Epson LQ-300+II Printer User Manual

What’s New with the
400W / 500W Series
New Operational Characteristics of the
WAAS GNS 400W/500W Series Units
versus
the Classic 400/500 Series Units
This document is written for:
• Garmin GPS 400W, GNC 420W/420AW, and GNS 430W/430AW Main System Software Version 2.00
• Garmin GPS 500W & GNS 530W/530AW Main System Software Version 2.00
© 2006 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All Rights Reserved.
Garmin International, Inc., 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, KS 66062, U.S.A.
Tel. 913/397.8200 or 800/800.1020
Fax 913/397.8282
Garmin AT, Inc., 2345 Turner Rd., S.E., Salem, Oregon 97302, U.S.A.
Tel: 503/581.8101
Fax: 503/364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd., Unit 5, The Quadrangle, Abbey Park, Romsey, Hampshire S051 9DL, U.K.
Tel: 44/0870.851241 (Europe)
Fax: 44/1794.519222
Tel: 0808.2380000 (UK)
Garmin Corporation, No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road, Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
Tel. 886/2.2642.9199
Fax 886/2.2642.9099
Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this addendum may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated,
downloaded or stored in any storage medium, for any purpose without the express prior written consent of Garmin.
Garmin hereby grants permission to download a single copy of this manual and of any revision to this manual onto
a hard drive or other electronic storage medium to be viewed and to print one copy of this manual or of any revision
hereto, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual or revision must contain the complete text of this
copyright notice and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision
hereto is strictly prohibited.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Garmin reserves the right to change or improve its
products and to make changes in the content without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes or
improvements.
The complete set of 400W/500W series Pilot Guides is available on-line at www.garmin.com.
190-00356-06 Rev A
December 2006
Printed in U.S.A.
The 400W/500W series of navigators with WAAS now offer many enhancements over the previous non-WAAS
models. Advancements include new WAAS-enabled GPS antenna, receiver, and associated software. The 400W/500W
series system complies with WAAS TSO C146a and also includes a significant hardware upgrade with a new and much
faster micro-processor. A terrain database for terrain awareness is included as a standard feature and now provides
even greater detail. The WAAS GPS receiver now allows you to use the 400W/500W series unit for primary navigation
and use GPS with vertical guidance for LPV, L/VNAV, and LNAV+V approaches. Non-precision approaches are annunciated as LNAV approaches. The Comparison of Features Summary table provides a quick view of the differences and
is followed by a more detailed description of feature changes.
Comparison of Features Summary
Feature
Classic 400/500
C129a – Supplemental navigation
No
C129a non-precision annunciations
No
Once per second
Level-C
Yes
1
2
3
TSO
WAAS Capable
Approach Annunciations
4
5
6
7
SBAS Selection
GPS Position Calculation Rate
GPS Software
Vectors-To-Final
8
No
9
GPS/WAAS-Based Vertical Guidance
Holding Patterns
10
Autopilot Roll Steering
Yes
11
12
OBS Operation
Hold to Altitude
Yes
Yes
13
14
Parallel Track
Magnetic Variation Options
No
True, Magnetic, or User
Yes
New 400W/500W
WAAS TSO C146a – Primary navigation
Yes
C146a precision annunciations of LPV, L/VNAV,
LNAV+V, LNAV, and MAPR
Yes for WAAS
Five times per second
Level-B. More robust
Auto-Suspend (SUSP) is active for Vectors To Final
(VTF) until on the “TO” side of the FAF and the
aircraft ground track is within a 45° course of the
pub­lished in bound course. At this point, the SUSP
annunciation will automati­cally extinguish.
GPS WAAS provides vertical guidance on the
available GPS approaches
Holding pattern depiction on the Nav mode
moving map shows aircraft position and provides
active guidance
Includes active guidance during holding patterns
and procedure turns
OBS/SUSP behavior around the MAP is different
Hold to Altitude legs will now use baro-corrected
altitude if it is available
Yes
True or Magnetic
15
16
17
Feature
Terrain Database
Dead Reckoning (DR)
Satellite Status Page
Classic 400/500
Optional
No
Yes
18
19
20
Graphics Speed
Crossfill
XM Radio Audio and Weather
21
No
No
GDL 69/69A
Yes
24
KAP140/KFC225 Autopilot
Operation-Compatible
GDL Configuration
GDL 69/69A Data Link Diagnostics
Traffic Range Rings
Good
Yes
Limited, NEXRAD, METARs, no
audio control
Yes
New 400W/500W
Standard. Increased resolution.
Yes
Enhanced with new colors and 3D differential fix
notation.
Much better
12x faster
Yes - Adds TAFs, TFRs, NEXRAD Coverage, and
audio controls
Annunciation added
Yes
25
Installation
Individual aircraft field approval.
26
How Can I Tell If I Have A WAAS
Unit
N/A
The numeric values for Traffic Range rings vary
with the installed traffic source.
Approved Model List for more than 900 aircraft
when installed per the STC.
View the first screen in the start-up routine.
Check other features.
22
23
Detailed Description of Feature Changes
1. TSO
TSO C-129/C-129a allowed the use of GPS for
supplemental navigation for non-precision approaches.
An installation meeting TSO-146a requirements allows
the use of your 400W/500W navigators as the primary
navigation device for precision approaches.
See your dealer for detailed information about how the
new TSO affects the operation of your aircraft.
2. WAAS Capable
WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) is a
system to provide improved integrity and accuracy of
GPS signals used for navigation. “Wide Area” refers to
a network of ground reference stations that cover the
entire U.S. and some of Canada and Mexico. Implemented by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)
for aviation users, these reference stations are located
at precisely surveyed spots and compare GPS distance
measurements to known values. Each reference station is
linked to a master station, which puts together a correction message and broadcasts it via satellite. The corrected
differential message is then broadcast through one of two
geostationary satellites. The information is compatible
with the basic GPS signal structure, which means any
WAAS-enabled GPS receiver can read the signal. WAAS
capable receivers typically have accuracies of one meter
horizontally and 2 meters vertically.
Basically, it’s a system of satellites and ground stations that provide GPS signal corrections, giving you
even better position accuracy. How much better? Try
an average of up to five times better. A WAAS-capable
receiver can give you a position accuracy of better than
two meters 95 percent of the time. And you don’t have to
purchase additional receiving equipment or pay service
fees to utilize WAAS. WAAS also provides the capability of quickly determining when signals from a given
satellite are wrong and removing that satellite from the
navigation solution.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the
Department of Transportation (DOT) are developing
the WAAS program for use in precision IFR approaches.
Without WAAS, GPS alone does not meet the FAA’s
navigation requirements for accuracy, integrity, and
availability. WAAS corrects for GPS signal errors caused
by ionospheric disturbances, timing, and satellite orbit
errors, and it provides vital near real-time integrity information regarding the health of each GPS satellite.
Currently, WAAS satellite coverage is only available
in North America. There are no ground reference stations in South America, so even though GPS users there
can receive WAAS, the signal has not been corrected
and thus would not improve the accuracy of their unit.
For some users in the U.S., the position of the WAAS
satellites over the equator makes it difficult to receive
the signals when trees or mountains obstruct the view of
the horizon. WAAS signal reception is ideal for aviation
applications. Your Garmin 400W/500W series system
provides for primary GPS navigation in areas where no
WAAS coverage is available using a Fault Detection and
Exclusion (FDE) RAIM algorithm.
Other governments are developing similar SatelliteBased Augmentation Systems (SBAS). In Asia, it’s the
Japanese Multi-Functional Satellite Augmentation System
(MSAS), while Europe has the Euro Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS). Once these systems
are fully tested and operational, your 400W/500W series
system will be capable of using these systems.
GPS Accuracy
GPS Condition
Accuracy Level
Accuracy of the original GPS system,
100 meters
which was subject to accuracy
degradation under the governmentimposed Selective Availability (SA)
program.
Typical GPS position accuracy
15 meters
without SA.
Typical differential GPS (DGPS) posi3-5 meters
tion accuracy.
Typical WAAS position accuracy.
< 1.25 meters
3. Approach Annunciations
LPV, L/VNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV, and MAPR will appear
in the flight phase annunciation window.
Annunciation
Description
LPV
Follow lateral and vertical guidance to LPV
minimums.
L/VNAV
GPS approach identified in the database as
LNAV/VNAV. Fly to LNAV/VNAV minimums.
LNAV+V
Non-precision GPS approach with advisory
vertical guidance. Note that some LNAV/
VNAV approaches are not yet marked in
the database as such and will show up as
LNAV+V. If the chart shows the approach
as Lnav/Vnav, it can be flown to Lnav/
Vnav minimums.
LNAV
Non-precision GPS approach or non-GPS
approach, such as ILS or Localizer.
MAPR
Missed Approach, indicates the system is
providing missed approach integrity and
CDI full-scale deflection ±0.3 NM. This also
shows that the pilot has initiated a Missed
Approach by pressing the OBS key after
crossing the MAP.
WAAS Channels
WAAS channel numbers are shown on Airport
Approach pages in the Waypoint page group. The WAAS
approach reference ID is displayed in the top left corner
of the map. The approach service level is shown in the
lower right corner of the map. Service level annunciations available are: LPV, L/VNAV, LNAV+V, or LNAV.
4. SBAS selection
The SBAS (Space-Based Augmentation System) menu
option allows you to enable or disable the use of WAAS
satellites. If WAAS is disabled, the unit will not be able
to fly vertically guided GPS approaches (LPV, LNAV/
VNAV, or LNAV+V). If WAAS was previously disabled,
it may take several minutes to achieve a 3D-Diff fix after
re-enabling WAAS.
See the section on SBAS Selection of the Setup 2 Page in
the Aux Pages chapter of the Pilot’s Guide for more details.
5. GPS Position Calculation Rate
8. GPS/WAAS-Based Vertical Guidance
The WAAS GPS receiver calculates its position five
times per second rather than once per second like the
Classic C-129/C-129a GPS systems. This, together with
the enhanced vertical accuracy and other system enhancements, allows for vertical approach guidance.
The WAAS GPS receiver now allows you to use the
400W/500W series unit for primary navigation and
use GPS with vertical guidance for LPV, L/VNAV, and
LNAV+V approaches.
6. GPS Software
The Holding pattern depiction on the Nav mode
moving map shows the aircraft position and provides
active guidance, with roll steering autopilot-equipped
aircraft.
The GPS software of the Classic 400/500 series met
the requirements for Level-C. The new 400W/500W
meets the more rigorous requirements of Level-B, where
required.
9. Holding Patterns
7. Vectors-To-Final
To
-F
ina
l
Auto-Suspend (SUSP) is active for Vectors To Final
(VTF) until on the “TO” side of the FAF and the aircraft
ground track is within a 45° course of the published in
bound course. At this point, the suspend annunciator
will automatically extinguish.
Ve
c
tor
-
Guidance provided along the holding pattern
SUSP
Off
SUSP
Off
SUSP
On
45°
45°
FAF
SUSP
On
MAP
See the section on Flying an Approach with a Hold in the
Procedures chapter of the Pilot’s Guide for more details.
10.Autopilot Roll Steering
Roll steering guidance is now provided for procedure
turns and holding patterns. The holding pattern now depicts the actual location and shape of the holding pattern
while providing real-time display of your position.
See the Procedures chapter of the Pilot’s Guide for more
details.
Vector-To-Final Suspend Operation
Remember, don’t press OBS or you will have to
reload the approach, unless you desire to sequence to the
final approach segment in the active flight plan.
See the section on Vectors to Final in the Procedures
chapter of the Pilot’s Guide for more details.
11.OBS Operation
13.Parallel Track
SUSP after canceling OBS when on From side of OBS
path – The change in behavior is this: When you put the
400W/500W-series unit into OBS mode and the course
selected places the aircraft onto the from side and then
you cancel OBS, the OBS course is retained but the unit
indicates that sequencing is suspended by annunciating
SUSP. Note that you can still change the course to the
OBS waypoint as long as you haven’t cancelled OBS, but
once you have it will annunciate SUSP. The WAAS TSO
requires the unit to annunciate when leg sequencing is
suspended, so this is the reason the SUSP annunciation
is active. The classic product behaved the same way but
did not indicate that sequencing was suspended and
when pressing the OBS key, it would return to OBS
mode on the same waypoint. With the 400W/500W-series unit, pressing the OBS key when the SUSP annunciation is above it will allow leg sequencing to occur
immediately.
See the Q & A comments about using the OBS key in
Appendix C - Troubleshooting Q&A of the Pilot’s Guide for
more details.
Parallel Track allows you to create a parallel course
offset of 1 to 99 NM to the left or right of your current
flight plan. After setting a parallel track to your current
flight plan, a magenta parallel track active leg line will be
drawn offset from the original by the selected distance.
The original course line will appear in white. The aircraft
will navigate to the parallel track course line.
Points to remember with Parallel Track:
1. You must have an active flight plan.
2. The current leg must support parallel track.
3. Parallel track is not allowed for the active leg of an
approach.
4. Parallel track is not allowed if the active leg is not a
track-to-fix or direct-to-fix leg.
5. Parallel track may be allowed but not the selected offset
distance.
6. Parallel Track offset waypoint is indicated with a “-p”
suffix.
Original waypoint
Parallel Track offset waypoint
12.Hold to Altitude
The Hold to Altitude legs now use baro-corrected
altitude if it is available (similar to Fix to Altitude legs).
This means that if baro-corrected altitude is available
and the required altitude is reached for the hold, the
400W/500W-series unit will automatically unsuspend
and then sequence to the next leg after the hold fix is
crossed. If baro-corrected altitude is not available, then
the behavior is the same as the Classic – the user needs
to press OBS to sequence past the hold.
See the section on Flying an Approach with a Hold in the
Procedures chapter of the Pilot’s Guide for more details.
Original flight
plan course
line
Present
Position
After setting a parallel track to your current flight plan, a
magenta parallel track line will be drawn offset from the
original by the selected distance. The original course line
will be drawn in white. The aircraft will navigate to the
parallel track course line.
Navigating Along A Parallel Track
See the section on Parallel Track in the Flight Plan chapter of the Pilot’s Guide for more details.
14.Magnetic Variation Options
17.Satellite Status Page
Magnetic variation has been simplified to the choices
of Magnetic and True.
See the section on Units/Position of the Setup 1 Page in
the Aux Pages chapter of the Pilot’s Guide for more details.
The Satellite Status page has been redesigned to
provide WAAS GPS information.
15.Terrain Database
The Terrain function in Nav mode is now a standard
feature. The extensive database aids in terrain awareness.
TAWS remains as an option in the 500W series.
See the section on Terrain Operation in the Nav Pages
chapter of the Pilot’s Guide for more details.
Signal Strength
Bars
Sky View
of satellite
positions
Horizontal Figure of
Merit and Vertical
Figure of Merit
Estimated Position
Uncertainty
Satellite acquired
but not used for
position fix
16.Dead Reckoning (DR)
Dead reckoning is the process of continuing navigation based on your last known position using your
current heading, speed, time, and distance to be traveled
after a loss of GPS navigation on an active flight plan.
Navigation using dead reckoning is therefore only an
estimate and requires that you maintain the course and
speed shown on your 400W/500W unit. Dead reckoning
should not be used if any other means of navigation is
available, such as a VOR or pilotage.
Dead reckoning becomes active after a loss of GPS
position while you are navigating using an active flight
plan. A pop-up message will appear and requires pilot
input to clear the message. Dead reckoning is not available if you are in terminal or approach modes.
When Dead Reckoning is active, the ownship icon
color is changed to yellow and the To/From flag is
removed from the CDI. The Dead Reckoning annunciator (DR) appears on the left side of the map display
when GPS position is unavailable and the unit is in Dead
Reckoning mode. All external outputs dependent on
GPS position are flagged.
See the section on Dead Reckoning in the Nav Pages
chapter of the Pilot’s Guide for more details.
Current GPS Receiver
UTC Time
Status
Satellite
Numbers
Current Page in NAV
Satellite
Excluded Acquiring
Group
Satellite Satellite, not acquired, used
(page position
for
position
ready for
depends on options;
fix, and has
“INTEG”
use
see 400W/500W Series
differential
Annunciator
Display Interfaces Pilot's
corrections
shown when the required
Guide Addendum)
level of integrity is not
available
Satellite Status Page Description
See the section on the Satellite Status Page in the Nav
Pages chapter of the Pilot’s Guide for more details.
18.Graphics Speed
The graphics speed for redrawing the display is much
improved. This is especially evident on the Map and Terrain displays.
19.Crossfill
Crossfill operation in the 400W/500W series units is
now 12x faster than in the Classic units. The databases
of the 400/500 series and the 400W/500W series are
incompatible, so you may not mix systems.
20.XM Radio Audio and Weather
XM Weather is available through the XM Satellite
Radio Service when activated in the optional installation of the GDL 69 or 69A. Textual and graphic weather
products such as NEXRAD graphic weather with precipitation type, radar coverage, TFRs, TAFs, and METARs
symbols are displayed in the NAV function. The types
of products available depend on the subscription service
with XM Satellite Radio.
Textual METARs
XM NEXRAD Weather
Audio entertainment is available through the XM
Satellite Radio Service when activated in the optional
installation of the GDL 69A. The 400W and 500W series
units serve as the display and control head for your
remotely mounted GDL 69A. XM Satellite Radio allows
you to enjoy a variety of radio programming over long
distances without having to constantly search for new
stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far
exceeds land-based transmissions. When enabled, the
XM Satellite Radio audio entertainment is accessible in
the AUX function.
Graphic METARs
XM Satellite Radio Audio
See the section on XM Radio in the 400W/500W Series
Garmin Optional Displays Pilot’s Guide Addendum - p/n
190-00356-30 for more details.
21.KAP140/KFC225 Autopilot Operation-Compatible
24.Traffic Range Rings
Autopilot outputs for the King KAP140/KFC225
autopilots are activated manually by the pilot after
being prompted during the approach procedure. Since
these autopilots revert to roll mode-wings level when
transitioning to approach mode, it is important for
the pilot to be part of the decision process of when to
make this control change. After enabling outputs, the
400W/500W-series unit will provide guidance information to the autopilot.
The 400W/500W-series unit must be configured
during installation to interface with these autopilots.
Guidance to the FAF is active as indicated by Approach
mode annunciation (LPV, L/VNAV, LNAV+V, or LNAV).
See the section on Enabling Autopilot Outputs in the
Procedures chapter of the Pilot’s Guide for more details.
The numeric values for Traffic Range rings vary with
the installed traffic source.
See the section on Traffic in the 400W/500W Series
Garmin Optional Displays Pilot’s Guide Addendum - p/n
190-00356-30 and the 400W/500W Series Display Interfaces Pilot’s Guide Addendum - p/n 190-00356-31 for more
details.
22.GDL Configuration
26. How Can I Tell If I Have A WAAS Unit
The GDL 69/69A receives broadcast weather data
from a service of XM Satellite Radio, Inc. The GDL 69A
also can receive audio entertainment broadcasts.
See the section on XM Radio in the 400W/500W Series
Garmin Optional Displays Pilot’s Guide Addendum - p/n
190-00356-30 for more details.
25. Installation
The 400W/500W series products are certified with
an AML (Approved Model List) STC. There are more
than 900 aircraft on the approved list. This allows the
aircraft on the AML to be installed via the STC, that may
result in cost and time savings in the installation process
for the aircraft owner. See your dealer for details about
your aircraft installation.
At the beginning of the start-up screens, the model
number of the unit will have a “W” at the end of the
number.
23.GDL 69/69A Data Link Diagnostics
Diagnostics for the GDL 69/69A are available for
viewing in the Aux pages of the 400W/500W series
units.
See the section on XM Radio in the 400W/500W Series
Garmin Optional Displays Pilot’s Guide Addendum - p/n
190-00356-30 for more details.
There are a couple of screens you can check quickly.
The Satellite Status page has changed. Under Status,
the WAAS units will show values for HFOM, VFOM,
and EPU. The SBAS Selection page is only available for
WAAS units; see item 4.
© 2006 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Rd., S.E., Salem, Oregon 97302, U.S.A.
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Unit 5, The Quadrangle, Abbey Park Industrial Estate, Romsey, SO51 9DL, U.K.
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road, Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
190-00356-06 Rev A
www.garmin.com
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