User`s guide | Epson 320SX PLUS Personal Computer User Manual

EPSON
®
EQUITY ® 32Osx PlUS
User’s Guide
IMPORTANT NOTICE
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
Epson America makes no representations or warranties, either express or implied,
by or with respect to anything in this manual, and shall not be liable for any
implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose or for
any indirect, special, or consequential damages. Some states do not allow the
exclusion of incidental or consequential damages, so this exclusion may not apply
to you.
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of Epson America, Inc. No patent liability is assumed with respect to
the use of information contained herein. Nor is any liability assumed for damages
resulting from the use of the information contained herein. Further, this
publication and features described herein are subject to change without notice.
TRADEMARKS
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
Equity is a registered trademark of Epson America, Inc.
General notice: Other product names used herein are for identification purposes
only and may be trademarks of their respective companies.
Copyright © 1991 by Epson America, Inc.
Torrance, California
ii
Y740991001
FCC COMPLIANCE STATEMENT FOR AMERICAN USERS
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a class B
digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to
provide reasonable protection against hamrful interference in a residential
installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy
and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause
harmful interference to radio or television reception. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this
equipment does cause interference to radio and television reception, which can be
determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to
correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
l
l
l
l
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which
the receiver is connected
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
WARNING
The connection of a non-shielded equipment interface cable to this equipment will
invalidate the FCC Certification of this device and may cause interference levels
which exceed the limits established by the FCC for this equipment. It is the
responsibility of the user to obtain and use a shielded equipment interface cable
with this device. If this equipment has more than one interface connector, do not
leave cables connected to unused interfaces.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the manufacturer could void
the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
FOR CANADIAN USERS
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions
from digital apparatus as set out in the radio interference regulations of the
Canadian Department of Communications.
Le present appareil numérique n’emet pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les
limites applicables aux appareils numériques de Classe B prescrites dans le
réglement sur le brouillage radioéctrique édicté par le Ministére des
Communications du Canada.
Important Safety Instructions
1. Read all of these instructions and save them for later reference.
2. Follow all warnings and instructions marked on the product.
3. Unplug this product from the wall outlet before cleaning. Use
a damp cloth for cleaning, not liquid cleaners or aerosol
cleaners.
4. Do not use this product near water.
5. Do not place this product on an unstable cart, stand, or table.
6. Slots and openings in the cabinet and the back or bottom are
provided for ventilation; these openings must not be blocked
or covered. This product should never be placed near or over a
radiator or heat register.
7. This product should be operated from the type of power
source indicated on the marking label. If you are not sure of
the type of power available, consult your dealer or local power
company.
8. Connect all equipment to properly grounded (earthed) power
outlets. If you are unable to insert the plug into the outlet,
contact your electrician to replace your obsolete outlet. Avoid
using outlets on the same circuit as photocopiers or air control
systems that regularly switch on and off.
9. Do not locate this product where the cord will be walked on.
10. If an extension cord is used with this product, make sure that
the total of the ampere ratings on the products plugged into
the extension cord do not exceed the extension cord ampere
rating. Also, make sure that the total of all products plugged
into the wall outlet does not exceed 15 amperes.
11. Never push objects of any kind into this product through the
cabinet slots. Never spill liquid of any kind on the product.
12. Except as specifically explained in the User’s Guide, do not
attempt to service this product yourself. Refer all servicing to
qualified service personnel.
13. Unplug this product from the wall outlet and refer servicing to
qualified service personnel under the following conditions:
A. When the power cord or plug is damaged.
B. If liquid has entered the product.
C. If the product does not operate normally when the
operating instructions are followed. Adjust only those
controls that are covered by the operating instructions,
since improper adjustment of other controls may result in
damage and will often require extensive work by a
qualified technician to restore the product to normal
operation.
D. If the product has been dropped or the cabinet has been
damaged.
E. If the product exhibits a distinct change in performance.
iV
Importantes Mesures de Séurité
1. Lire attentivement les instructions qui suivent. Les conserver
en lieu stir.
2. Observer les avertissements et suivre rigoureusement les
instructions marquees sur l’ordinateur.
3. Debrancher l’appareil avant de le nettoyer. Se servir d’un
chiffon humide, sans detergents ni aerosols.
4. Ne pas se servir de l’ordinateur pres de l’eau.
5. Ne pas placer l’appareil sur un meuble instable.
6. Les ouvertures et fentes à l’arrière et au dessous du coffre en
assurent la ventilation. 11 est important de ne pas couvrir ni
bloquer ces prises d’air. De meme, il ne faut jamais placer
l’ordinateur près d’un appareil de chauffage.
7. N’utiliser comme type de courant que celui qui est indique sur
l’etiquette. En cas de doute, consultez votre distributeur ou la
compagnie électrique de votre secteur.
8. Toutes les connexions électriques doivent être des connexions
de sècurite, avec contact de terre. Si la fiche de sécurité n’entre
pas dans le socle de prise de courant, demander a un
electricien de remplacer l’ancien socle par un socle neuf. Eviter
de brancher l’ordinateur sur le même circuit que des machines
qui se mettent en marche et s’arriêtent tour a tour, telles que
photocopieurs ou climatiseurs.
9. Ne pas laisser de fils ou cordons électriques dans un lieu de
passage; éviter de leur marcher dessus.
10. S’il est nécessaire d’employer un cordon prolongateur pour
brancher l’appareil, s’assurer que la consommation d’energie
totale des machines branchees sur le cordon prolongateur ne
depasse pas la capacite en amperes dudit cordon. L’ampérage
total de toutes les pièces branchees sur le socle ne doit pas
depasser 15 amperes.
11. Ne jamais rien introduire dans les prises d’air. Ne pas renverser
de liquide sur l’appareil.
V
12. Sauf dans les cas specifiquement indiques dans le Guide de
l’utilisateur, ne pas essayer de réparer l’ordinateur soi-même;
s’adresser à un spécialiste qualifié.
13. Debrancher l’appareil et s’adresser au personnel de service
qualifie dans les cas suivants:
A. Lorsque le cordon, les broches, la prise ou le socle sont
endommages.
B. Lorsqu’un liquide a pénétré a l’interieur de l’appareil.
C. Lorsque l’ordinateur ne répond pas normalement aux
commandes passées en suivant les instructions. Ajuster
uniquement les controles décrits dans les instructions; il
est possible de gravement endommager l’appareil en
touchant les autres, ce qui pourrait nécessiter
l’intervention d’un technicien qualifié pour le remettre en
état de marche.
D. Lorsque l’appareil est tombe ou le coffre a été endommagé.
E. Lorsque la performance de l’ordinateur est nettement
inferieure a l’ordinaire.
vi
Contents
Introduction
Optional Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating Systems and Other Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VGA Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Use This Manual ............................
Where to Get Help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
1 Choosing a Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Removing the Protector Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Connecting a Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the VGA Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Display Adapter Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Connecting a Printer or Other Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Parallel Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 Connecting the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Connecting the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 Connecting the Power Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Turning On the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning Off the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 2
1
2
2
3
4
l-l
l-3
l-4
1-4
l-7
1-8
l-8
l-l1
1-12
1-13
1-15
1-16
1-18
Running the SETUP Program
Starting the SETUP Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Date and Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Diskette Drive(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Hard Disk Drive(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Drive Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-5
vii
Setting the Primary Display Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Keyboard Test Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Shadow RAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the CPU Clock Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EMSSize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing or Deleting a Password. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the BuiIt-in Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Parallel Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Disk Drive Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving Your Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 3
Using Your Computer
Installing MS-DOS or Another Operating System . . . . . . . .
Special Keys on the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stopping a Command or Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Password. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Disks and Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Disks Store Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . .
Write-protecting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Single Diskette Drive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting and Removing Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Backup Copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Hard Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-15
2-15
2-16
2-l 6
2-16
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-6
3-8
3-10
3-12
3-14
3-15
3-l 7
3-l 7
3-18
Chapter 4
Enhancing System Operations
Using AUTOEXEC.BAT and Other Batch Files . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Processor Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Keyboard Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the ESPEED Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Expanded Memory Beyond 640KB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying the CONFIG.SYS File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the VGA Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 5
Removing
Removing
Replacing
Replacing
Chapter 6
4-l
4-2
4-4
4-5
4-7
4-8
4-11
Accessing Internal Components
the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
the Subassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
the Subassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-2
5-5
5-9
5-17
Installing and Removing Options
Changing the Jumper Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Jumpers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing the Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing an Option Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing an Option Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Memory Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Memory Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Memory Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Math Coprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a Math Coprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post-installation Setup for Memory Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post-installation Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2
6-3
6-5
6-9
6-13
6-14
6-15
6-18
6-21
6-24
6-25
6-25
ix
Chapter 7
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Using the Correct Drive Bay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Use This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Jumper Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Hard Disk in the Vertical Position . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the Mounting Frames From the Drive. . . . .
Removing and Attaching the Mounting Plate . . . . . . .
Installing the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a Hard Disk From the Vertical Position . . . . . . . .
Installing or Removing a Drive in the
Horizontal Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Drive in the Horizontal Position . . . . . . . .
Removing a Drive From the Horizontal Position. . . . .
Appendix A
7-19
7-19
7-27
Specifications
CPU and Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controllers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mass Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Memory Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-7
7-8
7-10
7-l 1
7-17
A-l
A-2
A-2
A-3
A-3
A-4
A-4
A-4
A-5
Appendix B
Performing System Diagnostics
Starting the Diagnostics Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Main Menu Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Run Time Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Multiple Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running the Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SeekTest....................................
Read/Verify Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check Test Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Force Bad Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floppy Disk Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing the Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floppy Disk Error Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Diagnostics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Adapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communication Adapter Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exiting System Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-2
B-2
B-4
B-6
B-8
B-8
B-10
B-12
B-12
B-13
B-16
B-l 7
B-18
B-18
B-18
B- 19
B-19
B-19
B-20
B-21
B-22
B-23
B-23
B-24
B-25
x i
Appendix C
Troubleshooting
Identifying Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Won’t Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Does Not Respond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Password Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Your Current Password. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitor Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Drive Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Data on the Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option Card Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mouse Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Module Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Math Coprocessor Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary
Index
Xii
C-l
C-2
C-3
C-4
C-5
C-6
C-7
C-8
C-9
C-11
C-12
C-13
C-14
C-14
C-15
C-16
C-17
C-18
C-19
C-19
C-20
Introduction
®
®
The Epson Equity 320sx PLUS is a high-performance
personal computer which offers exceptional speed and
convenience in a compact design.
Your 20 MHz, 80386SX system includes 2MB of internal
memory, a built-in VGA (video graphics array) display
®
adapter, built-in parallel and serial interfaces, and an IBM
PS/2™ compatible mouse port. These interfaces allow you to
connect most of your peripheral devices directly to the
computer, so you do not have to install option cards.
The Equity 320sx PLUS also provides four option slots (three
16-bit and one 8-bit) in which you can install additional
devices, such as a modem or a network card.
Your computer can support up to three internal drives: either
two diskette drives and one hard disk drive, or one diskette
drive and two hard disk drives.
Additionally, your system offers shadow RAM to speed up
processing by moving the ROM BIOS and the video ROM
into the RAM area of memory. This allows the computer to
access and display information faster.
Optional Equipment
You can easily upgrade your computer by installing
additional memory and adding just about any optional
device that is compatible with the IBM Personal Computer,
PC XT,” or PC AT.”
By adding memory modules to the main system board, you
can expand the computer’s memory up to 24MB. The first
16MB can be used as either extended or expanded memory;
any memory above 16MB can be used only as expanded.
Introduction 1
You may want to install an 80387SX, 20 MHz math
coprocessor in your computer to speed up mathematical
calculations in certain application programs.
Check with your authorized Epson dealer for information on
optional equipment.
Operating Systems and Other Software
You probably have a version of MS-DOS® to use with your
computer. However, you can run another operating system,
®
®
such as, OS/2, UNIX or XENIX If you use another
operating system, refer to the documentation that came with
it to install and run it on your computer.
You can use virtually any application program designed for
the IBM PC, PC XT, PC AT, or compatible computers on your
Equity 320sx PLUS. You may also use powerful 32-bit
software designed for 80386 computers with your system.
VGA Utilities
Epson has included special VGA device drivers and utilities
that you can use with your built-in VGA adapter. With these
utilities, you can take advantage of extended VGA features
such as 16-color graphics mode resolutions up to 800 x 600
and 132-column text mode. The VGA device drivers and
utilities are described in the VGA Utilities booklet that came
with your system.
2 Introduction
How to Use This Manual
This manual explains how to set up and operate your
computer, install options, and run diagnostic checks.
Although the illustrations show a computer with a 21/4-inch
diskette drive, instructions for using a 31/2-inch drive are
included.
You do not need to read everything in this book; see the
following chapter summaries.
Chapter 1 provides simple
setting up your system. On
illustrations identifying the
refer to these as you set up
step-by-step instructions for
the back cover foldout are
different parts of your computer;
your system.
Chapter 2 describes how to run the SETUP program to define
your computer’s configuration. Do this before you use your
computer. You may need to do it again later, if you change
the configuration.
Chapter 3 provides instructions for important operating
procedures, such as using and caring for disks and disk drives.
Chapter 4 describes specialized features you can use to
enhance your system’s performance.
Chapter 5 describes how to remove and replace the
computer’s cover and subassembly to access the internal
components.
Chapter 6 describes some of the options you can use in your
computer and contains instructions for setting jumpers,
replacing the battery, and installing options.
Introduction 3
Chapter 7 describes how to install and remove disk drives.
Appendix A gives the technical specifications for the
computer.
Appendix B outlines the system diagnostic tests you can run
to diagnose hardware problems.
Appendix C contains troubleshooting tips.
At the end of the manual, you’ll find a glossary and an index.
Where to Get Help
If you purchased your Epson product in the United States,
Epson America provides local customer support and service
through a nationwide network of authorized Epson dealers
and Service Centers.
Epson also provides the following support services through
the Epson Consumer Resource Center at (800) 922-89 11:
Assistance in locating your nearest Authorized Epson
Reseller or Service Center
Technical assistance with the installation, configuration,
and operation of Epson products
Epson technical information library fax service
Product literature with technical specifications on our
current and new products
Sales of ribbons, supplies, parts, documentation, and
accessories for your Epson product
Customer Relations.
4 introduction
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
Setting up your Equity 320sx PLUS personal computer is easy.
Just follow the eight steps in this chapter. As you set up your
system, you may want to leave this manual’s back cover
foldout open so you can refer to the illustrations identifying
the different parts.
1
Choosing a Location
Setting Up Your System
1-1
Before you set up your computer, it’s important to choose a
safe, convenient location that provides the following:
0 A sturdy desk or table strong enough to support the
weight of your system and all of its components.
0 A flat, hard surface. Soft surfaces like beds and carpeted
floors attract static electricity, which can erase data on
your disks, damage the computer’s circuitry, and prevent
proper ventilation.
cl Good air circulation. Leave several inches of space around
the computer so air can move freely.
cl Moderate environmental conditions. Select a cool, dry
area and protect your computer from extremes in
temperature, humidity, dust, and smoke. Avoid direct
sunlight or any other source of heat.
cl Appropriate power sources. To prevent static charges,
connect all your equipment to three-hole, 120-volt
grounded outlets. You need one outlet for the computer,
one for the monitor, and additional outlets for a printer
and any other peripheral devices.
0 No electromagnetic interference. Do not place your
system too dose to any electrical device, such as a
telephone, which generates an electromagnetic field.
1-2
Setting Up Your System
2 Removing the Protector Cord
If you have a SW-inch diskette drive, there is a protector card
in the diskette slot. This card is inserted at the factory to
protect the read/write heads in the drive. To remove it, flip
the latch up to pop the card out part way, as shown below;
then pull it out.
(If you have a second 51/4-inch diskette drive, be sure to
remove the protector card from it.)
Save the protector card. If you transport your computer, you
may want to insert the card into your diskette drive prior to
shipping. This will protect the read/write heads during the
shipping process.
Setting Up Your System
1-3
3
Connecting a Monitor
The way you connect your monitor to the computer depends
on the type of monitor you have. If you have a VGA monitor
(or a multi-frequency monitor with an analog connector),
you can connect it to the computer’s built-in VGA port. See
“Using the VGA Interface” below. If you have any other type
of monitor, see “Using a Display Adapter Card” on page 1-7.
Using the VGA interface
Follow these steps to connect your VGA monitor to the VGA
port on the computer:
1. Make sure your monitor and computer are turned off.
2. Place your monitor on top of or near the computer. For
easy access, turn the monitor and computer around so
the backs of both components are facing you.
3. If necessary, connect the monitor cable to the monitor.
(Your monitor may have a permanently attached cable.)
1-4
Setting up Your System
4. Examine the connector end of the monitor cable, and
position the plug to match the orientation of the
monitor port (marked with a monitor icon). Then insert
the plug into the port, as shown below.
5. If the connector has retaining screws, be sure to tighten
them.
Setting Up Your System
1-5
6.
7.
1-6
Plug the monitor power cord into the monitor’s power
inlet, as shown below.
Plug the other end of the power cord into an electrical
outlet.
Setting Up Your System
Using a Display Adapter Card
If you are using a non-VGA monitor, you’ll need to install a
display adapter (video) card in one of the computer’s option
slots before you can connect the monitor. your dealer may
have already installed the video card for you.}
If the video card has not yet been installed, you’ll need to
follow the instructions in Chapter 6 to install an option card.
But first, check the following table to make sure your display
adapter card and monitor are properly matched.
Monitor/video card compatibility
Monitor
Video card
Monochrome
Monochrome display adapter (MDA)
Multi-mode graphics adapter (MCA)
Enhanced graphics adapter (EGA)
Hercules®graphics card
Color or EGA
Color graphics adapter (CGA)
Multi-mode graphics adapter (MGA)
Enhanced graphics adapter (EGA)’
Monochrome or
or color VGA
Video graphics array (VGA)
+ EGA cards support only EGA monitors.
When you are installing the video card, check to make sure
any switches or jumpers on the card are set properly. For
example, you may need to change a switch setting to select
color or monochrome. See the documentation that came
with your monitor or video card for instructions.
Setting Up Your System
1-7
Note
If you install a display adapter card, you must set jumper
Jl on the main system board to disable the built-in VGA
interface so that your card can operate as the primary
display adapter. You may also need to set jumper J3 to
indicate whether a color or monochrome monitor is
installed. See Chapter 6 for instructions on changing
jumper settings.
Once you have installed your video card, return to this
section to connect your monitor to the computer. If your
monitor came with its own manual, follow the instructions
there. Otherwise, you can follow the steps in “Using the VGA
Interface” on page 1-4; just insert your monitor connector
into the video card port instead of the built-in VGA port.
4 Connecting a Printer or Other Device
Your computer has both parallel and serial interfaces. To
connect a printer or other peripheral device to one of these
interfaces, follow the instructions below.
Using the Parallel Interface
®
The parallel interface on your computer is Centronics
compatible and uses a DB-25S connector.
To connect your printer and computer, you need an IBM
compatible printer cable. If you are not sure which cable you
need, check with your Epson dealer.
Once you have the right printer cable, follow these steps:
1. Make sure the printer and computer are turned off.
2. Place the printer next to the computer with their backs
facing you.
1-8
Setting Up Your System
3. One end of the printer cable has a 25-pin, D-shell
connector. Position the plug to match the orientation of
the parallel interface (marked with a special icon shown
in the illustration below). Then plug the connector into
the port, as shown below. If the plug has retaining
screws, tighten them by hand or with a screwdriver,
depending on the screw type.
retaining screws
Setting Up Your System
1-9
4. Connect the other end of the cable to the printer as
shown below. To secure the cable, squeeze the clips at
each side of the printer port and push them into place.
5. Plug the printer’s power cord into a three-hole, 120-volt,
grounded electrical outlet.
1-10
Setting Up Your System
Using the Serial lnterface
If you have a printer, a modem, or other peripheral device
with a serial interface, you can connect it to the serial
(IR-232C) port on the back of the computer.
The serial port uses a DB-9P connector, so be sure you have a
compatible cable. To connect a serial device, follow the same
steps as above for connecting a parallel device but insert the
connector into the serial port, marked with a special icon, as
shown below.
Note
You need to ensure that the serial port is set up so it
functions properly. If you are using the port for a serial
printer, you need to redirect printer output to the serial
port instead of the parallel port. To do this, you can use
the MS-DOS MODE or SETMODE command. See your
MS-DOS manuals for instructions.
Setting Up Your System
1-11
5
Connecting the Keyboard
Follow these steps to connect the keyboard:
1. Make sure the computer is turned off.
2. Hold the keyboard cable connector so the indicator on
the housing faces up. Insert the connector into the
appropriate port, marked with a keyboard icon, as shown
Although the connectors and ports for the keyboard
and mouse are physically identical, they cannot be
used interchangeably. Be sure to plug the keyboard
1-12
Setting Up Your System
3. You can raise the keyboard by adjusting the legs on the
bottom. To change the angle of the keyboard, turn it over
and flip each leg upward until it locks into place, as
shown below.
6 Connecting the Mouse
Your computer has an auxiliary port for an IBM PS/2
compatible mouse that uses a miniature DIN (6-pin)
connector.
Before you connect a mouse, make sure your computer is
turned off.
If your mouse has this type of connector, you can connect it
to the built-in port on your computer. If you have a mouse
that requires a different interface port, you can connect it to
the built-in serial port or install an option card to provide the
interface.
To connect a mouse to the built-in mouse port, hold the
mouse connector so it is oriented properly with its port.
Insert the connector, marked with a mouse icon, as shown in
the following illustration.
Setting Up Your System
1-13
mouse connector
Once you have connected a mouse, you may need to add
commands to your MS-DOS CONFIG.SYS file to enable your
computer to use a mouse. See your MS-DOS and mouse
manuals for instructions.
If you want to use a mouse or other pointing device
1-14
Setting Up Your System
7 Connecting the Power Cord
Follow these steps to connect the power cord:
1. Plug the power cord into the AC power inlet on the back
panel, as shown below.
WARNING
To avoid an electric shock, be sure to plug the cord
into the computer before plugging it into the wall
socket.
2. Plug the other end of the power cord into a three-hole,
120-volt, grounded electrical outlet.
Setting Up Your System
l-15
Turning On the Computer
8
After you set up your system, you’re ready to turn on the
power. But first, read the following safety rules to avoid
accidentally damaging your computer or injuring yourself:
a Do not connect or disconnect any peripheral device or
power cables when the computer’s power is on.
a Never turn on the computer with a protector card in the
diskette drive.
a Never turn off or reset your computer while a disk drive
light is on. This can destroy data stored on the disk.
a Always wait at least five seconds after you turn off the
power before you turn it on again. This allows the
computer to clear and reset its memory.
a Do not leave a beverage near your system or any of its
components. Spilled liquid can damage the circuitry of
your equipment.
a Always turn off the power, disconnect the computer’s
power cord, and wait 30 seconds before you remove the
cover. Only remove the cover to access internal devices,
add memory, change jumper settings, or replace the
battery.
Follow these steps to turn on your system:
1. Make sure the power cord is plugged into the AC power
inlet on the back panel of the computer and into a
three-hole, 120-volt, grounded electrical outlet.
2. Turn your computer around so the front panel faces you
and place your other system components in an
arrangement that suits you. (See step 1, “Choosing a
Location,” for a typical arrangement.)
3. Turn on the monitor, printer, and any other peripheral
devices connected to the computer.
1-16
Setting Up YourSystem
4. To turn on the computer, press the power button located
on the right side of the front panel, as shown below.
power button
The power indicator next to the button lights up. After a few
seconds, the computer counts the amount of memory in
your computer, and then performs a diagnostic self test. This
is a series of checks the computer completes each time you
turn it on to make sure everything is working correctly.
If necessary, use the controls on your monitor to adjust the
brightness and contrast until characters on the screen are
clear and at a comfortable level of intensity. If your monitor
has horizontal and vertical hold controls, you may need to
use them to stabilize the display.
Note
If you or your dealer have made a major change to your
system, such as adding a disk drive, you may need to wait
a few minutes for your computer to complete power-on
diagnostics the first time you turn it on.
Setting Up Your System
1-17
When the system has successfully completed its self test, you
see the following prompt:
Press <Del> to start SETUP
Do not press any key yet. If MS-DOS has already been
installed on your system, you’ll see a prompt to enter the
date. (For information about loading the operating system,
see your MS-DOS manuals.)
If there is no operating system on your computer, you see an
error message. Ignore the message for now. Follow the
instructions below to turn off the computer and then go on
to Chapter 2 for instructions on running the SETUP program.
Note
If your computer’s configuration does not match the
information stored in the computer’s CMOS RAM (defined
through the SETUP program), you see an error message
and a prompt to press the F1 key. Press F1 to continue.
Then run the SETUP program to correct the information.
(See Chapter 2 for instructions.)
Turning Off the Computer
When you are ready to turn off your system, reverse the
sequence of steps you followed to turn it on. Turn off the
computer first, then turn off the monitor and any peripheral
devices.
Now go on to Chapter 2 and follow the instructions to run
the SETUP program.
1-18
Setting Up Your System
Chapter 2
Running the SETUP Program
When you use your computer for the first time, you need to
run the SETUP program to define how your system is set up.
This is a simple procedure which you must do at least once.
You may need to run it again later if you change some part of
your configuration.
The SETUP program is stored in the computer’s read-only
memory (ROM), so you can run the program any time you
turn on or reset your computer. You do not need to insert a
diskette or access the hard disk.
SETUP lets you verify or change the following:
0 Current date and time
tl Type of diskette drives(s) installed
cl Type of hard disk drive(s) installed
D Type of video display adapter you are using
0 Keyboard testing function
Cl Shadow RAM function
0 CPU clock speed
P EMS size
0 Password feature
0 Built-in interface settings for the parallel and serial ports,
and the diskette and hard disk drive controllers.
Running the SETUP Program
2-1
The configuration you define through SETUP is stored in a
special area of memory called CMOS RAM. This memory is
backed up by a battery, so it will not be erased when you
turn off or reset the computer. Whenever you reboot the
computer, it checks the settings, and if it discovers a
difference between the information in the CMOS RAM and
your system’s configuration, it prompts you to run SETUP.
You see a message such as the following:
CMOS memory size mismatch
RUN SETUP UTILITY
Press <Fl> to RESUME
Press F1 to run SETUP and correct the setting.
Starting the SETUP Program
To start the SETUP program, make sure there is no diskette
in the diskette drive; then turn on your computer. (If the
computer is already on, press the RESET button on the front
panel to reset it.)
After the computer completes its self test, you see the
following prompt:
Press <Del> to start SETUP
As soon as you see this message, press the Del key. If you do
not press Del within five seconds, the computer starts loading
the operating system and you will not be able to run SETUP.
If this happens, reset the computer and try again.
You see the following options:
Start operating system
Run SETUP
The first option is highlighted. Press 4 to highlight Run
SETUP, and then press Enter. The SETUP menu appears on
the screen.
2-2
Running the SETUP Program
The menu automatically displays the base memory size, the
extended memory size, and whether a math coprocessor
(numeric processor) is installed. Additionally, the SETUP
menu lists the parameters you can change.
Selecting Options
A solid cursor bar highlights the parameter currently selected.
You can scroll through the parameters using the four arrow
keys ( ‘ , ’ , “ , ”
). When you reach a parameter you want to
change, press Page Up or Page Down to display and select
the available options.
An information window appears at the bottom of the menu;
it describes the options available or any other keys to press to
change the highlighted configuration parameter.
The rest of this chapter describes how to choose the correct
SETUP parameters for your system.
Setting the Date and Time
The real-time clock in your computer continously tracks the
date and time-even when the computer is turned off. Once
you set the date and time using SETUP, you should not need
to change either parameter, except to adjust the time for
daylight savings, if necessary. (The computer automatically
changes the date for leap years.)
The current month is highlighted and a calendar on the right
side of the screen shows all the days for the month. The
current day is flashing. Press Page Up or Page Down to select
the correct month, day, and year.
To change the time, move the cursor to the next line and
press Page Up or Page Down to enter the correct hour and
minutes according to a 24-hour clock. For example, 5 p.m.
would be hour 17. You cannot set the number of seconds.
Running the SETUP Program
2-3
Setting the Diskette Drive(s)
Your system probably came with one diskette drive installed
and you may have another drive of a different size or
capacity. The SETUP menu offers five possible selections for
your diskette drives (A and B):
P 1.2MB 51/4-inch
D 360KB 51/4-inch
P 1.44MB 31/2inch
0 720KB 31/2-inch
0 Not installed.
Check the settings displayed for both drives and correct them
if necessary. (If you have only one diskette drive, select
Not installed for drive B.)
Note
If you do not know the capacity of your diskette drive, ask
your dealer.
2-4
Running the SETUP Program
Setting the Hard Disk Drive(s)
The SETUP program lets you select the type of hard disk
drive(s) installed in your computer. If you have two hard disk
drives, the first one is C and the second one is D. Be sure to
choose the correct setting for both drives.
Follow these guidelines:
Cl If your system does not have a hard disk, select Not
i n s t a11ed for drives C and D. If you have only one hard
disk drive, select Not i nsta11ed for drive D.
Ll If your computer came with an Epson 100MB hard disk
drive (or if you installed this drive yourself), select
number 60 for drive C.
D If you have installed another type of hard disk drive, you
need to select the drive type number that matches your
drive. See “Hard Disk Drive Types” below.
Hard Disk Drive Types
If you have installed a hard disk in your computer that is not
the standard Epson 100MB drive (type 60), you need to select
the correct type number to match your drive.
The following table lists the types of standard hard disk
drives you can use in your computer. Check this table and
the documentation supplied with your hard disk to find
the correct type number for your drive. (Your drive’s
documentation should list all the parameters necessary to
identify it in this table.) If none of the types listed match
your drive, see “Defining your own drive type,” below.
Running the SETUP Program
2-5
Hard disk drive types
2-6
Running the SETUP Program
Hard disk drive types (continued)
Defining your own drive type
If the parameters for your hard disk (listed in its
documentation) do not match any of the types listed in the
table above, you can define your own type. Follow these
steps:
1. With the cursor at the Hard disk type option, press
Page Up or Page Down to scroll through the types until
you come to 47-USERTYPE.
2. Use the numeric keys to enter the appropriate values for
these parameters:
Cyl n = the number of cylinders on the disk.
Head = the number of read/write heads in the drive.
WPcom = the precompensation cylinder.
LZone = the landing zone (the area on which the
computer parks the heads when you run the HDSIT
program).
Sec = the number of sectors on the disk.
Size = the total amount of storage capacity for the disk.
Running the SETUP Program
2-7
Press Enter after typing each number. If you enter an invalid
number, the computer beeps and does not go on to the next
parameter. Check your drive documentation and try again.
You do not enter a value for Size; SETUP does this
automatically based on the other values you have entered.
Setting the Primary Display Type
This option lets you define the type of adapter you are using
in your computer for your primary display device:
0 VGA or EGA
0 Color 80 x 25
0 Monochrome
0 Color 40 x 25.
Note that this option defines the display adapter (the built-in
VGA port or an optional video interface card in your
computer), not the monitor connected to it.
If you have connected your monitor to the computer’s builtin VGA port, select VGA or EGA. Otherwise, follow these
guidelines to select the correct adapter type:
0
If you have a color graphics adapter (CGA) or a multimode graphics adapter (MGA) attached to an RGB (color)
monitor, select Co1 or 80x25. (Also be sure to set the
color/mono switch on the MGA card to color.)
0 If you have a monochrome display adapter (MDA), an
MGA, or a Hercules MGA attached to a monochrome
monitor, choose Monochrome. (Also remember to set the
color/mono switch on the MGA card to mono.)
2-8
Running the setup Program
0 If you have a composite color monitor, such as a color
television with a video input, try selecting Co1or
80x25. If you find that the monitor’s resolution is poor,
run SETUP again and select Co1or 40x25.
If you have two display adapters of different types, select the
setting for the one you want to be your primary display
adapter. The other one is your secondary adapter.
Note
If you have installed an EGA or VGA display adapter card,
or another type of card that you want to be the primary
display adapter, you must set jumper Jl on the main
system board to disable the built-in VGA interface.
If you install one type of display adapter card and then
change the type of monitor you are using (from color to
monochrome, or vice-versa), you also need to set jumper
J3. If you have two types of cards, set the jumper to match
the monitor that is your primary display. See Chapter 6 for
instructions on changing jumper settings.
Setting the Keyboard Test function
There are two options for the keyboard test function:
Installed or Not installed. Select Installed if you want the
computer to test the operation of the keyboard each time you
turn it on or reset it. Select Not i ns tall ed if you want the
computer to skip the keyboard test to save time as you boot
the system.
Running the SETUP Program
2-9
Setting the Shadow RAM
Your computer can access RAM (random access memory)
faster than ROM (read-only memory). The Shadow RAM
feature enables the Equity 32sx PLUS to copy the contents
of its system BIOS and/or video ROM into RAM
so it can perform certain operations faster.
The SETUP Shadow RAM option lets you choose what to
place in the shadow RAM area:
0 System
3 Video
0 System and video
0 None.
Select System+Video unless you have installed a memory
card or video card that provides its own shadow RAM (in
which case you can select just System or just Vi deo). Select
None if you do not want to use the Shadow RAM function.
Note
Shadow RAM uses 128KB of the RAM available between
640KB and 1MB in your system (384KB). If you use the
shadow RAM feature, 256KB of this memory is available
for use as extended or expanded memory. If you do not
use shadow RAM, you can use all of the 384KB of RAM as
extended memory, but only 256KB of it as expanded
memory. See “Using Expanded Memory Above 640KB” in
Chapter 4 for more information.
2-10
Running the SETUP Program
Setting the CPU Clock Speed
This option lets you set the default speed at which your
computer’s processor operates when you turn it on:
P High speed (20 MHz)
0 Low speed (10 MHz)
Q Auto speed.
When it is running at high speed, the TURBO light on the
front panel is illuminated.
At high speed, it can access memory faster, so your programs
work faster. You should use high speed for everything you do
unless you are using an application program that requires the
slower speed. Some programs (especially older ones) have
specific timing requirements when accessing diskettes. Check
your application program manual.
You can also set the processor to change speed automatically.
This enables the computer to switch to low speed whenever it
needs to access a diskette but run at high speed for all other
operations.
Select Hi gh speed for 20 MHz, Low speed for 10 MHz, or
Auto speed to have the computer switch to low speed
automatically when necessary.
Note
You may not want to use the automatic setting for certain
copy-protected programs. See “Changing the Processor
Speed” in Chapter 4 for more information.
In addition to selecting the default operating speed through
SETUP, you can change the speed temporarily by giving a
keyboard command or by running the ESPEED program. See
“Changing the Processor Speed” in Chapter 4 for more
information.
Running the SETUP Program
2-11
EMS Size
The EMS Size option provides a simple way to set the amount
of memory you want to use as expanded. Expanded memory
can be used
by application
programs conforming to the
®
®
Lotus/Intel /Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification
(LIM EMS). The Equity 320sx PLUS is compatible with
version 4.0 of the LIM EMS.
Once you have set the expanded memory size with the EMS
Size option, you also need to use a memory manager to
convert the memory to expanded memory. Many application
programs come with a memory manager and there are a
variety of other memory managers available. If you already
have a memory manager (such as the one provided with
MS-DOS), you should use that manager along with EMS Size.
If you do not have another memory manager, you can use
the EMM386SX.SYS memory manager which is on your
Reference diskette. See “Using Memory Beyond 640KB” in
Chapter 4 for instructions.
Note
Do not use EMS Size to define expanded memory if you
plan to install Windows on your system. See your
Windows documentation for more information.
The total amount of your computer’s extended memory
appears in the information window. You can define how
much of it you want to use as expanded memory in units of
256KB.
2-12
Running the SETUP Program
For example, with 2MB of memory, you can specify any of
the following as expanded memory:
0 0KB
3 256KB
Li 512KB
Q 768KB
Q 1024KB
Cl 1280KB.
Setting the Password
The SETUP program lets you set an optional password to
control who can use your system. If you do not want to set
a password for your computer, skip this section.
Once you set a password through SETUP, you must enter it
every time you turn on your computer or reset it by pressing
the RESET button. If you do not enter it correctly, you cannot
access your system.
To set a password, move the cursor to the Password option.
Next to it, you see Not i nsta 11 ed. (If you have already set a
password you see I n s t a 11 ed.) Press Page Up or Page Down
to display the following:
New Install
Running the SETUP Program
2-13
Now type the password you want to use. You can type up to
eight characters using the letter or number keys, in upper- or
lowercase. For example, you could enter the following:
123aBc!
You can use the backspace key to correct mistakes. After you
type the password, press Enter.
Note
Be sure to remember the password you enter or write it
down and keep it in a safe place. If you cannot remember
it, you will not be able to access the computer the next
time you turn it on. If you forget your password, however,
there is a way to disable the function. See “Password
Problems” in Appendix C for more information.
Changing or Deleting a Password
If you want to change the current password, highlight the
Password option and press Page Up or Page Down to
display New Ins t a 11. Then enter a new password, as
described above.
To delete the password, press Page Up or Page Down to
display Not installed.
Be sure to save your settings (as described at the end of this
chapter) when you exit the SETUP program.
2-14
Running the SETUP Program
Setting the Built-in interfaces
This option lets you define how the following built-in
interfaces operate:
Cl Parallel port (LPTl, LPT2, LPT3)
0 Serial port (COMl or COM2)
0 Hard disk drive controller (HDC)
0 Floppy disk drive controller (FDC).
Setting the Parallel lnterface
The built-in parallel port is set to act as the primary port
(LPTl). If you install an option card that provides an
additional parallel interface, you may need to select LPT2 or
LPT3 for the built-in port. Follow these guidelines:
0 If you are using only the built-in port, select LPTl. Also
select LPTl if you have installed an additional port but
want to keep the built-in port the primary adapter.
Cl If you have installed an additional port that is pre-set to
act as the primary port or one that you want to be the
primary port, select LPTE. For example, if you have
installed an IBM monochrome adapter/parallel interface
card, the parallel port on the card must be the primary
adapter and you need to select LPT2 for the built-in port.
0 If you have installed two additional parallel ports and
want them to be primary and secondary, select LPT3.
0 If you have installed three additional parallel ports and
you do not want to use the built-in port, select Disable.
Note
Be sure to set any jumpers on the card(s) to indicate how
you want the port to be recognized (LITI, LPI2, or LPT3).
Running the SETUP Program
2-15
Setting the Serial Interface
The built-in serial port in your computer is set to act as the
primary port (COMl). If you install an option card that
provides an additional serial port, that port automatically
becomes secondary (COM2). However, if you want the port
on the card to be COMl, select COM2 for the built-in port.
If you install a card (or cards) that provides two additional
serial ports and you want them to act as the primary and
secondary ports, select Disable for the built-in port.
Note
Be sure to set any jumper(s) on the card(s) to indicate
whether you want the port(s) to be primary or secondary.
Setting the Disk Drive Controllers
If you are using the standard drives that came with your
computer, the hard disk drive controller (HDC) and diskette
drive controller (PDC) should be set to Enable.
However, if you install an option card that provides a
controller for a diskette drive or hard disk drive, you need to
disable the built-in controller.
Saving Your Settings
After you have made your selections for SETUP, press Esc to
exit. You see the following prompt:
Save SETUP configuration (Y/N)?
Press Esc to return to the menu to make corrections. Press Y
and Enter to save the settings in the CMOS RAM. Press N and
Enter to exit SETUP without saving your changes.
2-16
Running the SETUP Program
If you saved your changes, the SETUP program resets your
system and the computer runs through its power-on
diagnostic tests.
If something is wrong, however, you see an error message
and a prompt to run SETUP. Follow the instructions on the
screen to run SETUP again to correct it. (You may need to
reset the computer.)
If you have just run SETUP for the first time, the next thing
you need to do is install MS-DOS on your computer. See
your MS-DOS manuals for instructions. (If you are using a
different operating system, follow the installation
instructions provided with it.)
Running the SETUP Program
2-17
Chapter 3
Using Your Computer
This chapter briefly describes the following procedures for
using your computer:
P Installing MS-DOS or another operating system
Cl Using special keys on the keyboard
Cl Stopping a command or program
D Resetting the computer
Q Using a password
P Using disks and disk drives.
Installing MS-DOS or Another Operating System
After you connect the components of your system and run
the SETUP program, you must install the operating system
on your computer. If you are installing MS-DOS, follow the
instructions in your MS-DOS manuals. If you are installing
another operating system, such as MS OS/2 or UNIX, see the
manual that comes with that system for instructions on
installing and using it. The procedures in this manual assume
that you are using MS-DOS with your computer.
Note
Be sure to make backup copies of your original operating
system diskettes.
Using Your Computer
3-1
Special Keys on the Keyboard
Certain keys on your keyboard serve special functions when
your computer is running MS-DOS or application programs.
The special keys are described in the table below.
Special key functions
3-2
Using Your Computer
Special key functions (continued)
The Caps Lock, Num Lock, and Scroll Lock keys work as
toggles; press the key once to turn on a function and again to
turn it off. When the function is enabled, the corresponding
light in the upper right corner of the keyboard is on.
Stopping a Command of Program
You may sometimes need to stop a command or program
while it is running. Many programs provide a command you
can use to cancel or even undo an operation. If you have
entered an MS-DOS command that you want to stop, try one
of the following commands:
P Hold down the Ctrl key and press C
0 Hold down the Ctrl key and press Break.
Using Your Computer
3-3
These methods may also work in your application program.
If not, you may need to reset the computer, as described
below.
Caution
It is best not to turn off the computer to stop a program or
command. If you created new data and have not yet stored
it, the data will be erased if you turn off the computer. The
computer stores your data in its memory area (RAM) until
you save it; but the data is erased each time you turn off or
reset the computer.
Resetting the Computer
Occasionally, you may want to clear the computer’s current
settings or its memory without turning it off. You can do this
by resetting the computer.
For example, if an error occurs and the computer does not
respond to your keyboard entries, you can reset it to reload
MS-DOS and try again. However, resetting erases any data in
memory that you have not saved; so reset only if necessary.
To reset the computer, MS-DOS must be either on the hard
disk or on a diskette in drive A; so if you do not have a hard
disk, insert the Startup diskette in drive A.
3-4
Using Your Computer
There are two ways to reset the computer:
0 If you are using MS-DOS, hold down Ctrl and Alt and
press the Del key. The screen goes blank for a moment
and then the computer should reload MS-DOS. If it
doesn’t, try the next method.
0 Press the RESET button on the front panel. This method
works even when the computer does not respond to your
keyboard entries.
If resetting the computer does not correct the problem, you
probably need to turn it off and reboot it. Remove any
diskette(s) from the diskette drive(s). Turn off the computer
and wait five seconds. If you do not have a hard disk, insert
the Startup diskette in drive A. Then turn on the computer.
Using a Password
If you set a password when you ran the SETUP program, you
must enter it every time you turn on the computer or press
the RESET button. Follow these steps to use your password:
1. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your Startup
diskette in drive A.
2. Turn on the computer or press RESET. After the computer
completes its memory test, the screen displays the
following prompt:
Enter Password :
3. Type your password at the prompt. The screen does not
display the characters you type. Then press Enter.
After you type the password correctly and press Enter, you
see the Press <Del> to start SETUP prompt. If you do not
press Del, the computer loads MS-DOS and displays the
MS-DOS command prompt.
Using Your Computer
3-5
If you do not enter the correct password the first time, press
Enter and try again.
If you want to change or delete your current password, you
must run the SETUP program. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
Using Disks and Disk Drives
The disk drives in your computer allow you to store data on
disk, and then retrieve and use your stored data. This section
explains how disks work and tells you how to:
cl
Use different types of diskettes and diskette drives
3
Care for your diskettes and diskette drives
P Write-protect diskettes
0
Use a single diskette drive system
0
Insert and remove diskettes
cl
Format diskettes
cl Make backup copies
cl
Use a hard disk drive.
How Disks Store Data
Diskettes are made of flexible plastic coated with magnetic
material. This plastic is enclosed in a square jacket that is
either slightly flexible (51/4inch diskette), or hard (31/2inch
diskette).
Unlike a diskette, a hard disk is rigid and fixed in place. It is
sealed in a protective case to keep it free of dust and dirt. A
hard disk stores data the same way that a diskette does, but it
works much faster and has a much larger storage capacity.
3-6
Using Your Computer
All disks are divided into data storage compartments by sides,
tracks, and sectors. Double-sided diskettes store data on both
sides. On each side are concentric rings, called tracks, on
which a disk can store data.
A disk is further divided by sectors, which are similar in
shape to pie slices. The figure below provides a simple
representation of tracks and sectors.
Double-sided, double-density diskettes have either 40 or 80
tracks on each side, and double-sided, high-density diskettes
have 80 tracks on each side. Diskettes can have 8, 9, 15, or 18
sectors per track.
A hard disk consists of two or more platters stacked on top of
one another and thus has four or more sides. In addition, a
hard disk has many more tracks per side than a diskette, but
the number of tracks depends on the capacity of the hard
disk. The number of sectors depends on the type of hard disk.
Using Your Computer
3-7
Your computer uses the read/write heads in a disk drive to
store and retrieve data on a disk. To write to a disk, the
computer spins it in the drive to position the disk so that the
area where the data is to be written is under the read/write
head. A diskette has an exposed area where the read/write
head can access it.
Because data is stored magnetically, you can retrieve it,
record over it, and erase it-just as you play, record, and erase
music on a cassette tape.
Types of Diskette Drives
The following list describes the four types of diskette drives
you can use in your computer and which diskettes to use
with them:
cl
1.44MB drive-Use 3 1/2-inch, double-sided, high-density,
135 TPI (tracks per inch), 1.44MB diskettes. These
diskettes contain 80 tracks per side, 18 sectors per track,
and hold up to 1.44MB of information, which is
approximately 600 pages of text.
0
1.2MB drive-use 5 1/4-inch, double-sided, high-density,
96 TPI, 1.2MB diskettes. These diskettes contain 80 tracks
per side, 15 sectors per track, and hold up to 1.2MB of
information, which is approximately 500 pages of text.
0 720KB drive-Use 31/2-inch, double-sided, double-density,
135 TPI, 720KB diskettes. These diskettes contain 80
tracks per side, 9 sectors per track, and hold up to 720KB
of information, which is approximately 300 pages of text.
3-8
Using
Your Computer
0 360KB drive-Use 5 1/4-inch, double-sided, double-density,
48 TPI, 360KB diskettes. (You can also use single-sided,
160KB or 180KB diskettes.) These diskettes contain 40
tracks per side and 8 or 9 sectors per track. With 8 sectors
per track, a diskette holds up to 320KB. With 9 sectors per
track, a diskette holds up to 360KB of information, which
is approximately 150 pages of text.
Note
You must format a new diskette before you can store data
on it. See “Formatting Diskettes,” later in this section.
Drive and diskette incompatibilities
If your computer has more than one type of diskette drive, or
if you use different types of diskettes, you need to be aware of
certain incompatibilities between the drives and diskettes.
Because of the type and size differences, you cannot use a
31/2-inch diskette in a 51/4inch drive or vice versa. There are
also limitations on using diskettes that are the same size as
the drive but have different capacities. The following tables
summarize the possibilities and limitations.
5 1/4-inch drive/diskette compatibility
l
If you write to this diskette in a 1 .2MB drive, you may not be able
to read it or write to it in a 360KB drive later.
3 1/2-inch drive/diskette compatibility
Using Your Computer
3-9
Because of these incompatibilities, always indicate the
diskette type and density when you label your diskettes.
(Usually this information appears on the manufacturer’s
label.)
If you have any combination of the above drives (1.44 MB,
1.2MB, 720KB, or 360KB), you can copy files from one drive
to another-using COPY or XCOPY-as long as the correct
diskette type is in each drive. You can also use these
commands to copy files between a hard disk and any type of
diskette. However, you cannot use the MS-DOS DISKCOPY
command to copy from one diskette drive to another if the
two drives are not the same type. For more about copying
files and diskettes, see your MS-DOS manuals.
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives
Follow these basic precautions to protect your diskettes and
avoid losing data:
3-10
3
If you have a diskette that contains data you don’t want
to accidentally write over or erase, be sure you writeprotect it. This is especially important for your operating
system and application program diskettes. See “Writeprotecting Diskettes,” below, for more details.
a
Do not remove a diskette from the diskette drive or reset
or turn off the computer while the drive light is on. This
light indicates that the computer is copying data to or
from a diskette. If you interrupt this process, you can
destroy data.
a
Remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
a
Keep diskettes away from dust and dirt. Small particles of
dust or dirt can scratch the magnetic surface, destroy
data, and ruin the read/write heads in a diskette drive.
a
Never wipe, brush, or try to dean diskettes in any way.
Using Your Computer
0
Keep diskettes in a moderate environment. Don’t leave
diskettes sitting in the sun, or in extreme cold or heat.
0 Keep diskettes away from magnetic fields, such as
electrical appliances, telephones, and loudspeakers.
(Remember that diskettes store information
magnetically.)
Q Do not place diskettes on top of your monitor or near an
external hard disk drive.
Q Always hold a 51/4-inch diskette by its protective jacket
and never touch the magnetic surface (exposed by the
read/write slot). The oils on your fingertips can damage
it.
0 Do not place anything on top of your diskettes, and be
sure they do not get bent.
0 Carefully label your diskettes and indicate the type and
density. Attach the label only along the top of a diskette
(next to the manufacturer’s label). Do not stick several
labels on top of one another; this can make it difficult to
insert and remove the diskette in the drive.
P Write on a diskette label before you attach it to the
diskette. If you need to write on a label that is already on
the diskette, use only a soft-tip pen-not a ballpoint pen
or a pencil.
Q Store diskettes in their protective envelopes and in a
proper location, such as a diskette container. Do not store
diskettes flat or stack them on top of each other.
Using Your Computer
3-11
Write-protecting Diskettes
You can write-protect a diskette to prevent its data from
being altered. When a diskette is write-protected, you can
read it and copy data from it, but you cannot store new data
on it or delete any files it contains. If you try to change data
stored on a write-protected diskette, MS-DOS displays an
error message.
To write-protect a 51/4-inch diskette, cover the small,
rectangular notch (shown below) with an adhesive writeprotect tab. Write-protect tabs usually are included in a new
package of blank 51/4-inch diskettes.
To remove the write protection, peel off the write-protect tab.
3-12
Using
Your Computer
On a 3M-inch diskette, the write-protect device is a small
switch on the back of the diskette in the lower right comer,
shown below. To write-protect a 3M-inch diskette, slide the
switch toward the edge of the diskette until it clicks into
position, exposing a hole in the comer.
-write-protect
switch
To remove the write protection, slide the switch toward the
center of the diskette until it clicks into position and the hole
is covered.
Note
Some program diskettes have no notch or switch so they
are permanently write-protected. This protects them from
being accidentally erased or altered.
Using Your Computer
3-13
Using a Single Diskette Drive System
MS-DOS expects the computer to have at least two diskette
drives and displays prompts and messages accordingly.
Usually, MS-DOS recognizes the first diskette drive (the top
drive) as A and a second diskette drive as B. If you have only
one diskette drive, MS-DOS can treat it as both A and B when
you need to perform operations that normally require two
diskette drives.
For example, if you enter a command to copy data from A
to B, MS-DOS copies the data from the first diskette you place
in the drive (which would be drive A) to the computer’s
memory. Then MS-DOS prompts you to insert another
diskette (for drive B) and copies the data from memory to the
new diskette. When copying is complete, you see a prompt to
insert the original diskette (A).
Because you may often swap diskettes this way, it is
important to remember which diskette is which. It is also a
good idea to write-protect your original diskette. See “Writeprotecting Diskettes,” above.
If you have a hard disk and one diskette drive, you can load
the operating system and application programs from the
hard disk, create and store your data there, and use the
diskette drive just for copying data to or from diskettes.
However, if you have only one diskette drive and no hard
disk, you need to use that drive to load the operating system
as well as any application program you are using. First, insert
the operating system diskette (the Startup diskette, for
example) in drive A and load the operating system; this
copies it to the computer’s memory (RAM) so you do not
need to leave the system diskette in the drive. Then remove
the system diskette and insert your application program
diskette to load that data into memory, too. See your
application program manual for detailed instructions.
3-14
Using Your Computer
You can load MS-DOS from an application program
diskette if that diskette contains the operating system This
means it is a bootable diskette. See your MS-DOS manuals
for information about creating a system diskette.
Inserting and Removing Diskettes
If you have a 51/4-inch diskette drive, insert a diskette as
follows: hold the diskette with the label facing up and the
read/write slot leading into the drive, as shown below.
slot
Slide the diskette into the slot until it is in all the way. Then
turn the latch down to lock it in a vertical position. This
keeps the diskette in place and enables the read/write heads
in the drive to access the diskette.
When you want to remove a diskette, first make sure the disk
drive light is off. Then flip up the latch and carefully pull out
the diskette. Place it in its protective envelope and store it in
a proper location, such as a diskette container.
Using Your Computer
3-15
If you have a 3 1/2-inch diskette drive, insert the diskette with
the label facing up and the metal shutter leading into the
drive, as shown in the following illustration. Slide the
diskette into the drive until it clicks into place.
When you want to remove the diskette, make sure the drive
light is off; then press the release button. When the diskette
pops out, remove it and store it properly.
Caution
Never remove a diskette or reset or turn off the computer
while a diskette drive light is on. You could lose data. Also,
be sure to remove all diskettes before you turn off the
computer.
3-16
Using Your Computer
Formatting Diskettes
Before you can store data on a new diskette, you must format
it using the FORMAT command. Formatting prepares the
diskette so that MS-DOS can write data on it. You need to do
this only once, before you use the diskette for the first time.
You can also reformat previously used diskettes to store new
data. This process erases all the data on the diskette, so be
sure you do not want to save any of the files on a used
diskette before you format it. See your MS-DOS manuals for
instructions on using the FORMAT command.
Making Backup Copies
It is important to make copies of all your data and system
diskettes. Make backup (or working) copies of all diskettes
that contain programs, such as your MS-DOS, Reference, and
Utility diskettes; then use only the copies. Store the original
diskettes away from your working diskettes. Also, copy your
data diskettes regularly, whenever you revise them and store
them away from your originals.
If you have a hard disk, you’ll probably use it to store the
programs and data files you use regularly. Keep backup copies
of all your files on diskettes.
You can copy your data in several ways. See your MS-DOS
manuals for instructions on using the following commands:
0 You can use the COPY or XCOPY command to copy
individual files or groups of files.
0 You can use the DISKCOPY command to make an exact
duplicate of a diskette.
0 You can use the BACKUP command to back up hard disk
files to diskettes. Because BACKUP can split large files
across two or more diskettes, it makes more efficient use
of diskette space than COPY or XCOPY.
Using Your Computer
3-17
Using a Hard Disk Drive
Using a hard disk is similar to using a diskette. However, the
hard disk provides several advantages:
cl A 40MB hard disk can store as much data as
approximately thirty-three 1.2MB diskettes, and a 100MB
hard disk can store as much data as approximately
eighty-two 1.2MB diskettes.
D Your computer can perform all disk-related operations
faster.
Cl You can store frequently used programs and data files on
the hard disk, eliminating the inconvenience of swapping
diskettes to access different files.
The added storage capacity makes it easy to move back and
forth between different programs and data files. However,
because it is so easy to add programs and files to your hard
disk, you may find yourself trying to organize hundreds of
files.
MS-DOS lets you keep related files together in directories and
subdirectories so they are easy to find and use. See your
MS-DOS manuals for instructions on managing your files and
directories.
A hard disk must be partitioned and formatted before you
can use it. Be sure you have performed the procedures in
your MS-DOS manuals to prepare your hard disk for use.
Backing up the hard disk
While the hard disk is very reliable, it is essential to back up
your hard disk files to diskettes in case you lose some data
accidentally. Make copies of all your system and application
program diskettes before copying the programs to the hard
disk. After you create data files on the hard disk, be sure to
copy them to diskettes whenever you revise them to keep
your backup diskettes up-to-date.
3-18
Using Your Computer
Caring for your hard disk drive
Follow these precautions to protect your hard disk drive from
damage and to avoid losing data:
Never turn off or reset the computer when the hard disk
access light is on. This light indicates that the computer
is copying data to or from the hard disk. If you interrupt
this process, you can lose data.
Never attempt to open the hard disk drive. The disk itself
is enclosed in a sealed container to protect it from dust.
Before you move your computer even a short distance,
you may need to run the HDSIT program to prepare the
hard disk for moving, as described below.
Preparing the hard disk for moving
If you need to move your computer to a new location, you
may want to run the HDSIT program-provided on your
Reference diskette-to protect the hard disk during the move.
HDSIT moves (or parks) the disk drive’s read/write heads to a
region on the disk surface that does not contain data, and
locks them securely in position. This protects the hard disk
from being damaged if the computer is bumped accidentally.
Many hard disk drives, induding all Epson drives,
automatically park their heads when you turn off the
computer. If your hard disk drive does not do this, or if you
are not sure that it does, be sure to run HDSIT.
Follow these steps to run HDSIT:
1. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A. Then type A : and
press Enter to log onto that drive.
2. Type the following and press Enter:
HDSIT
Using Your Computer
3-19
You see a message on the screen that tells you the disk drive’s
read/write heads will remain locked until you reset the
computer or turn the power off and on again. The computer
locks the heads and disables the keyboard. Remove any
diskettes and turn off the computer. You are now ready to
move it to the new location.
Note
For convenience, you may want to copy the following two
files from the Reference diskette to your hard disk:
HDSIT.COM
HDSIT.VER
Then, when you want to run HDSIT, just log onto the
directory on your hard disk where you stored the files,
type H DS IT, and press Enter. See your MS-DOS manuals for
instructions on using the COPY command.
If you have a 51/4-inch diskette drive and you still have the
original diskette drive protector card, you may want to insert
it into the drive prior to shipping your computer to protect
the read/write heads.
3-20
Using Your Computer
Chapter 4
Enhancing System Operations
This chapter tells you how to use the following procedures to
enhance the operation of your computer:
0 Using AUTOEXEC.BAT and other batch files
0 Changing the processor speed
Using expanded memory beyond 640KB
Using the VGA utilities.
Using AUTOEXEC. BAT and Other Batch Files
As you get used to using MS-DOS and your application
programs, you may find that there are commands you need
to run frequently. You can automate the execution of these
commands by listing them in a special file called a batch file.
When you type the name of the batch file and press Enter,
MS-DOS executes the commands in the file just as if you had
typed each command from the keyboard.
If you have a word processing program that can save a file as
a text-only file (sometimes called an ASCII file), you can use
it to create a batch file. You can also use the MS-DOS COPY
or EDLIN command, or a text editor, to create the file.
One batch file that you may find particularly useful is called
AUTOEXEC.BAT. Every time you turn on your computer,
MS-DOS looks for the AUTOEXEC.BAT file and automatically
executes each of the commands.
Enhancing System Operations
4-1
When you install MS-DOS, it creates an AUTOEXEC.BAT file
for you. To modify the file or replace it with a new one, you
can use the COPY or EDLIN command, a text editor, or a
word processing program that can save a file as a text-only
file. However, be sure to name the file AUTOEXEC.BAT and
store it in the root directory of the hard disk or diskette from
which you load MS-DOS.
See your MS-DOS manuals for more information about
creating and using batch files.
Changing the Processor Speed
Your computer’s processor can operate at two speeds: high
and low. High speed is 20 MHz, low is 10 MHz. On high, the
computer can access memory faster than on low. Your
processor is set to operate at high speed (by default) in the
SETUP program unless you change the speed to low or set the
speed to change automatically.
Note
When your computer is operating at high speed, the
TURBO light on the front panel is on, and it is off when
operating at low speed.
You should use high speed for almost everything you do
since your programs will work faster. However, certain
application programs have specific timing requirements for
diskette access and can run only at the slower speed. See your
software manual to determine if this is the case.
Some copy-protected programs require the computer to run
at low speed while accessing the program on a diskette. These
programs also usually require you to leave a key disk-the
diskette that contains the copy protection-in the diskette
drive. If you use a copy-protected program often, you may
want to set your processor speed to change automatically to
low speed when accessing the diskette and return to high
speed when it is finished.
4-2
Enhancing System Operations
There are different types of copy-protected programs.
Depending on the type you have, you may or may not want
to set the processor to automatic speed. Follow these
guidelines:
0 If you are using a copy-protected program that can run
only on a diskette or that requires a key disk, try to start
the program on high speed. If this works, you do not
need to set the speed to change automatically. If you
can’t load the program on high, set the speed to change
automatically.
0 If you are using a copy-protected program that does not
require a key disk but requires a special procedure to
install it on a hard disk, set the speed to low while you
are installing the program. Once it is installed, set the
speed to high, where you should be able to leave it while
you load and run the program.
If this does not work, try installing and loading the
program at low speed and then change to high speed to
run it. Do not set the speed to change automatically.
There are three ways to change the processor speed:
0 Run the SETUP program
0 Enter a keyboard command
0 Run the ESPEED program.
If you frequently use programs that require the processor to
operate at low speed or require the automatic speed change
when your computer is accessing a diskette, use SETUP to
change the processor speed. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
If you use these programs only occasionally, you should use
the keyboard commands or the ESPEED program (described
below) to change the processor speed.
Enhancing System Operations
4-3
Entering Keyboard Commands
You can change the processor speed by entering one of the
commands shown in the following table.
Speed setting commands
To enter these commands, hold down the Ctrl key and the
Alt key simultaneously and then press the 2, +, 1, or - key.
Use the + or - key on the numeric keypad or the 1 or 2 key
on the main keyboard.
Note
You can use the commands listed above while you are
running a program. However, if the program uses one of
the same commands for another function, you cannot use
it to change the processor speed. For example, if you are
running a program that uses the Ctrl Alt - command to
move the cursor, you cannot enter Ctrl Alt - to change the
processor speed to low. Another alternative is to use the
ESPEED program, described below.
The speed setting remains in effect until you press the RESET
button or turn off the computer, or until you change it again
using the SETUP program, another keyboard command, or
the ESPEED program.
4-4
Enhancing System Operations
Using the ESPEED Program
ESPEED provides an easy way to change the processor speed
if your application program does not recognize the Cttl
keyboard commands or if you want to include the program
command in a batch file.
The ESPEED program is provided with your system on the
Reference diskette. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your
Reference diskette in drive A and log onto drive A before you
enter the command to start the program.
If you have a hard disk drive, copy the file ESPEED.COM
from your Reference diskette onto your hard disk and run the
program from there.
For information on how to run the ESPEED program, type
the following at the MS-DOS command prompt and press
Enter:
ESPEED ?
You see this display:
Format: ESPEED
No Parm
H
L
?
:
:
:
:
Displays current CPU Speed
Set to High Speed
Set to Low Speed
Help Message
The message tells you the switches you should use to set the
speed to high or low. For example, to select low speed, type
the following and press Enter:
ESPEED L
To change the processor speed back to high, enter this
command:
ESPEED H
Enhancing System Operations
4-5
To display the current CPU speed, type ES P EED only and
press Enter. You see the following:
: Speed Up
20.0 MHz <->
: Speed Down
<Esc> : Exit
<+>
To change the speed when you see this display, press the +
or - key; then press Esc to exit.
The processor speed you set remains in effect until you
change it using the ESPEED program again, a keyboard
command, or the SETUP program; or until you press the
RESET button or turn off the computer.
Entering the ESPEED command In a batch file
You may want to run the ESPEED program by including the
command in a batch file. For example, if you have a program
called SLOWDOWN which requires a slower processor speed,
you could include the following commands in a batch file to
start the SLOWDOWN program:
ESPEED L
SLOWDOWN
You could name the batch file SLOW.BAT. Whenever you
need to run the SLOWDOWN program, insert the program
diskette in drive A. Then type SLOW and press Enter. The
computer changes the speed to low and starts the
SLOWDOWN program.
See your MS-DOS manuals for instructions on creating and
using batch files.
4-6
Enhancing System Operations
Using Expanded Memory Beyond 640KB
The Equity 320sx PLUS comes with 2MB of random access
memory. MS-DOS and your application programs that run
under MS-DOS use the first 640KB of memory. You can use
any memory above 1MB as extended memory (up to 16MB)
or expanded memory (up to 24MB).
Shadow RAM uses 128KB of the RAM available between
640KB and 1MB in your system (384KB). If you use the
shadow RAM feature, 256KB of this memory is available for
use as extended or expanded memory. If you do not use
shadow RAM, you can use all of the 384KB of RAM as
extended memory but only 256KB of it as expanded memory
(to allow room for the expanded memory page frame).
Expanded memory is required by certain programs (such as
Lotus l-2-3) that support the Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded
Memory Specification (LIM 4.0 EMS). To take advantage of
expanded memory, you need to use a memory manager to
convert the computer’s extended memory to expanded
memory. If you do not have another memory manager, you
can use the one provided on your Reference diskette,
EMM386SX.SYS. Follow the steps given below.
Note
Microsoft Windows comes with its own expanded memory
manager. Do not use EMM386SX.SYS (or the EMS Size
SETUP option) if you are installing Windows on your
system. See your Windows documentation for more
information.
1. Run the SETUP program to allocate the amount of
memory you want to use as expanded memory. See “EMS
Size” in Chapter 2 for instructions.
2. Copy the file EMM386SX.SYS from your Reference
diskette to the root directory of your hard disk (or the
Startup diskette).
Enhancing System Operations
4-7
3. Add a command to the CONFIG.SYS file to include the
memory manager as a device driver, as described in the
next section. The CONFIG.SYS file is used by MS-DOS to
set up the computer’s system configuration requirements.
Modifying the CONFIG.SYS File
If you have a word processing program that can save a file as
a text-only file (also called an ASCII file), you can use it to
add the memory manager to the CONFIG.SYS file. Follow
these steps:
1. Start your word processing program.
2. Load the file CONFIG.SYS and add the following
command line:
DEVICE-EMM386SX.SYS
For information on optional parameters, see “Using
EMM386SX.SYS options,” below.
Note
You can copy the FMM386SX.SYS file to a directory
other than the root directory as long as you either
enter that directory in a PATH command (for example,
in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file), or include the pathname
on the DEVICE= command line. For example, if
EMM386SX.SYS is in the directory \DRV on drive C,
include the pathname like this:
DEVICE-C:\DRV\EMM386SX.SYS
If you plan to use any of your expanded memory to
create a virtual disk with the MS-DOS VDISK device
driver, be sure to insert the EMM386SX.SYS command
line before the VDISK command line in your
CONFIG.SYS file. See your MS-DOS manuals for
information about VDISK.
4-8
Enhancing System Operations
3. Save the file as an ASCII text file.
4. Reset the computer.
If you do not have a word processing program capable of
saving an ASCII text file, you can modify CONFIG.SYS using
the MS-DOS EDLIN or COPY CON command, or a text
editor. See your MS-DOS manuals for instructions.
Using EMM386SXSYS options
You can include optional parameters in the DEVICE=
command line to tailor the way the memory manager works.
The table below summarizes the EMM386SX.SYS parameters.
EMM386SXSYS parameters
The D parameter specifies whether you want EMM386SX.SYS
to run diagnostics on your expanded memory page frame
each time you load the program. It does not run the
diagnostics unless you include the D parameter.
Enhancing System Operations
4-9
The M[n] parameter specifies a particular 64KB page frame
address for EMM386SX.SYS. The value n must be a number
from 1 to 9 to indicate one of the following addresses:
l
Default setting
For example, to specity a page frame address of 0CC000h,
add the following command line to your CONFIG.SYS file:
DEVICE-EMM386SX.SYS
/M4
Note
If you have installed an EGA or VGA display adapter card,
you cannot enter the following values for n:
/Ml
-Ml
/M2
-M2
The P[nnn] parameter specifies the number of handles (or
process IDS) available to EMM386SX.SYS. The value for nnn
must be in the range of 64 to 256. The default value is 64.
The X[nnnn-nnnn] parameter specifies a hexadecimal
memory address range to exclude from mapping by
Eh4M386SX.SYS. The first address (nnnn) is the beginning
address of the range and the second address (nnnn) is the
ending address.
4-10
Enhancing System Operations
EMM386SX.SYS automatically excludes from mapping any
addresses that are reserved for use by your system ROM and
RAM. If you install an option card, such as a network card,
that uses the memory address range C000 through E000,
include the X parameter in the DEVICE= command line to
exclude this memory range from expanded memory
mapping.
For more information about your system’s memory, see
“System Memory Map” in Appendix A.
Using the VGA Utilities
Your built-in VGA (video graphics array) display adapter
supports both standard VGA monitors and multi-frequency
monitors with analog connectors. The VGA adapter operates
in all standard VGA resolutions without requiring any device
drivers. However, if you are using a monitor that supports
extended VGA features, you may want to use one or more of
the device drivers provided on the Utility diskettes that came
with your computer.
You need to install the VGA device drivers if you want to use
extended VGA features such as these:
D Resolutions up to 800 x 600 in graphics modes with 16
colors
Q 132-column text mode in 16 colors
0 Graphics cursor movement performed by the built-in
VGA hardware.
Enhancing System Operations
4-11
You can use the VGA utilities (also provided on the Utility
diskettes) to take advantage of other special features of your
VGA adapter. Even if you do not use any device drivers, you
may want to install some of the VGA utilities, such as the
following:
VGAMODE
Provides 132-column text in text-based
®
programs such as WordStar and
@
WordPerfect.
SETVGA
Sets the built-in VGA adapter to emulate
the operation of other adapters, such as
@
Hercules and CGA adapters.
SNOOZE
Turns off your VGA display when you
have not used your computer for a
specified period of time.
The VGA device drivers and utilities are described in the VGA
Utilities booklet that came with your system.
4-12
Enhancing System Operations
Chapter 5
Accessing Internal Components
To access your computer’s internal components, you need to
remove the cover and possibly the subassembly that contains
the drive bays and the power supply. Follow the instructions
in this chapter when you need to perform these steps:
Ll Remove the computer’s cover
P Remove the subassembly
D Replace the subassembly
0 Replace the cover.
Be sure to heed all the cautions and warnings so you do not
injure yourself or damage the computer. If you have any
reservations about performing these steps yourself, ask your
Epson dealer for assistance.
drive. You do not need to remove it to install or remove an
Accessing Internal Components
5-1
Removing the Cover
To access any internal components, you need to remove the
computer’s cover. Follow these steps:
1. Turn off the computer and then any peripheral devices
(including the monitor and printer).
2. Disconnect the computer’s power cable from the
electrical outlet and from the back panel. Then
disconnect any cables that are connected to the
computer, including the keyboard cable.
3. If the monitor is on top of the computer, lift it off and set
it to one side.
4. Turn the computer around so you are facing the back
panel. The cover is secured by a large screw on the back
panel, as shown below. Turn the screw counterclockwise
to unlock the cover.
screw
5-2
Accessing Internal Components
5. The cover is also secured by two latches on the back of
the cover near the comers. Press both latches inward and
then lift up the cover from the back panel. You might
meet some resistance from the g-rounding tabs along the
inside of the cover.
latches
6. Pull the cover away from the front of the computer to
completely remove it. Then set it aside.
Accessing Internal Components
5-3
7. Before you touch any of the components, touch the
inside of the computer’s back panel, as shown below, to
ground yourself and avoid an electric shock.
WARNING
Be sure to ground yourself to the inside back panel of the
computer every time you remove the cover. If you are not
properly grounded, you could generate an electric shock
when you touch a component.
5-4
Accessing Intemal Components
Removing the Subassembly
You need to remove the subassembly to install or remove
disk drives, or to access the SIMM or math coprocessor
sockets on your computer’s main system board. The
subassembly is the large metal casing that holds the
horizontal drive bays and the power supply, as shown below.
subassembly
Accessing Internal Components
5-5
Follow these steps to remove the subassembly:
1. Remove the front panel from the computer by lifting up
slightly on the three clips at the top of the panel and
tilting it toward you. Then set it aside.
clips
2. If you have a hard disk drive, the drive cable is connected
to the main system board on the left side of the
subassembly, as shown below.
5-6
Accessing Internal Components
Grasp the connector and pull it straight up to remove it
from the socket. Do not pull only on the cable.
3. The diskette drive cable is connected to the socket behind
the hard disk drive socket; disconnect it in the same
manner.
4. To lift the subassembly from the front of the computer,
place your thumbs under the diskette drive and grasp the
top edge of the computer with the rest of your fingers, as
shown in the following illustration. (If you have a
diskette drive installed in the lower horizontal drive bay,
place your thumbs underneath that drive instead.)
Accessing Internal Components
5-7
5. Raise the front of the subassembly, as shown below.
6. Reach back underneath the subassembly and disconnect
the two power supply cables connected to the right side
of the main system board, as shown below. Pull each
connector straight up. Do not pull only on the cables.
-
5-8
Accessing Internal Components
7. Lift the entire subassembly out of the computer and
carefully place it on your work surface.
Replacing the Subassembly
Follow the steps below to replace the subassembly inside
your computer:
1. Notice that there are four mounting slots on the back of
the subassembly: two in the upper comers and two in the
lower corners.
Accessing Internal Components
5-9
There are four corresponding tabs on the inside back
panel of the computer which fit into the openings in the
subassembly slots.
tabs
Lift up the subassembly from your work surface and
lower the back end into the computer, guiding the top
slots on the subassembly into the top tabs on the
computer.
5-10
Accessing Internal Components
2. Hold up the front of the subassembly at a slight angle
and arrange the ribbon cables so they curve underneath
the subassembly and extend out its left side. Then grasp
the two power supply cables, labelled P4 and P5. Each
connector has six pin holes and a large tab on one side,
as shown below.
There is one 12-pin power supply socket on the right side
of the main system board (toward the back) that holds
both of the power supply connectors, as shown below.
Accessing Internal Components
5-11
3. Position power supply connector P4 so the large tab on
the connector faces the right side of the computer.
Beginning with the six pins toward the back of the
computer, carefully line up the holes in the connector
with the pins in the socket and then push in the
connector.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins in
the socket, you could severely damage your computer
when you push in the connector.
4. Connect power supply connector PS to the remaining six
pins in the socket using the same procedure.
5-12
Accessing Internal Components
5. Carefully lower the front of the subassembly onto the
computer. Make sure that all four tabs on the back of the
computer are inserted into the slots on the subassembly
as you lower it.
small tabs
Accessing Internal Components
5-13
Guide the tabs on the front of the subassembly over the
opening in the front of the computer so the two small
tabs sit behind the opening and the large tab with the
curved lip sits over the front of the opening. If necessary,
press on the large tab until the subassembly snaps into
place.
6. Locate the hard disk drive and diskette drive ribbon
cables. (The hard disk drive cable is slightly longer than
the diskette drive cable.) Look at the back of each drive to
make sure you know which cable is which.
5-14
Accessing Internal Components
Both the diskette drive and hard disk drive sockets are
located on the main system board on the left side of the
subassembly, as shown below.
Both sockets have a notch on one side. Connect the
diskette drive cable first. As shown below, there is a tab
on one side of the connector.
diskette drive connector
tab
diskette drive socket
Accessing Internal Components
5-15
Align the connector with the socket so the tab on the
connector lines up with the notch in the socket. Make
sure the holes in the connector fit over all the pins in the
socket and then push in the connector.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins,
you could severely damage your computer when you
push in the connector.
7. Now connect the hard disk drive cable in the same
manner.
8. To replace the front panel, fit the three ridged tabs on its
bottom edge into the three notches on the lower edge of
the computer, as shown below.
tabs
9. Tilt up the front panel until the clips on the top of the
panel touch the computer. Then push on the top of the
panel until it clicks into place.
5-16
Accessing Internal Components
Replacing the Cover
Follow these steps to replace the computer’s cover:
1. Facing the back of the computer, hold the cover so that
the side with three tabs on the edge faces away from you,
as shown below.
2. Insert the three tabs into the three notches in the back of
the front panel of the computer,
Accessing Internal Components
5-17
3. Lower the back of the cover onto the computer and press
down firmly on all edges of the cover to form a tight seal.
4. Turn the large screw on the back panel clockwise to
secure the cover to the computer.
5. Reconnect the computer to the monitor, printer,
keyboard, and any other peripheral devices you have.
Then reconnect the power cable to the back of the
computer and to an electrical outlet.
5-18
Accessing lntemal Components
Chapter 6
Installing and Removing Options
You can enhance the performance of your computer by
adding a variety of options, including the following:
0 Option cards
D Memory modules
Q A math coprocessor.
An option card is a circuit board you install in your computer
to add a particular function. Most option cards contain a
device, such as a modem, or provide an interface, such as a
connector to which you connect to a network. This chapter
describes how to install option cards and configure your
computer for use with them.
Memory modules-also called SIMMs (single inline memory
modules&allow you to increase the amount of memory in
your computer. This chapter describes the types and amounts
of SIMMs you can use in your computer. If you want to
install memory modules, you may prefer to ask your dealer to
do it for you. You can, however, follow the instructions in
this chapter to install them yourself.
Note
It is best not to expand your system’s memory by
installing an optional memory card. Using memory
modules is more efficient since you do not need to use one
of your option slots to add memory. Your computer can
also access memory installed on memory modules faster
than memory installed on a card.
Installing and Removing Options
6-1
A math coprocessor speeds up the numeric calculations your
computer performs when using certain application software.
If you purchase a math coprocessor, it is a good idea to ask
your dealer to install it for you, because it can be damaged
easily. If you decide to install it yourself, follow the
appropriate steps in this chapter.
This chapter also explains how to change the jumper settings
inside the computer. You may need to change jumper
settings if you install certain types of options or if you want
to change the way your computer operates.
If you need to replace the battery for your computer’s
real-time clock and CMOS RAM, you can follow the
instructions in this chapter.
To change jumper settings, replace the battery, or install the
options mentioned above, you must remove the computer’s
cover. You may also need to remove the subassembly. See
Chapter 5 for instructions. (You do not need to remove the
subassembly to install or remove option cards.)
Changing the Jumper Settings
A jumper is a small electrical connector that controls one of
the computer’s functions. The jumper settings in your
computer are preset at the factory; however, you can alter the
following functions by changing the standard settings:
Q Enable or disable the built-in VGA display adapter
Cl Enable or disable the password function
Q Set the computer to use a color or monochrome monitor
0 Enable or disable the built-in mouse connector.
If you need to change any jumper settings, follow the
instructions in this section.
6-2
Installing and Removing Options
Setting the Jumpers
The illustration below shows the locations of the jumpers on
your computer’s main system board.
A jumper’s setting is determined by where the jumper is placed
on the pins. It connects either pin A and the middle pin
(position A) or pin B and the middle pin (position B), as shown
below.
To move a jumper from one position to the other, use
needle-nose pliers or tweezers to pull it off its pins and gently
move it to the desired position.
Installing and Removing Options
6-3
Caution
Be careful not to bend the jumper pins or damage any
surrounding components on the main system board.
The following table lists the jumper settings and their
functions.
Main system board jumper settings
l
6-4
Factory setting
Installing and Removing Options
If you need to change any jumper settings, follow these steps:
1. Remove any option cards that may be blocking your
access to the jumpers. See page 6-13 for instructions.
2. Change the jumper settings.
3. Replace any option cards you removed. See “Installing an
Option Card” on page 6-9.
4. Follow the instructions in Chapter 5 to replace the
computer’s cover.
Replacing the Battery
Your computer comes with a 3.6 volt lithium battery that
provides power for the real-time dock and the CMOS RAM.
The real-time clock keeps track of the time for your
computer, and the CMOS RAM stores the information about
your system configuration that was saved by the SETUP
program.
This battery lasts approximately three to five years. If it loses
power, you will see an error message when you turn on or
reset your computer. Contact your dealer to obtain a
replacement battery pack. Your dealer can also install the
battery for you. If you want to replace the battery yourself,
you can follow the instructions in this section.
Note
When the battery runs out, your computer loses the
information stored in the CMOS RAM and the time stored
in the real-time dock. After you replace the battery, you
must run the SETUP program to reconfigure your system
and set the real-time clock
Installing and Removing Options
6-5
If necessary, follow the instructions on page 5-2 to remove
the computer’s cover. Then follow these steps to replace the
battery:
1. The battery is attached to the bottom of the computer
case, just behind the front panel, as shown below.
To disconnect the battery from the main system board,
pull up on the connector plugged into socket CNl, as
shown below.
6-6
Installing and Removing Options
2. The battery is attached to the computer with Velcro?
Remove the battery by pulling it up from the bottom of
the computer case, as shown below. Then set it aside.
3. Remove the new battery from its package and position it
so the Velcro faces down and the cable faces connector
CNl. Then attach it to the bottom of the computer case,
as shown below.
Installing and Removing Options
6-7
4. Connect the battery cable to connector CNl.
5. Follow the steps in Chapter 5 to replace the computer’s
cover. Then run the SETUP program to reconfigure your
system and reset the time for the real-time clock. See
Chapter 2 for instructions.
6-8
Installing and Removing Options
Installing an Option Card
Your computer has four standard option slots: three 16-bit
slots and one 8-bit slot. Each slot can accommodate an
option card. You can buy option cards from authorized
Epson dealers as well as other vendors.
This section explains how to install option cards in your
computer. If you need to remove an option card later (to
access jumpers, memory modules, or a math coprocessor), see
“Removing an Option Card” on page 6-13 for instructions.
The illustration below shows the four standard option slots
inside your computer.
Installing and Removing Options
6-9
Slots 1 through 3 are designed for 16-bit option cards and
slot 4 is designed for an 8-bit card. As you can see below, a
16-bit card has an extra connector along the bottom.
16-bit option card
B-bit option card
Usually it does not matter which slot an option card occupies
as long as the card fits in the slot. For example, you can place
some 8-bit cards in a 16-bit slot. However, you must follow
these guidelines when deciding which slot to use:
0 An 8-bit card with an additional tab along the bottom
must go into an 8-bit slot.
P If you install a disk drive controller card, place the card as
close as possible to the drive it is controlling.
0 Some option cards must be installed in a specific slot.
Consult the instructions that come with the card to see if
this is the case.
6-10
Installing and Removing Options
Follow these steps to install an option card:
1. If you are installing an option card that controls a mouse,
you need to change the setting of jumper J4 on the main
system board before you install the card. If you install a
display adapter card, you may need to change the
settings of jumpers Jl, J3, and J5. See page 6-2 for
instructions.
2. Remove the retaining screw from the top of the metal
option slot cover; hold on to the screw so it doesn’t fall
into the computer. Lift out the slot cover.
Keep the screw to secure the option card to the computer.
Store the slot cover in a safe place in case you remove the
option card later.
Installing and Removing Options
6-11
3. Unpack the option card and adjust any switches or
jumpers on it, if necessary. (Check the option card
instructions.) When you handle the card, be careful not
to touch any of the components on the circuit board or
the gold-edged connectors. If you need to set it down
before you install it, place it gently on top of its original
packing material with the component side facing up.
Keep the packing materials in case you remove the card
later.
4. Grip the card firmly by the top comers and make sure the
connectors point down, as shown below.
5. Insert the card into the slot, guiding it straight down.
Once the connectors reach the slot, push the card
downward firmly (but carefully) to insert it fully. You
should feel the card fit into place.
If the card does not go in smoothly, do not force it; pull
it all the way out and try again, keeping it straight as you
insert it. Examine the card to verify that it is fully seated
in the slot along the length of the connector.
6-12
Installing and Removing Options
6. Secure the end of the card to the back of the computer
with the retaining screw.
7. Follow the instructions in Chapter 5 to replace the cover.
Then see “Post-installation Setup” at the end of this chapter.
Removing on Option Card
If you need to remove an option card, follow these steps:
1. Remove the screw securing the card to the back of the
computer and pull it straight up and out of the slot.
2. Cover the option slot opening with the original metal
cover and secure it with the retaining screw.
3. If you are removing an option card that controls a
mouse, you need to change the setting of jumper J4 on
the main system board. If you are removing a display
adapter card, you may need to change the settings of
jumpers Jl, J3, and J5. See page 6-2 for instructions.
4. Replace the cover. See Chapter 5 for instructions. Then
see “Post-installation Setup” at the end of this chapter.
Imtalling and Removing Options
6-13
Adding Memory Modules
Your computer comes with 2MB of memory soldered directly
onto the main system board. By installing SIMMs (single
inline memory modules), you can increase the memory in
your computer up to 24MB. The first 16MB can be used as
either extended or expanded; any memory above 16MB can
be used only as expanded. You can install 256KB, lMB, or
4MB SIMMs, as described in this section.
Caution
It is best to have your dealer install memory modules for
you because they can be damaged easily if installed
incorrectly. If you prefer, you can install them yourself by
carefully following the instructions in this section.
However, you could transmit an electrostatic discharge
and damage your components; so read this entire section
before you begin.
Before you install SIMMs, check the following guidelines to
ensure that they will work properly:
0 Use fast page mode SIMMs that operate at an access speed
of 80ns (nanoseconds) or faster. Be sure all the SIMMs
operate at the same speed.
0 The Equity 320sx PLUS can use any SIMM that complies
with industry standards; however, you should use Epson
SIMM option kits to ensure reliability and compatibility.
0 Use the correct SIMM configuration to add the amount of
memory you want. See the table on the next page.
Once you have the SIMMs you need, you or your dealer can
install them in your computer. If you are going to install
them yourself, follow the instructions in this section.
6-14
Installing and Removing Options
Installing Memory Modules
There are six SIMM sockets on the main system board
organized in three banks consisting of two sockets each. The
sockets are labelled SIMM1 through SIMM6.
The following table shows all the possible SIMM
configurations for your computer. Do not install SIMMs in
any configuration that is not listed below. Keep in mind that
2MB of memory is already soldered directly on the main
system board.
SIMM configurations for the Equity 320sx PLUS
K = 256KB SIMM
l
1=1MB SIMM
4 = 4MB SIMM
If you install this amount of system memory, only 16MB of it can be
used as extended memory. Any memory above 16MB must be used
as expanded memory.
t If you install 24MB of total memory on SIMMs, the computer
disables the 2MB of memory soldered on your main system board.
Installing and Removing Options
6-15
Follow these steps to install SIMMs:
1. Remove the computer’s cover and subassembly as
described in Chapter 5.
2. The SIMM sockets are located on the front of the main
system board near the math coprocessor socket, as shown
below.
SIMM sockets
SIMM2
\
math coprocessor socket
6-16
Installing and Removing Options
3. Install the SlMMs in the sockets closest to the right side
of the main system board first. Position each SIMM so the
notch on its edge faces the front of the computer and
place lt on the left side of the tabs at an angle, as shown
below.
4. Gently push down on the SIMM and, at the same time,
guide the top of the SIMM to the right until it is vertical.
post
Installing and Removing Options
6-17
The SIMM should snap into place between the tabs and
the retaining posts. If it does not go in smoothly, do not
force it; pull it all the way out and try again.
Make sure the SIMM is fully inserted into the socket and
that the pins on the retaining posts extend through the
holes in both ends.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each SIMM you want to install.
6. Replace the subassembly and cover as described in
Chapter 5.
7. Then see “Post-installation Setup” on page 6-25 for
instructions on configuring your computer for use with
your new memory.
Removing Memory Modules
If you need to remove memory modules from your computer,
have your dealer do it for you or follow the steps below. If
you remove them yourself, check the table on page 6-15 to be
sure you remove SIMMs from the correct sockets.
Caution
It is safer to have your dealer remove SIMMs for you since
there is a danger of transmitting an electrostatic discharge
and damaging your components.
1. Remove the computer’s cover and subassembly as
described in Chapter 5.
6-18
Installing and Removing Options
2. The SIMM sockets are located on the front of the main
system board near the math coprocessor socket, as shown
below.
SIMM sockets
SIMM2
\
math coprocessor socket
Installing and Removing Options
6-19
3. Remove the SIMMs in the sockets closest to the left side
of the main system board first. Use your fingers or two
small screwdrivers to pull away the tabs that secure the
SIMM at each end. Be careful not to pull the tabs too far,
or they may break.
tab
As you pull away the tabs, the SIMM falls to the left.
When the SIMM is at an angle, release the tabs and
carefully remove it from the socket.
4. Repeat step 3 for each SIMM you need to remove.
5. Replace the subassembly and cover as described in
Chapter 5.
6. Then see “Post-installation Setup” on page 6-25 for
instructions on configuring your computer for use with
your decreased memory.
6-20
Installing and Removing Options
lnstalling a Math Coprocessor
Your computer has a socket on the main system board to
accommodate an 80387SX, 20 MHz math coprocessor. A
math coprocessor speeds up your computer’s numeric
calculations and graphic image displays when you are using
certain application software.
It is best to have your dealer install a math coprocessor for
you, since it is a delicate component that can be damaged
easily if it is installed incorrectly.
If you install it yourself, be sure to read the manual that came
with your math coprocessor, if you received one. Then follow
the steps in this section to install it in your computer. Before
you begin, be sure to read all of the instructions and
warnings carefully so you do not injure yourself or damage
the coprocessor or your computer.
Caution
To avoid generating static electricity and damaging your
math coprocessor, remain stationary when you install it.
Carefully follow these steps to install a math coprocessor:
1. Remove the computer’s cover and subassembly as
described in Chapter 5.
2. Remove the math coprocessor from its package and set it
aside.
Installing and Removing Options
6-21
3. The math coprocessor socket is located on the front of
the main system board near the SIMM sockets, as shown
below.
4. The math coprocessor socket is hollow and square, and
has a notch in the lower left comer, as shown below.
notch
6-22
Installing and Removing Options
The math coprocessor also has a notch in one corner,
marked by a dot, as shown below.
notch
Align the notched corner of the coprocessor with the
notched corner of its socket. The notched sides must be
aligned for the coprocessor to operate properly, so be sure
its position is correct before you go to the next step.
5. Gently push the coprocessor into the socket, pressing
evenly on all sides, as shown below.
Installing and Removing Options
6-23
If the coprocessor does not go in smoothly, do not force
it; pull it all the way out and try again, keeping it straight
as you insert it.
It is completely inserted when the surface of the
coprocessor is flush (even) with the surface of the socket.
Be sure it is inserted all the way.
6. Replace the subassembly and cover as described in
Chapter 5.
7. Then see “Post-installation Setup” on page 6-25 for
instructions on configuring your computer for use with
your math coprocessor.
Removing a Math Coprocessor
If you need to remove a math coprocessor from your
computer, contact your dealer for assistance. You need a
special extracting tool to remove the coprocessor without
damaging it. Do not attempt to remove it without this tool;
you can easily damage it.
Follow the steps in Chapter 5 to remove the computer’s cover
and subassembly. Then remove the coprocessor with the tool
and replace the subassembly and the cover.
After you remove the coprocessor, run the SETUP program to
configure your system for use without it. See Chapter 2 for
instructions.
6-24
Installing and Removing Options
Post-Installation Setup for Memory Cards
After you install an optional memory card, you need to
configure your computer to use it. Follow these guidelines:
0 Run the SETUP program to reset your computer’s
configuration to include the memory on your memory
card. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
0 Use the setup program that comes with your memory
card to configure the computer for use with your
particular card. See your memory card manual for
instructions.
0 If you want to use any of the memory on your card as
expanded memory, see “Using Expanded Memory Beyond
640KB” in Chapter 4.
Also see “Post-installation Setup,” below, for more
information on setting up your computer for use with an
option card.
Post-Installation Setup
After you install or remove options such as memory modules,
a math coprocessor, or a diskdrive, you need to run the
SETUP program to update the computer’s configuration
information. For example, if you add a hard disk drive, you
need to let the computer know the type of drive you have
installed. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
If you replaced the battery for the real-time clock and CMOS
RAM, you must run SETUP to reconfigure your system and
reset the clock. See Chapter 2.
Installing and Removing Options
6-25
If you install a hard disk drive that has never received a
hardware level format (such as some non-Epson hard disk
drives), you need to format the disk. Check the manual that
came with your drive, and then, if necessary, follow the
instructions in Appendix B to format your new hard disk.
If you have added a hard disk drive and you want to load
MS-DOS or another operating system from that drive, you
need to install the operating system on it. See your MS-DOS
manuals or the documentation that came with your
operating system for instructions.
If you install an optional memory card, use the setup
program that comes with it to configure the computer for use
with the card. See your memory card manual for instructions.
Additionally, you may need to add some commands to your
configuration files. See your MS-DOS manuals and the
manual that comes with your optional equipment for
instructions.
You may also want to test a newly-installed option. Some
options come with their own diagnostics test programs, and
you can use the diagnostic programs on your Reference
diskette to test the following:
0
System memory
0 Serial and parallel ports
0 Disk drives
0 Monitors and display adapters.
See Appendix B for instructions.
6-26
Installing and Removing Options
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
The instructions in this chapter describe how to install and
remove optional Epson drives in your computer. You can use
these instructions to install a variety of devices, including
diskette drives, hard disk drives, and tape drives. Although
your drive may look a bit different from the one illustrated
here, you install it the same way.
If you are installing or removing a non-Epson drive, some of
the steps in this chapter may not apply; see the
documentation that came with your drive for more
information.
Before you perform any of the procedures described below,
follow the steps in Chapter 5 to remove the computer’s cover
and subassembly.
When you complete your drive installation or removal,
follow the instructions in Chapter 5 to replace the
subassembly and cover. Then see “Post-installation Setup
Procedures” at the end of Chapter 6 for information about
updating your drive configuration.
Caution
Installing or removing a disk drive is a complicated
procedure, so you may want to ask your dealer to do it for
you. If you decide to do it yourself, you must carefully
follow all the instructions in this chapter or you could
damage your equipment.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-1
Your computer has two horizontal drive bays and one
vertical mounting position to hold up to three drives, as
shown below.
Using the Correct Drive Bay
Your computer may have come with a hard disk drive already
installed in the vertical mounting position. If not, you can
install one 31/2-inch hard disk drive in this position.
If you are installing your first hard disk drive, it is best to
install it in the vertical mounting position. If you add a
second hard disk drive or diskette drive, use the lower
horizontal drive bay.
7-2
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
The upper horizontal drive bay probably contains the
diskette drive that came with your system. This drive bay can
accommodate one of the following types of devices:
P 51/4-inch diskette drive
Li 31/2-inch diskette drive with a 51/4-inch mounting frame
installed on it.
You can install an additional device of one of the following
types in the lower horizontal drive bay:
9
51/4-inch diskette drive, tape drive, CD-ROM, or other
storage device
0 31/2-inch diskette drive, hard disk drive, or other storage
device with 51/4inch mounting frames installed on it.
How to Use This Chapter
Before you begin, see the table below for a guide to the
instructions you should follow first in this chapter.
Drive installation or removal instruction guide
If you are . . .
Begin with this section . . .
Installing a hard disk drive
or removing one and leaving
another in the computer
“Setting the Hard Disk Drive
Jumpers” on 7-4
Removing your only hard
disk drive
“Removing a Hard Disk From the
Vertical Position” on page 7-17
Installing or removing a
diskette drive or other device
“Installing or Removing a Drive in the
Horizontal Position” on page 7-19
Information is provided in each of these sections to guide
you to the instructions you should follow next.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-3
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers
You may need to change the hard disk drive jumper settings
if you install or remove a hard disk drive. The jumpers tell
the computer whether you are using one hard disk drive or
TW0.
Note
You do not need to set these jumpers if you are removing
your only hard disk drive.
If you are installing just one hard disk drive, see “Changing
the Jumper Settings,” below, to check the jumpers on your
drive.
If you are removing one hard disk drive and leaving another
in your computer, you need to change the jumper settings on
the remaining drive to indicate that it will be the only hard
disk drive installed.
If you install two hard disk drives in your system, you must
change the jumper settings on each drive to indicate which
drive is the “master” drive and which is the “slave” drive.
A master drive is the drive on which you’ll install the
operating system that the computer loads into its memory
each time you turn it on. You can run application programs
and store data on both the master drive and the slave drive,
but the operating system must be contained on the master
drive.
Follow the instructions below to change the jumper settings
on both of your hard disk drives.
7-4
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Changing the Jumper Settings
The hard disk drive jumpers are located on the drive’s circuit
board, near the large cable connector.
large cable
connector
The jumpers on your drive may be in a slightly different
location, but you set them the same way.
There are four positions for the jumpers on each hard disk
drive. Jumpers are installed in only two of the positions and
the other two positions are left open.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-5
The following table lists the jumper settings for all the
possible hard disk drive configurations.
One hard
positions disk drive
Jumper
Two hard disk
drives: master
Two hard disk
drives: slave
HSP
-
-
-
C/D
X
X
-
DSP
-
X
-
ACT
X
X
X
X = jumper installed
- = no jumper installed
To move a jumper from one position to the other, use your
fingers, needle-nose pliers, or tweezers to pull it off its pins
and gently move it to the other position. Be careful not to
drop the jumper or damage the pins as you install it.
If you are going to use only one hard disk drive, make sure
the jumpers are set in positions C/D and ACT. Then see
“Installing a Hard Disk in the Vertical Position” on page 7-7
for instructions on installing your first hard disk drive.
If you’ll be using two hard disk drives, you have a total of
four jumpers for eight jumper positions. Two jumpers are
included with each drive. Install three of the jumpers on the
master drive in positions C/D, DSP, and ACT. Install the
fourth jumper on the slave drive in position ACT.
If you are installing both of your hard disk drives at one time,
it is easiest to install the drive in the horizontal drive bay
first. See “Installing or Removing a Drive in the Horizontal
Position” on page 7-19 for instructions.
7-6
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
If one of your hard disk drives is already installed in the
computer, follow the steps under “Removing a Hard Disk
From the Vertical Position” on page 7-17 to remove it. Then
set the jumpers on both drives while they are out of the
computer.
Note
If you are removing one hard disk drive and leaving one in
your computer, be sure to set the jumpers on the
remaining drive to indicate that you have only one hard
disk drive. See the table above for the jumper settings.
Then follow the instructions under “Removing a Hard Disk
From the Vertical Position” on page 7-17 so you can access
the jumpers on the drive.
Installing a Hard Disk in the Vertical Position
Follow the instructions in this section to install (or reinstall)
a hard disk drive in the vertical mounting position. You may
need to perform the following procedures:
P Remove the mounting frames from a new hard disk drive
0 Remove the mounting plate from the computer and
connect it to the drive
Q Install the drive
P Connect the drive and power cables.
If you are installing a new
position, you should follow
you are reinstalling a drive
this position, see “Installing
drive in the vertical mounting
all of the steps in this section. If
that you previously removed from
the Drive” on page 7- 11.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-7
Removing the Mounting Frames From the Drive
Your hard disk drive comes with 51/4-inch mounting frames
attached to each side of the hard disk drive, as shown below.
7-8
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
On one side, there may also be a plastic guiderail. Follow
these steps to remove the mounting frames (and guiderail)
from the drive:
1. If necessary, remove the screws securing the plastic
guiderail and the metal grounding plate to one of the
mounting frames, as shown below.
2. Remove the four screws securing the mounting frames to
the hard disk drive. There are two screws securing each
frame, as shown below.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-9
Removing and Attaching the Mounting Plate
If you are installing a new hard disk drive in your computer,
you need to attach a hard disk drive mounting plate to the
drive. This mounting plate is currently attached to the right
side of the subassembly.
Follow these steps to remove the mounting plate from your
computer:
1. Remove the screw securing the mounting plate to the
computer and set it aside. Then lift up the mounting
plate to remove it.
2. Turn your hard disk drive so the components are facing
up and the connectors at the back of the drive are facing
to the right.
7-10
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Then place the flat side of the mounting plate on the
hard disk drive and align the four holes on the plate with
the four holes on the drive, as shown below.
mounting plate holes
3. Use the four screws that came in your hard disk drive kit
to secure the mounting plate to the drive.
Installing the Drive
If you are going to install or remove a drive in one of the
horizontal drive bays, first follow the instructions under
“Installing or Removing a Drive in the Horizontal Position”
on page 7-19. Do not install the vertically mounted drive
until you finish installing or removing any horizontal drives.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-11
Follow these steps to install the hard disk drive in the vertical
mounting position:
1. Place the hard disk drive on the right side of the
subassembly with the mounting plate facing up and the
ribbon cable and power supply sockets facing the back of
the subassembly.
mounting plate
2. Locate the hard disk drive ribbon cable that came with
your computer. It is a flat cable with three connectors,
one on each end and one in the middle. (If you are
installing a second hard disk drive, the cable may be
attached to the other drive.)
7-12
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
The connector at one end of the cable has two rows of
holes, one of which is blocked with a plug, as shown
below.
The ribbon cable socket on the back of the drive has two
rows of pins. In one of the rows, a pin is missing.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-13
3. Align the connector with the socket so that the row in
the connector with the blocked hole lines up with the
row in the socket with the missing pin, as shown below.
Make sure the holes fit over all the pins and then push in
the connector.
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins
you could severely damage your hard disk drive when
7-14
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
4. Locate one of the power supply cables that lead from the
power supply (behind the horizontal drive bays). The
cables are labelled Pl, P2, and P3; you can use any one.
As shown below, the end of the connector has two
notched comers.
power supply cable
power supply socket
notched
corners
notched
corners
The power supply socket is on the back of the hard disk
drive, next to the cable you just connected. The socket
also has two notched comers, as shown above.
5. Pull the cable through the lower opening in the right side
of the subassembly so it reaches the drive socket easily.
Align the connector with the socket so that the notched
comers on the connector line up with the notched
comers of the socket, as shown below.
notched
comers
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-15
6. Notice that there are two tabs facing downward on one
edge of the mounting plate. These tabs will fit into two
slots in the right side of the subassembly.
Guide the tabs into the slots and tilt the top of the drive
toward the subassembly. Then align the retaining screw
hole on the mounting plate with the hole in the
subassembly bracket.
bracket
7-16
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7. Secure the drive to the bracket with the retaining screw.
Now you can replace the subassembly and the computer’s
cover. See Chapter 5 for instructions.
Removing a Hard Disk From the Vertical Position
You need to remove the hard disk drive from the vertical
position in the following cases:
0 You are replacing the drive
0 You are adding a second drive (either another hard disk
drive or a diskette drive) in the lower horizontal position.
Follow these steps:
1. Remove the retaining screw securing the hard disk drive
mounting plate to the subassembly and set it aside.
r e t a i n i n g
s c r e w - ?
2. Tilt the hard disk drive slightly to the right and lift it off
the subassembly.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-17
3. Disconnect the power supply connector and the ribbon
cable connector from the sockets on the back of the hard
disk drive, as shown below. Firmly pull the connectors
straight out from the sockets so you do not bend the
pins. Do not pull on the cables; pull on the plastic
connector.
4. If you are going to reinstall the drive, set it aside and see
“Installing or Removing a Drive in the Horizontal
Position” below.
If you are not going to reinstall the drive, go to step 5.
5. Remove the four screws securing the hard disk drive
mounting plate to the hard disk drive. Then remove and
store the mounting plate along with the screws.
6. Wrap the hard disk drive in its original packing materials.
7. Replace the subassembly in the computer, and then
replace the computer’s cover. See Chapter 5 for
instructions.
7-18
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Installing or Removing a Drive in the Horizontal
Position
This section describes how to install or remove a drive in a
horizontal drive bay. Although the illustrations show a
diskette drive in the lower bay, you can use these same
instructions if you need to install a different drive in the
upper drive bay.
If you have a hard disk drive installed in the vertical
mounting position, remove it before you remove or install a
drive in the horizontal drive bay. See “Removing a Hard Disk
From the Vertical Position” above.
lnstalling a Drive in the Horizontal Position
Before you perform the following steps, be sure that you have
set the jumpers on any hard disk drive(s) that you’ll be using.
(If not, see “Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers” on page
7-4 for instructions.)
If you are adding a 31/2-inch drive, you need to make sure
that M-inch metal mounting frames are attached to the
drive so it fits properly in the drive bay. Epson 31/2-inch
drives come with mounting frames already installed.
If your drive did not come with frames installed, follow the
instructions in the manual that came with the drive to attach
them.
Follow these steps to install a disk drive:
1. If you are installing a 51/4-inch diskette drive, turn it so
that the diskette release latch is above the diskette slot.
If you are installing a 51/2-inch diskette drive, turn it so
that the diskette release button is on the right and the
drive light is on the left.
If you are installing a hard disk drive, turn it so that the
side with the components is facing down.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-19
2. There are two or three holes on each side of the disk
drive. When you insert the drive, align the appropriate
round holes in the drive with the two oval holes on each
side of the drive bay, as shown below.
3. Insert the drive in the lower drive bay and slide it toward
the back of the subassembly. Watch the oval holes on the
side of the drive bay so you can see when the holes on
the drive are positioned in the middle of them.
If you are installing a diskette drive, adjust its position so
that the front of the drive lines up with the drive in the
upper bay. (A hard disk drive fits all the way into the
bay.)
7-20
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
4. Locate the four retaining screws that came with your disk
drive. Insert two screws into the oval holes on each side
of the drive bay and tighten them with a screwdriver, as
shown below.
screws
If you are installing a diskette drive, go to step 5. If you
are installing a hard disk drive, go to step 6.
5. If you are installing a diskette drive in the lower drive
bay, you may want to turn the subassembly upside down
and place it on your work surface. Then locate the
diskette drive ribbon cable; one end is connected to the
top diskette drive and the other end is free. Use the
connector in the middle of the cable to connect the
second drive.
As shown in the next illustration, there is a large slot in
this connector with a small plastic divider near one end
of the slot.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-21
The interface that protrudes from the back of the drive
has gold contacts on both sides. Near one end of the
interface, there is a gap to accommodate the plastic
divider on the connector.
Align the connector with the interface so that the plastic
divider on the connector lines up with the gap in the
interface, as shown below.
divider
Make sure the cable connector fits properly onto the
drive interface and then push it onto the interface. Then
go to step 8.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the connector, you could
severely damage your diskette drive when you push it
in.
7-22
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
6. Locate the hard disk drive ribbon cable that you removed
from the drive in the vertical mounting position. Follow
the instructions below to attach the connector in the
middle of this cable to the horizontal hard disk drive.
As shown below, there are two rows of holes in the
connector. One of the holes is blocked with a plastic
Plug-
Notice the ribbon cable socket on the back of the drive;
you see two rows of pins. In one of the rows, a pin is
missing.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-23
7. Align the connector with the socket so that the row in
the connector with the blocked hole lines up with the
row in the socket with the missing pin, as shown below.
Make sure the holes fit over all the pins and then push in
the connector.
8. Looking at the subassembly, locate one of the power
supply cables that lead from the power supply (behind
the horizontal drive bays). The cables are labelled Pl, P2,
and P3; you can use any one. As shown below, the end of
the connector has two notched corners.
7-24
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
The power supply socket on the back of the drive is next
to the ribbon cable connector. The socket also has two
notched comers, as shown below.
power supply cable
power supply socket
notched
corners
notched
corners
Position the power supply cable connector so that the
notched comers on the connector line up with the
notched comers of the power supply socket on your
drive. Make sure the holes fit over all the pins and then
push in the connector.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins,
you could severely damage your drive when you push
in the connector.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-25
9. If necessary, follow the instructions under “Installing a
Hard Disk in the Vertical Position” on page 7-7 to
reinstall your vertically mounted drive.
Removing a Drive From the Horizontal Position
Follow these steps to remove a drive from a horizontal drive
bay:
1. Remove the disk drive ribbon cable from the back of the
drive, as shown below.
power supply
2. Then remove the power supply cable from the back of
the drive.
7-26
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
3. Remove the screws securing the drive to the drive bay.
There are two screws on each side.
4. Grasp the disk drive from the front of the drive bay, pull
it completely out, and set it aside.
5. If you have removed one hard disk drive and are leaving
another one in your system, make sure you have set the
jumpers on the remaining drive to indicate that you now
have only one hard disk drive. (If not, see “Setting the
Hard Disk Drive Jumpers” on page 7-4 for instructions.)
6. If necessary, follow the instructions under “Installing a
Hard Disk in the Vertical Position” on page 7-7 to
reinstall your vertically mounted drive.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7-27
Appendix A
Specifications
CPU and Memory
32-bit CPU
80386SX microprocessor, 20 MHz system
clock speed, 20 MHz or 10 MHz
processor speed; user selectable
0 wait state memory access speed at
20MHz
System memory
2MB RAM standard; expandable using
256KB, lMB, or 4MB SIMMs up to 24MB
(the first 16MB can be extended or
expanded memory; above 16MB can be
only expanded memory); SIMM access
speed must be 80ns or faster
ROM
128KB (includes system BIOS and VGA
BIOS)
Shadow RAM
0 wait state access speed; system ROM
BIOS and video ROM can be copied into
RAM through SETUP
Math coprocessor
(optional)
80387SX, 20 MHz support
Clock/calendar
Real-time clock, calendar, and CMOS
RAM for configuration; battery backup
Battery
Replaceable, 3.6V lithium battery;
3-5 year life
Specifications A-1
Controllers
Diskette
Supports up to two drives in any of four
formats: 51/4-inch, high-density, 1.2MB;
51/4-inch, double-density, 360KB;
31/2-inch, high-density, 1.44MB;
31/2-inch, double-density, 720Kb;
controller on main system board
Hard disk
Supports up to two drives; embedded
(IDE) controllers; interface on main
system board
Interfaces
Monitor
Standard VGA with 256KEI of video
memory; supports up to 800 x 600 pixels
in 16-color or gray scale mode; U-pin,
D-shell connector
Serial
RS-232C, programmable, asynchronous;
9-pin, D-shell connector
Parallel
Standard 8-bit parallel, monodirectional; 25-pin, D-shell connector
Mouse
Mini DIN, 6-pin connector for PS/2
compatible mouse or other device
Keyboard
Mini DIN, 6-pin connector for PS/2
compatible keyboard
A-2
Option slots
Four standard input/output expansion
slots (three 16-bit ISA compatible and
one 8-bit ISA compatible); 8 MHz bus
Speed
Speaker
Internal, programmable
Specifications
Power Supply
Type
140W, fan-cooled, automatic input
voltage sensing
Input ranges
98 VAC to 132 VAC and 195 to 264 VAC
Maximum
outputs
+5 VDC at 18 Amps, +12 WC at
4.2 Amps
-12 WC at 0.3 Amps, -5 WC at
0.3 Amps
Mass Storage
Three half-height drives maximum
(one vertical mount and two horizontal
mounts) configurable using the
following drive types:
Diskette drives
51/4-inch diskette drive, 1.2MB
(high-density) storage capacity
31/2-inch diskette drive, 1.44MB
(high-density) storage capacity
51/4-inch diskette drive, 360KB
(double-density) storage capacity
31/2-inch diskette drive, 720KB
(double-density) storage capacity
Hard disk drives
31/2-inch form factor hard disk drive(s),
up to half height size; the first mounted
vertically, second mounted horizontally
Other devices
Half-height tape drive, CD-ROM, or
other storage device; 51/4-inch form
factor or 31/2-inch with 51/4-inch
mounting frames
Specifications A-3
Keyboard
Detachable, two position; 101 sculpted
keys
Layout
58-key QWERTY main keyboard; 17-key
numeric/cursor pad; 10 cursor keys;
additional 4-key cursor pad; 16 function
keys (user-definable)
Function
Four levels (normal, shift, control,
alternate); user-definable
Environmental Requirements
Physical Characteristics
A-4
Width
14.75 inches (375 mm)
Depth
17.5 inches (444 mm)
Height
5.9 inches (150 mm)
Weight
Single diskette drive model without
keyboard: 20.6 lb (9.4 kg)
Specifications
System Memory Map
Specifications A-5
Appendix B
Performing System Diagnostics
This appendix describes how to use the System diagnostics
program to test the condition of your computer’s main unit
and peripheral devices. The diagnostics program provides
tests to check the following hardware:
cl System board
Cl Memory
P Hard disk drive(s)
Cl Diskette drive(s)
0 Keyboard
Q Video adapter and monitor
Cl Parallel and serial ports.
By changing settings on the System diagnostics main menu,
you can run the tests in several different ways. You can
specify a certain length of time to run a test, select to run it
continuously until you interrupt it, or specify a number of
times to run the test.
If an error occurs during a test, note the error message and
contact your Epson dealer. Your dealer may be able to solve
the problem; if not, see “Where to Get Help” in the
Introduction for technical support information.
Performing System Diagnostics
B-l
Starting the Diagnostics Program
To start the diagnostics program, follow these steps:
1. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A and turn on or
reset the computer.
2. When you see the following prompt, press the Del key:
Press <Del> to start SETUP
3. At the next prompt, select Start operating system.
4. At the A : prompt, type D I AG and press Enter to run
System diagnostics. You see a title screen.
5. Press any key to continue. You see the main menu,
described below.
The Main Menu Screen
System board
Memory
Hard disk
Floppy
Keyboard
Video
Misc.
Basic functionality test
CPU protected mode test
Processor speed test
Coprocessor test
DMA controller test
Interrupt controller test
Timer test
Realtime clock test
CMOS validity test
Bun time parameters
Testing mode : (T)imebound / (C)ontinuous / (P)assbound ? P
Walt on error (Y/N) ? Y Error logging (Y/N) ? N No. of passes : 00001
Prev/Nextwindcu++Prev/NexttestTJ Run highlighted test<Enter> Exit<Esc>
Set parms<F2> Sel/desel test<F3> Se1 all<F4> Desel all<F5> Run sel tests<F6>
Tests basic operation of CPU in real mode
B-Z
Performing System Diagnostics
When you select a test category from the option line at the
top of the menu, you see a submenu of the available
diagnostic tests. For example, the submenu for the System
board category appears when you first see the main menu
because the System board option is selected.
The Run time parameters window, near the bottom of the
display, lets you specify how you want to run the test(s).
The help window describes how to use these keys to make
menu selections and run diagnostic tests:
A short message describing each test appears at the bottom of
the screen.
Performing System Diagnostics
B-3
Setting the Run Time Parameters
The tests you select will run in the following manner unless
you change the run time parameters:
3
Each test is performed one time (passbound)
3
The program waits if an error occurs
0 No errors are recorded to the printer, disk, or other
device.
If you want to change the default run time parameters, press
F2 to move to the Run time parameters window. (Press Ex at
any time to exit and return to the submenu of diagnostic
tests.)
The first run time parameter specifies the mode in which to
run the test. You see this prompt:
Testing mode: (T)imebound / (C)ontinuous /
(P)assbound ? P
In Timebound mode, the program runs the tests for the
amount of time you specify; press T and then Enter.
In Continuous mode, the tests run until you interrupt them;
press C and Enter.
In Passbound mode, the program runs the tests the number
of times you specify. This is the default setting; press P, if
necessary, and Enter to select the mode.
The next option is:
Wait on error (Y/N) ? Y
Press Y, if necessary, and Enter if you want the program to
pause when an error occurs. This lets you view the error
message, make note of it, and then press Enter to continue.
(Y is the default setting.)
B-4
Performing System Diagnostics
Press N and Enter if you want the diagnostics program to
continue when an error occurs.
The next option is:
Error logging (Y/N) ? N
Press Y and Enter to record the errors that may occur during
the test. See “Error Logging,” below, for details.
Press N and Enter if you do not want to create the log. (N is
the default setting.)
You may see a prompt requesting additional information the
program needs to perform the test(s).
If you selected Continuous testing, the diagnostics program
needs no additional information. Instead, you see this
message in the Run time parameters window:
Test mode: continuous
If you selected Timebound testing, you see this prompt:
Period :OOl hr 00 min
To specify the amount of time you want to run the test(s),
type the number of hours (from 000 to 999), and press Enter.
Then type the number of minutes (from 00 to 59), and press
Enter. You can use the backspace key to make corrections.
Performing System Diagnostics
B-5
If you selected Passbound testing, you see this prompt:
No.
of passes : 00001
Spedfy the number of times (from 1 to 65535) you want the
program to run the test(s). Or press Enter without entering a
number to select the default of one pass. You can use the
backspace key to make corrections.
Note
In most cases, running a test once is sufficient. Multiple
passes test the reliability of essential functions only.
Error Logging
When you request error logging, you see this submenu:
Log errors on disk
Log errors to printer (LPTl)
Log errors to serial port
No error logging
Press ” or “ to highlight the device on which you want the
program to log the error messages and press Enter. (Press Esc
to exit the menu and return to the Error logging prompt.)
If you select No error 1 oggi ng, the program changes the
error logging response from Y to N.
If you select the printer (LPTl), the program writes the error
messages to the device connected to the parallel port
assigned LPTl. If you select the serial port, the program
writes the error messages to the device connected to the
COMl serial port.
B-6
Performing System Diagnostics
If youselect Log errors on disk, the program displays this
submenu:
Floppy disk A:
Floppy disk B:
Hard disk C:
Hard disk D:
(You do not see drive D unless you have a second hard disk
drive.) Press 1 or ? to highlight the disk on which you want
to log the error messages and press Enter. The program
creates a file called ERROR.LOG in the current directory of
the specified disk drive. After running the tests, you can open
the ERROR.LOG file to review the errors that occurred during
the tests.
The program uses this device for error logging until you
change it or indicate you do not want error logging. When
you specify a new device, the program erases the existing
ERROR.LOG file, if any.
When you specify the device for error logging, one of these
error messages may appear:
Floppy disk A not present
Floppy disk B not present
Hard disk C not present
Printer port not present
Serial port not present
Error in printer status
Error in serial port status
Error in floppy drive A
Record the error message and select a different device for
error logging.
Once you set the run time parameters, you are ready to select
the test(s).
Performing System Diagnostics
B-7
Selecting Diagnostic Tests
To start a single test, press ’ or ‘ to highlight the test
category on the main menu. Then press “ or ” to highlight
the particular test in the submenu and press Enter to run it.
When a test has been completed, you see this prompt:
Press <Enter> to return to Main menu.
Selecting Multiple Tests
To select several tests at one time, highlight each test you
want to perform and press F3. To cancel a selection, highlight
the test and press F3 again.
To run the selected group of tests, press F6. The program
highlights each test name as it runs the test.
You can press F4 to select all tests for all devices, and press F5
to cancel all selections.
You cannot run certain tests along with other tests. The table
below lists the tests that must be run individually.
Diagnostic tests to be run individually
B-8
Category
Test
System board
Timer test
Real time clock test
Hard disk
Hard disk format
Media analysis
Force bad track,
Floppy
Disk change line test
Keyboard
Scan/ASCII code test
Miscellaneous
Printer adapter test
Comm. adapter test
Performing System Diagnostics
You can stop testing at any time and return to the main
menu by holding down Ctrl and pressing Break The program
completes the current test before it stops.
You must enter certain parameters to run the hard disk and
diskette drive tests. If you use F3 to select these tests, the
program prompts you for the parameters immediately. If you
use F4, the program prompts you for the parameters during
the first pass of the test. If you perform the tests more than
once, the program uses the same parameters for each pass.
If you selected Passbound testing, the program displays the
pass number on the right side of the screen above the Run
time parameters window. For example:
Pass : 00001
If you entered Y at the W a i t on e r r o r prompt, the program
pauses if an error occurs. When you press Enter, the program
continues testing.
Note
Tests selected using the F3 and F4 keys remain selected
until you cancel the selection. Be sure to press F5 to cancel
all selections when you are finished running each set of
tests.
Performing System Diagnostics
B-9
Running the Tests
The table below lists all of the available System diagnostic
tests and refers you to other sections in this chapter for
additional information, if necessary.
System diagnostic
B-10
tests
Performing System Diagnostics
System diagnostic tests (continued)
Component Tests
Function
Hard disk
Hard disk format
Media analysis
Performance
Seek
Read/verify
Check test cylinder
Force bad tracks
See “Hard Disk Diagnostics”
Diskette format
Drive speed
Random read/write
Sequential read/write
Disk change line
See “Floppy Disk
Diagnostics”
Controller
Tests the keyboard controller
Scan/ASCII code
Tests the scan codes assigned
to the keys
Keyboard clock line
Tests the keyboard clock line
Keyboard data line
Tests the keyboard data line
Adapter
Tests the display adapter
memory
Attribute
Tests the display adapter
attributes
80 x 25 display
Tests the 80 x 25 display
40 x 25 display*
Tests the 40 x 25 display
320 x 200 graphics*
Tests the 320 x 200 graphics
display
640 x 200 graphics*
Tests the 640 x 200 graphics
display
Page selection*
Tests the paging function of
the adapter
Color*
Tests the background and
border color mapping
drives
Floppy disk
drives
Keyboard
Video
l
Test appears only if you have installed a color monitor.
Performing System Diagnostics
B-11
System diagnostic tests (continued)
Component
Tests
Function
Video
(continued)
440 x 350 graphics*
Test the 640 x 350 graphics
display
640 x 480 graphics*
Test the 640 x 480 graphics
display
Printer adapter
Comm. adapter
See “Miscellaneous
Diagnostics”
Misc.
l
Test appears only if you have installed a color monitor.
Memory Diagnostics
If you have relocated any memory addresses, you must
change the addresses to their original locations before
running the memory tests or they will not work properly.
If an error occurs during a memory test, the program displays
this message:
Press <Enter> to view faulty memory chip.
Press Enter. The program displays a diagram of the main
system board and highlights the faulty memory chip.
Hard Disk Diognostics
Hard disk diagnostic tests may be destructive or nondestructive. Destructive diagnostics destroy data on the hard
disk, but non-destructive diagnostics do not. Be sure to back
up any data on your hard disk before performing any
destructive tests. The following table lists which tests are
destructive and which are not.
B-12
Performing System Diagnostics
Destructive tests
Non-destructive tests
Format
Media analysis
Force bad tracks
Performance
Seek
Read/verify
Check test cylinder
Before performing any destructive test, the program displays
the following messages:
W A R N I N G
All data on hard disk you have
specified may be lost...
Do you still want to continue (Y/N)?
Press Y and Enter to begin the test. Press N and Enter to stop
the operation.
Caution
You should not run any of the destructive tests on a SCSI
hard disk drive.
Hard Disk Parameters
The program may ask for the following parameters:
Disk drive identifier
Disk drive type
Interleave factor
Bad track list
Start cylinder number
End cylinder number
Start head number
End head number
Each parameter is described below.
Performing System Diagnostics
B-13
Disk drive identifier
You see this prompt for the disk drive identifier:
Disk drive (C/D) ? C
If you have only one hard disk drive, the program assumes it
is drive C and does not display this prompt.
Disk drive type
The program determines the type of hard disk drive based on
the type number stored in the CMOS RAM by the SETUP
program and displays the following prompt:
Disk drive type
? 17
A window on the screen lists the possible drive types. If you
need to change the type, use “ or ” to highlight the drive
type that matches your hard disk and press Enter.
If you select the User defined option (type 47), the program
prompts you for the following information:
Number of cylinders
Number of heads
Number of sectors per track
Write precompensation presence
Write precompensation cylinder number
Landing zone
Interleave factor
The interleave factor affects the performance of your hard
disk. You see the following prompt:
Interleave (l-16) ? 3
Enter 1 if you are using an Epson IDE hard disk drive or a
different number, if your hard disk documentation
recommends it.
B-14
Peforming System Diagnostics
Bad track list
Entering the bad track list is optional. The program displays
the following prompt for the bad track list:
Mark bad tracks (Y/N) ? N
You do not need to enter a bad track list for the hard disk
that comes with the Equity 320sx PLUS. Press N, if necessary,
and then press Enter.
If you press Y and then Enter, you see the following
submenu:
Add an entry
Revise an entry
Delete an entry
Clear bad track list
Save and Exit
Use ” or “ to highlight a menu option and press Enter. Then
enter the correct track information. When the bad track list is
correct, highlight Save and Exi t and press Enter.
Note
When you run the Media analysis test, the program
automatically marks the bad tracks when it formats the
disk.
Start and end cylinder numbers
The program displays the following prompts for the starting
and ending cylinder numbers:
Start cylinder number
End cylinder number
?
?
0
nnn
Performing System Diagnostics
B-15
Enter the first and last cylinder numbers on which you want
to perform the tests. The default for the start cylinder
number is 0, and the default for the end cylinder number is
one less than the highest cylinder number of your hard disk.
For example, on the 40MB hard disk, the highest cylinder
number is 976.
Start and end head numbers
The program displays the following prompts for the starting
and ending head numbers:
Start head number
End head number
?
?
0
nn
Enter the first and last head numbers on which you want to
perform the tests. The default for the start head number is 0,
and the default for the end head number is one less than the
highest head number of your hard disk. For example, the
default end head number for the 40MB disk is 4.
After you specify the hard disk parameters, press Y and Enter
at the Proceed prompt to run the test.
Hard Disk format
The Hard disk format program performs a low-level format
on your hard disk. If your computer came with a factoryinstalled hard disk or if you have installed an optional Epson
hard disk, it has already been formatted for you.
You may need to format the hard disk if you have installed a
new, non-Epson hard disk in your computer that has never
received this type of low-level format and did not come with
its own format utility.
You must still partition and format the hard disk for
MS-DOS after performing this low-level format. See your
MS-DOS manuals for instructions.
B-16
Performing System Diagnostics
Caution
The hard disk format procedure destroys any data on your
hard disk.
You may want to reformat a hard disk if you have a serious
problem with the drive. However, before formatting a disk
with data on it, try every other recovery procedure described
in your MS-DOS manuals. Then back up all the data on the
disk before you begin.
Note
If you do not enter a bad track list before you format the
disk, the format program analyzes the surface of the hard
disk to determine the bad tracks.
Media Analysis
This test identifies the bad tracks on the hard disk by
analyzing the surface of the disk to find them. The program
uses three different bit patterns; formatting the disk, marking
the bad tracks, and displaying the bad track list.
Caution
The Media analysis test destroys any data on your hard
disk.
Performing System Diagnostics
B-17
Performance Test
This test checks the performance of your hard disk by
determining the data transfer rate and track-to-track seek
time based on the transfer size, the seek count, and the
amount of data transferred.
The program measures the data transfer rate in kilobytes per
second. It reads 64KB of data 15 times and counts the
number of timer ticks using this formula:
Transfer rate = (64KB x 15 x 18.2) / # timer ticks
The program measures track-to-track seek time in
milliseconds using this formula:
Seek time = (# timer ticks x 1000) / 18.2 x 200
(The number of seeks is 200.)
A higher data transfer rate and a lower seek time indicate
better disk performance.
Seek Test
This test checks the seek capability of the hard disk on the
specified range of cylinders and heads. The program performs
a series of sequential seeks followed by random seeks and
reports any errors.
Read/Verify Test
This test checks the read and verify capability of the hard
disk on the specified range of cylinders and heads. The
program performs both sequential and random read and
verify operations and reports any errors.
B-18
Performing System Diagnostics
Check Test Cylinder
This test checks the test cylinder, which is the last cylinder
on the hard disk. You should perform this test if you receive
a hard disk error when you boot the system.
Force Bad Tracks
Use this test to mark bad tracks on the hard disk without
formatting it.
Caution
The Force bad tracks test destroys any data on your hard
disk.
Hard Disk Error Messages
The diagnostics program displays two types of error messages
while testing the hard disk: messages the program generates
and those the controller generates.
The following message appears if you try to run the
Performance Test with less than 128KB of available memory:
Insufficient memory for data transfer
Minimum memory required is - 128KB
Performing System Diagnostics
B-19
The controller displays one of the following messages when
an error occurs during a diagnostics procedure:
Address mark not found
Attachment failed to respond
Bad ECC on disk read
Bad sector flag detected
Controller has failed
Drive activity failed
ECC corrected data error
Requested sector not found
Reset failed
Seek operation failed
Write fault on selected drive
If you see one of these error messages, check the drive,
controller, cables, and power connectors. If you still get an
error, contact your dealer.
Floppy Disk Diognostics
Floppy disk diagnostic tests may be destructive or nondestructive. Destructive diagnostics destroy data on the
diskette, but non-destructive diagnostics do not. The
following table lists which tests are destructive and which are
not.
B-20
Performing System Diagnostics
Performing the Tests
The Diskette format test checks the format capability of the
diskette drive and its controller. In order to run the test, you
need a blank diskette that has been formatted using the
MS-DOS FORMAT command and that is not write-protected.
When the program prompts you to insert a diskette, insert
the newly formatted one.
Once the Diskette format test is completed successfully, you
must use the test diskette to run any of the tests in the
following table. These tests will not run properly unless the
diskette has been previously used for the Diskette format
diagnostic test.
Tests requiring a specially formatted diskette
Performing System Diagnostics
B-21
Note
Be sure to insert a blank diskette that has been formatted
using the MS-DOS FORMAT command before you run the
Diskette format test. Then use that diskette when you run
any of the other destructive tests. Check that you have
inserted the correct diskette before you enter Y at the
Proceed prompt.
You see the following prompt before the program performs a
test:
Diskette drive (A/B) ?
If necessary, type the drive identifier and press Enter. (If you
have only one diskette drive, drive A is already entered for
you.) Press Y and Enter at the Proceed prompt to begin the
test. mess N and Enter to return to submenu.
Note
When you are finished running any of these tests on the
test diskette, you must reformat it using the MS-DOS
FORMAT command before you can use it with MS-DOS.
Floppy Disk Error Messages
The diagnostics program displays two types of error messages
while testing a diskette drive: messages the program generates
and those the controller generates.
The program may display the following error message during
the Disk change line test:
Warning - Change line inoperational
This message appears if the line is not working properly and
may indicate a problem in the drive or its controller.
B-22
Performing System Diagnostics
You may see the following message if you attempt to run the
Change line test on a drive that does not support a change
line, such as a 360KB or 720KB drive:
Change line not available
The controller displays one of these messages when an error
occurs during a diagnostics procedure:
Bad address mark
Bad CRC error
Bad DMA error
Bad seek error
Diskette write protected
Media change error
Record not found
Timeout error
These errors could occur because of a faulty drive, controller,
or cable, or if you attempt to run a test on a write-protected
or unformatted diskette.
Miscellaneous Diagnostics
These tests are listed in the Miscellaneous diagnostics
submenu to provide a complete check of the parallel and
serial ports:
Printer adapter test
Comm. adapter test
Printer Adapter Test
This test checks the parallel port and the printer by sending a
pattern to the printer. If the printer does not print the
pattern, the test has failed.
Performing System Diagnostics
B-23
Before running the test, be sure that the printer is on-line,
paper is loaded, and all connections are secure, or you may
see one of the following error messages:
Error
Error
Error
Error
-
Printer out of paper
Printer not selected
Printer interface I/O error
Time out on printer
Communication Adapter Test
Before running this test on your serial port, you must
connect a special RS-232C, AT-type loopback connector to
the port. This connector enables the test to send out data and
receive the same data back on one line. You can purchase the
connector from most electronic supply stores.
Be sure the connector is configured with the following
settings:
Q RD and TD shorted
Q DSR and DTR shorted
0 CTS and RTS shorted.
This test resets the computer to check for possible errors.
Then it checks the port by sending and receiving data and
testing the following port parameters:
3 9600 baud rate
Q Odd parity
0 2 stop bits
0 8-bit data length.
B-24
Performing System Diagnostics
If you see one of the following errors, there may be a
problem with the controller or the test cable:
Error
Error
Error
Error
Error
-
Break detected
Framing error
Overrun error
Parity error
Time out!
Check to make sure that the test connector is securely
connected to the port. If the error persists, contact your
dealer.
Exiting System Diagnostics
To exit from the System diagnostics program, press Est. You
see the following prompt:
Do you want to
exit diag (Y/N)? N
Before you press a key, remove the Reference diskette from
drive A. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your MS-DOS
Startup diskette in the drive. Then press Y and Enter to exit
the program. You see this message:
Stand by while system is rebooting.
The computer loads MS-DOS and you see either the C : or A :
prompt.
Performing System Diagnostics
B-25
Appendix C
Troubleshooting
You should not encounter any difficulties as you set up and
use your computer, but if anything out of the ordinary
happens, refer to this appendix. You can correct most
problems by adjusting a cable connection, repeating a
software procedure, or resetting the computer.
Besides trying the suggestions in this chapter, you can run
diagnostics checks on the various components of your
computer system. See Appendix B for instructions.
If the suggestions here or in Appendix B do not solve the
problem, see “Where to Get Help” in the Introduction.
Identifying Your System
When you request technical assistance, be ready to provide
the serial number of your computer, its ROM BIOS version
number, its configuration (including the type of disk drives,
monitor, and option cards), and the names and version
numbers of any software programs you are using.
You can find the serial number on the computer’s back
panel. If you are able to use your computer, follow the steps
below to obtain information about your configuration, as
well as your ROM BIOS and MS-DOS version numbers.
1. If you do not have a hard disk, insert the MS-DOS Startup
diskette in drive A.
2. Turn on your computer or press the RESET button to
reboot it.
Troubleshooting C-l
3. When the computer performs a memory test, the version
number of your system ROM BIOS appears at the bottom
of the screen. Quickly write down the version number. If
you do not have enough time to write down the entire
number, press RESET and try again.
4. When you see Press <Del> to start SETUP, press the
Del key. Write down the appropriate information about
your configuration shown on the main SETUP menu.
Then exit SETUP (without saving the configuration).
5. At the MS-DOS command prompt, type V E R and press
Enter to display the MS-DOS version number. Write it
down.
Error Messages
Your computer’s built-in memory (ROM) contains a series of
diagnostics programs, called power-on diagnostics, which
your computer runs automatically every time you turn it on.
These programs check internal devices such as ROM, RAM,
the timer, the keyboard controller, and the hard disk drive.
The RAM test program displays the total amount of memory
currently installed in your system. If the computer finds an
error, it displays an error message on the screen. Write down
the error message and give it to your dealer when reporting a
problem.
If the error is serious, the computer cancels further checking
and halts system initialization. The error message remains on
the screen and the computer locks up. If this happens,
contact your dealer as soon as possible. Report this
information and both the error message and code number to
your dealer.
C-2
Troubleshooting
The Computer Won ‘t Start
If your computer does not start when you turn on the power,
check the following:
1. Is the power light on? If not, remove any diskettes and
turn off the power. Check that the power cord is securely
connected to both the AC inlet on the back panel and an
electrical outlet. Replace the Startup or Reference diskette,
if necessary, and turn on the computer again.
2. If the power light still does not come on, check the
electrical outlet for power. Turn off your computer and
unplug the power cord from the wall outlet. Plug a lamp
into the outlet, and turn it on to see if the outlet supplies
power.
3. If you installed or removed any of your system
components, such as a disk drive, check to make sure you
have reconnected all the internal and external cables
correctly.
4. If the electrical outlet is working and all the connections
are secure but your computer still won’t start, call your
dealer.
Note
If the computer starts but you can’t see anything on
the screen, see “Monitor Problems,” below.
Troubleshooting C-3
The Computer Does Not Respond
If your computer locks up and does not respond when you
type on the keyboard, follow these steps:
1. Some operations take longer than others to complete. For
example, the computer takes longer to sort a database
than to accept a single typed character. If your computer
still does not respond after a reasonable length of time,
proceed to the next step.
2. Your computer may take a long time to complete its
power-on diagnostics if you have just made a change in
your system’s configuration. The first time you turn on
your computer after making such a change, it can take
several minutes to finish its self test, depending on what
you changed. If the computer does not display the
MS-DOS prompt after five minutes, press the RESET
button and try again. If that doesn’t work, insert the
Reference diskette in drive A and press the RESET button.
If the computer still does not boot, contact your Epson
dealer.
3. Did you enter the correct password? See “Password
Problems,” below.
4. Could your software be causing the problem? If you are
running an application program, see “Software
Problems,” later in this appendix.
5. The problem could be caused by your keyboard. See
“Keyboard Problems,” later in this appendix. If your
keyboard is operating properly, proceed to the next step.
6. If you want to stop whatever the computer is doing and
return to the MS-DOS command prompt, hold down the
Ctrl key and press Break (or press C). See Chapter 3 for
more information on stopping a command or program.
C-4
Troubleshooting
7. If your computer still does not respond, you can reset it
using the Ctrl Alt Del command or the RESET button. See
“Resetting Your Computer” in Chapter 3 for more
information.
8. If resetting the computer does not work, turn it off and
wait at least five seconds. If you do not have a hard disk
drive, insert the Startup or Reference diskette in drive A.
Then turn on the computer. It should load MS-DOS.
9. If you installed a display adapter card in your computer,
and you want to use that adapter as your primary display
adapter, you need to change the setting of jumper Jl on
the main system board to disable the built-in VGA
adapter. If you have not set the jumper, you will not see
any display on the screen. You may also need to set
jumpers J3 and J5. See “Changing the Jumper Settings” in
Chapter 6 for instructions.
Password Problems
If you set a password using the SETUP program, you must
enter it before you can use the system. When you turn on the
computer, it runs a memory test. Then the screen displays
the Enter Password prompt. If you do not enter the correct
password, you cannot use the computer.
If you have any trouble using your password, try the
following:
P If you type the password and press Enter but nothing
happens, type it again and press Enter.
Cl If you know the current password but you want to
change or delete it, see Chapter 2 for instructions.
0 If you do not know the current password, follow the steps
below.
Troubleshooting C-5
Accessing Your Current Password
If you have forgotten your current password and cannot use
your computer, follow these steps:
1. Turn off the computer and follow the instructions under
“Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 6 to disable
the password function by setting jumper J2 to position A.
Caution
Be sure to ground yourself on the back inside panel of
the computer before touching any of the interior
components. Always replace the cover on the
computer before you turn it on again.
2. Turn on the computer. You do not see the Enter
Password prompt.
3. When the Press <Del>to start SETUP prompt
appears, press Del.
4. Highlight Run SETUP and press Enter. You see the SETUP
menu.
Follow the instructions in Chapter 2 to either set a new
password or select Not Instal1ed (if you do not want to
set a new password). Be sure to save your SETUP
information when you exit the program.
5. Turn off the computer and follow the instructions under
“Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 6 to enable
the password function by setting jumper J2 to position B.
6. If you do not have a hard disk, insert the Startup diskette
in drive A. Turn on the computer.
If you set a new password, you see the Enter Password
prompt. Enter the password to access your system. (See
“Using the Password” in Chapter 3.)
C-6
Troubleshooting
If you did not set a new password, you do not see the
Enter Password prompt and you can access your system
immediately.
Note:
Be sure to remember your new password or write it down
and keep it in a safe place. If you forget the password you
enter now, you may have to repeat the above procedure
the next time you reboot your computer.
Keyboard Problems
If you are having trouble with the keyboard, check the
following:
1. If the screen displays a keyboard error when you turn on
or reset the computer, make sure the keyboard is securely
connected to its port. See “Connecting the Keyboard” in
Chapter 1 for instructions.
2. If the cursor keys do not work properly, the num lock
function may be on. When num lock is on, the numeric/
arrow keys on the numeric keypad work only as numbers.
Check to see if the Num Lock indicator in the upper right
comer of the keyboard is lit; if it is, press the Num Lock
key to turn off the function.
3. If nothing happens when you type on the keyboard, see
“The Computer Does Not Respond,” above.
4. If you are still having trouble with your keyboard, run
the Keyboard diagnostic tests described in Appendix B. If
the diagnostics indicate an error, contact your dealer.
Troubleshooting C-7
Monitor Problems
For monitor problems, check the following
1. If there is no display on the screen, check that the
monitor’s power switch is on and that the power light on
the monitor is lit. If the power light is on but you still do
not see anything on the screen, check the monitor’s
brightness and contrast controls.
2. If the power switch is on but the power light is not, turn
off the monitor’s power, wait five seconds, and turn the
power back on. Wait to see if the screen displays any text.
3. If the monitor’s power light still does not come on, check
the electrical outlet for power. Turn off your monitor and
unplug it from the wall outlet. Plug a lamp into the
outlet and turn it on to see if the outlet supplies power.
4. If you still do not see anything on the screen, make sure
your monitor is connected to the computer properly. See
“Connecting a Monitor” in Chapter 1 for more details.
Also check the monitor manual for instructions on how
to connect it to the computer.
5. Make sure your monitor and display adapter match, and,
if you installed a display adapter card, be sure any
switches or jumpers on the card are set properly. See
“Connecting a Monitor” in Chapter 1 and the
documentation that came with your monitor and display
adapter card for instructions.
6. Be sure you have chosen the correct display adapter type
in the SETUP program. See “Setting the Primary Display
Type” in Chapter 2.
7. If you are running an application program, see if you
need to set up the program for the type of monitor and
display adapter you have. Also make sure you are using
the appropriate monitor and display adapter for your
software.
C-8 Troubleshooting
Note
If your application program requires a monitor that
supports graphics but you have a monochrome
monitor, the results will be unpredictable.
8. If you installed a display adapter card in your computer,
and you want to use that adapter as your primary display
adapter, you need to change the setting of jumper Jl on
the main system board to disable the built-in VGA
adapter. Otherwise, you will not see any display on the
screen. You may also need to set jumpers J3 and J5. See
“Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 6 for
instructions.
9. If you are still having difficulty with your monitor, run
the Video diagnostic tests, described in Appendix B. If the
diagnostics program indicates an error, contact the place
where you bought the monitor.
Diskette Problems
If you see an error message or have trouble accessing data on
a diskette, try the following steps:
1. Did you turn down the diskette drive latch on a 51/4inch
drive to secure the diskette in the drive? See Chapter 3 for
more information.
2. You may have inserted the diskette upside-down or it
may not be inserted all the way. Remove the diskette
from the drive and reinsert it with the label facing up. Be
sure to turn down the diskette drive latch. (See Chapter 3
for detailed instructions on inserting and removing
diskettes.)
Troubleshooting C-9
3. If reinserting the diskette does not solve the problem and
you have access to another diskette drive of the same
type, place the diskette in the other drive and repeat the
operation. If this works, the trouble may be in your
diskette drive. See “Diskette Drive Problems,” below.
4. Check to see if you have inserted the right type of
diskette. For example, are you trying to read a 1.44MB
diskette in a 720KB diskette drive? See “Types of Diskette
Drives” in Chapter 3 for more information.
5. If your diskette is the right type for your drive, see if it is
write-protected. On a 51/4-inch diskette, there may be a
write-protect tab over the notch on its side or there may
be no notch. On a 31/2-inch diskette, the write-protect
switch may be set to the write-protect position or there
may be no switch. You cannot alter data on a writeprotected diskette. (Some application programs do not
function properly if the diskette is write-protected. Check
the program manual.) See Chapter 3 for information.
6. Is the diskette formatted? A new diskette must be
formatted before you can store data on it. See your
MS-DOS manuals for instructions on formatting
diskettes.
7. You may have entered an incorrect diskette drive type
when you ran the SETUP program. Run SETUP again to
check the setting. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
8. Did you receive one of the following MS-DOS error
messages?
0 Disk Drive Error: Abort, Ignore, Retry?
0 Disk error reading drive d:
LI Disk error writing drive d:
C-10
Troubleshooting
If you see one of these messages, make sure the diskette is
properly inserted in the drive. On a 51/4-inch diskette
drive, make sure the drive latch is closed. Try the
operation again. If the problem persists, try removing the
diskette and reinserting it. This may solve the problem if
the diskette was not seated properly in the drive.
If the error message still occurs, you may have a defective
diskette. Use the MS-DOS COPY command to copy the
files from the bad diskette to a new diskette. (See your
MS-DOS manuals for instructions.)
9. If you see no error messages but there is something
wrong with the data in a file, MS-DOS or an application
program may have updated the storage information on
the diskette incorrectly. This is probably the case if you
have one of these problems:
Q Part of a file is missing
0 A file includes parts of other files
Cl An expected output file is missing.
Use CHKDSK to make the necessary repairs; see your
MS-DOS manuals for instructions.
Diskette Drive Problems
If you see an error message or have difficulty with a diskette
drive, check the following
1. If you are having problems with a new diskette drive that
your dealer installed for you, consult your dealer about
the problem.
2. If you installed the drive yourself, did you carefully
follow all the instructions in Chapter 7 of this manual?
Review the instructions and check all the cable
connections to make sure you have installed it correctly.
Troubleshooting
c-11
3. Did you run the SETUP program to define the correct
type of diskette drive as part of the computer’s
configuration? (See Chapter 2 for instructions.)
4. If you are still having trouble with the drive, run the
Floppy disk system diagnostic tests, described in
Appendix B. If the diagnostics program indicates an error,
consult your Epson dealer.
5. If the diskette drive is making loud or unusual noises,
contact your Epson dealer.
Hard Disk Problems
If you are having a problem with a hard disk, it could be the
result of improper installation, incomplete disk preparation,
or corrupted data. The suggestions in this section are divided
into three categories:
Cl Installing the drive
P Preparing the drive for use
0 Accessing data on the drive.
Consult the section that seems most likely to cover the
problem you are having. For example, if you have been able
to use data on your disk in the past but suddenly cannot, see
“Accessing Data on the Drive.”
Caution
If your disk has data on it, be very careful before you
perform any procedure that may erase data (such as
formatting the disk). Consult your dealer if you have any
questions. Always be sure to back up your data before
reformatting or repartitioning the disk drive. See the
descriptions of COPY, XCOPY, and BACKUP in your
MS-DOS manuals.
C-12 Troubleshooting
Installing the Drive
If you are having problems with a newly-installed drive,
check the following:
1. If your dealer installed the drive, consult that person
about the problem.
2. If you have installed the hard disk in your computer
yourself, did you carefully follow all the instructions in
Chapter 7 of this manual? Review the instructions and
check all the cable connections to make sure you have
installed it correctly. Also check the jumper settings on
your drive to make sure they are set correctly.
3. If you installed a non-Epson hard disk drive, was it
physically formatted by the manufacturer? A blank, new
hard disk must be formatted (or initialized) before you can
partition it and install an operating system on it. This
type of format is usually done by the manufacturer; if
yours was not, you must do it yourself. If the drive came
with its own format utility, use that program; if not,
follow the instructions in Appendix B under “Hard Disk
Format.”
Note that this physical type of format is different from
the software-based type of formatting commands (such as
the MS-DOS SELECT or FORMAT commands. See
“Preparing the Drive,” below, for more information.
4. If you installed a hard disk drive with its controller on an
option card, did you disable the built-in hard disk drive
controller and select the correct drive type through
SETUP? See Chapter 2 for instructions.
Troubleshooting
C-13
Preparing the Drive
Before you can store data on a new hard disk (which has
already been physically formatted), you must do the
following to prepare it for use:
1. Run the SETUP program to define your hard disk as part
of the computer’s configuration. (See Chapter 2 for
instructions.)
2. Partition the drive, format it for MS-DOS, and install
MS-DOS. Stepby-step instructions for performing these
procedures are provided in your MS-DOS manuals. If you
are using another operating system, follow the
instructions that came with it.
If you do not prepare the drive correctly, you will not be
able to store data on the disk. For example, if you have
partitioned the drive and formatted it for MS-DOS (or for
another operating system) but you do not copy the operating
system to the drive, you will not be able to load the operating
system from the hard disk when you turn on the computer.
If you are sure the hard disk has been installed properly and
you have prepared it for use as described above but you
cannot access the drive, review the instructions in your
MS-DOS manuals. Make sure you performed each step in the
installation process correctly for your configuration.
If you cannot identify the problem, consult your dealer.
Accessing Data on the Drive
If you have been using your hard disk drive successfully for
some time and notice a reduction in performance, the data
on the disk may have become fragmented. You may want to
back up all your data and then use a disk compaction utility
to reorganize the files on your disk. Contact your dealer for
information.
C-14
Troubleshooting
If you still have trouble with your hard disk, you can back up
your data and physically reformat the disk. Then you’ll need
to reinstall MS-DOS and copy your files back onto the disk.
See “Hard Disk Format” in Appendix B and your MS-DOS
manuals for instructions.
If you cannot access data on your hard disk or you are
receiving read/write errors, the disk may have a physical
problem. Contact your dealer.
Software Problems
If you are having trouble with an application program, try
the following solutions:
1. If the application program does not start, check that you
are following the correct procedure for starting the
program, and that it is installed correctly. If you have a
hard disk and the program is stored in a directory on that
drive, make sure you are logged onto or specifying the
correct directory. If you don’t have a hard disk, make sure
you have inserted the correct diskette in drive A.
2. Your computer can run at either high speed (20 MHz) or
low speed (10 MHz). While almost all programs work
properly at the faster speed, some must run at the slower
speed. Check your software manual to see if this is the
case, and change the CPU operating speed if necessary.
See “Changing the Processor Speed” in Chapter 4 for
instructions and for information on accommodating
copy-protected programs.
3. If you have entered an MS-DOS command that you want
to stop, there are special key combinations you can type
to tell MS-DOS to stop what it is doing. These methods
may also work in your application programs:
D Hold down Ctrl and press C
P Hold down Ctrl and press Break
Troubleshooting
C-15
4. An application program can occasionally lock the
computer, making it unresponsive to the keyboard. If
your computer does not respond when you type on the
keyboard, you can reset it. Follow the instructions in
Chapter 3.
5. If resetting the computer does not help, turn off your
system, wait five seconds, and then turn it back on. Then
you can restart your application program.
6. If none of these solutions solve your software problem,
contact the software manufacturer for technical support.
Printer Problems
Below are some general steps to follow if you are having
difficulty with your printer. If the problem persists and you
need more detailed information, check your printer manual.
1. If your printer does not work at all, check that the printer
has power and is properly connected to the computer.
(Also, make sure your printer has paper in it.) See
Chapter 1 for instructions or see your printer manual.
2. Check the printer manual for the printer’s correct DIP
switch or control panel settings. These settings help a
printer communicate properly with the computer.
3. If you are using more than one parallel port or more than
one serial port, the computer must know which port is
the primary and which is the secondary. See Chapter 2
for instructions on how to define the parallel and serial
ports using the SETUP program.
4. If your printer is properly set up but is still not
functioning, test it from the MS-DOS level. When the
screen displays the MS-DOS command prompt (such as
C> or A>), hold down Shift and press Print Screen. This
should print the contents of the screen on your printer.
C-16
Troubleshooting
If it does not, you may need to change the internal
setting of the computer’s parallel port for a parallel
printer (or serial port for a serial printer). To do this,
use the MS-DOS MODE or SETMODE command. See
your printer manual and the MS-DOS manuals for more
details.
5. Many application programs (such as word processors)
must be set up properly before they can use a printer.
Check your program manual to see what customizing
may be required.
6. If you are using an application program that requires a
printer driver, make sure the driver is installed properly.
See your application program manual for instructions.
Also see your printer manual for additional instructions
on using your printer with application programs.
7. Try running the Printer adapter diagnostics test if you
have a parallel printer, or the Communication adapter
test if you have a serial printer. Appendix B describes
these tests. If the test indicates an error, contact your
printer dealer.
Option Card Problems
If you install an option card and it is not functioning
properly, check the following:
1. Is the option card installed correctly? The most common
problem with option cards is a loose connection. Make
sure the card is well-seated in its slot. Check the
installation procedure described in Chapter 6 and also
see the instructions that come with the card.
2. Did you set the necessary DIP switches or jumpers on the
option card? See the card’s manual for instructions.
Troubleshooting
C-17
3.
Did you set the necessary jumpers on the main system
board? See Chapter 6 for more information.
4.
Did you run the SETUP program to update your
configuration after installing the card? See Chapter 2.
5. If you used the option card to add an external device to
your computer, did you use the proper cable to connect
the device to the card’s connector on the back panel?
6.
Did you perform the correct setup procedures for the
software you are using with the option card? If necessary,
see your software manual for instructions.
Mouse Problems
If you have trouble with your mouse, check the following:
1. Make sure that your mouse is securely connected to its
port on the back of the computer. Also, make sure you
have connected it to the correct port. See Chapter 1 for
more information.
2. If the mouse is connected properly, make sure that
jumper J4 on your computer’s main system board is set
correctly for your mouse. See Chapter 6 for more
information.
3. Did you install the mouse driver correctly? See your
software manual and the documentation that came with
your mouse for instructions.
4. If you’re still having trouble, check the documentation
that came with your mouse for any troubleshooting
information, or contact your dealer.
C-18
Troubleshooting
Memory Module Problems
If you added extra memory to your system by installing
SIMMs and that memory is not operating properly, check the
following:
1. If the memory count displayed by the power-on
diagnostics program is incorrect, you or your dealer may
not have installed the SlMMs correctly. The SlMMs may
be installed in the wrong sockets, they may be the wrong
type of SIMM, or they may not be inserted all the way
into their sockets.
If your dealer installed SIMMs for you, contact your
dealer; do not attempt to correct the problem yourself. If
you installed them, see “Adding Memory Modules” in
Chapter 6 and make sure you followed all the
instructions.
2. Be sure to run the SETUP program after you install or
remove memory modules to automatically update your
memory configuration. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
3. If you are still having trouble with your SIMMs, write
down any error messages and contact your dealer.
Battery Problems
The battery in your computer is a 3.6 volt, lithium battery. It
should last from three to five years before you need to replace
it. When the battery’s life is exhausted, you may see one of
the following error messages:
CMOS battery state low
CMOS system options not set
Purchase a new battery pack and follow the instructions in
Chapter 6 to install it. (You may want your dealer to install it
for you.)
Troubleshooting
C-19
Math Coprocessor Problems
If your math coprocessor does not seem to be operating
properly, check the following:
1. Run the SETUP program and check to make sure that the
math coprocessor is listed as Insta11ed on the SETUP
display. If it is listed as Not instal1ed, you or your
dealer may have installed the coprocessor incorrectly. See
Chapters 2 and 6 for more information.
Caution
Do not attempt to remove the math coprocessor
yourself. Contact your dealer for information about a
special extraction tool that is needed to remove it.
2. If your math coprocessor is listed as Instal1ed in the
SETUP program but still does not seem to be working,
check the manual that came with it for troubleshooting
information and for any diagnostic procedures you can
perform.
C-20
Troubleshooting
Glossary
Address
A number or name that identifies the location where
information is stored in a computer’s memory.
Analog monitor
A monitor that generates, responds to, or acts upon analog
data. Analog data is transmitted by varying the voltage levels
in a continuous current.
Application program
A software program designed to perform a specific task, such
as a word processing or spreadsheet program.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A
standardized coding system for representing characters, such
as numbers, letters, and graphic symbols. An ASCII character
occupies one byte of storage. Many different computers,
printers, and programs can use files transmitted in ASCII
code.
Asynchronous
A method of data transmission in which one machine sends
data one character at a time to another machine at irregular
intervals that do not need to be synchronized to a timing
device.
AUTOEXEC.BAT file
The batch file that is executed automatically when you load
MS-DOS. See also Batch fire.
Glossary I
I
Automatic speed
The feature that enables the computer to switch
automatically from high speed (20 MHz) to low speed
(10 MHz) when accessing a diskette drive.
Backup
An extra copy of a program, data file, or disk, that is created
in the event your working copy is damaged or lost.
Base memory
The memory in the computer below 1MB that is available to
MS-DOS and application programs-usually 640KB. Also
called conventional memory or main memory.
Batch file
A type of file that lets you execute a series of MS-DOS
commands by typing one command. Batch files are text files
with the filename extension .BAT. When you type the
filename, MS-DOS executes all the commands in that file
sequentially.
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System. Routines in ROM (Read Only
Memory) that handle basic input/output functions of the
operating system and the video controller.
Bit
A binary digit (0 or 1). The smallest unit of computer storage.
The value of a bit represents the presence (1) or absence (0) of
an electric charge.
To load the operating system into the computer’s memory.
2
Glossary
Byte
A sequence or group of eight bits that represents one
character.
CGA
Color Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card that
can generate up to 25 lines of text with 80 characters on each
line, monochrome graphics at 640 x 200 resolution, or fourcolor graphics at 320 x 200 resolution.
Character
Anything that can be printed in a single space on the page or
the screen; includes numbers, letters, punctuation marks, and
graphic symbols.
CMOS
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. A type of
low-power silicon chip.
Code
A system of symbols for representing data or instructions.
Also any software program or part of a program.
Command
An instruction you enter (usually on a keyboard) to direct
your computer to perform a specific function.
Command prompt
The symbol or message that tells you MS-DOS is loaded and
ready to receive instructions. The default command prompt
displays the current drive and directory. If you are logged
onto drive C, the command prompt may look like this: C : >.
Glossary 3
Configuration
The particular setup of a group of components. A typical
system configuration consists of a computer with one
diskette drive and one hard disk drive connected to a
monitor and a printer.
Control code
A command (generated when you hold down Ctrl and press
another key on the keyboard) that instructs the computer to
perform a specific function.
Coprocessor
An optional device that enables the computer to process
certain mathematical calculations faster.
Copy-protected program
A type of program that cannot be copied. Some copyprotected programs require you to leave the program diskette
in the drive while you are using it. Some also require the
computer to be running at low speed (10 MHz) instead of
high speed (20 MHz). See also Automatic speed.
CPU
Central Processing Unit. The primary unit of the computer
that interprets instructions, performs the tasks you indicate,
keeps track of stored data, and controls all input and output
operations.
Cursor
The highlighted marker that shows your position on the
screen.
4
Glossary
Cylinders
The vertical alignment of tracks in a hard disk that can be
lined up under one read/write head. The number of tracks on
a disk is equal to the number of cylinders times the number
of heads.
Data
Information such as text or graphics stored or processed by a
computer.
Data diskette
A formatted diskette on which you store data files (as
opposed to program files).
Default
Any value or setting that takes effect when the computer is
turned on or reset. A default value stays in effect unless you
override it temporarily by changing a setting or you reset the
default value itself.
Delimiter
A character or space used to separate different parts of an
MS-DOS command.
Device
A piece of equipment that is part of a computer system and
performs a specific task, such as a disk drive, a monitor, or a
printer.
Device driver
A file containing instructions that allow your computer to
recognize and control a device.
Glossary 5
Diagnostics
The tests and procedures the computer performs to check its
internal circuitry and set up its configuration.
DIP switch
Dual lnline Package switch. A small switch on a computer,
option card, or printer that controls a particular function.
Directory
A list of files stored in a particular area on a disk; part of a
structure for organizing files into groups. A directory listing
shows the name, location, and size of the files in the
directory. A directory can contain both files and
subdirectories.
Disk
The collective term for diskettes and hard disks.
Disk drive
The physical device that allows the computer to read from
and write to a disk. A diskette drive has a disk slot into which
you insert a diskette. A hard disk is sealed inside a protective
unit.
Diskette
A flat piece of flexible plastic coated with magnetic material
used to store data permanently.
Display adopter cord
A circuit board that can be installed in one of the computer’s
option slots to provide the monitor interface. A display
adapter card controls the way the monitor displays text and
graphics. (In the Equity 320sx PLUS, a VGA display adapter is
built into the system board.) Also known as Video card.
6 Glossary
DOS
Disk Operating System. A commonly used operating system
that controls the computer’s input and output functions. See
also Operating system.
Double-density
A type of diskette format that allows you to store twice as
much data as the standard-density format. A 51/4-inch doubledensity diskette can store 360KB of data. A 31/2-inch doubledensity diskette can store 720KB of data.
Drive designator
The letter name of a disk drive, followed by a colon-for
example, C : .
EGA
Enhanced Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card
that allows you to display high-resolution graphics on a
compatible monitor. It can display up to 43 lines of text with
80 characters on each line, or it can display monochrome or
16-color graphics at resolutions up to 640 x 350.
Expanded memory
Memory that specially written MS-DOS application programs
can use with an Expanded Memory Specification (EMS)
device driver such as EMM386SX.SYS.
Extended Memory
Memory above 1MB that is accessed by the protected mode
of the 80386SX microprocessor and is available to some
application programs and operating systems.
Extension
A suffix of up to three characters which you can add to a
filename to better identify it.
Glossary 7
Fife
A group of related pieces of information called records, or
entries, stored together on a disk Text files consist of words
and sentences. Program files consist of codes and are used by
computers to interpret and carry out instructions.
Filename
A name up to eight characters long that MS-DOS uses to
identify a file.
Fixed disk
See Hard disk.
Format
To prepare a new disk (or an old one you want to reuse) so
that it can store information. Formatting divides a disk into
tracks and sectors and creates addressable locations on it.
Graphics
Lines, angles, curves, and other nonalphanumeric data.
Handle
See Process ID number.
Hard disk
The enclosed unit used to store large amounts of data. Unlike
a diskette, it is fixed in place. It can process data more rapidly
and store many more files than a diskette. Also called fixed
disk.
Hardware
Any physical component of a computer system, such as a
monitor, printer, keyboard, or CPU.
8 Glossary
Hexadecimal
A numbering system with a base of 16, frequently used by
programmers. Any decimal number between 0 and 255 can
be expressed by a two-digit hexadecimal number.
High-density
A type of format that allows you to store more data than on
single- or double-density diskettes. A 51/4-inch high-density
diskette can store 1.2MB of data. A 31/2-inch high-density
diskette can store 1.44MB of data.
input/output (i/O) port
see Port.
interface
A physical or software connection used to transmit data
between equipment or programs.
Jumper
A small device that connects two pins on an option card, a
disk drive, or the main system board to activate a particular
function.
Key disk
A diskette containing a copy-protected program that must
remain in the diskette drive while you are using the program.
Kilobyte (KB)
A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory
or on a disk. One kilobyte equals 1024 bytes.
LIM 4.0 EMS
Version 4.0 of the Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory
Specification-a protocol that allows certain application
programs to use memory that MS-DOS cannot use.
Glossary 9
Main system board
The board built into your computer containing the circuitry
the computer requires to operate.
Math coprocessor
An optional device that enables the computer to process
certain mathematical calculations faster.
MCGA
Monochrome/Color Graphics Adapter. A type of display
adapter that runs either a monochrome or color graphics
monitor.
MDA
Monochrome Display Adapter. A type of display adapter that
displays text in only one color, such as green or amber.
Megabyte (MB)
A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory
or on a disk. One megabyte equals 1024KB.
Megahertz (MHz)
A unit used to measure oscillation frequency (of a computer’s
internal timing clock). A megahertz is one million cycles per
second. The Equity 320sx PLUS operates at 20 MHz or
10 MHZ.
Memory
The area where your computer stores data. Memory contents
are stored permanently (in ROM) or temporarily (in RAM).
10
Glossary
Memory module
A small circuit board that contains memory chips. You can
add 256KB, IMB, or 4MB memory modules to the main
system board inside the computer to expand the computer’s
memory. A memory module is commonly called a SIMM
(single inline memory module).
Memory on curd
The additional memory on an option card installed in the
computer.
MGA
Multi-mode Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card
that can display monochrome text and color graphics on the
screen.
Microprocessor
A small version of a CPU contained on one semiconductor
Chip.
Modem
A device that allows a computer to transmit signals over
telephone lines so it can send and receive data. Modem
stands for MOdulator/DEModulator.
The piece of hardware that contains the screen and displays
information.
Monochrome monitor
A monitor that displays in only one color, such as green or
amber, as opposed to a color monitor which can display in
several colors.
Glossary II
Mouse
A hand-held pointing device with one or more buttons.
When you slide the mouse over a flat surface in a certain
direction, the cursor moves in the same direction on the
screen.
MS- DOS
Microsoft Disk Operating System. The operating system most
commonly used with your computer. See also Operating
system.
Muiti-frequency monitor
A monitor that accepts input at different frequencies and can
display a variety of resolutions.
Numeric keypad
‘The number and cursor control keys grouped to the right of
the keyboard.
Operating speed
The speed at which the central processing unit can execute
commands. The Equity 320sx PLUS can run at 20 MHz or
10 MHZ.
Operating system
A collection of programs (such as MS-DOS, OS/2 or UNIX)
that manages a computer’s operations. The operating system
determines how programs run on the computer and
supervises all input and output.
Option curd
A circuit board you install inside the computer to provide
additional capabilities, such as a modem.
12 Glossary
OS/2
Operating System/2. The enhanced operating system by
Microsoft that provides dual mode processing and
multitasking capabilities. See also Operating system.
Porallel
The type of interface that transmits all the bits in a byte of
data simultaneously over separate lines. See also Interface and
Serial
Parameter
A qualifier added to a command that tells MS-DOS what
particular conditions to look for and specifies information
such as what data to process and where to locate or store a
file.
A method used to verify the accuracy of data transmissions
by adding a bit that makes the total of the byte odd for odd
parity or even for even parity.
Partition
(1) The area defined on a hard disk for use by an operating
system; (2) to divide a hard disk into separate sections or
logical drives. You can define a primary partition and one or
more extended partitions on a hard disk
Password
The sequence of characters (up to seven) you type after you
turn on the computer in order to access and use your system.
Pathname
The directory name(s) you specify to locate a file. For
example, the pathname for the file SALES, stored in the
subdirectory BUSINESS, is \BUSINESS\SALES.
Glossary 13
Peripheral device
An external device (such as a printer or a modem) connected
to a computer that depends on the computer for its
operation.
Port
A physical input/output socket on a computer to which you
can connect a peripheral device.
Power-on diagnostics
Tests that the computer runs to check its internal circuitry
and configuration each time you turn it on.
Process ID number
A number OS/2 appends to each process it runs. When you
run a process in the background, OS/2 displays its process ID
number on the screen. Also called a handle.
Processor speed
See Operating speed.
Program
A file that contains coded instructions and tells a computer
what to do and how to do it.
Prompt
A message the screen displays to request information or tell
you what action you need to perform next. See also
Command prompt.
14
Glossary
RAM
Random Access Memory. The portion of the computer’s
memory used to run programs and store data while you
work. All data stored in RAM is erased when you turn off or
reset the computer; so you must store any data you want to
keep on disk.
Read
To copy data from one area to another. For example, when
you open a text file stored on disk, the computer reads the
data from the disk and displays it on the screen.
Read/write head
The physical device inside a disk drive that reads data from
and records data on the magnetic surface of a disk.
Real-time clock
A battery-powered clock inside the computer that keeps track
of the time and date, even when the computer is turned off.
Reset
To reload a computer’s operating system so you can retry a
task or begin using a different operating system. Resetting
erases all information in RAM.
RGB
Red Green Blue. A type of color monitor.
ROM
Read Only Memory. A portion of memory that can only be
read and cannot be used for temporary storage. ROM retains
its contents even when you turn off the power.
Glossary 15
Root directory
The top-level directory in MS-DOS, designated by a \
(backslash). All other directories are subdirectories of the root
directory.
RS-232C
A widely used, standard type of serial interface. You can
connect an RS-232C compatible device to the built-in port on
your computer.
sector
A contiguous section of a disk track that provides an address
at which the computer can access data.
Self test
The initial diagnostics procedures a system performs to check
its hardware.
Serial
The type of interface that transmits data one bit at a time. See
also Interface and Parallel.
Shadow RAM
The feature provided by the Equity 320sx PLUS that enables
the computer to copy the system ROM BIOS and video ROM
into the RAM area of memory to speed up processing.
SIMM
See Memory module.
Software
The programs that enable your computer to perform the tasks
and functions you indicate.
16
Glossary
Subdirectory
A directory or group of files that branches down from
another subdirectory or from the root directory.
Switch
An option added to an MS-DOS command that modifies the
way the command works. Switches are usually preceded by a
/ (forward slash). For example, if you add the /S switch to a
FORMAT command, MS-DOS installs the operating system
on the diskette as it formats it. See also Parameter.
System diagnostics
A series of checks you can perform on the computer to make
sure the hardware is functioning correctly.
System diskette
A diskette that contains the operating system.
Tracks
Addressable, concentric circles on a disk, resembling the
grooves on a record, which help to divide the disk into
separate accessible areas.
UNIX
An operating system that supports multitasking and is suited
to multi-user environments. UNIX is compatible with a range
of computers, from personal computers to mainframes. See
also Operating system.
VGA
Video Graphics Array. A type of high-resolution display
adapter. The VGA adapter built into the system board of your
computer can display 16-color graphics at resolutions up to
800 x 600 on a compatible VGA monitor.
Glossary 17
Video card
A display adapter card that can be installed in one of the
computer’s option slots to provide a monitor interface. Your
computer comes with a built-in VGA adapter, so you do not
need to install a video card if you are going to use this
interface.
Write
To store data on a disk.
Write-protect
To protect the data on a diskette from being changed by
placing a write-protect tab over the notch on a 51/4-inch
diskette or by setting the write-protect switch on a 31/2-inch
diskette. When a diskette is write-protected, you cannot
erase, change, or record over its contents.
18
Glossary
Index
A
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4-l-2,4-8
Auto speed, 2-11, 4-2-3
B
Backing up data,
from diskettes, 3-10,3-l7
on hard disk, 3-17-18
with BACKUP, 3-17
with DISKCOPY, 3-17
BACKUP, 3-17
Base memory, 2-3, 2-10, 4-7, A-5
Batch files, 4-l-2
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4-l-2,4-8
Battery,
cable, 6-5-8
problems, C-19
purpose, 2-2
replacing 6-2, 6-5-8
specifications, A-l
Break, 3-3
C
Cable(s),
battery, 6-5-8
diskette drive, 7-21-24, 7-26
hard disk drive, 7-12-15,
7-18, 7-26
power supply, 7-15, 7-25-26
Cards,
display adapter, see Video
cards
memory, 6-1,6-14-20
video, see Video cards
CGA card, see Video cards
CGA emulation, 4-12
Clock/calendar RAM, A-l
Clock, real-time, 2-3, A-l
Clock speed, 2-11
CMOS RAM, l-18,2-2, 2-17,
6-2,6-5, A-l
Color graphics adapter (CGA) card,
see Video cards
Command, stopping, 3-3-4
CONFIGSYS, 1-14,4-8-l 1
Connecting,
keyboard, 1-12-13
modem, l-l1
monitor, l-4-8
mouse, 1-13-14
power cord, 1-15-16
printer, l-8-11
Consumer Resource Center
number, Intro-4
Control codes,
CTRL ALT 1, 4-4
CTRL ALT 2, 4-4
CTRL ALT +, 4-4
CTRL ALT -, 44
CTRL ALT DEL, 3-5
CTRL BREAK, 3-3
CTRL C, 3-3
Controllers, A-2
Coprocessor, see Math coprocessor
COPY, 3-10, 3-17, 4-l-2, 4-9
Copying
diskettes, 3-10,3-17
files, 3-17-18
Copy-protected programs, 2-11,
4-2-3
cover,
removing, 5-2-4
replacing, 5-17-18
CPU, A-l
CPU speed, see Processor speed
CTRL ALT 1,4-4
CTRL ALT 2,4-4
CTRL ALT +, 4-4
CTRL ALT -, 4-4
Index
1
CTRL ALT DEL, 3-5
CTRL BREAK, 3-3
CTRL C, 3-3
Cursor bar, 2-3
D
Date, setting, 23
Diagnostics,
power-on, C-2
system, B-l-25
DISKCOPY, 3-10, 3-17
Diskette drive,
cable, 7-21-24, 7-26
caring for, 3-10-l1
compatibility, 3-8-10
configuring, 2-4
controller, 2-16
diagnostics, B-20-23
inserting diskettes, 3-15-16
installing, 7-l-27
problems, C-l1-12
removing, 7-l-27
removing diskettes,
3-15-16
setting types, 2-4
single, 3-14-15
specifications, A-2-3
tests, B-20-23
types, 3-8-10
using, 3-6-l7
Diskette(s),
backing up, 3-10, 3-17
caring for, 3-10-l1
choosing, 3-8-10
compatibility, 3-8-10
copying 3-10, 3-17
formatting, 3-9, 3-17, B-21-22
how they work, 3-6-8
inserting, 3-15-l6
labelling, 3-11
problems, C-9-l1
read/write slot, 3-15
2
Index
Diskette(s),
removing, 3-15-l6
storing 3-11
swapping, 3-14
system, 3-17
types, 3-B-10
write-protecting 3-12-13
Display adapter, see VGA port
Display adapter cards,
see Video cards
Display screen, see Monitor
Display type, 2-8-9
Double-density diskettes, 3-8-9
Double-sided diskettes, 3-8-9
Drives,
see Diskette drive
see Hard disk
E
EDLIN, 4-l-2,4-9
EGA card, see Video cards
EMh4386SX.SYS, 47-11
EMS size, 2-12-13,4-7
Enhanced graphics adapter,
see Video cards
Environmental requirements,
A-4
Epson Consumer Resource
Center number, Intro-4
Error logging, B-6-7
Error messages, 2-2, 2-17,
C-2, C-19
system diagnostics, B-7,
B-19-20, B-22-23, B-25
ESPEED program, 4-3-6
Expanded memory, 2-10,
2-12-13, 4-7-11, 6-14-15,
6-25, A-5
Extended memory, 2-3, 2-10,
2-U-13, 4-7-11, 6-14-15,
6-25, A-5
F
Files,
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4-l-2, 4-8
backing up, 3-17-18
batch, 4-l-2
CONFIG.SYS, l-14, 4-8-11
copying, 3-17-18
EMM386SXSYS, 4-7-11
ESPEED, 45
HDSIT, 3-19-20
Floppy disk drive, see Diskette
drive
Floppy disks, see Diskette(s)
FORMAT, 3-17, B-21-22
Formatting,
diskettes, 3-9, 3-17, B-21-22
hard disk, 3-18, B-16-17,
C-13-15
physical, B-l 6-l 7,
C-13-15
H
Hard disk, see also Diskette drive
backing up, 3-17-18
configuring, 2-5-8
controller, 2-16, A-2
diagnostics, B-12-20
drive cable, 7-12-15,
7-18, 7-26
formatting, 3-18, B-16-17,
C-13-15
how they work, 3-6-8,3-18
installing, 7-l-27
installing MS-DOS on, 3-1
jumpers, 7-47
loading MS-DOS from, 3-15
master drive, 7-4, 7-6
mounting frames, 7-8-9
mounting plate, 7-10-l1
parking the heads, 3-19-20
partitions, 3-18, B-16, C-14
physical formatting,
B-16-17, C-13-15
precautions, 3-19
Hard disk,
preparing for moving, 3-19-20
preparing for use, 3-18
problems, C-12-15
removing, 7-l-27
setting types, 2-5-8
slave drive, 7-4, 7-6
specifications, A-2-3
storage capacity, 3-18
tests, B-12-20
types, 2-5-8
using, 3-18-20
HDSIT, 3-19-20
Help, where to get, Intro-4
Hercules card, see Video cards
Hercules emulation, 4-12
High-density diskette, 3-8
High speed, 2-11, 4-2-6
I
Identifying your system, C-l-2
Inserting diskettes, 3-15-16
Interfaces, 2-15-16, A-2
J
Jumper settings, 1-7, 1-14, 6-2-5,
6-11, 6-13, 7-4-7
K
Keyboard,
adjusting angle, 1-13
cable, 1-12
check, B-11
connecting 1-12-13
controller check, C-2
diagnostics, B-11
layout, A-4
problems, C-7
special keys, 3-2-3
specifications, A-4
speed commands, 4-4
test function, 2-9
tests, B-l1
Key disk, 4-2
Index
3
L
LIM 4.0 EMS, 4-7
Loading MS-DOS, 3-14-15
Location, choosing for computer,
l-l-2
Low speed, 2-11,4-2-6
Low-level format,
see Physical formatting
M
Map, system memory, A-5
Mass storage, A-3
Master drive, 7-4, 7-6
Math coprocessor,
configuring, 2-3
installing, 5-1, 6-2, 6-21-24
problems, C-20
removing, 6-24
specification, A-l
MDA card, see Video cards
Memory,
base, 2-3, 2-10, 4-7, A-5
beyond 640KB, 4-7-11
cards, 6-1, 6-14-20, 6-25
configuration, 2-3,2-10, 2-12-13
diagnostics, B-10, B-12
EMM386SX.SYS, 47-11
EMS size, 2-12-13,4-7
expanded, 2-10,2-12-13,
4-7-11, 6-14-15,6-25, A-5
extended, 2-3, 2-10, 2-12-13,
4-7-11, 6-14-15, 6-25, A-5
LIM 4.0 EMS, 4-7
manager, 4-7-l1
map, A-5
modules, see SIMMs
problems, C-19
specifications, A-l
tests, B-10, B-12
MGA card, see Video cards
MODE, l-11
4 Index
Modem, connecting, l-l1
Monitor,
connecting, 1-4-8
diagnostics, B-l1-12
interface, A-2
jumper, 6-2-5
multi-frequency, 1-4, 4-l1
problems, C-8-9
selecting type, 1-7, 2-8-9
tests, B-11-12
Monochrome graphics adapter
card, see Video cards
Mounting frames, hard disk,
7-7-10
Mounting plate, hard disk,
7-10-12
Mouse,
connecting, 1-13-14
port specifications, A-2
problems, C-18
setting jumper, 6-2-5
MS-DOS,
copying files, 3-1, 3-17
diskettes, 3-1
installing, Intro-3, 2-17,3-l
loading, l-18, 3-14-15
Multi-frequency monitor,
l-4,4-11
N
Num lock mode, 3-3
0
Operating speed,
see Processor speed
Option cards,
configuring, 2-8-9,6-25-26
installing, 5-1, 6-9-13
memory, 5-1, 6-25-26
problems, C-17-18
removing, 6-13
testing, 6-25-26
video, see Video cards
Option slots, 5-12-15, A-2
Options, installing, 6-l-26,
7-l-27
OS/2, Intro-2, 3-l
P
Parallel,
cable, l-8-10
interface, l-8-10,2-15, A-2
port, l-8-10,2-15
port test, B-23-24
Partitions on hard disk, 3-18,
B-16, C-14
Password,
changing, 2-14
deleting, 2-14
disabling, C-5-7
entering, 3-6
jumper, 6-2-5, C-6
problems, C-5-7
setting, 2-13-14
using, 3-56
Physical characteristics, A-4
Physical formatting, B-16-17,
C-13-14
Port,
keyboard, 1-12, A-2
monitor, l-4-6, A-2
mouse, 1-13-14, A-2
parallel, l-8-10,2-15, A-2
serial, l-11, 2-16, A-2
Power,
button, l-l7
connecting power cord,
1-15-16
source, l-2
supply, A-3
Power-on diagnostics, C-2
Power supply cables, 7-15,
7-25-26
Precautions,
computer, 1-2, l-16, 5-4
hard disk, 3-19
Primary display type, 2-8-9
Primary port, 2-15-16
Printer,
adapter test, B-23-24
connecting, l-8-11
parallel interface, l-8-10, A-2
problems, C-16-17
serial interface, l-11, A-2
Processor speed, 2-11, 4-26,
C-15
Protector card, 1-3, 1-16, 3-20
R
RAM test, B-10, B-12, C-2
Random access memory (RAM),
2-2, 2-10, 3-14, A-l, C-2
Read only memory (ROM), 2-1,
2-10, A-l, C-2
Read/write heads, 3-8, 3-19-20
Real-time clock, 23, A-l
Redirecting printer output, l-11
Reference diskette, 3-17
Removing diskettes, 3-15-16
RESET button, 3-5
Resetting the computer, 3-4-5
ROM, see Read Only Memory
Run time parameters, B-3-9
S
Secondary port, 2-15-16
Sector, 3-7
Serial,
cable, l-11
interface, l-11, 2-16, A-2
port, l-11, 2-16
port test, B-24-25
SETMODE, l-11
Setting up, 1-1-18
SETUP menu, 2-2-3
Index
5
SETUP program, 2-1-17
base memory, 2-3,2-10
clock, real-time, 2-3
cursor bar, moving, 2-3
disk drive controllers, 2-16
diskette drive types, 2-4
display type, 2-8-9
EMS size, 2-12-13
error message, 2-2, 2-17
hard disk drive type(s), 2-5-8
keyboard test function, 2-9
leaving the program, 2-16-17
math coprocessor, 2-3
memory, 2-3, 2-10, 2-12-13
parallel interface, 2-15
password, 2-13-14
primary display type, 2-8-9
processor speed, 2-11
real-time clock, 2-3
running, l-18, 2-1-17, 6-25-26
saving settings, 2-16-17
serial interface, 2-16
shadow RAM, 2-10
starting the program, 1-18,
2-2-3
SETVGA utility, 4-12
Shadow RAM, Intro-l, 2-10, 4-7,
A-l
SIMMS,
configuring memory on,
2-12, 6-25-26
installing, 5-1, 6-14-18
problems, C-19
removing, 6-18-20
specifications, 6-14-15, A-l
Slave drive, 7-4, 7-6
SNOOZE utility, 4-12
Software problems, C-15-16
Speaker, A-2
Special keys, 3-2-3
6
Index
Specifications, A-l-5
Speed, changing,
see Processor speed
Subassembly,
installing, 5-9-16
removing, 5-5-9
System,
BIOS, 2-10
board tests, B-10
diagnostics, B-l-25
memory, see Memory
setting up, 1-1-18
T
Time, setting, 2-3
Timer check, C-2
Tracks, 3-7-9
Troubleshooting, C-1-20
TURBO light, 2-11, 4-2
Turning off computer, 1-18
Turning on computer, 1-16-18
U
Utilities, VGA, Intro-2, 4-11-12
Utility diskettes, 3-17, 4-11-12
V
VDISK, 4-8
VER, C-2
VGAMODE utility, 4-12
VGA port,
configuring, 2-8-9
connecting monitor, l-4-6
diagnostics, B-11-12
specifications, A-2
tests, B-11-12
VGA utilities, 4-11-12
Video cards,
CGA, 1-7, 2-8-9
compatibility, 1-7
diagnostics, B-l1-12
EGA, 1-7, 2-8-9
emulation, 4-12
Hercules graphics card, 1-7,
2-8-9
installing, l-7-8, 6-9-13
jumpers for, 2-9, 6-2-5, 6-11,
6-13
MDA, 1-7, 2-8-9
MGA, l-7,2-8-9
problems, C-5, C-17-18
removing, 6-13
setting display type, 2-8-9
tests, 6-26, B-11-12
VGA, 2-8-9
Video diagnostics, B-11-12
Video graphics array (VGA),
built-in port, see VGA port
card, see Video cards
Video monitors, see Monitors
Video ROM, 2-10
W
Windows, 2-12,4-7
WordPerfect; 4-12
WordStar, 4-12
Write-protecting diskettes,
3-12-13
Write-protect notch, 3-12
Write-protect switch, 3-13
Write-protect tab, 3-12
X
XCOPY, 3-10, 3-17
Index
7
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