC
Page
32-2
match
Defines the criteria used to classify traffic
CM
32-3
policy-map
Creates a policy map for multiple interfaces
GC
32-4
class
Defines a traffic classification for the policy to act on
PM
32-5
set
Classifies IP traffic by setting a CoS, DSCP, or IP-precedence PM-C
value in a packet
32-6
police
Defines an enforcer for classified traffic
32-6
service-policy
Applies a policy map defined by the policy-map command to IC
the input of a particular interface
32-7
show class-map
Displays the QoS class maps which define matching criteria PE
used for classifying traffic
32-8
show policy-map
Displays the QoS policy maps which define classification
criteria for incoming traffic, and may include policers for
bandwidth limitations
PE
32-8
show policy-map interface Displays the configuration of all classes configured for all
service policies on the specified interface
PE
32-9
PM-C
To create a service policy for a specific category of ingress traffic, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Use the class-map command to designate a class name for a specific category
of traffic, and enter the Class Map configuration mode.
Use the match command to select a specify type of traffic based on an access
list, a DSCP or IP Precedence value, or a VLAN.
Set an ACL mask to enable filtering for the criteria specified in the match
command.
Use the policy-map command to designate a policy name for a specific
manner in which ingress traffic will be handled, and enter the Policy Map
configuration mode.
Use the class command to identify the class map, and enter Policy Map Class
configuration mode. A policy map can contain multiple class statements.
Use the set command to modify the QoS value for matching traffic class, and
use the policer command to monitor the average flow and burst rate, and drop
any traffic that exceeds the specified rate, or just reduce the DSCP service level
for traffic exceeding the specified rate.
Use the service-policy command to assign a policy map to a specific interface.
32-1
32
Quality of Service Commands
Notes: 1. You can configure up to 16 rules per Class Map. You can also include
multiple classes in a Policy Map.
2. You should create a Class Map (page 32-2) before creating a Policy Map
(page 32-4). Otherwise, you will not be able to specify a Class Map with the
class command (page 32-5) after entering Policy-Map Configuration mode.
class-map
This command creates a class map used for matching packets to the specified
class, and enters Class Map configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a class
map and return to Global configuration mode.
Syntax
[no] class-map class-map-name [match-any]
• match-any - Match any condition within a class map.
• class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• First enter this command to designate a class map and enter the Class Map
configuration mode. Then use the match command (page 32-3) to specify the
criteria for ingress traffic that will be classified under this class map.
• Only one match command is permitted per class map, so the match-any field
refers to the criteria specified by the lone match command for a class map.
• The class map uses the Access Control List filtering engine, so you must also
set an ACL mask to enable filtering for the criteria specified in the match
command. See “mask (IP ACL)” on page 23-6 or “mask (MAC ACL)” on
page 23-15 for information on configuring an appropriate ACL mask.
• The class map is used with a policy map (page 32-4) to create a service policy
(page 32-7) for a specific interface that defines packet classification, service
tagging, and bandwidth policing.
Example
This example creates a class map call “rd_class,” and sets it to match packets
marked for DSCP service value 3:
Console(config)#class-map rd_class match-any
Console(config-cmap)#match ip dscp 3
Console(config-cmap)#exit
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask any any dscp
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
Related Commands
show class map (32-8)
32-2
match
32
match
This command defines the criteria used to classify traffic. Use the no form to delete
the matching criteria.
Syntax
[no] match {access-list acl-name | ip dscp dscp | ip precedence
ip-precedence | vlan vlan}
• acl-name - Name of the access control list. Any type of ACL can be
specified, including standard or extended IP ACLs and MAC ACLs.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• dscp - A DSCP value. (Range: 0-63)
• ip-precedence - An IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
• vlan - A VLAN. (Range:1-4093)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Class Map Configuration
Command Usage
• First enter the class-map command to designate a class map and enter the
Class Map configuration mode. Then use the match command to specify the
fields within ingress packets that must match to qualify for this class map.
• Only one match command can be entered per class map.
• The class map uses the Access Control List filtering engine, so you must also
set an ACL mask to enable filtering for the criteria specified in the match
command. See “mask (IP ACL)” on page 23-6 and “mask (MAC ACL)” on
page 23-15 for information on configuring an appropriate ACL mask.
Example
This example creates a class map called “rd_class#1,” and sets it to match packets
marked for DSCP service value 3:
Console(config)#class-map rd_class#1_ match-any
Console(config-cmap)#match ip dscp 3
Console(config-cmap)#exit
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask any any dscp
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
This example creates a class map call “rd_class#2,” and sets it to match packets
marked for IP Precedence service value 5:
Console(config)#class-map rd_class#2 match-any
Console(config-cmap)#match ip precedence 5
Console(config-cmap)#exit
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask any any precedence
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
32-3
32
Quality of Service Commands
This example creates a class map call “rd_class#3,” and sets it to match packets
marked for VLAN 1:
Console(config)#class-map rd_class#3 match-any
Console(config-cmap)#match vlan 1
Console(config-cmap)#exit
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask any any vid 1
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
policy-map
This command creates a policy map that can be attached to multiple interfaces, and
enters Policy Map configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a policy map and
return to Global configuration mode.
Syntax
[no] policy-map policy-map-name
policy-map-name - Name of the policy map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Use the policy-map command to specify the name of the policy map, and
then use the class command to configure policies for traffic that matches
criteria defined in a class map.
• A policy map can contain multiple class statements that can be applied to the
same interface with the service-policy command (page 32-7).
• You must create a Class Map (page 32-4) before assigning it to a Policy Map.
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd_policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd_class,” uses the set command to classify the service that
incoming packets will receive, and then uses the police command to limit the
average bandwidth to 100,000 Kbps, the burst rate to 1522 bytes, and configure the
response to drop any violating packets.
Console(config)#policy-map rd_policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd_class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set ip dscp 3
Console(config-pmap-c)#police 100000 1522 exceed-action drop
Console(config-pmap-c)#
32-4
class
32
class
This command defines a traffic classification upon which a policy can act, and enters
Policy Map Class configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a class map and
return to Policy Map configuration mode.
Syntax
[no] class class-map-name
class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Policy Map Configuration
Command Usage
• Use the policy-map command to specify a policy map and enter Policy Map
configuration mode. Then use the class command to enter Policy Map Class
configuration mode. And finally, use the set and police commands to specify
the match criteria, where the:
- set command classifies the service that an IP packet will receive.
- police command defines the maximum throughput, burst rate, and the
action that results from a policy violation.
• Currently you may only configure one rule per Class Map, but you can assign
one or more classes to a policy map.
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd_policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd_class,” uses the set command to classify the service that
incoming packets will receive, and then uses the police command to limit the
average bandwidth to 100,000 Kbps, the burst rate to 1522 bytes, and configure the
response to drop any violating packets.
Console(config)#policy-map rd_policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd_class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set ip dscp 3
Console(config-pmap-c)#police 100000 1522 exceed-action drop
Console(config-pmap-c)#
32-5
32
Quality of Service Commands
set
This command services IP traffic by setting a CoS, DSCP, or IP Precedence value in
a matching packet (as specified by the match command on page 32-3). Use the no
form to remove the traffic classification.
Syntax
[no] set {cos new-cos | ip dscp new-dscp | ip precedence new-precedence}
• new-cos - New Class of Service (CoS) value. (Range: 0-7)
• new-dscp - New Differentiated Service Code Point (DSCP) value.
(Range: 0-63)
• new-precedence - New IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Policy Map Class Configuration
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd_policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd_class,” uses the set command to classify the service that
incoming packets will receive, and then uses the police command to limit the
average bandwidth to 100,000 Kbps, the burst rate to 1522 bytes, and configure the
response to drop any violating packets.
Console(config)#policy-map rd_policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd_class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set ip dscp 3
Console(config-pmap-c)#police 100000 1522 exceed-action drop
Console(config-pmap-c)#
police
This command defines an policer for classified traffic. Use the no form to remove a
policer.
Syntax
[no] police rate-kbps burst-byte [exceed-action {drop | set}]
• rate-kbps - Rate in kilobits per second. (Range: 1-100000 kbps or maximum
port speed, whichever is lower)
• burst-byte - Burst in bytes. (Range: 64-1522 bytes)
• drop - Drop packet when specified rate or burst are exceeded.
• set - Set DSCP service to the specified value. (Range: 0-63)
Default Setting
Drop out-of-profile packets.
Command Mode
Policy Map Class Configuration
32-6
service-policy
32
Command Usage
• You can configure up to 63 policers (i.e., class maps) for Fast Ethernet and
Gigabit Ethernet ingress ports.
• Policing is based on a token bucket, where bucket depth (i.e., the maximum
burst before the bucket overflows) is by specified the burst-byte field, and the
average rate tokens are removed from the bucket is by specified by the
rate-bps option.
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd_policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd_class,” uses the set command to classify the service that
incoming packets will receive, and then uses the police command to limit the
average bandwidth to 100,000 Kbps, the burst rate to 1522 bytes, and configure the
response to drop any violating packets.
Console(config)#policy-map rd_policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd_class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set ip dscp 3
Console(config-pmap-c)#police 100000 1522 exceed-action drop
Console(config-pmap-c)#
service-policy
This command applies a policy map defined by the policy-map command to the
ingress queue of a particular interface. Use the no form to remove the policy map
from this interface.
Syntax
[no] service-policy input policy-map-name
• input - Apply to the input traffic.
• policy-map-name - Name of the policy map for this interface.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
No policy map is attached to an interface.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• You can only assign one policy map to an interface.
• You must first define a class map, then define a policy map, and finally use
the service-policy command to bind the policy map to the required interface.
Example
This example applies a service policy to an ingress interface.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#service-policy input rd_policy
Console(config-if)#
32-7
32
Quality of Service Commands
show class-map
This command displays the QoS class maps which define matching criteria used for
classifying traffic.
Syntax
show class-map [class-map-name]
class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
Displays all class maps.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show class-map
Class Map match-any rd_class#1
Match ip dscp 3
Class Map match-any rd_class#2
Match ip precedence 5
Class Map match-any rd_class#3
Match vlan 1
Console#
show policy-map
This command displays the QoS policy maps which define classification criteria for
incoming traffic, and may include policers for bandwidth limitations.
Syntax
show policy-map [policy-map-name [class class-map-name]]
• policy-map-name - Name of the policy map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Default Setting
Displays all policy maps and all classes.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
32-8
show policy-map interface
32
Example
Console#show policy-map
Policy Map rd_policy
class rd_class
set ip dscp 3
Console#show policy-map rd_policy class rd_class
Policy Map rd_policy
class rd_class
set ip dscp 3
Console#
show policy-map interface
This command displays the service policy assigned to the specified interface.
Syntax
show policy-map interface interface input
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show policy-map interface ethernet 1/5
Service-policy rd_policy input
Console#
32-9
32
32-10
Quality of Service Commands
Chapter 33: Multicast Filtering Commands
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to query for any
attached hosts that want to receive a specific multicast service. It identifies the ports
containing hosts requesting a service and sends data out to those ports only. It then
propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast switch/router to
ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service.
Table 33-1 Multicast Filtering Commands
Command Groups
Function
IGMP Snooping
Configures multicast groups via IGMP snooping or static assignment,
sets the IGMP version, displays current snooping and query settings,
and displays the multicast service and group members
IGMP Query
Configures IGMP query parameters for multicast filtering
Static Multicast Routing
Configures static multicast router ports
Page
33-1
33-6
33-10
Multicast VLAN Registration Configures a single network-wide multicast VLAN shared by hosts
residing in other standard or private VLAN groups, preserving
security and data isolation for normal traffic
33-11
IGMP Snooping Commands
This section describes commands used to configure IGMP snooping on the switch.
Table 33-2 IGMP Snooping Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping
Enables IGMP snooping
GC
Page
33-2
ip igmp snooping vlan static Adds an interface as a member of a multicast group
GC
33-2
ip igmp snooping version
Configures the IGMP version for snooping
GC
33-3
ip igmp snooping
leave-proxy
Suppresses leave messages unless received from the last GC
member port in the group
33-3
ip igmp snooping
immediate-leave
Immediately deletes a member port of a multicast service if IC
a leave packet is received at that port and immediate-leave
is enabled for the parent VLAN
33-4
show ip igmp snooping
Shows the IGMP snooping and query configuration
PE
33-5
show mac-address-table
multicast
Shows the IGMP snooping MAC multicast list
PE
33-6
33-1
33
Multicast Filtering Commands
ip igmp snooping
This command enables IGMP snooping on this switch. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example enables IGMP snooping.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan static
This command adds a port to a multicast group. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id static ip-address interface
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
• ip-address - IP address for multicast group
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following shows how to statically configure a multicast group on a port:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.0.0.12 ethernet 1/5
Console(config)#
33-2
IGMP Snooping Commands
33
ip igmp snooping version
This command configures the IGMP snooping version. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping version {1 | 2 | 3}
no ip igmp snooping version
• 1 - IGMP Version 1
• 2 - IGMP Version 2
• 3 - IGMP Version 3
Default Setting
IGMP Version 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• All systems on the subnet must support the same version. If there are legacy
devices in your network that only support Version 1, you will also have to
configure this switch to use Version 1.
• Some commands are only enabled for IGMPv2 and v3 snooping, including ip
igmp snooping query-max-response-time, ip igmp snooping
query-interval, and ip igmp snooping immediate-leave.
Example
The following configures the switch to use IGMP Version 1:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 1
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping leave-proxy
This command suppresses leave messages unless received from the last member
port in the group. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping leave-proxy
no ip igmp snooping leave-proxy
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
33-3
33
Multicast Filtering Commands
Command Usage
• This command setting is only effective if IGMP snooping is enabled.
• Any port can be designated as a multicast router port through dynamic or
static configuration, including ports on Layer 2 or 3 switches. If there is more
than one multicast router on a LAN segment performing IP multicasting, one
of these devices is elected “querier” and assumes the role of querying the
local segment for group members. It propagates service requests on to any
upstream multicast router to ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast
service.
Multicast router ports not serving as an IGMP querier also forward group leave
messages on to the local querier. When a non-querier port receives an
unsolicited leave message, it first checks whether this port is the last dynamic
member port in the group. If this is (1) not the last member port, (2) not a
multicast router port, and (3) no known IGMP Version 1 hosts exist on this
LAN segment, then no leave message will be forwarded to the local querier or
other upstream multicast router. Only when the last member requests to leave
the group, will the switch then flood the leave message (as specified in the
original mechanism for IGMP snooping).
• When there is a large number of hosts entering and leaving a multicast group,
IGMP snooping leave-proxy can significantly reduce the amount of multicast
messages and number of state changes that have to be processed by devices
in the upstream multicast tree.
• IGMP version 1 hosts do not respond to multicast group-specific queries. If a
version 1 host is known by the switch to exist on a LAN segment, it will not use
the IGMP snooping leave-proxy mechanism on that interface, but will instead
process any group leave requests as specified in the original mechanism for
IGMP snooping.
Example
The following shows how to enable leave proxy.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping leave-proxy
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
This command immediately deletes a member port of a multicast service if a leave
packet is received at that port and immediate-leave is enabled for the parent VLAN.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
no ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
Default Setting
Disabled
33-4
IGMP Snooping Commands
33
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
• If immediate-leave is not used, a multicast router (or querier) will send a
group-specific query message when an IGMPv2/v3 group leave message is
received. The router/querier stops forwarding traffic for that group only if no
host replies to the query within the specified timeout period. Note that the
timeout period is determined by the ip igmp snooping
query-max-response-time (see page 33-8).
• If immediate-leave is enabled, the switch assumes that only one host is
connected to the interface. Therefore, immediate leave should only be
enabled on an interface if it is connected to only one IGMP-enabled device,
either a service host or a neighbor running IGMP snooping.
• This command is only effective if IGMP snooping is enabled, and IGMPv2 or
IGMPv3 snooping is used.
Example
The following shows how to enable immediate leave.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
Console(config-if)#
show ip igmp snooping
This command shows the IGMP snooping configuration.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See “Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters” on page 15-3 for a
description of the displayed items.
Example
The following shows the current IGMP snooping configuration:
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service status:
Enabled
Querier status:
Disabled
Leave proxy status:
Enabled
Query count:
2
Query interval:
125 sec
Query max response time: 10 sec
Router port expire time: 300 sec
Immediate Leave Processing: Enabled on VLAN
IGMP snooping version:
Version 2
Console#
1,
33-5
33
Multicast Filtering Commands
show mac-address-table multicast
This command shows known multicast addresses.
Syntax
show mac-address-table multicast [vlan vlan-id] [user | igmp-snooping]
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (1 to 4093)
• user - Display only the user-configured multicast entries.
• igmp-snooping - Display only entries learned through IGMP snooping.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Member types displayed include IGMP or USER, depending on selected
options.
Example
The following shows the multicast entries learned through IGMP snooping for
VLAN 1:
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1 igmp-snooping
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/11
IGMP
Console#
IGMP Query Commands
This section describes commands used to configure Layer 2 IGMP query on the
switch.
Table 33-3 IGMP Query Commands
Command
Function
ip igmp snooping querier
Allows this device to act as the querier for IGMP snooping GC
33-7
ip igmp snooping
query-count
Configures the query count
GC
33-7
ip igmp snooping
query-interval
Configures the query interval
GC
33-8
ip igmp snooping
query-max-response-time
Configures the report delay
GC
33-8
ip igmp snooping
router-port-expire-time
Configures the query timeout
GC
33-9
33-6
Mode
Page
IGMP Query Commands
33
ip igmp snooping querier
This command enables the switch as an IGMP querier. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping querier
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• IGMP snooping querier is not supported for IGMPv3 snooping (see ip igmp
snooping version, page 33-3).
• If enabled, the switch will serve as querier if elected. The querier is
responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping query-count
This command configures the query count. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-count count
no ip igmp snooping query-count
count - The maximum number of queries issued for which there has been
no response before the switch takes action to drop a client from the
multicast group. (Range: 2-10)
Default Setting
2 times
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The query count defines how long the querier waits for a response from a
multicast client before taking action. If a querier has sent a number of queries
defined by this command, but a client has not responded, a countdown timer
is started using the time defined by ip igmp snooping query-maxresponse-time. If the countdown finishes, and the client still has not
responded, then that client is considered to have left the multicast group.
33-7
33
Multicast Filtering Commands
Example
The following shows how to configure the query count to 10:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time (33-8)
ip igmp snooping query-interval
This command configures the query interval. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-interval seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-interval
seconds - The frequency at which the switch sends IGMP host-query
messages. (Range: 60-125)
Default Setting
125 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following shows how to configure the query interval to 100 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
This command configures the query report delay. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
seconds - The report delay advertised in IGMP queries. (Range: 5-25)
Default Setting
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The switch must be using IGMPv2 or v3 snooping for this command to take
effect.
33-8
IGMP Query Commands
33
• This command defines the time after a query, during which a response is
expected from a multicast client. If a querier has sent a number of queries
defined by the ip igmp snooping query-count, but a client has not
responded, a countdown timer is started using an initial value set by this
command. If the countdown finishes, and the client still has not responded,
then that client is considered to have left the multicast group.
Example
The following shows how to configure the maximum response time to 20 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version (33-3)
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
This command configures the query timeout. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
seconds - The time the switch waits after the previous querier stops before
it considers the router port (i.e., the interface which had been receiving
query packets) to have expired.
(Range: 300-500)
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The switch must use IGMPv2 or v3 snooping for this command to take effect.
Example
The following shows how to configure the default timeout to 300 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time 300
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version (33-3)
33-9
33
Multicast Filtering Commands
Static Multicast Routing Commands
This section describes commands used to configure static multicast routing on the
switch.
Table 33-4 Static Multicast Routing Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping vlan
mrouter
Adds a multicast router port
GC
Page
33-10
show ip igmp snooping
mrouter
Shows multicast router ports
PE
33-11
ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
This command statically configures a multicast router port. Use the no form to
remove the configuration.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id mrouter interface
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
No static multicast router ports are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be
able to locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known
multicast router/switch connected over the network to an interface (port or
trunk) on your router, you can manually configure that interface to join all the
current multicast groups.
Example
The following shows how to configure port 11 as a multicast router port within VLAN 1:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#
33-10
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands
33
show ip igmp snooping mrouter
This command displays information on statically configured and dynamically learned
multicast router ports.
Syntax
show ip igmp snooping mrouter [vlan vlan-id]
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
Default Setting
Displays multicast router ports for all configured VLANs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Multicast router port types displayed include Static.
Example
The following shows that port 11 in VLAN 1 is attached to a multicast router:
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Ports Type
---- ------------------- ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
Console#
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands
This section describes commands used to configure Multicast VLAN Registration
(MVR). A single network-wide VLAN can be used to transmit multicast traffic (such
as television channels) across a service provider’s network. Any multicast traffic
entering an MVR VLAN is sent to all subscribers. This can significantly reduce to
processing overhead required to dynamically monitor and establish the distribution
tree for a normal multicast VLAN. Also note that MVR maintains the user isolation
and data security provided by VLAN segregation by passing only multicast traffic
into other VLANs to which the subscribers belong.
Table 33-5 Multicast VLAN Registration Commands
Command
Function
Mode
mvr
Globally enables MVR, statically configures MVR group
address(es), or specifies the MVR VLAN identifier
GC
Page
mvr
Configures an interface as an MVR receiver or source port, IC
enables immediate leave capability, or configures an
interface as a static member of the MVR VLAN
33-13
show mvr
Shows information about the global MVR configuration
PE
settings, the interfaces attached to the MVR VLAN, or the
multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN
33-14
33-12
33-11
33
Multicast Filtering Commands
mvr (Global Configuration)
This command enables Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) globally on the switch,
statically configures MVR multicast group IP address(es) using the group keyword,
or specifies the MVR VLAN identifier using the vlan keyword. Use the no form of
this command without any keywords to globally disable MVR. Use the no form with
the group keyword to remove a specific address or range of addresses. Or use the
no form with the vlan keyword restore the default MVR VLAN.
Syntax
[no] mvr [group ip-address [count] | vlan vlan-id]
• ip-address - IP address for an MVR multicast group.
(Range: 224.0.1.0 - 239.255.255.255)
• count - The number of contiguous MVR group addresses. (Range: 1-255)
• vlan-id - MVR VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
• MVR is disabled.
• No MVR group address is defined.
• The default number of contiguous addresses is 0.
• MVR VLAN ID is 1.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Use the mvr group command to statically configure all multicast group
addresses that will join the MVR VLAN. Any multicast data associated an
MVR group is sent from all source ports, and to all receiver ports that have
registered to receive data from that multicast group.
• The IP address range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 is used for multicast
streams. MVR group addresses cannot fall within the reserved IP multicast
address range of 224.0.0.x.
• IGMP snooping must be enabled to a allow a subscriber to dynamically join or
leave an MVR group (see ip igmp snooping on page 33-2). Note that only
IGMP version 2 or 3 hosts can issue multicast join or leave messages.
Example
The following example enables MVR globally, and configures a range of MVR group
addresses:
Console(config)#mvr
Console(config)#mvr group 228.1.23.1 10
Console(config)#
33-12
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands
33
mvr (Interface Configuration)
This command configures an interface as an MVR receiver or source port using the
type keyword, enables immediate leave capability using the immediate keyword, or
configures an interface as a static member of the MVR VLAN using the group
keyword. Use the no form to restore the default settings.
Syntax
[no] mvr {type {receiver | source} | immediate | group ip-address}
• receiver - Configures the interface as a subscriber port that can receive
multicast data.
• source - Configure the interface as an uplink port that can send and receive
multicast data for the configured multicast groups.
• immediate - Configures the switch to immediately remove an interface from
a multicast stream as soon as it receives a leave message for that group.
• ip-address - Statically configures an interface to receive multicast traffic
from the IP address specified for an MVR multicast group.
(Range: 224.0.1.0 - 239.255.255.255)
Default Setting
• The port type is not defined.
• Immediate leave is disabled.
• No receiver port is a member of any configured multicast group.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• A port which is not configured as an MVR receiver or source port can use
IGMP snooping to join or leave multicast groups using the standard rules for
multicast filtering.
• MVR receiver ports cannot be members of a trunk. Receiver ports can belong
to different VLANs, but should not be configured as a member of the MVR
VLAN. IGMP snooping can be used to allow a receiver port to dynamically join
or leave multicast groups within the MVR VLAN. Multicast groups can also be
statically assigned to a receiver port using the group keyword.
• One or more interfaces may be configured as MVR source ports. A source
port is able to both receive and send data for multicast groups which it has
joined through IGMP snooping or which have been statically assigned using
the group keyword.
• The IP address range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 is used for multicast
streams. MVR group addresses cannot fall within the reserved IP multicast
address range of 224.0.0.x.
• Immediate leave applies only to receiver ports. When enabled, the receiver
port is immediately removed from the multicast group identified in the leave
message. When immediate leave is disabled, the switch follows the standard
rules by sending a group-specific query to the receiver port and waiting for a
33-13
33
Multicast Filtering Commands
response to determine if there are any remaining subscribers for that multicast
group before removing the port from the group list.
• Using immediate leave can speed up leave latency, but should only be
enabled on a port attached to one multicast subscriber to avoid disrupting
services to other group members attached to the same interface.
• Immediate leave does not apply to multicast groups which have been
statically assigned to a port.
• IGMP snooping must be enabled to a allow a subscriber to dynamically join or
leave an MVR group (see ip igmp snooping on page 33-2). Note that only
IGMP version 2 or 3 hosts can issue multicast join or leave messages.
Example
The following configures one source port and several receiver ports on the switch,
enables immediate leave on one of the receiver ports, and statically assigns a
multicast group to another receiver port:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#mvr type source
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#mvr type receiver
Console(config-if)#mvr immediate
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/7
Console(config-if)#mvr type receiver
Console(config-if)#mvr group 225.0.0.5
Console(config-if)#
show mvr
This command shows information about the global MVR configuration settings when
entered without any keywords, the interfaces attached to the MVR VLAN using the
interface keyword, or the multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN using the
members keyword.
Syntax
show mvr [interface [interface] | members [ip-address]]
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• ip-address - IP address for an MVR multicast group.
(Range: 224.0.1.0 - 239.255.255.255)
Default Setting
Displays global configuration settings for MVR when no keywords are used.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
33-14
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands
33
Command Usage
Enter this command without any keywords to display the global settings for
MVR. Use the interface keyword to display information about interfaces
attached to the MVR VLAN. Or use the members keyword to display
information about multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN.
Example
The following shows the global MVR settings:
Console#show mvr
MVR Status:enable
MVR running status:TRUE
MVR multicast vlan:1
MVR Max Multicast Groups:255
MVR Current multicast groups:10
Console#
Table 33-6 show mvr - display description
Field
Description
MVR Status
Shows if MVR is globally enabled on the switch.
MVR running status
Indicates whether or not all necessary conditions in the MVR environment
are satisfied. (Running status is true as long as MVR Status is enabled, and
the specified MVR VLAN exists.)
MVR multicast vlan
Shows the VLAN used to transport all MVR multicast traffic.
MVR Max Multicast Groups
Shows the maximum number of multicast groups which can assigned to the
MVR VLAN.
MVR Current multicast groups Shows the number of multicast groups currently assigned to the MVR VLAN.
The following displays information about the interfaces attached to the MVR VLAN:
Console#show mvr interface
Port
Type
Status
------- -------------------eth1/1 SOURCE
ACTIVE/UP
eth1/2 RECEIVER
ACTIVE/UP
eth1/5 RECEIVER
INACTIVE/DOWN
eth1/6 RECEIVER
INACTIVE/DOWN
eth1/7 RECEIVER
INACTIVE/DOWN
Console#
Immediate Leave
--------------Disable
Disable
Disable
Disable
Disable
Table 33-7 show mvr interface - display description
Field
Description
Port
Shows interfaces attached to the MVR.
Type
Shows the MVR port type.
Status
Shows the MVR status and interface status. MVR status for source ports is
“ACTIVE” if MVR is globally enabled on the switch. MVR status for receiver
ports is “ACTIVE” only if there are subscribers receiving multicast traffic from
one of the MVR groups, or a multicast group has been statically assigned to
an interface.
Immediate Leave
Shows if immediate leave is enabled or disabled.
33-15
33
Multicast Filtering Commands
The following shows information about the interfaces associated with multicast
groups assigned to the MVR VLAN:
Console#show mvr members
MVR Group IP
Status
---------------- -------225.0.0.1
ACTIVE
225.0.0.2
INACTIVE
225.0.0.3
INACTIVE
225.0.0.4
INACTIVE
225.0.0.5
INACTIVE
225.0.0.6
INACTIVE
225.0.0.7
INACTIVE
225.0.0.8
INACTIVE
225.0.0.9
INACTIVE
225.0.0.10
INACTIVE
Console#
Members
------eth1/1(d), eth1/2(s)
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Table 33-8 show mvr members - display description
Field
Description
MVR Group IP
Multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN.
Status
Shows whether or not the there are active subscribers for this multicast group. Note that
this field will also display “INACTIVE” if MVR is globally disabled.
Members
Shows the interfaces with subscribers for multicast services provided through the MVR
VLAN. Also shows if an interface has dynamically joined a multicast group (d), or if a
multicast group has been statically bound to the interface (s).
33-16
Chapter 34: Domain Name Service Commands
These commands are used to configure Domain Naming System (DNS) services.
You can manually configure entries in the DNS domain name to IP address mapping
table, configure default domain names, or specify one or more name servers to use
for domain name to address translation.
Note that domain name services will not be enabled until at least one name server is
specified with the ip name-server command and domain lookup is enabled with the
ip domain-lookup command.
Table 34-1 DNS Commands
Command
Function
Mode Page
ip host
Creates a static host name-to-address mapping
GC
34-1
clear host
Deletes entries from the host name-to-address table
PE
34-2
ip domain-name
Defines a default domain name for incomplete host names
GC
34-3
ip domain-list
Defines a list of default domain names for incomplete host names GC
34-3
ip name-server
Specifies the address of one or more name servers to use for host GC
name-to-address translation
34-4
ip domain-lookup
Enables DNS-based host name-to-address translation
GC
34-5
show hosts
Displays the static host name-to-address mapping table
PE
34-6
show dns
Displays the configuration for DNS services
PE
34-7
show dns cache
Displays entries in the DNS cache
PE
34-7
clear dns cache
Clears all entries from the DNS cache
PE
34-8
ip host
This command creates a static entry in the DNS table that maps a host name to an
IP address. Use the no form to remove an entry.
Syntax
[no] ip host name address1 [address2 … address8]
• name - Name of the host. (Range: 1-127 characters)
• address1 - Corresponding IP address.
• address2 … address8 - Additional corresponding IP addresses.
Default Setting
No static entries
Command Mode
Global Configuration
34-1
34
Domain Name Service Commands
Command Usage
Servers or other network devices may support one or more connections via
multiple IP addresses. If more than one IP address is associated with a host
name using this command, a DNS client can try each address in succession,
until it establishes a connection with the target device.
Example
This example maps two address to a host name.
Console(config)#ip host rd5 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
Console#
clear host
This command deletes entries from the DNS table.
Syntax
clear host {name | *}
• name - Name of the host. (Range: 1-127 characters)
• * - Removes all entries.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example clears all static entries from the DNS table.
Console(config)#clear host *
Console(config)#
34-2
ip domain-name
34
ip domain-name
This command defines the default domain name appended to incomplete host
names (i.e., host names passed from a client that are not formatted with dotted
notation). Use the no form to remove the current domain name.
Syntax
ip domain-name name
no ip domain-name
name - Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the
host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-63 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip domain-name sample.com
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-list (34-3)
ip name-server (34-4)
ip domain-lookup (34-5)
ip domain-list
This command defines a list of domain names that can be appended to incomplete
host names (i.e., host names passed from a client that are not formatted with dotted
notation). Use the no form to remove a name from this list.
Syntax
[no] ip domain-list name
name - Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the
host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-63 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
34-3
34
Domain Name Service Commands
Command Usage
• Domain names are added to the end of the list one at a time.
• When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS service on this switch,
it will work through the domain list, appending each domain name in the list to
the host name, and checking with the specified name servers for a match.
• If there is no domain list, the domain name specified with the ip domain-name
command is used. If there is a domain list, the default domain name is not used.
Example
This example adds two domain names to the current list and then displays the list.
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.jp
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.uk
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.jp
.sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (34-3)
ip name-server
This command specifies the address of one or more domain name servers to use for
name-to-address resolution. Use the no form to remove a name server from this list.
Syntax
[no] ip name-server server-address1 [server-address2 … server-address6]
• server-address1 - IP address of domain-name server.
• server-address2 … server-address6 - IP address of additional
domain-name servers.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The listed name servers are queried in the specified sequence until a
response is received, or the end of the list is reached with no response.
34-4
ip domain-lookup
34
Example
This example adds two domain-name servers to the list and then displays the list.
Console(config)#ip domain-server 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.jp
.sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (34-3)
ip domain-lookup (34-5)
ip domain-lookup
This command enables DNS host name-to-address translation. Use the no form to
disable DNS.
Syntax
[no] ip domain-lookup
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• At least one name server must be specified before you can enable DNS.
• If all name servers are deleted, DNS will automatically be disabled.
34-5
34
Domain Name Service Commands
Example
This example enables DNS and then displays the configuration.
Console(config)#ip domain-lookup
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.jp
.sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Related Commands
ip domain-name (34-3)
ip name-server (34-4)
show hosts
This command displays the static host name-to-address mapping table.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Note that a host name will be displayed as an alias if it is mapped to the same
address(es) as a previously configured entry.
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
1.rd6
Console#
34-6
show dns
34
show dns
This command displays the configuration of the DNS service.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
show dns cache
This command displays entries in the DNS cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
2
4
CNAME
3
4
CNAME
4
4
CNAME
5
4
CNAME
6
4
CNAME
7
4
CNAME
8
4
ALIAS
Console#
IP
66.218.71.84
66.218.71.83
66.218.71.81
66.218.71.80
66.218.71.89
66.218.71.86
POINTER TO:7
TTL
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
DOMAIN
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.com
Table 34-2 show dns cache - display description
Field
Description
NO
The entry number for each resource record.
FLAG
The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
TYPE
This field includes CNAME which specifies the canonical or primary name for the
owner, and ALIAS which specifies multiple domain names which are mapped to
the same IP address as an existing entry.
IP
The IP address associated with this record.
TTL
The time to live reported by the name server.
DOMAIN
The domain name associated with this record.
34-7
34
Domain Name Service Commands
clear dns cache
This command clears all entries in the DNS cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear dns cache
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
IP
Console#
34-8
TTL
DOMAIN
Chapter 35: IP Interface Commands
An IP address may be used for management access to the switch over your
network. An IP address is obtained via DHCP by default for VLAN 1. You can
manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the switch to obtain an address
from a BOOTP or DHCP server when it is powered on. You may also need to a
establish a default gateway between this device and management stations that exist
on another network segment.
Basic IP Configuration
This section describes commands used to configure an IP address for the switch
Table 35-1 Basic IP Configuration Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip address
Sets the IP address for the current interface
IC
Page
35-1
ip default-gateway
Defines the default gateway through which this router can reach
other subnetworks
GC
35-2
ip dhcp restart
Submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request
PE
35-3
show ip interface
Displays the IP settings for this device
NE, PE
35-4
show ip redirects
Displays the default gateway configured for this device
PE
35-4
show arp
Displays entries in the ARP cache
PE
35-4
ping
Sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the network NE, PE
35-4
ip address
This command sets the IP address for the currently selected VLAN interface. Use
the no form to remove the current IP address.
Syntax
ip address {ip-address netmask | bootp | dhcp}
no ip address
• ip-address - IP address
• netmask - Network mask for the associated IP subnet. This mask identifies
the host address bits used for routing to specific subnets.
• bootp - Obtains IP address from BOOTP.
• dhcp - Obtains IP address from DHCP.
Default Setting
DHCP
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
35-1
35
IP Interface Commands
Command Usage
• You must assign an IP address to this device to gain management access
over the network or to connect the switch to existing IP subnets. You can
manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the device to obtain an
address from a BOOTP or DHCP server. Valid IP addresses consist of four
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside this format will not
be accepted by the configuration program.
• If you select the bootp or dhcp option, IP is enabled but will not function until
a BOOTP or DHCP reply has been received. Requests will be broadcast
periodically by this device in an effort to learn its IP address. (BOOTP and
DHCP values can include the IP address, default gateway, and subnet mask).
• You can start broadcasting BOOTP or DHCP requests by entering an ip dhcp
restart command, or by rebooting the switch.
Notes: 1. Only one VLAN interface can be assigned an IP address (the default
is VLAN 1). This defines the management VLAN, the only VLAN
through which you can gain management access to the switch. If you
assign an IP address to any other VLAN, the new IP address
overrides the original IP address and this becomes the new
management VLAN.
2. Before you can change the IP address, you must first clear the
current address with the no form of this command.
Example
In the following example, the device is assigned an address in VLAN 1.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp restart (35-3)
ip default-gateway
This command specifies the IP default gateway for destinations not found in the local
routing tables. Use the no form to remove a default gateway.
Syntax
ip default-gateway gateway
no ip default-gateway
gateway - IP address of the default gateway
Default Setting
No static route is established.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
35-2
Basic IP Configuration
35
Command Usage
• A gateway must be defined if the management station is located in a different
IP segment.
• An default gateway can only be successfully set when a network interface that
directly connects to the gateway has been configured on the switch.
Example
The following example defines a default gateway for this device:
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.1.254
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip redirects (35-4)
ip dhcp restart
This command submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command issues a BOOTP or DHCP client request for any IP interface
that has been set to BOOTP or DHCP mode via the ip address command.
• DHCP requires the server to reassign the client’s last address if available.
• If the BOOTP or DHCP server has been moved to a different domain, the
network portion of the address provided to the client will be based on this new
domain.
Example
In the following example, the device is reassigned the same address.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
Console#
Related Commands
ip address (35-1)
35-3
35
IP Interface Commands
show ip interface
This command displays the settings of an IP interface.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip interface
Console#
Related Commands
show ip redirects (35-4)
show ip redirects
This command shows the IP default gateway configured for this device.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip redirects
ip default gateway 10.1.0.254
Console#
Related Commands
ip default-gateway (35-2)
show arp
Use this command to display entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays information about the ARP cache. The first line shows
the cache timeout. It also shows each cache entry, including the corresponding
IP address, MAC address, type (static, dynamic, other), and VLAN interface.
Note that entry type “other” indicates local addresses for this switch.
35-4
Basic IP Configuration
35
Example
This example displays all entries in the ARP cache.
Console#show arp
IP Address
--------------192.168.0.1
192.168.0.110
192.168.0.162
MAC Address
Type
Interface
----------------- --------- ----------00-0f-3d-12-40-e1
dynamic
1
00-10-b5-62-03-74
dynamic
1
00-12-cf-0c-9a-a0
other
1
Total entry : 3
Console#
ping
This command sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the network.
Syntax
ping host [count count][size size]
• host - IP address or IP alias of the host.
• count - Number of packets to send. (Range: 1-16, default: 5)
• size - Number of bytes in a packet. (Range: 32-512, default: 32)
The actual packet size will be eight bytes larger than the size specified
because the router adds header information.
Default Setting
This command has no default for the host.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use the ping command to see if another site on the network can be reached.
• The following are some results of the ping command:
- Normal response - The normal response occurs in one to ten seconds,
depending on network traffic.
- Destination does not respond - If the host does not respond, a “timeout”
appears in ten seconds.
- Destination unreachable - The gateway for this destination indicates that
the destination is unreachable.
- Network or host unreachable - The gateway found no corresponding entry
in the route table.
• Press <Esc> to stop pinging.
35-5
35
IP Interface Commands
Example
Console#ping 10.1.0.9
Type ESC to abort.
PING to 10.1.0.9, by 5 32-byte payload ICMP packets, timeout is 5 seconds
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 0 ms
Ping statistics for 10.1.0.9:
5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received (100%), 0 packets lost (0%)
Approximate round trip times:
Minimum = 0 ms, Maximum = 10 ms, Average = 8 ms
Console#
Related Commands
interface (24-1)
35-6
Section IV:Appendices
This section provides additional information on the following topics.
Software Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Glossary
Index
Appendices
Appendix A: Software Specifications
Software Features
Authentication
Local, RADIUS, TACACS+, Port (802.1X), HTTPS, SSH, Port Security
Access Control Lists
IP, MAC
Fast Ethernet ports - 157 rules, 4 masks shared by 8-port groups
Gigabit Ethernet ports - 29 rules, 4 masks
DHCP Client
DNS Proxy
Port Configuration
100BASE-BX: 100 Mbps at full duplex
100BASE-TX: 10/100 Mbps at half/full duplex
1000BASE-T: 10/100 Mbps at half/full duplex, 1000 Mbps at full duplex
1000BASE-SX/LX/LH/BX - 1000 Mbps at full duplex (SFP)
Flow Control
Full Duplex: IEEE 802.3x
Half Duplex: Back pressure
Broadcast Storm Control
Traffic throttled above a critical threshold
Port Mirroring
Single session, one source port to one destination port
Rate Limits
Input Limit
Output limit
Range (configured per port)
Port Trunking
Static trunks (Cisco EtherChannel compliant)
Dynamic trunks (Link Aggregation Control Protocol)
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D)
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1w)
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP, IEEE 802.1s)
VLAN Support
Up to 255 groups; port-based, protocol-based, or tagged (802.1Q),
GVRP for automatic VLAN learning, private VLANs
Class of Service
Supports eight levels of priority and Weighted Round Robin Queueing
(which can be configured by VLAN tag or port),
Layer 3/4 priority mapping: IP Port, IP Precedence, IP DSCP
A-1
A
Software Specifications
Quality of Service
DiffServ supports class maps, policy maps, and service policies
Multicast Filtering
IGMP Snooping
Additional Features
BOOTP client
SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol)
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
RMON (Remote Monitoring, groups 1,2,3,9)
SMTP Email Alerts
Management Features
In-Band Management
Telnet, web-based HTTP or HTTPS, SNMP manager, or Secure Shell
Out-of-Band Management
RS-232 DB-9 console port
Software Loading
TFTP in-band or XModem out-of-band
SNMP
Management access via MIB database
Trap management to specified hosts
RMON
Groups 1, 2, 3, 9 (Statistics, History, Alarm, Event)
Standards
IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol and traffic priorities
IEEE 802.1p Priority tags
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
IEEE 802.1v Protocol-based VLANs
IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
IEEE 802.1X Port Authentication
IEEE 802.3-2005
Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
Full-duplex flow control (ISO/IEC 8802-3)
IEEE 802.3ac VLAN tagging
ARP (RFC 826)
DHCP Client (RFC 2131)
HTTPS
ICMP (RFC 792)
IGMP (RFC 1112)
IGMPv2 (RFC 2236)
A-2
Management Information Bases
A
IPv4 IGMP (RFC 3228)
RADIUS+ (RFC 2618)
RMON (RFC 2819 groups 1,2,3,9)
SNMP (RFC 1157)
SNMPv2c (RFC 2571)
SNMPv3 (RFC DRAFT 3414, 3410, 2273, 3411, 3415)
SNTP (RFC 2030)
SSH (Version 2.0)
TELNET (RFC 854, 855, 856)
TFTP (RFC 1350)
Management Information Bases
Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)
DNS Resolver MIB (RFC 1612)
Differentiated Services MIB (RFC 3289)
Entity MIB (RFC 2737)
Ether-like MIB (RFC 2665)
Extended Bridge MIB (RFC 2674)
Extensible SNMP Agents MIB (RFC 2742)
Forwarding Table MIB (RFC 2096)
IGMP MIB (RFC 2933)
Interface Group MIB (RFC 2233)
Interfaces Evolution MIB (RFC 2863)
IP MIB (RFC 2011)
IP Multicasting related MIBs
MAU MIB (RFC 3636)
MIB II (RFC 1213)
Port Access Entity MIB (IEEE 802.1X)
Port Access Entity Equipment MIB
Private MIB
QnQ Tunneling (IEEE 802.1ad Provider Bridges)
Quality of Service MIB
RADIUS Authentication Client MIB (RFC 2621)
RMON MIB (RFC 2819)
RMON II Probe Configuration Group (RFC 2021, partial implementation)
SNMPv2 IP MIB (RFC 2011)
SNMP Framework MIB (RFC 3411)
SNMP-MPD MIB (RFC 3412)
SNMP Target MIB, SNMP Notification MIB (RFC 3413)
SNMP User-Based SM MIB (RFC 3414)
SNMP View Based ACM MIB (RFC 3415)
SNMP Community MIB (RFC 3584)
TACACS+ Authentication Client MIB
TCP MIB (RFC 2012)
Trap (RFC 1215)
A-3
A
Software Specifications
UDP MIB (RFC 2013)
A-4
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
Problems Accessing the Management Interface
Table B-1 Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom
Action
Cannot connect using Telnet, • Be sure the switch is powered up.
web browser, or SNMP
• Check network cabling between the management station and the switch.
software
• Check that you have a valid network connection to the switch and that the
port you are using has not been disabled.
• Be sure you have configured the VLAN interface through which the
management station is connected with a valid IP address, subnet mask
and default gateway.
• Be sure the management station has an IP address in the same subnet as
the switch’s IP interface to which it is connected.
• If you are trying to connect to the switch via the IP address for a tagged
VLAN group, your management station, and the ports connecting
intermediate switches in the network, must be configured with the
appropriate tag.
• If you cannot connect using Telnet, you may have exceeded the maximum
number of concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions permitted. Try connecting
again at a later time.
Cannot connect using
Secure Shell
• If you cannot connect using SSH, you may have exceeded the maximum
number of concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions permitted. Try connecting
again at a later time.
• Be sure the control parameters for the SSH server are properly configured
on the switch, and that the SSH client software is properly configured on
the management station.
• Be sure you have generated a public key on the switch, and exported this
key to the SSH client.
• Be sure you have set up an account on the switch for each SSH user,
including user name, authentication level, and password.
• Be sure you have imported the client’s public key to the switch (if public
key authentication is used).
Cannot access the on-board • Be sure you have set the terminal emulator program to VT100 compatible,
configuration program via a
8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity, and the baud rate set to any of the
serial port connection
following (9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200 bps).
• Check that the null-modem serial cable conforms to the pin-out
connections provided in the Installation Guide.
Forgot or lost the password
• Contact your local distributor.
B-1
B
Troubleshooting
Using System Logs
If a fault does occur, refer to the Installation Guide to ensure that the problem you
encountered is actually caused by the switch. If the problem appears to be caused
by the switch, follow these steps:
1.
Enable logging.
2.
Set the error messages reported to include all categories.
3.
Designate the SNMP host that is to receive the error messages.
4.
Repeat the sequence of commands or other actions that lead up to the error.
5.
Make a list of the commands or circumstances that led to the fault. Also make a
list of any error messages displayed.
6.
Contact your distributor’s service engineer.
For example:
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#logging history flash 7
Console(config)#snmp-server
host 192.168.1.23
.
.
.
B-2
Glossary
Access Control List (ACL)
ACLs can limit network traffic and restrict access to certain users or devices by
checking each packet for certain IP or MAC (i.e., Layer 2) information.
Boot Protocol (BOOTP)
BOOTP is used to provide bootup information for network devices, including IP
address information, the address of the TFTP server that contains the devices
system files, and the name of the boot file.
Class of Service (CoS)
CoS is supported by prioritizing packets based on the required level of service, and
then placing them in the appropriate output queue. Data is transmitted from the
queues using weighted round-robin service to enforce priority service and prevent
blockage of lower-level queues. Priority may be set according to the port default, the
packet’s priority bit (in the VLAN tag), TCP/UDP port number, IP Precedence bit, or
DSCP priority bit.
Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
DiffServ provides quality of service on large networks by employing a well-defined
set of building blocks from which a variety of aggregate forwarding behaviors may
be built. Each packet carries information (DS byte) used by each hop to give it a
particular forwarding treatment, or per-hop behavior, at each network node. DiffServ
allocates different levels of service to users on the network with mechanisms such
as traffic meters, shapers/droppers, packet markers at the boundaries of the
network.
Differentiated Services Code Point Service (DSCP)
DSCP uses a six-bit tag to provide for up to 64 different forwarding behaviors. Based
on network policies, different kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds of
forwarding. The DSCP bits are mapped to the Class of Service categories, and then
into the output queues.
Domain Name Service (DNS)
A system used for translating host names for network nodes into IP addresses.
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)
Provides a framework for passing configuration information to hosts on a TCP/IP
network. DHCP is based on the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), adding the capability
of automatic allocation of reusable network addresses and additional configuration
options.
Glossary-1
Glossary
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL)
EAPOL is a client authentication protocol used by this switch to verify the network
access rights for any device that is plugged into the switch. A user name and
password is requested by the switch, and then passed to an authentication server
(e.g., RADIUS) for verification. EAPOL is implemented as part of the IEEE 802.1X
Port Authentication standard.
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
Defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to register
necessary VLAN members on ports along the Spanning Tree so that VLANs defined
in each switch can work automatically over a Spanning Tree network.
Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP)
GARP is a protocol that can be used by endstations and switches to register and
propagate multicast group membership information in a switched environment so
that multicast data frames are propagated only to those parts of a switched LAN
containing registered endstations. Formerly called Group Address Registration
Protocol.
Generic Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP)
GMRP allows network devices to register end stations with multicast groups. GMRP
requires that any participating network devices or end stations comply with the IEEE
802.1p standard.
Group Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP)
See Generic Attribute Registration Protocol.
IEEE 802.1D
Specifies a general method for the operation of MAC bridges, including the
Spanning Tree Protocol.
IEEE 802.1Q
VLAN Tagging—Defines Ethernet frame tags which carry VLAN information. It
allows switches to assign endstations to different virtual LANs, and defines a
standard way for VLANs to communicate across switched networks.
IEEE 802.1p
An IEEE standard for providing quality of service (QoS) in Ethernet networks. The
standard uses packet tags that define up to eight traffic classes and allows switches
to transmit packets based on the tagged priority value.
IEEE 802.1s
An IEEE standard for the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) which provides
independent spanning trees for VLAN groups.
Glossary-2
Glossary
IEEE 802.1X
Port Authentication controls access to the switch ports by requiring users to first
enter a user ID and password for authentication.
IEEE 802.3ac
Defines frame extensions for VLAN tagging.
IEEE 802.3x
Defines Ethernet frame start/stop requests and timers used for flow control on
full-duplex links.
IGMP Snooping
Listening to IGMP Query and IGMP Report packets transferred between IP Multicast
Routers and IP Multicast host groups to identify IP Multicast group members.
IGMP Query
On each subnetwork, one IGMP-capable device will act as the querier — that is, the
device that asks all hosts to report on the IP multicast groups they wish to join or to
which they already belong. The elected querier will be the device with the lowest IP
address in the subnetwork.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
A protocol through which hosts can register with their local router for multicast
services. If there is more than one multicast switch/router on a given subnetwork,
one of the devices is made the “querier” and assumes responsibility for keeping
track of group membership.
In-Band Management
Management of the network from a station attached directly to the network.
IP Multicast Filtering
A process whereby this switch can pass multicast traffic along to participating hosts.
IP Precedence
The Type of Service (ToS) octet in the IPv4 header includes three precedence bits
defining eight different priority levels ranging from highest priority for network control
packets to lowest priority for routine traffic. The eight values are mapped one-to-one
to the Class of Service categories by default, but may be configured differently to
suit the requirements for specific network applications.
Layer 2
Data Link layer in the ISO 7-Layer Data Communications Protocol. This is related
directly to the hardware interface for network devices and passes on traffic based on
MAC addresses.
Glossary-3
Glossary
Link Aggregation
See Port Trunk.
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
Allows ports to automatically negotiate a trunked link with LACP-configured ports on
another device.
Management Information Base (MIB)
An acronym for Management Information Base. It is a set of database objects that
contains information about a specific device.
MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm
An algorithm that is used to create digital signatures. It is intended for use with 32 bit
machines and is safer than the MD4 algorithm, which has been broken. MD5 is a
one-way hash function, meaning that it takes a message and converts it into a fixed
string of digits, also called a message digest.
Multicast Switching
A process whereby the switch filters incoming multicast frames for services for
which no attached host has registered, or forwards them to all ports contained within
the designated multicast VLAN group.
Multicast VLAN Registration
A method of using a single network-wide multicast VLAN to transmit common
services, such as such as television channels or video-on-demand, across a
service-provider’s network. MVR simplifies the configuration of multicast services by
using a common VLAN for distribution, while still preserving security and data
isolation for subscribers residing in both the MVR VLAN and other standard or
private VLAN groups.
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
MSTP can provide an independent spanning tree for different VLANs. It simplifies
network management, provides for even faster convergence than RSTP by limiting
the size of each region, and prevents VLAN members from being segmented from
the rest of the group.
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
NTP provides the mechanisms to synchronize time across the network. The time
servers operate in a hierarchical-master-slave configuration in order to synchronize
local clocks within the subnet and to national time standards via wire or radio.
Out-of-Band Management
Management of the network from a station not attached to the network.
Glossary-4
Glossary
Port Authentication
See IEEE 802.1X.
Port Mirroring
A method whereby data on a target port is mirrored to a monitor port for
troubleshooting with a logic analyzer or RMON probe. This allows data on the target
port to be studied unobstructively.
Port Trunk
Defines a network link aggregation and trunking method which specifies how to
create a single high-speed logical link that combines several lower-speed physical
links.
Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. Data traffic on downlink ports can only be forwarded to, and from,
uplink ports.
Quality of Service (QoS)
QoS refers to the capability of a network to provide better service to selected traffic
flows using features such as data prioritization, queuing, congestion avoidance and
traffic shaping. These features effectively provide preferential treatment to specific
flows either by raising the priority of one flow or limiting the priority of another flow.
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
RADIUS is a logon authentication protocol that uses software running on a central
server to control access to RADIUS-compliant devices on the network.
Remote Monitoring (RMON)
RMON provides comprehensive network monitoring capabilities. It eliminates the
polling required in standard SNMP, and can set alarms on a variety of traffic
conditions, including specific error types.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
RSTP reduces the convergence time for network topology changes to about 10% of
that required by the older IEEE 802.1D STP standard.
Secure Shell (SSH)
A secure replacement for remote access functions, including Telnet. SSH can
authenticate users with a cryptographic key, and encrypt data connections between
management clients and the switch.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
A standard host-to-host mail transport protocol that operates over TCP, port 25.
Glossary-5
Glossary
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
The application protocol in the Internet suite of protocols which offers network
management services.
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP)
SNTP allows a device to set its internal clock based on periodic updates from a
Network Time Protocol (NTP) server. Updates can be requested from a specific NTP
server, or can be received via broadcasts sent by NTP servers.
Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA)
A technology that checks your network for any loops. A loop can often occur in
complicated or backup linked network systems. Spanning Tree detects and directs
data along the shortest available path, maximizing the performance and efficiency of
the network.
Telnet
Defines a remote communication facility for interfacing to a terminal device over
TCP/IP.
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+)
TACACS+ is a logon authentication protocol that uses software running on a central
server to control access to TACACS-compliant devices on the network.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Protocol suite that includes TCP as the primary transport protocol, and IP as the
network layer protocol.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
A TCP/IP protocol commonly used for software downloads.
Universal Time Coordinate (UTC)
UTC is a time scale that couples Greenwich Mean Time (based solely on the Earth’s
rotation rate) with highly accurate atomic time. The UTC does not have daylight
saving time.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
UDP provides a datagram mode for packet-switched communications. It uses IP as
the underlying transport mechanism to provide access to IP-like services. UDP
packets are delivered just like IP packets – connection-less datagrams that may be
discarded before reaching their targets. UDP is useful when TCP would be too
complex, too slow, or just unnecessary.
Glossary-6
Glossary
Virtual LAN (VLAN)
A Virtual LAN is a collection of network nodes that share the same collision domain
regardless of their physical location or connection point in the network. A VLAN
serves as a logical workgroup with no physical barriers, and allows users to share
information and resources as though located on the same LAN.
XModem
A protocol used to transfer files between devices. Data is grouped in 128-byte
blocks and error-corrected.
Glossary-7
Glossary
Glossary-8
Index
Numerics
D
802.1Q tunnel 12-12, 30-20
description 12-12
interface configuration 12-16,
30-21–30-22
mode selection 12-16
TPID 12-11, 12-16, 30-22
802.1X, port authentication 6-13,
21-24
default gateway, configuration 4-9,
35-2
default priority, ingress port 13-1, 31-3
default settings, system 1-6
DHCP 4-10, 35-1
client 4-9, 34-1
dynamic configuration 2-5
DHCP snooping
binding static addresses 22-10
global configuration 22-7
specifying trusted interfaces 22-12
verifying MAC addresses 22-11
VLAN configuration 22-9
Differentiated Code Point Service See
DSCP
Differentiated Services See DiffServ
DiffServ 14-1, 32-1
binding policy to interface 14-8, 32-7
class map 14-2, 32-2, 32-5
policy map 14-5, 32-4
service policy 14-8, 32-7
DNS
default domain name 16-1, 34-3
displaying the cache 16-5
domain name list 16-1, 34-1
enabling lookup 16-1, 34-5
name server list 16-1, 34-4
static entries 16-3
Domain Name Service See DNS
downloading software 4-12, 19-13
DSCP
enabling 13-7, 31-11
mapping priorities 13-10, 31-11
dynamic addresses, displaying 10-2,
28-3
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
See DHCP
A
acceptable frame type 12-10, 30-9
Access Control List See ACL
ACL
Extended IP 8-1, 8-2, 8-4, 23-1, 23-3
MAC 8-1, 8-2, 23-12, 23-12–23-14
Standard IP 8-1, 8-2, 8-3, 23-1, 23-2
address table 10-1, 28-1
aging time 10-4, 28-4
B
BOOTP 4-10, 35-1
BPDU 11-1
broadcast storm, threshold 9-17, 24-7
C
Class of Service See CoS
CLI, showing commands 17-4
client security 7-1
command line interface See CLI
community string 2-6, 5-3, 20-3
configuration files
restoring defaults 19-12
configuration settings, saving or
restoring 2-9, 4-14, 19-12, 19-13
console port, required connections 2-2
CoS
configuring 13-1, 31-1, 32-1
DSCP 13-10, 31-11
IP port priority 13-11, 31-8
IP precedence 13-8, 31-9
layer 3/4 priorities 13-7, 31-8
queue mapping 13-3, 31-4
queue mode 13-5, 31-2
setting static priority for VLANs 31-6
traffic class weights 13-6, 31-4
E
edge port, STA 11-12, 11-15, 29-14
event logging 19-28
Index-1
Index
F
J
firmware
displaying version 4-6, 19-7
upgrading 4-12, 19-13
jumbo frame 19-10
G
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol See
GVRP
gateway, default 4-9, 35-2
GVRP
global setting 12-4, 30-2
interface configuration 12-10, 30-3
H
hardware version, displaying 4-6, 19-7
HTTPS 6-5, 21-12
secure server 6-5, 21-12
I
IEEE 802.1D 11-1, 29-2
IEEE 802.1s 29-2
IEEE 802.1w 11-1, 29-2
IEEE 802.1X 6-13, 21-24
IGMP
groups, displaying 15-7, 33-6
Layer 2 15-2, 33-1
query 15-2, 33-7
query, Layer 2 15-3, 33-6
snooping 15-2, 33-2
snooping, configuring 15-3, 33-1
snooping, leave proxy 33-3
snooping, setting immediate
leave 33-4
snooping, suppressing leave
messages 33-3
ingress filtering 12-10, 30-10
IP address
BOOTP/DHCP 4-10, 35-1, 35-3
setting 2-4, 35-1
IP port priority
enabling 13-11, 31-8
mapping priorities 13-11, 31-9
IP precedence
enabling 13-7, 31-9
mapping priorities 13-8, 31-10
IP source guard
configuring static entries 22-5
setting filter criteria 22-3
Index-2
L
LACP
configuration 25-1
local parameters 9-14, 25-7
partner parameters 9-16, 25-7
protocol message statistics 25-7
protocol parameters 9-10, 25-1
Link Aggregation Control Protocol See
LACP
link type, STA 11-12, 11-15, 29-15
logging
syslog traps 19-31
to syslog servers 19-30
log-in, Web interface 3-2
logon authentication 6-1, 21-1, 22-1
RADIUS client 6-2, 21-6
RADIUS server 6-2, 21-6
TACACS+ client 6-2, 21-9
TACACS+ server 6-2, 21-9
logon authentication, sequence 6-3,
21-4, 21-5
M
main menu 3-4
Management Information Bases
(MIBs) A-3
media-type 9-4
mirror port, configuring 9-19, 26-1
MSTP 29-2
global settings 11-16, 29-1
interface settings 11-13, 29-1
multicast filtering 15-1, 33-1
multicast groups 15-7, 33-6
displaying 33-6
static 15-7, 33-2, 33-6
multicast services
configuring 15-8, 33-2
displaying 15-7, 33-6
multicast storm, threshold 24-7
Multicast VLAN Registration See MVR
multicast, static router port 15-6, 33-10
MVR
assigning static multicast
groups 15-15
setting interface type 15-12, 33-13
Index
setting multicast groups 15-10,
33-12
specifying a VLAN 15-10, 33-12
using immediate leave 15-12, 33-13
P
password, line 19-21
passwords 2-4
administrator setting 6-1, 21-2
path cost 11-3, 11-12
method 11-7, 29-6
STA 11-3, 11-12, 29-6
port authentication 6-13, 21-24
port priority
configuring 13-1, 31-1, 32-1
default ingress 13-1, 31-3
STA 11-12, 29-13
port security, configuring 7-1, 22-1
port, statistics 9-21, 24-10
ports
autonegotiation 9-3, 24-3
broadcast storm threshold 9-17,
24-7
capabilities 9-3, 24-4
duplex mode 9-3, 24-2
flow control 9-3
forced selection on combo ports 9-4,
24-6
multicast storm threshold 24-7
speed 9-3, 24-2
ports, configuring 9-1, 24-1
ports, mirroring 9-19, 26-1
priority, default port ingress 13-1, 31-3
problems, troubleshooting B-1
protocol migration 11-15, 29-18
Q
QoS 14-1, 32-1
Quality of Service See QoS
queue weights 13-6, 31-4
R
RADIUS, logon authentication 6-2,
21-6
rate limits
setting input and output limits 27-1
setting output limits based on
priorities 27-2
rate limits, setting 9-20
remote logging 19-31
restarting the system 4-25, 18-4
RSTP 11-1, 29-2
global configuration 11-3, 29-2
S
Secure Shell 6-7, 21-15
configuration 6-7, 21-18, 21-19
security, client 7-1
serial port, configuring 19-19
show dot1q-tunnel 30-21
show system mode 19-9
show system mtu 19-11
SNMP 5-1
community string 5-3, 20-3
enabling traps 5-4, 20-7
trap manager 5-4, 20-5
software
displaying version 4-6, 19-7
downloading 4-12, 19-13
Spanning Tree Protocol See STA
specifications, software A-1
SSH, configuring 6-7, 21-18, 21-19
STA 11-1, 29-1
edge port 11-12, 11-15, 29-14
global settings, configuring 11-6,
29-2–29-7
global settings, displaying 11-3,
29-18
interface settings 11-10, 11-19,
11-20, 29-12–29-18, 29-19
link type 11-12, 11-15, 29-15
path cost 11-3, 11-12, 29-12
path cost method 11-7, 29-6
port priority 11-12, 29-13
protocol migration 11-15, 29-18
transmission limit 11-7, 29-7
standards, IEEE A-2
startup files
creating 4-15, 19-13
displaying 4-12, 19-2
setting 4-12, 19-17
static addresses, setting 10-1, 28-1
statistics
port 9-21, 24-10
STP 11-6, 29-2
Index-3
Index
STP Also see STA
switch settings, saving or
restoring 19-12
switchport dot1q-ethertype 30-22
switchport mode dot1q-tunnel 30-21
system clock, setting 4-26, 19-37
system mode, normal or QinQ 4-3,
19-8
system mtu 4-4, 19-11
system software, downloading from
server 4-12, 19-13
T
TACACS+, logon authentication 6-2,
21-9
time, setting 4-26, 19-37
TPID 12-11, 12-16, 30-22
traffic class weights 13-6, 31-4
trap manager 2-7, 5-4, 20-5
troubleshooting B-1
trunk
configuration 9-6, 25-1
LACP 9-8, 25-1, 25-2
static 9-7, 25-2
U
unknown multicast packets,
blocking 24-8
unknown unicast packets,
blocking 24-8
Index-4
upgrading software 4-12, 19-13
user account 6-1
user password 6-1, 21-2, 21-3
V
VLANs 12-1–12-18, 30-1–30-15
802.1Q tunnel mode 12-16
adding static members 12-7, 12-9,
30-11
creating 12-6, 30-7
description 12-1
displaying basic information 12-4,
30-2
displaying port members 12-5,
30-13
egress mode 12-11, 30-9
interface configuration 12-10,
30-9–30-12
private 12-17, 30-14
protocol 12-18, 30-16
W
Web interface
access requirements 3-1
configuration buttons 3-3
home page 3-2
menu list 3-4
panel display 3-3
ES3528
ES3528-WDM
E122006/ST-R01
149100033100A
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