Service manual | Epson 4051N Printer User Manual

SERVICE MANUAL
COMMAND CH18-745
HORIZONTAL CRANKSHAFT
Section 1
Safety and General Information
CH18-745
1
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Safety Precautions
To ensure safe operation please read the following statements and understand their meaning. Also
refer to your equipment manufacturer's manual for other important safety information. This manual
contains safety precautions which are explained below. Please read carefully.
WARNING
Warning is used to indicate the presence of a hazard that can cause severe personal injury, death,
or substantial property damage if the warning is ignored.
CAUTION
Caution is used to indicate the presence of a hazard that will or can cause minor personal injury or
property damage if the caution is ignored.
NOTE
Note is used to notify people of installation, operation, or maintenance information that is important
but not hazard-related.
For Your Safety!
These precautions should be followed at all times. Failure to follow these precautions could result in
injury to yourself and others.
WARNING
WARNING
Accidental Starts can cause
severe injury or death.
Rotating Parts can cause severe
injury.
Disconnect and ground spark plug
leads before servicing.
Stay away while engine is in
operation.
Accidental Starts!
Disabling engine. Accidental
starting can cause severe injury
or death. Before working on the
engine or equipment, disable the
engine as follows: 1) Disconnect the
spark plug lead(s). 2) Disconnect
negative (-) battery cable from
battery.
Rotating Parts!
Keep hands, feet, hair, and
clothing away from all moving
parts to prevent injury. Never
operate the engine with covers,
shrouds, or guards removed.
WARNING
Hot Parts can cause severe burns.
Do not touch engine while operating
or just after stopping.
Hot Parts!
Engine components can get
extremely hot from operation. To
prevent severe burns, do not
touch these areas while the
engine is running - or immediately
after it is turned off. Never operate
the engine with heat shields or
guards removed.
1.1
Section 1
Safety and General Information
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
Explosive Fuel can cause fires and
severe burns.
Carbon Monoxide can cause
severe nausea, fainting or death.
Explosive Gas can cause fires and
severe acid burns.
Stop engine before filling fuel tank.
Do not operate engine in closed or
confined area.
Charge battery only in a well
ventilated area. Keep sources of
ignition away.
Explosive Fuel!
Gasoline is extremely flammable
and its vapors can explode if
ignited. Store gasoline only in
approved containers, in well
ventilated, unoccupied buildings,
away from sparks or flames. Do not
fill the fuel tank while the engine is
hot or running, since spilled fuel
could ignite if it comes in contact
with hot parts or sparks from
ignition. Do not start the engine
near spilled fuel. Never use
gasoline as a cleaning agent.
WARNING
Lethal Exhaust Gases!
Engine exhaust gases contain
poisonous carbon monoxide.
Carbon monoxide is odorless,
colorless, and can cause death if
inhaled. Avoid inhaling exhaust
fumes, and never run the engine
in a closed building or confined
area.
WARNING
Uncoiling Spring can cause severe
injury.
Wear safety goggles or face
protection when servicing retractable
starter.
Cleaning Solvents can cause
severe injury or death.
Use only in well ventilated areas
away from ignition sources.
Flammable Solvents!
Carburetor cleaners and solvents
are extremely flammable. Keep
sparks, flames, and other sources
of ignition away from the area.
Follow the cleaner manufacturer’s
warnings and instructions on its
proper and safe use. Never use
gasoline as a cleaning agent.
1.2
Spring Under Tension!
Retractable starters contain a
powerful, recoil spring that is under
tension. Always wear safety
goggles when servicing retractable
starters and carefully follow
instructions in the "Retractable
Starter" Section 7 for relieving
spring tension.
Explosive Gas!
Batteries produce explosive
hydrogen gas while being
charged. To prevent a fire or
explosion, charge batteries only in
well ventilated areas. Keep
sparks, open flames, and other
sources of ignition away from the
battery at all times. Keep batteries
out of the reach of children.
Remove all jewelry when servicing
batteries.
Before disconnecting the negative
(-) ground cable, make sure all
switches are OFF. If ON, a spark
will occur at the ground cable
terminal which could cause an
explosion if hydrogen gas or
gasoline vapors are present.
CAUTION
Electrical Shock can cause injury.
Do not touch wires while engine is
running.
Electrical Shock!
Never touch electrical wires or
components while the engine is
running. They can be sources of
electrical shock.
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Engine Identification Numbers
When ordering parts, or in any communication
involving an engine, always give the Model,
Specification and Serial Numbers, including letter
suffixes if there are any.
1
The engine identification numbers appear on a decal,
or decals, affixed to the engine shrouding. See Figure
1-1. An explanation of these numbers is shown in
Figure 1-2.
Identification Decal
Figure 1-1. Engine Identification Decal Location.
A. Model No.
C H 18 S
Command Engine
Horizontal Crankshaft
Version Code
S = Electric Start
Numerical Designation
730
740
745
B. Spec. No.
Engine Model Code
Code
Model
62
CH18
64
CH20
66
CH22
68
CH25
76
CH22/23
78
CH26
C. Serial No.
or
Horsepower
17 = 17 HP
18 = 18 HP
20 = 20 HP
22 = 22 HP
23 = 23 HP
25 = 25 HP
26 = 26 HP
62500
or
Variation of
Basic Engine
(624 cc)
CH730-0001
CH740-0001
CH745-0001
Complete Spec Number
(Incorporating Model
No. with Variation No. of
Basic Spec.)
(674 cc)
3305810334
Year Manufactured Code
Factory Code
Code
Year
Code
Year
30
2000
21
1991
31
2001
22
1992
32
2002
23
1993
33
2003
24
1994
34
2004
25
1995
35
2005
26
1996
27
1997
28
1998
29
1999
Figure 1-2. Explanation of Engine Identification Numbers.
1.3
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Oil Recommendations
Using the proper type and weight of oil in the crankcase
is extremely important. So is checking oil daily and
changing oil regularly. Failure to use the correct oil, or
using dirty oil, causes premature engine wear and failure.
Oil Type
Use high-quality detergent oil of API (American
Petroleum Institute) Service Class SG, SH, SJ or
higher. Select the viscosity based on the air temperature
at the time of operation as shown in the following table.
**
*
*Use of synthetic oil having 5W-20 or 5W-30 rating is
acceptable, up to 40°F.
**Synthetic oils will provide better starting in extreme
cold (below -10°F).
NOTE: Using other than service class SG, SH, SJ or
higher oil or extending oil change intervals
longer than recommended can cause engine
damage.
NOTE: Synthetic oils meeting the listed classifications
may be used with oil changes performed at the
recommended intervals. However, to allow
piston rings to properly seat, a new or rebuilt
engine should be operated for at least 50 hours
using standard petroleum based oil before
switching to synthetic oil.
A logo or symbol on oil containers identifies the API
service class and SAE viscosity grade. See Figure 1-3.
Fuel Recommendations
WARNING: Explosive Fuel!
Gasoline is extremely flammable and its vapors can
explode if ignited. Before servicing the fuel system,
make sure there are no sparks, open flames or other
sources of ignition nearby as these can ignite gasoline
vapors. Disconnect and ground the spark plug leads to
prevent the possibility of sparks from the ignition
system.
General Recommendations
Purchase gasoline in small quantities and store in
clean, approved containers. A container with a capacity
of 2 gallons or less with a pouring spout is
recommended. Such a container is easier to handle
and helps eliminate spillage during refueling.
Do not use gasoline left over from the previous
season, to minimize gum deposits in your fuel system
and to ensure easy starting.
Do not add oil to the gasoline.
Do not overfill the fuel tank. Leave room for the fuel to
expand.
Fuel Type
For best results, use only clean, fresh, unleaded
gasoline with a pump sticker octane rating of 87 or
higher. In countries using the Research method, it
should be 90 octane minimum.
Unleaded gasoline is recommended as it leaves less
combustion chamber deposits and reduces harmful
exhaust emissions. Leaded gasoline is not
recommended and must not be used on EFI engines,
or on other models where exhaust emissions are
regulated.
Gasoline/Alcohol blends
Gasohol (up to 10% ethyl alcohol, 90% unleaded
gasoline by volume) is approved as a fuel for Kohler
engines. Other gasoline/alcohol blends are not
approved.
Figure 1-3. Oil Container Logo.
Refer to Section 6 - “Lubrication System” for detailed
procedures on checking the oil, changing the oil and
changing the oil filter.
1.4
Gasoline/Ether blends
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and unleaded
gasoline blends (up to a maximum of 15% MTBE by
volume) are approved as a fuel for Kohler engines. Other
gasoline/ether blends are not approved.
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Periodic Maintenance Instructions
WARNING: Accidental Starts!
Disabling engine. Accidental starting can cause severe injury or death. Before working on the engine or
equipment, disable the engine as follows: 1) Disconnect the spark plug lead(s). 2) Disconnect negative (-) battery
cable from battery.
Maintenance Schedule
These required maintenance procedures should be performed at the frequency stated in the table. They should also
be included as part of any seasonal tune-up.
Frequency
Maintenance Required
Refer to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fill fuel tank.
Check oil level.
Check air cleaner for dirty1, loose, or damaged parts.
Check air intake and cooling areas, clean as necessary1.
Service precleaner element1.
Replace air cleaner element1.
Change oil. (More frequently under severe conditions.)
Remove cooling shrouds and clean cooling areas1,3.
Check oil cooler fins, clean as necessary (if equipped).
Check spark plug condition and gap.
Change oil filter.
Section 5
Section 6
Section 4
Section 4
Section 4
Section 4
Section 6
Section 4
Section 6
Section 8
Section 6
Every 250 Hours
Annually or
Every 500 Hours
•
•
•
Replace heavy-duty air cleaner element and check inner element1.
Have bendix starter drive serviced2.
Have solenoid shift starter disassembled and cleaned2.
Section 4
Section 8
Section 8
Every 500 Hours
•
Have crankshaft spline lubricated2.
Section 2
Daily or Before
Starting Engine
Every 25 Hours
Every 100 Hours
Every 200 Hours
1
• Replace fuel filter (EFI engines).
Section 5B
Every 1500 Hours
Perform these maintenance procedures more frequently under extremely dusty, dirty conditions.
2
Have a Kohler Engine Service Dealer perform this service.
3
Cleanout Kits 25 755 20-S (black) or 25 755 21-S (gold) allow cooling areas to be cleaned without removing
shrouds.
1
Storage
If the engine will be out of service for two months or
more, use the following storage procedure.
1. Clean the exterior surfaces of the engine. On
Electronic Fuel Injected (EFI) engines, avoid
spraying water at the wiring harness or any of the
electrical components.
2. Change the oil and oil filter while the engine is still
warm from operation. See “Change Oil and Oil
Filter” in Section 6.
3. The fuel system must be completely emptied, or
the gasoline must be treated with a stabilizer to
prevent deterioration. If you choose to use a
stabilizer, follow the manufacturer’s
recommendations, and add the correct amount
for the capacity of the fuel system.
Fill the fuel tank with clean, fresh gasoline. Run
the engine for 2 to 3 minutes to get stabilized fuel
into the rest of the system. Close the fuel shut-off
valve when the unit is being stored or transported.
To empty the system, run the engine until the tank
and the system are empty.
4. Remove the spark plugs and add one tablespoon
of engine oil into each spark plug hole. Install the
spark plugs, but do not connect the plug leads.
Crank the engine two or three revolutions.
5. On equipment with an EFI engine, disconnect the
battery or use a battery minder to keep the battery
charged during storage.
6. Store the engine in a clean, dry place.
1.5
1
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Dimensions in millimeters.
Inch equivalents shown in ().
Figure 1-4. Typical Engine Dimensions CH Series with Standard Flat Air Cleaner.
1.6
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Dimensions in millimeters.
Inch equivalents shown in ().
1
Figure 1-5. Typical Engine Dimensions CH EFI Series with Heavy-Duty Air Cleaner.
1.7
Section 1
Safety and General Information
General Specifications¹
Power (@ 3600 RPM, corrected to SAE J1995)
CH18 ............................................................................................................................ 13.4 kW (18 HP)
CH20 ............................................................................................................................ 14.9 kW (20 HP)
CH22/23 ....................................................................................................................... 16.4 kW (22 HP)
CH25, CH730 ............................................................................................................... 18.4 kW (25 HP)
CH26 ............................................................................................................................ 19.4 kW (26 HP)
CH740 .......................................................................................................................... 20.1 kW (27 HP)
CH745 .......................................................................................................................... 20.9 kW (28 HP)
Peak Torque
CH18 - @ 2200 RPM ................................................................................................... 44.4 N·m (32.8 ft. lb.)
CH20 - @ 2600 RPM ................................................................................................... 44.2 N·m (32.6 ft. lb.)
CH22/23 - @ 2200 RPM .............................................................................................. 51.7 N·m (38.2 ft. lb.)
CH25, CH730 - @ 2800 RPM ...................................................................................... 54.1 N·m (39.9 ft. lb.)
CH26 - @ 2800 RPM ................................................................................................... 54.2 N·m (40.0 ft. lb.)
CH740 - @ 3000 RPM ................................................................................................. 57.9 N·m (42.7 ft. lb.)
CH745 - @ 2200 RPM ................................................................................................. 60.7 N·m (44.8 ft. lb.)
Bore
CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) ........................................................................................ 77 mm (3.03 in.)
CH22/23 (674 cc) ......................................................................................................... 80 mm (3.15 in.)
CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ............................................................................................. 83 mm (3.27 in.)
Stroke ................................................................................................................................. 67 mm (2.64 in.)
Displacement
CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) ........................................................................................ 624 cc (38 cu. in.)
CH22/23 (674 cc) ......................................................................................................... 674 cc (41 cu. in.)
CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ............................................................................................. 725 cc (44 cu. in.)
Compression Ratio
CH18, CH20, CH22/23 ................................................................................................. 8.5:1
CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ............................................................................................. 9.0:1
Dry Weight
CH18, CH20, CH22/23 ................................................................................................. 41 kg (90 lb.)
CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ............................................................................................. 43 kg (94 lb.)
Oil Capacity (with filter)
CH18, CH20, CH22/23, CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ...................................................... 1.9 L (2.0 U.S. qt.)
Angle of Operation - Maximum (At Full Oil Level) All Directions ......................................... 25°
Blower Housing and Sheet Metal
M5 Fasteners Torque .......................................................................................................... 4.0 N·m (35 in. lb.)
M6 Fasteners Torque .......................................................................................................... 6.8 N·m (60 in. lb.)
Rectifier-Regulator Fastener Torque ................................................................................... 4.0 N·m (35 in. lb.)
¹Values are in Metric units. Values in parentheses are English equivalents. Lubricate threads with engine oil prior
to assembly.
1.8
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Camshaft
End Play (With Shim) .................................................................................. 0.076/0.127 mm (0.0030/0.0050 in.)
1
Running Clearance ...................................................................................... 0.025/0.063 mm (0.0010/0.0025 in.)
Bore I.D.
New ....................................................................................................... 20.000/20.025 mm (0.7874/0.7884 in.)
Max. Wear Limit .................................................................................... 20.038 mm (0.7889 in.)
Camshaft Bearing Surface O.D.
New ....................................................................................................... 19.962/19.975 mm (0.7859/0.7864 in.)
Max. Wear Limit .................................................................................... 19.959 mm (0.7858 in.)
Carburetor and Intake Manifold
Intake Manifold Mounting Fastener Torque
Torque in Two Stages ............................................................................ initially to 7.4 N·m (66 in. lb.)
finally to 9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.)
Carburetor Mounting Screw Torque M6 ....................................................... 6.2-7.3 N·m (55-65 in. lb.)
Adapter (for Heavy Duty Air Cleaner) Mounting Fastener Torque ................ 7.3 N·m (65 in. lb.)
Connecting Rod
Cap Fastener Torque (torque in increments)
8 mm straight shank .............................................................................. 22.7 N·m (200 in. lb.)
8 mm step-down ................................................................................... 14.7 N·m (130 in. lb.)
6 mm straight shank .............................................................................. 11.3 N·m (100 in. lb.)
Connecting Rod-to-Crankpin Running Clearance
New ....................................................................................................... 0.030/0.055 mm (0.0012/0.0022 in.)
Max. Wear Limit .................................................................................... 0.070 mm (0.0028 in.)
Connecting Rod-to-Crankpin Side Clearance .............................................. 0.26/0.63 mm (0.0102/0.0248 in.)
Connecting Rod-to-Piston Pin Running Clearance ...................................... 0.015/0.028 mm (0.0006/0.0011 in.)
Piston Pin End I.D.
New ....................................................................................................... 17.015/17.023 mm (0.6699/0.6702 in.)
Max. Wear Limit .................................................................................... 17.036 mm (0.6707 in.)
Crankcase
Governor Cross Shaft Bore I.D.
6 mm Shaft
New ................................................................................................... 6.025/6.050 mm (0.2372/0.2382 in.)
Max. Wear Limit ................................................................................. 6.063 mm (0.2387 in.)
8 mm Shaft
New ................................................................................................... 8.025/8.075 mm (0.3159/0.3179 in.)
Max. Wear Limit ................................................................................. 8.088 mm (0.3184 in.)
Breather Cover Fastener Torque ................................................................. 7.3 N·m (65 in. lb.)
Oil Drain Plug Torque ................................................................................... 13.6 N·m (10 ft. lb.)
1.9
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Closure Plate
Closure Plate Fastener Torque .............................................................. 24.4 N·m (216 in. lb.)
Crankshaft
End Play (Free) .................................................................................... 0.070/0.590 mm (0.0028/0.0230 in.)
End Play (With Thrust Bearing Components) ....................................... 0.070/0.270 mm (0.0028/0.0100 in.)
Except CH25 Engines Below Serial No. 2403500008 .................... 0.050/0.750 mm (0.0020/0.0295 in.)
Crankshaft Bore (In Crankcase)
New ................................................................................................ 40.965/41.003 mm (1.6128/1.6143 in.)
Max. Wear Limit ............................................................................. 41.016 mm (1.6148 in.)
Crankshaft to Sleeve Bearing (Crankcase)
Running Clearance - New ................................................................ 0.03/0.09 mm (0.0012/0.0035 in.)
Crankshaft Bore (In Closure Plate) - New .............................................. 40.987/40.974 mm (1.6136/1.6131 in.)
Crankshaft Bore (In Closure Plate)-to-Crankshaft
Running Clearance - New .............................................................. 0.039/0.074 mm (0.0015/0.0029 in.)
Flywheel End Main Bearing Journal
O.D. - New .....................................................................................
O.D. - Max. Wear Limit ..................................................................
Max. Taper .....................................................................................
Max. Out-of-Round ........................................................................
40.913/40.935 mm (1.6107/1.6116 in.)
40.84 mm (1.608 in.)
0.022 mm (0.0009 in.)
0.025 mm (0.0010 in.)
Closure Plate End Main Bearing Journal
O.D. - New .....................................................................................
O.D. - Max. Wear Limit ..................................................................
Max. Taper .....................................................................................
Max. Out-of-Round ........................................................................
40.913/40.935 mm (1.6107/1.6116 in.)
40.84 mm (1.608 in.)
0.022 mm (0.0009 in.)
0.025 mm (0.0010 in.)
Connecting Rod Journal
O.D. - New .....................................................................................
O.D. - Max. Wear Limit ..................................................................
Max. Taper .....................................................................................
Max. Out-of-Round ........................................................................
35.955/35.973 mm (1.4156/1.4163 in.)
35.94 mm (1.415 in.)
0.018 mm (0.0007 in.)
0.025 mm (0.0010 in.)
Crankshaft T.I.R.
PTO End, Crank in Engine ............................................................. 0.279 mm (0.0110 in.)
Entire Crank, in V-Blocks ............................................................... 0.10 mm (0.0039 in.)
Cylinder Bore
Cylinder Bore I.D.
New - CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) ...............................................
New - CH22/23 (674 cc) .................................................................
New - CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ....................................................
Max. Wear Limit - CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) .............................
Max. Wear Limit - CH22/23 (674 cc) ..............................................
Max. Wear Limit - CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ..................................
Max. Out-of-Round ........................................................................
Max. Taper .....................................................................................
1.10
77.000/77.025 mm (3.0315/3.0325 in.)
80.000/80.025 mm (3.1496/3.1506 in.)
82.988/83.013 mm (3.2672/3.2682 in.)
77.063 mm (3.0340 in.)
80.065 mm (3.1522 in.)
83.051 mm (3.2697 in.)
0.12 mm (0.0047 in.)
0.05 mm (0.0020 in.)
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head Fastener Torque
Hex. Flange Nut - Torque in Two Stages .......................................... initially to 16.9 N·m (150 in. lb.)
finally to 33.9 N·m (300 in. lb.)
1
Head Bolt - Torque in Two Stages .................................................. initially to 22.6 N·m (200 in. lb.)
finally to 41.8 N·m (370 in. lb.)
Max. Out-of-Flatness ............................................................................ 0.076 mm (0.003 in.)
Rocker Arm Screw Torque .................................................................... 11.3 N·m (100 in. lb.)
Fan/Flywheel
Fan Fastener Torque ............................................................................ 9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.)
Flywheel Retaining Screw Torque ......................................................... 66.4 N·m (49 ft. lb.)
Governor
Governor Cross Shaft-to-Crankcase Running Clearance
6 mm Shaft .................................................................................... 0.013/0.075 mm (0.0005/0.0030 in.)
8 mm Shaft .................................................................................... 0.025/0.126 mm (0.0009/0.0049 in.)
Governor Cross Shaft O.D.
6 mm Shaft
New ............................................................................................
Max. Wear Limit ..........................................................................
8 mm Shaft
New ............................................................................................
Max. Wear Limit ..........................................................................
5.975/6.012 mm (0.2352/0.2367 in.)
5.962 mm (0.2347 in.)
7.949/8.000 mm (0.3129/.3149 in.)
7.936 mm (0.3124 in.)
Governor Gear Shaft-to-Governor Gear Running Clearance ................ 0.015/0.140 mm (0.0006/0.0055 in.)
Governor Gear Shaft O.D.
New ................................................................................................ 5.990/6.000 mm (0.2358/0.2362 in.)
Max. Wear Limit ............................................................................. 5.977 mm (0.2353 in.)
Governor Lever Nut Torque .................................................................. 6.8 N·m (60 in. lb.)
Ignition
Spark Plug Type (Champion® or Equivalent) ......................................... RC12YC or Platinum 3071
Spark Plug Gap .................................................................................... 0.76 mm (0.030 in.)
Spark Plug Torque ................................................................................ 24.4-29.8 N·m (18-22 ft. lb.)
Ignition Module Air Gap ........................................................................ 0.28/0.33 mm (0.011/0.013 in.)
Ignition Module Fastener Torque .......................................................... 4.0-6.2 N·m (35-55 in. lb.)
Speed Sensor Air Gap (EFI engines) .................................................... 1.250/1.750 mm (0.049/0.068 in.)
1.11
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Muffler
Muffler Retaining Nut Torque .................................................................. 24.4 N·m (216 in. lb.)
Oil Filter
Oil Filter Torque .................................................................................... 10.4-12.7 N·m (90-110 in. lb.)
Oil Cooler
Oil Cooler/Adapter Nipple Torque ......................................................... 27 N·m (20 ft. lb.)
Piston, Piston Rings, and Piston Pin
Piston-to-Piston Pin Running Clearance ............................................... 0.006/0.017 mm (0.0002/0.0007 in.)
Piston Pin Bore I.D.
New ................................................................................................ 17.006/17.012 mm (0.6695/0.6698 in.)
Max. Wear Limit ............................................................................. 17.025 mm (0.6703 in.)
Piston Pin O.D.
New ................................................................................................ 16.995/17.000 mm (0.6691/0.6693 in.)
Max. Wear Limit ............................................................................. 16.994 mm (0.6691 in.)
Top Compression Ring-to-Groove Side Clearance
CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) .......................................................... 0.040/0.080 mm (0.0016/0.0031 in.)
CH22/23 (674 cc) ........................................................................... 0.030/0.076 mm (0.0012/0.0030 in.)
CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ............................................................... 0.025/0.048 mm (0.0010/0.0019 in.)
Middle Compression Ring-to-Groove Side Clearance
CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) .......................................................... 0.040/0.080 mm (0.0016/0.0031 in.)
CH22/23 (674 cc) ........................................................................... 0.030/0.076 mm (0.0012/0.0030 in.)
CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ............................................................... 0.015/0.037 mm (0.0006/0.0015 in.)
Oil Control Ring-to-Groove Side Clearance
CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) .......................................................... 0.060/0.202 mm (0.0024/0.0080 in.)
CH22/23 (674 cc) ........................................................................... 0.046/0.196 mm (0.0018/0.0077 in.)
CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ............................................................... 0.026/0.176 mm (0.0010/0.0070 in.)
Top and Center Compression Ring End Gap
New Bore - CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) .......................................
New Bore - CH22 (674 cc) .............................................................
New Bore - CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ............................................
Used Bore (Max.) - CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) ...........................
Used Bore (Max.) - CH22/23 (674 cc) ............................................
Used Bore (Max.) - CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ...............................
0.25/0.45 mm (0.0098/0.0177 in.)
0.18/0.46 mm (0.0071/0.0181 in.)
0.25/0.56 mm (0.0100/0.0224 in.)
0.77 mm (0.030 in.)
0.80 mm (0.0315 in.)
0.94 mm (0.037 in.)
Piston Thrust Face O.D.²
New - CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) ...............................................
New - CH22/23 (674 cc) .................................................................
New - CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ....................................................
Max. Wear Limit - CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) .............................
Max. Wear Limit - CH22 (674 cc) ...................................................
Max. Wear Limit - CH25, CH26, CH730-745 ..................................
76.967/76.985 mm (3.0302/3.0309 in.)
79.963/79.979 mm (3.1481/3.1488 in.)
82.986 mm (3.3194 in.)
76.840 mm (3.0252 in.)
79.831 mm (3.1430 in.)
82.841 mm (3.3136 in.)
²Measure 6 mm (0.236 in.) above the bottom of the piston skirt at right angles to the piston pin.
1.12
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Piston, Piston Rings, and Piston Pin cont.
Piston Thrust Face-to-Cylinder Bore² Running Clearance
New - CH18, CH20, CH22 (624 cc) ............................................... 0.014/0.057 mm (0.0005/0.0022 in.)
New - CH22/23 (674 cc) ................................................................. 0.021/0.062 mm (0.0008/0.0024 in.)
New - CH25, CH26, CH730-745 .................................................... 0.001/0.045 mm (0.039/0.0018 in.)
1
Speed Control Bracket
Fastener Torque ................................................................................... 7.3-10.7 N·m (65-95 in. lb.)
Starter Assembly
Thru Bolt Torque
UTE/Johnson Electric, Eaton (Inertia Drive) ................................... 4.5-5.7 N·m (40-50 in. lb.)
Nippondenso (Solenoid Shift) ......................................................... 4.5-7.5 N·m (40-84 in. lb.)
Delco-Remy (Solenoid Shift) .......................................................... 5.6-9.0 N·m (49-79 in. lb.)
Mounting Screw Torque (All) ................................................................. 15.3 N·m (135 in. lb.)
Brush Holder Mounting Screw Torque
Delco-Remy Starter ........................................................................ 2.5-3.3 N·m (22-29 in. lb.)
Solenoid (Starter)
Mounting Hardware Torque
Nippondenso Starter ....................................................................... 6.0-9.0 N·m (53-79 in. lb.)
Delco-Remy Starter ......................................................................... 4.0-6.0 N·m (35-53 in. lb.)
Nut, Positive (+) Brush Lead Torque
Nippondenso Starter ....................................................................... 8.0-12.0 N·m (71-106 in. lb.)
Delco-Remy Starter ......................................................................... 8.0-11.0 N·m (71-97 in. lb.)
Stator
Mounting Screw Torque ........................................................................ 6.2 N·m (55 in. lb.)
Throttle/Choke Controls
Governor Control Lever Fastener Torque ............................................. 9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.)
Valve Cover
Valve Cover Fastener Torque
Gasket Style Cover ........................................................................
Black O-Ring Style Cover
w/Shoulder Screws ....................................................................
w/Flange Screws and Spacers ..................................................
Brown O-Ring Style Cover w/Integral Metal Spacers ......................
3.4 N·m (30 in. lb.)
5.6 N·m (50 in. lb.)
9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.)
9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.)
Valves and Valve Lifters
Hydraulic Valve Lifter to Crankcase Running Clearance ........................ 0.0241/0.0501 mm (0.0009/0.0020 in.)
Intake Valve Stem-to-Valve Guide Running Clearance ......................... 0.038/0.076 mm (0.0015/0.0030 in.)
Exhaust Valve Stem-to-Valve Guide Running Clearance ...................... 0.050/0.088 mm (0.0020/0.0035 in.)
Intake Valve Guide I.D.
New ................................................................................................ 7.038/7.058 mm (0.2771/0.2779 in.)
Max. Wear Limit ............................................................................. 7.135 mm (0.2809 in.)
1.13
Section 1
Safety and General Information
Valves and Valve Lifters cont.
Exhaust Valve Guide I.D.
New ................................................................................................ 7.038/7.058 mm (0.2771/0.2779 in.)
Max. Wear Limit ............................................................................. 7.159 mm (0.2819 in.)
Valve Guide Reamer Size
Standard ......................................................................................... 7.048 mm (0.2775 in.)
0.25 mm O.S. ................................................................................. 7.298 mm (0.2873 in.)
Intake Valve Minimum Lift ..................................................................... 8.07 mm (0.3177 in.)
Exhaust Valve Minimum Lift .................................................................. 8.07 mm (0.3177 in.)
Nominal Valve Seat Angle ..................................................................... 45°
General Torque Values
Metric Fastener Torque Recommendations for Standard Applications
Tightening Torque: N·m (in. lb.) + or - 10%
Property Class
4.8
Size
M4
M5
M6
M8
1.2 (11)
2.5 (22)
4.3 (38)
10.5 (93)
5.8
1.7 (15)
3.2 (28)
5.7 (50)
13.6 (120)
8.8
2.9 (26)
5.8 (51)
9.9 (88)
24.4 (216)
Noncritical
Fasteners
Into Aluminum
10.9
4.1 (36)
8.1 (72)
14.0 (124)
33.9 (300)
12.9
5.0 (44)
9.7 (86)
16.5 (146)
40.7 (360)
2.0 (18)
4.0 (35)
6.8 (60)
17.0 (150)
Tightening Torque: N·m (ft. lb.) + or - 10%
Property Class
M10
M12
M14
1.14
Noncritical
Fasteners
Into Aluminum
4.8
5.8
8.8
10.9
12.9
21.7 (16)
36.6 (27)
58.3 (43)
27.1 (20)
47.5 (35)
76.4 (55)
47.5 (35)
82.7 (61)
131.5 (97)
66.4 (49)
116.6 (86)
184.4 (136)
81.4 (60)
139.7 (103)
219.7 (162)
33.9 (25)
61.0 (45)
94.9 (70)
Section 1
Safety and General Information
English Fastener Torque Recommendations for Standard Applications
1
Tightening Torque: N·m (in. lb.) + or - 20%
Bolts, Screws, Nuts and Fasteners
Assembled Into Cast Iron or Steel
Size
8-32
10-24
10-32
1/4-20
1/4-28
5/16-18
5/16-24
3/8-16
3/8-24
Grade 2 or 5
Fasteners Into
Aluminum
Grade 2
Grade 5
Grade 8
2.3 (20)
3.6 (32)
3.6 (32)
7.9 (70)
9.6 (85)
17.0 (150)
18.7 (165)
29.4 (260)
33.9 (300)
2.8 (25)
4.5 (40)
4.5 (40)
13.0 (115)
15.8 (140)
28.3 (250)
30.5 (270)
-----------------
------------------------18.7 (165)
22.6 (200)
39.6 (350)
-------------------------
2.3 (20)
3.6 (32)
--------7.9 (70)
--------17.0 (150)
-------------------------
Tightening Torque: N·m (ft. lb.) + or - 20%
Size
5/16-24
3/8-16
3/8-24
7/16-14
7/16-20
1/2-13
1/2-20
9/16-12
9/16-18
5/8-11
5/8-18
3/4-10
3/4-16
------------------------47.5 (35)
61.0 (45)
67.8 (50)
94.9 (70)
101.7 (75)
135.6 (100)
149.2 (110)
189.8 (140)
199.3 (150)
271.2 (200)
---------47.5 (35)
54.2 (40)
74.6 (55)
101.7 (75)
108.5 (80)
142.4 (105)
169.5 (125)
223.7 (165)
244.1 (180)
311.9 (230)
332.2 (245)
440.7 (325)
40.7 (30)
67.8 (50)
81.4 (60)
108.5 (80)
142.4 (105)
155.9 (115)
223.7 (165)
237.3 (175)
311.9 (230)
352.6 (260)
447.5 (330)
474.6 (350)
637.3 (470)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Torque
Conversions
N·m = in. lb. x 0.113
N·m = ft. lb. x 1.356
in. lb. = N·m x 8.85
ft. lb. = N·m x 0.737
1.15
Section 1
Safety and General Information
1.16
Section 2
Special
Tools
CH18-745
Section 2
Special Tools
2
Certain quality tools are designed to help you perform specific disassembly, repair, and reassembly procedures.
By using tools designed for the job, you can service engines easier, faster, and safer! In addition, you’ll increase
your service capabilities and customer satisfaction by decreasing engine downtime.
Kohler special tools are handled by SPX Corp., a division of Owatonna Tool Corp. (OTC). The tools are easy to
purchase by contacting SPX/OTC by phone, fax, or mail.
Phone: 1-800-533-0492
International: 1-507-455-7223
8:00 am – 8:00 pm EST
Fax: 1-800-578-7375
1-586-578-7375
International: 1-507-455-7063
Mail: SPX Corp., OTC
28635 Mound Rd.
Warren, MI 48092-3499
Some special tools for this engine are:
Camshaft Endplay Plate ........................................................................................ KO1031
Flywheel Strap Wrench ......................................................................................... NU10357
Flywheel Puller Kit ................................................................................................. NU3226
Rocker Arm Spanner Wrench ................................................................................ OEM6200
Valve Guide Reamer ............................................................................................. KO1026
Water Manometer ................................................................................................. KO1048
Cylinder Leakdown Tester ..................................................................................... KO3219
Ignition System Tester ........................................................................................... KO1046
Hydraulic Lifter Removal/Reinstallation Tool .......................................................... KO1044
Starter Service Kit ................................................................................................. KO3226
Starter Retaining Ring Tool .................................................................................... 25 761 18-S
Vacuum Gauge ..................................................................................................... KO3223
Tachometer (Digital Inductive) ............................................................................... KO3216
Spark Advance Module (SAM) Tester ..................................................................... KO3222
Rectifier-Regulator Tester ....................................................................................... KO3221
Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) Service Tools
EFI Service Kit ...................................................................................................... KO3217
Gauge Assembly ............................................................................................... KO3217-4
Pliers ................................................................................................................. KO3217-5
Circuit Tester ..................................................................................................... KO3217-6
Jumper Plug, Red (for metal cased ECU) ......................................................... KO3217-7
Tee Valve Assembly .......................................................................................... KO3217-8
Jumper Plug, Blue (for plastic cased ECU) ....................................................... KO3217-9
Some of the specialty tools are shown and mentioned at various points in this manual. A complete catalog of
available tools may be ordered under Kohler Part No. TP-2546. The tool price list is available under Kohler Part No.
TP-2547.
2.1
Section 2
Special Tools
Find a used connecting rod from a 10 HP or larger
engine. Remove and discard the rod cap. If it is a PosiLock rod, you will also need to remove the studs. If it is
a Command rod, you will need to grind off the aligning
steps, so the joint surface is flat. Find a 1 in. long
capscrew with the correct thread size to match the
threads in the connecting rod. Obtain a flat washer
with the correct I.D. to slip on the capscrew and an
O.D. of approximately 1 in. Kohler Part No. 12 468 05-S
can be used if you don’t have the right size on hand.
Assemble the capscrew and washer to the joint
surface of the rod, as shown in Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-1. Tool Catalog and Price List.
Special Tools You Can Make
Flywheel Holding Tool
Flywheel removal and reinstallation becomes a “snap”
using a handy holding tool which can be made out of an
old “junk” flywheel ring gear as shown in Figure 2-2.
Using an abrasive cut-off wheel, cut out a six tooth
segment of the ring gear as shown. Grind off any burrs
or sharp edges. The segment can be used in place of a
strap wrench. Invert the segment and place it between
the ignition bosses on the crankcase so that the tool
teeth engage the flywheel ring gear teeth. The bosses
will “lock” the tool and flywheel in position for loosening,
tightening or removing with a puller.
Figure 2-3. Rocker Arm/Crankshaft Tool.
Cylinder Leakdown Tester
A Cylinder Leakdown Tester (SPX Part No. KO3219
formerly Kohler 25 761 05-S) is a valuable alternate to a
compression test on these engines. See Figure 2-4. By
pressurizing the combustion chamber from an external
air source, this tool can determine if valves or rings are
leaking. Instructions for using this tester are found in
Section 3 of this manual.
Figure 2-2. Flywheel Holding Tool.
Rocker Arm/Crankshaft Tool
If you don’t have a spanner wrench to lift the rocker
arms or turn the crankshaft, you can make a tool for
doing this out of an old junk connecting rod.
Figure 2-4. Cylinder Leakdown Tester.
2.2
Section 2
Special Tools
RTV Silicone Sealant
RTV silicone sealant is used as a gasket between the
crankcase and closure plate.
Only oxime-based, oil resistant RTV sealants, such as
those listed below, are approved for use. Loctite® Nos.
5900 and 5910 are recommended for best sealing
characteristics.
Loctite® Ultra Blue 587
Loctite® Ultra Copper
Loctite® Ultra Black 598
Loctite® 5900 (Heavy Body)
Loctite® 5910
NOTE: Always use fresh sealant. Using outdated
sealant can result in leakage.
Loctite® 5900 is available in a 4 oz aerosol dispenser
with replacement tips under Kohler Part No.
25 597 07-S. See Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-5. Loctite® 5900 Aerosol Dispenser.
Camshaft Break-in Lubricant
Camshaft lubricant, Kohler Part No. 25 357 14-S
(Valspar ZZ613), should be used whenever a new
camshaft and lifters are installed for proper break-in
upon initial startup. Lubricant is included with each
replacement camshaft and lifter, or may also be
obtained separately in a 1/8 oz handy dispensing tube
by the part number listed. See Figure 2-6.
2
Figure 2-6. Camshaft Break-in Lubricant.
Spline Drive Lubricant
Special spline drive crankshaft lubricant Kohler Part No.
25 357 12-S is available in a 2.8 oz tube for use on all
spline drive applications. This lubricant provides proper
protection against wear-related damage. See Figure
2-7.
Figure 2-7. Crankshaft Spline Drive Lubricant.
Dielectric Grease
Dielectric grease is applied to the outside of the
terminal connections on the SMART-SPARK™ ignition
modules to prevent formation of a moisture path and
arcing between the terminals. The chart below lists the
approved dielectric greases.
Dielectric Grease
Vendor
Vendor No./
Description
Kohler
Part No.
G.E./Novaguard
G661
25 357 11-S
Fel-Pro
Lubri-Sel
---
2.3
Section 2
Special Tools
2.4
Section 3
Troubleshooting
CH18-745
Section 3
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Guide
When troubles occur, be sure to check the simple
causes which, at first, may seem too obvious to be
considered. For example, a starting problem could be
caused by an empty fuel tank.
Some general common causes of engine troubles are
listed below. Use these to locate the causing factors.
Refer to the specific section(s) within this service
manual for more detailed information.
Engine Cranks But Will Not Start
1. Empty fuel tank.
2. Fuel shut-off valve closed.
3. Poor fuel, dirt or water in the fuel system.
4. Clogged fuel line.
5. Spark plug lead(s) disconnected.
6. Key switch or kill switch in “off” position.
7. Faulty spark plugs.
8. Faulty ignition module(s).
9. SMART-SPARK™ malfunction (applicable models).
10. Carburetor solenoid malfunction.
11. Diode in wiring harness failed in open circuit mode.
12. Vacuum fuel pump malfunction, or oil in vacuum
hose.
13. Vacuum hose to fuel pump leaking/cracked.
14. Battery connected backwards.
Engine Starts But Does Not Keep Running
1. Restricted fuel tank cap vent.
2. Poor fuel, dirt or water in the fuel system.
3. Faulty or misadjusted choke or throttle controls.
4. Loose wires or connections that short the kill
terminal of ignition module to ground.
5. Faulty cylinder head gasket.
6. Faulty carburetor.
7. Vacuum fuel pump malfunction, or oil in vacuum
hose.
8. Leaking/cracked vacuum hose to fuel pump.
9. Intake system leak.
10. Diode in wiring harness failed in open circuit mode.
Engine Starts Hard
1. PTO drive is engaged.
2. Dirt or water in the fuel system.
3. Clogged fuel line.
4. Loose or faulty wires or connections.
5. Faulty or misadjusted choke or throttle controls.
6. Faulty spark plugs.
7. Low compression.
8. Weak spark.
9. Fuel pump malfunction causing lack of fuel.
10. Engine overheated-cooling/air circulation
restricted.
11. Quality of fuel.
12. Flywheel key sheared.
13. Intake system leak.
Engine Will Not Crank
1. PTO drive is engaged.
2. Battery is discharged.
3. Safety interlock switch is engaged.
4. Loose or faulty wires or connections.
5. Faulty key switch or ignition switch.
6. Faulty electric starter or solenoid.
7. Seized internal engine components.
Engine Runs But Misses
1. Dirt or water in the fuel system.
2. Spark plug lead disconnected.
3. Poor quality of fuel.
4. Faulty spark plug(s).
5. Loose wires or connections that intermittently
ground the ignition kill circuit.
6. Engine overheated.
7. Faulty ignition module or incorrect air gap.
8. Carburetor adjusted incorrectly.
9. SMART-SPARK™ malfunction (applicable models).
3.1
3
Section 3
Troubleshooting
Engine Will Not Idle
1. Dirt or water in the fuel system.
2. Stale fuel and/or gum in carburetor.
3. Faulty spark plugs.
4. Fuel supply inadequate.
5. Idle speed adjusting screw improperly set.
6. Idle fuel adjusting needle improperly set (some
models).
7. Low compression.
8. Restricted fuel tank cap vent.
9. Engine overheated-cooling system/air circulation
problem.
Engine Overheats
1. Air intake/grass screen, cooling fins, or cooling
shrouds clogged.
2. Excessive engine load.
3. Low crankcase oil level.
4. High crankcase oil level.
5. Faulty carburetor.
6. Lean fuel mixture.
7. SMART-SPARK™ malfunction (applicable models).
Engine Knocks
1. Excessive engine load.
2. Low crankcase oil level.
3. Old or improper fuel.
4. Internal wear or damage.
5. Hydraulic lifter malfunction.
6. Quality of fuel.
7. Incorrect grade of oil.
Engine Loses Power
1. Low crankcase oil level.
2. High crankcase oil level.
3. Dirty air cleaner element.
4. Dirt or water in the fuel system.
5. Excessive engine load.
6. Engine overheated.
7. Faulty spark plugs.
8. Low compression.
9. Exhaust restriction.
10. SMART-SPARK™ malfunction (applicable models).
11. Low battery.
12. Incorrect governor setting.
3.2
Engine Uses Excessive Amount of Oil
1. Incorrect oil viscosity/type.
2. Clogged or improperly assembled breather.
3. Breather reed broken.
4. Worn or broken piston rings.
5. Worn cylinder bore.
6. Worn valve stems/valve guides.
7. Crankcase overfilled.
8. Blown head gasket/overheated.
Oil Leaks from Oil Seals, Gaskets
1. Crankcase breather is clogged or inoperative.
2. Breather reed broken.
3. Loose or improperly torqued fasteners.
4. Piston blowby or leaky valves.
5. Restricted exhaust.
External Engine Inspection
Before cleaning or disassembling the engine, make a
thorough inspection of its external appearance and
condition. This inspection can give clues to what might
be found inside the engine (and the cause) when it is
disassembled.
•
Check for buildup of dirt and debris on the
crankcase, cooling fins, grass screen and other
external surfaces. Dirt or debris on these areas
are causes of higher operating temperatures and
overheating.
•
Check for obvious fuel and oil leaks, and
damaged components. Excessive oil leakage can
indicate a clogged or improperly-assembled
breather, worn/damaged seals and gaskets, or
loose or improperly-torqued fasteners.
•
Check the air cleaner cover and base for damage
or indications of improper fit and seal.
•
Check the air cleaner element. Look for holes,
tears, cracked or damaged sealing surfaces, or
other damage that could allow unfiltered air into
the engine. Also note if the element is dirty or
clogged. These could indicate that the engine has
been under serviced.
•
Check the carburetor throat for dirt. Dirt in the
throat is further indication that the air cleaner is
not functioning properly.
•
Check the oil level. Note if the oil level is within
the operating range on the dipstick, or if it is low
or overfilled.
Section 3
Troubleshooting
•
Check the condition of the oil. Drain the oil into a
container - the oil should flow freely. Check for
metal chips and other foreign particles.
Sludge is a natural by-product of combustion; a
small accumulation is normal. Excessive sludge
formation could indicate overrich carburetion, weak
ignition, overextended oil change interval or wrong
weight or type of oil was used, to name a few.
NOTE: It is good practice to drain oil at a location
away from the workbench. Be sure to
allow ample time for complete drainage.
Cleaning the Engine
After inspecting the external condition of the engine,
clean the engine thoroughly before disassembling it.
Also clean individual components as the engine is
disassembled. Only clean parts can be accurately
inspected and gauged for wear or damage. There are
many commercially available cleaners that will quickly
remove grease, oil, and grime from engine parts.
When such a cleaner is used, follow the
manufacturer’s instructions and safety precautions
carefully.
Make sure all traces of the cleaner are removed
before the engine is reassembled and placed into
operation. Even small amounts of these cleaners can
quickly break down the lubricating properties of engine
oil.
Basic Engine Tests
Crankcase Vacuum Test
A partial vacuum should be present in the crankcase
when the engine is operating at normal temperatures.
Pressure in the crankcase (normally caused by a
clogged or improperly assembled breather) can cause
oil to be forced out at oil seals, gaskets, or other
available spots.
Crankcase vacuum is best measured with either a
water manometer (SPX Part No. KO1048, formerly
Kohler Part No. 25 761 02-S) or a vacuum gauge (SPX
Part No. KO3223, formerly Kohler Part No.
25 761 22-S). Complete instructions are provided in the
kits.
To test the crankcase vacuum with the manometer:
1. Insert the stopper/hose into the oil fill hole. Leave
the other tube of manometer open to atmosphere.
Make sure the shut off clamp is closed.
2. Start the engine and run at no-load high speed
(3200 to 3750 RPM).
3
3. Open the clamp and note the water level in the
tube.
The level in the engine side should be a minimum
of 10.2 cm (4 in.) above the level in the open
side.
If the level in the engine side is less than
specified (low/no vacuum), or the level in the
engine side is lower than the level in the open
side (pressure), check for the conditions in the
table on page 3.4.
4. Close the shut off clamp before stopping the
engine.
To test the crankcase vacuum with the Vacuum/
Pressure Gauge Kit (SPX Part No. KO3223):
1. Remove the dipstick or oil fill plug/cap.
2. Install the adapter into the oil fill/dipstick tube
opening, upside down over the end of a small
diameter dipstick tube, or directly into engine if a
tube is not used.
3. Push the barbed fitting on the gauge solidly into
the hole in the adapter.
4. Start the engine and bring it up to operating
speed (3200-3600 RPM).
5. Check the reading on the gauge. If the reading is
to the left of “0” on the gauge, vacuum or negative
pressure is indicated. If the reading is to the right
of “0” on the gauge, positive pressure is present.
Crankcase vacuum should be 4-10 (inches of
water) If the reading is below specification, or if
pressure is present, check the following table for
possible causes and remedies.
3.3
Section 3
Troubleshooting
No Crankcase Vacuum/Pressure in Crankcase
Possible Cause
Solution
1. Crankcase breather clogged or inoperative.
1. Disassemble breather, clean parts thoroughly,
check sealing surfaces for flatness, reassemble,
and recheck pressure.
2. Seals and/or gaskets leaking. Loose or
improperly torqued fasteners.
2. Replace all worn or damaged seals and
gaskets. Make sure all fasteners are tightened
securely. Use appropriate torque values and
sequences when necessary.
3. Piston blowby or leaky valves. (Confirm by
inspecting components.)
3. Recondition piston, rings, cylinder bore, valves,
and valve guides.
4. Restricted exhaust.
4. Repair/replace restricted muffler/exhaust
system.
Compression Test
Some of these engines are equipped with an automatic
compression release (ACR) mechanism. Because of
the ACR mechanism, it is difficult to obtain an accurate
compression reading. As an alternative, perform a
cylinder leakdown test.
Cylinder Leakdown Test
A cylinder leakdown test can be a valuable alternative
to a compression test. By pressurizing the combustion
chamber from an external air source you can
determine if the valves or rings are leaking, and how
badly.
SPX Part No. KO3219 (formerly Kohler Part No.
25 761 05-S) is a relatively simple, inexpensive
leakdown tester for small engines. The tester includes a
quick disconnect for attaching the adapter hose, and a
holding tool.
Leakdown Test Instructions
1. Run engine for 3-5 minutes to warm it up.
2. Remove spark plug(s) and air filter from engine.
3. Rotate the crankshaft until the piston (of cylinder
being tested) is at top dead center of the
compression stroke. Hold the engine in this
position while testing. The holding tool supplied
with the tester can be used if the PTO end of the
crankshaft is accessible. Lock the holding tool
3.4
onto the crankshaft. Install a 3/8" breaker bar into
the hole/slot of the holding tool, so it is
perpendicular to both the holding tool and
crankshaft PTO. If the flywheel end is more
accessible, use a breaker bar and socket on the
flywheel nut/screw to hold it in position. An
assistant may be needed to hold the breaker bar
during testing. If the engine is mounted in a piece
of equipment, it may be possible to hold it by
clamping or wedging a driven component. Just be
certain that the engine cannot rotate off of TDC in
either direction.
4. Install the adapter into the spark plug hole, but do
not attach it to the tester at this time.
5. Connect an air source of at least 50 psi to the
tester.
6. Turn the regulator knob in the increase
(clockwise) direction until the gauge needle is in
the yellow “set” area at the low end of the scale.
7. Connect the tester quick-disconnect to the adapter
hose while firmly holding the engine at TDC. Note
the gauge reading and listen for escaping air at
the carburetor intake, exhaust outlet, and
crankcase breather.
8. Check your test results against the following table:
Section 3
Troubleshooting
Leakdown Test Results
Air escaping from crankcase breather ................................................... Defective rings or worn cylinder.
Air escaping from exhaust system ......................................................... Defective exhaust valve.
Air escaping from carburetor ................................................................. Defective intake valve.
Gauge reading in “low” (green) zone ..................................................... Piston rings and cylinder in good condition.
Gauge reading in “moderate” (yellow) zone ........................................... Engine is still usable, but there is some
wear present. Customer should start
planning for overhaul or replacement.
Gauge reading in “high” (red) zone ........................................................ Rings and/or cylinder have considerable
wear. Engine should be reconditioned or
replaced.
3.5
3
Section 3
Troubleshooting
3.6
Section 4
CH18-745
Air Cleaner and Air Intake
System
Section 4
Air Cleaner and Air Intake System
Air Cleaners
General
Most engines are equipped with a replaceable, highdensity paper air cleaner element, surrounded by an
oiled foam precleaner, and housed under a flat outer
cover. This is typically referred to as the standard air
cleaner assembly. See Figures 4-1 and 4-4. Some
engines utilize a heavy-duty style air cleaner as shown
in Figure 4-12.
4
Figure 4-2. Removing Latch Style Cover.
Cover
Air Cleaner Element
Figure 4-1. Standard Air Cleaner.
Precleaner
Standard Air Cleaner
Service
Check the air cleaner daily or before starting the
engine. Check for and correct any buildup of dirt and
debris, along with loose or damaged components.
NOTE: Operating the engine with loose or damaged
air cleaner components could allow unfiltered
air into the engine, causing premature wear
and failure.
Figure 4-3. Removing Knob Style Cover.
Precleaner Service
If so equipped, wash and reoil the precleaner every 25
hours of operation (more often under extremely dusty
or dirty conditions).
To service the precleaner, perform the following steps:
1. Unhook the latches or loosen the retaining knob,
and remove the cover.
2. Remove the foam precleaner from the paper air
cleaner element.
4.1
Section 4
Air Cleaner and Air Intake System
3. Wash the precleaner in warm water with
detergent. Rinse the precleaner thoroughly until
all traces of detergent are eliminated. Squeeze
out excess water (do not wring). Allow the
precleaner to air dry.
4. Saturate the precleaner with new engine oil.
Squeeze out all excess oil.
Seal
5. Reinstall the precleaner over the paper air cleaner
element.
6. Reinstall the air cleaner cover. Secure the cover
with the two latches or the retaining knob.
Element Cover
Figure 4-6. Removing Elements.
Wing Nut
Precleaner
Element
Figure 4-4. Air Cleaner Components.
Figure 4-7. Removing Rubber Seal from Bracket.
Paper Element Service (Standard Type)
Every 100 hours of operation (more often under
extremely dusty or dirty conditions), replace the paper
element. Follow these steps:
1. Unhook the latches or loosen the retaining knob,
and remove the cover.
2. Remove the wing nut, element cover, and paper
element with precleaner (if so equipped).
Figure 4-5. Removing Element Cover Wing Nut.
3. Remove the precleaner (if so equipped) from the
paper element. Service the precleaner as
described in "Precleaner Service".
4. Do not wash the paper element or use
pressurized air, as this will damage the element.
Replace a dirty, bent, or damaged element with a
genuine Kohler element. Handle new elements
carefully; do not use if the sealing surfaces are
bent or damaged.
4.2
Section 4
Air Cleaner and Air Intake System
5. Check the seal for any damage or deterioration.
Replace as necessary. See Figure 4-7.
6. Reinstall the seal, paper element, precleaner,
element cover, and wing nut.
7. Reinstall the air cleaner cover and secure with the
latches or the retaining knob.
NOTE: Make sure the correct depth air cleaner
element and rubber seal are used for the
engine spec involved. Some engines use
a deeper or extra capacity air cleaner
and a longer rubber seal.
4
Figure 4-8. Exploded View of Standard Air Intake System Components.
4.3
Section 4
Air Cleaner and Air Intake System
Air Cleaner Element Cover and Seal - Make sure
element cover is not bent or damaged. Make sure the
wing nut and seal are in place to ensure the element is
sealed against leakage.
Air Cleaner Base - Make sure the base is secured
tightly to the carburetor and not cracked or damaged.
Breather Tube - Make sure the tube is attached to
both the air cleaner base and the breather cover.
Figure 4-9. Bracket Retaining Screw.
Rear Mounting
Screws
NOTE: Damaged, worn or loose air cleaner
components can allow unfiltered air into the
engine causing premature wear and failure.
Tighten or replace all loose or damaged
components.
Complete Disassembly and Reassembly Standard Type
If the base plate on the standard type has to be
removed, proceed as follows:
1. Remove air cleaner components as described
earlier.
2. Remove the hex. flange screws securing the
bracket and base. See Figures 4-9 and 4-10.
Remove the bracket.
Figure 4-10. Rear Mounting Screws (Used with
Plastic Intake Manifold).
3. Pinch the sealing collar on the breather hose and
push it down through the hole in the air cleaner
base. Carefully feed the upper section of the
breather tube down through the base. See Figure
4-11.
4. Remove the base and gasket.
5. Reverse the procedure to reinstall new or serviced
components. Torque screws to 9.9 N·m
(88 in. lb.).
Heavy-Duty Air Cleaner
Figure 4-11. Breather Tube.
Air Cleaner Components
Whenever the air cleaner cover is removed, or the
paper element or precleaner are serviced, check the
following:
4.4
General
The heavy-duty air cleaner consists of a cylindrical
housing, typically mounted to a bracket off the upper
valve cover screws, and connected with a formed
rubber hose to an adapter on the carburetor or throttle
body/intake manifold (EFI units). The air cleaner
housing contains a paper element and inner element,
designed for longer service intervals. The system is
CARB/EPA certified and the components should not be
altered or modified in any way.
Section 4
Air Cleaner and Air Intake System
4. Do not wash the paper element and inner
element or use compressed air, this will damage
the elements. Replace dirty, bent or damaged
elements with new genuine Kohler elements as
required. Handle the new elements carefully; do
not use if the sealing surfaces are bent or
damaged.
5. Check all parts for wear, cracks, or damage.
Replace any damaged components.
Figure 4-12. Heavy-Duty Air Cleaner.
To Service
Every 250 hours of operation (more often under
extremely dusty or dirty conditions), replace the
paper element and check the inner element. Follow
these steps.
1. Unhook the two retaining clips and remove the
end cap from the air cleaner housing.
2. Pull the air cleaner element out of the housing.
See Figure 4-13.
Element
Inner
Element
6. Install the new inner element, followed by the
outer element. Slide each fully into place in the air
cleaner housing.
7. Reinstall the end cap so the dust ejector valve is
down, and secure with the two retaining clips. See
Figure 4-12.
Removal
1. Remove the upper valve cover screws on each
side, securing the main bracket, and loosen the
hose clamp on the adapter inlet, or remove the
adapter mounting screws.
2. Lift the entire air cleaner assembly off the engine.
Disassemble or service as required.
Installation
1. Install the main mounting bracket with the center
section up and the cutout around the carburetor,
aligning the mounting holes with the four upper
valve cover holes.
2. Install and torque the four valve cover mounting
screws to 7.9 N·m (70 in. lb.).
Figure 4-13. Removing Elements.
3. After the element is removed, check the condition
of the inner element. It should be replaced
whenever it appears dirty, typically every other
time the main element is replaced. Clean the area
around the base of the inner element before
removing it, so dirt does not get into the engine.
3. Reconnect the hose to the adapter and tighten the
clamp, or install a new adapter gasket (if the
adapter was separated from the carburetor), and
torque the mounting fasteners to 7.3 N·m
(65 in. lb.).
NOTE: Adapter configurations may vary
depending on engine and application
involved. Two adapters are shown in
Figure 4-14.
4.5
4
Section 4
Air Cleaner and Air Intake System
Figure 4-14. Adapters for Heavy-Duty Air Cleaners.
Air Intake/Cooling System
To ensure proper cooling, make sure the grass screen,
cooling fan fins, and external surfaces of the engine
are kept clean at all times.
Every 100 hours of operation (more often under
extremely dusty or dirty conditions), remove the blower
housing and other cooling shrouds.*Clean the cooling
fins and external surfaces as necessary. Make sure
the cooling shrouds are reinstalled.
*Cleanout kits, Kohler Part No. 25 755 20-S (black) or
25 755 21-S (gold), are recommended to aid
inspection and cleanout of the cooling fins. See
Figure 4-15.
NOTE: Operating the engine with a blocked grass
screen, dirty or plugged cooling fins, and/or
cooling shrouds removed, will cause engine
damage due to overheating.
4.6
Figure 4-15. Cleanout Kit Installed on Blower
Housing.
Section 5
Fuel System and CH18-745
Governor
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
Description
The Command horizontal twins use three different
types of fuel systems; carbureted, electronic fuel
injection (EFI), or gaseous. Gaseous fuel systems can
be either liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or LP) or
natural gas (NG). Some dual-fuel engines have a
combination system, which allows the operator to
select either gasoline or LP.
This section covers the standard carbureted fuel
systems. The gaseous systems are covered in
subsection 5A and the EFI systems are covered in
subsection 5B. The governor systems used are
covered at the end of this section.
WARNING: Explosive Fuel!
Gasoline is extremely flammable and its vapors can
explode if ignited. Store gasoline only in approved
containers, in well ventilated, unoccupied buildings,
away from sparks or flames. Do not fill the fuel tank
while the engine is hot or running, since spilled fuel
could ignite if it comes in contact with hot parts or
sparks from ignition. Do not start the engine near
spilled fuel. Never use gasoline as a cleaning agent.
Fuel System Components
The typical carbureted fuel system and related
components include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Fuel Tank
Fuel Lines
In-line Fuel Filter
Fuel Pump
Carburetor
Operation
The fuel from the tank is moved through the in-line
filter and fuel lines by the fuel pump. On engines not
equipped with a fuel pump, the fuel tank outlet is
located above the carburetor inlet allowing gravity to
feed fuel to the carburetor.
Fuel then enters the carburetor float bowl and is drawn
into the carburetor body. There, the fuel is mixed with
air. This fuel-air mixture is then burned in the engine
combustion chamber.
Fuel Recommendations
5
General Recommendations
Purchase gasoline in small quantities and store in
clean, approved containers. A container with a capacity
of 2 gallons or less with a pouring spout is
recommended. Such a container is easier to handle
and helps eliminate spillage during refueling.
•
Do not use gasoline left over from the previous
season, to minimize gum deposits in your fuel
system and to ensure easy starting.
•
Do not add oil to the gasoline.
•
Do not overfill the fuel tank. Leave room for the
fuel to expand.
Fuel Type
For best results, use only clean, fresh, unleaded
gasoline with a pump sticker octane rating of 87 or
higher. In countries using the Research fuel rating
method, it should be 90 octane minimum.
Unleaded gasoline is recommended as it leaves less
combustion chamber deposits and reduces harmful
exhaust emissions. Leaded gasoline is not
recommended and must not be used on EFI engines,
or on other models where exhaust emissions are
regulated.
Gasoline/Alcohol blends
Gasohol (up to 10% ethyl alcohol, 90% unleaded
gasoline by volume) is approved as a fuel for Kohler
engines. Other gasoline/alcohol blends are not
approved.
5.1
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
Gasoline/Ether blends
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and unleaded
gasoline blends (up to a maximum of 15% MTBE by
volume) are approved as a fuel for Kohler engines.
Other gasoline/ether blends are not approved.
Fuel Filter
Most engines are equipped with an in-line filter.
Visually inspect the filter periodically and replace when
dirty with a genuine Kohler filter.
Fuel System Tests
When the engine starts hard, or turns over but will not start, it is possible that the problem is in the fuel system. To
find out if the fuel system is causing the problem, perform the following tests.
Troubleshooting – Fuel System Related Causes
Test
Conclusion
1. Check the following:
a. Make sure the fuel tank contains clean, fresh,
proper fuel.
b. Make sure the vent in fuel tank is open.
c. Make sure the fuel valve is open.
d. Make sure vacuum and fuel lines to fuel
pump are secured and in good condition.
2. Check for fuel in the combustion chamber.
a. Disconnect and ground spark plug leads.
b. Close the choke on the carburetor.
c. Crank the engine several times.
d. Remove the spark plug and check for fuel at
the tip.
2. If there is fuel at the tip of the spark plug, fuel is
reaching the combustion chamber.
3. Check for fuel flow from the tank to the fuel pump.
a. Remove the fuel line from the inlet fitting of
fuel pump.
b. Hold the line below the bottom of the tank.
Open the shut-off valve (if so equipped) and
observe flow.
3. If fuel does flow from the line, check for faulty fuel
pump (Test 4).
4. Check the operation of fuel pump.
a. Remove the fuel line from the inlet fitting of
carburetor.
b. Crank the engine several times and observe
flow.
4. If fuel does flow from the line, check for faulty
carburetor. (Refer to the "Carburetor" portions of
this section.)
5.2
If there is no fuel at the tip of the spark plug, check
for fuel flow from the fuel tank (Test 3).
If fuel does not flow from the line, check the fuel
tank vent, fuel pickup screen, in-line filter, shut-off
valve, and fuel line. Correct any observed problem
and reconnect the line.
If fuel does not flow from the line, check for a
clogged fuel line. If the fuel line is unobstructed,
check for overfilled crankcase and/or oil in pulse
line. If none of the checks reveal the cause of the
problem, replace the pump.
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
Fuel Pump
General
These engines are equipped with either a pulse or
mechanical fuel pump. See Figures 5-1 and 5-2. The
pumping action is created by either the oscillation of
positive and negative pressures within the crankcase
through a hose, or by direct lever/pump actuation off
rocker arm movement. The pumping action causes the
diaphragm on the inside of the pump to pull fuel in on
its downward stroke and to push it into the carburetor
on its upward stroke. Internal check valves prevent
fuel from going backward through the pump.
NOTE: On most models, the pulse line is
connected to a fitting on the crankcase,
while on early models, it is connected to
the valve cover.
4. Install the new fuel pump using the hex. flange
screws. Torque the hex. flange screws to 2.3 N·m
(20 in. lb.).
NOTE: Make sure the orientation of the new
pump is consistent with the removed
pump. Internal damage may occur if
installed incorrectly.
5. Connect the pulse line to the pulse fitting.
Outlet Line (to Carburetor)
Pulse Fuel
Pump
6. Connect the fuel lines to the inlet and outlet
fittings.
5
Replacing the Mechanical Pump
The mechanical pump is an integral part of the valve
cover assembly and not serviced separately. See
Figure 5-2.
Pulse Line
Inlet Line
Figure 5-1. Pulse Style Fuel Pump.
Performance
Minimum fuel delivery rate must be 7.5 L/hr. (2 gal./hr.)
with a pressure at 0.3 psi and a fuel lift of 18 in. from
carburetor inlet. A 1.3 L/hr. (0.34 gal./hr.) fuel rate must
be maintained at 5 Hz.
1. Disconnect the fuel lines from the inlet and outlet
fittings.
2. Follow the procedure for replacing the valve cover
(Sections 9 and 11).
3. Reconnect the fuel lines to the inlet and outlet
fittings.
Outlet Line (to
Carburetor)
Fuel Pump - Replacement
Replacing the Pulse Fuel Pump
Replacement pumps are available through your source
of supply. To replace the pulse pump follow these
steps.
Mechanical
Fuel Pump
Inlet Line
1. Disconnect the fuel lines from the inlet and outlet
fittings.
2. Remove the hex. flange screws securing the fuel
pump.
Figure 5-2. Mechanical Fuel Pump.
3. Remove the pulse line that connects the pump to
the crankcase or valve cover.
5.3
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
Carburetor
General
These engines are equipped with fixed main jet
carburetors manufactured by Keihin to Kohler
specifications. Most have automatic chokes and fuel
shut-off solenoids. Keihin carburetors with accelerator
pump features are standard on many models, and are
furnished as an option on other CH applications where
improved performance is required during periods of
rapid acceleration. Both types are almost identical
except for the accelerator pump parts shown in the
inset in Figure 5-8. Most information in the following
pertains to both type carburetors, with differences
pointed out or shown wherever pertinent.
WARNING: Explosive Fuel
Gasoline is extremely flammable and its vapors can
explode if ignited. Store gasoline only in approved
containers, in well ventilated, unoccupied buildings,
away from sparks or flames. Do not fill the fuel tank
while the engine is hot or running, since spilled fuel
could ignite if it comes in contact with hot parts or
sparks from ignition. Do not start the engine near
spilled fuel. Never use gasoline as a cleaning agent.
Troubleshooting - Carburetor Related Causes
Condition
1. Engine starts hard, runs roughly or
stalls at idle speed.
Possible Cause/Probable Remedy
1. Low idle fuel mixture (some models)/speed improperly adjusted.
Adjust the low idle speed tab, then adjust the low idle fuel needle.
2. Engine runs rich (indicated by
black, sooty exhaust smoke,
misfiring, loss of speed and power,
governor hunting, or excessive
throttle opening).
2a. Clogged air cleaner. Clean or replace.
b. Choke partially closed during operation. Check the choke lever/
linkage to ensure choke is operating properly.
c. Low idle fuel mixture is improperly adjusted. Adjust low idle fuel
needle (some models).
d. Float level is set too high. Separate carburetor air horn from
carburetor body, adjust float according to steps 4 and 5 on page
5.7.
e. Dirt under the fuel inlet needle. Remove needle; clean needle and
seat and blow with compressed air.
f. Bowl vent or air bleeds plugged. Remove low idle fuel adjusting
needle. Clean vent, ports, and air bleeds. Blow out all passages
with compressed air.
g. Leaky, cracked or damaged float. Submerge float to check for
leaks.
3. Engine runs lean (indicated by
misfiring, loss of speed and power,
governor hunting or excessive
throttle opening).
3a. Low idle fuel mixture is improperly adjusted. Adjust low idle fuel
needle (some models).
b. Float level is set too low. Separate carburetor air horn from
carburetor body, adjust float according to steps 4 and 5 on page
5.7.
c. Idle holes plugged; dirt in fuel delivery channels. Remove low idle
fuel adjusting needle. Clean main fuel jet and all passages; blow
out with compressed air.
4. Fuel leaks from carburetor.
4a.
b.
c.
d.
5.4
Float level set too high. See Remedy 2d.
Dirt under fuel inlet needle. See Remedy 2e.
Bowl vents plugged. Blow out with compressed air.
Carburetor bowl gasket leaks. Replace gasket.
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
Troubleshooting Checklist
When the engine starts hard, runs roughly or stalls at
low idle speed, check the following areas before
adjusting or disassembling the carburetor.
•
Make sure the fuel tank is filled with clean, fresh
gasoline.
•
Make sure the fuel tank cap vent is not blocked
and that it is operating properly.
•
Make sure fuel is reaching the carburetor. This
includes checking the fuel shut-off valve, fuel tank
filter screen, in-line fuel filter, fuel lines and fuel
pump for restrictions or faulty components as
necessary.
•
•
•
Make sure the air cleaner base and carburetor
are securely fastened to the engine using gaskets
in good condition.
Make sure the air cleaner element (including
precleaner if equipped) is clean and all air cleaner
components are fastened securely.
Make sure the ignition system, governor system,
exhaust system, and throttle and choke controls
are operating properly.
If the engine is hard-starting, runs roughly, or stalls at
low idle speed, it may be necessary to adjust or
service the carburetor.
High Altitude Operation
When operating the engine at altitudes of 1500 m
(5000 ft.) and above, the fuel mixture tends to get
over-rich. This can cause conditions such as black,
sooty exhaust smoke, misfiring, loss of speed and
power, poor fuel economy, and poor or slow governor
response.
To compensate for the effects of high altitude, special
high altitude jet kits are available. The kits include a
new main jet, slow jet (where applicable), necessary
gaskets and O-Rings. Refer to the parts manual for the
correct kit number.
When current is removed the pin extends blocking the
main fuel jet and preventing fuel from entering the
carburetor.
Fuel Shut-off Solenoid
5
Figure 5-3. Fuel Shut-off Solenoid.
Below is a simple test, made with the engine off, that
can determine if the solenoid is functioning properly:
1. Shut off fuel and remove the solenoid from the
carburetor. When the solenoid is loosened and
removed, gas will leak out of the carburetor. Have
a container ready to catch the fuel.
2. Wipe the tip of the solenoid with a shop towel or
blow it off with compressed air, to remove any
remaining fuel. Take the solenoid to a location
with good ventilation and no fuel vapors present.
You will also need a 12 volt power source that can
be switched on and off.
3. Be sure the power source is switched “off”.
Connect the positive power source lead to the red
lead of the solenoid. Connect the negative power
source lead to the solenoid bracket.
4. Turn the power source “on” and observe the pin in
the center of the solenoid. The pin should retract
with the power “on” and return to its original
position with the power off. Test several times to
verify operation.
Fuel Shut-off Solenoid
Most carburetors are equipped with a fuel shut-off
solenoid. The solenoid is attached in place of the fixed
main jet screw on the flywheel side of the carburetor.
See Figure 5-3. The solenoid has a spring-loaded pin
that retracts when 12 volts is applied to the lead,
allowing fuel flow through the main jet.
5.5
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
Carburetor Adjustments
General
In compliance with government emission standards,
the carburetor is calibrated to deliver the correct air-tofuel mixture to the engine under all operating
conditions. The high-speed mixture is preset and
cannot be adjusted. Pre-compliance carburetors
contain a low idle fuel adjusting needle, on “certified”
compliance carburetors, both the low and high speed
mixture circuits are pre-established and cannot be
adjusted. The low idle speed (RPM) is the only
adjustment available. See Figures 5-4 and 5-5.
Low Idle Speed
Adjustment
Low Idle Fuel
Adjusting Needle
1. With the engine stopped, turn the low idle fuel
adjusting needle in clockwise until it bottoms
lightly.
NOTE: The tip of the idle fuel adjusting needle is
tapered to critical dimensions. Damage
to the needle and the seat in the
carburetor body will result if the needle is
forced.
2. Now turn the adjusting needle out
counterclockwise 1-1/2 turns.
3. Start the engine and run at half throttle for 5 to 10
minutes to warm up. The engine must be warm
before making final settings. Check that the
throttle and choke plates can fully open.
NOTE: The carburetor has a self-relieving
choke. Choke plate and shaft assembly
is spring loaded. Check to make sure
plate moves freely and is not binding and
affecting idle fuel delivery.
Main Jet
Location
Figure 5-4. Pre-Compliance Carburetor with Low
Idle Adjustment.
Low Idle
Speed
Adjustment
Fuel Shut-Off
Solenoid (Main
Jet Location)
Figure 5-5. “Certified” Compliance Carburetor.
NOTE: Carburetor adjustments should be made only
after the engine has warmed up.
Adjusting Low Idle Speed and Fuel (Some Models)
To adjust the carburetor idle speed, see Figure 5-4 and
follow these steps.
5.6
4. Place the throttle control into the “idle” or “slow”
position. Turn the low idle speed adjusting screw
in or out to obtain a low idle speed of 1200 RPM
(± 75 RPM). Check the speed using a tachometer.
NOTE: The actual low idle speed depends on
the application. Refer to the equipment
manufacturer’s recommendations. The
low idle speed for basic engines is 1200
RPM. To ensure best results when
setting the low idle fuel needle, the low
idle speed should be 1200 RPM (± 75
RPM).
5. Turn the low idle fuel adjusting needle in (slowly)
until engine speed decreases and then back out
approximately 3/4 turn to obtain the best low
speed performance.
6. Recheck the idle speed using a tachometer and
readjust the speed as necessary.
Float
It is not necessary to remove the carburetor from the
engine to check and adjust the float.
1. Remove the air cleaner and breather hose. Refer
to Section 9 – ‘‘Disassembly”.
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
2. Disconnect the fuel line from the carburetor. See
Figure 5-6.
Tab
3. Clean dirt and debris from exterior of carburetor.
4. Remove the four screws holding the two
carburetor halves together. Carefully lift the upper
body off the carburetor body and disconnect
choke linkage.
Float
Screws
Fuel Line
Figure 5-7. Carburetor Float Adjustment.
8. Once the proper float height is obtained, carefully
lower the carburetor air horn assembly onto the
carburetor body, connecting the choke linkage.
Install the four screws. Torque the screws to
1.7 N·m (15 in. lb.). See Figure 5-6.
9. Connect the fuel line.
Figure 5-6. Carburetor Detail.
5. Hold the carburetor upper body so that the float
assembly hangs vertically and rests lightly against
the fuel inlet needle. The fuel inlet needle should
be fully seated, but the needle tip should not be
depressed. See Figure 5-7.
NOTE: The fuel inlet needle tip is spring loaded.
Make sure the float assembly rests
against the fuel inlet needle without
depressing the tip.
6. The correct float height adjustment is 22 mm
(0.86 in.), measured from the float bottom to the
air horn casting. Adjust the float height by
carefully bending the tab.
NOTE: Be sure to measure from the casting
surface, not the rubber gasket surface.
7. If proper float height adjustment cannot be
achieved, check to see if the fuel inlet needle is
dirty, obstructed or worn. Remove the brass
screw and float assembly to remove the fuel inlet
needle.
10. Install the breather hose and air cleaner
assembly, following the steps in Section 11 –
‘‘Reassembly”.
Disassembly
Disassemble the carburetor using the following steps.
See Figure 5-8.
1. Remove the air cleaner, breather hose and
carburetor. Refer to Section 9 – “Disassembly”.
2. Remove the four screws and carefully separate
the air horn assembly from the carburetor body.
3. Loosen the screw securing the float assembly to
the air horn and remove the float, float shaft and
fuel inlet needle.
4. Remove the slow jet from the carburetor body.
NOTE: The main jet is a fixed jet and can be
removed if required. Fixed jets for high
altitude are available.
5. Remove the black cap on the end of the choke
shaft only if it is necessary to inspect and clean
the shaft spring.
6. Remove the low idle speed adjusting screw and
spring from the carburetor body.
5.7
5
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
7. In order to clean the ‘‘off-idle’’ vent ports and bowl
vent thoroughly, use a good carburetor solvent
(like Gumout™). Blow clean compressed air
through the idle adjusting needle hole. Be careful
to use a suitable shop rag to prevent debris from
hitting someone.
8. Remove the preformed rubber gasket only if it is
to be replaced. If it is removed for any reason,
replace it.
Inspection/Repair
Carefully inspect all components and replace those
that are worn or damaged.
•
Inspect the carburetor body for cracks, holes and
other wear or damage.
•
Inspect the float for cracks, holes, and missing or
damaged float tabs. Check the float hinge and
shaft for wear or damage.
5.8
•
Inspect the fuel inlet needle and seat for wear or
damage.
•
Inspect the tip of the low idle fuel adjusting needle
for wear or grooves.
•
The choke plate is spring loaded. Check to make
sure it moves freely on the shaft.
NOTE: The choke and throttle plate assemblies
are staked and matched to the shafts at
the factory. They are not serviceable
items.
Always use new gaskets when servicing or reinstalling
carburetors. Repair kits are available which include
new gaskets and other components. These kits are
described on the next page.
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
1
2
3
4
15
5
6
8
7
9
Carburetor Upper Body (Choke)
Self-relieving Choke
Body Gasket (Formed Rubber)
Slow Speed Jet
Inlet Needle Valve
Clip
Float Pin
Float Assembly (Kit)
Carburetor Lower Body (Throttle)
Main Jet
Idle Fuel Adjusting Needle (some models)
Solenoid Seat
Fuel Shut-off Solenoid (Kit)
Idle Speed Adjusting Screw
Jet (Accelerator Pump Carburetor only)
Accelerator Pump Cover
Diaphragm
Diaphragm Spring
O-Ring
Rubber Boot
Bushing
Return Spring
5
19
17
10
11
18
19
16
14
12
20
21
22
13
Accelerator Pump Version Only
Figure 5-8. Carburetor – Exploded View.
Components such as the throttle and choke shaft
assemblies, throttle plate, choke plate, low idle fuel
needle, and others, are available separately.
Always refer to the Parts Manual for the engine being
serviced, to ensure the correct repair kits and
replacement parts are ordered. Service/repair kits
available for the carburetor and affiliated components
are:
Carburetor Repair Kit
Float Kit
High Altitude Kit (1525-3048 m/5,000-10,000 ft)
High Altitude Kit (over 3048 m/10,000 ft)
Solenoid Assembly Kit
Accelerator Pump Seal and Bushing Kit
Accelerator Pump Diaphragm Kit
Choke Repair Kit
5.9
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
Reassembly
Governor Spring
Reassemble the carburetor using the following steps.
See Figure 5-9.
Cross Shaft
1. Assemble the fuel inlet needle to the float tab.
Install the float, float shaft and inlet needle to the
air horn. Tighten the screw. Check float height
using the procedure found previously in the
‘‘Adjustments’’ subsection.
Governor Arm
Hex. Nut
2. Install the slow jet with the stepped end toward
the bottom of the carburetor. Make sure jet is fully
seated.
Throttle
Linkage
Figure 5-9. Governor Linkage.
3. Install the low idle adjusting needle and spring.
•
4. Assemble the upper body onto the lower
carburetor body using the four screws. Torque the
screws to 1.7 N·m (15 in. lb.).
As the flyweights move outward, they cause the
regulating pin to move outward.
•
The regulating pin contacts the tab on the cross
shaft causing the shaft to rotate.
5. Install the carburetor on the engine following the
procedures in Section 11 – ‘‘Reassembly.’’
•
One end of the cross shaft protrudes through the
crankcase. The rotating action of the cross shaft
is transmitted to the throttle lever of the carburetor
through the external throttle linkage. See Figure
5-9.
•
When the engine is at rest, and the throttle is in
the “fast” position, the tension of the governor
spring holds the throttle plate open. When the
engine is operating, the governor gear assembly
is rotating. The force applied by the regulating pin
against the cross shaft tends to close the throttle
plate. The governor spring tension and the force
applied by the regulating pin balance each other
during operation, to maintain engine speed.
•
When load is applied and the engine speed and
governor gear speed decreases, the governor
spring tension moves the governor arm to open
the throttle plate wider. This allows more fuel into
the engine, increasing the engine speed. As the
speed reaches the governed setting, the governor
spring tension and the force applied by the
regulating pin will again offset each other to hold a
steady engine speed.
Governor
General
The governor is designed to hold the engine speed
constant under changing load conditions. Most
engines are equipped with a centrifugal flyweight
mechanical governor. Some engines utilize an optional
electronic governor, which is shown and covered on
page 5.12 and 5.13. The governor gear/flyweight
mechanism of the mechanical governor is mounted
inside the crankcase and is driven off the gear on the
camshaft. This governor design works as follows:
•
Centrifugal force acting on the rotating governor
gear assembly causes the flyweights to move
outward as speed increases. Governor spring
tension moves them inward as speed decreases.
Adjustments
NOTE: Do not tamper with the governor setting.
Overspeed is hazardous and could cause
personal injury.
5.10
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
General
The governed speed setting is determined by the
position of the throttle control. It can be variable or
constant, depending on the engine application.
Initial Adjustment
NOTE: EFI engines require a special initial
adjustment procedure, which is covered in
subsection 5B. Refer to “Initial Governor
Adjustment” in that section for setting the
governor on EFI-equipped engines.
Procedure – Carburetor Equipped Engines
Make this adjustment whenever the governor arm is
loosened or removed from the cross shaft. See Figure
5-9 and adjust as follows:
1. Make sure the throttle linkage is connected to the
governor arm and the throttle lever on the
carburetor.
2. Loosen the hex. nut holding the governor lever to
the cross shaft.
3. Move the governor lever toward the carburetor as
far as it will move (wide open throttle) and hold in
this position.
4. Insert a nail into the hole on the cross shaft and
rotate the shaft counterclockwise as far as it will
turn, then tighten hex. nut securely.
Sensitivity Adjustment
Governor sensitivity is adjusted by repositioning the
governor spring in the holes of the governor lever. If
speed surging occurs with a change in engine load,
the governor is set too sensitive. If a big drop in speed
occurs when normal load is applied, the governor
should be set for greater sensitivity. See Figure 5-10
and adjust as follows:
Figure 5-10. Governor Sensitivity Adjustments.
High Speed (RPM) Adjustment (Refer to Figure 5-11.)
1. With the engine running, move the throttle control
to fast. Use a tachometer to check the RPM
speed.
2. Loosen the lock nut on high speed adjusting screw.
Turn the screw outward to decrease, or inward to
increase the RPM speed. Check RPM with a
tachometer.
3. When the desired RPM speed is obtained,
retighten the lock nut.
NOTE: When the throttle and choke control cables are
routed side-by-side, especially under a single
clamp, there must be a small gap between the
cables to prevent internal binding. After the
high-speed setting has been completed, check
that there is a gap of at least 0.5 mm
(0.020 in.) between the control cables.
1. To increase the sensitivity, move the spring closer
to the governor cross shaft.
2. To decrease the sensitivity, move the spring away
from the governor cross shaft.
5.11
5
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
Throttle Control Lever #2
Left Side Pull
Choke Control Lever #1
Kill Switch
Choke Control Cable
Choke Linkage
Throttle
Control
Cable
Z Bend
Throttle Control Cable
Kill Switch Adjusting Screw
Dual Control High
Speed Lever Stop Screw
"Do Not Remove"
High Speed
Adjusting
Screw
Choke
Control
Cable
High Speed
Control Lever
Right Side Pull
Figure 5-11. Governor Control Connections.
Electronic Governor
General
The electronic governor regulates engine speed at
varying loads. It consists of a governor control unit,
digital linear actuator and linkage.
1
2
3
4
5
Governor Control Unit
Figure 5-13. Electronic Governor Assembly.
Figure 5-12. Electronic Governor Assembly.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.12
Digital Linear Actuator
Throttle Linkage
Linkage Spring
Choke Linkage
Throttle Lever Adapter
Digital Linear Actuator (DLA)
Energizing the bi-directional digital linear actuator coils
in the proper sequence, causes the threaded shaft to
move out of, or back into the rotor, in precise linear
increments. When power is removed, the actuator
shaft remains in position. The DLA must initialize (fully
extend) to move the throttle plate to the closed
position, and partially open for starting. Correct
adjustment of the DLA is critical to achieve the full
range of throttle plate movement. See Adjustment
Procedure.
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
Governor Control Unit (GCU) senses engine speed by
pulse voltage inputs from the ignition modules. The
GCU regulates the engine speed by variable input
voltage from a customer-supplied potentiometer or a
single pole, single throw (SPST) switch.
Potentiometer Specifications:
Wiper Voltage
0-1
1-9
9-16
Engine Speed (RPM)
1860 low speed endpoint
variable speed endpoint
3600 high speed endpoint
SPST Switch Specifications:
Switch Position
Engine Speed (RPM)
Open
Closed
1860 low speed endpoint
3600 high speed endpoint
GCU Safety Features
In the event of an engine overspeed condition, the
GCU will shut down the engine by grounding the
ignition modules.
Adjustment Procedure
The DLA must be in the fully retracted position during
assembly. The full range of throttle plate movement will
not be achieved if the DLA is partially extended when
assembled. Loosen the two DLA mounting plate
screws located on the top of the actuator plate. With
the throttle linkage centered in the U-Clip at the end of
the DLA shaft, slide the DLA bracket assembly back
until the throttle plate is fully open. Torque the
mounting plate screws to 2.5 N·m (22 in. lb.).
Troubleshooting Procedure
Engine starts, but will not continue to run
1. Check the linkage connection between the DLA
and throttle plate.
2. Verify the DLA initializes when power is supplied
(key switch in the start or run position).
3. Test the potentiometer wiper output voltage (if
equipped).
4. Test the SPST switch (if equipped).
The GCU will shut down the engine by grounding the
ignition when power to the GCU is lost.
Linkage
The throttle linkage spring will fully open the throttle
plate if the linkage becomes detached from the DLA.
This will create an overspeed condition causing the
engine to shut down. The DLA shaft will have to be
manually screwed back into the body, and then
retracted before reassembling the linkage.
5. Check the wire harness and connections.
Engine does not run at the expected speed
1. Check to see that the throttle linkage and DLA
have full range of motion having no mechanical
interference.
2. Test the potentiometer wiper voltage (if equipped).
3. Test the SPST switch (if equipped).
5.13
5
Section 5
Fuel System and Governor
5.14
Section 5A
LPG FuelCH18-740
Systems
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
WARNING: Explosive Fuel!
LPG is extremely flammable, is heavier than air, and tends to settle in low areas where a spark or flame could
ignite the gas. Do not start or operate this engine in a poorly ventilated area where leaking gas could accumulate
and endanger the safety of persons in the area.
Proper service and repair of LPG fuel systems requires qualified technicians and special equipment.
Many states require special licensing or certification for LPG repair shops and/or technicians. Check state
and local regulations before attempting any adjustment, service, or repair of the LPG system or
components. Faulty repairs by unqualified or underqualified personnel can have very serious
ramifications. The information in this segment is for the exclusive use of qualified LPG service providers.
LPG Fuel System Components
The typical “liquid withdrawal” LPG fuel system consists of the following components:
• LPG Fuel Tank (Liquid Withdrawal)
• Electric Lock-Off/Filter Assembly
• Vaporizer
• LPG Regulator (Combination Primary/Secondary/Vacuum Lock-Off)
• LPG Carburetor
• High Pressure Fuel Line(s)
• Vacuum Line
Fuel Line
Vaporizer
Vacuum Line
Lock-Off/Filter
Assembly
LPG Regulator
Figure 5A-1.
5A.1
5A
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
Operation
In a liquid withdrawal system, the Liquefied Petroleum
Gas (LPG) is released from the bottom of the supply
tank under high pressure. Upon opening the shut-off
valve on the tank, liquid fuel travels out through the
high pressure line to the electric lock-off/filter
assembly. The lock-off opens internally when the key
switch is turned “on,” permitting filtered fuel to flow to
the vaporizer. The vaporizer is mounted in the flow of
the discharged cooling air. It absorbs heat from the
cooling air and transfers it to the fuel, changing the
liquefied petroleum to a vapor or gaseous state, while
partially stepping down the fuel pressure. The gas/
vapor flows under this decreased pressure to the
regulator where it is further reduced to a usable,
regulated pressure. The regulator, activated by intake
manifold vacuum, controls fuel flow to the carburetor.
In the venturi of the carburetor, the fuel vapor is mixed
with incoming air from the air cleaner in the correct
ratio for efficient combustion.
Troubleshooting Checklist
If the engine starts hard, runs roughly, or stalls, check
the following areas.
•
Make sure the LPG fuel tank is filled and shut-off
valve is fully opened.
•
Make sure fuel is reaching the carburetor.
•
Make sure the air cleaner element and precleaner
are clean and all components are fastened
securely.
•
Make sure the ignition, governor, exhaust, throttle,
and choke control systems are all operating
properly.
•
Check compression.
If engine continues to start hard, run roughly, or stall
after these checks have been made, use the following
troubleshooting guide.
Engine cranks but will not start
1. LPG fuel tank closed, low, or empty.
2. Lock-off not opening electrically, preventing fuel
flow to vaporizer.
3. Fuel filter (located inside lock-off) dirty or blocked.
5A.2
4. Insufficient vacuum signal, regulator not opening.
a. Vacuum line between carburetor and regulator
cracked, leaking, kinked, or pinched.
b. Carburetor loose.
c. Intake manifold loose or leaking.
d. Excessive internal engine wear.
5. Faulty regulator.
a. Primary valve not opening.
b. Diaphragm spring adjustment incorrect.
c. Idle adjustment screw incorrectly set.
d. Vent(s) blocked/restricted.
6. Restricted/blocked fuel line.
7. Blocked carburetor fuel circuit.
8. Loose/leaking fuel enrichment hose (Impco
carburetor system).
Hard starting, runs roughly, or stalls at idle speed
1. LPG fuel tank low.
2. Vacuum line between carburetor and regulator
pinched, cracked, or leaking.
3. Carburetor idle speed set too low (should be at
least 1200 RPM).
4. Carburetor idle circuit restricted.
5. Dirty/restricted air cleaner.
6. Dirty/restricted lock-off filter.
7. Frozen/malfunctioning regulator. Check/adjust
primary pressure.
8. Excessive external load on engine.
9. Excessive internal wear.
10. Loose/leaking fuel enrichment hose (Impco
carburetor system).
Irregular or inconsistent idle
1. Improper operation/adjustment of regulator, idle
adjustment screw, throttle opening, and/or engine
governor.
2. Secondary valve in regulator not closing. Readjust
idle screw (couterclockwise) so valve can close
fully against seat.
3. Loose/leaking vacuum line.
4. Loose carburetor mounting and/or line
connections.
5. Damaged diaphragm(s) within regulator.
6. Debris in regulator. Flush debris from drain plug
or remove regulator from system, disassemble
body and remove debris.
7. Dirt or debris in carburetor. Remove carburetor,
disassemble and clean/service as required. If
venturi (Impco carburetor) removal is performed,
mark its orientation to the carburetor body for
proper reinstallation.
8. Loose/leaking fuel enrichment hose (Impco
carburetor system).
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
Engine stalls during operation
1. No fuel.
2. Faulty lock-off or blocked filter.
3. Improper governor setting.
4. Damaged diaphragms within regulator.
5. Vacuum line leaking, loose, or pinched.
6. Restricted fuel line.
7. Loose/leaking fuel enrichment hose (Impco
carburetor system).
Low power
1. Air cleaner or exhaust system dirty/restricted.
2. Low fuel.
3. Rich gas condition (flooding) through regulator.
a. Dirty/restricted valves in regulator.
b. Damaged primary diaphragm in regulator.
4. No fuel.
a. Electric lock-off not opening, filter blocked, or
restriction within fuel line.
b. Leaking, loose, or cracked vacuum line from
carburetor to regulator.
c. Leaking, or loose intake system components.
d. Regulator primary valve not opening.
e. Secondary, or vacuum lock-off diaphragm
within regulator leaking.
f. Low pressure rubber hose kinked.
g. Frozen regulator.
5. Improper ignition timing.
6. Loose/incorrect throttle lever/clamp bracket
positioning.
7. Loose or incorrectly positioned high speed throttle
plate stop.
Engine runs lean
1. Electrical problem causing intermittent lock-off
operation, or lock-off is faulty.
2. Filter in lock-off dirty or restricted.
3. Restriction in fuel system.
4. Idle holes plugged; dirt in fuel delivery channels.
5. Carburetor fuel circuit restriction.
6. Loose/leaking fuel enrichment hose (Impco
carburetor system).
High fuel consumption
1. Fuel leak. Check lines, connections, and system
components for leaks with soapy water. Fix any
leaks immediately.
2. Incorrectly set regulator, or leakage from valves in
regulator. Readjust, service, or replace regulator
as required.
3. Dirty air cleaner or precleaner.
4. Choke plate in carburetor not opening completely.
LPG Carburetor Adjustments
General
The LPG carburetor and regulator are designed to
deliver the correct fuel-to-air mixture to the engine
under all operating conditions. The high and low idle
fuel mixture settings are preset at the factory, and
cannot be adjusted. These engines are equipped with
an Impco or Nikki carburetor. See Figure 5A-2 and
5A-3. Although both carburetors function similarly,
each is unique and should not be interchanged.
Load Block Assembly
Fuel Enrichment
Hose
Venturi
Retaining
Screw
Idle Speed
Adjusting Screw
Fuel Inlet
Figure 5A-2. Impco Carburetor.
Choke Plate/Shaft Assembly
Rear Plug
with Sealing
Washer
Fuel Inlet
Plastic Bushing
Transfer
Chamber
Cover
Vacuum Port
Idle Speed
Adjusting Screw
Figure 5A-3. Nikki Carburetor.
Impco carburetors also incorporate the use of an
external ‘‘Load Block’’ assembly, which controls the
final fuel flow to the carburetor for all throttle positions
except idle. See Figure 5A-2. Calibrated and flowmatched to the carburetor, it functions similarly to
preset fuel mixture settings in other carburetors. The
load block assembly is not available separately, nor is
any internal servicing permitted or possible. If a
problem is encountered and determined to be caused
by the load block, the carburetor should be replaced.
5A.3
5A
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
High Altitude Operation
The standard carburetor calibrations will provide
proper operation up to altitudes of 1500 m (5000 ft.).
No internal changes are necessary or available for
either carburetor.
NOTE: Carburetor adjustments should be made only
after the engine has warmed up.
Idle Speed Adjustment
1. Start the engine and run at half throttle for 5 to 10
minutes. Check that the throttle and choke (Nikki
carburetor) plates can open fully.
Impco Carburetor
1. Turn off fuel supply at tank.
2. Remove the air cleaner, breather hose, fuel line,
vacuum hose, choke, and throttle linkages.
Remove the mounting hardware, carburetor, and
gaskets from the engine. Discard the gaskets.
3. The carburetor venturi may be removed for
inspection and appropriate cleaning.
a. Remove the four screws securing the air
cleaner adapter and gasket to the carburetor.
See Figure 5A-4.
2. Place the throttle control into the “idle” or “slow”
position. Turn the low idle speed adjusting screw
(See Figure 5A-2 or 5A-3) in or out, to obtain a
low idle speed of 1200 RPM (± 75 RPM), or set to
application specifications. Check the speed using
a tachometer.
NOTE: The actual low idle speed (RPM) depends on
the application. Refer to the equipment
manufacturer’s recommendations. The low
idle speed for basic engines is 1200 RPM.
LPG Fuel System Component Service
LPG Carburetor - Cleaning
The carburetor may be cleaned if necessary. Removal
from the engine and limited disassembly will aid in
cleaning.
NOTE: Impco Carburetor: Do not loosen or alter the
mounted position of the clamping brackets
and/or stop collar on the throttle shaft. Each is
preset, in correlation to a specific position of
the throttle plate (shaft), or acts as a stop.
None of these attached components,
including the throttle plate or shaft, requires
disassembly or removal for any carburetor
servicing. All the components on the throttle
shaft should be left intact. If the settings of
any one of these is inadvertently loosened or
altered, each must be checked/reset, or
performance and operation will be affected.
Refer to the procedure included in the
reassembly/installation sequence to check or
reset.
Figure 5A-4.
b. Important: Mark a small line on the outer
edge of the venturi for proper orientation and
reinstallation later.
c. Loosen the venturi retaining screw on the side
of the carburetor body and lift out the
venturi. See Figure 5A-5.
Figure 5A-5.
5A.4
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
4. Inspect the overall condition of the fuel
enrichment hose attached to the carburetor. It
must be free of cracks, deterioration, and
damage. Disconnect the fuel enrichment hose
from the carburetor fittings to clean or check
condition as required. See Figure 5A-6. Replace
with a new Kohler high pressure hose (LP rated) if
the condition is questionable in any way. Secure
new hose using new clamps.
Nikki Carburetor
1. Turn off fuel supply at tank.
2. Remove the air cleaner, breather hose, fuel line,
vacuum hose, choke, and throttle linkages.
Remove the nuts, carburetor, and gaskets from
the engine. Discard the gaskets.
3. Remove the fuel transfer chamber cover by
removing the three screws. See Figure 5A-3.
Carefully remove the cover and gasket. Discard
the gasket.
4. The main jet is fixed and nonadjustable, but may
be accessed for cleaning by removing the rear
plug and sealing washer. Discard the washer.
Figure 5A-6.
5. Clean all parts as required, use a good carburetor
cleaner, following the manufacturer's instructions.
Blow clean, compressed air through all the
passages. Do not poke or probe into the load
block assembly as damage can be done, resulting
in serious operational problems. See Figure 5A-7.
5. In order to clean the off-idle transfer passages
and carburetor thoroughly, use a good carburetor
cleaner and follow the manufacturer's
instructions. Blow clean, compressed air through
the passages and make sure all are open before
reassembling. Do not use wire or metal objects to
clean passages or carburetor body.
LPG Carburetor - Inspection
1. Inspect the carburetor body and removable
venturi (Impco carburetor) for cracks, holes, and
other wear or damage.
2. Check the choke shaft (Nikki carburetor only) and
the throttle shaft for wear and free movement.
NOTE: Do not attempt to disassemble or
remove either shaft from the carburetor
body, including the mounted clamp
brackets on Impco style carburetors. The
screws, attaching the choke and throttle
plate to their respective shafts are staked
or bonded to prevent loosening. The
plate(s) and shaft(s) are not available
separately. If detrimental wear or
damage is found in any of the parts, the
carburetor should be replaced.
Figure 5A-7.
5A.5
5A
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
LPG Carburetor - Reassembly
Impco Carburetor
1. Slide the venturi into the carburetor body, aligning
the position mark made prior to removal. Correctly
installed, the discharge holes should not be visible
from the top.
Idle Speed Clamp Bracket Position
1. Counting the number of turns, back the idle speed
adjustment screw off (counterclockwise), so only
1 to 1 1/2 of the threads are visible. See Figure
5A-8.
2. Secure with the venturi retaining screw. Torque
the screw to 4.0 N·m (36 in. lb.).
3. Install a new adapter gasket and mount the air
cleaner adapter onto the carburetor with the four
screws. Torque the screws to 4.0 N·m (36 in. lb.).
Idle Speed
Clamp
Bracket
Mounting
Screw
4. Install a new carburetor gasket onto the intake
manifold adapter, followed by the carburetor.
Install and finger tighten the mounting fasteners.
5. Connect the ‘‘Z’’ end of the throttle linkage and the
dampening spring to the throttle clamp bracket on
the throttle shaft. Attach the opposite end of
linkage and spring to the governor lever.
NOTE: The clamp brackets and stop collar
mounted on the throttle shaft should still
be in their original positions (See Figure
5A-2), and not require any readjustment/
resetting. Continue with steps 6 and 7. If
the mounted position of any one of these
was affected or changed, it will be
necessary to check and reset the
position of each before proceeding.
Follow the complete instructions listed
after step 7, then continue with steps 6
and 7.
Figure 5A-8. Backing Off Idle Speed Screw.
2. Loosen the clamp bracket mounting screw, and
pivot the throttle shaft to fully close the throttle
plate. See Figure 5A-9.
6. Manually move the governor lever toward the
carburetor as far as it will go.
Figure 5A-9. Closing Throttle Plate.
7. Check that the throttle plate is now fully open or
reposition the carburetor slightly on the mounting
screws so it is fully open. Torque the mounting
screws to 9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.).
Instructions for Checking/Positioning the Clamp
Brackets Mounted on the Throttle Shaft
Use only if the position or mounting of the clamp
bracket(s) has been disturbed. Figures show the
carburetor removed from the engine for clarity.
5A.6
3. Hold the throttle plate closed and rotate the clamp
bracket until the end of the screw contacts the
stop. Insert a 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) feeler gauge
between the carburetor housing and the side of
the clamp bracket to set the endplay, then tighten
the mounting screw securely. See Figure 5A-10.
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
3. Insert a 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) feeler gauge
between the side of the stop collar and the
carburetor housing, then check or set the position
of the stop collar. The head of the mounting screw
must be in contact with the carburetor boss from
the back (hose/fitting) side, preventing any further
rotation over center. Set or adjust the stop collar
as required. See Figure 5A-12.
Figure 5A-10. Tightening Idle Speed Clamp
Mounting Screw.
High Speed Stop
Collar
5A
4. Reset the idle speed adjustment screw back to
the original position.
High Speed/Stop Collar Position
1. Make sure the idle speed clamp position has
already been checked or properly set.
2. Rotate and hold the throttle shaft so the throttle
plate is fully open/perfectly vertical. See Figure
5A-11.
Figure 5A-12. Adjusting/Setting Stop Collar.
4. Tighten the screw securely.
NOTE: After the idle speed clamp bracket and the
high speed stop collar positions have been
set, check that the throttle shaft pivots freely
without binding or restriction.
Throttle Linkage Clamp Bracket Position
Carburetor must be assembled to engine with linkage
attached to set this position.
High Speed Stop
Collar
1. The throttle linkage clamp bracket should be
positioned as shown in Figure 5A-13 on the idle
speed clamp bracket side of the throttle shaft.
Figure 5A-11. Full Throttle Position.
Throttle
Linkage
Clamp Bracket
Figure 5A-13. Throttle Linkage Clamp Bracket
Position.
5A.7
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
2. Manually move the governor lever, with the throttle
linkage connected, toward the carburetor as far as
it will go. Hold it in this position.
3. Looking down the throat of the carburetor, check
that the throttle plate is in the full throttle position
and that the head of the high speed collar stop
screw is in contact with the carburetor boss. If not,
loosen the carburetor mounting screws and
reposition the carburetor slightly. Torque the
carburetor mounting screws to 9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.).
NOTE: If additional adjustment is required, loosen
the throttle linkage clamp bracket
mounting screw, set the throttle shaft to
the full throttle position against the head
of the stop screw, and retighten the clamp
mounting screw securely. See Figure
5A-14.
7. Check to be sure all system connections are tight.
8. Reset idle RPM and recheck high idle (governed
speed) after starting and allowing sufficient
warm-up time.
Electric Lock-Off/Filter Assembly - Functional Test
The electric lock-off can be easily tested to verify that it
is functional. Remove it from the system for testing.
Using a 12 volt power supply or battery, connect one
wire lead to the positive (+) lead of power supply, and
touch remaining wire lead to negative (-) lead of power
supply. When connection is made, an audible “click”
should be heard indicating the opening of the lock-off.
While energized, blow compressed air through it to
determine if it is blocked or restricted.
Figure 5A-15.
Figure 5A-14. Tightening Throttle Linkage Clamp
Bracket.
Nikki Carburetor
1. Reinstall the rear plug with a new sealing washer.
Tighten the plug securely.
2. Reinstall fuel transfer chamber cover with a new
gasket. Secure with the three screws.
3. Install new carburetor mounting gasket on
manifold studs, followed by the carburetor and
new air cleaner base gasket.
Figure 5A-16.
4. Reconnect the throttle and choke linkages, and
the fuel and vacuum lines.
5. Reinstall the air cleaner base and breather tube.
Secure base with two mounting nuts. Torque nuts
to 9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.). Install the rest of the air
cleaner system.
5A.8
Electric Lock-Off/Filter Assembly - Filter Service
The filter inside the lock-off assembly should be
replaced every 500 hours of operation, or if it
becomes blocked or restricted. Cleaning of the filter
element is not recommended. Order a replacement
filter element by the appropriate Kohler part number.
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
Vaporizer Assembly
The outer surface of the vaporizer should be kept free
of dirt and debris accumulation, which will cause a loss
of vaporization efficiency. Visual inspection and
necessary cleaning should be performed on a regular
basis, more frequently under dusty or dirty conditions.
The vaporizer should be disassembled, cleaned, and
serviced using a rebuild kit every 1500 hours or if a
problem is encountered.
Figure 5A-18. Impco (Beam) Regulator.
5A
Figure 5A-17.
LPG Regulator
The regulator controls both the pressure and flow of
fuel within the LP system. It is comprised of both a
primary and secondary chamber, which are dependent
upon one another. Two different styles of regulators
are used, based upon the system involved. The Impco
(Beam) regulator is shown in Figure 5A-18, and the
Nikki regulator is shown in Figure 5A-19. Although the
basic design and operating principles are similar, due
to system differences the regulators should not be
interchanged.
Figure 5A-19. Nikki Regulator.
Following are separate sections covering the theory of
operation and general service information for each
style of regulator. Detailed service/repair instructions
are included in the rebuild kit for each regulator.
5A.9
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
Impco (Beam) Regulator (See Figure 5A-20)
LPG vapor enters at point (A), then passes into
primary area (B) at point (28), where pressure is
reduced from up to 250 psi at the tank to 4.5 psi in
area (B). Fuel pressure against diaphragm (2)
overcomes spring (3) and as movement increases,
spring (5) will close lever (6). The primary diaphragm
breather (not shown in drawing) is vented to secondary
chamber so that rupture of this diaphragm would direct
fuel into the carburetor.
19
1
17
14
20
15
5
E
2
25
18
16
3
B
13
H
4
12
K
Fuel now moves through passage (E), past secondary
valve (25) into secondary area (C). As negative
pressure (vacuum) is created at the carburetor venturi
and is transmitted through the dry-gas hose to
chamber (C) secondary diaphragm (12) is drawn down
and contacts the secondary lever (16). Fuel will flow in
proportion to air velocity through the carburetor venturi,
ensuring an ideal mixture at all engine speeds.
Whenever the engine is operating, the vacuum
diaphragm (10) is down against the floor (H) and the
spring (11) is compressed. The idle and starting
adjustment is made with a tamper-resistant screw (17)
which regulates the whisker wire system (not shown),
opening up the secondary orifice slightly (but only
when the vacuum diaphragm is drawn down). Very
little vacuum is needed to start this vacuum diaphragm
travel: 0.2" Mercury to start and 0.5" Mercury for full
travel. The instant the engine stops rotating, loss of
vacuum in section (D) releases diaphragm (10)
causing bumper (K) to push against secondary lever
(16), overcoming action of whisker wire and ensuring
100% lock off.
This patented Beam design will lock off primary
pressures up to five times in excess of normal and
permits starting without priming or choking.
5A.10
D
6
7
C
28
11
A
8
10
9 21
1) 1/8-27 NPT Plug
2) Primary Diaphragm Assembly
3) Primary Spring
4) Expansion Plug
5) Secondary Diaphragm Spring
6) Primary Lever Assembly
7) Fillister Head Screw
8) Primary Pivot Pin
9) Torx Head Screw
10) Vac Lock Diaphragm
Assembly
11) Vac Lock Spring
Figure 5A-20.
12) Secondary Diaphragm
13) Pan Head Screw
14) Secondary Lever Spring
15) Secondary Pivot Pin
16) Secondary Lever
Assembly
17) Adjustment Screw
18) Pan Head Screw
19) Expansion Plug
20) Diaphragm Gasket
21) Split Lock Washer
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
Nikki Regulator Primary Chamber
(See Figure 5A-21)
The primary chamber reduces the high pressure fuel
flow from the tank and vaporizer down to approximately
4 psi. Fuel flowing from the vaporizer enters the inlet of
the regulator under approximately 76 kPa (11 psi) of
pressure. There it is delivered to the primary chamber
(3) through the clearance between the primary valve (1)
and valve seat (2). As fuel continues to flow and the
primary chamber approaches 29 kPa (4 psi), the
primary diaphragm (4) overcomes the tension of the
diaphragm spring (5). As the diaphragm (4) and contact
button (6) move up, the primary lever spring (8) pushes
the primary lever (7) up, in turn closing the primary
valve (1) and stopping the flow of fuel. As fuel is
consumed and the pressure in the primary chamber
drops below 29 kPa (4 psi), the diaphragm spring (5)
tension will be greater than the fuel pressure, causing
the primary diaphragm (4) to be pushed down. This
causes the contact button (6), to push the primary lever
(7) down, in turn opening the primary valve (1) and
admitting more fuel. In this manner, the pressure within
the primary chamber is maintained at a relatively
constant 29 kPa (4 psi).
9
7
4
5
1
6
3
2
8
Fuel
Inlet
To Secondary Chamber
1) Primary Valve
6) Contact Button
2) Primary Valve Seat
7) Primary Valve Lever
3) Primary Chamber
8) Primary Lever Spring
4) Primary Diaphragm
9) Primary Pressure
5) Primary Diaphragm Spring Adjustment
Figure 5A-21. Primary Chamber.
Nikki Regulator Secondary Chamber
(See Figure 5A-22)
The secondary chamber further reduces the fuel
pressure from the 29 kPa (4 psi) of the primary
chamber to near 0 kPa (0 psi) pressure, to prevent
excessive fuel flow to the carburetor. Fuel enters the
secondary chamber (13) through the clearance
between the secondary valve (11) and the valve seat
(12). While the engine is operating, and fuel is being
drawn from the secondary chamber, the secondary
diaphragm (14) is raised by atmospheric pressure,
simultaneously lifting the secondary valve lever (16),
opening the secondary valve (11), allowing fuel to flow.
When the engine is running at idle, there may not be
enough vacuum created in the carburetor venturi to
overcome the tension of the secondary diaphragm
spring (15), and the secondary diaphragm cannot open
the valve. Under those conditions, the idle adjusting
screw (18), and balance spring (19) are used to apply
just enough pressure on the diaphragm (14) to
maintain sufficient fuel flow for idle operation.
The vacuum lock-off mechanism is located in the
secondary chamber. When the engine is running,
manifold vacuum above the diaphragm (17) draws it
up, so the secondary valve can function normally.
When the engine is stopped, manifold vacuum is
terminated, and the diaphragm relaxes and pushes
down on the secondary valve lever, preventing any fuel
flow or leakage through the regulator.
From Primary
Chamber
12
17
To Intake
Manifold
11
13
To
15 16
18
Carburetor
11) Secondary Valve
12) Secondary Valve Seat
13) Secondary Chamber
14) Secondary Diaphragm
15) Secondary Diaphragm Spring
19
14
16) Secondary Valve Lever
17) Vacuum Lock-Off
Diaphragm
18) Idle Adjust Screw
19) Balance Spring
Figure 5A-22. Secondary Chamber.
5A.11
5A
Section 5A
LPG Fuel Systems
Preventative Maintenance
The regulator is preset at the factory and generally
requires no further adjustment. No periodic service is
required. Over time, depending on fuel quality, operating
environment, and system performance, fuel deposits
can accumulate inside the regulator. Those regulators
containing a drain plug (Nikki) should be drained every
500 hours to remove any accumulated deposits. See
Figure 5A-23.
Regulator Service
Every 1500 hours it is recommended that
disassembly, cleaning, and resetting of the regulator
be performed using the regulator rebuilding kit
available. Specific instructions are included in the
rebuilding kit. Perform the regulator service following
the instructions provided. As all adjustments and
settings must be reset using specific test equipment,
this must be performed by qualified LP personnel only.
Impco (Beam) Regulator Service
Kohler repair kit 24 757 40-S should be used to service
the regulator every 1500 hours, or whenever cleaning
and servicing is required.
Nikki Regulator Service
Kohler repair kit 24 757 39-S should be used every
1500 hours.
Regulator Drain Plug
Figure 5A-23. Regulator Drain Plug (some models).
1. Turn supply valve off, run engine out of fuel, and
turn off ignition switch.
2. Disconnect and ground the spark plug leads.
3. Remove the 1/8" pipe plug from bottom of
regulator and drain any accumulated deposits.
See Figure 5A-23.
4. Reinstall plug using pipe sealant with Teflon®
(Loctite® 592 or equivalent) on threads and tighten
securely. If required, a replacement plug is
available as Kohler Part No. X-75-23-S.
5A.12
Section 5B
CH745
EFICH26,
Fuel System
Section 5B
Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)
Fuel System
Contents
Page(s)
Description
Initial Starting/Priming Procedure ..........................................................................................................
Fuel Recommendations ........................................................................................................................
EFI Fuel System Components ..............................................................................................................
Operation ..............................................................................................................................................
Important Service Notes ........................................................................................................................
5B.2
5B.2
5B.3
5B.3
5B.4
Electrical Components
Electronic Control Unit (ECU) ........................................................................................................ 5B.4-5B.5
Engine Speed Sensor ................................................................................................................... 5B.5-5B.6
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) and Initialization Procedure ........................................................ 5B.7-5B.10
Engine (Oil) Temperature Sensor .............................................................................................. 5B.10-5B.11
Oxygen Sensor ......................................................................................................................... 5B.11-5B.13
Electrical Relay ......................................................................................................................... 5B.13-5B.14
Fuel Injectors ............................................................................................................................ 5B.14-5B.17
Ignition System .......................................................................................................................... 5B.17-5B.18
Spark Plug ........................................................................................................................................... 5B.18
Wiring Harness ......................................................................................................................... 5B.18-5B.19
Battery Charging System .................................................................................................................... 5B.19
Fuel Components
Fuel Pump ................................................................................................................................. 5B.19-5B.20
Fuel Pressure Regulator ........................................................................................................... 5B.20-5B.22
Fuel Filter ............................................................................................................................................ 5B.22
Fuel Rail .............................................................................................................................................. 5B.22
Fuel Line ................................................................................................................................... 5B.22-5B.23
Throttle Body/Intake Manifold Assembly .............................................................................................. 5B.23
Idle Speed Adjustment (RPM) ................................................................................................... 5B.23-5B.24
Initial Governor Adjustment ....................................................................................................... 5B.24-5B.26
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Guide ........................................................................................................................ 5B.26
Electrical System ....................................................................................................................... 5B.27-5B.33
Fuel System ........................................................................................................................................ 5B.34
Fault Codes ............................................................................................................................... 5B.34-5B.42
Troubleshooting Flow Chart ...................................................................................................... 5B.42-5B.43
Flow Chart Diagnostic Aids ....................................................................................................... 5B.44-5B.45
EFI Service Tools ............................................................................................................. Refer to Section 2
5B.1
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Description
WARNING
Explosive Fuel can cause fires and
severe burns.
Fuel system ALWAYS remains under
HIGH PRESSURE.
WARNING: Explosive Fuel!
Gasoline is extremely flammable and its vapors can
explode if ignited. Store gasoline only in approved
containers, in well ventilated, unoccupied buildings,
away from sparks or flames. Do not fill the fuel tank
while the engine is hot or running, since spilled fuel
could ignite if it comes in contact with hot parts or
sparks from ignition. Do not start the engine near
spilled fuel. Never use gasoline as a cleaning agent.
The EFI fuel system remains under high pressure,
even when the engine is stopped. Before attempting to
service any part of the fuel system, the pressure must
be relieved. Pressure tester, SPX Part No. KO3217-4
has an integral relief valve. Connect the black tester
hose to the test valve in the fuel rail. Route the clear
hose into a portable gasoline container. Depress the
button on the tester relief valve.
Initial Starting/Priming Procedure
Important: The EFI fuel system must be purged of all
air prior to the initial start up, and/or any time the
system has been disassembled. On most engines,
that can be done similar to relieving fuel pressure, as
described above.
Test Valve in Fuel Rail:
1. Connect the pressure gauge as described above
for relieving fuel pressure. Depress and hold the
release button and crank the engine in 10-15
second intervals, allowing a 60 second cool-down
period between intervals, until air is purged and
fuel is visible in discharge tube.
2. If you do not have the pressure gauge, follow the
procedure for engines without a test valve.
5B.2
NO Test Valve in Fuel Rail:
1. Crank the engine in 10-15 second intervals,
allowing a 60 second cool-down period between
cranking intervals, until the engine starts.
NOTE: The number of cranking intervals necessary
will depend on the individual system design,
and/or where the system has been
disassembled.
Fuel Recommendations
General Recommendations
Purchase gasoline in small quantities and store in
clean, approved containers. An approved container
with a capacity of 2 gallons or less with a pouring spout
is recommended. Such a container is easier to handle
and helps prevent spillage during refueling.
•
Do not use gasoline left over from the previous
season, to minimize gum deposits in your fuel
system, and to ensure easy starting.
•
Do not add oil to the gasoline.
•
Do not overfill the fuel tank. Leave room for the
fuel to expand.
Fuel Type
Do not use leaded gasoline, as component damage
will result. Any costs/damages incurred as a result of
using leaded fuel will not be warranted. Use only clean,
fresh, unleaded gasoline with a pump sticker octane
rating of 87 or higher. In countries using the Research
method, it should be 90 octane minimum.
Gasoline/Alcohol blends
Gasohol (up to 10% ethyl alcohol, 90% unleaded
gasoline by volume) is approved as a fuel for Kohler
EFI engines. Other gasoline/alcohol blends are not
approved.
Gasoline/Ether blends
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and unleaded
gasoline blends (up to a maximum of 15% MTBE by
volume) are approved as a fuel for Kohler EFI engines.
Other gasoline/ether blends are not approved.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
EFI Fuel System Components
General
The Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system is a
complete engine fuel and ignition management design.
The system includes the following principal
components:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fuel Pump
Fuel Filter
Fuel Rail
Fuel Line(s)
Fuel Pressure Regulator
Fuel Injectors
Throttle Body/Intake Manifold
Engine Control Unit (ECU)
Ignition Coils
Engine (Oil) Temperature Sensor
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
Speed Sensor
Oxygen Sensor
Wire Harness Assembly & Affiliated Wiring,
Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL)
Operation
The EFI system is designed to provide peak engine
performance with optimum fuel efficiency and lowest
possible emissions. The ignition and injection functions
are electronically controlled, monitored and continually
corrected during operation to maintain the theoretical
ideal or “stoichiometric” air/fuel ratio of 14.7:1.
The central component of the system is the Motronic™
Engine Control Unit (ECU) which manages system
operation, determining the best combination of fuel
mixture and ignition timing for the current operating
conditions.
An electric fuel pump is used to move fuel from the
tank through the fuel line and in-line fuel filter. A fuel
pressure regulator maintains a system operating
pressure of 39 psi and returns any excess fuel to the
tank. At the engine, fuel is fed through the fuel rail and
into the injectors, which inject it into the intake ports.
The ECU controls the amount of fuel by varying the
length of time that the injectors are “on.” This can
range from 1.5-8.0 milliseconds depending on fuel
requirements. The controlled injection of the fuel
occurs each crankshaft revolution, or twice for each
4-stroke cycle. One-half the total amount of fuel
needed for one firing of a cylinder is injected during
each injection. When the intake valve opens, the fuel/
air mixture is drawn into the combustion chamber,
ignited, and burned.
The ECU controls the amount of fuel injected and the
ignition timing by monitoring the primary sensor signals
for engine temperature, speed (RPM), and throttle
position (load). These primary signals are compared to
preprogrammed “maps” in the ECU computer chip,
and the ECU adjusts the fuel delivery to match the
mapped values. An oxygen sensor provides continual
feedback to the ECU based upon the amount of
unused oxygen in the exhaust, indicating whether the
fuel mixture being delivered is rich or lean. Based upon
this feedback, the ECU further adjusts fuel input to
reestablish the ideal air/fuel ratio. This operating mode
is referred to as “closed loop” operation. The EFI
system operates “closed loop” when all three of the
following conditions are met:
a. The oil temperature is greater than 35°C (95°F).
b. The oxygen sensor has warmed sufficiently to
provide a signal (minimum 375°C, 709°F).
c. Engine operation is at a steady state (not starting,
warming up, accelerating, etc.).
During “closed loop” operation the ECU has the ability
to readjust temporary and learned adaptive controls,
providing compensation for changes in overall engine
condition and operating environment, so it will be able
to maintain the ideal air/fuel ratio of 14.7:1. The system
requires a minimum engine oil temperature greater
than 55°C (130°F) to properly adapt. These adaptive
values are maintained as long as the ECU is “powered
up” by the battery.
During certain operating periods such as cold starts,
warm up, acceleration, etc., an air/fuel ratio richer than
14.7:1 is required and the system operates in an “open
loop” mode. In “open loop” operation the monitoring of
exhaust gases (output) is not used, and the controlling
adjustments are based on the primary sensor signals
and programmed maps only. The system operates
“open loop” whenever the three conditions for closed
loop operation (above) are not being met.
5B.3
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Important Service Notes!
•
Cleanliness is essential and must be maintained
at all times when servicing or working on the EFI
system. Dirt, even in small quantities, can cause
significant problems.
•
Clean any joint or fitting with parts cleaning
solvent before opening to prevent dirt from
entering the system.
•
Always depressurize the fuel system through the
test valve in fuel rail before disconnecting or
servicing any fuel system components. See fuel
warning on page 5B.2.
•
Never attempt to service any fuel system
component while engine is running or ignition
switch is ‘‘on.’’
Electrical Components
Electronic Control Unit (ECU)
Figure 5B-1. “35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU.
•
Do not use compressed air if the system is open.
Cover any parts removed and wrap any open
joints with plastic if they will remain open for any
length of time. New parts should be removed from
their protective packaging just prior to installation.
•
Avoid direct water or spray contact with system
components.
•
Do not disconnect or reconnect the wiring
harness connector to the control unit or any
individual components with the ignition ‘‘on.’’ This
can send a damaging voltage spike through the
ECU.
•
Do not allow the battery cables to touch opposing
terminals. When connecting battery cables attach
the positive (+) cable to positive (+) battery
terminal first, followed by negative (-) cable to
negative (-) battery terminal.
•
Never start the engine when the cables are loose
or poorly connected to the battery terminals.
•
Never disconnect battery while engine is running.
•
Never use a quick battery charger to start the
engine.
•
Do not charge battery with key switch ‘‘on.’’
Figure 5B-2. “24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU.
Figure 5B-3. “32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU.
•
Always disconnect negative (-) battery cable lead
before charging battery, and also unplug harness
from ECU before performing any welding on
equipment.
5B.4
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Three different styles of ECU’s have been utilized in
EFI production. The first style is easily identified by its
metal case with large 35 pin connector block, and also
as MA 1.7. See Figure 5B-1. The second and third
styles have plastic cases, but are smaller in overall
size. These have either a 24 pin or 32 pin connector
block and identified as MSE 1.0 or MSE 1.1
respectively. See Figures 5B-2 and 5B-3. Basic
function and operating control remains the same
between the three, however, due to differences in the
internal circuitry as well as the wiring harness, none of
the ECU’s are interchangeable. Certain individual
service/troubleshooting procedures also apply, where
applicable, they are covered individually as: “35 Pin”
(MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU, “24 Pin” (MSE 1.0)
Plastic-Cased ECU, or “32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) PlasticCased ECU.
General
The ECU is the brain or central processing computer
of the entire EFI fuel/ignition management system.
During operation, sensors continuously gather data
which is relayed through the wiring harness to input
circuits within the ECU. Signals to the ECU include:
ignition (on/off), crankshaft position and speed (RPM),
throttle position, oil temperature, exhaust oxygen
levels, and battery voltage. The ECU compares the
input signals to the programmed maps in its memory
to determine the appropriate fuel and spark
requirements for the immediate operating conditions.
The ECU then sends output signals to set the injector
duration and ignition timing.
The ECU continually performs a diagnostic check of
itself, each of the sensors, and the system
performance. If a fault is detected, the ECU turns on
the Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) on the equipment
control panel, stores the fault code in its fault memory,
and goes into a default operating mode. Depending on
the significance or severity of the fault, normal
operation may continue, or “limp home” operation
(slowed speed, richer running) may be initiated. A
technician can access the stored fault code using a
“blink code” diagnosis flashed out through the MIL. An
optional computer software diagnostic program is also
available, order Kohler Part No. 25 761 23-S.
To prevent engine over-speed and possible failure, a
“rev-limiting” feature is programmed into the ECU. If
the maximum RPM limit (4125 RPM on MA 1.7, 4500
RPM on MSE 1.0 & MSE 1.1) is exceeded, the ECU
suppresses the injection signals, cutting off the fuel
flow. This process repeats itself in rapid succession,
limiting operation to the preset maximum.
Service
Never attempt to disassemble the ECU. It is sealed to
prevent damage to internal components. Warranty is
void if the case is opened or tampered with in any way.
All operating and control functions within the ECU are
preset. No internal servicing or readjustment may be
performed. If a problem is encountered, and you
determine the ECU to be faulty, contact your source of
supply. Do not replace the ECU without factory
authorization.
The relationship between the ECU and the throttle
position sensor (TPS) is very critical to proper system
operation. If the TPS or ECU is changed, or the
mounting position of the TPS is altered, the applicable
“TPS Initialization Procedure” (see pages 5B.8 or
5B.9) must be performed to restore the
synchronization.
Engine Speed Sensor
Figure 5B-4. Engine Speed Sensor.
The ECU requires a minimum of 7.0 volts to operate.
The adaptive memory in the ECU is operational the
moment the battery cables are connected, however
the adapted values are lost if the battery becomes
disconnected for any reason. The ECU will “relearn”
the adapted values if the engine is operated for 10-15
minutes at varying speeds and loads after the oil
temperature exceeds 55°C (130°F).
5B.5
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
General
The engine speed sensor is essential to engine
operation; constantly monitoring the rotational speed
(RPM) of the crankshaft. A ferromagnetic 60-tooth ring
gear with two consecutive teeth missing is mounted on
the flywheel. The inductive speed sensor is mounted
1.5 ± 0.25 mm (0.059 ± 0.010 in.) away from the ring
gear. During rotation, an AC voltage pulse is created
within the sensor for each passing tooth. The ECU
calculates engine speed from the time interval between
the consecutive pulses. The two-tooth gap creates an
interrupted input signal, corresponding to specific
crankshaft position (84° BTDC) for cylinder #1. This
signal serves as a reference for the control of ignition
timing by the ECU. Synchronization of the inductive
speed pickup and crankshaft position takes place
during the first two revolutions each time the engine is
started. The sensor must be properly connected at all
times. If the sensor becomes disconnected for any
reason, the engine will quit running.
Service
The engine speed sensor is a sealed, non-serviceable
assembly. If “Fault Code” diagnosis indicates a problem
within this area, check and test as follows.
1. Check the mounting and air gap of sensor. It must
be 1.5 mm ± 0.25 mm (0.059 ± 0.009 in.).
2. Inspect the wiring and connections for damage or
problems.
3. Make sure the engine has resistor type spark
plugs.
4. Disconnect main harness connector from ECU.
5. Connect an ohmmeter between the designated pin
terminals in the plug:
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: #3 and #21
pin terminals.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: #9 and
#10 pin terminals.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: #9 and
#10 pin terminals.
See pages 5B.28-5B.33 according to ECU style. A
resistance value of 750-1000 Ω at room
temperature (20°C, 68°F) should be obtained.
If resistance is correct, check the mounting, air
gap, toothed ring gear (damage, runout, etc.), and
flywheel key.
5B.6
6. Disconnect the speed sensor connector from
wiring harness. It is the connector with one heavy
black lead (see Figure 5B-5). Viewing the
connector as shown (dual aligning rails on top),
test the resistance between the terminals
indicated. A reading of 750-1000 Ω should again
be obtained.
Dual Aligning Rails
Corresponds To
#21 (Metal-Cased
ECU) or #9
(Plastic-Cased
ECU) In Main
Connector.
Corresponds
To #3 (MetalCased ECU) or #10
(Plastic-Cased
ECU) In Main
Test Terminals
Connector.
Figure 5B-5. Speed Sensor Connector.
7. a. If the resistance is incorrect, remove the screw
securing the sensor to the mounting bracket
and replace the sensor.
b. If the resistance in step 5 was incorrect, but
the resistance of the sensor alone was correct,
test the main harness circuits between the
sensor connector terminals and the
corresponding pin terminals in the main
connector. Correct any observed problem,
reconnect the sensor, and perform step 5
again.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
1 2
Mounted on the throttle body/intake manifold and
operated directly off the end of the throttle shaft, the
TPS works like a rheostat, varying the voltage signal to
the ECU in direct correlation to the angle of the throttle
plate. This signal, along with the other sensor signals,
is processed by the ECU and compared to the internal
preprogrammed maps to determine the required fuel
and ignition settings for the amount of load.
The correct position of the TPS is established and set
at the factory. Do not loosen the TPS or alter the
mounting position unless absolutely required by fault
code diagnosis or throttle shaft service. If the TPS is
loosened or repositioned the appropriate “TPS
Initialization Procedure” (pages 5B.8-5B.10) must be
performed to reestablish the baseline relationship
between the ECU and the TPS.
3
Service
The TPS is a sealed, non-serviceable assembly. If
diagnosis indicates a bad sensor, complete
replacement is necessary. If a blink code indicates a
problem with the TPS, it can be tested as follows.
4
1. Throttle Valve Shaft
2. Resistor Track
3. Wiper Arm w/Wiper
4. Electrical Connection
Figure 5B-6. Throttle Position Sensor Details.
General
The throttle position sensor (TPS) is used to indicate
throttle plate angle to the ECU. Since the throttle (by
way of the governor) reacts to engine load, the angle
of the throttle plate is directly proportional to the load
on the engine.
1. Counting the number of turns, back out the idle
speed adjusting screw (counterclockwise) until
the throttle plates can be closed completely.
2. Disconnect the main harness connector from the
ECU, but leave the TPS mounted to the throttle
body/manifold.
3. Connect the ohmmeter leads as follows:
(See chart on pages 5B.28, 5B.31, or 5B.32).
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Red
(positive) ohmmeter lead to #12 pin terminal, and
Black (negative) ohmmeter lead to #27 pin
terminal.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Red
(positive) ohmmeter lead to #8 pin terminal, and
Black (negative) ohmmeter lead to #4 pin
terminal.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Red
(positive) ohmmeter lead to #8 pin terminal, and
Black (negative) ohmmeter lead to #4 pin
terminal.
Mounted Throttle
Position Sensor
Hold the throttle closed and check the resistance. It
should be 800-1200 Ω.
Figure 5B-7. TPS Location.
5B.7
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
4. Leave the leads connected to the pin terminals as
described in step 3. Rotate the throttle shaft
slowly counterclockwise to the full throttle
position. Monitor the dial during rotation for
indication of any momentary short or open
circuits. Note the resistance at the full throttle
position. It should be 1800-3000 Ω.
5. Disconnect the main wiring harness connector
from the TPS, leaving the TPS assembled to the
manifold. Refer to the chart below and perform
the resistance checks indicated between the
terminals in the TPS switch, with the throttle in the
positions specified.
Throttle Between
Position Terminals
2&3
Closed
1&3
C losed
2&3
Full
1&3
Full
1&2
Any
Resistance
Value (Ω)
800-1200
1800-3000
1800-3000
800-1200
1600-2500
Continuity
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
If the resistance values in steps 3, 4, and 5 are
within specifications, go to step 6.
If the resistance values are not within
specifications, or a momentary short or open
circuit was detected during rotation (step 4), the
TPS needs to be replaced, go to step 7.
6. Check the TPS circuits (input, ground) between
the TPS plug and the main harness connector for
continuity, damage, etc. See chart on pages
5B.28, 5B.31, or 5B.32.
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Pin
Circuits #12 and #27.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
Circuits #8 and #4.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
Circuits #8 and #4.
a. Repair or replace as required.
b. Turn the idle speed screw back in to its
original setting.
c. Reconnect connector plugs, start engine and
retest system operation.
5B.8
7. Remove the two mounting screws from the TPS.
Save the screws for reuse. Remove and discard
the faulty TPS. Install the replacement TPS and
secure with the original mounting screws.
a. Reconnect both connector plugs.
b. Perform the appropriate “TPS Initialization
Procedure” integrating the new sensor to the
ECU.
TPS Initialization Procedure
For “35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU and
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU only
1. Check that the basic engine, all sensors, fuel, fuel
pressure, and battery are good and functionally
within specifications.
Important!
2. Remove/disconnect ALL external loads from
engine (belts, pumps, electric PTO clutch,
alternator, rectifier-regulator, etc.).
3. Start the engine and allow it to warm up for 5-10
minutes, so oil temperature is above 55°C
(130°F).
4. Move the throttle control to the idle position and
allow engine to stabilize for a minimum of one
minute.
5. Install a heavy rubber band around the throttle
lever and the manifold boss, to firmly hold the
throttle against the idle stop. On some EFI
engines there is a dampening spring on the end
of the idle speed screw. The dampening spring (if
used) should be fully compressed and the tab on
the throttle lever in direct contact with the speed
screw. Adjust the idle speed to 1500 RPM, using
a tachometer.
6. Shut off engine.
7. Locate the service connector plug in the wiring
harness.
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Connect a
jumper wire from the TPS initialization pin #8
(gray wire) to the ground pin (black wire), or use
jumper plug (SPX Part No. KO3217-7, with red
jumper wire). See Figure 5B-8.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU:
Connect a jumper wire from the TPS initialization
pin #24 (violet wire) to the battery voltage pin (red
wire), or use jumper plug (SPX Part No.
KO3217-9, with blue jumper wire). See Figure
5B-9.
b. If light stays on or blinking ceases prematurely,
the procedure was unsuccessful and must be
repeated. Possible causes for unsuccessful
learning may be: 1) Movement occurred in
either the TPS or throttle shaft during
procedure, 2) Crankshaft movement/rotation
was detected by the speed sensor during
procedure, 3) Throttle plate position was out of
learnable range (recheck the 1500 RPM idle
speed adjustment), or 4) Problem with ECU or
TPS.
9. When the initialization procedure has been
successfully completed, turn off the key switch,
remove the jumper wire or connector, and remove
the rubber band from the throttle lever.
10. Disconnect negative (-) battery cable temporarily
to clear all learned adjustments.
Figure 5B-8. Service Connector Plug, Metal-Cased
ECU Harness.
11. Reconnect the battery cable and all external
loads. Readjust the idle speed to the equipment
manufacturer’s specified setting and recheck the
high-speed, no-load RPM setting. Observe the
overall performance.
TPS Initialization Procedure
For “32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU Only
(“Auto-Learn” Initialization)
1. Check that the basic engine, all sensors, fuel, fuel
pressure, and battery are good and functionally
within specifications.
Figure 5B-9. Service Connector Plug, PlasticCased ECU Harness.
8. Hold throttle against idle speed stop screw, turn
the ignition switch to “on” position (do not start
engine), and observe the Malfunction Indicator
Light (MIL).
a. The light should blink on/off quickly for
approximately 3 seconds and then go off and
stay off, indicating the initialization procedure
has been successful.
Important!
2. Remove/disconnect ALL external loads from the
engine (belts, pumps, electric PTO clutch,
alternator, rectifier-regulator, etc.).
3. Locate the service connector plug in the wiring
harness. To initiate the TPS auto-learn function,
connect a jumper wire from the TPS initialization
pin #24 (violet wire) to the battery voltage pin
(red wire), or use jumper plug (SPX Part No.
KO3217-9). If using the PC-based diagnostic tool
and software (Kohler Part No. 25 761 23-S), go to
“Special Tests” and follow the prompts to
complete.
4. Start the engine and immediately observe the
Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL). The light should
start blinking 4 consecutive times every 2
seconds.
5B.9
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
5. Remove the jumper wire or plug from the service
connector plug in wiring harness.
Engine (Oil) Temperature Sensor
6. Run the engine at full throttle (above 3000 RPM),
to warm up the engine and initiate O2 sensor
function in “closed-loop” operation.
7. Watch the “MIL”. When the light starts blinking
rapidly, (5 blinks per second), move the throttle
lever to the low idle speed position. Check and
adjust the idle speed to 1500 RPM, using a
tachometer. The lamp should continue to blink
rapidly for another 30 seconds before switching to
a slow blink.
8. When the “MIL” blinks slowly, do not do anything
but wait until the “MIL” shuts off. This indicates
that this procedure has been completed
successfully.
9. Shut off the engine.
If the learn procedure was successfully
completed, the external loads removed/
disconnected in Step 2 may be reconnected.
If the procedure was unsuccessful see Steps a.
and b. following.
a. If during this procedure, the “MIL” goes back
into blinking 4 consecutive blinks every 2
seconds, the engine and O2 sensor have
cooled down and out of “closed-loop”
operation, prohibiting the learning from
occurring. Repeat Steps 6-9.
b. If during the procedure with the engine
running, the “MIL” stays “on” continuously, for
more than 15 seconds, turn off the ignition.
Then initiate the fault code sequence, by doing
three consecutive key-on/key-off cycles
leaving the key “on” in the last sequence,
(each key-on/key-off sequence must be less
than 2.5 seconds long). The fault detected
must be corrected before the “auto-learn”
function can be re-initiated. The PC-based
diagnostic tool and software may be used to
read out the fault code and assist with the
troubleshooting and repair.
Figure 5B-10. Engine (Oil) Temperature Sensor.
General
The engine (oil) temperature sensor (Figure 5B-10) is
used by the system to help determine fuel
requirements for starting, (a cold engine needs more
fuel than one at or near operating temperature).
Mounted in the oil filter adapter housing, it has a
temperature-sensitive resistor that extends into the oil
flow. The resistance changes with oil temperature,
altering the voltage sent to the ECU. Using a table
stored in its memory, the ECU correlates the voltage
drop to a specific temperature. Using the fuel delivery
“maps”, the ECU then knows how much fuel is
required for starting at that temperature.
Service
The temperature sensor is a sealed, non-serviceable
assembly. A faulty sensor must be replaced. If a blink
code indicates a problem with the temperature sensor,
it can be tested as follows.
1. Remove the oil temperature sensor from the
adapter housing and cap or block the adapter
hole.
2. Wipe sensor clean and allow it to reach room
temperature (20°C, 68°F).
3. Unplug the main harness connector from the
ECU.
4. With the sensor connected, check the oil
temperature sensor circuit resistance. The value
should be 2375-2625 Ω. See chart on pages
5B.28, 5B.31, or 5B.32.
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Check
between the #14 and #27 pin terminals.
5B.10
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Check
between the #6 and #4 pin terminals.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Check
between the #6 and #4 pin terminals.
5. Unplug the sensor connector and check sensor
resistance separately. Resistance value should
again be 2375-2625 Ω.
a. If the resistance is out of specifications,
replace the temperature sensor.
b. If it is within specifications, proceed to Step 6.
The tip of the sensor, protruding into the exhaust gas,
is hollow (see cutaway Figure 5B-12). The outer
portion of the tip is surrounded by the exhaust gas,
with the inner portion exposed to the ambient air.
When the oxygen concentration on one side of the tip
is different than that of the other side, a voltage signal
typically cycling between 0.2 and 1.0 volt is generated
between the electrodes and sent to the ECU. The
voltage signal tells the ECU if the engine is straying
from the ideal 14.7:1 fuel mixture, and the ECU then
adjusts the injector pulse accordingly.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 8
6. Check the temperature sensor circuits (input,
ground) from the main harness connector to the
corresponding terminal in the sensor plug for
continuity, damage, etc.
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Pin circuits
#14 and #27.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuits #6 and #4.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuits #6 and #4.
Oxygen Sensor
Figure 5B-11. Oxygen Sensor.
General
The oxygen sensor functions like a small battery,
generating a voltage signal to the ECU, based upon
the difference in oxygen content between the exhaust
gas and the ambient air.
5B
1. Connection Cable
2. Disc Spring
3. Ceramic Support Tube
4. Protective Sleeve
5. Contact Element
6. Sensor Housing
7. Active Ceramic Sensor
8. Protective Tube
Figure 5B-12. Cutaway of Oxygen Sensor.
The oxygen sensor can function only after being
heated by exhaust temperatures to a minimum of
375°C (709°F). A cold oxygen sensor will require
approximately 1-2 minutes at moderate engine load to
warm sufficiently to generate a voltage signal. Proper
grounding is also critical. The oxygen sensor grounds
through the metal shell, so a good, solid, unbroken
ground path back through the exhaust system
components, engine, and wiring harness is required.
Any disruption or break in the ground circuit can affect
the output signal and trigger misleading fault codes.
Keep that in mind when doing any troubleshooting
associated with the oxygen sensor. The oxygen sensor
can also be contaminated by leaded fuel, certain RTV
and/or other silicone compounds, carburetor cleaners,
etc. Use only those products indicated as “O² Sensor
Safe.”
Service
Like the other sensors already discussed, the oxygen
sensor is a non-serviceable component. Complete
replacement is required if it is faulty. The sensor and
wiring harness can be checked as follows.
NOTE: All tests should be conducted with a good
quality, high-impedance, digital VOA meter for
accurate results.
5B.11
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
1. Oxygen sensor must be hot (minimum of 400°C,
725°F). Run engine for about 5 minutes. With the
engine running, disconnect the oxygen sensor
lead from the wiring harness. Set VOA meter for
DC volts and connect the red lead to the
disconnected sensor lead, and the black lead to
the sensor shell. Check for a voltage reading
between 0.2 v-1.0 v.
a. If voltage is in the specified range, go to Step 2.
b. If the voltage is not in the specified range,
reconnect the oxygen sensor lead. With the
lead connected, probe or connect the sensor
connection with the red VOA meter lead.
Attach the black VOA meter lead to a known
good ground location. Start and run the engine
at 3/4 throttle and note the voltage output.
The reading should cycle between 0.2 v-1.0 v,
which indicates the oxygen sensor is
functioning normally and also the fuel delivery
controlled by the ECU is within prescribed
parameters. If the voltage readings show a
steady decline, bump the governor lever to
make the engine accelerate very quickly and
check the reading again. If voltage momentarily
increases and then again declines, without
cycling, engine may be running lean due to
incorrect TPS initialization. Shut off the engine,
perform TPS initialization, and then repeat the
test. If TPS initialization cannot be achieved,
perform step c.
c. Replace the oxygen sensor (page 5B.13).
Run the engine long enough to bring the new
sensor up to temperature and repeat the output
test from step 1. The cycling voltage from 0.2
to 1.0 volt should be indicated.
2. Move the black voltmeter lead to the engine
ground location and repeat the output test. The
same voltage (0.2 v-1.0 v) should be indicated.
a. If the same voltage reading exists, go on to
Step 3.
b. If the voltage output is no longer correct, a bad
ground path exists between the sensor and the
engine ground. Touch the black lead at various
points, backtracking from the engine ground
back toward the sensor, watching for a voltage
change at each location. If the correct voltage
reading reappears at some point, check for a
problem (rust, corrosion, loose joint or
5B.12
connection) between that point and the previous
checkpoint. For example, if the reading is too low
at points on the crankcase, but correct voltage is
indicated when the black lead is touched to the
skin of the muffler, the flange joints at the exhaust
ports become suspect.
3. With sensor still hot (minimum of 400°C, 752°F),
switch meter to the Rx1K or Rx2K scale and
check the resistance between the sensor lead
Ω.
and sensor case. It should be less than 2.0 KΩ
Ω, go to
a. If the resistance is less than 2.0 KΩ
Step 4.
Ω, the
b. If the resistance is greater than 2.0 KΩ
oxygen sensor is bad, replace it.
4. Allow the sensor to cool (less than 60°C, 140°F)
and retest the resistance with the meter set on the
Rx1M scale. With sensor cool, the resistance
Ω.
should be greater than 1.0 MΩ
Ω, go to
a. If the resistance is greater than 1.0 MΩ
Step 5.
Ω, the
b. If the resistance is less than 1.0 MΩ
sensor is bad, replace it.
5. With the oxygen sensor disconnected and engine
not running, disconnect the main harness
connector from the ECU and set the meter to the
Rx1 scale. Check the circuit continuity as follows:
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Check for
continuity from pin #9 of the ECU connector (see
page 5B.28) to the shell of the oxygen sensor,
and from pin #10 to the sensor connector terminal
of the main harness. Both tests should indicate
continuity.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Check
for continuity from pin #15 of the ECU connector
(see page 5B.31) to the shell of the oxygen
sensor, and from pin #11 to the sensor connector
terminal of the main harness. Both tests should
indicate continuity.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic Cased ECU: Check
for continuity from pin #19 of the ECU connector
(see page 5B.32) to the shell of the oxygen
sensor, and from pin #20 to the sensor terminal of
the main harness. Both tests should indicate
continuity.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
a. If there is no continuity displayed in either of
the tests, check the harness circuit for breaks
or damage, and the connections for poor
contact, moisture, or corrosion. If no continuity
was found in the first test, also check for a
poor/broken ground path back through the
exhaust system, engine, and mounting
(sensor is grounded through its shell).
Electrical Relay
b. If continuity is indicated, go to step 6.
6. With the key switch in the ‘‘on/run’’ position, using
a high impedance voltmeter, check the voltage
from the wiring harness oxygen sensor connector
to the engine ground location. Look for a steady
voltage from 350-550 mv (0.35-0.55 v).
a. If voltage reading is not as specified, move the
black voltmeter lead to the negative post of the
battery, to be certain of a good ground. If the
voltage is still not correct, the ECU is probably
bad.
b. If voltage readings are correct, clear the fault
codes and run the engine to check if any fault
codes reappear.
To Replace Oxygen Sensor
1. Disconnect the oxygen sensor connector from
wiring harness.
2. Loosen and remove the oxygen sensor from the
exhaust manifold/muffler assembly.
3. Apply anti-seize compound sparingly to threads of
new oxygen sensor, if none already exists. DO
NOT get any on the tip as it will contaminate the
sensor. Install sensor and torque to 50-60 N·m
(37-44 ft. lb.).
4. Reconnect the lead to wiring harness connector.
Make sure it can not contact hot surfaces, moving
parts, etc.
5. Test run the engine.
Figure 5B-13. Electrical Relay.
General
The electrical relay is used to supply power to the
injectors, coils, and fuel pump. When the key switch is
turned “on” and all safety switch requirements met, the
relay provides 12 volts to the fuel pump circuit,
injectors, and ignition coils. The fuel pump circuit is
continuously grounded, so the pump is immediately
activated and pressurizes the system. Activation of the
ignition coils and injectors is controlled by the ECU,
which grounds their respective circuits at the proper
times.
Service
A malfunctioning relay can result in starting or
operating difficulties. The relay and related wiring can
be tested as follows.
1. Disconnect the relay connector plug from the
relay.
2. Connect black lead of VOA meter to a chassis
ground location. Connect red lead to the #86
terminal in relay connector (see Figure 5B-14).
Set meter to test resistance (Rx1). Turn ignition
switch from “off” to “on”. Meter should indicate
continuity (ground circuit is completed) for 1 to 3
seconds. Turn key switch back off.
5B.13
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Terminal #87 Feed To Ignition
Coils, Fuel
Injectors, and
Fuel Pump
Terminal #85 Ignition Switch
Voltage
Terminal #86 ECU
Controlled
Ground
Terminal #87A Not used
6. Attach ohmmeter leads to the #30 and #87
terminals in relay. Initially, there should be no
continuity. Using a 12 volt power supply, connect
the positive (+) lead to the #85 terminal and touch
the negative (-) lead to the #86 terminal. When 12
volts is applied, the relay should activate and
continuity should exist (circuit made) between the
#30 and #87 terminals. Repeat the test several
times. If, at any time the relay fails to activate the
circuit, replace the relay.
Fuel Injectors
Terminal #30 Permanent Battery Voltage
Figure 5B-14. Relay Connector.
a. Clean the connection and check wiring if
circuit was not completed.
3. Set meter for DC voltage. Touch red tester lead to
the #30 terminal in relay connector. A reading of
12 volts should be indicated at all times.
4. Connect red lead of meter to the #85 terminal in
relay connector. Turn key switch to the “on”
position. Battery voltage should be present.
a. No voltage present indicates a problem in the
wiring or at the connector.
Figure 5B-16. Style 1 Fuel Injector.
b. If voltage is present, the wiring to the
connector is good. Turn ignition switch ‘‘off’’
and proceed to test 5 to test the relay.
Terminal #86 ECU Controlled
Ground
Terminal
#87A Not Used
Terminal #87 - Feed
to Ignition Coils,
Fuel Injectors,
and Fuel Pump
Terminal #85 Ignition
Switch Voltage
Figure 5B-17. Style 2 Fuel Injector.
Terminal #30 Permanent
Battery Voltage
Figure 5B-15. Relay Terminal Details.
5. Connect an ohmmeter (Rx1 scale) between the
#85 and #86 terminals in the relay. There should
be continuity. See Figure 5B-15.
5B.14
General
The fuel injectors mount into the intake manifold, and
the fuel rail attaches to them at the top end.
Replaceable O-Rings on both ends of the injector
prevent external fuel leakage and also insulate it from
heat and vibration. A special clip connects each
injector to the fuel rail, retaining it in place.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
When the key switch is on and the relay is closed, the
fuel rail is pressurized, and voltage is present at the
injector. At the proper instant, the ECU completes the
ground circuit, energizing the injector. The valve needle
in the injector is opened electromagnetically, and the
pressure in the fuel rail forces fuel down through the
inside. The “director plate” at the tip of the injector (see
inset) contains a series of calibrated openings which
directs the fuel into the manifold in a cone-shaped
spray pattern.
Service
Injector problems typically fall into three general
categories: electrical, dirty/clogged, or leakage. An
electrical problem usually causes one or both of the
injectors to stop functioning. Several methods may be
used to check if the injectors are operating.
1. With the engine running at idle, feel for
operational vibration, indicating that they are
opening and closing.
2. When temperatures prohibit touching, listen for a
buzzing or clicking sound with a screwdriver or
mechanic’s stethoscope (see Figure 5B-19).
1
2
Listen Here
5B
3
5
4
6
7
Multi-Orifice
Director Plate with
Calibrated Opening
Figure 5B-19. Checking Injectors.
1. Filter strainer in fuel supply
2. Electrical connection
3. Solenoid winding
4. Valve housing
5. Armature
6. Valve body
7. Valve needle
Figure 5B-18. Fuel Injector Details.
The injector is opened and closed once for each
crankshaft revolution, however only one-half the total
amount of fuel needed for one firing is injected during
each opening. The amount of fuel injected is controlled
by the ECU and determined by the length of time the
valve needle is held open, also referred to as the
“injection duration” or “pulse width”. It may vary in
length from 1.5-8 milliseconds depending on the speed
and load requirements of the engine.
3. Disconnect the electrical connector from an
injector and listen for a change in idle
performance (only running on one cylinder) or a
change in injector noise or vibration.
If an injector is not operating, it can indicate either a
bad injector, or a wiring/electrical connection problem.
Check as follows:
NOTE: Do not apply voltage to the fuel injector(s).
Excessive voltage will burn out the injector(s).
Do not ground the injector(s) with the ignition
“on”. Injector(s) will open/turn on if relay is
energized.
1. Disconnect the electrical connector from both
injectors. Plug the 12 volt test light (SPX Part No.
KO3217-6) in one connector.
5B.15
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Check all electrical connections, connectors, and
wiring harness leads if resistance is incorrect.
Injector leakage is very unlikely, but in those rare
instances it can be internal (past the tip of the valve
needle), or external (weeping around the injector
body). See Figure 5B-21. The loss of system pressure
from the leakage can cause hot restart problems and
longer cranking times. To check for leakage it will be
necessary to remove the blower housing, which may
involve removing the engine from the unit.
Figure 5B-20. Volt Test Light.
2. Make sure all safety switch requirements are met.
Crank the engine and check for flashing of test
light. Repeat test at other connector.
a. If flashing occurs, use an ohmmeter (Rx1
scale) and check the resistance of each
injector across the two terminals. Proper
resistance is 12-20 Ω. If injector resistance is
correct, check whether the connector and
injector terminals are making a good
connection. If the resistance is not correct,
replace the injector following steps 1-8 and
13-16 below.
b. If no flashing occurs, reattach connectors to
both injectors. Disconnect the main harness
connector from the ECU and the connector
from the relay. Set the ohmmeter to the Rx1
scale and check the injector circuit resistance
as follows:
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Check
the resistance between the relay terminal #87
and pin #35 in main connector. Resistance
should be 4-15 Ω.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU:
Check the resistance between relay terminal
#87 and pin #16 in main connector. Then
check resistance between relay terminal #87
and pin #17. Resistance should be 4-15 Ω for
each circuit.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU:
Check the resistance between relay terminal
#87 and pin #14 in the main connector. Then
check the resistance between relay terminal
#87 and pin #15. Resistance should be 4-15 Ω
for each circuit.
5B.16
Check for leaks
Figure 5B-21. Injector Inspection Points.
1. Engine must be cool. Depressurize fuel system
through test valve in fuel rail.
2. Disconnect spark plug leads from spark plugs.
3. Remove the air cleaner outer cover, inner wing
nut, element cover and air cleaner element/
precleaner. Service air cleaner components as
required.
4. Remove the two screws securing the air cleaner
base to throttle body manifold. Remove the air
cleaner base to permit access to the injectors.
Check condition of air cleaner base gasket,
replace if necessary.
5. Remove the flywheel screen if it overlaps the
blower housing.
6. If the engine has a radiator-type oil cooler
mounted to the blower housing, remove the two
oil cooler mounting screws.
7. Remove the blower housing mounting screws.
Note the location of the plated (silver) screw
attaching the rectifier-regulator ground lead.
Remove the blower housing.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
8. Thoroughly clean the area around and including
the throttle body/manifold and the injectors.
9. Disconnect the throttle linkage and damper spring
from the throttle lever. Disconnect the TPS lead
from the harness.
10. Remove the manifold mounting bolts and
separate the throttle body/manifold from the
engine leaving the TPS, fuel rail, air baffle,
injectors and line connections intact. Discard the
old gaskets.
11. Position the manifold assembly over an
appropriate container and turn the key switch
“on” to activate the fuel pump and pressurize the
system. Do not turn switch to “start” position.
12. If either injector exhibits leakage of more than two
to four drops per minute from the tip, or shows
any sign of leakage around the outer shell, turn
the ignition switch off and replace injector as
follows.
13. Depressurize the fuel system following the
procedure in the fuel warning on page 5B.2.
Remove the two fuel rail mounting screws.
14. Clean any dirt accumulation from the sealing/
mounting area of the faulty injector(s) and
disconnect the electrical connector(s).
than normal operating temperatures, short operating
intervals, and dirty, incorrect, or poor quality fuel.
Cleaning of clogged injectors is not recommended;
they should be replaced. Additives and higher grades
of fuel can be used as a preventative measure if
clogging has been a problem.
Ignition System
General
A high voltage, solid state, battery ignition system is
used with the EFI system. The ECU controls the
ignition output and timing through transistorized control
of the primary current delivered to the coils. Based on
input from the speed sensor, the ECU determines the
correct firing point for the speed at which the engine is
running. At the proper instant, it releases the flow of
primary current to the coil. The primary current
induces high voltage in the coil secondary, which is
then delivered to the spark plug. Each coil fires every
revolution, but every other spark is “wasted.”
Service
Except for removing the spark plug lead by
unscrewing it from the secondary tower (see Figure
5B-22), no coil servicing is possible. If a coil is
determined to be faulty, replacement is necessary. An
ohmmeter may be used to test the wiring and coil
windings.
15. Pull the retaining clip off the top of the injector(s)
and remove from manifold.
16. Reverse the appropriate procedures to install the
new injector(s) and reassemble the engine. Use
new O-Rings any time an injector is removed
(new replacement injectors include new O-Rings).
Lubricate O-Rings lightly with oil. Torque the fuel
rail and blower housing mounting screws to
3.9 N·m (35 in. lb.), and the intake manifold and
air cleaner mounting screws to 9.9 N·m
(88 in. lb.).
Injector problems due to dirt or clogging are generally
unlikely, due to the design of the injectors, the high fuel
pressure, and the detergent additives in the gasoline.
Symptoms that could be caused by dirty/clogged
injectors include rough idle, hesitation/stumble during
acceleration, or triggering of fault codes related to fuel
delivery. Injector clogging is usually caused by a
buildup of deposits on the director plate, restricting the
flow of fuel, resulting in a poor spray pattern. Some
contributing factors to injector clogging include higher
Figure 5B-22. Ignition Coil.
NOTE: Do not ground the coils with the ignition ‘‘on,’’
as they may overheat or spark.
Testing
1. Disconnect the main harness connector from
ECU.
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Locate
pins #1 and #19 in the 35 pin connector. See
page 5B.28.
5B.17
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Locate
pins #22 and #23 in the 24 pin connector. See
page 5B.31.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic Cased ECU: Locate
pins #30 and #31 in the 32 pin connector. See
page 5B.32.
2. Disconnect connector from relay and locate
terminal #87 in connector.
3. Using an ohmmeter set on the Rx1 scale, check
the resistance in circuits as follows:
4. If the secondary resistance is not within
the specified range, unscrew the spark
plug lead nut from the coil secondary
tower and remove the plug lead. Repeat
step b. 3, testing from the secondary tower
terminal to the red primary terminal. If
resistance is now correct, the coil is good,
but the spark plug lead is faulty, replace
the lead. If step b. 2 resistance was
incorrect and/or the secondary resistance
is still incorrect, the coil is faulty and needs
to be replaced.
Spark Plugs
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Check
between terminal #87 and pin #1 for coil #1.
Repeat the test between terminal #87 and pin #19
for coil #2.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Check
between terminal #87 and pin #22 for coil #1.
Repeat the test between terminal #87 and pin #23
for coil #2.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Check
between terminal #87 and pin #30 for coil #1.
Repeat the test between terminal #87 and pin #31
for coil #2.
A reading of 1.8-4.0 Ω in each test indicates that
the wiring and coil primary circuits are OK.
EFI engines are equipped with Champion® RC12YC
(Kohler Part No. 12 132 02-S) resistor style spark
plugs. Equivalent alternate brand plugs can also be
used, but must be a resistor style plug or permanent
damage to the ECU will occur in addition to affecting
operation. Proper spark plug gap is 0.76 mm
(0.030 in.).
Wiring Harness
The wiring harness used in the EFI system connects
the electrical components, providing current and
ground paths for the system to operate. All input and
output signaling occurs through a special all weather
connector that attaches and locks to the ECU (see
Figures 5B-23, 5B-24, and 5B-25).
a. If reading(s) are not within specified range,
check and clean connections and retest.
b. If reading(s) are still not within the specified
range, test the coils separately from main
harness as follows:
1. Disconnect the red and black primary
leads from the coil terminals.
2. Connect an ohmmeter set on the Rx1
scale to the primary terminals. Primary
resistance should be 1.8-2.5 Ω.
3. Disconnect the secondary lead from the
spark plug. Connect an ohmmeter set on
the Rx10K scale between the spark plug
boot terminal and the red primary terminal.
Secondary resistance should be
13,000-17,500 Ω.
5B.18
Figure 5B-23. “35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU
Connector and O-Ring.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Fuel Components
Fuel Pump
Figure 5B-24. “24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased
ECU Connector.
Internal
External
5B
Figure 5B-26. Fuel Pump Styles.
General
An electric fuel pump is used to transfer fuel in the EFI
system. Depending on the application, the pump may
be inside the fuel tank, or in the fuel line near the tank.
The pumps are rated for a minimum output of 25 liters
per hour at 39 psi. The pumps have an internal 60micron filter. In addition, the in-tank style pumps will
have a pre-filter attached to the inlet. In-line pump
systems may also have a filter ahead of the pump on
the pick-up/low pressure side. The final filter is
covered separately on page 5B.22.
Figure 5B-25. “32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased
ECU Connector.
The condition of the wiring, connectors, and terminal
connections is essential to system function and
performance. Corrosion, moisture, and poor
connections are more likely the cause of operating
problems and system errors than an actual
component. Refer to the ‘‘Troubleshooting – Electrical’’
section for additional information.
Battery Charging System
EFI engines are equipped with either a 15 or 25 amp
charging system to accommodate the combined
electrical demands of the ignition system and the
specific application. Charging system troubleshooting
information is provided in Section 8.
When the key switch is turned “on” and all safety
switch requirements are met, the ECU, through the
relay, activates the fuel pump, which pressurizes the
system for start-up. If the key switch is not promptly
turned to the “start” position, the engine fails to start, or
the engine is stopped with the key switch “on” (as in
the case of an accident), the ECU switches off the
pump preventing the continued delivery of fuel. In this
situation, the MIL will go on, but it will go back off after
4 cranking revolutions if system function is OK. Once
the engine is running, the fuel pump remains on.
Service
The fuel pumps are non-serviceable and must be
replaced if determined to be faulty. If a fuel delivery
problem is suspected, make certain the pump is being
activated through the relay, all electrical connections
are properly secured, the fuses are good, and a
minimum of 7.0 volts is being supplied. If during
cranking, voltage drops below 7.0 volts, a reduction of
fuel pressure may occur resulting in a lean starting
condition. If required, testing of the fuel pump and
relay may be conducted.
5B.19
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
1. Connect the black hose of Kohler pressure tester
(SPX Part No. KO3217-4), to the test valve in the
fuel rail. Route the clear hose into a portable
gasoline container or the equipment fuel tank.
Fuel Pressure Regulator
2. Turn on the key switch to activate the pump and
check the system pressure on the gauge. If
system pressure of 39 psi ± 3 is observed, the
relay, fuel pump, and regulator are working
properly. Turn the key switch off and depress the
valve button on the tester to relieve the system
pressure.
a. If the pressure is too high, and the regulator is
outside the tank (just down line from the
pump), check that the return line from the
regulator to the tank is not kinked or blocked.
If the return line is good, replace the regulator
(see ‘‘Regulator Service’’ on page 5B.21).
Figure 5B-27. External Fuel Pressure Regulators
with Base.
b. If the pressure is too low, install in-line ‘‘T’’
(SPX Part No. KO3217-8) between the pump
and regulator and retest the pressure at that
point. If it is too low there also, replace the fuel
pump.
3. If the pump did not activate (step 2), disconnect
the plug from the fuel pump. Connect a DC
voltmeter across the terminals in the plug, turn on
the key switch and observe if a minimum of 7
volts is present. If voltage is between 7 and 14,
turn key switch off and connect an ohmmeter
between the terminals on the pump to check for
continuity.
Figure 5B-28. Internal Fuel Pressure Regulator.
a. If there was no continuity between the pump
terminals, replace the fuel pump.
b. If the voltage was below 7, test the wiring
harness and relay as covered in the ‘‘Electrical
Relay’’ section.
4. If voltage at the plug was good, and there was
continuity across the pump terminals, reconnect
the plug to the pump, making sure you have a
good connection. Turn on the key switch and
listen for the pump to activate.
a. If the pump starts, repeat steps 1 and 2 to
verify correct pressure.
b. If the pump still does not operate, replace it.
5B.20
General
The fuel pressure regulator assembly maintains the
required operating system pressure of 39 psi ± 3. A
rubber-fiber diaphragm (see Figure 5B-29) divides the
regulator into two separate sections; the fuel chamber
and the pressure regulating chamber. The pressure
regulating spring presses against the valve holder (part
of the diaphragm), pressing the valve against the valve
seat. The combination of atmospheric pressure and
regulating spring tension equals the desired operating
pressure. Any time the fuel pressure against the
bottom of the diaphragm exceeds the desired (top)
pressure, the valve opens, relieving the excess
pressure, returning the excess fuel back to the tank.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Pressure
Regulating
Spring
Pressure
Regulating
Chamber
Diaphragm
Valve
Valve Seat
Fuel Chamber
Inlet Port
Return Port (to tank)
Outlet Port
(to fuel rail)
Figure 5B-29. Fuel Pressure Regulator Details.
Service
Depending on the application, the regulator may be
located in the fuel tank along with the fuel pump, or
outside the tank just down line from the pump. The
regulator is a sealed, non-serviceable assembly. If it is
faulty, it must be separated from the base/holder
assembly and replaced as follows.
5B
Figure 5B-30. External Regulators and Base/
Holders.
1. Shut engine off, make sure engine is cool, and
disconnect the negative (-) battery cable.
2. Depressurize fuel system through test valve in
fuel rail (see fuel warning on page 5B.2).
3. Access the regulator assembly as required and
clean any dirt or foreign material away from the
area.
4. External Regulator Based upon the style of regulator used: See
Figure 5B-30.
a. Remove the two screws securing the
mounting bracket to the regulator housing.
Remove the O-Ring and pull the regulator out
of the housing.
b. Remove the snap ring and remove regulator
from base/holder.
Internal (In-Tank) Regulator Remove the three screws securing the retaining
ring and regulator in the base/holder assembly.
Grasp and pull the regulator out of the base/
holder. See Figure 5B-31.
Figure 5B-31. Internal Regulator and Base/Holder.
5. Always use new O-Rings and hose clamps
when installing a regulator. A new replacement
regulator will have new O-Rings already installed.
Lubricate the O-Rings (external regulator) with
light grease or oil.
6. a. Install the new regulator by carefully pushing
and rotating it slightly into the base or housing.
b. External Regulators with Square Base
Housing Only; Install a new O-Ring between
the regulator and the mounting bracket. Set
the mounting bracket into position.
c. Secure the regulator in base with the original
retaining ring or screws. Be careful not to dent
or damage the body of the regulator as
operating performance can be affected.
7. Reassemble any parts removed in step 3.
5B.21
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
8. Reconnect the negative (-) battery cable.
9. Recheck regulated system pressure at fuel rail
test valve.
Fuel Filter
EFI engines use a high-volume, high-pressure, 10-15
micron, in-line fuel filter.
General
The fuel rail is a formed tube assembly that feeds fuel
to the top of the injectors. The tops of the injectors fit
into formed cups in the fuel rail. When the rail is
fastened to the manifold, the injectors are locked into
place. A small retaining clip provides a secondary lock.
Incorporated into the fuel rail is a pressure relief/test
valve for testing operating pressure or relieving fuel
system pressure for servicing. The fuel supply line is
attached to the barbed end of the fuel rail with an
Oetiker hose clamp.
Service
The fuel rail is mounted to the throttle body/intake
manifold. It can be detached by removing the two
mounting screws and the injector retaining clips.
Thoroughly clean the area around all joints prior to any
disassembly. No specific servicing is required unless
operating conditions indicate that it needs internal
cleaning or replacement.
Fuel Line
Figure 5B-32. In-Line Fuel Filter.
Service
Fuel filter replacement is recommended every 1500
hours of operation or more frequently under extremely
dusty or dirty conditions. Use only the specified filter,
and install it according to the directional arrows. Do
not use a substitute filter as operating performance
and safety can be affected. Relieve system pressure
through the safety valve in the fuel rail before
servicing.
Fuel Rail
Figure 5B-34. High Pressure Fuel Line.
Fuel Rail
TPS
Locking Clip
Figure 5B-33. Manifold Assembly.
5B.22
Fuel
Injector
General
High-pressure fuel line with an SAE R9 rating is
required for safe and reliable operation, due to the
higher operating pressure of the EFI system. If hose
replacement is necessary, order Fuel Line Service Kit,
Part No. 24 353 42-S (containing 5 ft. of high-pressure
hose and 10 Oetiker clamps), or use only the type
specified. Special Oetiker clamps (Kohler Part No.
24 237 05-S) are used on all fuel line connections to
prevent tampering and safety hazards with the high
fuel pressure. The old clamp must be cut to open a
connection, so replacement is necessary each time.
Pliers (SPX Part No. KO3217-5) is used to crimp the
replacement clamps.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
CAUTION: Standard fuel line is not
compatible and must not be used! Use only Oetiker
clamps (Kohler Part No. 24 237 05-S) on fuel line
connections.
Throttle Body/Intake Manifold Assembly
Low Idle Speed
Adjusting Screw
Throttle Body
Intake Manifold
Fuel Rail
Figure 5B-35. Upper Intake Manifold.
General
The EFI engines have no carburetor, so the throttle
function (regulate incoming combustion airflow) is
incorporated in the intake manifold assembly. The
manifold consists of a one-piece aluminum casting
which also provides mounting for the fuel injectors,
throttle position sensor, fuel rail, air baffle, idle speed
screw, and air cleaner assembly.
Service
The throttle body/intake manifold is serviced as an
assembly, with the throttle shaft, throttle plates, and
idle speed adjusting screw installed. The throttle shaft
rotates on needle bearings (non-serviceable), capped
with rubber seals to prevent air leaks.
gradually increase to the established setting as
operation continues. Do not attempt to circumvent this
warm up period, or readjust the idle speed during this
time. The engine must be completely warmed up for
accurate idle speed adjustment.
Adjustment Procedure
1. Make sure there are no fault codes present in the
ECU memory.
2. Start the engine and allow it to fully warm up and
establish closed looped operation (approximately
5-10 min.).
3. Place the throttle control in the ‘‘idle/slow’’ position
and check the idle speed with a tachometer. Turn
the idle speed screw in or out as required to obtain
1500 RPM, or the idle speed specified by the
equipment manufacturer.
4. The low idle speed adjustment can affect the high
speed setting. Move the throttle control to the full
throttle position and check the high speed. Adjust
as necessary to 3750 RPM (no load), or the speed
specified by the equipment manufacturer.
Idle Speed Screw Dampening Spring
A small dampening spring (Kohler Part No.
24 089 42-S) is attached to the end of the idle speed
screw of some EFI engines to help stabilize no load
operating speeds. See Figure 5B-36.
Dampening
Spring
(some models)
1-3 mm (0.039-0.117 in.)
Exposed Length Off End
Of Adjustment Screw
Idle Speed Screw
Idle Speed Adjustment (RPM)
General
The idle speed is the only adjustment that may be
performed on the EFI system. The standard idle speed
setting for EFI engines is 1500 RPM, but certain
applications might require a different setting. Check
the equipment manufacturer’s recommendation.
For starting and warm up, the ECU will adjust the fuel
and ignition timing, based upon ambient temperature,
engine temperature, and loads present. In cold
conditions, the idle speed will probably be higher than
normal for a few moments. Under other conditions, the
idle speed may actually start lower than normal, but
Figure 5B-36. Idle Speed Screw Details.
5B.23
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
The idle speed adjustment procedure remains the
same for engines with or without a dampening spring.
Typically, no periodic servicing is necessary in this
area. If however, removal/replacement of the
dampening spring is required, reinstall it as follows:
Throttle
Linkage
Linkage
Bushing
1. Thread the spring onto the end of idle screw
leaving 1-3 mm (0.039-0.117 in.) of the spring
extending beyond the end of the idle speed screw.
2. Secure spring onto the screw with a small amount
of Permabond™ LM-737 or equivalent Loctite®
adhesive. Do not get any adhesive on free coils of
spring.
3. Start the engine and recheck the idle speed
settings, after sufficient warm up. Readjust as
required.
Initial Governor Adjustment
Damper
Spring
Figure 5B-37. Throttle Linkage/Governor Lever
Connection.
2. Check if the engine has a high-speed throttle stop
screw installed in the manifold casting boss. See
Figure 5B-38.
The initial governor adjustment is especially critical on
EFI engines because of the accuracy and sensitivity of
the electronic control system. Incorrect adjustment can
result in overspeed, loss of power, lack of response, or
inadequate load compensation. If you encounter any of
these symptoms and suspect them to be related to the
governor setting, the following should be used to check
and/or adjust the governor and throttle linkage.
High-Speed
Throttle Stop Screw
If the governor/throttle components are all intact, but
you think there may be a problem with the adjustment,
follow Procedure A to check the setting. If the governor
lever was loosened or removed, go immediately to
Procedure B to perform the initial adjustment.
Figure 5B-38. Throttle Details.
A. Checking the Initial Adjustment
1. Unsnap the plastic linkage bushing attaching the
throttle linkage to the governor lever. See Figure
5B-37. Unhook the damper spring from the lever,
separate the linkage from the bushing, and
remove the bushing from the lever. Mark the hole
position and unhook the governor spring from the
governor lever.
5B.24
a. On engines without a stop screw, pivot the
throttle shaft and plate assembly into the “Full
Throttle” position. Insert a 1.52 mm (0.060 in.)
feeler gauge between the rear tang of the
throttle shaft plate and the underside of the
manifold boss. Use a locking pliers (needle
nose works best) to temporarily clamp the
parts in this position. See Figure 5B-39.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
If not already installed, position the governor lever
on the cross shaft, but leave the clamping screw
loose.
Feeler Gauge
Figure 5B-39. Inserting Feeler Gauge (Engines
Without Stop Screw).
b. On engines with a stop screw, pivot the throttle
shaft and plate into the “Full Throttle” position,
so the tang of the throttle shaft plate is against
the end of the high-speed stop screw. See
Figure 5B-38. Temporarily clamp in this
position.
3. Rotate the governor lever and shaft
counterclockwise until it stops. Use only enough
pressure to hold it in that position.
4. Check how the end of the throttle linkage aligns
with the bushing hole in the governor lever. See
Figure 5B-40. It should fall in the center of the
hole. If it doesn’t, perform the adjustment
procedure as follows.
Figure 5B-40. Throttle Link in Center of Hole.
5B
Figure 5B-41. Checking ‘‘Split’’ of Clamp.
2. Follow the instructions in Step 2 of ‘‘Checking the
Initial Adjustment,’’ then reattach the throttle
linkage to the governor lever with the bushing clip.
It is not necessary to reattach the damper or
governor springs at this time.
3. Insert a nail into the hole in the top of the cross
shaft. Using light pressure, rotate the governor
shaft counterclockwise as far as it will turn, then
torque the hex. nut on the clamping screw to
9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.). See Figure 5B-42. Make sure
that the governor arm has not twisted up or down
after the nut has been tightened.
Figure 5B-42. Adjusting Governor Shaft.
B. Setting the Initial Adjustment
1. Check the split where the clamping screw goes
through the governor lever. See Figure 5B-41.
There should be a gap of at least 1/32". If the tips
are touching and there is no gap present, the
lever should be replaced.
5B.25
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
4. Verify that the governor has been set correctly.
With the linkage still retained in the “Full Throttle”
position (Step 2), unsnap the bushing clip,
separate the linkage from the bushing, and
remove the bushing from the lever. Follow Steps 3
and 4 in ‘‘Checking the Initial Adjustment’’.
5. Reconnect the dampening spring into its governor
lever hole from the bottom. Reinstall the bushing
and reattach the throttle linkage. See Figure 5B37. Reattach the governor spring in the marked
hole.
6. Start the engine and allow it to fully warm up and
establish closed loop operation (approximately
5-10 min.). Check the speed settings and adjust
as necessary, first the low idle speed, and then
the high speed setting.
Troubleshooting
General
When troubleshooting a problem on an engine with
EFI, basic engine operating problems must be
eliminated first before faulting the EFI system
components. What appears to be an EFI problem
could be something as simple as a fuel tank with
debris in the bottom or a plugged vent. Be sure the
engine is in good mechanical operating condition and
all other systems are functional before attempting to
troubleshoot the EFI system.
Troubleshooting Guide
Engine starts hard or fails to start when cold
1. Fuel pump not running
2. Faulty spark plugs
3. Old/stale fuel
4. Incorrect fuel pressure
5. Speed sensor loose or faulty
6. TPS offset incorrect (initialization)
7. TPS faulty
8. Engine temperature sensor faulty
9. Faulty coils
10. Low system voltage
11. Faulty injectors
5B.26
Engine starts hard or fails to start when hot
1. Faulty spark plugs
2. Fuel pump not running
3. Fuel pressure low
4. Insufficient fuel delivery
5. TPS offset incorrect (Initialization)
6. Speed sensor loose or faulty
7. TPS faulty
8. Engine temperature sensor faulty
9. Faulty injectors
Engine stalls or idles roughly (cold or warm)
1. Faulty spark plugs
2. Insufficient fuel delivery
3. TPS offset incorrect
4. TPS faulty
5. Faulty engine temperature sensor
6. Faulty injectors
Engine misses, hesitates, or stalls under load
1. Fuel injector(s), fuel filter, fuel line, or fuel pick-up
dirty/restricted
2. Dirty air cleaner
3. Insufficient fuel pressure or fuel delivery
4. Vacuum (intake air) leak
5. Improper governor setting, adjustment or
operation
6. Speed sensor malfunction
7. TPS faulty, mounting problem or "TPS
Initialization Procedure" incorrect
8. Bad coil(s), spark plug(s), or wires
Low Power
1. Faulty/malfunctioning ignition system
2. Dirty air filter
3. Insufficient fuel delivery
4. Improper governor adjustment
5. Plugged/restricted exhaust
6. One injector not working
7. Basic engine problem exists
8. TPS faulty or mounting exists
9. Throttle plates in throttle body/intake manifold not
fully opening to WOT stop (if so equipped)
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Electrical System
The EFI system is a 12 VDC negative ground system,
designed to operate down to a minimum of 7.0 volts. If
system voltage drops below this level, the operation of
voltage sensitive components such as the ECU, fuel
pump, and injectors will be intermittent or disrupted,
causing erratic operation or hard starting. A fully
charged, 12 volt battery with a minimum of 350 cold
cranking amps is important in maintaining steady and
reliable system operation. Battery condition and state of
charge should always be checked first when
troubleshooting an operational problem.
Keep in mind that EFI-related problems are more often
caused by the wiring harness or connections than by
the EFI components. Even small amounts of corrosion
or oxidation on the terminals can interfere with the
milliamp currents used in system operation. Cleaning
the connectors and grounds will solve problems in
many cases. In an emergency situation, simply
disconnecting and reconnecting the connectors may
clean up the contacts enough to restore operation, at
least temporarily.
If a fault code indicates a problem with an electrical
component, disconnect the ECU connector and test
for continuity between the component connector
terminals and the corresponding terminals in the ECU
connector using an ohmmeter. Little or no resistance
should be measured, indicating that the wiring of that
particular circuit is OK. An illustrated listing of
numerical terminal locations, for each style of ECU/
connector is provided on pages 5B.28, 5B.31, or
5B.32.
5B.28 for “35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU
5B.31 for “24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU
5B.32 for “32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU
NOTE: When performing voltage or continuity tests,
avoid putting excessive pressure on or
against the connector pins. Flat pin probes
are recommended for testing to avoid
spreading or bending the terminals.
5B.27
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU Systems
Pin #
Component
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
Ignition Coil #1
Not used
Engine Speed Sensor
ECU Production Test Terminal
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
TPS Initialization Terminal
Engine Ground
O2 Sensor
Not Used
Throttle Position Sensor
Not Used
Oil Temperature Sensor
Not Used
ECU Permanent Battery Voltage
ECU Switched Battery Voltage
Engine Ground
Ignition Coil #2
Vehicle Ground
Engine Speed Sensor
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Throttle Position Sensor
Not Used
Throttle Position Sensor/Oil Temperature Sensor
Power Relay
Not Used
Not Used
Malfunction Indicator Light
Not Used
Vehicle Ground
Not Used
Fuel Injectors
5B.28
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU Systems
Pin #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Function
Permanent Battery Voltage
Switched Ignition Voltage
Safety Switch
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) and Temperature Sensor Ground
Not Used
Oil Temperature Sensor Input
Not Used
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) Input
Speed Sensor Input
Speed Sensor Ground
Oxygen Sensor Input
Not Used (Oxygen Sensor Ground if needed)
Diagnostic Line
Throttle Position Supply Voltage
Battery Ground
Injector 1 Output
Injector 2 Output
Main Relay Output
Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL)
Not Used (Tach Output if needed)
Not Used
Ignition Coil #1 Output
Ignition Coil #2 Output
TPS Initialization Terminal
1
13
2
14
3
15
4
16
5
17
6
18
7
19
8
20
9
21
10
22
11
23
12
24
5B
5B.31
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU Systems
Pin #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
5B.32
Function
Permanent Battery Voltage
Switched Battery Voltage
TPS Set; “Auto-Learn” Initialization Terminal
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) and Temperature Sensor Ground
Not Used
Oil Temperature Sensor Input
Not Used
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) Input
Speed Sensor Input (+)
Speed Sensor Ground (-)
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Injector 1 Output
Injector 2 Output
Not Used
Diagnostic Line
Throttle Position/Temperature Sensor Supply Voltage
Battery Ground
Oxygen Sensor Input
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Safety Switch Input
Not Used
Not Used
Main Relay Output
Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL)
Ignition Coil #1 Output
Ignition Coil #2 Output
Not Used
1
17
2
18
3
19
4
20
5
21
6
22
7
23
8
24
9
25
10
26
11
27
12
28
13
29
14
30
15
31
16
32
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Fuel System
WARNING: Fuel System Under Pressure!
The fuel system operates under high pressure. System
pressure must be relieved through the test valve in the
fuel rail prior to servicing or removing any fuel system
components. Do not smoke or work near heaters or
other fire hazards. Have a fire extinguisher handy and
work only in a well-ventilated area.
The function of the fuel system is to provide sufficient
delivery of fuel at the system operating pressure of 39
psi ± 3. If an engine starts hard, or turns over but will
not start, it may indicate a problem with the EFI fuel
system. A quick test will verify if the system is
operating.
1. Disconnect and ground the spark plug leads.
2. Complete all safety interlock requirements and
crank the engine for approximately 3 seconds.
3. Remove the spark plugs and check for fuel at the
tips.
a. If there is fuel at the tips of the spark plugs,
the fuel pump and injectors are operating.
b. If there is no fuel at the tips of the spark plugs,
check the following:
1. Make sure the fuel tank contains clean,
fresh, proper fuel.
Fault Codes
The ECU continuously monitors engine operation
against preset performance limits. If the operation is
outside the limits, the ECU activates the MIL and
stores a diagnostic code in its fault memory. If the
component or system returns to proper function, the
ECU will eventually self-clear the fault code and turn
off the MIL. If the MIL stays illuminated, it warns the
customer that dealer service is required. Upon receipt,
the dealer technician can access the fault code(s) to
help determine what portion of the system is
malfunctioning. The 2-digit blink codes available
based upon the style of ECU are listed on pages
5B.35-5B.36.
The codes are accessed through the key switch and
displayed as blinks or flashes of the MIL. Access the
codes as follows.
1. Start with the key switch off.
2. Turn the key switch on-off-on-off-on, leaving it on
in the third sequence. The time between
sequences must be less than 2.5 seconds.
3. Any stored fault codes will then be displayed as a
series of MIL blinks (from 2 to 6) representing the
first digit, followed by a pause, and another series
of blinks (from 1 to 6) for the second digit (see
Figure 5B-43).
a. It’s a good idea to write down the codes as
they appear, as they may not be in numerical
sequence.
2. Make sure that vent in fuel tank is open.
3. Make sure fuel tank valve (if so equipped)
is fully opened.
4. Make sure battery is supplying proper
voltage.
5. Check that the fuses are good, and that all
electrical and fuel line connections are
good.
6. Test fuel pump and relay operation as
described earlier under ‘‘Fuel Pump –
Service.’’
5B.34
b. Code 61 will always be the last code
displayed, indicating the end of code
transmission. If code 61 appears immediately,
no other fault codes are present.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Example of Diagnostic Display
1. Diagnostic display initiated through ignition key sequencing.
2.
Long Pause
Short Pauses
3.
Code 32
3
4.
2
Long Pause
5.
Code 61
6
1
6.
Long Pause
7.
Light remains on at end of transmission
5B
Figure 5B-43.
After the problem has been corrected, the fault codes may be cleared as follows.
1. Disconnect the negative (-) battery cable from battery terminal, or remove the main fuse for the ECU for
approximately 1 minute.
2. Reconnect the cable and tighten securely, or reinstall the main fuse. Start the engine and allow it to run for
several minutes. The MIL should remain off if the problem was corrected, and the fault codes should not
reappear (codes 31, 32, 33, and 34 may require 10-15 minutes of running to reappear).
The following chart lists the fault codes, what they correspond to, and what the visual indications will be. Following
the chart is a list of the individual codes with an explanation of what triggers them, what symptoms might be
expected, and the probable causes.
Diagnostic Code Summary
Blink
C ode
OBD2
P-Code
Applicable
to: "32 Pin" Connection or Failure Description
(MSE 1.1)
ECU/System Only
"35 Pin"
(MA 1.7)
Metal-Cased
ECU/System
"24 Pin"
(MSE 1.0)
Plastic-Cased
ECU/System
"32 Pin"
(MSE 1.1)
Plastic-Cased
ECU/System
No RPM Signal
Y
Y
Y
Note
-
-
21
P 0335
Loss of Synchronization
Y
Y
Y
22
P 0120
TPS - Signal Implausible
N
N
N
22
P 0122
TPS - Open or Short Circuit to Ground
Y
Y
Y
22
P 0123
TPS - Short Circuit to Battery
Y
Y
Y
23
P 0601
Defective ECU
Y
Y
Y
Engine Speed Sensor
Y
Y
Y
9
System too Lean
Y
Y
Y
6
24
31
P 0174
2
cont. on next page
5B.35
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Blink
C ode
OBD2
P-Code
Applicable
to: "32 Pin" Connection or Failure Description
(MSE 1.1)
ECU/System Only
"35 Pin"
(MA 1.7)
Metal-Cased
ECU/System
"24 Pin"
(MSE 1.0)
Plastic-Cased
ECU/System
"32 Pin"
(MSE 1.1)
Plastic-Cased
ECU/System
Note
31
P 0132
O2 Sensor Circuit: Shorted to Battery
Y
N
Y
3
32
P 0134
O2 Sensor Circuit: No Activity Detected
N
N
N
8
33
P 0175
System too Rich
Y
Y
Y
7,8
33
P 0020
O2 Sensor Control at Upper Limit
Y
Y
Y
8
34
P 0171
Maximum Adaption Limit Reached
Y
Y
Y
8
34
P 0172
Minimum Adaption Limit Reached
Y
Y
Y
8
42
P0117
Temperature Sensor Circuit: Shorted to
Ground
Y
Y
Y
42
P0118
Temperature Sensor Circuit: Open Circuit or
Short to Battery
Y
Y
Y
43
N/A
Failure Completing Autolearn - TPS Offset
below minimum allowable limit
N/A
N/A
Y
44
N/A
Failure Completing Autolearn - TPS offset
above maximum allowable limit
N/A
N/A
Y
51
P 1260
Injector 1 - Open Circuit
N/A
N/A
Y
51
P 0261
Injector 1 - Short Circuit to Ground
N/A
N/A
Y
51
P 0262
Injector 1 - Short Circuit to Battery
N/A
N/A
Y
52
P 1263
Injector 2 - Open Circuit
N/A
N/A
Y
52
P 0264
Injector 2 - Short Circuit to Ground
N/A
N/A
Y
52
P 0265
Injector 2 - Short Circuit to Battery
N/A
N/A
Y
55
P 1651
Diagnostic Lamp - Open Circuit
N/A
N/A
Y
55
P 1652
Diagnostic Lamp - Short Circuit to Ground
N/A
N/A
Y
55
P 1653
Diagnostic Lamp - Short Circuit to Battery
N/A
N/A
Y
56
P 1231
Pump Relay - Open Circuit
N/A
N/A
Y
56
P 1232
Pump Relay - Short Circuit to Ground
N/A
N/A
Y
56
P 1233
Pump Relay - Short Circuit to Battery
N/A
N/A
Y
Y
Y
Y
61
End of Code Transmission
Note:
1. Idle Switch not used.
2. Diagnostic of "TPS - Signal Implausible" is disabled in code.
3. "O2 Sensor Short to Battery" diagnostic detection is disabled with SAS fuel-cutoff calibrated out.
4. Air Temperature Sensor not used.
5. "Temperature Sensor Signal Implausible": diagnostic detection is calibrated out, with TPLAUS set to -50°C.
6. System too Lean used to be "O2 Sensor - Short to Ground (P0131)."
7. "System too Rich" used to be "O2 Sensor Control at Lower Limit (P0019)."
8. Obtainable only with ECU 24 584 28-S or later.
9. Will not blink out.
5B.36
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Code:
Source:
Explanation:
21
Engine Speed Sensor
ECU receiving inconsistent tooth
count signals from speed sensor.
Expected Engine
Response:
Possible misfire as ECU attempts to
resynchronize, during which time fuel
and spark calculations are not made.
Possible Causes:
1. Engine Speed Sensor Related
a. Sensor connector or wiring.
b. Sensor loose or incorrect air gap.
c. Flywheel key sheared.
2. Speed Sensor Ring Gear Related
a. Damaged teeth.
b. Varying gap (gear loose/out of alignment).
3. Engine Wiring Harness Related
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU:
a. Pin circuits 3 and/or 21 wiring or connectors.
b. Shielding for pin circuits 3 and/or 21 damaged
or not properly grounded.
c. Poor or improper grounds in system (battery,
ECU, oxygen sensor, shielding, fuel pump,
ignition output).
d. Pin circuits 3 and/or 21 routed near noisy
electrical signals (coils, spark plug lead, plug
connector).
4. ECU/Harness Related
a. ECU-to-harness connection problem.
5. Ignition System Related
a. Non-resistor spark plug(s) used.
Code:
Source:
Explanation:
22
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
Unrecognizable signal is being sent
from sensor (too high, too low,
inconsistent).
Expected Engine
Response:
A “limp-home” operating mode occurs,
with an overall decrease in operating
performance and efficiency. Fuel
delivery is based upon the oxygen
sensor and five mapped values only.
Rich running (black smoke) will occur
until “closed loop” operation is
initiated. A stumble or misfire on hard
acceleration and/or erratic operation
may be exhibited.
Possible Causes:
1. TPS Sensor Related
a. Sensor connector or wiring.
b. Sensor output affected or disrupted by dirt,
grease, oil, wear, or breather tube position
(must be to side opposite the TPS).
c. Sensor loose on throttle body manifold.
3. Engine Wiring Harness Related
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU:
a. Pin circuits 9 and/or 10 wiring or connectors.
b. Shielding for pin circuits 9 and/or 10 damaged
or not properly grounded.
c. Poor or improper grounds in system (battery,
ECU oxygen sensor, shielding, fuel pump,
ignition output).
d. Pin circuits 9 and/or 10 routed near noisy
electrical signals (coils, spark plug lead, plug
connector).
2. Throttle Body Related
a. Throttle shaft or bearings worn/damaged.
3. Engine Wiring Harness Related
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU:
a. Pin circuits 9 and/or 10 wiring or connectors.
b. Shielding for pin circuits 9 and/or 10 damaged
or not properly grounded.
c. Poor or improper grounds in system (battery,
ECU, oxygen sensor, shielding, fuel pump,
ignition output).
d. Pin circuits 9 and/or 10 routed near noisy
electrical signals (coils, spark plug lead, plug
connector).
3. Engine Wiring Harness Related
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU:
a. Pin circuits 4, 8, and/or 14 damaged (wiring,
connectors).
b. Pin circuits 4, 8, and/or 14 routed near noisy
electrical signal (coils, alternator).
c. Intermittent 5 volt source from ECU (pin circuit
14).
3. Engine Wiring Harness Related
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU:
a. Pin circuits 12, 25 and/or 27 damaged (wiring
or connectors).
b. Pin circuits 12, 25 and/or 27 routed near noisy
electrical signal (coils, alternator).
c. Intermittent 5 volt source from ECU (pin circuit
25).
5B.37
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
3. Engine Wiring Harness Related
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU:
a. Pin circuits 4, 8, and/or 18 damaged (wiring,
connectors).
b. Pin circuits 4, 8, and/or 18 routed near noisy
electrical signal (coils, alternator).
c. Intermittent 5 volt source from ECU (pin circuit
18).
4. ECU/Harness Related
a. ECU-to-harness connection problem.
Code:
Source:
Explanation:
23
ECU
ECU is unable to recognize or process
signals from its memory.
Expected Engine
Response:
Engine will not run.
Possible Causes:
1. ECU (internal memory problem).
a. Diagnosable only through the elimination of all
other system/component faults.
Code:
Source:
Explanation:
24 (Will not blink out)
Engine Speed Sensor
No tooth signal from speed sensor.
MIL light will not go out when
cranking.
Expected Engine
Response:
None-engine will not start or run as
ECU is unable to estimate speed.
Possible Causes:
1. Engine Speed Sensor Related
a. Sensor connector or wiring.
b. Sensor loose or air gap incorrect.
2. Speed Sensor Wheel Related
a. Damaged teeth.
b. Gap section not registering.
3. Engine Wiring Harness Related
a. Pin circuit wiring or connectors.
Pin(s) 3 and/or 21 for “35 Pin” (MA 1.7)
Metal-Cased ECU.
Pin(s) 9 and/or 10 for “24 Pin” (MSE 1.0)
Plastic-Cased ECU.
Pin(s) 9 and/or 10 for “32 Pin” (MSE 1.1)
Plastic-Cased ECU.
4. ECU/Harness Related
a. ECU-to-harness connection problem.
5B.38
Code:
Source:
Explanation:
31
Fuel Mixture or Oxygen Sensor
“System too lean.” Oxygen sensor not
sending expected voltage to ECU.
Expected Engine
Response:
System operates under “open loop”
control only. Until fault is detected and
registered by ECU, engine will run rich
if oxygen sensor is shorted to ground
or lean if it is shorted to battery
voltage. After fault is detected,
performance can vary, depending on
cause. If performance is pretty good,
the problem is probably with the
oxygen sensor, wiring, or connectors.
If the engine is still running rich
(laboring, short on power) or lean
(popping or misfiring), the fuel mixture
is suspect, probably incorrect TPS
initialization or low fuel pressure.
Possible Causes:
1. TPS Initialization Incorrect
a. Lean condition (check oxygen sensor signal
with VOA and see Oxygen Sensor section).
2. Engine Wiring Harness Related
a. Pin circuit wiring or connectors.
Pin 10 for “35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased
ECU.
Pin 11 for “24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased
ECU.
Pin 20 for “32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased
ECU.
3. Low Fuel Pressure
4. Oxygen Sensor Related
a. Sensor connector or wiring problem.
b. Exhaust leak.
c. Poor ground path to engine (sensor is case
grounded).
5. Poor system ground from ECU to engine, causing
rich running while indicating lean.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Code:
32
Source:
Oxygen Sensor
Explanation: No change in the sensor output signal.
Expected Engine
Response:
“Open loop” operation only, may
cause a drop in system performance
and fuel efficiency.
Possible Causes:
1. Engine Wiring Harness Related
a. Pin circuit wiring or connectors.
Pin 10 for “35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased
ECU.
Pin 11 for “24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased
ECU.
Pin 20 for “32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased
ECU.
2. Oxygen Sensor Related
a. Sensor connector or wiring problem.
b. Sensor contaminated or damaged.
c. Sensor below the minimum operating
temperature (375°C, 709°F).
d. Poor ground path from sensor to engine
(sensor grounds through shell, see Oxygen
Sensor section).
Code:
Source:
Explanation:
33
Oxygen Sensor/Fuel System
“System too rich.” Temporary fuel
adaptation control is at the upper limit.
Expected Engine
Response:
Erratic performance. Will run rich
(smoke).
Possible Causes:
1. Fuel Supply Related (nothing lean – only rich)
a. Restricted return line causing excessive fuel
pressure.
b. Fuel inlet screen plugged (in-tank fuel pump
only).
c. Incorrect fuel pressure at fuel rail.
2. Oxygen Sensor Related
a. Sensor connector or wiring problem.
b. Sensor contaminated or damaged.
c. Exhaust leak.
d. Poor ground path.
e. Pin circuit wiring or connectors.
Pin 10 for “35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased
ECU.
Pin 11 for “24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased
ECU.
Pin 20 for “32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased
ECU.
3. TPS Sensor Related
a. Throttle plate position incorrectly set or
registered during “Initialization.’’
b. TPS problem or malfunction.
4. Engine Wiring Harness Related
a. Difference in voltage between sensed voltage
(pin circuit 17 for metal-cased ECU, pin
circuit 2 for plastic-cased ECU) and actual
injector voltage (circuit 45/45A).
5. Systems Related
a. Ignition (spark plug, plug wire, ignition coil.
b. Fuel (fuel type/quality, injector, fuel pump, fuel
pressure.
c. Combustion air (air cleaner dirty/restricted,
intake leak, throttle bores).
d. Base engine problem (rings, valves).
e. Exhaust system leak.
f. Fuel in the crankcase oil.
g. Blocked or restricted fuel return circuit to tank.
6. ECU/Harness Related
a. ECU-to-harness connection problem.
Code:
Source:
34
Oxygen Sensor/Fuel System
Components
Explanation: Long term fuel adaptation control is at
the upper or lower limit.
Expected Engine
Response:
System operates “closed loop.” No
appreciable performance loss as long
as the temporary adaptation can
provide sufficient compensation.
Possible Causes:
1. Oxygen Sensor Related
a. Sensor connector or wiring problem.
b. Sensor contaminated or damaged.
c. Exhaust leak.
d. Poor ground path.
e. Pin circuit wiring or connectors.
Pin 10 for “35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased
ECU.
Pin 11 for “24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased
ECU.
Pin 20 for “32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased
ECU.
2. TPS Sensor Related
a. Throttle plate position incorrect during
“Initialization” procedure.
b. TPS problem or malfunction.
5B.39
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
3. Engine Wiring Harness Related
a. Difference in voltage between sensed voltage
(pin circuit 17 for metal-cased ECU, pin
circuit 2 for plastic-cased ECU) and actual
injector voltage (circuit 45/45A).
b. Problem in wiring harness.
c. ECU-to-harness connection problem.
4. Systems Related
a. Ignition (spark plug, plug wire, ignition coil.
b. Fuel (fuel type/quality, injector, fuel pressure,
fuel pump).
c. Combustion air (air cleaner dirty/restricted,
intake leak, throttle bores).
d. Base engine problem (rings, valves).
e. Exhaust system leak (muffler, flange, oxygen
sensor mounting boss, etc.).
f. Fuel in the crankcase oil.
g. Altitude.
h. Blocked or restricted fuel return circuit to tank.
Code:
42
Source:
Engine (Oil) Temperature Sensor
Explanation: Not sending proper signal to ECU.
Expected Engine
Response:
Engine may be hard to start because
ECU can’t determine correct fuel
mixture.
Possible Causes:
1. Temperature Sensor Related.
a. Sensor wiring or connection.
2. Engine Wiring Harness Related
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU:
a. Pin circuits 14 and/or 27A damaged (wires,
connectors) or routed near noisy signal (coils,
alternator, etc.).
b. ECU-to-harness connection problem.
2. Engine Wiring Harness Related
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU:
a. Pin circuits 4, 6 and/or 4A damaged (wires,
connectors) or routed near noisy signal (coils,
alternator, etc.).
b. ECU-to-harness connection problem.
2. Engine Wiring Harness Related
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU:
a. Pin circuits 4, 6 and/or (4A) damaged (wires,
connectors) or routed near noisy signal (coils,
alternator, etc.).
b. ECU-to-harness connection problem.
5B.40
3. System Related
a. Engine is operating above the 176°C (350°F)
temperature sensor limit.
Code:
43 and 44
"32 Pin" (MSE 1.1)
Plastic-Cased ECU
only.
Source:
TPS “Auto-Learn” initialization function
failed, throttle angle out of learning
range.
Explanation: While performing the TPS “AutoLearn” function, the measured throttle
angle was not within acceptable limits.
Expected Engine
Response:
MIL illuminated. Engine will continue
to run but not properly. Upon restart
TPS Auto-Learn function will run again
unless voltage to ECU disconnected
to clear memory.
Possible Causes:
1. TPS Related
a. TPS rotated on throttle shaft assembly beyond
allowable range.
b. TPS bad.
2. Engine Wiring Harness Related
a. Broken or shorted wire in harness.
ECU pin 18 to TPS pin 1.
ECU pin 4 to TPS pin 2.
ECU pin 8 to TPS pin 3.
3. Throttle Body Related
a. Throttle shaft inside TPS worn, broken, or
damaged.
b. Throttle plate loose or misaligned.
c. Throttle plate bent or damaged allowing extra
airflow past, or restricting movement.
4. ECU Related
a. Circuit providing voltage or ground to TPS
damaged.
b. TPS signal input circuit damaged.
5. Oxygen Sensor/Harness Related.
a. Oxygen sensor bad.
b. Wiring problem to oxygen sensor.
c. Muffler leak (causing O2 sensor to falsely
indicate a lean condition).
d. Bad ground between ECU and Engine.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Code:
51
"32 Pin" (MSE 1.1) PlasticCased ECU only.
Source:
Injector #1 circuit open, shorted to
ground, or shorted to battery.
Explanation: Injector #1 is not functioning because
the circuit is open, shorted to ground,
or shorted to battery.
Expected Engine
Response:
Engine will run very poorly with only
one cylinder functioning.
Possible Causes:
1. Injector Related
a. Injector coil shorted or opened.
2. Engine Wiring Harness Related
a. Broken or shorted wire in harness.
ECU pin 14 to injector pin 2. ECU pin 28 to
fuel pump relay pin 86. Note: after key-off then
key-on code 56 would be set also. Fuel pump
relay pin 87 to injector pin 1.
b. Open main fuse F1.
3. Fuel Pump Relay Related
a. Bad fuel pump relay.
Primary side functional but pin 30 to pin 87
remains open. Primary side pin 85 to pin 86 is
either open, or shorted during engine
operation. Note: after key-off then key-on
code 56 would be set also.
4. ECU Related
a. Circuit controlling injector #1 damaged.
b. Circuit controlling fuel pump relay damaged.
Code:
52
"32 Pin" (MSE 1.1) PlasticCased ECU only.
Source:
Injector #2 circuit open, shorted to
ground, or shorted to battery.
Explanation: Injector #2 is not functioning because
the circuit is open, shorted to ground,
or shorted to battery.
Expected Engine
Response:
Engine will run very poorly with only
one cylinder functioning.
Possible Causes:
1. Injector Related
a. Injector coil shorted or opened.
2. Engine Wiring Harness Related
a. Broken or shorted wire in harness. ECU pin 15
to injector pin 2. ECU pin 28 to fuel pump relay
pin 86. Note: after key-off then key-on code 56
would be set also. Fuel pump relay pin 87 to
injector pin 1.
b. Opened main fuse F1.
3. Fuel Pump Relay Related
a. Bad fuel pump relay.
Primary side functional, but pin 30 to pin 87
remains open.
Primary side pin 85 to pin 86 is open or
shorted during engine operation. Note: after
key-off then key-on code 56 would be set also.
4. ECU Related
a. Circuit controlling injector #2 damaged.
b. Circuit controlling fuel pump relay damaged.
Code:
55
"32 Pin" (MSE 1.1) PlasticCased ECU only.
Source:
MIL (Diagnostic lamp) circuit open,
shorted to ground, or shorted to
battery.
Explanation: MIL is not functioning because the
circuit is open, shorted to ground, or
shorted to battery.
Expected Engine
Response:
Engine will run normally if no other
errors are present.
Possible Causes:
1. MIL (diagnostic lamp) Related
a. MIL element opened or element shorted to
ground.
b. Lamp missing.
2. Engine Wiring Harness Related
a. Broken or shorted wire in harness.
ECU pin 29 to lamp open or shorted.
3. Vehicle Wiring Harness Related
a. Broken or shorted wire in harness.
Power lead to MIL open or shorted.
4. ECU Related
a. Circuit controlling lamp damaged.
5B.41
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Code:
56
"32 Pin" (MSE 1.1) PlasticCased ECU only.
Source:
Fuel pump relay circuit open, shorted
to ground, or shorted to battery
Explanation: Fuel pump, ignition coils, and fuel
injectors will not function because the
fuel pump relay circuit is either open,
shorted to ground, or may be “on”
continuously if shorted to battery.
Expected Engine
Response:
Engine will not run, or fuel pump will
continue to run when switch is off.
Possible Causes:
1. Fuel Pump Relay Related
a. Bad fuel pump relay.
Primary side open or shorted.
2. Fuel Pump Related
a. Fuel pump open or shorted internally.
3. Engine Wiring Harness Related
a. Fuel pump fuse F1 open.
b. Broken or shorted wire in harness.
ECU pin 28 to fuel pump relay pin 86.
Ignition switch to fuel pump relay pin 85.
4. ECU Related
a. Circuit controlling fuel pump relay damaged.
5B.42
Code:
Source:
Explanation:
61
Denotes the end of fault codes. If
signaled first, no other fault codes are
present.
Troubleshooting Flow Chart
The following flow chart (on page 5B.43) provides an
alternative method of troubleshooting the EFI system.
The chart will enable you to review the entire system in
about 10-15 minutes. Using the chart, the
accompanying diagnostic aids (listed after the chart),
and any signaled fault codes, you should be able to
quickly locate any problems within the system.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
5B
*Operate for an appropriate period of time based upon original fault codes.
Figure 5B-44.
5B.43
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Flow Chart Diagnostic Aids
Diagnostic Aid #1 "SYSTEM POWER" (MIL does not
illuminate when key is turned “on”)
Possible causes:
1. Battery
2. Main system fuse
3. MIL light bulb burned out
4. MIL electrical circuit problem
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Pin circuits
31 and 31A.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuits 19 and 84.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuits 29 and 84.
5. Ignition switch
6. Permanent ECU power circuit problem
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Pin circuit
16.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuit 1.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuit 1.
7. Switched ECU power circuit problem
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Pin circuit
17.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuit 2.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuit 2.
8 ECU grounds
9. ECU
Diagnostic Aid #2 “FAULT CODES” (Refer to detailed
fault code listing before flow chart and “servicing”
information for the respective components)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Code 21 - Engine Speed Synchronization
Code 22 - Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
Code 23 - Engine Control Unit (ECU)
Code 31 - Oxygen Sensor
Code 32 - Oxygen Sensor
Code 33 - Fuel System (temporary adaptation
factor)
Code 34 - Fuel System (permanent adaptation
factor)
Code 42 - Engine (Oil) Temperature Sensor
Code 43 - TPS “Auto-Learn” Initialization Function
(Below Min. Limit), "32 Pin" (MSE 1.1) PlasticCased ECU only.
Code 44 - TPS “Auto-Learn” Initialization Function
(Above Max. Limit), "32 Pin" (MSE 1.1) PlasticCased ECU only.
Code 51 - Injector 1, "32 Pin" (MSE 1.1) PlasticCased ECU only.
5B.44
12. Code 52 - Injector 2, "32 Pin" (MSE 1.1) PlasticCased ECU only.
13. Code 55 - MIL Light, "32 Pin" (MSE 1.1) PlasticCased ECU only.
14. Code 56 - Pump Relay, "32 Pin" (MSE 1.1)
Plastic-Cased ECU only.
15. Code 61 - End of Fault/Blink Code Transmission.
Diagnostic Aid #3 “RUN/ON” (MIL remains “on” while
engine is running)*
Possible causes:
1. Fault codes which turn on MIL when engine is
running.
a. Code 21 - Engine Speed Synchronization
b. Code 22 - Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
c. Code 23 - Engine Control Unit (ECU)
d. Code 31 - Oxygen Sensor (shorted)
e. Code 34 - Fuel System (permanent adaptation
at limit)
f. Code 42 - Engine (Oil) Temperature Sensor
g. Code 43 - TPS “Auto-Learn” Initialization
Function (Below Min. Limit), "32 Pin"
(MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU only.
h. Code 44 - TPS “Auto-Learn” Initialization
Function (Above Max. Limit) "32 Pin"
(MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU only.
i. Code 51 - Injector 1, "32 Pin" (MSE 1.1)
Plastic-Cased ECU only.
j. Code 52 - Injector 2, "32 Pin" (MSE 1.1)
Plastic-Cased ECU only.
k. Code 55 - MIL Light, "32 Pin" (MSE 1.1)
Plastic-Cased ECU only.
l. Code 56 - Pump Relay, "32 Pin" (MSE 1.1)
Plastic-Cased ECU only.
2. MIL circuit grounded between light and ECU.
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Pin circuit
31.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuit 19.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuit 29.
3. ECU
*NOTE: MIL in Metal-Cased ECU systems is an LED.
The MIL in Plastic-Cased ECU systems must
be a 1/4 watt incandescent lamp.
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
Diagnostic Aid #4 “SPEED SENSOR” (MIL does not
turn off during cranking). Indicates the ECU is not
receiving a signal from the speed sensor.
Possible causes:
1. Speed sensor
2. Speed sensor circuit problem
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Pin circuits
3 and 21
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuits 9 and 10.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Pin
circuits 9 and 10.
3. Speed sensor/toothed wheel air gap
4. Toothed wheel
5. Flywheel key sheared
6. ECU
Diagnostic Aid #5 “FUEL PUMP” (fuel pump not
turning on)
Possible causes:
1. Fuel pump fuse
2. Fuel pump circuit problem
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Circuits
43, 44, and relay.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Circuits
30, 87, and relay.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Circuits
30, 87, and relay.
3. Fuel pump
Diagnostic Aid #6 “RELAY” (relay not operating)
Possible causes:
1. Safety switches/circuit(s) problem
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Circuits 41
and 41A.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Circuit
3.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Circuit
25.
2. Relay circuit(s) problem
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Circuits 28,
41, and 41A.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Circuits
18, 85, 30, and 87.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Circuits
28,85, 30, and 87.
3. Relay
4. ECU grounds
5. ECU
Diagnostic Aid #7 “IGNITION SYSTEM” (no spark)
Possible causes:
1. Spark plug
2. Plug wire
3. Coil
4. Coil circuit(s)
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Circuits 1,
19, 40, 40A, 43, and relay.
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Circuits
22, 23, 65, 66, 30, and relay.
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Circuits
30, 31, 65, 66, relay and relay circuit 30.
5. ECU grounds
6. ECU
Diagnostic Aid #8 “FUEL SYSTEM-ELECTRICAL”
(no fuel delivery)
Possible causes:
1. No fuel
2. Air in fuel rail
3. Fuel valve shut off
4. Fuel filter/line plugged
5. Injector circuit(s)
“35 Pin” (MA 1.7) Metal-Cased ECU: Circuits
35, 35A, 45, and 45A
“24 Pin” (MSE 1.0) Plastic-Cased ECU: Circuits
16, 17, 45, and 45A
“32 Pin” (MSE 1.1) Plastic-Cased ECU: Circuits
14,15, and 45.
6. Injector
7. ECU grounds
8. ECU
Diagnostic Aid #9 “FUEL SYSTEM” (fuel pressure)
Possible causes for low fuel system pressure:
1. Low fuel
2. Fuel filter plugged
3. Fuel supply line plugged
4. Pressure regulator
5. Fuel pump
Possible causes for high fuel system pressure:
1. Pressure regulator
2. Fuel return line plugged or restricted.
Diagnostic Aid #10 “BASIC ENGINE” (cranks but will
not run)
Possible causes:
1. Refer to basic engine troubleshooting charts
within service manual sections 3, 5, and 8.
5B.45
5B
Section 5B
EFI Fuel System
5B.46
Section 6
CH18-745
Lubrication
System
Section 6
Lubrication System
General
This engine uses a full pressure lubrication system. This
system delivers oil under pressure to the crankshaft,
camshaft and connecting rod bearing surfaces. In
addition to lubricating the bearing surfaces, the
lubrication system supplies oil to the hydraulic valve
lifters.
A high-efficiency gerotor pump is located in the closure
plate. The oil pump maintains high oil flow and oil
pressure, even at low speeds and high operating
temperatures. A pressure relief valve limits the maximum
pressure of the system.
NOTE: Using other than service class SG, SH, SJ or
higher oil, or extending oil change intervals
longer than recommended can cause engine
damage.
NOTE: Synthetic oils meeting the listed
classifications may be used with oil changes
performed at the recommended intervals.
However, to allow piston rings to properly seat,
a new or rebuilt engine should be operated for
at least 50 hours using standard petroleum
based oil before switching to synthetic oil.
A logo or symbol on oil containers identifies the API
service class and SAE viscosity grade. See Figure 6-1.
Service
The closure plate must be removed to service the oil
pickup, the pressure relief valve and the oil pump. Refer
to the appropriate procedures in Sections 9 and 10.
Oil Recommendations
Using the proper type and weight of oil in the crankcase
is extremely important; so is checking oil daily and
changing the oil and filter regularly.
Use high-quality detergent oil of API (American
Petroleum Institute) service class SG, SH, SJ or
higher. Select the viscosity based on the air
temperature at the time of operation as shown in the
following table.
Figure 6-1. Oil Container Logo.
**
*
The top position of the symbol shows service class
such as API SERVICE CLASS SJ. The symbol may
show additional categories such as SH, SG/CC, or
CD. The center portion shows the viscosity grade such
as SAE 10W-30. If the bottom portion shows “Energy
Conserving,” it means that oil is intended to improve fuel
economy in passenger car engines.
*Use of synthetic oil having 5W-20 or 5W-30 rating is
acceptable, up to 4°C (40°F).
**Synthetic oils will provide better starting in extreme cold
below -23°C (-10°F).
6.1
6
Section 6
Lubrication System
Checking Oil Level
The importance of checking and maintaining the
proper oil level in the crankcase cannot be
overemphasized. Check oil BEFORE EACH USE as
follows:
1. Make sure the engine is stopped, level and is cool
so the oil has had time to drain into the sump.
2. Clean the area around the dipstick before removing
it. This will help to keep dirt, grass clippings, etc.,
out of the engine.
3. Remove the dipstick; wipe oil off. Reinsert the
dipstick into the tube until fully seated. See Figure
6-2.
Oil Fill Cap
Dipstick
NOTE: To prevent extensive engine wear or damage,
always maintain the proper oil level in the
crankcase. Never operate the engine with the
oil level below the ‘‘L” mark or above the ‘‘F”
mark on the dipstick.
Changing Oil and Oil Filter
Changing Oil
Change the oil after every 100 hours of operation (more
frequently under severe conditions). Refill with service
class SG, SH, SJ or higher oil as specified in the
“Viscosity Grades” table on page 6.1.
Change the oil while the engine is still warm. The oil will
flow more freely and carry away more impurities. Make
sure the engine is level when filling or checking oil.
Change the oil as follows:
1. Clean the areas around one of the oil drain plugs,
oil fill cap, and dipstick.
2. Remove one of the oil drain plugs. A drain plug is
located on either side of the crankcase; one is
adjacent to and below the oil filter, the other is
below the starter. See Figure 6-4.
Figure 6-2. Location of Oil Fill Cap and Dipstick.
4. Remove dipstick and check oil level. The level
should be between the ‘‘F’’ and ‘‘L’’ marks. If low,
add oil of the proper type up to the "F" mark.
Reinstall oil fill cap and dipstick.
Oil Drain Plug Starter Side
Operating
Range
Figure 6-3. Oil Level Marks on Dipstick.
Oil Drain Plug Oil Filter Side
Figure 6-4. Location of Oil Drains.
6.2
Section 6
Lubrication System
3. Allow all the oil to drain and then reinstall the drain
plug. Torque to 13.6 N·m (10 ft. lb.).
1. Clean the areas around the drain plug, oil filter, oil
fill cap and dipstick.
4. Remove the oil fill cap and fill the engine with the
proper oil to the ‘‘F’’ mark on the dipstick. Always
check the oil level with the dipstick before adding
more oil.
2. Remove one of the oil drain plugs. A drain plug is
located on either side of the crankcase; one is
adjacent to and below the oil filter, the other is
below the starter.
3. Allow all oil to drain and then reinstall the drain
plug. Torque to 13.6 N·m (10 ft. lb.).
4. Remove the old filter and wipe off the filter adapter
with a clean cloth.
5. Place a new replacement filter in a shallow pan
with the open end up. Pour new oil, of the proper
type, in through the threaded center hole. Stop
pouring when the oil reaches the bottom of the
threads. Allow a minute or two for the oil to be
absorbed by the filter material.
6. Apply a thin film of clean oil to the rubber gasket
on the new filter.
Figure 6-5. Removing Oil Fill Cap.
5. Reinstall the oil fill cap.
Changing Oil Filter
Replace the oil filter at least every other oil change
(every 200 hours of operation). Always use a genuine
Kohler oil filter. Change the filter as follows. See Figure
6-6.
7. Install the new oil filter to the filter adapter. Hand
tighten the filter clockwise until the rubber gasket
contacts the adapter, then tighten the filter an
additional 2/3-1 turn.
8. Remove the oil fill cap and fill the engine with the
proper oil to the ‘‘F’’ mark on the dipstick. Always
check the oil level with the dipstick before adding
more oil.
9. Reinstall the oil fill cap and dipstick.
Oil Filter
10. Start the engine and check for oil leaks. Stop the
engine, correct any leaks, and allow a minute for
the oil to drain down, then recheck the level on the
dipstick.
Oil Cooler
Oil Drain Plug
Figure 6-6. Oil Drain Plug and Oil Filter (engine
with oil cooler).
6.3
6
Section 6
Lubrication System
Service Oil Cooler
Some engines are equipped with an oil cooler. One
style of oil cooler mounts on the engine crankcase and
has the oil filter on it. The other style of oil cooler is
mounted on the blower housing, separate from the oil
filter. See Figure 6-7.
Crankcase Mounted
Oil Cooler
Oil Sentry™
General
Some engines are equipped with an optional Oil
Sentry™ oil pressure monitor switch. See Figure 6-8. If
the pressure drops below an acceptable level, the Oil
Sentry™ will either shut off the engine or activate a
warning signal, depending on the application.
The pressure switch is designed to break contact as
the oil pressure increases above 3-5 psi, and make
contact as the oil pressure decreases below 3-5 psi.
On stationary or unattended applications (pumps,
generators, etc.), the pressure switch can be used to
ground the ignition module to stop the engine. On
vehicular applications (lawn tractors, mowers, etc.) the
pressure switch can only be used to activate a “low oil”
warning light or signal.
Blower Housing
Mounted Oil Cooled
NOTE: Make sure the oil level is checked before
each use and is maintained up to the “F”
mark on the dipstick. This includes engines
equipped with Oil Sentry™.
Installation
The Oil Sentry™ pressure switch is installed in the
breather cover. See Figure 6-8.
Figure 6-7. Oil Coolers.
Inspect and clean the oil cooler every 100 hours of
operation (more frequently under severe conditions). In
order to be effective, the oil cooler must be kept free of
debris.
Oil Sentry™
Switch
Breather Cover
To service the crankcase mounted oil cooler, clean off
the outside fins with a brush or with compressed air.
Figure 6-8. Location of Oil Sentry™ Switch (or pipe
plug).
To service the blower housing mounted oil cooler, clean
the outside of fins with a brush. Remove the two screws
holding the cooler unit to the blower housing. Tilt the
cooler downward. Clean the inside of the cooler with a
brush or with compressed air. After cleaning, reinstall
the oil cooler to the blower housing with the two
mounting screws.
On engines not equipped with Oil Sentry™ the
installation hole is sealed with a 1/8-27 N.P.T.F. pipe
plug.
6.4
Section 6
Lubrication System
To install the switch, follow these steps:
1. Apply pipe sealant with Teflon® (Loctite® No.
59241 or equivalent) to the threads of the switch.
2. Install the switch into the tapped hole in the
breather cover. See Figure 6-8.
3. Torque the switch to 4.5 N·m (40 in. lb.).
Testing
Compressed air, a pressure regulator, pressure gauge
and a continuity tester are required to test the switch.
1. Connect the continuity tester across the blade
terminal and the metal case of the switch. With
0 psi pressure applied to the switch, the tester
should indicate continuity (switch closed).
2. Gradually increase the pressure to the switch. As
the pressure increases through the range of
3.0/5.0 psi the tester should indicate a change to
no continuity (switch open). The switch should
remain open as the pressure is increased to 90 psi
maximum.
3. Gradually decrease the pressure through the
range of 3.0/5.0 psi The tester should indicate a
change to continuity (switch closed) down to
0 psi.
4. Replace the switch if it does not operate as
specified.
6
6.5
Section 6
Lubrication System
6.6
Section 7
CH18-745
Retractable
Starter
Section 7
Retractable Starter
WARNING: Spring Under Tension!
Retractable starters contain a powerful, recoil spring that is under tension. Always wear safety goggles when
servicing retractable starters and carefully follow instructions in this section for relieving spring tension.
To Remove Starter
1. Remove the five hex. flange screws securing the
starter to the blower housing.
Hex.
Flange
Screws
2. Remove the starter.
Starter Housing
Handle with
Rope Retainer
To Install Starter
1. Install the retractable starter onto the blower
housing, leaving the five hex. flange screws slightly
loose.
2. Pull the starter handle out until the pawls engage
in the drive cup. Hold the handle in this position
and tighten the screws securely.
Spring and
Keeper
7
Pulley
Pawl Springs
Brake Washer
Rope Replacement
Rope
Brake Spring
Pawls
Pawl Retainer
The rope can be replaced without complete starter
disassembly.
Plain Washer
1. Remove the starter from the blower housing.
2. Pull the rope out approximately 12 in. and tie a
temporary (slip) knot in it to keep it from retracting
into the starter. See Figure 7-2.
Center Screw
Drive Cup
Figure 7-1. Retractable Starter - Exploded View.
7.1
Section 7
Retractable Starter
Slipknot
Handle
Rope
Guide
Bushing
Keep Pulley
from Rotating
Rope Hole
in Pulley
Knot
Rope Retainer
Figure 7-2. Removing Starter Handle.
3. Remove the rope retainer from inside the starter
handle. Untie the single knot and remove the rope
retainer and handle.
4. Hold the pulley firmly and untie the slipknot. Allow
the pulley to rotate slowly as the spring tension is
released.
5. When all spring tension on the starter pulley is
released, remove the rope from the pulley.
6. Tie a single knot in one end of the new rope.
7. Rotate the pulley counterclockwise (when viewed
from pawl side of pulley) until the spring is tight
(approximately 6 full turns of pulley).
8. Rotate the pulley clockwise until the rope hole in
the pulley is aligned with the rope guide bushing of
the starter housing.
NOTE: Do not allow the pulley/spring to unwind.
Enlist the aid of a helper if necessary, or
use a C-clamp to hold the pulley in
position.
9. Insert the new rope through the rope hole in the
starter pulley and the rope guide bushing of the
housing. See Figure 7-3.
7.2
Figure 7-3. Installing Rope.
10. Tie a slipknot approximately 12 in. from the free
end of rope. Hold the pulley firmly and allow it to
rotate slowly until the slipknot reaches the guide
bushing of the housing.
11. Slip the handle and rope retainer onto the rope.
Tie a single knot at the end of the rope. Install the
rope retainer into the starter handle.
12. Untie the slipknot and pull on the handle until the
rope is fully extended. Slowly retract the rope into
the starter. When the spring is properly tensioned,
the rope will retract fully and the handle will stop
against the starter housing.
Pawls (Dogs) Replacement
To replace the pawls, follow disassembly steps 1-4 and
reassembly steps 3-8 on the following pages. A pawl
repair kit is available which includes the following
components:
Qty.
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
Description
Pawl Retainer
Center Screw
Pawl (Dog) Spring
Brake Spring
Starter Pawl (Dog)
Brake Washer
Washer
Section 7
Retractable Starter
Disassembly
WARNING: Spring Under Tension!
Do not remove the center screw from the starter until
the spring tension is released. Removing the center
screw before releasing spring tension, or improper
starter disassembly, can cause the sudden and
potentially dangerous release of the spring. Follow
these instructions carefully to ensure personal safety
and proper starter disassembly. Make sure adequate
face protection is worn by all persons in the area.
1. Release the spring tension and remove the
handle and the starter rope. (Refer to “Rope
Replacement,” steps 2 through 5 on pages 7.1 and
7.2.)
2. Remove the center screw, washer, and pawl
retainer. See Figure 7-4.
3. Remove the brake spring and the brake washer.
See Figure 7-5.
4. Carefully note the positions of the pawls and pawl
springs before removing them.
Remove the pawls and pawl springs from the
starter pulley.
Center Screw
and Washer
Pawl Retainer
Brake Spring and
Brake Washer
Pawl Spring
Pawls
Figure 7-5. Brake Spring and Washer, Pawls, and
Pawl Springs.
5. Rotate the pulley clockwise 2 full turns. This will
ensure the spring is disengaged from the starter
housing.
6. Hold the pulley in the starter housing. Invert the
pulley/housing so the pulley is away from your
face, and away from others in the area.
7
7. Rotate the pulley slightly from side to side and
carefully separate the pulley from the housing.
See Figure 7-6.
If the pulley and the housing do not separate
easily, the spring could be engaged in the starter
housing, or there is still tension on the spring.
Return the pulley to the housing and repeat step 5
before separating the pulley and housing.
Housing
Pulley
Figure 7-4. Center Screw, Washer and Pawl
Retainer.
Figure 7-6. Removing Pulley from Housing.
7.3
Section 7
Retractable Starter
8. Note the position of the spring and keeper
assembly in the pulley. See Figure 7-7.
Remove the spring and keeper assembly from the
pulley as a package.
WARNING: Spring Under Tension!
Do not remove the spring from the keeper. Severe
personal injury could result from the sudden uncoiling
of the spring.
Outer Spring Hook
Reassembly
1. Make sure the spring is well lubricated with
grease. Place the spring and keeper assembly
inside the pulley (with spring towards pulley). See
Figure 7-7.
2. Install the pulley assembly into the starter
housing. See Figure 7-8. Make sure the pulley is
fully seated against the starter housing. Do not
wind the pulley and recoil spring at this time.
Rope Hole
in Pulley
Pulley & Spring
Housing
Spring &
Keeper
Figure 7-7. Position of Spring and Keeper in Pulley.
Inspection and Service
1. Carefully inspect the rope, pawls, housing, center
screw, and other components for wear or damage.
2. Replace all worn or damaged components. Use
only genuine Kohler replacement parts as specified
in the Parts Manual. All components shown in
Figure 7-1 are available as service parts. Do not
use nonstandard parts.
Figure 7-8. Installing Pulley and Spring into
Housing.
3. Install the pawl springs and pawls into the starter
pulley. See Figure 7-9.
Pawl
3. Do not attempt to rewind a spring that has come
out of the keeper. Order and install a new spring
and keeper assembly.
4. Clean all old grease and dirt from the starter
components. Generously lubricate the spring and
center shaft with any commercially available
bearing grease.
Pawl Spring
Figure 7-9. Installing Pawls and Pawl Springs.
7.4
Section 7
Retractable Starter
4. Place the brake washer in the recess in starter
pulley; over the center shaft.
5. Lubricate the brake spring sparingly with grease.
Place the spring on the plain washer. Make sure
the threads in the center shaft remain clean, dry,
and free of grease and oil.
7. Tension the spring and install the rope and handle
as instructed in steps 6 through 12 under “Rope
Replacement” on page 7.2.
8. Install the starter to the engine blower housing as
instructed in “To Install Starter” on page 7.1.
6. Apply a small amount of Loctite® No. 271 to the
threads of the center screw. Install the center
screw, with the washer and retainer, to the center
shaft. Torque the screw to 7.4-8.5 N·m
(65-75 in. lb.).
7
7.5
Section 7
Retractable Starter
7.6
Section 8
CH18-745
Electrical System and Components
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
This section covers the operation, service and repair of
the electrical system components. Systems and
components covered in this section are:
• Spark Plugs
• Battery and Charging System
• Electronic CD Ignition System (including SMARTSPARK™ on applicable models)
• Electric Starter
NOTE: Do not clean spark plug in a machine
using abrasive grit. Some grit could
remain in the spark plug and enter the
engine causing extensive wear and
damage.
3. Check the gap using a wire feeler gauge. Adjust
the gap to 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) by carefully
bending the ground electrode. See Figure 8-1.
Spark Plugs
Engine misfire or starting problems are often caused
by a spark plug that has improper gap or is in poor
condition.
Wire Gauge
Spark Plug
The engine is equipped with the following spark plugs:
The standard spark plug is a Champion®
RC12YC (Kohler Part No. 12 132 02-S). A
high-performance spark plug, Champion®
Platinum 3071 (used on Pro Series engines,
Kohler Part No. 25 132 12-S) is also available.
Equivalent alternate brand plugs can also be
used.
Gap:
0.76 mm (0.030 in.)
Thread Size: 14 mm
Reach:
19.1 mm (3/4 in.)
Hex. Size:
15.9 mm (5/8 in.)
8
Type:
Spark Plug Service
Every 200 hours of operation, remove each spark
plug. Check its condition and either reset the gap or
replace with a new plug as necessary. To service the
plugs, perform the following steps:
1. Before removing each spark plug, clean the area
around the base of the plug to keep dirt and
debris out of the engine.
2. Remove the plug and check its condition. See
“Inspection” following this procedure. Replace the
plug if necessary.
Ground
Electrode
0.76 mm (0.030 in.) Gap
Figure 8-1. Servicing Spark Plug.
4. Reinstall the spark plug into the cylinder head and
torque to 24.4-29.8 N·m (18-22 ft. lb.).
Inspection
Inspect each spark plug as it is removed from the
cylinder head. The deposits on the tip are an indication
of the general condition of the piston rings, valves, and
carburetor.
Normal and fouled plugs are shown in the following
photos:
8.1
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Normal: A plug taken from an engine operating under
normal conditions will have light tan or gray colored
deposits. If the center electrode is not worn, a plug in
this condition could be set to the proper gap and
reused.
Carbon Fouled: Soft, sooty, black deposits indicate
incomplete combustion caused by a restricted air
cleaner, over rich carburetion, weak ignition, or poor
compression.
Worn: On a worn plug, the center electrode will be
rounded and the gap will be greater than the specified
gap. Replace a worn spark plug immediately.
8.2
Wet Fouled: A wet plug is caused by excess fuel or oil
in the combustion chamber. Excess fuel could be
caused by a restricted air cleaner, a carburetor
problem, or operating the engine with too much choke.
Oil in the combustion chamber is usually caused by a
restricted air cleaner, a breather problem, worn piston
rings or valve guides.
Overheated: Chalky, white deposits indicate very high
combustion temperatures. This condition is usually
accompanied by excessive gap erosion. Lean
carburetor settings, an intake air leak, or incorrect spark
timing are normal causes for high combustion
temperatures.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Battery
General
A 12-volt battery with 400 cold cranking amps is
generally recommended for starting in all conditions. A
smaller capacity battery is often sufficient if an
application is started only in warmer temperatures.
Refer to the following table for minimum capacities
(cca) based on anticipated ambient temperatures. The
actual cold cranking requirement depends on engine
size, application and starting temperatures. The
cranking requirements increase as temperatures
decrease and battery capacity shrinks. Refer also to
the operating instructions of the equipment being this
engine powers for specific battery requirements.
Battery Size Recommendations
Temperature
Battery Required
Above 32°F (0°C)
200 cca minimum
0°F to 32°F (-18°C to 0°C)
250 cca minimum
-5°F to 0°F (-21°C to -18°C)
300 cca minimum
-10°F (-23°C) or below
400 cca minimum
2. Keep the cables, terminals, and external surfaces
of the battery clean. A build-up of corrosive acid or
grime on the external surfaces can cause the
battery to self-discharge. Self-discharge occurs
rapidly when moisture is present.
3. Wash the cables, terminals, and external surfaces
with a mild baking soda and water solution. Rinse
thoroughly with clear water.
NOTE: Do not allow the baking soda solution to
enter the cells as this will destroy the
electrolyte.
Battery Test
To test the battery, you will need a DC voltmeter.
Perform the following steps (see Figure 8-2):
1. Connect the voltmeter across the battery
terminals.
2. Crank the engine. If the battery drops below 9
volts while cranking, the battery is too small,
discharged, or faulty.
If the battery charge is insufficient to turn over the
engine, recharge the battery.
DC Voltmeter
8
Battery Maintenance
Regular maintenance is necessary to prolong battery
life.
WARNING: Explosive Gas!
Batteries produce explosive hydrogen gas while being
charged. To prevent a fire or explosion, charge
batteries only in well ventilated areas. Keep sources of
ignition away from the battery at all times. Keep
batteries out of the reach of children. Remove all
jewelry when servicing batteries.
Before disconnecting the negative (-) ground cable,
make sure all switches are OFF. If ON, a spark will
occur at the ground cable terminal which could cause
an explosion if hydrogen gas or gasoline vapors are
present.
Battery
Figure 8-2. Battery Voltage Test.
1. Regularly check the level of electrolyte. Add
distilled water as necessary to maintain the
recommended level.
NOTE: Do not overfill the battery. Poor
performance or early failure due to loss
of electrolyte will result.
8.3
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Electronic CD Ignition Systems
Red
Ignition
Module
Input
Red
Starter and
Carburetor
Solenoid
Input
Red
Green
Carburetor
Solenoid
Oil
Pressure
Safety
Spark
Advance
Module
(Optional)
White
Red
Oil Pressure
B+ and
Spark
Safety Input
Carburetor
Plugs
Solenoid
Input
B+
Violet
RectifierRegulator
Ignition
Modules
White
Figure 8-3. Electronic CD Ignition System (For Customer Connected Tractor Applications).
The SMART-SPARK™ ignition system used on some
models is an advanced version of the CD ignition
system used on other CH engines. Its operation can
be best understood by first understanding the standard
system and how it works. Since both systems will
continue in use, it is advantageous to understand them
both. The operation of the standard system is
explained first then expanded to cover SMARTSPARK™.
8.4
Operation of CD Ignition Systems
A. Capacitive Discharge with Fixed Timing
This system (Figure 8-3) consists of the following
components:
•
A magnet assembly which is permanently affixed
to the flywheel.
•
Two electronic capacitive-discharge ignition
modules which mount on the engine crankcase
(Figure 8-4).
•
A kill switch (or key switch) which grounds the
modules to stop the engine.
•
Two spark plugs.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Kill Switch or
‘‘Off’’ Position of
Key Switch
Ignition
Modules
Spark Plug
Magnet
(0.28/0.33 mm)
0.011/0.013 in. Air Gap
Flywheel
Figure 8-4. Capacitive Discharge (Fixed Timing) Ignition System.
The timing of the spark is controlled by the location of the flywheel magnet group as referenced to engine top dead
center.
D1
C1
T1
SCS
L1
Spark Plug
L2
P
S
Figure 8-5. Capacitive Discharge Ignition Module Schematic.
Operation: As the flywheel rotates, the magnet
grouping passes the input coil (L1). The corresponding
magnetic field induces energy into the input coil (L1).
The resultant pulse is rectified by D1 and charges
capacitor C1. As the magnet assembly completes its
pass, it activates the triggering device (L2), which
causes the semiconductor switch (SCS) to turn on.
With the device switch “ON,” the charging capacitor
(C1) is directly connected across the primary (P) of the
output transformer (T1). As the capacitor discharges,
the current initiates a fast rising flux field in the
transformer core. A high voltage pulse is generated
from this action into the secondary winding of the
transformer. This pulse is delivered to the spark plug
gap. Ionization of the gap occurs, resulting in an arc at
the plug electrodes. This spark ignites the fuel-air
mixture in the combustion chamber.
B. Capacitive Discharge with Electronic Spark
Advance (SMART-SPARK™).
SMART-SPARK™ equipped engines utilize an
electronic capacitive discharge ignition system with
electronic spark advance. A typical application (Figure
8-6) consists of the following components:
•
A magnet assembly which is permanently affixed
to the flywheel.
•
Two electronic capacitive discharge ignition
modules which mount on the engine crankcase
(Figure 8-6).
•
A spark advance module which mounts to the
engine shrouding (Figure 8-7).
•
A 12 volt battery which supplies current to the
spark advance module.
•
A kill switch (or key switch) which grounds the
spark advance module to stop the engine.
•
Two spark plugs.
8.5
8
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Red
Key Switch or ‘‘Off’’
Position of Key Switch
12 Volt Battery
Green
Spark Advance Module
White
Spark
Plug
Spark Plug
0.28/0.33 mm
(0.011/0.013 in.)
Air Gap
Flywheel
Ignition Module
Magnet
Figure 8-6. Capacitive Discharge Ignition System with Spark Advance.
Green
or Black
The timing of the spark is controlled by the location of the flywheel magnet group as referenced to the engine top
dead center and the delay created by the spark advance module.
V+ (7.2V)
From
Input
Coil
Delay
Circuit
Brown Conditioning
Circuit
Comparator
Charge
Pump
Power
Source
Pulse
Generator
B+ (12 VDC)
Red
Yellow To
Semi-Conductor
Switch
Reset
Circuit
Figure 8-7. Block Diagram - Spark Advance Module.
Operation: The ignition module for this system operates in the same fashion as the fixed timing module,
except the trigger circuit for the semiconductor (L2, Figure 8-5) is replaced by the spark advance module
(Figure 8-7).
8.6
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
The pulse generated by the input coil of the ignition
module (L1, Figure 8-5) is fed to the input of the
conditioning circuit. The conditioning circuit shapes this
pulse, putting it in a useable form for the additional
circuits. This pulse starts the charge pump, which
charges a capacitor in a linear fashion that can be
directly related to the engine speed. At the same time
the pulse resets the delay circuit for length of the pulse
width. The comparator is off during this period and no
output is generated. As soon as the original pulse
drops back to zero, the capacitor in the delay circuit
begins to charge.
When the charge on the delay capacitor exceeds the
charge on the charge pump capacitor the comparator
changes state, activating the pulse generator. This
pulse turns “ON” the CD ignition module
semiconductor. Energy is then transferred to the
secondary of the output transformer (T1, Figure 8-5).
The high voltage pulse generated here is delivered to
the spark plug, causing arcing of the spark gap and
igniting the fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber.
As the trigger pulse is generated, all associated
circuits are reset, their capacitors discharged. The
longer it takes the delay circuit to surpass the charge
pump capacitor voltage, the later the trigger pulse will
occur, retarding the timing accordingly.
Troubleshooting CD Ignition Systems
The CD ignition systems are designed to be trouble
free for the life of the engine. Other than periodically
checking/replacing the spark plugs, no maintenance or
timing adjustments are necessary or possible.
Mechanical systems do occasionally fail or break
down, however, so the following troubleshooting
information is provided to help you get to the root of a
reported problem.
CAUTION: High-Energy Electric Spark!
The CD ignition systems produce a high-energy
electric spark, but the spark must be discharged, or
damage to the system can result. Do not crank or run
an engine with a spark plug lead disconnected. Always
provide a path for the spark to discharge to ground.
Reported ignition problems are most often due to poor
connections. Before beginning the test procedure,
check all external wiring. Be certain all ignition-related
wires are connected, including the spark plug leads.
Be certain all terminal connections fit snugly. Make
sure the ignition switch is in the run position.
NOTE: The CD ignition systems are sensitive to
excessive load on the kill lead. If a customer
complains of hard starting, low power, or
misfire under load, it may be due to excessive
draw on the kill circuit. Perform the appropriate
test procedure.
Test Procedure for Standard (Fixed Timing) CD
Ignition System
Isolate and verify the trouble is within the engine ignition
system.
1. Locate the plug connectors where the wiring
harnesses from the engine and equipment are
joined. Separate the connectors and remove the
white “kill” lead from the engine connector. Rejoin
the connectors and position or insulate the kill lead
terminal so it cannot touch ground. Try to start**
the engine to verify whether the reported problem
is still present.
a. If the problem is gone, the electrical
system on the unit is suspect. Check the key
switch, wires, connections, safety interlocks,
etc.
b. If the problem persists the condition is
associated with the ignition or electrical
system of the engine. Leave the kill lead
isolated until all testing is completed.
8
**NOTE: If the engine starts or runs during any of the
testing, you may need to ground the kill lead
to shut it down. Because you have interrupted
the kill circuit, it may not stop using the switch.
2. Test for spark on both cylinders with Kohler ignition
tester, SPX Part No. KO1046 (formerly Kohler Part
No. 24 455 02-S). Disconnect one spark plug lead
and connect it to the post terminal of the tester.
Connect the clip to a good ground, not to the spark
plug. Crank the engine and observe the tester
spark gap. Repeat the procedure on the other
cylinder. Remember to reconnect the first spark
plug lead.
a. If one side is not firing, check all wiring,
connections, and terminations on that side. If
wiring is okay, replace ignition module and
retest for spark.
b. If the tester shows spark, but the engine
misses or won’t run on that cylinder, try a new
spark plug.
8.7
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
c. If neither side is firing, recheck position of
ignition switch and check for shorted kill lead.
Test Procedure for SMART-SPARKTM Ignition
Systems
The following procedures are provided for
troubleshooting ignition problems on SMART-SPARK™
equipped engines. They will allow you to isolate and
pinpoint the failed component(s).
Special Tools Required:
• Hand Tachometer
• Tester* (SPX Part No. KO1046 formerly Kohler
Part No. 24 455 02-S)
• Automotive timing light
• Multi-meter (digital)
Specifications Required:
• Spark plug gap 0.76 mm (0.030 in.)
• Ignition module air gap 0.28/0.33 mm
(0.011-0.013 in.), 0.30 mm (0.012 in.) nominal
*NOTE: Ignition tester (SPX Part No. KO1046 formerly
Kohler Part No. 24 455 02-S) must be used
to test ignition on these engines. Use of any
other tester can result in inaccurate findings.
Battery on unit must be fully charged and
properly connected before making any of
these tests (a battery that is hooked up or
charged backward will crank the engine, but it
won’t have spark). Be sure drive is in neutral
and all external loads are disconnected.
Test 1 – Isolate and verify the trouble is within the
engine ignition system
1. Locate the plug connectors where the wiring
harnesses from the engine and equipment are
joined. Separate the connectors and remove the
white “kill” lead from the engine connector. Rejoin
the connectors and position or insulate the kill
lead terminal so it cannot touch ground. Try to
start** the engine to verify whether the reported
problem is still present.
a. If the problem is gone, the electrical system on
the unit is suspect. Check the key switch,
wires, connections, safety interlocks, etc.
b. If the problem persists the condition is
associated with the ignition or electrical
system of the engine. Leave the kill lead
isolated until all testing is completed.
8.8
**NOTE: If the engine starts or runs during any of the
testing, you may need to ground the kill lead
to shut it down. Because you have
interrupted the kill circuit, it may not stop
using the switch.
Test 2 – Test for spark
1. With the engine stopped, disconnect one spark
plug lead. Connect the spark plug lead to post
terminal of spark tester SPX Part No. KO1046
(formerly Kohler Part No. 24 455 02-S), and
attach tester clip to a good engine ground.
NOTE: If two testers are available, testing can be
performed simultaneously for both cylinders.
However, if only one tester is available, two
individual tests must be performed. The side
not being tested must have the spark plug
lead connected or grounded. Do not crank
the engine or perform tests with one spark
plug lead disconnected and not grounded or
permanent system damage may occur.
2. Crank the engine over, establishing a minimum of
550-600 RPM, and observe tester(s) for spark.
3. On a twin cylinder engine, repeat the spark test
on the opposite cylinder if cylinders are being
tested individually.
a. If both cylinders have good spark, but the
engine runs poorly, install new spark plugs
gapped at 0.76 mm (0.030 in.), and retest
engine performance. If problem persists, go
to Test 3.
b. If one cylinder had good spark, but the
other cylinder had no spark or intermittent
spark, go to Test 3.
c. If there was no spark or intermittent spark
on both cylinders, go to Test 4.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Test 3 – Check for timing advance
b. If you were able to check timing on both
cylinders, the lines you made on the blower
housing should be 90° apart. If they’re not,
go to Test 4.
Test 4 – Test the ignition modules and connections
1. Remove the blower housing from the engine.
Inspect the wiring for any damage, cuts, bad
crimps, loose terminals or broken wires.
Figure 8-8.
1. Make a line near the edge of the flywheel screen
with a marking pen or narrow tape.
2. Connect an automotive timing light to cylinder that
had good spark.
Figure 8-9.
3. Run the engine at idle and use the timing light
beam to locate the line on the screen. Draw a line
on the blower housing adjacent to the line on the
screen. Accelerate to full throttle and watch for
movement of the line on the screen relative to the
line on the blower housing. If both cylinders had
good spark, repeat the test on the other cylinder.
a. If the line on the screen moved away from
the line on the blower housing during
acceleration, the SAM is working properly. If
it didn’t move away, go to Test 5.
2. Disconnect the leads from the ignition module(s)
and clean all of the terminals (male and female)
with aerosol electrical contact cleaner to remove
any old dielectric compound, dark residue, dirt, or
contamination. Disconnect the spark plug leads
from the spark plugs.
3. Remove one of the mounting screws from each of
the ignition modules. If the mounting screws are
black, remove them both and discard. Replace
them with part number M-561025-S. Look in the
mounting hole with a flashlight and use a small
round wire brush to remove any loose rust from
the laminations inside the mounting hole.
4. Refer to the chart on page 8.10 to identify which
ignition module(s) you have. If they are the smaller
style, check the vendor part number on the face.
All modules with vendor part numbers MA-2,
MA-2A, or MA-2B (Kohler Part No. 24 584 03)
should be replaced with 24 584 11 or 24 584 15-S.
For small modules with vendor numbers MA-2C or
MA-2D (Kohler Part No. 24 584 11), or the larger
style modules (24 584 15-S and 24 584 36-S), use
a digital ohmmeter to check the resistance values
and compare them to the table following. When
testing resistance to the laminations, touch the
probe to the laminations inside the screw hole, as
some laminations have a rust preventative coating
on the surface which could alter the resistance
reading.
a. If all of the resistance values are within the
ranges specified in the table, go to step 5.
b. If any of the resistance values are not within
the ranges specified in the table,# that
module is faulty and must be replaced.
#
NOTE: The resistance values apply only to
modules that have been on a running
engine. New service modules may have
higher resistance until they have been
run.
8.9
8
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
4) Position a 0.33 mm (0.013 in.) feeler
gauge between the magnet and all three
legs of the module. The ignition module
air gap is critical to proper system
performance. Do not attempt to set it
with a business card or folded
microfiche card, use the feeler gauge
specified. A 0.33 mm (0.013 in.) feeler
gauge is recommended because the
gap has a tendency to close slightly as
the module mounting screws are
tightened.
Ignition Module Resistance Table
24 584 03 or
24 584 11
24 584 15-S or
24 584 36-S
(1 11/16 in. H)
(2 1/16 in. H)
2 1
4
2 1
3
5) Loosen the mounting screws, allow the
magnet to pull the module down against
the feeler gauge, and retighten the
mounting screws.
Test
24 584 03
24 584 15-S 24 584 36-S
(Use Digital
24 584 11
(2 1/16 in. H) (2 1/16 in. H)
Ohmmeter) (1 11/16 in. H)
From No.
1 to 4
945 to
1175 ohms
890 to
1175 ohms
590 to
616 ohms
From No.
2 to 4
149 to
166 ohms
119 to
136 ohms
183 to
208 ohms
From No.
3 to 4
3750 to
7000 ohms
5600 to
9000 ohms
8000 to
40,000 ohms
5.
Check and/or adjust the ignition module air
gap(s). An air gap of 0.28/0.33 mm
(0.011/0.013 in.) must be maintained under all
three legs of the ignition module(s). Checking/
adjusting should be performed with the parts
at room temperature.
a. If the module was not loosened or
replaced, check that the specified air gap is
present under all three legs. If the gap is
correct, reinstall the second mounting
screw removed earlier and recheck gap
after tightening.
b. If the gap is incorrect, or the module was
loosened or replaced, adjust the gap as
follows.
1) Turn the flywheel magnet away from the
module position.
2) Attach the module to the mounting legs,
pull it away from the flywheel, and snug
the screws to hold it temporarily.
3) Rotate the flywheel so the magnet is
centered under the module.
8.10
6) Rotate the flywheel to remove the feeler
gauge, position the magnet back under
the module, and recheck that the
specified gap, minimum of 0.28 mm
(0.011 in.) exists under each leg of the
module. When you are certain the gap is
correct, torque the module mounting
screws to 4.0 N·m (35 in. lb.). On a
twin cylinder engine, repeat these 6
steps to set the opposite side ignition
module.
6.
Reattach the lead wires to the ignition
module(s), noting if resistance is felt, indicating
a snug fit between the male and female
terminals. If any connections do not feel snug,
disconnect the lead, lightly pinch the female
terminal with a pliers, and recheck the fit.
7.
When the integrity of all connections has been
verified, repeat the spark test (Test 2).
a. If a strong, steady spark is now present
(both sides on a twin), your problem should
be corrected. Go to step 4 of Test 5.
b. If there is still a spark problem, perform all
of Test 5.
Test 5 – Test the SAM
1. Trace the red power source lead from the SAM
to the harness connection. Separate the
connector and connect the red lead of a DC
voltmeter to the harness terminal. Trace the
ground lead from the SAM (black on singles,
green on twins) to the grounding screw.
Connect the black voltmeter lead to the eyelet
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
terminal of the ground lead or the ground
screw/bolt. Check the voltage with the key
switch in both the “START” and “RUN”
positions. A minimum of 7.25 volts must be
present.
a. If correct voltage is not measured, connect
black voltmeter lead directly to the negative
(-) post of the battery and test voltage again
in both key positions. If correct voltage is
now indicated, check the ground circuit
connections. If the ground screw/bolt or any
other fasteners in the ground circuit are
black (oxide-coated), replace them with
zinc plated (silver colored) fasteners.
To Test –
NOTE: SAM must be at room temperature (to the
touch) when tested. Disconnect ALL of the
SAM leads, isolating it from the main wiring
harness and the ignition module(s). Testing
may be performed with the module mounted
or loose. The figures show the part removed
from the engine for clarity.
b. If correct voltage is still not indicated, check
the harness connector terminal for a good
connection and crimp to the lead. Then
trace the power source circuit back through
the harness, key switch, etc., looking for
any poor connections, or faulty circuits.
2.
3.
4.
Disconnect all of the SAM leads, isolating it
from the engine. Test the SAM with tester
25 761 21-S, following the instructions following
or use TT481-A provided with the tester. If the
SAM tests bad, replace it.
Reattach the SAM leads, verifying a snug fit at
the ignition module terminals. If any
connections do not feel snug, disconnect the
lead, lightly pinch the female terminal with a
pliers, and recheck the fit.
Figure 8-10.
1. Connect the tester to the SAM as follows:
Attach:
A.
B.
C.
D.
The yellow tester lead to the long yellow module lead.
The brown tester lead to the long brown module lead.
The red tester lead to the red module lead.
The green tester lead to the green module lead.
Caution: Do not allow the alligator clip leads to touch
each other.
Seal the base of the ignition module
connections with GE/Novaguard G661 (Kohler
Part No. 25 357 11-S) or Fel-Pro Lubri-Sel
dielectric compound. The beads should overlap
between the two connections† to form a solid
bridge of compound. Do not put any compound
inside the connectors.
†
The 24 584 15-S ignition modules have a
separator/barrier between the terminals. On
these modules, seal the base of the terminal
if any portion of it is exposed, but it is not
necessary to have overlapping beads of
sealant between the connections.
Figure 8-11.
5.
Test for spark (Test 2) to be sure the system is
working, before you reinstall the blower
housing. If there is still a spark problem on one
side, replace that ignition module and recheck
spark.
8.11
8
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
3. Disconnect the yellow and brown tester leads
from the long module leads. Connect the brown
tester lead to the short brown module lead.
Connect the yellow tester lead to the short yellow
(or pink) module lead. See Figure 8-13. Leave the
red and green leads connected. Repeat step 2.
Figure 8-12.
2. Check the SAM part number, stamped on the side
of the housing, and determine if you have an
analog SAM (ASAM) or a digital SAM (DSAM).
Follow sub-step a for an ASAM, and sub-step b
for a DSAM. To help identify Service Bulletin 233
lists DSAM part numbers.
a. ASAM only: Depress the tester button and
hold it down. After approximately four
seconds, a numerical sequence should be
displayed, beginning with 1 or 2 and continuing
to 8 or 9, followed by a letter “P” (pass) or “F”
(fail). See Figures 8-11 and 8-12. DO NOT
release the tester button until the test cycle
completes and the display goes off*. If you get
a “-” sign instead of the numerical sequence,
and/or an “F” at the end of the cycle, the SAM
is probably bad. Recheck all of the
connections, check the condition of the tester
battery** and repeat the test. If you get the “-”
sign and/or “F” again in the retest, replace that
SAM.
*IMPORTANT!
Allow 15-20 seconds for the tester to clear and reset
itself between tests or if test is interrupted before
completion of test cycle. Otherwise, a false reading
may be displayed in the form of a “-” or a faint “8”.
b. DSAM only: DSAM firing points are different
and testing can only determine if the DSAM is
working not the actual firing points. Connect
the tester in the same manner and start the
test. If the numbers start advancing, the
DSAM is working. If a dash appears, the
DSAM is not working. Check all of the
connections and retest. If it still is not working,
replace the DSAM.
8.12
Figure 8-13.
**The tester is powered by a 9-volt battery. Most
SAM’s are designed to operate down to a minimum
of 7.25 volts. If the tester battery drops below that
level, incorrect test readings will result. The tester
battery should be checked periodically by connecting
a DC voltmeter between the red and green lead
wires, with the tester connected to a SAM. Press
and hold the test button for a full test cycle (‘‘F’’ or
"P’’ appears and then display shuts off), while
monitoring the voltage reading on the voltmeter. If
the voltage drops below 7.5 at any time during the
cycle, the 9-volt tester battery must be replaced. Use
an extended life (alkaline) battery.
To replace the battery, remove the outer set of screws
on the faceplate and carefully lift the panel from the
body. Unplug the connector and pull battery (with
mounting tape) off the back of the tester. Attach the
connector to the new battery and mount the battery to
the case with double-backed tape. Reinstall the
faceplate and secure with the four screws.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Battery Charging System
General
Most engines are equipped with a 15 or 20 amp
regulated charging system. Some have a 25 amp
regulated charging system. See Figure 8-14 for the
15/20/25 amp charging system diagram. Some
engines utilize a 3 amp unregulated system with
optional 70 watt lighting circuit. Refer to Figure 8-18.
NOTE: Observe the following guidelines to avoid
damage to the electrical system and
components:
•
Make sure the battery polarity is correct. A
negative (-) ground system is used.
•
Disconnect the rectifier-regulator plug and/or the
wiring harness plug before doing any electric
welding on the equipment powered by the engine.
Also, disconnect all other electrical accessories in
common ground with the engine.
•
Prevent the stator (AC) leads from touching or
shorting while the engine is running. This could
damage the stator.
8
8.13
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
15/20/25 amp Regulated Charging System
Figure 8-14. Wiring Diagram - 15/20/25 amp Regulated Battery Charging System.
Figure 8-15. 15 amp Stator and Rectifier-Regulator.
8.14
Figure 8-16. 20 amp Stator and Rectifier-Regulator.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
1st Style
25 Amp Stator
2nd Style
Figure 8-17. 25 amp Stator and Rectifier-Regulators.
3 amp Unregulated Charging System
Ground-To-Kill Lead (White)
8
A
Light
R
Ignition
Modules
(Blue)
S
B (Red)
GND
Spark
Plug
Spark
Plug
Key
Switch
(Black)
Optional
Fuse
Optional
Oil SentryTM
Switch
(Indicator Light)
Diode
(Yellow)
Optional
Ammeter
3 Amp/70 Watt
Flywheel Stator
Lights
Optional
Oil SentryTM
Switch
(Shutdown)
12 V. Battery
Solenoid
Starter
Figure 8-18. Wiring Diagram - 3 amp Unregulated Battery Charging System/70 Watt Lighting.
8.15
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
3 Amp Charging Stator
Lighting Lead
(Yellow)
Diode
Charging Lead
(Black)
Lighting Stator
Figure 8-19. 3 amp/70 Watt Stator.
Stator
The stator is mounted on the crankcase behind the
flywheel. Follow the procedures in Section 9 “Disassembly” and Section 11 - “Reassembly” if stator
replacement is necessary.
Rectifier-Regulator
The rectifier-regulator is mounted on the blower
housing. See Figure 8-20. To replace it, disconnect the
plug(s), remove the two mounting screws, and ground
wire or metal grounding strap.
NOTE: When installing the rectifier-regulator, take
note of the terminal markings and install the
plug(s) accordingly.
To Test –
NOTE: Disconnect all electrical connections attached
to the rectifier-regulator. Testing may be
performed with the rectifier-regulator mounted
or loose. The figures show the part removed
from the engine for clarity. Repeat the
applicable test procedure two or three times
to determine the condition of the part.
15 Amp Rectifier-Regulators
1. Connect the tester ground lead (with spring
clamp) to the body of the rectifier-regulator being
tested.
2. Connect the tester red lead to the B+ terminal of
the rectifier-regulator and the two black tester
leads to the two AC terminals. See Figure 8-21.
RectifierRegulator
Ground Strap (or lead)
Figure 8-20. Rectifier-Regulator.
Testing of the rectifier-regulator may be performed as
follows, using the Rectifier-Regulator Tester (SPX Part
No. KO3221, formerly Kohler Part No. 25 761 20-S).
8.16
Figure 8-21.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
3. Plug the tester into a 110 volt AC outlet supply
and turn on the power switch. See Figure 8-22.
The ‘‘POWER’’ light should be illuminated and
one of the four status lights may be on as well.
This does not represent the condition of the part.
Figure 8-22.
4. Press the ‘‘TEST’’ button until a “click” is heard
and then release. See Figure 8-23. Momentarily
one of the four lights will illuminate, indicating the
condition of the part.
20/25 Amp Rectifier-Regulators
1. Connect the single lead adapter in between the
B+ (center) terminal of rectifier-regulator being
tested and the squared single end of the tandem
adapter lead. See Figure 8-24.
Figure 8-24.
2. Connect the tester ground lead (with spring
clamp) to the body of the rectifier-regulator.
3. Connect the red lead and one of the black leads
to the pair of terminals on the open end of the
tandem adapter lead (connections are not location
specific).
4. Connect the remaining black lead from the tester
to one of the outer AC terminals on the rectifierregulator. See Figure 8-25.
Figure 8-23.
a. If the “OK” (green) light comes on and stays
steady, the part is good and may be used.
b. If any other light is displayed,* the rectifierregulator is faulty and should not be used.
*NOTE: A flashing “LOW” light can also occur as a
result of an inadequate ground lead
connection. Make certain connection location
is clean and clamp is secure.
Figure 8-25.
5. Plug the tester into a 110 volt AC outlet and turn
on the power switch. The ‘‘POWER’’ light should
be illuminated and one of the four status lights
may be on as well. See Figure 8-22. This does
not represent the condition of the part.
8.17
8
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
6. Press the ‘‘TEST’’ button until a ‘‘click’’ is heard
and then release. See Figure 8-23. Momentarily
one of the four lights will illuminate indicating the
partial condition of the part.
a. If the ‘‘OK’’ (green) light comes on, disconnect
the tester black lead attached to one AC
terminal and reconnect it to the other AC
terminal. Repeat the test. If the ‘‘OK’’ (green)
light comes on again, the part is good and
may be used.
b. If any other light is displayed* in either of the
tests, the rectifier-regulator is faulty and
should not be used.
*NOTE: A flashing ‘‘LOW’’ light can also occur as a
result of an inadequate ground lead
connection. Make certain the connection
location is clean and the clamp is secure.
25 Amp Rectifier-Regulators (Original Style)
1. Connect the squared single end of the tandem
lead adapter to the B+ (center/red) lead of
rectifier-regulator being tested. See Figure
8-26.
Figure 8-27.
5. Plug the tester into a 110 volt AC outlet/power
supply and turn on the power switch. The
‘‘POWER’’ light should be illuminated and one of
the four status lights may be on as well. See
Figure 8-22. This does not represent the
condition of the part.
6. Press the ‘‘TEST’’ button until a “click” is heard
and then release. See Figure 8-23. Momentarily
one of the four lights will relight indicating the
partial condition of the part.
a. If the “OK” (green) light comes on, disconnect
the tester black lead attached to the AC lead,
reconnect it to the opposite side AC lead, and
repeat the test. If the “OK” light (green) again
comes on, the part is good and may be used.
b. If any other light is displayed* in either of the
tests, the rectifier-regulator is faulty and should
not be used.
Figure 8-26.
2. Connect the ground lead of tester (with spring
clamp), to the housing of rectifier-regulator.
3. Connect the red lead and one of the black leads
from the tester to the pair of terminals on opposite
end of adapter lead (connections are not location
specific.)
4. Connect the remaining black lead from tester to one
of the black AC (outside) leads from rectifierregulator. See Figure 8-27.
8.18
*NOTE: A flashing “LOW” light can also occur as a
result of an inadequate ground lead
connection. Make certain connection location
is clean and clamp is secure.
4 Amp Unregulated Rectifiers
1. Connect the tester ground lead (with spring
clamp), to the body of rectifier being tested.
2. Connect the red tester lead to the B+ (center)
terminal of the rectifier and the two black tester
leads to the two AC (outside) terminals. See
Figure 8-28.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
4. Press the ‘‘TEST’’ button until a “click” is heard
and then release. See Figure 8-23. Momentarily
either the ‘‘HIGH’’, ‘‘LOW’’, or ‘‘SHORT’’ light will
flash.
a. If the “HIGH” light flashes on/off, the part is
good and may be used.
b. If any other light is displayed* the rectifier is
faulty and should not be used.
*NOTE: A flashing “LOW” light can also occur as a
result of an inadequate ground lead
connection. Make certain connection location
is clean and clamp is secure.
Figure 8-28.
3. Plug the tester into a 110 volt AC outlet and turn
on the power switch. The ‘‘POWER’’ light should
be illuminated and one of the four status lights
may be on as well. See Figure 8-22. This does
not represent the condition of the part.
Rectifier-Regulator
DC Voltmeter
8
(+)
(-)
Flywheel
Stator
Ammeter
Battery
Figure 8-29. Connections for Testing Charging System.
8.19
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Troubleshooting Guide
15/20/25 amp Battery Charging Systems
When problems occur in keeping the battery charged or the battery charges at too high a rate, the problem can
usually be found somewhere in the charging system or with the battery.
NOTE: Always zero ohmmeter on each scale before testing to ensure accurate readings. Voltage tests
should be made with the engine running at 3600 RPM - no load. The battery must be good and fully
charged.
Problem
Test
1. Trace B+ lead from rectifier-regulator to key
switch, or other accessible connection.
Disconnect it from switch or connection.
Connect an ammeter from loose end of B+
lead to positive terminal of battery. Connect
DC voltmeter from loose end of B+ lead to
negative terminal of battery. With engine
running at 3600 RPM, read voltage on
voltmeter.
Conclusion
1. If voltage is 13.8-14.7 and charge rate
increases when load is applied, the charging
system is OK and battery was fully charged.
If voltage is less than 13.8 or charge rate does
not increase when load is applied, test stator
(Tests 2 and 3).
If voltage is 13.8 volts or more, place a
minimum load of 5 amps* on battery to
reduce voltage. Observe ammeter.
*NOTE: Turn on lights, if 60 watts or more.
Or place a 2.5 ohm, 100 watt
resistor across battery terminals.
No Charge
to Battery
2. Remove connector from rectifier-regulator.
With engine running at 3600 RPM, measure
AC voltage across stator leads using an AC
voltmeter.
2. If voltage is 28 volts or more, stator is OK.
Rectifier-regulator is faulty. Replace the
rectifier-regulator.
If voltage is less than 28 volts, stator is
probably faulty and should be replaced. Test
stator further using an ohmmeter (Test 3).
3a. With engine stopped, measure the resistance 3a. If resistance is 0.064/0.2 ohms, the stator is
across stator leads using an ohmmeter.
OK.
If the resistance is infinity ohms, stator is
open. Replace stator.
3b. With the engine stopped, measure the
resistance from each stator lead to ground
using an ohmmeter.
1. Perform same test as step 1 above.
Battery
Continuously
Charges at
High Rate
8.20
3b. If the resistance is infinity ohms (no
continuity), the stator is OK (not shorted to
ground).
If resistance (or continuity) is measured, the
stator leads are shorted to ground. Replace
stator.
1. If the voltage is 14.7 volts or less the charging
system is OK. The battery is unable to hold a
charge. Service battery or replace as
necessary.
If voltage is more than 14.7 volts, the rectifierregulator is faulty. Replace rectifier-regulator.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Troubleshooting Guide
3 amp Battery Charging System with 70 Watt Lighting Stator
NOTE: Zero ohmmeters on each scale to ensure accurate readings. Voltage tests should be made with engine
running at 3000 RPM - no load. Battery must be good and fully charged.
Problem
Conclusion
Test
1. With engine running at 3000 RPM, measure
voltage across battery terminals using a DC
voltmeter.
1. If voltage is more than 12.5 volts, charging
system is OK.
If voltage is 12.5 volts or less, the stator or diode
are probably faulty. Test the stator and diode
(Tests 2, 3 and 4).
2. Disconnect the charging lead from battery.
No
Charge
to
Battery
With engine running at 3000 RPM, measure
voltage from charging lead to ground using a
DC voltmeter.
3. With charging lead disconnected from battery
and engine stopped, measure resistance from
charging lead to ground using an ohmmeter.
Note reading.
2. If voltage is 28 volts or more, stator winding is
OK.
If voltage is less than 28 volts, test stator using
an ohmmeter (Tests 3 and 4).
3. If resistance is low in both directions, the diode
is shorted. Replace the diode.
If resistance is high in both directions, the diode
or stator winding is open. (Use Test 4.)
Reverse the leads and measure resistance
again.
In one direction, the resistance should be
infinity ohms (open circuit). With the leads
reversed, some resistance should be
measured (about midscale on Rx1 range).
4. Cut the sleeving on the charging lead to
expose the diode connections.
Measure the resistance from the stator side of
diode to ground using an ohmmeter.
8
4. If resistance is approximately 1.07 ohms,
stator winding is OK.
If resistance is 0 ohms, stator winding is
shorted. Replace stator.
If resistance is infinity ohms, stator winding or
lead is open. Replace stator.
No
Lights
1. Make sure lights are not burned out.
1. Replace burned out lights.
2. Disconnect the lighting lead from the wiring
harness.
2. If voltage is 15 volts or more, stator is OK.
Check for loose connections or shorts in wiring
harness.
With engine running at 3000 RPM, measure
voltage from lighting lead to ground using an
AC voltmeter.
3. With engine stopped, measure the resistance
of stator from lighting lead to ground using an
ohmmeter.
If voltage is less than 15 volts, test stator using
an ohmmeter (Test 3).
3. If resistance is approximately 0.4 ohms,
stator is OK.
If resistance is 0 ohms, stator is shorted.
Replace stator.
If resistance is infinity ohms, stator or lighting
lead is open. Replace stator.
8.21
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Electric Starting Motors
Some engines in this series use inertia drive starting
motors while most use solenoid shift starters. The
inertia drive types are covered first and the solenoid
shift types following.
NOTE: If the starter does not crank the engine, shut
off the starter immediately. Do not make
further attempts to start the engine until the
condition is corrected.
NOTE: Do not drop the starter or strike the starter
frame. Doing so can damage the starter.
Starting Motor Precautions
NOTE: Do not crank the engine continuously for more
than 10 seconds at a time. If the engine does
not start, allow a 60 second cool-down period
between starting attempts. Failure to follow
these guidelines can burn out the starter
motor.
Starter Removal and Installation
Refer to the “Disassembly” and “Reassembly”
Sections for starter removal and installation
procedures.
Inertia Drive Electric Starters
NOTE: If the engine develops sufficient speed to
disengage the starter but does not keep
running (a false start), the engine rotation
must be allowed to come to a complete stop
before attempting to restart the engine. If the
starter is engaged while the flywheel is
rotating, the starter pinion and flywheel ring
gear may clash, resulting in damage to the
starter.
This subsection covers the operation, troubleshooting,
and repair of the inertia drive, permanent magnet
electric starters.
Troubleshooting Guide – Starting Difficulties
Problem
Possible Fault
Battery
Starter
Does Not
Energize
Wiring
Starter Switch
or Solenoid
Battery
Starter
Energizes
but Turns
Slowly
8.22
Brushes
Transmission
or
Engine
Correction
1. Check the specific gravity of battery. If low, recharge or replace
battery as necessary.
1. Clean corroded connections and tighten loose connections.
2. Replace wires in poor condition and with frayed or broken
insulation.
1. By-pass the switch or solenoid with a jumper wire. If starter cranks
normally, replace the faulty components.
1. Check the specific gravity of battery. If low, recharge or replace
battery as necessary.
1. Check for excessively dirty or worn brushes and commutator.
Clean using a coarse cloth (not emery cloth).
2. Replace brushes if excessively or unevenly worn.
1. Make sure the clutch or transmission is disengaged or placed in
neutral. This is especially important on equipment with hydrostatic
drive. The transmission must be exactly in neutral to prevent
resistance which could keep the engine from starting.
2. Check for seized engine components such as the bearings,
connecting rod, and piston.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Operation - Inertia Drive Starters
When power is applied to the starter, the armature
rotates. As the armature rotates, the drive pinion
moves out on the splined drive shaft and into mesh
with the flywheel ring gear. When the pinion reaches
the end of the drive shaft, it rotates the flywheel and
“cranks” the engine.
When the engine starts, the flywheel rotates faster
than the starter armature and drive pinion. This moves
the drive pinion out of mesh with the ring gear and into
the retracted position. When power is removed from
the starter, the armature stops rotating and the drive
pinion is held in the retracted position by the anti-drift
spring.
Starter Drive Service
Every 500 hours of operation (or annually, whichever
occurs first), clean and lubricate the splines on the
starter drive shaft. If the drive pinion is worn, or has
chipped or broken teeth, it must be replaced. See
Figure 8-30.
7. Install the drive pinion, dust cover spacer, anti-drift
spring, stop gear spacer, and stop nut. Torque the
stop nut to 17.0-19.2 N·m (150-170 in. lb.).
Reinstall the dust cover.
Style ‘‘A’’
Dust Cover
Style ‘‘B’’
Dust Cover
Retaining Ring
Stop Nut
Spring Retainer
Stop Gear Spacer
Anti-Drift Spring
Dust Cover
Spacer
Anti-Drift Spring
Dust Cover Spacer
Drive Pinion
Drive Pinion
Drive Nut (Collar)
It is not necessary to completely disassemble the
starter to service the drive components.
Style ‘‘A’’ Drive Service
1. Remove the starter from the engine and remove
the dust cover.
8
2. Hold the drive pinion in a vice with soft jaws when
removing or installing the stop nut. The armature
will rotate with the nut until the drive pinion stops
against internal spacers.
NOTE: Do not overtighten the vise as this can distort
the drive pinion.
3. Remove the stop nut, stop gear spacer, anti-drift
spring, dust cover spacer, and drive pinion.
4. Clean the splines on drive shaft thoroughly with
solvent. Dry the splines thoroughly.
5. Apply a small amount of Kohler electric starter
drive lubricant, Part No. 52 357 01-S, to the
splines. The use of other lubricants may cause
the drive pinion to stick or bind.
6. Apply a small amount of Loctite® No. 271 to the
stop nut threads.
Style ‘‘A’’
Style ‘‘B’’
Figure 8-30. Inertia Drive Electric Starter.
8.23
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Style ‘‘B’’ Drive Service
1. The rubber dust cover has a molded lip on the
inside that snaps into a groove in the dust cover
spacer (see Figure 8-31). Turn the drive pinion
clockwise until it reaches the fully extended
position. While holding it in the extended position,
grasp the tip of the dust cover with a pliers or vise
grip and pull it free from the spacer.
Dust Cover
Spring
Retainer
Retaining
Ring
Anti-Drift
Spring
Dust Cover
Spacer
Drive
Pinion
Figure 8-32. Assembling Inner Half of Tool Around
Armature Shaft and Retaining Ring.
5. Thread the center screw into the removal tool until
you feel resistance. Use a wrench (1-1/8" or
adjustable) to hold the base of the removal tool.
Use another wrench or socket (1/2" or 13 mm) to
turn the center screw clockwise (see Figure 8-33).
The resistance against the center screw will tell
you when the retaining ring has popped out of the
groove in the armature shaft.
Drive Nut
(Collar)
Figure 8-31. Drive Components, ‘‘Bonded’’ Inertia
Drive Starter.
2. Disassemble the snap ring removal tool, SPX Part
No. KO1049 (formerly Kohler Part No.
25 761 18-S).
3. Again referring to Figure 8-31, grasp the spring
retainer and push it toward the starter,
compressing the anti-drift spring and exposing the
retaining ring.
4. Holding the spring retainer in the retracted
position, assemble the inner halves of the
removal tool around the armature shaft with the
retaining ring in the inner groove (see Figure
8-32). Slide the collar over the inner halves to
hold them in position.
8.24
Figure 8-33. Holding Tool and Turning Center
Screw (Clockwise) to Remove Retaining Ring.
6. Remove the drive components from the armature
shaft, paying attention to the sequence. If the
splines are dirty, clean them with solvent.
7. The splines should have a light film of lubricant.
Relubricate as necessary with Kohler bendix
starter lubricant (Part No. 52 357 01-S). Reinstall
or replace the drive components, assembling
them in the reverse order they were removed.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Retaining Ring Installation
1. Position the retaining ring in the groove in one of
the inner halves. Assemble the other half over the
top and slide on the outer collar.
2. Be certain the drive components are installed in
correct sequence onto the armature shaft.
3. Slip the tool over the end of the armature shaft, so
the retaining ring inside is resting on the end of
the shaft. Hold the tool with one hand, exerting
slight pressure toward the starter. Tap the top of
the tool with a hammer until you feel the retaining
ring snap into the groove. Disassemble and
remove the tool.
4. Squeeze the retaining ring with a pliers to
compress it into the groove.
5. Assemble the inner halves with the larger cavity
around the spring retainer (see Figure 8-34). Slide
the collar over them and thread the center screw
in until resistance is felt.
2. Locate the small raised line on the edge of the
drive end cap. On starters with Style ‘‘A’’
commutator end caps, it will be aligned with a
premarked line on the starter frame. The frame is
not premarked on starters with Style ‘‘B’’ end
caps. Place a piece of masking tape on the frame
and mark a line on the tape in line with the raised
line on the end cap. See Figure 8-37.
3. Remove the thru bolts.
4. Remove the commutator end cap with brushes
and brush springs (Style ‘‘A’’). Style ‘‘B’’ end caps
remove as a separate piece with the brushes and
carrier remaining in the frame.
5. Remove the drive end cap.
6. Remove the armature and thrust washer (if so
equipped) from inside the starter frame.
7. Remove the brush/carrier assembly from the
frame (Style ‘‘B’’ starters).
Style ‘‘A’’ End Cap Brush Replacement
1. Remove the brush springs from the pockets in the
brush holder. See Figure 8-35.
8
2. Remove the self-tapping screws, negative (-)
brushes, and plastic brush holder.
3. Remove the hex. flange nut and fiber washer
from the stud terminal.
Remove the stud terminal with the positive (+)
brushes and plastic insulating bushing from the
end cap.
Figure 8-34. Assembling Larger Inner Half Around
Spring Retainer.
6. Hold the base of the tool with a 1-1/8" wrench and
turn the center screw clockwise with a 1/2" or 13
mm wrench to draw the spring retainer up around
the retaining ring. Stop turning when resistance
increases. Disassemble and remove tool.
7. Reinstall the dust cover.
Starter Disassembly
1. Remove the drive components following the
instructions for servicing the drive.
4. Install the insulating bushing on the stud terminal,
of the new positive (+) brushes. Install the stud
terminal into the commutator end cap. Secure the
stud with the fiber washer and hex. flange screw.
5. Install the brush holder, new negative (-) brushes,
and self-tapping screws.
6. Install the brush springs and brushes into the
pockets in brush holder. Make sure the
chamfered sides of the brushes are away from
the brush springs.
8.25
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
NOTE: Use a brush holder tool to keep the
brushes in the pockets. A brush holder
tool can easily be made from thin sheet
metal. See Figure 8-36.
2. Insert the armature into the starter frame. Make
sure the magnets are closer to the drive shaft end
of armature. The magnets will hold the armature
inside the frame.
SelfTapping
Screw
3. Install the drive end cap over the drive shaft.
Make sure the match marks on the end cap and
starter frame are aligned. See Figure 8-37.
Brush Springs
Brush
Holder
Negative
(-) Brush
Negative
(-) Brush
Self-Tapping
Screw
Stud Terminal with
Positive (+) Brushes
Figure 8-35. Style ‘‘A’’ Commutator End Cap with
Brushes.
Brush Holder Tool Installed
Over Brushes and End Cap
2 1/2"
1/2"
Figure 8-37. Starter Assembly Match Marks.
For Style ‘‘A’’ Commutator End Caps:
4. Install the brush holder tool to keep the brushes in
the pockets of the commutator end cap.
1 3/4"
1 1/8"
Sheet Metal Brush
Holder Tool
Figure 8-36. Brush Holder Tool (Style ‘‘A’’ End Cap).
Style ‘‘B’’ End Cap Brush Replacement
Starters with Style ‘‘B’’ end caps have the brushes in a
plastic carrier housing, separate from the end cap.
Replacement brushes come preassembled in the
carrier housing, retained with two carton staples.
Commutator Service
Clean the commutator with a coarse, lint free cloth. Do
not use emery cloth.
If the commutator is badly worn or grooved, turn it
down on a lathe or replace the armature.
Starter Reassembly
1. Place the thrust washer (if so equipped) over the
drive shaft of the armature.
8.26
5. Align the match marks on the commutator end
cap and the starter frame. Hold the drive end and
the commutator end caps firmly to the starter
frame. Remove the brush holder tool.
For Style ‘‘B’’ Commutator End Caps:
4. If the brush assembly is not being replaced,
position the brushes in their pockets in the carrier.
Move them to the retracted position, and install
carton staples to retain them. See Figure 8-38.
5. Align the terminal stud block with the notch in the
starter frame and slide the brush/carrier assembly
into the frame. The commutator will push the
carton staples out as the brush assembly is
installed. Position the end cap over the brush
assembly, so the holes for the thru bolts are
aligned with those in the brush carrier.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Solenoid Shift Electric Starters
The following subsection covers the solenoid shift
electric starters. Much of the information in the
proceeding subsection relates to this type starter also,
so it is not repeated here. A Nippondenso or DelcoRemy solenoid shift starter may be used. The
Nippondenso starter is covered first, and the DelcoRemy starter servicing follows.
Figure 8-38. Style ‘‘B’’ Commutator End Cap with
Brushes.
6. Install the thru bolts and tighten securely.
7. Lubricate the drive shaft with Kohler bendix starter
drive lubricant (Part No. 52 357 01-S). Install the
drive components following the instructions for
servicing the starter drive.
Nut
Operation – Solenoid Shift Starter
When power is applied to the starter the electric
solenoid moves the drive pinion out onto the drive
shaft and into mesh with the flywheel ring gear. When
the pinion reaches the end of the drive shaft it rotates
the flywheel and cranks the engine.
When the engine starts and the start switch is released
the starter solenoid is deactivated, the drive lever
moves back, and the drive pinion moves out of mesh
with the ring gear into the retracted position.
Drive
End Cap
Frame
8
Wire
Drive
Lever
Front Stop
Collar
Dust
Cover
Starter Assembly
Retainer
Rear Stop
Collar
Brushes
Brush
Holder
Brush Spring
Solenoid
Insulator
Nut
Drive
Pinion
Commutator
End Cap
Thru Bolt
Armature
Figure 8-39. Nippondenso Solenoid Shift Starter.
8.27
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Starter Disassembly
1. Disconnect the lead wire from the solenoid.
2. Remove the hex. nuts securing the solenoid, and
remove the solenoid from the starter assembly.
3. Remove the two thru bolts.
4. Remove the commutator end cap.
5. Remove the insulator and the brush springs from
the brush spring holder.
Starter Service
Every 500 hours of operation (or annually, whichever
comes first), solenoid shift starters must be
disassembled, cleaned and relubricated. Apply starter
lubricant (Kohler Part No. 52 357 02-S) to the lever
and shaft. Failure to do so could result in an
accumulation of dirt or debris that might prevent the
engine from starting and could cause damage to the
starter or the flywheel. Service may be necessary
more frequently under dusty or dirty conditions.
Starter Reassembly
1. Insert the rear stop collar on the armature shaft.
6. Remove the armature from the frame.
7. Remove the drive lever and the armature from the
drive end cap.
NOTE: When removing the lever and the
armature be careful not to lose the thrust
washer.
8. The stop collar consists of two similar pieces held
in place by being snapped over a retainer. The
retainer is held in place by a groove in the
armature shaft. To remove the stop collar the two
pieces must be pried off the retainer.
9. When the stop collars are removed the retainer
can be removed from the armature shaft. Do not
reuse the retainer.
2. Place the retainer in the groove on the armature
shaft.
NOTE: Always use a new retainer. Tighten the
retainer in the groove to secure.
3. Fit the front stop collar over the shaft and bring
the front and the rear stop collars together over
the retainer. Using two pairs of pliers apply even
force to the two collars until they snap over the
retainer and nest into one another.
4. Reassemble the remaining components of the
starter in reverse order from disassembly.
Delco-Remy Starters
Brush Replacement
The brushes in the starter are part of the starter frame.
Brush kit, Kohler Part No. 52 221 01-S, contains four
replacement brushes and springs. If replacement is
necessary, all four brushes should be replaced.
1. Remove the brushes from the brush holder, and
remove the brush holder from the frame.
2. Cut the brush lead wire at the edge of the post
with a pair of nippers.
3. File off any burrs on the post.
Figure 8-40. Completed Delco-Remy Starter.
4. The replacement brushes have a solid portion on
them which should be crimped on the post.
Starter Disassembly
1. Remove the hex. nut and disconnect the positive
(+) brush lead/bracket from the solenoid terminal.
5. Solder the crimped portion to the post.
6. Replace the brush holder in the frame and place
the brushes in the brush holder. Reinstall the
springs.
8.28
2. Remove the three screws securing the solenoid to
the starter. See Figure 8-41.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Phillips Head
Screws
Torx Head Screws
Figure 8-41. Removing Solenoid Screws.
3.
Figure 8-42. Solenoid Removed from Starter.
8
If the solenoid was mounted with Phillips head
screws, separate the solenoid and plunger spring
from the drive end cap. If the solenoid was
mounted with external Torx head screws, the
plunger is part of the solenoid, unhook the plunger
pin from the drive lever. Remove the gasket from
the recess in the housing. See Figures 8-42 and
8-43.
Figure 8-43. Removing Plunger.
4. Remove the two thru (larger) bolts. See Figure
8-44.
8.29
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
7. Remove the drive lever pivot bushing and backing
plate from the end cap. See Figure 8-47.
Figure 8-44. Removing Thru Bolts.
5. Remove the commutator end plate assembly,
containing the brush holder, brushes, springs, and
locking caps. Remove the thrust washer from
inside the commutator end. See Figure 8-45.
Figure 8-47.
8. Take out the drive lever and pull the armature out
of the drive end cap. See Figure 8-48.
9. Remove the thrust washer from the armature
shaft. See Figure 8-48.
Figure 8-45. Removing Commutator End Plate
Assembly.
6. Remove the frame from the armature and drive
end cap. See Figure 8-46.
Figure 8-48. Armature and Lever Removed.
10. Push the stop collar down to expose the retaining
ring. See Figure 8-49.
Figure 8-46. Starter Frame Removed.
8.30
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Figure 8-49. Retaining Ring Detail.
Figure 8-50. Removing Retaining Ring.
11. Remove the retainer from the armature shaft.
Save the stop collar.
12. Remove the drive pinion assembly from the
armature.
NOTE:
13. Clean the parts as required.
Do not reuse the old retainer.
NOTE: Do not soak the armature or use solvent
when cleaning. Wipe clean using a soft cloth,
or use compressed air.
Screw
8
Collar
Ring
Stop
Drive
Plunger
Spring
Lever
Plate
Plug
Armature
Solenoid
Frame & Field
Washer
Tube
Brush Holder
Nut
CE Frame
Screw
Bolt
Figure 8-51. Delco-Remy Starter.
8.31
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Inspection
Commutator O.D.
Drive Pinion
Check and inspect the following areas:
a. The pinion teeth for abnormal wear or damage.
b. The surface between the pinion and the clutch
mechanism for nicks, or irregularities which could
cause seal damage.
c. Check the drive clutch by holding the clutch
housing and rotating the pinion. The pinion should
rotate in one direction only.
Brushes and Springs
Inspect both the springs and brushes for wear, fatigue,
or damage. Measure the length of each brush. The
minimum length for each brush is 7.6 mm (0.300 in.).
See Figure 8-52. Replace the brushes if they are worn
undersize, or their condition is questionable.
Mica Insulation
Figure 8-53. Commutator Mica Inspection.
2. Use an ohmmeter set to the Rx1 scale. Touch the
probes between two different segments of the
commutator, and check for continuity. See Figure
8-54. Test all the segments. Continuity must exist
between all or the armature is bad.
Insulation
Check
Wear limit length:
7.6 mm (0.300 in.)
Figure 8-52. Checking Brushes.
Armature
1. Clean and inspect the commutator (outer
surface). The mica insulation must be lower than
the commutator bars (undercut) to ensure proper
operation of the commutator. See Figure 8-53.
Armature
Coil
Continuity Check
Figure 8-54. Checking Armature.
3. Check for continuity between the armature coil
segments and the commutator segments. See
Figure 8-54. There should be no continuity. If
continuity exists between any two, the armature is
bad.
4. Check the armature windings/insulation for
shorting.
Shift Fork
Check that the shift fork is complete, and the pivot and
contact areas are not excessively worn, cracked or
broken.
8.32
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Brush Replacement
Starter Service
The brushes and springs are serviced as a set (4).
Use Brush and Spring Kit, Kohler Part No.
25 221 01-S, if replacement is necessary.
Clean the drive lever and armature shaft. Apply Kohler
electric starter drive lubricant Part No. 52 357 02-S
(Versilube G322L or Mobil Temp SHC 32) to the lever
and shaft. Clean and check the other starter parts for
wear or damage as required.
1. Perform steps 1-5 in “Starter Disassembly.”
2. Remove the two screws securing the brush holder
assembly to the end cap (plate). Note the
orientation for reassembly later. See Figure 8-55.
Discard the old brush holder assembly.
Starter Reassembly
1. Apply drive lubricant (Kohler Part No.
52 357 02-S) to the armature shaft splines. Install
the drive pinion onto the armature shaft.
2. Install and assemble the stop collar/retainer
assembly.
a. Install the stop collar down onto the armature
shaft with the counter bore (recess) up.
b. Install a new retainer in the larger (rear)
groove of the armature shaft. Squeeze with a
pliers to compress it in the groove.
Figure 8-55. Removing Brush Holder.
c. Slide the stop collar up and lock it into place,
so the recess surrounds the retainer in the
groove. If necessary, rotate the pinion outward
on the armature splines against the retainer to
help seat the collar around the retainer.
8
3. Clean the component parts as required.
4. The new brushes and springs come
preassembled in a brush holder with a protective
sleeve that will also serve as an installation tool.
See Figure 8-56.
Figure 8-57. Installing Stop Collar and Retainer.
NOTE: Always use a new retainer. Do not reuse old
retainers which have been removed.
Figure 8-56. Service Brush Kit.
3. Install the offset thrust (stop) washer so the
smaller “offset” of the washer faces the retainer/
collar. See Figure 8-58.
5. Perform Steps 10-13 in the “Starter Reassembly”
sequence. Installation must be done after the
armature, drive lever, and frame are installed, if
the starter has been disassembled.
8.33
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
7. Install the backup washer, followed by the rubber
grommet, into the matching recess of the drive
end cap. The molded recesses in the grommet
should be “out”, matching and aligned with those
in the end cap. See Figure 8-60.
Figure 8-58. Installing Thrust Washer.
4. Apply a small amount of oil to the bearing in the
drive end cap, and install the armature with the
drive pinion.
5. Lubricate the fork end and center pivot of the
drive lever with drive lubricant (Kohler Part No.
52 357 02-S). Position the fork end into the space
between the captured washer and the rear of the
pinion.
6. Slide the armature into the drive end cap, and at
the same time seat the drive lever into the
housing.
Figure 8-60. Installing Backup Washer and
Grommet.
8. Install the frame, with the small notch forward,
onto the armature and drive end cap. Align the
notch with the corresponding section in the rubber
grommet. Install the drain tube in the rear cutout,
if it was removed previously. See Figure 8-61.
NOTE: Correctly installed, the center pivot section of
the drive lever will be flush or below the
machined surface of the housing which
receives the backup washer. See Figure 8-59.
Figure 8-61. Installing Frame and Drain Tube.
9. Install the flat thrust washer onto the commutator
end of the armature shaft. See Figure 8-62.
Figure 8-59. Installing Armature and Pivot Lever.
8.34
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Figure 8-62. Installing Thrust Washer.
10. Starter reassembly when replacing the Brushes/
Brush Holder Assembly:
a. Hold the starter assembly vertically on the end
housing, and carefully position the assembled
brush holder assembly, with the supplied
protective tube, against the end of the
commutator/armature. The mounting screw
holes in the metal clips must be “up/out.” Slide
the brush holder assembly down into place
around the commutator, and install the positive
(+) brush lead grommet in the cutout of the
frame. See Figure 8-63. The protective tube
may be saved and used for future servicing.
Figure 8-64. Removing Retaining Clips.
b. Position each of the brushes back in their slots
so they are flush with the I.D. of the brush
holder assembly. Insert the Brush Installation
Tool (SPX Part No. KO3226-1 with extension),
or use the tube described above from a prior
brush installation, through the brush holder
assembly, so the holes in the metal mounting
clips are “up/out.”
c. Install the brush springs and snap on the four
retainer caps. See Figure 8-65.
8
Figure 8-65. Brush Installation Tool with Extension.
Figure 8-63. Installing Brush Holder Assembly with
Supplied Tube.
Starter reassembly when not replacing the Brushes/
Brush Holder Assembly:
a. Carefully unhook the retaining caps from over
each of the brush assemblies. Do not lose the
springs.
d. Hold the starter assembly vertically on the end
housing, and carefully place the tool (with
extension) and assembled original brush holder
assembly onto the end of the armature shaft.
Slide the brush holder assembly down into
place around the commutator, install the
positive (+) brush lead grommet in the cutout of
the frame. See Figure 8-66.
8.35
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Figure 8-66. Installing Brush Holder Assembly
using Tool with Extension.
11. Install the end cap onto the armature and frame,
aligning the thin raised rib in the end cap with the
corresponding slot in the grommet of the positive
(+) brush lead.
12. Install the two thru bolts, and the two brush holder
mounting screws. Torque the thru bolts to
5.6-9.0 N·m (49-79 in. lb.). Torque the brush
holder mounting screws to 2.5-3.3 N·m
(22-29 in. lb.). See Figures 8-67 and 8-68.
Figure 8-68. Torquing Brush Holder Screws.
13. Hook the plunger behind the upper end of the
drive lever, and install the spring into the solenoid.
Insert the three mounting screws through the
holes in the drive end cap. Use these to hold the
solenoid gasket in position, then mount the
solenoid. Torque the screws to 4.0-6.0 N·m
(35-53 in. lb.).
14. Connect the positive (+) brush lead/bracket to the
solenoid and secure with the hex. nut. Torque the
nut to 8-11 N·m (71-97 in. lb.). Do not
overtighten. See Figure 8-69.
Figure 8-67. Torquing Thru Bolts.
Figure 8-69. Positive (+) Brush Lead Connection.
8.36
Section 9
CH18-745
Disassembly
Section 9
Disassembly
WARNING: Accidental Starts!
Disabling engine. Accidental starting can cause severe injury or death. Before working on the engine or
equipment, disable the engine as follows: 1) Disconnect the spark plug lead(s). 2) Disconnect negative (-)
battery cable from battery.
General
Clean all parts thoroughly as the engine is
disassembled. Only clean parts can be accurately
inspected and gauged for wear or damage. There are
many commercially available cleaners that will quickly
remove grease, oil and grime from engine parts. When
such a cleaner is used, follow the manufacturer’s
instructions and safety precautions carefully.
Make sure all traces of the cleaner are removed
before the engine is reassembled and placed into
operation. Even small amounts of these cleaners can
quickly break down the lubricating properties of engine
oil.
Typical Disassembly Sequence
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Remove cylinder heads and hydraulic lifters.
Remove grass screen and fan.
Remove flywheel.
Remove stator and backing plates.
Remove closure plate assembly.
Remove camshaft.
Remove connecting rods with pistons and rings.
Remove crankshaft.
Remove governor cross shaft.
Disconnect Spark Plug Leads
1. Disconnect the leads from the spark plugs. See
Figure 9-1.
NOTE: Pull on boot only, to prevent damage to
spark plug lead.
The following sequence is suggested for complete
engine disassembly. The sequence can be varied to
accommodate options or special equipment.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Disconnect spark plug leads.
Shut off fuel supply.
Drain oil from crankcase and remove oil filter.
Remove muffler.
Remove air cleaner assembly.
Remove control panel (if so equipped).
Remove fuel pump.
Remove throttle controls.
Remove external governor controls.
Remove carburetor.
Remove electric starter motor.
Remove outer baffles and blower housing.
Remove Oil Sentry™ (if so equipped).
Remove inner baffles and breather cover.
Remove valve covers.
Remove ignition modules.
Remove intake manifold.
Remove spark plugs.
Figure 9-1. Disconnect Both Spark Plug Leads.
Shut Off Fuel Supply
Drain Oil from Crankcase and Remove Oil
Filter
1. Remove the oil fill cap and dipstick and one of the
oil drain plugs.
9.1
9
Section 9
Disassembly
3. Remove and discard the oil filter. See Figure 9-5.
Figure 9-2. Removing Dipstick from Tube.
Figure 9-5. Removing Oil Filter.
Figure 9-3. Removing Oil Fill Cap from Cover.
Figure 9-4. Removing Oil Drain Plug.
2. Allow ample time for the oil to drain from the
crankcase and oil filter.
9.2
Figure 9-6. Removing Oil Filter Adapter Nipple.
Section 9
Disassembly
4. Remove the hex. flange screws securing the
bracket and base. See Figure 9-8. Two additional
rear screws must be removed if the engine
contains a rear air cleaner support bracket. See
Figure 9-9.
Figure 9-8. Removing Air Cleaner Base Retainer.
Figure 9-7. Removing Oil Cooler.
4. An oil cooler is standard equipment on some
models and an option on others. It may be a cast
aluminum housing, part of the oil filter adapter, or
attached to the blower housing, separated from
the oil filter adapter. If so equipped, remove the
adapter and the cooler. See Figures 9-6 and 9-7.
Remove Muffler
1. Remove the exhaust system and attaching
hardware from the engine. On engines equipped
with a port liner, remove it now.
9
Figure 9-9. Rear Air Cleaner Bracket Screws.
5. Remove the bracket then remove the base and
gasket while carefully pulling the rubber breather
tube through the base. See Figure 9-10.
Remove Air Cleaner Assembly
1. Unhook the latches or loosen the knob and
remove the cover. Refer to Section 4.
2. Remove the wing nut from the element cover.
3. Remove the element cover, the air cleaner
element with precleaner and the stud seal.
Figure 9-10. Removing Breather Tube from Base.
9.3
Section 9
Disassembly
Figure 9-11. Removing Tube from Breather Cover.
Figure 9-13. Disconnecting Pulse Line from
Crankcase.
6. Remove the rubber breather tube from the
breather cover. See Figure 9-11.
Remove Fuel Pump
WARNING: Explosive Fuel!
Gasoline is extremely flammable and its vapors can
explode if ignited. Store gasoline only in approved
containers, in well ventilated, unoccupied buildings,
away from sparks or flames. Do not fill the fuel tank
while the engine is hot or running, since spilled fuel
could ignite if it comes in contact with hot parts or
sparks from ignition. Do not start the engine near
spilled fuel. Never use gasoline as a cleaning agent.
Pulse Style Pumps
1. Disconnect the fuel lines at the carburetor and at
the in-line fuel filter. See Figure 9-12.
Figure 9-14. Disconnecting Pulse Line from Valve
Cover (Early Models).
2. Disconnect the pulse (vacuum) line from the
crankcase, or from the valve cover on earlier
models. See Figures 9-13 and 9-14.
3. Remove the two hex. flange screws securing the
fuel pump to the bracket or to the blower housing.
See Figure 9-15. The fuel pump body may be
metal or plastic.
Figure 9-12. Disconnecting Fuel Inlet Line at
Carburetor.
9.4
Section 9
Disassembly
Figure 9-15. Removing Screws Holding Fuel Pump
(Metal Bodied Pump Shown).
Figure 9-17. Mechanical Fuel Pump.
Remove Control Panel (If So Equipped)
4. Note or mark the orientation of the fuel pump,
then remove the fuel pump with lines attached as
shown in Figure 9-16.
1. Disconnect the Oil Sentry™ Indicator Light wires.
2. Disconnect the choke control cable from the
control bracket.
3. Disconnect the throttle control cable or shaft.
4. Remove the panel from the blower housing.
Remove Throttle & Choke Controls
1. Remove the four hex. flange screws securing the
control bracket and rear air cleaner bracket (some
models) to the cylinder heads. See Figures 9-18
and 9-19.
9
Figure 9-16. Remove Fuel Pump and Lines.
Mechanical Fuel Pump
The mechanical style fuel pump is part of the valve
cover assembly. See Figure 9-17.
1. Disconnect the fuel lines at the pump outlet and at
the in-line fuel filter.
2. The fuel pump will be removed with the valve
cover. Refer to the valve cover removal
procedure.
Figure 9-18. Removing Control Bracket.
9.5
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove External Governor Controls
1. Loosen the hex. flange nut and remove the
governor lever from the cross shaft. See Figure
9-22. Leave lever attached to the throttle linkage
and lay assembly on the top of the crankcase.
Figure 9-19. Rear Air Cleaner Bracket (Some
Models).
2. Mark the spring hole locations and disconnect the
spring from the governor lever. See Figure 9-20.
Figure 9-22. Removing Governor Lever.
Remove Carburetor
WARNING: Explosive Fuel!
Gasoline is extremely flammable and its vapors can
explode if ignited. Store gasoline only in approved
containers, in well ventilated, unoccupied buildings,
away from sparks or flames. Do not fill the fuel tank
while the engine is hot or running, since spilled fuel
could ignite if it comes in contact with hot parts or
sparks from ignition. Do not start the engine near
spilled fuel. Never use gasoline as a cleaning agent.
Figure 9-20. Disconnecting Spring from Bracket.
3. Remove the choke linkage from the choke
actuator lever and carburetor. See Figure 9-21.
Figure 9-21. Disconnecting Choke Linkage from
Actuator Lever.
9.6
1. Disconnect the fuel shut-off solenoid lead if so
equipped.
2. Remove the two carburetor mounting screws. See
Figure 9-23.
Figure 9-23. Removing Carburetor Mounting
Screws.
Section 9
Disassembly
3. Remove the carburetor, throttle linkage and
governor lever as an assembly. See Figure 9-24.
Remove Electric Starter Motor
1. Disconnect the leads from the starter.
2. Remove the two hex. flange screws. See Figure
9-26.
Figure 9-24. Removing Carburetor Assembly with
Governor Lever Attached.
4. Remove the carburetor gasket.
5. If necessary, the carburetor, throttle linkage and
governor lever can be separated. Reattach the
bushings to the linkage following separation to
avoid losing them.
Remove Oil Sentry™ (If So Equipped)
Figure 9-26. Removing Electric Starter Motor.
3. Remove the starter assembly and any spacers (if
used).
Remove Outer Baffles and Blower Housing
1. Disconnect the plug from the rectifier-regulator on
the blower housing. See Figure 9-27.
1. Disconnect the lead from the Oil Sentry™ switch.
2. Remove the Oil Sentry™ switch from the breather
cover. See Figure 9-25.
9
Figure 9-27. Disconnecting Plug from RectifierRegulator.
Figure 9-25. Removing Oil Sentry™ Switch from
Breather Cover.
2. Use the tip of the dipstick or a similar small flat
tool to bend the locking tang, then remove the B+
(center lead) from the terminal plug as shown in
Figure 9-28. This will allow the blower housing to
be removed without disturbing the wiring harness.
9.7
Section 9
Disassembly
4. Remove the three (each side) hex. flange screws
securing the outer baffles. Note the location of
any lifting strap and position of the two short
screws (one each side on bottom) for reassembly.
See Figure 9-30.
Figure 9-28. Remove B+ Lead from Terminal Plug.
3. The rectifier-regulator does not have to be
detached from the blower housing. If the engine is
equipped with SMART-SPARK™ the SAM module
should be removed from the cylinder baffle or
blower housing. See Figure 9-29. The module
willing hang loose as part of the wiring harness.
Figure 9-30. Note Location of Two Short Screws.
Figure 9-31. Removing Outer Baffles.
5. Remove the outer baffles on both sides. See
Figure 9-31.
6. On engines equipped with a metal grass screen,
remove the screen before removing the blower
housing. See Figure 9-32. Plastic grass screens
can be removed after the blower housing is
removed.
Figure 9-29. Removing the Spark Advance Module
(Applicable Models).
9.8
Section 9
Disassembly
Figure 9-32. Removing Metal Grass Screen.
7. Remove the lower blower housing screw and
washer securing the rectifier-regulator ground
lead or grounding strap.
Figure 9-34. Removing Fasteners Holding Baffle
and Breather Cover.
2. Remove both inner baffles. See Figure 9-35.
8. Remove the remaining hex. flange screws and
detach the blower housing. See Figure 9-33.
9. Disconnect the plug from the key switch in the
blower housing if engine is so equipped.
9
Figure 9-35. Removing Inner Baffles.
3. Remove the two remaining screws holding the
breather cover to the crankcase. See Figure 9-35.
Figure 9-33. Removing Blower Housing.
Remove Inner Baffles and Breather Cover
The inner (valley) baffles are attached at one corner
using the same fasteners as the breather cover. See
Figure 9-34.
4. Pry under the protruding edge of the breather
cover with a screwdriver to break the RTV or
gasket seal. See Figure 9-36. Do not pry on the
sealing surfaces as it could cause damage
resulting in leaks. Most engines use a formed
gasket rather than RTV sealant.
1. Remove the two hex. flange screws securing the
inner baffles.
9.9
Section 9
Disassembly
7. Remove the hex. flange screw, breather reed
retainer and breather reed. See Figure 9-39.
Figure 9-36. Breaking Breather Cover Seal.
5. Remove the breather cover and gasket (if used).
See Figure 9-37.
Figure 9-39. Removing Breather Reed.
Remove Valve Covers
Three valve cover designs have been used. The
earliest type used a gasket and RTV sealant between
the cover and sealing surface of the cylinder head. The
second type had a black O-Ring installed in a groove
on the underside of the cover and may have metal
spacers in the bolt holes. The latest design uses a
brown O-Ring, and the bolt holes spacers are molded
in place.
1. Remove the four hex. flange screws securing
each valve cover. Note the position of any
attached brackets or lifting straps.
Figure 9-37. Removing Breather Cover.
6. Remove the breather filter from chamber. See
Figure 9-38.
Figure 9-38. Removing Breather Filter.
9.10
2. Remove the valve covers, valve cover gaskets or
O-Rings and any brackets or lifting straps. Note
which side of the engine has the oil fill and or fuel
pump valve cover. See Figure 9-40.
Figure 9-40. Removing Valve Covers.
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Ignition Modules
1. Disconnect the lead(s)* from each ignition
module. See Figure 9-41. *Modules for nonSMART-SPARK™ ignition systems have only one
kill lead.
3. Leave the wiring harness attached to the
manifold.
Aluminum
Intake
Manifold
Plastic Intake
Manifold
Figure 9-41. Disconnecting Leads from Ignition
Modules.
2. Rotate the flywheel so the magnet is away from
the modules.
3. Remove the mounting screws and ignition
modules. Note the position of ignition modules.
Figure 9-43. Removing Intake Manifold.
9
Figure 9-42. Position of SMART-SPARK™ Ignition
Module.
Remove Intake Manifold
1. Remove the four hex. flange screws securing the
intake manifold to the cylinder heads. Note which
screws hold the wiring clamps.
Figure 9-44. Bolt Wiring Harness Detail.
2. Remove the intake manifold and the intake
manifold gaskets (aluminum intake manifolds) or
O-Rings (plastic intake manifolds). See Figure
9-43.
9.11
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Spark Plugs
Hex. Flange Screw
1. Remove the spark plug from each cylinder head.
Hex. Flange Nut
and Washer
Figure 9-45. Removing Spark Plugs.
Remove Cylinder Heads and Hydraulic
Lifters
NOTE: Cylinder heads are retained using either hex.
flange screws or hex. flange nuts and
washers on studs. Do not interchange or mix
components, as the cylinder heads may have
different machining, unique to each fastening
method.
1. Remove the four hex. flange screws or hex. nuts
and washers securing each cylinder head. See
Figure 9-46. Discard the screws or nuts and
washers once removed. Do not reuse. Studs (if
present) should only be removed if damaged or if
cylinder reconditioning is necessary. Once
removed, they must be replaced.
9.12
Figure 9-46. Removing Cylinder Head Fasteners.
2. Mark the position of the push rods as either intake
or exhaust and cylinder 1 or 2. Push rods should
always be reinstalled in the same positions.
3. Carefully remove the push rods, cylinder heads
and head gaskets. See Figure 9-47.
Section 9
Disassembly
Figure 9-48. Removing Hydraulic Lifter.
Figure 9-47. Removing Cylinder Head Assembly.
4. Remove the lifters from the lifter bores. Use
Hydraulic Lifter Tool (SPX Part No. KO1044) Do
not use a magnet to remove lifters. Mark the
lifters by location, as either intake or exhaust and
cylinder 1 or 2. Hydraulic lifters should always be
reinstalled in the same position. See Figures 9-48
and 9-49.
Figure 9-49. Mark Position of Hydraulic Lifters.
9
NOTE: The exhaust lifters are located on the output
shaft side of the engine while the intake lifters
are located on the fan side of the engine. The
cylinder head number is embossed on the
outside of each cylinder head. See Figure
9-50.
Figure 9-50. Match Marks on Cylinder Barrel and
Heads.
9.13
Section 9
Disassembly
Disassemble Cylinder Heads
1. Remove the two hex. flange screws, rocker arm
pivots and rocker arms from the cylinder head.
See Figure 9-51.
3. Once the valve spring is compressed, remove the
following items. See Figures 9-53 and 9-54.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Valve spring keepers
Valve spring retainers
Valve springs
Valve spring caps
Intake and exhaust valves (mark position)
Valve stem seals (intake valve only)
Valve Seal
Figure 9-51. Removing Rocker Arms.
2. Compress the valve springs using a valve spring
compressor. See Figure 9-52.
Figure 9-54. Intake Valve Seal Location.
NOTE: These engines use valve stem seals on the
intake valves. Use a new seal whenever valve
is removed or if the seal is deteriorated in any
way. Never reuse an old seal.
4. Repeat the above procedure for the other cylinder
head. Do not interchange parts from one cylinder
head to the other.
Remove Grass Screen and Fan
Figure 9-52. Removing Valves with Valve Spring
Compressor.
Valve
Keepers
Retainer
Cap
Spring
Figure 9-53. Valve Train Components.
9.14
1. Small metal retainers are typically attached on
three of the seven mounting posts for positive
retention of the plastic grass screen. Use a hookend tool next to the post and pull outward to
separate each of the small metal retainers. Then
unsnap the fan from the remaining mounting
posts. See Figure 9-55.
Section 9
Disassembly
Figure 9-55. Removing Plastic Type Grass Screen.
2. Remove the four hex. flange screws and fan. See
Figure 9-56.
Figure 9-57. Removing Flywheel Fastener Using
Strap Wrench.
2. Remove the hex. flange screw and washer.
3. Use a puller to remove the flywheel from the
crankshaft. See Figure 9-58.
NOTE: Always use a flywheel puller to remove
the flywheel from the crankshaft. Do not
strike the crankshaft or flywheel, as
these parts could become cracked or
damaged. Striking the puller or
crankshaft can cause the crank gear to
move, affecting the crankshaft end play.
9
Figure 9-56. Removing Fan.
Remove Flywheel
1. Use a flywheel strap wrench or holding tool (see
Section 2) to hold the flywheel and loosen the
hex. flange screw securing the flywheel to the
crankshaft. See Figure 9-57.
NOTE: Always use a flywheel strap wrench or
holding tool to hold the flywheel when
loosening or tightening the flywheel
screw. Do not use any type of bar or
wedge to hold the flywheel. Use of such
tools could cause the flywheel to become
cracked or damaged.
Figure 9-58. Removing Flywheel with a Puller.
4. Remove the woodruff key from the crankshaft.
Remove Stator and Backing Plates
1. Remove the four hex. flange screws securing the
backing plates and stator wire bracket (if
equipped). See Figure 9-59. Remove the backing
plates and stator wire bracket.
9.15
Section 9
Disassembly
2. Locate the three splitting tabs that are cast into
the perimeter of the closure plate. Insert the drive
end of a 1/2" breaker bar between the top splitting
tab and the crankcase. Hold the handle horizontal
and pull toward you to break the RTV seal. If
necessary, pry at the bottom tabs also. See
Figures 9-62 and 9-63. Do not pry on the sealing
surfaces as this could cause leaks. Carefully pull
closure plate from crankcase.
Figure 9-59. Removing Backing Plates and Stator
Wire Bracket.
2. Remove the two hex. head screws and stator.
See Figure 9-60. Note the routing of the stator
lead in the channel.
Figure 9-62. Location of Three Splitting Tabs.
Figure 9-60. Removing Stator.
Remove Closure Plate Assembly
1. Remove the ten hex. flange screws securing the
closure plate to the crankcase. See Figure 9-61.
Figure 9-63. Breaking Seal on Top Splitting Tab.
Governor Gear Assembly
The governor gear assembly is located inside the
closure plate. If service is required, refer to the service
procedures under ‘‘Governor Gear Assembly’’ in
Section 10.
Oil Pump Assembly
The oil pump is mounted to the inside of the closure
plate. If service is required, refer to the service
procedures under ‘‘Oil Pump Assembly’’ in Section 10.
Figure 9-61. Removing the Ten Closure Plate
Fasteners.
9.16
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Camshaft
1. Remove the camshaft and shim. See Figure 9-64.
Camshaft
Shim
Figure 9-66. Mark End Cap with Cylinder Number
Before Removal.
Figure 9-64. Removing Camshaft (Note Shim).
Remove Connecting Rods with Pistons
and Rings
1. Remove the two hex. flange screws securing the
closest connecting rod end cap. Remove the end
cap. See Figure 9-65.
NOTE: The cylinders are numbered on the
crankcase. Use the numbers to mark each
end cap, connecting rod and piston for
reassembly. Do not mix end caps and
connecting rods.
9
Figure 9-67. Removing Piston/Connecting Rod
Assemblies.
Figure 9-65. Removing Connecting Rod Bolts.
NOTE: If a carbon ridge is present at the top of
either cylinder bore, use a ridge reamer
tool to remove the ridge before
attempting to remove the piston.
2. Carefully remove the connecting rod and piston
assembly from the cylinder bore. See Figure 9-67.
3. Repeat the above procedures for the other
connecting rod and piston assembly.
9.17
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Crankshaft
1. Carefully pull the crankshaft from the crankcase.
See Figure 9-68. Note thrust washers and shims
if used.
Figure 9-70. Removing Governor Cross Shaft
Retainer (8 mm Shaft Design).
2. Pull the cross shaft with small washer out through
the inside of the crankcase. See Figure 9-71.
Figure 9-68. Removing Crankshaft.
Remove Governor Cross Shaft
1. Remove the hitch pin and plain washer, or the
retainer and nylon washer, from the governor
cross shaft. See Figures 9-69 and 9-70.
Figure 9-71. Pulling Governor Cross Shaft.
Remove Flywheel End Oil Seal
1. Remove oil seal from crankcase. See Figure
9-72.
Figure 9-69. Removing Governor Cross Shaft Hitch
Pin (6 mm Shaft Design).
Figure 9-72. Removing Oil Seal.
9.18
Section 10
CH18-745
Inspection and Reconditioning
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
This section covers the operation, inspection, and
repair/reconditioning of major internal engine
components. The following components are not
covered in this section. They are covered in sections
of their own:
Air Cleaner, Section 4
Carburetor & External Governor, Section 5
Ignition, Charging & Electric Starter, Section 8
Clean all parts thoroughly. Only clean parts can be
accurately inspected and gauged for wear or damage.
There are many commercially available cleaners that
will quickly remove grease, oil, and grime from engine
parts. When such a cleaner is used, follow the
manufacturer’s instructions and safety precautions
carefully. Make sure all traces of the cleaner are
removed before the engine is reassembled and placed
into operation. Even small amounts of these cleaners
can quickly break down the lubricating properties of
engine oil.
Use an aerosol gasket remove, paint stripper, or
lacquer thinner to remove any old sealant. Apply the
solvent, allow time for it to work, and then brush the
surface with a brass wire brush. After the old sealant
is removed, clean the surface with isopropyl alcohol,
lacquer thinner, or aerosol electrical contact cleaner.
Do not scrape the surfaces, as any scratches, nicks,
or burrs can result in leaks. See Service Bulletin 252
for further information.
Refer to A Guide to Engine Rebuilding (TP-2150-A) for
additional information. Measurement Guide
(TP-2159-B) and Engine Inspection Data Record
(TP-2435) are also available; use these to record
inspection results.
Automatic Compression Release (ACR)
Some engines are equipped with the optional
Automatic Compression Release (ACR) mechanism.
The ACR lowers compression at cranking speeds to
make starting easier.
Operation
The ACR mechanism consists of a flyweight, spring
and pivoting control pin assembly attached to the gear
on the camshaft. At cranking speeds (700 RPM or
lower), the control pin protrudes above the exhaust
cam lobe. This pushes the exhaust valve off its seat
during the first part of the compression stroke. The
reduced compression results in an effective
compression ratio of about 2:1 during cranking.
After starting, engine speed increases to over 700
RPM, and centrifugal force overcomes the force of the
flyweight spring. The flyweight moves outward, pulling
the arm of the control pin, so it pivots into the ‘‘run’’
position. The control pin no longer has any effect on
the exhaust valve and the engine operates at full
power.
When the engine is stopped, the spring returns the
flyweight lever and control pin assembly to the
compression release position ready for the next start.
Camshaft
Inspection and Service
Check the lobes of the camshaft for wear or damage.
See Section 1 for minimum lift specifications. Inspect
the cam gear for badly worn, chipped or missing teeth.
Replacement of the camshaft will be necessary if any
of these conditions exist.
Crankshaft
Inspection and Service
Inspect the gear teeth of the crankshaft. If the teeth
are badly worn, chipped, or some are missing,
replacement of the crankshaft will be necessary.
10.1
10
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
Inspect the crankshaft bearing surfaces for scoring,
grooving, etc. Some engines have bearing inserts in
the crankshaft bore of the closure plate and/or
crankcase. Do not replace bearings unless they show
signs of damage or are out of running clearance
specifications. If the crankshaft turns easily and
noiselessly, and there is no evidence of scoring,
grooving, etc., on the races or bearing surfaces, the
bearings can be reused.
Inspect the crankshaft keyways. If they are worn or
chipped, replacement of the crankshaft will be
necessary.
Inspect the crankpin for score marks or metallic
pickup. Slight score marks can be cleaned with crocus
cloth soaked in oil. If the wear limits, as stated in
“Specifications and Tolerances” are exceeded, it will be
necessary to either replace the crankshaft or regrind
the crankpin to 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) undersize. If
reground, a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) undersize connecting
rod (big end) must then be used to achieve proper
running clearance. Measure the crankpin for size,
taper, and out-of-round.
Procedure to Remove Crankshaft Plug:
1. Drill a 3/16" hole through the plug in the
crankshaft.
2. Thread a 3/4" or 1" long self-tapping screw with a
flat washer into the drilled hole. The flat washer
must be large enough to seat against the
shoulder of the plug bore. See Figure 10-2.
3. Tighten the self-tapping screw until it draws the
plug out of the crankshaft.
Procedure to Install New Plug:
1. Use a single cylinder camshaft pin, Kohler Part
No. 47 380 09-S as a driver and tap the plug into
the plug bore until it seats at the bottom of the
bore. Make sure the plug is tapped in evenly to
prevent leakage.
Self-Tapping Screw
Flat Washer
NOTE: If the crankpin is reground, visually check to
ensure that the fillet blends smoothly with the
crankpin surface. See Figure 10-1.
1234567
1234567
1234567
1234567
Crankshaft
High Point from
Fillet Intersections
The Fillet Must
Blend Smoothly
with the Bearing
Journal Surface
Figure 10-2. Removing Crankpin Plug.
45°
Minimum
This Fillet Area
Must Be
Completely Smooth
Figure 10-1. Crankpin Fillets.
The connecting rod journal can be ground one size
under. When grinding a crankshaft, grinding stone
deposits can get caught in the oil passages, which
could cause severe engine damage. Removing the
crankpin plug when the crankshaft is ground provides
easy access for removing any grinding deposits that
may collect in the oil passages.
Use the following procedure to remove and replace the
plug.
10.2
Plug
Crankcase
Inspection and Service
Check all gasket surfaces to make sure they are free
of gasket fragments. Gasket surfaces must also be
free of deep scratches or nicks.
Inspect the main bearing (if so equipped) for wear or
damage (refer to Section 1, “Specifications,
Tolerances, and Special Torque Values”). Replace the
crankcase using a miniblock or short block as
required.
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
Check the cylinder bore wall for scoring. In severe
cases, unburned fuel can cause scuffing and scoring
of the cylinder wall. It washes the necessary lubricating
oils off the piston and cylinder wall. As raw fuel seeps
down the cylinder wall, the piston rings make metal to
metal contact with the wall. Scoring of the cylinder wall
can also be caused by localized hot spots resulting
from blocked cooling fins or from inadequate or
contaminated lubrication.
If the cylinder bore is badly scored, excessively worn,
tapered, or out-of-round, resizing is necessary. Use an
inside micrometer to determine the amount of wear
(refer to the “Specifications, Tolerances, and Special
Torque Values”, in Section 1), then select the nearest
suitable oversize of either 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) or 0.50
mm (0.020 in.). Resizing to one of these oversizes will
allow usage of the available oversize piston and ring
assemblies. Initially, resize using a boring bar, then use
the following procedures for honing the cylinder.
NOTE: Kohler pistons are custom-machined to
exacting tolerances. When oversizing a
cylinder, it should be machined exactly 0.25
mm (0.010 in.) or 0.50 mm (0.020 in.) over
the new diameter (Section 1). The
corresponding oversize Kohler replacement
piston will then fit correctly.
3. When the bore is within 0.064 mm (0.0025 in.) of
the desired size, remove the coarse stones and
replace them with burnishing stones. Continue
with the burnishing stones until the bore is within
0.013 mm (0.0005 in.) of the desired size and
then use finish stones (220-280 grit) and polish
the bore to its final size. A crosshatch should be
observed if honing is done correctly. The
crosshatch should intersect at approximately 23°33° off the horizontal. Too flat an angle could
cause the rings to skip and wear excessively, and
too steep an angle will result in high oil
consumption. See Figure 10-3.
NOTE: Some CH25-26 engines feature POWERBORE™ cylinders a special pantented nickelsilicone plating process for increased power,
superior oil control, reduced exhaust
emission, and virtually permanent cylinder life.
POWER-BORE™ cylinders cannot be resized
or honed as described in the following
procedure. If a plated cylinder bore is
damaged or out of specification, use a new
miniblock or short block to repair the engine.
Use the following procedure for crankcases
with a cast iron sleeve.
Honing
While most commercially available cylinder hones can
be used with either portable drills or drill presses, the
use of a low speed drill press is preferred as it
facilitates more accurate alignment of the bore in
relation to the crankshaft crossbore. Honing is best
accomplished at a drill speed of about 250 RPM and
60 strokes per minute. After installing coarse stones in
hone, proceed as follows:
1. Lower hone into bore and after centering, adjust
so the stones are in contact with the cylinder wall.
Use of a commercial cutting-cooling agent is
recommended.
2. With the lower edge of each stone positioned
even with the lowest edge of the bore, start drill
and honing process. Move the hone up and down
while resizing to prevent the formation of cutting
ridges. Check the size frequently.
10
Figure 10-3. Cylinder Bore Crosshatch after
Honing.
4. After resizing, check the bore for roundness,
taper, and size. Use an inside micrometer,
telescoping gauge, or bore gauge to take
measurements. The measurements should be
taken at three locations in the cylinder – at the
top, middle, and bottom. Two measurements
should be taken (perpendicular to each other) at
each of the three locations.
Clean Cylinder Bore After Honing
Proper cleaning of the cylinder walls following boring
and/or honing is very critical to a successful overhaul.
Machining grit left in the cylinder bore can destroy an
engine in less than one hour of operation after a
rebuild.
10.3
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
The final cleaning operation should always be a
thorough scrubbing with a brush and hot, soapy water.
Use a strong detergent that is capable of breaking
down the machining oil while maintaining a good level
of suds. If the suds break down during cleaning,
discard the dirty water and start again with more hot
water and detergent. Following the scrubbing, rinse the
cylinder with very hot, clear water, dry it completely,
and apply a light coating of engine oil to prevent
rusting.
Measuring Piston-to-Bore Clearance
Before installing the piston into the cylinder bore, it is
necessary that the clearance be accurately checked.
This step is often overlooked, and if the clearances are
not within specifications, engine failure will usually
result.
NOTE: Do not use a feeler gauge to measure pistonto-bore clearance – it will yield inaccurate
measurements. Always use a micrometer.
Use the following procedure to accurately measure the
piston-to-bore clearance:
1. Use a micrometer and measure the diameter of
the piston 6 mm (0.24 in.) above the bottom of
the piston skirt and perpendicular to the piston
pin. See Figure 10-4.
3. Piston-to-bore clearance is the difference
between the bore diameter and the piston
diameter (step 2 minus step 1).
Flywheel
Inspection
Inspect the flywheel for cracks and the flywheel
keyway for damage. Replace the flywheel if it is
cracked. Replace the flywheel, the crankshaft, and the
key if flywheel key is sheared or the keyway is
damaged.
Inspect the ring gear for cracks or damage. Kohler
does not provide the ring gear as a serviceable part.
Replace the flywheel if the ring gear is damaged.
Cylinder Head and Valves
Inspection and Service
After cleaning, check the flatness of the cylinder head
and the corresponding top surface of the crankcase,
using a surface plate or piece of glass and feeler
gauge as shown in Figure 10-5. The maximum
allowable out of flatness is 0.076 mm (0.003 in.).
6 mm (0.24 in.)
Measure 6 mm above the
Bottom of Piston Skirt at
Right Angles to Piston Pin
Figure 10-4. Measuring Piston Diameter.
2. Use an inside micrometer, telescoping gauge, or
bore gauge and measure the cylinder bore. Take
the measurement approximately 63.5 mm
(2.5 in.) below the top of the bore and
perpendicular to the piston pin.
10.4
Figure 10-5. Checking Cylinder Head Flatness.
Carefully inspect the valve mechanism parts. Inspect
the valve springs and related hardware for excessive
wear or distortion. Check the valves and valve seat
area or inserts for evidence of deep pitting, cracks, or
distortion. Check clearance of the valve stems in the
guides. See Figure 10-6 for valve details and
specifications.
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
EXHAUST
VALVE
F
E
G
B
C
D
A
EXHAUST
INSERT
A
H
INTAKE
INSERT
D
B
Dimension
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Seat Angle
Insert O.D.
Guide Depth
Guide I.D.
Valve Head Diameter
Valve Face Angle
Valve Margin (Min.)
Valve Stem Diameter
INTAKE VALVE
F
E
G
H
A
Intake
Exhaust
89°
36.987/37.013 mm (1.4562/1.4572 in.)
4 mm (0.1575 in.)
7.038/7.058 mm (0.2771/0.2779 in.)
33.37/33.63 mm (1.3138/1.3240 in.)
45°
1.5 mm (0.0591 in.)
6.982/7.000 mm (0.2749/0.2756 in.)
89°
32.987/33.013 mm (1.2987/1.2997 in.)
6.5 mm (0.2559 in.)
7.038/7.058 mm (0.2771/0.2779 in.)
29.37/29.63 mm (1.1563/1.1665 in.)
45°
1.5 mm (0.0591 in.)
6.970/6.988 mm (0.2744/0.2751 in.)
Figure 10-6. Valve Details.
Hard starting or loss of power accompanied by high
fuel consumption may be symptoms of faulty valves.
Although these symptoms could also be attributed to
worn rings, remove and check the valves first. After
removal, clean the valve heads, faces, and stems with
a power wire brush.
Then, carefully inspect each valve for defects such as
a warped head, excessive corrosion, or a worn stem
end. Replace valves found to be in bad condition. A
normal valve and valves in bad condition are shown in
the accompanying illustrations.
10.5
10
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
Normal: Even after long hours of operation a valve
can be reconditioned and reused if the face and
margin are in good shape. If a valve is worn to where
the margin is less than 1/32" do not reuse it. The valve
shown was in operation for almost 1000 hours under
controlled test conditions.
Leakage: A poor grind on face or seat of valve will
allow leakage resulting in a burned valve on one side
only.
Bad Condition: The valve depicted here should be
replaced. Note the warped head; margin damaged and
too narrow. These conditions could be attributed to
excessive hours or a combination of poor operating
conditions.
Coking: Coking is normal on intake valves and is not
harmful. If the seat is good, the valve could be reused
after cleaning.
10.6
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
Excessive Combustion Temperatures: The white
deposits seen here indicate very high combustion
temperatures, usually due to a lean fuel mixture.
Stem Corrosion: Moisture in fuel or from
condensation are the most common causes of valve
stem corrosion. Condensation occurs from improper
preservation during storage and when engine is
repeatedly stopped before it has a chance to reach
normal operating temperatures. Replace corroded
valves.
10
Gum: Gum deposits usually result from using stale
gasoline. Gum is a prevalent cause of valve sticking.
The cure is to ream the valve guides and clean or
replace the valves, depending on their condition.
Overheating: An exhaust valve subject to overheating
will have a dark discoloration in the area above the
valve guide. Worn guides and faulty valve springs may
cause this condition. Also check for clogged air intake,
and blocked fins when this condition is noted.
10.7
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
Valve Guides
If a valve guide is worn beyond specifications, it will not
guide the valve in a straight line. This may result in
burnt valve faces or seats, loss of compression, and
excessive oil consumption.
To check valve guide-to-valve stem clearance,
thoroughly clean the valve guide and, using a split-ball
gauge, measure the inside diameter of the guide.
Then, using an outside micrometer, measure the
diameter of the valve stem at several points on the
stem where it moves in the valve guide. Use the
largest stem diameter to calculate the clearance by
subtracting the stem diameter from the guide diameter.
If the intake clearance exceeds 0.038/0.076 mm
(0.0015/0.003 in.) or the exhaust clearance exceeds
0.050/0.088 mm (0.0020/0.0035 in.), determine
whether the valve stem or guide is responsible for the
excessive clearance.
The maximum (I.D.) wear on the intake valve guide is
7.134 mm (0.2809 in.) while 7.159 mm (0.2819 in.) is
the maximum allowed on the exhaust guide. The
guides are not removable but can be reamed 0.25 mm
(0.010 in.) oversize with SPX Tool No. KO1026.
Valves with 0.25 mm oversize stems must then be
used.
If the guides are within limits but the valve stems are
worn beyond limits, install new valves.
Valve Seat Inserts
Hardened steel alloy intake and exhaust valve seat
inserts are press fitted into the cylinder head. The
inserts are not replaceable but can be reconditioned if
not too badly pitted or distorted. If cracked or badly
warped, the cylinder head should be replaced.
Recondition the valve seat inserts following the
instructions provided with the valve seat cutter being
used. A typical cutter is shown in Figure 10-7. The final
cut should be made with an 89° cutter as specified for
the valve seat angle in Figure 10-6. Cutting the proper
45° valve face angle as specified in Figure 10-6, and
the proper valve seat angle (44.5°, half of the full 89°
angle), will achieve the desired 0.5° (1.0° full cut)
interference angle where the maximum pressure
occurs on the outside diameters of the valve face and
seat.
10.8
Valve Seat Cutter
Pilot
Figure 10-7. Typical Valve Seat Cutter.
Lapping Valves
Reground or new valves must be lapped in, to provide
proper fit. Use a hand valve grinder with a suction cup
for final lapping. Lightly coat the valve face with a “fine”
grade of grinding compound, then rotate the valve on
its seat with the grinder. Continue grinding until a
smooth surface is obtained on the seat and on the
valve face. Thoroughly clean the cylinder head in soap
and hot water to remove all traces of grinding
compound. After drying the cylinder head, apply a light
coating of SAE 10 oil to prevent rusting.
Intake Valve Stem Seal
These engines use valve stem seals on the intake
valves. Always use a new seal when the valves are
removed from the cylinder head. The seals should also
be replaced if deteriorated or damaged in any way.
Never reuse an old seal.
Pistons and Rings
Inspection
Scuffing and scoring of pistons and cylinder walls
occurs when internal engine temperatures approach
the welding point of the piston. Temperatures high
enough to do this are created by friction, which is
usually attributed to improper lubrication and/or
overheating of the engine.
Normally, very little wear takes place in the piston
boss-piston pin area. If the original piston and
connecting rod can be reused after new rings are
installed, the original pin can also be reused but new
piston pin retainers are required. The piston pin is
included as part of the piston assembly – if the pin
boss in the piston or the pin are worn or damaged, a
new piston assembly is required.
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
Ring failure is usually indicated by excessive oil
consumption and blue exhaust smoke. When rings
fail, oil is allowed to enter the combustion chamber
where it is burned along with the fuel. High oil
consumption can also occur when the piston ring end
gap is incorrect because the ring cannot properly
conform to the cylinder wall under this condition. Oil
control is also lost when ring gaps are not staggered
during installation.
When cylinder temperatures get too high, lacquer and
varnish collect on pistons causing rings to stick, which
results in rapid wear. A worn ring usually takes on a
shiny or bright appearance.
Scratches on rings and pistons are caused by
abrasive material such as carbon, dirt, or pieces of
hard metal.
Detonation damage occurs when a portion of the fuel
charge ignites spontaneously from heat and pressure
shortly after ignition. This creates two flame fronts
which meet and explode to create extreme hammering
pressures on a specific area of the piston. Detonation
generally occurs from using low octane fuels.
Preignition or ignition of the fuel charge before the
timed spark can cause damage similar to detonation.
Preignition damage is often more severe than
detonation damage. Preignition is caused by a hot spot
in the combustion chamber from sources such as
glowing carbon deposits, blocked cooling fins, an
improperly seated valve, or wrong spark plug(s).
See Figure 10-8 for some common types of piston and
ring damage.
Stuck, Broken Rings
Abrasive Scratched Rings
Overheated or Deteriorated Oil
Scored Piston and Rings
10
Figure 10-8. Common Types of Piston Damage.
10.9
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
Replacement pistons are available in STD bore size,
and in 0.25 mm (0.010 in.), and 0.50 mm (0.020 in.)
oversize. Replacement pistons include new piston ring
sets and new piston pins.
Replacement ring sets are also available separately for
STD, 0.25 mm (0.010 in.), and 0.50 mm (0.020 in.)
oversize pistons. Always use new piston rings when
installing pistons. Never use old rings.
Some important points to remember when servicing
piston rings:
1. The cylinder bore must be deglazed before
service ring sets are used.
2. If the cylinder bore does not need reboring and if
the old piston is within wear limits and free of
score or scuff marks, the old piston may be
reused.
3. Remove the old rings and clean up the grooves.
Never reuse old rings.
4. Before installing the new rings on the piston,
place the top two rings, each in turn, in its running
area in the cylinder bore and check the end gap.
(See Figure 10-9.) Compare the ring gap to the
specifications listed in Section 1.
Figure 10-10. Measuring Piston Ring Side
Clearance.
Install New Piston Rings
To install new piston rings, proceed as follows:
NOTE: Rings must be installed correctly. Ring
installation instructions are usually included
with new ring sets. Follow instructions
carefully. Use a piston ring expander to install
rings (see Figure 10-11). Install the bottom (oil
control) ring first and the top compression ring
last. Refer to Figure 10-12.
Piston Ring
Piston Ring
Expander
Figure 10-11. Installing Piston Rings.
Figure 10-9. Measuring Piston Ring End Gap.
5. After installing the new compression (top and
middle) rings on the piston, check the piston-toring side clearance. Compare the clearance to
specifications listed in Section 1. If the side
clearance is greater than specified, a new piston
must be used. Refer to Figure 10-10.
10.10
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
Piston Ring
Dykem
Stripe
End Gap
Identification
Mark
Service replacement connecting rods are available in
STD crankpin size and 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) undersize.
The 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) undersized rod can be
identified by the drilled hole located in the lower end of
the rod shank. Always refer to the appropriate parts
information to ensure that correct replacements are
used.
Hydraulic Lifters
Piston
Top
Compression
Ring
Center
Compression
Ring
Rails
Oil Control Ring
(Three-piece)
Expander
Inspection
Check the base surface of the hydraulic lifters for wear
or damage. If the lifters need to be replaced, apply a
liberal coating of Kohler lubricant 25 357 14-S to the
base of each new lifter before it is installed.
“Bleeding” the Lifters
To prevent a possible bent push rod or broken rocker
arm, it is important to “bleed” any excess oil out of the
lifters before they are installed.
1. Cut a 50-75 mm (2-3 in.) piece from the end of an
old push rod and chuck it in a drill press.
2. Lay a rag or shop towel on the table of the drill
press and place the lifter, open end up, on the
towel.
Figure 10-12. Piston Ring Installation.
1. Oil Control Ring (Bottom Groove): Install the
expander and then the rails. Make sure the ends
of expander are not overlapped.
2. Middle Compression Ring (Center Groove): Install
the center ring using a piston ring installation tool.
Make sure the “identification” mark is up or the
dykem stripe (if contained) is to the left of the end
gap.
3. Top Compression Ring (Top Groove): Install the
top ring using a piston ring expender. Make sure
the “identification” mark is up or the dykem stripe
(if contained), to the left of the end gap.
Connecting Rods
Offset, stepped-cap connecting rods are used in all
these engines.
Inspection and Service
Check the bearing area (big end) for excessive wear,
score marks, running and side clearances (refer to
Section 1, “Specifications, Tolerances, and Special
Torque Values”). Replace the rod and cap if scored or
excessively worn.
3. Lower the chucked push rod until it contacts the
plunger in the lifter. Slowly “pump” the plunger two
or three times to force the oil out of the feed hole
in the side of the lifter.
Closure Plate Assembly
Inspection
Inspect the oil seal in the closure plate and remove it if
it is worn or damaged. Refer to ‘‘Install Closure Plate
Oil Seal’’ in Section 11 for new oil seal installation.
Inspect the main bearing surface for wear or damage
(refer to Section 1, “Specifications, Tolerances, and
Special Torque Values”). Replace the closure plate
assembly if required.
Governor Gear Assembly
Inspection
Inspect the governor gear teeth. Replace the gear if it
is worn, chipped, or if any teeth are missing. Inspect
the governor weights. They should move freely in the
governor gear.
10.11
10
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
Disassembly
The governor gear must be replaced once it is
removed from the closure plate.
NOTE: The governor gear is held onto the shaft by
small molded tabs in the gear. When the gear
is removed from the shaft, these tabs are
destroyed and the gear must be replaced.
Therefore, remove the gear only if absolutely
necessary.
1. Remove the regulating pin and governor gear
assembly. See Figure 10-13.
Reassembly
1. Install the locking tab thrust washer on the
governor gear shaft with the tab down.
2. Position the regulating pin within the governor
gear/flyweight assembly and slide both onto the
governor shaft.
Oil Pump Assembly
Disassembly
1. Remove the two hex. flange screws.
2. Remove the oil pump assembly from the closure
plate.
3. Remove the oil pump rotor.
4. Remove the oil pickup by unhooking the locking
clip, and pulling it free from the oil pump body.
5. If the relief valve is like that shown in Figure
10-15, drive out the pin to remove the oil pressure
relief valve piston and spring. Refer to the
following inspection and reassembly procedures.
Figure 10-13. Removing Governor Gear.
2. Remove the locking tab thrust washer located
under the governor gear assembly.
If the relief valve is a one-piece style, staked to
the oil pump housing (See Figure 10-16) removal
should not be attempted, nor is internal servicing
possible. If a problem with the relief valve is
encountered, the oil pump should be replaced.
3. Carefully inspect the governor gear shaft and
replace it only if it is damaged. After removing the
damaged shaft, press or lightly tap the
replacement shaft into the closure plate to the
depth shown in Figure 10-14.
Gear Shaft
34.0 mm (1.3386 in.)
33.5 mm (1.3189 in.)
19.40 mm (0.7638 in.)
Relief Valve
Pickup
Figure 10-15. Oil Pump, Oil Pickup, and Relief Valve
(Original Style).
Figure 10-14. Governor Shaft Press Depth.
10.12
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
3. Install the rotor.
4. Install the oil pump body to the closure plate and
secure with the two hex. flange screws. Torque
the hex. flange screws as follows:
First Time Installation: 10.7 N·m (95 in. lb.)
All Reinstallations:
6.7 N·m (60 in. lb.)
Relief Valve
Pickup
Figure 10-16. Oil Pump, Oil Pickup, and One-Piece
Relief Valve (Later Style).
Inspection
Inspect the oil pump housing, gear, and rotors for
nicks, burrs, wear, or any visible damage. If any parts
are worn or damaged, replace the oil pump.
Inspect the oil pressure relief valve piston. It should be
free of nicks or burrs.
5. After torquing, rotate the gear and check for
freedom of movement. Make sure there is no
binding. If binding occurs, loosen the screws,
reposition the pump, retorque the hex flange
screws and recheck the movement.
Governor Cross Shaft Oil Seal
If the governor cross shaft seal is damaged and/or
leaks, replace it using the following procedure.
Remove the oil seal from the crankcase and replace it
with a new one. Install the new seal to the depth
shown in Figure 10-18 using a seal installer.
2.0 mm (0.0787 in.)
Check the spring for wear or distortion. The free length
of the spring should be approximately 47.4 mm
(1.8 in.). Replace the spring if it is distorted or worn.
See Figure 10-17.
Governor Cross
Shaft Seal
10
Figure 10-18. Installing Cross Shaft Oil Seal.
Piston
Spring
Roll Pin
Figure 10-17. Oil Pressure Relief Valve Piston and
Spring.
Reassembly
1. Install the pressure relief valve piston and spring.
2. Install the oil pickup to the oil pump body.
Lubricate the O-Ring with oil and make sure it
remains in the groove as the pickup is being
installed.
10.13
Section 10
Inspection and Reconditioning
10.14
Section 11
CH18-745
Reassembly
Section 11
Reassembly
General
NOTE: Make sure the engine is assembled using all
specified torque values, tightening sequences
and clearances. Failure to observe
specifications could cause severe engine
wear or damage. Always use new gaskets.
Make sure all traces of any cleaner are removed
before the engine is assembled and placed into
operation. Even small amounts of these cleaners can
quickly break down the lubricating properties of engine
oil.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Install fuel pump.
Install carburetor.
Install external governor controls.
Install throttle and choke controls.
Install Oil Sentry™.
Install control panel (if so equipped).
Install valve covers.
Install air cleaner assembly (see Section 4).
Install muffler.
Install oil filter and add oil to crankcase.
Connect spark plug leads.
Install Flywheel End Oil Seal
Check the closure plate, crankcase, cylinder heads,
and valve covers to be certain that all of the old RTV
has been removed. Use gasket remover, lacquer
thinner, or paint remover to remove any remaining
traces. Clean the surfaces with isopropyl alcohol,
acetone, lacquer thinner, or electrical contact cleaner.
1. Make sure that the seal bore of the crankcase is
clean and free of any nicks or burrs. See Figure
11-1.
Typical Reassembly Sequence
The following sequence is suggested for complete
engine reassembly. This procedure assumes that all
components are new or have been reconditioned, and
all component subassembly work has been completed.
The sequence may vary to accommodate options or
special equipment. Detailed procedures follow.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Install flywheel end oil seal.
Install governor cross shaft.
Install crankshaft.
Install connecting rods with pistons and rings.
Install camshaft.
Install closure plate assembly.
Install stator and backing plates.
Install flywheel.
Install fan and grass screen.
Install hydraulic lifters.
Install cylinder heads.
Install ignition modules.
Install intake manifold.
Install breather cover and inner baffles.
Install blower housing and outer baffles.
Install electric starter motor.
11
Figure 11-1. Seal Bore of Crankcase.
2. Apply a light coat of clean engine oil to the outside
diameter of the oil seal.
3. Drive the oil seal into the crankcase using a seal
driver. Make sure the oil seal is installed straight
and true in the bore and that the tool bottoms
against the crankcase. See Figure 11-2.
11.1
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-2. Installing Oil Seal.
Figure 11-4. Installing Governor Cross Shaft Hitch
Pin (6 mm Shaft).
Install Governor Cross Shaft
1. Lubricate the governor cross shaft bearing
surfaces in the crankcase with engine oil.
2. Slide the small lower washer onto the governor
cross shaft and install the cross shaft from the
inside of the crankcase.
3. 6 mm Governor Shaft: Install the plain washer
and then insert the hitch pin into the smaller, lower
hole of the governor cross shaft. See Figures 11-3
and 11-4.
8 mm Governor Shaft: Install the nylon washer
onto the governor cross shaft, then start the pushon retaining ring. Hold the cross shaft up in
position, place a 0.50 mm (0.020 in.) feeler gauge
on top of the nylon washer, and push the retaining
ring down the shaft to secure. Remove the feeler
gauge, which will have established the proper end
play. See Figures 11-5 and 11-6.
Figure 11-5. Installing 8 mm Governor Cross Shaft.
Figure 11-6. Setting Governor Cross Shaft End Play
(8 mm Shaft).
Install Crankshaft
Figure 11-3. Installing 6 mm Governor Cross Shaft.
11.2
1. Carefully slide the flywheel end of the crankshaft
through the main bearing in the crankcase. See
Figure 11-7.
Section 11
Reassembly
3. Lubricate the crankshaft journals and connecting
rod bearing surfaces with engine oil.
4. Make sure the “Fly” stamping on piston is facing
towards the flywheel side of the engine. Use a
hammer with a rubber grip and gently tap the
piston into the cylinder as shown in Figure 11-9.
Be careful that the oil ring rails do not spring free
between the bottom of the ring compressor and
top of the cylinder.
Figure 11-7. Installing Crankshaft.
Install Connecting Rods with Pistons and
Rings
NOTE: The cylinders are numbered on the
crankcase. Make sure to install the piston,
connecting rod and end cap into its
appropriate cylinder bore as previously
marked at disassembly. Do not mix the end
caps and connecting rods.
NOTE: Proper orientation of the piston/connecting
rod assemblies inside the engine is extremely
important. Improper orientation can cause
extensive wear or damage. Be certain the
pistons and connecting rods are assembled
exactly as shown in Figure 11-8.
1. Stagger the piston rings in the grooves until the
end gaps are 120° apart. The oil ring rails should
also be staggered.
Cylinder #2
Figure 11-9. Installing Piston Assembly Using Ring
Compressor Tool.
5. Install the inner rod cap to the connecting rod
using the two hex. flange screws. Three different
types of connecting rod bolts have been used and
each has a different torque value. If 8 mm straight
shank type bolts are used, torque in increments to
22.7 N·m (200 in. lb.). If 8 mm step-down bolts
are used, torque in increments to 14.7 N·m
(130 in. lb.). If 6 mm straight shank bolts are
used, torque in increments to 11.3 N·m
(100 in. lb.). Illustrated instructions are provided
in the service rod package. See Figures 11-10
and 11-11.
NOTE: Align the chamfer of the connecting rod
with the chamfer of its mating end cap.
When installed, the flat faces of the
connecting rods should face each other.
The faces with the raised rib should be
toward the outside.
Cylinder #1
Figure 11-8. Piston, Connecting Rod and End Cap
Detail.
2. Lubricate the cylinder bore, piston, and piston
rings with engine oil. Compress the rings of the #1
piston using a piston ring compressor.
11.3
11
Section 11
Reassembly
Torque these to 22.7 N·m (200 in. lb.)
8 mm Straight Shank
Torque these to 14.7 N·m (130 in. lb.)
8 mm Step-Down
Torque these to 11.3 N·m (100 in. lb.)
6 mm Straight Shank
Figure 11-12. Apply Camshaft Lubricant to Cam
Lobes.
2. Position the timing mark of the crankshaft gear at
the 12 o’clock position.
Figure 11-10. Connecting Rod Bolts.
3. Turn the governor cross shaft clockwise until the
lower end of the shaft contacts the cylinder. Make
sure the cross shaft remains in this position while
installing the camshaft. See Figure 11-13.
4. Slide the camshaft into the bearing surface of the
crankcase, positioning the timing mark of the
camshaft gear at the 6 o’clock position. Make
sure that the camshaft gear and crankshaft gear
mesh, with both timing marks aligned. See Figure
11-13.
Figure 11-11. Torquing Connecting Rod End Cap.
6. Repeat the above procedure for the other
connecting rod and piston assembly.
Install Camshaft
1. Liberally apply camshaft lubricant (Kohler Part No.
25 357 14-S) to each of the cam lobes. Lubricate
the camshaft bearing surfaces of the crankcase
and the camshaft with engine oil. See Figure
11-12.
Figure 11-13. Aligning Crankshaft and Camshaft
Timing Marks.
Determining Camshaft End Play
1. Install the shim removed during disassembly onto
the camshaft.
2. Position the camshaft end play checking tool on
the camshaft. See Figure 11-14.
11.4
Section 11
Reassembly
5. Reinstall the end play checking tool and recheck
the end play.
Oil Pump Assembly
The oil pump is mounted inside the closure plate. If
service was required, and the oil pump was removed,
refer to the assembly procedures under “Oil Pump
Assembly” in Section 10.
Governor Gear Assembly
Figure 11-14. Checking Camshaft End Play.
3. Apply pressure on the camshaft end play
checking tool (pushing camshaft toward
crankshaft). Use a feeler gauge to measure the
camshaft end play between the shim spacer and
the checking tool. Camshaft end play should be
0.076/0.127 mm (0.003/0.005 in.).
4. If the camshaft end play is not within the specified
range, remove the checking tool and replace the
shim as necessary.
The governor gear assembly is located inside the
closure plate. If service was required, and the governor
was removed, refer to the assembly procedures under
“Governor Gear Assembly” in Section 10.
Thrust Bearing, Washer and Shim
Some specifications use a needle type thrust bearing,
thrust washer and shim spacer to control the end play
of the crankshaft. See Figure 11-16. If these items are
noted during disassembly, make sure they are
reinstalled in the sequence shown in Figure 11-17. A
different procedure will have to be followed to check
and adjust crankshaft end play on these models.
Several color coded shims are available:
White: 0.69215/0.73025 mm (0.02725/0.02875 in.)
Blue:
0.74295/0.78105 mm (0.02925/0.03075 in.)
Red:
0.79375/0.83185 mm (0.03125/0.03275 in.)
Yellow: 0.84455/0.88265 mm (0.03325/0.03475 in.)
Green: 0.89535/0.99345 mm (0.03525/0.03675 in.)
Gray: 0.94615/0.98425 mm (0.03725/0.03875 in.)
Black: 0.99695/1.03505 mm (0.03925/0.04075 in.)
Figure 11-16. Thrust Bearing, Washer and Shim
Used on Some Models.
11
Figure 11-15. Change Shim to Obtain Correct End
Play.
11.5
Section 11
Reassembly
Remove the closure plate. If end play requires
adjustment, remove the original spacer and install the
appropriate size shim spacer in its place. Then follow
the procedure under “Install Closure Plate Assembly.”
Thrust Shim
Thrust
Washer
Needle Thrust
Bearing
Install Closure Plate Oil Seal
1. Check to make sure that there are no nicks or
burrs in the crankshaft bore of the closure plate.
2. Apply a light coat of engine oil to the outside
diameter of the oil seal.
3. Drive the oil seal into the closure plate using a
seal driver. Make sure the oil seal is installed
straight and true in the bore to the depth shown in
Figure 11-18.
Bearing
Race
Closure
Plate
Figure 11-17. Correct Sequence of Thrust Bearing,
Washer and Shim in Closure Plate.
Oil Seal
The race for the thrust bearing presses loosely into the
closure plate. If it is not already installed, push it into
the crankshaft bore inside the closure plate. Pack the
thrust bearing with heavy grease and stick the bearing
into the race. Wipe some grease on the face of the
thrust washer and stick it onto the thrust bearing. Wipe
some grease on the face of the original shim spacer
and stick it onto the thrust washer.
Install the closure plate onto the crankcase without
applying RTV sealant and secure it with only two or
three of the fasteners at this time. Use a dial indicator
to check the crankshaft end play. End play should be
0.05/0.50 mm (0.0020/0.0197 in.), except for CH25
engines below Serial No. 2403500008 end play should
be 0.050/0.75 mm (0.0020/0.0295 in.). Shim spacers
are available in the three color coded thicknesses
listed below if adjustment is needed.
Crankshaft End Play Shims
GREEN
0.8366-0.9127 mm
(0.8750 mm/0.034 in. Nominal)
YELLOW
1.0652-1.1414 mm
(1.1033 mm/0.043 in. Nominal)
RED
1.2938-1.3700 mm
(1.3319 mm/0.052 in. Nominal)
11.6
Seal Depth
8.0 mm
(.314 in.)
Figure 11-18. Oil Seal Depth in Closure Plate.
Install Closure Plate Assembly
RTV sealant is used as a gasket between the closure
plate and the crankcase. Refer to Section 2 for a listing
of approved sealants. Always use fresh sealant. Using
outdated sealant can result in leakage.
1. Be sure the sealing surfaces have been cleaned
and prepared as described at the beginning of
Section 10 or in Service Bulletin 252.
2. Check to make sure that there are no nicks or
burrs on the sealing surfaces of the closure plate
or crankcase.
Section 11
Reassembly
3. Apply a 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) bead of sealant to the
sealing surface of the closure plate. See Figure
11-19 for sealant pattern.
6. Install the ten hex. flange screws securing the
closure plate to the crankcase. Torque fasteners
in the sequence shown in Figure 11-21 to
24.4 N·m (216 in. lb.). On some engines one of
the ten mounting screws is plated. The plated
screw is typically installed in the #6 hole shown in
Figure 11-21.
3
1
10
5
8
7
6
9
Figure 11-19. Closure Plate Sealant Pattern.
4
2
Figure 11-21. Closure Plate Fastener Torque
Sequence.
4. Make sure the end of the governor cross shaft is
lying against the bottom of cylinder 1 inside the
crankcase. See Figure 11-13.
5. Install the closure plate to the crankcase.
Carefully seat the camshaft and the crankshaft
into their mating bearings. Rotate the crankshaft
slightly to help engage the oil pump and governor
gear meshes. See Figure 11-20.
Figure 11-22. Torquing Closure Plate Fasteners.
11
Install Stator and Backing Plates
1. Apply pipe sealant with Teflon® (Loctite® No 59241
or equivalent) to the stator mounting holes.
2. Position the stator aligning the mounting holes so
that the leads are at the bottom, towards the
crankcase.
Figure 11-20. Using Spanner Wrench to Turn
Crankshaft.
3. Install and torque the two hex. flange screws to
6.2 N·m (55 in. lb.). See Figure 11-23.
11.7
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Flywheel
WARNING: Damaging Crankshaft and
Flywheel Can Cause Personal Injury!
Using improper procedures to install the flywheel can
crack or damage the crankshaft and/or flywheel. This
not only causes extensive engine damage, but can
also cause personal injury, since broken fragments
could be thrown from the engine. Always observe and
use the following precautions and procedures when
installing the flywheel.
Figure 11-23. Torquing Stator Screws.
4. Route the stator leads in the crankcase channel,
then install the backing plates and the stator wire
bracket (if used). Secure using the four hex.
flange screws. See Figures 11-24 and 11-25.
Torque the screws to 7.3 N·m (65 in. lb.).
NOTE: Before installing the flywheel make sure the
crankshaft taper and the flywheel hub are
clean, dry, and completely free of any
lubricants. The presence of lubricants can
cause the flywheel to be over stressed and
damaged when the hex. flange screw is
torqued to specifications.
Figure 11-26. Clean and Dry Taper of Crankshaft.
Figure 11-24. Route Stator Leads in Groove.
Figure 11-27. Clean and Dry Flywheel Hub.
Figure 11-25. Installing Backing Plates and Stator
Wire Bracket.
11.8
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Flywheel Fan
1. Install the fan onto the flywheel using the four hex.
flange screws.
NOTE: Position the ears located at rear
perimeter of the fan in the recesses of
the flywheel. See Figure 11-30.
Figure 11-28. Carefully Align Keyway to Key.
NOTE: Make sure the flywheel key is installed
properly in the keyway. The flywheel can
become cracked or damaged if the key is not
properly installed.
1. Install the woodruff key into the keyway of the
crankshaft. Make sure that the key is properly
seated and parallel with the shaft taper.
2. Install the flywheel onto the crankshaft being
careful not to shift the woodruff key. See Figure
11-28.
3. Install the hex. flange screw and washer.
4. Use a flywheel strap wrench or holding tool to
hold the flywheel. Torque the hex. flange screw
securing the flywheel to the crankshaft to
66.4 N·m (49 ft. lb.). See Figure 11-29.
Figure 11-30. Installing Fan on Flywheel.
2. Torque the screws to 9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.).
Install Plastic Grass Screen
1. If the engine has a plastic grass screen, snap the
screen onto the fan. See Figure 11-31. Due to the
possibility of damaging the posts during removal,
install the retainers on different posts from which
they were removed. Start the retainers by hand,
then push them down with a 13 mm (1/2”) socket
until they lock. If the engine has a metal screen, it
will be installed later.
11
Figure 11-29. Installing and Torquing Flywheel
Fastener.
Figure 11-31. Installing Plastic Grass Screen.
11.9
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Supports for the Metal Grass Screen
1. If a metal grass screen is used, with threaded
individual supports, install a spacer washer on the
external threads. Apply blue Loctite® No. 242
(removable) onto the threads. Install the four
supports as shown in Figure 11-32.
Figure 11-34. Applying Camshaft Lubricant to
Bottom of Lifters.
Figure 11-32. Installing Supports for Metal Grass
Screen.
2. Tighten the supports with a torque wrench to
9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.). See Figure 11-33. The grass
screen will be installed to the supports after the
blower housing is in place.
3. Note the mark or tag identifying the hydraulic
lifters as either intake or exhaust and cylinder 1 or
cylinder 2. Install the hydraulic lifters into their
appropriate location in the crankcase. Do not use
a magnet. See Figure 11-35.
NOTE: Hydraulic lifters should always be
installed in the same position as before
disassembly. The exhaust lifters are
located on the output shaft side of the
engine while the intake lifters are located
on the fan side of the engine. The
cylinder numbers are embossed on the
top of the crankcase and each cylinder
head. See Figure 11-36.
Figure 11-33. Torquing Supports for Metal Screen
(Some Models).
Install Hydraulic Lifters
1. See ‘‘Servicing Hydraulic Lifters’’ in Section 10 for
lifter preparation (bleed down) procedures.
2. Apply camshaft lubricant (Kohler Part No.
25 357 14-S) to the bottom surface of each lifter.
See Figure 11-34. Lubricate the hydraulic lifters
and the lifter bores in the crankcase with engine
oil.
11.10
Figure 11-35. Installing Hydraulic Lifters.
Section 11
Reassembly
Valve
Keepers
Retainer
Figure 11-36. Match Numbers on Cylinder Barrel and
Head.
Spring
Cap
Figure 11-38. Valve Components.
Intake
Valve
Seal
Figure 11-37. Intake Valve Seal Location.
Valve Stem Seals
These engines use valve stem seals on the intake
valves and occasionally on the exhaust valves. Always
use a new seal whenever the valve is removed or if the
seal is deteriorated or damaged in any way. Never
reuse an old seal. Figure 11-37.
Assemble Cylinder Heads
Prior to installation, lubricate all components with
engine oil, paying particular attention to the lip of the
valve stem seal, valve stems and valve guides. Install
the following items in the order listed below using a
valve spring compressor. See Figures 11-38 and
11-39.
•
•
•
•
•
Intake and exhaust valves
Valve spring caps
Valve springs
Valve spring retainers
Valve spring keepers
Figure 11-39. Installing Valves with Valve Spring
Compressor.
Install Cylinder Heads
NOTE: Cylinder heads must be attached with the
original type of mounting hardware, using
either hex. flange screws, or mounting studs
with nuts and washers. The heads are
machined differently for studs than for
screws, so the fastening method cannot be
altered unless the heads are being replaced.
Do not intermix the components.
1. Check to make sure there are no nicks or burrs
on the sealing surfaces of the cylinder head or the
crankcase.
11.11
11
Section 11
Reassembly
Heads secured with hex. flange screws:
2. Install a new cylinder head gasket, (with printing
up).
#1
#2
Figure 11-42. Cylinder Head Fastener Torque
Sequence.
Heads secured with mounting studs, nuts, and
washers:
Figure 11-40. Always Use New Head Gaskets.
NOTE: Match the numbers embossed on the
cylinder heads and crankcase. See
Figure 11-36.
3. Install the cylinder head and start the four new
hex. flange screws.
NOTE: When installing cylinder heads, new hex.
flange screws should always be used.
4. Torque the hex. flange screws in two stages; first
to 22.6 N·m (200 in. lb.), then finally to 41.8 N·m
(370 in. lb.), following the sequence in Figure
11-42.
2. If all of the studs were left intact, go to Step 6. If
any studs were disturbed or removed, install new
studs as described in Step 3. Do not use/reinstall
any loosened or removed studs.
3. Install new mounting stud(s) into the crankcase.
a. Thread and lock two of the mounting nuts
together on the smaller diameter threads.
b. Thread the opposite end of the stud, with the
preapplied locking compound, into the
crankcase, until the specified height from the
crankcase surface is achieved. See Figure
11-43. When threading in the studs, use a
steady tightening motion without interruption
until the proper height is obtained. Otherwise,
the frictional heat from the engaging threads
may cause the locking compound to set up
prematurely.
The studs closest to the lifters must have an exposed
height of 75 mm (2 15/16 in.).
The studs furthest from the lifters must have an
exposed height of 69 mm (2 3/4 in.).
c. Remove the nuts and repeat the procedure as
required.
Figure 11-41. Torquing Cylinder Head Fasteners.
11.12
Section 11
Reassembly
NOTE: Push rods should always be installed in the
same position as before disassembly.
1. Note the mark or tag identifying the push rod as
either intake or exhaust and cylinder #1 or #2. Dip
the ends of the push rods in engine oil and install,
making sure that each push rod ball seats in its
hydraulic lifter socket. See Figure 11-45.
Figure 11-43. Installing New Mounting Studs to
Specified Height.
4. Check that the dowel pins are in place and install
a new cylinder head gasket (printing up).
5. Install the cylinder head. Match the numbers on
the cylinder heads and the crankcase. See Figure
11-36. Make sure the head is flat on the gasket
and dowel pins.
6. Lightly lubricate the exposed (upper) threads of
the studs with engine oil. Install a flat washer and
hex. nut onto each of the mounting studs. Torque
the hex. nuts in two stages; first to 16.9 N·m
(150 in. lb.), then finally to 33.9 N·m (300 in. lb.),
following the sequence in Figure 11-42.
Figure 11-45. Install Push Rods in Their Original
Position.
2. Apply grease to the contact surfaces of the rocker
arms and rocker arm pivots. Install the rocker
arms and rocker arm pivots on one cylinder head,
and start the two hex. flange screws. See Figure
11-46.
11
Figure 11-44. Torquing the Cylinder Head Mounting
Nuts (Stud Design).
Install Push Rods and Rocker Arms
Early models used hollow push rods with special
rocker arms. They are not interchangeable with the
later/current style “solid” push rods and associated
rocker arms. Do not mix these. A replacement kit is
available with “solid” components.
Figure 11-46. Torquing Rocker Arm Screws.
3. Torque the hex. flange screws to 11.3 N·m
(100 in. lb.). Repeat for the other rocker arm.
4. Use a spanner wrench or rocker arm lifting tool
(see Section 2), to lift the rocker arms and
position the push rods underneath. See Figure
11-47.
11.13
Section 11
Reassembly
5. Repeat the above steps for the remaining
cylinder. Do not interchange parts from the
cylinder heads.
Figure 11-49. Installing Ignition Module.
Figure 11-47. Using Spanner Wrench to Lift Rocker
Arm Over Push Rod.
6. Rotate the crankshaft to check for free operation
of the valve train. Check the clearance between
the valve spring coils at full lift. Minimum
allowable clearance is 0.25 mm (0.010 in.).
2. On engines equipped with SMART-SPARK™ both
modules are installed the same way - with the two
tabs out. See Figure 11-55.
On engines are not equipped with SMARTSPARK™ the modules are installed with the spark
plug lead wire from module always away from the
cylinder. On #1 cylinder, the single kill tab should
be towards you. See Figure 11-54. On #2 cylinder,
the single kill tab should be away from you (in).
Install Spark Plugs
1. Use new Champion® (or equivalent) spark plugs.
2. Set the gap at 0.76 mm (0.030 in.).
3. Install new plugs and torque to 24.4-29.8 N·m
(18-22 ft. lb.). See Figure 11-48.
3. Install each ignition module to the crankcase
bosses with the two screws (hex. flange or allen
head, based on model). Slide the modules up as
far away from the flywheel as possible and snug
the screws to hold them in that position.
4. Rotate the flywheel to position the magnet directly
under one ignition module.
5. Insert a 0.30 mm (0.012 in.) flat feeler gauge
between the magnet and the ignition module. See
Figure 11-50. Loosen the screws enough to allow
the magnet to pull the module down against the
feeler gauge.
Figure 11-48. Installing Spark Plugs.
Install Ignition Modules
1. Rotate the flywheel to position the magnet away
from the ignition module bosses.
11.14
Section 11
Reassembly
Sealant
Figure 11-50. Setting Ignition Module Air Gap.
Figure 11-52. Sealant Applied to Terminals.
6. Torque the screws to 4.0 N·m (35 in. lb.).
7. Repeat steps 4 through 6 for the other ignition
module.
8. Rotate the flywheel back and forth checking for
clearance between the magnet and ignition
modules. Make sure the magnet does not strike
the modules. Check the gap with a feeler gauge
and readjust if necessary. Final Air Gap:
0.280/0.330 mm. (0.011/0.013 in.).
Install Intake Manifold
1. Install the intake manifold and new gaskets or
O-Rings (plastic manifold), with wiring harness
attached, to the cylinder heads. Slide any wiring
harness clips onto the appropriate bolts before
installing. Make sure the gaskets are in the proper
orientation. Torque the four screws in two stages,
first to 7.4 N·m (66 in. lb.), then to 9.9 N·m
(88 in. lb.), using the sequence shown in Figure
11-51.
NOTE: If the wires were disconnected from the
ignition modules on engines with SMARTSPARK™, reattach the leads and seal the
base of the terminal connectors with GE/
Novaguard G661 (Kohler Part No.
25 357 11-S) or Fel-Pro Lubri-Sel dielectric
compound. The beads should overlap
between the terminals* to form a solid bridge
of compound. See Figure 11-52. Do not put
any compound inside the terminals.
*The 24 584 15-S ignition modules have a
separator barrier between the terminals. On these
modules, seal the base of the terminals, but it is
not necessary to have overlapping beads of
sealant between the connections.
11
4
3
1
2
Figure 11-51. Intake Manifold Torque Sequence.
Figure 11-53. Routing of Wiring Harness.
2. Connect the kill lead to the tab terminal on
standard ignition modules. See Figure 11-54.
11.15
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-54. Connecting Kill Leads on Standard
Ignition Modules.
Figure 11-56. Installing Breather Reed Assembly.
4. Insert the breather filter into position in the
crankcase. Make sure no filter strands are on the
sealing surface. See Figure 11-57.
5. Install the new breather gasket.
Figure 11-55. Connect Leads on SMART-SPARK™
Ignition Modules.
Install Breather Cover and Inner Baffles
RTV sealant was used on early models between the
breather cover and the crankcase. A gasket with
imprinted sealant beads is now used and
recommended. Install as follows:
1. Be sure the sealing surfaces of the crankcase
and breather cover are clean of old gasket
material or RTV sealant. Do not scrape the
surfaces as this could result in leakage.
2. Check to make sure there are no nicks or burrs
on sealing surfaces.
3. Install the hex. flange screw, breather reed
retainer and breather reed onto the crankcase as
shown in Figure 11-56.
11.16
Figure 11-57. Installing New Breather Filter.
6. Carefully position the breather cover on the
crankcase. Install first two hex. flange screws at
positions shown in Figure 11-58 and finger tighten
at this time.
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Blower Housing and Outer Baffles
NOTE: Do not completely tighten screws until all
items are installed to allow shifting for hole
alignment.
1. Connect the plug to the key switch in the blower
housing (if so equipped).
2. Slide the blower housing into position over the
front edge of the inner baffles. See Figure 11-61.
Start a few of the screws to hold it in place.
Figure 11-58. Installing Screws (Locations 3 and 4).
7. Install the inner baffles using the two remaining
hex. flange screws (see Figures 11-59 and 11-60)
and finger tighten. Do not torque the screws at
this time; they will be tightened after the blower
housing and outer baffles are installed.
Figure 11-61. Installing Blower Housing.
Figure 11-59. Installing Inner Baffles.
3. Position the outer baffles and loosely start the
mounting screws. The two M6 screws go into the
back of the cylinders. The short M5 screws go
into the lower holes closest to the blower housing.
The short screw on the oil filter side is also used
to mount the wire harness clip. Be sure any wire
harnesses or leads are routed out through the
proper offsets or notches, so they will not be
pinched between the blower housing and baffles.
See Figure 11-62.
11
Figure 11-60. Finger Tighten Two Remaining Cover
Screws.
Figure 11-62. Routing Wiring Harness and Leads.
11.17
Section 11
Reassembly
4. If the rectifier-regulator was not removed, attach
the ground wire or metal grounding bracket for the
rectifier-regulator, using the silver colored screw
and washer, to the lower blower housing hole.
See Figure 11-63.
Figure 11-64. Tighten Short Screws to Torque
Specified.
Figure 11-65. Tighten Baffle Mounting Screws.
Figure 11-63. Ground Lead Details.
6. The metal grass screen can now be attached to
the supports.
5. Tighten all of the shrouding fasteners. Torque the
blower housing screws to 6.2 N·m (55 in. lb.) in a
new hole, or to 4.0 N·m (35 in. lb.) in a used hole.
Torque the shorter M5 side baffle screws to 4.0
N·m (35 in. lb.). See Figure 11-64. Torque the
upper M5 side baffle screws (into cylinder head)
to 6.2 N·m (55 in. lb.) in a new hole, or to 4.0 N·m
(35 in. lb.) in a used hole. Torque the two rear M6
baffle mounting screws to 10.7 N·m (95 in. lb.) in
a new hole, or to 7.3 N·m (65 in. lb.) in a used
hole. See Figure 11-65.
Figure 11-66. Installing Metal Type Grass Screen.
7. Torque the four breather cover screws to 7.3 N·m
(65 in. lb.) in the sequence shown in Figure
11-67.
11.18
Section 11
Reassembly
1
3
4
2
Figure 11-67. Breather Cover Fastener Torque
Sequence.
Figure 11-69. Installing B+ Lead into Plug.
Reconnect Rectifier-Regulator
1. Install the rectifier-regulator in the blower housing,
if removed previously, then connect the rectifierregulator ground lead with the washer and silver
screw through the eyelet as shown in Figure
11-68. If a grounding bracket is used, secure with
the lower mounting screw and washer, against the
outer side of the rectifier-regulator. See Figure
11-70.
Grounding
Bracket
Figure 11-70. Grounding Bracket and Attached
Connector.
SMART-SPARK™ Module
1. On engines with SMART-SPARK™, reinstall the
SAM module to the blower housing or cylinder
baffle. Do not over-tighten the retaining screws.
See Figure 11-71.
11
Figure 11-68. Connecting Ground Lead.
2. Install the B+ terminal/lead into the center position
of the rectifier-regulator plug and connect the plug
to the rectifier-regulator. See Figures 11-69 and
11-70.
11.19
Section 11
Reassembly
3. On models with a solenoid shift starter, connect
the leads to the solenoid. See Figure 11-73.
Cylinder Baffle Mounting Location
Figure 11-73. Connecting Leads to Starting Motor.
NOTE: If the engine uses a side mount muffler on the
starter side, be sure to tie the wires close to
the starter to avoid contact with hot exhaust
parts.
Install Fuel Pump
Blower Housing Mounting Location
Figure 11-71. Reinstalling SAM Module.
Install Electric Starter Motor
1. Install the starter motor using the two hex. flange
screws. See Figure 11-72. Some inertia-drive
starters have a pinion cover and spacers on the
starter bolts.
2. Torque the two hex. flange screws to 15.3 N·m
(135 in. lb.).
WARNING: Explosive Fuel
Gasoline may be present in the carburetor and fuel
system. Gasoline is extremely flammable and its
vapors can explode if ignited. Keep sparks and other
sources of ignition away from the engine.
1. Install the pulse style fuel pump and lines as an
assembly. Connect the pulse line to the
crankcase vacuum fitting or the valve cover,
whichever source is used.
NOTE: Pulse style fuel pumps may be made of
metal or plastic. See Figure 11-74. If a
new fuel pump is being installed, make
sure the orientation of the new pump is
consistent with the removed pump.
Internal damage may occur if installed
incorrectly.
2. Install the fuel pump using the two hex. flange
screws. Torque the screws to 2.3 N·m (20 in. lb.).
Figure 11-72. Installing Electric Starter Motor.
11.20
Section 11
Reassembly
Metal-Cased Pulse Fuel Pump
Figure 11-75. Installing Carburetor Assembly.
Plastic-Cased Pulse Fuel Pump
Figure 11-74. Reinstalled Fuel Pump.
Install Carburetor
WARNING: Explosive Fuel!
Gasoline may be present in the carburetor and fuel
system. Gasoline is extremely flammable and its
vapors can explode if ignited. Keep sparks and other
sources of ignition away from the engine.
1. Install a new carburetor gasket. Make sure all
holes align and are open.
Figure 11-76. Ground Lead on Carburetor Mounting
Screw.
3. Torque the two carburetor mounting screws to
6.2-7.3 N·m (55-65 in. lb.).
Install External Governor Controls
1. Install the governor lever onto the governor cross
shaft. See Figure 11-77.
11
2. Install the carburetor, throttle linkage and
governor lever as an assembly. See Figure 11-75.
If a plastic intake manifold is used and the
carburetor is equipped with a fuel solenoid, attach
the ground lead to the carburetor mounting screw.
See Figure 11-76.
Figure 11-77. Install Governor Lever to Shaft.
11.21
Section 11
Reassembly
2. Make sure the throttle linkage is connected to the
governor lever and the throttle lever on the
carburetor.
3. Move the governor lever toward the carburetor
as far as it will go (wide-open throttle) and hold in
position. See Figure 11-78.
Figure 11-80. Connecting Choke Linkage.
2. Mount the main control bracket, and air cleaner
support bracket (if used) to the cylinder heads
using the four hex. flange screws. Torque the
screws to 10.7 N·m (95 in. lb.) into new holes, or
7.3 N·m (65 in. lb.) into used holes. See Figure
11-81.
Figure 11-78. Adjusting Governor Lever.
4. Insert a nail into the hole on the cross shaft and
rotate the shaft counterclockwise as far as it will
turn, then torque the hex. nut to 6.8 N·m
(60 in. lb.). See Figure 11-79.
Figure 11-79. Holding and Tightening Governor Arm.
5. Reconnect the lead wire to the fuel shut-off
solenoid if so equipped.
Install Throttle & Choke Controls
1. Connect the choke linkage to the carburetor and
choke actuator lever. See Figure 11-80.
11.22
Figure 11-81. Torquing Main Control Bracket.
Section 11
Reassembly
3. Connect the governor spring from the main
control bracket to the appropriate hole in the
governor lever as indicated in the following charts.
Note that hole positions are counted from the
pivot point of the governor lever. See Figure 11-82
and the appropriate chart.
Figure 11-82. Connecting Spring to Governor
Lever.
6 mm Governor Lever and Hole Position/RPM Chart
Gov. Lever
Hole No.
High Idle RPM
3801-4000
5
3601-3800
4
3451-3600
3
3301-3450
2
3101-3300
4
2951-3100
3
2800-2950
2
3750*
3
3150*
3
*5% Regulation (others 10%)
Governor Spring
Color Code
Clear
Clear
Clear
Clear
Purple
Purple
Purple
Clear
Purple
Governor
Lever
6
5
4
3
2
1
Governor
Idle Hole
11
11.23
Section 11
Reassembly
8 mm Governor Lever and Hole Position/RPM Charts
4
3
2
1
Governor Lever
CH18 Engines
Governor Shaft
Configuration
Needle Bearing
Standard
(Parent Material)
Intended
Maximum RPM
Non-Accelerator
Pump Carburetor
Accelerator
Pump Carburetor
High Idle
WOT
Spring Color
Hole No.
Spring Color
Hole No.
3744
3120
3600
3000
3600
3500
3400
3300
3200
3100
3000
2900
2800
2
1
4
3
4
3
2
2
2
1
1
-
3888
3780
3672
3564
3456
3348
3240
3132
3024
Orange
Clear
Blue
Orange
Clear
Blue
Purple
Black
Red
Green
Blue
3
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
Purple
Black
Red
Orange
Blue
Orange
Black
Red
Clear
CH20-740 Engines
Governor Shaft
Configuration
Needle Bearing
Standard
(Parent Material)
Intended
Maximum RPM
Non-Accelerator
Pump Carburetor
Accelerator
Pump Carburetor
High Idle
WOT
Spring Color
Hole No.
Spring Color
Hole No.
3744
3120
3888
3780
3672
3564
3456
3348
3240
3132
3024
3600
3000
3600
3500
3400
3300
3200
3100
3000
2900
2800
Orange
Clear
Red
Purple
Black
Red
Purple
Blue
Orange
Clear
Red
2
1
4
3
3
3
2
2
1
2
1
Purple
Black
Red
Orange
Blue
Orange
Black
Red
Clear
3
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
CH26,CH745 EFI Engines
Governor Shaft
Configuration
Standard
(Parent Material)
11.24
Intended
Maximum RPM
High Idle
WOT
Spring Color
Hole No.
3888
3780
3672
3564
3456
3348
3240
3132
3024
3600
3500
3400
3300
3200
3100
3000
2900
2800
Orange
Black
Red
Green
Red
Green
Blue
Clear
-
3
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
-
Section 11
Reassembly
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Description
Bracket, speed control
Clamp, cable (some applications)
Kill Switch (some applications)
Lever, choke (top position)
Lever, throttle control (middle)
Linkage, choke control
Lever, throttle actuator (bottom)
Screw, M5x0.8x20
Washer, wave
Washer, flat (3)
Spring, choke return
Nut, M5x0.8 lock
Figure 11-83. Throttle/Choke Control Bracket Detail.
Install Oil Sentry™ (If So Equipped)
1. Apply pipe sealant with Teflon® (Loctite® No.
59241 or equivalent) to the threads of the Oil
Sentry™ switch and install it into the breather
cover. See Figure 11-84. Torque to 4.5 N·m
(40 in. lb.).
2. Connect the wire lead (green) to the Oil Sentry™
terminal.
11
Install Control Panel (If So Equipped)
1. Install the panel to the blower housing.
2. Connect the throttle control cable or shaft.
Figure 11-84. Installing Oil Sentry™ Switch.
3. Connect the choke control cable to the control
bracket.
4. Connect the Oil Sentry™ indicator light wires.
11.25
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Valve Covers
Three valve cover designs have been used. The
earliest type used a gasket and RTV sealant between
the cover and sealing surface of the cylinder head. The
second type had a black O-Ring installed in a groove
on the underside of the cover and may have metal
spacers in the bolt holes. The newest design uses a
brown O-Ring, and the bolt hole spacers are molded in
place. The tightening torque differs between gasket
and O-Ring style covers. Kits are available for
converting to the latest O-Ring type covers.
Differences are pointed out in the following installation
steps.
NOTE: Do not scrape old RTV sealant (if used) off
the sealing surface of the cylinder head as
this could cause damage and result in leaks.
The use of gasket remover solvent (paint
remover) is recommended.
1. If using the gasket or sealant type cover, prepare
the sealing surfaces of the cylinder head and
cover as directed in Service Bulletin 252. Refer to
Section 2, for approved sealants. Always use
fresh sealant – using outdated sealant could
result in leakage. With O-Ring type covers, make
sure the sealing surfaces are clean.
Gasket/RTV style cover ............. 3.4 N·m (30 in. lb.)
Black O-Ring style cover
with shoulder screws ........... 5.6 N·m (50 in. lb.)
with screws and spacers ..... 9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.)
Brown O-Ring style cover
with integral spacers ........... 9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.)
1
3
4
2
Figure 11-85. Valve Cover Fastener Torque
Sequence.
NOTE: Fastener #2 may secure fuel pump bracket
on earlier models.
2. Make sure there are no nicks or burrs on the
sealing surfaces.
3. For covers requiring RTV sealant, apply a 1.5 mm
(1/16 in.) bead to the sealing surface of both
cylinder heads, install a new valve cover gasket
on each, then apply a second bead of sealant on
the top surface of the gaskets. For O-Ring type
covers, install a new O-Ring in the groove of the
covers. Do not use gaskets or RTV sealant.
4. Locate the cover with the oil fill neck on the same
side as removed and install the lifting strap in the
original position. With O-Ring type covers,
position the cover on the cylinder head. If loose
spacers were used, insert a spacer in each of the
screw holes. On both types, install the four hex.
flange screws in each cover and finger tighten.
5. Torque the valve cover fasteners to the proper
specification using the sequence shown in Figure
11-85.
11.26
Figure 11-86. Tightening Valve Cover Screws.
Install Air Cleaner Assembly
Refer to Section 4 for air cleaner reassembly
procedure.
1. Attach the rubber breather hose to the breather
cover. Connect the fuel inlet line to the carburetor
and secure with a clamp. See Figure 11-87.
Section 11
Reassembly
3. Secure the air cleaner base and bracket using the
hex. flange screws. Position the bracket with the
hole toward the breather hose. Be careful not to
drop screws into the carburetor. If a rear air
cleaner bracket is used, install the two M5 screws
through the rear of the base. Torque the three M6
screws to 6.2-7.3 N·m (55-65 in. lb.) and the two
rear M5 mounting screws (when applicable) to
4.0 N·m (35 in. lb.). See Figures 11-90 and 11-91.
Figure 11-87. Connecting Fuel Inlet Line.
2. Position a new gasket and the air cleaner base
while carefully pulling the loose end of the rubber
breather hose through the base until properly
seated (collars sealed against each side of base).
See Figure 11-88.
Figure 11-90. Torquing Base Screws.
Figure 11-88. Pulling Breather Hose through Base.
NOTE: Route the fuel line in the contour, as
shown in Figure 11-89, to avoid
restriction.
Figure 11-91. Tightening Rear Base/Bracket Screws
(Some Models).
4. Install the breather hose in the hole in the bracket.
5. Install the air cleaner components as described in
Section 4.
Install Muffler
1. Install the port liners (if equipped). Install the
muffler and attaching hardware to the muffler
bracket. Torque screws to 9.9 N·m (88 in. lb.).
Figure 11-89. Fuel Inlet Line Detail.
2. Install the hex. flange nuts to the exhaust studs.
Torque hex. flange nuts to 24.4. N·m (216 in. lb.).
11.27
11
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Oil Cooler
1. Reinstall the oil cooler on the engine (if equipped).
Install a new gasket between the cooler and the
closure plate. Torque nipple adapter to 27 N·m
(20 ft. lb.). See Figure 11-92.
Figure 11-94. Hand Tightening Oil Filter.
4. Install the oil drain plugs. See Figure 11-95.
Torque the plugs to 13.6 N·m (10 ft. lb.).
Figure 11-92. Torquing Oil Filter Nipple.
NOTE: Make sure that both oil drain plugs are
installed and torqued to the above
specifications to prevent oil leakage.
Install Oil Filter and Fill Crankcase with Oil
1. Prefill a new oil filter following the instructions in
Section 6.
2. Apply a thin film of clean engine oil to the rubber
gasket on the oil filter and thread the filter onto the
adapter nipple. See Figure 11-93.
Figure 11-95. Reinstall and Torque Both Oil Drain
Plugs.
5. Add oil to bring the level up to "F" mark and
reinstall the dipstick. See Figure 11-96.
Figure 11-93. Installing New Oil Filter.
3. Hand tighten the filter until the rubber gasket
contacts the adapter, then tighten the filter an
additional 2/3-1 turn. See Figure 11-94.
11.28
Section 11
Reassembly
Prepare the Engine for Operation
The engine is now completely reassembled. Before
starting or operating the engine, be sure to do the
following.
1. Make sure all hardware is tightened securely.
2. Make sure the oil drain plugs, oil sentry pressure
switch, and a new oil filter are installed.
Figure 11-96. Reinstall the Dipstick in Tube.
6. Make sure the O-Ring is in place then reinstall the
oil fill cap on the valve cover. See Figure 11-97.
3. Fill the crankcase with the correct amount, weight,
and type of oil. Refer to oil recommendations and
procedures in the ‘‘Safety and General
Information’’ and ‘‘Lubrication System’’ sections.
4. Adjust the carburetor, idle fuel needle, or idle
speed adjusting screw as necessary. Refer to
Section 5, the "Fuel System and Governor".
Testing the Engine
It is recommended that the engine be operated on a
test stand or bench prior to installation in the piece of
equipment.
1. Set the engine up on a test stand. Install an oil
pressure gauge. Start the engine and check to be
certain that oil pressure (20 psi or more) is
present. Run the engine at idle for 2-3 minutes,
then 5-6 minutes more between idle and
midrange. Adjust the carburetor mixture settings
as necessary (as available).
Figure 11-97. Reinstalling Oil Fill Cap (Some Models).
Connect Spark Plug Leads
2. Adjust the idle speed screw and high-speed stop
as necessary. Make sure the maximum engine
speed does not exceed 3750 RPM (no load).
1. Connect the leads to the spark plugs. See Figure
11-98.
11
Figure 11-98. Connect Spark Plug Leads.
11.29
Section 11
Reassembly
11.30
Section 12
Clutch
CH18-745
Section 12
Clutch
Clutch
General
Some engines are equipped with a “wet” disc type clutch. See Figure 12-1 for exploded view of clutch.
Shifting Lever
Nameplate
Gasket
Shaft
(Yoke)
Seal
Clutch
Housing
Yoke
Key
Roll Pin
Adjusting
Ring
Driven
Member
Oil Seal
Power
Shaft
Ball Bearing
Snap Ring
Pressure
Plate
Retaining
Rings
Pilot Bearing
Release
Sleeve
Bearing Release
Assembly
Clutch Assembly
12
Clutch
Assembly
Adjusting
Lock
Figure 12-1. Wet Type Clutch - Exploded View.
12.1
Section 12
Clutch
Service
On this type, an oil “splash” type lubrication system is
used. The proper oil level must be maintained to
provide efficient lubrication. The oil should be changed
after each 100 hours of operation. When refilling, use
0.47 L (1 pt.) of motor oil of proper viscosity. See chart
below.
Temperature
SAE Viscosity
Above 10°C (50°F)
S A E 30
-17.8°C (0°F) to 10°C (50°F)
S A E 20
Below -17.8°C (0°F)
S A E 10
Adjustment
Slight readjustment may be needed after a few hours
on a new clutch to accommodate normal run-in wear.
Firm pressure should be required to engage clutch
(40-45 pounds pull at lever handle). Readjust if clutch
slips and overheats, or if clutch handle jumps out after
engagement. Use the following procedure:
1. Release clutch and remove nameplate. Using a
large screwdriver, turn adjusting ring clockwise,
one notch at a time, until firm pressure is required
to engage clutch. See Figure 12-2. Adjusting ring
is spring loaded and does not have to be
loosened before adjustment is made. Do not
attempt to pry or force spring lock away from the
ring.
Adjustment
Ring
Spring
Lock
Figure 12-2. Adjusting Clutch.
12.2
2. After adjustment is made, engage clutch and
check to make sure rollers go over center to lock
the unit in engaged position and prevent releasing
under load. If trouble persists after readjustment,
clutch reconditioning is indicated.
Reconditioning
Drain the oil, remove the nameplate, and use the
following procedure.
1. Remove capscrews (2) from clutch yoke and
remove spacers.
2. Remove cross shaft.
3. Remove housing bolts (4) and slide housing off.
4. Loosen bolts securing clutch assembly to
crankshaft, then remove locking screw.
5. Pull clutch assembly off.
6. To replace clutch, simply turn adjusting collar off
and remove plate.
Reverse procedure for reassembly. Adjust and
lubricate following previous instructions.
FORM NO.: TP-2428-B
ISSUED:
4/92
REVISED:
6/04
MAILED:
7/04
LITHO IN U.S.A.
FOR SALES AND SERVICE INFORMATION
IN U.S. AND CANADA, CALL 1-800-544-2444
ENGINE DIVISION, KOHLER CO., KOHLER, WISCONSIN 53044
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