EPSON®
EQUITY 3865X/20 PLUS
U s e r’s G u i d e
EPSON®
EQUITY 386SX/20 PLUS
USER’S GUIDE
X-EQ386-20PLUS
FCC COMPLIANCE STATEMENT FOR AMERICAN USERS
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This
equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and
used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio or
television reception. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment does cause interference to radio and television
reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
l
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna
l
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver
l
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected
l
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
WARNING
The connection of a non-shielded equipment interface cable to this equipment will
invalidate the FCC Certification of this device and may cause interference levels which
exceed the limits established by the FCC for this equipment. It is the responsibility of the
user to obtain and use a shielded equipment interface cable with this device. If this
equipment has more than one interface connector, do not leave cables connected to unused
interfaces.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by Epson America, Inc., could void the
user’s authority to operate the equipment.
FOR CANADIAN USERS
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions from
digital apparatus as set out in the radio interference regulations of the Canadian
Department of Communications.
Le present appareil numerique n’hnet pas de bruits radioClectriques d&passant les limites
applicables aux appareils num&riques de Qasse B prescrites dans le reglement sur le
brouillage radio&ctrique 6dictC par le Ministike des Communications du Canada.
IMPORTANT NOTICE
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
Epson America makes no representations or warranties, either express or implied, by
or with respect to anything in this manual, and shall not be liable for any implied
warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose or for any indirect,
special, or consequential damages. Some states do not allow the exclusion of
incidental or consequential damages, so this exclusion may not apply to you.
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Epson
America, Inc. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of information
contained herein. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this
publication, Epson America assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is
any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained
herein. Further, this publication and features described herein are subject to change
without notice.
TRADEMARKS
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
Equity is a registered trademark of Epson America, Inc.
General notice: Other product names used herein are for identification purposes only
and may be trademarks of their respective companies.
Copyright 0 1991 by Epson America, Inc.
Torrance, California
ii
Y72399100100
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
1. Read all of these instructions and save them for later reference.
2. Follow all warnings and instructions marked on the product.
3. Unplug this product from the wall outlet before cleaning. Do not
use liquid cleaners or aerosol cleaners. Use a damp cloth for
cleaning.
4. Do not use this product near water.
5. Do not place this product on an unstable cart, stand, or table.
The product may fall, causing serious damage to the product.
6. Slots and openings in the cabinet and the back or bottom are
provided for ventilation; to ensure reliable operation of the
product and to protect it from overheating, these openings must
not be blocked or covered. The openings should never be blocked
by placing the product on a bed, sofa, rug, or other similar surface.
This product should never be placed near or over a radiator or
heat register. This product should not be placed in a built-in
installation unless proper ventilation is provided.
7. This product should be operated from the type of power source
indicated on the marking label. If you are not sure of the type of
power available, consult your dealer or local power company.
8. This product is equipped with a 3-wire grounding-type plug, a
plug having a third (grounding) pin. This plug will only fit into a
grounding-type power outlet. This is a safety feature. If you are
unable to insert the plug into the outlet, contact your electrician
to replace your obsolete outlet. Do not defeat the purpose of the
grounding-type plug.
9. Do not locate this product where the cord will be walked on.
10. If an extension cord is used with this product, make sure that
the total of the ampere ratings on the products plugged into the
extension cord do not exceed the extension cord ampere rating.
Also, make sure that the total of all products plugged into the
wall outlet does not exceed 15 amperes.
iii
11. Never push objects of any kind into this product through cabinet
slots, as they may touch dangerous voltage points or short out
parts that could result in a risk of fire or electric shock. Never
spill liquid of any kind on the product.
12. Except as specifically explained in the User’s Manual, do not
attempt to service this product yourself. Opening or removing
those covers that are marked “Do Not Remove” may expose you
to dangerous voltage points or other risks. Refer all servicing in
those compartments to service personnel.
13. Unplug this product from the wall outlet and refer servicing to
qualified service personnel under the following conditions:
A. When the power cord or plug is damaged or frayed.
B. If liquid has been spilled into the product.
C. If the product has been exposed to rain or water.
D. If the product does not operate normally when the operating
instructions are followed. Adjust only those controls that
are covered by the operating instructions, since improper
adjustment of other controls may result in damage and will
often require extensive work by a qualified technician to
restore the product to normal operation.
E. If the product has been dropped or the cabinet has been
damaged.
F. If the product exhibits a distinct change in performance,
indicating a need for service.
iv
Contents
Introduction
Optional Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating Systems and Other Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VGA Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Use This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where to Get Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1
5
6
7
8
Using the VGA Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Display Adapter Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting a Printer or Other Device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Parallel Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Serial Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the Power Cord. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning On the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning Off the Computer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 2
3
3
4
5
Setting Up Your System
1 Choosing a Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Removing the Protector Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Connecting a Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
2
1-1
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-7
1-8
1-8
1-11
1-12
1-13
1-15
1-16
1-18
Running the Setup Program
Automatic Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the Setup Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuing From an Error Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving the Cursor Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2
2-2
2-4
2-5
v
Setting the Display Adapter Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Power-on Password. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Memory Caching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Processor Speed
Setting the Keyboard and Speaker Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Rea-time Clock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Drive Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Diskette Drive Type(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Serial/Parallel Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reviewing Your Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leaving the Setup Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3
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2-11
2-12
2-14
2-16
2-19
2-23
2-25
2-26
2-28
2-30
Using Your Computer
Installing MS-DOS or Another Operating System . . . . . . . . .
Copying the Reference Diskette Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Keys on the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stopping a Command or Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Power-on Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing a Power-on Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a Power-on Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Disks and Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Disks Store Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives.. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Write-protecting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Single Diskette Drive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting and Removing Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Backup Copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Hard Disk Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vi
2-6
2-9
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-5
3-5
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-10
3-12
3-14
3-16
3-18
3-19
3-21
3-21
3-22
Chapter 4
Enhancing System Operations
Using AUTOEXEC.BAT and Other Batch Files. . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Processor Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Keyboard Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the ESPEED Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reassigning the Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the AFDD Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Your Computer as a Network Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Password in Network Server Mode . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Expanded Memory Beyond 640KB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Special VGA Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 5
Accessing Internal Components
Removing the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the Subassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing the Subassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 6
4-1
4-2
4-4
4-5
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
5-2
5-5
5-8
5-16
Installing and Removing Options
Changing the Jumper Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving a Jumper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing an Option Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing an Option Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Memory Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Memory Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Memory Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Math Coprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a Math Coprocessor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post-installation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2
6-4
6-5
6-9
6-10
6-11
6-15
6-19
6-22
6-23
vii
Chapter 7
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Using the Correct Drive Bay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Use This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Jumpers for Two Hard Disk Drives . . . . . . . .
Changing the Jumper Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Hard Disk in the Vertical Position. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the Mounting Frames From the Drive . . . . . .
Removing and Attaching the Mounting Plate . . . . . . . .
Installing the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attaching the Cable to the Bottom of the Subassembly.
Removing a Hard Disk From the Vertical Position . . . . . . . . .
Installing or Removing a Disk Drive in the
Horizontal Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Disk Drive in the Horizontal Position. . . . . .
Removing a Disk Drive From the Horizontal Position . .
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-4
7-5
7-7
7-8
7-10
7-12
7-19
7-21
7-23
7-24
7-33
Appendix A Troubleshooting
Identifying Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Won’t Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Does Not Respond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Password Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting a New Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitor Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Drive Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Data on the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii
A-1
A-2
A-5
A-6
A-8
A-9
A-11
A-12
A-13
A-15
A-18
A-19
A-20
A-21
A-22
Software Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option Card Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mouse Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Module Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Math Coprocessor Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B
A-23
A-24
A-25
A-26
A-27
A-27
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
Choosing the Type of Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reformatting a Used Disk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting a New Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting an Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the Formatting Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option 1, Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying the Defective Track Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting the Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option 2, Destructive Surface Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option 3, Non-destructive Surface Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exiting the Hard Disk Format Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-4
B-4
B-5
B-7
B-9
B-10
B-12
B-13
Appendix C Performing System Diagnostics
Starting System Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting an Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying the Device List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting a Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resuming From an Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Codes and Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C-2
C-4
C-5
C-6
C-8
C-12
ix
Appendix D
Specifications
CPU and Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mass Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary
Index
x
D-1
D-2
D-2
D-3
D-3
D4
D-4
D-5
Introduction
The Epson® Equity®’ 386SX/20 PLUS is a high-performance
personal computer which offers exceptional speed and
convenience in a compact design. It includes 2MB of internal
memory, a built-in VGA (video graphics array) display adapter,
built-in parallel and serial interfaces, and an IBM®PS/2™
compatible mouse port.
The built-in interfaces allow you to connect most of your
peripheral devices directly to the computer, so you do not have
to install option cards. If you need to install additional devices,
such as a modem or networking card, you can use the four
standard option slots (three 16-bit and one 8-bit) inside the
computer.
Your system can support up to three internal drives: either two
diskette drives and one hard disk drive, or one diskette drive and
two hard disk drives.
The Equity 3865X/20 PLUS offers several other features to
enhance its speed and versatility:
Memory caching. Portions of your system memory are
copied to a high-speed cache buffer so your computer can
access programs and data very quickly.
Shadow RAM. Your system ROM (read-only memory) and
video ROM are copied into the computer’s RAM (random
access memory) to further accelerate system performance.
Super VGA mode. The built-in VGA adapter and VGA
drivers (included) provide graphics resolutions up to
800 x 600 in 16 colors or 640 x 480 in 256 colors on
compatible VGA monitors.
0 Continuous Edge Graphics™ (CEG™) technology (provided
by Edsun™). The built-in CEG chip refines the jagged lines
of images on a CRT screen by giving a standard 640 x 480
VGA screen the effective resolution of 2048 x 2048 and
boosting the palette from 256 to 750,000 colors. When used
with the appropriate application software and device drivers,
this technology gives you a clearer, more accurate
representation of graphics and text.
Optional Equipment
You can easily upgrade your computer by installing additional
memory and adding optional devices compatible with the IBM
Personal Computer, PC XT,™ or PC AT™
By adding memory modules to the main system board, you can
expand the computer’s memory up to 14MB. Memory modules
are efficient because your computer can access memory. on
modules faster than memory on an option card. Also, they
eliminate the need to use an option slot to add memory to your
system. If necessary, you can add additional memory to your
system by using an option card to bring your total memory to
16MB.
You may also want to install the Intel®80387SX (20MHz) math
coprocessor to speed up calculations in certain application
programs.
Check with your authorized Epson dealer to see which options
are available.
2 Introduction
Operating Systems and Other Software
You may have a version of MS-DOS® to use with your
computer. Epson has enhanced MS-DOS by adding two timesaving utilities-HELP and MENU-that make it easier to use.
The HELP program lets you display information about any
MS-DOS command on the screen. MENU provides an easy way
to run many of the MS-DOS commands.
Note
MS-DOS is not the only operating system you can use with
your computer. You can run practically any operating system
compatible with MS-DOS, OS/2, Unix® or XENIX®. See the
documentation that came with your operating system to
install and run it on your computer.
You can use virtually any application program designed for the
IBM PC, PC XT, PC AT, or compatible computers on your
Equity 386SX/20 PLUS. You may also use powerful software,
such as Microsoft® Windows/386.
VGA Utilities
Epson has provided special VGA utilities and device drivers
that you can use with certain standard VGA and multifrequency monitors. With these drivers, you can use super
VGA features such as 16-color graphics mode resolutions up to
800 x 600, 256-color resolutions up to 640 x 480, and
132-column text mode. See your VGA Utilities booklet for
complete information.
Epson also provides special device drivers that let you take
advantage of the Edsun CEG technology. These drivers instruct
specific applications to recognize the extra colors and higher
resolutions made available by CEG. See your CEG Utilities
booklet for instructions.
How to Use This Manual
This manual explains how to set up and operate your
computer, install options, and run diagnostics checks. The
illustrations show a computer with a 51/4-inch diskette drive, but
instructions for using a 3½-inch drive are also included.
Note
Although this manual provides tips for using MS-DOS, it
does not explain how to use an operating system. See your
operating system manuals for comprehensive instructions on
installing and using the operating system.
You do not need to read everything in this book; see the
following chapter summaries.
Chapter 1 provides simple step-by-step instructions for setting
up your system. On the back cover foldout are illustrations
showing the different parts of your computer; refer to these as
you set up your system.
Chapter 2 describes how to run the Setup program to define
your computer’s configuration. Do this before you use your
computer. You may need to do it again later if you change the
configuration.
Chapter 3 provides instructions for important operating
procedures, such as using and caring for disks and disk drives.
Chapter 4 describes specialized features you can use to enhance
your system’s performance.
Chapter 5 contains instructions for removing the cover and
subassembly and then replacing the subassembly and cover.
Chapter 6 describes some of the options you can use in your
computer and contains instructions for setting jumpers and
installing options.
Chapter 7 explains how to install and remove a hard disk or
diskette drive.
Appendix A contains troubleshooting tips.
Appendix B describes how to perform a hardware-level format
on a hard disk. You need to do this only if you have installed a
new hard disk that has never received this low-level format, or if
you are having serious problems with the disk
Appendix C outlines the system diagnostic checks. If you are
having trouble with any part of the hardware, you may want to
run some of these.
Appendix D gives the computer’s technical specifications.
At the end of the manual, you’ll find a glossary and an index.
Where to Get Help
Customer support and service for Epson products are provided
by a network of authorized Epson dealers and Customer Care
Centers throughout the United States. Epson America provides
product information and support to its dealers and Customer
Care Centers.
Therefore, we ask that you contact the business where you
purchased your Epson product to request assistance. If the people
there do not have the answer to your question, they can obtain
it through our toll-free dealer support program. Epson is
confident that this policy will provide you with the assistance
you need.
Call the Epson Consumer Information Center at
(213) 782-2600 for the the location of your nearest Epson dealer
or the nearest Customer Care Center. To locate or purchase
accessories or supplies, contact your nearest Epson dealer.
Introduction 5
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
Setting up your Equity 386SX/20 PLUS personal computer is
easy. Just follow the eight steps in this chapter. As you set up
your computer, you may want to leave this manual’s back cover
foldout open so you can refer to the illustrations identifying the
different parts.
Note
The illustrations in this manual show the computer with a
51/4-inch diskette drive. If your system has a 3 i/z-inch diskette
drive instead, and you need additional instructions, see
Chapter 3.
1
Choosing a Location
Setting Up Your System
1-1
Before you set up your computer, it’s important to choose a safe,
convenient location that provides the following:
0 A large, sturdy surface. The desk or table should be strong
enough to support the weight of your system and all of its
components. Select a location that allows plenty of space so
you can work comfortably.
P A flat, hard surface. Soft surfaces like beds and carpeted
floors attract static electricity, which can erase data on your
disks and damage the computer’s circuitry. Soft surfaces also
prevent proper ventilation.
P Good air circulation. Air must be able to move freely under
the system and behind it. Leave several inches of space
around the computer.
P Moderate environmental conditions. Protect your computer
from extremes in temperature, humidity, dust, and smoke.
Avoid direct sunlight or any other source of heat. High
humidity also hinders operation, so select a cool, dry area.
P Appropriate power sources. To prevent static charges,
connect all your equipment to 120-volt grounded outlets.
You need one outlet for the computer, one for the monitor,
and additional outlets for a printer and any other
peripherals.
0 No electromagnetic interference. Locate your system away
from any electrical device, such as a telephone, which
generates an electromagnetic field.
1-2
Setting Up Your System
2
Removing the Protector Card
If you have a 5 l/+inch diskette drive, there is a protector card in
the diskette slot. This card is inserted at the factory to protect
the read/write heads in the drive. To remove it, flip the latch up
to pop the card out part way, then pull it out, as shown below.
(If you have a second Y/4-inch diskette drive, be sure to remove
the protector card from that drive as well.)
Save the protector card. If you transport your computer, you may
want to insert the card into your diskette drive prior to shipping.
This will protect the read/write heads during transportation.
Setting Up Your System
1-3
3
Connecting a Monitor
The procedure you use to connect your monitor to the computer
depends on the type of monitor you have. If you have a VGA
monitor (or a multi-frequency monitor with an analog
connector), you can connect it to the computer’s built-in VGA
port. See “Using the VGA Interface” below. If you have any
other type of monitor, see "Using a Display Adapter Card”
below.
Using the VGA Interface
Follow these steps to connect your VGA monitor to the VGA
port on the computer:
1. Make sure your monitor is turned off.
2. Place your monitor on top of or near the computer. For easy
access, turn the monitor and computer around so the backs
of both components are facing you.
3. If necessary, connect the monitor cable to the monitor.
(Your monitor may have a permanently attached cable.)
1-4
Setting Up Your System
4. Examine the connector end of the monitor cable, and
position the plug to match the orientation of the monitor
interface (marked with a monitor icon). Then insert the
plug into the port (the connector should fit in easily when
properly oriented), as shown below.
retaining screws
Caution
To avoid damaging the connector, take care not to bend
the pins when inserting the plug.
5. If the connector has retaining screws, tighten them by hand
or with a screwdriver, depending on the screw type.
Setting Up Your System
1-5
6. If necessary, plug the monitor power cord into the monitor’s
power inlet, as shown below.
. Q
I J,
II
I
-
7. Plug the other end of the power cord into an electrical
outlet.
1-6
Setting Up Your System
Using a Display Adapter Card
If you are using a non-VGA monitor, you’ll need to install a
display adapter (video) card in one of the computer’s option
slots before you can connect the monitor. (Your dealer may have
already installed the video card for you.)
If the video card has not yet been installed, you’ll need to follow
the instructions in Chapter 6 to install it. But first, check the
following table to make sure your display adapter card and
monitor are properly matched.
Monitor/video card compatibility
l
Monitor
Video card
Monochrome
Monochrome display adapter (MDA)
Multi-mode graphics adapter (MGA)
Enhanced graphics adapter (EGA)
Hercules® graphics card
Color or EGA
Color graphics adapter (CGA)
Multi-mode graphics adapter (MGA)
Enhanced graphics adapter (EGA)
CGA monitors do not support EGA modes.
When you are installing the video card, check to make sure any
switches or jumpers on the card are set properly. For example,
you may need to change a switch setting to select color or
monochrome. See the documentation that came with your
monitor or video card for instructions.
Setting Up Your System
1-7
Note
If you install an EGA or VGA display adapter card or if you
install another type of card that you want to be the primary
display adapter, you must set jumper J2 on the main system
board to disable the built-in VGA interface.
If you install one or more cards, you also may need to set
jumper J1 to tell the computer the type of monitor you are
using: monochrome or color. If you have two types of cards,
set the jumper to indicate which one is your primary monitor
type. See Chapter 6 for instructions on changing jumper
settings.
Once you have installed your video card, return to this section
to connect your monitor to the computer. If your monitor came
with its own manual, follow the instructions there. Otherwise,
you can follow the steps in ‘Using the VGA Interface” above;
just insert your monitor connector into the video card port
instead of the built-in VGA port.
4
Connecting a Printer or Other Device
Your computer has both parallel and serial interfaces. To
connect a printer or other peripheral device to one of these
interfaces, follow the instructions below. Of course, Epson offers
a full range of printers; ask your dealer for more information.
Using the Parallel Interface
The parallel interface on your computer is Centronics®
compatible and uses a DB-25S connector.
To connect your printer and computer, you need an IBM
compatible printer cable. If you are not sure which one you
need, check with your Epson dealer.
1-8
Setting Up Your System
Once you have the correct printer cable, follow these steps:
1. Place the printer next to the computer with the back panels
of both components facing you.
2. One end of the printer cable has a 25-pin, D-shell
connector. Position the plug to match the orientation of
the parallel interface (marked with a special icon). Then
insert the connector into the port, as shown below. If the
plug has retaining screws, tighten them by hand or with a
screwdriver, depending on the screw type.
!
i
retaining screws
Setting Up Your System
1-9
3. Connect the other end of the cable to the printer, as shown
below. TO secure the cable, squeeze the clips at each side of
the printer port and push them into place.
clips
4. Plug the printer’s power cord into a 120-volt, grounded
electrical outlet.
1-10
Setting Up Your System
Using the Serial Interface
If you have a printer, a modem, or other peripheral with a serial
interface, you can connect it to the serial (RS-232C) port on
the back of the computer.
The serial port uses a DB-9P connector, so be sure you have a
compatible cable. To connect a serial device, follow the same
steps as above for connecting a parallel device but insert the
connector into the serial port, marked with a special icon, as
shown below.
/
serial port
Note
You need to ensure that the serial port is set up so it functions
properly. If you are using the port for a serial printer, you need
to redirect printer output to the serial port instead of the
parallel port. To do this, you can use the MS-DOS MODE
or SETMODE command or the MENU utility. See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions.
Setting Up Your System
1-11
5
Connecting the Keyboard
Follow these steps to connect the keyboard:
1. Hold the keyboard cable connector so the arrow indicator
on the housing faces up. Insert the plug into the appropriate
socket, marked with a keyboard icon, as shown below.
’”
I
” w?r-T
,
’
keyboard connector
arrow indicator
Caution
Although the keyboard and mouse connectors are
physically identical, they cannot be used interchangeably.
Be sure to insert the keyboard plug into the keyboard
socket.
1-12
Setting Up Your System
2. You can raise the keyboard by adjusting the legs on the
bottom. To change the angle of the keyboard, turn it over
and flip each leg upward until it locks into place, as shown
below.
6
Connecting the Mouse
Your computer has an auxiliary port for an IBM PS/2 compatible
mouse that uses a miniature DIN (6-pin) connector. If you have
purchased a mouse with this type of connector (or adapter), you
can connect it to the built-in port on your computer.
If you purchased a mouse with a serial connector, you can
connect it to the built-in serial port on your computer.
If you have another kind of mouse that requires a different
interface port, you need to install an option card to provide the
interface.
To connect a mouse to the built-in mouse port, hold the mouse
plug so it is oriented properly with the computer socket. Insert
the plug into the appropriate socket, marked with a mouse icon,
as shown in the following illustration.
Setting Up Your System
1-13
/
mouse connector
Caution
Although the mouse and keyboard connectors are physically
identical, they cannot be used interchangeably. Be sure to
insert the mouse plug into the mouse port.
Once you have connected a mouse, you may need to add
commands to your MS-DOS CONFIG.SYS and
AUTOEXEC.BAT files to enable your computer to use a mouse.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual and the manual that came
with your mouse for instructions.
1-14
Setting Up Your System
7
Connecting the Power Cord
Follow these steps to connect the power cord:
1. Plug the power cord into the AC power inlet on the back
panel, as shown below.
WARNING
To avoid an electric shock, be sure to plug the cord into
the computer before plugging it into the wall socket.
2. Plug the other end of the power cord into a 120-volt,
grounded electrical outlet.
Setting Up Your System
1-15
Turning On the Computer
8
After you set up your system, you’re ready to turn on the power.
But first, read the following safety rules to avoid accidentally
damaging your computer or injuring yourself:
Do not unplug cables from the computer when the power is
on.
Never turn on the computer with a protector card in the
diskette drive.
Never turn off or reset your computer while a disk drive
light is on. This can destroy data stored on disk or make an
entire disk unusable.
Always wait at least five seconds after you turn off the power
before you turn it on again. Turning the power off and on
rapidly can damage the computer’s circuitry.
Do not leave a beverage on top of or next to your system or
any of its components. Spilled liquid can damage the
circuitry of your equipment.
Always turn off the power, disconnect the computer’s power
cord, and wait five seconds before you remove the cover.
Only remove the cover to access optional devices or change
jumper settings.
Follow these steps to turn on your system:
1. Make sure the power cord is plugged into the AC power
inlet on the back panel of the computer and into a 120-volt,
grounded electrical outlet.
2. Turn your computer around so the front panel faces you and
place your other system components in an arrangement that
suits you. (See step 1, “Choosing a Location,” for a typical
arrangement.)
1-16
Setting Up Your System
3. Turn on the monitor, printer, and any other peripheral
devices connected to the computer.
4. To turn on the computer, press the power button located on
the right side of the front panel, as shown below.
\ power
button
The power indicator below the button lights up. After a few
seconds, the computer starts to perform a diagnostic self test-a
series of checks it completes each time you turn it on to make
sure everything is working correctly.
Note
If you or your dealer have made a major change to your
system, such as adding a disk drive, you may need to wait as
long as five minutes for your computer to complete power-on
diagnostics the first time you turn it on. The more extensive
the changes are, the longer the diagnostics take.
Setting Up Your System
1-17
When the system has successfully completed its self test, you see
a prompt to insert a system diskette. (Do not insert a diskette at
this point.)
If necessary, use the controls on your monitor to adjust the
brightness and contrast until characters on the screen are clear
and at a comfortable level of intensity. If your monitor has
horizontal and vertical hold controls, you may need to use them
to stabilize the display.
Turning Off the Computer
When you are ready to turn off your system, reverse the
sequence of steps you followed to turn it on. Turn off the
computer first, then turn off the monitor and any peripherals.
Now go on to Chapter 2 and follow the instructions to run the
Setup program.
1-18
Setting Up Your System
Chapter 2
Running the Setup Program
The first time you use your Equity 386SX/20 PLUS, you need to
run the Setup program on the Reference diskette to define the
computer’s configuration. This is a simple procedure you must
do at least once. (You may need to do it again later, if you
change the configuration.)
The Setup program automatically configures parts of your system
and lets you set (or change) the following for your computer:
Display adapter type
Power-on password
Memory caching
Processor speed
Keyboard and speaker options
Real-time clock’s time and date
Hard disk drive configuration
Diskette drive type(s)
Serial and parallel port settings.
The configuration you define with the Setup program is stored
in the computer’s CMOS RAM, which is backed up by a
battery. Whenever you turn on the computer, it searches the
CMOS RAM for the correct installation information. If the
computer discovers a difference between the information in the
CMOS RAM and its actual configuration, it prompts you to run
the Setup program.
Running the Setup Program
2-1
Automatic Configuration
The Equity 386SX/20 PLUS automatically defines your system’s
memory configuration and recognizes a math coprocessor, if you
have installed one. It also detects and configures most of the
devices you have installed in your system. Therefore, you may
not need to change any default settings in the Setup program.
However, you should check each option on the Setup menu to
verify that the settings are correct for your configuration.
The computer automatically configures the 2MB of memory that
comes with your system as 640KB of base memory and 1280KB
of extended memory. If you install even more memory, Setup
configures it as extended memory also.
Starting the Setup Program
Follow these steps to start the Setup program:
1. Make sure your computer is turned off.
2. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A as shown in the
following illustration. Make sure the label is facing up and
the read/write slot is pointed toward the drive.
2-2
Running the Setup Program
Slide the diskette into the drive until it is in all the way.
Then turn the latch down to lock it in a vertical position.
(For more instructions on inserting and removing diskettes,
including 3 l/z-inch diskettes, see Chapter 3.)
3. Turn on your system. (Remember to turn on your monitor
and any peripherals before you turn on the computer.) The
screen displays the Operation Menu:
OPERATION MENU
1
2
3
4
- Setup
0
- Exit to DOS for more utilities
- Format hard disk
- System diagnostics
- Prepare hard disk for moving
If an error message appears when you turn on the computer,
see “continuing From an Error Message,,, below.
4. The Setup option is highlighted. To select it, press
Enter. The screen displays the main Setup menu:
Exit
Display
Password
Cache memory
Processor speed
Keyboard / Sound
Real-time clock
Hard disk drive
Diskette drive
Serial/Parallel
Running the Setup Program
2-3
Continuing From an Error Message
If your computer has never been set up, you may see an error
message and prompt(s), such as the following:
162 -
System options not set
(Run SETUP in REFERENCE DISK)
(Resume = "F1" key)
If you see an error message like this one, follow these steps:
1. Press F1. The computer beeps and the screen displays an
error message and prompt, such as the following:
Error(s) detected
+ Incorrect configuration
Set default value ? ( Y / N )
The error message beside the diamond indicates the
condition causing the error. There may be more than one
error listed in the message. Here are some of the error
messages you may see:
Time is invalid
HDD and/or HDC failed initialization
Memory size is incorrect, correction made
Cacheable range is adjusted
Incorrect configuration
Checksum is incorrect
HDD is incorrect
Some errors, such as Time is invalid, do not allow
you to set a default value, so the screen does not display the
Set default value prompt. If you see one of these
errors, press ESC; the screen displays the main Setup menu
so you can enter a new setting.
2-4
Running the Setup Program
2. Be sure Y is highlighted and press Enter. The Setup program
changes the setting that caused the error to a setting that is
more likely to match your configuration. The screen displays
the main Setup menu:
Exit
Display
Password
Cache memory
Processor speed
Keyboard / Sound
Real-time clock
Hard disk drive
Diskette drive
Serial/Parallel
You should check all the settings in the Setup program to
make sure they are correct for your system. The default value
for the setting that caused the error may not be the correct
one for your configuration.
Note
If you choose N or press ESC instead of selecting Y to set a
default value, the Setup program does not change the setting
that caused the error and the screen displays the main Setup
menu. Be sure to correct this setting before you exit Setup.
Moving the Cursor Block
Use -L and T to move the cursor block (the highlighted bar)
through the options on the main Setup menu. After you
highlight the option you want, press Enter to select it.
Running the Setup Program
2-5
Note
If the arrow keys on the numeric keypad do not appear to
work, num lock mode may be enabled (turned on). If the
Num Lock indicator in the upper right comer of the
keyboard is lit, press Num Lock once to turn it off and enable
the arrow keys on the numeric keypad. If you need to enter
numbers while using the Setup program and you want to use
the numeric keypad, press Num Lock to turn it back on.
Follow the instructions in the rest of this chapter to use the
Setup program to define your computer’s configuration.
Setting the Display Adapter Type
The Setup program can usually detect the exact type of display
adapter you are using with your computer. If you have connected
a VGA monitor to the built-in VGA port, Setup automatically
sets the display adapter type. (With this option you select the
type of display adapter you are using-not the type of monitor.)
If you have installed a display adapter card-or you just want to
check the display adapter setting-follow these steps.
Note
If you have installed an EGA or VGA display adapter card, or
another type of card that you want to be the primary display
adapter, you must set jumper J2 on the main system board to
disable the built-in VGA interface.
If you have installed one or more video cards, you also may
need to set jumper J1 to tell the computer the type of monitor
you are using: either monochrome or color. If you have two
types of cards, set the jumper to indicate which one is your
primary monitor type. See Chapter 6 for instructions on
changing jumper settings.
2-6
Running the Setup Program
1. At the main Setup menu, highlight Display. A submenu
appears identifying the current display adapter type, such as
the following:
VGA
If the display adapter type is correct for your system, you can
skip this section.
2. To change the display adapter setting, press Enter. The
cursor block moves into the submenu and you see an
additional menu on the right side:
CGA
40 column
CGA
80 column
Monochrome 80 column
EGA,MCGA,VGA or other
Remap VGABIOS at C000
3. Press Enter to move the cursor block into this submenu and
then use T or J to highlight the option that matches your
display adapter type. If you are not sure which one to
choose, follow these guidelines:
0 If you are using the built-in VGA adapter or have
installed a VGA, EGA, or MCGA card, select
EGA,MCGA,VGA or other.
Q If you have a color graphics adapter (CGA) or a multimode graphics adapter (MGA) attached to an RGB
(color) monitor, select CGA 80 column. (Also set
the color/mono switch on the MGA card to color.)
Running the Setup Program
2-7
0 If you have a composite color monitor, such as a color
television with a video input, try selecting CGA 80
Column. If the resulting resolution is poor, run Setup
again and select CGA 40 column.
0 If you have a monochrome display adapter (MDA), an
MGA, or a Hercules MGA attached to a monochrome
monitor, choose Monochrome 80 column.
(Also set the color/mono switch on the MGA card to
mono.)
D If you have any other combination of monitor and
display adapter card, select EGA, MCGA, VGA or
other. In addition, consult the documentation
supplied with your display adapter card.
0 If you are using IBM 3270 emulation software or
Banyan 386 network software, select Remap
VGABIOS at C000. To remap the VGA BIOS
back to E000, rerun Setup and select EGA, MCGA,
VGA or other.
Note
If you have two display adapters of different types, select
the setting for the one you want to be your primary
display adapter. The other one is your secondary adapter.
A message appears at power-on telling you whether you
are currently using your primary or secondary adapter.
4. After you highlight the appropriate display adapter type,
press Enter. The screen displays your new setting.
5. Highlight *** SAVE SETTING *** and press Enter
to return to the main Setup menu.
2-8
Running the Setup Program
Setting the Power-on Password
A power-on password is a feature that lets you control who can
access your system. However, you do not need to set a power-on
password to use your computer. If you do not want to set a
password, skip this section.
Once you set a power-on password, you must enter it at the key
prompt (WrrJ every time you turn on your computer or press
RESET. If you cannot enter it correctly, the computer does not
respond to your keyboard entries. Therefore, if you set a poweron password, be sure to remember it or write it down and keep it
in a safe place.
If you want to use your computer as a network server, you can
set your password to operate in network server mode. (See
“Using Your Computer as a Network Server” in Chapter 4 for
more information.)
Follow these steps to set a power-on password and turn on
network server mode (if necessary):
1. At the main Setup menu, highlight Password. This
submenu appears:
Power-on password
Network server mode OFF
2. Press Enter. The cursor block moves to P o w e r - o n
password.
3. Press Enter. The cursor block moves to an empty box:
El
Running the Setup Program
2-9
Note
If a password already exists, this message appears:
Power-on password already installed
The Setup program does not allow you to enter a new
password if you have already set one. However, you can
easily change or delete the current password if you know
it. See "Using a Power-on Password” in Chapter 3 for
instructions.
4. To enter a password, type any combination of characters
(including letters, numbers, and blank spaces) up to a total
of seven characters. You can use the backspace key to delete
mistakes.
Do not use characters requiring the Shift key, such as
@, $, or * in your password. The computer does not
recognize the Shift key when you use your password to
access the system.
Caution
Be sure to remember the password you enter or write it
down and keep it in a safe place. If you cannot remember
your password, you will not be able to access the
computer the next time you turn it on.
If you want to return to the password submenu without
saving any changes, press ESC.
5. After you enter a password, press Enter to return to the
password submenu.
6. If you want to change the network server mode setting,
highlight Network server mode. To turnnetwork
server mode on or off, press Enter.
2-10
Running the Setup Program
You must set a power-on password to turn on network server
mode. If you did not yet enter a password, this message
appears:
Set a power-on password first
To enter a password, highlight Power-on password
and follow steps 3 through 5 above.
7. After you enter a powere-on password and turn network
server mode on or off, highlight * * * * SAVE
SETTINGS **** and press Enter to return to the main
Setup menu.
Note
If you forget your password, there is a way to disable the
password function. See “Password Problems” in Appendix A
for instructions.
Setting the Memory Caching
Memory caching allows your system to work much faster. When
you cache memory, the computer copies information from
memory into a high-speed cache buffer. Your system can find
information more quickly in the cache buffer than when it looks
for it in the system memory. This greatly improves the speed at
which your system performs.
Note
Caching is active only when your computer is operating at
20 MHz (high) speed.
The Setup program allows you to enable or disable memory
caching. The default setting is enabled for all the memory
currently installed in your system.
Running the Setup Program
2-11
To check or change the memory cache setting, follow these
steps:
1. At the main Setup menu, highlight Cache memory.
The current status appears:
Cache is enabled
If your memory cache setting is correct, you can skip the rest
of this section.
2. To change the setting, press Enter. The cursor block moves
into the submenu.
3. Press Enter to change the Cache setting from enabled to
disabled, or vice versa.
4. Highlight * * * SAVE SETTING ** * and press Enter
to return to the Setup menu.
Setting the Processor Speed
Your computer’s processor can operate at two speeds: high or
low. High speed is 20 MHz and low speed simulates 8 MHz. The
processor is set to operate at high speed (where it can access
memory faster) unless you change it to low or set the speed to
change automatically (when necessary).
When the computer is running at high speed, the TURBO
indicator on the front panel is illuminated.
You should use high speed for almost everything you do since
your programs work faster on high speed. However, certain
application programs have specific timing requirements for
diskette access and can run only at a slower speed; check your
application program manual.
2-12
Running the Setup Program
When you set the processor to change speed automaticaly, the
computer switches to low whenever it needs to access a diskette
drive and runs at high for all other operations.
Note
You may not want to use the automatic setting for certain
copy-protected programs. See “Changing the Processor
Speed” in Chapter 4 for more information.
This section describes how to set the processor speed in the
Setup program. You can also change the speed using keyboard
commands or by running the ESPEED program. See “Changing
the Processor Speed” in Chapter 4 for more details.
Follow these steps to set your processor speed:
1. At the main Setup menu, highlight Processor
speed. The current status appears:
I Speed:
High
I
If the displayed setting is correct, skip this section.
2. To change the processor speed, press Enter. The cursor
moves into the submenu and you see another menu:
High
Automatic
Low
(High is 20 MHz, Low simulates 8 MHz, and
Automatic tells the computer to switch from high to
low when accessing a diskette drive.)
3. Press Enter to move the cursor block into the option menu.
Running the Setup Program
2-13
4. Use ?+ or A to highlight the speed you want and press Enter.
5. Highlight * * SAVE SETTING ** and press Enter
to return to the main Setup menu.
Setting the Keyboard and Speaker Options
The Keyboard/Sound option lets you control these three features
in your computer:
P Speaker
0 Initial num lock mode
0 Keyboard repeat rate.
Your computer has a built-in speaker that you can turn on or off.
When the speaker is enabled (on), it beeps when you perform
certain operations. Because the speaker serves a useful purpose
in many applications, the default setting is enabled; however,
you may prefer to disable it.
The initial num lock option in the Setup program determines
whether num lock is on or off when you turn on your computer.
When num lock mode is on, you can use the numeric keys on
the keypad to enter numbers.
If num lock mode is on, you can turn it off by pressing Num
Lock. The Num Lock light (on the keyboard) goes out and the
function is disabled until you turn the computer off or until you
press Num Lock again. The next time you turn on your
computer, num lock returns to the setting you selected in the
Setup program.
2-14
Running the Setup Program
Note
If you are using the keyboard that came with your computer
(or another IBM AT compatible keyboard), the default for
the initial num lock setting is ON. If you are using a keyboard
that has 83 or 84 keys, the initial num lock default setting is
OFF.
The keyboard repeat rate option lets you change the speed at
which your keyboard repeats a character when you hold down a
key. The default setting is Normal, but you can make the rate
faster or slower.
Follow these steps to check or change the speaker and keyboard
options:
1. At the main Setup menu, highlight Keyboard/Sound.
The current settings appear:
Speaker
Initial num lock
KB repeat rate
Enabled
ON
Normal
If the displayed settings are appropriate for you, skip this
section.
2. To change any of the settings, press Enter. The cursor block
moves into the submenu and the Speaker option is
highlighted.
3. To enable or disable the speaker (turn it on or off), press
Enter.
4. To turn the initial num lock setting on or off, highlight
Initial num lock and press Enter.
Running the Setup Program
2-15
5. TO change the keyboard repeat rate, highlight
KB repeat rate. YOU see the following option menu:
Slow
Normal
Fast
6. Press Enter to move the cursor block into the menu.
7. Use ? or 1 to highlight the speed you want and press Enter.
8. Highlight * * * SAVE SETTINGS * * * and press
Enter to return to the main Setup menu.
Setting the Real-time Clock
The real-time clock in your computer continously tracks the
time and date-even when the computer is turned off. The first
time you run Setup, use the Real-time clock option to
set the time and date for your computer. You may need to use
this option again later to adjust your clock for daylight savings
time. The computer automatically changes the date for leap
years.
Note
Another way to change the real-time clock’s time and date is
with the MS-DOS TIME and DATE commands. See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions.
2-16
Running the Setup Program
Follow these steps to set the real-time clock:
1. At the main menu, highlight Real-time clock. If
the time and date have been set previously, the current
settings appear:
Time
Date
09:16:52
01-29-1991
If the time and date are correct, you can skip the rest of this
section. If the time and date are incorrect, go to step 2
below.
If the time and date have never been set, the submenu
contains a template for you to fill in:
Time
Date
xx:xx:xx
xx-xx-xxxx
2. Press Enter to move the cursor block into the submenu.
3. To set or change the time, press Enter again. You see this
box:
hh:mm:ss
(hh stands for hours, mm stands for minutes, and s s
stands for seconds.)
4. Using a 24-hour clock, enter the time in the exact format
shown in the box. Type two digits for each part; the Setup
program automatically inserts the colons ( : ). For example,
to set the time to 130 p.m., you would type the following:
133000
Running the Setup Program
2-17
You can use the backspace key to make corrections. When
the time is correct, press Enter. If you enter an invalid
time-for example, a number greater than 23 for the hours
or greater than 59 for the minutes or second-the computer
ignores your entry. Try again.
5. To set or change the date, highlight Date and press
Enter. YOU see this box:
mm-dd-yyyy
(mm stands for month, dd stands for day, and yyyy stands
for year.)
6. Enter the date in the exact format shown in the box. Use
two digits for the month and day, and four digits for the
year; the Setup program automatically inserts the hyphens.
For example, to set the date for January 29, 1991, you would
type the following:
01291991
You can use the backspace key to make corrections. When
the date is correct, press Enter. If you enter an invalid
date-for example, a number greater than 12 for the month
or greater than the number of days in that month-the
computer ignores your entry. Try again.
7. Press ? once or twice to return to the main Setup menu.
Note
The Setup program automatically saves the time and date
when you press Enter after typing each one. If you then exit
the Setup program without saving your changes, the new time
and date still take effect.
2-18
Running the Setup Program
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Configuration
If your computer came with a factory-installed hard disk, your
hard disk configuration has already been set and you can skip
this section.
If you installed or removed a hard disk, follow these steps to set
the computer’s hard disk configuration:
1. At the main menu, highlight Hard disk drive.
Your current settings appear, such as the following:
Drive 1:
Drive 2:
Type
None
60
The Type number indicates the type of hard disk
installed in your computer. See your hard disk
documentation for the correct drive type number. (If that
documentation does not give the drive type number, it may
list the drive’s parameters which you can use to identify the
drive type number.) Then consult the Hard Disk Drive
Types table on page 2-23 for a list of the types you can use in
your computer.
The None after Drive 2 indicates that there is no
second hard disk.
If the displayed settings match your hard disk configuration,
skip the rest of this section.
If a setting is incorrect, or if you want to see more details
about your hard disk configuration, go to step 2.
Running the Setup Program
2-19
2. Press Enter. You see a menu such as the following:
(*::z,:q
Drive 1:
Type 60
Number of cylinders 776
Number of heads
8
Number of sectors 33
Precomp. cylinder
None
Landing zone
775
Total capacity (MB) 100.0
I
Drive 2:
None
Number of cylinders
Number of heads
Number of sectors
Precomp. cylinder
Landing zone
Total capacity (MB)
I
0
0
0
0
0
.0
The submenu lists the settings you can change for each
drive: the number of cylinders, the number of read/write
heads, the number of sectors, the precompensation cylinder,
and the landing zone (the cylinder on which you park the
heads when moving the computer). It also displays the total
storage capacity in megabytes.
3. If you want to change the settings for drive 1 (which is
drive C on most computers), press Enter to highlight
Drive 1:. If you want to change the settings for drive 2,
press Enter and then + to highlight Drive 2 : .
4. Press Enter again. You see this submenu:
None
Type 60
User defined
5. If you have disconnected the drive or if the drive does not
exist, highlight None and press Enter. All the drive
settings become 0. Go to step 8.
If your hard disk matches one of the drive types listed in the
Hard Disk Drive Types table, go to step 6.
2-20
Running the Setup Program
If your hard disk does not match one of the drive types listed
in the Hard Disk Drive Types table, go to step 7.
6. Highlight Type and press Enter. The current type number
appears:
I
Type 60
I
Now select the drive type number that matches your hard
disk configuration in the Hard Disk Drive Types table.
You can enter the drive type in one of two ways:
D You can type the drive type number and press Enter. The
screen displays the new number and settings.
0 You can use the cursor keys to scan through the drive
type numbers. This is a handy way to verify new hard
disk settings before you press Enter because the settings
list is updated as you display each new type.
After you select the appropriate drive type number, press
Enter. The screen displays the new number and hard disk
settings. Go to step 8.
7. If the configuration of the hard disk does not match one of
the drive types listed in the Hard Disk Drive Types table,
highlight User de fined and press Enter. You see the
following:
I
Number of cylinders
776 (
The same parameter is highlighted on the submenu above.
Enter the correct number of cylinders and press Enter.
Running the Setup Program
2-21
The information for Number of cylinders is
automatically updated on the submenu above and you see
the next parameter, Number of he ads. Enter the
correct number of read/write heads for the hard disk and
press Enter.
Follow this same procedure for each remaining item in the
settings list (the number of sectors, the precompensation
cylinder, and the landing zone).
If you enter a parameter incorrectly, press 7 or J to
highlight the parameter and then enter it again.
The Setup program does not allow you to enter the total
storage capacity; it calculates the storage capacity for you
based on what you enter for the number of cylinders, heads,
and sectors.
After you type the landing zone number and press Enter,
the cursor block returns to the Drive submenu heading.
8. If you want to change the hard disk type for another drive,
press + or c and return to step 4.
9. When the hard disk drive settings are correct, press ?+ to
move the cursor block into the top submenu. Highlight
** SAVE SETTINGS * * and press Enter to save your
hard disk drive configuration.
2-22
Running the Setup Program
Hard Disk Drive Types
The following table lists the types of hard disk drives you can use
in your computer. Check this table and the documentation
supplied with your hard disk to find the correct number for the
type of hard disk drive(s) installed in your computer. You need
to enter this number when you set the hard disk drive
configuration in the Setup program.
Hard disk drive types
Type no.
Type
Cylinders
Heads
Sectors
Precomp
landing
zone
MB
Drive name
No fixed disk
00
01
ST-506
306
4
17
128
305
102
(Used by ESDI)
02
ST-506
615
4
17
300
615
20.4
(1)
03
ST-506
615
6
17
300
615
30.6
04
05
ST-506
940
ST-506
940
8
6
17
17
940
940
62.4
46.8
06
ST-506
6l5
4
17
512
512
-
615
20.4
07
ST-506
462
8
17
30.7
ST-506
5
17
733
30.4
09
ST-506
733
900
256
-
511
08
15
17
-
901
112.1
17
-
820
20.4
10
ST-506
820
3
11
ST-506
855
5
855
35.5
12
ST-506
855
7
17
17
-
855
49.7
13
ST-506
306
8
17
319
14
ST-506
733
7
17
128
-
20.3
42.6
733
-reserved-
15
16
ST-506
612
4
17
0
663
20.3
17
ST-506
977
17
40.5
ST-506
977
17
300
-
977
18
5
7
977
56.8
19
ST-506
1024
7
17
512
1023
59.5
20
ST-506
733
5
17
300
732
21
ST-506
733
7
17
300
732
30.4
42.6
22
ST-506
733
30.4
25
306
4
17
17
17
300
0
305
-
733
ST-506
ST-506
ST-506
5
4
4
17
306
612
336
663
340
102
20.4
10.2
26
ST-506
612
4
17
-
670
20.4
27
ST-506
698
7
17
732
40.6
28
ST-506
976
5
17
300
488
977
40.5
29
ST-506
306
4
17
0
340
10.2
23
24
CDC 94205-51(2)
ToshibaMK-133FA
ToshibaMK-134FA
Running the Setup Program
2-23
Hard disk drive types (continued)
Cylinders
Type no.
30
31
ST-506
32
ST-506
ST-506
ectors
Precomp
611
17
732
1023
17
17
306
300
-
Heads
Landing
zone
MB
663
732
20.4
42.6
1023
42.5
Drive name
41
ESDI
1022
5
34
-
1022
84.8
none
CDC942l6-106(3)
42
ESDI
1022
5
36
-
1022
89.8
CDC942l6-106
43
ST-506
1024
8
17
1023
68.0
44
ESDI
828
10
828
137.5
(4)
Toshiba MK-156F
45
46
ST-506
1024
5
34
17
512
512
1023
ST-506
615
8
17
128
618
42.5
40.8
ST-506
820
6
17
-
820
40.8
Seagate ST251
47
48
49
ST-506
(5)
NEC D5147H
none
830
10
17
-
830
68.9
Toshiba MK56FB
17
-
1023
76.5
Seagate ST4096
34
-
828
96.2
Toshiba MK-154F
36
-
967
36
-
967
B5.0
119.0
CDC94166-101
CDC94166-141
967
153.0
CDC94166-182
50
ST-506
1024
9
51
ESDI
828
7
52
53
ESDI
ESDI
967
967
5
7
54
ESDI
967
9
36
-
55
ESDI
1022
7
34
-
1022
118.8
Micropolis1354A
56
ESDI
967
5
7
34
-
967
80.3
CDC 94166-101(3)
34
-
967
112.4
CDC 94166-141 (3)
967
144.5
CDC94166-182(3)
979
775
40.7
100
Conner CP-344
57
ESDI
967
58
ESDI
967
9
34
-
59
60
AT
AT
980
776
5
17
8
33
-
61
AT
745
4
28
62
63
AT
965
5
17
-
AT
965
10
17
-
Conner CP-3104
744
40.5
Mini8051A native mode
Auto
40
Quantum 4OAT(6)
Auto
80
Quantum pro 80AT(6)
64-255
none
Notes
1. Miniscribe 8425F, Seagate ST125
2. Conner CP-3044 or Miniscribe 8051A can be used as type 17
3. For Western Digital ESDI HDC or Drive Maker default setting
4. Micropolis 1325, Ataal 3085, Lanstor Lan64, Maxtor XT1O85, Newbury NDR1085
5. Micropolis1323A,Miniscribe3035,MkxusdenrzHH1050,SeagaleST4053
6. The landing zone value is 964
The factory-installed hard disk drive type for the Equity 386SX/2O PLUS is number 60(100MB).
2-24
l
Running the Setup Program
Setting the Diskette Drive Type(s)
Your Equity 386SX/20 PLUS probably came with one factoryinstalled diskette drive. If you added a second diskette drive or
removed one, you may need to change the diskette drive settings
to match your configuration. If you haven’t made any changes,
you can verify your drive type settings. Follow these steps:
1. At the main menu, highlight Diskette drive. The
current settings appear:
Drive A:
Drive B:
1.2 MB
None
If the diskette drive types on the screen match your diskette
drive configuration, you can skip the rest of this section.
2. To change a setting, press Enter. The cursor block moves
into the diskette drive submenu and you see the following:
Not installed
360 KB drive
720 KB drive (3.5")
1.2 MB drive
1.44 MB drive (3.5")
You also see the message Selected drive light
i s ON. This tells you that the light on the diskette drive
currently selected is on.
3. If you want to change the drive A settings, be sure
Drive A: is highlighted and press Enter. If you want to
change the drive B settings, highlight Drive B : and
press Enter. The cursor block moves into the submenu.
Running the Setup Program
2-25
4. Use J or T to highlight the correct capacity for your diskette
drive and press Enter. The screen displays the type you
selected.
If you want to enter the type for another diskette drive,
return to step 3.
5. When the diskette drive settings are correct, highlight
** SAVE SETTINGS ** and press Enter. The cursor
block returns to the main Setup menu and you see the
updated information for drives A and B.
Setting the Serial/Parallel Interfaces
The serial and parallel interfaces in your computer are set to act
as the primary ports. If you have not added an additional serial
or parallel port, you can skip this section.
If you install an option card with its own serial or parallel port,
you may want to designate the built-in port as secondary and the
additional port as primary. The Setup program lets you choose
which port is primary and which is secondary so there is no
conflict between the built-in port and the additional port. Here
are some guidelines:
If you install an option card with a port pre-set as primary by
the manufacturer, you must designate it as the primary port
and make the computer’s built-in port the secondary port.
If you install an option card or peripheral with a port that is
not pre-set, you can designate it as the primary or secondary
port.
If you install two option cards with ports, designate one as
the primary port and the other as the secondary port and
disable the built-in port.
2-26
Running the Setup Program
Follow these steps to change your built-in serial and parallel
interface settings:
1. At the main menu,highlight Serial/Parallel. The
current settings for each port appear:
Serial
Parallel
Primary
Primary
2. Press Enter to move the cursor block into the submenu. You
see this additional option menu:
Disabled
Primary
Secondary
3. If you want to change the serial port setting, be sure
Serial is highlighted and press Enter. If you want to
change the parallel port setting, highlight Parallel
and press Enter. The cursor block moves into the submenu.
4. Use J or ‘T to highlight the appropriate setting for the port
you selected and press Enter. The screen displays the new
setting.
Note
If you add an option card with a parallel or serial port and
highlight a setting that causes a conflict between your
built-in port and the port on the option card, you see this
message:
Conflict with option card
Highlight a setting that is appropriate for your system
configuration and press Enter.
Running the Setup Program
2-27
If you want to change the setting for the other port, return
to step 3.
5. When the serial and parallel port settings are correct,
highlight *** SAVE SETTINGS *** and press
Enter. The cursor block returns to the main Setup menu
and you see your updated serial and parallel interface
settings.
Reviewing Your Settings
When you finish using the Setup program to define your
computer’s configuration, use ? to highlight Exit at the main
Setup menu and press Enter. The following Setup summary
appears on the screen:
Cache
enabled
Memory
Base memory
Extended memory
640Kb
1280Kb
Password
Power-on password
Network server mode
not installed
OFF
Display type
Detected VGA
EGA,MCGA,
Processor speed
2-28
Running the Setup Program
High
VGA or other
There are two more Setup summary screens you need to check.
TO display the next screen, press PgDn. You see the following:
Real-time clock
13:40:38
01-29-1991
Time
Date
Coprocessor
not installed
Diskette drive
Drive A:
Drive B:
1.2 MB
None
Speaker
Initial num lock
Keyboard repeat rate
Enabled
Serial
Parallel
Primary
Primary
Normal
If you have never set the real-time clock, the entry at the top of
the screen flashes to remind you to set the time and date. See
“Setting the Real-time Clock,” above, for instructions.
To view the last Setup summary screen, press PgDn. You see
your hard disk drive configuration(s):
Hard disk drive
Drive 1:
Drive 2:
Type 60
Number of cylinders
Number of heads
Number of sectors
Precomp. cylinder
Landing zone
Total capacity (MB)
776
8
None
775
100.0
None
Number of cylinders
Number of heads
Number of sectors
Precomp. cylinder
Landing zone
Total capacity (MB)
0
0
0
0
0
.0
** EXIT AND SAVE **
Running the Setup Program
2-29
Check each Setup summary screen to see if all the information is
correct. YOU can press PgUp to display the previous screen or
PgDn to display the next screen. If anything is incorrect, be sure
Change settings is highlighted and then press Enter.
The main Setup menu appears and you can change the
appropriate settings.
Leaving the Setup Menu
If you did not change any settings or you want to cancel the
changes you made, highlight Exit without saving at
a Setup summary screen and press Enter. The Operation Menu
appears. (If you changed the time or date, the new setting takes
effect even if you exit the Setup program without saving your
changes.)
If you want to save the settings you entered, highlight
** EXIT AND SAVE * * and press Enter at a Setup
summary screen. The Setup program stores the new settings and
resets the computer using the new configuration. If you have set
a password, you need to enter it at the key prompt. (See “Using
a Power-on Password” in Chapter 3 for instructions.) The
Operation. Menu appears.
If you have just run Setup for the first time, remove the
Reference diskette from the drive and turn off your system. Then
follow the instructions in your MS-DOS Installation Guide to
install MS-DOS. (If you are using a different operating system,
follow the installation instructions in that manual.)
Once you have installed MS-DOS, you should always boot the
computer from the hard disk or the MS-DOS Startup diskette
when you are finished running Setup. First remove the
Reference diskette from drive A. If you do not have a hard disk,
insert the Startup diskette. Then reset your computer to make
sure it performs all the commands in the CONFIG.SYS and
AUTOEXEC.BAT files.
2-30
Running the Setup Program
If the computer displays an error message while it is starting up,
run the Setup program again and check the setting the error
message indicates. If the computer still displays an error message
after you check your Setup program settings, see Appendix A or
C, or ask your dealer for assistance.
Note
Be sure to make a backup copy of your Reference diskette
after you run the Setup program and install MS-DOS. See
your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on how to
copy diskettes.
Running the Setup Program
2-31
Chapter 3
Using Your Computer
This chapter briefly describes the following procedures for using
your computer:
0 Installing MS-DOS or another operating system
0 Copying the Reference diskette files
0 Using special keys on the keyboard
0 Stopping a command or program
0 Resetting the computer
0 Using a power-on password
0 Using disks and disk drives.
Installing MS-DOS or Another Operating System
After you connect the components of your system and run the
Setup program, you must install the operating system on your
computer. If you are installing MS-DOS, follow the instructions
in your MS-DOS Installation Guide. If you are installing
another operating system, see the manual that comes with it for
instructions. The instructions in this manual assume that you
are using MS-DOS with your computer.
Note
Be sure to make backup copies of your original operating
system diskettes.
Using Your Computer
3-1
Copying the Reference Diskette Files
If you have a hard disk, you’ll probably want to copy some of the
files on your Reference diskette to the hard disk. This allows you
to run the programs directly from your hard disk instead of
having to insert a diskette. Use the COPY command (described
in your MS-DOS Reference Manual) to copy the following files
from the Reference diskette to your hard disk:
AFDD.EXE
ESPEED.EXE
HDSIT.COM
HDSIT.VER
ROMBIOS.COM
The Reference diskette also contains files for the Setup program
and the System diagnostics program. However, you should
always run these programs from the Reference diskette in
drive A; so do not copy these files to your hard disk.
Note
Be sure to make backup copies of your Reference diskette. See
your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions.
3-2
Using Your Computer
Special Keys on the Keyboard
Certain keys on your keyboard serve special functions when
your computer is running MS-DOS or application programs.
The keyboard layout is shown below, and special keys are
described in the table.
function keys
A
1-v
main character keys
cursor
keys
numeric
keypad
Key functions
Key
HTab
+I
Purpose
Caps Lock
Changes the letter keys from lower- to
uppercase; changes back to lowercase when
pressed again. The numeric/symbol keys on
the top row of the keyboard and the symbol
keys in the main part of the keyboard are not
affected.
Shift
Produces uppercase characters or the top
symbols on the keys when used with the
main character keys. Produces lowercase
characters when the Caps Lock function is on.
Ctrl
Works with other keys to perform special
(control) functions, such as editing operations
in MS-DOS and various application programs.
Moves the cursor one tab to the right in normal
mode and one tab to the left in Shift mode.
Using Your Computer
3-3
Key functions (continued)
Key
Purpose
Alt
Works with other keys to enter alternate
character codes or functions.
t Backspace
Moves the cursor back one space, deleting
the character to the left of the cursor.
J Enter
Ends a line of keyboard input or executes a
command.
Insert (Ins)
Turns the Insert function on and off.
Delete (Del)
Deletes the character marked by the cursor.
Home, End
Page UP (PgUP)
Page Down (PgDn)
t+
Control cursor location.
Num Lock
Changes the function of the numeric/cursor
keys from entering numbers to positioning the
cursor; changes back when pressed again.
Esc
Cancels the current command line or
operation.
F1-F12
Perform special functions within application
programs.
Print Screen
(PrtSc)
Prints the screen display on a line printer.
SYS Rq (Req)
Generates the System Request function in
some application programs (used with Alt).
Scroll Lock
Controls scrolling in some applications.
Pause
Suspends the current operation.
Break
Terminates the current operation (when used
with Ctrl).
The Caps Lock, Num Lock, and Scroll Lock keys work as
toggles; press the key once to turn on a function and again to
turn it off. When the function is enabled, the corresponding
light in the upper right comer of the keyboard is on.
3-4
Using Your Computer
Stopping a Command or Program
You may sometimes need to stop a command or program while
it is running. Many programs provide a command you can use
to cancel or even undo an operation. If you have entered an
MS-DOS command that you want to stop, try one of the
following commands:
0 Hold down the Ctrl key and press C.
Q Hold down the Ctrl key and press Break.
These methods may also work in your application program.
If not, you may need to reset the computer as described below.
Caution
It is best not to turn off the computer to stop a program or
command. If you created new data and have not yet stored it,
the data will be erased if you turn off the computer. The
computer stores your data in its memory area (RAM) until
you save it; but the data is erased each time you turn off or
reset the computer.
Resetting the Computer
Occasionally, you may want to clear the computer’s current
settings or its memory without turning it off. You can do this by
resetting the computer.
For example, if an error occurs and the computer does not
respond to your keyboard entries, you can reset it to reload
MS-DOS and try again. However, resetting erases any data in
memory that you have not saved; so reset only if necessary.
Using Your Computer
3-5
Caution
Do not reset the computer as a means to exit a program.
Some programs classify and store new data when you exit a
program in the normal manner. If you reset the computer
without properly exiting a program, you may lose data.
To reset the computer, MS-DOS must be either on the hard disk
or on a diskette in drive A; so if you do not have a hard disk,
insert the MS-DOS Startup diskette in drive A.
There are two ways to reset the computer:
0 If you are using MS-DOS, hold down Ctrl and Alt and press
the Del key. The screen goes blank for a moment and then
the computer should reload MS-DOS. If it doesn’t, try the
next method.
0 Press the RESET button on the front panel. This method
works even when the computer does not respond to your
keyboard entries.
If resetting the computer does not correct the problem, you
probably need to turn it off and reboot it. Remove any
diskette(s) from the diskette drive(s). Turn off the computer
and wait five seconds. If you do not have a hard disk, insert the
MS-DOS Startup diskette in drive A. Then turn on the
computer.
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Using Your Computer
Using a Power-on Password
If you set a power-on password when you ran the Setup program,
you must enter it every time you turn on the computer or press
the RESET button. Follow these steps to use your password:
1. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your MS-DOS Startup
diskette in drive A.
2. Turn on the computer or press RESET. The screen displays
a key prompt:
3-ml
3. At the key prompt, type your power-on password. The key
turns when you type a character, but the screen does not
display the characters you type. Then press Enter.
After you type the password correctly and press Enter, a happy
face character appears. Then the computer loads MS-DOS.
Note
If you turned on network server mode when you ran the
Setup program, you need to use a different procedure to enter
your password. See "Using Your Computer as a Network
Server" in Chapter 4.
You have three chances to enter the correct password. If you do
not enter the correct password at the key prompt, another key
prompt appears. If you do not enter the correct password at the
second and third key prompts, the screen displays a zero, the
keyboard locks up, and you cannot use the computer. Press
RESET and try to enter the correct password again. (See
“Resetting the Computer,” above, for instructions.)
Using Your Computer
3-7
Note
If you do not know the correct password, see “Password
Problems” in Appendix A.
Changing a Power-on Password
To change your power-on password, follow these steps:
1. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your MS-DOS Startup
diskette in drive A.
2. Turn on the computer or press RESET. At the key prompt,
enter your current power-on password followed by a forward
slash (/). After the slash, enter the new password you want
to use. For example, if your current password is 123 and you
want to change it to ABC, type:
123/ABC
Do not use characters requiring the Shift key, such as
@, &or *, in your new password. The computer does not
recognize the Shift key when you use your password to
access the system.
The screen does not display what you type.
Caution
Be sure to remember the new power-on password you
enter or write it down and keep it in a safe place. If you
cannot remember the password you enter now, you will
not be able to access your computer the next time you
turn it on.
3. Press Enter. A happy face character appears and then the
computer loads MS-DOS.
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Using Your Computer
Next time you turn on the computer or press RESET, use the
new password.
Deleting a Power-on Password
To delete your power-on password, follow these steps:
1. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your MS-DOS Startup
diskette in drive A.
2. Turn on the computer or press RESET. At the key prompt,
enter your current password followed by a forward slash. For
example, if your password is 123, type:
123/
3. Press Enter. A happy face character appears and then the
computer loads MS-DOS.
The next time you turn on the computer or press RESET, it does
not request a password and loads MS-DOS immediately.
Note
You need to know the password in order to delete it using this
method. If you do not know the password, see “Password
Problems” in Appendix A.
Using Your Computer
3-9
Using Disks and Disk Drives
The disk drives in your computer allow you to store data on disk,
and then retrieve and use your stored data. This section explains
how disks work and tells you how to:
0 Use different types of diskettes and diskette drives
Q Care for your diskettes and diskette drives
D Write-protect diskettes
Cl Use a single diskette drive system
0 Insert and remove diskettes
0 Format diskettes
0 Make backup copies
0 Use a hard disk drive.
How Disks Store Data
Diskettes. are made of flexible plastic coated with magnetic
material. This plastic is enclosed in a square jacket that is either
slightly flexible (S+inch diskette) or hard (3l/z-inch diskette).
Unlike a diskette, a hard disk is rigid and fixed in place. It is
sealed in a protective case to keep it free of dust and dirt. A hard
disk stores data the same way that a diskette does, but it works
much faster and has a much larger storage capacity.
All disks are divided into data storage compartments by sides,
tracks, and sectors. Double-sided diskettes store data on both
sides. On each side are concentric rings, called tracks, on which
the computer stores your data.
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Using Your Computer
A disk is further divided by sectors, which are similar in shape to
pie slices. The figure below provides a simple representation of
tracks and sectors.
Double-sided, double-density diskettes have either 40 or 80
tracks on each side, and double-sided, high-density diskettes
have 80 tracks on each side. Diskettes can have 8,9,15, or 18
sectors per track.
A hard disk consists of two or more platters stacked on top of
one another and thus has four or more sides. In addition, a hard
disk has many more tracks per side than a diskette, but the
number of tracks depends on the capacity of the hard disk. The
number of sectors depends on the type of hard disk.
Using Your Computer
3-11
Your computer uses the read/write heads in a disk drive to store
and retrieve data on a disk. To write to a disk, the computer
spins it in the drive to position the disk so that the area where
the data is to be written is under the read/write head. A diskette
has an exposed area where the read/write head can access it.
Because data is stored magnetically, you can retrieve it, record
over it, and erase it-just as you play, record, and erase music on
a cassette tape.
Types of Diskette Drives
The following list describes the four types of diskette drives you
can use in your computer and which diskettes to use with them:
D
1.2MB drive-Use 5 ‘/d-inch, double-sided, high-density,
96 TPI (tracks per inch), 1.2MB diskettes. These diskettes
contain 80 tracks per side, 15 sectors per track, and hold up
to 1.2MB of information, which is approximately 500 pages
of text.
Note
MB stands for megabyte, which equals 1024KB (or
1,048,576 bytes). KB stands for kilobyte, which equals
1024 bytes. Each byte represents a single character, such
as A, $, or 3.
0
3-12
1.44MB drive-Use 3 ‘/z-inch, double-sided, high-density,
135 TPI, 1.44MB diskettes. These diskettes contain 80
tracks per side, 18 sectors per track, and hold up to 1.44MB
of information, which is approximately 600 pages of text.
Using Your Computer
cl 360KB drive-Use S1/+inch, doubleaided, double-density,
48 TPI, 360KB diskettes. (YOU can also use single-sided,
160KB or 180KB diskettes.) These diskettes contain 40
tracks per side and 8 or 9 sectors per track. With 8 sectors
per track, a diskette holds up to 320KB. With 9 sectors per
track, a diskette holds up to 360KB of information, which is
approximately 150 pages of text.
a
720KB drive-Use 3 1/z&ch, double-sided, double-density,
135 TPI, 720KB diskettes. These diskettes contain 80 tracks
per side, 9 sectors per track, and hold up to 720KB of
information, which is approximately 300 pages of text.
Note
You must format a new diskette before you can store data on
it. See “Formatting Diskettes,” later in this section.
Drive and diskette incompatibilities
If your computer has more than one type of diskette drive, or if
you use different types of diskettes, you need to be aware of
certain incompatibilities between the drives and diskettes.
Because of the type and size differences, you cannot use a
3$inch diskette in a 51/+inch drive or vice versa. There are
also limitations on using diskettes that are the same size as the
drive but have different capacities. The following tables
summarize the possibilities and limitations.
I
Drive type
Diskette types it can read from and write to
360KB
360KB, 320KB, 180KB, 160KB
1.2MB
I 1.2MB, 360KB*; 320KB*; 180KB*: 160KB*
I
* If you write to this diskette in a 1.2MB drive, you may not be able
to read it or write to it in a 360KB drive later.
Using Your Computer
3-13
3 ‘/shah
drive/diskette compatibility
Drive type
Diskette types it can read from and write to
720KB
720KB
1.44MB
1.44MB, 720KB
Because of these incompatibilities, always indicate the diskette
type and density when you label your diskettes. (Usually this
information appears on the manufacturer’s label.)
If you have any combination of the above drives (1.44 MB,
1.2MB, 720KB, or 360KB), you can copy files from one drive to
another-using COPY or XCOPY-as long as the correct
diskette type is in each drive. You can also use these commands
to copy files between a hard disk and any type of diskette.
However, you cannot use the MS-DOS DISKCOPY command
to copy from one diskette drive to another if the two drives are
not the same type. For more about copying files and diskettes,
see your MS-DOS Reference Manual.
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives
Follow these basic precautions to protect your diskettes and
avoid losing data:
0 If you have a diskette that contains data you don’t want to
accidentally write over or erase, be sure you write-protect it.
This is especially important for your operating system and
application program diskettes. See “Write-protecting
Diskettes,” below, for more details.
0 Do not remove a diskette from the diskette drive or reset or
turn off the computer while the drive light is on. This light
indicates that the computer is copying data to or from a
diskette. If you interrupt this process, you can destroy data.
a Remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
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Using Your Computer
Cl Keep diskettes away from dust and dirt. Small particles of
dust or dirt can scratch the magnetic surface, destroy data,
and ruin the read/write heads in a diskette drive.
Cl Never wipe, brush, or try to clean diskettes in any way.
0 Keep diskettes in a moderate environment. They work best
at normal room temperature and in normal humidity. Don’t
leave diskettes sitting in the sun, or in extreme cold or heat.
0 Keep diskettes away from magnetic fields. (Remember that
diskettes store information magnetically.) There are many
magnetic sources in your home or office, such as electrical
appliances, telephones, and loudspeakers.
0 Do not place diskettes on top of your monitor or near an
external hard disk drive.
Cl Always hold a 5’/+inch diskette by its protective jacket and
never touch the magnetic surface exposed by the read/write
slot. The oils on your fingertips can damage it.
0 Do not place anything on top of your diskettes, and be sure
they do not get bent.
0 Carefully label your diskettes and indicate the type and
density. Attach the label only along the top of a diskette
(next to the manufacturer’s label). Do not stick several
labels on top of one another; too many labels can make it
difficult to insert and remove the diskette in the drive.
0 Write on a diskette label before you attach it to the diskette.
If you need to write on a label that is already on the diskette,
use only a soft-tip pen-not a ballpoint pen or a pencil.
0 Store diskettes in their protective envelopes and in a proper
location, such as a diskette container. Do not store diskettes
flat or stack them on top of each other.
Using Your Computer
3-15
Write-protecting Diskettes
You can write-protect a diskette to prevent its data from being
altered. When a diskette is write-protected, you can read it and
copy data from it, but you cannot store new data on it or delete
any files it contains. If you try to change data stored on a writeprotected diskette, MS-DOS displays an error message.
To write-protect a 51/4-inch diskette, cover the small,
rectangular notch (shown below) with an adhesive write-protect
tab. Write-protect tabs usually are included in a new package of
blank 9/+inch diskettes.
write-protect notch
write-protect tab
To remove the write protection, peel off the write-protect tab.
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Using Your Computer
On a 3%~inch diskette, the write-protect device is a small
switch on the back of the diskette in the lower right comer,
shown below. TO write-protect a 31/z-inch diskette, slide the
switch toward the edge of the diskette until it clicks into
position, exposing a hole in the comer.
write-protect switch
To remove the write protection, slide the switch toward the
center of the diskette until it clicks into position and the hole is
covered.
Note
Some program diskettes have no notch or switch so they are
permanently write-protected. This protects them from being
accidentally erased or altered.
Using Your Computer
3-17
Using a Single Diskette Drive System
MS-DOS expects the computer to have at least two diskette
drives and displays prompts and messages accordingly. Usually,
MS-DOS recognizes the first diskette drive (the top drive) as A
and a second diskette drive as B. If you have only one diskette
drive, MS-DOS can treat it as both A and B when you need to
perform operations that normally require two diskette drives.
For example, if you enter a command to copy data from A to B,
MS-DOS copies the data from the first diskette you place in the
drive (which would be drive A) to the computer’s memory.
Then MS-DOS prompts you to insert another diskette (for drive
B) and copies the data from memory to the new diskette. When
copying is complete, you see a prompt to insert the original
diskette (A).
Because you may often swap diskettes this way, it is important to
remember which diskette is which. It is also a good idea to writeprotect your original diskette. See “Write-protecting Diskettes,”
above.
If you have a hard disk and one diskette drive, you can load the
operating system and application programs from the hard disk,
create and store your data there, and use the diskette drive just
for copying data to or from diskettes.
However, if you have only one diskette drive and no hard disk,
you need to use that drive to load the operating system as well as
any application program you are using. First, insert the operating
system diskette (the Startup diskette, for example) in drive A
and load the operating system; this copies it to the computer’s
memory (RAM) so you do not need to leave the system diskette
in the drive. Then remove the system diskette and insert your
application program diskette to load that data into memory, too.
See your application program manual for detailed instructions.
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Using Your Computer
You can load MS-DOS from an application program diskette
if that diskette contains the operating system. See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for information about creating a
system diskette.
Inserting and Removing Diskettes
If you have a Sl/+inch diskette drive, insert a diskette as follows:
hold the diskette with the label facing up and the read/write slot
leading into the drive, as shown below.
I
/
read/write
slot
Slide the diskette into the slot until it is in all the way. Then
turn the latch down to lock it in a vertical position. This keeps
the diskette in place and allows the read/write heads in the
diskette drive to access the diskette.
When you want to remove a diskette, first make sure the disk
drive light is off. Then flip up the latch and carefully pull out
the diskette. Place it in its protective envelope and store it in a
proper location, such as a diskette container.
Using Your Computer
3-19
If you have a 3 i/z-inch diskette drive, insert the diskette with
the label facing up and the metal shutter leading into the drive
as shown in the following illustration. Slide the diskette into the
drive until it clicks into place.
shutter
When you want to remove the diskette, make sure the drive
light is off; then press the release button. When the diskette
pops out, remove it and store it properly.
Caution
Never remove a diskette or reset or turn off the computer
while a diskette drive light is on. You could lose your data.
Also, be sure to remove all diskettes before you turn off the
computer.
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Using Your Computer
Formatting Diskettes
Before you can store data on a new diskette, you must format it
using the FORMAT command. Formatting prepares the diskette
so that MS-DOS can write data on it. You need to do this only
once, before you use the diskette for the first time.
You can also reformat previously used diskettes to store new
data. This process erases all the data on the diskette, so be sure
you do not want to save any of the files on a diskette before you
format it. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions
on using the FORMAT command.
Making Backup Copies
It is important to make copies of all your data and system
diskettes. Make backup (or working) copies of all diskettes that
contain programs, such as your MS-DOS diskettes and the
original Reference diskette that came with your computer. Then
use only the copies. Store the original diskettes in a safe place
away from your working diskettes. Also, copy your data diskettes
regularly, whenever you revise them (to keep them up-to-date)
and store them away from your originals.
If you have a hard disk, you’ll probably use it to store the
programs and data files you use regularly. Keep backup copies of
all your files on diskettes.
You can copy your data in several ways:
0 You can use the COPY or XCOPY command to copy
individual files or groups of files.
0 You can use the DISKCOPY command to make an exact
duplicate of a diskette.
Using Your Computer
3-2 I
0 You can use the BACKUP command to back up hard disk
files to diskettes. Because BACKUP can split large files
across two or more diskettes, it makes more efficient use of
diskette space than COPY or XCOPY.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on using
these commands.
Using a Hard Disk Drive
Using a hard disk is similar to using a diskette. However, the
hard disk provides several advantages:
0 A 40MB hard disk can store as much data as approximately
thirty-three 1.2MB diskettes or thirty 1.44MB diskettes,
and a 100MB hard disk can store as much data as
approximately eighty-two 1.2MB diskettes or seventy
1.44MB diskettes.
P Your computer can perform all disk-related operations faster.
0 You can store frequently used programs and data files on the
hard disk, eliminating the inconvenience of swapping
diskettes to access different files.
The added storage capacity makes it easy to move back and forth
between different programs and data files. However, because it is
so easy to add programs and files to your hard disk, you may find
yourself trying to organize hundreds of files.
MS-DOS lets you keep related files together in directories and
subdirectories so they are easy to find and use. See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on managing your
files and directories.
A hard disk must be partitioned and formatted before you can
use it. Be sure you have performed the procedures in your
MS-DOS Installation Guide to prepare your hard disk for use.
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Using Your Computer
Backing up the hard disk
While the hard disk is very reliable, it is essential to back up
your hard disk files to diskettes in case you lose some data
accidentally. Make copies of all your system and application
program diskettes before copying the programs to the hard disk.
After you create data files on the hard disk, be sure to copy them
to diskettes whenever you revise them to keep your backup
diskettes up-to-date.
Caring for your hard disk drive
Follow these precautions to protect your hard disk drive from
damage and to avoid losing data:
Never turn off or reset the computer when the hard disk
access light is on. This light indicates that the computer is
copying data to or from the hard disk. If you interrupt this
process, you can lose data.
Never attempt to open the hard disk drive. The disk itself is
enclosed in a sealed container to protect it from dust.
Before you move your computer even a short distance, you
may need to run the HDSIT program to prepare the hard
disk for moving, as described below.
Preparing the hard disk for moving
If you need to move your computer to a new location-whether
it is across the country or just across the room-you may want to
run the HDSIT program to protect the hard disk during the
move.
HDSIT moves the disk drive’s read/write heads to a region on
the disk surface that does not contain data, and locks them
securely in position. This protects the hard disk from being
damaged if the computer is bumped accidentally.
Using Your Computer
3-23
Many hard disk drives, including all Epson drives, automatically
park their heads when you turn off the computer. If your hard
disk drive does not do this, or if you are not sure that it does, be
sure to run HDSIT.
Follow these steps to run HDSIT:
1. Exit any program you are using and make sure the MS-DOS
command prompt appears on the screen.
2. If you copied HDSIT to your hard disk (as described at the
beginning of this chapter), log onto the directory of the hard
disk that contains the HDSIT files.
If you did not copy HDSIT to your hard disk, insert the
Reference diskette in drive A. Then type A: and press
Enter to log onto that drive.
3. Type the following and press Enter:
HDSIT
You see a message on the screen that tells you the disk drive’s
read/write heads will remain locked until you reset the computer
or turn the power off and on again The computer locks the
heads and disables the keyboard. Remove any diskettes and turn
off the computer. You are now ready to move it to the new
location.
Note
If your computer came with a 5*/4-inch diskette drive and you
still have the original diskette drive protector card, you may
want to insert it into the drive prior to shipping your
computer to protect the read/write heads.
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Using Your Computer
Chapter 4
Enhancing System Operations
This chapter tells you how to use the following procedures to
enhance the operation of your computer:
Using AUTOEXEC.BAT and other batch files
Changing the processor speed
Reassigning the diskette drives
Using your computer as a network server
Using expanded memory beyond 640KB
Using special VGA features.
Using AUTOEXEC.BAT and Other Batch Files
As you get used to using MS-DOS and your application
programs, you may find that there are commands you need to
run frequently. You can automate the execution of these
commands by listing them in a special file called a “batch” file.
When you type the name of the batch file and press Enter,
MS-DOS executes the commands in the file just as if you had
typed each command from the keyboard.
If you have a word processing program that can save a file as a
text-only file (sometimes called an ASCII file), you can use that
program to create a batch file. You can also use the MS-DOS
COPY or EDLIN command to create the file. See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on creating and
using batch files.
Enhancing System Operations
4-1
One batch file that you may find particularly useful is called
AUTOEXEC.BAT. Every time you turn on your computer,
MS-DOS looks for the AUTOEXEC.BAT file and
automatically executes each of the commands.
When you install MS-DOS, it automatically creates an
AUTOEXEC.BAT file for you. To create or modify the file, you
can use the same programs that you use to create any other
batch file (COPY, EDLIN, or a word processing program that
can save a file as a text-only file). However, be sure to name the
file AUTOEXEC.BAT and store it in the root directory of the
hard disk or diskette from which you load MS-DOS.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for more information
about your AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
Changing the Processor Speed
Your computer’s processor can operate at two speeds: high and
low. High speed is 20 MHz and low speed simulates an 8 MHz
processor speed. On high, the computer can access memory
faster than on low. Your processor is set to operate at high speed
unless you change the speed to low or set the speed to change
automatically.
Note
When your computer is operating at high speed, the TURBO
light on the front panel is illuminated. The TURBO light is
off when your computer is operating at low speed.
You should use high speed for almost everything you do since
your programs will work faster. However, certain application
programs have specific timing requirements for diskette access
and can run only at the slower speed. See the manual for your
program to determine if this is the case.
4-2
Enhancing System Operations
Some copy-protected programs require the computer to run at
low speed while accessing the program on a diskette. These
programs also usually require you to leave a key disk-the
diskette that contains the copy protection-in the diskette
drive. If you use a copy-protected program often, you may want
to set your processor speed to change automatically to low speed
when accessing the diskette and return to high speed when it is
finished.
There are different types of copy-protected programs. Depending
on the type you have, you may or may not want to set the
processor to automatic speed. Follow these guidelines:
LI If you are using a copy-protected program that can run only
on a diskette or that requires a key disk, try to load the
program on high speed. If this works, you do not need to set
the speed to change automatically. If you can’t load the
program on high, set the speed to change automatically.
LI If you are using a copy-protected program that does not
require a key disk but requires a special procedure to install
the program on a hard disk, set the speed to low while you
are installing the program. Once it is installed, set the speed
to high, where you should be able to leave it while you load
and run the program.
If this does not work, try installing and loading the program
at low speed and then change to high speed to run it. Do not
set the speed to change automatically.
There are three ways to change the processor speed:
Q Run the Setup program on your Reference diskette
CI Enter a keyboard command
0 Run the ESPEED program.
Enhancing System Operations
4-3
If you frequently use programs that require the processor to
operate at low speed or require the automatic speed change
when your computer is accessing a diskette, use Setup to change
the processor speed. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
If you use these programs only occasionally, you should use the
keyboard commands or the ESPEED program (described below)
to change the processor speed.
Entering Keyboard Commands
You can change the processor speed by entering one of the
following commands at the MS-DOS prompt:
Ctrl Alt +
Changes the speed to high (20 MHz).
Ctrl Alt -
Changes the speed to low (simulated 8 MHz).
Ctrl Alt *
Tells the computer to change to low speed when
it is accessing a diskette.
For the +, -, and l characters, press the keys on the numeric
keypad. The commands do not work if you use the characters on
the main keyboard.
Note
You can use the commands listed above while you are
running a program. However, if you are running a program
that uses one of the same commands for another function,
you cannot use that command to change the processor speed.
For example, if you are running a program that uses the
Ctrl Alt - command to move the cursor, you cannot enter
Ctrl Alt - to change the processor speed to low. When you
exit the program, you can enter these commands at the
MS-DOS prompt. Another alternative is to use the ESPEED
program, described below.
4-4
Enhancing System Operations
To enter these commands, hold down the Ctrl key and the
Alt key and press the +, -, or * key located on the numeric keypad.
The speed setting remains in effect until you press the RESET
button or turn off the computer, or until you change it again
using the Setup program, another keyboard command, or the
ESPEED program, described below.
Using the ESPEED Program
The ESPEED program allows you to change the processor speed
to high or low, or set the speed to change automatically. This
method is convenient if your application program does not
recognize the Ctrl keyboard commands or if you want to include
the program command in a batch file.
The ESPEED program is provided with your system on the
Reference diskette. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your
Reference diskette in drive A and log onto drive A before you
enter the command to start the program.
If you have a hard disk drive, copy the file ESPEED.EXE from
your Reference diskette onto your hard disk-if you have not
already done so-and run the program from there. (See
“Copying the Reference Diskette Files” in Chapter 3 for more
information.)
To run the ESPEED program, type the following at the
MS-DOS command prompt and press Enter:
ESPEED
You see the following message:
Usage: ESPEED [[/H][/L] [/All
set High speed (no auto)
/High
set Low speed (no auto)
/Low
set Auto speed
/Auto
Enhancing System Operations
4-5
The message tells you the switches you should use to set the
speed to high, low, or automatic speed. At the MS-DOS prompt,
type the ESPEED command again and include the appropriate
switch, such as the following:
ESPEED /A
This command sets the processor speed to change to low speed
automatically when the computer accesses a diskette.
If you include the switch when you type the initial ESPEED
command, the program changes the speed without displaying
the command options.
The processor speed you set remains in effect until you press the
RESET button or turn off the computer, or until you change it
using the Setup program, a keyboard command, or the ESPEED
program again.
Entering the ESPEED command in a batch file
You may want to run the ESPEED program by including the
command in a batch file. For example, if you have a program
called SAMPLE which requires an 8 MHz processor speed when
the program is running on a diskette, you could include the
following commands in a batch file to start the SAMPLE
program:
ESPEED /A
SAMPLE
You could name the batch file SAMP.BAT. Whenever you
need to run the SAMPLE program, insert the program diskette
into drive A. Then type SAMP and press Enter.
The computer changes the processor speed to automatic and
starts the SAMPLE program. When you access the program on
the diskette, the speed changes to low and then returns to high
when you are finished.
4-6
Enhancing System Operations
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on
creating and using batch files.
Reassigning the Diskette Drives
If your system has two diskette drives, they are connected inside
your computer so that the top drive is A and the bottom drive is
B. Because drive A is the “boot” drive, whenever you want to
load the operating system or a bootable program from a diskette,
you must insert the diskette into drive A.
If both of your drives are the same type-S/,-inch, 1.2MB
capacity, for example-you never need to reassign the drives. If
your two drives are different types, however, you may need to
change the drive letter assignments so you can boot the
computer from drive B. For example, you may have a 31/2-inch
program disk that you need to use to boot the computer. Or you
may have an application program that requires you to leave the
3’/2-inch key disk in drive A while you run the program.
For these situations, you can reverse the drive assignments to
make the top drive B and the bottom drive A. There are two
ways to do this:
0 Insert the diskette in the drive you want to boot from and
turn on the computer. The drive automatically becomes
drive A.
D Run the AFDD program to reassign the drive. See “Using
the AFDD Program,” below, for instructions.
Your assignments remain in effect until you press the RESET
button or turn off the computer, or until you reassign the drives
to their original letters. The reassignment remains in effect if
you reset the computer from your hard disk by pressing
Ctrl Alt Del.
Enhancing system Operations
4-7
Using the AFDD Program
The AFDD program reverses the current diskette drive
assignments and resets the system. When you are done using the
reversed drive assignments, you can use the AFDD program
again to reassign the drives to their original configuration.
The AFDD program is provided with your system on the
Reference diskette. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your
Reference diskette in drive A and log onto drive A before you
enter the command to start the program.
If you have a hard disk drive, copy the file AFDD.EXE from your
Reference diskette onto your hard disk (if you have not already
done so); then you can run the program from there. See
“Copying the Reference and Utility Files” in Chapter 3 for more
information.
To run the AFDD program, type the following at the MS-DOS
command prompt and press Enter:
AFDD
You see a message such as the following:
New Assign
Drive A:
Drive B:
1.44MB
1.2MB
Present
<=
<=
1.2MB
1.44MB
(S)et and Reboot, Any other key to
abort ? _
If you inserted the Reference diskette to run the AFDD program,
remove it now.
If you want to change the drive assignments, press S. The system
reboots and loads MS-DOS, and the new drive assignments take
effect. If you do not want to change the drive assignments, press
any other key.
4-8
Enhancing System Options
If you are running the AFDD program from a hard disk, you can
reassign the drives and reset the computer automatically. Type
the following command and press Enter:
AFDD /S
The /S switch tells the AFDD program to reset the computer,
load MS-DOS, and change the diskette drive assignments
without displaying the message.
Note
You may want to run the AFDD program by including the
command in a batch file. See your MS-DOS Reference
Manual for instructions on creating and using batch files.
Using Your Computer as a Network Server
If your computer is set up in a network, you may want to use
your system as the network server. A network server is the
master computer in a network and provides storage space for the
other computers connected to it. The network server can write
files to and read files from the other computers, making it the
most powerful computer in a network.
Even if no one is typing commands at the network server
keyboard, the server can process commands sent to it from other
computers. When your computer is operating in this special
situation, you may want to prevent unauthorized users from
entering commands at the network server keyboard. To provide
this security, you can enable a power-on password in network
server mode.
Enhancing System Options
4-9
When you enable a power-on password but do not use network
server mode, you enter the password before the computer loads
MS-DOS. Once you load MS-DOS, anyone can access your
system by typing commands on the keyboard. However, if you
enable a power-on password and turn on network server mode,
you can load MS-DOS before you enter the password. This
allows other computers in the network to access the system, but
prevents unauthorized users from entering commands at your
keyboard and using any network server access privileges.
When you boot the computer in network server mode, you do
not see the key prompt (h ) to tell you when to enter the
password (as you would if network server mode was turned off).
The password prompt is hidden to prevent unauthorized users
from knowing that a password is required.
You do not have to set a password or enable network server
mode to use your computer as a network sewer, but it prevents
unauthorized access to your computer when it is operating in
this special situation.
See “Setting the Power-on Password” in Chapter 2 for
instructions on how to set a power-on password and enable
network server mode.
Using a Password in Network Server Mode
When you turn on the computer or press RESET, the computer
loads MS-DOS and you see either the MS-DOS command
prompt or the first screen displayed by your networking software.
You do not see the key prompt (h) even though the
computer is now waiting for you to enter the correct password.
Follow these steps to enter your password:
1. Turn on your computer or press RESET.
2. Type your password and press Enter. The screen does not
display what you type.
4-10
Enhancing System Operations
Now you should be able to use your computer as desired. Press a
key such as Enter to see if the keyboard accepts your command.
If you entered an incorrect password, the computer does not
respond. Type the correct password, press Enter, and try using
the computer again.
Note
You cannot change or delete a power-on password and remain
in network server mode. You must run Setup on the
Reference diskette to turn off network server mode first. See
Chapter 2 for instructions. Then you can change or delete the
password by following the instructions in Chapter 3.
If you forget the power-on password, see “Password Problems”
in Appendix A.
Using Expanded Memory Beyond 640KB
The Equity 386SX/20 PLUS comes with 2MB of random access
memory. MS-DOS and your application programs that run
under MS-DOS use the first 640KB of memory. You can use the
unused memory above 640KB as extended memory, or you can
use it as expanded memory, as described below.
Expanded memory can be used by application programs (such as
Lotus® 1-2-3®) that support the Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded
Memory Specification (LIM 4.0 EMS). To take advantage of
expanded memory, you need to use a memory manager to
convert the computer’s extended memory to expanded memory.
If you selected a memory management software package when
you bought your Equity 386SX/20 PLUS, you can use the
memory manager with either version of MS-DOS. Just follow
the instructions included with the package.
Enhancing System Operations
4-11
If you are using version 4.01 of MS-DOS and you did not get
a memory manager, you can use the MS-DOS program
EMM386SYS to convert your extended memory to expanded
memory. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions
on using EMM386.SYS.
If you are using version 3.3 of MS-DOS and you did not get a
memory manager with your system, ask your Epson dealer which
expanded memory manager program you should use.
Using Special VGA Features
Your built-in VGA (video graphics array) display adapter
supports both standard VGA monitors and multi-frequency
monitors with analog connectors in non-interlaced mode. The
VGA adapter allows these monitors to operate in all standard
VGA modes without requiring any special device drivers.
However, if you want to use super VGA modes, you can install
one or more of the device drivers provided on the Utility
diskette that came with your system. These drivers allow you to
use all of the capabilities of your monitor and your built-in VGA
display adapter.
The device drivers provide VGA features such as these:
0
800 x 600 resolution in graphics modes with 16 colors
CI Resolutions up to 640 x 480 in graphics modes with 256
colors
P
4-12
132-column text mode in 16 colors.
Enhancing System Operations
Note
To use graphic display drivers in 800 x 600 resolution, you
must have a multi-frequency monitor capable of displaying
these resolutions. Standard VGA monitors are not able to
display them.
The VGA Utilities diskette that came with your system contains
device drivers for various application programs that require
them. The diskettes also provide the following special utilities:
INSTALL
The INSTALL utility automatically loads the
necessary drivers for the application, resolution,
and colors you select.
VGAMODE
The VGAMODE utility lets you switch
between the various VGA modes.
For more information about the VGA device drivers and the
utilities, see the VGA Utilities booklet that came with your
computer.
Your built-in VGA display adapter supports Edsun’s CEG
technology, which refines the jagged lines in the images on the
screen. When used with the appropriate application software
and device drivers, this technology gives you a clearer, more
accurate representation of graphics and text.
The CEG Utilities diskette that came with your system contains
the device drivers available for various application programs.
The drivers let you take advantage of the CEG technology for
specific programs. See your CEG Utilities booklet for details.
Enhancing System Operations
4-13
Chapter 5
Accessing Internal Components
Your computer is designed so you can easily install optional
equipment such as a disk drive, a math coprocessor, or an option
card. Chapters 6 and 7 describe how to install options in your
computer; but first you must open the computer to access the
internal components. Follow the instructions in this chapter
when you need to perform these steps:
0 Remove the computer’s cover
0 Remove the subassembly
Ll Replace the subassembly
0 Replace the cover.
Be sure to heed all the cautions and warnings so you do not
injure yourself or damage the computer. If you have any
reservations about performing these steps yourself, ask your
Epson dealer for assistance.
Note
You only remove the subassembly to access jumpers or the
math coprocessor socket or to install or remove a disk drive.
You do not need to remove the subassembly to install an
option card or memory modules.
Accessing Internal Components
5-1
Removing the Cover
Follow these steps to remove the cover from your computer:
1. Turn off the computer and then any peripheral devices
(including the monitor and printer).
2. If the monitor is on top of the computer, lift it off and set it
to one side.
3. Disconnect the computer’s power cable from the electrical
outlet and from the back panel. Then disconnect any
peripheral device cables that are connected to the computer,
including the keyboard cable.
4. Turn the computer around so the back panel is facing you.
As shown below, the cover is secured by a large screw. Turn
the screw counterclockwise to unlock the cover.
screw
5-2
Accessing Internal Components
Notice the icons under the screw:
unlocked
locked
screw
5. The cover is also secured by two latches on the back of the
cover near the comers. Press both latches inward and then
lift up the cover from the back panel. You might meet some
resistance from the grounding tabs along the inside of the
cover.
latches
6. Pull the cover away from the front of the computer to
completely remove it. Then set it aside.
Accessing Internal Components
5-3
7. Before you touch any of the components inside, touch the
inside of the computer’s back panel, as shown below to
ground yourself and avoid an electric shock and to avoid
damaging the components.
WARNING
Be sure to ground yourself to the inside back panel of the
computer every time you remove the cover. If you are not
properly grounded, you could generate an electric shock when
you touch a component.
5-4
Accessing Internal Components
Removing the Subassembly
In order to install disk drives or access the jumpers or math
coprocessor socket on your computer’s main system board, you
need to remove the subassembly. The subassembly is the large
metal casing that holds the horizontal drive bays and the power
supply, as shown below.
Follow these steps to remove the subassembly:
1. Turn the computer so the front panel is facing you.
Accessing Internal Components
5-5
2. Remove the front panel from the computer by lifting up
slightly on the three clips at the top of the panel and tilting
it toward you. Then set it aside.
clips
3. To lift the subassembly from the front of the computer,
place your thumbs under the diskette drive and grasp the top
edge of the computer with the rest of your fingers, as shown
below. Then lift up the subassembly with your thumbs.
5-6
Accessing Internal Components
4. Raise the front of the subassembly to a slight angle.
Use one of your hands to hold up the subassembly at an
angle or have someone hold it up for you. With your other
hand, reach under the subassembly and disconnect the hard
disk drive cable attached to the front right side of the main
system board, as shown below. Grasp the cable by its plastic
connector and pull it straight up to remove it from the
socket. Do not pull on the cable.
5. The diskette drive cable is connected to the socket just
behind the hard disk drive socket. Disconnect this cable in
the same manner.
Accessing Internal Components
5-7
6. Still holding up the subassembly, reach further back
underneath it and disconnect the two power supply cables
connected to the back right side of the main system board,
as shown below. Pull each of the connectors straight up. Do
not pull on the cables.
power supply cables
u-1
/T\\
L
7. Lift the entire subassembly out of the computer and carefully
place it on your work surface.
Replacing the Subassembly
Follow the steps below to replace the subassembly inside your
computer:
1. Notice that there are four mounting slots on the back of the
subassembly: two in the upper comers and two in the lower
comers.
5-8
Accessing Internal Components
There are four corresponding tabs on the inside back panel
of the computer; these tabs fit into the openings in the
subassembly slots.
tabs
Accessing Internal Components
5-9
2. Lift up the subassembly from your work surface and lower
the back end into the computer, fitting the top tabs in the
computer into the openings in the top dots on the
subassembly, as shown below.
tabs
The subassembly is actually resting on the top tabs.
3. Hold up the subassembly at an angle. Reach under it and
grasp the two main system board power supply cables leading
from the power supply. The cables are labelled P4 and P5.
5-10
Accessing Internal Components
Each connector has six pin holes and a large tab on one side,
as shown below.
large tabs
The one 12-pin power supply socket (shown below) on the
right side of the main system board (toward the back) holds
both of the power supply connectors.
power supply
sockets
Accessing Internal Components
5-11
4. Position power supply connector P4 so the large tab on the
connector faces the right side of the computer. Beginning
with the six pins toward the back of the computer, carefully
line up the large pin holes in the connector with the metal
pins in the socket. Make sure the holes fit over all six pins
and then push the connector onto the pins.
caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins in the
socket, you could severely damage your computer when
you push in the connector,
5. Connect power supply connector P5 to the remaining six
pins in the socket using the same procedure.
6. Still holding up the front of the subassembly, arrange the
ribbon cables leading from the back of the drives
underneath the subassembly. The hard disk drive cable may
be attached to the bottom of the subassembly.
5-12
Accessing Internal Components
7. Determine which cable is the hard disk drive cable and
which is the diskette drive cable.
Both the diskette drive and hard disk drive sockets on the
main system board have a notch on one side. The hard disk
drive socket is closest to the front of the main system board
and the diskette drive socket is behind it.
8. Connect the diskette drive cable first. As shown below,
there is a tab on one side of the connector.
diskette drive connector
diskette drive socket
notch
Align the connector with the socket so the tab on the
connector lines up with the notch in the socket. Make sure
the holes in the connector fit over all the pins in the socket
and then push in the connector.
Accessing Internal Components
5-13
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your computer when you push in
the connector.
9. NOW connect the hard disk drive cable in the same manner.
10. Carefully lower the front of the subassembly onto the
computer. Make sure that all four tabs on the back of the
computer are inserted into the slots on the subassembly as
you lower it.
11. Guide the tabs on the front of the subassembly over the
opening in the front of the computer so the two small tabs
sit behind the opening and the large tab with the curved lip
sits over the front of the opening. If necessary, press on the
large tab until the subassembly snaps into place.
12. To replace the front panel, fit the three ridged tabs on its
bottom edge into the three notches on the lower edge of the
computer, as shown below.
notches
tabs
Note
If you installed a diskette drive in the horizontal drive
bay, you need to remove the slot cover from the front
panel. Use a screwdriver to remove the two screws that
secure the slot cover to the panel. Store the screws and
the slot cover in a safe place.
If you removed a diskette drive from the horizontal drive
bay, you need to replace the slot cover in the front panel.
13. Tilt up the front panel until the clips on the top of the panel
touch the computer. Then push on the top of the panel
until it clicks into place. The diskette drive(s) should be
flush with the front panel.
Accessing Internal Components
5-15
Replacing the Cover
Follow these steps to replace the computer’s cover:
1. Facing the back of the computer, hold the cover so that the
side with three tabs on the edge points toward the front
panel, as shown below.
tabs
2. Insert the three tabs into the three notches in the back of
the front panel of the computer.
5-16
Accessing Internal Component
3. Lower the back of the cover onto the computer and press
down firmly on all edges to form a tight seal.
4. Turn the large screw on the back panel clockwise to secure
the cover to the computer.
5. Reconnect the computer to the monitor, printer, keyboard,
and any other peripheral devices you have.
6. Reconnect the power cable to the back of the computer and
to an electrical outlet.
Accessing Internal Components
5-17
Chapter 6
Installing and Removing Options
You can enhance the performance of your computer by adding a
variety of options, including the following:
CI Option cards
0 Memory modules
0 A math coprocessor.
An option card is a circuit board you install in your computer to
add a particular function. Most option cards contain a device,
such as a modem, or provide an interface, such as a connector to
which you connect a monitor. This chapter describes how to
install option cards and configure your computer for use with
them.
Memory modules-also called SIMMs (single inline memory
modules)-allow you to increase the amount of memory in your
computer. This chapter describes the types and amounts of
SIMMs you can use in your computer. If you want to install
memory modules, it is best to ask your dealer to do it for you.
You can, however, follow the instructions in this chapter to
install them yourself.
Note
It is best to add memory to your computer by installing
SIMMs rather than an optional memory card. Using memory
modules is more efficient because your computer can access
memory installed on memory modules faster than memory
installed on a card. Also, you do not need to use one of your
options slots.
If you do install a memory card, it will slow the performance
of your computer.
Installing and Removing Options
6-1
A math coprocessor speeds up the numeric calculations your
computer performs when using certain application software. If
you purchase a math coprocessor, it is a good idea to ask your
dealer to install it for you, because it can be damaged easily. If
you decide to install it yourself, follow the steps in this chapter.
This chapter also explains how to change the jumper settings
inside the computer. You need to change jumper settings if you
install certain types of options or want to change the way your
computer operates.
Before you can change jumper settings or install any of the
options mentioned above, you need to remove the cover from
the computer. You also need to remove the subassembly that
holds your disk drives inside the computer if you need to access
the jumpers or the math coprocessor socket. See Chapter 5 for
instructions. (You do not need to remove the subassembly to
install option cards or memory modules.)
Changing the Jumper Settings
If you change your computer’s configuration or need to alter the
way it operates, you may need to change a jumper setting inside
the computer.
A jumper is a small electrical connector that controls a
computer function. The jumper settings in your computer are
preset at the factory; however, you can control the features
described in the following table by changing the standard
settings.
6-2
Installing and Removing Options
System board jumper settings
Jumper
number
Jumper
setting
Function
J1
A’
B
Color monitor is installed
Monochrome monitor is installed
J2
A’
B
Enables the built-in VGA display adapter
Disables the built-in VGA display adapter so
you can use a display adapter on an option
card in your computer as your primary
adapter
J3
A’
B
Enables the power-on password
Disables the power-on password
l
Factory settings
The illustration below shows the locations of the jumpers on the
main system board.
- J1
-
SIMM sockets
J 3
J2
Installing and Removing Options
6-3
Moving a Jumper
A jumper’s setting is determined by where the jumper is placed
on the pins. The jumper either connects pin A and the middle
pin (position A) or connects pin B and the middle pin
(position B), as shown below. (The letters A and B are shown
here for position only. They do not appear on the jumper.)
&j$B
A
position A
position B
@B
@B
A
A
If you need to change any jumper settings, follow these steps:
1. If you have not already done so, remove the cover and the
subassembly from the computer. See Chapter 5 for
instructions.
2. To move a jumper from one position to the other, use
needle-nose pliers or tweezers to pull it off its pins and
gently move it to the desired position. Be careful not to lose
the jumper.
Caution
Take care not to bend the jumper pins or damage any
surrounding components on the main system board.
3. Follow the instructions in Chapter 5 to replace the
subassembly and the computer’s cover.
6-4
Installing and Removing Options
Installing an Option Card
Your computer has four standard option slots: three 16-bit slots
and one 8-bit access slot. Each slot can accommodate an option
card. You can buy option cards from authorized Epson dealers as
well as other vendors.
This section explains how to install option cards in your
computer. Later on, you may want to remove an option card.
If so, see “Removing an Option Card” later in this chapter for
instructions.
Note
After you install or remove an option card, see “Postinstallation Setup” at the end of this chapter to configure
your computer to operate with or without the option card.
The illustration below shows the four standard option slots
inside your computer.
slot 1
slot 2
I
k
r:iY,”
Ill
4.
i i
: :
: -5
: :
::
: :
:*
: I
I
-I
-
Installing and Removing Options
6-5
Slot 1 is designed for an 8-bit option card and slots 2 through 4
are designed for 16-bit cards. As you can see below, a 16-bit card
has an extra connector along the bottom.
16-bit option card
&bit option card
Usually it does not matter which slot an option card occupies as
long as the card fits in the slot. For example, you can place some
8-bit cards in a 16-bit slot. However, you must follow these
guidelines when deciding which slot to use:
0 An 8-bit card with an additional tab along the bottom must
go into an 8-bit slot.
D If you install a disk drive that uses a controller card, place
the card as close as possible to the drive it is controlling.
0 Some option cards must be installed in a specific slot.
Consult the instructions that come with the card to see if
this is the case.
Follow these steps to install an option card:
1. If you have not already done so, remove the cover from the
computer. (See Chapter 5 for instructions.)
WARNING
After you remove the cover, touch the inside back panel
of the computer to ground yourself and avoid an electric
shock.
6-6
Installing and Removing Options
2. You do not need to remove the subassembly to install an
option card. If you install a display adapter card, you may
need to change the settings of jumpers J1 and J2. If this is
the case, see page 6-2 for instructions.
3. Remove the retaining screw from the top of the metal
option slot cover; hold on to the screw as you remove it so it
doesn’t fall into the computer. Lift out the slot cover.
Keep the screw to secure the option card to the computer.
Store the slot cover in a safe place in case you remove the
option card later.
4. Unpack the option card and adjust any switches or jumpers
on it, if necessary. (Check the option card instructions.)
When you handle the card, be careful not to touch any of
the components on the circuit board, especially the goldedged connector pins. If you need to set it down before you
install it, place it gently on top of its original packing
material with the component side facing up. Keep the
packing materials in case you remove the card later.
Installing and Removing Options
6-7
5. Grip the card firmly by the top corners and position it at the
top of the slot, as shown below. Make sure the connector
pins point down and the component side faces the power
supply inside the computer.
power Supply
6. Insert the card into the slot, guiding it straight down. Once
the connector pins reach the connector slot, push the card
downward firmly (but carefully) to insert it fully. You should
feel the card fit into place.
If the card does not go in smoothly, do not force it; pull it all
the way out and try again, keeping it straight as you insert it.
Examine the card to verify that it is fully seated in the slot
along the length of the connector.
6-8
Installing and Removing Options
7. Secure the end of the card to the back of the computer with
the retaining screw.
8. Follow the instructions in Chapter 5 to replace the cover.
9. See “Post-installation Setup” at the end of this chapter to
configure your computer to operate with the option card.
Removing an Option Card
If you need to remove an option card, follow these steps:
1. First, remove the cover from the computer. See Chapter 5
for instructions.
2. Remove the screw securing the card to the back of the
computer and pull it straight up and out of the slot. Either
set the card aside by placing it gently on a soft surface with
the component side facing up or carefully wrap the card,
preferably with the original packing materials, and place it
inside its box for safe storage.
3. Cover the end of the empty option slot with the original
metal cover and secure it with the retaining screw.
Installing and Removing Options
6-9
4.
If you are removing a display adapter card, you may need to
change the settings of jumpers J1 and J2. See page 6-2 for
instructions.
5. Replace the cover. See Chapter 5 for instructions.
6. See “Post-installation Setup” at the end of this chapter to
configure your computer to operate without the option card.
Adding Memory Modules
Your computer comes with 2MB of memory. By installing
SIMMs (single inline memory modules) on the main system
board, you can increase the amount of on-board memory in your
computer up to 14MB.
Caution
It is best to have your dealer install memory modules for you
because they can be damaged easily if installed incorrectly.
If you prefer, you can install your own SIMMs by carefully
following the instructions in this section. However, you could
transmit an electrostatic discharge and damage your
components; so read this entire section before you begin.
Before you install SIMMs, check the following guidelines to
ensure that they will work properly:
0 Use fast-page mode SIMMs that operate at 80ns
(nanosecond) access speed (or faster). Be sure all the
SIMMs have the same access speed.
0 Use the correct SIMM configuration to add the amount of
memory you want. See “Installing Memory Modules” on the
next page.
Once you have the SIMMs you need, you or your dealer can
install them in your computer. If you are going to install them
yourself, follow the instructions below.
6-10
Installing and Removing Options
Installing Memory Modules
There are six SIMM sockets on the main system board organized
in three banks consisting of two sockets each. Each socket can
contain one SIMM.
You must fill the sockets in any bank you use with the same type
of SIMM. The type of SIMMs you can install are 256KB, 1MB,
or 4MB.
You can install SIMMs for a total of 12MB of additional
memory, which brings your system total to 14MB of on-board
memory. To install the maximum amount of on-board memory,
you would install the following SIMMs in the three banks:
Bank 0
Bank 1
Bank 2
A
4MB 4MB
A
1MB 1MB
A
1MB 1MB
The following is another example of an additional memory
configuration:
Bank 0
Bank 1
Bank 2
A
1MB 1MB
A
256KB 256KB
A
1MB 1MB
This configuration adds 4MB plus 512KB for a total 6MB plus
512KB of on-board memory.
Note
When installing SIMMs, the only constraint is that you must
install the same type of SIMM in both slots of a bank.
Installing and Removing Options
6-11
Follow these steps to install the memory modules:
1. Remove the computer’s cover. See Chapter 5 for
instructions. (YOU do not need to remove the subassembly.)
2. Turn the computer so that the back panel faces your left and
the front panel faces your right. The SIMM sockets are
located on the main system board just above the option
slots, as shown below.
SIMM sockets
option slots
6-12
Installing and Renaming Options
The sockets are labelled as shown below.
nl
U16 U17 U20 U21
bank 0
bank 1
U24 U25
bank 2
3. If an option card is blocking access to the SIMM sockets,
follow the steps on page 6-9 to remove the card(s).
4. Hold the SIMM so the component side is facing to the left
and the metal connector pins are facing down.
components
connector pins
Installing and Removing Options
6-13
5. TO insert the SIMM in the socket, place it on the right side
of the tabs at an angle, as show below.
6. Gently push down on the SIMM and, at the same time, turn
the top of the SIMM to the left until it is vertical and snaps
into place between the tabs and the retaining posts.
SIMM
6-14
Installing and Removing Options
tab
If the SIMM does not go in smoothly, do not force it; pull it
all the way out and try again.
Make sure the SIMM is fully inserted into the socket and
that the pins on the retaining posts protrude through the
holes in both ends.
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for each SIMM you want to install.
8. Replace any option card(s) you may have removed to access
the SIMM sockets. See “Installing an Option Card” on page
6-5 for instructions.
9. Follow the instructions in Chapter 5 to replace the
computer’s cover.
10. See “Post-installation Setup” at the end of this chapter for
instructions on configuring your computer for use with your
new memory.
Removing Memory Modules
If you need to remove memory modules from your computer,
have your dealer do it for you or follow the steps below. If you
remove them yourself, remember that you must remove both
SIMMs from a bank.
Caution
It is safer to have your dealer remove SIMMs for you because
there is a danger of transmitting an electrostatic discharge
and damaging your components.
1. Remove the cover. See Chapter 5 for instructions.
Installing and Removing Options
6-15
3. If an option card is blocking access to the SIMM sockets,
follow the steps on page 6-9 to remove it.
4. Use your fingers or two small screwdrivers to pull away the
tabs that secure the SIMM at each end. Be careful not to
pull the tabs too far, or they may break.
tab
Installing and Removing Options
6-17
As you pull away the tabs, the SIMM falls to the right at an
angle.
When the SIMM is at an angle, release the tabs and
carefully remove it from the socket.
5. Repeat step 4 for each SIMM you need to remove.
6. Replace any option card(s) you may have removed to access
the SIMM sockets. See “Installing an Option Card” on page
6-5 for instructions.
7. Follow the instructions in Chapter 5 to replace the
computer’s cover.
8. See “Post-installation Setup” at the end of this chapter for
instructions on configuring your computer for use with your
decreased memory.
6-18
Installing and Removing Options
Installing a Math Coprocessor
Your computer has a socket on the main system board to
accommodate an Intel 80387SX (20MHz) math coprocessor.
A math coprocessor speeds up the numeric calculations your
computer performs when using certain application software. It
also increases the speed at which graphic images are displayed
on your monitor when you use graphics-oriented software.
It is best to have your dealer install a math coprocessor for you;
it is a delicate component that can be damaged easily if it is
installed incorrectly.
If you install it yourself, be sure to read the manual that came
with your math coprocessor, if you received one. Then follow
the steps in this section to install it in your computer. However,
be sure to read all of the warnings and instructions carefully so
you do not injure yourself or damage the coprocessor or your
computer.
Caution
To avoid generating static electricity and damaging your
math coprocessor, remain stationary as you install it.
Installing and Removing Options
6-19
The math coprocessor socket is located on the front right side of
the main system board, as shown below.
math coprocessor socket
II
II
II
El
cl
II
I
front
Carefully follow these steps to install an Intel 80387SX math
coprocessor:
1. Remove the math coprocessor from its package and set it
aside.
2. Remove the computer’s cover and the subassembly. See
Chapter 5 for instructions.
6-20
Installing and Removing Options
3. The math coprocessor socket is hollow and square. The
upper right comer of the socket is notched, as shown below.
notched corner
There is also a notched comer on the math coprocessor, as
shown below.
notched corner
Align the notched comer of the coprocessor with the
notched comer of its socket. The notched comers must be
aligned for the coprocessor to fit into the socket, so be sure
the alignment is correct before you proceed to the next step.
Caution
If you insert the math coprocessor in the wrong position,
you could permanently damage it.
Installing and Removing Options
6-21
4. Gently push the coprocessor into the socket, pressing evenly
on all sides of the coprocessor. If the coprocessor does not go
in smoothly, do not force it; pull it all the way out and try
again, keeping it straight as you insert it.
Examine the coprocessor to be sure it is inserted all the way
into the socket.
5. Follow the instructions in Chapter 5 to replace the
computer’s subassembly and cover.
6. See “Post-installation Setup” at the end of this chapter for
instructions on configuring your computer for use with your
math coprocessor.
Removing a Math Coprocessor
If you need to remove a math coprocessor from your computer,
contact your dealer for assistance. You need a special extracting
tool to remove the coprocessor without damaging it. Do not
attempt to remove it without this tool because you can easily
damage it.
After you remove the coprocessor, run the Setup program on
your Reference diskette to configure your system for use without
it. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
6-22
Installing and Removing Options
Post-installation Setup
After you install or remove a math coprocessor or memory
modules, you need to run the Setup program on your Reference
diskette to automatically update the computer’s configuration
information. If you install or remove any other type of option,
such as an option card or a disk drive, you must run Setup to
update your settings. For example, if you add a hard disk drive,
you need to let the computer know the type of drive you have
installed. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
Note
If you installed additional extended memory and want to use
any of it as expanded memory, see "Using Expanded Memory
Beyond 640KB” in Chapter 4 for more information.
If you install a hard disk drive that has never received a
hardware level format (such as some non-Epson hard disk
drives), you need to format the disk. Check the manual that
came with your drive, and then, if necessary, follow the
instructions in Appendix B to format your new hard disk.
If you have added a hard disk drive and you want to load
MS-DOS or another operating system from that drive, you need
to install the operating system on it. See your MS-DOS
Installation Guide or the documentation that came with your
operating system for instructions.
If you install a memory option card, use the setup program that
came with it to configure the computer for use with the card.
See your memory card manual for instructions.
Additionally, you may need to add some commands in your
configuration files. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual and
the manual that comes with your option card for instructions.
Installing and Removing Options
6-23
You may also want to test a newly-installed option. Some
options come with their own diagnostics test programs, and you
can test others with the diagnostics programs on your Reference
diskette. You can use the System diagnostics program on your
Reference diskette to test the following:
0 System memory
D Math coprocessor
0 Serial and parallel ports
tl Disk drives
P Monitors and display adapters
0 Dot-matrix printers.
See Appendix C for instructions.
6-24
Installing and Removing Options
Chapter 7
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
This chapter describes how to do the following:
0 Install a hard disk or diskette drive
0 Remove a hard disk or diskette drive
0 Change the hard disk drive jumper settings.
Your system can include up to three drives: either two diskette
drives and one hard disk drive or one diskette drive and two
hard disk drives. Your computer has two horizontal drive bays
and one vertical mounting position to hold the drives, as shown
below.
hard disk
drive
r
vertical
\ mounting area
IL
diskette drive
(horizontal driv
diskette or hard disk drive
(horizontal drive bay)
Installing and Removing Disk Dives
7-1
Caution
Installing or removing a disk drive is a complicated
procedure, so you may want to ask your dealer to do it for you.
If you decide to do it yourself, you must carefully follow all
the instructions in this chapter or you could damage your
equipment.
Using the Correct Drive Bay
The upper horizontal drive bay probably contains the diskette
drive that came with your system. That drive can be one of the
following types:
0 5 ‘I,-inch diskette drive
0 3 ‘/z-inch diskette drive with a 5 ‘/*inch mounting frame
installed on it.
You can install an additional drive of one of the following types
in the lower horizontal drive bay:
0 5 l/+inch diskette drive
0 3 l/z-inch diskette drive with a 5 ‘/d-inch mounting frame
installed on it
0 3 l/z-inch hard disk drive with a pair of 5 +inch mounting
frames installed on it.
Your computer may have come with a hard disk drive already
installed in the vertical mounting position. If not, you can
install one 3 l/z-inch hard disk drive in this position.
If you are installing your first hard disk drive, it is best to install
it in the vertical mounting position. If you add a second hard
disk drive or diskette drive, use the lower horizontal drive bay.
7-2
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
How to Use This Chapter
The instructions in this chapter describe how to install and
remove optional Epson diskette and hard disk drives. All drives
sold by Epson for the Equity 386SX/20 PLUS are qualified and
recommended for use in this system. Your drive may look a bit
different from the one illustrated here, but you install it the
same way.
If you are installing or removing a non-Epson drive, some of
the steps may not apply to your drive; see the documentation
that came with the drive for more information.
Each section in this chapter describes a part of the process you
may need to perform. Here are the guidelines:
Q Before you perform any of the procedures described here,
follow the steps in Chapter 5 to remove the computer’s
cover and the subassembly.
0 If you are installing a hard disk drive or removing one and
leaving another in the computer, follow the steps under
“Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers” on page 7-4.
0 If you are removing your only hard disk drive, see
“Removing a Hard Disk from the Vertical Position” on
page 7-21.
0 If you are installing or removing a diskette drive and you
currently have a hard disk drive installed in the vertical
mounting position, see “Removing a Hard Disk from the
Vertical Position” on page 7-21.
0 If you are installing or removing a diskette drive and you do
not have a hard disk drive installed in the vertical mounting
position, see “Installing or Removing a Disk Drive in the
Horizontal Position” on page 7-23.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-3
0 When you have finished accessing your drives, see the
instructions in Chapter 5 to replace the subassembly and the
computer’s cover.
Additional instructions in each section tell you which steps to
perform next.
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers
You need to check or change the hard disk drive jumper settings
if you install or remove any hard disk drives. The jumpers on the
drive tell the computer whether you are using one hard disk
drive or two.
Note
You do not need to set these jumpers if you are removing your
only hard disk drive.
If you remove one hard disk drive and leave another in your
computer, you need to change the jumper settings on the
remaining drive to indicate that you now have only one hard
disk drive installed.
If you are installing your first hard disk drive and it is the only
one you are going to install, see “Changing the Jumper Settings”
on the next page to check the jumpers on your drive.
If you’ll be using two hard disk drives, see “Setting the Jumpers
for Two Hard Disk Drives,” below.
Setting the Jumpers for Two Hard Disk Drives
If you install two hard disk drives in your system, you must
change the jumper settings on each drive to indicate which
drive is the umastern drive and which is the "slaven drive.
7-4
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
A master drive is the drive on which you’ll install the operating
system that the computer loads into its memory each time you
turn it on. You can run application programs and store data on
both the master drive and the slave drive, but the master drive
must contain the operating system.
Follow the instructions in the next section to change the jumper
settings on both of your hard disk drives.
Changing the Jumper Settings
The hard disk drive jumpers are located on the drive’s circuit
board, near the large cable connector.
ACT
large cable
connector
The jumpers on your drive may be in a slightly different
location, but you set them the same way.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-5
The following table lists the jumper settings for all the possible
hard disk drive configurations.
Hard disk drive jumper settings
Drive configurations
One hard
disk drive
Two hard disk
drives: master
Two hard disk
drives: slave
-
-
-
C/D
X
X
-
DSP
-
X
-
ACT
X
X
X
X = jumper installed
- = no jumper installed
To move a jumper from one position to the other, use your
fingers, needle-nose pliers, or tweezers to pull it off its pins and
gently move it to the other position. Be careful not to drop the
jumper or damage the pins as you install it.
If you are going to use only one hard disk drive, the jumpers
should be set in positions C/D and ACT. If necessary, change
them to these settings. Then see “Installing a Hard Disk in the
Vertical Position,, on page 7-7 for instructions on installing your
first hard disk drive.
If you’ll be using two hard disk drives, you have a total of four
jumpers for eight jumper positions. (Two jumpers are included
with each drive, and each drive has four positions.) Install three
of the jumpers on the master drive in positions C/D, DSP, and
ACT. Install the fourth jumper on the slave drive in position
ACT.
If you are installing two hard disk drives at one time, install
the drive in the horizontal drive bay first. See “Installing or
Removing a Disk Drive in the Horizontal Position,, on page 7-23
for instructions.
7-6
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
If one of your hard disk drives is already installed in the
computer, follow the steps under “Removing a Hard Disk From
the Vertical Position,, on page 7-21 to remove it. Then set the
jumpers on both drives while they are out of the computer.
Note
If you are removing one hard disk drive and leaving one in
your computer, be sure to set the jumpers on the remaining
drive to indicate that you have only one hard disk drive.
See the table above for the correct jumper settings. Then
follow the instructions under ‘Removing a Hard Disk From
the Vertical Position,, on page 7-21 so you can access the
jumpers on the drive.
Installing a Hard Disk in the Vertical Position
Follow the instructions in this section to install (or reinstall) a
hard disk drive in the vertical mounting position. You may need
to perform the following procedures:
0 Removing the mounting frames from a new hard disk drive
0 Removing the mounting plate from the computer and
connecting it to the drive
C3 Installing the drive
0 Attaching the drive cable to the bottom of the subassembly.
If you are installing a new drive in the vertical mounting
position, follow all of the steps in this section. If you are
reinstalling a drive that you previously removed from this
position, see “Installing the Drive” on page 7-12.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-7
Removing the Mounting Frames From the Drive
Your hard disk drive comes with 5 l/+inch mounting frames
attached to each side of the hard disk drive, as shown below.
There may be a plastic guide rail on one side. Follow these steps
to remove the mounting frames (and guide rail) from the drive:
1. If necessary, remove the screws securing the plastic guide rail
and the metal grounding plate to the one mounting frame.
guide rail
I
grounding plate
7-8
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
2. Remove the four screws securing the mounting frames to the
hard disk drive. There are two screws securing each frame, as
shown below.
mounting frame
screws
Keep the four screws so you can use them to secure the
mounting plate to the hard disk drive. Then set the drive
aside with the component side facing up.
Installing and Removing Disk Dives
7-9
Removing and Attaching the Mounting Plate
If you are installing a new hard disk drive in your computer, you
need to attach a hard disk drive mounting plate to the drive.
This mounting plate is currently attached to the side of the
subassembly, as shown below.
subassembly
mounting plate
Follow these steps to remove the mounting plate from your
computer:
1. Turn the subassembly so that the front panel area is facing
you. The vertical mounting area is located on the right side
of the subassembly.
2. Using a screwdriver, remove the screw securing the
mounting plate to the subassembly and set it aside. Then lift
up the mounting plate to remove it.
7-10
Installing and Removing Disk Dives
3. Turn your hard disk drive so the components are facing up
and the connectors at the back of the drive are facing your
right.
4. Place the flat side of the mounting plate on the hard disk
drive, as shown below.
components
I
mounting
plate holes
sockets
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-11
5. Align the four holes on the mounting plate with the four
holes on the bottom of the hard disk drive.
6. Locate the four screws that you removed from the 5 %nch
mounting frames and use them to secure the mounting plate
to the hard disk drive.
Installing the Drive
If you are going to install or remove a drive in one of the
horizontal drive bays, first follow the instructions under
“Installing or Removing a Disk Drive in the Horizontal
Position,, on page 7-23. Do not install the vertically mounted
hard disk drive until you are finished accessing the horizontal
drives.
Follow these steps to install the hard disk drive in the vertical
mounting position:
1. Place the hard disk drive on the right side of the
subassembly with the mounting plate facing up and the
ribbon cable and power supply sockets facing the back of the
subassembly.
mounting plate
7-12
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
2. Locate the hard disk drive ribbon cable that came in the box
with your computer. It is a flat, folded cable with three
connectors. (If you are reinstalling a hard disk drive, the
ribbon cable is arranged under the subassembly.)
middle connector
Use the connector in the middle of the cable, indicated in
the illustration above.
As shown below, there are two rows of holes in the end of
the connector. One of the holes is blocked with a plug.
ribbon cable connector
block&d hole
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-13
The ribbon cable socket on the back of the drive has two
rows of pins. In one of the rows, a pin is missing.
ribbon cable socket
missing pin
3. Align the connector with the socket so that the row in the
connector with the blocked hole lines up with the row in
the socket with the missing pin.
missing pin
hole
Make sure the holes fit over all the pins and then push the
connector onto the pins.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your hard disk drive when you
push in the connector.
7-14
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
4.
Locate one of the power supply cables that lead from the
power supply in the computer (behind the horizontal drive
bays). The cables are labelled P1, P2, or P3 and have a clear
plastic connector on one end. One cable is already attached
to the diskette drive; you can use either of the remaining
two cables. As shown below, the end of the connector has
two notched comers.
power supply cable
notched corners
power supply socket
notched corners
The power supply socket is on the back of the hard disk
drive, next to the ribbon cable you just connected. The
socket also has two notched comers, as shown above.
Pulling the power supply cable through the lower opening
on the right side of the subassembly makes it easier to reach
the socket on the drive.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-15
5. Line up the connector with the socket so that the notched
comers are aligned.
notched corners
notched corners
Make sure the holes fit over all the pins and then push the
connector into the socket.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your hard disk drive when you
push in the connector.
7-16
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
6. Pick up the hard disk drive and hold it so the mounting
plate is facing the subassembly, as shown below.
tabs
Notice that there are two tabs facing downward on the
bottom of the mounting plate. These tabs will fit into two
slots in the right side of the subassembly.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-17
7. Hold the subassembly up slightly as you lower the drive onto
it. Keep the cables to the right of the drive.
bracket
hole
As shown above, fit the tabs on the mounting plate into the
slots on the side of the subassembly. Then tilt the drive
toward the subassembly and align the retaining screw hole
on the mounting plate with the hole in the bracket.
8. Secure the drive to the bracket with the retaining screw.
If you are installing your first hard disk drive, follow the steps in
the next section.
If you are reinstalling a hard disk drive, you are ready to replace
the subassembly and the computer’s cover. See Chapter 5 for
instruct ions.
7-18
Installing and Removing Disk Driver
Attaching the Cable to the Bottom of the Subassembly
If you are installing your first hard disk drive, follow these steps
to attach the drive cable to the bottom of the subassembly so it
does not interfere with the components on your main system
board:
1. Turn the subassembly over so the bottom side faces up and
the hard disk drive is on your left.
2. Lay the hard disk drive cable (attached to your drive) on the
subassembly.
hard disk
drive cable
3. Locate the tie wrap and mount that came with your hard
disk drive option kit. Slip the tie wrap through the hole in
the mount.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-19
4. Wrap the tie wrap around the cable so that the mount is in
between the cable and the subassembly, as shown below.
5. Peel the backing off the mount and attach the mount to the
subassembly.
6. Turn the subassembly over again.
7. See ‘Replacing the Subassembly” in Chapter 5 for
instructions on replacing the subassembly in your computer.
Then see “Replacing the Cover,” also in Chapter 5, for
instructions on replacing the computer’s cover.
8. See “Post-installation Setup” in Chapter 6 for instructions
on configuring your computer for use with your new hard
disk drive.
Note
After you change your computer’s drive configuration, the
computer may take up to five minutes to complete power-on
diagnostics the next time you turn it on.
7-20
Installing and Removing Disk Dives
Removing a Hard Disk from the Vertical Position
You need to remove the hard disk drive from the vertical
position in the following cases:
The drive needs servicing.
You are replacing the drive.
You are adding a second drive (either another hard disk
drive or a diskette drive) in the lower horizontal position.
Follow these steps:
1. Remove the computer’s cover and subassembly, if you have
not already done so. See Chapter 5 for instructions.
2. Remove the retaining screw securing the hard disk drive
mounting plate to the subassembly and set it aside.
retaining screw ‘-9
3. Tilt the hard disk drive slightly to the right and lift it up and
away from the subassembly. Set the drive next to the
subassembly so the component side faces up.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-21
4. Disconnect the power supply connector and the ribbon
cable connector from the sockets on the back of the hard
disk drive, as shown below. Firmly pull the connectors
straight out from the sockets so you do not bend the pins.
Do not pull on the cables; pull on the plastic connector.
/
ribbon cable connector
power supply
connector
5. If you removed the drive because you are going to install or
remove a drive in a horizontal drive bay, follow the
instructions under “Installing or Removing a Disk Drive in
the Horizontal Position” on page 7-23. Do not perform steps
6 through 11.
If you removed the drive to have it serviced, follow the
instructions for “Installing the Drive” starting on page 7-12
after the drive is repaired.
If you are not going to reinstall the drive, go to step 6.
6. Remove the four screws securing the hard disk drive
mounting plate to the hard disk drive. Then remove and
store the mounting plate along with the screws.
7-22
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7. Wrap the hard disk drive in its original packing materials
and set it aside along with the hard disk drive ribbon cable.
8. Replace the subassembly in the computer, and then replace
the computer’s cover. See Chapter 5 for instructions.
9. See “Post-installation Setup” in Chapter 6 for instructions
on configuring your computer for use without a hard disk
drive.
Note
After you change your computer’s drive configuration, your
system may take up to five minutes to complete power-on
diagnostics the next time you turn it on.
Installing or Removing a Disk Drive in the Horizontal Position
This section describes how to install or remove a hard disk drive
or a diskette drive in the lower horizontal drive bay. You can use
these same instructions if you need to install a different diskette
drive in the upper drive bay; however, the illustrations show the
lower bay.
If you are installing a second hard disk or diskette drive, you
must install it in the lower horizontal drive bay. Your first
diskette drive is in the upper bay and your first hard disk is in
the vertical mounting position.
If you have a hard disk drive installed in the vertical mounting
position, you must remove it before you remove or install a
drive in the horizontal drive bay. This enables you to access
the mounting holes and screws for the horizontal bay. See
“Removing a Hard Disk From the Vertical Position” starting on
page 7-21.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-23
Installing a Disk Drive in the Horizontal Position
Before you perform the following steps, be sure that you have set
the jumpers on any hard disk drive(s) that you’ll be using. (If
necessary, see “Setting, the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers” on page
7-4 for instructions.)
If you are adding a 3 l/2-inch diskette drive or hard disk drive,
you need to make sure that 5 i/4-inch metal mounting frames are
attached to the drive so it fits properly in the drive bay. Epson
3 l/Anch drives come with mounting frames already installed.
If your drive did not come with frames installed, follow the
instructions in the manual that came with the drive to attach
them.
The figures in this section show a diskette drive, but you can use
the same instructions to install a hard disk drive.
Follow these steps to install a disk drive:
1. If you are installing a 5 i/4-inch diskette drive, turn it so that
the diskette release latch is above the diskette slot.
If you are installing a 3 i/2-inch diskette drive, turn it so that
the diskette release button is on the right and the drive light
is on the left.
If you are installing a hard disk drive, turn it so that the side
with the components is facing down.
7-24
Installing and Removing Disk Driver
2.
There are two or three holes on each side of the disk drive.
When you insert the drive, align the appropriate round
holes in the drive with the two oval holes on each side of
the drive bay, as shown below.
3. Insert the drive into the lower drive bay and slide it toward
the back of the subassembly. Watch the oval holes on the
side of the drive bay so you can see when the holes on the
drive are positioned in the middle of them.
If you are installing a diskette drive, adjust its position so
that the front of the drive lines up with the drive in the
upper bay. (A hard disk drive fits all the way into the bay.)
Installing and Removing Risk Drives
7-25
4. After you align the drive, insert two screws into the oval
holes on each side of the drive bay and tighten them with a
screwdriver, as shown below.
If you are installing a diskette drive, go to “Connecting a
diskette drive.”
If you are installing a hard disk drive, go to “Connecting a hard
disk drive.”
Connecting a diskette drive
Follow these steps to connect a new diskette drive:
1. If you are installing a diskette drive in the lower drive bay,
you may want to turn the subassembly upside down and
place it on your work surface. The illustrations here show
the cables and connectors as if the subassembly were in the
upright position. However, when you install a drive in the
lower bay, it is easier to access the cables if you turn the
subassembly upside down.
7-26
Installing ad Removing Disk Drives
Locate the diskette drive ribbon cable; one end is connected
to the top diskette drive and the other end is free. Use the
connector in the middle of the cable to connect the second
diskette drive. As shown in the next illustration, there is a
large slot in this connector with a small plastic divider near
one end of the slot.
The interface that protrudes from the back of the drive has
gold contacts on both sides. Near one end of the interface,
there is a gap to accommodate the plastic divider on the
connector.
2. Align the connector with the interface so that the plastic
divider on the connector lines up with the gap in the
interface.
divider
gap
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-27
3. Make sure the cable connector fits properly onto the drive
interface and then push it onto the interface.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the connector, you could
severely damage your diskette drive when you push it in.
At this point, you can remove the slot cover from the front
panel.
1. Place the front panel face down and use a screwdriver to
remove the two screws securing the slot cover to the panel.
Lift out the slot cover, as shown below.
slot cover
2. Set the front panel, slot cover, and screws aside.
Now go to “Connecting the power cables” for instructions on
connecting the power cable.
Connecting a hard disk drive
Follow these steps to connect a hard disk drive in the horizontal
bay drive:
1. Before attaching cables to the hard disk drive, turn the
subassembly upside down to make it easier to connect the
cables.
7-28
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
2. Next, locate the hard disk drive ribbon cable that came with
your computer. If you removed a drive from the vertical
mounting position, the cable you disconnected from that
drive should be strapped to the bottom of the subassembly
by a tie wrap. Cut the tie wrap so you can access the
connectors.
The hard disk drive ribbon cable has three connectors. The
connector on one end goes to the system board. The other
two connectors (closest together) go to the hard disk drives.
Of these two connectors, you attach the middle one to the
hard disk drive in the vertical position and you attach the
end one to a hard disk drive in the lower horizontal bay.
As shown in the illustration below, there are two rows of
holes in a hard disk drive connector. One of the holes is
blocked with a plastic plug.
blocked hole
3. Notice the ribbon cable socket on the back of the drive you
just installed; you see two rows of pins. In one of the rows, a
pin is missing.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-29
4. Align the ribbon cable connector with the socket on the
hard disk drive. Make sure the row in the connector with
the blocked hole lines up with the row in the socket with
the missing pin, as shown below.
missing pin
hole
Make sure the holes fit over all the pins and then push the
connector onto the pins.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your hard disk drive when you
push in the connector.
Now go to the next section for instructions on connecting the
power cable.
7-30
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Connecting the power cables
Follow these steps to connect the power supply cable for either a
diskette drive or a hard disk drive in the horizontal bay:
1. Looking at the subassembly, locate the power supply cables
with clear plastic connectors labelled P1, P2, or P3 that lead
from the power supply (behind the horizontal drive bays).
(You connect the cables labelled P4 and P5 to the system
board later.)
You must connect a power supply cable to each drive you
install in your system. You can connect any of these three
cables to the new disk drive. One of the cables, usually P1, is
already attached to your first diskette drive.
As shown below, the end of the connector has two notched
comers. The power supply socket on the back of the drive is
next to the ribbon cable connector. The socket also has two
notched comers.
power supply cable
power supply socket
notched corners
notched corners
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-31
2. Position the power supply cable connector so that the
notched comers on the connector line up with the notched
corners of the power supply socket on your drive.
notched corners
notched corners
3. Make sure the holes fit over all the pins and then push the
connector onto the pins.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your drive when you push in the
connector.
4. Turn the subassembly right side up taking care to arrange
the cables under the subassembly.
If you do not need to reinstall a vertically mounted hard disk
drive, see ‘Replacing the Subassembly” in Chapter 5.
To reinstall a vertically mounted hard disk drive, see “Installing
the Drive” on page 7-12 for instructions.
7-32
Installing and Removing Disk Dives
Removing a Disk Drive From the Horizontal Position
The figures in this section show a diskette drive in the lower
horizontal drive bay, but you can use the same instructions to
remove a hard disk drive from the lower bay or to remove a
diskette drive from the upper bay.
Note
Before removing a disk drive from the horizontal position,
you must remove the drive from the vertical position. See
page 7-21.
Follow these steps to remove a drive from a horizontal drive bay:
1. Remove the disk drive ribbon cable from the back of the
drive, as shown below.
ribbon cable
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-33
2.
Remove the power supply connector from the back of the
drive.
power supply
3. Using a screwdriver, remove the screws securing the drive to
the drive bay. There are two screws on each side.
7-34
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
4. Grasp the disk drive from the front of the drive bay, pull it
completely out, and set it aside.
5. If you have removed one hard disk drive and are leaving
another one in your system, make sure you have set the
jumpers on the remaining drive to indicate that you now
have only one hard disk drive. (If necessary, see “Setting the
Hard Disk Drive Jumpers” on page 7-4 for instructions.)
If you do not need to replace a hard disk drive in the vertical
mounting position, see “Replacing the Subassembly” in
Chapter 5.
If you need to reinstall a hard disk drive in the vertical
mounting position, follow the steps under “Installing the
Drive” on page 7-12.
If you have removed a diskette drive and are not replacing it
with another diskette drive, or you are replacing it with a
hard disk drive, replace the slot cover on the front panel.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-35
Appendix A
Troubleshooting
You should not encounter any difficulties as you set up and use
your computer, but if anything out of the ordinary happens, refer
to this appendix. You can correct most problems by adjusting a
cable connection, repeating a software procedure, or resetting
the computer.
Besides trying the suggestions in this chapter, you can run
diagnostics checks on the various components of your computer
system. See Appendix C for instructions.
If the suggestions here or in Appendix C do not solve the
problem, contact your authorized Epson dealer. Your dealer may
be able to solve the problem; if not, he or she can refer you to
an Authorized Epson Customer Care Center for service. If
necessary, call the Epson Customer Information Center at
(2 13) 782-2600 for the location of your nearest Authorized
Epson Customer Care Center.
Identifying Your System
When you contact your dealer or Customer Care Center, be
ready to provide the serial number of your computer, its
configuration (including the type of disk drives, monitor, and
option cards), and the names and version numbers of any
software programs you are using. You can find the serial number
on the computer’s back panel.
If you are able to use MS-DOS, follow the steps below to obtain
your MS-DOS version number and the version number of your
computer’s ROM BIOS.
Troubleshooting
A-1
If you have a hard disk, follow these steps:
1. At the MS-DOS command prompt, type ROMBIOS and
press Enter. (You may need to log onto the directory where
ROMBIOS.COM is stored.) Write down the version
number displayed on your screen.
2. At the MS-DOS command prompt, type
VER and press
Enter. The screen displays the MS-DOS version number.
Write down the number so you can give it to your dealer.
If you do not have a hard disk, follow these steps:
1.
Insert the Reference diskette in drive A and turn on or reset
your computer.
2. At the Operation Menu, select Exit to MS-DOS
for more utilities and press Enter.
3. At the A> prompt, type ROMBIOS and press Enter. Write
down the version number displayed on your screen.
4. Remove the Reference diskette and insert your Startup
diskette in drive A. Type VER and press Enter. The screen
displays the MS-DOS version number. Write down the
number so you can give it to your dealer.
Error Messages
Your computer’s built-in memory (ROM) contains a series of
diagnostics programs, called power-on diagnostics, which your
computer runs automatically every time you turn it on. These
programs check internal devices such as ROM, RAM, the timer,
the keyboard controller, and the hard disk drive. The RAM test
program displays the total amount of memory currently installed
in your system. If the computer finds an error, it displays a
specific error number and error message on the screen.
A-2 Troubleshooting
If the error is not serious, you see this prompt:
(Resume = "F1" key)
Write down the error message and code number, and then press
F1 to continue. Give the error message and code number to
your dealer when reporting a problem.
If the error is serious, the computer cancels further checking and
halts system initialization. The error message remains on the
screen and the computer locks up. If this happens, contact your
dealer as soon as possible. Report this information and both the
error message and code number to your dealer.
The following table lists all the error codes and messages that
may appear during power-on diagnostics checks. If you receive
an error message, look it up in the table below. It directs you to
the proper troubleshooting section in this appendix. If you do
not see an error message, read the section that covers your
problem.
Power-on diagnostics error codes and messages
Action
Error code
Message
System board
101
102
103
105
106
107
108
System
System
System
System
System
System
System
Real-time clock
161
162
System options not set
System options not set
board
board
board
board
board
board
board
error
error
error
error
error
error
error
163
Time and date not set
164
Memory size error
Contact dealer
Contact dealer
Run Setup; see
Chapter 2
Run Setup; see
Chapter 2
Run Setup; see
Chapter 2
Troubleshooting
A-3
Power-on diagnostics error codes and messages (continued)
Error code
Message
Action
Memory
171
173
BIOS shadow RAM error
Cache options error
Contact dealer
Run Setup; see
Chapter 2
201
202
203
Memory error
Memory address error
Memory address error
Keyboard
301
303
304
Keyboard error
Keyboard or system unit error
Keyboard or system unit error
See “Keyboard
Problems”
Monitor
401
501
CRT error
CRT error
See “Monitor
Problems’
Diskette drive(s) and controller
601
Diskette error
Parallel port (printer interface)
901
Parallel port error
Serial port (RS-232C port)
1101
Serial port error
Hard disk drive(s) and controller
1760
Disk 0 parameter failure
1761
Disk 1 parameter failure
1770
Disk 0 parameter error
1771
Disk 1 parameter error
Disk 0 failure
1780
1781
Disk 1 failure
Disk controller failure
1782
Disk 0 error
1790
Disk 1 error
1791
A-4 ‘Troubleshooting
See “Diskette
Problems” or
“Diskette Drive
Problems”
See “Printer
Problems’
See “Printer
Problems”
See “Hard Disk
Drive Problems”
Power-on diagnostics error codes and messages (continued)
I
Error code
Message
Auxiliary device(s)
Auxiliary device failure
8601
Auxiliary device failure
8602
Auxiliary device failure
8603
Action
I
See “Mouse
Problems’
The Computer Won’t Start
If your computer does not start when you turn on the power,
check the following:
1. Is the power light on? If not, remove any diskettes and turn
off the power. Check that the power cord is securely
connected to both the AC inlet on the back panel and an
electrical outlet. Replace the Reference or MS-DOS Startup
diskette, if necessary, and turn on the computer again.
Caution
If you turn off the computer for any reason, always wait at
least five seconds before turning it back on. You can
damage the computer if you turn it off and on rapidly.
2. If the power light still does not come on, check the
electrical outlet for power. Turn off your computer and
unplug the power cord from the wall outlet. Plug a lamp into
the outlet, and turn it on to see if the outlet supplies power.
3. If the electrical outlet is working and all the connections are
secure but your computer still won’t start, call your dealer.
Note
If the computer starts but you can’t see anything on the
screen, see “Monitor Problems,” below.
The Computer Does Not Respond
If your computer locks up and does not respond when you type
on the keyboard, follow these steps:
1. Some operations take longer than others to complete. For
example, the computer takes longer to sort a database than
to accept a single typed character. If your computer still does
not respond after a reasonable length of time, proceed to the
next step.
2. Your computer may take a long time to complete its poweron diagnostics if you have just made a change in your
system’s configuration. The first time you turn on your
computer after making such a change, it can take up to five
minutes to finish its self test, depending on what you
changed. If the computer does not display the MS-DOS
prompt after five minutes, press the RESET button and try
again. If that doesn’t work, insert the Reference diskette in
drive A and press the RESET button. If the computer still
does not boot, contact your Epson dealer.
3. Did you enter the correct password? See “Password
Problems,” below.
4. Could your software be causing the problem? If you are
running an application program, see “Software Problems,”
later in this appendix.
5. The problem could be caused by your keyboard. See
“Keyboard Problems,” later in this appendix. If your
keyboard is operating properly, proceed to the next step.
6. If you want to stop whatever the computer is doing and
return to the MS-DOS command prompt, hold down the
Ctrl key and press Break (or press C). See Chapter 3 for
more information on stopping a command or program.
A-6 Troubleshooting
7. If your computer still does not respond, you can reset it using
the Ctrl Alt Del command. If that command doesn’t work,
you can reset the computer with the RESET button. See
“Resetting Your Computer” in Chapter 3 for more
information.
8. If resetting the computer does not work, turn off the
computer and wait at least five seconds. If you do not have
a hard disk drive, insert the MS-DOS Startup diskette in
drive A. Then turn on the computer. It should load
MS-DOS; if not, contact your Epson dealer.
9. If you installed an EGA or VGA display adapter card, or
another type of card that you want to be the primary display
adapter, you must set jumper J2 to disable the built-in VGA
adapter. Otherwise, you will not see any display on the
screen. See “Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 6 for
instructions.
If you are using one or more display adapter cards, you may
also need to change the setting of jumper J1. This jumper
tells the computer whether you are using a color or
monochrome monitor. (J1 is set for color at the factory.) If
the jumper is set incorrectly, you see one of these messages:
0 401
CRT error
0 501
CRT error.
If you are using two different types of video cards, set jumper
J1 to the primary monitor type. You may also need to
change the setting later if you change the type of monitor
you are using. See “Changing the Jumper Settings” in
Chapter 6 for instructions.
Troubleshooting A-7
Password Problems
If you set a power-on password using the Setup program, you
must enter this password before you can use the system. When
you turn on the computer, the screen displays a key prompt
(% ). If you do not enter the correct password, you see an X
on the screen. The computer gives you a second and third
chance to enter it correctly. If after three tries you have not
entered the correct password, the computer locks up and does
not respond to your keyboard entries.
Note
If you enabled network server mode when you set a password,
you do not see the key prompt. For more information, see
“Using Your Computer as a Network Server" in Chapter 4.
If you have any trouble using your password, try the following:
1. If you think you know the correct password, press RESET
and try again. See Chapter 3 for instructions.
2. If you know the current power-on password but you want to
change or delete it, see Chapter 3 for instructions. (You
cannot change or delete a power-on password and remain in
network server mode.)
3. If you entered a password and then saw the following
message, you need to change a jumper setting inside the
computer:
TURN OFF POWER AND CORRECT JUMPER
SETTING TO ENABLE PASSWORD CHECKING
Remove any diskettes, turn off the computer, and follow the
instructions under "Changing the Jumper Settings” in
Chapter 6 to enable the password function.
A-8 Troubleshooting
4. If you do not know the current power-on password and you
do not want to set a new one, see “Removing a Password”
below.
5. If you do not know the current power-on password and you
want to set a new one, see “Setting a New Password” below.
Removing a Password
If you have forgotten your password and you do not want to set a
new one, there are two ways to remove the current password:
LI Disable the existing password
0 Disable the password function.
To do either of these procedures, you must reset a jumper on the
main system board.
Note
If you are using network server mode and you remove the
password, the computer automatically turns off network
server mode.
If you want to be able to set a new password later without having
to change the jumper setting again, disable the existing password
(not the password function). See “Disabling an existing
password,” below, for instructions.
If you disable the password function, you cannot set a new
password unless you perform the steps to disable the existing
password at that time. If you do not want to use a password
anymore, follow the instructions under “Disabling the password
function” below.
Troubleshooting A-9
Disabling an existing password
If you do not know your power-on password and do not want to
set a new one, follow these steps to disable the existing
password:
l . Turn off the computer and follow the instructions under
“Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 6 to disable the
password function (jumper J3).
2. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A and turn on the
computer. You do not see the key prompt.
3. When the Operation Menu appears, highlight Set up
and press Enter. Then see “Setting the Power-on Password”
in Chapter 2 and follow the instructions as if you are going
to enter a new password. However, when you see the prompt
to enter a password, press Enter immediately. This clears out
the existing password.
Be sure to save the password setting and highlight
** EXIT AND SAVE ** when you leave Setup.
4. Remove the Reference diskette, turn off the computer, and
follow the instructions under “Changing the Jumper
Settings” in Chapter 6 to enable the password function
(jumper 13).
5. If you do not have a hard disk, insert the MS-DOS Startup
diskette in drive A. Turn on the computer again. You do not
see the key prompt and the computer loads MS-DOS.
Later, if you want to create a power-on password, run Setup and
enter a password. The jumper is already in the correct position.
A-10 Troubleshooting
Disabling the password function
If you do not want to use a power-on password anymore, you can
disable the password function. However, if you want to use the
password function later, your old password is still stored as the
current password. If you want to be able to easily set a password
later, follow the instructions in “Disabling an Existing
Password,” above.
To disable the password function, follow the instructions under
“Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 6 to change the
setting of jumper J3.
Setting a New Password
If you have forgotten your current power-on password and want
to set a new one, follow these steps:
1. Turn off the computer and follow the instructions under
“Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 6 to disable the
password function (jumper J3).
2. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A and turn on the
computer. You do not see the key prompt.
3. When the Operation Menu appears, highlight Set up
and press Enter. Then follow the instructions under
“Setting the Power-on Password” in Chapter 2 to enter a
new password. (If you want to enable network server mode,
highlight Network Server Mode and press Enter
to turn on the function.)
Be sure to save your password setting and highlight
** EXIT AND SAVE ** when you leave Setup.
4. After you exit Setup, you see this message:
TURN OFF POWER AND CORRECT JUMPER
SETTING TO ENABLE PASSWORD CHECKING
Troubleshooting
A-11
5. Remove the Reference diskette, turn off the computer, and
follow the instructions under “Changing the Jumper
Settings” in Chapter 6 to enable the password function
(jumper J3).
6. If you do not have a hard disk, insert the MS-DOS Startup
diskette in drive A. Turn on the computer. You see the key
prompt (h ). If you enabled network server mode, you do
not see the key prompt. Enter your new password to access
the system. (See "Using the Power-on Password” in
Chapter 3 or “Using a Password in Network Server Mode”
in Chapter 4.)
Note
Be sure to remember your new password or write it down and
keep it in a safe place. If you forget the password you enter
now, you may have to repeat the procedure above the next
time you turn on your computer.
Keyboard Problems
If you are having trouble with the keyboard, check the
following:
1. If the screen displays one of the following keyboard errors
when you turn on or reset the computer, make sure the
keyboard is securely connected to the keyboard socket on
the back of the computer:
D 301 Keyboard error
A-12
Cl 3 0 3
Keyboard or system unit error
O 304
Keyboard or system unit error.
Troubleshooting
Note
Be sure the keyboard plug is inserted into the keyboard
socket and not the mouse socket.
See “Connecting the Keyboard” in Chapter 1 for
instruct ions.
2. If the cursor keys do not work properly, the num lock
function may be on. When num lock is on, the numeric/
arrow keys on the numeric keypad work only as numbers.
Check to see if the Num Lock indicator in the upper right
comer of the keyboard is lit; if it is, press the Num Lock key
to turn off the function.
If you want to change the initial setting of the num lock
function when you turn on the computer, see “Using the
Keyboard and Speaker Options” in Chapter 2.
3. If nothing happens when you type on the keyboard, see
“The Computer Does Not Respond,” above to see if
something other than the keyboard is causing the problem.
Monitor Problems
For monitor problems, check the following:
1. If there is no display on the screen, check that the monitor’s
power switch is on and that the power light on the monitor
is lit. If the power light is on but you still do not see
anything on the screen, check the monitor’s brightness and
contrast controls.
2. If the power switch is on but the power light is not, turn off
the monitor’s power, wait five seconds, and turn the power
back on. Wait to see if the screen displays any text.
Troubleshooting
A-13
3. If the monitor’s power light still does not come on, check
the electrical outlet for power. Turn off your monitor and
unplug it from the wall outlet. Plug a lamp into the wall
outlet and turn it on to see if the outlet supplies power.
4. If you still do not see anything on the screen, make sure your
monitor is connected to the computer properly. See
“Connecting a Monitor” in Chapter 1 for more details. Also
check the monitor manual for instructions on how to
connect it to the computer.
5. Make sure your monitor and display adapter match, and, if
you installed a display adapter card, be sure any switches or
jumpers on the card are set properly. See “Connecting a
Monitor” in Chapter 1 and the documentation that came
with your monitor and display adapter card for instructions.
6. Be sure you have chosen the correct display adapter type in
the Setup program. See “Setting the Display Adapter Type”
in Chapter 2.
7. If you are running an application program, see if you need to
set up the program for the type of monitor and display
adapter you have. Also make sure you are using the
appropriate monitor and display adapter for your software.
Note
If your application program requires a monitor that
supports graphics but you have a monochrome monitor,
the results will be unpredictable.
8. If you installed an EGA or VGA display adapter card, or
another type of card that you want to be the primary display
adapter, you must set jumper J2 to disable the built-in VGA
adapter. Otherwise, you will not see any display on the
screen. See “Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 6 for
instructions.
A-14 Troubleshooting
If you are using one or more display adapter cards, you may
need to change the setting of jumper J1. This jumper tells
the computer whether you are using a color or monochrome
monitor. (J1 is set for color at the factory.)
If the jumper is set incorrectly, you will see one of these
messages:
Cl 401 CRT error
Cl 501 CRT error.
If you are using two different types of video cards, set jumper
J1 to the primary monitor type. You may also need to
change the setting later if you change the type of monitor
you are using. See “Changing the Jumper Settings” in
Chapter 6 for instructions.
9. If you are still having difficulty with your monitor, run
either the Monochrome Display Adapter and CRT check
or the Color Graphics Adapter and CRT check, described in
Appendix C. If the diagnostics program indicates an error,
contact the place where you bought the monitor.
Diskette Problems
You may see the following message if you are having trouble
with a diskette or your diskette drive:
601 Diskette error
If you see this message or have trouble accessing data on a
diskette, try the following steps:
1. Did you turn down the diskette drive latch on a 5 i/+inch
drive to secure the diskette in the drive? See Chapter 3 for
more information.
Troubleshooting
A-25
2. You may have inserted the diskette upside-down or it my
not be inserted all the way. Remove the diskette from the
drive and reinsert it with the label facing up. Be sure to turn
down the diskette drive latch. (See Chapter 3 for detailed
instructions on inserting and removing diskettes.)
3. If reinserting the diskette does not solve the problem and
you have access to another diskette drive of the same type,
place the diskette in the other drive and repeat the
operation. If this works, the trouble may be in your diskette
drive. See “Diskette Drive Problems,” below.
4. Check to see if you have inserted the right type of diskette.
Follow these guidelines:
In a 1.2MB drive, use 5 i/4-inch, double-sided, highdensity, 96 TPI diskettes. You can also use a 360KB
diskette, but if you write to it in this drive, you may
have trouble using it in a 360KB drive later.
In a 1.44MB drive, use 3 i/2-inch, double-sided, highdensity, 135 TPI diskettes. This type of drive can also
read and write to 720KB diskettes.
In a 360KB drive, use 5 i/4-inch, double-sided, doubledensity, 48 TPI diskettes. You cannot use 1.2MB
diskettes in this drive.
In a 720KB drive, use 3 i/2-inch, double-sided, doubledensity, 135 TPI diskettes. You cannot use 1.44MB
diskettes in this drive.
See “Types of Diskette Drives” in Chapter 3 for more
information.
A-16 Troubleshooting
5. If your diskette is the right type for your drive, see if it is
write-protected. On a 5 l/+inch diskette, there may be a
write-protect tab over the notch on its side or there may be
no notch. On a 3 l/z-inch diskette, the write-protect switch
may be set to the write-protect position or there may be no
switch. You cannot alter data on a write-protected diskette.
(Some application programs do not function properly if the
diskette is write-protected. Check the program manual.)
See Chapter 3 for more information.
6. Is the diskette formatted? A new diskette must be formatted
before you can store data on it. See your MS-DOS
Reference Manual for instructions on formatting diskettes.
7. You may have entered an incorrect diskette drive type when
you ran the Setup program. Run the Setup program again to
check the setting. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
8. Did you receive one of the following MS-DOS error
messages?
0 Disk Drive Error: Abort, Ignore, Retry?
0 Disk error reading drive d:
0 Disk error writing drive d:
If you see one of these messages, make sure the diskette is
properly inserted in the drive. On a 5 i/4-inch diskette drive,
make sure the drive latch is closed. Try the operation again.
If the problem persists, try removing the diskette and
reinserting it. This may solve the problem if the diskette was
not seated properly in the drive.
If the error message still occurs, you may have a defective
diskette. Use the MS-DOS COPY command to copy the
files from the bad diskette to a new diskette. (See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions.)
Troubleshooting
A-17
9. If you see no error messages but there is something wrong
with the data in a file, MS-DOS or an application program
may have updated the storage information on the diskette
incorrectly. This is probably the case if you have one of
these problems:
0 Part of a file is missing
0 A file includes parts of other files
0 An expected output file is missing.
To make the necessary repairs, use the MS-DOS program
CHKDSK. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for
instructions.
Diskette Drive Problems
You may see the following message if you are having trouble
with a diskette or your diskette drive:
601 Diskette error
If you see this message or have difficulty with a diskette drive,
follow these steps:
1. Try running the Diskette Drives and Controller Check
described in Appendix C. If the diagnostics program
indicates an error, consult your Epson dealer.
2. If the diskette drive is making loud noises, do not attempt
any further examination of it. Contact your Epson dealer.
Note
Diskette drives may make different sounds with different
diskettes.
A-18 Troubleshooting
3. If your diskette drive read/write heads are dirty, you may
occasionally see this MS-DOS error message:
Error Reading Drive d:
Abort, Retry, or Fail?
To clean the read/write heads, use a diskette drive head
cleaning kit, available from most computer stores. However,
do not use a cleaning kit too often because excessive
cleaning can damage your drive heads.
Hard Disk Problems
If you are having problems with the hard disk in your computer,
you may see one of the following error messages:
0
1760
Disk 0 parameter failure
P
1761
Disk 1 parameter failure
0 1770
Disk 0 parameter error
0 1771
Disk 1 parameter error
0 1780
Disk 0 failure
0
1781
Disk 1 failure
0
1782
Disk controller failure
tl 1790
Disk 0 error
1791
Disk 1 error.
0
Troubleshooting
A-19
The problem could be the result of improper installation,
incomplete disk preparation, or corrupted data. The suggestions
in this section are divided into three categories:
0 Installing the drive
0 Preparing the drive for use
0 Accessing data on the drive.
Consult the section that seems most likely to cover the problem
you are having. For example, if you have been able to use data
on your disk in the past but suddenly cannot, see “Accessing
Data on the Drive.”
Caution
If your disk has data on it, be very careful before you perform
any procedure that may erase data (such as formatting the
disk). Consult your dealer if you have any questions. Always
be sure to back up your data before reformatting or
repartitioning the disk drive. See the descriptions of COPY,
XCOPY, and BACKUP in your MS-DOS Reference Manual.
Installing the Drive
If you are having problems with a newly-installed drive, check
the following:
1. If your dealer installed the drive, consult that person about
the problem.
2. If you have installed the hard disk in your computer yourself,
did you carefully follow all the instructions in Chapter 7 of
this manual? Review the instructions and check all the cable
connections to make sure you have installed it correctly.
Also check the jumper settings on your drive to make sure
they are set correctly.
A-20 Troubleshooting
3. If you installed a non-Epson hard disk drive, was it
physically formatted by the manufacturer? A blank, new
hard disk must be formatted (or “initialized”) before you can
partition it and install an operating system on it. This type
of format is usually done by the manufacturer; if yours was
not, you must do it yourself. If the drive came with its own
format utility, use that program; if not, follow the
instructions in Appendix B under “Hard Disk Format.”
Note that this physical type of format is different from the
software-based type of formatting commands (such as the
MS-DOS SELECT or FORMAT commands). See
“Preparing the Drive,” below, for more information.
Caution
Do not perform the low-level format if your disk contains
data, unless your dealer advises you to do so.
4. If your computer came with a hard disk drive that you are no
longer using, make sure the hard disk drive power cable and
the cable that connected the drive to the main system board
are disconnected.
5. If you installed a hard disk drive with its controller on a
card, did you disable the built-in hard disk drive controller
and select the correct drive type through Setup? See
Chapter 2 for instructions.
Preparing the Drive
Before you can store data on a new hard disk (which has already
been physically formatted), you must do the following to prepare
it for use:
1. Run the Setup program to define your hard disk as part of
the computer’s configuration. (See Chapter 2 for
instructions.)
Troubleshooting
A-21
2. Partition the drive, format it for MS-DOS, and install
MS-DOS. Step-by-step instructions for performing these
procedures are provided in your MS-DOS Installation
Guide. If you are using another operating system, follow the
instructions that came with it.
If you do not prepare the drive correctly, you will not be able to
store data on the disk. For example, if you have partitioned the
drive and formatted it for MS-DOS (or another operating
system) but you do not copy the operating system to the drive,
you will not be able to load the operating system from the hard
disk when you turn on the computer.
If you are sure the hard disk has been installed properly and you
have prepared it for use as described above but you cannot access
the drive, review the instructions in your MS-DOS Installation
Guide. Make sure you performed each step in the installation
process correctly for your configuration.
If you cannot identify the problem, consult your dealer.
Accessing Data on the Drive
If you have been using your hard disk drive successfully for some
time and notice a reduction in performance, the data on the disk
may have become fragmented. You may want to back up all your
data and then use a disk compaction utility to reorganize the
files on your disk. Contact your dealer for information.
If you still have trouble with your hard disk, you can back up
your data and physically format the disk. Then you’ll need to
reinstall MS-DOS and copy your files back onto the disk. See
“Hard Disk Format” in Appendix B and your MS-DOS
Reference Manual for instructions.
If you cannot access data on your hard disk or you are receiving
read/write errors, the disk may have a physical problem. Contact
your dealer.
A-22 Troubleshooting
Software Problems
If you are having trouble with an application program, try the
following solutions:
1. If the application program does not start, check that the
program is installed correctly and that you are following the
correct procedure for starting the program. If you have a
hard disk and the program is stored in a directory on that
drive, make sure you are logged onto or specifying the
correct directory. If you don’t have a hard disk, make sure
you have inserted the application program diskette in the
top drive (usually drive A).
2. Your computer can run at either high speed (20 MHz) or
low speed (simulated 8 MHz). While almost all programs
work properly at the faster speed, some must run at the
slower speed. Check your software manual to see if this is
the case, and change the processor speed if necessary. See
“Changing the Processor Speed” in Chapter 4 for
instructions and for information on accommodating copyprotected programs.
3. If you have entered an MS-DOS command that you want to
stop, there are special key combinations you can type to tell
MS-DOS to stop what it is doing. These methods may also
work in your application programs.
To interrupt an MS-DOS command while it is executing,
try one of the following commands:
0 Hold down the Ctrl key and press C
D Hold down the Ctrl key and press Break.
4. An application program can occasionally lock the computer,
making it unresponsive to the keyboard. If your computer
does not respond when you type on the keyboard, you can
reset it. Follow the instructions in Chapter 3.
Troubleshooting
A-23
Printer Problems
Below are some general steps to follow if you are having
difficulty with your printer. If the problem persists and you need
more detailed information, check your printer manual. You may
see one of the following error messages:
D 901
Parallel port error
0 1101 Serial port error.
These error messages appear if you are having trouble with the
port to which your printer is connected. If it is connected to the
parallel port, you may see error number 901; if your printer uses
the serial port, you may see error number 1101.
1. If your printer does not work correctly immediately after you
install it, check that the printer has power and is properly
connected to the computer. (Also, make sure your printer
has paper in it.) See Chapter 1 or your printer manual for
instruct ions.
2. Check the printer manual for the printer’s correct DIP
switch or control panel settings. These settings help a
printer communicate properly with the computer.
3. If you are using more than one parallel port or more than
one serial port, the computer must know which port is the
primary port and which is the secondary port. See Chapter 2
for instructions on how to set the parallel and serial ports
using the Setup program.
4. If your printer is properly set up but is still not functioning,
test it from the MS-DOS level. When the screen displays
the MS-DOS command prompt (such as C> or A>), hold
down Shift and press Print Screen. This should print the
contents of the screen on your printer.
A-24 Troubleshooting
If it does not, you may need to change the internal setting of
the computer’s parallel port for a parallel printer (or serial
port for a serial printer). To do this, use the MS-DOS
MODE command or the MENU utility. See your printer
manual and the MS-DOS Reference Manual for more
details.
5. Many application programs (such as word processors) must
be set up properly before they can use a printer. Check your
program manual to see what customizing may be required.
6. Try running the Parallel Port (Printer Interface) check if
you have a parallel printer, or the Serial Port (RS-232C)
check if you have a serial printer. Appendix C describes
these diagnostics checks. If the diagnostics test indicates an
error, contact the place where you bought the printer.
Option Card Problems
If you install an option card and it is not functioning properly,
check the following:
1. Is the option card installed correctly? The most common
problem with option cards is a loose connection. Make sure
the option card is well-seated in its slot. Check the
installation procedure described in Chapter 6 and also see
the instructions that come with the option card.
2. Did you set the necessary DIP switches or jumpers on the
option card? See your option card manual for instructions.
3. Did you set the necessary jumpers on the main system board?
See Chapter 6 for more information.
4. Did you run the Setup program to redefine your computer’s
configuration after installing the card? See Chapter 2.
Troubleshooting
A-25
5. Did you install a hard disk drive that has its controller on an
option card? If so, and if your computer came with a hard
disk drive that you are no longer using, be sure the cable
leading from that drive to the main system board and the
hard disk drive power cable are disconnected.
6. If you used the option card to add an external device to your
computer, did you use the proper cable to connect the
device to the option card connector on the back panel?
7. Did you perform the correct setup procedures for the
software you are using with the option card? If necessary, see
your software manual for instructions on running the
software setup procedure.
Mouse Problems
If you are having a problem with your mouse, you may see one of
the following error messages:
0 8601 Auxiliary device failure
0 8602 Auxiliary device failure
D 8603 Auxiliary device failure.
If you see one of these messages, make sure that the mouse cable
is securely connected to the mouse port and not the keyboard
port. See Chapter 1 for more information.
A-26 Troubleshooting
Memory Module Problems
If you added extra memory to your system by installing SIMMs
and that memory is not operating properly, check the following:
1. If the memory count displayed by the power-on diagnostics
program is incorrect, you or your dealer may not have
installed the SIMMs correctly. They may be installed in the
wrong sockets, they may be the wrong type of SIMM, or
they may not be inserted all the way into their sockets.
(Keep in mind that the memory count does not include
128KB of the standard 2MB of memory.)
If your dealer installed SIMMs for you, contact your dealer;
do not attempt to correct the problem yourself. If you
installed the SIMMs, see “Adding Memory Modules” in
Chapter 6 and make sure you have followed all the necessary
instruct ions.
2. Be sure to run the Setup program after you install or remove
memory modules to automatically update your memory
configuration. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
3. If you are still having trouble with your SIMMs, write down
any error messages that appear and contact your dealer.
Math Coprocessor Problems
If your math coprocessor does not seem to be operating properly,
check the following:
1. Run the Setup program on your Reference diskette and
check to make sure that the math coprocessor is listed as
installed on the Exit display. If it is listed as not
ins t al led, you or your dealer may have installed the
math coprocessor incorrectly. See Chapters 2 and 6 for more
information.
Troubleshooting
A-27
Caution
Do not attempt to remove the math coprocessor yourself.
Contact your dealer for information about a special
extraction tool that is needed to remove it.
2. If your math coprocessor is listed as installed in the
Setup program but still does not seem to be working, check
the manual that came with the math coprocessor for any
additional procedures you may need to perform or any
troubleshooting information.
3. If you are still having trouble with your math coprocessor,
test it by running the System diagnostics program on your
Reference diskette. See Appendix C for instructions. If your
math coprocessor came with its own diagnostic program,
check the documentation that came with it and run those
tests also.
A-28 Troubleshooting
Appendix B
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
This appendix describes how to physically format a hard disk.
Sometimes called a low-level format, this procedure should not
be confused with the logical format performed by the MS-DOS
FORMAT command. The physical formatting of a hard disk is a
separate step that is usually done at the factory by the disk
manufacturer.
If your computer came with a factory-installed hard disk, or if
you have installed an optional Epson hard disk, it has already
been physically formatted. You need only follow the instructions
in the MS-DOS Installation Guide to prepare your hard disk for
use.
If you have installed a hard disk that came with its own format
utility, use that program to physically format the disk.
You may need to use the procedure in this chapter to physically
format a hard disk if either of the following is true:
0 Your hard disk is producing numerous read/write errors or
you are having other serious problems with it. Sometimes,
after a hard disk has been used for a long time, its data
becomes fragmented, causing the disk to perform less
efficiently or produce errors. You may want to reformat the
disk in this case.
0 You have installed a non-Epson hard disk in your computer
that has never received the low-level format and did not
come with its own format utility.
Physically formatting a hard disk erases any data it contains. If
you are reformatting a hard disk you have been using, be sure to
back up all the data on your hard disk to diskettes before you
format it. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions
on backing up data.
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
B-1
Caution
If you are unsure if formatting is necessary, contact your
Epson dealer for assistance.
In addition to destroying all the data on the hard disk,
formatting removes any partitions and logical formatting defined
on the disk by FDISK, SELECT, or FORMAT. After you
physically format a new or used hard disk (using option 1 or 2 of
the Hard Disk Format Menu), you need to install MS-DOS.
Follow the instructions in your MS-DOS Installation Guide.
The installation process automatically partitions and formats the
hard disk to prepare it for use. (If you are installing another
operating system, follow the instructions in the documentation
that came with it.)
Choosing the Type of Format
Follow these steps to display the formatting options:
1. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A.
2. Turn on or reset the computer. The computer automatically
loads MS-DOS and displays the Operation Menu.
3. Press 2 to highlight Format hard disk and press
Enter. The Hard Disk Format Menu appears on the screen:
HARD DISK FORMAT MENU
1 -Format
2 - Destructive surface analysis
3 - Non-destructive surface analysis
0 - Exit
B-2
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
The formatting options work as follows:
0 Format first scans the disk (if it has no defective track table)
for defective (bad) tracks and lets you decide which tracks to
mark as bad. Then the program formats the disk and marks
the bad tracks so they are never used to store data.
0 Destructive surface analysis tests the entire hard disk for
read/write errors or unflagged bad tracks and updates the
defective track table. Because this option writes and reads
data on the disk, it destroys all data on any track that
produces an error. You cannot run the Destructive surface
analysis on a disk that has never been formatted.
LI Non-destructive surface analysis checks the disk for
unflagged bad tracks without destroying data. You cannot
run the Non-destructive surface analysis on a disk that has
never been formatted.
The type of format you choose depends on whether you are
reformatting a disk that has been used or formatting a new disk
for the first time. See the recommendations below.
Reformatting a Used Disk
If you are reformatting a disk you have been using that appears
to be damaged, follow these steps:
1. Use the Non-destructive surface analysis test to check for
unflagged bad tracks.
2. If errors occur during the Non-destructive surface analysis,
back up your hard disk to diskettes. (See your MS-DOS
Reference Manual for instructions on backing up data.)
3. Run the Destructive surface analysis.
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
B-3
Formatting a New Disk
Many hard disk drives come with a printed list of bad tracks but
the bad tracks are not flagged on the disk. You may need to
modify the defective track table to add the bad tracks. Other
hard disks (such as those supplied by Epson) come with the bad
tracks already flagged. If you are formatting a new hard disk that
has never been formatted, select the Format option to format
the disk.
Selecting an Option
When using this program, you often need to select an option
from a menu. There are two ways to do this:
0 You can use the arrow keys (T J t +) to highlight the
option and press Enter.
Cl You can type the number of the option and press Enter.
You can select almost any option that appears on the screen
using either of these two methods.
Starting the Formatting Process
If you have more than one hard disk drive, you see this prompt:
Enter drive number ? (1/2)
Select 1 for the first hard disk or 2 for the second hard disk.
Then see the instructions below for the Hard Disk Format Menu
option you want to use.
B-4
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
Option 1, Format
If you select 1 -Format from the Hard Disk Format Menu,
you see the following (for a disk that does not have a defective
track table):
Format Hard Disk
< Drive 1: >
Scan hard disk to get defective track
information
? (Y/N)
(If the disk already has a defective track table, you do not see
the message because the disk does not need to be scanned for
bad tracks.)
Select Y to scan the disk or N to skip the scanning process.
If you select Y, the program scans the disk and displays these
messages during the process:
Scanning for flagged bad tracks...
Head : n n n
Cylinder : nnnnn
You see the head and cylinder numbers decrease as the program
progresses. After scanning the disk, the program displays the
results, such as the following:
Scanning finished.
Count of tracks flagged bad
Count of tracks with other errors
Count of good tracks
=
=
=
1
0
4884
Next you see the following prompt:
Accept recommended skewed sectors in
: 1 ? (Y/N)
format
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
B-5
For an Epson hard disk drive, it is best to accept the
recommended skewed sector (also called the interleave factor)
of 1. For other hard disk drives, you may need to change this
value if the documentation that came with the disk recommends
a different number.
To accept the default, select Y.
To enter a new value, select N. You see the following prompt:
Enter new skewed sectors in
format
(1-16):
Enter a number from 1 through 16 that equals the maximum
sector number for the drive minus 1. The maximum sector
number varies, depending on the drive type. Then press Enter.
Next you see this prompt:
Accept recommended skewed sectors per
head in format : 0 ? (Y/N)
For an Epson hard disk drive, accept the recommended value
of 0. For another type of drive, use the value recommended in
the documentation for the drive.
To accept the default, select Y.
To enter a new value, select N. You see the following prompt:
Enter new skewed sectors per head
in format (0-16):
Enter a number from 0 through 16 which equals the maximum
sector number for the drive minus 1. The maximum sector
number varies, depending on the drive type. Then press Enter.
B-6
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
The program now allows you to edit the defective track table:
I
Cylinder
Head
Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head
Defective Track Table:
Modify defective track table ? (Y/N)
At the bottom of the table is this prompt:
Modify defective track table ? (Y/N)
Select Y to add bad tracks to the defective track table. See the
next section for instructions.
Select N to leave the table as it is. Then skip the following
section and go on to “Formatting the Disk” on page B-9.
Modifying the Defective Track Table
If you select Y to modify the table, you see the following options
at the bottom of the table:
Defective Track Table : Move box cursor to desired track with cursor key
A = Add track, C = Change track, D = Delete track, F = Finish editing
Enter command :
To add a bad track, follow these steps:
1. Press A. You see this prompt:
Enter cylinder number (1 -nnnn):
Physically Formating a Had Disk
B-7
2. Type the number of the cylinder containing the bad track
and press Enter. You see this prompt:
Enter head number (0 -nn):
3. Type the head number for the bad track and press Enter.
To cancel the operation, press Enter without typing a value.
When you complete a valid entry, it appears in the table and
you can add the next bad track, if necessary.
If you make a mistake, move the cursor block to the incorrect
track and press C to alter the track data or press D to remove the
track from the table. Change the track data just as you add a
track.
The maximum valid cylinder number and head number (nnnn
and nn) vary according to the capacity of the hard disk. If you
enter an invalid cylinder or head number, a reminder of the
range of values appears and the program asks you to enter the
value again.
When you finish adding all the bad tracks, press Enter without
typing a value. After you complete editing, check the entries in
the defective track table. When you are sure the table is correct,
press F. The program displays a warning about the consequences
of proceeding with formatting.
B-8
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
Formatting the Disk
When you are ready to start formatting the disk, you see the
following warning:
WARNING! ALL DATA WILL BE DESTROYED IN
ALL PARTITIONS OF HARD DISK, NOT JUST IN
MS-DOS PARTITION!
Do you want to start formatting ? (Y/N)
If you are not sure you want to format the hard disk, select N. If
you are sure, select Y; the program gives you one more chance to
cancel:
DOUBLE CHECK THAT YOU HAVE BACKUP
DISKETTE COPIES OF ALL YOUR FILES.
Do you want to exit and check your
file copies ? (Y/N)
Select Y to cancel formatting (and check your backups) or N to
continue.
If you continue with formatting, you see:
Format started.
Head : n n n
Cylinder
: nnnnn
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
B-9
You see the head and cylinder numbers decrease as the program
progresses. When formatting is complete, the program flags any
bad tracks and you see a series of messages like these:
Format finished.
Flagging bad tracks...
Cylinder is nnnn, head is nn
Format completed.
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Press Enter to return to the Hard Disk Format Menu.
Option 2, Destructive Surface Analysis
You can perform a Destructive surface analysis of your hard disk
to accurately locate any bad tracks, and flag any bad tracks that
are not flagged.
Caution
If any errors occur during this check, all data on the track
that produces the error is destroyed. For this reason, if you
think that an unflagged bad track is causing trouble, first run
option 3, Non-destructive surface analysis, to check the disk
surface.
The Destructive surface analysis operates by a complex process
of writing, reading, and verifying information on every track of
the hard disk, except for tracks that are already flagged as bad
tracks.
B-10
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
To start this test, select 2-Destructive Surface
analysis from the Hard Disk Format Menu. You see these
messages:
Analyze Hard Disk
<Drive 1:>
Read/Save/Write/Read/Restore/Read
check for all tracks...
Current cylinder is nnnn
As the program checks each track, it counts the cylinder
numbers (nnnn) down to zero. When the test is complete, the
program displays a report on the status of the disk, including a
table of unflagged tracks that produced write, read errors-such
as the following:
Analysis finished.
Count of tracks flagged bad
Count of tracks with write, read errors
Count of good tracks
z
=
n
n
= nnnn
No write, read error was detected.
No data was destroyed.
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
If the program finds one bad track that is not flagged, the
summary would show one track with a write, read error. The
report is followed by a table like this:
Write, Read Error Tracks
I
Cylinder Head
237
Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head
I
Cylinder Head
I
2
Confirm to register the tracks in the Write, Read Error Track
Table as bad tracks.
Do you want to register the error tracks as bad tracks? (Y/N)
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
B-11
To flag the error tracks as bad, select Y. YOU see a list of the
tracks as they are flagged and these messages:
Flagging bad tracks...
Cylinder is 237, head is 2
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Press Enter to return to the Hard Disk Format Menu.
Option 3, Non-destructive Surface Analysis
The Non-destructive surface analysis does not destroy any data,
and you can use it to safely check the condition of your hard
disk drive. However, this test does not flag any bad tracks it
detects.
To start the test, select 3-Non-destructive surface
a n a l y s i s from the Hard Disk Format Menu. You see these
messages:
Analyze Hard Disk <Drive 1:>
Read/Verify check for all tracks...
Current cylinder is nnnn
As the program checks each track, it counts the cylinder
numbers down to zero. When the test is complete, the program
displays a report on the status of the disk, such as the following:
Analysis finished.
L
n
Count of tracks flagged bad
n
Count of tracks with read, verify errors =
= nnnn
Count of good tracks
No read, verify error was detected.
B-12
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
If the program finds errors, the screen displays a table of the
tracks that gave errors, similar to the one the Destructive surface
analysis displays.
After the status reports, you see this message:
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Check the information displayed. Then press Enter to return to
the Hard Disk Format Menu.
Exiting the Hard Disk Format Menu
To leave the Hard Disk Format Menu, select 0 -Exit. The
screen displays the Operation Menu.
If you formatted the hard disk with option 1 or 2, you must now
install MS-DOS (or another operating system) on the hard disk
to prepare it for use. Remove the Reference diskette from
drive A and then follow the instructions in your MS-DOS
Installation Guide. The installation process automatically
partitions and formats the hard disk.
If you only ran the Non-destructive surface analysis, remove the
Reference diskette from drive A and press the RESET button to
load MS-DOS.
Physically Formatting a Hard Disk
B-13
Appendix C
Performing System Diagnostics
This appendix describes how to check the operation of the main
unit and peripheral devices of your computer. You check these
devices using the diagnostics program on your Reference
diskette.
Run the diagnostics program if you are not sure whether a device
is performing correctly. The table at the end of this appendix
lists the error messages you may see during testing.
You can test the following devices, each of which is identified by
specific reference numbers:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
11
12
14
17
21
81
-
System board
Memory
Keyboard
Monochrome display adapter and CRT
Color graphics adapter and CRT
Diskette drives and controller
Math coprocessor
Parallel port (printer interface)
Serial port (RS-232C port)
Alternate serial port
Dot-matrix printer
Hard disk drives and controller
Alternate parallel port
Parallel port (on video adapter)
Performing System Diagnostics
C-1
Starting System Diagnostics
To run the System diagnostics program, you must turn on or
reset your computer with the Reference diskette in drive A. If
you start this program in any other way, some tests may produce
strange results.
To start the System diagnostics program, follow these steps:
1. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A.
2. Turn on or reset the computer. The Operation Menu
appears.
3. If the Num Lock indicator is illuminated, press Num Lock
to turn off the function.
4. Press 3 or use J to select System diagnostics and
then press Enter.
When you start the System diagnostics program, the computer
checks any peripheral devices that are connected to the system.
Then you see a list of the devices available for testing. This list
includes only the devices that are part of your system; for
example:
DEVICE LIST
1
2
3
5
6
9
11
14
17
-
System board
Memory
Keyboard
Color graphics adapter and CRT
Diskette drives and controller
Parallel port (printer interface)
Serial port (RS-232C port)
Dot-matrix printer
Hard disk drives and controller
DEVICE LIST is correct ? (Y/N)
C-2
Performing System Diagnostics
If the list correctly describes your system, make sure Y is
highlighted and press Enter. If a device is missing from this list,
or if you want to change the list, press N or + and Enter. Then
see “Modifying the Device List” on page C-5.
Note
If your system uses the built-in VGA adapter or an EGA or
VGA card with a color monitor, your device list should
include item 5, Color graphics adapter and CRT. If your
system uses the built-in VGA adapter or an EGA or VGA
card with a monochrome monitor, your device list should
include item 4, Monochrome display adapter and CRT.
After you confirm the Device List, you can test only those items.
If you decide later that you need to add a device, you must
return to the Operation Menu and reselect system
diagnostics.
N o t e
After you have installed MS-DOS, you should always boot
the computer from your hard disk or from the MS-DOS
Startup diskette to use MS-DOS. When you are finished
running system diagnostics, remove the Reference diskette
from drive A. If you do not have a hard disk, insert the
Startup diskette. Then reset your computer to make sure it
performs all the commands in the CONFIG.SYS and
AUTOEXEC.BAT files.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-3
Selecting an Option
When you are using the System diagnostics program, you often
need to select an option from a menu. There are two ways to do
this:
0 You can use the arrow keys (? L c -)) to highlight the
option you want and then press Enter to select it.
D You can type the number of the desired option and press
Enter to select it.
For example, you may see this menu:
1 - Run test one time
2 - Run test multiple times
0 - Exit
Suppose the first option is highlighted. If you want to select that
option, just press Enter (because it is already highlighted). If you
want to select option 2, you can either press
or 2; this causes
the cursor block to move to that option. Then press Enter to
select it.
Note
You can press Esc any time you want to leave the menu
currently displayed and return to the previous one.
C-4
Performing System Diagnostics
Modifying the Device List
If an installed device is missing from the Device List, you must
add it to the list and test it carefully. At the following prompt,
select N.
DEVICE LIST is correct ? (Y/N)
You see this menu:
1 - Add device
2 - Delete device
0 - Finish modification
To add a device to the list, select 1. The program displays a list
of other devices that are not currently included in the Device
List. You see a menu similar to this:
Additional DEVICE LIST
4
7
12
21
81
-
Monochrome display adapter and CRT
Math coprocessor
Alternate serial port
Alternate parallel port
Parallel port (on video adapter)
0 - Exit to DEVICE LIST
Highlight the item you wish to add and press Enter.
You can add as many devices as necessary. When the Device
List is complete, select 0 (Exit).
Performing System Diagnostics
C-5
To remove a device from the list, select 2 (Delete device). The
screen displays the current Device List.
Select the item you wish to delete. You can delete as many
devices as necessary.
When the Device List is correct, select 0. The screen displays
the modified Device List for a final check and these options:
1 - Add device
2 - Delete device
0 - Finish modification
If the list is correct, select 0. You are now ready to select a test.
Selecting a Test
From the Device List, select the device you wish to test. Before
the test begins, you are asked how many times to perform the
test. You see this menu:
Number of times to test device
1 - Run test one time
2 - Run test multiple times
0 - Exit
You can specify that the test be performed one time only or any
number of times in the range from 1 to 9999. Running a test
multiple times is for reliability testing of essential functions only;
in most cases, running a test once is sufficient.
To perform the test once, select 1. The program may display a
submenu of more detailed tests for the device you are checking.
To perform the test multiple times, select 2. You see this
prompt:
Terminate checking if an error
detected ? (Y/N)
Select Y to terminate checking if the device produces an error,
or N to repeat the tests regardless of an error. You see this
prompt:
Repeat times (1-9999) ? 1
To perform the test once, press Enter.
If you wish to run the tests more than once, type the number of
times and press Enter.
For some devices, the computer does not display a submenu of
tests to choose from. Instead, it performs all the tests that do not
require you to enter a response. If you chose to test the device
more than once, the computer runs all the tests and then repeats
them in the same order.
You may see this message on the screen during the tests:
On errors, press any key to stop
If you see an error while one of the tests is running, press any key
to terminate the test.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-7
Resuming From an Error
If an error occurs during a test, the test stops at that point, and
an error code and error message appear. If you want to record the
problem, you can print out the message on your printer. You see
this prompt:
Do you want a printout of the error
message(s) ? (Y/N)
To continue without printing the error message, select N.
Before you request a printout, be sure your printer is ready and
contains paper. Then select Y. If the printer is not ready, the
following message and prompt appear:
Printer is not installed correctly.
Install correctly before entering.
Continue ? (Y/N)
Correct the problem and select Y to continue printing, or select
N to cancel printing.
After printing the error message, the program displays this
prompt:
Printout is finished. Press ENTER to
return to the menu.
The program continues after an error in one of the following
ways:
0 It returns to the Device List, or
D If you are running multiple tests and are not terminating on
an error, the program repeats the test that caused the error.
C-8
Performing System Diagnostics
The table below lists the tests you can run on the system’s
internal devices and on any optional devices you have installed.
You may not see all of the tests listed when you run System
diagnostics. Some tests appear only if you have installed certain
types of equipment. The program displays the title of each check
on the screen.
Tests that check the operation of parallel or serial ports require
you to use a special connector in order to test the device.
Contact your dealer to obtain the connector listed in the table
below before beginning the tests.
For a complete list of the error codes and messages these tests
may display, see the table at the end of this appendix.
system diagnostics tats
Device
Tests available
Description
System board
Checks the
80386SX
microprocessor
Memory
Checks all
memory and
displays a
memory count
Keyboard
Tests all keys on
the keyboard
Monochrome
display adapter
and CRT
Adapter check
Attribute check
Character set check
Graphics mode check
Screen paging check
Video check
Sync check
Run all above checks
Tests all types of
monochrome
monitors
Performing System Diagnostics
C-9
Error Codes and Messages
The following table lists all the error codes and messages that
may appear during system diagnostics testing.
system diagnostics error codes and messages
Error code
System board
101
102
103
104
105
105
106
107
108
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
Memory
201
Keyboard
301
301
302
C-12
Message
CPU ERROR
ROM CHECKSUM ERROR
TIMER COUNTER REGISTER ERROR
TIMER COUNTER ERROR
DMA CONTROLLER REGISTER ERROR
REFRESH ERROR
DMA PAGE REGISTER ERROR
KEYBOARD CONTROLLER TIMEOUT ERROR
KEYBOARD CONTROLLER SELF DIAGNOSTIC
ERROR
KEYBOARD CONTROLLER WRITE COMMAND
ERROR
INTERRUPT CONTROLLER ERROR
CMOS SHUTDOWN BYTE ERROR
CMOS BATTERY ERROR
CMOS CHECKSUM ERROR
CPU INSTRUCTION ERROR
PROTECT MODE ERROR 1
PROTECT MODE ERROR 2
MEMORY ERROR
8042 ERROR
KEYBOARD ERROR
KEYBOARD IS NON-STANDARD, OR KEYBOARD
IS DEFECTIVE
Performing System Diagnostics
System diagnostics tests (continued)
Device
Tests available
Tests the
operation of a
dot-matrix printer
in several modes;
requires the
printer to be
loaded with paper
Dot-matrix
Hard disk drive(s)
and controller
Description
Seek check
Write, read check
Read, verify check
Run all above checks
Tests the
operation
of the hard disk
drive(s)
Alternate parallel
port (on option
card)
Tests the
secondary
parallel port;
similar to primary
parallel port test
Parallel port on a
video adapter
Tests the parallel
port included
on a video
adapter; requires
a loop-back
connector
(contact your
dealer)
Performing System Diagnostics
C-11
C-10
Device
Tests available
Description
Color graphics
adapter and CRT
Adapter check
Attribute check
Character set check
Graphics mode check
Screen paging check
Light pen check
Video check
Sync check
Run all above checks
Tests all types
of color monitors
Diskette drive(s)
and controller
Sequential seek check
Random seek check
Write, read check
Disk change check
Run all above checks
Tests operation
of the diskette
drive(s); requires
a formatted
diskette for some
tests
Math
coprocessor
Tests the
operation of the
math coprocessor
Parallel port (printer
interface)
Tests the primary
parallel port;
requires a loopback connector
(contact your
dealer)
Serial port
(RS-232C)
Tests the primary
serial port;
requires a loopback connector
(contact your
dealer)
Alternate
serial port
(on option card)
Tests the
secondary serial
port; similar to
primary serial port
test
Performing System Diagnostics
System diagnostics error codes and messages (continued)
Error code
Message
Monochrome display adapter and CRT
401
ERROR IN ADAPTER CHECK
ERROR IN ATTRIBUTE CHECK
403
ERROR IN CHARACTER SET CHECK
404
ERROR IN GRAPHICS MODE CHECK
406
ERROR IN SCREEN PAGING CHECK
408
ERROR IN LIGHT PEN CHECK
409
410
ERROR IN VIDEO CHECK
ERROR IN SYNC CHECK
411
Color graphics
501
504
506
508
509
510
511
adapter and CRT
ERROR IN ADAPTER CHECK
ERROR IN CHARACTER SET CHECK
ERROR IN COLOR GRAPHICS CHECK
ERROR IN SCREEN PAGING CHECK
ERROR IN LIGHT PEN CHECK
ERROR IN COLOR VIDEO CHECK
ERROR IN SYNC CHECK
Diskette drive(s) and controller
601
DISKETTE DRIVE CONTROLLER ERROR
SEQUENTIAL SEEK ERROR
602
603
RANDOM SEEK ERROR
604
WRITE ERROR
605
READ ERROR
606
DISK CHANGE CHECK REMOVE ERROR
607
DISK CHANGE CHECK INSERT ERROR
Math coprocessor
701
COPROCESSOR NOT INSTALLED
702
COPROCESSOR INITIALIZE ERROR
COPROCESSOR INVALID OPERATION
703
MASK ERROR
COPROCESSOR ST FIELD ERROR
704
COPROCESSOR COMPARISON ERROR
705
COPROCESSOR ZERO DIVIDE MASK ERROR
706
COPROCESSOR ADDITION ERROR
707
COPROCESSOR SUBTRACTION ERROR
708
COPROCESSOR MULTIPLICATION ERROR
709
COPROCESSOR PRECISION ERROR
710
Performing System Diagnostics
C-13
Error code
Message
Parallel port (printer interface)
901
ERROR PIN p
Serial port (RS-232C port)
1101
control signal ALWAYS LOW
1101
control signal ALWAYS HIGH
1102
TIMEOUT ERROR
1103
VERIFY ERROR
Alternate serial port
1201
control signal ALWAYS LOW
1201
control signal ALWAYS HIGH
1202
TIMEOUT ERROR
1203
VERIFY ERROR
Dot-matrix printer
1401
status
Hard disk drive(s) and controller
1701
SEEK ERROR
WRITE ERROR
1702
1703
READ ERROR
Alternate parallel port
2101
ERROR PIN p
Parallel port (on video adapter)
81nn
ERROR PIN p
C-24
Performing System Diagnostics
Appendix D
Specifications
CPU and Memory
CPU
80386SX microprocessor, 20 MHz system
clock speed, 20 MHz or simulated 8 MHz
processor speed, selectable through
software or keyboard command
0 wait state memory access speed at
20 MHz
System memory
2MB RAM standard; base memory of
640KB
Memory expandable using 256KB,
1MB, or 4MB SIMMs up to 14MB
(maximum); SIMMs must be fast-page
mode, 80ns access speed (or faster)
ROM
128KB (includes system BIOS and VGA
BIOS)
Shadow RAM
0 wait state access speed; automatically
copies both ROM BIOS and video ROM
into RAM
Cache controller
A38202SX (20MHz) standard
Cache RAM
32KB high-speed (25ns) static RAM
Math coprocessor
(optional)
80387SX (20 MHz) support
Clock/calendar
Real-time clock, calendar, and
114-byte CMOS RAM for configuration;
battery backup
Specifications D-1
Controllers
Diskette
Supports up to two drives in any of four
formats: 5 ‘/4-&h, high-density, 1.2MB;
5 ‘/+-inch, double-density, 360KB;
3 ‘/z-inch, high-density, 1.44MB; or
3 1/z-inch, double-density, 720KB;
controller on main system board
Hard disk
Supports up to two half-height drives;
embedded controller; interface on main
system board
Interfaces
Monitor
VGA adapter with 512KB DRAM (video
memory) built into main system board;
supports up to 800 x 600 pixels in 16-colors
or up to 640 x 480 pixels in 256-colors;
multi-frequency monitor required for
resolutions over 640 x 480
15-pin, D-shell connector
Serial
RS-232C, programmable, asynchronous;
9-pin, D-shell connector
Parallel
Standard 8-bit parallel, mono-directional;
25-pin, D-shell connector
Mouse port
Mini DIN, 6-pin connector for PS/2
compatible mouse or other device
Keyboard
Mini DIN, 6-pin connector for PS/2
compatible keyboard
Option slots
Four standard input/output expansion slots
(three 16-bit ISA compatible and one
8-bit ISA compatible); 8 MHz bus speed
Speaker
Internal; operation controllable by
software
Power Supply
140W, f&cooled, automatic (worldwide)
input voltage sensing
Input ranges
98 to 132 VAC and 195 to 264 VAC
Maximum outputs
+5 VDC at 18 Amps, +12 VDC at
4.2 Amps
-12 VDC at 0.3 Amps, -5 VDC at
0.3 Amps
+ 12 VDC at 6 Amps, peak ( 10 seconds)
Mass Storage
Up to three half-height drives maximum
(one vertical mount and two horizontal
mounts) configurable using any of the
following drive types (only horizontal
mounts can be accessed externally):
Diskette drives
5 l/,-inch diskette drive, 1.2MB
(high-density) storage capacity
3 $inch diskette drive, 1.44MB
(high-density) storage capacity
5 ‘/,-inch diskette drive, 360KB
(double-density) storage capacity
3 l/z-inch diskette drive, 720KB
(double-density) storage capacity
Hard disk drives
3 ‘/r4nch form factor hard disk drive(s);
up to half-height size; first drive mounted
vertically, second mounted horizontally
Keyboard
Detachable, two position, 101 sculpted
keys
Layout
58-key QWERTY main keyboard;
17-key numeric/cursor pad; 10 cursor keys;
additional 4-key cursor pad; 16 function
keys (user-definable)
Function
Four levels (normal, shift, control,
alternate); user-definable
A -7
Environmental Requirements
Condition
I
Operating
range
Temperature 41° to 95° F
(5° to 35° C)
Humidity
( noncondensing)
20% to 80%
Non-operating
I range
-4° to 140° F
(-20° to 60° C)
(-40° to 60° C)
10% to 90%
5% to 95%
-330 to 39600 ft
(-100 to 12000 m)
Attitude
Maximum
wet bulb
68° F
(20° C)
104° F
(40° C)
134° F
(57° C)
Physical Characteristics
Width
15 inches (374 mm)
Depth
16.75 inches (419 mm)
Height
6 inches (151 mm)
Weight
(without
keyboard)
Single diskette drive model:
20.75 lb (9.4 kg)
Glossary
Address
A number or name that identifies the location where
information is stored in a computer’s memory.
Analog monitor
A monitor that generates, responds to, or acts upon analog data.
Analog data is transmitted by varying the voltage levels in a
continuous current.
Application program
A software program designed to perform a specific task, such as a
word processing or spreadsheet program.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A
standardized coding system for representing characters, such as
numbers, letters, and graphic symbols. An ASCII character
occupies one byte of storage. Many different computers, printers,
and programs can use files transmitted in ASCII code.
Asynchronous
A method of data transmission in which one machine sends data
one character at a time to another machine at irregular intervals
that do not need to be synchronized to a timing device.
AUTOEXEC.BAT file
The batch file that is executed automatically when you load
MS-DOS. See also Batch file.
Glossary 1
Automatic speed
The feature that enables the computer to switch automatically
from high speed (20 MHz) to low speed (simulated 8 MHz)
when accessing a diskette drive.
Backup
An extra copy of a program, data file, or disk, that you should
create in the event your working copy is damaged or lost.
Base memory
The memory in the computer below 1MB that is available to
MS-DOS and application programs-usually 640KB. Also called
conventional memory or main memory.
Batch file
A type of file that lets you execute a series of MS-DOS
commands by typing one command. Batch files are text files
with the filename extension .BAT. In a batch file, each
command is entered on a separate line. When you type the
filename, MS-DOS executes all the commands in that file
sequentially.
B
I
O
S
Basic Input/Output System. Routines in ROM (Read Only
Memory) that handle basic input/output functions of the
operating system. Usually called ROM BIOS.
Bit
A binary digit (0 or 1). The smallest unit of computer storage.
The value of a bit represents the presence (1) or absence (0) of
an electric charge.
Boot
To load the operating system into the computer’s memory.
2 Glossary
A sequence or group of eight bits that represents one character.
Cache memory
A high-speed type of memory buffer that stores information from
base or extended memory where your system can access it faster.
CGA
Color Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card that can
generate up to 25 lines of text with 80 characters on each line,
monochrome graphics at 640 x 200 resolution, or four-color
graphics at 320 x 200 resolution.
Character
Anything that can be printed in a single space on the page or
the screen; includes numbers, letters, punctuation marks, and
graphic symbols.
CMOS
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. A type of
low-power silicon chip. Information defined by the Setup
program is stored in CMOS RAM, which is backed up by a
battery. Whenever you turn on the computer, it searches CMOS
RAM for the configuration information.
Code
A system of symbols for representing data or instructions. Also
any software program or part of a program.
Command
An instruction you enter (usually on a keyboard) to direct your
computer to perform a specific function.
Glossary 3
Command prompt
The symbol or message that tells you MS-DOS is loaded and
ready to receive instructions. The default command prompt
displays the current drive and directory. If you are logged onto
drive C, the command prompt may look like this: C:>.
Configuration
The particular setup of a group of components. A typical system
configuration consists of a computer with one diskette drive, one
hard disk drive, and a monitor, connected to a printer.
Control code
A command (generated when you hold down Ctrl and press
another key on the keyboard) that instructs the computer to
perform a specific function.
Conventional memory
The memory in your computer (up to 640KB) used by MS-DOS
and application programs. Also called base memory or main
memory.
Coprocessor
An optional device that enables the computer to process certain
mathematical calculations faster.
Copy-protected program
A type of program that cannot be copied. Some copy-protected
programs require you to leave the program diskette in the
diskette drive while you are using it. Some also require the
computer to be running at low speed (simulated 8 MHz) instead
of high speed (20 MHz). See also Automaric speed.
4 Glossary
CPU
Central Processing Unit. The primary unit of the computer that
interprets instructions, performs the tasks you indicate, keeps
track of stored data, and controls all input and output
operations.
Cursor
The highlighted marker that shows your position on the screen.
Cylinders
The vertical alignment of tracks in a hard disk that can be lined
up under one read/write head. The number of tracks on a disk is
equal to the number of cylinders times the number of heads.
Data
Information, such as text or graphics, stored or processed by a
computer.
Data diskette
A formatted diskette on which you store data files (as opposed to
program files).
Default
Any value or setting that takes effect when the computer is
turned on or reset. A default value stays in effect unless you
override it temporarily by changing a setting or you reset the
default value itself.
Delimiter
A character or space used to separate different parts of an
MS-DOS command.
Glossary 5
Device
A piece of equipment that is part of a computer system and
performs a specific task, such as a disk drive, a monitor, or a
printer.
Device driver
A file containing instructions that allow your computer to
recognize and control a device. The Equity 386SX/20 PLUS
comes with device drivers that provide super VGA features for
various programs when used with a multi-frequency monitor.
Diagnostics
The tests and procedures the computer performs to check its
internal circuitry and set up its configuration.
DIP switch
Dual Inline Package switch. A small switch on a computer,
option card, or printer that controls a particular function.
Directory
A list of files stored in a particular area on a disk; part of a
structure for organizing files into groups. A directory listing
shows the name, location, and size of the files in the directory.
A directory can contain both files and subdirectories.
Disk
The collective term for diskettes and hard disks.
Disk drive
The physical device that allows the computer to read from and
write to a disk. A diskette drive has a disk slot into which you
insert a diskette. A hard disk is sealed inside a protective unit.
Diskette
A flat piece of flexible plastic coated with magnetic material
used to store data permanently. Available in either 3 $-inch or
5 l/,-inch format.
Display adapter card
A circuit board that can be installed in one of the computer’s
option slots to provide the monitor interface. The display
adapter card controls the way the monitor displays text and
graphics. (In the Equity 386SX/20 PLUS, a VGA display
adapter is built into the system board. Also known as Video card.
DOS
Disk Operating System. A commonly used operating system that
controls the computer’s input and output functions. See
Operating system
Double-density
A type of diskette format that allows you to store twice as much
data as the standard-density format. A 5 l/d-inch double-density
diskette can store 360KB of data. A 3 l/z-inch double-density
diskette can store 720KB of data.
Drive designator
The letter name of a disk drive, followed by a colon-for
example, C:
EGA
Enhanced Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card that
allows you to display high-resolution graphics on a compatible
monitor. It can display up to 43 lines of text with 80 characters
on each line, or it can display monochrome or 16-color graphics
at up to 640 x 350 resolution.
Glossary 7
Expanded memory
Memory that specially written MS-DOS application programs
can use with an Expanded Memory Specification (EMS) device
driver such as EMM386.SYS.
Extended Memory
Memory above 1MB that is accessed by the protected mode of
the 80386SX microprocessor and is available to some
application programs and operating systems.
Extension
A suffix of up to three characters that you can add to a filename
to better identify it.
File
A group of related pieces of information called records, or
entries, stored together on a disk. Text files consist of words and
sentences. Program files consist of codes and are used by
computers to interpret and carry out instructions.
Filename
A name up to eight characters long that MS-DOS uses to
identify a file.
Fixed disk
See Hard disk.
Format
To prepare a new disk (or an old one you want to reuse) so that
it can store information. Formatting divides a disk into tracks
and sectors and creates addressable locations on it.
8 Glossary
Graphics
Lines, angles, curves, and other nonalphanumeric data.
Hard disk
The enclosed unit used to store large amounts of data. Unlike a
diskette, it is fixed in place. It can process data more rapidly and
store many more files than a diskette. Also called fixed disk.
Hardware
Any physical component of a computer system, such as a
monitor, printer, keyboard, or CPU.
High-density
A type of format that allows you to store more data than on
single- or double-density diskettes. A 5 $-inch high-density
diskette can store 1.2 MB of data. A 3 ‘/z-inch high-density
diskette can store 1.44 MB of data.
Input/output (I/O) port
See Port
Interface
A physical or software connection used to transmit data between
equipment or programs.
Interlaced mode
The mode in which a monitor scans every other line with each
pass of its beam alternating between even numbered lines and
odd numbered lines. This technique achieves doubling of the
frame rate while keeping the bandwidth down.
Interleave factor
The number of physical sectors on a disk drive that the
computer skips when reading consecutive logical sectors the
same track. An interleave factor of 1:1 indicates that the data is
stored on the drive in adjacent sectors. Larger ratios indicate
that the data is not stored sequentially.
A small device that connects two pins on an option card, a disk
drive, or the main system board to activate a particular function.
Key disk
A
diskette containing a copy-protected program that must
remain in the diskette drive while you are using the program.
Kilobyte (KB)
A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory or
on a disk. One kilobyte equals 1024 bytes.
LIM 4.0 EMS
Version 4.0 of the Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory
Specification-a protocol that allows certain application
programs to use memory that MS-DOS cannot use.
Main system board
The board built into your computer containing the circuitry that
the computer requires to operate.
Math coprocessor
An optional device that enables the computer to process certain
mathematical calculations faster.
MCGA
Multi-Color Graphics Array. This mode provides CGA
compatibility as well as two-color 640 x 480 and 256-color
320x200 modes.
MDA
Monochrome Display Adapter. A type of display adapter that
displays text in only one color, such as green or amber.
Megabyte (MB)
A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory or
on a disk. One megabyte equals 1024KB.
Megahertz (MHz)
A unit used to measure oscillation frequency (of a computer’s
internal timing clock). A megahertz is one million cycles per
second. The Equity 386SX/20 PLUS operates at 20 MHz or
simulates an 8 MHz operating speed.
Memory
The area where your computer stores data. Memory contents
can be permanent (ROM) or temporary (RAM).
Memory module
A small circuit board that contains memory chips. You can add
256KB, 1MB, or 4MB memory modules to the main system
board inside the computer to expand the computer’s memory. A
memory module is commonly called a SIMM (single inline
memory module).
Memory on card
The additional memory on an option card installed in the
computer.
MGA
Multi-mode Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card
that can display monochrome text and color graphics on the
screen.
Microprocessor
A small version of a CPU contained on one semiconductor
chip.
Modem
A device that allows a computer to transmit signals over
telephone lines so it can send and receive data. Modem stands
for MOdulator/DEModulator.
Monitor
The piece of hardware that contains the screen and displays
information.
Monochrome monitor
A monitor that displays in only one color, such as green or
amber, as opposed to a color monitor which can display in
several colors.
Mouse
A hand-held pointing device with one or more buttons. When
you slide the mouse over a flat surface in a certain direction, the
cursor moves in the same direction on the screen.
MS-DOS
Microsoft Disk Operating System. The operating system most
commonly used with your computer. See Operating system.
Multi-frequency monitor
A monitor that allows variable horizontal and vertical sync
frequencies. This type of monitor supports a large range of video
display modes and is required to support the 800 x 600 super
graphics mode.
Network server
The master computer in a network which provides storage space
for the other computers connected to it. The network server can
write files to and read files from the other computers in the
network.
Network server mode
An optional password mode that provides extra security for a
computer that is operating as a network server.
Noninterlaced mode
A technique used by the built-in VGA display adapter that
refreshes all the lines on the monitor screen sequentially from
top to bottom.
Numeric keypad
The number keys grouped to the right of the keyboard.
Operating speed
The speed at which the central processing unit can execute
commands. The Equity 386SX/20 PLUS can run at 20 MHz or
simulate an 8 MHz operating speed.
Operating system
A collection of programs (such as MS-DOS, MS OS/2, or
Unix) that manages a computer’s operations. The operating
system determines how programs run on the computer and
supervises all input and output.
Glossary 13
Option card
A circuit board you install inside the computer to provide
additional capabilities, such as a modem.
Parallel
The type of interface that transmits all the bits in a byte of data
simultaneously over separate lines. See Interface and Serial.
Parameter
A qualifier added to a command that tells MS-DOS what
particular conditions to look for and specifies information such
as what data you want to process and where to locate or store a
file.
Parity
A method used to verify the accuracy of data transmissions by
adding a bit that makes the total of the byte odd for odd parity
or even for even parity.
Partition
(1)
The area defined on a hard disk for use by an operating
system; (2) to divide a hard disk into separate sections or logical
drives. You can define a primary partition and one or more
extended partitions on a hard disk.
Pathname
The list of directories and subdirectories you specify to locate a
file. For example, the pathname for the file SALES, which is
located in the subdirectory BUSINESS of the root directory ( \ ),
is \ BUSINESS \ SALES.
Peripheral
An external device (such as a printer or a modem) connected to
a computer that depends on the computer for its operation.
14 Glossary
Port
A physical input/output socket on a computer where you can
connect a peripheral device.
Power-on diagnostics
Tests that the computer runs to check its internal circuitry and
configuration each time you turn it on.
Power-on password
The sequence of characters you type after you turn on the
computer in order to access and use your system. A power-on
password can be up to seven characters long and can include
letters, numbers, and blank spaces.
Processor speed
See Operating speed
Program
A disk file that contains coded instructions and tells a computer
what to do and how to do it.
Prompt
A message the screen displays to request information or tell you
what action you need to perform next. See also Command
prompt.
Random Access Memory. The portion of the computer’s
memory used to run programs and store data while you work.
All data stored in RAM is erased when you turn off or reset the
computer; so you must store any data you want to keep on a
diskette or hard disk.
Glossary 15
Read
To move data from one area to another. For example, when you
open a text file stored on disk, the computer reads the data from
the disk and displays it on the screen.
Read/write head
The physical device inside a disk drive that reads and records
data on the magnetic surface of a disk.
Real&me clock
A battery-powered clock inside the computer that keeps track of
the time and date, even when the computer is turned off.
Reset
To reload a computer’s operating system so you can retry a task
or begin using a different operating system. Resetting erases all
information in RAM.
RGB
Red Green Blue. A type of color monitor.
ROM
Read Only Memory. A portion of memory that can only be read
and cannot be used for temporary storage. ROM retains its
contents even when you turn off the power.
Root directory
The top-level directory in MS-DOS, designated by a \
(backslash). All other directories are subdirectories of the root
directory or of other subdirectories.
16 Glossary
RS-232C
A widely used, standard type of serial interface. You can easily
connect an RS-232C compatible device to the built-in port on
your computer.
Sector
A contiguous section of a disk track that provides an address at
which the computer can access data.
Self test
The initial diagnostics procedures a system performs to check its
hardware.
Serial
The type of interface that transmits data one bit at a time. See
Interface and Parallel.
Shadow RAM
The feature provided by the Equity 386SX/20 PLUS that
enables the computer to copy the ROM BIOS and video ROM
into the RAM area of memory to speed up processing.
SIMM
See Memory module.
Software
The programs that enable your computer to perform the tasks
and functions you indicate.
Subdirectory
A directory or group of files that branches down from another
subdirectory or from the root directory.
Glossary 17
Super VGA mode
Special features of the built-in VGA adapter available when you
are using certain display drivers and a multi-frequency monitor.
These features include 132 column text mode and resolutions up
to 800 x 600 in 16 colors.
Switch
An option added to an MS-DOS command that modifies the
way the command works. Switches are usually preceded by a /
(forward slash). For example, if you add the IS switch to a
FORMAT command, MS-DOS installs the operating system on
the diskette as it formats it. See Parameter.
System diagnostics
A series of checks you can perform on the computer to make
sure the hardware is functioning correctly.
System diskette
A diskette that contains the operating system.
Tracks
Addressable, concentric circles on a disk, resembling the grooves
on a record, which help to divide the disk into separate
accessible areas. There are 80 tracks on each side of a doublesided 1.2MB, 1.44MB, or 720KB diskette and 40 tracks on each
side of a double-sided 360KB diskette. The number of tracks on
a hard disk depends on its capacity.
VGA
Video Graphics Array. A type of high-resolution display
adapter. The VGA adapter built into the system board of
your computer can display 16-color graphics at resolutions up to
800 x 600 or 2560-color graphics at resolutions up to 640 x 480.
Video card
A display adapter card that can be installed in one of the
computer’s option slots to provide a monitor interface. Your
computer comes with a built-in VGA adapter, so you do not
need to install a video card in your system if you are going to use
this interface.
Write
To store data on a disk.
Write-protect
To protect the data on a diskette from being changed by placing
a write-protect tab over the notch on the side of a F/4-inch
diskette or by setting the write-protect switch on a 3 ‘/z-inch
diskette. When a diskette is write-protected, you cannot erase,
change, or record over its contents.
Glossary 19
Index
A
AFDD program, 3-2, 4-7-9
Alternate parallel port check,
C-11
Alternate serial port check, C-10
Analog monitor, 4-12
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 1-14,2-30,
4-l-2
Automatic configuration, 2-2
Automatic speed change,
2-12-14, 4-2-7
Auxiliary device problems, A-26
B
Backing up data,
from diskettes, 3-21 -22
on hard disk, 3-22-23
with BACKUP, 3-22
with DISKCOPY, 3-21
BACKUP, 3-22
Base memory, 2-2, 2-28
Batch files, 4-1-2
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 2-30,
4-1-2
Break, 3-4
C
Cable,
diskette drive, 5-7, 5-13,
7-26 -28
hard disk drive, 5-7,5-14,
7-13-14, 7-19-20, 7-28-30,
A-21
power supply, 7-15-16,
7-31-32
printer, 1-8-11
Cache, 2-11-12, D-1
Cards,
display adapter, see Video cards
memory, 6-1
video, see Video cards
CEG, Intro-2-3,4-13
utilities, Intro-3,4-13
CGA card, see Video cards
Clock, real-time, 2-16-18, D-1
Clock/calendar RAM, D-1
CMOS RAM, 2-1, D-l
Color graphics adapter and CRT
check, C-1, C-10
Color graphics adapter (CGA) card,
see Video cards
Command, stopping, 3-5
CONFIG.SYS, 1-14,2-30
Connecting,
keyboard, 1-12-13
modem, 1-11
monitor, 1-4-8
mouse, 1-13-14
power cord, 1-2,1-15-16
printer, 1-8-11
Consumer Information Center
number, Intro-5, A-1
Continuous Edge Graphics, see CEG
Control codes,
CFRL ALT +, 4-4-5
CTRL ALT -, 4-4-5
CTRL ALT *, 4-4-5
CTRL ALT DEL, 3-6
CTRL BREAK, 3-5
CTRL C, 3-5
Controllers, D-2
COPY, 3-2, 3-14, 3-21,4-1
Copying
diskettes, 3-14, 3-21
files, 3-2, 3-21-23
Coprocessor, see Math coprocessor
Copy-protected programs, 4-3
Cover,
removing, 5-24
replacing, 5-1617
CPU, D-1
CPU speed, see Processor speed
CTRL, 3-3
CTRL ALT +, 4-4-5
CTRL ALT -, 4-4-5
CTRL ALT *, 4-4-5
CTRL ALT DEL, 3-6
CTRL BREAK, 3-5
CTRL C, 3-5
Cursor block, 2-5-6
D
DATE, 2-16
Date, setting, 2-16-18
Destructive surface analysis, B-2-3,
B-10-12
Device drivers, Intro-2-3, 4-13
Diagnostics,
power-on, A-2-5
system, C-1-14
DISKCOPY, 3-14,3-21
Diskette drive,
cable, 5-7, 5-13, 7-26 -28
caring for, 3-14-15
compatibility, 3-12-14
configuring, 2-25-26
controller check, C-10
inserting diskettes, 3-19-20
installing, 7-1-3,7-23-32
problems, A-l 8-19
protector card, 1-3,1-16,3-24
reassigning, 4-7-9
removing, 7-33-35
2
Index
Diskette drive,
removing diskettes, 3-19-20
setting types, 2-25-26
single, 3-18-19
specifications, D-2-3
types, 3-12-14
using, 3-10-22
Diskettes,
backing up, 3-21-22
caring for, 3-14-l5
choosing, 3-12-13
compatibility, 3-12-14
copying, 3-14,3-21-22
formatting, 3-13, 3-21
how they work, 3-10-12
inserting, 3-19-20
labelling, 3-15
problems, A- 15-18
read/write slot, 3-15,3-19
removing, 3-19-20
storing, 3-15
system, 3-1, 3-19, 3-23
types, 3-12-13
write-protecting, 3-16-17
Display adapter, see VGA port
Display adapter cards, see Video
cards
Display screen, see Monitor
Dot-matrix printer check, C-11
Double-density diskettes, 3-13
Double-sided diskettes, 3-12-13
Drives,
see Diskette drive
see Hard disk
E
EDLIN, 4-1-2
EGA card, see Video cards
EMM386.SYS, 4-12
Enhanced graphics adapter, see
Video cards
Environmental requirements, D-4
Epson Consumer Information
Center number, Intro-5, A-1
Error codes and messages, 2-4-5,
A-2-5, C-12-14
ESPEED program, 3-2, 4-3-6
Expanded memory, 4-11-12
Extended memory, 2-2, 2-28,
4-11-12
F
FDISK, B-2
Files,
AFDD.EXE, 3-2, 4-7-9
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 1-14,
2-30, 4-1-2
backing up, 3-21-23
batch, 4-1-2
CONFIG.SYS, 1-14,2-30
copying, 3-2, 3-21-23
EMM386.SYS, 4-12
ESPEED.EXE, 3-2, 4-3-6
Floppy disk drive, see Diskette
drive
Floppy disks, see Diskettes
FORMAT, 3-21, B-2
Formatting,
diskettes, 3-21
hard disk, 3-22, B-1-13
physical, B-1-13
H
Hard disk, see also Diskette drive
backing up, 3-23
configuring, 2-19 -24
drive and controller check,
C-11
drive cable, 5-7, 5-14,
7-13 -14, 7-19-20, 7-28-30,
A-21
Hard disk,
formatting, 3-22, B-1 -13
installing, 7-1-35
installing MS-DOS on, 3-1
jumpers, 7-4-7
master drive, 7-4 -6
mounting frames, 7-8 -9
mounting plate, 7-10-12
parking the heads, 3-23-24
partitions, 3-22, B-2, B-13
physically formatting, B-1 -13
precautions, 3-23
preparing for moving, 3-23-24
preparing for use, 3-22
problems, A- 19-23
removing, 7-1-35
setting types, 2-19-24
slave drive, 7-4-6
specifications, D-2-4
storage capacity, 3-22
types, 2-23-24
HDSIT, 3-2, 3-23-24
HELP program, Intro-3
Help, where to get, Intro-5, A-l
Hercules card, see Video cards
High-density diskette, 3-12
I
Identifying your system, A-1 -2
Initial num lock, 2-14-16
Inserting diskettes, 3-19-20
Interfaces, D-2 -3
Interleave factor, B-6
J
Jumper settings, 5-1, 6-2-4,
changing, 6-24
Index 3
K
Keyboard,
adjusting angle, 1-13
cable, 1-12
check, C-9
connecting, 1-12-13
controller check, A-2
interface, D-2
layout, 3-3, D-4
problems, A- 12-13
repeat rate, 2-14-16
special keys, 3-3-4
speed commands, 4-4-5
Key prompt, 2-9, 3-7-9, 4-10
L
LIM 4.0 EMS, 4-11
Loading MS-DOS, 3-18-19
Location, choosing for computer,
1-1-2
Low-level format, see Physical
formatting
M
Mass storage, D-3-4
Master drive, 7-4-6
Math coprocessor,
check, C-10
configuring, 2-2,2-29
installing, Intro-2,6-2, 6-19-22
problems, A-27-28
removing, 6-22
specification, D-1
MCGA card, see Video cards
MDA card, see Video cards
Memory,
base, 2-2,2-28
beyond 640KB, 4-11-12
caching, Intro 1,2-11 -12
cards, 6-1
check, C-9
4 Index
Memory,
configuration, 2-2, 2-11-12,
2-28
expanded, 4-11-12
extended, 2-2, 2-28, 4-11-12
LIM 4.0 EMS, 4-11
manager, 4-11-12
modules, see SIMMs
problems, A-4, A-27
specifications, D-1
MENU utility, Intro-3, 1-11
MGA card, see Video cards
MODE, 1-11
Modem, connecting, 1-11
Monitor,
analog, 1-4,4-12
connecting, 1-4-8
interface, D-2
multi-frequency, 1-4,4-12
problems, A-13 -15
selecting type, 1-4,1-7,2-6-8
setting jumpers, 1-8,6-2-9
Monochrome display adapter and
CRT check, C-9
Monochrome graphics adapter
card, see Video cards
Mounting frames, hard disk,
7-8-9
Mounting plate, hard disk,
7-10-12
Mouse,
connecting, 1-13-14
interface, D-2
port specifications, D-2
problems, A-26
MS-DOS,
copying files, 3-2, 3-21-23
diskettes, 3-1-2
installing, 3-1
loading, 3-18-19
Multi-frequency monitor, Intro-3,
1-4, 4-12-13
N
Network server, 4-9 -11
Network server mode, 2-9-11,
3-7, 4-9 -11
Non-destructive surface analysis,
B-2-3, B-12-13
Non-interlaced mode, 4-12, A-1
Num lock,
initial, 2-14-16
mode, 2-6, 2-14-16
O
Operating speed, see Processor
speed
Operation Menu, 2-3
Option cards,
configuring, 6-23-24
installing, 6-1, 6-5-9
memory, 6-1
problems, A-25 -26
removing, 6-9-10
testing, 6-24, C-10 -11
video, see Video cards
Option slots, 6-5-9, D-2
Options, installing, 6-1-24
OS/2 Intro-3
P
Parallel,
cable, 1-8-10
interface, 1-8 -10, 2-26 -28,
D-2
port, 1-8-10
port check, C-10 -11
port on video adapter check,
C-11
Partitions on hard disk, 3-22, B-2,
B-13
Password, see Power-on password
Physical characteristics, D-5
Physical formatting, B-1 -13
Port,
keyboard, 1-12-13, D-2
monitor, 1-4-6, D-2
mouse, 1-13-14, D-2
parallel, 1-8-10, D-2
serial, 1-11, D-2
Power,
button, 1-17
cord, connecting, 1-2, 1-15-16
source, 1-2
supply, D-3
Power-on diagnostics, A-2 -5
Power-on password,
changing, 3-8-9
deleting, 3-9, A-9 -11
disabling, A-10 -11
entering, 3-7 -9, 4-10 -11
jumper, 6-3, A-9 -12
network server mode, 2-9 -11,
3-7, 4-9 -11
problems, A-8 -12
setting, 2-9 -11, A-11 -12
using, 3-7-9
Power supply cables,
see also Power cord
7-15 -16,7-31-32
Precautions,
computer, 1-2, 1-16, 5-4
diskette, 3-14 -15
hard disk, 3-23
Printer,
connecting, 1-8 -11
interface check, C-10
parallel interface, 1-8 -10, D-2
problems, A-24 -25
serial interface, 1-11, D-2
Processor speed, 2-12 -14, 4-2-7,
A-23, D-1
Protector card, 1-3, 1-16, 3-24
Index 5
R
Setup program,
RAM check, A-2
Random access memory (RAM),
Intro-l, 2-1,3-18, A-2
Read only memory (ROM), Intro-l,
A-2, D-1
Read/write heads, 3-12, 3-23 -24
Read/write slot, 3-15, 3-19
Real-time clock, 2-16 -18, D-1
Reassigning diskette drives, 4-7-9
Redirecting printer output, 1-11
Reference diskette, 2-1, 3-2, 6-23 -24
Removing diskettes, 3-19 -20
RESET button, 3-6 -9
Resetting the computer, 3-5-6
ROM, see Read Only Memory
ROMBIOS.COM, 3-2, A-2
keyboard options, 2-14 -16
leaving the program, 2-30 -31
math coprocessor, 2-2
memory, 2-2, 2-11 -12, 2-28
memory caching, 2-11 -12
network server mode, 2-9 -11
parallel interface, 2-26 -28
power-on password, 2-9 -11
processor speed, 2-12 -14
real-time clock, 2-16 -18
reviewing, 2-28 -30
running, 2-1 -31,6-23 -24
serial interface, 2-26 -28
speaker option, 2-14 -16
starting the program, 2-2-6
summary, 2-28 -30
Shadow RAM, Intro- 1, D-1
SIMMs,
installing, 6-1, 6-10 -15
problems, A-27
removing, 6-15-18
specifications, 6-10 -11, D-1
Skewed sector, B-6
Slave drive, 7-4-6
Software problems, A-23
Speaker, 2-14-16, D-3
Special keys, 3-3 -4
Specifications, D-1 -5
Speed, see Processor speed
Subassembly,
removing, 5-5-8
replacing, 5-8 -15
Super VGA mode, Intro-1,
4-12-13
System,
board check, C-9
diagnostics, C-1 -14
identifying, A-1 -2
memory, see Memory
setting up, 1-1 -18
S
Sector, 3-11
SELECT, B-2
Serial,
cable, 1-11
interface, 1-11,2-26 -28, D-2
port, 1-11
port check, C-10
SETMODE, 1-11
Setting up, 1-1-18
Setup menu, 2-3,2-5
Setup program, 2-1-31
automatic configuration, 2-2
caching, 2-11 -12
clock, real&me, 2-1618
cursor block, moving, 2-56
diskette drive types, 2-25-26
display adapter type, 2-6-8
error message, continuing from,
2-4-5
hard disk drive configuration,
2-19 -24
6 Index
T
TIME, 2-16
Time, setting, 2-16-18
Timer check, A-2
Tracks, 3-10 -13
Troubleshooting, A-1 -28
TURBO light, 4-2
Turning off computer, 1-18
Turning on computer, 1-16 -18
U
Utilities,
CEG, 4-13
VGA, 4-12 -13
V
VER, A-2
VGA BIOS, 2-7-8
VGA port,
connecting monitor, 1-44
setting jumper, 6-6 -10
setting type, 2-7 -9
specifications, D-2
utilities, see VGA utilities
VGA utilities, Intro-3, 4-12-13
VGAMODE, 4-13
Video cards, see also Option cards
CGA, 1-7, 2-6-8
color graphics adapter and
CRT check, C-3, C-10
compatibility, 1-7
configuring, 2-6-8
EGA, 1-7, 2-6-8
features, 4-12 -13
Hercules graphics card, 1-7,
2-6 -8
installing, 1-7 -8
jumpers for, 6-3
MCGA, 2-6-8
MDA, 1-7, 2-6 -8
MGA, 1-7, 2-6 -8
Video cards,
monochrome display adapter
and CRT check, C-3, C-9
parallel port (on video adapter)
check, C-11
problems, A-13 -15, A-25 -26
setting display adapter type, 2-6-8
VGA, 1-7 -8, 2-6 -8
Video graphics array (VGA),
built-in port, see VGA port
card, see Video cards
Video monitors, see Monitor
W
Write-protect notch, 3-16
Write-protect switch, 3-17
Write-protect tab, 3-16
Write-protecting diskettes, 3-16 -17
X
XCOPY, 3-14,3-21
Index 7
EQUITY 386SX/20 PLUS
U s e r’s G u i d e
diskette drive
hard disk access light
diskette release latch
power light
TURBO speed light
RESET button
keyboard cable socket
hard disk or
diskette drive bay
serial port
j EPSON Overseas Marketing Locations
EPSON America, Inc.
EPSON Deutschland GmbH
20770 Madrona Avenue
Torrance, CA 90503, U.S.A.
Phone: (2 13) 782-0770
Zulpicher StraSe 6, 4000 Dusseldorf 11,
F.R. Germany
Phone: 211-56030
Telex: 41-8584786
EPSON France S.A.
EPSON Australia Pty. Ltd.
B.P. 320, 68 Bis Rue Marjolin
92305 Levallois-Perret Cedex, France
Phone: 33-1-4737-3333
Telex: 42-610657
17 Rodborough Road,
Frenchs Forest, N.S.W. 2086, Australia
Phone: 2-452-0666
Telex: 71-75052
EPSON Singapore PTE. LTD.
EPSON Hong Kong Ltd.
No.1 Raffles Place #26-00,
Oub Centre, Singapore 0104
Phone: 533-0477
Telex: 87-39536
25/F., Harbour Centre,
25 Harbour Road,
Wanchai, Hong Kong
Phone: 5-831-4600
Telex: 802-65542
EPSON Electronics Trading Ltd.
Taiwan Branch
10F, NO. 287, Nanking E. Road,
Sec. 3, Taipei, Taiwan
Phone: 886-2-7 17-7360
Telex: 785-24444
EPSON IBERICA, S.A.
C/Paris 152, 08036 Barcelona,
Spain
Phone: 3-410-3400
Telex: 52-50129
EPSON Italia S.p.A.
SEIKO EPSON Corporation
V.le F.lli Casiraghi, 427
20099 Sesto S. Giovanni MI, Italy
Phone: 2-26233.1
(Hirooka Office)
80 Harashinden, Hirooka
Shiojiri-shi, Nagano-ken
399-07 Japan
Phone: (0263) 52-2552
Telex: 3342-214 (SEPSON J)
EPSON UK Ltd.
Campus 100
Maylands Avenue
Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP2 7EZ, U.K.
Phone: (LINKLINE) 0800 289622
Telex: 51-82467
Epson America, Inc.
20770 Madrona Avenue, Torrance, CA 90503