Edirol R-44 Recording Equipment User Manual

PRACTICAL
GUIDE TO THE
EDIROL R-44
Amazing 24 bit/192 kHz ultra-high sound quality!!
Easy to transport!! Lightweight 4-channel recorder!!
4-channel simultaneous recording techniques are
thoroughly explained!!
R-44 Features
Compact 4-channel Recorder
The functions needed for 4-channel
recording have been condensed into a unit
the size of a palm. With just one R-44, you
can perform complete 4-channel
recording. It weighs a mere 1.3 kg, even
with four AA batteries and an SD card.
Obsession with Quality
You can record at 24 bit/192 kHz, far better
than the 16 bit/44.1 kHz for CDs.
44.1 kHz
192 kHz
Sampling frequency
more than 4x higher than a CD
SD Card for Longer Recording Times
The R-44 uses a SD card (also supports
SDHC cards) for its recording media. Over
two hours of a CD-quality recording can be
saved on a 2GB SD card. And you can record
for four hours with four alkaline batteries or
four nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) batteries.
It can even be used outdoors.
Linking to a PC
With USB 2.0 (high speed) support, you
can transfer sound data to a PC with a
single USB cable. The data can then be
played on software that comes standard
with the PC.
* Some PC environments may not play
24-bit recordings.
2
Highly Visible, Easy-to-see Screen
The organic EL display ensures high
contrast, wide viewing angle, and fast
screen response. You can see all the data
easily, even in the outdoors or in concert
halls. The level meter responds quickly for
stress-free level adjusting.
PRACTICAL
GUIDE TO THE
EDIROL R-44
Appendix
Microphones /
Difference Between Sensitivity and Volume ............................. p. 19
Options ................................................................................................... p. 20
R-44 Specifications ............................................................................. p. 20
3
3 Appendix
Applied Technique
Application 1 : Recording Sound for Video ............................... p. 16
Application 2 : Editing Your Recordings to
Create a CD or DVD .............................................. p. 17
2
2 Applied Technique
Situation Practical
Use Technique
Situation 1 : Recording Acoustic Instruments .......................... p. 4
Situation 2 : Recording Band Performances.............................. p. 8
Situation 3 : Recording Concerts ................................................... p. 10
Situation 4 : Recording Outdoor Sounds ................................... p. 14
1
1 Situation Practical Use Technique
3
Situation
1
Recording Acoustic Instruments
Using the R-44 allows you to realistically record a variety of
instrumental performances.
We introduce several recording tips here.
1
Preparing to Record
1
• Connect two microphones (DR-80C) to the R-44.
• It’s convenient to use a microphone stand.
• Turn [PHANTOM] ON.
Turn [PHANTOM] ON
2
☞ For details on how to make recording settings, refer to the owner’s manual.
Applied Technique
Situation Practical
Use Technique
☞ For details, refer to the owner’s manual.
Record Settings
We recommend the following settings for making a CD.
Sets the mode to record with external microphones
Input Select Analog
We recommend 44.1 kHz if you want to make a CD
Rec Freq.
44.1 kHz
You can use 88.2 kHz for higher quality and perform accurate dithering to CD later
Rec Bit
16 bit
Rec Mode
STEREO × 1 Setting to use one stereo system (2 channels) to record
No need to set this
Pre Recording OFF
If you set the date, it is easy to know the recording date and time
Project Name Date
2
Matching the
Recording Levels
The first step in recording is to determine the input
level by matching it to the loudest sound to record.
Play the phrase that is the loudest so the R-44 level
meter goes as high as possible, and then adjust the
[SENS]/[LEVEL] input level knobs so that the R-44
level meter falls just short of the C (clip level) on the
right when the maximum volume is reached.
3
Aiming the
Microphones
The microphone records sounds for the right ear and
left ear separately. So, it is important to directly face
the person or instrument you are recording. Also,
as you move closer to the sound source, you get a
crisper sound; as you move away, you get a softer
sound because you also record the room echoes.
3
Appendix
Volume is too loud if the
C (Clip Level) lights up
Bright
Sensitivity is too high if the
channel name lights up
When the input level is too low, the dynamic feel of the
sound is lost; when it is too high, the sound becomes
distorted (pops and clicks and other noise occurs).
4
details on setting the input level, refer to the
☞ For
owner’s manual.
Adjusting the
brightness
and softness
Soft
“Instrument Recording Techniques” on p. 6 of
☞ See
this guide for how to record different instruments.
PRACTICAL
GUIDE TO THE
EDIROL R-44
4-channel Recording
Since you can record on 4 channels simultaneously, you can try setting microphones in different locations
around the instrument.
For example, you can record near the instrument (on-mic) and far from the instrument to record echoes
(off-mic) at the same time. You can then adjust the volume for each to create a mixed sound.
Recording a Grand Piano
R-44 Setting : Rec. Mode in STEREO X 2
Sound of the string
Regulate the sound quality
by changing the height
and angle of the microphones
Sound reflected from the sound board
Sound
of the
string
Situation Practical
Use Technique
Sound reflected
from the
sound board
1
Unlike smaller instruments, the piano produces sound throughout the instrument and emits sound in
different directions. So, it can be difficult to record a piano. But, you can use the 4-channel simultaneous
recording feature to record sound from different directions and distances. Then, you can mix-down to
create a piano recording that matches the genre of the performed song. Also, it is important to balance
the “sound of the string,” “sound from the body,” “sound reflected from the sound board,” and “sound of the
hammer hitting the strings” when recording a piano. In other words, the trick to recording a piano is to set
microphones in different locations to compare different sounds.
An example of setting the microphones is shown here.
As shown in the illustration, set a total of four microphones (use condenser microphones): two to record the
string sound and two to record the sound reflected from the sound board. In particular, test changing the
position and angle of the microphones recording the string sounds to adjust the range of the recording and
the balance of the sound from the strings and sound board and also try changing the distance to adjust the
balance between the sound of attack and reverberations to get the cleanest recording.
Regulate the sound vibrations
with the distance and position
of the microphones
Sound of
the string
2
Adjust the spacing between the microphones
to get the range you want to record
The drum is an instrument that plays sound in several different directions. We recommend using
simultaneous recording with four channels.
Start by placing two microphones above the drum (condenser microphones) and one microphone each
on the bass drum and snare (dynamic microphones), for a total of four recording locations. You should
use microphone stands above the drum and place the microphones at a height of about 2 meters. At this
height, the sound from the entire drum set can be recorded. For the bass drum, place the microphone in
front aimed at the place where the beater hits. For the snare, you should place the microphone about 10
cm above the snare so you can cleanly record only the sound of the snare. You’ll be able to easily emphasize
just the bass drum sound by adjusting the volume of each channel if you use this setup.
Applied Technique
Recording Drums
R-44 Setting : Rec. Mode in STEREO X 4
3
About
2 meters
Appendix
About
2 meters
About
10 cm
Where the
beater hits
5
Instrument Recording Techniques
This section describes where to place microphones for various instruments.
For more about dynamic microphones and condenser microphones, refer to “Microphone Type”
on p. 19 of this guide.
☞
Vocals
Ideally, you should choose a place, such as a studio,
where noise isn’t introduced from the surroundings. If
recording in a room, try to choose a room that doesn’t
have environmental noise (automobile noise or city
noises) and that has the sound reflection that you want.
Although the basic position for the microphone is
directly in front, it is OK to aim it from slightly above or
slightly below. This is because sound comes not only
from the mouth but also from the head. Although you
can use a dynamic microphone, we recommend using
a condenser microphone to get a cleaner recording. If
some breathing noise is recorded, try using a window
screen or pop guard. You can also try changing the
direction or angle of the microphone.
Aim from
slightly below
Aim from
the front
Pop Guard
1
Acoustic Guitar
Situation Practical
Use Technique
First, the microphone is basically aimed directly at the
front of the sound hole. However, you can also adjust
the distance and angle to the sound hole to find a
sound that you like. When placing the microphone
at an angle, we recommended doing so from the fret
side. This gives you a cleaner recording.
Although you can use a dynamic microphone, we
recommend using a condenser microphone to get a
cleaner recording.
Aim from the front
Set at an angle from the fret side
2
Electric Guitar or Bass
Applied Technique
Move apart a little bit
Guitar Amp/
Bass Amp
Capture the sound as heard in the room
Point-blank
Place slightly off-center
from the speaker
Record the sound
of the guitar or bass directly
3
Appendix
When playing through a guitar amp or bass amp at
a studio, it is important to use the actual volume and
settings used for performances. Place the microphone a
little off-center from the speakers and aim it from pointblank range. Be sure to use a dynamic microphone that
can withstand vibrations. If you want the recording to
give the feel of playing in a room, use two microphones
at distances to record in stereo. However, be careful
because if you set the microphones too far, there is too
much reflected sound and the sound contours become
blurred.
If you are recording in a room, you can also using line
recording by connecting an effecter with an amp
modeling feature or an amp to the R-44 by cable. This
is because units that have amp modeling are designed
to produce realistic sound even with a line connection.
Synthesizer or Organ
You can record electronic instruments like synthesizers,
organs, samplers, or rhythm machines by connecting
the instrument’s line output jack directly to the R-44
combo input jack. Some digital synthesizers have
effecter or mastering features, so the line recordings
can faithfully reproduce the created sounds.
You can record instruments played through an
amplifier by considering the distance to the amp, just
as with the electric guitar.
6
Sound Hole
Standard
phone plug
Standard
phone plug
STEREO
COMBO
INPUT Jack
LINE
OUT Jack
PRACTICAL
GUIDE TO THE
EDIROL R-44
Drums
You should use a stereo microphone or two microphones
aimed from above the drums to record the sound of
the entire kit. It is generally recommend to record from
a height of 2 meters, but you can use a microphone
stand and adjust the height and angle to find the sound
you want. You can also aim from a spot a little from the
front. You should be careful when using a unidirectional
microphone, because if it is pointed at a particular drum,
only the sound of that drum will be featured. In this case,
adjust the angle of the microphone.
Aim at the top
Aim from the front
You can use 4-channel recording to capture even better
sound.
See “4-channel Recording” on p. 5 for details.
Piano
Adjusting the balance between
the sound of attack and
reverberations
Adjusting the balance
the strings and
the sound board
Appendix
Aim from 1 to 1.5
meters above
3
String Instruments
String instruments, like the violin or double bass, are in
some ways like an acoustic guitar, so you should record
them by balancing the sound of the string vibrations
and the sound from the body. You should aim the
microphone at the bridge or resonance aperture of the
instrument from about 1 to 1.5 meters above. You can
then get a clean recording. Although you can use a
dynamic microphone, we recommend using a
condenser microphone to get a cleaner recording.
Applied Technique
Aim at the bell
Basically, you should place the microphone in front of
the bell of the wind instrument. When aiming at the bell,
you should use a wind screen because “blowing noise” is
generated from the wind instrument. Although you can use
a dynamic microphone, we recommend using a condenser
microphone to get a cleaner recording.
When recording a solo performance, woodwinds like the
saxophone have some sound coming from the keys as well
as from the bell, and when all the keys are pressed, the
volume from the bell changes radically. In this situation, you
should probably aim somewhere between the bell and the
keys. You can record a smooth performance this way.
When recording a horn section, you should set a microphone
for each horn, and record with an on-mike. If you do this,
there will be no overlap of sound which gives you a cleaner
recording. The R-44 can simultaneously record 4 channels, so
we recommend setting a microphone for each horn.
2
Wind Instruments
Situation Practical
Use Technique
You can use 4-channel recording to capture even better
sound.
See “4-channel Recording” on p. 5 for details.
1
Unlike recording smaller instruments, when you record
sound from a piano you want to record the sound from
the entire instrument. You can get an overall balanced
recording by setting two microphones a small distance
from the S-shaped depression.
Also, you can adjust the balance between the strings and
the sound board with the angles of the microphones
and adjust the balance between the sound of attack and
reverberations to get the cleanest recording by moving
the microphones closer in or farther out.
Emphasize
the bow impression
Emphasize
the body sound
7
Situation
2
Recording Band Performances
You can easily record band rehearsals using the R-44 internal microphones.
Here, we describe several recording tips for using the internal microphones.
1
Preparing to Record
1
• An external microphone is unnecessary
because you are using the internal microphones.
Situation Practical
Use Technique
Record Settings
We recommend the following settings for making a CD when recording with the internal microphones.
Input Select IntMic
Sets the mode to record with the internal microphones
Rec Freq.
44.1 kHz
We recommend 44.1 kHz if you want to make a CD
Rec Bit
16 bit
Rec Mode
STEREO × 1 Setting to use one stereo system (2 channels) to record
Pre Recording OFF
No need to set this
Project Name Date
If you set the date, it is easy to know the recording date and time
2
☞ For details on how to make recording settings, refer to the owner’s manual.
Applied Technique
2
Matching
the Recording Levels
Before recording the band performance, consider
the song structure and find the place in the song
where the volume is the loudest. Adjust so that the
R-44 level meter goes as high as possible but falls
just short of the C (clip level) at maximum volume.
3
Volume is too loud if the
C (Clip Level) lights up
Positioning the R-44
When rehearsing in a rehearsal studio, the
instruments are often located throughout the room.
You should position the R-44 in the middle of the
studio to record the sound of each instrument
equally. You should also place the microphone at
about table-height. If the microphone is placed on
the floor, the sound is muffled and unclear; if it is
placed too high, you lose the bass range and the
sound becomes tinny.
Appendix
Drums
Sensitivity is too high if the
channel name lights up
If the recording level is too low, the entire
recording is done at the low volume. If it is too high,
the recording can be distorted (popping noise or if
even higher, the sound can be severely distorted).
details on setting the input level, refer to the
☞ For
owner’s manual.
8
3
Place in
the middle
Bass Amp
Guitar Amp
PA Speaker for Vocals
and Keyboard
PRACTICAL
GUIDE TO THE
EDIROL R-44
4-channel Recording
Record the band performance in one shot with four channels
Because you can record four channels simultaneously, you can record all four parts (vocals, guitar,
bass, and drums), each on a separate channel, at the same time.
You can also connect microphones or instruments directly into the four combo input jacks without
using a mixer.
After recording, you’ll be able to adjust the volume of each part, allowing you to check the
performance of individual parts. This is convenient, since it allows you to check your own part as
well as listen to the entire band’s practice session.
R-44 Setting : Rec. Mode in MONO X 4
: Input Select to Analog
Matching the recording levels
You can have a more perfect recording by setting recording levels for each part. You can achieve
good balance by first adjusting the microphone for the drums, then the bass, guitar, and vocals, in
that order. Also, if you turn on the [LIMITER], described above, you can prevent clipped sounds when
there are very loud sounds.
☞
Situation Practical
Use Technique
You should connect microphones and instruments to the R-44 as shown in the illustration.
See “Instrument Recording Techniques” on p. 6 of this guide for microphone settings.
Vocals must be output from PA equipment or an amp, so set the R-44 LINE OUT setting (Output Sel) to
4-indiv, and set output to the same channel as the input channel.
Also, you should use a microphone to record the sound from the guitar amp so that the characteristics
of the amp sound can also be recorded.
For details on Output Sel settings, refer to the owner’s manual.
1
Connections and Settings
Drums
2
Vocal
Guitar
Guitar Amp/
Bass Amp
2 Channel (Guitar)
Appendix
3 Channel (Bass)
3
4 Channel (Drums)
Applied Technique
Bass
1 Channel (Vocals)
1 Channel (Vocals)
to PA system or amp
LINE OUT
(RCA Pin)
COMBO INPUT Jack
(Standard phone plug)
9
Situation
3
Recording Concerts
The R-44 keeps the realistic, live sound of concerts and
performances.
Here, we describe several tips on how to make more realistic
recordings.
1
Preparing to Record
1
Situation Practical
Use Technique
• Connect two microphones (DR-80C) to the R-44.
• It’s convenient to use microphone stands.
• Turn [PHANTOM] ON.
☞ For details on phantom power, refer to the owner’s manual.
Record Settings
We recommend the following settings for making a CD. Also, you should do the Pre Recording settings to
prevent missing a recording.
2
Applied Technique
Input Select
Rec Freq.
Rec Bit
Rec Mode
Pre Recording
Project Name
Analog
44.1 kHz
16 bit
STEREO × 1
15 sec
Date
Sets the mode to record with an external microphone
We recommend 44.1 kHz if you want to make a CD
We recommend 48 kHz if you want to synch to video to create a DVD
Setting to use one stereo system (2 channels) to record
Set to 10–15 seconds to prevent missing recording something
If you set the date, it is easy to know the recording date and time
☞ For details on how to make recording settings, refer to the owner’s manual.
2
Matching
the Recording Levels
You should find out the maximum volume during
rehearsals before the performance begins.
It is difficult to adjust the volume level after the
performance begins. You should match the
recording level before the actual performance.
3
Microphones Location
3
The sound is fuller the closer to the stage the
microphones are placed, and the sound is softer the
further the microphones are because there are more
reverberations. You must check the microphone
placement during rehearsal because the placement
is very important.
Appendix
Volume is too loud if the
C (Clip Level) lights up
Sensitivity is too high if the
channel name lights up
You also need to do a trial recording during
rehearsal to check the sound quality in the arena or
concert hall in advance.
10
Turn [PHANTOM] ON
details on setting the input level, refer to
☞ For
the owner’s manual.
Full Sound
Soft Sound
details see “Setting and Placing Microphones
☞ For
in Arenas or Concert Halls” on p. 12 in this guide.
PRACTICAL
GUIDE TO THE
EDIROL R-44
4-channel Recording
Here, we describe how to perform basic recordings using four channels. These examples use four
DR-80C microphones. For details on microphone settings see “Setting and Placing Microphones in
Arenas or Concert Halls” on p. 12 in this guide.
Recording the “Performance” and “Audience” Simultaneously
This describes how to make recordings with even more realism by using the 4-channel
simultaneous recording feature. If you record the “performance” and the “audience” separately in
stereo, you can record the actual experience of being at the arena. Also, you can easily make
adjustments after the recording because the balance of each sound can be changed separately.
See “Recording the Audience” on p. 13 in this guide for how to record the audience.
☞
R-44 Setting : Rec.Mode in STEREO X 2
Performance Microphones
1
Audience
Microphones
Situation Practical
Use Technique
Audience
Microphones
2
Mistakes cannot be fixed at events like live performances. But even if you set the input level during
rehearsal in advance, the recording can still fail because of unexpected sounds that are too loud or
too soft. For these times, set combo input jacks 1 and 2 to the normal input level and combo input
jacks 3 and 4 to a slightly lower input level. If you do this, you can avoid a recording mistake because
even if the normal input level is clipped, the sound in combo input jacks 3 and 4 is not clipped.
3
R-44 Setting : Rec.Mode in STEREO X 2
Appendix
Slight Lower Recording Level
Normal Recording Level
Applied Technique
Recording Multiple Input Levels Simultaneously
11
Setting and Placing Microphones in Arenas or Concert Halls
Because sound can change just by changing the microphone positions, microphone placement in arenas and
concert halls is extremely important. The best placement can be hard to find because the sound echoes
differently for each arena or concert hall. We introduce examples of setting microphones using general
suspended microphones and using microphone stands.
Using Suspended Microphones
Recording with Suspended Microphones
Suspended
Microphones
1
Situation Practical
Use Technique
Caution!
Suspended microphones are microphones
suspended from the ceiling and are set for
recording public performances at authentic
concert halls. These microphones allow the
performance to be taped without
bothering the guests or filming.
You have to consult in advance with the
performers about the height to suspend
the microphones because if the
microphones are too close they might
interfere with the audience or filming.
The best recording is usually made by
having the microphones closer to the
performers.
Be sure to check beforehand whether you can use facility equipment, such as the suspended
microphones. You also need to check how to use the equipment and the type and characteristics
of the microphones.
Using Microphone Stands
2
Applied Technique
3
Appendix
12
Microphone stands give you more freedom to adjust the microphone position than when using suspended microphones. But you have to consult in advance with the performers about the microphone stands
because they might
Recording in a Small Hall
Position two microphones near the center of
stage about three meters in front of the stage
(or behind the conductor) using the highest
setting of the microphone stands. Set the
left and right microphones apart at an angle
from 90 to 120 degrees. Be careful because
the angle between the microphones changes
according to the size of the stage. If the angle
is too large, the instruments in the center
become faint; if the angle is too small, stereo
sound is lost. Adjust the vertical angle so that
the microphones point to just below the front
part of the stage. The vertical direction of the
microphones should be determined during
the performance rehearsal. We recommend
using unidirectional microphones because
it is easy to set the sound. If you are using
stereo microphones, set them at an angle
between 90 and 120 degrees to capture
the orchestra or brass band. The height and
vertical angle is the same as when using two
microphones. Ultimately, it is important to
test the setup during rehearsal.
Orchestra or Brass Band
Conductor
Adjust sound quality
with the vertical angle
About 3 meters
As high as possible
90–120 degrees
Adjust sound quality with the angle
between the microphones
PRACTICAL
GUIDE TO THE
EDIROL R-44
Recording in a Large Hall
Orchestra or Brass Band
Conductor
Determined
by the size of the hall
Auxiliary
Microphones
Main
Microphones
Auxiliary
Microphones
1/3 of the Orchestra or Brass Band
Choir
Piano
Main
Microphones
Auxiliary
Microphones
Applied Technique
If distance is too far, lyrics
will be hard to understand
2
Conductor
Basically, the microphones should be
positioned as described above.
But, choruses have “lyrics.” You should be
careful not to place microphones too far
apart because the lyrics may not be clear
although you can record the atmosphere of
the chorus.
You need to balance the chorus with the
volume of the piano accompaniment. The
balance with the chorus may be difficult
depending on the location of the piano.
In these cases, you should use auxiliary
microphones for recording and adjust the
balance later.
Situation Practical
Use Technique
Recording a Chorus
Auxiliary
Microphones
1
At large venues, the sound from either end
is always heard more faintly. To help with
this, you can set auxiliary microphones by
making use of the R-44 4-channel
simultaneous recording feature.
The auxiliary microphones should be
placed about 1/3 of the width of the
orchestra or brass band from each end. If
you use these settings to record, it will be
easy to adjust the balance afterwards.
Also, you should place the auxiliary
microphones with some separation from
the main microphones and also use
different settings (for example, separating
the two auxiliary microphones by a large
distance and pointing them up) for the
auxiliary microphones to record the venue
echoes.
Recording the Audience
3
Appendix
You should also record the audience to
capture the live feel of a performance. Set
dedicated microphones for the audience
to capture this feeling. The microphones
should be set near the center of the
audience seating. If you are using
unidirectional microphones, point them up
to record the reverberations of the concert
hall. If the microphones are pointed down,
it is difficult to capture the live feel because
only certain members of the audience are
recorded.
You can also use stereo microphones, but
you can get a better live feel by using two
monaural microphones placed apart.
Also, you can consider the omnidirectional
microphone as an option to record the
atmosphere of the concert hall.
13
Situation
4
Recording Outdoor Sounds
You can record the sounds of nature, like bird, cat, dog and other
animal noises, the sound of rain, or the babbling of a brook.
Here, we describe several tips on how to record in the outdoors.
1
Preparing to Record
1
• Connect a stereo microphone to the R-44.
• It is convenient to use a directional stereo microphone (CS-15R or CS-50)
to record only what you are pointing at.
Situation Practical
Use Technique
Record Settings
The following settings should be used if you are synching to video to make a DVD. Also, you should use the Pre
Recording settings to prevent missing a recording.
Input Select
Rec Freq.
Rec Bit
Analog
48 kHz
16 bit
2
Sets the mode to record with an external microphone
Use 48 kHz if ultimately you are synching to video to make a DVD
Or it may be convenient record with 96 kHz if you want to save in high
quality so that you can convert sounds to use with a DVD
Rec Mode
STEREO × 1 Setting to use one stereo system (2 channels) to record
Pre Recording 20 sec
Set to 15–20 seconds to prevent missing recording something
Project Name Date
If you set the date, it is easy to know the recording date and time
Applied Technique
☞ For details on how to make recording settings, refer to the owner’s manual.
2
Matching
the Recording Levels
3
You should set the R-44 sensitivity (microphone
sensitivity) high so you can record quiet sounds like
wild bird song. This setting makes the microphone
sensitive and even the quietest sound is captured.
On the other hand, lower sensitivity is an
appropriate microphone setting for loud sounds
that are almost just noise, such as the sound a train
makes as it passes.
3
Dealing with
Wind Noise
If a strong wind hits the microphone, a muffled
“wind noise” is recorded. At worst, the wind noise
will be louder than the sound you want to record,
which is one reason for ruining a clear recording. We
introduce some ways of handling wind noise here.
1. Put a wind screen on the microphone.
The wind screen should stop most of the wind
noise.
Appendix
Wind Screen
Set [SENS] fairly high
You should check the input level after making these
settings.
Basically, check to be sure the C at the right of the
level meter (clip level) when the loudest sound is
heard.
14
Directional
Stereo Microphone
(CS-50)
details on setting the input level, refer to
☞ For
the owner’s manual.
2. Turn [LOW CUT] ON.
Since wind noise is made up mostly of the low
range, the noise can be reduced by cutting out
the low range.
[LOW CUT] ON
PRACTICAL
GUIDE TO THE
EDIROL R-44
4-channel Recording
Recording with Surround Sound
Recently, words like surround sound and 5.1 channel have become common along with the
popularization of DVDs. With the ability to do 4-channel simultaneous recording, the R-44 can make
surround sound recordings.
Use four unidirectional microphones and set them on a microphone stand, as shown in the photo, to
record the sound from four directions. If you use this setup to record, you can use a PC to convert to
5.1 channel / surround sound. Also, use a wind screen to cut down wind noise, as described earlier.
R-44 Setting : Rec. Mode in STEREO X 2
For details see “Creating 5.1 Channel Sound Using a PC” on p. 18 in this guide
☞
1
Situation Practical
Use Technique
Simultaneously recording birdsong using multiple microphones
2
Applied Technique
Try to record a point as close to the bird as possible. But, if you get too close to the bird, you won’t
be able to record the natural singing voice.
It is important to keep the bird from knowing that you are near. You should check the time and
place where birds normally gather and set up multiple microphones, as shown in the illustration,
in advance. Also, use long cables to connect the microphones to the recorder, hide in the shadows,
and begin the recording as the birds begin to appear. If you do this, the birds won’t notice that you
are there, and you’ll be able to record the natural sound of the birds.
Also, you can use an umbrella, as shown in the illustration below, in place of a parabola when
recording distant sounds.
You can also make further use of the 4-channel simultaneous recording feature to set stereo
microphones in two locations and select the sound from the microphones closest to the location of
the birds.
3
Appendix
An umbrella can be used in place of a parabola
Move away to remain unnoticed
15
Application
1
Recording Sound for Video
When filming video, the sound quality is often insufficient.
Using the R-44 allows you to record sound for video at a higher quality.
Here, we describe several recording tips on how to record sound for video.
1
Advantages of Using the R-44 to Record Sound for Video
Using the R-44 to record sound for video has the following merits.
You should try using the R-44 with video filming.
• Better sound than recording with the video camera’s microphone
Sampling rates up to 192 kHz are supported.
• You can record sounds difficult to record from the video camera location
Sounds that cannot be recorded by the video camera’s microphone can be picked up by the R-44.
Sounds from another location can be recorded at the same time.
1
• You can record environmental sounds and spoken lines separately
Situation Practical
Use Technique
• You can capture the actual ambience of the location, and use your computer to convert it to 5.1 channel surround
You can set microphones in four locations and change their position freely to create more realistic sound.
Synching Video and Audio
It is difficult to synchronize the video and audio during the editing process. But, with a little
ingenuity, you can synch them easily.
Play a Baseline Sound and then Record
2
Applied Technique
Clap your hands as the video
filming begins as a signal to
start recording.
By using this sound as a
baseline, you can easily
synch the timing between
video and audio during
editing.
Video from the video camera
Audio from the video camera
Audio recorded by the R-44
3
Recording Settings
Appendix
If the audio recorded for video will be used together with the video material to produce a
DVD, we recommend the following settings.
Also, you should use the Pre Recording settings to prevent missing a recording.
Input Select
Analog
Sets the mode to record with an external microphone
Rec Freq.
48 kHz
Use 48 kHz if ultimately you are making a DVD match to video,
or if you are saving with high-quality sound, recording with
Rec Bit
16 bit
96 kHz makes conversion easier later
Rec Mode
STEREO × 2 Setting to use two stereo system (2 channels) to record
Pre Recording 10 sec
Record ten seconds ahead so you don’t miss anything
To help distinguish your projects, it’s a good idea to give each
Project Name Name
scene its own unique project name
16
Application
2
Editing Your Recordings
to Create a CD or DVD
PRACTICAL
GUIDE TO THE
EDIROL R-44
Creating CDs
Have you ever wanted to have someone listen to your music that you recorded? If so, CDs are better than cassette
tapes. A CD is more likely to get heard because CD players, and CD car stereos are really common. Once you learn
how, making CDs is easy, so you should learn how to do it.
Making a CD
Mix down with“Cakewalk
SONAR7 Producer Edition.”
Copy the mixed down data
to a CD.
1. Manipulate the screen to adjust the volume
of each channel.
2. Export the data.
3. Write the exported data to a CD.
If you know that you are going to create a CD from
the beginning, we recommend recording with 16
bit/44.1 kHz on the R-44. Since this is the same as
the CD specifications, it will take just a short time to
convert the data.
Situation Practical
Use Technique
If you’ve recorded four channels simultaneously on the R-44, and want to create a CD from your recording, you’ll
need to adjust the volume of the four channels and combine them into two-channel stereo data. This process is
called “mixdown,” and will allow you to create a CD that sounds the way you want.
In this example, we provide a simple explanation of using the Windows software “Cakewalk SONAR7 Producer Edition” (sold separately) to turn the four channels of data (STEREO x 2) recorded by the R-44 into two-channel stereo,
and use this data to create a CD. (For details, refer to the owner’s manual or Help file of the software you’re using.)
1
Transfer the sound file (WAV)
on the SD card to a PC via a
USB connection.
The data format should be a WAV file at 16 bit/
44.1 kHz.
2
Applied Technique
3
Appendix
16 bit/44.1 kHz
for CDs
17
Deleting Unnecessary Parts
There are many cases when you’ll want to edit the sound after recording, for example to erase the first five seconds that
aren’t needed.
In these cases, you can use the Windows version of the Cakewalk SONAR7 series (sold separately) to edit sound recorded
with the R-44.
Unnecessary sounds can be easily deleted by selecting them and erasing them as shown below. (For details on operations,
see the owner’s manual or help for the software that you are using.)
Deleting Unnecessary Parts
1
Situation Practical
Use Technique
Cakewalk SONAR7 Producer Edition Screen
Cakewalk SONAR7 Producer Edition
Although this software is music creation software, it has plenty of editing features for sound files, too. For example, you
can easily create a non-stop melody by connecting several edited passages.
Creating 5.1 Channels
If you use the 4-channel recording as described in “Recording with Surround Sound” on p. 15, you can convert the sound
to the 5.1 channel surround sound used by DVD software.
And if you then synch it to video, you will have a piece with the impact and realism of a movie.
2
Applied Technique
We introduce the procedure to convert 4 channels to 5.1 channels below. We use the Windows-compatible “Cakewalk
SONAR7 Producer Edition” (sold separately) for conversion. (For details on operations, see the owner’s manual or help for
the software that you are using.)
5.1 Channel Surround Sound
The 5.1 channel surround sound system creates a realistic sound environment
using 6 channels in a rectangle configuration. The six channels are in front of
the listener (Center), to the right in front (Front R), to the left in front (Front L),
to the right in back (Rear R), to the left in back (Rear L), and the low frequency
channel. The low frequency channel is counted as 0.1 channel because it has
a limited sound range.
2CH
1CH
Low
Center frequency
Front R
Front L
Listener
Recording Settings
3
Appendix
Set Rec Mode to STEREO X 2. If this setting is used to convert to 5.1 channel
surround sound, you can manipulate two bits of data in two-channel units
to make the conversion operation easier. Also, set the microphones so that
channel 1 is the front left, channel 2 is the front right, channel 3 is the rear left,
and channel 4 is the rear right. See the illustration at right for how the area
recorded by four channels corresponds to the area for 5.1 channels.
3CH
Converting to 5.1 Channel Surround Sound
Load the data for the two projects (sound data recorded in stereo) to the PC, and convert
to 5.1 surround sound using the surround pan feature of “Cakewalk SONAR 7 Producer
Edition.” First, display the screen shown in the illustration. Set the direction of sound for
Front L, Center, and Front R with the project that recorded with channels 1 and 2.
Determine the direction of sound for Rear L and Rear R with the project that recorded
channels 3 and 4. (For details on operations, see the owner’s manual or help for the
software that you are using.)
18
After making these settings, the exported sound data is the 5.1 channel surround sound data.
Rear L
Rear R
4CH
Microphones /
Difference Between Sensitivity and Volume
PRACTICAL
GUIDE TO THE
EDIROL R-44
Microphones
Microphone Types
There are two main types of microphone structures. It is important to choose the microphone best suited for the recording situation.
For example, a bass drum produces high sound pressure levels, so it’s best recorded using a dynamic microphones.
Type
Condenser
Microphone
Structure
CS-50
CS-15R
(Stereo)
(Stereo)
DR-80C
Dynamic
Microphone
DR-50
Characteristic
A voltage is applied to
electrodes, and the change in
capacitance is converted to an
electronic signal
Although sound quality is superior in
high-range attributes, it is susceptible
to vibration and moisture and requires
phantom power
Converts vibrations to an
electronic signal
Although sound quality is not as good
as a condenser microphone, it is
resistant to vibrations and moisture
and does not require phantom power
DR-30
1
Microphone Directivity
Type
Characteristic
Microphones that have good sensitivity toward sound from the front of the microphone.
Convenient to record only a specific sound.
→ CS-50 (Stereo), CS-15R (Stereo), DR-80C, DR-50, DR-30
Bi-directional
These microphones have the highest sensitivity toward their front and rear.
They can also be used together with a unidirectional microphone in an MS configuration to
produce a stereo signal.
Difference Between Sensitivity and Volume
Noise can be controlled by adjusting
sensitivity to the largest value
without distortion.
Noise can be controlled by adjusting
sensitivity to the largest value without
distortion.
3
SENS
Applied Technique
Unidirectional
2
Omindirectional
Microphones that have no directivity. Convenient when recording the atmosphere in
concert halls.
→ The built-in microphones of the R-44
Situation Practical
Use Technique
Different microphones can capture sounds in different directions.
You should try changing the directivity of the microphone according to the recording.
LIMITER
Lo-Cut
LEVEL
A/D
SENS
Appendix
INPUT
0010101001010110101.....
Analog Signal
Digital Signal
Set LEVEL to the center, and adjust using SENS
19
Options
Stereo Microphones
EDIROL CS Series
CS-50
CS-15R
Monaural Microphones
Roland DR Series
DR-80C
DR-50
Headphone
Microphone
Stand
RH-300
ST-100MB
DR-30
R-44 Specifications
Recorder Section
● Channels
4
● Data Type
Format : WAV/BWF
● Sampling Bit Rate
16/24-bit
● Sampling Frequency
44.1 kHz/48 kHz/88.2 kHz/96 kHz/
192 kHz
(Limited to 2 channels for 192 kHz)
* Any combination of sample
size and sampling frequency
can be used.
● Recording Media
SDHC memory card
(compatible with 64 MB – 8 GB*)
As of November 2007.
● Recording Time using 8 GB
SDHC card (minutes)
Audio Input/Output Section
● Analog Input
Ch 1 – 4 : XLR/TRS Combo type
XLR type (phantom powered)
TRS type (balanced/unbalanced)
Stereo Built-in Microphones
● Analog Output
Ch 1 – 4 :
RCA Pin type (line output)
Headphone :
Stereo Phone type (1/4 inch)
● Digital In/Out
RCA Pin type (IEC 60958-3)
● Input Impedance
XLR : 4 k ohms or greater (balanced)
TRS : 6 k ohms or greater (balanced)
● Nominal Input Level
Input SENS knob : +4, -2, -8, -14,
-20, -26, -32, -38, -44, -50, -56 dBu
(eleven steps)
* Input Level Knob : Center
16 bit/44.1 kHz stereo
755
Input Level Knob:
16 bit/48 kHz stereo
694
negative infinity to +8 dBu
24 bit/48 kHz stereo
462
● Maximum Input
24 bit/96 kHz stereo
231
+24 dBu (Input Sens Knob : +4 dBu)
24 bit/192 kHz stereo
115
● Output Impedance
:
:
Line Output : 600 ohms
16 bit/44.1 kHz 4 ch
377
● Recommended Load Impedance
16 bit/48 kHz 4 ch
347
Line : 4 k ohms or greater
24 bit/48 kHz 4 ch
231
Headphone : 16 ohms or greater
24 bit/96 kHz 4 ch
115
● Output Level
* These recording times are
Line output : -20 dBu (fixed)
approximate. They may change
Headphone : 40 mW + 40 mW
depending on the specifications
● Total Harmonic Distortion
of the card you use.
+ Noise
* If there is more than one
Line output : 0.02%
recorded file, the total recording
(input SENS knob at +4 dBu,
time will be less than listed here.
measured at 22 kHz)
* Files up to 2 GB can be
handled. If the file size reaches ● Noise Level
2 GB during recording, the file
Line Output : -10 dBu (Input Sens :
is closed, a new file is created,
+4 dBu, Input Level : Center)
and recording continues.
Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Windows® is known officially as: “Microsoft® Windows® operating system.”
Apple and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
Mac OS is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
● Residual Noise Level
Line Output : -103 dBu (Input Sens :
+4 dBu, Input Level : Minimum)
● Frequency Response
20 Hz – 40 kHz (0/-3 dB)
● Dynamic Range
AD : 100 dB
DA : 104 dB
● Phantom Power
48 V +/- 4 V
8 mA per 1 channel (20 mA or
less for all channels)
• Monitor Level knob
• Phantom Power Switches :
CH1/2/ 3/4
• Limiter Switch
• Low cut switch
• Scrub (Value)
• Transport Buttons :
PREV (REW), NEXT (FWD), STOP,
PLAY/PAUSE, REC
• Marker Buttons :
,
, MARK
CLEAR,
* Shared with cursor.
• Effect button
• System button (MENU)
• Display Button
• A-B Repeat Button
Other Terminals
● USB Port
Mini-B Type Connector
USB 1.1 or 2.0 High Speed
(Mass Storage Class)
● Control Sync Jack
Stereo Mini Type Jack
Word clock sync and start/stop
remote control of 2 units
* Remote control function does
not guarantee the exact same
REC start time.
● Built-In Effects
• 3-Band EQ
• 6-Band Graphic EQ
• Noise Gate
• Enhancer
• Comp & DeEsser
• MS Mic Mixing
* Effects can be during recording
and playback.
* Effects are not available while
sample rate is set to 192 kHz.
Others
● Display
128 x 64 organic EL
● Power Supply
AC adaptor (PSB-1U)
AA type battery x 4 (Alkaline or
NiMH only)
Battery life
Continuous
playback
Continuous
recording
approximately
4.0 hours
approximately
4.0 hours
* When using alkaline batteries,
44.1 kHz, 16-bit, stereo, with
phantom power off.
● Current Draw
1.2 A
● Dimension
157 mm (W) x 183 mm (D) x
61 mm (H)
6-3/16” (W) x 7-1/4” (D) x
2-7/16” (H)
● Weight
Weight : 1.3 kg
* Including battery and SD card.
Control Section
● Control
• Power Switch
• Hold Switch
• Input SENS Knobs
• Input LEVEL Knobs
SDHC Logo is a trademark.
Fugue ©2008 Kyoto Software Research, Inc. All rights reserved.
All product names mentioned in this document are trademarks or registered trademarks
of their respective owners.
Visit us online at www.EDIROL.com
Copyright © 2008 ROLAND CORPORATION
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any
form without the written permission of ROLAND CORPORATION.
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