Electrolux 500 Dishwasher User Manual

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Page i
OWNER’S MANUAL
& REFERENCE
NRST
OFF
SET
RTE
WPT
CRSR
MSG
CLR
ENT
NAV
BRT
GPS 155TSO
Pilot’s Guide
®
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Page ii
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Page i
INTRODUCTION
Foreword
This manual is written for software versions 3.06 or above, and is not suitable
for earlier software versions.
© 1995 GARMIN International
9875 Widmer Road, Lenexa, KS 66215, USA
All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording for any purpose without the express written permission of GARMIN Corporation.
GARMIN™, GPS 155TSO™, AutoLocate™,
MultiTrac8™, Spell’N’Find™ and AutoStore™
are trademarks of GARMIN International
and may only be used with permission.
All rights reserved.
Jeppesen™ and NavData® are registered
trademarks of Jeppesen Sandersen and are
used with permission.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice. GARMIN reserves the
right to change or improve their products and to make changes in the content without
obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes or improvements.
April 1995
190-00065-00 Rev. B
Printed in Taiwan.
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Page ii
INTRODUCTION
Cautions
CAUTION
The GPS system is operated by the United States government, which is solely
responsible for its accuracy and maintenance. The system is subject to changes which
could affect the accuracy and performance of all GPS equipment. Although the
GARMIN GPS 155 is a precision electronic NAVigation AID (NAVAID), any NAVAID
can be misused or misinterpreted, and therefore become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC
limits for Class B digital devices. This equipment generates,
uses and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not
installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may
cause harmful interference to radio communications.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not
occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does
cause harmful interference to other equipment, which can be
determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try and correct the interference by relocating
the equipment or connecting the equipment to a different circuit than the affected equipment. Consult an authorized
dealer or other qualified avionics service technician for additional help if these remedies do not correct the problem.
Operation is subject to the following conditions: (1) this
device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this
device must accept any interference received, including
interference that may cause undesired operation.
ii
The GARMIN GPS 155 does not contain any user-serviceable parts. Repairs should only be made by an authorized GARMIN service center. Unauthorized repairs or
modifications could void your warranty and your authority
to operate this device under Part 15 regulations.
Use the GPS 155 at your own risk. To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review and understand all aspects of this Owner’s Manual and Flight Manual
Supplement, and thoroughly practice using the simulator mode prior to actual use.
When in actual use, carefully compare indications from the GPS 155 to all available
navigation sources, including the information from other NAVAIDS, visual sightings,
charts, etc. For safety, always resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation.
The altitude calculated by the GPS 155 is geometric height above mean sea level
and could vary significantly from altitude displayed by pressure altimeters in aircraft.
NEVER use GPS altitude for vertical navigation.
The Jeppesen database incorporated in the GPS 155 must be updated regularly in
order to ensure that its information is current. Updates are released every 28 days.
Contact Jeppesen for more information on GPS 155 database updates.
Pilots using an out-of-date database do so entirely at their own risk.
CAUTION! The GARMIN GPS 155 has no user serviceable parts. Should you ever
encounter a problem with the unit, please take it to an authorized GARMIN dealer
for repairs.
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INTRODUCTION
Accessories & Packing List
Accessories and
Packing List
Congratulations on choosing the first GPS certified to meet the requirements of
TSO C-129 Category A1 for non-precision IFR approach procedures. The GPS 155
represents GARMIN’s commitment to provide an accurate, easy-to-use GPS for all of
your aviation needs.
Before installing and getting started with your unit, please check to see that your
package includes the following items. If any parts are missing or damaged, please see
your GARMIN dealer immediately.
Standard Package:
•
•
•
•
•
GPS 155 unit w/ Rechargeable Battery Pack and NavData® Card
Aviation Installation and Antenna Kit
Pilot’s Guide & Quick Reference Guide
Sample Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
Database Subscription Packet
Optional Accessories:
• AC Adapter
• User Data Card
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INTRODUCTION
Capabilities
Designed for accurate performance, and intuitive operation, the GPS 155 is a
powerful navigation device that allows you to navigate IFR en route and approach
procedures for added convenience and safety.
Precision Performance
• MultiTrac8™ receiver tracks and uses up to 8 satellites for fast, accurate
positioning and speed data, with continuous 1 second updates
• Jeppesen database lists airports, VORs, NDBs, FSSs, intersections, comm
frequencies, runway info, minimum safe altitude, SUA information and more
• Vacuum fluorescent display to provide easy viewing, even in direct sunlight
• Battery backup of up to 90 minutes for powering the GPS 155 in case of aircraft electrical power failure
Advanced Navigation
• Non-Precision approaches for over 5,000 U. S. airports
• Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs) and Standard Terminal Arrival Routes
(STARs)
• Full-featured fuel and trip planning and E6-B capabilities
• User checklists, schedulers and timers for keeping track of maintenance requirements, procedures and flight times
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Page v
PART ONE: INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Table of Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i
Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii
Accessories/Packing List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii
Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v-vi
Key and Knob Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii-viii
Flying Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-6
PART TWO: REFERENCE
Section 1: Navigation with the GPS 155 (N key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-22
Navigating and planning
Section 2: Database and Waypoints (W & T keys) . . . . . . . . . . . .23-47
Finding and using database and waypoint information
Section 3: Direct-to & Route Navigation (D & R keys) . . . . . . . .48-61
Activating direct-to navigation; creating & using routes
To quickly and easily locate information
on specific tasks, please refer to the Index
on page 117.
Section 4: Approaches, SIDs and STARs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62-82
Selecting and flying non-precision approaches, SIDs and STARs
Section 5: Unit Settings (S key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83-93
Configuring the GPS 155 your preferences
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INTRODUCTION
Page vi
Appendix A: NavData® Card Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94-95
Table of Contents
Appendix B: Installation & Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96-97
Appendix C: Abbreviations & Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98-107
Appendix D: Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Appendix E: Map Datums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109-110
Appendix F: Troubleshooting Q & A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111-116
Appendix G: Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117-120
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INTRODUCTION
Key and Knob Functions
B
The power/brightness knob controls unit power and screen brightness
D
The direct-to key performs an instant GOTO and allows you to enter a
waypoint and sets a direct course to the destination.
T
The nearest key is used to obtain information on the 9 nearest airports,
VORs, NDBs, intersections, user waypoints and 2 nearest FSSs. The nearest
key also accesses any active SUA information. (See Section 2 for more
information on the nearest waypoints.)
S
The set key allows you to customize the settings on your unit to your
preferences, and view GPS coverage and receiver status. (See Section 5 for
more information on unit settings.)
R
The route key enables you to create, edit, activate and invert routes, and
access approaches, SIDs and STARs. Search-and-rescue, parallel offset
and closest point of approach are also performed using the route key.
(See Section 3 for more information on routes.)
W
The waypoint key is used to view information such as runways, frequencies, position, and comments on airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections and
user waypoints. (See Section 2 for more information on the database and
waypoints.)
N
The nav key is used to view navigation and position information. Planning
operations are also performed using the N key. (See Section 1 for more
information on navigation and planning operations.)
Key & Knob Functions
The GPS 155 is designed to minimize keystrokes to perform operations. There are
typically several ways to perform the same
operation. In general, using the knobs will
decrease keystrokes and time spent using the
GPS 155. Experiment to find the most
effective way to use the GPS 155 to
your advantage.
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INTRODUCTION
Key & Knob Functions
Scrolling Arrow Prompts
Whenever the GPS 155 is displaying a list of
information that is too long for the display screen,
the scrolling arrow prompt will indicate which
direction to scroll to view additional listings.
To scroll through a list with the flashing cursor
inactive, simply rotate the inner knob. If the
scrolling cursor is active, use the outer knob to
view additional information.
C
The cursor key is used to activate/deactivate the cursor. The cursor is indicated by flashing characters on the screen and is used for data entry, changing fields or cycling through available information.
\
The clear key is used to erase information or cancel an entry.
M
The message key is used to view receiver messages and to alert you to
important warnings and requirements.
E
The enter key is used to approve an operation or complete data entry. It is
also used to confirm information, such as during power on.
O
The outer knob is used to advance through pages, advance the cursor or
move through data fields.
K
The inner knob is used to change data or scroll through information that
cannot fit on the screen all at once.
This manual will describe how to enter data using the concentric knobs; K for
the inner knob and O for the outer knob. Experiment with the concentric knobs.
This will greatly reduce the amount of time required to navigate with the GPS 155.
GARMIN is fully committed to your satisfaction as a customer. If you have any
questions regarding the GPS 155, please contact our customer service department at:
GARMIN International, Inc.
9875 Widmer Rd.
Lenexa, KS 66215-1239
(913) 599-1515 (913) 599-2103 (FAX)
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Page 1
The GARMIN GPS 155 is a powerful navigational tool that provides pilots with
accurate navigational information and non-precision approaches, SIDs and STARs.
The Flying Start section is designed to get you familiar with the operation of the GPS
155. This will include powering up the unit and acquiring satellites, entering data
and activating a simple direct-to. This section also briefly covers the Position and CDI
navigation pages, which you’ll use for most of your in-flight navigation.
INTRODUCTION
Flying Start
The Flying Start assumes that the GPS and antenna have been correctly installed
and that you have not changed any of the factory default settings for the unit. If you
have changed any settings (position formats, units of measure, etc.), the descriptions
and pictures used may not match your configuration. Prior to using your GPS 155 for
the first time, we recommend that you taxi to location that is well away from buildings
and other aircraft so the unit can collect satellite data without interruption.
Powering up the GPS 155 for first time use
The GPS 155’s power and screen brightness are controlled using the B knob at
the bottom left of the unit. Rotating it clockwise will turn the unit on and progressively brighten the display. This knob also locks the NavData® card (included with
your unit) in place, so that it may not be removed during operation. After turning the
unit on, a welcome page will be displayed while the unit performs a self test.
The Database page will appear, showing the current database information on the
NavData® card, with the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type
indicated. Databases are updated every 28 days, and must be current for approved
approach and IFR operations. Information on database subscriptions is available
inside your GPS 155 package.
Welcome Page.
Database Confirmation Page.
To acknowledge the database information:
1. Press the E key.
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Page 2
INTRODUCTION
Flying Start
Once the database has been acknowledged, the Satellite Status page will appear,
and the GPS 155 will begin to collect satellite information. An ‘Acquiring’ status will
be displayed on the Satellite Status page, and the signal values on the bottom line of
the page will begin displaying numeric values. This is a good indication that you are
receiving signals, and satellite lock will occur. Following the first time use of your
GPS 155, the time required for a position fix will vary, usually from 2 to 5 minutes.
If the unit can only obtain enough satellites for 2D navigation (no altitude), the
unit will use the altitude provided by your altitude encoder, if one is connected and
working. If not, you will be prompted to enter the altitude with a ‘Need alt- Press
NAV’ message. If this message occurs, press the N key and use the K and O
knobs to enter the altitude shown on your altimeter. Press E when finished.
Acquiring satellite data.
If the GPS 155 has not been operated for a period of six months, or has moved
over 300 miles without actively tracking satellites, it may have to ‘Search the Sky’ to
collect new data. This means the unit is acquiring satellite data to establish almanac
and satellite orbit information, which can take 7 1/2 to 30 minutes. The Status page
will display a ‘Searching the Sky’ status, and the message annunciator (U), next to the
M key, will also flash to alert you of a system message.
Enter the altitude manually if necessary.
To view a system message:
1. Press M.
The message page will appear and display the status or warning information
applicable to the receiver’s current operating condition.
Searching the Sky Message.
To return to the previous page after viewing a message:
1. Press M.
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Page 3
INTRODUCTION
After the GPS 155 acquires satellites and computes a position, the Position page
will appear automatically, and you’ll be informed with a ‘Ready for navigation’ message on the message page.
Flying Start
Altitude
Field
Reference Waypoint Field
Position Field
The Position page displays your present latitude and longitude, altitude and a
reference waypoint field, and is also used to enter barometric pressure during
approach operations. The altitude and reference waypoint fields are also selectable
(see Section 1 for more information) to allow you to configure the unit to your own
preferences. The default settings are:
• Altitude— Your present GPS altitude
• Present Position— Latitude and longitude displayed in degrees/minutes
• Reference Waypoint— The bearing and distance to the nearest airport
The Position page is one of four pages available under the GPS 155’s NAV key:
The Position page, CDI page, NAV Menu 1 and NAV Menu 2. During most flights, the
Position page and the CDI (course deviation indicator) page will be the primary pages
used for navigation. The pages available under each key are accessible by pressing the
desired key and rotating the outer knob, or by pressing the NAV key repeatedly.
CDI page.
NAV Menu 1.
NAV Menu 2.
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INTRODUCTION
Flying Start
The GPS 155 uses direct point-to-point navigation to guide you from takeoff to
touchdown in the IFR environment. Once a destination is selected, the unit will provide speed, course and distance data based upon a direct course from your present
position to your destination. A destination can be selected from any page with the
DIRECT-TO (D) key.
To select a direct-to destination:
1. Press the D key. The CDI page will appear with the destination field flashing.
2. Rotate the K knob to enter the first letter of the destination waypoint identifier. The destination waypoint may be an airport, VOR, NDB, intersection or user waypoint, as long as it
is in the database or stored in memory as a user waypoint.
3. Rotate the O knob to the right to move the cursor to the next character position.
Entering a direct-to destination.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 to spell out the rest of the waypoint identifier.
5. Press E to confirm the identifier. The waypoint confirmation page will appear.
6. Press E to confirm the destination.
A direct-to may also be performed from any
page that displays a single waypoint identifier
(the nearest airport page in this example) by
simply pressing the D key, followed by ENTER.
4
Once the direct-to destination is confirmed, the CDI page will appear with the
destination indicated in the lower left hand corner of the screen. As well as displaying
the current destination waypoint, the CDI page displays your present speed and track
over the ground, and the distance and estimated time enroute to your destination. The
graphical CDI, located at the top left of the screen, displays your position relative to
the desired course and provides turn anticipation and waypoint messages during route
and approach navigation.
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In addition to the destination field and graphical CDI, the GPS 155 CDI page features four selectable fields for various navigation data so the page may be configured
to your own preferences. The default settings for the CDI page are:
INTRODUCTION
Flying Start
• Ground Speed (gs)— Your present speed over the ground in knots
• Distance (dis)— The distance to your destination in nautical miles
• Track (trk)— Your present course over the ground
• Estimated Time Enroute (ete)— The time to your destination based
upon your present speed and course in hours and minutes
Once a direct-to is activated, the CDI page will provide navigation to the destination until the direct-to is cancelled or another direct-to destination is activated.
To cancel a direct-to from the CDI page:
1. Press the C key to activate the destination field.
CDI page with an active destination.
2. Press \.
3. Press E.
The GPS 155’s NRST key provides the nine nearest airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections and user waypoints, as well as the two closest FSSs (Flight Service Stations)
and any SUA (special use airspace) alerts for your present position. The nearest waypoint feature is a handy safety feature that may be used to execute a quick direct-to in
case of an in-flight emergency or to review the closest facilities to your present position.
Nearest Airport Page.
To view the nine nearest airports:
1. Press the T key. The nearest airport will be displayed, with position, frequency and
runway data.
2. To review the rest of the nearest airport list, rotate the K knob to the right.
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INTRODUCTION
Flying Start
To view the nine nearest list for other waypoint categories (VOR, NDB, etc.):
1. Rotate the O knob to the right, or press the T key repeatedly.
2. Rotate K to scroll through the list.
Once the nearest airport (or any other nearest waypoint) page is displayed, the
selected waypoint can be quickly reviewed or selected as a direct-to destination.
To review the selected waypoint from the nearest waypoint list:
1. Press C to activate the waypoint field.
2. Press E to display the waypoint identification page.
3. Rotate O to view any additional waypoint information available.
The Nearest VOR Page.
4. Press T to return to the nearest waypoint page.
To select a nearest waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1. Press the D key. The waypoint position page for the selected waypoint will appear.
2. Press E to confirm the destination.
To review a nearest waypoint, simply highlight the
identifier and press ENTER.
The GPS 155 will operate on an internal battery
if external power is lost.
6
The GPS 155 is normally connected to power through the avionics master switch.
When the master switch is turned off while the unit is operating, the GPS 155 will
display a power down warning page. The power down page features a timer which
will count down from 30 seconds when the unit senses that power is off. After 30
seconds, the GPS 155 will shut off. If you want to continue navigation, press any key
during the countdown, and the unit will continue using the internal backup battery.
To turn the GPS 155 off:
1. Turn the B knob to the left until the unit shuts off.
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NAV KEY
Section 1
Navigation Key
Overview
The GPS 155 features four navigation pages to provide various position, course,
speed and planning information. The navigation pages may viewed by pressing the
NAV key and rotating the outer knob, or pressing the N key repeatedly.
CDI Page
NAV Menu 1
Position Page
NAV Menu 2
The CDI and Position pages are the primary pages used during in-flight navigation, while the two nav menu pages offer access to planning and calculation functions. Note that rotating the outer knob clockwise will continuously cycle through
all the nav pages, while turning the knob counterclockwise stops the page selection
sequence at the CDI page.
Whenever the NAV key pages are in use, the indicator light (U) next to the NAV
key will illuminate. If the GPS 155 requires you to enter data on the Position page,
the message indicator will flash and a message prompt with specific instructions will
appear. If you leave the NAV page sequence for another set of pages, the last NAV
page displayed will appear when you return to the nav sequence.
Remember! The NAV pages will only display information
AFTER the position and navigational information has been
calculated from the satellites. If you are on the Position
page before the unit has calculated a position, you will be
able to enter an approximate position and altitude. This is
helpful in speeding satellite acquisition if the unit has
moved a great distance with the power off.
If you are not sure whether the GPS is actively calculating
a position, check the receiver status field for ‘2D NAV’ or
‘3D NAV’ by pressing the SET key and rotating the outer
knob to the left. The current receiver status is displayed at
the top left of the page.
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NAV KEY
CDI Page
The GPS 155’s CDI page provides you with the important information needed to
navigate directly to your destination. The destination field, located at the bottom left
of the page, displays the current destination waypoint or active route leg being navigated. If no direct-to destination, route or approach is being navigated, the destination field will display a dashed leg (____È_____).
CDI/Messages Field
Track/Turn
Field
Distance/
Steer Field
The CDI page with desired track and estimated
time enroute displayed.
If the GPS 155 is not currently navigating to a
waypoint, ‘No actv wpt’ will be displayed in the
CDI field.
8
Ground Speed/Steer Field
Active Route Leg or Direct-
ETE Field Displaying Track
The graphical CDI at the top left of the page shows your position relative to the
desired course (the moving D-bar) to the destination waypoint. The TO/FROM
arrow in the center of the scale indicates whether you are heading to (an up arrow)
the waypoint or from the waypoint (a down arrow). Note that the GPS 155 always
navigates TO a waypoint unless the GPS SEQ switch is set to the HOLD position or
you have passed the last waypoint in a route. The default setting of the CDI scale is
5.0 nm. The CDI field is also used to display the GPS 155’s turn anticipation and
waypoint alert data during route and approach operations (See sections 3 and 4). In
addition to displaying your active destination and the course deviation indicator, the
CDI page features four selectable fields for various distance, direction and time
options. This allows you to configure the CDI page to your preferences. The default
settings displayed are ground speed, distance, track and estimated time enroute.
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Page 9
The following functions may be displayed in the ground speed field:
• gs -- Your present speed over the ground.
• str --Steer direction and distance, or digital crosstrack error. An ‘L’ or ‘R’
indicates which direction to steer, while the distance value indicates how far you are off course.
NAV KEY
CDI Page
The following functions may be displayed in the distance field:
• dis -- Distance from present position to the ‘active to’ waypoint.
• str -- Steer direction and distance, or digital crosstrack error. An ‘L’ or ‘R’
indicates which direction to steer to return to your original course,
while the distance value indicates how far you are off course.
The following steering functions may be displayed in the track field:
•
•
•
•
•
trk -- Track, the direction of movement relative to the ground.
brg -- Bearing, the direction from your present position to the waypoint.
cts -- Course to steer to reduce cross track error and stay on course.
dtk -- Desired track, the course between the active from and to waypoints.
trn -- Turn, the direction and degrees to turn to get back on the most
direct course to the destination waypoint.
The following information can be displayed in the ete field:
•
•
•
•
eta -- Estimated Time of Arrival (at the active to waypoint)
ete -- Estimated Time Enroute (to the active to waypoint)
trk -- Track, or the direction of movement relative to the ground
vn -- Vertical Navigation, or VNAV. If VNAV has been activated
(See page 16-17), this field indicates either the elapsed time before
the VNAV maneuver is to begin or the VNAV altitude (the suggested
altitude you should be flying in order to complete the maneuver).
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Page 11
The GPS 155 position page displays your present latitude and longitude, altitude
and a reference waypoint field; and is also used to enter barometric pressure during
approach operations. The altitude and reference waypoint fields are selectable to configure the page to your own preferences and current navigation needs.
NAV KEY
Position Page
Barometric Pressure
(during approach navigation)
Altitude, MSA or ESA (selectable)
Position
Waypoint Reference Field
(selectable)
The altitude field can display either the present altitude, minimum safe altitude
(MSA) or the enroute safe altitude (ESA). MSA is the recommended minimum altitude
within approximately ten miles of your present position. ESA is the recommended
minimum altitude within ten miles of your course on an active route or direct-to.
MSA and ESA altitudes are calculated from information contained in the database and
generally includes mountains, buildings and other permanent features (see right).
To change the altitude field to display other information:
1. Press C to obtain a flashing cursor.
Position page displaying MSA.
The same Position page displaying ESA. If you are on a
route from New York City to Los Angeles, the MSA would
be 2700 ft. at KJFK to account for objects in the area.
However, the ESA would be 16,700 feet to account for the
course flying through the Rocky Mountains.
2. Use K to change the field to display the desired data.
3. Press C to return to normal navigation.
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Page 12
NAV KEY
Position Page/Reference Wpt
The Position page also features a reference waypoint field, located at the bottom
of the page, to indicate your radial and distance from a selected waypoint. The reference waypoint field can display the following:
• Range, radial and identifier of the nearest airport, VOR, NDB,
intersection or user waypoint
• Range, radial and identifier from a user specified waypoint
The default setting is to display the nearest airport. During DME arc approach operations, the reference waypoint field will automatically display the DME reference as long as
the active to waypoint is part of the DME arc.
To change the reference waypoint field to display the nearest airport, VOR, NDB,
intersection, user waypoint or the range and radial from a user selected waypoint:
Position page displaying KFOE airport as the
reference waypoint.
1. Press C to obtain a cursor.
2. Rotate O to highlight the proximity field after the fr.
3. Use K to choose which waypoint type you would like displayed. (Choose ‘wpt’ if you
would like a specific waypoint range and bearing to be displayed.)
4. Press C to remove the cursor, or:
Position page displaying the TOP VOR as the
reference waypoint. This configuration is used to
monitor your distance and radial to the reference
waypoint during DME ARC approaches.
See Section 4 for more information on approach
operation.
If you have selected ‘wpt’:
5. Rotate O to advance the cursor to highlight the identifier field.
6. Use the K and O knobs to enter the identifier name. (This waypoint identifier can be
an airport, VOR, NDB, intersection or user waypoint.) Press E.
7. Press C to confirm the selection.
12
This allows any waypoint’s distance and radial to be listed on the Position page
continuously. This is especially useful when trying to locate your position on a
sectional or when an approach reference is not the closest navaid.
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The GPS 155 features two nav menu pages for a host of valuable planning and
calculating functions. NAV Menu 1 provides access to the following functions:
• Trip Planning
• Fuel Planning
• VNAV Planning
NAV KEY
NAV Menu 1/Trip Planning
• Density altitude/true air speed calc.
• Winds aloft calculations
• Checklist
Trip Plan is the first function listed on NAV Menu 1 and allows you to view
information regarding distance, ESA, bearing and estimated time enroute between any
two waypoints and programmed route legs. The ground speed can also be varied
manually to calculate several possible ETEs.
To use the trip planning function:
1. Press N and rotate O to display NAV Menu 1.
2. Press C, then E to access trip planning.
NAV Menu 1.
3. Rotate K to select waypoint mode or the desired route number and press E.
4. For direct-to navigation, use K and O enter the ‘to’ and ‘from’ waypoints. Press E
to accept the waypoints (to use your present position as a waypoint, leave the
corresponding waypoint field blank).
5. For route calculations, choose either ‘cum’ for cumulative data (from beginning to end) or
the leg desired by rotating K .
Using the trip planning function.
6. Use K and O to enter the ground speed. Press E to calculate the values.
7. Press C to complete.
The trip direction, distance, ESA and ETE will be displayed on the bottom two lines
of the planning page.
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NAV KEY
NAV Menu 1/Density Altitude
The density altitude/true air speed function is also accessed from NAV Menu 1.
Density altitude is the altitude at which your aircraft will perform depending on several
environmental conditions including air pressure and total air temperature (the temperature including the effect of speed), read on a standard outside temperature gauge on
most aircraft). True air speed considers the same factors.
To calculate the density altitude and true air speed:
1. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘Dalt/tas?’.
2. Press E to access the density altitude page.
3. Using K and O, enter the indicated altitude (ialt) according to the aircraft instruments.
Press E.
4. Use K and O to enter the calibrated air speed (cas) according to the aircraft instruments.
Entering an indicated altitude.
Press E.
5. Use K and O to enter the barometric pressure (pres) obtained from ATC.
Press E.
6. Use K and O to enter the total air temperature (tat) according to aircraft instruments.
Density altitude & true air speed calculated.
7. Press E and the density altitude and true air speed will be calculated and displayed.
8. Press C to remove the cursor.
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The fuel planning page will display fuel requirements for both direct-to navigation and programmed routes. The planning function requires the pilot to know the
initial amount of fuel on board and the flow rate. You may also enter different ground
speeds to view various information based on different travel times, etc. If your installation has interfaced a fuel flow sensor to the GPS 155, the flow rate and other information will be used from the sensor, and do not need to be entered manually.
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To perform fuel planning operations:
1. Press C and use O to highlight ‘Fuel Plan?’. Press E.
NAV KEY
NAV Menu 1/Fuel Planning
2. Use K to select either ‘wpt’ for direct navigation or the route number you would like to use.
3. For direct-to navigation, use K and O enter the ‘to’ and ‘from’ waypoints. Press E
to accept the waypoints (to use your present position as a waypoint, leave the
corresponding waypoint field blank).
4. For route calculations, choose either ‘cum’ for cumulative route fuel requirements
(from beginning to end) or the leg desired by rotating K .
If leg is selected, it displays the amount of fuel required to fly until that leg is complete.
For example: The fuel required to complete leg 2 is leg 1 + leg 2.
Fuel required to complete leg 4 is leg 1 + leg 2 + leg 3 + leg 4.
Enter initial fuel on board before takeoff.
5. Rotate O to advance the cursor to ‘fob:’ or ‘gs:’ (depending on which is displayed).
6. Use K and O to enter the fuel on board or the ground speed. Press E.
7. Rotate O back two positions to highlight the ‘fob:’ or ‘gs:’ field again.
9. Rotate K to display the other information. Press E.
10. Use K and O to enter the remaining data. Press E.
Fuel planning with endurance and leftover fuel on
board displayed.
11. Use K and O to enter the flow rate, in units per hour, if needed. Press E.
The GPS 155 will calculate the range (distance) and endurance (how long the fuel
will last) of your aircraft. These are found in the first field on the bottom row of the
page. The fuel left on board (lfob) and reserve after the selected direct-to, leg or route
will also be displayed in the second field on the bottom row.
Fuel planning with range and reserve displayed.
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NAV KEY
NAV Menu 1/Winds Aloft/VNAV
The GPS 155 will also perform winds aloft calculations to inform you of the direction
(true) and speed of the wind. This will also inform you whether you are
flying with a headwind or tailwind, and its speed.
To calculate winds aloft:
1. Press C and use O to highlight ‘Winds?’. Press E.
2. Use K and O to enter your present heading in the ‘hdg:’ field. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter your true air speed (TAS) in the ‘tas:’ field. If you have
calculated it using the GPS 155, it will be displayed as the default. Press E.
The direction, speed and magnitude of the winds aloft will now be displayed. If the GPS
155 is interfaced to a compatible Air/Data Sensor, these values will be calculated automatically.
Calculating winds aloft.
The VNAV function calculates vertical speed requirements to obtain a desired altitude
before or after a certain distance to a waypoint. This is helpful when you would like to
descend to a certain altitude near an airport, or climb to a certain altitude before reaching a
certain waypoint or NAVAID.
To calculate vertical navigation parameters:
Entering initial and final altitude.
1. Press C and use O to highlight ‘Vnav Plan?’. Press E.
2. Use K and O to enter the initial (from) altitude (your present GPS altitude will appear as the
default altitude). Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the desired final (to) altitude. Press E.
The recommended VNAV descent will be
displayed in the ‘at’ field.
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4. Use K and O to enter the distance from the waypoint. Press E.
5. Rotate K to select ‘before ’or ‘after’ the waypoint. Press E.
6. Use K and O to enter the waypoint identifier from the active route. If you are on a route, or a
direct-to, the active ‘to’ identifier will be displayed as default. Press E.
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You will now notice that the vertical speed field has been calculated. If you desire
a faster climb or descent, you may enter that value now.
NAV KEY
NAV Menu 1/Checklists
7. Use K and O to enter the new desired vertical speed, or press E to accept the
calculated value.
If you enter a greater value, the GPS 155 will display the elapsed time before the
maneuver is to begin. When the countdown reaches 15 seconds, you will be
informed with the message ‘Start altitude chng’. The VNAV function will automatically be cancelled if the active route is changed in any way. In this case, you will be
informed with a ‘VNAV cancelled’ message.
The GPS 155 will allow you to create up to nine checklists with 30 items each to
remind you of repetitive tasks that can be called up at any time for review. The checklist feature is useful for creating pre-flight checklists, landing checklists, emergency
procedures, etc. Each name or function can have up to 16 characters.
VNAV displayed on the CDI page.
To create or edit a checklist:
1. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘Chklist?’. Press E.
2. Use O to highlight the checklist number you would like to create or edit.
If there are no checklists, you must select the first checklist field. Press E.
The scrolling cursor prompt indicates the direction
to scroll to view additional checklists.
3. Use K and O to enter the title of the checklist. Press E.
The checklist page will appear, where you may now enter each individual item,
such as ‘Check Fuel’, etc.
4. Use K and O to enter the checklist item. Press E.
Entering Pre-Taxi checklist items.
5. You may repeat step 4 to enter additional items, or press C to finish.
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NAV KEY
To execute a checklist:
NAV Menu 2/Approach Timer
1. Press C and highlight ‘Chklist?’. Press E.
2. Rotate O to highlight the checklist you would like to see and press E.
3. Use O to view checklist items, and press E to check off a highlighted item.
To delete a checklist item or an entire checklist:
1. To delete a checklist item, highlight the desired item and press \, followed by E.
2. To delete an entire checklist, highlight the desired list and press \, followed by E.
To execute a checklist, highlight the desired item
and press ENTER.
The GPS 155’s NAV Menu 2 provides access to various timer and planning functions, including:
• Approach timer
• Clock (Date and time)
• Trip timer
• RAIM prediction
• Scheduler
• Sunrise and sunset calculations
The approach timer serves as either a count up or a count down timer that can
be set or reset at any time.
To activate/change/view the approach timer:
NAV Menu 2.
1. Press N and rotate O to display NAV Menu 2.
2. Press C, followed by E.
3. Rotate K to select either ‘Count up’ or ‘Count down’. Press E to accept.
Approach Timer.
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4. Use K and O to set the time to count from, if you are using count down, or the time to
begin counting, if you are using count up. Press E.
5. Rotate O to select desired function, ‘Start?’, ‘Stop?’, or ‘Reset?’. Press E to execute.
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When the count down timer reaches zero, you will be informed with a ‘Timer
expired’ message. The timer will then begin to count up, keeping track of how long it
has been since it expired. The count up timer will not display a message. The timers
run, if not altered, any time the GPS 155 is on.
NAV KEY
NAV Menu 1/Timer & Clock
The GPS 155 clock function keeps track of both UTC time (Greenwich Mean
Time, or Zulu Time calculated from the satellites) and local time, and allows you to
designate which time format is used for ETA calculations. The local time and date can
be set without doing a UTC to local time conversion manually.
To set the local date/time:
1. Press C and use O to highlight ‘Clock?’. Press E.
2. Use K to select either UTC or local time to be displayed in the ETA fields. Press E.
Timer expired message.
3. Use K and O to set the local date. Press E.
4. Use K and O to set the local time. Press E.
5. Press C to complete.
The GPS 155’s trip timer keeps track of the duration of your current trip, and can
help you maintain accurate records and logs. The timer will count whenever the GPS
155 is on, or when your ground speed exceeds a specified setting (see page 90).
Entering a local time.
To view or reset the trip timer:
1. Press C and use O to highlight ‘Trip Time?’. Press E. The current time of day,
departure time and time enroute will be displayed.
2. To reset the timer, press E. To skip resetting the timer, press C.
Resetting the trip timer.
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NAV KEY
NAV Menu 2/RAIM Prediction
The RAIM Prediction function allows you to confirm that GPS coverage is available for a specific location or waypoint, any day of the year. Receiver Autonomous
Integrity Monitoring performs checks to ensure that the GPS 155 will have adequate
satellite geometry to work with during your flight. RAIM availability will be near
100% in Oceanic, En route, and Terminal phases of flight. Because the FAA’s TSO
requirements for non-precision approaches specify significantly better satellite coverage than other flight phases, RAIM may not to be available when flying some
approaches. The GPS 155 will automatically monitor RAIM during approach operations and warn you if RAIM is not available. RAIM prediction will help you plan for a
pending flight to confirm that the GPS 155 can be used for an approach, and should
be calculated the night before or the day of the desired flight.
To predict RAIM availability:
Enter the time and date for RAIM prediction.
1. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘RAIM Prd?’. Press E. The cursor highlight will
appear on the ‘Compute RAIM?’ prompt, ready to compute RAIM for your present position
and time. To compute RAIM, press E. If you want to see if RAIM is available at another date or time, or at any waypoint in the database, perform steps 2 through 6.
2. Rotate O to highlight the field which you would like to change.
Confirm the selected waypoint.
3. Use K and O to enter the waypoint name, or leave it blank to use your current position. Press E to accept. or:
4. Use K and O to enter the day/month/year and the estimated time of arrival in hours
and minutes (in local or UTC time, whichever you have selected from the clock display).
The current date will be displayed automatically. Press E to accept.
RAIM available for the entered date & time.
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5. Rotate O to highlight ‘Compute RAIM?’ and press E.
When the computations are complete, the GPS 155 will display whether or not
RAIM is available for the specified date and time, +/- 15 minutes of your ETA.
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The scheduler function can be used to display reminder messages after a selected
elapsed time such as Change Oil, Switch fuel tanks, etc. The scheduled message will be
displayed after the timer runs out, and each time the GPS 155 is powered up, until the
time is changed or the message is deleted.
NAV KEY
NAV MENU 2/Scheduler
To enter a scheduled message:
1. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘Scheduler?’. Press E.
2. Rotate O to highlight the message you would like to edit (if none exist, you must edit
message 1).
3. Use K and O to enter the message. Press E.
4. Use K and O to set the elapsed time until the message is displayed, in hours and
minutes, up to 99 hours and 59 minutes. (This time is cumulative and counts whenever the
GPS 155 is on in Normal mode.)
Entering a scheduled message.
5. Press E to accept. To edit another scheduled message, repeat steps 4, 5 and 6, or
press C to finish.
To delete a scheduled message:
1. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘Scheduler?’. Press E.
The scrolling arrow prompt indicates which direction to scroll to view additional listings.
2. Rotate O to highlight the message you would like to delete.
3. Press \, followed by E.
The scheduled message will appear after the timer
expires and after the GPS 155 is powered up until
it is changed.
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NAV KEY
NAV Menu 2/Sunset Planning
Sunrise/Sunset Page
The last function available from the GPS 155’s NAV Menu 2 is the sunrise/sunset
calculation, which will give you the sunrise and sunset times for any user or database waypoint, or your present position.
To calculate sunrise and sunset at a waypoint or your present position:
1. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘Sunrise?’. Press E.
Sunrise and sunset calculated for the selected
waypoint on the specified date.
2. Use K and O to enter the waypoint identifier, or leave blank to use your current
position. Press E.
3. Press E to accept the waypoint confirmation page, if necessary.
4. Use K and O to enter the desired date.
5. Press E and the sunrise and sunset times will be calculated and displayed. The times
will be displayed in your local time or UTC time, whichever is specified from the clock
function on NAV Menu 2.
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Section 2
Waypoint and Database Information
WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Overview
The GPS 155 uses a Jeppesen NavData® card to provide position and facility
information for thousands of airports, VORs, NDBs and intersections. Each facility in
the database is stored as a waypoint, with its own latitude/longitude, identifier (up to
five letters and/or numbers) and other pertinent information. Up to 1,000 user waypoints may also be created and stored in the GPS 155’s internal memory.
Waypoint Menu Page
Proximity Waypoints Page
Waypoint Comments List
User Waypoint List
Waypoint information is available through four primary waypoint pages accessible
from the GPS 155’s WPT key. The waypoint pages may be scrolled through by pressing the WPT key and rotating the outer knob until the desired page is displayed, or
by pressing the WPT key repeatedly.
Please note that your GPS 155 uses ICAO identifiers for
all airport names. All continental U.S. airport identifiers
which contain only letters use the prefix ‘K’. For example,
Los Angeles International is KLAX under the ICAO standard. Other airports, such as Otten Memorial (3VS), that
contain numbers in the identifier, do not require the ‘K’
prefix. Many foreign countries use 2 letter prefixes. For
more information on ICAO identifiers, contact:
Document Sales Unit
International Civil Aviation Organization
1000 Sherbrooke, Suite 400
Montreal, Quebec
Canada H3A 2R2
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Waypoint Categories
The GPS 155 organizes waypoints into one of five waypoint categories for your
convenience. Each waypoint category provides different types of detailed information
for a selected facility:
• Airports - Identifier, city/state, country, facility name, position (lat/lon),
elevation, fuel services, control and approach information, IFR procedures, runways and communications frequencies.
• VORs - Identifier, city/state, country, facility name, position (lat/lon),
frequency, magnetic variation, co-located DME or TACAN and weather
broadcast indication.
Waypoint Menu Page.
• NDBs - Identifier, city/state, country, facility name, position (lat/lon),
frequency and weather broadcast indication.
• Intersections - Identifier, country, position (lat/lon), nearest VOR.
• User - Identifier (name), position (lat/lon), reference waypoint.
Airport Position Page.
To view the waypoint information for a desired waypoint, select the waypoint
category from the waypoint menu page.
To choose a waypoint category (for viewing information):
1. Press W and rotate O to display the waypoint menu page.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint category.
VOR Position Page.
24
3. Press E to accept the waypoint category. The waypoint identification or position page
for the selected category will appear, with the waypoint identifier field ready for entry.
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After a waypoint category is selected, information for a waypoint may be viewed
by entering the identifier or name of the desired waypoint. Airports, VORs and NDBs
may be entered by either the identifier, name or the location (city) of the facility.
Intersections and user waypoints must be entered by the identifier.
WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Entering Waypoints
To enter a waypoint identifier:
1. With the flashing cursor over the waypoint field, use K and O to enter the
waypoint identifier.
As the identifier is entered, the GPS 155’s Spell’N’Find feature will scroll through
the available database, displaying any waypoints with the same identifier letters you
have entered to that point. When the desired waypoint is displayed, press C to
remove the cursor.
To obtain waypoint information by entering the facility name of the
airport, the name of the VOR or NDB or its location:
1. Press W and rotate O to display the waypoint menu page.
Entering a waypoint by facility name.
2. Rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint category.
3. Press E to accept waypoint category.
4. Rotate O to highlight the middle field to enter location (city) OR:
Rotate O to highlight the bottom field to enter facility name, or VOR/NDB name.
5. Use K and O to enter the location or the name and press C to finish.
As the information is entered, the GPS 155 will display any entries in its database
which match the letters you have entered so far. If duplicate entries exist for the
entered identifier, name or location, additional entries may be viewed by rotating K
until the desired waypoint is displayed. As soon as the desired waypoint is displayed,
press C to continue.
Entering a waypoint by city. NOTE: Punctuation
marks are not used when entering locations or
names. Use spaces, where appropriate, to identify
these marks. For example, St. Louis would be
entered as “ST LOUIS” without a period.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Airport Information
Page 26
Once a waypoint category and identifier have been selected, the GPS 155 will
provide extensive information through a set of waypoint pages for the selected category. We’ll now go through the pages available for each waypoint category in the
order they appear on the waypoint menu page: airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections
and user waypoints.
Airport Information
Airport Identification Page
Airport Comments Page
Airport Position Page
Airport Runway Page
Airport Procedures Page
Airport Communication Page
To scroll through the airport pages:
1. Make sure the cursor is not flashing. If it is, press C.
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2. Rotate O in either direction to scroll through the available pages.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
The GPS 155 features six airport pages:
airport identification— allows entry of desired airport by identifier,
facility name or city; displays region and/or country of facility.
Airport Pages
airport position— allows entry of desired airport by identifier; displays
latitude, longitude and elevation; usage or fuel availability, available
approaches and airport control/radar capability.
airport procedures— allows entry of desired airport by identifier; displays all available approaches, SIDs and STARs at the selected facility.
airport communication— allows entry of desired airport by identifier;
displays radio frequencies/usage, and sector and altitude restrictions.
airport runway— allows entry of desired airport by identifier; displays
runway designations, length, surface and lighting information; ILS/localizer
and/or pilot controlled lighting frequencies.
Airport Position Page.
airport comments— allows entry of desired airport by identifier; displays
user comments for the selected airport.
Identifier
Region/Country
Airport Communication Page.
City/State
Facility Name
The airport identification page displays a selected airport’s identifier, region and
country, city/state and facility name. The identification page is always the first airport
page available, allowing you to quickly review an airport facility or select another
facility by entering the identifier, facility name or city of the desired airport.
Airport Runway Page.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
The airport position page displays the latitude, longitude and elevation of the
selected airport, as well as usage or fuel availability, available approaches and airport
control/radar capability. The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the
airport position page:
Airport Position Page
1
2
Elevation— In feet or meters.
Usage/Fuel— If the airport is for military use, it will display ‘military’.
If it is private, the GPS 155 will display ‘private’. If it is a
public airport, it will display the fuel type(s) available:
• av gas— 80-87 octane, 100 LL, 100-130 octane or
mogas is available
• jet—
Jet A, Jet A-1 or Jet A+ fuel is available
• av/jet— Both av gas and jet fuel are available
3
Position— In degrees/minutes or degrees/minutes/seconds of latitude
and longitude.
4
5
6
Airport Position Page
1. Identifier (selectable)
2. Elevation
3. Fuel Availability
4. Airport Position
5. Approach Information
6. Controlled Airspace/Radar Capability
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Approach Information - displays the airport approaches available
• no apr— No approach is available
• np-apr— Non-precision approach is available
• loc—
Localizer approach is available
• ils—
ILS approach is available
Controlled Airspace Information— displays controlled airspace type
• class B
• cta
• class C
• tma
Radar— displays approach/departure radar capability
• radar— indicates radar is present
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The airport procedures page displays all the available approaches, SIDs and STARs at
any selected airport in the database, without placing a specific approach, SID or STAR in
the active route. This allows the pilot to quickly scan the procedures of any nearby airport
in case of an emergency or help plan future flights. You may view the available non-precision approaches, SIDs or STARs by selecting the desired list from the procedure type field.
Identifier
(selectable)
WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Airport Procedures Page
Procedure Type (selectable)
Availabile Procedures
Scrolling Arrow Prompt
To view the available procedures for a selected airport:
SIDs Procedures Page.
1. Press W and rotate O to display the procedures page.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight the procedure field.
3. Rotate K to select the approach, SID or STAR list.
4. Press C to remove the flashing cursor.
STARs Procedures Page.
Whenever there are more than two available procedures for a selected category, the
GPS 155 will display a scrolling arrow prompt on the left side of the list. To view additional procedures, simply rotate K with the cursor removed. As you scroll through the list,
the arrow prompt will point ‘down’ to indicate additional listings below the displayed procedures, or ‘up’ to indicate additional listings above. If you’re in the middle of a list, a double arrow will be displayed to indicate the list may be scrolled up or down.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Airport Communication Page
The airport communication page displays the radio frequencies and usage for
the selected airport, as well as sector and altitude restrictions.
To view the communication page from any of the airport information pages:
1. Rotate O with the flashing cursor removed to display the communication page.
2. Rotate K in the direction of the arrow prompt to view additional frequencies.
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the communication page:
Airport Communication Page.
Approach frequency with restrictions.
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Frequencies without restriction information:
• ats - Automatic terminal information service (ATIS)
• ptx - Pre-taxi
• clr - Clearance delivery
• gnd - Ground
• twr - Tower
• uni - Unicom
• mul - Multicom
• atf - Aerodrome traffic frequency
• ctf - Common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF)
• mf - Mandatory frequency
• oth - Other frequencies
Frequencies with restriction information:
• dep - Departure
• apr - Approach
• arv - Arrival
• class B
• cta - ICAO control area • tma - ICAO terminal control area
• class C
• trsa - Terminal radar service area
‘Receive only’ frequencies will display an ‘rx’ indicator, while ‘transmit only’
frequencies will display a ‘tx’. If a frequency has sector and/or altitude restrictions,
they will also be displayed. Sector restrictions define a range of radials from the
facility, while altitude restrictions may describe an area above, below or between
altitudes. Additional frequency usage instructions, if available, will be displayed on
the bottom line.
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The airport runway page displays runway designations, length, surface and
lighting for the selected airport, as well as ILS/localizer and/or pilot controlled
lighting frequencies.
WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Airport Runway Page
To view the runway page from any of the airport information pages:
1. Rotate O with the flashing cursor removed to display the runway page.
2. To view additional runway information, rotate K with the flashing cursor removed.
The scrolling arrow prompt, located beside the identifier field, indicates which direction
to scroll for additional runway information.
If a localizer and ILS are used on the same runway, rotating K will display
both sets of information.
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the airport runway
page:
Airport Runway Page.
Runway surfaces:
• hard - Hard (concrete, asphalt, etc.)
• seal - Sealed surface
• dirt - Dirt surface
• unkn -Unknown surface
• turf - Turf (grass)
• grav - Gravel surface
• soft - Unknown soft surface
• watr - Water landing site
To view additional runways, rotate the inner knob
in the direction of the arrow prompt.
Runway lighting:
• pt lights - Part time lights
• ft lights - Full time lights
• pc Pilot controlled (with frequency)
• no lights - No runway lighting
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
VOR Information
VOR Information
The GPS 155 features three VOR waypoint pages:
VOR identification— allows entry of desired VOR by identifier,
facility name or city; displays region and/or country of facility.
VOR position— allows entry of desired VOR by identifier; displays
latitude, longitude and frequency, magnetic variation, weather broadcasts
and DME/TACAN information.
VOR comments— allows entry of desired VOR by identifier; displays user
comments for the selected facility.
VOR Identification Page.
VOR information is accessed by entering the desired facility by identifier, city or
facility name (see page 25) on any VOR waypoint page. The VOR identification and
comments pages are identical in form and function to their airport page counterparts.
To scroll through the VOR pages:
VOR Position Page.
1. Make sure the cursor is not flashing. If it is, press C.
2. Rotate O in either direction to scroll through the available pages.
In addition to displaying the VOR frequency, magnetic variation and position, the
VOR position page indicates if a DME or TACAN is co-located at the facility The ‘wx
bdcst’ field indicates that the VOR also transmits weather information.
VOR Comments Page.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
NDB Information
NDB Pages
NDB Position Page
The GPS 155 also uses identification, position and comments pages for NDB
information. The NDB waypoint pages are used in the same manner as VOR pages:
NDB information is accessed by entering the desired facility’s identifier, city or name
(see page 25) on the NDB identification page.
To scroll through the NDB pages:
1. Make sure the cursor is not flashing. If it is, press C.
NDB Identification Page.
2. Rotate O in either direction to scroll through the available pages.
The NDB position page (see above) displays the selected facility’s identifier, frequency and position, as well as any weather broadcasts available. The NDB comment page
will display any user comments for the selected NDB. See page 41 for instructions on
entering user comments.
NDB Comments Page.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Intersection Information
Intersection Information
Intersection Position Page
The last database waypoint category available is intersections. Two intersection
pages are available: intersection position and intersection comments. Intersections
may be entered by identifier only (not city or name) on either intersection page.
Intersection Comments Page.
To scroll through the Intersection pages:
1. Make sure the cursor is not flashing. If it is, press C.
2. Rotate O to toggle between the available pages.
The intersection position page displays the selected facility’s identifier; region
and/or country, latitude and longitude and the identifier, distance and bearing to the
nearest VOR (not necessarily the VOR used to define the intersection). The intersection comment page will display any user comments for the selected intersection
(see page 41).
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User Waypoint Information
WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
User Waypoint Overview
In addition to the airport, VOR, NDB and intersection waypoints contained in your
NavData® card, the GPS 155 allows you to store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints.
Once a user waypoint is created, two user waypoint pages will display the following
information:
•
•
•
•
Waypoint identifier
Position in latitude and longitude
Identifier, range and bearing from a reference waypoint
User comments
To scroll between the user waypoint position page and the user comments page,
rotate O. User waypoints may be created or modified using the W key. After selecting the waypoint identifier, as shown on page 25, you will be prompted to enter information if the waypoint is new. There are three ways to create a user waypoint’s position
from the W key:
1. Enter the exact position of the new waypoint.
2. Reference a known waypoint.
3. Enter a range and bearing from your current position.
User Waypoint Position Page.
User Waypoint Comments Page.
To create or edit a user waypoint:
1. Press W.
2. Use O to highlight the ‘user?’ field. Press E.
Entering a user waypoint name.
3. Use K and O to enter the waypoint identifier. Press E.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Creating User Waypoints
If the waypoint identifier entered does not exist in the database, you will be
prompted to select the method to enter the new waypoint’s position into the database. If the waypoint exists (you’re just reviewing or editing a user waypoint), skip
step 4 and move on to the next set of instructions.
4. Select the desired waypoint entry method using O and press E.
You will automatically be placed on the latitude and longitude field (if you
selected ‘enter posn?’), or the ‘from’ field (if you select ‘ref wpt?’), or the ‘bearing’ field
(if you select ‘rng/brg from posn?’).
To enter/edit the position of the user waypoint:
1. Use K and O to enter the latitude. You may select either north or south and enter a
latitude up to (but not including) 90°.
Select a waypoint entry method.
2. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the longitude. You may select either east or west and enter a
longitude up to (but not including) 180°.
4. Press E.
User waypoints may be created by referencing
another waypoint in the database. The GPS 155
will automatically calculate the new waypoint’s
coordinates after a bearing and distance have
been entered.
Once the latitude and longitude have been entered, the flashing cursor will move
to the reference waypoint field, where you may enter a reference waypoint to calculate a bearing and distance to the new waypoint position. If you are not entering a
reference waypoint:
5. Press E to advance the flashing cursor to the ‘ok?’ prompt and press E to save the
new waypoint in internal memory.
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To enter/edit a user waypoint position from a reference waypoint:
1. Use K and O to enter the reference waypoint’s identifier.
WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
User Waypoints By Reference
2. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the bearing from the reference waypoint.
4. Press E.
5. Use K and O to enter the distance from the reference waypoint.
6. Press E. The latitude and longitude will be calculated for the waypoint.
7. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt and save the waypoint position.
If you have chosen to create a waypoint at a certain bearing and distance from
your current position, your current position will be displayed and you will enter the
bearing and distance you would like the new waypoint to be located.
To create a user waypoint offset from your present position:
1. Use K and O to enter the bearing from your position.
2. Press E.
To create a user waypoint from your present position, leave the reference waypoint field blank and
enter a bearing and distance from your present
position. The GPS 155 will calculate the new
waypoint’s coordinates automatically.
3. Use K and O to enter the distance from your position.
4. Press E. The latitude and longitude will be calculated for the new waypoint.
5. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt and save the waypoint position.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Using AutoStore
The GPS 155’s AutoStoreTM function provides another method of creating user
waypoints. AutoStore is used to instantly capture your present position as a user waypoint with a touch of a button, and add the new waypoint to the end of a specified
route if desired.
To perform an AutoStore:
1. Press N and rotate O to display the Position page.
2. Press E to mark your position.
AutoStore waypoint with default name.
This will display the ‘Save’ waypoint screen which will allow you to rename the
waypoint if you would like and choose the route to which it should be added. The
GPS 155 will assign the next available three digit number as the default waypoint
name, preceded by a ‘+’ sign (this will help you differentiate AutoStore waypoints
from other user waypoints).
To change the name or the route of an AutoStore waypoint:
1. Rotate O to select the name or route number field.
2. Use K and O to enter the name or route number.
The default waypoint name may be changed
before saving the waypoint.
3. Press E to accept.
4. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt.
If the waypoint name is already used for another waypoint, you will be informed
with the message ‘WPT exists ______’. The default waypoint number will be redisplayed, and you may enter a different name The new waypoint will only be added to
a route if the desired route number is manually entered in the route field.
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The second page available from the GPS 155’s WPT key is the proximity waypoints page. This page allows you to define an alarm circle around a selected waypoint, and is useful in defining alarm circles around towers or obstructions. Up to 9
proximity waypoints can be entered, with an alarm radius up to 99.9 units (nm, mi,).
WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Proximity Waypoints Page
To create or edit a proximity waypoint:
1. Press W and use O to display the ‘Proximity waypoints’ page.
2. Press C and use O to highlight the first available field.
4. Use K and O to enter the identifier. It may be an airport, VOR, NDB, INT or user
waypoint. Press E.
5. Use K and O to enter the radius of the alarm circle Press E.
If two proximity waypoints, whose alert regions overlap, are entered, you will be
informed with the message ‘Proximity overlap’. This message will be displayed each
time you turn on the GPS 155 as long as the overlap remains. WARNING: If you
enter the overlap area you will only be informed of the nearest proximity waypoint.
Creating a proximity waypoint.
To remove a waypoint from the proximity waypoints page:
1. Press C, if necessary, to obtain a cursor.
2. Press \ to erase the name and then E to delete.
Proximity Waypoint List.
To scroll through the proximity waypoints list:
1. Rotate K with the flashing cursor inactive, (or use O with the flashing cursor active) to
scroll through the available proximity waypoints. The scrolling arrow prompt will indicate
the direction to scroll to view additional waypoints, if available.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
User Waypoint List
The third page available from the GPS 155’s WPT key is the user waypoint list,
which can be used to quickly scan, review, rename or delete user waypoints.
To display the user waypoint list:
1. Press W and use O to display the user waypoint list.
2. To scroll through the list, rotate K.
The total number of user waypoints is displayed at the top of the page, with user
waypoints listed two at a time in alphabetical order. The scrolling arrow prompt,
located at the top left of the page, will indicate which direction to scroll to view additional waypoints. The status of each waypoint, if applicable, will be displayed to the
right of the identifier. A status will appear when it is the active to waypoint, part of
an active or stored route or a proximity waypoint. To edit, rename or delete waypoints, the cursor must highlight the desired waypoint.
To highlight a waypoint:
User Waypoint List.
1. Press C and use O to highlight the desired waypoint.
To edit a highlighted waypoint:
1. Press E to obtain the waypoint position page. Edit the waypoint as described on page 37.
To delete a waypoint from the list:
Renaming a user waypoint.
1. Highlight the desired waypoint and press \. Press E to confirm the deletion.
To rename a waypoint from the list:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint. Use K and O to enter a new
identifier for the waypoint.
2. Press E on the confirmation page to change the name, or press \ to cancel.
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The last page available through the GPS 155’s WPT key is the waypoint comments page, which lists all waypoints that have a user comment. User comments
may be added to 250 waypoints stored in the user or NavData® database, and are
helpful to note two lines of special information concerning a particular waypoint.
WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Waypoint Comments Page
To enter user comments:
1. Enter the waypoint identifier from any waypoint page (see page 25), and press C to
remove the flashing cursor.
2. Rotate O to display the ‘comments’ page.
3. Press C and use O to highlight either the second or third line.
4. Use K and O to enter the comment.
5. Press E to accept, and repeat, if necessary, to enter information on another line.
6. Press C to remove the cursor.
Entering waypoint comments.
To view the waypoints with comments list:
1. Press W and use O to display the ‘Wpts with comments’ page.
2. Use K to scroll through the list.
The GPS 155 will display the waypoints with comments in alphabetical order, up
to six waypoints at a time. The scrolling arrow prompt will indicate which direction
to scroll to view additional waypoints. These waypoints may be highlighted, reviewed,
changed, etc. just as they would if they were accessed from the waypoint menu page.
Waypoints with Comments List.
To view comments for a selected waypoint:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint and press E.
2. Rotate O to display any other available pages for the selected waypoint.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Waypoint Confirmation
The GPS 155’s extensive waypoint database makes it possible for several waypoints to share the same identifier. To ensure that you are selecting the waypoint
desired, the GPS 155 will always offer the waypoint confirmation page (that shows
the waypoint’s position) when an identifier is entered for a particular function.
To accept the waypoint position:
1. Place the cursor over the ‘ok?’ prompt and press E.
To reject the waypoint position:
1. Place the cursor over the ‘ok?’ prompt and press \.
Waypoint Scanning
To simplify waypoint entry, the GPS 155 provides
a waypoint scanning feature that allows you to
scan airports, VORs, NDBs & intersections by
identifier, facility name or city. To enter a waypoint by scanning:
• With the flashing cursor over a blank identifier
field, press the W key.
• Use O to highlight the waypoint category you
wish to scan.
• Press E to activate the scanning mode.
• Place the flashing cursor over the field you want
to scan (identifier, city or facility name).
• Enter the letters of the identifier, city or facility
name. The GPS 155 will scan the database and
fill in the first identifier, city or facility that
matches your entry.
42
• Press E to accept the waypoint, and E
again to enter the waypoint for the function
being used.
Once a waypoint has been accepted or rejected, the previous page will be displayed. If there is more than one waypoint available for a selected identifier, the GPS
155 will display the duplicate waypoint page for you to choose the desired waypoint.
The waypoint identifier and number of duplicates will be shown at the top of the
page, with the waypoint type and region of each duplicate indicated below. The waypoints listed are sorted by the distance from your present position.
To scroll through additional duplicate waypoints:
1. Rotate O with the flashing cursor active, or K with the flashing cursor inactive.
To select the desired waypoint from the duplicates list:
1. Activate the flashing cursor and rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint.
2. Press E. The waypoint confirmation page will appear.
3. Press E over the ‘ok?’ prompt to accept the waypoint or \ to reject the waypoint
and return to the duplicate waypoints list.
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The GPS 155’s NRST key provides detailed information including range and bearing from present position on the nine nearest airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections and
user waypoints within 200 nm of your current position. In addition, it will also display the two nearest Flight Service Station (FSS) points of communication, and alert
you to any Special Use Airspace (SUA) you may be in or near. The NRST key can be
used in conjunction with the GPS 155’s direct-to function to quickly set a course to a
nearby facility in case of an in-flight emergency.
WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
Nearest Waypoints
To view the nearest waypoint information:
1. Press T.
This will display the nearest airport to your present position, subject to the runway surface type and minimum runway length selected (see page 89).
To scroll through the next eight nearest airports, rotate K.
Nearest Airport Page.
From the nearest airport page, you can easily examine both the communication
frequencies and the runway information.
To view more comm/runway information:
1. Press C and rotate O to highlight the comm field or the runway field.
Nearest VOR Page.
2. Rotate K to scroll through more information, if available.
To perform a direct-to from any of the nearest waypoint pages:
1. Press D. The waypoint confirmation page will appear.
2. Press E to accept the waypoint or \ to cancel.
The nearest waypoints for other categories (VORs, NDBs, etc.) may be viewed
by rotating O. Rotating O continuously to the left will stop page selection on the
nearest airport category.
Nearest FSS page. To view additional frequencies for
the displayed FSS, highlight the frequency and rotate
the inner knob.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
SUA Alarms
The next page available under the GPS 155’s NRST key is the SUA alert page.
The SUA alert page will alert you with up to nine controlled or restricted airspaces
near or in your flight path, according to the following conditions:
• If your projected course will take you inside an SUA within the next 10
minutes, the message ‘SUA ahead < 10 min’ will be displayed.
• If you are within two nautical miles of an SUA and your current course will
take you inside, the message ‘SUA near & ahead’ will be displayed.
• If you are within two nautical miles of an SUA and your current course will not
take you inside, the message ‘Near SUA < 2nm’ will be displayed.
• If you have entered an SUA, the message ‘Inside SUA’ will be displayed.
SUA Near & Ahead Message.
Note that the GPS 155’s SUA alerts are based on three-dimensional data (latitude,
longitude and altitude) to avoid nuisance alerts. The alert boundaries for controlled
airspace are also sectorized to provide complete information on those airspaces. Once
you have met one of the described conditions, the message annunciator will flash,
alerting you of an SUA message.
To view an SUA message:
1. Press the M key.
SUA Alert Page.
2. Press M again to return to the previous page.
Once you are notified of a SUA alert, detailed information concerning the specific
SUA is provided by the NRST key.
To view the SUA alert page:
1. Press the T key.
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2. Rotate O one stop to the right to view the SUA alert page.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
The SUA alert page contains the following information:
SUA Alerts
SUA Alert Number
SUA Alert
ETE
Controlling
Agency/Name
SUA Class
SUA Airport
Ceiling & Floor
The ‘SUA number’ field displays which SUA you are viewing (you may be alerted with
up to 9 SUAs). SUAs are listed as ‘sua1’ being the highest priority, and ‘sua9’ being the lowest
priority from your current position. The ‘SUA alert’ field displays the corresponding alert
message for this SUA, such as near, near and ahead, etc. (see the previous page for a complete list of SUA alerts). The ETE (estimated time enroute until entering the SUA), located at
the top right of the page, will only be displayed if you are projected to enter the airspace.
To toggle between the SUA name and controlling
agency display, rotate the inner knob one stop in
either direction.
The second line of the SUA alert page displays the name or controlling agency of the
SUA, along with the SUA type to which you are being alerted.
To toggle between the SUA name and controlling agency display:
1. Rotate K one stop in either direction.
If the SUA name or controlling agency is too long to fit on the display, the GPS 155 will
automatically scroll to display the rest of the information.
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
SUA Messages
SUA Alert Page.
The airport communication page for the displayed alert
may be viewed by highlighting the controlling agency’s
identifier and pressing ENTER.
The following SUA types can appear in the SUA type field:
Message
alrt
caut
cl B
cl C
cta
dngr
moa
proh
rstc
tma
trng
trsa
unsp
warn
The last line on the SUA alert page displays the SUA’s controlling airport identifier
and the ceiling and floor altitudes for the SUA alert. Controlling agency frequencies
may be viewed by highlighting the controlling airport identifier with the cursor and
pressing E. The following are examples of what can appear in the altitude fields:
Message
8000ftM
3000ftA
ground
msl
notam
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Airspace Type
- Alert
- Caution
- Class B
- Class C
- ICAO Control Area
- Danger
- Military Operations Area
- Prohibited
- Restricted
- ICAO Terminal Control Area
- Training
- Terminal Radar Service Area
- Unspecified
- Warning
not sp
unlmtd
Meaning
- 8000 feet mean sea level (MSL)
- 3000 feet above ground level (AGL)
- ground level
- mean sea level
- See Notice to Airmen (NOTAM)
for altitude restrictions
- Altitude is not specified
- Altitude is unlimited
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WAYPOINTS & DATABASE
SUA Alerts
SUA Settings Page
All SUA alert messages except for prohibited areas may be turned on or off
through the GPS 155’s S key (described page 92). The GPS 155 will also automatically turn off SUA alert messages during approach operations (see page 73). Alerts for
prohibited areas will always be displayed, regardless of unit settings or operating
mode. SUA alerts may be turned off so the pilot can avoid continuous alerts in areas
with extensive special use airspace.
Important: Turning off the SUA alerts only stops the display of SUA messages.
Any applicable SUA alert pages will still be available from the T key.
The GPS 155 also features an altitude buffer which may be set to provide a greater
level of protection from penetrating an SUA. By increasing the altitude buffer, you can
effectively stretch an SUA’s altitude boundaries in both directions. This allows the
pilot to add an extra margin of prevention around controlled or restricted airspace.
For instructions on setting the altitude buffer, see page 92.
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DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
Overview
Section 3
Direct-to & Route Navigation
One of the many benefits of GPS navigation is the ability to fly directly to a waypoint or fly a chain of waypoints without using ground-based navigation aids. To take
advantage of the convenience and efficiency provided by point-to-point GPS navigation, the GPS 155 provides two basic methods of selecting a destination for your
flight: direct-to and route navigation. The direct-to function provides a fast way to
set a course to a destination waypoint from your present position. The route function
allows the pilot to create a chain of waypoints to fly in sequence and provides access
to the GPS 155’s approach, SID and STAR capabilities.
ROUTE TERMINOLOGY
KSTL
The diagram at the right shows a basic route
consisting of five waypoints and four legs.
'ACTIVE FROM' WAYPOINT
The waypoint you are travelling to is called the
‘active to’ waypoint, and the waypoint immediately
behind you is called the ‘active from’ waypoint. The
course line between the active from and the active to
waypoint is called the ‘active leg’.
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MAP 'ACTIVE TO' WAYPOINT
SGF
ACTIVE LEG
EOS
KTUL
As you pass each waypoint in the route, the GPS 155’s automatic leg sequencing
and turn anticipation features will automatically select the next waypoint as the
‘active to’ waypoint and provide smooth steering guidance around the turn. If you are
not currently navigating a particular route leg (e.g., your starting position is not a
route waypoint), the automatic leg selection feature will select the leg closest to your
present position as the active leg.
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The GPS 155’s direct-to function provides a quick method of setting a course to
a destination waypoint. Once a direct-to destination is activated, the GPS 155 will
establish a point to point route line along the great circle from your present position
to the destination, and provide steering guidance and navigation data to the waypoint
until it is cancelled. If you are navigating to a waypoint and get off course, the directto function may also be used to re-center the d-bar to proceed to the same waypoint.
DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
Performing a Direct-To
To select a direct-to destination:
1. Press the D key. The CDI page will appear with the destination field flashing.
2. Use K and O to enter the identifier of the desired waypoint.
3. Press E to confirm the identifier, and E to accept the waypoint confirmation page.
To recenter the d-bar to the same active to waypoint:
1. Press the D key, followed by E twice. NOTE: If you’re navigating an active
approach with the MAP as the active waypoint, the approach will be cancelled.
A direct-to may also be quickly activated from many pages that display a single
waypoint identifier (e.g. the nearest airport page) by simply pressing D and E.
For pages that display a list of waypoints (e.g. the user waypoint list page), you must
highlight the desired waypoint with the flashing cursor before pressing the D key.
Once a direct-to is activated, the GPS 155 will provide navigation guidance until the
direct-to is cancelled or the unit is turned off.
To cancel a direct-to destination:
To select a direct-to destination, press the D key and
enter the waypoint identifier.
To quickly select a direct-to from any page that displays
a single waypoint identifier, press D, followed by
ENTER.
1. Place the flashing cursor over the destination field on the CDI page.
2. Press \. The destination field will go blank.
3. Press E. The GPS 155 will resume navigating Route 0 (the active route) if available.
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DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
Route Pages
The GPS 155 lets you create up to 20 routes (numbered 0 through 19), with up
to 31 waypoints each. Routes are created, copied and edited through the R key,
which features five route pages selectable from the GPS 155’s outer knob.
Active Route Page
REMEMBER!
If you want to save the active route, be sure to
copy it to an open storage route before turning the
GPS 155 off or activating a new route or direct-to
destination. See page 54 for instructions on copying routes.
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Route Catalog Page
Approach Select Page
SID Select Page
STAR Select Page
The five route pages can be divided into two types: active route pages and a
route catalog page. Active route pages provide information and editing functions for
Route 0, which always serves as the route you are currently navigating. The route
review page serves as the main page for creating, editing, activating, deleting and
copying all routes. Routes 1-19 are used as storage routes, which are stored in the
GPS 155’s internal memory. Once a storage route is ‘activated’, a copy is placed into
Route 0 for navigation until it is cancelled, overwritten by activating another route or
erased when the GPS is turned off. If you want to save a route currently in Route 0,
be sure to copy it to an open storage route (routes 1-19) before it is cancelled, overwritten or erased.
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DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
The GPS 155’s route catalog page is used to create, edit, delete or copy routes,
and serves as the main page for a host of functions, including route activation, determining the closest point of approach and search and rescue operations. It also displays
a summary of routes currently stored in memory, with the departure and arrival route
waypoints and total distance for the selected route number. To scroll through the available routes, rotate K. A one line user comment may be added to any storage route,
which will be displayed on the route catalog page.
Route Catalog Page
To add user comments to any route (except route 0):
1. Rotate K to display the route you would like to add comments.
1
2. Press C and use O to highlight the bottom row.
2
3. Use K and O to enter the comments, and press E. To erase, press \, then E.
The route action field, located at the top right of the page, is used to select the
desired route operation. The following functions are available:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Activate - activate the route for navigation
Reverse - activate a route in reverse order
Edit create a new route, or edit an existing route
Approach - select an approach for the route (see Section 4)
Star select a STAR for the route (see Section 4)
Sid select a SID for the route (see Section 4)
Delete - delete a route
Copy copy the current route to an empty route
CPA calculate the closest point of approach
Search - Perform search and rescue ladder operations
3
5
4
Route Catalog Page
1. Route selection field
2. Route action field
3. Departure/Arrival waypoints
4. Cumulative distance of route
5. Comments/Parallel track offset field
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DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
Creating & Activating Routes
The route editing function allows you to create new routes and edit existing
routes. Creating routes before takeoff can help make approach, SID and STAR operations faster and easier during your flight.
To create or edit a route:
1. Use K to display the route number you would like to edit.
2. Press C and use O to highlight the route action field.
3. Use K to select ‘edit?’. Press E. The route review page will appear.
To add a waypoint:
4. Rotate O to highlight the first blank waypoint field (it will already be flashing if you’re
creating a new route) or at the point where you want to enter the new waypoint.
5. Use K and O to enter the waypoint’s identifier. Press E.
Adding a new route waypoint.
6. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt on the waypoint confirmation page.
7. Repeat steps 4 through 6 to add the next waypoint, or press C to finish.
To delete a waypoint:
1. Rotate O to highlight the waypoint you wish to delete.
Deleting a route waypoint.
2. Press \ to remove the name, then press E to delete.
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 to delete additional waypoints, or press C to finish.
To delete an entire route:
1. Use K to display the route number you would like to delete (route 0 for the active route).
Deleting the active route.
2. Press C and use O to highlight the action field.
3. Use K to select ‘delete?’. Press E to delete.
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Once a route is defined through the route catalog page, it may be activated or
inverted (to navigate the route waypoints in reverse order) from the route catalog
page. Activating or inverting a route copies the selected route into route 0 and overwrites the existing active route.
DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
Adding & Deleting Route Wpts
To activate a route:
1. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
2. Rotate K to display the route you would like to activate.
3. Press C and use K to display ‘activate?’. Press E.
After travelling a route or creating a route with the GPS 155’s AutoStoreTM feature,
the route activation field may be used to activate the route in reverse order.
To activate a route in reverse order:
1. Use K to display the route number you would like to reverse.
To invert the active route, select ‘reverse?’ from
the route action field.
2. Press C and use K to display ‘reverse?’. Press E.
This will copy the reversed route to route 0 and display the active route page. The
original route will remain intact in its original storage position.
Copying a route.
The route action field also features a copy function that permits you to copy any
route to another empty storage route. The copy function can be used to save the contents of the active route (Route 0) to a storage route before activating another route or
turning the GPS 155 off.
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DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
To copy a route:
Copying Routes/CPA
1. Use K to display the route you would like to copy TO (the route must be empty).
2. Press C and use O to highlight the action field.
3. Use K to select ‘copy?’. Press E.
4. Use K to enter the route you would like to copy. The departure/arrival identifiers will be
displayed for your reference. Press E to copy the route.
The CPA function calculates the closest distance that a route will pass a reference
waypoint, and is helpful when creating new route waypoints referenced to a NAVAID.
To calculate the closest point of approach (CPA) for any route:
Calculating closest point of approach.
KLIT
1. Use K to display the route you would like to use for the CPA function. The route must
consist of at least two waypoints, and the reference facility must fall between the waypoints of a route leg.
2. Press C and use O to highlight the action field.
3. Use K to select ‘cpa?’. Press E.
TXKO
NORTH
5. Press E. The bearing and distance of the closest point on the route will be displayed.
327°
26.7 nm
TXK
KDAL
Closest Point of Approach.
54
4. Use K and O to enter the identifier of the reference waypoint.
6. Press E to add the cpa waypoint to the route, or \ to finish. If you do add the cpa
waypoint to the route, it will be named based on the reference waypoint plus a number
(0...9) added to the end (e.g. KMCI3, etc.). If the waypoint does not fall between waypoints on the route, the reference waypoint does not exist, or a unique name cannot be
assigned to the CPA waypoint, you’ll be informed with a ‘Invald CPA wpt ____’ message.
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DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
The GPS 155’s search and rescue function provides navigation guidance for
search and rescue operations, navigating in a ladder pattern to maximize coverage and
efficiency. This is done in reference to two waypoints, called anchor waypoints. The
first leg will be a specified distance from the line connecting the anchor waypoints,
called the offset distance. The increment distance is the distance between each subsequent leg. The ladder can be created on either side of the waypoints.
Search & Rescue Function
To perform a search and rescue operation:
1. Create a route of ONLY two waypoints.
2. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
ANCHOR
WAYPOINT
3. Use K to select the 2-waypoint route to use as anchor waypoints.
4. Press C and use K to display ‘search?’. Press E.
LEG
LEG
LEG
INCREMENT INCREMENT INCREMENT
DISTANCE DISTANCE DISTANCE
5. Use K and O to enter the leg increment value, and R or L. Press E.
6. Rotate O to highlight the initial offset, and use K and O to enter the initial offset
value, and R or L.
7. Press E three times to accept the operation values and begin navigation.
INITIAL
OFFSET
ANCHOR
WAYPOINT
After activating a search and rescue, you will be informed with an ‘Offset nav in
effect’ message. If a search and rescue is interrupted, note the parallel track direction
(R or L) and distance on the activation page for route 0. When you resume search and
rescue operations, use this as the initial offset.
Performing a search and rescue operation.
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DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
Offset Navigation
Enter parallel track value after route activation.
ARRIVAL
WAYPOINT
During route navigation, it is sometimes desirable to navigate a specified distance
away from the ‘active leg’ to help avoid certain airspaces or regions. The GPS 155’s
parallel track feature will automatically guide you along a selected offset from the
active leg.
To use offset navigation, or parallel track:
ET E
FS NC
OF TA
DIS
1. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
2. Use K to display route 0 (parallel track can only be used on the active route).
NE
LA
RP
AI
3. Press C and use O to highlight the parallel track value field.
DEPARTURE WAYPOINT
4. Use K and O to enter the desired distance and direction (R or L), from the leg.
Parallel Track
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5. Press E to accept.
It is important to note that offset navigation is only available on route navigation,
not direct-to navigation. Offset navigation is NOT valid for IFR approach procedures.
When offset navigation is activated, an ‘Offset nav in effect’ message will be displayed,
with the distance and direction noted on the route activation page for route 0. If you
enter an offset which causes a leg to be reversed, you’ll be informed with the message
‘Ofst too big for rte’. If you change the active route in any way, perform a direct-to, or
re-activate the route, you’ll be informed with an‘Offset nav cancelled’ message.
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Flying and Modifying the Active Route
DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
Flying the Active Route
Once a route has been created and activated, the GPS 155 will provide navigation
to each route waypoint through the active route and CDI pages. From the active route
pages, you may create and modify the active route, and insert an approach, SID or
STAR for your flight. The CDI page will display detailed navigation data on your
progress to each route waypoint, and provide turn anticipation, waypoint arrival and
next desired track information. By understanding the relationship between the active
route and CDI pages and the role of the GPS SEQ switch, you’ll be able to get the
most out of the GPS 155’s advanced route and approach features.
Whenever the GPS 155 is navigating a direct-to, route or approach, the active
route page will provide a list of the route waypoints in sequence, along with distance, time and course information. You may also create and edit a route directly from
the active route page. If you want to save a route created from the active route page
(Route 0), you must copy it to an open storage route (see page 54) before turning the
unit off or activating another route. The active route page may be displayed by pressing the R key and rotating O left continuously. It will also appear automatically
whenever a route, approach, SID or STAR is activated.
To scroll through the active route waypoints:
1. Rotate K with the flashing cursor inactive (or O with the cursor active).
The active leg identifiers field, located at the top left of the page, displays the waypoint identifiers of the route leg you are currently navigating. The first waypoint identifier displayed is the ‘active from’ waypoint. The second waypoint is the ‘active to’
waypoint. The line connecting these waypoints is known as the ‘active leg’. If you are
navigating a direct-to, the field will display the destination only.
USING THE ACTIVE ROUTE PAGE
The GPS 155’s active route page provides a working list of the route you are navigating, allowing
you to view all route waypoints, along with distance, and timing or desired track information.
The scrolling arrow prompt to the left of the route
waypoint list indicates which way to scroll to
view additional route waypoints.
The active route page can also be used to manually select your next ‘active to’ destination, which
allows you to fly the route out of sequence without
modifying it. The GPS 155 will resume navigation
of the remainder of the route in sequence once you
arrive at the selected waypoint.
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DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
Adding Active Route Waypoints
The ‘cum or leg’ field can be selected to display cumulative distance and ete/eta or
the distance and ete/eta for each individual route leg. If cumulative is selected, the
first leg’s distance will be displayed, while the second leg will represent the first leg’s
distance plus the second leg, and so on. This also applies to the ete/eta field, which
may also be configured to display the desired track (dtk) for each leg, regardless of
the cumulative or leg selection.
To change the leg and ete/eta fields:
1. With the flashing cursor active, rotate O to highlight the field you want to change.
2. Rotate K to select the desired setting and press C.
Active route page with desired track displayed.
The active route page may also be used to create a new route or edit the route you
are currently navigating (approach, SID or STAR waypoints cannot be edited), and
provides a fast method of selecting any route waypoint as your next destination waypoint without modifying the active route. If you are editing the active route and want
to save it in its original form, copy it to an open storage route before editing.
To add waypoints to the active route:
Adding a waypoint to the active route.
1. Press C, if necessary, to activate the cursor.
2. Use O to highlight the first blank waypoint field or highlight the waypoint
you would like to add the new waypoint BEFORE.
3. Use K and O to enter the new waypoint identifier. Press E.
Confirming the new route waypoint.
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4. Press E to accept or \ to cancel. The cursor will automatically move to the next
waypoint field, and the remaining route waypoints (if any are present) will move down
the list accordingly.
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To delete a waypoint from the active route:
1. Press C, if necessary, to activate the cursor.
DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
On-Route Direct-To
2. Use O to highlight the waypoint you would like to delete from the active route.
3. Press \, followed by E. The next route waypoint (if available) will move up to take
the position of the deleted waypoint.
The active route page also allows you to select your next destination waypoint
manually from the active route waypoint list and resume the remainder of the route in
sequence. This procedure, referred to as an ‘on-route’ direct-to, allows the pilot to
fly the active route in a different sequence without editing the active route, approach,
SID or STAR itself. For example, if you are flying a route with an armed approach, the
GPS 155 will automatically provide the initial approach fix (IAF) for the selected
approach as your ‘active to’ waypoint. If you have been vectored directly to the final
approach fix (bypassing the IAF), you can manually ‘skip ahead’ to the final approach
fix as your next active to waypoint.
Manually selecting the next active route waypoint.
To perform an on-route direct-to from the active route page:
1. Press C and rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint.
Confirming the on-route direct-to.
2. Press D, followed by E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt on the waypoint
confirmation page.
The GPS 155 will now provide guidance to the direct-to waypoint with the CDI
page, and resume navigating the remainder of the active route in sequence once you
arrive at the direct-to destination. See Section 4 for more on approach navigation.
CDI page with new destination waypoint.
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DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
Turn Anticipation
The GPS 155’s turn anticipation feature smooths
out the transitions between adjacent legs based on
a nominal bank angle of 15º, with the ability to
roll up to 25º. If the turn angle and your present
speed will require a bank angle that exceeds 25º,
you’ll be notified with a ‘Steep turn ahead’ message approximately 90 seconds before arrival at
the active to waypoint.
If the leg transition is too short for a smooth transition, a ‘Leg not smoothed’ message will appear,
and the pilot should expect a rapid change in the
CDI deflection.
While the active route page offers the necessary functions for creating, monitoring
and modifying the active route, the GPS 155’s CDI page is used to provide turn anticipation, next desired track and waypoint arrival information to the pilot.
During route navigation, the GPS 155’s turn anticipation feature will smooth
out the transition between adjacent route legs by providing navigation along a curved
path segment. This leg transition is based on the aircraft’s actual ground speed and
the difference between the course angle of the two legs. The GPS 155 will automatically sequence to the next leg when you are abeam the ‘active to’ waypoint and on
the curved transition segment (the to/from indicator on the CDI will flip momentarily). During the transition, the CDI display will be referenced to the dotted line illustrated above. Turn anticipation will not be provided in the following scenarios:
• Waypoint/fix crossing is a requirement of the approach, SID or STAR
you’re navigating.
• The GPS SEQ switch is in the HOLD position.
• Automatic leg sequencing is disabled.
• Your current ground speed and the course angle between the two legs would
require a bank angle greater than 25º (see left).
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As you approach a route waypoint, the GPS 155’s external waypoint annunciator will
flash 15 seconds before the turn anticipation point, and the GPS CDI will be replaced
by a flashing ‘Next dtk xxxº’ prompt (see right).
DIRECT-TO & ROUTE NAV
Turn Anticipation
GPS APPR
GPS WPT
To use the turn anticipation feature, note the ‘Nxt dtk’ heading when the external
waypoint annunciator begins to flash, and start the turn when the annunciator glows
steadily (approximately 2 seconds before the turn anticipation point). Once you’ve
reached the turn anticipation point, the desired track (dtk) field on the CDI page will
change to display the course value for the next leg. If you have not adjusted your HSI
course selector before the turn, the ‘Next dtk’ will continue to flash until you have
reached the midpoint of the turn. Please refer to your aircraft flight manual supplement for specific turn anticipation instructions.
In addition to the active route page, the GPS 155 features three other pages that
correspond to the route you are currently navigating: the approach select, STAR
select and SID select pages. These pages display the approach, SID or STAR currently selected, and list all other available procedures for the departure or arrival airports. Because they are relevant to approach operations, these pages and their functions are described in Section 4.
The waypoint annunciator will glow steadily 2
seconds before the turn anticipation point.
The desired track for the next leg will appear
flashing in the CDI field 15 seconds before the
turn anticipation point.
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
Overview
Section 4
Approaches, SIDs and STARs
The GPS 155’s approach navigation mode allows you to fly non-precision
approaches to airports with GPS and overlay procedures using information contained
on your Jeppesen NavData® card. GPS approaches are similar to existing IFR
approach procedures, but provide additional course and distance information for a
higher level of accuracy, efficiency and safety. The non-precision approaches available
in the GPS 155 are executed using the GPS route features covered in Section 3, so it’s
important to understand routes before attempting approach navigation.
Once an approach is selected, the GPS 155 will
replace the destination airport with the appropriate approach waypoints. The initial approach fix,
final approach fix and missed approach point
waypoints are indicated by an ‘if’, ‘ff’ and ‘mp’
designator to the immediate left of the waypoint.
In many instances, there may be approach waypoints in the GPS approach that are not shown on
the approach plate. These waypoints are usually
intermediate fixes designed to help the GPS provide smooth navigation along the approach path.
62
A GPS approach is a sequence of waypoints linked together into a subroute
which replaces your destination airport waypoint when selected. They may be based
on an existing RNAV, VOR or NDB approach procedure, or be an entirely new
approach created specifically for GPS. Regardless of what type of approach a GPS
procedure is based on, the procedure is flown as a sequence of route legs in the active
route. Once a GPS approach is selected, the GPS 155 will provide guidance to each
waypoint in the approach in sequence, starting with the initial approach fix (IAF).
Flying a GPS approach with the GPS 155 can be broken down into three phases:
approach selection, approach arming and the active approach: 1) Approach
selection is simply the step of choosing the desired approach for the destination airport. 2) Arming the approach makes sure the unit is ready to begin the automatic
sequencing and CDI adjustment required for approach navigation. 3) The active
approach tightens the accuracy requirements and CDI sensitivity one step further to
meet TSO standards for the non-precision approach.
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The GPS 155 works in conjunction with a set of external switches and your HSI
to fly GPS approaches. The external switches are used to control GPS functions, and
contain illuminated annunciators to indicate when functions are active. Your installation must also have annunciators for waypoint arrival and GPS messages.
GPS APPR
ARM ACTV
APPROACH NAVIGATION
GPS Approach Switch
GPS APPR
ARM ACTV
The GPS APPR switch is used to arm the GPS 155 for approach navigation.mode
after a desired approach has been selected. Once armed, the GPS 155 will begin automatic CDI scaling and ensure that receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM)
is available to provide the required level of accuracy and satellite coverage during the
approach. The GPS APPR switch is used to deactivate an approach and return the CDI
scale to the 1 nm setting in the event of a missed approach between the FAF and the
MAP waypoints. You may also choose to keep the switch set to the ‘ARM’ position at
all times to simplify the approach procedure. Remember, arming a GPS approach only
prepares the GPS to transition to the active approach mode.
If you have selected an approach, the GPS 155 will prompt you to arm the
approach mode 30 nm from your destination airport, and again 3 nm before the final
approach fix if the approach has not been already armed. Once the GPS mode is
armed (you have selected an approach and set the GPS APPR switch to the ‘ARM’
position), the ARM annunciator will illuminate, and automatic CDI scaling will begin.
The GPS 155 will also automatically set the CDI scaling and automatic leg sequencing
features to their default settings (‘auto’ CDI scaling & auto leg sequencing ‘on’).
Arm Approach Mode
The external GPS APPR switch should be set to
the ARM position 30 nm from the destination airport. Once the approach is armed, the unit will
provide a smooth transition from the 5.0 to 1.0
nautical mile CDI scale, and down to 0.3 nm
within 2 nm inbound to the FAF.
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
When the aircraft is within 2 nm of the FAF along the inbound course to the final
approach (see left), the ACTV annunciator will illuminate on the GPS APPR switch,
and the GPS 155 will enter the active approach phase. The CDI will now scale down
to the 0.3 nm sensitivity. If you wish to deactivate the approach during the active
phase, simply release the GPS APPR switch from the ‘ARM’ position. This will return
the CDI scale to 1 nm setting and provide less sensitive CDI deflection in missed
approach conditions.
GPS SEQ Switch
GPS SEQ
GPS SEQ
AUTO ACTV
AUTOHOLD
MAP
0.3 nm
FAF
2 nm
1 nm
30 nm
The GPS SEQ switch is used to select manual or automatic waypoint sequencing
of waypoints. Setting the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position holds your current
‘active to’ waypoint as your navigation reference and prevents the GPS from sequencing to the next waypoint.
When the GPS SEQ switch is set to the AUTO position, automatic waypoint
sequencing is selected. Whenever the GPS SEQ switch is engaged, the HOLD annunciator will illuminate and the GPS will continue navigating to the waypoint regardless
of your position relative to other waypoints.
1 nm
1 minute
5 nm
CDI Scale ramping during approach.
64
The GPS SEQ switch must be set to the HOLD position any time you are deviating from the flight sequence of an approach (e.g., when you are flying radar vectors)
or when you must cross the same waypoint twice in succession (e.g., IAF and FAF at
the same waypoint). Whenever the GPS SEQ switch is set to the HOLD position, the
GPS 155 allows you to select the desired course to/from a waypoint using the HSI,
much like a VOR
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
Selecting an Approach
When an arrival airport is selected with the direct-to key (or created and activated
in a route to the arrival airport), the approaches for your arrival airport become available through the Approach Select page, which can be viewed by pressing R and
rotating the outer knob. Remember that an airport must be the last waypoint in a
route to select an approach.
To select an approach:
1. Select the destination airport using the D key, or
create and activate a route to the destination airport (see Section 3).
2. Press R and rotate O to display the approach select page.
3. Rotate K (or O with the cursor active) to display the desired approach procedure.
Select the approach.
4. Press C (if necessary) and rotate O until the desired approach flashes.
5. Press E to select the approach.
If an approach procedure has more than one Initial Approach Fix (IAF), you’ll
need to select the desired IAF identifier for your approach.
Select the Initial Approach Fix.
To select an IAF:
1. Rotate O until the desired IAF flashes.
2. Press E.
Once the approach is loaded, the active route page
will appear.
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Once the IAF is selected, the approach waypoints will be inserted into Route 0,
replacing the destination airport, and the Active Route page will be displayed. To
review the active route, rotate the K knob. The scrolling arrow prompt will indicate
which direction to scroll to view additional waypoints, while the ‘if’, ‘ff’ and ‘mp’ designators will indicate the IAF, FAF and MAP respectively.
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When the aircraft is within 30 nautical miles of the destination airport, the GPS
155 will display the ‘Arm approach mode’ (if the GPS APPR switch is not set to the
ARM position) and ‘Need pres- press NAV’ messages.
APPROACH NAVIGATION
Flying the Approach
To fly the GPS approach (without radar vectors):
1. Arm the GPS approach by setting/confirming the GPS APPR switch is in the ARM position.
The CDI scale will begin a steady transition from the 5.0 nm to the 1.0 nm scale as you
make your way to the FAF. The approach may be armed at any time after an approach has
been selected. If the approach has not been armed and the aircraft is within 3 nm of the
FAF, the GPS 155 will prompt you to arm the approach again.
2. Enter the barometric pressure at the destination airport on the Position page when the
‘Need pres- press NAV’ message appears.
3. The GPS 155 will automatically sequence to each waypoint in the approach, with CDI,
course and timing guidance to each waypoint. For each waypoint in the approach, the GPS
155’s turn anticipation and waypoint alerting features will provide three pilot cues:
a. The waypoint annunciator will flash approximately 15 seconds before reaching the
turning point for each approach waypoint, and glow steadily approximately 2 seconds
prior to the turn anticipation point.
b. The ‘Next dtk’ prompt will flash in the CDI field. Set the HSI course select to the next
dtk value when the waypoint annunciator starts flashing. Start the turn when the
annunciator glows steadily.
NEED PRES - PRESS NAV
The altimeter setting of the destination airport
needs to be entered on the Position page.
IMPORTANT! Entering an incorrect altimeter
setting will directly affect the GPS 155’s ability to
provide accurate navigation guidance.
c. The To/From indicator flag on the GPS CDI will flip momentarily to indicate you have
transitioned to the next approach leg.
For more information on turn anticipation and waypoint alerting, please refer to Section 3.
4. If a procedure turn is required:
a. 2 miles prior to crossing the waypoint outbound, set the GPS SEQ switch to HOLD.
b. At the waypoint, set the outbound course on the HSI.
(continued on next page)
Enter the altimeter setting on the Position page.
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
Flying the Approach
c. Fly the procedure turn. After the procedure turn outbound, set the inbound course on
the HSI.
d. On the inbound intercept to the final course, fly to center the CDI.
e. Set the GPS SEQ switch to the AUTO position. The GPS 155 will resume automatic
waypoint sequencing for the remaining approach waypoints.
6. Once the aircraft is within 2 nm of the FAF (and the approach has been armed), the ‘ACTV’
annunciator will illuminate and the CDI scale will ramp down to 0.3 nm.
NOTE: If the ACTV annunciator does not illuminate, do not descend after crossing the FAF
and fly all published missed approach procedures.
7. Upon reaching the FAF, the GPS 155 will automatically sequence to the MAP waypoint.
To fly a missed approach procedure:
After crossing the MAP, press the D key to display the missed approach holding point.
If you have clearance directly to the holding point,
press ENTER. You must fly all published missed
approach procedures before navigating to the
holding point.
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If an approach is terminated, the GPS 155 may be used to navigate to the missed approach
holding point using one of the following procedures.
NOTE: To comply with TSO specifications, the GPS 155 will not automatically sequence
to the missed approach holding point. The first waypoint of the missed approach will be
displayed as the next D waypoint. After crossing the MAP, the pilot may activate the
waypoint when authorized. You must fly all published missed approach procedures before
selecting the missed approach holding point on the GPS.
If the approach procedure permits navigation direct from the MAP to the missed
approach holding point:
1. Release the GPS SEQ switch from the ARM position to return the CDI scale to the 1 nm
sensitivity. After the MAP has been crossed, press the D key. The GPS 155 will automatically display the first waypoint of the missed approach as the next approach waypoint.
2. Press E to confirm the destination. The GPS 155 will provide a direct navigation course
to the waypoint.
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If you’re not authorized to fly direct-to the missed approach holding point:
1. Release the GPS SEQ switch from the ARM position to return the CDI scale to the 1 nm
sensitivity. After the MAP has been crossed, press the D key. The GPS 155 will automatically display the first waypoint of the missed approach as the next approach waypoint.
APPROACH NAVIGATION
Missed Approach
2. Press E to confirm the destination.
3. Stop automatic waypoint sequencing by setting the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position.
4. Fly the published missed approach procedure. Select the intercept to the missed approach
holding point on the HSI.
5. Leave the GPS SEQ switch in the HOLD position to accomodate holding at the missed
approach holding point.
After a missed approach, the GPS 155 will allow you to repeat the same approach
procedure and select whatever approach waypoint you have been cleared to as the
next active to waypoint. Before reactivating the approach, make sure you fly all published missed approach procedures. If you disarmed the approach during the course
of the previous attempt, be sure to set the GPS APPR switch to the ARM position.
To reactivate the same approach for another attempt:
1. Press the R key and rotate O to select the active route page.
Select the waypoint you have clearance to from
the active route page and press D.
Confirm the starting waypoint for the next
attempt by pressing ENTER.
2. Press C and rotate O to place the flashing cursor over the identifier of the approach
waypoint you have been given direct clearance to.
3. Press the D key, followed by E. The GPS 155 will provide navigation for the repeat
approach, starting with the approach waypoint you have selected.
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
Approach Select Page
The GPS 155’s approach select page allows you to review the available approach
procedures at the destination airport. From the procedures list, you may select and
activate a new procedure on the fly. The active approach is indicated by an on-screen
asterisk, and the scrolling arrow prompt indicates which direction to scroll to view
additional procedures.
To select or replace a procedure from the approach select page:
1. Press the R key and rotate O until the approach select page appears.
2. To review all available procedures, rotate K.
3. To select a procedure, press C and rotate O to highlight the desired procedure.
4. Press E. If there are multiple IAFs for the selected approach, rotate O to select the
desired IAF and press E.
Approach Select Page.
You may also replace or delete the active approach for any route from the route
catalog page.
To replace or delete an approach from the route catalog page:
1. Press the R key and rotate O until the route catalog page appears.
Approach Procedures Page.
2. Press C and rotate K until the ‘approach?’ prompt appears. Press E.
3. To replace the active approach procedure, rotate O to highlight the desired procedure
and press E. If there are multiple IAFs for the selected approach, rotate O to select
the desired IAF and press E.
4. To delete the active approach (denoted by an asterisk), highlight the approach and press
\, followed by E.
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UNDERSTANDING GPS APPROACHES
APPROACH NAVIGATION
Understanding GPS Approaches
The GPS 155 is the first GPS certified to meet the requirements of TSO C-129
Category A1. When using the GPS 155 for non-precision approaches, you’ll
encounter two types of approaches: overlay approaches (based on existing procedures) and GPS approaches (new approaches designed specifically for GPS). The FAA
has approved a large number of overlay approaches, with plans to add as many GPS
approaches as possible to take advantage of the safety and convenience of GPS.
Flying a GPS approach is not difficult, and varies from conventional approaches
only in the operation of the equipment being used. Although you’ll often be following
the same flight path used in conventional approaches, the equipment operation procedures will be different from typical NDB or VOR approaches.
The following definitions, guidelines and examples will help you understand the
basic rules of GPS approaches, and offer four examples to guide you through some
typical approaches. Think through the approach examples— this will assist you in
getting the greatest benefit from the GPS 155.
GPS approaches must be in the current aviation
database to be approved.
Basic Rules of GPS Approaches
There are a few basic rules that apply to all GPS approaches. Remembering these
rules will assist you in understanding the approach procedures and ensure the greatest margin of safety for your flight.
• The approach to be flown must be in the aviation database, and the database
must be current.
• You may select the desired approach and arm the approach mode at any
time after the destination airport is selected. If the GPS APPR switch is not set
to ARM within 2 nm inbound to the final approach fix, the approach will not
become active, which precludes descent at the FAF.
TSO C-129 requires that satellite coverage and
navigational accuracy provided by the GPS system meets minimum standards.
A ‘No RAIM from FAF to MAP’ message will
appear if RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for
an approach. Do not plan on conducting a GPS
approach. Refer to Appendix C for a complete list
of RAIM messages and page 111 for more information on RAIM during approach navigation.
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
Basic Rules of GPS Approaches (continued)
Basic Rules of GPS Approaches
• If you cross the same waypoint twice in succession during an approach, you
must set the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position PRIOR to crossing the
bisector of the course line at the fix the first time (no matter what the crosstrack distance from the waypoint) to prevent the GPS from sequencing to the
next waypoint.
• The HSI course select should always be set 2 seconds BEFORE changing the
GPS SEQ from HOLD to AUTO to ensure the desired course to the next waypoint is settled prior to use by the GPS and give the autopilot sufficient time
to react to the heading change.
• GPS always displays distance to the currently active waypoint. When determining distance along the approach, use caution to determine the correct distance from the approach chart.
Cumulative distance displayed on the active
route page.
• For the approach to become active:
• The GPS APPR switch must be set to the ARM position.
• The GPS SEQ switch must be set to AUTO (verify that the GPS APPR
ACTV light is illuminated before descending beyond the FAF).
RAIM may be predicted from NAV Menu 2.
• You must cross within 2 nm of the FAF along the inbound course to the
final approach fix (keep in mind that the CDI scale will be at 0.3 nm).
• RAIM must be available (the GPS 155 automatically monitors RAIM, and
will display a message if it is not available) from the FAF to the MAP. If
RAIM is not available or becomes unavailable during this leg, the HSI NAV
flag will appear, and you must fly the missed approach procedure.
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• When executing a missed approach, you must fly all published procedures
before proceeding to the missed approach holding point on the GPS.
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Basic Rules of GPS Approaches (continued)
APPROACH NAVIGATION
GPS Approach Examples
• If you are off course to the MAP waypoint and use a direct-to to re-center the
d-bar, the active approach mode will be cancelled.
• SUA alerts are disabled when an approach is selected and armed, and the aircraft is less than 30 nm from the destination airport. SUA information is still
available from the NRST key at all times.
GPS APPROACH EXAMPLES
In the examples that follow, the GPS waypoints are shown along the approach
path. In some cases, intermediate database waypoints have been added to some
approaches. These waypoints are named using lower case letters using the following
convention (the most common database waypoints are defined below). Note that
these waypoints are not charted on NOS approach plates. They do appear on current
Jeppesen approach charts.
• dyyyj—
DME arc waypoint where yyy is the radial from the
reference facility (VOR)
• cfxx or cfxxx— course fix for runway xx or radial xxx
• ffxx or ffxxx— final approach fix for runway xx or radial xxx
• rwxx—
runway xx threshold
• nxxhp—
NDB approach runway xx intermediate holding pattern waypoint
• maxx or maxxx— missed approach point for runway xx or radial xxx
• vxxhp—
VOR approach runway xx intermediate holding pattern waypoint
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
EXAMPLE 1— NEW GPS APPROACH
Example 1 uses the GPS approach into Frederick Municipal Airport (KFDK) and
illustrates the basic sequence of selecting and flying a GPS approach, and flying
directly to a missed approach holding point. Please refer to the previous sections of
this chapter for expanded keystroke instructions.
GPS Approach Example
8°
04
22
GPS RWY 5
FREDERICK MUNI (FDK)
8°
1. Select the destination airport (KFDK) using the D key, or create and activate a route
to the destination airport.
RUSSY
2. Select the desired approach (gps rw05) from the Approach Select page. The GPS 155
will automatically select MRB as the IAF since it is the only IAF available.
3. 30 nm from the destination, set/confirm the GPS APPR switch to the ARM position. The
CDI will automatically begin a smooth transition from the 5.0 nm to the 1.0 nm scale.
04
8°
(MAP)
MYRTA
300
120 0
(16 °
.5)
2000
048° (2.5)
(FAF)
BAKEE
2.5 NM FROM BAKEE
IAF
MARTINSBURG
SUSII
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB TO 3000 DIRECT
RUSSY AND HOLD
SUSII
3000
2.5 NM FROM
BAKEE
BAKEE
2700
2000
2700
048° (2.5)
048
°
MYRTA
MAP
3.10°
2.5 NM
2.5 NM
3.8 NM
5. Fly the approach. The GPS will provide navigation to each approach waypoint in sequence:
• MRB (Initial Approach Fix)
• SUSII
• BAKEE (Final Approach Fix)
• MYRTA (Missed Approach Point)
• RUSSY (Missed Approach Holding Point)
6. Set the HSI course to DTK at each waypoint. The CDI will automatically transition from
the 1.0 to 0.3 nm scale when you are within 2.0 nm of the FAF, and the unit will warn you
if RAIM is not available for your approach.
1.2
DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
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4. Enter the current altimeter setting of KFDK on the Position page when prompted with the
‘Need pres- press NAV’ message.
7. To fly the missed approach procedure, cross the MAP and climb to 3000 feet. For direct
navigation guidance to the missed approach holding point, press D
followed by E after crossing the MAP.
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
EXAMPLE 2— VOR/GPS OVERLAY
VOR/GPS Overlay Example
1. Select and arm the VOR/GPS RW19 approach. Enter the current altimeter setting of KMKC
when the ‘Need pres- press NAV’ message appears.
R-01
3
Example 2 uses the VOR/GPS RWY 19 approach into Kansas City Downtown
Airport (KMKC) from the south and illustrates an approach with a procedure turn,
which requires the pilot to set the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position prior to
crossing the IAF the first time. This example also illustrates the procedures required
when direct navigation to the missed approach holding point is not available.
KANSAS CITY
193°
2600
154° (4.7)
°
238
°
058
(IAF)
JAMES INT
RIS 5.3
193°
2. Fly towards the IAF of the approach (the JAMES intersection).
R-2
81
048
260
28 0
(21 1°
.2)
228
°
3. Two nm BEFORE crossing the IAF, set the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position. This
prevents the GPS 155 from automatically sequencing to the missed approach point before
the required procedure turn is completed.
VOR RWY 19
KANSAS CITY
DOWNTOWN (MKC)
R-260
°
RIVERSIDE
5. Initiate the procedure turn and set the 193º inbound course on the HSI. As you turn to the
inbound intercept heading, set the GPS SEQ switch to the AUTO position. The GPS SEQ
switch must be set to the AUTO position for the approach to go active.
6. Complete the approach by landing, or follow the missed approach procedure.
7. To fly the missed approach procedure, cross the MAP and climb to 3000 feet
via heading 240º and press D, followed by E. This will select the missed approach
holding point as your active to waypoint.
NAPOLEON
10
EN
RO
UT
E
NM
FA
CIL
ITIE
S
JAMES INT
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB RIGHT TURN TO 3000
ON HEADING 240° THEN VIA
R-260 TO ANX VORTAC
AND HOLD.
JAMES INT
RIS 7
9. Set the HSI to the 080º heading and intercept the inbound course to the holding point.
REMAIN
WITHIN 10 NM
013
°
2600
VOR/DME
8. Since direct navigation to the holding waypoint is not authorized, set the GPS SEQ switch
to the HOLD position to prevent automatic waypoint sequencing.
49
R-1
4. After crossing the IAF, set the 013º outbound course on the HSI.
193°
2500
4.5 NM
DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
EXAMPLE 3— VOR/DME ARC OVERLAY
VOR/DME ARC Example
Example 3 uses the VOR/DME RWY 21 approach into Topeka/Forbes Field
Airport (KFOE) and illustrates an approach based on a DME arc. Although DME arc
approaches are not based on a direct course, the GPS 155 will still provide approach
navigation guidance through the arc by constantly displaying your distance and bearing from the DME reference navaid on the Position page. To fly the arc, monitor the
distance displayed on the Position page and manually adjust your heading to maintain the course along the arc. When flying a DME arc, the GPS SEQ switch must be
set to the HOLD position to ensure proper CDI operation.
NoPT
rc
7 A 3000
205° (7)
20
3000
TO P
5°
VOR/DME RWY 21
TOPEKA/
FORBES FIELD (FOE)
2
1 M 05 °
20 IN
5°
(IAF)
1. Select and arm the VOR RW21 approach and select the D094G initial approach fix to fly
the left hand arc from the 094º radial. Enter the current altimeter setting of KFOE when
the ‘Need pres- press NAV’ message appears.
PT
0 No
300
Arc
P 7
TO
IAF
TOPEKA
R-258
(IAF)
R-094
2. Fly to the IAF of the DME arc (D094G). The GPS WPT annunciator will flash 15 seconds
before you reach the waypoint.
200
°
2600
(7)
TOP
7
3. After crossing the IAF, set the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position.
4. Set the desired inbound course (205º) on the CDI/HSI.
04
8°
22
8°
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB TO 3000 VIA HEADING
240° AND TOP R-213 TO
ERASE 25 DME AND HOLD.
TOP
12
VORTAC
ONE MINUTE
HOLDING PATTERN
TOP
7
200°
ERASE
TOP 25
025°
205°
5. Press N and rotate O to display the Position page. The Position page will display the
DME navaid as the reference waypoint (on the bottom line) as long as your active to waypoint is part of the DME arc you are flying.
3000
2600
5 NM
7 NM
DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
76
6. Monitor your distance and bearing from the DME navaid along the arc.
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
EXAMPLE 4— RADAR VECTORS TO FINAL APPROACH COURSE
Example 4 uses the same VOR/DME RWY 21 approach into Topeka/Forbes Field
Airport (KFOE) used in example 3 and illustrates an approach using radar vectors to
a point 3 miles out from the final approach fix. To fly a radar vector approach, you
must still select a desired approach and IAF from the database and set the GPS SEQ
switch to HOLD while you fly the vectors to the active approach waypoint. To
accommodate radar vectors, the GPS 155 allows manual selection of any approach
waypoint as the destination waypoint.
3000
TO P
NoPT
rc
7 A 3000
205° (7)
20
VOR/DME RWY 21
TOPEKA
/FORBES FIELD (FOE)
5°
Radar Vector Example
2
1 M 05 °
20 IN
5°
(IAF)
1. Select and arm the desired approach and initial approach fix. Enter the current altimeter
setting of the destination airport when the ‘Need pres- press NAV’ message appears.
PT
0 No
300
Arc
P 7
TO
IAF
TOPEKA
R-258
(IAF)
R-094
200
°
2600
(7)
2. When you are advised by the controller that you will be receiving radar vectors to the final
approach course:
• Activate the final approach fix waypoint from the Active Route page:
a. Press the R key and rotate O until the Active Route page appears.
TOP
7
b. Press C to activate the flashing cursor.
c. Rotate O until the ‘ff’ (FAF) waypoint flashes.
d. Press D, followed by E.
04
8°
22
8°
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB TO 3000 VIA HEADING
240° AND TOP R-213 TO
ERASE 25 DME AND HOLD.
TOP
12
ONE MINUTE
HOLDING PATTERN
TOP
7
200°
ERASE
TOP 25
• Set the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position.
VORTAC
025°
205°
2600
5 NM
3000
3. Set the 200º inbound course on the HSI. As the CDI needle begins to center to the final
approach course, set the GPS SEQ switch to the AUTO position to resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
7 NM
4. Complete the approach by landing or perform the missed approach procedure.
DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
The Jeppesen database used in the GPS 155 features Standard Terminal Arrival
Routes (STARs) and Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs) that may be placed into
any active or stored route.
Selecting & Activating SIDs
Available SIDs may be selected at any time for the active route as long as the
departure airport is the first route waypoint and the route contains more than one
waypoint. Activating a SID or STAR will modify the waypoint sequence of Route 0. If
you’d like to save the contents of Route 0, be sure to copy it to an empty route first.
To select and activate a SID:
1. Press R and rotate O until the SID Select page appears.
2. Press C and rotate O until the SID name flashes.
3. Press E. The SID waypoints will be inserted in the route.
Selecting a SID.
If a SID has more than one runway or transition, the SID Select page will display
the available runway designations and/or transitions.
To select a transition:
1. Rotate O until the transition name flashes and press E.
Selecting a SID transition.
To select a runway:
1. Rotate O until the runway designation name flashes and press E.
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
Selecting & Deleting SIDs
The SID select page also allows you to review all the available SIDs for the departure
airport and select, delete or change the active SID.
To replace the active SID with another SID:
1. Press R and rotate O until the SID Select page appears.
2. Press C and rotate O to select the desired new SID. Press E.
To delete the active SID:
1. Press R and rotate O until the SID Select page appears.
2. Press C. The active SID (denoted by an asterisk) will flash.
3. Press \, followed by E. The SID waypoints will be removed from the active route.
SIDs can also be selected and deleted from storage routes through the Route Catalog page.
To select a SID from the Route Catalog page:
The SID select page allows you to select a new
SID on the fly.
1. Display the desired route on the Route Catalog page.
2. Select ‘sid?’ in the route action field and press E.
3. Select the desired SID and transitions.
SIDs may be saved with any stored route.
4. The SID waypoints will be inserted into the route and the Route Review page will be displayed.
To replace a SID from the Route Catalog page:
1. Display the desired route on the Route Catalog page.
2. Select ‘sid?’ in the route action field and press E.
3. Select the desired new SID and transitions.
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4. The SID waypoints will be inserted into the route and the Route Review page
will be displayed.
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To delete a SID from the Route Catalog page...
1. Display the desired route on the Route Catalog page.
APPROACH NAVIGATION
Selecting & Activating STARs
2. Select ‘sid?’ in the route action field and press E.
3. Rotate O to highlight the active SID (denoted by an asterisk). Press \, then E.
Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) used in the GPS 155 are selected and activated with the same procedures as SIDs. Available STARs may be selected at any time for
the active route as long as the arrival airport is the last active route waypoint or direct-to
waypoint. Activating a STAR will modify the sequence of waypoints in Route 0. If you’d
like to save the contents of Route 0, be sure to copy it to an empty route first.
To select and activate a STAR:
1. Press R and rotate O until the STAR select page appears.
Selecting a STAR.
3. Press C and rotate O until the desired STAR flashes.
4. Press E. The STAR waypoints will be inserted in the route.
If a STAR has more than one transition or runway, the STAR select page will
display the transitions and/or runway designations available.
Selecting a STAR transition.
To select a transition:
1. Rotate O until the desired transition flashes and press E.
To select a runway:
1. Rotate O until the runway designation flashes and press E.
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APPROACH NAVIGATION
Selecting & Deleting STARs
The STAR select page also allows you to review all available STARs for the destination airport and select, delete or replace the active STAR.
To replace the active STAR:
1. Press R and rotate O until the STAR select page appears.
2. Press C and use O to select a new STAR. Press E.
To delete a STAR:
1. Press R and rotate O until the STAR select page appears.
2. Press C. The active STAR name (denoted by an asterisk) will flash.
3. Press \, followed by E. The STAR waypoints will be removed from Route 0.
STARs can also be selected and deleted from storage routes through the Route Catalog page.
To select or replace a STAR from the Route Catalog page:
Deleting the active STAR.
1. Display the desired route on the Route Catalog page.
2. Select ‘star?’ in the route operations field and press E.
3. Select the desired STAR and transitions. The STAR waypoints will be inserted into the route and
the Route Review page will be displayed.
STARs may be saved in any storage route.
To delete a STAR from the Route Catalog page:
1. Display the desired route on the Route Catalog page.
2. Select ‘star?’ in the route action field and press E.
3. Rotate O to highlight the active STAR (denoted by an asterisk). Press \ followed by E. The
STAR waypoints will be deleted from the route.
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Section 5
Unit Settings
UNIT SETTINGS
Overview
Many of the GPS 155’s navigation features can be customized to your own preferences, allowing the pilot to choose how and when the unit displays certain information. The GPS 155 also provides extensive information on satellite tracking and signal
strength to aid in monitoring performance and alerting you to problems with antenna
installation or receiver problems.
All of the GPS 155’s settings are accessed by pressing the S key. Once the S
key is pressed, the last settings page viewed will be displayed. The following pages of
satellite status and user-defined settings are available:
•
•
•
•
•
Satellite status
Route settings
Nearest airport search
Trip timer settings
SUA alert settings
•
•
•
•
•
CDI Settings
Magnetic variation/Arrival alarm
Battery saver
Navigation units
Map Datums
To view any settings page:
Satellite Status Page.
Nearest Airport Search Page.
1. Press S. The last page viewed from the S key will be displayed.
2. Rotate O with the flashing cursor inactive until the desired page is displayed. Page
selection will cycle through all available pages as the outer knob is rotated to the right,
and page selection will stop at the Satellite status page when the outer knob is rotated to
the left continuously.
The GPS 155’s satellite status page provides satellite information to monitor GPS
Navigation Units Page.
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UNIT SETTINGS
Satellite Status Page
coverage and receiver performance. This can be helpful when you may be experiencing a problem with low signal levels due to poor coverage or installation problems.
To view the satellite status page:
1. Press S and rotate O until the satellite status page appears
Receiver Status
Satellite status page displaying DOP.
EPE/DOP Field
Signal Strength Field
Satellite Numbers
The top line of the status page displays the receiver status and the current DOP or EPE. Dilution of precision (DOP) is
a measure of the satellite geometry quality and relative accuracy of your position,
with 1 meaning good geometry and 10 meaning poor. Estimated position error (EPE)
is an overall measure of your positional accuracy in feet or meters using signal and
data quality, receiver tracking status and DOP.
To view information on DOP/EPE:
1. Press S and rotate O to display the satellite status page.
2. If the desired field (EPE or DOP) is not displayed, press C.
84
3. Use K to change between ‘epe’ and ‘dop’, press C to finish.
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The receiver status field, located at the top left of the page, can display the following messages under various conditions:
UNIT SETTINGS
Status Page
Search sky - The GPS 155 is searching the sky for visible satellites. You will be
informed with the message ‘Searching the sky’.
Acquiring - The GPS 155 is acquiring satellites for navigation.
2D Nav
- The GPS 155 is in 2D navigation mode. If your installation does
not include an altitude serializer, you must enter the altitude
manually (see page 2.)
3D Nav
- The GPS 155 is in 3D navigation mode and will compute
altitude.
Simulator
- The GPS 155 is in simulator mode, which should only be used
for practice and trip planning. NEVER use simulator for actual
navigation.
Searching the Sky.
Poor cvrg - The GPS 155 cannot acquire sufficient satellites for navigation.
Need alt
- The GPS 155 needs altitude in order to start/continue navigation.
Go to the position page and enter the altitude.
Need pres - The GPS 155 needs the current altimeter (barometric pressure) setting at the approach airport. Enter the altimeter setting on the
Position page.
Acquiring satellite data.
Not usable - The GPS 155 is unusable due to incorrect initialization or abnormal satellite conditions. Turn the unit off and back on again. If this
does not help, return the unit to an authorized GARMIN dealer for
service.
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UNIT SETTINGS
Status & CDI Setup
The second and third lines of the satellite status page provide the satellite number
and signal strength of each satellite in view. Additional information regarding each
satellite’s azimuth, elevation and other data is also available.
To view individual satellite information:
1. Press S and use O to display the satellite status page.
2. Press C to obtain a cursor.
3. Use O to highlight the satellite number you wish to view and press E.
This will display the satellite data page, showing the selected satellite’s number,
elevation angle, rise or fall indication, user range accuracy (URA, or the range
measurement accuracy as determined by the satellite), azimuth and signal strength.
To view other satellites:
Viewing individual satellite information.
4. Rotate K to view information on the next satellite.
5. Rotate O and press C on the satellite status page when you are finished.
The next available page under the S key is the CDI settings page, which
allows you to define the scale of the GPS 155’s course deviation indicator.
The CDI setting will be reset to the AUTO position whenever a GPS approach is armed, selected
or the unit is powered down. The AUTO setting
allows the CDI to smoothly transition from the
5.0 nm to the 0.3 nm scale during an approach.
To change the CDI scale:
1. Press S and rotate O to select the ‘CDI Settings’ page.
2. Press C and rotate K to select either ‘Auto’, ‘5.0 nm’, ‘1.0 nm’, or ‘0.3 nm’.
3. Rotate O to highlight ‘ok?’ and press E to approve.
86
The scale values represent full scale deflection of the CDI to either side.
NOTE: The selected CDI scale will not take effect until approved.
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The route settings page allows you to select between automatic and manual
route sequencing and turn the automatic leg select feature on and off. Automatic
route sequencing changes the active leg of a route when the current leg is complete
(you have reached the ‘active to’ waypoint). Automatic leg selection chooses the
route leg closest to your present position as the active leg. Whenever a GPS approach
is armed, selected or the unit is powered down, the auto leg sequencing option will
be reset to the automatic setting.
UNIT SETTINGS
Route Settings Page
To change route settings (auto leg sequencing and auto leg selection):
1. Press S and rotate O to highlight the ‘Route settings’ page.
2. Press C and use K to turn the auto leg sequencing on or off.
3. Rotate O to advance the cursor and use K to turn auto leg selection on or off.
4. Press C when finished.
Route settings with automatic leg selection off.
If manual leg sequencing is selected, you must manually advance the active route
to the next waypoint after completing each route leg. Manual leg sequencing can also
be used with the GPS SEQ switch to dial in the desired inbound course to the next
route waypoint from your HSI.
To manually sequence the active route legs:
1. Press R and use O to display the active route page.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight the waypoint.
Whenever a GPS approach is armed, selected or
the unit is powered off, the automatic waypoint
sequencing option will be reset to the on position.
3. Press D. Press E to confirm the waypoint.
4. The GPS 155 will change the leg of the active route, making the selected waypoint the
‘active to’ waypoint.
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UNIT SETTINGS
Leg Selection/Mag Var Setup
Automatic leg selection chooses the route leg closest to your present position as
the active leg. If you have selected the manual leg selection option, you can manually
select any route leg as the active route leg by performing an ‘on-route’ direct-to. An
on-route direct-to will provide direct course navigation to the selected waypoint and
begin navigation of the remainder of the route in sequence, provided the auto leg
sequencing option is selected.
To manually select the active (starting leg):
1. Press C and use O to highlight the beginning waypoint of the desired leg from the
active route page.
2. Press D. Press E to confirm the waypoint.
The GPS 155 offers three magnetic variation options: true, auto or user defined.
User magnetic variation.
To set the magnetic variation:
1. Press S and use O to display the ‘Mag Var/Arvl Alarm’ page.
2. Press C and use K to select auto, true or user.
Auto magnetic variation.
3. If user is selected, use O to highlight the magnetic variation value and use K and O
to enter the value, and E or W.
4. Press C.
If ‘auto’ is selected, all track, course and heading information will be corrected
with the magnetic variation computed by the GPS 155. The ‘true’ setting will reference all information to true north, while the ‘user’ setting will correct information to
the value you enter.
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The GPS 155’s arrival alarm can be set to notify the pilot with a message when you
have reached a user defined distance to a destination waypoint. Once you have reached
the set distance (up to 99.9 units), an ‘Arrival at _____’ message will be displayed.
UNIT SETTINGS
Arrival Alarm/Nearest Airports
To set the arrival alarm distance:
1. Press S and use O to display the ‘Mag Var/Arvl Alarm’ page.
2. Press C and use O to select the arrival distance field.
3. Use K and O to enter the desired distance. Press E to accept the distance.
4. Press C to finish.
The nearest airport search settings allow you to define the runway length and
surface type used in determining the nine nearest airports that are displayed. A minimum
runway distance and surface may be entered to prevent airports with small runways, or
runways that are not of appropriate surface, from being displayed. The default settings are
‘0 ft/mt’ for runway length and ‘any’ for runway surface.
Arrival alarm set to 7.0 nm.
To set the minimum runway length and runway surface:
1. Press S and use O to display the ‘Nearest apt search’ page.
2. Press C and use K and O to enter the minimum runway length upon which your aircraft
can land (up to 9999 units). Press E to accept the distance.
Nearest Airport Search Page.
3. Rotate K to display the surface selection you desire. Choices include:
• any surface
• soft/hard surface
• hard only surface
• water only surface
4. Use O to select ‘ok?’ and press E to confirm.
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UNIT SETTINGS
Battery Saver/Trip Timer
The GPS 155 battery saver feature can be programmed to automatically turn off
the display when using battery power. This will increase the GPS 155’s battery life in
event of power failure. During this time, the GPS 155 will continue to navigate, track
satellites and drive the external CDI/HSI, but not display information on the unit’s
display until a key is pressed or a knob is turned.
To set the display timeout:
1. Press S and rotate O to display the ‘Battery saver’ page.
2. Press C to activate the cursor.
3. Rotate K until the desired value is displayed (0, 30, 60 or 90 seconds). Entering 0 will
leave the display on at all times. Press C to complete.
Battery Saver Page.
The trip timer provides a running clock on NAV Menu 2 (see page 19), and can
be configured to run when power is on, or when your ground speed exceeds a userdefined minimum.
To change the trip timer settings:
1. Press S and use O to display the ‘Trip timer settings’ page.
Trip timer set to run when power is on.
2. Press C to activate the cursor.
3. Use K to select either ‘pwr is on’ or ‘gs exceeds’.
4. If you choose ‘pwr is on’, press C to complete.
5. If you choose ‘gs exceeds’, use O to highlight the speed field.
Trip timer set to run when speed exceeds 100
knots.
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6. Enter the speed using K and O.
7. Press E to accept, and C to complete.
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The GPS 155 can be configured to display data in standard or metric units of
measure. These apply to: distance, position, speed, altitude, fuel, pressure and
temperature.
UNIT SETTINGS
Units of Measure
To change the units of measure:
1. Press S and rotate O to display the nav units page.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight the field you would like to change.
3. Use K to change the unit of measure.
4. Rotate O to advance to the next field, or press C when finished.
The available units are:
position :
• degrees, minutes and seconds (dms) [hddd° mm’ ss.s”]
• degrees and minutes (dm) [hddd° mm.mmm’]
altitude :
• feet (ft)
vertical speed : • feet per minute (fpm)
• meters per second (mps)
nav units :
• meters per minute (mpm)
• nautical miles and knots (nm, kt)
• statute miles and miles per hour (mi and mh)
• kilometers and kilometers per hour (km and kh)
fuel :
• gallons (gl)
• kilograms (kg)
• liters (lt)
• imperial gallons (ig)
• pounds (lb)
pressure :
• inches of mercury (hg)
• millibars (mb)
temperature : • degrees Fahrenheit (°f)
Units of measure displayed in standard format.
• meters (mt)
• degrees Celsius (°c)
Units of measure in metric format.
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UNIT SETTINGS
SUA Settings
The Special Use Airspace settings page will allow you turn the controlled/
restricted airspace message alerts on or off. This will not affect the alerts being listed
on the nearest page. It will simply turn off the warning when you are approaching or
near an SUA. Warnings can be turned off for the following airspaces:
class B / cta : ICAO control area
class C / tma : ICAO Terminal Control Area
rstcd :
Restricted areas
SUA Settings Page.
moa : Military operations area
other : Other areas
SUA warnings for prohibited airspace can not be turned off. The ‘alt’ field, located
at the bottom of the SUA settings page, is an altitude buffer which ‘expands’ the vertical range of the SUA, so you will be notified if you are within a certain range of an
SUA. For example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and you are 500 feet above or below
an SUA, you will not be notified with an alert message; if you are less than 500 feet
above or below an SUA and projected to enter it, you will be notified with an alert
message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
To set the warnings or change the altitude buffer:
1. Press S and use O to display the SUA settings page.
2. Press C.
Altitude buffer set at 500 feet.
3. Rotate O to highlight the field you would like to change.
4. Use K to change to ‘on’ or ‘off’.
5. To change the altitude buffer, highlight the buffer value, and use K and O to change
the data. Press E to accept.
6. Press C to complete.
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The GPS 155 contains over 100 map datums for you to use when navigating. By
default, your unit calculates positions using the WGS-84 map datum. If you are using
charts based on another datum, you must set the GPS 155 to use the same datum.
Using a map datum that does not match the sectionals you are using can result in significant differences in position information. If you are using maps for reference only,
the GPS 155 will provide correct navigation guidance to the waypoints contained in
the database regardless of the datum selected.
UNIT SETTINGS
Using Map Datums
To change the map datum to one listed in Appendix E:
1. Press S and use O to display the ‘Map datum’ page.
2. Press C.
3. Use O to highlight the current map datum.
4. Use K to change the datum.
5. Press C to complete.
Map Datum Page.
To create a user datum:
1. Press S and use O to display the ‘Map datum’ page.
2. Press C.
3. Use O to highlight ‘Define user datum?’. Press E.
Defining user map datum.
4. Enter the 5 parameters of the map datum using K and O. Press E to accept a field.
The signs of each value (+/-) should follow the convention: WGS84-local geodetic system.
5. Use O to highlight ‘ok?’ and press E.
6. To activate the user datum, select ‘USER’ on the map datum page as described above.
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APPENDIX A
NavData Card Operation
Appendix A
NavData and UserData Installation and Operation
NavData® and UserData Card installation and operation
The NavData® card supplied with your GPS 155 can be installed or removed
ONLY when the GPS 155 is turned off. Insert the card with the thumb tab at the top,
and the beveled corner on the bottom right.
The UserData card can be used to make a backup of user waypoints, routes,
checklists, proximity alarms, etc. for later reference and use. The UserData card can
also be used to transfer the same information to another GPS 155.
To save the user data to the UserData card:
1. Install the UserData card.
UserData Card Installation.
2. Turn the GPS 155 on using B.
3. Use O to highlight ‘Save user data?’.
4. Press E.
UserData Transfer Page.
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The message ‘Saving to card’ is displayed while the GPS 155 transfers all user data
to the UserData card. It may take several minutes to complete the transfer. When all
user data is transferred, the GPS 155 will instruct you to turn the unit off, remove the
user card and insert the Jeppesen NavData® card. After this is complete, the GPS 155
is ready for normal operation.
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To restore user data from a UserData card to the GPS 155:
1. Install the UserData card.
APPENDIX A
NavData Card Operation
2. Turn the GPS 155 on using B.
3. Use O to highlight ‘Restore user data?’ and press E.
The GPS 155 will ask you which type of data to replace. You may choose checklists, scheduler messages, user waypoints, proximity waypoints, routes, waypoint
comments or all data.
4. Use K to select the type of data to replace.
You may either replace or update the information in the database. Replacing the
data will replace ALL user data with the data from the card. Updating the data will
not delete unrelated material, it will only change what is necessary to use the data
received from the UserData card.
Restoring data from a user data card.
5. Use O to select either ‘Replace?’ or ‘Update?’.
6. Press E to begin transferring data to the GPS 155. The GPS 155 will now transfer all
of the data requested. This may take several minutes.
7. To perform additional data transfer types, repeat steps 4- 6. Otherwise, press E.
8. Turn the GPS 155 off and replace the UserData card with a NavData® card. The GPS
155 is now ready for normal operation.
The GPS 155 must be turned off to remove and
install the NavData card.
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APPENDIX B
GPS 155 Installation/Removal
Appendix B
Installation, Removal and Maintenance of the GPS 155
The aviation rack is designed to allow easy removal of the GPS 155. This enables
you to use the unit at home to create routes, etc.
To install the GPS 155 into the aviation rack:
1. Insert a 3/32” allen wrench in the small hole adjacent to the dual knob.
The GPS 155 may be powered from an
optional AC adapter when used away from
the aircraft. The AC adapter will power
the unit and charge the NiCad battery.
With the GPS 155 off, a full charge will
occur in 12-14 hours. Do not connect the
unit to the AC adapter for more than 24
hours continuously.
2. Rotate the wrench counterclockwise until it stops to ensure the pawl latch is in the
proper position.
3. Insert the GPS 155 into the aviation rack and rotate the wrench clockwise to secure the unit.
To ease stress on the unit, it’s helpful to press on the left side of the unit to ensure a good fit.
To remove the GPS 155 from the aviation rack:
1. Insert a 3/32” allen wrench into the small hole adjacent to the dual knob.
2. Rotate the wrench counterclockwise until the GPS 155 can be removed from the rack
(stop when you feel a little resistance to the wrench).
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APPENDIX B
Maintenance
GPS 155 Maintenance
The GPS 155 is built to exacting standards and does not require user
maintenance. Should the faceplate and lens require cleaning, use a soft cloth and nonabrasive cleaner. The user data is maintained by an internal battery with a projected
life of 3 to 5 years. If the GPS 155 detects a low memory battery, you will be
informed with the message ‘Memory battery low’. You should return your unit to an
authorized GARMIN service center as soon as possible. Failure to do so may result in
loss of data each time you turn your unit off. This will GREATLY increase satellite
acquisition time and no user data will be saved. This condition will be accompanied
by the message ‘Stored data lost’.
The GPS 155 contains a crystal oscillator, which may drift after many years of
operation. If the unit detects excessive oscillator drift, you will be informed with the
message ‘Osc needs adjustment’. When this occurs, contact an authorized GARMIN
service center for service. Failure to do so may result in severely degraded
acquisition performance.
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APPENDIX C
Messages
Appendix C
GPS 155 Messages and Abbreviations
The GPS 155 uses the Message Page to communicate important information to you.
Some messages are advisory in nature, others are warnings that may require your intervention.
This appendix provides a complete list of GPS 155 messages and their meanings.
Altitude input fail
- The altitude serializer input is no longer available to the GPS
155. Check the I/O settings and/or the serializer installation. If
enough satellites are available for a 3D fix, no pilot action is
required, provided no RAIM warnings are present. If only a 2D
fix is possible, the pilot should maintain the GPS altitude within 1,000 feet of the pressure altitude from the Position page.
Approach deleted
- The selected approach was deleted from the route because not
enough room existed to insert a SID or STAR.
Approach not active - The approach could not transition to the active phase because
the GPS SEQ switch is set to the HOLD position, the GPS APPR
switch has not been set to the ARM position, the automatic CDI
scale is not selected, or the automatic leg sequencing option is
disabled. Do not descend at the FAF.
Arm approach mode - Approach navigation is available. Set the GPS APPR switch to
the ARM position.
Arrival at _____
- You have entered the arrival alarm circle for the indicated waypoint.
Arrvl at offst _____ - Your craft has entered the arrival alarm circle for the indicated
waypoint offset by the parallel track distance.
Auto CDI slctd
- The GPS 155 has reset the CDI scale preference to the AUTO
setting to permit approach navigation.
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Auto leg seq slctd
Battery low
Page 99
- The GPS 155 has reset the automatic leg sequencing option to
the ON setting to permit approach navigation.
- The battery pack is low on power. The battery pack should be
recharged for continued operation. This can be done while the
unit is in the aircraft.
- A problem has been detected in the battery pack. The unit
should be taken to an authorized GARMIN service center.
Cannot chng actv wpt - An attempt has been made to modify the position of the ‘active to’ or
‘active from’ waypoint. The GPS 155 will not allow the modifications.
Cannot chng wpt sqnc- An attempt has been made to modify an approach, SID or
STAR. The waypoint sequence of approaches, SIDs and STARs
may not be modified.
Cannot nav lockd rte - You have tried to activate a route containing a locked waypoint.
The GPS 155 cannot navigate in this condition.
Cannot ofst goto rte - An attempt has been made to engage the offset navigation feature
while the GPS 155 is navigating using a single waypoint route.
The GPS 155 will not allow offset navigation in this situation.
Checklist is full
- The selected checklist is full. No new items can be added until
existing items are deleted.
Collecting data
- The GPS 155 is collecting orbital data while searching the sky.
The antenna should have a good view of the sky and the GPS
155 should be allowed to finish data collection before turning
the unit off.
Comment memory full- The waypoint comment memory is full. You must delete existing waypoint comments before adding new ones.
Course input fail
- The course input from RS-422 or ARINC 429 is not available to
the GPS 155. Check the I/O settings and/or have the installation
checked by a certified technician.
Data card failed
- The GPS 155 has detected a problem with the data card. The
data is not usable and the card should be returned to Jeppesen
or an authorized GARMIN service center.
APPENDIX C
Messages
Battery rqrs service
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APPENDIX C
Messages
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Data card write fail
- The user data card failed to program. The card should be
returned to an authorized GARMIN service center.
Degraded accuracy - The GPS 155 has detected poor satellite geometry while in
approach mode while RAIM is unavailable. Additional cross
checking should be performed by the user to verify the integrity of the GPS 155 position.
Do not use for nav - The GPS 155 is in the simulator mode and must not be used
for actual navigation.
Final altitude alert - The suggested altitude is within 1000 feet of the final altitude
entered on the VNAV Planning Page.
Fuel/Air input fail
- The fuel and/or air data input is not available to the GPS 155.
Check the I/O settings and/or fuel/air data system installation.
Inside SUA
- You have entered a Special Use Airspace.
Invald CPA wpt ____ - The closest point of approach cannot be created from the waypoint
entered on the CPA Page. This occurs when the computed point
does not fall on one of the route legs, or when a unique waypoint
name for the closest point of approach cannot be found.
Invalid copy route
- A non-empty route was selected for a copy operation. A route
must be empty before another route can be copied to it.
Invalid CPA route
- The selected route contains less than two waypoints and cannot
be used for CPA operations.
Invalid SAR route
- The selected route does not contain exactly two waypoints and
cannot be used for SAR operations.
Leg not smoothed
- The upcoming leg is too short for smooth waypoint transitions.
Expect a rapid change in the CDI.
Memory battery low - The battery that sustains user memory is low and should be
replaced by an authorized GARMIN service center as soon as
possible. Failure to do so may result in loss of stored data,
including all user waypoints and routes.
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Near SUA < 2 nm
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- Your position is within 2 nautical miles of a Special Use
Airspace and your current course will NOT take you inside.
Need alt - press NAV - The GPS 155 needs altitude input in order to start and/or
continue 2D navigation. Press the NAV key and enter your
antenna altitude on the Position page. The altitude you enter
should be as accurate as possible. An inaccurate altitude will
directly translate into inaccurate position information.
Need pres - press NAV - The GPS 155 needs the pressure altitude for the destination airport
to navigate an approach.
No altitude input
- The GPS 155 has failed to receive altitude data from the parallel
input. Check the I/O settings and/or the installation. If enough
satellites are available for a 3D fix, no pilot action is required,
provided no RAIM warnings are present. If only a 2D fix is possible, the pilot should maintain the GPS altitude within 1,000
feet of the pressure altitude from the Position page.
No course input
- The GPS SEQ switch is set to the HOLD position and has no selected course input from the CDI/HSI. Check the state of configuration
switches if installed, or check the CDI/HSI unit.
No RAIM FAF to MAP - RAIM may not be available from the final approach fix to the missed
approach point. Continue to fly the approach, but be prepared to
cross check GPS navigation with other navigation sources if RAIM is
not available.
Offset nav cancelled - Offset navigation has been cancelled due to a direct-to operation
or activation of a new route.
Offset nav in effect - Offset navigation mode is in effect.
Ofst too big for rte - The parallel track distance is too large for the active route.
Osc needs adjustment - The GPS 155 has detected excessive drift in its internal crystal oscillator
which may result in longer acquisition time. The unit should be taken
to an authorized GARMIN service center immediately.
APPENDIX C
Messages
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APPENDIX C
Messages
Page 102
Poor GPS coverage
Prox alarm-press NAV
Proximity overlap
Proximity wpt locked
Proximity wpt moved
Proximty wpt deleted
Pwr down and re-init
RAIM not available
RAIM position warn
RAM failed
Ready for navigation
Received invalid wpt
102
- The GPS 155 cannot acquire sufficient satellites necessary to
provide navigation.
- Your craft has penetrated the alarm circle of a proximity waypoint.
Press N to see the bearing and distance to the proximity waypoint.
- The circles defined by two proximity waypoints overlap. When
entering the area of the overlap, the GPS 155 will alarm you of
the closest proximity waypoint, but not both. You should be
certain this condition is desirable.
- At least one proximity waypoint is locked because the waypoint
has been removed from the Jeppesen NavData®, the data card
is missing, or the data card has failed.
- One or more proximity waypoints were moved at least 0.33 arc
minutes due to a database change.
- One or more proximity waypoints were deleted while receiving
data.
- The GPS 155 is unusable until power has been cycled and the
unit re-initialized. Abnormal satellite conditions may exist.
- RAIM is unavailable for the phase of flight you are in (the HSI
NAV flag should also appear). Revert to alternate navigation.
- RAIM has detected position errors exceeding those allowed for
a given phase of flight. Revert to an alternative source of navigation.
- The GPS 155 has detected a failure in its internal memory. If
the message persists, the GPS 155 is unusable and should be
taken to an authorized GARMIN service center.
- The GPS 155 is ready for navigation.
- A waypoint was received in an upload operation that has an
invalid identifier or position.
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Receiver failed
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- The GPS 155 has detected a failure in the receiver hardware. If
the message persists, the GPS 155 is unusable and should be
taken to an authorized GARMIN service center.
ROM failed
- The GPS 155 has detected a failure in its permanent memory. If
this message occurs, the unit is unusable and should be taken
to an authorized GARMIN service center.
Route is empty
- An attempt has been made to activate an empty route.
Route is full
- An attempt has been made to add more than 31 waypoints to a
route. The GPS 155 will not allow more than 31 waypoints per
route.
Route wpt deleted
- One or more route waypoints were deleted.
Route wpt locked
- At least one route waypoint is locked because the waypoint has
been removed from the Jeppesen NavData®, the data card is
missing, or the data card has failed.
Route truncated
- The route was truncated because not enough room existed to
insert a SID, STAR or approach.
Route wpt moved
- One or more route waypoints were moved at least 0.33 arc minutes due to a database change.
SID deleted
- The SID was deleted from the route because of insufficient
space in the route.
STAR deleted
- The STAR was deleted from the route because of insufficient
space in the route.
Searching the sky
- The GPS 155 is in the search-the-sky mode. Allow the unit to
complete data collection before turning it off.
Select auto seq mode - The GPS SEQ switch should be set to the AUTO position to
continue navigation..
Set course to ___º
- The CDI/HSI should be set to the specified course.
Start altitude chng - The altitude change entered on the VNAV Planning page is
about to begin.
APPENDIX C
Messages
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APPENDIX C
Messages
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Steep turn ahead
- This message appears approximately 90 seconds prior to a turn
that requires a bank angle in excess of 25 degrees in order to stay
on course. Turn anticipation will not be provided by the GPS 155.
Stored data lost
- Stored user data, including waypoints, routes and satellite orbital
data have been lost due to a low memory battery, or inadvertent
master reset.
SUA ahead < 10 min - Your projected course and current speed will take you inside a
Special Use Airspace within the next 10 minutes.
SUA near & ahead - You are within two nautical miles of a Special Use Airspace and
your current course will take you inside.
Timer expired
- The approach timer has expired.
User data RX started - Data receive operations have started.
Usr data TX complete - Data transmit operations are complete.
VNAV cancelled
- The VNAV function has been cancelled due to a change in the
active route.
WGS 84 datum selectd -The system map datum was changed to WGS 84 because the
selected map datum has been removed from the NavData®
card, the data card is missing, or the data card has failed.
Wpt comment locked - At least one waypoint comment is locked because the waypoint
has been removed from the Jeppesen NavData®, the data card
is missing, or the data card has failed.
Wpt exists _____
- You have entered a waypoint name on the AutoStore™ Page or
User Waypoint Catalog Page that already exists in memory.
Enter a waypoint name that does not exist.
Wpt memory full
- The waypoint memory is full. You should delete unused waypoints to make room for new waypoints.
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The following section provides a complete list of GPS 155 abbreviations and their
meanings.
ALTAPPAPRAPTARVATFATSAVGSAZMBRGCASCDICL BCL CCLRCPACTACTAFCTFCTSCUMDALTDEGDEP-
Altitude
DISApproach
DME Approach
DOPAirport Waypoint
DTKArrival
ELEVAerodrome Traffic Frequency ENDURAutomatic Terminal Information EPEService (ATIS)
ESAAviation gas
ETAAzimuth (bearing)
ETEBearing
FLOWCalibrated Airspeed
FOBCourse Deviation Indicator
FPMClass B
FRClass C
FSSClearance Delivery
FTClosest Point of Approach
FTICAO Control Area
GLCommon Traffic Advisory
GNDFrequency
GPSCommon Traffic Advisory
GSFrequency
HDGCourse To Steer
HGCumulative
IALTDensity Altitude
ILSDegrees
IGDeparture
INT-
Distance To Waypoint
Distance Measuring Equipment
Dilution of Precision
Desired Track
Elevation
Endurance
Estimated Position Error
Enroute Safe Altitude
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time Enroute
Fuel Flow Rate
Fuel On Board
Feet Per Minute
From
Flight Service Station
Feet
Full time
Gallons
Ground
Global Positioning System
Ground Speed
Heading
Inches of Mercury
Indicated Altitude
Instrument Landing System
Imperial gallons
Intersection Waypoint
APPENDIX C
Abbreviations
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APPENDIX C
Abbreviations
106
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JET A- Jet fuel - Type A
JET B- Jet fuel - Type B
KHKilometers Per Hour
KMKilometers
KTKnots
LBPounds
LCLLocal
LENLength
LFOB- Leftover Fuel On Board
LFLOW- Left fuel flow
LOCLocalizer
LTLiters
MAG VAR-Magnetic Variation
MBMillibars Of Pressure
MFMandatory Frequency
MHStatute Miles Per Hour
MIStatute Miles
MINMinimum
MIN - Minutes
MOA- Military Operations Area
MPM- Meters Per Minute
MPSMeters Per Second
MSAMinimum Safe Altitude
MTMeters
MUL- Multicom
NDBNDB Waypoint
NMNautical Miles
NPNon-precision
NROBS-
Nearest
Omni-directional Bearing Select
(Inbound Course Select)
OTHOther
ºCDegrees Celsius
ºFDegrees Fahrenheit
PCPilot Controlled
POSN- Position
PRES- Barometric Pressure
(Altimeter setting)
PROX- Proximity
PRXProximity
PTPart Time
PTXPre-Taxi
PWR- Power
RDRRadar
REQRequired
RFReference
RFLOW- Right fuel flow
RNGRange
RNWY- Runway
RSTCD- Restricted
RSVReserves
RTERoute
RXReceive only
SARSearch And Rescue
SECSeconds
SEQSequence
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Signal
Standard Instrument
Departure
SLCT- Select
SRFC- Surface
STAR- Standard Terminal Arrival
Route
STRSteer To
TACAN- TACtical Air Navigational aid
TASTrue Airspeed
TAT Total Air Temperature
TEMP- Temperature
TMAICAO Terminal Control Area
TRKTrack Angle
TRNTransition
TRNTurn Angle
TRSA- Terminal Radar Service Area
TWR- Tower
TXTransmit only
UUTC time
UNIUnicom
URAUser Range Accuracy
USER- User Waypoint
USRUser Waypoint
UTCUniversal Time Coordinated
(GMT/ Zulu)
VNVNAV or Vertical Navigation
VNAVVORWPTWX-
Vertical Navigation
VOR Waypoint
Waypoint
Weather
APPENDIX C
Abbreviations
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APPENDIX D
Appendix D
Specifications
Specifications
PHYSICAL
Size:
Weight:
Rack Size:
Rack Weight:
6.25”W x 5.8”D x 2”H (159mm x 147mm x 51mm)
34 ounces (0.96kg)
6.32”W x 5.64”D x 2”H (161mm x 143mm x 51mm)
11 ounces (0.31kg)
POWER
Input:
Rechargeable battery pack (life of up to 90 minutes)
10-33V DC (aircraft power)
115V or 230V AC w/adapter
ENVIRONMENTAL
Temperature:
-4° F to 131° F (-20°C to 55°C) Operating
-67°F to 185°F (-55°C to 85°C) Storage
PERFORMANCE
Receiver:
Acquisition Time:
** Subject to accuracy degradation to 100m 2DRMS under
the US DOD-imposed Selective Availability Program.
108
Update Rate:
Accuracy:
Dynamics:
MultiTrac 8™
2-2.5 minutes (typical)
15 seconds (warm start, with ephemeris)
1 per second, continuously
15 meters (49ft.) RMS**
999 knots velocity, 3g acceleration
INTERFACES
ARINC 429, Plotting (NMEA 0183 V2.0), Aviation, Altitude Serializer,
Fuel Sensor, Fuel/Air Data Computer
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APPENDIX E
Appendix E
Map Datums
ADINDAN
Ethiopia, Mali, Senegal,
Sudan
Somalia
Bahrain Island, Saudi Arabia
Cocos Island
Botswana, Lesotho,
Malawi, Swaziland, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
ARC 1960
Kenya, Tanzania
ASCENSION IS 1958
Ascension Island
ASTRO B4 SOROL ATOLL Tern Island
ASTRO BEACON “E”
Iwo Jima
ASTRO DOS 71/4
St. Helena
ASTRONOMIC STN 1952 Marcus Island
AUSTRALIAN GEOD 1966 Australia, Tasmania Island
AUSTRALIAN GEOD 1984 Australia, Tasmania Island
AUSTRIA NS
Austria
BELGIUM 1950
Belgium
BELLEVUE (IGN)
Efate and Erromango
Islands
BERMUDA 1957
Bermuda Islands
BOGOTA OBSERVATORY Colombia
BUKIT RIMPAH
Indonesia
CAMP AREA ASTRO
Antarctica
CAMPO INCHAUSPE
Argentina
CANTON ASTRO 1966
Phoenix Islands
CAPE
South Africa
CAPE CANAVERAL
Florida, Bahama Islands
CARTHAGE
Tunisia
CH-1903
Switzerland
CHATHAM 1971
Chatham Island (New
Zealand)
CHUA ASTRO
Paraguay
CORREGO ALEGRE
Brazil
DANISH GI 1934
Denmark
DJAKARTA (BATAVIA)
Sumatra Island (Indonesia)
DOS 1968
Gizo Island
(New Georgia Islands)
EASTER ISLAND 1967
EUROPEAN 1950
AFGOOYE
AIN EL ABD 1970
ANNA 1 ASTRO 1965
ARC 1950
EUROPEAN 1979
FINLAND HAYFORD 1910
G. SEGARA
GANDAJIKA BASE
GEODETIC DATUM 1949
GGRS 87
GUAM 1963
GUX 1 ASTRO
HERAT NORTH
HJORSEY 1955
HONG KONG 1963
HU-TZU-SHAN
INDIAN BNGLDSH NEPAL
INDIAN MEAN VALUE
INDIAN THAILND VIETN
IRELAND 1965
ISTS 073 ASTRO 1969
JOHNSTON ISLAND 1961
KANDAWALA
KERGUELEN ISLAND
KERTAU 1948
L.C. 5 ASTRO
LIBERIA 1964
LUZON MEAN VALUE
LUZON MINDANAO IS
LUZON PHILIPPINES
MAHE 1971
Map Datums
Easter Island
Austria, Belgium, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany,
Gibraltar, Greece, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Norway, Portugal, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland
Austria, Finland,
Netherlands, Norway,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
Finland
Borneo
Republic of Maldives
New Zealand
Greece
Guam Island
Guadalcanal Island
Afghanistan
Iceland
Hong Kong
Taiwan
Bangladesh, India, Nepal
India
Thailand, Vietnam
Ireland
Diego Garcia
Johnston Island Kandawala
Kandawala- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Kerguelen Island
West Malaysia, Singapore
Cayman Brac Island
Liberia
Philippines
Mindanao Island
Philippines (excluding
Mindanao Island)
Mahe Island
109
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APPENDIX E
Map Datums
Page 110
MARCO ASTRO
MASSAWA
MERCHICH
MIDWAY ASTRO 1961
MINNA
NAD27 ALASKA
NAD27 BAHAMAS
NAD27 CANADA
NAD27 CANAL ZONE
NAD27 CARIBBEAN
NAD27 CENTRL AMERICA
NAD27 CONUS
NAD27 CUBA
NAD27 GREENLAND
NAD27 MEXICO
NAD27 SAN SALVADR IS
NAD83
NAHRWAN MASIRAH IS
NAHRWAN SAUDI ARABIA
NAHRWAN UNITD ARAB E
NAPARIMA BWI
NETHERLAND TRIAG ‘21
NOU TRIAG FRANCE
NOU TRIAG LUXEMBOURG
OBSERVATORIO 1966
110
OLD EGYPTIAN
OLD HAWAIIAN KAUAI
Salvage Island
Eritrea (Ethiopia)
Morocco
Midway
Nigeria
North American 1927- Alaska
North American 1927Bahamas (excluding San
Salvador Island)
North American 1927Canada and Newfoundland
North Am. 1927- Canal Zone
North American 1927Caribbean (Barbados,
Caicos Islands, Cuba,
Dom. Rep., Grd. Cayman,
Jamaica, Leeward and
Turks Islands)
North American 1927Central America (Belize,
Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua)
North Am. 1927- Mean
Value (CONUS)
North American 1927- Cuba
North American 1927Greenland (Hayes Peninsula)
N. American 1927- Mexico
North American 1927- San
Salvador Island
North American 1983Alaska, Canada, Central
America, CONUS, Mexico
Masirah Island (Oman)
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Trinidad and Tobago
Netherlands
Nouvelle Triangulation De
France- France
Nouvelle Triangulation De
France- Luxembourg
Corvo and Flores Islands
(Azores)
Egypt
Kauai
OLD HAWAIIAN MAUI
OLD HAWAIIAN MEAN
OLD HAWAIIAN OAHU
OMAN
ORD SRV GRT BRITAIN
Maui
Mean Value
Oahu
Oman
England, Isle of Man,
Scotland, Shetland Isl., Wales
PICO DE LAS NIEVES
Canary Islands
PITCAIRN ASTRO 1967
Pitcairn
PORTUGUESE 1973
Portugal
POTSDAM
Germany
PROV SO AMERICAN ‘56 Bolivia, Chile,Colombia,
Ecuador, Guyana, Peru,
Venezuela
PROV SO CHILEAN 1963 S. Chile
PUERTO RICO
Puerto Rico & Virgin Isl.
QATAR NATIONAL
Qatar
QORNOQ
South Greenland
REUNION
Mascarene Island
ROME 1940
Sardinia Island
RT 90
Sweden
SANTO (DOS)
Espirito Santo
SAO BRAZ
Sao Miguel, Santa Maria
Islands
SAPPER HILL 1943
East Falkland Island
SCHWARZECK
Namibia
SOUTH AMERICAN 1969 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,
Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Guyana, Paraguay, Peru,
Venezuela, Trin/Tobago
SOUTH ASIA
Singapore
SOUTHEAST BASE
Porto Santo and Madiera
Islands
SOUTHWEST BASE
Faial, Graciosa, Pico, Sao
Jorge and Terceira Islands
TANANARIVE OBSV 1925 Madagascar
TIMBALAI 1948
Brunei and E. Malaysia
(Sarawak and Sabah)
TOKYO
Japan, Korea, Okinawa
TRISTAN ASTRO 1968
Tristan da Cunha
USER
User datum
VITI LEVU 1916
Viti Levu/ Fiji Islands
WAKE-ENIWETOK 1960 Wake-Eniwetok- Marshall
WGS 72
World Geodetic System 72
WGS 84
World Geodetic System 84
YACARE
Uruguay
ZANDERIJ
Surinam
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Appendix F
Troubleshooting Q & A
APPENDIX F
Troubleshooting Q & A
The GPS 155 is a precision navigation instrument that offers a wide array of performance navigation features. The ‘Q & A’ section is designed to answer some of the
common questions regarding the GPS 155’s capabilities and operation. If you have a
problem operating your unit, go through the troubleshooting section and refer to the
reference section noted. If your problem is not listed in the Q & A section, use the
index to find the appropriate reference in the manual. If you still encounter a problem, please see your authorized dealer or call or fax our customer support staff at
913-599-1515 or 913-599-2377 FAX. GARMIN is dedicated to supporting its products and customers.
What is RAIM, and how does it affect approach operations?
RAIM is an acronym for Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring, a receiver
function that performs a consistency check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures
that the available satellite geometry will allow the receiver to calculate a position
within a specified protection limit (2 nm for oceanic and en route, 1 nm for terminal
and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches).
During oceanic, enroute and terminal phases of flight, RAIM will be nearly 100%.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM
is not available. The GPS 155 automatically monitors RAIM and will warn you with
an alert message (see Appendix C) when it is not available. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the ACTV annunciator will not illuminate and the pilot must
fly the missed approach procedure. The GPS 155’s RAIM prediction function (see
page 20) will also allow you to see whether RAIM will be available for a specified
date and time.
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APPENDIX F
Troubleshooting Q & A
Page 112
Why aren’t there any approaches available for my route?
Approaches are only available when the final route waypoint or direct-to destination is an airport (some VOR/VORTAC identifiers are similar to airport identifiers). If
a destination airport does not have a GPS approach, the GPS 155 will display a ‘no
procedures in database’ message. For more on selecting an approach, see page 66.
What happens when I select an approach? Can I store a route with an
approach, SID or STAR?
Whenever you load an approach or STAR into the active route, the arrival airport
is moved, and a set of approach or arrival waypoints is inserted. If a SID is loaded
into the active route, the SID waypoints will be inserted following the departure airport in the active route. Note: these modifications only apply to the active route, and
will not affect the corresponding stored route (if you have activated one). Routes can
be stored with an approach, SID or STAR. Keep in mind that the active route is
erased when the unit is turned off and overwritten when another route is activated.
When storing routes with an approach, SID or STAR, the GPS will use the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database
is changed or updated, the GPS 155 will automatically update the information if the
procedure name has not changed. If an approach, SID or STAR procedure is no
longer available, the route will become locked until the procedure is deleted from the
route or the correct database is installed. For information on loading an approach,
SID or STAR, see pages 79-82. See page 54 for instructions on saving and copying
routes.
112
Can I file slant Romeo ‘/R’ using my GPS?
Yes, you may file your flight plan as /R if your GPS 155 is a certified A1 or A2
installation. If you are flying enroute, you may fly /R with an expired database only
after you have verified all route waypoints. Non-precision approaches may not be
flown with an expired database. See your approved Airplane Flight Manual
Supplement for more information.
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Page 113
What does the GPS APPR switch do? What is ‘arming’ an approach?
The GPS APPR switch must be set to the ARM position for an approach to enter
the active phase. It may be left in the ARM position to simplify approach operation. Its
main function is to provide the pilot with a quick method of deactivating the approach
and returning the CDI scale to the 1 nm scale in the event of a missed approach. For
more on the GPS APPR switch and arming approaches, see pages 63-64.
APPENDIX F
Troubleshooting Q & A
What does the GPS SEQ switch do and when do I use it?
The GPS SEQ switch is used to select manual or automatic waypoint sequencing of
waypoints. Setting the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position holds your current
‘active to’ waypoint as your navigation reference and prevents the GPS from sequencing to the next waypoint. When the GPS SEQ switch is set to the AUTO position,
automatic waypoint sequencing is selected, and the GPS will automatically select the
next waypoint in the route once the aircraft has crossed the present active-to waypoint.
AUTO
Automatic sequencing of waypoints
Change in HSI does not affect CDI deflection
Always navigates ‘TO’ the active waypoint
Must be set to AUTO for approach to go active
HOLD
Manual sequencing- ‘HOLDs’ on selected waypoint
Manually select course to next waypoint from HSI
Will indicate ‘TO’ or ‘FROM’ from waypoint
Approach will not go active
The GPS SEQ switch must be set to the HOLD position any time you are deviating
from the flight sequence of an approach (e.g., when you are flying radar vectors) or
when you must cross the same waypoint twice in succession (e.g., a procedure turn or
holding pattern). Whenever the GPS SEQ switch is set to the HOLD position, the GPS
155 allows you to select the desired course to/from a waypoint using the HSI, much
like a VOR, and display a to/from flag for the active-to waypoint. In the AUTO position, the CDI will always display a ‘TO’ indication for the next waypoint once you’ve
crossed the active waypoint. Refer to page 75 for an approach example using a HOLD.
113
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APPENDIX F
Troubleshooting Q & A
Page 114
When should I switch from HOLD to AUTO, and what happens when I do?
Once you are ready to resume automatic waypoint sequencing, you must set the
desired course on your HSI two seconds before changing the GPS SEQ switch to the
AUTO position. This allows the the desired course to ‘settle’ prior to the GPS 155
using it. Once the GPS SEQ switch is set back to the AUTO position, the GPS 155
will use the HSI course until you have crossed the active-to waypoint and sequenced
to the next route waypoint. See pages 64-65 for more on the GPS SEQ switch.
Why won’t my unit automatically sequence to the next waypoint?
The GPS 155 will only sequence approach, SID or STAR waypoints when the GPS
SEQ switch is in the AUTO position. For automatic sequencing to occur, you must
also cross the bisector of the turn you are navigating. See pages 64-65 for more on
automatic waypoint sequencing.
How do I skip a waypoint in an approach, SID or STAR?
The GPS 155 allows you to manually select any approach, STAR or SID waypoint
as your next ‘active to’ destination. This procedure, called an on-route direct-to, is
performed from the active route page by highlighting the desired waypoint and pressing D, then E to approve the selection. The GPS will then provide navigation
directly to the selected waypoint, so be sure you have clearance directly to that position. See pages 59 & 69 for more information.
How do I fly the GPS with an autopilot and DG heading bug?
If you do not have an HSI, you should make your course selections on the OBS
and the DG heading bug.
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Page 115
APPENDIX F
When does turn anticipation begin, and what bank angle is expected?
The GPS 155 will smooth adjacent leg transitions based upon a nominal 15º bank
angle (with the ability to roll up to 25º) and provide three pilot cues for turn anticipation: 1) The waypoint annunciator will flash 15 seconds before the turn point and
glow steadily 2 seconds prior to the turn anticipation point. Begin the turn when the
annunciator goes steady. 2) A flashing ‘next dtk’ prompt will appear on the GPS 155’s
CDI field. Set the HSI to the next dtk value when the waypoint annunciator starts
flashing. 3) The To/From indicator on the GPS CDI will flip momentarily to indicate
that you have crossed the midpoint of the turn. For more on turn anticipation, see
pages 60-61 & 67.
When does the CDI scale change, and what does it change to?
Whenever an approach is selected and armed, the GPS 155 will begin a smooth
CDI scale transition from the 5.0 nm to the 0.3 nm scale 30 nm from the destination
airport (see right). The CDI scale will remain at the 0.3 nm scale from the FAF to the
MAP during the active approach. If you are in a missed approach situation, and
would like to return the CDI to the 1 nm scale,
you may deactivate the approach by releasing the
GPS APPR switch from the ARM position.
Troubleshooting Q & A
MAP
0.3 nm
FAF
2 nm
1 nm
30 nm
Why does my CDI not respond like a VOR
when the GPS SEQ switch is set to HOLD?
Unlike a VOR, the CDI scale used on GPS
equipment is based on the cross-track distance to
the desired course, not an angular relationship to
the destination. Therefore, the CDI deflection on
the GPS will be consistent regardless of the distance
to the destination, and will not become less sensitive when you are further away from the destination. For more on the CDI scale, see pages 64-65.
2 2
nm nm
1 nm
1 minute
5 nm
5 nm
5 nm
GPS
5 nm
VOR
5 nm
CDI Scale Transition
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APPENDIX F
Troubleshooting Q & A
116
Page 116
What is the correct missed approach procedure? How do I select the missed
approach holding point?
To comply with TSO specifications, the GPS 155 will not automatically sequence
to the missed approach holding point. The first waypoint in the missed approach
procedure will be displayed as the next approach waypoint when the pilot performs a
direct-to AFTER crossing the MAP, which the pilot may activate when authorized. All
published missed approach procedures must be flown before activating navigation to
the holding point. To begin the missed approach procedure prior to the MAP, the
GPS APPR switch must be released from the ‘ARM’ position to disarm the approach
and begin transition of the CDI to the 1.0 nm scale.
To activate navigation to the first missed approach waypoint after crossing the
MAP, press D, then E. The GPS 155 will provide direct navigation to the holding
point. If you do not have direct clearance to the holding point, set the GPS SEQ
switch to the HOLD position until you have intercepted the inbound course to the
holding point. See page 68-69 for more on missed approaches.
How do I re-select the same approach or activate a new approach after a
missed approach?
After flying all missed approach procedures, you may reactivate the same
approach for another attempt from the active route page. Once you have been given
clearance for another attempt, select the starting waypoint from the active route list
by highlighting the waypoint identifier and pressing D, followed by E. The GPS
155 will provide direct navigation to the selected waypoint and rejoin the approach
in sequence from that point on. If you have disarmed the previous approach, remember to set the GPS APPR switch to the ‘ARM’ position.
To activate a new approach, you must select the new procedure from the
approach select page. To view the approach select page, press R and rotate O
until the approach select page appears. Press C and rotate O to highlight the new
approach you want to fly. To activate the new approach, press E and select the IAF,
if necessary. See page 69 for more on reactivating an approach.
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APPENDIX G
Appendix G
Index
A
Accesory List
iii
Activating user waypoints
48-49
Activating a route
53
Activating a route in reverse
53
Active waypoints
48
Active Route page
57-59
Adding waypoints to a route
58
Airport information
26-31
Comment page
27,41
Communication page
27,30
Identification page
27
Position page
27,28
Procedures page
27,29
Runway page
27,31
Altitude buffer
47,92
Approach information
62-82
Activating
67-68
Arming
63-64,113
Basic rules
71-73
Cancelling
70
Deleting
70
Example approaches
73-78
Flying the approach
67-69
Missed approach
68-69,72,116
Overview
62
Reactivating
69
Replacing the active approach
70
Selecting
66
Index
Annunciators
Approach timer
Arrival alarm setting
Auto leg sequencing
AutoStore™
63-65
18-19
89
64-65,87-88
38
B
Barometric pressure
Battery saver
11,67
90
C
Cancelling
Active approach
Direct-to
Capabilities
Cautions
CDI
CDI page
CDI scale transition
CDI sensitivity
Checklists
Choosing a waypoint category
Closest point of approach (CPA)
Comments, waypoint
Comments, route
Communications page
Communication frequencies
Copying routes
70
49
iv
ii
4-5,64-65
4-5,60-61
64,115
64-65,86
17-18
24-25
54
41
51
27,30
30
53-54
Course select
Creating User waypoints
D
Data transfers
Database
Date & Time
Deleting an approach
Deleting user waypoints
Deleting routes
Deleting SIDs
Deleting STARs
Deleting waypoints from routes
Density altitude
Direct-to navigation
Display timeout
DME ARC approaches
DOP
Duplicate waypoints
10,64-65
35-38
94-95
1,23-24
19
70
40
52
80-81
82
52
14
4,48-49
90
76-77
84
42
117
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APPENDIX G
Ground speed
Index
H
Holding the active waypoint
I
Indentifiers
Installation of the GPS 155
Intersections
E
Editing routes
52
Editing user waypoints
35-38
Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA)
11
EPE
84
Examples, approach
73-78
External switches/annunciators 60-61,63-65
F
Flying the active route
Flying approaches
Flying missed approach
Foreword
Fuel planning
Flight Service Stations (FSSs)
118
G
GPS approach examples
GPS overlays
GPS APPR switch
GPS SEQ switch
57-61
67-68
68-69,116
i
14-15
43
73-78
62,75-77
63-64,113,116
63-65,113-114
K
Key Functions
Knob functions
L
Leg, active
Leg selection
Leg sequencing
M
Magnetic variation
Maintenance of the GPS 155
Manually selecting and
sequencing route legs
Map Datums
Measurement units
Messages
Minimum runway length
Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA)
Missed approach
N
NavData cards
Navigation diagram
5
10,63-65,113
23
96
24,34
vii
vii
48
87
87
88
97
87
93,109-110
91
98-104
89
11
68-69,116
94-95
9
Nav key
NAV Menu 1
NAV Menu 2
Nav units
NDBs
Nearest Key
Nearest airports
Nearest SUA
Nearest waypoints
O
Offset navigation
Outer Knob
Operating Mode
vii,7
7,13
7,18
91
24,33
vii,43
5-6,43
44-47
5-6,43
56
vii
2
P
Parallel track
Position page
Power/Brightness Knob
Power on
Pressure, barometric
Proximity Waypoints
56
3,7,11-12
vii
1
11,67
39
R
RAIM
RAIM prediction
Receiver status
Renaming user waypoints
Replacing user data
Restoring user data
Reversing a route
Route Key
Route settings
71-72,111
20
83-86
38,40
95
95
53
vii,50
87-88
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Routes
Activating
Active route page
Adding route waypoints
Cancelling the active route
Copying routes
Deleting route waypoints
Editing route waypoints
Route catalog page
Route Diagram
Runway surface
Runways
48-61
53
57-59
52
52
53-54
52
52
50-51
48
89
27-31
S
Satellite acquisition
Satellite information
Scheduler
Scrolling arrow prompts
Search and rescue operations
SIDs
Special Use Airspace (SUA)
Specifications
STARs
Storing user data
SUA Alert page
SUA alerts
SUA altitude fields
SUA settings
SUA types
Sunrise/Sunset
1-2
84-86
21
viii
55
79-81
44-47,92
108
81-82
94
45
44-47
46
47,92
46
22
T
Table of Contents
v-vi
Trip Planning
True air speed
Time
Trip timer
Trip timer settings
Turn anticipation
13
14
19
19
90
60-61,67
U
Unit settings
Updating user data
User comments
UserData cards
User map datums
User waypoints
83
95
41,51
94-95
93
35-38
V
Vertical navigation (VNAV)
VORs
16-17
24,32
W
Waypoints
Airports
AutoStore
Comments
Creating/editing
Deleting
Duplicates
Intersections
NDBs
Nearest
Proximity
Reference
Renaming
23-43
26-31
38
41
35-36
40
42
34
33
43
39
12
40
APPENDIX G
Index
Scanning
Using
User
User List
VORs
Winds aloft
42
42
35-38
40
32
16
119
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®
© 1995 GARMIN International
9875 Widmer, Lenexa, KS 66215, USA
GARMIN Europe/LTD Robert House, Station Approach Romsey, Hampshire, SO51 8DU UK
Part No. 190-00065-00 Rev. B