Specifications | Enterasys Networks 6H2xx Switch User Manual

™
ENJOY THE FREEDOM OF WIRELESS NETWORKING
802.11 Wireless Networking Guide
ENTERASYS.COM
P/N 9034042-08
NOTICE
Enterasys Networks reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this
document and its web site without prior notice. The reader should in all cases consult Enterasys Networks to determine
whether any such changes have been made.
The hardware, firmware, or software described in this document is subject to change without notice.
IN NO EVENT SHALL ENTERASYS NETWORKS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, SPECIAL,
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOST PROFITS)
ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS DOCUMENT, WEB SITE, OR THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN
THEM, EVEN IF ENTERASYS NETWORKS HAS BEEN ADVISED OF, KNEW OF, OR SHOULD HAVE KNOWN
OF, THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
© June 2002 Enterasys NetworksTM
All Rights Reserved.
Enterasys Networks, Inc.
500 Spaulding Turnpike
Portsmouth, NH 03801
Part Number: 9034042-08
Web Site: http://www.enterasys.com/wireless
Enterasys, Enterasys Networks, RoamAbout, and the RoamAbout logo are trademarks of Enterasys Networks, Inc.
Apple, the Apple logo, Macintosh, and PowerBook are trademarks or registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
IPX/SPX is a trademark of Novell, Inc.
LINUX is a trademark of Linus Torvalds.
Microsoft, Windows, and Windows NT are trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
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All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective holders.
Contents
Preface
Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Associated Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Document Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Getting Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
1 Wireless Network Configurations
In This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
RoamAbout AP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
RoamAbout PC Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Operating System Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Wireless Infrastructure Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Single AP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Multiple APs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Wireless Client Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
LAN-to-LAN Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Point-to-Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Point-to-Multipoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
RoamAbout R2 Configuration Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Workgroup Mode (both slots) Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Workgroup Mode and LAN-to-LAN Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Ad-Hoc Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Optional Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Vehicle-Mount Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Range Extender Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Outdoor Antenna Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
iii
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2 Understanding Wireless Network Characteristics
In This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Wireless Network Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Access Point MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
RoamAbout R2 MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Channel Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Transmit Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Auto Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Fixed Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Communications Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Signal Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Noise Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Data Throughput Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
AP Density and Roaming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
RTS/CTS Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
RTS Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Hidden Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
802.11 Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
RoamAbout AP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
RoamAbout Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Network Operating System Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
RoamAbout AP Secure Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
802.1X Rapid Rekeying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
SNMP Community Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Console Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Network Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
Wireless Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
Beacons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
Message Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Spanning Tree Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Using the Access Point 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Using the RoamAbout R2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Access Point 2000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
R2 Access Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Network Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
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Static and Dynamic VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RoamAbout SNMP Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Access Point 2000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RoamAbout R2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-25
2-26
2-26
2-27
3 Designing and Implementing a Wireless Network
In This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Infrastructure Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Determining the Coverage Area and Supported Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Selecting the Location for a Single AP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Selecting the Locations for Multiple APs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
RoamAbout R2 Mezzanine Special Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Using Multiple Wireless Infrastructure Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Using an Outdoor Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
LAN-to-LAN Network Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Ad-Hoc Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Wireless Network Hardware Installation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Wireless Infrastructure Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
LAN-to-LAN Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Ad-Hoc Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
4 Wireless Network Tools
In This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RoamAbout AP Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the RoamAbout AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other SNMP Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RoamAbout Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RoamAbout Client Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-6
4-7
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5 Configuring the Wireless Network
In This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Configuring APs in an Infrastructure Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Required Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Wireless Parameters Used in an Infrastructure Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Configuring APs in a Point-to-Point Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Required Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Wireless Parameters Used in a Point-to-Point Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Configuring the AP for Point-to-Multipoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Required Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Wireless Parameters Used in a Point-to-Multipoint Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Viewing Current AP Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Using the Access Point 2000 Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Modifying the IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Setting the Cabletron Discovery Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Modifying Wireless Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Using AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Configuring for Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
Setting Secure Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
Setting Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Configuring the Console Port for Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-28
AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-28
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RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the R2 for SNMPv1 or SNMPv2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the AP for Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RADIUS Management Authenticator (AP 2000 Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the AP for Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring for Rapid Rekeying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Up Rapid Rekeying on the Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring for VLANs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the RoamAbout R2 Web Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Spanning Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filtering Traffic by Protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filtering Traffic by Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Configuration on Multiple APs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting the RoamAbout AP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the RoamAbout R2 Web Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-28
5-28
5-29
5-30
5-30
5-32
5-36
5-36
5-36
5-37
5-38
5-40
5-41
5-42
5-42
5-42
5-43
5-43
5-43
5-43
5-44
5-46
5-47
5-48
5-49
5-50
6 Maintaining the Wireless Network
In This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Testing Radio Communications Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Using the RoamAbout Client Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Optimizing RoamAbout AP Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Using the Client Utility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Using AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Optimizing RoamAbout Outdoor Antenna Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Logging Measurement Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Checking the Client RoamAbout PC Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Monitoring the AP Using RMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Monitoring RADIUS Client Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
vii
Contents
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking RoamAbout Product Version Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Client Utility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading the RoamAbout AP Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the AP Hardware Reset Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing the PC Card in an AP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-11
6-11
6-13
6-13
6-13
6-13
6-13
6-14
6-14
6-14
6-15
6-15
6-16
7 Problem Solving
In This Chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
RoamAbout R2 LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
AP 2000 LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
AP (Classic) LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Showing Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Using the AP Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Displaying Error Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
RoamAbout PC Card LED Activity in a Client. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
Windows Does Not Detect the RoamAbout PC Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21
Client Cannot Connect to the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21
Checking the Network Protocols on a Windows System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
Device Conflict on a Windows System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
Windows NT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
Windows 95 or 98. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-24
Changing the ISA Adapter Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25
Setting SNMP Trap Addresses (Access Point Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-26
Setting Upline Dump (Access Point Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27
A PC Card Information
Supported Frequency Sub-Bands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
viii
Contents
B Connecting a Device to the Console Port
C ASCII to HEX Conversion
Glossary
Index
ix
Preface
A RoamAbout wireless network consists of RoamAbout wireless products, such as the
RoamAbout R2 Wireless Access Platform, RoamAbout Access Point 2000, RoamAbout
PC Card, and other wireless products that use an 802.11 Direct Sequence (DS) compliant
radio.
This manual describes how to design, install, configure and maintain a RoamAbout
wireless network. It also describes how to troubleshoot problems that may arise during
installation or operation.
NOTE
NOTE: AP refers to the Access Point and the RoamAbout R2 unless
otherwise specified in this document.
Intended Audience
This manual is intended for the wireless network manager. You should have a basic
knowledge of Local Area Networks (LANs) and networking functions.
xi
Associated Documents
Associated Documents
You can download the documentation, drivers, and utilities from the RoamAbout Wireless
web site. Check the RoamAbout Wireless web site regularly for product upgrades:
http://www.enterasys.com/wireless
Component
Information Location
RoamAbout AP Manager
RoamAbout 802.11 Wireless Networking
Guide and online help
RoamAbout R2 Wireless Access
Platform
RoamAbout R2 Wireless Access Platform
Hardware Installation Guide and online help
RoamAbout Access Point 2000
RoamAbout Access Point 2000 Hardware
Installation Guide and online help
RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card
RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and
Utilities Client CD-ROM Kit
RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Installation
Guide
RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card
Drivers
RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and
Utilities CD-ROM Kit
RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and
Utilities Setup and Installation Guide and
online help
RoamAbout Client Utility
RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and
Utilities CD-ROM Kit
RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and
Utilities Setup and Installation Guide and
online help
xii
RoamAbout Outdoor Solution
RoamAbout Outdoor Antenna Site
Preparation and Installation Guide
RoamAbout ISA Adapter Card
RoamAbout ISA Adapter Installation
RoamAbout PCI Adapter Card
RoamAbout PCI Adapter Installation
Document Conventions
Document Conventions
The following icons are used in this document:
Icon
Meaning
CAUTION: Contains information essential to avoid
personal injury or damage to the equipment.
NOTE
NOTE: Calls the reader’s attention to any item of
information that may be of special importance.
xiii
Getting Help
Getting Help
For additional support related to this device or document, contact Enterasys Networks
using one of the following methods:
World Wide Web: http://www.enterasys.com/wireless
Phone:
North America: (603) 332-9400
Europe: 353 61 701 910
Asia: +800 8827-2878
Internet mail:
support@enterasys.com
To send comments or suggestions concerning this document, contact the Enterasys
Networks Technical Writing Department via the following e-mail
address: TechWriting@enterasys.com
Make sure you include the document Part Number in the e-mail message.
Before calling Enterasys Networks, please have the following information ready:
xiv
•
Your Enterasys Networks service contract number
•
A description of the problem
•
A description of any action(s) already taken to resolve the problem
•
The serial and revision numbers of all involved Enterasys Networks products in the
network
•
A description of your network environment (for example, layout, cable type)
•
Network load and frame size at the time of trouble (if known)
•
The device history (for example, have you returned the device before, is this a
recurring problem)
•
Any previous Return Material Authorization (RMA) numbers
Chapter 1
Wireless Network Configurations
There are three basic RoamAbout wireless network configurations:
•
One or more APs connecting wireless clients to a wired network, using the Workgroup
Bridge mode. A wireless client can be any computer with an 802.11 Direct-Sequence
(DS) compliant radio card. This type of network is referred to as a wireless
infrastructure network.
•
Two or more APs used as a wireless link connecting wired networks. This is called a
LAN-to-LAN configuration. There are two variations of the RoamAbout LAN-to-LAN
configurations:
— Point-to-Point which connects two wired networks, using the LAN-to-LAN
Endpoint Bridge mode.
— Point-to-Multipoint which can connect multiple wired networks, using the
LAN-to-LAN Multipoint Bridge mode.
•
Wireless clients communicating among themselves without a connection to a wired
network. This is called a peer-to-peer or ad-hoc network.
In This Chapter
Information in this chapter is presented as follows:
Topic
Page
RoamAbout AP
1-2
RoamAbout PC Card
1-4
Wireless Infrastructure Network
1-6
LAN-to-LAN Configuration
1-9
RoamAbout R2 Configuration Examples
1-13
Ad-Hoc Network
1-15
Optional Antennas
1-16
1-1
RoamAbout AP
RoamAbout AP
This guide addresses the different RoamAbout AP hardware platforms: RoamAbout
Access Point (sometimes referred to as Classic), RoamAbout Access Point 2000, and
RoamAbout R2 Wireless Access Platform. Unless otherwise specified, AP refers to all the
RoamAbout AP platforms.
The RoamAbout Access Point Classic is no longer available; however, a number of the
Access Point 2000 reference information and procedures apply to the Classic platform.
The RoamAbout Access Point 2000 is a wired to wireless bridge. One port connects to an
Ethernet LAN. The other port connects to a wireless network. The wireless connection is
provided by a RoamAbout 802.11 DS compliant PC Card.
The RoamAbout R2 is an expandable wireless access platform designed to support
existing, and future, radio technologies and networking requirements.
The RoamAbout AP provides the following basic bridging services. See Chapter 2 for
descriptions of wireless LAN, security and management features.
•
Store-and-forward capability
The AP receives, checks, and transmits frames to other LANs, enabling the
configuration of extended LANs.
•
Frame filtering based on address
Using the address database and the source and destination addresses from incoming
frames, the AP isolates traffic that does not need to be forwarded to, or should not be
allowed on, other LANs. This action reduces the total data traffic on an extended LAN
and thus increases bandwidth efficiency.
•
Data Link layer relay
The AP operates at the Data Link layer of the Open System Interconnection (OSI)
model. Operation at this layer makes the AP transparent to the protocols that use the
LAN connectivity service. This protocol transparency is a key factor in the extended
LAN service.
1-2
RoamAbout AP
•
Dynamic address learning
The forwarding and translating process module automatically adds new source
addresses to the address database while the AP is operating. This reverse learning of
the address and port association allows automatic network configuration without prior
downline loading of configuration data to the AP. Address learning is protocol and
management entity independent.
An Aging Timer determines how long an address remains in the database. The timer
measures the time since data was last addressed to or from a particular node. If the
timer lapses without any traffic, the node’s address is removed from the database. The
Aging Timer interval can be modified by a Network Management System.
•
Workgroup Bridge mode
In Workgroup Bridge mode, the AP communicates with wireless clients. The AP only
forwards packets to multicast addresses, broadcast addresses, and known addresses on
the wireless LAN.
The RoamAbout Access Point 2000 learns addresses only from the wireless side of the
network. The default Aging Timer interval is 32 minutes.
The RoamAbout R2 learns addresses from both the wired and wireless side. The
default Aging Timer interval is approximately 7 minutes.
•
LAN-to-LAN Endpoint Bridge mode
In a Point-to-Point configuration, both APs are configured as Endpoints.
In this mode, the AP filters packets based upon their destination address and forwards
all packets with unknown addresses.
•
LAN-to-LAN Multipoint Bridge mode
This mode is used where multiple APs are configured as dedicated wireless links
between LANs in a Point-to-Multipoint configuration. One AP must be designated as
the Central AP. The Central AP can communicate with up to six other APs configured
as Endpoints.
In this mode, the AP filters packets based upon their destination address and forwards
all packets with unknown addresses.
NOTE
NOTE: You must purchase a valid activation key to enable Multipoint
bridge mode. Contact your Enterasys Representative.
Refer to the Release Notes that shipped with your AP for a complete list of product features.
1-3
RoamAbout PC Card
RoamAbout PC Card
The RoamAbout PC Card is an IEEE 802.11 Direct Sequence (DS) compliant wireless
network interface card.
The RoamAbout PC Card functions like any standard wired Ethernet card; however, the
RoamAbout PC Card uses radio frequencies instead of a cable for the LAN connection.
When installed in a computer, the PC Card and computer are referred to as a RoamAbout
wireless client.
The RoamAbout PC Card fits into any PC card type II slot and includes the following
features:
•
The ability to support desktop PCs, via one of the following adapters:
— RoamAbout ISA Adapter Card option, which allows installation into computers
that do not have a PC card slot but do have an available ISA bus slot.
— RoamAbout PCI Adapter Card option, which allows installation into computers
that do not have a PC Card slot or an ISA bus slot. The PCI Adapter works with
Microsoft Windows PC99-compliant PCs (PCI-slot-only PCs) that have
BIOS-supported PCI 2.2 or higher.
1-4
•
An 802.11 DS compliant radio.
•
The ability to communicate with 802.11 DS compliant APs or other 802.11 clients.
•
The RoamAbout Client Utility, which allows you to monitor the quality of wireless
communication.
•
Support for Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows Me,
Windows XP, MS-DOS, Windows 3.x, Windows CE, Linux, and Apple PowerBook
computers. Refer to the RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and Utilities Setup and
Installation Guide for more information.
•
802.11 power management.
•
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) security.
•
Roaming, where the client can move from one AP to another in the same wireless
network without losing LAN connectivity.
•
Roaming over multiple channels. The RoamAbout PC Card automatically uses the
same channel as the associated AP.
•
The RoamAbout PC Card is also the means by which a RoamAbout AP communicates
with a wireless network. This manual considers an AP and its installed PC Card(s) as
one unit.
RoamAbout PC Card
Operating System Support
You can have clients with various operating systems in the same wireless network. Refer
to the RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and Utilities Setup and Installation Guide for
setup and installation information. For the latest version of the RoamAbout drivers, see the
RoamAbout web site: http://www.enterasys.com/wireless.
You may need to install the appropriate networking protocols when installing the
RoamAbout PC Card in the computer. The most common protocols include TCP/IP and
NetBEUI.
1-5
Wireless Infrastructure Network
Wireless Infrastructure Network
In a wireless infrastructure network, wireless clients communicate with an AP to connect
to a wired LAN. A RoamAbout wireless infrastructure network can support clients with
various operating systems.
The area where a client can communicate with the AP is called a coverage area. To increase
the coverage area, you can add APs to the wireless network.
Single AP
A single AP supports a single wireless infrastructure network. Each wireless client must
communicate with the AP to connect to the wired network.
NOTE
NOTE: The RoamAbout R2 with the Mezzanine option can support two
separate wireless infrastructure networks. Refer to “RoamAbout R2
Configuration Examples” on page 1-13.
You can have multiple wireless infrastructure networks, each with a single AP and different
wireless names. Each network is a separate entity. Clients cannot roam between networks.
Multiple APs
A wireless infrastructure network can consist of multiple APs. This extends the coverage
area of the wireless network. To allow roaming, each AP in the wireless network must use
the same Wireless Network Name.
NOTE
NOTE: The RoamAbout R2 with the Mezzanine option can effectively be
configured as two APs supporting the same wireless infrastructure network.
Refer to “RoamAbout R2 Configuration Examples” on page 1-13.
In this configuration, the wireless network consists of cells. A cell is a single AP and its
wireless clients within a network of multiple APs.
Figure 1-1 shows two APs in the same wireless network.
1-6
Wireless Infrastructure Network
Figure 1-1: Cells Within a Wireless Infrastructure Network
Configuration
Cell 1
Coverage
Areas
Cell 2
AP2
AP1
Workgroup
Mode
Workgroup
Mode
Wireless
Client
To allow wireless clients to physically move within a wireless network, the coverage areas
should overlap. In Figure 1-1, Cell 1 and Cell 2 share overlapping areas of coverage. As a
wireless client moves from Cell 2 to Cell 1, the necessary infrastructure network
information is passed from AP2 to AP1 while maintaining LAN connectivity. The
capability of moving from one AP to another without losing the network connection is
called roaming.
When a wireless client (such as the laptop computer in Figure 1-1) approaches the outside
boundary of a coverage area, the client can sense that another AP using the same Wireless
Network Name is providing a better quality signal. The client then automatically switches
to the other AP. If the other AP is using a different channel, the client automatically
switches to that channel.
1-7
Wireless Infrastructure Network
Wireless Client Behavior
You can configure the wireless client to connect to a specific wireless network or the first
available wireless network.
If you configure the client to connect to a specific wireless network, the client establishes
a radio connection to the AP in the specified wireless network that provides the best
communications quality. APs in a different wireless network are ignored.
If you configure the client to connect to the first available wireless network (the Wireless
Network Name = ANY), the client establishes a radio connection to the AP that provides
the best communications quality. Be aware that if there are multiple wireless networks, the
client could connect to an AP that is not in the network you want to join.
In either configuration, the client automatically matches the radio channel used by the AP.
A wireless client configured to connect to any available network does not automatically
switch networks after it makes a connection to a wireless network; for example:
Your wireless client is configured to connect to the first available wireless network.
The first available network is called SouthSide. Once the connection is made, you
move your client out of range of SouthSide, but in range of another wireless network
called NorthSide. The wireless client loses the connection to SouthSide but does not
make the connection to NorthSide. To connect to NorthSide, you need to restart the
client. After the restart, the wireless client connects to NorthSide since it is the first
available wireless network.
1-8
LAN-to-LAN Configuration
LAN-to-LAN Configuration
You can connect separate LANs over a wireless link by configuring two or more
RoamAbout APs to communicate with each other. This is called a LAN-to-LAN
configuration.
There are two variations of the RoamAbout LAN-to-LAN configuration:
•
Point-to-Point, using the LAN-to-LAN Endpoint Bridge mode, which connects two
wired networks.
•
Point-to-Multipoint, using the LAN-to-LAN Multipoint Bridge mode, which can
connect multiple wired networks.
Typically, the APs are configured with outdoor antennas. If you use an outdoor antenna,
you should have a professional antenna installation company perform the installation.
Contact your Enterasys sales representative or visit the RoamAbout web site,
www.enterasys.com/wireless, for more information about the outdoor antenna kits.
Point-to-Point
Figure 1-2 shows two APs, configured as LAN-to-LAN Endpoint Bridge mode, in
different buildings using an outdoor antenna to connect the LANs in those buildings. As
shown in the figure, both APs use a directional antenna. You can also configure the APs to
connect two LANs in the same building.
Figure 1-2: Point-to-Point Configuration
Endpoint
Mode
Endpoint
Mode
1-9
LAN-to-LAN Configuration
Point-to-Multipoint
You can connect wired LANs in different buildings using the LAN-to-LAN Multipoint
feature. At least one of the APs is configured as a Multipoint AP, called the Central AP.
The Central AP can communicate directly with up to six APs. The six APs are configured
as Endpoints, which can only communicate directly to the Central AP. The Central AP
allows the Endpoint APs to communicate with each other through the Central AP.
A Central AP uses an omni-directional antenna so that it can communicate with multiple
APs in different directions. The Endpoint APs usually use a directional antenna pointed at
the Central AP. The directional antenna allows you to increase the distance between APs.
There must be a clear line sight between antennas to avoid a reduction in the signal level.
NOTE
NOTE: The RoamAbout R2 Mezzanine option (slot 2) does not support
LAN-to-LAN Multipoint. This means that an R2 can use its Slot 2 radio to
participate as an Endpoint AP in a Point-to-Multipoint configuration, but
cannot use its Slot 2 radio to act as a Central AP.
Configuration Examples
Figure 1-3 provides an example of a Central AP with six Endpoint APs. The Endpoint APs
can only communicate with the Central AP and not directly with each other. Therefore, the
Central AP should be connected to the main wired LAN.
Figure 1-3: Point-to-Multipoint Configuration
Endpoint Mode
Endpoint Mode
Omni-Directional
Antenna
Endpoint Mode
Multipoint Mode (Central AP)
Endpoint Mode
Endpoint Mode
Endpoint Mode
1-10
LAN-to-LAN Configuration
Figure 1-4 provides an example of two Central APs in the same Point-to-Multipoint
configuration. In this configuration, six APs are configured to communicate with the same
Central AP. You can configure one or more of those six APs as a Central AP to
communicate with up to five additional APs. If using an Access Point 2000, this
configuration requires the Wireless Relay parameter to be enabled.
Figure 1-4: Point-to-Multipoint-to-Multipoint Configuration
Area 1
A1 Endpoint Mode
Omni-Directional
Antenna
A2 Endpoint Mode
A3 Endpoint Mode
Building A
Multipoint Mode (Central AP)
Area 2
A4 Endpoint Mode
B1 Endpoint Mode
A5 Endpoint Mode
Building B
Multipoint Mode
(Central AP)
B2 Endpoint Mode
B5 Endpoint Mode
B3 Endpoint Mode
B4 Endpoint Mode
1-11
LAN-to-LAN Configuration
In Figure 1-4, Building A is the Central AP for Buildings A1 through A5 and Building
B. However, Building B is also the Central AP for Building A and Buildings B1
through B5. You could expand this one further by making Building B3 a Central AP
for five other buildings, although adding additional hops may decrease network
performance.
To avoid bridging problems, do not configure an AP as an Endpoint for more than one
Central AP. In Figure 1-4, you would not configure Building B1 as an Endpoint to
communicate directly to Building A.
Preventing Network Loops
It is important to avoid Point-to-Multipoint configurations that will cause bridge loops. A
bridge loop occurs when two parallel network paths are created between any two LANs,
causing packets to be continuously regenerated through both parallel paths. This situation
eventually renders the network unusable due to the excessive traffic that is being generated
by the loop. The AP Spanning Tree function corrects this type of problem by shutting down
the port and possibly shutting down a segment of the network.
Figure 1-5 provides examples of configurations that cause Network Loops.
Figure 1-5: Network Loops
Building B
Building B
Multipoint Mode
Building A
Multipoint Mode
Endpoint Mode
Building C
Multipoint Mode
Building A
Multipoint Mode
(Central AP)
Wired or Fiber Link
Building C
Endpoint Mode
1-12
RoamAbout R2 Configuration Examples
RoamAbout R2 Configuration Examples
This section provides configuration examples using the RoamAbout R2 (with the two-slot
option).
Restrictions
•
The RoamAbout R2 slot 2 does not support LAN-to-LAN Multipoint.
•
If two 802.11b PC Cards are installed in the RoamAbout R2 Wireless Access Platform,
one of the PC Cards must be connected to the Range Extender Antenna to prevent radio
interference between the two cards. The antenna must be placed at least two feet away
from the RoamAbout R2.
•
The 802.11 PC Cards must be at least 5 channels apart from each other.
Workgroup Mode (both slots) Example
Figure 1-6 shows a RoamAbout R2 with both slots configured in Workgroup mode.
Figure 1-6: Workgroup Configuration
R2 With Mezzanine Option
Slot 2
Workgroup
Mode
Slot 1
Workgroup
Mode
WNG_21
1-13
RoamAbout R2 Configuration Examples
Workgroup Mode and LAN-to-LAN Example
Figure 1-7 shows two RoamAbout R2s in different buildings using an outdoor directional
antenna to connect the LANs in those buildings. Each RoamAbout R2 contains two radio
slots; one slot configured in Workgroup mode, and one slot configured in LAN-to-LAN
Endpoint Bridge mode.
In addition, a RoamAbout R2 can be configured for multipoint mode (slot 1 only), connect
to an omni-directional antenna, and connect to other APs.
Figure 1-7: Workgroup and LAN-to-LAN Endpoint Configuration
R2
Slot 2
Workgroup Slot 1
Mode Endpoint
Mode
1-14
R2
Slot 2
Endpoint Slot 1
Mode Workgroup
Mode
Ad-Hoc Network
Ad-Hoc Network
Wireless ad-hoc networks do not include APs. Instead, the ad-hoc network is a loose
association, or workgroup, of computers that can communicate with each other using the
PC Card in Ad-Hoc Mode. Figure 1-8 shows an ad-hoc network.
The ad-hoc network is also known as a peer-to-peer network or independent network. The
size of the ad-hoc network coverage area is determined by various factors, such as
proximity and obstacles in the environment. In Figure 1-8, Client D has a coverage area
(shown in gray) that touches all the other clients. This client can communicate with the
other clients. Client C’s coverage area does not touch Client A. These clients cannot
communicate unless they move closer together.
The number of clients that the ad-hoc network can support is determined by the network
utilization of each client. For example, a large number of clients could use the network for
reading e-mail with very good network performance, but a few clients transferring large
files could slow the network response time for all the clients.
Figure 1-8: Ad-Hoc Network
Client B
Client A
Client C
Client D
1-15
Optional Antennas
Optional Antennas
The RoamAbout PC Card has two integrated antennas that perform best in an open
environment with as few obstacles as possible. Depending on the environment and wireless
network configuration, you may need an optional antenna.
The following sections describe the types of optional antennas available with the
RoamAbout products.
Vehicle-Mount Antenna
The RoamAbout Vehicle-Mount antenna (Figure 1-9) is a 5 dBi omni-directional antenna
that connects vehicles with an on-board client to the wireless network. The sturdy design
allows you to mount it on vehicles, such as the roof of a fork-lift truck, to allow continuous
access to networked data, whether inside or outside of the building.
You connect the Vehicle-Mount antenna to the PC Card using the special 2.5 meter (8 foot)
cable. To connect an antenna to the PC Card, insert the connector into the socket on the
extended side of the PC card. To protect the socket from dust, it is shielded with a cap. You
must remove the cap. For mounting and installation instructions, see the RoamAbout
Outdoor Antenna Site Preparation and Installation Guide.
EN
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WI
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Figure 1-9: Vehicle-Mount Antenna
WNG_07
1-16
Optional Antennas
Range Extender Antenna
Use the Range Extender Antenna (Figure 1-10) to ensure optimal transmission and
reception quality for situations where the integrated antennas are shielded, such as:
•
The wireless device, such as a desktop client, is close to metal surfaces.
•
The wireless device is installed in a hidden location, such as in a cabinet.
•
Objects shield the wireless device.
•
Using the RoamAbout R2 Mezzanine slot upgrade option, where two 802.11b PC
Cards are installed in the RoamAbout R2 Wireless Access Platform. One of the PC
Cards must be connected to the Range Extender Antenna to prevent radio interference
between the two cards. In this case, the antenna must be placed at least two feet away
from the RoamAbout R2.
The Range Extender antenna has a mounting bracket and a base for vertical positioning that
allows you to place the antenna on top of a table or cabinet, or attach it to the wall or ceiling.
To connect an antenna to the PC Card, insert the connector into the socket on the extended
side of the PC card. To protect the socket from dust, it is shielded with a cap.
CAUTION: To avoid damage, do not place the Range Extender Antenna on
top of, or close to a monitor. Many computer monitors have a degauss
option. An electromagnetic discharge that may occur when degaussing the
monitor may damage the antenna.
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Figure 1-10: Range Extender Antenna
WNG_08
1-17
Optional Antennas
Outdoor Antenna Kit
There are two RoamAbout antennas available for outdoor use:
•
14-dBi directional antenna
•
7-dBi omni-directional antenna
The RoamAbout outdoor antennas support outdoor LAN-to-LAN wireless links that are
used to connect separate LANs. The directional antenna is typically used in a Point-to-Point
wireless link. The omni-directional antenna is typically used in a Point-to-Multipoint
configuration. The omni-directional antenna can also be used in a wireless infrastructure
network.
Refer to the RoamAbout Outdoor Antenna Site Preparation and Installation Guide, or the
RoamAbout web site for more information: http://www.enterasys.com/wireless.
1-18
Chapter 2
Understanding Wireless Network
Characteristics
This chapter describes many of the wireless networking concepts and characteristics. You
should be familiar with this information before you design, implement, or manage a
RoamAbout wireless network. Not all characteristics apply to all of the network
configurations.
Some of the features listed are not available with earlier versions of the AP and the PC Card
driver. Review the Release Notes to determine if a feature is supported by your AP version
and client version.
In This Chapter
Information in this chapter is presented as follows:
Topic
Page
Wireless Network Name
2-2
Access Point MAC Addresses
2-3
RoamAbout R2 MAC Addresses
2-3
Channel Frequencies
2-4
Transmit Rate
2-5
Communications Quality
2-7
Data Throughput Efficiency
2-8
AP Density and Roaming
2-8
RTS/CTS Protocol
2-9
802.11 Power Management
2-11
Security
2-12
Network Operating System Security
2-12
RoamAbout AP Secure Access
2-12
2-1
Wireless Network Name
Topic
Page
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Encryption
2-13
Authentication
2-14
802.1X Rapid Rekeying
2-16
SNMP Community Names
2-19
Console Port Security
2-19
Network Protocols
2-20
Wireless Traffic
2-20
Spanning Tree Protocol
2-22
VLANs
2-23
RoamAbout SNMP Management
2-26
Wireless Network Name
A wireless network name, also called an SSID, is the name of the wireless infrastructure
network. To add an AP to an existing wireless network, configure the AP with the name of
the wireless network. To create a new wireless infrastructure network, configure the AP
with a unique wireless network name. The wireless network name is case sensitive.
The AP has a Secure Access feature. When enabled, the AP does not broadcast its network
name, and it only accepts connections from clients configured with the correct name. Users
of operating systems like Windows XP will not see the name show up automatically in
wireless LAN configuration dialogs.
When Secure Access is disabled, users can configure clients without a network name by
leaving the network name field blank or using ANY (all uppercase) as the wireless network
name, and still connect to the network. Users of operating systems like Windows XP will
be able to view the network name in wireless LAN configuration dialogs.
The AP does not use a wireless network name in a LAN-to-LAN configuration.
2-2
Access Point MAC Addresses
Access Point MAC Addresses
The MAC address is a unique identifier for networking devices. Each LAN device
(including Ethernet cards, bridges, routers, and gateways) is identified by a unique
factory-set MAC address:
•
One MAC address for the wired Ethernet interface, which is printed on the AP.
•
One MAC address for the RoamAbout PC Card installed in the AP, which is printed
on a label on the back side of the card.
RoamAbout wireless clients are identified by the MAC address of the RoamAbout PC
Card. You cannot change the universal MAC address of a networking device.
RoamAbout R2 MAC Addresses
The RoamAbout R2 has the following MAC Addresses allocated to it:
•
One MAC address for the wired Ethernet interface, which is printed on the AP.
•
One MAC address for each RoamAbout PC Card installed in the AP, which is printed
on a label on the back side of the card.
•
One MAC address for the Spanning Tree. This MAC address is the wired MAC
address plus 10 hex. For example, if the RoamAbout R2 MAC Address is
xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-40, the Spanning Tree MAC Address will be xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-50.
If using SNMP, you may see additional MAC Addresses, starting with the MAC address
printed on the AP. These additional 30 MAC Addresses are used internally and do not
generate network traffic.
2-3
Channel Frequencies
Channel Frequencies
The channel sets the center radio frequency for the wireless device. The RoamAbout PC
Card can support up to 14 channels; however, the number of available channels varies in
different countries.
•
APs within the same wireless infrastructure network can be set to different channels.
You can change the channel in an AP. The client automatically uses the same channel
as the AP.
•
Wireless clients automatically switch to the AP’s channel when roaming between APs
in a wireless network; for example, there are two APs in a wireless network where
AP 1 uses channel 1 and AP 2 uses channel 6. When connected to AP 1, the client
automatically uses channel 1. When roaming to AP 2, the client automatically changes
to channel 6.
•
To avoid radio interference, adjacent APs should be set to different channels that are
at least five channels apart. The APs do not necessarily have to be in the same wireless
network. For example, you have three APs whose coverage areas overlap; set the
channels to 1, 6 and 11, if possible.
Due to local radio regulations, not all channels are available in all countries.
NOTE
NOTE: If you have two 802.11b PC Cards installed in the RoamAbout R2,
the channels between the PC Cards must be at least 5 channels apart from
each other.
•
In a LAN-to-LAN configuration, the APs must be set to the same channel.
•
In an Ad-Hoc network, all clients must use the same channel to communicate. The
client uses a default channel which cannot be changed, with the exception of Mac and
Windows XP clients. You can set the channel on Mac and Windows XP operating
systems.
See “Supported Frequency Sub-Bands” on page A-3 for a list of channels supported by
country.
2-4
Transmit Rate
Transmit Rate
The transmit rate identifies the preferred data transmission speed of the AP. The actual data
transmission speed is subject to the type of PC Cards at both ends of the wireless link and
the communications quality of the link.
Transmissions at faster rates allow for higher data throughput and quicker network
response times. However, transmissions at lower rates are usually more reliable and cover
longer distances than the higher rates. You might use a lower rate when the client is at the
extreme edge of the coverage area (see Figure 2-1). Using a lower rate covers the longer
distance more reliably than a higher rate.
As shown in Figure 2-1, an AP can have clients using different transmit rates in a wireless
infrastructure network.
The following sections describe the auto rate and fixed rate settings.
Figure 2-1: Using Various Transmit Rates
Fixed
Higher
Rate
Intermittent
Noise
Lower
Rate
Higher
Rate
2-5
Transmit Rate
Auto Rate
With the auto rate option, the PC Card in a client or AP automatically switches to the next
lower rate when data transmissions fail more than once. Shortly after completing the
transmission, the PC Card returns to transmitting data at the higher rate.
In most environments, Auto Rate allows the PC Card to use a higher rate for better data
throughput, yet the PC Card can still use the more reliable slower rate when transmissions
fail. A transmission can fail when the network experiences sporadic noise interference.
Also use Auto Rate if you have APs with 11 Mbit/s PC Cards and a mix of clients with
11 Mbit/s and 2 Mbit/s PC Cards. The AP can communicate with both types of clients, but
can communicate with the 11 Mbit/s clients at a higher rate than the 2 Mbit/s clients.
Fixed Rate
A fixed rate setting prevents the PC Card from retransmitting at a lower rate after a failed
transmission. One example of why you would do this is when a microwave oven in the area
produces noise in the same frequency as the wireless network (see Figure 2-1). The
interference only occurs when the machine is in use. The interference may temporarily
disrupt communications between a client and the AP.
After a transmission fails more than once, the AP retransmits at a lower rate. However, the
interference also prevents communication at the lower rate. Retransmitting at a lower rate
does not solve the problem and could decrease network performance. With fixed rate
enabled, the AP cannot retransmit at a lower rate.
Using a fixed low rate is useful in networks where range is more important than speed,
especially when network response times are affected by numerous retransmissions and the
communications quality is low due to a low signal level. Setting the transmit rate to a low
rate prevents the AP from slowing network response times by transmitting data
unsuccessfully at a higher rate then retransmitting at a lower rate.
A fixed transmit rate does not affect the receive rate. For example, an AP and a client both
have 11 Mbit/s PC Cards, but the client is fixed to only transmit at 2 Mbit/s. The AP can
send data at 11 Mbit/s to the client, and the client can respond by sending data at 2 Mbit/s.
You should not set the AP to a fixed rate of more than 2 Mbit/s if you have clients with
11 Mbit/s and 2 Mbit/s PC Cards. Otherwise, the 2 Mbit/s clients cannot communicate with
the AP. The 2 Mbit/s clients can only receive data at a maximum of 2 Mbit/s.
2-6
Communications Quality
Communications Quality
Communications quality is measured by the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). The SNR is a
dynamic indicator that indicates the relative strength of the radio signal (signal level) versus
the radio interference (noise level) in the radio signal path. In most environments, SNR is
a good indicator for the quality of the radio link between transmitter and receiver. A higher
SNR value means a better quality radio link.
The RoamAbout Client Utility allows you to monitor the SNR, signal level, and noise level
at the client. The Client Utility is provided on the RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and
Utilities CD-ROM, or you can download it from the RoamAbout Wireless web site.
For the AP, the RoamAbout AP Manager provides a Link Test diagnostic tool that monitors
the SNR, signal level, and noise level between the AP and a remote wireless device.
Signal Level
The signal level values give you an indication of the distance between wireless devices.
Using the RoamAbout Client Utility, you can observe a decrease of the signal level value
when you move a client away from its AP. As an indicator for the communications quality,
signal level should always be interpreted in combination with noise level:
•
A high signal level with a low noise level provides excellent communications quality.
•
A high signal level with a high noise level results in an average or poor SNR.
Communications may not be as good as expected despite the strong signal level.
•
A low signal level may still provide adequate communications when the noise level is
relatively low.
Noise Level
The noise level indicates the presence of interference. Noise can be generated by various
devices such as microwave ovens (2.4 GHz), elevator motors, and theft detection devices
(like those used in retail stores). Noise level should always be related to the signal level:
•
A low noise level with a high signal level provides excellent communications quality.
•
A medium or high noise level with a high signal level results in an average or poor
SNR. Communications may not be as good as expected despite the strong signal level.
•
A high noise level most likely provides poor communications when the signal level is
medium or low.
2-7
Data Throughput Efficiency
Data Throughput Efficiency
Data throughput efficiency is measured in transmissions sent, lost, or received. When a data
transmission fails, the wireless device automatically retransmits the data. It is normal in
many environments for a transmission to fail occasionally. Data is not lost since the
wireless device automatically retransmits the data frames.
Many failed transmissions may result in longer network response times. Numerous
retransmissions require more time and bandwidth to maintain network communication
while contributing to the congestion of the medium. You can determine the number of
retransmissions in a wireless network using the RoamAbout Client Utility. The client utility
is provided in the RoamAbout PC Card kit and is installed on clients.
AP Density and Roaming
The AP Density is an advanced value that changes the sensitivity of the roaming client. The
distance range between RoamAbout APs listed below are estimated, and may differ
depending on your operating environment.
•
Low (default). The Low setting provides maximum coverage using a minimum
number of APs. This option is typically used for single-cell networks, but also provides
an efficient and cost effective solution for networks that include multiple wireless
clients. The coverage area ranges up to approximately 60+ meters.
•
Medium. The Medium setting can be used for environments where you desire clients
to disassociate sooner and roam to communicate at shorter distances/higher speeds
than the Low setting. The coverage area ranges approximately 40 to 60 meters.
•
High. The High setting should only be used when you are designing a wireless
infrastructure that includes a high concentration of AP devices. The coverage area
ranges approximately 20 to 40 meters.
•
Minicell. The Minicell setting should be used when you want to create small coverage
areas. The coverage area distance range is approximately 10 to 20 meters.
•
Microcell. The Microcell setting should be used when you want to create extremely
small coverage areas. The distance range is approximately 5 to 10 meters.
The AP has a Medium Density Distribution parameter that automatically distributes the AP
density setting to the RoamAbout wireless clients with the V7.44, or higher, driver. This
parameter is enabled by default.
2-8
RTS/CTS Protocol
RTS/CTS Protocol
Each device in a wireless network can sense transmissions from other devices in its network
that use the same frequency. To avoid collisions and lost data, a device only transmits when
it senses that no other device is transmitting. This behavior is referred to as the Carrier
Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol. The RTS/CTS
(Request to Send/Clear to Send) protocol is useful when collisions do occur. Collisions can
occur if two clients are unable to sense each other’s transmissions and simultaneously
transmit to the AP.
The RTS/CTS protocol forces a wireless device to perform the following:
•
When a packet to be transmitted is shorter than the RTS/CTS threshold, the device
transmits when it senses that the medium is free. The RTS/CTS protocol is not used.
A shorter packet is less likely to have a collision than a longer packet.
•
When the packet exceeds the threshold, the device sends an RTS message and waits
until the receiving device responds with a CTS message.
The RTS message includes the length of the frame that the device wishes to transmit. The
receiving device includes this information as a radio-silence time indicator in its CTS
response message. The CTS message announces to all the devices in the wireless network
which device is allowed to transmit its message. All other devices defer their transmissions
for the radio-silence time identified in the CTS message.
The RoamAbout AP allows you to set the RTS Threshold on the AP, and to set a Remote
RTS Threshold for clients to avoid a hidden station problem.
RTS Threshold
The RTS Threshold on a RoamAbout AP specifies the packet size of transmissions, where
messages larger than the specified size must use the RTS/CTS protocol. The default value,
2347, effectively turns off the RTS Threshold.
A lower RTS Threshold is useful when collisions frequently occur at the AP. This can be
caused when the AP and a client (or AP in a LAN-to-LAN configuration) transmit data to
each other simultaneously. A lower RTS Threshold forces the AP to send an RTS to the
device before transmitting a packet that exceeds the threshold. The AP waits until the
device responds with a CTS message.
Lowering the RTS Threshold imposes additional network overhead that could negatively
affect the throughput performance. You should only lower the RTS Threshold when the
wireless network experiences frame collisions and lost messages.
2-9
RTS/CTS Protocol
Hidden Station
A wireless device is a hidden station when its transmissions cannot be sensed by another
wireless device in the same network. Therefore, multiple devices could transmit at the same
time. This problem can occur with clients located at opposite ends of an AP coverage area.
Figure 2-2 illustrates a hidden station example. Clients A and B are within range of the AP.
However, Client B cannot sense transmissions from Client A, since Client A is outside of
Client B’s coverage area (shown in gray). Client B could transmit while Client A is
transmitting. Therefore, messages of both Client A and B collide when arriving
simultaneously at the AP. The collision results in a loss of messages for both clients.
Figure 2-2 also illustrates that Client C is not hidden from the other clients.
Figure 2-2: Hidden Station Example
Client B
Client A
Client C
To avoid a hidden station problem, move the clients or AP if possible so that the devices
can sense each other’s transmissions. Otherwise, enable Remote RTS Threshold on the AP.
Do not change the RTS Threshold on the AP.
Enabling Remote RTS Threshold forces the client to send an RTS to the AP before
transmitting a packet that exceeds the threshold. The client waits until the AP responds with
a CTS message. However, enabling Remote RTS Threshold imposes additional network
overhead that could negatively affect the data throughput performance. You should only
use this setting when the density of clients and APs is low and you witness poor network
performance due to excessive frame collisions at the APs.
2-10
802.11 Power Management
802.11 Power Management
Power management can extend the battery life of clients by allowing the client to sleep for
short periods of time while its messages are buffered by the AP.
You may need to balance wireless performance versus battery-life. Power management
imposes a more active use of the wireless medium, which might lead to more frequent
transmission delays experienced as slower network response times during file transfers.
With slower response times, the client may spend more time in operational mode resulting
in less effective power management. In such cases, disabling power management on the
client might result in better throughput performance.
The RoamAbout PC Card 802.11 power management is separate from any power
management function on your computer.
RoamAbout AP
The RoamAbout AP automatically supports 802.11 power management. The only
parameter that can be set is the Delivery Traffic Indication Message (DTIM) interval,
which sets the buffering time. The default value of 1 corresponds to 100 milliseconds of
sleep time. It is highly recommended that you do not change this value.
RoamAbout Client
You can enable or disable power management on a RoamAbout client. With power
management enabled, the client goes into sleep mode to minimize power consumption. The
wireless traffic is buffered in the AP that the client uses to connect to the network.
The client checks for network traffic addressed to the client at regular intervals. If there is
no traffic addressed to the client, the client returns to sleep mode. If traffic is buffered at the
AP, the client collects the buffered messages prior to returning to sleep mode. The
following discusses how power management can impact data throughput of the wireless
network.
•
Power management causes little or no difference in network performance when using
transaction processing applications, such as hand-held scanners or clients that use the
wireless network only to send and receive e-mail.
•
You may experience longer network response times when you transfer large files
between the network and the client while power management is enabled. The size of
the files and the recurrence of file transfers are a factor. If modifying a document over
the network, any auto save feature could cause frequent file transfers.
•
The AP could cause longer network response times if a number of clients use the same
AP for buffering messages while in sleep mode.
2-11
Security
Security
The following lists the types of security in a RoamAbout wireless environment:
•
Network operating system security
•
RoamAbout AP Secure Access
•
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Encryption
•
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) community names
•
SNMPv3 (RoamAbout R2 only)
•
Device Authentication, which requires a RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In
User Service) server. Authentication can be based on:
— MAC address
— 802.1X
— Both MAC address and 802.1X
•
802.1X Rapid Rekeying
•
Console port password
•
Address Filtering (see “Filters” on page 2-21)
Network Operating System Security
To access networking data or services, a wireless client needs to run an appropriate network
operating system. Most network operating systems use standard security measures such as
login names and passwords. When you follow the standard network security procedures
and guidelines recommended for your network operating system, an unauthorized user
cannot access network data or services without the appropriate user name and password.
For detailed information, consult the documentation that came with the network operating
system or refer to the reseller of your LAN software.
RoamAbout AP Secure Access
When Secure Access is enabled, the AP denies access to wireless clients that do not use the
correct wireless network name. In addition, the AP does not broadcast its network name, so
that clients with operating systems like Windows XP do not see the name show up in
wireless LAN configuration dialogs.
When disabled, users can configure clients by leaving the network name field blank or
using ANY (all uppercase) as the wireless network name, and still connect to the network.
Clients will be able to view the network name in wireless LAN configuration dialogs.
2-12
Security
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Encryption
The WEP feature encrypts all data transmitted within the wireless network. The encryption
uses the RC4 algorithm as defined in the IEEE 802.11 Wired Equivalent Privacy standard.
NOTE
NOTE: Broadcast and multicast messages are not encrypted.
The RoamAbout devices can be configured with four encryption keys. Each key is placed
in a specific position (Key 1, Key 2, Key 3, or Key 4). You select one key to encrypt
transmitted data. To decipher the data, the receiving wireless device must have the key used
to encrypt the data in the same position as the sending device.
The receiving device can transmit data back to the sending device using a different key for
transmission, as long as the other device has the transmitting key in the same position. In
Figure 2-3, the AP uses Key 1 to encrypt transmitted data, which the client can decipher.
The client uses Key 2 to encrypt transmitted data, which the AP can decipher. If the AP
uses Key 3 to encrypt transmitted data, it cannot be deciphered by the client. The Bobss key
is Key 3 on the AP but Key 4 on the client.
Figure 2-3: Using Encryption
Key 1 = Je3ff
Key 2 = Vicki
Key 3 = Bobss
Key 4 = [No Entry]
Tra
n
sm
Tra
n
sm
it K
it K
ey
ey
=2
=1
Key 1 = Je3ff
Key 2 = Vicki
Key 3 = Freds
Key 4 = Bobss
In a wireless infrastructure network, you can configure the APs to:
•
Only accept encrypted data from clients. Only clients that have the correct encryption
keys can participate in this network.
•
Accept encrypted data from clients with encryption enabled, and unencrypted data
from clients without encryption enabled. This allows clients who require security to
use encryption without preventing other clients from using the network.
In a LAN-to-LAN configuration, use encryption to have a secure wireless link. In an ad-hoc
network, use encryption to prevent uninvited users from joining the network.
2-13
Security
Authentication
The RoamAbout AP supports authentication of wireless workgroup clients. An AP can
authenticate clients based on:
•
MAC address
•
802.1X
•
Both MAC address and 802.1X (Hybrid authentication)
When using any of these types of authentication, you must configure the AP as a RADIUS
client.
RADIUS Client
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service) is a protocol that the AP uses to
communicate with a remote Authentication Server. Separating the Authentication Server
from the AP means that several APs can share the same centralized authorization database.
However, it also means that to successfully authenticate wireless clients, you must
configure the AP as a RADIUS client.
When configured as a RADIUS client, the AP passes user authentication information to a
designated RADIUS Server. The RADIUS Server receives inbound user connection
requests, processes the requests to authenticate the user, then responds to the AP with the
necessary information to deliver service to the user. The AP acts on the response that is
returned by the RADIUS Server to allow or deny the user’s access to the network.
The AP and RADIUS Server authenticate transactions through the use of a shared secret,
which is never sent over the network. They use the shared secret to encrypt RADIUS
attributes containing passwords or other sensitive data. This network security greatly
reduces the possibility of disclosed passwords or divulged secrets.
If you enable authentication on the AP without configuring it as a RADIUS client, the AP
will be unable to contact the Authentication Server. Therefore, the AP will assume that all
of the clients on the controlled ports are unauthorized and will prevent access to the LAN.
MAC Address Authentication
MAC address authentication is a form of authentication that does not place any special
requirements upon clients. The RADIUS Server is configured with the MAC addresses of
the wireless clients. When a client associates with the wireless LAN, the AP uses the
client’s MAC address as the user name. The client is unaware that a MAC address
authentication is taking place, except to the extent that the AP blocks LAN access as a
result.
2-14
Security
802.1X Authentication
IEEE 802.1X authentication allows logins based on user name, password, user certificates,
and other methods that may be mutually supported by the authentication server and the
clients. Only clients that support 802.1X can participate in a wireless network that uses this
type of authentication.
IEEE 802.1X authentication also imposes more requirements on the RADIUS server. For
MAC address authentication, a RADIUS server only needs to handle RADIUS. For
802.1X, the server must also handle EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) and one or
more protocols, such as MD5 (Message Digest 5) or TLS (Transport Layer Security).
Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server is one example of a product that supports all of
the protocols needed for 802.1X.
Some login methods associated with IEEE 802.1X provide a way by which an AP can
securely distribute radio keys. When all of the clients on a wireless LAN use such login
methods, it becomes practical to use Rapid Rekeying. Rapid Rekeying enhances security
by frequently changing radio encryption keys, reducing the time to decode and use an
encryption key.
Hybrid Authentication
Hybrid authentication is a special authentication mode for sites undergoing a transition to
IEEE 802.1X. The AP uses both MAC address and 802.1X authentication. 802.1X takes
precedence, but in the absence of 802.1X replies from a client, the AP grants access based
on the MAC address. This allows you to introduce IEEE 802.1X clients without disrupting
non-802.1X clients’ access to the LAN. However, this prohibits the use of the Rapid
Rekeying feature.
Rapid Rekeying is not available in this authentication mode. The MAC address clients
would not be able to keep up with the radio key changes, and would lose connectivity to
the LAN.
2-15
Security
802.1X Rapid Rekeying
Rapid Rekeying, also known as Key Tumbling, provides automatic IEEE 802.11 WEP
encryption key generation and frequent redistribution of WEP keys.
The following information applies to using Rapid Rekeying:
•
Rapid Rekeying requires the use of 802.1X authentication. Unauthenticated clients and
MAC address authentication clients cannot receive updated WEP keys, and would
soon lose connectivity to the LAN.
•
Rapid Rekeying automatically disables user-specified WEP encryption keys.
•
Rapid Rekeying requires the use of an EAP login method that generates session keys,
and the use of a RADIUS server that will distribute those keys to the AP. The AP uses
the session keys to encrypt the WEP key distribution messages. Clients without session
keys do not get new WEP keys.
•
EAP-TLS authentication using X.509 certificates on the clients will work with Rapid
Rekeying.
•
EAP-MD5 password authentication will not work with Rapid Rekeying. EAP-MD5
does not negotiate session keys.
•
Token based authentication will work with Rapid Rekeying if the token based
authentication uses a TLS based method, such as TTLS or PEAP. The requirement is
that there are TLS session keys negotiated and retained by the client and the AP.
The following describes how the AP introduces new key pairs.
1. The AP and clients are using the existing keys at the beginning of the Rapid Rekeying
encryption cycle.
AP
2-16
Client
Key #
Encryption
TX/RX
State
TX/RX
Encryption
Key1
aaaaaaaaaaaaaa
RX
Active
TX
aaaaaaaaaaaaaa
Key2
bbbbbbbbbbbbb
TX
Active
RX
bbbbbbbbbbbbb
Key3
xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Inactive
xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Key4
xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Inactive
xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Security
2. The key period expires. The AP creates two new random keys and loads them into the
inactive authenticator key indexes (Keys 3 and 4 in this example). The keys are not yet
used for transmission or reception.
AP
Client
Key #
Encryption
TX/RX
State
TX/RX
Encryption
Key1
aaaaaaaaaaaaaa
RX
Active
TX
aaaaaaaaaaaaaa
Key2
bbbbbbbbbbbbb
TX
Active
RX
bbbbbbbbbbbbb
Key3
cccccccccccccc
Inactive
xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Key4
ddddddddddddd
Inactive
xxxxxxxxxxxxx
3. The AP begins transmitting the new key pair to the authenticated clients in the
supplicant list. When a client receives the new keys, it immediately begins transmitting
using the new TX key. The AP does not use the new TX key until the message has been
transmitted to all clients. During this time, the AP accepts transmissions on both the
old and new RX keys. Note that a client can only have one TX key. The following table
shows that some clients use Key1 as the TX key while other clients use Key 3.
AP
Client
Key #
Encryption
TX/RX
State
TX/RX
Encryption
Key1
aaaaaaaaaaaaaa
RX
Active
TX
aaaaaaaaaaaaaa
Key2
bbbbbbbbbbbbb
TX
Active
RX
bbbbbbbbbbbbb
Key3
cccccccccccccc
RX
Active
TX
cccccccccccccc
Key4
ddddddddddddd
Inactive
ddddddddddddd
2-17
Security
4. Once the AP transmits the new keys to all clients in the supplicant list, it begins using
the new TX key (Key4). At this time all supplicants are using Key3 as their TX key.
AP
Client
Key #
Encryption
TX/RX
State
TX/RX
Encryption
Key1
aaaaaaaaaaaaaa
Inactive
aaaaaaaaaaaaaa
Key2
bbbbbbbbbbbbb
Inactive
bbbbbbbbbbbbb
Key3
cccccccccccccc
RX
Active
TX
cccccccccccccc
Key4
ddddddddddddd
TX
Active
RX
ddddddddddddd
5. The key period expires. The AP creates two new random keys, loads them into the
inactive authenticator key indexes (Keys 1 and 2 in this example), and repeats the
process (starting at step 3).
AP
2-18
Client
Key #
Encryption
TX/RX
State
TX/RX
Encryption
Key1
eeeeeeeeeeeee
Inactive
aaaaaaaaaaaaaa
Key2
fffffffffffff
Inactive
bbbbbbbbbbbbb
Key3
cccccccccccccc
RX
Active
TX
cccccccccccccc
Key4
ddddddddddddd
TX
Active
RX
ddddddddddddd
Security
SNMP Community Names
The SNMP community name allows management tools using SNMP to display or modify
AP parameters remotely.
The RoamAbout R2 supports SNMPv3. To access the RoamAbout R2 parameters via
SNMP, the management tool must know the Authentication Password and Privacy
Password. To support management tools using SNMPv2 or SNMPv1, the R2 provides four
community names that allow SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c read-only and read-write access. The
names are disabled by default with the exception of Community Name #1, which is set to
public. The community names are only accessible from the R2 console port.
The AP 2000 supports a read/write community name and a read-only community name. By
default, the AP uses public as the default read/write community name. This allows any
management tool using SNMP to access the AP and change parameters. By changing the
read/write community name, users must enter the correct community name to modify the
AP parameters. The read-only community name allows the management tools to view but
not change the AP parameters. You can change the read-only name so that users must enter
the correct name before they can view the AP parameters.
Console Port Security
RoamAbout Access Point 2000
The RoamAbout Access Point console port has two security features:
•
You can configure the console port to require a password before users can access the
Installation Menu.
•
You can configure the console port to prevent any management system from using
SNMP to modify the encryption parameters.
RoamAbout R2
The RoamAbout R2 console port supports SNMPv3, and has the following security
features:
•
Access to the console requires a password. The username is “admin” and the default
password is “password”. The password must be a minimum of eight ASCII characters,
and is case-sensitive.
•
The ability to enable or disable Web management and Telnet.
2-19
Network Protocols
Network Protocols
When you install a RoamAbout PC Card in a computer using a Windows operating system,
you may need to install and configure a set of networking protocols. The type of protocols
needed depends on the network operating system used within your LAN environment. The
most common protocols are:
•
IPX/SPX compatible protocols if your networking environment is using the Novell
NetWare network operating system.
•
NetBEUI if you want to use file and print sharing supported by Microsoft Client for
Microsoft Networks.
•
TCP/IP if you want to connect your computer to a network that uses IP addressing or
you would like to connect to the Internet.
These networking protocols can operate simultaneously with other networking protocols.
When you install a RoamAbout PC Card in an Apple computer, you may need to install and
enable Apple’s Open Transport or Apple Classic network protocols along with TCP/IP.
Wireless Traffic
In addition to data, wireless network traffic includes beacons and various types of
messages.
Beacons
A beacon is a message that is transmitted at regular intervals by the RoamAbout APs to all
wireless clients in the wireless infrastructure. Beacons are used to maintain and optimize
communications by helping mobile RoamAbout clients to automatically connect to the AP
that provides the best communications quality.
Beacons are transmitted at 2 Mbit/s when the transmit rate is set to auto rate, as described
in “Transmit Rate” on page 2-5. If the transmit rate is fixed, the beacons are transmitted
at the fixed rate.
2-20
Wireless Traffic
Message Types
When a device in the wireless network transmits data, it can take one of these forms:
•
Broadcast: A data message transmitted by one device to all devices in the network.
•
Multicast: A data message transmitted by one device to multiple devices in the
network. Unlike broadcast messages, multicast messages do not always include all
devices in the network.
•
Unicast - A data message transmitted by one device to another device.
Broadcast and multicast messages are transmitted at 2 Mbit/s when the transmit rate is set
to auto rate, as described in “Transmit Rate” on page 2-5. If the transmit rate is fixed, the
broadcast and multicast messages are transmitted at the fixed rate.
Filters
The following filters are only available using the RoamAbout AP Manager, or a Network
Management Station that uses SNMP.
The RoamAbout AP has three types of filters:
•
Protocol
Use the Protocol filter to NOT forward specific protocol traffic to the wireless
network, which can reduce unnecessary traffic and increase the network response time.
However, filtering the wrong protocols can negatively affect the operation of the
network. When solving network problems, you should clear all filters.
•
Address
This filter forwards or does not forward traffic based on the client’s MAC address.
— Addresses Denied: A client in the Addresses Denied list cannot access the LAN,
even if the client has been authenticated.
— Addresses Allowed: Clients in the Addresses Allowed list can access the LAN.
Clients must supply their MAC address to the Network Administrator. This filter
is essentially ineffective when also using authentication.
•
Rate Limiting (AP 2000 only)
Use rate limiting to enable/disable the default rate limiting, and to enter the maximum
number of rate-limited frames forwarded per second.
By default, the AP 2000 limits multicast traffic to 100 Kbit/sec. Changing this
parameter could cause multicast traffic to use more network bandwidth. Should a
broadcast storm occur when this parameter is disabled, the multicast traffic could cause
a serious degradation of network performance. The R2 does not support the multicast
rate limiting function.
2-21
Spanning Tree Protocol
Spanning Tree Protocol
The RoamAbout AP uses 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol to prevent network loops. A loop
occurs when there are alternate routes between networks, as described in “Preventing
Network Loops” on page 1-12. A loop can cause bridges to continually forward multicast
traffic and degrade network performance.
In normal LAN-to-LAN operation, keep Spanning Tree ENABLED. You should only
disable Spanning Tree when using an application in a configuration that requires it.
It is important to avoid Point-to-Multipoint configurations that will cause bridge loops. A
bridge loop occurs when two parallel network paths are created between any two LANs,
causing packets to be continuously regenerated through both parallel paths. This situation
eventually renders the network unusable due to the excessive traffic that is being generated
by the loop. The AP Spanning Tree function corrects this type of problem by shutting down
the port and possibly shutting down a segment of the network.
Using the Access Point 2000
You can enable or disable the Spanning Tree when in Endpoint bridge mode. Spanning
Tree is disabled when in Workgroup bridge mode and enabled in Multipoint bridge mode.
Using the RoamAbout R2
You can enable or disable the Spanning Tree in all bridge modes. The default setting is
disabled.
2-22
VLANs
VLANs
A VLAN is a logical partition of one or more physical networks. A single VLAN can span
multiple LANs, and multiple VLANs can reside within a single LAN. One major benefit of
a VLAN is that traffic is restricted to a subset of the physical LAN or LANs. Multicasts are
only sent to the VLAN member ports. Therefore, a VLAN can conserve network bandwidth
and improve security.
All the devices in a designated VLAN need not necessarily support VLANs. Devices that
receive or generate data, such as a user’s laptop or desktop computer, do not need to support
VLANs to be part of a VLAN. Instead, a network device, such as a switch, can insert the
VLAN ID into the data received from a device in a VLAN. Data containing the VLAN ID
is considered “tagged.”
Access Point 2000
The RoamAbout Access Point 2000 only allows or disallows the forwarding of tagged
VLAN data in LAN-to-LAN bridge mode. The AP 2000 does not support configuring the
ports as VLAN members.
The AP does not forward VLAN data while in workgroup bridge mode.
R2 Access Platform
The RoamAbout R2 supports the forwarding of tagged VLAN data. It does NOT support
the following:
•
Insertion of VLAN IDs into untagged frames.
•
Spanning Trees on a per VLAN basis.
•
GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP).
•
VLAN IDs higher than 2047. The R2 supports VLANs numbered 2-2047.
•
Forwarding of VLAN data while the R2 is in workgroup mode. The R2 does not
support VLANs when either slot of the R2 is in workgroup mode.
NOTE
NOTE: VLAN 1 is a default VLAN used by the R2 to allow
pass-through of untagged data. Changing the VLAN 1 default settings
could prevent the R2 from forwarding untagged data.
2-23
VLANs
Network Configurations
Both the RoamAbout Access Point 2000 and the R2 can be used as a wireless bridge to an
existing VLAN. For example, two APs can connect VLANs residing in different buildings,
as illustrated in Figure 2-4. The wired side of each AP is connected to a switch that
supports VLAN IDs. Switch 1 connects to VLANs Red, Blue, and Green, but only forwards
data from VLANs Red and Green. Switch 2, in a different building, connects to VLANs
Red and Green. The AP is configured to forward VLAN data.
Figure 2-4: Wireless Bridge Between VLANs
VLANs Red,Blue,Green
Switch 1
VLANs Red,Green
AP
AP
Switch 2
VLANs Red,Green
Figure 2-5 shows a point-to-multipoint configuration. Switch 1 connects to VLANs Red,
Blue, Green, and Purple. R2(E) is configured to forward data from VLAN Red to wireless
endpoint R2(A), VLAN Blue to R2(B), VLAN Green to R2(C), and VLAN Purple to
R2(D). This example is only valid for the RoamAbout R2.
Figure 2-5: VLAN Support in Point-to-Multipoint Configuration
Switch 2
R2
Switch 3 VLAN Blue
R2
Switch 4
R2
Switch 5
(A)
(B)
VLANs Red, Blue, Green, Purple
Switch 1
R2
(E)
(C)
(D)
2-24
VLAN Red
R2
VLAN Green
VLAN Purple
VLANs
Ingress Filtering is always enabled on the RoamAbout R2. That is, the R2 does NOT
forward data from a VLAN defined on other ports if it is received on a port that is not
configured for that VLAN. In Figure 2-5, should R2(A) be configured incorrectly and
forward VLAN Green data from Switch 2 to R2(E), R2 (E) would not forward the data.
Although other R2(E) ports are configured for VLAN Green, the port receiving the data is
not configured for VLAN Green. It is only configured for VLAN Red. Ingress Filtering
cannot be disabled.
Static and Dynamic VLANs
A static VLAN is created when a user manually configures the ports to be Tagged,
Untagged, or Forbidden. A dynamic VLAN is created when the ports are configured via the
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP), which allows network devices to share their
statically configured VLANs. Dynamically configured VLANs are not saved. A reset to the
device causes the device to relearn the dynamic VLANs via GVRP. The RoamAbout R2
supports both statically-configured VLAN settings and GVRP-configured settings.
GVRP only distributes statically configured VLAN information to an adjacent device. In
Figure 2-5, should the Switch 1 port connected to R2(E) be statically configured for VLAN
Gray, GVRP would configure the R2(E) wired port dynamically for VLAN Gray. The
wireless ports would not be configured for VLAN Gray since they are not directly
connected to Switch 1. By default, GVRP is disabled on the R2.
2-25
RoamAbout SNMP Management
RoamAbout SNMP Management
Access Point 2000
The Access Point supports the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) through
any standard Network Management Station (NMS) that supports SNMP. The SNMP
management capability enables you to manage standard SNMP MIB characteristics, such
as protocol filtering and address filtering.
The Access Point 2000 supports the following MIB objects:
•
DEC ELAN Vendor MIB
•
IEEE 802.11 MIB
•
DEC Extended LAN Bridge MIB
•
IEEE 8021-PAE-MIB (Port Access Entity)
•
DEC Hub900 Common MIB
•
RFC1157 (SNMP Management)
•
DEC RoamAbout MIB
•
RFC1213 (MIB II)
•
Enterasys 802.1X Extensions MIB
•
RFC1286 (Bridge MIB)
•
Enterasys Encrypted 802.1X
Configuration MIB
•
RFC1398 (Ethernet Interface MIB)
•
Enterasys Encrypted 802.1X Rapid
Rekeying MIB
•
RFC1493 (IETF Bridge MIB)
•
EnterasysPrivate Enterprise MIB
•
RFC1757 (RMON MIB)
•
Enterasys-RADIUS-AUTH-Client-MIB
•
RFC2618 (RADIUS Authentication Client
MIB)
•
HUB PCOM MIB
To perform SNMP management on the AP, you must assign it an IP address. Also, the
Network Management Station needs to have the AP read/write community name. The
default community name is public.
Refer to the Release Notes for a complete list of supported MIB objects.
2-26
RoamAbout SNMP Management
RoamAbout R2
The RoamAbout R2 supports SNMPv3. If your Network Management Station (NMS) does
not support SNMPv3, use the RoamAbout R2 console port to configure the Communities
Views for SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c access.
The RoamAbout R2 supports the following MIBs:
•
Enterasys-802.11 Extensions MIB
•
RFC1907 (SNMPv3)
•
Enterasys Extended Switch MIB
•
RFC2233 (IF-MIB)
•
Enterasys Encrypted 802.1X Rapid
Rekeying MIB
•
RFC2571 (SNMP Management
Framework)
•
EnterasysPrivate Enterprise MIB
•
RFC2572 (SNMP MPD)
•
Enterasys-R2Management.mi2
•
RFC2573n (SNMP Notification MIB)
•
Enterasys-RADIUS-AUTH-Client-MIB
•
RFC2573t (SNMP Target MIB)
•
IANAifType-MIB
•
RFC2574 (SNMP USM)
•
IEEE 802.11 MIB
•
RFC2575 (SNMP VACM)
•
IEEE 802.1X MIB
•
RFC2618 (RADIUS Auth. Client MIB)
•
IEEE 8021-PAE-MIB (Port Access Entity)
•
RFC2665 (Ether-Like MIB)
•
RFC1157 (SNMP Management)
•
RFC2674p (P-Bridge-MIB)
•
RFC1213 (MIB II)
•
RFC2674q (Q-Bridge-MIB)
•
RFC1493 (IETF Bridge MIB)
•
TMSCommonMib
•
RFC1757 (RMON MIB)
•
TMSL3Mib
Refer to the Release Notes for a complete list of supported MIB objects.
2-27
Chapter 3
Designing and Implementing
a Wireless Network
The first step in designing a wireless network is to determine which network configuration
best fits your needs. The wireless network configurations are discussed in Chapter 1. Once
you have chosen a configuration, this chapter lists the various site requirements necessary
for each type of network.
Some of the features listed are not available with earlier versions of the AP and the PC Card
driver. Review the Release Notes to determine if a feature is supported by your AP version
and client version.
In This Chapter
Information in this chapter is presented as follows:
Topic
Page
Infrastructure Network
3-2
Determining the Coverage Area and Supported Users
3-3
Selecting the Location for a Single AP
3-4
Selecting the Locations for Multiple APs
3-5
RoamAbout R2 Mezzanine Special Considerations
3-6
Using Multiple Wireless Infrastructure Networks
3-6
Using an Outdoor Antenna
3-6
LAN-to-LAN Network Configuration
3-7
Ad-Hoc Network
3-8
Wireless Network Hardware Installation Overview
3-9
3-1
Infrastructure Network
Infrastructure Network
To plan a wireless infrastructure network, determine the following:
•
Coverage area - the area where the clients are located. If the clients are mobile, this is
the area where the clients can connect to the network.
•
Supported users - the number of clients that you expect to support.
•
Network utilization - how users intend to use the network. Utilization includes
frequently transferring large files (heavy utilization) or only accessing e-mail (light
utilization).
These factors, described in the following sections, help you to determine the number of APs
needed. Afterwards, you need to examine the AP hardware requirements and the wireless
client system requirements.
When designing a wireless network, consider the security issues for your environment.
Security can include the following:
3-2
•
Keeping the AP in a locked closet.
•
Using the security cover. A security cover is not included with the Access Point 2000
(contact your Enterasys Representative for more information).
•
Preventing unauthorized users from joining the wireless network.
•
Using authentication and data encryption to ensure that sensitive data is kept private.
Infrastructure Network
Determining the Coverage Area and Supported Users
Coverage area is determined by a number of factors, including physical obstructions and
noise levels as shown in Figure 3-1.
The following is an example of the coverage area in a semi-open environment, which is
defined as work space divided by shoulder-height, hollow wall elements. The distances in
your environment may be different.
•
11 Mbit/s - 165 feet (50 meters)
•
5.5 Mbit/s - 230 feet (70 meters)
•
2 Mbit/s - 300 feet (90 meters)
•
1 Mbit/s - 375 feet (115 meters)
Figure 3-1: Coverage Area
Noise from
Microwave
Noise from
Elevator Shaft
The faster the transmit speed, the shorter the coverage area at that speed. An AP with an
11 Mbit/s PC Card can communicate with clients up to a distance of 375 feet in a semi-open
environment. However, only clients within the first 165 feet can communicate at 11 Mbit/s.
Clients between 165 and 230 feet communicate at 5.5 Mbit/s. Clients between 230 and
300 feet communicate at 2 Mbit/s; and clients between 300 to 375 feet communicate at
1 Mbit/s.
3-3
Infrastructure Network
Noise levels in the radio frequencies can reduce the coverage area. Such noise can be
generated by microwave ovens and elevator motors. Increasing the AP Density will also
reduce the coverage area of a single AP.
A RoamAbout Access Point can support up to 250 users within its coverage area. The
RoamAbout R2 supports up to 250 users per slot. However, this number can be
significantly reduced by various factors, such as noise or obstructions in the coverage area,
and the network utilization by each client. If your desired coverage area is larger or the
number of users is greater, you need to install multiple APs.
Be aware of potential hidden station problems, as described in “Hidden Station” on page
2-10. If possible, arrange the coverage area to minimize or prevent any two clients from
being within range of the AP, but out of range from each other.
Selecting the Location for a Single AP
The AP should be placed as close as possible to the center of the planned coverage area. If
it is necessary to install the AP in an obstructed location, use the optional Range Extender
antenna to extend the coverage area of the AP. The Range Extender antenna should also be
used if, for security reasons, you need to install the AP in a closed location, such as a closet.
Before mounting the AP, review the hardware requirements described in the installation
documentation that came with the RoamAbout AP.
For best placement, configure the AP and a client and use the procedure in the “Optimizing
RoamAbout AP Placement” on page 6-5 before permanently mounting the AP.
3-4
Infrastructure Network
Selecting the Locations for Multiple APs
Consider the following:
•
Each coverage area must overlap another coverage area to allow roaming for clients.
•
The amount of overlap depends on number of users in a coverage area and utilization
of the network.
If you expect that one coverage area has more users or higher network utilization than
the other coverage areas, increase the overlap of the adjacent coverage areas by
moving the APs closer together (see Figure 3-2).
Figure 3-2: Overlapping Coverage Areas
AP1
•
AP3
AP4
If possible, have the adjacent APs whose coverage areas overlap use different channels
that are at least five channels apart.
NOTE
•
AP2
NOTE: If you are using two PC cards in the RoamAbout R2, they must
be five channels apart.
Be aware of potential hidden station problems. If possible, arrange the coverage area
to minimize or prevent any two clients from being within range of the AP but out of
range with each other.
For best placement, configure the AP and a client and use the procedure in the “Optimizing
RoamAbout AP Placement” on page 6-5 before permanently mounting the AP.
Before mounting the AP, review the hardware requirements described in the installation
documentation that shipped with the RoamAbout AP.
3-5
Infrastructure Network
RoamAbout R2 Mezzanine Special Considerations
The following information pertains to the RoamAbout R2 with the Mezzanine option
installed:
•
Slot 2 does not support LAN-to-LAN Multipoint.
•
If two 802.11b PC Cards are installed in the RoamAbout R2, one of the PC Cards must
be connected to the Range Extender Antenna to prevent radio interference between the
two cards. The antenna must be placed at least two feet away from the RoamAbout R2.
This is not necessary if one of the cards is connected to an outdoor antenna.
•
If you have two 802.11b PC Cards installed in the RoamAbout R2, the channels
between the PC Cards must be at least 5 channels apart from each other.
Using Multiple Wireless Infrastructure Networks
Instead of creating multiple cells in a single infrastructure network, you can have separate
infrastructure networks. The advantages include:
•
Preventing too many users from roaming to a particular coverage area by configuring
some users to use one network, and other users to a different network. This is a form
of load balancing.
•
Creating a secure network for security-sensitive users and a general, less secure
network for other users. For example, on a college campus you can create a wireless
network that uses encryption for use by the faculty, and a wireless network that does
not use encryption for use by students.
The coverage areas of APs in different networks can overlap without interference as long
as they use different channels. If possible, have the APs use different channels that are at
least five channels apart.
Using an Outdoor Antenna
You can extend the coverage area of a wireless infrastructure network by connecting an
outdoor omni-directional (7 dBi) antenna to the AP.
Typically, you only use the omni-directional antenna in an indoor/outdoor environment,
such as in and around a warehouse. Also, the clients should be configured with the
RoamAbout Vehicle-Mount antennas.
NOTE
3-6
NOTE: If you are planning to use an outdoor antenna refer to the
RoamAbout Outdoor Antenna Site Preparation and Installation Guide
for regulatory information, FCC requirements, and detailed procedures
to install outdoor antennas.
LAN-to-LAN Network Configuration
LAN-to-LAN Network Configuration
There are two types of LAN-to-LAN configurations. The LAN-to-LAN Endpoint Bridge
mode is used in a Point-to-Point configuration to connect two separate wired LANs. The
LAN-to-LAN Multipoint Bridge mode is used in a Point-to-Multipoint configuration to
connect multiple wired LANs. Typically, the LANs are in different buildings and the
configuration requires the RoamAbout outdoor antenna kit.
Consider the following:
•
Type of antenna. Use two directional antennas in a Point-to-Point link. Use one
omni-directional antenna and up to six directional antennas in a Point-to-Multipoint
configuration.
•
Outdoor antenna installation. You should use a professional antenna installation
company to install the outdoor antennas.
•
Grounding system. The AP and the outdoor antenna must use the same earth ground.
•
Connecting of the outdoor antenna to the AP, and connecting the AP to the wired LAN.
Refer to the RoamAbout Outdoor Antenna Site Preparation and Installation Guide for the
detailed procedures to determine distances and install an outdoor configuration.
If you are not using an antenna, the APs should be within each other’s coverage area. The
speed you want to use for your wireless link is one factor that determines the distance
between the APs. Other factors include physical obstructions and noise levels.
The following is an example of the coverage area in a semi-open environment, which is
defined as work space divided by shoulder-height, hollow wall elements.
•
11 Mbit/s - 165 feet (50 meters)
•
5.5 Mbit/s - 230 feet (70 meters)
•
2 Mbit/s - 300 feet (90 meters)
•
1 Mbit/s - 375 feet (115 meters)
Before mounting the AP, review the hardware requirements described in the installation
documentation that came with the RoamAbout AP.
NOTE
NOTE: Using the AP Density feature will change the coverage area.
See AP Density and Roaming on page 2-8 for more information.
3-7
Ad-Hoc Network
Ad-Hoc Network
The only requirement for an ad-hoc network is the ability to communicate with one or more
other wireless users. To do this:
•
All PC Cards must use the same channel. Default channels are listed in Table A-3 on
page A-3.
•
Determine the size of the coverage area. The speed of the RoamAbout PC Card is one
factor that determines the client coverage area. Other factors include physical
obstructions and noise levels. The following is an example of the coverage area in a
semi-open environment, which is defined as work space divided by shoulder-height,
hollow wall elements.
— 11 Mbit/s - 165 feet (50 meters)
— 5.5 Mbit/s - 230 feet (70 meters)
— 2 Mbit/s - 300 feet (90 meters)
— 1 Mbit/s - 375 feet (115 meters)
The faster the transmit speed, the shorter the coverage area at that speed. A client with
an 11 Mbit/s PC Card can communicate with other clients up to a distance of 375 feet
in a semi-open environment. However, only clients within the first 165 feet can
communicate at 11 Mbit/s. Clients between 165 and 230 feet communicate at
5.5 Mbit/s. Clients between 230 and 300 feet communicate at 2 Mbit/s; and clients
between 300 to 375 feet communicate at 1 Mbit/s.
If using a card other than the RoamAbout PC Card in wireless clients, refer to that
card’s documentation for information about allowable distances. Make sure that the
computer meets the RoamAbout PC Card requirements as described in the “Wireless
Network Hardware Installation Overview” on page 3-9.
3-8
Wireless Network Hardware Installation Overview
Wireless Network Hardware Installation Overview
Once you have designed the wireless network and determined where to place the wireless
devices, install and configure the hardware as described in the following sections.
Wireless Infrastructure Network
The following is an overview of the steps to install the wireless devices in a wireless
infrastructure network.
1. Install the RoamAbout AP in the location you have chosen. Refer to the RoamAbout
documentation to install the hardware.
2. Install a tool to configure the AP as described in Chapter 4.
3. Configure the APs using the procedures in Chapter 5. You should configure the APs
before configuring clients. A number of client settings depend on the AP settings.
4. Create wireless clients by installing the RoamAbout PC Card into the appropriate
computers. Refer to the RoamAbout PC Card documentation.
5. If installing the RoamAbout Client Utility (recommended), see the “RoamAbout
Client Utility” on page 4-7.
6. Configure the wireless clients using the procedures described in the RoamAbout
802.11 PC Card Drivers and Utilities Setup and Installation Guide.
LAN-to-LAN Configuration
The following is an overview of the steps to install the APs in a LAN-to-LAN
configuration.
1. If using an outdoor antenna, follow the instructions in the RoamAbout Outdoor
Antenna Site Preparation and Installation Guide.
2. Install the RoamAbout APs in the locations you have chosen. Refer to the RoamAbout
AP documentation to install the AP hardware.
3. Choose and install a tool to configure the AP as described in Chapter 4.
4. Configure the APs using the procedure in the “Configuring APs in a Point-to-Point
Network” on page 5-8 or “Configuring the AP for Point-to-Multipoint” on page
5-13.
3-9
Wireless Network Hardware Installation Overview
Ad-Hoc Network
The following is an overview of the steps to install the wireless clients in an Ad-Hoc
network.
1. Create wireless clients by installing the RoamAbout PC Card into the appropriate
computers. Refer to the RoamAbout PC Card documentation.
2. If installing the RoamAbout Client Utility (recommended), see the “RoamAbout
Client Utility” on page 4-7.
3. Configure the wireless clients, as described in the RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers
and Utilities Setup and Installation Guide.
3-10
Chapter 4
Wireless Network Tools
This chapter describes the configuration tools.
You can configure the AP using one or more of these tools:
•
RoamAbout AP Manager
•
RoamAbout console port
•
Telnet (RoamAbout R2 only)
•
Web Management (RoamAbout R2 only)
•
Network Management Station (NMS)
To configure the AP for the first time, you need to use the RoamAbout AP Manager or the
console port.
In This Chapter
Information in this chapter is presented as follows:
Topic
Page
RoamAbout AP Manager
4-2
Other SNMP Management Tools
4-5
RoamAbout Console Port
4-5
Telnet
4-6
Web Management
4-6
RoamAbout Client Utility
4-7
4-1
RoamAbout AP Manager
RoamAbout AP Manager
The RoamAbout AP Manager is a configuration tool for new APs and a management tool
to assist the ongoing management and support of RoamAbout wireless networks. The AP
Manager can manage multiple APs simultaneously.
The AP Manager has the following features:
4-2
•
Ability to manage multiple APs remotely, including changing parameters on multiple
APs in a wireless network with a single command.
•
Ability to group APs. For example, you can group together all the APs in one wireless
network and have a second group for APs in another wireless network.
•
Ability to view AP parameters such as statistics, firmware version number, MAC
addresses, amount of memory, and card type.
•
Integrity checking for many wireless parameter changes. This warns you if a common
wireless network management mistake is about to be made, or if the operation
requested is unusual and usually not recommended.
•
Integrity checking of an existing wireless network configuration for consistent settings
and common management errors.
•
Improved wireless network performance through packet filtering and recommended
filter settings.
•
Integrated with a BootP/TFTP application for simple AP firmware upgrades, also
called flash upgrades.
•
Support for 802.11 radio technology.
•
Ability to manage current and previous releases of the AP firmware. The AP Manager
only allows access to those features supported by the selected AP.
RoamAbout AP Manager
Installing the RoamAbout AP Manager
The AP Manager supports Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows Me,
Windows NT (V4.0 or later), and Windows XP.
The AP Manager can manage APs from a wireless computer. However, the AP Manager
needs to be on a computer connected to the same wired LAN as the AP to assign an IP
address or upgrade the AP firmware.
The AP Manager is included on the CD-ROM in the RoamAbout AP kit, and can also be
downloaded from the enterasys.com/wireless web site. To install the AP Manager, follow
the installation instructions. After the installation, you can open the AP Manager main
window, shown in Figure 4-1, by clicking the Start button on the Windows desktop and
selecting Programs→RoamAbout→RoamAbout AP Manager.
Figure 4-1: RoamAbout AP Manager Main Window
4-3
RoamAbout AP Manager
Using the AP Manager
You can manage APs individually or as a single group. You can group APs based on any
criteria, such as:
•
All APs belonging to the same network are in one group. For example, have one group
for the Accounting network and one group for the Engineering network.
•
To avoid confusion, you should have different groups for APs in an infrastructure
network and APs in a LAN-to-LAN configuration. APs in these configurations are
managed differently.
•
If you have earlier releases of the RoamAbout AP, you can group non-802.11
compliant APs together, separate from the 802.11 APs.
The AP Manager saves each group in a configuration file (*.CFG). When you create a
group, give the file a meaningful name that represents the group, such as Campus for APs
used outside on a college campus, or Engineering if all the APs are used for the Engineering
wireless network.
When you open a configuration file, the APs in the group are displayed in the Managed List
field on the main window (see Figure 4-1). You can add or remove APs from the
configuration file. The following lists some of the actions you can perform from the AP
Manager main window:
•
Each time you open the AP Manager, the RoamAbout AP Managed List field is
blank. You need to open a file by clicking File in the menu bar, selecting Open, and
choosing a configuration file. All the APs in that group are displayed in the Managed
List field.
•
If there is a RoamAbout R2 in the list, you are prompted for a password. The password
is the password that you entered when you created the configuration file.
•
To display the settings that the AP is currently using, select the AP in the Managed List
field and click the various buttons, such as Wireless Parameters, Network
Parameters, and Hardware. Click the Help button in each dialog box for a
description of the dialog box.
•
To check the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) between the AP and another device in the
same wireless network, select Integrity in the menu bar and select Link Test.
•
To discover all APs in your network, select Selection in the menu bar and Discover.
Chapter 5 contains the procedures to configure APs using the AP Manager.
4-4
Other SNMP Management Tools
Other SNMP Management Tools
The AP supports the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) through any standard
Network Management Station (NMS) that supports SNMP. The SNMP management
capability enables you to manage standard SNMP MIB characteristics, such as protocol
filtering and address filtering.
•
To manage the AP with an NMS, you must first use the console port or AP Manager
to configure the AP with a valid IP address.
•
The RoamAbout R2 supports SNMPv3. If your NMS does not support SNMPv3 and
you want to use SNMPv1 or SNMPv2c, use the RoamAbout R2 console to access the
community names. The RoamAbout R2 Community screen contains four community
names that allow SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c read-only and read-write access to an NMS.
The names are disabled by default with the exception of Community Name #1, which
is set to public. If using SNMPv3, you should leave names 2 through 4 disabled.
•
The following AP settings are only accessible from an NMS:
— RMON parameters
— Aging timer
RoamAbout Console Port
You can manage the AP by connecting a terminal or personal computer running terminal
emulation software to the console port. Signals from the console port conform to the
EIA-232D signaling standard at 9600 baud only. The port appears as a data terminal
equipment (DTE) device. Typically, you do not need to use the console port if you use the
AP Manager to manage the AP. However, the R2 SNMP community names are only
modifiable from the R2 console port.
Refer to Appendix B for the procedure to connect a device to the AP console port.
4-5
Telnet
Telnet
You can manage the RoamAbout R2 through Telnet. However, you must first assign the
R2 an IP address.
Perform the following steps to access the R2 through Telnet:
1. Open a DOS Prompt.
2. Telnet to the IP Address that you assigned to the RoamAbout R2.
For example: telnet 10.0.0.00
You are prompted for a username and password. The default username is admin and
the default password is password. The Main Menu appears.
3. Ensure that your preferences are set to use the arrow keys.
Web Management
You can manage the RoamAbout R2 through your web browser. However, you must first
assign the R2 an IP address. Refer to Appendix B for the procedure to connect a device to
the AP console port.
The RoamAbout R2 web management runs on the following browsers:
•
Netscape Communicator V4.5, V4.6, V4.7 and V6.0 (and later)
•
Microsoft Internet Explorer V4.0 and V5.0 (and later)
You must set the browser proxy to Direct Internet Connection. Then enter the IP address
that you assigned to the RoamAbout R2 in the browser window. You are prompted for a
username and password. The default username is admin and the default password is
password.
4-6
RoamAbout Client Utility
RoamAbout Client Utility
The RoamAbout Client Utility is a diagnostic tool for RoamAbout wireless networks. The
RoamAbout Client Utility is included on the RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and
Utilities CD-ROM, or you can download it from the RoamAbout Wireless web site. Refer
to the RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and Utilities Setup and Installation Guide for
setup and installation information.
Use the Client Utility to:
•
•
Perform a radio Link Test with a single AP or computer. The Link Test mode allows
you to verify the communications quality of the RoamAbout PC Card in more detail.
It allows you to investigate the performance of the RoamAbout radio link between:
—
Your computer and another wireless computer
—
Your computer and the current AP
Perform a Site Survey running the Site Monitor option. Use the Site Monitor mode to
display the communications quality of your computer with multiple APs in its vicinity.
The Site Monitor mode allows you to conduct a site survey to:
—
Determine the overall wireless coverage of your LAN network.
— Determine or optimize placement of your APs, to provide seamless connectivity
to mobile stations.
For detailed information about each Client Utility window, consult the RoamAbout Client
Utility on-line help by clicking the Help button in each window.
4-7
Chapter 5
Configuring the Wireless Network
This chapter provides the procedures to configure the wireless device parameters. Before
performing these procedures, you need to install the wireless network tools as described in
Chapter 4.
•
To install the drivers and utilities on the clients, refer to the RoamAbout 802.11 PC
Card Drivers and Utilities Setup and Installation Guide.
•
If you are configuring a wireless infrastructure network, configure the APs first. Many
of the wireless client parameters are based on the AP settings.
•
For infrastructure and ad-hoc networks, document the common settings for any clients
that join the network at a future date.
In This Chapter
Information in this chapter is presented as follows:
Topic
Page
Configuring APs in an Infrastructure Network
5-3
Configuring APs in a Point-to-Point Network
5-8
Configuring the AP for Point-to-Multipoint
5-13
Viewing Current AP Settings
5-18
Modifying the IP Address
5-19
Setting the Cabletron Discovery Protocol
5-21
Modifying Wireless Parameters
5-22
Configuring for Security
5-24
Configuring the Console Port for Security
5-28
Configuring the R2 for SNMPv1 or SNMPv2
5-29
Configuring the AP for Authentication
5-30
Configuring for Rapid Rekeying
5-36
Configuring for VLANs
5-40
5-1
In This Chapter
5-2
Topic
Page
Setting Spanning Tree
5-43
Filtering Traffic by Protocols
5-44
Filtering Traffic by Addresses
5-46
Checking the Configuration on Multiple APs
5-47
Resetting the RoamAbout AP
5-48
Using the RoamAbout R2 Web Management
5-49
Configuring Clients
5-50
Configuring APs in an Infrastructure Network
Configuring APs in an Infrastructure Network
After installing the AP, you can configure its network and wireless parameters using the
AP Manager, the console port, or the R2 Web Management. To configure the RoamAbout
R2 for management by an NMS using SNMPv2 or SNMPv1, see “Configuring the R2 for
SNMPv1 or SNMPv2” on page 5-29.
Required Information
When configuring an AP, have the following information available:
•
If the AP has been configured with an IP address, you need to know that IP address. If
the AP has not been assigned an IP address, you need the following:
— The AP wired MAC address, which is printed on the front of the Access Point
2000 and on the side of the RoamAbout R2.
— Valid, unused IP address. Depending on your network configuration, you may
also need to provide the subnet mask and default gateway.
•
The AP SNMP read/write community name (default is public). If you do not enter the
correct community name, you cannot modify the AP or add it to an AP Manager group.
•
For a RoamAbout R2, the SNMPv3 Authentication and Privacy Passwords (default for
both is password).
•
Identification information, such as a unique name for the AP, its location, and the name
of the person responsible for the AP.
Wireless Parameters Used in an Infrastructure Network
If adding APs to an existing wireless network, write down the wireless parameter settings.
If creating a wireless infrastructure network, you can enter the Channel, Wireless Network
Name, and Station Name, and use the default settings for the other parameters. The
following describes the settings used in an infrastructure network:
•
Slot 1/Slot 2: (RoamAbout R2 only): Select the slot to be configured.
•
Channel: Set adjacent APs to different channels that are at least five channels apart if
possible. See Appendix A for channel information.
•
Wireless network name: The wireless network name can be any alphanumeric string
(uppercase and lowercase) with a maximum of 32 characters. Spaces are allowed. The
name is case-sensitive. An example of a wireless network name is:
My RoamAbout NETWORK 2
5-3
Configuring APs in an Infrastructure Network
•
Station name: Select a unique name that helps identify the location of the AP. Each
AP should have a unique station name.
•
Bridge Mode: Set to Workgroup.
•
AP Density: See AP Density and Roaming on page 2-8 for more information.
•
Transmit Rate: The default setting works well in most environments. See “Transmit
Rate” on page 2-5.
•
RTS Threshold: The default setting works well in most environments. See
“RTS/CTS Protocol” on page 2-9.
•
Remote RTS Threshold: The default setting works well in most environments. See
“RTS/CTS Protocol” on page 2-9. This setting is only available on a RoamAbout R2
managed by the AP Manager.
•
DTIM: In nearly all environments, you should not change the default DTIM of 1. See
“802.11 Power Management” on page 2-11.
•
Secure Access: Enable to prevent clients without the correct wireless network name
from connecting to this AP.
•
Multicast Transmit Rate: Identifies the desired transmission speed for the broadcast
and multicast traffic as forwarded by the AP to the wireless LAN. You should use the
lowest speed that you want to support. If using applications that use multicast traffic
(for example, IGMP), you can increase this rate from the default of 2 Mbit/s Fixed.
•
IntraBSS Relay:
— Enable: Allows wireless users associated with an AP to see and communicate
between each other. This is accomplished by taking a multicast packet from one
wireless user and rebroadcasting it so that all wireless users see it.
— Disable: Prevents communication between users associated with an AP. This
mode is intended for use in the ISP market where the ISP does not want separate
households to browse the Network Neighborhood and see other customers and
their hard drives.
5-4
•
Medium Density Distribution: Enable it to have the AP distribute its AP Density
(low, medium, high, minicell, microcell) to the clients. This setting is not available
from the console ports.
•
Load Balancing: Forces wireless clients to associate with APs that are least busy,
resulting in a more even distribution of client associations between APs. Load
balancing increases the network's overall throughput. Load balancing is enabled by
default. This setting is not available from the console ports.
Configuring APs in an Infrastructure Network
Using the AP Manager
Use the Help button in the AP Manager for a description of any field.
1. If you are currently managing APs with the AP Manager, determine if the new AP
belongs to an existing group. Refer to “RoamAbout AP Manager” on page 4-2 for a
description of configuration groups.
File→Open (adds the AP to an existing group)
File→New (starts a new group)
2. Click Setup/Add New AP.
3. If the AP has been assigned an IP address, click No when asked if you need to load an
IP address on the AP. If the AP does not have an IP address, click Yes.
4. Enter a new IP address or the AP’s existing IP address and other network parameters
as prompted.
You may need to wait a few minutes for the IP address to load. Afterwards, the AP
Manager displays the Identification and Wireless Parameter dialog boxes.
5. Identification: Enter information that will help administrators identify the AP.
6. Wireless Parameters: Enter the wireless parameters for your wireless network. If
your wireless network requires additional settings, click the Advanced button.
7. Click OK.
8. To implement your changes:
R2 AP: Select Reset from the main window. Select Reset Slot x, where x is the slot
(1 or 2) you configured.
AP 2000: Select Reset from the main window. Select Reset with Current Settings.
Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
9. Repeat this procedure to add additional APs to this or other configuration groups.
10. When configuring wireless clients, enter the Wireless network name especially if
Secure Access is enabled.
Refer to the other sections in this chapter to configure features such as authentication,
encryption, and filters.
5-5
Configuring APs in an Infrastructure Network
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
To use the console port, follow the instructions in “Connecting a Device to the Console
Port” in Appendix B. Use Help in the console screens for a description of any field.
1. Choose Network Configuration from the Main Menu and enter the following
parameters:
IP address: Enter the IP address you wish to assign to the AP.
Subnet mask: Enter the subnet mask you wish to assign to the AP.
Default gateway: Enter the IP address of the default gateway.
Spanning Tree: Set to Disable.
IP Address Mode: Set to Manual when configuring an AP for the first time. For more
information, see “Modifying the IP Address” on page 5-19.
Ethernet Speed: This sets the speed of the wired Ethernet connection. The default
setting, autonegotiate, works well in most environments.
GVRP: Set to Disabled unless you are configuring the AP to support VLANs, as
described in “Configuring for VLANs” on page 5-40.
CDP: This setting is Disabled by default in Workgroup mode. To change this setting,
refer to “Setting the Cabletron Discovery Protocol” on page 5-21.
2. Choose Save.
3. Choose Wireless Configuration from the Main Menu, then choose Set/Show
Wireless Configuration.
4. At the top of screen, select the radio slot (1 or 2) to configure.
5. Enter the wireless parameters.
6. Set the Reset Option to Reset Radio if necessary (default setting).
7. Choose Save.
8. To configure the RoamAbout clients, write down the Wireless Network Name,
especially if Secure Access is enabled.
Refer to the other sections in this chapter to configure features such as authentication,
encryption, and filters.
5-6
Configuring APs in an Infrastructure Network
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
To use the console port, follow the instructions in “Connecting a Device to the Console
Port” in Appendix B. Use Help in the console screens for a description of any field.
1. Choose Set IP Address from the Installation Menu.
2. Enter the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.
3. Choose Module-Specific Options from the Installation Menu.
4. Choose Set Wireless Configuration. Enter the wireless parameters for your wireless
network.
5. Select Module-Specific Options from the Installation Menu and set the following
parameters:
Bridge Mode Options: Set to Workgroup.
Enable/Disable Default Rate Limiting: Set to Disabled to disable the 100 Kbit/sec
limitation on multicast traffic.
6. Optionally, you can enable console security as follows:
a) Choose Enable/Disable Console Password from the Installation Menu. Enable
Console Password to prevent other users from using the console port to view or
modify settings.
b) Select Set SNMP Read/Write Community from the Installation Menu. Enter a
new community name (4 to 31 printable ASCII characters). Users must enter the
community name to access the menu.
7. To implement your changes, select Reset with Current Settings from the Installation
Menu. Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
8. When configuring wireless clients, enter the Wireless network name especially if
Secure Access is enabled.
Refer to the other sections in this chapter to configure features such as authentication,
encryption, and filters.
5-7
Configuring APs in a Point-to-Point Network
Configuring APs in a Point-to-Point Network
You can configure two APs to communicate with each other in a LAN-to-LAN
Point-to-Point configuration using the AP Manager or the console port as described in the
following sections. To configure the RoamAbout R2 for management by an NMS using
SNMPv2 or SNMPv1, see “Configuring the R2 for SNMPv1 or SNMPv2” on page
5-29.
Required Information
When configuring an AP, have the following information available:
•
If the AP has been configured with an IP address, you need to know that IP address. If
the AP has not been assigned an IP address, you need the following:
— The AP wired MAC address, which is printed on the front of the Access Point
2000 and on the side of the RoamAbout R2.
— Valid, unused IP address. Depending on your network configuration, you may
also need to provide the subnet mask and default gateway.
•
The AP SNMP read/write community name (default is public). If you do not enter the
correct community name, you cannot modify the AP or add it to an AP Manager group.
•
For a RoamAbout R2, the SNMPv3 Authentication and Privacy Passwords (default for
both is password).
•
Wireless MAC address of each AP. The wireless MAC address is NOT the same as the
wired MAC address printed on the AP. Perform one of the following to see the wireless
MAC address:
— AP Manager: Select each AP from the Managed List field and click the
Hardware button.
— Access Point 2000 console port: Show Current Settings from the Installation
Menu.
— R2 console port: Current Configuration from the Main Menu.
— Back of the PC Card used in the AP. The MAC address of the PC Card is the AP’s
wireless MAC address.
•
5-8
Identification information, such as a unique name for the AP, its location, and the name
of the person responsible for the AP.
Configuring APs in a Point-to-Point Network
Wireless Parameters Used in a Point-to-Point Network
The following AP parameters are not used in this configuration:
•
Wireless Network Name
•
AP Density
•
Secure Access
•
Power Management (DTIM Period)
•
IntraBSS Relay
•
Multicast Transmit Rate
The following describes the settings used in a point-to-point network:
•
Slot 1/Slot 2: (RoamAbout R2 only): Select the slot to be configured.
•
Channel: Both APs must use the same channel.
•
Station name: Select a unique name that helps identify the location of the AP. Each
AP should have a unique station name.
•
Bridge Mode: Set to LAN-to-LAN Endpoint.
•
Remote Wireless MAC Address: Enter the wireless MAC address of the remote AP.
•
Transmit Rate: A fixed rate is recommended for most environments. See “Transmit
Rate” on page 2-5.
•
RTS Threshold: The default setting works well in most environments. See
“RTS/CTS Protocol” on page 2-9.
•
Spanning Tree: Set to Enabled or Disabled. For more information, see “Spanning
Tree Protocol” on page 2-22.
5-9
Configuring APs in a Point-to-Point Network
Using the AP Manager
Use the Help button in the AP Manager for a description of any field.
1. If you are currently managing APs with the AP Manager, determine if the new AP
belongs to an existing group. Refer to “RoamAbout AP Manager” on page 4-2 for a
description of configuration groups.
File→Open (adds the AP to an existing group)
File→New (starts a new group)
2. Click Setup/Add New AP.
3. If the AP has been assigned an IP address, click No when asked if you need to load an
IP address on the AP. If the AP does not have an IP address, click Yes.
4. Enter a new IP address or the AP’s existing IP address and other network parameters
as prompted.
You may need to wait a few minutes for the IP address to load. Afterwards, the AP
Manager displays the Identification and Wireless Parameter dialog boxes.
5. Identification: Enter information that will help administrators identify the AP.
6. Wireless Parameters: Enter the wireless parameters for your wireless network. Click
the Advanced button to view all wireless parameters.
7. Click OK.
8. To implement your changes:
R2 AP: Select Reset from the main window. If changing the bridge mode, select Reset
with Current Settings. Otherwise, select Reset Slot x, where x is the slot (1 or 2) you
configured.
AP 2000: Select Reset from the main window. Select Reset with Current Settings.
Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
9. Repeat this procedure at the other AP.
Refer to the other sections in this chapter to configure features such as encryption and
filters.
5-10
Configuring APs in a Point-to-Point Network
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
To use the console port, follow the instructions in “Connecting a Device to the Console
Port” in Appendix B. Use Help in the console screens for a description of any field.
1. Choose Network Configuration from the Main Menu and enter the following
parameters:
IP address: Enter the IP address you wish to assign to the AP.
Subnet mask: Enter the subnet mask you wish to assign to the AP.
Default gateway: Enter the IP address of the default gateway.
Spanning Tree: Set to Enabled or Disabled. For more information, see “Spanning
Tree Protocol” on page 2-22.
IP Address Mode: Set to Manual when configuring an AP for the first time. For more
information, see “Modifying the IP Address” on page 5-19.
Ethernet Speed: This sets the speed of the wired Ethernet connection. The default
setting, autonegotiate, works well in most environments.
GVRP: Set to Disabled unless you are configuring the AP to support VLANs, as
described in “Configuring for VLANs” on page 5-40.
CDP: This setting is Auto Enabled by default in LAN-to-LAN mode. To change this
setting, refer to “Setting the Cabletron Discovery Protocol” on page 5-21.
2. Choose Save.
3. Choose Wireless Configuration from the Main Menu, then choose Set/Show
Wireless Configuration.
4. At the top of screen, select the radio slot (1 or 2) to configure.
5. Enter the wireless parameters.
6. Set the Reset Option to Reset Radio if necessary (default setting).
7. Choose Save.
8. If changing the bridge mode, you need to implement your changes by choosing
Reset/Upgrade in the Main Menu then choosing Reset Switch. Allow approximately
one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
9. Perform this procedure on the other AP.
Refer to the other sections in this chapter to configure features such as encryption and
filters.
5-11
Configuring APs in a Point-to-Point Network
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
To use the console port, follow the instructions in “Connecting a Device to the Console
Port” in Appendix B. Use Help in the console screens for a description of any field.
1. Choose Set IP Address from the Installation Menu.
2. Enter the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.
3. Choose Module-Specific Options from the Installation Menu.
4. Choose Set Wireless Configuration. Enter the parameters for your wireless network.
5. Select Bridge Mode Options in the Module-Specific Options menu.
Bridge Mode: Set to LAN-to-LAN End-Point.
Remote Wireless MAC Address: Enter the wireless MAC address of the remote AP.
Spanning Tree Mode: Set to Enabled or Disabled. For more information, see
Spanning Tree Protocol on page 2-22.
6. Optionally, you can enable console security as follows:
a) From the Installation Menu, choose Enable/Disable Console Password. Set to
Enable.
b) Select Set SNMP Read/Write Community from the Installation Menu. Enter a
new community name (4 to 31 printable ASCII characters). Users must enter the
community name to access the menu.
7. To implement your changes, select Reset with Current Settings from the Installation
Menu. Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
8. Perform this procedure on the other AP.
Refer to the other sections in this chapter to configure features such as encryption and
filters.
5-12
Configuring the AP for Point-to-Multipoint
Configuring the AP for Point-to-Multipoint
You can configure up to seven APs in a point-to-multipoint configuration. At least one AP
must be configured as a Central AP. The other APs are configured as endpoint APs, as
described in “Point-to-Multipoint” on page 1-10. To configure the RoamAbout R2 for
management by an NMS using SNMPv2 or SNMPv1, see “Configuring the R2 for
SNMPv1 or SNMPv2” on page 5-29.
Required Information
When configuring an AP, have the following information available:
•
Valid Multipoint Activation Key (16 characters) to enable Multipoint bridge mode
(purchased separately). Contact your Enterasys Representative.
•
If the AP has been configured with an IP address, you need to know that IP address. If
the AP has not been assigned an IP address, you need the following:
— The AP wired MAC address, which is printed on the front of the Access Point
2000 and on the side of the RoamAbout R2.
— Valid, unused IP address. Depending on your network configuration, you may
also need to provide the subnet mask and default gateway.
•
The AP SNMP read/write community name (default is public). If you do not enter the
correct community name, you cannot modify the AP or add it to the AP Manager
group.
•
For a RoamAbout R2, the SNMPv3 Authentication and Privacy Passwords (default for
both is password).
•
Wireless MAC address of each AP. The wireless MAC address is NOT the same as the
wired MAC address printed on the AP. Perform one of the following to see the wireless
MAC address:
— AP Manager: Select each AP from the Managed List field and click the
Hardware button.
— Access Point 2000 console port: Show Current Settings from the Installation
Menu.
— R2 console port: Current Configuration from the Main Menu.
— Back of the PC Card used in the AP. The MAC address of the PC Card is the AP’s
wireless MAC address.
•
Identification information, such as a unique name for the AP, its location, and the name
of the person responsible for the AP.
5-13
Configuring the AP for Point-to-Multipoint
Wireless Parameters Used in a Point-to-Multipoint Network
The following AP parameters are not used in this configuration:
•
Wireless Network Name
•
AP Density
•
Secure Access
•
Power Management (DTIM Period)
•
IntraBSS Relay
•
Multicast Transmit Rate
The following describes the settings used in a point-to-multipoint network:
•
Slot 1/Slot 2 (RoamAbout R2 only): Select the slot to be configured. For the central
AP, Slot 1 must be selected.
•
Channel. All APs must use the same channel.
•
Station name. Select a unique name that helps identify the location of the AP. Each
AP should have a unique station name.
•
Bridge Mode:
Central AP: Set to LAN-to-LAN Multipoint.
Endpoint APs: Set to LAN-to-LAN Endpoint.
5-14
•
Multipoint Activation Key (Central AP only): Enter the 16 character alphanumeric
activation key.
•
Remote Wireless MAC addresses: Central AP: Enter the wireless MAC addresses of
the other APs. Any unused fields must be null (contain no characters). Endpoint APs:
Enter the wireless MAC address of the Central AP.
•
Wireless Relay (Central AP, Access Point 2000 only): Enable to allow the endpoint
APs to communicate with each other through the Central AP, or Disable to only allow
the endpoint APs to communicate with the Central AP and its wired LAN.
•
Transmit Rate: The default setting works well in most environments. See “Transmit
Rate” on page 2-5.
•
RTS Threshold: The default setting works well in most environments. See
“RTS/CTS Protocol” on page 2-9.
•
Spanning Tree: Central AP: Set to Enabled. Endpoint APs: Enable or disable. For
more information, see “Spanning Tree Protocol” on page 2-22.
Configuring the AP for Point-to-Multipoint
Using the AP Manager
Use the Help button in the AP Manager for a description of any field.
1. Determine which AP is the Central AP, as described in “Point-to-Multipoint” on
page 1-10.
2. If you are currently managing APs with the AP Manager, determine if the new AP
belongs to an existing group. Refer to “RoamAbout AP Manager” on page 4-2 for a
description of configuration groups.
File→Open (adds the AP to an existing group)
File→New (starts a new group)
3. Click Setup/Add New AP.
4. If the AP has been assigned an IP address, click No when asked if you need to load an
IP address on the AP. If the AP does not have an IP address, click Yes.
5. Enter a new IP address or the AP’s existing IP address and other network parameters
as prompted.
You may need to wait a few minutes for the IP address to load. Afterwards, the AP
Manager displays the Identification and Wireless Parameter dialog boxes.
6. Identification: Enter information that will help administrators identify the AP.
7. Wireless Parameters: Enter the wireless parameters for your wireless network. Click
the Advanced button to view all the wireless parameters.
When configuring the Central AP, click the LAN-to-LAN Multipoint Properties
button to enter the wireless MAC addresses of the other APs. Any unused fields must
be null (contain no characters).
8. Click OK.
9. To implement your changes:
R2 AP: Select Reset from the main window. If changing the bridge mode, select Reset
with Current Settings. Otherwise, select Reset Slot x, where x is the slot (1 or 2) you
configured.
AP 2000: Select Reset from the main window. Select Reset with Current Settings.
Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
10. Repeat this procedure at the other APs.
Refer to the other sections in this chapter to configure features such as encryption and
filters.
5-15
Configuring the AP for Point-to-Multipoint
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
To use the console port, follow the instructions in “Connecting a Device to the Console
Port” in Appendix B. Use Help in the console screens for a description of any field.
1. Choose Network Configuration from the Main Menu and enter the following:
IP address: Enter the IP address you wish to assign to the AP.
Subnet mask: Enter the subnet mask you wish to assign to the AP.
Default gateway: Enter the IP address of the default gateway.
Spanning Tree: For the Central AP, set to Enabled. For the APs in LAN-to-LAN
Endpoint bridge mode, you can enable or disable Spanning Tree. For more
information, see “Spanning Tree Protocol” on page 2-22.
IP Address Mode: Set to Manual when configuring an AP for the first time. For more
information, see “Modifying the IP Address” on page 5-19.
Ethernet Speed: This sets the speed of the wired Ethernet connection. The default
setting, autonegotiate, works well in most environments.
GVRP: Set to Disabled unless you are configuring the AP to support VLANs, as
described in “Configuring for VLANs” on page 5-40.
CDP: This setting is Auto Enabled by default in LAN-to-LAN mode. To change this
setting, refer to “Setting the Cabletron Discovery Protocol” on page 5-21.
2. Choose Save.
3. Choose Wireless Configuration from the Main Menu, then choose Set/Show
Wireless Configuration.
4. At the top of screen, select the radio slot (1 or 2) to configure.
5. Enter the wireless parameters.
6. Set the Reset Option to Reset Radio if necessary (default setting).
7. Choose Save.
8. If changing the bridge mode, you need to implement your changes by choosing
Reset/Upgrade in the Main Menu then choosing Reset Switch. Allow approximately
one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
Refer to the other sections in this chapter to configure features such as encryption and
filters.
5-16
Configuring the AP for Point-to-Multipoint
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
To use the console port, follow the instructions in “Connecting a Device to the Console
Port” in Appendix B. Use Help in the console screens for a description of any field.
1. Choose Set IP Address from the Installation Menu.
2. Enter the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.
3. Choose Module-Specific Options from the Installation Menu.
4. Choose Set Wireless Configuration. Enter the wireless parameters for your wireless
network.
5. Select Bridge Mode Options from the Module-Specific Options menu and continue
entering the wireless parameters.
6. Optionally, you can enable console security as follows:
a) From the Installation Menu, choose Enable/Disable Console Password. Set to
Enable.
b) Select Set SNMP Read/Write Community from the Installation Menu. Enter a
new community name (4 to 31 printable ASCII characters). Users must enter the
community name to access the menu.
7. To implement your changes, reset the AP by selecting Reset with Current Settings
from the Installation Menu. Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and
complete its self-test.
8. Perform this procedure on the other APs.
Refer to the other sections in this chapter to configure features such as authentication and
filters.
5-17
Viewing Current AP Settings
Viewing Current AP Settings
You can view the current settings before you modify the RoamAbout AP parameters.
Using the AP Manager
Using the AP Manager, select the AP from the Managed List field and click the various
buttons, such as Wireless Parameters, Network Parameters, and Hardware. In the
Wireless Parameters dialog box, click the Advanced button to view all the wireless
parameters. If you have changed any wireless parameters and have not yet reset the AP,
both the operating (current) settings and the settings that take affect after the next reset are
displayed.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console
•
Choose Current Configuration from the Main Menu to view the network and
hardware parameters.
•
To display the current wireless settings, choose Wireless Configuration in the Main
Menu, then choose Set/Show Wireless Configuration. If you have changed a wireless
parameter but not yet reset the AP, the new setting is NOT reflected in this display.
Using the Access Point 2000 Console
5-18
•
Choose Show Current Settings from the Installation Menu to view the network and
hardware parameters.
•
To display the current wireless settings, choose Module-Specific Options then select
Show Wireless Configuration. If you have changed a wireless parameter but not yet
reset the AP, the new setting is NOT reflected in this display.
Modifying the IP Address
Modifying the IP Address
The AP can obtain an IP address using these methods:
•
BootP (default): The AP obtains its IP Address from a BootP server when it reboots.
A BootP server must be configured in advance to respond with the desired IP address.
•
DHCP: The AP obtains its IP address from a DHCP server. This option is not
recommended for enterprise networks.
•
Manual: Prevents the AP from issuing BootP or DHCP requests to obtain an IP
address. Use this setting if the AP was already assigned an IP address and you do not
want to change it.
Using the AP Manager
You can use the AP Manager to change the IP address using a BootP or DHCP server. You
also have the option to manually change the IP address of an Access Point or Access Point
2000. To only modify the subnet mask or default gateway, select the AP from the Managed
List field and click the Network Parameters button. A reset is not needed.
To change the AP’s current IP address using BootP or DHCP, perform the following:
1. Select the AP from the Managed List field.
2. Click the Network Parameters button and set the following parameters:
Address State: Set to Volatile. The address state options are inactive if this parameter
was disabled using the console port. This setting is not used on a RoamAbout R2.
IP Address Initialization: Set to DHCP or BootP to automatically assign an IP
Address to the AP after the reset.
3. Click OK.
4. In the AP Manager main window, click the Reset button. Then click Reset with
Current Settings. The AP is reset and uses the selected method to obtain an IP
address.
When done, you may need to delete the AP with the old IP address from the managed list.
To manage the AP with the new IP address with AP Manager, use the Setup/Add New AP
button from the main window or use Selection→Discover from the menu bar.
5-19
Modifying the IP Address
To manually change the IP address of an Access Point or Access Point 2000, perform the
following. You will need the AP’s wired MAC address and an unused IP address.
1. Select the AP in the managed list.
2. Click on the Network Parameters button.
3. Set the Address State to Volatile.
4. Select Manual from the IP Address Initialization option.
5. Click OK.
6. In the main AP Manager window, click the Reset button. Then, click Reset with
Current Settings.
7. Click the Setup/Add New AP button from the main window.
8. Click Yes in the Load IP Address message.
9. In the Load IP Address dialog, enter the wired MAC address, new IP Address, and
other parameters as necessary.
10. Click OK.
11. If a message appears about reloading an R2, click OK to close the message and
continue loading the new address.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
1. Choose Network Configuration from the Main Menu and enter the following
parameters:
IP address: If manually entering an IP address, enter the IP address you wish to assign
to the AP.
Subnet mask: Enter the subnet mask you wish to assign to the AP.
Default gateway: Enter the IP address of the default gateway.
IP Address Mode: Set to Manual, DHCP, or BootP. The AP uses this method to obtain
an IP address on the next reset.
2. Choose Save. You do not need to reset the AP.
5-20
Setting the Cabletron Discovery Protocol
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
To manually enter an IP address, and disable both BOOTP and DHCP, go to Set IP
Address in the Main Menu and enter an IP address. A reset to the AP is not needed.
To change how the IP address is obtained, perform the following:
1. Choose Module-Specific Options from the Main Menu.
2. Choose Choose BOOTP or DHCP to get IP Address.
3. Enable DHCP or BOOTP. The AP obtains an IP address on the next reset.
NOTE
NOTE: If the AP has an IP address and you wish to enable DHCP or
BOOTP, you must first go to Set IP Address and set the IP address to
0.0.0.0.
To modify only the subnet mask or default gateway, go to the Set IP Address in the Main
Menu.
Setting the Cabletron Discovery Protocol
The Cabletron Discovery Protocol (CDP) allows other devices (Cabletron/Enterasys) with
CDP to discover the RoamAbout R2 in the network topology.
•
Auto enabled (the default setting). The RoamAbout R2 sends out one CDP packet at
startup, and only transmits further CDP packets after receiving CDP packets from
another device.
•
Enabled. The RoamAbout R2 always sends out CDP packets.
•
Disabled. The RoamAbout R2 never sends out a CDP Packet.
NOTE
NOTE: CDP is automatically disabled on the wireless port when the
RoamAbout R2 is in Workgroup mode.
Using the AP Manager
Click on the Network Parameters button in the main window.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
Choose Network Configuration from the Main Menu.
5-21
Modifying Wireless Parameters
Modifying Wireless Parameters
The following AP wireless parameters can be modified as necessary:
•
AP Density: Should only be changed when APs are moved closer or further apart from
each other. This parameter is only available when the AP is in Workgroup bridge
mode. See AP Density and Roaming on page 2-8 for more information.
•
Transmit Rate: The transmit rate can be changed between the auto rate and fixed rate
options to accommodate a changing wireless network, such as a larger coverage area
or all clients were upgraded to a faster PC card. The transmit rate can also be changed
to accommodate the addition or reduction of noise in the coverage area. For more
information, see “Transmit Rate” on page 2-5.
NOTES
NOTE: Enterasys Networks recommends that you use an xx Mbit/s Auto rate
setting.
If using a fixed rate of 11 or 5.5 Mbit/s on the AP, any clients with 2 Mbit/s
PC Cards will not be able to communicate with the AP.
•
RTS Threshold: Should only be used to address frame collisions and lost messages in
the wireless network. If necessary, set the RTS Threshold to 500 to reduce or eliminate
collisions at the AP. See “RTS/CTS Protocol” on page 2-9.
At a RoamAbout client, use the RoamAbout Client Utility Link Test to determine if
the lowered RTS Threshold reduced collisions. You can also use the AP Manager, by
selecting Integrity from the menu bar, then selecting Link Test.
5-22
•
Remote RTS Threshold: Should only be enabled to address a hidden station problem,
as described in “RTS/CTS Protocol” on page 2-9. This parameter is only available
on a RoamAbout R2 in Workgroup bridge mode.
•
DTIM: This is the only configurable AP Power Management parameter. It is only
available when the AP is in Workgroup bridge mode. In nearly all environments, you
should not change the default DTIM of 1. See “802.11 Power Management” on page
2-11.
•
Secure Access: When enabled, this prevents clients without the correct wireless
network name from connecting to this AP. It is only available when the AP is in
Workgroup bridge mode.
•
Multicast Transmit Rate: Identifies the desired transmission speed for the broadcast
and multicast traffic as forwarded by the AP to the wireless LAN. You should use the
lowest speed that you want to support. If using applications that use multicast traffic
(for example, IGMP), you can increase this rate from the default of 2 Mbit/s Fixed.
Modifying Wireless Parameters
•
IntraBSS Relay: When enabled, it allows wireless users associated with an AP to see
and communicate between each other. This is accomplished by taking a multicast
packet from one wireless user and rebroadcasting it so that all wireless users see it.
When disabled, it prevents communication between users associated with an AP. This
mode is intended for use in the ISP market where the ISP does not want separate
households to browse the Network Neighborhood and see other customers and their
hard drives.
•
Medium Density Distribution: When enabled, the AP distributes its AP Density
(low, medium, high, minicell, microcell) to the clients. It is only available when the AP
is in Workgroup bridge mode. This setting is always enabled on the AP 2000 (firmware
V6.04 or higher).
•
Load Balancing: This parameter forces wireless clients to associate with APs that are
least busy, resulting in a more even distribution of client associations between APs.
Load balancing increases the network’s overall throughput. Load balancing is enabled
by default. It is only available when the AP is in Workgroup bridge mode. This setting
is always enabled on the AP 2000 (firmware V6.04 or higher).
•
Wireless Relay: Enable to allow the endpoint APs to communicate with each other
through the Central AP, or Disable to only allow the endpoint APs to communicate
with the Central AP and its wired LAN. This feature is only available on an Access
Point 2000 managed by the AP Manager when the AP is in Point-to-Multipoint bridge
mode.
Using AP Manager
To modify a wireless parameter using the AP Manager, select the AP from the Managed
List field and click the Wireless Parameters button. To see all the wireless parameters,
click the Advanced button. Use the Help button for a detailed description of each
parameter.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
To modify a wireless parameter using the console port, choose Wireless Configuration
from the Main Menu, then choose Set/Show Wireless Configuration. The console port
does not support the Remote RTS Threshold, Medium Density, and Load Balancing
parameters.
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
To modify a wireless parameter using the console port, choose Module-Specific Options
from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu. From the module-specific menu, choose Set
Wireless Configuration. The console port does not support the Medium Density, Load
Balancing, and Wireless Relay parameters.
5-23
Configuring for Security
Configuring for Security
To have the most amount of security in your wireless infrastructure network:
•
Set up your networking protocols to require user names and passwords. Refer to the
documentation that came with the networking software or operating system.
•
Create a unique Wireless Network Name and enable Secure Access at the APs.
•
Configure the APs to not communicate with unencrypted clients.
•
Enable console port security.
•
Use the RADIUS authentication services to configure the AP as a RADIUS client.
For the Access Point 2000, create a custom AP RADIUS Management Authenticator.
The R2 uses SNMP v3 and, therefore, does not support the Management
Authenticator.
•
Use 802.1X Authentication with rapid rekeying.
If rapid rekeying is not available, enable encryption and configure clients that you want
to be in the network with the proper encryption keys. You can also use encryption in a
LAN-to-LAN configuration and ad-hoc networks to enhance security.
Setting Secure Access
Secure Access only applies in a wireless infrastructure network. This parameter is only
available at the AP. When Secure Access is enabled, the AP denies access to wireless
clients that do not use the correct wireless network name. When Secure Access is disabled,
the AP allows access to wireless clients that use ANY (all uppercase) as the wireless
network name or have a blank wireless network name.
Using the AP Manager
Click the Wireless Parameters button then click the Advanced button. Use the Help
button for detailed information. A reset is not needed.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
Choose Wireless Configuration from the Main Menu, then select Set/Show Wireless
Configuration. A reset is not needed.
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
Choose Module-Specific Options from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu, then
choose Set Wireless Configuration. A reset is not needed.
5-24
Configuring for Security
Setting Encryption
Before configuring encryption on the AP, create the encryption keys as follows:
1. Create up to four keys, where the keys can be:
— 5 printable characters or 10 hexadecimal digits if the RoamAbout PC Card
supports 40-bit WEP encryption.
— 13 printable characters or 26 hexadecimal digits if the RoamAbout PC Card
supports 128-bit encryption.
You must create at least one key. The printable character keys are case-sensitive. A
hexadecimal digit key must start with 0x, which is not counted in the number of digits.
For example, 0xABCDEF0123 is a valid 40-bit encryption hexadecimal key (10
hexadecimal digits).
2. Determine the positions for each key. There are four positions, Key 1, Key 2, Key 3,
and Key 4. The position of each key is important since all the wireless devices must
enter the same key in the same position to decipher encrypted data.
Using the AP Manager
To configure encryption using the AP Manager, perform the following:
1. In the main window, select the AP in the Managed List.
2. Click the Encryption button.
Selected Slot (RoamAbout R2 only): 1 or 2
Enable Encryption: Enable (add a check to the checkbox).
Deny Non-encrypted Data: Optionally, enable to prevent the AP from
communicating with clients that do not use encryption.
Keys: Enter up to four encryption keys.
Encrypt Data Transmissions: Choose a transmit key by selecting that key in the field.
3. Click OK to accept the parameters.
4. When prompted, click OK to reset the AP. Allow approximately one minute for the
AP to reset and complete its self-test. You do not need to reset the AP if you only add,
delete, or modify keys, or change the transmit key.
5-25
Configuring for Security
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
To configure encryption using the RoamAbout R2 console port, perform the following:
1. Choose Wireless Configuration from the Main Menu.
2. Choose Encryption Configuration.
Radio Slot: 1 or 2
Encryption State: Enable
Keys: Enter up to 4 encryption keys.
Transmit Key ID: Select the Key number that you want the RoamAbout R2 to use
when transmitting data.
Exclude Unencrypted:
— Enable to accept only encrypted data from clients. Only clients that have the
correct encryption keys can participate in this network.
— Disable to accept encrypted data from clients with encryption enabled, and
unencrypted data from clients without encryption enabled. This allows clients
who require security to use encryption without preventing other clients from using
the network.
Transmit Key ID: Select the Key number that you want the RoamAbout R2 to use
when transmitting data.
Reset Option: Set to Reset Radio if necessary (default setting).
3. Choose Save.
4. Choose Reset/Upgrade from the Main Menu, then choose Reset Switch. You do not
need to reset the AP if you only add, delete, or modify keys, or change the transmit key.
Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
5-26
Configuring for Security
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
To configure encryption using the console port, perform the following:
1. Choose Module-Specific Options from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu.
2. Choose Set Encryption Configuration.
Set Encryption Key: Use these menu options to enter the keys.
Set Transmit Key ID: Choose one key to be the transmit key. Each AP can use a
different transmission key as long as the other devices have that key entered in the
same position.
Set Exclude Unencrypted: Only valid if the AP is configured for a wireless
infrastructure network.
— Enable to only accept encrypted data from clients. Only clients that have the
correct keys can participate in this network.
— Disable to accept both encrypted and unencrypted data from different clients.
This allows clients who require security to use encryption without preventing
other clients from using the network.
Set Encryption State: Enable encryption.
3. To prevent any management tool using SNMP, including the AP Manager, from
changing the encryption parameters, enable the Set Exclude SNMP menu option.
4. Select Reset with Current Settings from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu. You
do not need to reset the AP if you only add, delete, or modify keys, or change the
transmit key. Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its
self-test.
5-27
Configuring the Console Port for Security
Configuring the Console Port for Security
For the AP 2000, the AP Manager and any other SNMP Manager must have the correct
read/write community name associated with the AP; otherwise, the tool cannot make any
changes to the AP.
For the R2, the AP Manager and any other SNMP Manager must have the correct
Authentication and Privacy passwords.
AP Manager
For the AP 2000, the AP Manager can change both the read-only and read/write SNMP
community names. To change the read-only community name on the AP 2000, select the
Network Parameters button in the main window. To change the read/write community
name on the AP 2000, click on the Options menu and select SNMP Security. Click the
Help button for detailed information.
For the R2, the AP Manager can change the SNMPv3 Authentication and Privacy
passwords. Click on the Options menu and select SNMP Security. Click the Help button
for detailed information.
RoamAbout R2 Console Port
The following security settings are available from the console port:
•
Access to the console requires a password. The username is admin and the default
password is password. The password must be a minimum of eight ASCII characters,
and is case-sensitive. The same username and password is used for Telnet and web
management. To change the password, choose Serial/Telnet/Web Configuration
from the Main Menu.
•
You can disable Telnet and web management from the console port. Choose
Serial/Telnet/Web Configuration from the Main Menu.
Access Point 2000 Console Port
The following security settings are exclusive to the console port:
5-28
•
To prevent other users from using the console port, enable Enable/Disable Console
Password from the Installation Menu. Choose Set SNMP Read/Write Community
from the Installation Menu and enter a new community name (4 to 31 printable ASCII
characters). Afterwards, users must enter the community name to access the menu.
•
To prevent any management tool using SNMP, including the AP Manager, from
changing the Encryption parameters, enable Set Exclude SNMP from the Encryption
menu.
Configuring the R2 for SNMPv1 or SNMPv2
Configuring the R2 for SNMPv1 or SNMPv2
The RoamAbout R2 supports SNMPv3. To support management tools using SNMPv2 or
SNMPv1, the R2 provides four community names that allow SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c
read-only and read-write access. The names are disabled by default with the exception of
Community Name #1, which is set to public. The community names are only accessible
from the R2 console port. The community names and descriptions are:
•
Community Name #1: Allows access to the read-only MIB II system group.
•
Community Name #2: Allows creation of new views, and provides read-write access
to tmsCommonCommunityToViewTable.
•
Community Name #3: Allows read-only access to the full MIB view.
•
Community Name #4: Allows read-write access to the full MIB view.
To disable a Community Name, enter disable and the community name number in the field.
For example, enter disable2 in the Community Name #2 field.
NOTE
NOTE: It is recommended that Community Name #1 remain at its
default setting of public.
Perform the following to change the community names:
1. Choose Security and Policy Configuration from the Main Menu.
2. Choose Communities.
3. To only have the RoamAbout AP Manager manage the R2 using SNMPv3, set
Community Name #1 to public and disable the other community names.
4. To support systems using SNMPv2 or SNMPv1, choose which access you wish to
allow the network management systems. Enter a unique name for each of those
Community Names. Disable any Community Name to prevent access to that function.
5. Choose Save. You do not need to reset the AP.
5-29
Configuring the AP for Authentication
Configuring the AP for Authentication
Authentication uses a RADIUS server to authenticate wireless clients in a wireless
infrastructure network. Refer to Authentication on page 2-14 for a description of the types
of authentication. The following lists the basic tasks to configure for authentication:
•
Configuring a RADIUS server (not described in this document)
•
Configuring the AP as a RADIUS client and choosing the type of authentication
The AP 2000 has the option of using the default RADIUS Management Authenticator
or creating a custom authenticator. The R2 uses SNMPv3 instead of a Management
Authenticator.
•
Configuring for Rapid Rekeying (optional, if MAC address or hybrid authentication is
not used)
RADIUS Management Authenticator (AP 2000 Only)
The AP RADIUS Management Authenticator security feature allows you to specify an
authenticator that encrypts the SNMP Objects used between the AP Manager and the
Access Point 2000 for management of critical RADIUS client parameters. You can enter a
custom RADIUS Management Authenticator, or use the AP’s default RADIUS
Management Authenticator. The Management Authenticator can be changed at anytime.
NOTES
NOTE: When you enter a custom authenticator, you are prompted for a
password. After you enter the password, only those with the password can
access the custom RADIUS Authenticator.
If you reset to factory defaults, the AP RADIUS Management Authenticator
is cleared and reset to the default. To view the AP RADIUS client
parameters, you must restore the default RADIUS client management
authenticator in the AP.
Using the AP Manager
To enter a custom RADIUS Management Authenticator on the Access Point 2000 using the
AP Manager, perform the following steps:
1.
Click on the Authentication button in the RoamAbout AP Manager main window.
2. Click on the Change Authenticator button. The RADIUS Client Management
Authenticator dialog box appears.
3. Click on the Custom radio button.
5-30
Configuring the AP for Authentication
4. Enter the Custom Authenticator. The format is 16 printable ASCII characters, or 32
hexadecimal digits preceded by 0x.
5. Click OK.
After you enter a custom authenticator, you are prompted to enter a password. Once
you set the password, only those with the password can access the custom RADIUS
authenticator. If this is the first time entering a Custom Authenticator, the RADIUS
Client Management Password dialog box appears.
6. Enter the New Password.
7. Enter the password in the Confirm New Password field.
8. Click OK.
To change the password using AP Manager, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the Change Password button in the Authentication dialog box.
2. Enter the RADIUS Management Authenticator password in the Old Password field.
3. Enter the new password in the New Password field, and in the Confirm New
Password field.
4. Click OK.
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
To enter a custom RADIUS Management Authenticator using the console port, perform the
following:
1. Choose Module-Specific Options from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu.
2. Choose RADIUS Client Options. The RADIUS Client Options menu appears.
3. Choose Configure RADIUS Client Parameters.
4. Choose Enter RADIUS Client Management Authenticator to enter a custom AP
RADIUS Management Authenticator. The format is 16 printable ASCII characters, or
32 hexadecimal digits preceded by 0x.
5. Choose Save.
NOTE
NOTE: If you use the AP Manager after you set the Authenticator in
the console, you must set the AP RADIUS Management Authenticator
to match the Authenticator you set in the console.
5-31
Configuring the AP for Authentication
Configuring the AP for Authentication
Before you can configure the AP as a RADIUS client, you must choose the type of
authentication to use: MAC address, 802.1X, or both. Also, you need to have the following
RADIUS server information available:
•
Primary Server IP Address: IP Address of the primary RADIUS authentication
server. The IP Address must be an IP Version 4 address.
•
Secondary Server IP Address: IP Address of the secondary RADIUS authentication
server, if used. The IP Address must be an IP Version 4 address. If you are not using a
secondary RADIUS server (as a backup server), enter 0.0.0.0 or leave it blank.
•
Primary Authentication Port: A value between 1 and 65535. Standard values are
1812 (default) and 1645. This value must match the primary RADIUS Server
configuration.
•
Secondary Authentication Port: A value between 1 and 65535. Standard values are
1812 (default) and 1645. This value must match the secondary RADIUS Server
configuration, if used.
•
Shared Secret: The text string that ensures that the data exchanged between the server
and the AP is valid. The shared secret must match the corresponding entry for the AP
in the RADIUS Server database.
•
Retry Limit: Valid range is 0 to 20 times. Default is 5.
•
Retry Timer: Number of seconds between retries. Valid range is 2 to 10 seconds.
Default is 5 seconds.
If using MAC Address or hybrid authentication, you must provide the MAC address of
your wireless client (PC) to the Network Administrator.
NOTES
NOTE: User names (MAC Addresses) are case-sensitive (lower-case),
and in the format: 00-e0-63-ab-ce-ef
If possible, configure the RADIUS server to authenticate the user without
checking a password. Otherwise, use a password of “NOPASSWORD”
for all of the MAC Address based user names.
If using 802.1X or hybrid authentication, you need the following 802.1X parameter
settings:
•
5-32
Reauthentication: When enabled, authenticates 802.1X clients at regular intervals.
When disabled, clients are only authenticated once.
Configuring the AP for Authentication
•
Time Between Reauthentications: Time, in minutes, between each reauthentication
when Reauthentication is enabled. The default is 60 minutes.
•
Hold Period After Failed Login: Time, in seconds, after a login failure before the
device can restart the authentication procedure. The default is 60 seconds. A login
failure is when a device tries to log in and fails authentication twice consecutively.
•
Identity Request Timeout: Time allowed before the client’s identity times out. The
default is 60 seconds.
•
Challenge Request Timeout: Time allowed before the client challenge request
session is terminated. The default is 30 seconds.
•
Challenge Request Retry Limit: Number of allowed retries before ending the client
session. The default is 2.
•
Server Timeout: Time for the server to timeout. The default is 30 seconds.
•
For an AP 2000 only, you need a valid 802.1X Activation Key to enable 802.1X
authentication (purchased separately). Contact your Enterasys Representative.
Using the AP Manager
1. Click on the Authentication button in the RoamAbout AP Manager main window.
Selected AP: Select the AP that you want to configure for authentication.
Authentication Options: Choose the slot (slot 2 is for RoamAbout R2 only) and the
type of authentication, MAC or 802.1X. For hybrid authentication, choose both.
802.1X Activation Key (AP 2000 only): Enter the alphanumeric activation key
(dialog appears when you select 802.1X authentication).
2. Enter the RADIUS client information.
3. If 802.1X authentication was selected, click the 802.1X Parameters button and enter
the 802.1X settings. If Rapid Rekeying was enabled, enter the settings as described in
“Configuring for Rapid Rekeying” on page 5-36. Click OK to apply the changes.
4. Click OK in the Authentication dialog.
5. If you enabled MAC or 802.1X authentication, perform the following to implement
your changes. If only changing RADIUS or 802.1X parameters, a reset is not needed.
R2 AP: Select Reset from the main window. Select Reset Slot x, where x is the slot
(1 or 2) you configured.
AP 2000: If prompted, reset the AP. Otherwise, select Reset from the main window.
Select Reset with Current Settings.
Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
5-33
Configuring the AP for Authentication
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
1. Choose Security and Policy Configuration from the Main Menu.
2. Choose RADIUS Client Configuration.
RADIUS: Enable. The RADIUS Client Parameters screen appears.
3. Enter the RADIUS client information.
4. Choose Save.
5. Choose Authentication Configuration from the Security and Policy Configuration
menu.
Authentication Configuration Slot: 1 or 2
Authentication Mode: Choose MAC, 802.1X, or Hybrid (MAC and 802.1X).
6. If 802.1X or hybrid was selected, enter the 802.1X parameters. Optionally, configure
Rapid Rekeying. See “Configuring for Rapid Rekeying” on page 5-36.
7. Choose Save.
8. If you enabled MAC or 802.1X authentication, perform the following to implement
your changes. If only changing RADIUS or 802.1X parameters, a reset is not needed.
a) Choose Reset/Upgrade from the Main Menu.
b) Choose Reset Radio.
Slot: Choose Radio 1 or Radio 2.
Reset Option: Set to Reset Radio Regardless.
c) Choose Apply.
To view the RADIUS client statistics, see “Monitoring RADIUS Client Operations” on
page 6-11.
5-34
Configuring the AP for Authentication
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
1. Choose Module-Specific Options from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu.
2. Choose Authentication Options.
3. Choose Configure RADIUS Client.
4. Choose Enable/Disable RADIUS Authentication. Enable this setting.
5. In the Configure RADIUS Client Parameters menu, choose Enter All RADIUS Client
Parameters.
6. Enter all the RADIUS client parameters.
You can use Change Radius Client Parameters to change a parameter, or List
RADIUS Client Parameters to view current RADIUS settings. To view RADIUS
client statistics, see “Monitoring RADIUS Client Operations” on page 6-11.
7. In Authentication Options menu, choose Configure Wireless Authentication Type.
8. Choose the type of authentication:
None: Disables all authentication types.
MAC address-based Authentication: Enables MAC-address authentication.
Disables 802.1X authentication.
802.1X Authentication: Enables 802.1X authentication. Disables MAC-address
authentication and Rapid Rekeying.
802.1X Authentication with Rapid Rekeying: Enables 802.1X authentication and
Rapid Rekeying. Disables MAC-address authentication.
Hybrid 802.1X/MAC-based Authentication: Enables both 802.1X and
MAC-address authentication. Disables Rapid Rekeying.
9. If you enabled any 802.1X authentication option, you are prompted for the activation
key. Afterwards, go to the Authentication Options menu and choose Configure IEEE
802.1X Parameters. Enter the 802.1X parameters. Optionally, choose Apply Settings
to Current Supplicants to immediately send the changes to the clients.
10. If Rapid Rekeying was enabled, see “Configuring for Rapid Rekeying” on page
5-36 to enter the parameters.
11. If you enabled or disabled any authentication, select Reset with Current Settings
from the Installation Menu to implement your changes. If only changing RADIUS or
802.1X parameters, a reset is not needed.
5-35
Configuring for Rapid Rekeying
Configuring for Rapid Rekeying
To use Rapid Rekeying, you must set up the AP for 802.1X authentication, as described in
Configuring the AP for Authentication on page 5-30. Rapid Rekeying must be
configured on the AP and the wireless clients. The following lists the Rapid Rekeying
parameters:
•
Time Between Key Changes (or Rekeying Period): This is the interval, in minutes,
that the AP waits before starting a new key sequence. Time can be 1 to 525600
minutes. Default is 10 minutes.
•
Key Length: 40 or 128 bit depending on the WEP encryption supported by the PC
Card.
•
Separate Transmit and Receive Keys: Select Enabled to use different encryption
keys for transmit and receive, or Disabled to use the same encryption key for both
transmit and receive.
Using the AP Manager
To set up Rapid Rekeying using the RoamAbout AP Manager, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the Authentication button in the AP Manager main window.
2. Select the AP from the drop-down list.
3. Select Rapid Rekeying (Slot 1 or 2) (802.1X should already be selected.)
4. Click the 802.1X Parameters button.
5. Enter the Rapid Rekeying parameters.
6. Click OK to apply the changes. There is no need to reset the AP.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
To set up Rapid Rekeying using the RoamAbout R2 console port, perform the following:
1. Choose Server and Policy Configuration from the Main Menu.
2. Choose Authentication Configuration. (802.1X should already be configured.)
3. Select the Authentication Configuration Slot (1 or 2).
4. Set Rekeying to Enabled.
5. Enter the Rapid Rekeying parameters.
6. Choose Save. There is no need to reset the AP.
5-36
Configuring for Rapid Rekeying
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
To set up Rapid Rekeying using the console port, perform the following steps:
1. Choose Module-Specific Options from the Installation Menu.
2. Choose Authentication Options.
3. Choose Configure Wireless Authentication Type.
4. Choose 802.1X Authentication with Rapid Rekeying.
5. Enter the 802.1X activation key, then enter the 802.1X parameters as described in
“Configuring the AP for Authentication” on page 5-32.
6. Choose Configure Rapid Rekeying Parameters from the Authentication Options
menu.
7. Enter the Rapid Rekeying parameters.
8. Choose Save. There is no need to reset the AP.
5-37
Configuring for Rapid Rekeying
Set Up Rapid Rekeying on the Clients
This section describes how to set up Rapid Rekeying on a Windows XP client. For more
information, refer to the Release Notes or the Readme file that came with the RoamAbout
PC Card driver.
1. Open the Control Panel by selecting Start→Programs→Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel, open Network Connections then open the Wireless Network
Connection (RoamAbout 802.11 DS).
3. In the Wireless Network Connection Status window, click on the Properties button.
4. In the Wireless Connection Properties window, click on the Wireless Networks tab.
5. If the Wireless Network Name you want to configure is in the Preferred Networks
field of the Wireless tab (shown below), click on the name then click the Properties
button. Otherwise, click on the Wireless Network Name in the Available Networks
field, then click on the Configure button.
5-38
Configuring for Rapid Rekeying
6. In the Wireless Network Properties window (shown below), select the following:
a) Check the box marked Data encryption (WEP enabled).
b) Check the box marked The Key is provided for me automatically.
c) Un-check any other checked boxes.
d) Click OK to apply the changes.
7. Click OK, or Close, to close all open windows.
5-39
Configuring for VLANs
Configuring for VLANs
The RoamAbout AP supports the forwarding of tagged VLAN data. The RoamAbout R2
can be configured to forward VLAN data to specific endpoints. The Access Point 2000 can
only be configured to forward or not forward VLAN data. When forwarding VLAN data,
the Access Point 2000 forwards to all endpoints.
NOTE
NOTE: VLAN 1 is a default VLAN used by the R2 to allow
pass-through of untagged data. Changing the VLAN 1 default settings
could prevent the AP from forwarding untagged data.
To configure a VLAN, define the VLAN and configure each port to handle data as follows:
•
Tagged: The port forwards all incoming data from a defined VLAN, where the
incoming data is tagged.
•
Untagged: The port forwards all incoming tagged data from a defined VLAN;
however, the port removes the VLAN ID from the outgoing frames. This feature
should only be used when the transmitting port is connected to a device in the network
that does not support VLANs.
•
Forbidden: The port does not forward any data from a defined VLAN.
•
None: The port does not forward any data from a defined VLAN (default setting). This
setting can only be configured manually and can be overridden by GVRP.
CAUTION: If you change the bridge mode to Workgroup after
setting up VLANs, all VLAN configurations belonging to that
membership will be deleted with the exception of the default VLAN.
All tagged ports will be cleared.
5-40
Configuring for VLANs
Ports are displayed according to the Remote Wireless MAC addresses you set up for the
RoamAbout R2 configuration. In the LAN-to-LAN Multipoint configuration, the ports are
assigned according to the wireless MAC Addresses you entered in the Multipoint
Properties dialog box. The ports are defined as follows:
•
Port 1: The 10/100 Ethernet Port.
•
Port 2: R2 Slot 1 if the slot is in LAN-to-LAN Endpoint mode.
•
Ports 2 through 7: R2 Slot 1 if the slot is in LAN-to-LAN Multipoint mode. These ports
correspond to Remote Wireless MAC Addresses 1 through 6, as displayed in the
Multipoint Properties dialog box.
•
Port 8 (with the R2 Mezzanine option): R2 Slot 2 if the slot is in LAN-to-LAN
Endpoint mode.
Using the AP Manager
Click on the VLANs button in the main window. Refer to the RoamAbout AP Manager
online help for more information. A reset is not needed to implement VLAN changes.
To create a VLAN (RoamAbout R2 only):
1. Click the Create VLAN button.
VLAN ID: Enter the ID of the VLAN. The R2 supports VLAN IDs 2-2047.
VLAN Name: Enter the name of the VLAN.
Port Constraints: Configure each port for Tagged, Untagged, Forbidden, or None.
2. Click OK.
To modify a VLAN (RoamAbout R2 only):
1. Select the VLAN ID and click the Modify Selected VLAN button.
VLAN Name: Enter the name of the VLAN.
Port Constraints: Configure each port for Tagged, Untagged, Forbidden, or None.
2. Click OK.
To delete a VLAN (RoamAbout R2 only):
1. Select the VLAN ID and click the Delete Selected VLANs button.
2. Confirm the deletion.
5-41
Configuring for VLANs
To enable or disable GVRP (RoamAbout R2 only):
1. Click the VLAN Parameters button.
2. Enable or disable GVRP.
3. Click OK.
To enable or disable VLAN compatibility on the AP 2000:
1. Click the VLAN Parameters button.
2. Enable or disable Allow Tagged Packets.
3. Click OK.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Web Management
To access the VLAN configuration pages, click on the VLANs/Multicast Groups folder.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
The R2 console port/Telnet interface does not support configuring VLANs. However, you
can enable or disable GVRP as follows. A reset is not needed to implement VLAN changes.
1. Choose Network Configuration from the Main Menu.
2. Enable or disable GVRP.
3. Choose Save.
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
A reset is not needed to implement VLAN changes.
1. Choose Module-Specific Options from the Installation Menu.
2. Choose VLAN Options.
Set VLAN Compatibility Mode: Enable to forward VLAN data. Disable to not
forward VLAN data.
3. Choose Save.
5-42
Setting Spanning Tree
Setting Spanning Tree
It is important to avoid Point-to-Multipoint configurations that will cause bridge loops. A
bridge loop occurs when two parallel network paths are created between any two LANs,
causing packets to be continuously regenerated through both parallel paths. This situation
eventually renders the network unusable due to the excessive traffic that is being generated
by the loop. The AP Spanning Tree function corrects this type of problem by shutting down
the port and possibly shutting down a segment of the network.
Typically, Spanning Tree is disabled when in Workgroup bridge mode and enabled in
LAN-to-LAN Multipoint bridge mode.
Using AP Manager
To enable or disable Spanning Tree using the AP Manager, select the AP from the
Managed List field and click the Wireless Parameters button. In the Wireless Parameters
window, click the Advanced button. To implement your changes:
•
R2 AP: Select Reset from the main window. Select Reset Slot x, where x is the slot
(1 or 2) you configured.
•
AP 2000: Select Reset from the main window. Select Reset with Current Settings.
Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
Choose Network Configuration from the Main Menu. Enable or disable Spanning Tree.
To implement the change, select Reset/Upgrade from the Main Menu then select Reset
Radio. Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
You can enable or disable the Spanning Tree when in Endpoint bridge mode. Spanning
Tree is disabled when in Workgroup bridge mode and enabled in Multipoint bridge mode.
To enable or disable Spanning Tree using the console port, perform the following:
1. Choose Module-Specific Options from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu.
2. Choose Bridge Mode Options.
3. Select Set Spanning Tree Mode and set to Enabled or Disabled.
4. To implement your changes, reset the AP by selecting Reset with Current Settings
from the Installation Menu. Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and
complete its self-test.
5-43
Filtering Traffic by Protocols
Filtering Traffic by Protocols
You can configure the AP to NOT forward specific protocol traffic to the wireless network.
This could reduce unnecessary traffic and increase the network response time. However,
filtering the wrong protocols can negatively affect the operation of the network. When
solving network problems, you should clear all filters.
To select the protocol to filter using the AP Manager, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the Filtering button in the main window to access the Filtering Dialog Box.
2. Click on the Protocol tab.
3. For a RoamAbout R2, select the slot (1 or 2).
4. Select the protocols to filter, as described in Table 5-1. Only the filters supported by
the selected AP are available. The filters are enabled when they are checked, meaning
that traffic of the protocol specified is NOT forwarded by the AP.
5. Click OK to implement your change. The AP does not need to be reset.
If you select one or more protocols, the AP Manager applies those changes to ALL of the
APs selected in the Managed List field in the main window. The AP Manager prompts you
for confirmation before changing the parameters on multiple APs.
Table 5-1: Protocols to Filter
Protocol
Description
IP V4
Does not forward IP version 4 packets carried in Ethernet V2 frames or IEEE 802.3
frames with Logical Link Control (LLC)/Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP)
headers. Also, the filter does not forward Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
packets carried in Ethernet V2 frames.
IP is used in many environments, most notably UNIX networks and the Internet.
When enabled, IP, TCP/IP, and UDP/IP packets are not forwarded. This filter
should NOT be set if the AP is to be managed from a wireless node.
IPX Ethernet II
Does not forward IPX packets carried in Ethernet V2 frames. Used primarily in
NetWare environments.
IPX - 802.2
Does not forward IPX packets carried in IEEE 802.3 frames with LLC headers.
Used primarily in NetWare environments.
NetBEUI
Does not forward NetBEUI packets. Used primarily in Microsoft native
networking.
5-44
Filtering Traffic by Protocols
Table 5-1: Protocols to Filter(Cont’d)
Protocol
Description
DECnet
Does not forward DECnet packets carried in Ethernet V2 frames or in IEEE 802.3
frames with LLC/SNAP headers. DECnet packets are used primarily in DEC VMS
and related networking. If you do not plan to have DECnet clients, you should filter
all DECnet traffic.
LAT
Does not forward Local Area Transport (LAT) packets. Used primarily in
terminal/server communication.
AppleTalk
Ethernet II
Does not forward AppleTalk packets carried in Ethernet V2 frames. Used primarily
in Apple native networking.
AppleTalk AARP
Does not forward AppleTalk AARP packets. Used primarily in Apple native
networking.
The AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP) uses broadcasts to discover
the hardware address of a node. It is similar to TCP/IP's ARP.
AppleTalk SNAP
Does not forward AppleTalk packets carried in IEEE 802.3 frames with
LLC/SNAP headers. Used primarily in Apple native networking.
VAXcluster
Recommended if there are no VAXclusters on the wireless LAN.
802.3 ISO
Connectionless
DSAP
Recommended if there are no ISO wireless clients on the wireless LAN.
LAN Traffic
Monitor
Recommended if there are no bridges on the wireless LAN.
DECnet End Node
Hello
Recommended if there are no DECnet routers on the wireless LAN.
IPX Raw
Does not forward IPX packets carried in IEEE 802.3 frames with no LLC.
IPX SNAP
Does not forward IPX packets carried in IEEE 802.3 frames with LLC/SNAP
headers.
SNA
Does not forward SNA packets carried in IEEE 802.3 frames with LLC headers.
NetBIOS
Does not forward NetBIOS packets (DSAP and SSAP bytes) carried in IEEE 802.3
frames with LLC headers. The filter does not prevent NetBIOS packets that are
using "tunneling" in other protocols such as TCP.
IP V6
Does not forward IP version 6 carried in Ethernet V2 frames or IEEE 802.3 frames
with LLC/SNAP headers.
5-45
Filtering Traffic by Addresses
Filtering Traffic by Addresses
You can filter traffic to the network using Address Denied, or you can restrict access to the
network using Addresses Allowed. The device can be on either side of the AP (wired or
wireless). You identify the device by its MAC address. The maximum number of entries
for each AP in the list is 128 entries.
•
Addresses Denied
The AP does not forward traffic from a device with its MAC address in the Addresses
Denied field. A client in the Addresses Denied list cannot access the LAN, even if the
client has been authenticated.
•
Addresses Allowed
The AP forwards messages to and from devices identified in the Addresses Allowed
List. This filter is essentially ineffective when also using authentication.
To set the filters using the AP Manager, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the Filtering button in the main window to access the Filtering Dialog Box.
2. Click on the Address tab.
3. For a RoamAbout R2, select the slot (1 or 2).
4. Select Addresses Denied or Addresses Allowed from the drop-down list, and click
on Selected.
5. Add the MAC Addresses to the list by clicking on the Add button. A pop-up box
prompts you for the MAC address of the device.
To remove a device from a list, select the MAC Address and click on the Remove button.
The AP Manager updates the list for ALL the APs selected in the Managed List field in the
main window. The AP Manager prompts you for confirmation before changing the
parameters on multiple APs. The AP does not need to be reset.
5-46
Checking the Configuration on Multiple APs
Checking the Configuration on Multiple APs
The AP Manager provides integrity tests that check for consistent settings across all the
APs in a single group. Use the integrity tests to make sure that the APs in a single wireless
network are configured correctly. To access the tests, click Integrity on the AP Manager
menu bar.
•
The Parameters option tests that all APs are configured with the following:
— Same bridge mode
— Same wireless network name
— Different station name
— Same AP Density setting
— Same transmit rate
— Same Secure Access setting
— Same RTS Threshold
— Same rate limiting setting (AP 2000 only)
— Same upline dump setting (AP 2000 only)
— Same forwarding setting
•
Values not used in LAN-to-LAN mode are not checked when the AP is in
LAN-to-LAN mode.
•
The Firmware Revisions option verifies that all APs have the same version of the
firmware.
•
The additional menu item, Link Test, is used to test the communications quality
between the AP and another wireless device.
5-47
Resetting the RoamAbout AP
Resetting the RoamAbout AP
This section describes how to reset the AP.
•
Reset with Current Settings
If you change any wireless configuration parameter, such as the wireless network name
or channel, you must select this option to reset the AP to implement your changes.
— From the AP Manager, select Reset then select Reset with Current Settings.
— From a device attached to the RoamAbout R2 console port, select Reset/Upgrade
from the Main Menu and then select Reset Switch.
— From a device attached to the Access Point 2000 console port, select Reset with
Current Settings from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu.
Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its self-test.
•
Reset with Factory Defaults
This option reboots the AP, causing the AP’s configured parameters to be initialized
to factory default values. This action deletes all configuration settings and replaces
them with factory default values. All configuration settings are lost, including the IP
address.
— From the AP Manager, select the AP from the Managed List field, click the Reset
button, then click the Reset with Factory Defaults button.
— From a device attached to the RoamAbout R2 console port, select Reset/Upgrade
from the Main Menu, then select Reset Switch with Factory Defaults.
— From a device attached to the Access Point 2000 console port, select Reset with
Factory Defaults from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu.
•
Hardware Reload/Reset button
— RoamAbout R2. The RoamAbout R2 has a reload/reset button. To reset back to
the factory defaults you must download a new firmware image from a TFTP
server then reset back to factory default values. If an image is not available to
download, the RoamAbout R2 resets to its current configuration settings and not
back to the factory default values.
— Access Point. The AP hardware has a reload/reset button that forces the AP to
download a new firmware image from a BootP/TFTP server and reset to factory
default values. If a new image is not available, the AP resets to factory default
values after approximately three minutes. Make sure that you do not have multiple
BootP/TFTP servers configured to load the AP; you might load an incorrect
image. Allow approximately one minute for the AP to reset and complete its
self-test.
5-48
Using the RoamAbout R2 Web Management
Using the RoamAbout R2 Web Management
For the RoamAbout R2 web management, AP Manager or any Network Management
Station to remotely manage the AP, the AP must have a valid IP address and subnet mask.
The RoamAbout R2 web management runs on the following browsers:
•
Netscape Communicator V4.5, V4.6, V4.7, V6.0 (and later)
•
Microsoft Internet Explorer V4.0 and V5.0 (and later)
To manage the RoamAbout R2 using web management, perform the following steps:
1. Open your web browser. Ensure that your web browser configuration is set to Direct
Internet Connection.
2. Enter the RoamAbout IP Address into the browser URL path.
You are prompted for the username and password. The default username is admin and
the password is password. The RoamAbout AP Manager management tree appears.
3. Click on the Network Configuration web page, then the Network Parameters web
page.
4. Enter the IP Address, Subnet Mask and the Default Gateway.
5. Click on Save.
6. Click on the Identification web page.
7. Enter the text to describe the RoamAbout R2.
8. Click on Save.
9. Click on the Wireless Parameters web page and the Slot 1 web page.
a) Enter the name of the wireless network if in Workgroup bridge mode.
b) Enter a channel. If there are other RoamAbout R2s whose coverage areas overlap,
enter a channel that is at least five channels apart from the adjacent R2s.
c) Enter a station name. The station name is displayed when clients run the
RoamAbout Client Utility. Each RoamAbout R2 should have a unique station
name.
10. Click on Save.
Refer to the online help for more parameter information.
5-49
Configuring Clients
Configuring Clients
To configure the clients, refer to the RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and Utilities
Setup and Installation Guide and the client online help.
Check the enterasys.com/wireless web site frequently for client upgrades and
documentation revisions.
5-50
Chapter 6
Maintaining the Wireless Network
To maintain the wireless network, you should regularly check the wireless coverage area,
communications quality, and data throughput efficiency.
As your environment changes, you may need to adjust wireless parameters or move APs to
account for new obstructions or new sources of radio interference. You may also need to
add APs should the number of users increase.
In addition, you should regularly check the RoamAbout Wireless web site for product
updates.
In This Chapter
Information in this chapter is presented as follows:
Topic
Page
Testing Radio Communications Quality
6-2
Optimizing RoamAbout AP Placement
6-5
Optimizing RoamAbout Outdoor Antenna Placement
6-7
Logging Measurement Data
6-8
Checking the Client RoamAbout PC Card
6-9
Monitoring the AP Using RMON
6-10
Monitoring RADIUS Client Operations
6-11
Checking RoamAbout Product Version Numbers
6-13
Upgrading the RoamAbout AP Firmware
6-14
Replacing the PC Card in an AP
6-16
6-1
Testing Radio Communications Quality
Testing Radio Communications Quality
You can test the radio communications quality from the AP to another wireless device
using the AP Manager, or from a client to another wireless device using the RoamAbout
Client Utility.
Using the AP Manager
The RoamAbout AP Manager provides a Link Test tool that tests the signal quality from
the AP to a client or another AP. Click on the Help button in any window for more
information.
1. From the Windows Taskbar, click Start, then select
Programs→RoamAbout→RoamAbout AP Manager.
2. Select the AP from the Managed List field in the AP Manager main window.
3. Click on the Integrity drop-down menu and select Link Test.
4. Under Remote Station Info in the Link Test window, click the down arrow to list the
available clients in the wireless network or the remote APs in a LAN-to-LAN
configuration.
5. Choose the client or AP to test the signal quality, then click the Start Sampling button
to start the test. To stop the test, click the Stop Sampling button.
6. Check the signal level and noise level if the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is low
between the AP and the other wireless device.
If the signal level is low, the devices may be too far apart or there are obstructions
between them. If possible, remove the obstructions, move the devices closer, or use the
optional Range Extender antenna described in “Range Extender Antenna” on page
1-17.
If the noise level is high, you may have one or more devices emitting radio signals in
the same frequency band as the client. Determine the source of interference by
selecting other clients. If available, use the RoamAbout Client Utility Link Test tool at
a mobile client to determine the extent of the noise. The source of the noise may be
closest to the device that has the highest noise level. Try to eliminate or move the
source of the noise.
6-2
Testing Radio Communications Quality
Using the RoamAbout Client Utility
This procedure requires the RoamAbout Client Utility on a RoamAbout client. The
RoamAbout Client Utility Link Test window allows you to investigate the specific link
between the RoamAbout client and its test partner. Click on the Help button in any window
for more information.
1. To start the Client Utility, perform the following:
— Click on the Client Utility icon
Taskbar.
located on the System Tray of your Windows
or
— From the Windows Taskbar, click Start, then select
Programs→RoamAbout→RoamAbout Client Utility.
2. Click on the Advanced drop-down menu and select Link Test. The Link Test window
has an Advice button. Click this button for specific troubleshooting suggestions.
If you are connected to an infrastructure network, the test partner is the associated AP.
If you are configured for an ad-hoc network, you can select another client in the
network to be the test partner then select the Test Results tab.
3. Check the Signal-to-Noise (SNR) indicator, which changes color according to the
communications quality as follows:
NOTE
NOTE: You cannot check the SNR if you are in a peer-to-peer
(ad-hoc) configuration, the SNR indicator will remain black or gray.
— Green (green color). Communications quality is good.
— Yellow (yellow color). Communications quality is adequate. Optionally, click the
Advice button in the Link Test window for tips on improving communications
quality.
— Red (red color). Communications quality is poor and requires user intervention.
A high noise level indicates that you may have one or more devices emitting radio
signals in the same frequency band as the client. Run the Link Test on other clients to
determine the extent of the noise. The source of the noise may be closest to the device
that has the highest noise level. Try to eliminate or move the source of the noise.
6-3
Testing Radio Communications Quality
A low signal level indicates that the client and the test partner may be too far apart or
there may be obstructions between them. If possible, remove the obstructions, move
the devices closer, or use the optional Range Extender antenna described in “Range
Extender Antenna” on page 1-17.
4. Check the Total Messages column. Data throughput efficiency is measured in
messages sent, lost, or received.
5. Divide the number of Messages Lost by the number of Messages Sent. The Messages
Sent number must be greater than 200.
Typically, the number of Messages Lost is less than 1 percent of the number of
Messages Sent. If this number increases to 5 percent, you may have communication
problems. If necessary, click the Reset button to observe only the current data
throughput.
If the SNR is low and the number of messages lost is high, the problem is likely due to a
poor communications quality. For example, the client and the test partner are too far apart
or the connection suffers from a source of noise interference.
If the SNR is adequate or good but there is a relatively large number of messages lost or
received after a retry, the problem might indicate:
•
A very busy network where many clients try to access the medium at the same time.
•
A microwave oven in close vicinity (7 to 10 feet) to the client or AP is causing short
bursts of interference. This noise might not be displayed by the noise level indicator,
but could still be forcing the clients to retransmit frames.
•
Another client is suffering from a poor communications quality and is consequently
sending many retransmissions.
•
Numerous frame collisions are occurring due to a hidden station problem.
Run the RoamAbout Client Utility link test from multiple clients to determine if the
problem is local (one client only) or experienced by all clients.
If all clients suffer from poor data throughput efficiency despite a good SNR value, the
traffic load could be caused by the following:
6-4
•
Many wireless clients are trying to communicate simultaneously.
•
Clients are deferring data transmissions to avoid frame collisions.
•
Clients are retransmitting frames repeatedly because initial transmissions failed, which
can be due to frame collisions.
Optimizing RoamAbout AP Placement
If one or more clients are transmitting simultaneously with the AP in an infrastructure
network, you may need to lower the RTS Threshold on the AP as described in the “RTS/
CTS Protocol” on page 2-9.
If the concentration of users per AP is high, you may need to place the APs closer together
to distribute the load, or add APs to the wireless network.
To measure values over time, click the Test History tab. For example, you have a
performance problem during the mid-afternoon but not at other times. Use Test History to
measure wireless performance between 2:00 pm to 3:00 pm. You can save the test results
to a log file, as described in the “Logging Measurement Data” section on page 6-8.
Optimizing RoamAbout AP Placement
The RoamAbout AP Manager and RoamAbout Client Utility provide diagnostic tools to
determine the coverage area of an AP. If you have multiple APs in a wireless network, the
Client Utility can help determine where the coverage areas overlap.
You may need to use these tools after you initially install the APs, and on a regular basis to
determine if the coverage areas change due to new obstructions or new sources of radio
interference.
Using the Client Utility
Use the RoamAbout Client Utility Site Monitor window to monitor the radio
communications quality with multiple RoamAbout APs simultaneously.
The Site Monitor window only displays the APs within range of the client. If the Site
Monitor window does not display all the APs that you expect, the unlisted AP might be out
of range of your client or using another wireless network name.
The Site Monitor window offers a set of pull-down menus that enable you to display and
organize diagnostic information according to your preferences. The Site Monitor function
also allows you to save measurement data to a log file.
This procedure requires the RoamAbout Client Utility on a RoamAbout client. This
procedure is best performed on a mobile client that you can use to walk through the
coverage area of the AP.
6-5
Optimizing RoamAbout AP Placement
To open the Site Monitor window, perform the following steps:
1. To start the Client Utility, perform the following:
— Click on the Client Utility icon
Taskbar.
located on the System Tray of your Windows
or
— From the Windows Taskbar, click Start, then select
Programs→RoamAbout→RoamAbout Client Utility.
2. Click on the Advanced drop-down menu and select Site Monitor.
3. Select the network in the Selection tab if you have multiple wireless networks.
4. For best results, click on the Site Monitor tab in the Site Monitor window.
5. Walk through the wireless network environment with Site Monitor running. Watch the
Site Monitor display to verify that each location is covered by at least one AP that
provides an Adequate (Yellow) or Good (Green) communications quality.
If you see a poor SNR in any area that you want to be covered, change the columns to
display the AP Name and add it to the table.
A low signal level indicates that the APs may be too far apart. Relocate or add APs to create
a contiguous wireless coverage area, where communications quality is Adequate or better.
If the noise level is high, walk through the area monitoring the Noise Level indicator to
determine the location of the source of interference. If possible, switch off the source of
interference or relocate it to minimize the impact of interference on the wireless network.
Using AP Manager
The RoamAbout AP Manager provides a Link Test diagnostic tool that tests the signal
quality from the AP to a client or another AP.
1. Select the AP from the Managed List field in the AP Manager main window.
2. Click on the Integrity drop-down menu option and select Link Test.
3. Under Remote Station Info, click the down arrow to list the available clients in the
wireless network or the remote APs in a LAN-to-LAN configuration.
4. Choose the client or AP to test the signal quality, then click the Start Sampling button
to start the test. To stop the test, click the Stop Sampling button.
6-6
Optimizing RoamAbout Outdoor Antenna Placement
5. Check the signal level and noise level if the SNR is low between the AP and the
wireless device.
If the signal level is low, the devices may be too far apart or there are obstructions
between them.
If the noise level is high, determine the source of interference by selecting other clients.
If available, use the RoamAbout Client Utility Site Monitor tool at a mobile client to
better determine the location of the interference.
Optimizing RoamAbout Outdoor Antenna Placement
If an AP in a LAN-to-LAN configuration is connected to an outdoor directional antenna,
the antenna must be pointed directly at the antenna for the other AP. A misaligned antenna
can decrease the signal level or prevent communications.
The RoamAbout AP Manager provides a Point-to-Point diagnostic tool that can help you
adjust the directional antenna to optimize the signal between APs. If you are testing the link
between two APs that both use directional antennas, you may need one person at each
antenna and a method to communicate with those people.
NOTES
NOTE: Antennas should only be installed by a qualified antenna
installer. The antenna installation professional should be licensed or
certified in accordance with local regulations.
If you are planning to use an outdoor antenna refer to the RoamAbout
Outdoor Antenna Site Preparation and Installation Guide for regulatory
information, FCC requirements, and detailed procedures to install
outdoor antennas.
1. Select the AP from the Managed List field in the AP Manager main window.
2. Click on the Integrity drop-down menu and select Link Test.
3. Under Remote Station Info in the Link Test window, click the down arrow to list the
available APs in the LAN-to-LAN configuration.
4. Choose the AP to test the signal quality then click Start Sampling to start the test.
5. To improve the signal strength, watch the SNR indicator and slowly move the antenna
in the direction that improves SNR. You may need to have a person at the remote
location move the antenna while monitoring the SNR.
6. To stop the test, click the Stop Sampling button.
6-7
Logging Measurement Data
Logging Measurement Data
You can save the results of your RoamAbout Client Utility Link Test or Site Monitor
session in a log file. To enable logging, set the Client Utility to enhanced mode by clicking
the Options button in the Status/Functions window. For information about a Client Utility
window, press <F1> while in that window.
You can use this log file to:
•
Evaluate the results at a later time.
•
Compare the results with previous measurements, which may help you investigate the
performance of your wireless LAN over a period of time.
•
Send the measurement results to your RoamAbout support representative when
troubleshooting a specific problem.
The Client Utility allows you to log measurement data manually or automatically at regular
intervals.
To set the logging options, click the Log Settings tab in the Site Monitor or Link Test
window. You can choose to append data to an existing log file or create a new file.
The log files are saved in a Comma Separated Value (CSV) file format. You can read the
files with an ASCII editor or import the data into a spreadsheet or database application.
6-8
Checking the Client RoamAbout PC Card
Checking the Client RoamAbout PC Card
The RoamAbout Client Utility has a Diagnose Card tool that allows you to investigate the
operation of your RoamAbout PC Card and the installed driver.
Run the card test only in situations where there is a card failure or when you suspect a
configuration mismatch. When contacting RoamAbout technical support, the card test
results may help the support representative determine the cause of a malfunctioning device.
To advance to the Card Diagnostics window, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the Advanced drop-down menu and select Card Diagnostics.
2. Click on the Test Card Now button to perform the card diagnostics. The results of the
card diagnostics are listed under the self test fields.
CAUTION: Running the Card Test may disrupt normal operation of the
RoamAbout PC Card. This may result in a loss of your current connection to
your network. When you click the Test Card Now button, the RoamAbout
Client Utility displays a warning that allows you to either abort or proceed
with the Card Test.
Click on the Generate Report button to create a log file of the wireless network card
components and system settings of your computer. If you need to contact RoamAbout
technical support, the card test results may help the support representative determine the
cause of a malfunctioning device.
In exceptional cases, you may lose your network connection. If this occurs on a Windows
NT system, restart your system. If this occurs on a Windows 95, 98, 2000, Me, or XP
system:
1. Close the Client Utility program.
2. Remove the PC Card.
3. Wait several seconds then reinsert the card.
6-9
Monitoring the AP Using RMON
Monitoring the AP Using RMON
The AP supports four of the nine Remote Network Monitoring MIB (RMON) groups:
•
Statistics - Contains statistics measured by the probe for the wired LAN and the
wireless LAN interfaces.
•
History - Records periodic statistical samples from a network and stores them for later
retrieval.
•
Alarm - Periodically takes statistical samples from variables in the probe and
compares them to previously configured thresholds. If the monitored variable crosses
a threshold, an event is generated.
•
Event - Controls the generation and notification of events from this device.
The settings for these groups can only be accessed with a Network Management System.
The console port and AP Manager cannot change or view the RMON group settings.
When the AP is initialized, two statistics groups are generated. One group is for the wired
interface and one is for the wireless interface. Also, two History groups are generated for
each interface. One group has a short term polling period of 30 seconds and one has a long
term polling period of 30 minutes.
The AP 2000 has the following limits for the RMON MIB because of memory limitations:
6-10
•
A maximum of six Statistics groups.
•
A maximum of four History groups, with a maximum of 200 “buckets”, also called
samples, for all groups. You can reconfigure each group. For example, you could
assign 80 buckets each to the long and short term History groups assigned to the wired
interface, and 20 buckets each to the long and short term History groups assigned to
the wireless interface. This example does not exceed the maximum of 200 buckets.
•
A maximum of ten Alarm groups.
•
A maximum of ten Event groups.
Monitoring RADIUS Client Operations
Monitoring RADIUS Client Operations
Using the console port, you can monitor the RADIUS client statistics for the primary and
secondary RADIUS servers.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
To view the RADIUS client statistics, choose RADIUS Client Statistics from the Security
and Policy Configuration menu. Refer to Table 6-1 for a description of the statistics.
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
1. Choose Module-Specific Options from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu.
2. Choose Authentication Options.
3. Choose Monitor RADIUS Client Operation. The menu options are:
List RADIUS Client Statistics: Displays the AP RADIUS counter information.
List RADIUS Client Parameters: Displays the AP RADIUS configuration.
List RADIUS Client Statistics and Parameters: Displays the AP RADIUS
parameters and counter information.
Clear RADIUS Client Statistics: Resets all the counters to 0.
4. Choose List RADIUS Client Statistics to display the RADIUS Client Statistics for the
Primary Server and/or the Secondary Server. Field descriptions are listed in Table 6-1.
6-11
Monitoring RADIUS Client Operations
Table 6-1: RADIUS Client Statistics Menu - Field Descriptions
6-12
Field
Description
Invalid Server
Addresses
Number of RADIUS Access-Response packets received from unknown
addresses.
Round Trip
Time
Time interval (in hundredths of seconds) between the most recent Access-Reply/
Access-Challenge and the Access-Request that matched it from the RADIUS
authentication server.
Access Requests
Number of RADIUS Access-Request packets sent to the server. This does not
include retransmissions.
Access
Retransmissions
Number of Access-Request packets retransmitted to the RADIUS authentication
server.
Access Accepts
Number of RADIUS Access-Accept packets (valid or invalid) received from the
server.
Access Rejects
Number of RADIUS Access-Reject packets (valid or invalid) received from the
server.
Access
Challenges
Number of RADIUS Access-Challenged packets (valid or invalid) received
from the server.
Malformed
Access
Responses
Number of malformed RADIUS Access-Response packets received from the
server. Malformed packets include packets with an invalid length. Malformed
packets do not include bad authenticators, signature attributes, or unknown
types.
Bad
Authenticators
Number of RADIUS Access-Response packets containing invalid
authenticators or Signature attributes received from the server.
Pending
Requests
Number of RADIUS Access-Request packets destined for this server that have
not yet timed out or received a response. This variable increments when an
Access-Request is sent and decremented due to receipt of an Access-Accept,
Access-Reject, Access-Challenge, time-out, or retransmission.
Timeouts
Number of authentication time-outs to this server. After a time-out the client
may retry to the same server, send to a different server, or give up. A retry to the
same server is counted as a retransmit as well as a time-out. A send to a different
server is counted as a Request, as well as a time-out.
Unknown Types
Number of RADIUS packets of unknown type which were received from the
server on the authentication port.
Packets
Dropped
Number of RADIUS packets received from the server on the authentication port
and dropped for some other reason.
Checking RoamAbout Product Version Numbers
Checking RoamAbout Product Version Numbers
Using AP Manager
To check the RoamAbout AP firmware version, run the RoamAbout AP Manager, choose
the Hardware button and check the software version (SW=Vx.x). Refer to the AP Manager
on-line help for additional information.
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
To check the RoamAbout AP firmware version using the console port, select Show
Current Settings from the Installation Menu. The top line contains the firmware version
(SW=Vx.x).
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
To check the RoamAbout R2 firmware version using the console port, choose Current
Configuration from the Main Menu.
Using the Client Utility
To check the versions of the RoamAbout PC Card Driver and Station Firmware in a
RoamAbout client, run the RoamAbout Client Utility, choose Diagnose Card then choose
the Version Info tab. The version of the Client Utility is also displayed.
For information about the latest available versions, check the RoamAbout Wireless web
site.
6-13
Upgrading the RoamAbout AP Firmware
Upgrading the RoamAbout AP Firmware
The AP firmware, also called embedded software, can be easily upgraded. Regularly check
the RoamAbout web site for the latest information concerning RoamAbout updates. To
upgrade the AP, copy the image file from the web site to the same directory as the AP
Manager or BootP/TFTP server.
•
For the Access Point Classic, select the latest V*.BIN file for firmware upgrades.
•
For the Access Point 2000, select the N*.BIN file for firmware upgrades, or R*.BIN
file for BootROM upgrades.
•
For the RoamAbout R2, select the latest G*.Z file for firmware upgrades, or B*.BIN
file for BootROM upgrades.
CAUTION: If the power is interrupted during the upgrade
process, the image in your device will become corrupt. Do
not turn off or perform any action that can cause power loss
during an upgrade.
The AP Manager includes a BootP/TFTP loader, called NetRider Loader, that upgrades the
AP. If not using the AP Manager, you need to configure a BootP/TFTP server. Make sure
that you do not have multiple BootP/TFTP servers configured to load the AP; you might
load an incorrect image. You can only upgrade one AP at a time. When you start the
upgrade, the AP immediately stops its operation.
Using the AP Manager
To upgrade the AP using the AP Manager, click the Reload Now button and follow the
on-line instructions. The NetRider Loader utility loads the new firmware. The upgrade
takes a few minutes, during which the AP is unavailable. You can determine when the
upgrade is complete by looking at the AP LEDs or by trying to view parameters using the
AP Manager.
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
Perform the following to upgrade the Access Point using the console port. Do not choose
the Save command when using the Upgrade Flash command.
1. Make sure that you have properly configured a BootP/TFTP server.
2. Choose Module-Specific Options from the Access Point Installation Menu.
3. Choose Upgrade Flash from the next menu.
6-14
Upgrading the RoamAbout AP Firmware
4. Choose BootP Server if a BootP server has been configured with the correct file.
Choose TFTP Server if you wish to upgrade the AP with a specific image. If choosing
TFTP Server, you will be prompted for the server IP address and image file name.
5. Follow the online instructions to complete the upgrade.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
To upgrade the RoamAbout R2 using the console port:
1. Make sure that you have properly configured a BootP/TFTP server.
2. Choose Reset/Upgrade from the Main Menu.
3. Choose Upgrade Flash.
4. Enter the following:
Image Path: If using NetRider Loader, only enter the filename. Otherwise, enter the
path to the image file relative to the TFTP server’s local root directory. For example:
c:\rmabt\image\filename.z
TFTP Server IP Address: IP address of the TFTP server where the image file is
stored.
Download Type: Select Application if upgrading the AP firmware, or Boot ROM if
upgrading the BootROM.
5. Choose Apply. You are asked to confirm the upgrade.
Using the AP Hardware Reset Button
The AP hardware Reset button (labeled as S1 on the unit) forces the AP to download a
firmware image and reset to factory default values. Use the Reset button when you are
unable to reload or upgrade the AP using the AP Manager or console port (i.e, should the
AP firmware suffer data corruption).
To use the Reset button, perform the following:
1. Remove the power from the AP.
2. If this is an Access Point or Access Point 2000, restore the AC power then press the
Reset button on the Access Point. If an image is not available, the AP waits
approximately three minutes then resets to factory default values.
3. If this is a RoamAbout R2, restore the power then insert a toothpick or equivalent into
the reset hole on the R2. If an image is not available, the R2 waits approximately three
minutes then resets to the current configuration values.
6-15
Replacing the PC Card in an AP
Replacing the PC Card in an AP
You may need to replace a defective PC Card or upgrade the PC Card in an AP. If
upgrading the AP from a 2 Mbit/s PC Card to an 11 Mbit/s PC Card, make sure that the AP
firmware version is V5.0 or greater, as described in the “Checking RoamAbout Product
Version Numbers” section on page 6-13.
NOTE
NOTE: Refer to the Regulatory information, FCC requirements, and
installation information shipped with the PC Card before you install it.
You should disable encryption before replacing a PC Card with one that does not support
encryption.
To change the PC Card in an AP configured for a wireless infrastructure network, you only
need to remove AC power, replace the PC Card, and power on the AP.
To change the PC Card in an AP configured for a LAN-to-LAN network, perform the
following:
1. Remove AC power.
2. Replace the PC Card.
3. Power on the AP.
4. Change the wireless MAC address on each remote AP configured to communicate
with this AP. The wireless MAC address for an AP is printed on the back of its PC
Card.
6-16
Chapter 7
Problem Solving
This chapter contains problem solving information for the RoamAbout wireless network.
If the problem appears to be with an AP or a specific client, check the LEDs first. The AP
LEDs are described in the next section. The client LEDs are described on page 7-19.
In This Chapter
Information in this chapter is presented as follows:
Topic
Page
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem
7-2
Showing Counters
7-11
Displaying Error Logs
7-18
RoamAbout PC Card LED Activity in a Client
7-19
Windows Does Not Detect the RoamAbout PC Card
7-21
Client Cannot Connect to the Network
7-21
Checking the Network Protocols on a Windows System
7-22
Device Conflict on a Windows System
7-23
Setting SNMP Trap Addresses (Access Point Only)
7-26
Setting Upline Dump (Access Point Only)
7-27
7-1
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem
The AP LEDs show status and help diagnose problems. The following sections describe the
LEDs on the AP 2000 and the original release of the AP.
Figure 7-1 shows the RoamAbout APs.
Figure 7-1: RoamAbout APs
Acce
ss Po
1
int
1
2
R2 Wireless Access Platform
Access Point 2000
Access Point Classic
RoamAbout R2 LEDs
Table 7-1 describes the function of each LED. Error conditions cause the LEDs to turn on,
off, or blink in a pattern. Table 7-2 describes the LED patterns.
7-2
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem
Table 7-1: RoamAbout R2 LED Descriptions
Name
Description
System Status
Lights when the RoamAbout R2 passes self-test. If the RoamAbout R2
fails the test, the LED blinks at a steady rate.
Power
Lights when the power is on.
Wired Forwarding
Lights when the RoamAbout R2 is forwarding packets to the wired
Ethernet port.
1
Wireless Forwarding
(Slot 1)
Lights when the RoamAbout R2 is forwarding packets to the wireless
port (slot 1).
2
Wireless LAN Activity
on the RoamAbout R2
(Slot 1, Slot 2)
Blinks, indicating activity, when packets are:
• Received on the wireless port and forwarded to the Ethernet port.
• Received on the Ethernet port and forwarded to the wireless port.
• Addressed to, or generated by, the RoamAbout R2 using the wireless
port.
L
Lights indicating a link (connection) to the wired Ethernet port.
A
Flashes when there is activity to or from the wired Ethernet port.
Mezzanine Wireless
Forwarding (Slot 2)
3
Lights when the RoamAbout R2 is forwarding packets to the wireless
port (slot2). This LED is only available if you purchased the RoamAbout
R2 Mezzanine slot upgrade option.
7-3
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem
Table 7-2: RoamAbout R2 LED Patterns
Wired
LAN
Wireless
LAN
Wireless
Forwarding
2
3
Wired
Forwarding
System
OK
Meaning of
LED Pattern
1
No power. Check the
power connections.
Diagnostics failed. If
the pattern continues
to display, contact
technical support.
Normal operating
mode.
RoamAbout R2 is
waiting for the
Spanning Tree. No
action is required.
RoamAbout R2 is
occasionally
saturated. No action
is required.
Cannot
communicate with
the wireless
network. Verify that
the PC Card is
properly inserted.
Cannot
communicate with
the wired network.
Verify that the
Ethernet cable is
properly connected.
= On,
7-4
= Off,
= Constant blinking,
= Random blinking,
= Any state
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem
AP 2000 LEDs
Table 7-3 describes the function of each LED. Error conditions cause the LEDs to turn on,
off, or blink in a pattern. Table 7-4 describes the patterns, the most likely causes, and
possible corrective actions. Table 7-5 describes the LED patterns during an AP firmware
upgrade. If you suspect an AP failure, run the self-test by removing then reapplying AC
power.
Table 7-3: RoamAbout AP 2000 LED Summary Table
Name
Description
Power/
System Status
Lights when the AP has power and has passed the self-test. If the AP
fails the test, the LED blinks at a steady rate.
Bridge State
Lights when the AP is forwarding packets.
1
AP Saturated
2
Wireless LAN
Activity
Lights when the AP is saturated. Saturation occurs when the AP cannot
forward packets from the Ethernet to the wireless side due to the lower
throughput of the wireless network. The degree of LED brightness
indicates the level of saturation. The LED dims (and eventually
extinguishes) as the network congestion is processed.
Lights when packets are:
• Received on the wireless port and forwarded to the Ethernet port.
•
Received on the Ethernet port and forwarded to the wireless port.
•
Addressed to or generated by the AP using the wireless port.
Packets received and filtered are not shown. The average brightness of
the LED indicates the level of activity on the wireless port. If the LED
blinks in unison with the Power/System OK and the Bridge State
LEDs, the wireless port has a fault that prevents the AP from
establishing a connection to the network.
Wired LAN
Activity
Lights when data is received on the Ethernet port. Data transmitted by
the AP is not shown. Data traffic forwarded to the Ethernet port from the
wireless port is not shown.
7-5
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem
Table 7-4: RoamAbout AP 2000 LED Patterns
Wired
LAN
Wireless
LAN
AP
Saturated
2
Bridge
State
Power/
System
Status
Meaning of
LED Pattern
1
No power. Check the power
connections.
Diagnostics failed. The AP
automatically resets after
one minute. If the pattern
continues to display, contact
technical support.
Normal operating mode.
AP is waiting for the
Spanning Tree. No action is
required.
or
Spanning Tree detected a
bridge loop and
disconnected the port.
Remove the loop.
AP is occasionally saturated.
No action is required.
Cannot communicate with
the wireless network. Verify
that the PC Card is properly
inserted.
Cannot communicate with
the wired network. Verify
that the Ethernet cable is
properly connected.
Cannot communicate with
the wireless or wired
network.
= On,
7-6
= Off,
= Constant blinking,
= Random blinking,
= Any state
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem
Table 7-5: Network Loading LED Patterns
Wired
LAN
Wireless
LAN
AP Saturated
2
Bridge
State
Power/
System
OK
Meaning
of LED Pattern
1
Downline loading
image from load host.
TFTP file not found
or other TFTP error.
(LEDs blink 10
times.)
Upgrading Flash.
(LEDs blink then turn
on one at a time
starting with Wireless
LAN.) All LEDs,
except Wired LAN,
are on when the Flash
upgrade is successful.
Invalid load image.
Wrong image, image
too large, or CRC
check error. (LEDs
blink 10 times.)
Unsuccessful Flash
upgrade. (LEDs blink
10 times.)
Firmware error or
number of retries
exceeded. (LEDs
blink 10 times.)
= On,
= Off,
= Constant blinking,
= Random blinking,
= Any state
7-7
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem
AP (Classic) LEDs
Table 7-6 describes the LED functions. Table 7-7 describes the patterns, likely causes, and
possible corrective actions. Table 7-8 describes the patterns during a firmware upgrade.
Table 7-6: AP (Classic) LEDS
Name
Description
Power OK
Lights (green) when the AP has power.
Module OK
Lights (green) when the AP passes its power-up self-test. The LED is off if
the AP fails the test. If flashing, the Ethernet or wireless port (or both) has a
fault, preventing connection to the network.
Wired LAN Activity
Indicates the status of the wired Ethernet segment. The LED lights (green)
when packets are:
• Received on the Ethernet port and forwarded to the wireless port.
• Addressed to or generated by the AP using the Ethernet port.
Packets received and filtered are not shown. Data traffic forwarded to the
Ethernet port is not shown. The average brightness of the LED indicates the
level of activity on the Ethernet port. If the LED is flashing together with the
Bridge State LED, the Ethernet port has a fault that prevents the AP from
establishing a connection to the network.
Bridge State
Lights (green) when the AP is forwarding packets.
1
AP Saturated
2
7-8
Lights (yellow) when the AP is saturated. Saturation occurs when the AP
cannot forward packets from the Ethernet to the wireless side due to the
lower throughput of the wireless network. The degree of LED brightness
indicates the level of saturation. The LED dims (and eventually
extinguishes) as the network congestion is processed.
Wireless LAN
Activity
The LED lights (green) when packets are:
• Received on the wireless port and forwarded to the Ethernet port.
• Addressed to or generated by the AP using the wireless port.
Packets received and filtered are not shown. Data traffic forwarded to the
wireless port is not shown. The average brightness of the LED indicates the
level of activity on the wireless port. If the LED is flashing together with the
Bridge State LED, the wireless port has a fault that prevents the AP from
establishing a connection to the network.
Card Present
Lights (green) when the PC Card is correctly installed at power-up.
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem
Table 7-7: AP (Classic) LED Patterns
Power
OK
Module
OK
Wired
LAN
Bridge
State
Saturated
1
Wireless
LAN
Card
Present
Meaning of LED
Pattern
2
Ethernet
connection is not
working or there is
a hardware failure.
Failure while
initializing/testing
the memory.
Normal operating
mode.
Waiting for the
Spanning Tree. No
action is required.
AP is occasionally
saturated due to
excessive traffic.
No action is
required.
PC Card is
defective.
Ethernet problem
after power-up.
Cannot
communicate with
the wireless
network. Check
the wireless
parameters and PC
Card.
Cannot
communicate with
the wired network.
Check the Ethernet
cable.
= On,
= Off,
= Constant blinking,
= Random blinking,
= Any state
7-9
Using the AP LEDs to Determine the Problem
Table 7-8: Network Loading/Upline Dumping LED Patterns
Power
OK
Module
OK
Wired
LAN
Bridge
State
Saturated
1
Wireless
LAN
Card
Present
Meaning of LED
Pattern
2
Waiting for downline
load from load host
Downline loading
image from load host
Firmware error detected
while downline loading
image from load host
TFTP file not found
Waiting for retry of
TFTP load
Upgrading Flash
Flash upgrade
successful
Invalid (wrong) load
image
Unsuccessful Flash
upgrade
Invalid load image:
corrupted image
Invalid load image:
image too large
TFTP error
Firmware error or
number of retries
exceeded
Hardware error
= On,
7-10
= Off,
= Constant blinking,
= Random blinking,
= Any state
Showing Counters
Showing Counters
You can display the values of all the counters maintained by the AP. This information can
help you monitor the performance of your wireless network or better understand a problem.
Typically, this information is used by RoamAbout support personnel to help you diagnose
a problem.
Using the AP Manager
Perform the following to show a subset of the counters using the AP Manager. For a
description of the counters, click the Help button.
1. Select the AP from the Managed List field.
2. Click the Counters button.
Using the Access Point 2000 Console Port
To show all the counters using the console port:
1. Choose Module-Specific Options from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu.
2. Choose Show Counters. The first screen displays counters with information specific
to the Ethernet interface. The second screen displays the same counters with
information specific to the wireless interface. The subsequent screens display a subset
of the counters with information specific to wireless ports 1 through 6. The counters
are described in Table 7-9. The final screen shows the RoamAbout PC Card counters,
which are described in Table 7-10 on page 7-14.
Using the RoamAbout R2 Console Port
To show counters using the console port, choose Counters from the Main Menu. You can
display the counters for the wired or wireless interface. The same set of counters is used for
both ports. The counters and their descriptions are listed in Table 7-11 on page 7-17.
7-11
Showing Counters
Table 7-9: RoamAbout AP (Classic and 2000) Counters
Counter
Description
Individually addressed
bytes sent
Total number of bytes transmitted by the interface as part of unicast messages.
Normal behavior for this counter shows a relatively high value that is increasing
rapidly.
Multicast bytes sent
Total number of bytes transmitted by the interface as part of multicast messages.
This value is expected to be a large number.
Individually addressed
bytes received
Total number of bytes received by the interface as part of unicast messages. It is
normal behavior for this counter to increase rapidly.
Multicast bytes
received
Total number of bytes received by the interface as part of multicast messages. It
is normal behavior for this counter to have a high value.
Individually addressed
frames sent
Number of messages sent by the interface that are destined for another device. In
most LAN applications, it is normal behavior for this counter to have a high value
and continuously increase (you can see it run). For example, this counter should
increase rapidly when running the Link Test.
Multicast frames sent
Total number of messages sent by the interface as broadcast or multicast (destined
at multiple other devices). In most LAN applications, multicast messages are
regularly sent. Typically, this counter shows a lower value than the Individually
Addressed Frames Sent counter.
Individually addressed
frames received
Number of messages sent by other devices to this interface. In most LAN
applications, it is normal behavior for this counter to have a high value and
continuously increase (you can see it run). For example, this counter should
increase rapidly when running the Link Test.
Multicast frames
received
Number of broadcast or multicast messages received by the interface. In most
LAN applications, it is normal behavior for this counter to have a value that is
continuously increasing. Typically, this counter should display a value that is less
than the Individually Addressed Frames Received counter.
Tagged frames rec’d/
sent/discard
The VLAN counters are shown on one line:
Received: Number of tagged frames received on the interface minus the number
of tagged frames discarded.
Sent: Number of tagged frames sent by the interface.
Discarded: Number of tagged frames discarded by the interface.
If there are no discarded frames, the number of frames received on the wired
interface will be the same as the number of frames sent by the wireless interface,
and vice versa.
Frames deferred
Number of frames for which the first transmission attempt on the selected
interface is delayed because the medium is busy. The count represented by an
instance of this object does not include frames involved in collisions.
7-12
Showing Counters
Table 7-9: RoamAbout AP (Classic and 2000) Counters (Cont’d)
Counter
Description
Single collision
Number of successfully transmitted frames on the selected interface for which
transmission is inhibited by exactly one collision. Frames counted in this counter
are not counted by the MultipleCollisionFrames counter.
Multiple collisions
Number of successfully transmitted frames on the selected interface for which
transmission is inhibited by more than one collision. Frames counted in this
counter are not counted by the SingleCollisionFrames counter.
Excessive collisions
Number of frames for which transmission on the selected interface fails due to
excessive collisions.
Carrier check failed
Number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or never asserted when
attempting to transmit a frame on the selected interface. The count is incremented
at most once per transmission attempt, even if the carrier sense condition
fluctuates during a transmission attempt.
Transmit Frame too
long
Total number of times the interface failed to transmit frames due to a frame being
larger than the maximum frame size of 1518 bytes.
Remote failure to
defer
Number of frames for which the first transmission attempt on the selected
interface is delayed because the medium is busy. The count does not include
frames involved in collisions.
Block check error
Number of frames received on the selected interface that are not an integral
number of octets in length and do not pass the FCS check. The count is
incremented when the alignmentError status is returned by the MAC service to the
LLC (or other MAC user).
Frame error
Number of times messages were received while a transmission elsewhere in the
network was in progress. This counter is expected to be zero. Non-zero-values
indicate a heavily loaded system.
Receive Frame too
long
Total number of times the interface received a frame that was larger than the
maximum frame size of 1518 bytes.
Data Overrun
The total number of frames which contain data overrun errors.
System buffer
unavailable
Total number of times the interface failed to have a system receive buffer
available to store an incoming frame. These failures can occur during a broadcast
storm or bursts of frames destined for the interface.
Collision detect check
fail
This counter is not used on the wired interface.
For the wireless interface, the number of times a received message was discarded
because it could not be decrypted by the PC Card. This means that:
• Both devices have enabled encryption, but use keys that do not match.
• One of the devices does not support encryption or does not have encryption
enabled.
7-13
Showing Counters
Table 7-10: RoamAbout AP Classic and 2000) PC Card Counters
Counter
Description
Individually addressed
frames sent
(TxUnicastFrames)
Number of messages sent by the PC Card that are destined for another
wireless device. In most LAN applications, it is normal behavior for this
counter to have a high value and continuously increase (you can see it run).
For example, this counter should increase rapidly when running the Link
Test.
Multicast frames sent
(TxMulticastFrames)
Total number of messages sent by the PC Card as broadcast or multicast
(destined at multiple other devices). In most LAN applications, multicast
messages are regularly sent. Typically, this counter shows a lower value
than the TxUnicastFrames counter.
Fragments Sent
(TxFragments)
Total number of messages or message fragments sent by the PC Card. The
running rate of this counter is a general indication of activity at this wireless
device. The number in this counter should be greater than the sum of
TxUnicastFrames and TxMulticastFrames.
Individually addressed bytes
sent (TxUnicastOctets)
Total number of bytes transmitted by the PC Card as part of unicast
messages. Normal behavior for this counter shows a relatively high value
that is increasing rapidly.
Multicast bytes sent
(TxMulticastOctets)
Total number of bytes transmitted by the PC Card as part of multicast
messages. This value is expected to be a large number.
Deferred Transmissions
(TxDeferredTransmissions)
Number of times the PC Card deferred a transmission to avoid collisions
with messages transmitted by other devices. Deferral is normal behavior for
802.11 devices. A relatively high value for this counter identifies a wireless
network with lots of activity.
Single retry frames sent
(TxSingleRetryFrames)
Number of messages that were retransmitted a single time before being
acknowledged by the receiving device. Retransmission is a normal behavior
for the IEEE 802.11 protocol in order to recover quickly from lost
messages. A relatively high value for this counter in comparison with the
TxFragments counter identifies a wireless network that suffers from
interference (noise) or a heavy load of wireless data traffic.
See also TxMultipleRetryFrames.
Multiple retry frames sent
(TxMultipleRetryFrames)
Number of messages that were retransmitted multiple times before being
acknowledged by the receiving device. Retransmission is a normal behavior
for the IEEE 802.11 protocol in order to recover quickly from lost
messages. A relatively high value for this counter in comparison with the
TxFragments counter identifies a wireless network that suffers from
interference (noise) or a heavy load of wireless data traffic.
High values for this counter could result in lower throughput for the PC
Card if the system falls back to the next lower transmit rate when more than
one retransmission retry is needed to transfer a message.
See also TxSingleRetryFrames.
7-14
Showing Counters
Table 7-10: RoamAbout AP Classic and 2000) PC Card Counters (Cont’d)
Counter
Description
Transmit retry limit
exceeded frames
(TxRetryLimitExceeded)
Number of messages that could not be delivered after the maximum number
of retransmissions. You can use this counter with TxDiscards to identify a
wireless network that is overloaded due to severe interference or excessive
load of wireless data traffic. The system drops such messages and depends
on the higher communication protocols to recover from this lost message.
Transmit frames discarded
(TxDiscards)
Number messages that could not be transmitted due to congestion at the
RoamAbout PC Card. In normal situations, the PC Card can temporarily
store messages that are to be transmitted in an internal buffer. When this
buffer is full, the PC Card discards any new messages until buffer space
becomes available again. When this counter is relatively high, this may
identify a wireless network with a heavy load of wireless data traffic.
Individually addressed
frames received
(RxUnicastFrames)
Number of messages sent by other devices to this PC Card. In most LAN
applications, it is normal behavior for this counter to have a high value and
continuously increase (you can see it run). For example, this counter should
increase rapidly when running the Link Test.
Multicast frames received
(RxMulticastFrames)
Number of broadcast or multicast messages received by the device. In most
LAN applications, it is normal behavior for this counter to have a value that
is continuously increasing. Typically, this counter should display a value
that is less than the RxUnicastFrames counter.
Fragments received
(RxFragments)
Total number of messages or message fragments received by the PC Card.
The running rate of this counter is a general indication of the amount of
activity at the PC Card. This counter should be greater than the sum of
RxUnicastFrames plus RxMulticastFrames.
Individually addressed bytes
received (RxUnicastOctets)
Total number of bytes received by the PC Card as part of unicast messages.
It is normal behavior for this counter to increase rapidly.
Multicast bytes received
(RxMulticastOctets)
Total number of bytes received by the PC Card as part of multicast
messages. It is normal behavior for this counter to have a high value.
Receive FCS errors
(RxFCSErrors)
Number of received messages or message parts that contained an erroneous
value and had to be deleted. In the IEEE 802.11 protocol, such messages are
recovered by the ACK (Acknowledgment) protocol and then retransmitted
by the sending device.
A high value for this counter identifies a wireless network that suffers from
interference or malfunctioning RoamAbout hardware. It is normal behavior
for the RoamAbout PC Card to discard these messages.
Receive buffer not available
(RxDiscardsNoBuffer)
Number of times an incoming message could not be received due to a
shortage of receive buffers on the RoamAbout PC Card. A non-zero value
identifies heavy data traffic for your RoamAbout PC Card; for example,
when your PC Card is receiving large amounts of data.
7-15
Showing Counters
Table 7-10: RoamAbout AP Classic and 2000) PC Card Counters (Cont’d)
Counter
Description
Wrong station address on
transmit
(TxDiscardsWrongSA)
Number of times a message transmission was not done because a wrong
MAC address was used by the protocol stack. A non-zero value indicates an
error situation in the communication between the driver and protocol stack.
Receive WEP errors
(RxDiscardsWEP
Undecryptable)
Number of times a received message was discarded because it could not be
decrypted by the PC Card. This means that:
• Both devices have enabled encryption, but use keys that do not match.
• One of the devices does not support encryption or does not have
encryption enabled.
Use RoamAbout Client Utility Link Test, Configuration Info tab, to see the
configuration of the client and the AP or other client.
Receive message in
message fragments
(RxMessageInMsg
Fragments)
Number of times messages were received while another transmission was
in progress. It is a measure of the amount of overlapped communication in
your system. Zero values indicate low to moderate load of your network.
Non-zero values identify a wireless medium that is being used
simultaneously by multiple users.
Receive message in bad msg
fragments (RxMessage
InBadMsgFragments)
Number of times messages were received while a transmission elsewhere in
the wireless network was in progress. This counter is expected to be zero.
Non-zero-values indicate a heavily loaded system.
Receive WEP ICV errors
Increments when encrypted data has an error that prevents it from being
deciphered. A high number indicates a mismatched encryption key. A low
number can be caused by drop bits which can be ignored.
Receive WEP excluded
Increments when this device sends unencrypted data to another device
which rejects the data. If this is a client in an infrastructure network, this can
be caused when the client has encryption disabled and the AP is configured
to accept encrypted data only (DENY NON-ENCRYPTED DATA is
enabled).
7-16
Showing Counters
Table 7-11: RoamAbout R2 Counters
Counter
Wired Description
DropEvents
Total number of events in which packets were dropped by the probe due to lack of
resources. This number is not necessarily the number of packets dropped; it is just the
number of times this condition has been detected.
Octets
Total number of octets of data (including those in bad packets) received on the network
(excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Pkts
Total number of packets (including bad packets, broadcast packets, and multicast packets)
received.
Broadcasts
Total number of good packets received that were directed to the broadcast address. This
does not include multicast packets.
Multicasts
Total number of good packets received that were directed to a multicast address. This
number does not include packets directed to the broadcast address.
CRC Align
Errors
Total number of packets received that had a length (excluding framing bits, but including
FCS octets) of between 64 and 1518 octets, inclusive, but had either a bad Frame Check
Sequence (FCS) with an integral number of octets (FCS Error) or a bad FCS with a
non-integral number of octets (Alignment Error).
Undersize
Pkts
Total number of packets received that were less than 64 octets long (excluding framing
bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well formed.
Oversize Pkts
Total number of packets received that were longer than 1518 octets (excluding framing
bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well formed.
Fragments
Total number of packets received that were less than 64 octets in length (excluding
framing bits but including FCS octets) and had either a bad Frame Check Sequence (FCS)
with an integral number of octets (FCS Error) or a bad FCS with a non-integral number of
octets (Alignment Error).
It is entirely normal for this counter to increment. This is because it counts both runts
(which are normal occurrences due to collisions) and noise hits.
Jabbers
Total number of packets received that were longer than 1518 octets (excluding framing
bits, but including FCS octets), and had either a bad Frame Check Sequence (FCS) with
an integral number of octets (FCS Error) or a bad FCS with a non-integral number of
octets (Alignment Error).
Collisions
Best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet segment.
Pkt 64 Octets
Total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Pkts 65 to 127
Octets
Total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 65 and 127
octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
7-17
Displaying Error Logs
Table 7-11: RoamAbout R2 Counters (Cont’d)
Counter
Wired Description
Pkts 128 to
255 Octets
Total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 128 and 255
octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Pkts 256 to
511 Octets
Total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 256 and 511
octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Pkts 512 to
1023 Octets
Total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 512 and 1023
octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Pkts 1024 to
1518 Octets
Total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 1024 and
1518 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Displaying Error Logs
The AP can display error logs used by support personnel to analyze system faults.
The AP Manager displays the number of times the AP has been reset and the last four error
messages for both the Access Point 2000 and the R2. To see the reset count from the AP
Manager, select the AP in the Managed List field then click the Reset button. To display
the error messages in the AP Manager, click the Troubleshooting button.
The Access Point 2000 console port displays additional error information. To display the
last eight error messages, choose Dump Error Log from the RoamAbout AP Installation
Menu. The error log displays various information, including the current reset count. You
can also display additional error information by choosing Module-Specific Options from
the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu then selecting Dump Error Log.
7-18
RoamAbout PC Card LED Activity in a Client
RoamAbout PC Card LED Activity in a Client
If you encounter difficulty using a RoamAbout client, the error may be related to various
causes, such as:
•
Out-of range situation, which prevents the PC Card from establishing a wireless
connection with the network.
•
Configuration mismatch, which prevents the PC Card from establishing a wireless
connection with the (correct) network.
•
Absence of or conflict of the RoamAbout Driver.
•
A problem or conflict with the PC Card slot or ISA Adapter Card that prevents the PC
Card from powering on.
•
A conflict of the RoamAbout hardware with another device.
If you have a problem, you should first look at the PC Card LEDs (Figure 7-2). Table 7-12
describes the various modes of operation and associated LED activity. The table also
includes a number of troubleshooting hints that may help you solve the problem.
EN
JO
Y
TH
E
FR
EE
DO
M
OF
W
IR
EL
ES
W
S
IR
NE
EL
TW
ES
S
OR
LA
KI
NS
NG
W
iF
i
H
i-G
e pt
at
R da
h A
ig
H ed
S ch
D at
1 M
2. it
80 ab
ig
er
Figure 7-2: RoamAbout PC Card
Transmit/Receive
Power
7-19
RoamAbout PC Card LED Activity in a Client
Table 7-12: RoamAbout PC Card LED Description
Power
LED
Transmit
/Receive
LED
Continuous
Green
Blinking
Standard operational mode:
Card is powered on.
Sensing/transmitting wireless data.
•
•
Off
Flicker
Description/Action
Flicker
•
•
Card is powered on.
A network connection was established but currently there is no wireless
activity.
This could be a normal situation.
Also, the client may have moved out of the range of the wireless network. If
in an ad-hoc network, no other clients may be available.
Power management mode:
Card is powered on.
Power management is enabled.
Flashes indicate that the card wakes up at regular intervals to check if
there is wireless data addressed to your client.
•
•
•
Both LEDs blink once
every 10 seconds
The PC Card has not established a connection with the wireless network.
Actions:
• Contact the LAN administrator to verify the wireless network name
assigned to the wireless infrastructure network. Be aware that the
wireless network name is case sensitive.
• If using ANY as the wireless network name, verify that the RoamAbout
AP does not have Secure Access enabled.
• The client may not be within range of an AP or ad-hoc network.
Off
Card is not powered on. The cause may be:
• No driver loaded or installed.
• Card and driver mismatch that prevented the driver from loading.
• Device conflict that prevented the driver from loading.
Actions:
• Verify that a driver has been installed. If not, install the driver.
• Determine if there is a conflict with another device as described in the
Off
“Device Conflict on a Windows System” section on page 7-23.
•
•
7-20
Typically, this only happens on a Windows NT system.
Verify the versions of the PC Card driver as described in the “Checking
RoamAbout Product Version Numbers” section on page 6-13.
Consult the RoamAbout web site to see if newer versions are available
and if so, upgrade the driver to the latest available version.
Windows Does Not Detect the RoamAbout PC Card
Windows Does Not Detect the RoamAbout PC Card
If the RoamAbout PC Card was properly working at one time in the client, the problem
could be one of the following:
•
The PC Card is no longer properly inserted. Reinsert the PC Card into the PC Card slot.
•
The PC Card was removed and reinserted but the computer requires a reboot to
recognize the PC Card. Restart the computer.
•
The RoamAbout PC Card driver was improperly removed or corrupted. Remove the
existing driver, as described in the RoamAbout 802.11 PC Card Drivers and Utilities
Setup and Installation Guide. Then reinstall the driver.
Client Cannot Connect to the Network
This situation may occur in one of the following situations:
•
Wireless network name is incorrect. The wireless network name is case sensitive.
•
If using ANY as the wireless network name or the field is blank, verify that the
RoamAbout AP has disabled Secure Access.
•
If the wireless network is using MAC Address authentication, the client’s MAC
address must be configured on the RADIUS server.
•
If the wireless network is using 802.1X Rapid Rekeying, the client must also be
configured for Rapid Rekeying. The procedure to configure a Windows XP client for
Rapid Rekeying is in “Set Up Rapid Rekeying on the Clients” on page 5-38.
•
If the wireless network is using encryption, make sure that encryption is enabled and
that the correct encryption key is entered in the correct key position (1, 2, 3, or 4).
•
The Microsoft Windows workgroup name is incorrect. Follow the procedure in the
next section to check the network protocols.
•
The driver is not loaded. Install the driver as described in the RoamAbout 802.11 PC
Card Drivers and Utilities Setup and Installation Guide.
•
There is a device conflict as described in “Device Conflict on a Windows System”
on page 7-23.
•
The PC Card is defective.
In an ad-hoc configuration, the RoamAbout Client Utility could show the other computers
in the ad-hoc network but these computers are not shown in the Network Neighborhood.
The most likely cause is that the computers are not using the same workgroup name.
7-21
Checking the Network Protocols on a Windows System
Checking the Network Protocols on a Windows System
To verify that the client is configured for the correct type of networking and networking
protocols on Windows 95, 98, and Me operating systems:
1. From the Windows desktop, click Start then select Settings→Control Panel.
2. Double-click on Network. Verify that the list of network components includes Client
for Microsoft Networks and, optionally, Client for NetWare Networks.
3. If the item you want is available, click Cancel and go to the next step. If the items you
require are missing, click Add and select Add Client to add the client software of the
networking protocol that you want to install.
4. If the proper client software is installed but you do not see the required protocols, click
Add then follow the on-line instructions.
If this is the first time that networking support is installed on your computer, Windows
prompts you to enter the computer and workgroup names. These names are used to identify
your computer on the Microsoft Network Neighborhood.
To enter the computer and workgroup names:
1. If the Network window is not opened, click Start, select Settings→Control Panel,
then double click Network.
2. Click the Identification tab. The Windows NT version of this window is similar.
3. In the Computer Name field, enter a unique name for your computer.
4. In the Workgroup field, enter the name of your workgroup. The name must be the
same for all computers in the wireless network.
5. Optionally, provide a description of the computer in the Computer Description field.
For more information about setting your Windows network properties, consult the
Windows documentation or Windows on-line help.
7-22
Device Conflict on a Windows System
Device Conflict on a Windows System
A device conflict under Windows NT may be related to the RoamAbout ISA card or PC
Card. To detect which card is causing the conflict, use the Windows NT diagnostics. This
problem can also appear on Windows 98 and the early version of Windows 95 (OSR0).
To help determine if a device conflict exists, check the following:
•
If there is a conflicting I/O Base setting, the RoamAbout PC Card usually does not
work at all and both LEDs are off.
•
If there is a conflicting IRQ value, LEDs may flicker but you cannot connect to the
network. In a number of cases, the card may succeed in connecting to a wireless
device, but fail to connect to the network operating system.
•
Another device in the computer no longer works properly.
Windows NT
To check the I/O port and IRQ values, perform the following:
1. From the Taskbar, click Start. Select Programs→Administrative Tools→Windows
NT Diagnostics.
2. Click the Resources tab.
3. Click the IRQ button to display the Interrupt Request (IRQ) vectors currently in use
by other devices in your computer.
If IRQ value 10 (default value for the PC Card) is not used, write down IRQ 10. If 10
is used, select a value not listed in the Windows NT Diagnostics window and write it
down. Values include: IRQ 15, 12, 07, 05, 04, 03.
4. On the Resources screen, click I/O Port. If I/O Port value 0400-043F is not used, write
down I/O Port 0400-043F. If this value is used, select an unused value and write that
down. I/O port values are in the range 0300 to FFC0 with increments of 40. Examples:
0300, 0340, 380, 03C0;
0400, 0440, 0480, 04C0;
.
.
FF00, FF40, FF80, FFC0.
If you need to select an address, start with the first unused address after 0400.
5. Open the driver properties, refer to the online help for information.
6. Enter the I/O Port and IRQ values that you wrote down.
7-23
Device Conflict on a Windows System
A conflict can still occur even after using the Windows NT Diagnostics program to
determine unused I/O port addresses and IRQ values. This can happen when your computer
has one or more devices and/or peripherals installed that claimed an I/O Base Address or
IRQ value without notifying the Windows NT operating system. Therefore, the Windows
NT Diagnostics program does not display these values as used.
If there is a device conflict, select alternative settings for I/O Base Address or IRQ values.
You may need to try multiple values before resolving the problem. To isolate the problem,
you should change only one parameter at a time. For example, try to resolve a possible
conflict with the I/O Base Address. If that does not work, try to resolve a possible IRQ
conflict.
If you know which device is conflicting with the PC Card, you have the option of changing
that device’s I/O address or IRQ instead of changing the RoamAbout PC Card or ISA card.
Depending on the computer, you might need to verify the settings of the BIOS which is
loaded when you start your computer.
If the computer previously had a network card installed and the network card was running
in 32-bit operation, you may need to set the BIOS to PCIC - 16 bit. You may also need to
disable the network card in the Control Panel - Devices.
Windows 95 or 98
To check the I/O and IRQ for a Windows 95 and 98 system:
1. From the Taskbar, click Start then select Settings→Control Panel.
2. Double-click the System icon.
3. Select the Device Manager tab.
4. Open (click the + sign) Network adapters, select RoamAbout 802.11 DS, then click
the Properties button.
5. Click the Resources tab to see the I/O range and IRQ setting.
You can also select a different device and click Properties to display its resource settings.
Should you change the I/O address or IRQ value, only change one value at the time to
isolate a potential conflict without unintentionally creating another one.
Depending on the computer, you might need to verify the settings of the BIOS which is
loaded when you start your computer.
7-24
Device Conflict on a Windows System
Changing the ISA Adapter Address
If the device conflict is related to the I/O port address of the ISA card, you can change the
ISA address by changing the jumper setting on the ISA card (Figure 7-3). The ISA card
supports two I/O addresses:
•
3E0-3E1 (factory-set default)
•
3E2-3E3
To change the jumper setting, open your computer according to the documentation that was
shipped with your computer and follow the safety precautions described in the RoamAbout
installation documentation that came with the ISA adapter.
Figure 7-3: ISA Card I/O Address Strapping
7-25
Setting SNMP Trap Addresses (Access Point Only)
Setting SNMP Trap Addresses (Access Point Only)
To have the AP send SNMP traps, you need to enter the IP address of the device where the
trap is to be sent. A trap is a defined event or condition detected by the RoamAbout AP
SNMP agent.
NOTE: This feature is not available on the RoamAbout R2.
NOTE
The AP sends an SNMP trap when any of the following events occur:
•
AP is powered on (coldstart trap).
•
Ethernet network connection is established (network link up trap).
•
User tried to communicate with the AP using an incorrect SNMP community string
(authentication trap).
To enter an SNMP trap address using the console port:
1. Choose Add SNMP Trap Addresses from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu.
2. Enter the IP address of the system that you want to receive the SNMP traps.
If you do not want to change the existing value, press <Enter> to go back to the
previous menu.
To delete an existing trap address using the console port:
1. Choose Delete SNMP Trap Addresses from the RoamAbout AP Installation Menu.
2. Enter the IP address of the system that you no longer want to send SNMP traps.
7-26
Setting Upline Dump (Access Point Only)
Setting Upline Dump (Access Point Only)
The Upline Dump mode is disabled by default. This option allows you to specify whether
the AP uploads diagnostic information about itself in the event of a crash. This option
should be DISABLED unless a support representative tells you otherwise.
NOTE: This feature is not available on the RoamAbout R2.
NOTE
The Upline Dump setting is available by clicking the Network Parameters button in the
AP Manager, or selecting the Module-Specific Options in the console port RoamAbout
AP Installation Menu.
When enabled, you can select one of the following:
•
Use the BootP Server to discover the IP address of the destination TFTP server and the
destination directory on that server.
•
Upload the image to the specified TFTP server IP address and a destination directory.
NOTE: You must use the path structure dictated by your operating system.
NOTES
Depending on the dump host, you may need to create a writable file to
accept the dump. The file name should be apxxxxxx.dmp, where xxxxxxx is
the last 6 digits of the AP’s wired MAC address.
7-27
Appendix A
PC Card Information
Consult your authorized RoamAbout reseller sales office for information about the radio
regulations that apply in your country.
Table A-1: Radio Characteristics
R-F frequency band
Number of selectable
sub-channels
2.4 GHz (2400-2483.5 MHz)
North America (FCC)
Europe (ETSI)
France (FR)
Japan (JP)
11
13
4
13 (low power cards)
14 (high power cards)
Modulation technique
Spreading
Bit error rate
Nominal Output Power
Range (100 bytes user
data)
Open environment
Semi-open environment
Receiver sensitivity
Other countries that adhere to
FCC
11
ETSI
13
Direct sequence spread spectrum (DQPSK, CCK, DBPSK)
11-chip barker sequence
Better than 10-5
15 dBm
11 Mbit/s
5.5 Mbit/s
2 Mbit/s
1 Mbit/s
160 m
(525 feet)
50 m
(165 feet)
-82 dBm
270 m
(885 feet)
70 m
(230 feet)
-87 dBm
400 m
(1300 feet)
90 m
(300 feet)
-91 dBm
550 m
(1750 feet)
115 m
(375 feet)
-94 dBm
Signal strength can be affected by closeness to metal surfaces and solid high-density
materials. The ranges listed above provide a general guideline and may vary according to
the actual physical environment where the product is used.
•
•
In open environments, there are no physical obstructions between antennas.
In semi-open environments, work space is divided by shoulder-height, hollow wall
elements; antennas are at desktop level.
A-1
Table A-2: Radio Characteristics (For Outdoor Antenna Use)
R-F frequency band
Number of selectable
sub-channels
Modulation technique
Spreading
Bit error rate
Nominal Output Power
Range
1
A-2
2.4 GHz (2400-2500 MHz)
Europe (ETSI)
France (FR)
Japan (JP)
13
4
13 (low power cards)
14 (high power cards)
Other countries that adhere to
13
ETSI1
Direct sequence spread spectrum (DQPSK, CCK,
DBPSK)
11-chip barker sequence
Better than 10-5
8 dBm
Consult the RoamAbout Outdoor Antenna Site
Preparation and Installation Guide.
This variation of the RoamAbout PC Card is not available in FCC regulated countries. This PC
Card is used when connecting to an outdoor 14 dBi directional antenna in countries that
adhere to radio regulations as defined by the ETSI.
Supported Frequency Sub-Bands
Supported Frequency Sub-Bands
The RoamAbout PC Card supports a number of factory-programmed channels. The
number of available frequencies is subject to local radio regulations as defined by local
authorities.
In RoamAbout infrastructure environments, the RoamAbout PC Card automatically starts
operation at the frequency channel that is used by the RoamAbout AP. This frequency is
controlled by the LAN administrator who sets the RoamAbout AP configuration.
Table A-3 shows the factory-set default values, which are printed in bold.
Table A-3: IEEE 802.11 RoamAbout Channel Sets
Frequency range
Channel ID
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
1
2
2400-2500 MHz
FCC
ETSI
2412
2412
2417
2417
1
12422
France
-
Japan
2412
2417
2422
2427
2432
2437
2442
2447
2452
2457
2462
2467
2472
2484
2422
2427
2432
2427
2432
22437
22437
-
2442
2447
2452
2457
2462
-
2442
2447
2452
2457
2462
2467
2472
-
2457
2462
2467
2472
-
The Access Point 2000 uses this channel as the default.
The RoamAbout R2 uses this channel as the default.
A-3
Appendix B
Connecting a Device to the Console Port
This Appendix describes how to connect a device to the console port. Refer to the
Hardware Installation Guide for more information.
You can manage the AP using its console port or using the RoamAbout AP Manager
program. You do not need to use the console port if you use the AP Manager.
You can connect a terminal or personal computer running terminal emulation software to
the console port. Signals from the console port conform to the EIA-232D signaling standard
at 9600 baud only. The port appears as a data terminal equipment (DTE) device. To connect
a device to the AP console port, do the following:
1. Choose a device (terminal or personal computer) to connect to the AP.
2. Connect a null modem cable or equivalent to the device and the AP using the following
pin assignment:
For the Access Point 2000:
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Assignment
Data Carrier Detect (DCD)
Receive Data (RXD)
Transmit Data (TXD)
Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
Ground
Data Set Ready (DSR)
Request to Send (RTS)
Clear to Send (CTS)
No connect
1
6
5
9
LKG-8996-931-01
B-1
For the RoamAbout R2 Wireless Access Platform:
Pin
Assignment
[1, 4, 6]* (1) Data Carrier Detect (DCD)
(4) Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
(6) Data Set Ready (DSR)
2
3
5
7, 8*
9
Receive Data (RXD)
Transmit Data (TXD)
Ground
(7) Request to Send (RTS)
(8) Clear to Send (CTS)
No connect
1
6
5
9
LKG-8996-931-01
* [1,4,6] and [7,8] are tied together.
3. If using a terminal, configure the transmit and receive baud rates to 9600 baud only.
4. If using a personal computer, configure a terminal emulation application to use 9600
baud transmit and receive rates. The following is an example of configuring the
Microsoft Windows HyperTerminal application:
a) Open the HyperTerminal application, which is usually located in
Programs→Accessories→HyperTerminal.
b) Create a new connection. Depending on the system configuration, HyperTerminal
could automatically prompt you for a new connection name. Choose a name that
identifies the connection type, such as AP Console Port.
c) Ignore or cancel any prompts for modem or phone information.
d) In a Connect Using or similar field, select the port that is connected to the AP,
such as COM1.
e) In the Port Settings window, enter:
—
—
—
—
—
Bits per second: 9600
Data bits: 8
Parity: None
Stop Bits: 1
Flow Control: Hardware (for the Access Point 2000)
None (for the RoamAbout R2)
To connect to the console port at a later date, open HyperTerminal and select
File→Open to open the AP Console Port connection.
B-2
5. Press <Enter> until the RoamAbout Main Menu is displayed. The Installation Menu
allows you to display and modify various AP and wireless networking parameters.
If this is a RoamAbout R2, you are prompted for a username and password. The default
username is admin and the default password is password.
NOTE
NOTE: If your screen remains blank after 3 seconds, press the Ctrl and L
keys together. If the screen still remains blank, shut down the terminal
emulation program and restart it.
Use the console as follows:
•
Use your arrow keys to navigate through the screens.
•
Press your Enter (or Return) key to activate a data entry field.
•
Press the space bar to toggle a multiple choice field.
•
Select Apply if you want to check your configuration changes before saving them.
•
Select Save before you Reset, Reload or Exit out of the console to save your
configuration changes in each screen.
•
If you do not want to change the existing value, press <Enter> to go back to the
previous menu.
B-3
Appendix C
ASCII to HEX Conversion
This Appendix provides the ASCII to HEX conversion for use with third party products that
do not allow ASCII entry of encryption keys.
ASCII Value
HEX Value
0
30
1
31
2
32
3
33
4
34
5
35
6
36
7
37
8
38
9
39
A
41
a
61
B
42
b
62
C
43
c
63
D
44
d
64
C-1
C-2
ASCII Value
HEX Value
E
45
e
65
F
46
f
66
G
47
g
67
H
48
h
68
I
49
i
69
J
4A
j
6A
K
4B
k
6B
L
4C
l
6C
M
4D
m
6D
N
4E
n
6E
O
4F
o
6F
P
50
p
70
ASCII Value
HEX Value
Q
51
q
71
R
52
r
72
S
53
s
73
T
54
t
74
U
55
u
75
V
56
v
76
W
57
w
77
X
58
x
78
Y
59
y
79
Z
5A
z
7A
C-3
Glossary
802.1X
IEEE 802.1X uses security protocols, such as RADIUS, to provide centralized user
identification, authentication and dynamic key management.
Access Platform
See R2 Wireless Access Platform.
Access Point
A wired to wireless bridge that connects a wireless LAN to a wired Ethernet LAN.
Ad-Hoc network
A group of wireless clients that participate in wireless communication without connection to
a wireless infrastructure network. An ad-hoc network does not include APs.
Ad-hoc networks are also referred to as peer-to-peer networks.
AP
A generic term that refers to the RoamAbout Access Point, RoamAbout Access Point 2000,
or the RoamAbout R2 Wireless Access Platform.
Beacon
A message that is transmitted at regular intervals by the RoamAbout AP to all wireless clients
in the wireless network.
Beacons are used to maintain and optimize communications by helping mobile clients to
automatically connect to the AP that provides the best communications quality.
Broadcast Message
A data message that is transmitted by one wireless device to all devices in the wireless
network.
Broadcast storm
An occurrence where a large number of broadcast messages are sent through the network,
usually degrading network performance.
Glossary-1
Glossary
Cell
A single AP and its wireless clients within a wireless infrastructure network containing
multiple APs.
Channel (Frequency)
The center radio frequency that the wireless device uses to transmit.
The RoamAbout PC Card can support up to 13 radio frequency channels as defined in the
IEEE 802.11 Standard. The number of available channels for your PC Card is subject to radio
regulations that apply in your country. In most countries, these radio regulations adhere to
either the FCC or ETSI Standards.
Directional Antenna
An antenna that radiates RF signals in a specific direction. A directional antenna typically has
a higher gain and can cover a greater distance than an omni-directional antenna. A 14 dBi
Yagi directional antenna is available as an option for the RoamAbout AP.
Endpoint Bridge Mode
An AP mode that allows two APs to communicate, effectively connecting two wired LANs
through a wireless link.
Ethernet Adapter
The Ethernet Adapter is used on wired devices (for example, desktop computers and
printers) to make them wireless devices.
ETSI
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) regulations.
FCC
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Canada (Industry Canada (IC)).
IEEE 802.11 Standard
The Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) is an organization that
develops standards for electrical and electronic equipment. IEEE 802.xx Standards define the
access technologies for local and metropolitan area networks. IEEE 802.11 compliant
networking products based on the same type of distribution system are interoperable with one
another regardless of the device’s manufacturer.
Glossary-2
Glossary
ISA adapter
An option for the RoamAbout PC Card for computers that do not have a PCMCIA slot. The
ISA adapter installs into a computer’s ISA bus and provides a PCMCIA slot for the PC Card.
MAC Address
This is the hardware address of the device. The MAC address consists of 12 hexadecimal
digits, and is printed on the device.
Multicast Message
A data message that is transmitted by one wireless device to multiple devices in the wireless
network. Unlike broadcast messages, multicast messages do not always include all devices
in the network.
Multipoint Bridge Mode
An AP mode that allows up to seven APs to communicate, effectively connecting wired
LANs through a wireless link.
Omni-Directional Antenna
An antenna that radiates RF signals in all directions. An omni-directional antenna typically
has a lower gain and covers less distance than a directional antenna. A 7 dBi omni-directional
antenna is available as an option for the RoamAbout AP.
PC Card
A network card that installs in an AP or wireless client to provide wireless connectivity in a
LAN environment.
PCI Adapter
An option for the RoamAbout PC Card for computers that do not have a PCMCIA slot. The
PCI adapter installs into a computer and provides a PCMCIA slot for the PC Card.
PCMCIA
The Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) is the standards
body for the type of PC Card used with the RoamAbout products.
R2 Wireless Access Platform
An expandable wireless access platform designed to support existing, and future, radio
technologies and networking requirements.
Glossary-3
Glossary
RADIUS
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service). RADIUS is an IETF standard
protocol for Authentication, Authorization and Accounting.
Range Extender Antenna
An indoor antenna that extends the coverage area of a RoamAbout wireless device.
Rapid Rekeying
Also known as Key Tumbling, provides frequent, automatic, redistribution of IEEE 802.11
WEP Encryption keys for enhanced security.
RoamAbout AP Manager
Software used to manage and configure one or more APs. The software is installed on a
Windows computer that connects to the AP via a wired LAN or wireless LAN.
Roaming
The ability for a wireless client to move from one cell to another in a wireless network
without losing the network connection.
As the client moves between different wireless cells, the RoamAbout PC Card keeps track of
the quality of the radio connection with the APs. As the client moves away from its AP and
the signal level decreases, the RoamAbout PC Card automatically connects to another AP in
the same network that has a stronger signal level.
SNR
The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is a dynamic indicator that indicates the relative strength of
the radio signal (signal level) versus the radio interference (noise level) in the radio signal
path.
Unicast Message
A data message that is transmitted by one wireless device to another wireless device.
Vehicle-Mount Antenna
A 5 dBi omni-directional antenna that connects to a PC Card in a client to extend the
coverage area. The Vehicle-Mount antenna is designed to be mounted on vehicles, such as
fork-lift trucks that need continuous access to networked data while inside or outside of the
warehouse.
Glossary-4
Glossary
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy. Used to encrypt data transmitted via the wireless medium.
wireless client
A computer such as a PC, laptop, or notebook, that uses the PC card for wireless LAN
connectivity. A wireless client is also referred to as a station.
wireless infrastructure network
A wireless network that consists of wireless clients connected by one or more APs to a wired
Ethernet LAN.
wireless network
A collection of end-user systems connected together using a medium such as radio frequency
or infrared technology. The RoamAbout products use radio frequencies.
wireless relay
(Access Point 2000 only.) When enabled, the multipoint AP relays messages from one AP to
another. When disabled, each of the APs in the LAN-to-LAN multipoint configuration can
only communicate with the multipoint AP and its wired LAN.
Glossary-5
Index
Numerics
802.1X Activation Key
description 5-33
entering 5-37
802.1X authentication
overview 2-15
parameters 5-32
802.1X Rapid Rekeying
See Rapid Rekeying
802.3 ISO Connectionless DSAP filter 5-45
A
A LED 7-3
Address filter
configuring 5-46
overview 2-21
Address State 5-19
Ad-hoc network
definition 1-1
description 1-15
hardware installation 3-10
requirements 3-8
using encryption 2-13
Aging Timer 1-3, 4-5
antennas 1-16, 6-7
ANY (as a wireless network name) 2-2, 2-12
AP
configuring for infrastructure network 5-3–
5-7
configuring for Point-to-Multipoint 5-13–
5-17
configuring for Point-to-Point 5-8–5-12
console security 5-28
definition 1-2
factory defaults 5-48
firmware version 6-13
image file 6-14
LEDs 7-2
optimal placement procedure 6-5
reload 6-14
replacing PC Card 6-16
security cover 3-2
selecting location (multiple APs) 3-5
selecting location (single AP) 3-4
types 7-2
upgrading 6-14
AP 2000
connector pinout B-1
definition 1-2
LED descriptions 7-5
LED patterns 7-6
network loading LEDs 7-7
AP Classic
introduction 1-2
LED patterns 7-9
LEDs 7-8
network loading LEDs 7-10
AP Density
description 2-8
integrity test 5-47
modifying 5-22
AP Manager
description 4-2
grouping APs 4-4
infrastructure network 5-5
installation 4-3
link test 4-4
point-to-multipoint network 5-15
point-to-point network 5-10
AP ports
used for VLANs 5-41
AP Saturated LED 7-5, 7-8
Apple Classic network protocol 2-20
Apple computer 2-20
Apple Open Transport protocol 2-20
AppleTalk filter 5-45
Index-1
Index
ASCII character encryption key 5-25
ASCII to HEX conversion C-1
authentication
configuring 5-30–5-35
overview 2-14
Authentication trap 7-26
Auto Rate 2-6
B
B*.BIN file 6-14
Beacon 2-20
BIOS settings 7-24
BootP
description 5-19
modifying with console port 5-21
modifying with R2 console port 5-20
BootP/TFTP
loader 6-14
use in upgrade 6-14–6-15
with AP Manager 4-2
with Reset button 5-48
Bridge mode
description 1-3
infrastructure network 5-4, 5-7
integrity test 5-47
point-to-multipoint network 5-14
point-to-point network 5-9, 5-12
Bridge State LED 7-5, 7-8
Bridging services 1-2
Broadcast message 2-13, 2-21
Broadcast storm 2-21
Building-to-building configuration 1-9
C
Cabletron Discovery Protocol
See CDP
Card Present LED 7-8
CDP
infrastructure 5-6
overview 5-21
point-to-multipoint 5-16
point-to-point 5-11
Index-2
Cell 1-6
Central AP
choosing bridge mode 5-14
configuring
AP Manager 5-15
console port 5-17
console port (R2) 5-16
description 1-10
Channel
description 2-4
infrastructure network 5-3
list of A-3
point-to-multipoint network 5-14
point-to-point network 5-9
R2 restrictions 2-4, 3-6
setting using web management 5-49
Client
behavior 1-8
definition 1-4
using 11 Mbit/s and 2 Mbit/s 2-6
Client for Microsoft Networks 7-22
Client for NetWare Networks 7-22
Client Utility
card diagnostics 6-9
description
link test 6-3
site monitor 6-5
starting 6-3
test history 6-5
version 6-13
Coldstart trap 7-26
Comma Separated Value (CSV) file 6-8
Communications quality
description 2-7
testing 6-2–6-3
community name
See read/write community name
See read-only community name
Community Views
accessibility 4-5
Computer name 7-22
Configuration file (*.CFG) 4-4
Index
console port
Access Point security 2-19
configuring for security 5-28
connecting a device B-1
description 4-5
infrastructure network 5-7
password 5-28
point-to-multipoint network 5-17
point-to-point network 5-12
security 5-28
tips for using B-3
used with VLAN 5-42
console port (R2)
connecting a device B-1
infrastructure network 5-6
point-to-multipoint network 5-16
point-to-point network 5-7, 5-11
security 2-19
tips for using B-3
console port password (Access Point)
description 2-19
console port password (RoamAbout R2)
description 2-19
counters
AP 2000 7-12–7-13
AP Classic 7-12–7-13
overview 7-11
PC Card 7-14–7-16
RADIUS 6-11
RoamAbout R2 7-17–7-18
Coverage area
definition 1-6
determining 3-2
overlap 3-5
size by transmit speed 3-3, 3-7, 3-8
using Site Monitor 6-5
CSMA/CA protocol 2-9
Data throughput efficiency
description 2-8
DECnet End Node Hello filter 5-45
DECnet filter 5-45
Delivery Traffic Indication Message
See DTIM
Deny Non-Encrypted Data 5-25, 7-16
DHCP
description 5-19
modifying with console port 5-21
modifying with R2 console port 5-20
Diagnose Card 6-9
Directional antenna 1-18, 6-7
Discover 4-4
Distances
ad-hoc network 3-8
infrastructure network 3-3
LAN-to-LAN 3-7
DTIM
description 2-11
modifying 5-22
Dynamic address learning 1-3
Dynamic VLAN 2-25
E
Encryption
ASCII to HEX conversion C-1
configuring 5-25
counter 7-13, 7-16
description 2-13
Endpoint AP
description 1-10
Endpoint Bridge mode
See Point-to-Point
Error logs 7-18
Ethernet Speed 5-6, 5-11, 5-16
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) 2-15
D
data corruption 6-15
Data Link layer 1-2
Index-3
Index
F
Filters
address 2-21, 5-46
protocols 2-21, 5-44
rate limiting 2-21
Firmware Revisions integrity test 5-47
Firmware version
AP 6-13
fixed rate 2-20, 2-21
flash upgrade
definition 4-2
Forbidden
VLAN configuration 5-40
Forwarding
integrity test 5-47
Frame collisions 2-10, 6-4
G
G*.Z file 6-14
Gateway 5-20
GMRP 2-23
Grounding system 3-7
GVRP
configuring port 5-40
description 2-25
enable/disable 5-42
infrastructure network 5-6
point-to-multipoint network 5-16
point-to-point network 5-11
H
Hardware reload/reset button 5-48
Hexadecimal digit key 5-25
Hidden Station 2-10
Hybrid Authentication
overview 2-15
HyperTerminal application B-2
I
I/O Base address 7-23–7-24
IGMP 5-4
Image file 6-14
Index-4
Infrastructure network
required information 5-3
wireless parameters 5-3–5-4
Ingress Filtering 2-25
Integrity tests 5-47
IntraBSS
infrastructure network 5-4
modifying 5-23
IP address
AP 4-5
methods to configure 5-19
IP Address Initialization 5-19
IP Address Mode 5-6, 5-11, 5-16, 5-20
IP V4 filter 5-44
IP V6 filter 5-45
IPX - 80-2.2 filter 5-44
IPX Ethernet II filter 5-44
IPX Raw filter 5-45
IPX SNAP filter 5-45
IPX/SPX protocol 2-20
IRQ 7-23–7-24
ISA adapter card
addresses 7-25
description 1-4
K
Key Tumbling
See Rapid Rekeying
L
L LED 7-3
LAN Traffic Monitor filter 5-45
LAN-to-LAN configuration
channel used 2-4
definition 1-1, 1-9
hardware installation 3-9
outdoor antenna 1-18
LAN-to-LAN Endpoint Mode
description 1-3
R2 with Mezzanine option
configuration example 1-14
Index
LAN-to-LAN Multipoint Mode
description 1-3
LAT filter 5-45
LEDs
PC Card 7-20
RoamAbout AP 2000 7-5
RoamAbout AP Classic 7-8
RoamAbout R2 7-2
Link Test
description 6-3
diagnostic tool 6-2, 6-6
testing data throughput efficiency 6-3
testing point-to-point 6-7
Load balancing
infrastructure network 5-4
modifying 5-23
overview 3-6
log file
client 6-8
errors 7-18
Login names 2-12
M
MAC address
description 2-3
filtering 5-46
R2 internal 2-3
R2 Spanning Tree 2-3
R2 spanning tree 2-3
used with authentication 5-32
wired 5-8, 5-13
wireless 5-8, 5-13
MAC Address Authentication
overview 2-14
Managed List field 4-4
Medium Density Distribution
infrastructure network 5-4
modifying 5-23
with wireless client 2-8
Message Digest 5 (MD5) 2-15
Mezzanine option 1-6, 1-10, 3-6
Mezzanine Wireless Forwarding (Slot 2) LED
7-3
MIB objects
AP 2000 2-26
RoamAbout R2 2-27
Microcell
AP density setting 2-8
Microsoft Client for Microsoft Networks 2-20
Microsoft Internet Explorer
versions 4-6
Minicell
AP density setting 2-8
Module OK LED 7-8
Multicast message 2-13, 2-21
multicast traffic
limiting 2-21
Multicast Transmit Rate
infrastructure network 5-4
modifying 5-22
Multipoint Activation Key
entering 5-14
required for multipoint bridge mode 5-13
Multipoint Bridge mode
See Point-to-Multipoint
Multipoint Properties 5-15
N
N*.BIN file 6-14
NetBEUI filter 5-44
NetBEUI protocol 2-20
NetBIOS filter 5-45
NetRider Loader 6-14
Netscape Communicator
versions 4-6
Network card, previous installation 7-24
Network link up trap 7-26
Network Management Station 2-26, 4-5
Network operating system security 2-12
network utilization
description 3-2
Networking protocols 2-20, 7-22
Noise level 2-7
Index-5
Index
O
Omni-directional antenna 1-18
Outdoor antenna 1-18, 3-6, 3-7, 6-7
P
Parameters integrity test 5-47
Passwords 2-12
PC Card
11 Mbit/s 2-6
2 Mbit/s 2-6
description 1-4
diagnostics 6-9
in an AP 1-4
LEDs 7-19
replacing 6-16
unable to detect 7-21
version numbers 6-13
PC Card firmware
version 6-13
PCI Adapter Card
description 1-4
PCIC - 16 bit 7-24
Peer-to-peer network 1-1
Point-to-Multipoint
configuring 5-13–5-17
considerations 3-7
definition 1-1, 1-9
description 1-10
required information 5-13
wireless parameters 5-14
Point-to-Point
configuring 5-8–5-12
definition 1-1, 1-9
description 1-9
required information 5-8
testing 6-7
wireless parameters 5-9
ports
used for VLANs 5-41
Power LED 7-3
Power management
description 2-11
Index-6
Power OK LED 7-8
Power/System OK LED 7-5
Protocol Filter
overview 2-21
R
R*.BIN file 6-14
R2
See RoamAbout R2
radio characteristics
with outdoor antenna A-2
without antenna A-1
RADIUS Authentication
See authentication
RADIUS client
configuring
AP Manager 5-33
console port 5-35
console port (R2) 5-34
monitoring 6-11
overview 2-14
parameters 5-32
RADIUS Management Authenticator 5-30
RADIUS Management Authenticator password
5-31
RADIUS server 5-32
Range Extender antenna
description 1-17
Rapid Rekeying
configuring 5-36
overview 2-16
Rate Limiting Filter
infrastructure network 5-7
integrity test 5-47
overview 2-21
RC4 algorithm 2-13
Read/write community name 2-19
Read-only community name 2-19
Reauthentication 5-32
Receive rate 2-6
Reload (AP) 6-14
Index
Remote Network Monitoring MIB
See RMON
Remote RTS Threshold
description 2-9–2-10
modifying 5-22
Remote Wireless MAC Address 5-12
Reset button 5-48
Reset button (hardware) 5-48, 6-15
Reset count 7-18
Reset with current settings 5-48
Reset with factory defaults
AP 5-48
RMON
accessibility 4-5
groups 6-10
RoamAbout Client Utility
See Client Utility
RoamAbout R2
connector pinout B-2
console port 5-6
definition 1-2
LED descriptions 7-3
LED patterns 7-4
Mezzanine special considerations 3-6
Special considerations 3-6
with Mezzanine - configuration examples
1-13
Roaming 1-7
RTS Threshold
description 2-9
integrity test 5-47
modifying 5-22
RTS/CTS protocol
description 2-9
RxDiscardsNoBuffer 7-15
RxDiscardsWEPUndecryptable 7-16
RxFCSErrors 7-15
RxFragments 7-15
RxMessageInBadMsgFragments 7-16
RxMessageInMsgFragments 7-16
RxMulticastFrames 7-15
RxUnicastFrames 7-15
S
Secure Access
configuring 5-24
description 2-12
infrastructure network 5-4
integrity test 5-47
modifying 5-22
Security
configuring 5-24
description 2-12
for Access Point console port 2-19
for RoamAbout R2 console port 2-19
Set Exclude SNMP 5-27, 5-28
Set Exclude Unencrypted 5-27
Setup/Add New AP button
infrastructure network 5-5
point-to-multipoint network 5-15
point-to-point network 5-10
shared secret 2-14, 5-32
Show Current Settings 5-18
Show Wireless Configuration 5-18
Signal level 2-7
Signal to Noise Ratio
See SNR
Single AP 1-6
Site Monitor
description 6-5
testing coverage areas 6-5–6-6
SNA filter 5-45
SNMP
management tools 4-5
MIBs 2-26
RMON 6-10
SNMP community names
See read/write community name
See read-only community name
SNMP trap 7-26
SNMPv1 2-27, 5-29
SNMPv2 2-27, 5-29
SNMPv3 2-19, 4-5, 5-29, 5-30
Index-7
Index
SNR
AP placement 6-6–6-7
description 2-7
in ad-hoc network 6-3
outdoor antenna placement 6-7
testing communications quality 6-2–6-3
testing data throughput 6-4
Spanning Tree
point-to-multipoint network 5-14, 5-16
point-to-point network 5-9, 5-12
Spanning Tree Protocol 2-22, 5-43
SpectraLink NetLink WTS
encryption
ASCII to HEX Conversion C-1
SSID 2-2
Static VLAN 2-25
Station Firmware 6-13
Station Name
infrastructure network 5-4
integrity test 5-47
point-to-multipoint network 5-14
point-to-point network 5-9
setting using web management 5-49
Subnet mask 5-20
System Status LED 7-3
transaction processing application
with power management 2-11
Transmit rate
auto rate 2-6
description 2-5
fixed rate 2-6, 2-20, 2-21
integrity test 5-47
modifying 5-22
Transport Layer Security (TLS) 2-15
TxDeferredTransmissions 7-14
TxDiscards 7-15
TxDiscardsWrongSA 7-16
TxFragments 7-14
TxMulticastFrames 7-14
TxMultipleRetryFrames 7-14
TxRetryLimitExceeded 7-15
TxSingleRetryFrames 7-14
T
Tagged
description 2-23
VLAN configuration 5-40
TCP/IP protocol 2-20
Telnet
define password 5-28
R2 access 4-6
used with VLAN 5-42
TFTP
loader 6-14
use in upgrade 6-14–6-15
with AP Manager 4-2
with Reset button 5-48
Tools 4-1
V
V*.BIN file 6-14
VAXcluster filter 5-45
Vehicle-Mount antenna
description 1-16
with infrastructure network 3-6
VLAN
configuring 5-40
dynamic 2-25
network configurations 2-24
overview 2-23
static 2-25
VLAN 1
description 2-23
restriction 5-40
VLAN Compatibility Mode 5-42
Index-8
U
Unicast message 2-21
Untagged
VLAN configuration 5-40
Upgrade 6-14
Upline dump 5-47, 7-27
Users supported by AP 3-4
Index
VLAN counters 7-12
VLAN ID
configuring with AP Manager 5-41
range 2-23
VLAN Name
configuring with AP Manager 5-41
W
Web management
define password 5-28
R2 access 4-6
using 5-49
Web site 1-5
WEP
configuring 5-25
description 2-13
Wired Equivalent Privacy
See WEP
Wired Forwarding LED 7-3
Wired LAN Activity LED 7-5, 7-8
wired MAC address 5-8, 5-13
Wireless client
See client
Wireless Forwarding (Slot 1) LED 7-3
Wireless infrastructure network
definition 1-1
description 1-6
hardware installation 3-9
multiple 3-6
requirements 3-2, 3-6
Wireless LAN Activity LED 7-3, 7-5, 7-8
Wireless MAC address 5-8, 5-13
Wireless network configurations 1-1
Wireless network name
description 2-2
incorrect 7-21
infrastructure network 5-3
integrity test 5-47
Wireless parameters
current settings 5-18
Wireless Relay
modifying 5-23
point-to-multipoint network 5-14
used with AP 2000 1-11
Workgroup mode
description 1-3
R2 with Mezzanine option
configuration example 1-13
Workgroup name 7-21, 7-22
Index-9
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