Farallon Communications R9100 Network Card User Manual

™
Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router
for DSL and Cable Modems
User’s Reference Guide
Copyright
©1997–98, Netopia, Inc., v.0300
All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.
This manual and any associated artwork, software, and product designs are copyrighted with
all rights reserved. Under the copyright laws such materials may not be copied, in whole or
part, without the prior written consent of Netopia, Inc. Under the law, copying includes
translation to another language or format.
Netopia, Inc.
2470 Mariner Square Loop
Alameda, CA 94501-1010
U.S.A.
Patents
PhoneNET technology contained in Netopia is covered by U.S. Patent Numbers 4,901,342
and 5,003,579.
Other U.S. and foreign patents are pending.
Part Number
For additional copies of this electronic manual, order Netopia part number 6120339-PF-03
Printed Copies
For printed copies of this manual, order Netopia part number TER9100/Doc
(P/N 6120339-00-02)
Contents
Welcome to the Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router User’s Reference Guide. This guide is designed to
be your single source for information about your Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router. It is intended to
be viewed on-line, using the powerful features of the Adobe Acrobat Reader. The information
display has been deliberately designed to present the maximum information in the minimum space
on your screen. You can keep this document open while you perform any of the procedures
described, and find useful information about the procedure you are performing.
This Table of Contents page you are viewing consists of hypertext links to the chapters and
headings listed. If you are viewing this on-line, just click any link below to go to that heading.
Part I: Getting Started
Chapter 1 — Introduction..........................................................1-1
Overview ....................................................................... 1-1
Features and capabilities ............................................... 1-1
How to use this guide .................................................... 1-2
Chapter 2 — Setting Up Internet Services .................................2-1
Finding an Internet service provider................................. 2-1
Unique requirements ............................................ 2-1
Pricing and support .............................................. 2-1
Endorsements ..................................................... 2-2
Deciding on an ISP account ............................................ 2-2
Setting up an account using a Netopia R9100........ 2-2
Obtaining an IP address........................................ 2-2
SmartIP............................................................... 2-2
Obtaining information from the ISP.................................. 2-2
Local LAN IP address information to obtain ............ 2-3
Chapter 3 — Making the Physical Connections..........................3-1
Find a location............................................................... 3-1
What you need .............................................................. 3-2
Identify the connectors and attach the cables .................. 3-2
Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router back panel ports ............ 3-3
Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router status lights................... 3-4
Chapter 4 — Connecting to Your Local Area Network .................4-1
Overview ....................................................................... 4-1
Network Model..................................................... 4-2
Readying computers on your local network....................... 4-4
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User’s Reference Guide
Connecting to an Ethernet network..................................
10Base-T.............................................................
Adding an external modem .............................................
Connecting to a LocalTalk network .................................
Wiring guidelines for PhoneNET cabling..................
4-5
4-5
4-7
4-8
4-9
Chapter 5 — Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard 5-1
Before running SmartStart ............................................. 5-2
Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard ........... 5-3
SmartStart Wizard configuration screens ............... 5-3
Easy option.......................................................... 5-4
Advanced option .................................................. 5-5
Sharing the Connection .................................................. 5-6
Configuring TCP/IP on Windows 95, 98, or NT
computers ........................................................... 5-6
Configuring TCP/IP on Macintosh computers ........ 5-10
Chapter 6 — Console-Based Management .................................6-1
Connecting through a Telnet session ............................... 6-2
Configuring Telnet software ................................... 6-3
Connecting a console cable to your router ....................... 6-3
Navigating through the console screens .......................... 6-4
Chapter 7 — Easy Setup ...........................................................7-1
Easy Setup console screens........................................... 7-1
Accessing the Easy Setup console screens ............ 7-1
Quick Easy Setup connection path .................................. 7-3
If your ISP supports DHCP .................................... 7-3
If your ISP doesn’t support DHCP .......................... 7-3
More Easy Setup options ............................................... 7-5
WAN Ethernet Configuration .................................. 7-5
IP Easy Setup ...................................................... 7-6
Easy Setup Security Configuration ......................... 7-7
Contents
iii
Part II: Advanced Configuration
Chapter 8 — WAN and System Configuration .............................8-1
WAN configuration.......................................................... 8-1
Creating a new Connection Profile ................................... 8-3
Default Answer Profile for Dial-in Connections .................. 8-7
How the Default Answer Profile works .................... 8-7
System configuration screens ........................................ 8-9
Navigating through the system configuration screens...... 8-10
System configuration features ............................. 8-11
Network protocols setup ..................................... 8-11
Filter sets (firewalls) ........................................... 8-12
IP address serving ............................................. 8-12
Date and time.................................................... 8-12
Console configuration ......................................... 8-12
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) ..... 8-13
Security ............................................................. 8-13
Upgrade feature set ........................................... 8-13
Logging ............................................................. 8-14
Installing the Syslog client .................................. 8-14
Chapter 9 — IP Setup and Network Address Translation ............9-1
Network Address Translation features ............................. 9-1
Using Network Address Translation ................................. 9-3
Associating port numbers with nodes .................... 9-5
Network Address Translation guideline................... 9-5
IP setup ........................................................................ 9-6
IP subnets ......................................................... 9-10
Static routes...................................................... 9-12
IP address serving ....................................................... 9-16
IP Address Pools ................................................ 9-19
DHCP NetBIOS Options....................................... 9-21
MacIP (KIP forwarding) setup .............................. 9-23
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Chapter 10 — IPX Setup .........................................................10-1
IPX features ................................................................ 10-1
IPX definitions ............................................................. 10-1
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) ..................... 10-1
IPX address ....................................................... 10-2
Socket .............................................................. 10-2
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) ....................... 10-2
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)....................... 10-2
NetBIOS ............................................................ 10-3
IPX spoofing....................................................... 10-3
IPX setup screen ......................................................... 10-3
IPX routing tables ........................................................ 10-5
Chapter 11 — AppleTalk Setup................................................11-1
AppleTalk networks ...................................................... 11-1
AppleTalk protocol .............................................. 11-1
MacIP................................................................ 11-3
AURP................................................................. 11-3
Routers and seeding .......................................... 11-3
Installing AppleTalk ...................................................... 11-4
Configuring AppleTalk ................................................... 11-6
EtherTalk setup .................................................. 11-6
LocalTalk setup ................................................. 11-7
AURP setup ....................................................... 11-8
Chapter 12 — Monitoring Tools ...............................................12-1
Quick View status overview .......................................... 12-1
General status ................................................... 12-2
Status lights ...................................................... 12-2
Statistics & Logs ......................................................... 12-3
General Statistics .............................................. 12-4
Event histories ............................................................ 12-5
Routing tables ............................................................. 12-7
Served IP Addresses.................................................. 12-10
Contents
System Information....................................................
SNMP .......................................................................
The SNMP Setup screen ...................................
SNMP traps .....................................................
SmartView ................................................................
SmartView overview ........................................
Navigating SmartView.......................................
General Machine information page ....................
Event history pages..........................................
Standard HTML web-based monitoring pages .....
v
12-12
12-12
12-13
12-14
12-16
12-16
12-16
12-17
12-17
12-19
Chapter 13 — Security ...........................................................13-1
Suggested security measures ....................................... 13-1
User accounts ............................................................. 13-1
Dial-in console access.................................................. 13-3
Enable SmartStart/SmartView/Web server ................... 13-4
Telnet access .............................................................. 13-4
About filters and filter sets ........................................... 13-4
What’s a filter and what’s a filter set?.................. 13-4
How filter sets work............................................ 13-5
How individual filters work................................... 13-7
Design guidelines............................................. 13-11
Working with IP filters and filter sets............................ 13-12
Adding a filter set ............................................. 13-13
Viewing filter sets............................................. 13-16
Modifying filter sets .......................................... 13-17
Deleting a filter set........................................... 13-17
A sample IP filter set ........................................ 13-17
IPX filters .................................................................. 13-21
IPX packet filters .............................................. 13-22
IPX packet filter sets ........................................ 13-23
IPX SAP filters .................................................. 13-25
IPX SAP filter sets ............................................ 13-27
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User’s Reference Guide
Firewall tutorial ..........................................................
General firewall terms ......................................
Basic IP packet components .............................
Basic protocol types .........................................
Firewall design rules.........................................
Filter basics .....................................................
Example filters .................................................
13-29
13-29
13-29
13-29
13-30
13-32
13-33
Chapter 14 — Utilities and Diagnostics ...................................14-1
Ping ............................................................................ 14-2
Trace Route................................................................. 14-4
Telnet client................................................................. 14-5
Disconnect Telnet console session ............................... 14-6
Factory defaults........................................................... 14-6
Transferring configuration and firmware files with TFTP.... 14-6
Updating firmware .............................................. 14-7
Downloading configuration files ........................... 14-8
Uploading configuration files ............................... 14-9
Transferring configuration and firmware files with
XMODEM..................................................................... 14-9
Updating firmware ............................................ 14-10
Downloading configuration files ......................... 14-11
Uploading configuration files ............................. 14-11
Restarting the system................................................ 14-12
Part III: Appendixes
Appendix A — Troubleshooting..................................................A-1
Configuration problems .................................................. A-1
Console connection problems ............................... A-2
Network problems ................................................ A-2
How to reset the router to factory defaults ...................... A-3
Power outages............................................................... A-3
Technical support .......................................................... A-4
Contents
vii
How to reach us................................................... A-4
Appendix B — Understanding IP Addressing ..............................B-1
What is IP?.................................................................... B-1
About IP addressing ....................................................... B-1
Subnets and subnet masks .................................. B-2
Example: Using subnets on a Class C IP internet.... B-3
Example: Working with a Class C subnet ................ B-5
Distributing IP addresses ............................................... B-5
Technical note on subnet masking......................... B-6
Configuration ....................................................... B-7
Manually distributing IP addresses ........................ B-8
Using address serving .......................................... B-8
Tips and rules for distributing IP addresses............ B-9
Nested IP subnets ....................................................... B-11
Broadcasts.................................................................. B-13
Packet header types........................................... B-13
Appendix C — Understanding Netopia NAT Behavior...................C-1
Network configuration..................................................... C-1
Background ................................................................... C-1
Exported services ................................................ C-5
Important notes ................................................... C-6
Configuration ................................................................. C-7
Summary ...................................................................... C-8
Appendix D — Binary Conversion Table......................................D-1
Appendix E — Further Reading.................................................. E-1
Appendix F — Technical Specifications and Safety Information... F-1
Pinouts for Auxiliary port modem cable............................ F-1
Description.................................................................... F-2
Power requirements ............................................. F-2
Environment ........................................................ F-2
Software and protocols......................................... F-3
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User’s Reference Guide
Agency approvals........................................................... F-3
Regulatory notices ............................................... F-3
Important safety instructions ................................ F-4
Glossary.................................................................................. GL-1
Index ..................................................................................Index-1
Limited Warranty and Limitation of Remedies ................................1
Part I: Getting Started
User’s Reference Guide
Introduction 1-1
Chapter 1
Introduction
Overview
The Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router is a full-featured, stand-alone, multiprotocol broadband router for
connecting diverse local area networks (LANs) to the Internet and other remote networks. Combining the
Netopia R9100 with a cable or DSL modem provides businesses with a low-cost connection to the Internet
while retaining the power of a router. Once your Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router is connected to your computer
and an Internet connection device such as a cable or a DSL modem, and your account is activated by your
network service provider, you will have a high-speed connection between your PC or LAN and the telephone
company’s network of high-speed digital facilities.
This section covers the following topics:
■
“Features and capabilities” on page 1-1
■
“How to use this guide” on page 1-2
Features and capabilities
The Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router provides the following features:
■
Continuous-availability networking eliminates dialing and provides lower, more predictable transmission
costs.
■
Interconnects with most cable modems or DSL modems or bridges that have an Ethernet port.
■
8 port Ethernet hub
■
Connectivity to support Ethernet LANs via built-in 8 port 10Base-T hub with uplink port.
■
Status lights (LEDs) for easy monitoring and troubleshooting.
■
Support for IP routing for Internet and intranet connectivity.
■
IP address serving over Ethernet (or a WAN link via dynamic WAN client serving via the Auxiliary port with
optional dial-in kit) that allows local or remote network nodes to acquire an IP address automatically and
dynamically from a designated pool of available addresses.
■
Support for console-based management over Telnet or serial cable connection.
■
Support for remote configuration by your reseller, your network administrator, or technicians at Netopia,
Inc. via external modem or via IP network.
■
Wall-mountable, bookshelf (side-stackable), or desktop-stackable design for efficient space usage.
■
SmartIP™, combining NAT and DHCP makes it simple and economical to connect a workgroup of users to
the Internet or a remote IP network by using Network Address Translation and a single IP address.
1-2 User’s Reference Guide
■
Analog dial-in using an external modem connected to the Auxiliary port. (Available as a separate add-on kit;
order TER/AD1.)
■
AppleTalk support (available as a separate add-on AppleTalk kit (order TER/AT1), including a firmware
feature set enhancement and custom HD-15 dual RJ-11 PhoneNET® connector) allows for LocalTalk to
Ethernet routing, assigning IP addresses to Macintosh users, IP functionality for LocalTalk users, and AURP
tunneling for connectivity between remote AppleTalk networks.
■
SmartView tool allows for real-time monitoring of router status lights (LEDs), through one or more
information forms on a Web-based Java applet. Internet browsers such as Netscape Navigator and
Microsoft’s Internet Explorer can be used for SmartView.
How to use this guide
This guide is designed to be your single source for information about your Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router. It is
intended to be viewed on-line, using the powerful features of the Adobe Acrobat Reader. The information display
has been deliberately designed to present the maximum information in the minimum space on your screen. You
can keep this document open while you perform any of the procedures described, and find useful information
about the procedure you are performing.
If you prefer to work from hard copy rather than on-line documentation, you can also print out all of the manual,
or individual sections. The pages are formatted to print on standard 8 1/2 by 11 inch paper. We recommend
that you print on three-hole punched paper, so you can put the pages in a binder for future reference. For your
convenience, a printed copy can be purchased from Netopia. Order part number TER9100/Doc.
This guide is organized into chapters describing the Netopia R9100’s advanced features. You may want to read
each chapter’s introductory section to familiarize yourself with the various features available.
Use the guide’s table of contents and index to locate informational topics.
Setting Up Internet Services 2-1
Chapter 2
Setting Up Internet Services
This chapter describes how to obtain and set up Internet services.
This section covers the following topics:
■
“Finding an Internet service provider” on page -1
■
“Deciding on an ISP account” on page -2
■
“Obtaining information from the ISP” on page -2
Finding an Internet service provider
Internet access is available from Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Typically, there are several ISPs in each
area. To locate ISPs in your area, consult your telephone book, local computer magazines, the business section
of a local newspaper, or the following URL on the Internet: ‘http://thelist.internet.com’. Also see Netopia’s
home page at ‘http://www.netopia.com’ for a list of ISPs with special programs and promotions for Netopia
customers.
You could select a cable television company that offers cable modem service as an ISP. Another alternative
could be a traditional ISP that partners with a Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC) telephone service
provider to provide a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).
ISPs typically support Internet connection devices compatible with their service. So-called “cable modems” are
an example of such devices. You should choose the connection device that your chosen ISP supports, or you
could choose an ISP based on the type of device and connection you prefer.
Most most cable and DSL modems have a 10Base-T Ethernet connection port for connecting a PC. The Netopia
R9100 Ethernet Router uses this connection port to connect all the computers on your LAN to the Internet.
If your area has more than one ISP, the following considerations will help you decide which ISP is best suited for
your requirements.
Unique requirements
Make sure the ISP can meet any unique requirements you may have, such as:
■
Dynamic or static IP addressing
■
Custom domain name
■
Multiple e-mail addresses
■
Web site hosting
Pricing and support
Compare pricing, service, and technical support service among various ISPs.
2-2 User’s Reference Guide
Endorsements
Consider recommendations from colleagues and reviews in publications.
Deciding on an ISP account
Your ISP may offer various Internet access account plans. Typically, these plans vary by usage charges and the
number of host IP addresses supplied. Evaluate your networking needs and discuss them with your ISP before
deciding on a plan for your network.
The following checklist is a guide to ensure that you obtain the Internet service you require.
Setting up an account using a Netopia R9100
Check whether your ISP has the Netopia R9100 on its list of supported products that have been tested with a
particular configuration. If the ISP does not have the Netopia R9100 on such a list, describe the Netopia R9100
in as much detail as needed, so your ISP account can be optimized. As appropriate, refer your ISP to Netopia’s
Web site www.netopia.com for more information or call us at 1-800-NETOPIA. Our representative can call your
ISP and introduce them to the product. As necessary, we can provide them with the technical background they
need to support the product.
Obtaining an IP address
Typically, each network computer that requires Internet access requires its own unique IP address.
Consider expected growth in your network when deciding on the number of addresses to obtain. Alternatively,
you can use the Network Address Translation and DHCP features of SmartIP.
If some or all of your networked computers require simultaneous Internet access, and you don’t want to use
DHCP, obtain a block of IP host addresses large enough for each computer to have its own address, plus one
for the Netopia R9100.
SmartIP
The Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router supports the SmartIP™ feature, which includes Network Address
Translation.
Network Address Translation provides Internet access to the network connected to the Netopia R9100 using
only a single IP address. These routers translate between the internal or local area network (LAN) addresses
and a single external IP address, and route accordingly.
For more information on Network Address Translation, see Chapter 9, “IP Setup and Network Address
Translation.”
Obtaining information from the ISP
After your account is set up, the ISP should send you the IP parameter information that will help you configure
the Netopia R9100.
Setting Up Internet Services 2-3
Local LAN IP address information to obtain
Your ISP will need to provide you with the following information:
■
The default gateway IP address
■
Remote IP address
■
Local WAN IP address and subnet mask
■
Primary and secondary domain name server (DNS) IP addresses
■
Domain name (usually the same as the ISP’s domain name unless you have registered for your own
individual domain name)
Refer to the section “Quick Easy Setup connection path” on page 7-3 for a handy worksheet.
Note: The default gateway, WAN address and mask, DNS, and domain name are all obtainable via WAN DHCP,
if your ISP supports it.
With Network Address Translation
If you are using SmartIP (NAT), you should obtain the following:
■
If you are connecting to a remote site using Network Address Translation on your router, your provider will
not define the IP address information on your local LAN. You can define this information based on an IP
configuration that may already be in place for the existing network. Alternatively, you can use the default IP
address range used by the router, where 192.168.1.1 is the default IP address of the router.
Without Network Address Translation
If you are not using Network Address Translation, you will need to obtain all of the local LAN IP address
information from your ISP and you will need to pay for an IP address for each device on the network.
If you are not using SmartIP (NAT), you should obtain:
■
The Ethernet IP address for your Netopia R9100
■
The Ethernet IP subnet mask for your Netopia R9100
■
An IP address for each device on your network, in the same network range as the Netopia R9100.
2-4 User’s Reference Guide
Making the Physical Connections 3-1
Chapter 3
Making the Physical Connections
This section tells you how to make the physical connections to your Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router. This
section covers the following topics:
■
“Find a location” on page 3-1
■
“What you need” on page 3-2
■
“Identify the connectors and attach the cables” on page 3-2
■
“Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router back panel ports” on page 3-3
■
“Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router status lights” on page 3-4
Find a location
When choosing a location for the Netopia Router, consider:
■
Available space and ease of installation
■
Physical layout of the building and how to best use the physical space available for connecting your Netopia
Router to the LAN
■
Available wiring and jacks
■
Distance from the point of installation to the next device (length of cable or wall wiring)
■
Ease of access to the front of the unit for configuration and monitoring
■
Ease of access to the back of the unit for checking and changing cables
■
Cable length and network size limitations when expanding networks
For small networks, install the Netopia R9100 near one of the LANs. For large networks, you can install the
Netopia R9100 in a wiring closet or a central network administration site. In most cases the router will be near
the cable or DSL modem which is near the cable or DSL wall outlet. You could route a line from the wall outlet
to a wiring closet if you store the modem and router there.
3-2 User’s Reference Guide
What you need
Locate all items that you need for the installation.
Included in your router package are:
■
The Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router
■
A power adapter and cord with a mini-DIN8 connector
■
Two RJ-45 cables (one for the Ethernet port on your PC; one for the Line port on the router)
■
A dual DB-9 and mini-DIN8 to DB-9 console cable (for a PC or a Macintosh)
■
The Netopia CD containing an Internet browser, Adobe Acrobat Reader for Windows and Macintosh, ZTerm
terminal emulator software and NCSA Telnet for Macintosh, and documentation
You will need:
■
A Windows 95, 98, or NT–based PC or a Macintosh computer with Ethernet connectivity for configuring the
Netopia R9100. This may be built-in Ethernet or an add-on card, with TCP/IP installed and configured. See
“Hardware and operating system requirements” on page 3-1.
■
An Internet modem such as a cable modem or DSL bridge connected to the appropriate wall outlet for your
Internet service source. Your Internet connection device must have a 10 Base-T Ethernet port for
connecting it to the router’s Line port.
Identify the connectors and attach the cables
Identify the connectors and switches on the back panel and attach the necessary Netopia Router cables.
The figure below displays the back of the Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router.
Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router back panel
Line 1 port
8
Ethernet
1
Line 2
Normal
1
Crossover switch
8 port Ethernet hub
Auxiliary
Console
Line 1
Power
Uplink
Auxiliary port
Power port
Console port
1.
Connect the mini-DIN8 connector from the power adapter to the power port, and plug the other end into an
electrical outlet.
2.
Connect one end of one of the RJ-45 cables to the Line 1 port (not the Line 2 port), and the other end to
your Internet modem’s Ethernet port. DO NOT CONNECT IT DIRECTLY TO A TELCO LINE OUTLET.
Making the Physical Connections 3-3
3.
Connect one end of one of the RJ-45 cables to any of the Ethernet hub ports on the router, and the other
end to the Ethernet port of your PC.
(If you are connecting the router to an existing Ethernet hub, use Ethernet port #1 on the router and set the
crossover switch to the Uplink position.)
You should now have: the power adapter plugged in; the Ethernet cable connected between the router and
your computer; and the Line cable connected between the router and your Internet modem.
Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router back panel ports
The following table describes all the Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router back panel ports.
Port
Power port
Line port
Console port
Auxiliary port
Crossover switch
8-port Ethernet hub
Description
A mini-DIN8 power adapter cable connection.
The dedicated Ethernet port for your connection to your Internet connection
device’s Ethernet port. Use Line 1, not Line 2.
A DB-9 console port for a direct serial connection to the console screens. You
can use this if you are an experienced user. See “Connecting a console cable to
your router” on page 6-3.
An HD-15 auxiliary port for attaching an external modem or the optional
AppleTalk kit.
A crossover switch with Normal and Uplink positions. If you use Ethernet Port
#1 for a direct Ethernet connection between a computer and the router, set the
switch to the Normal position. If you are connecting the router to an Ethernet
hub, use Ethernet port #1 on the router and set the switch to the Uplink
position.
Eight Ethernet jacks. You will use one of these to configure the Netopia R9100.
For a new installation, use the Ethernet connection. Alternatively, you can use
the console connection to run console-based management using a direct serial
connection. You can either connect your computer directly to any of the Ethernet
ports on the router, or connect both your computer and the router to an existing
Ethernet hub on your LAN.
3-4 User’s Reference Guide
Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router status lights
The figure below represents the Netopia R9100 status light (LED) panel.
Netopia R9100 LED front panel
2 3 4 5
67
8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16171819 20 21
P
o
w
e
M
r
a
n
a
g
e
m
C R e
h e n
a
C n a t
h n d
a e y
n l
n 1
e
l
C
2
o
A n
u so
x l
il e
ia
M
r
a
y
n
a
g
e
m
C R e
n
h
C an ea t
h n d
a e y
n l
n 1
e
l
2
T
C r
o a
ll ffi
is c
io
n
1
WAN 1
WAN 2
Link/Receive
Ethernet
The following table summarizes the meaning of the various LED states and colors:
When this happens...
the LEDs...
The Ethernet WAN interface is operational
3 is green.
The Ethernet WAN interface detects a collision
3 flashes orange.
In normal operation
4 is off.
When data is transmitted or received over the Ethernet link 4 flashes yellow.
Note: 2, 5, 8 – 11 are unused. Also, Console carrier (6) is ignored if the console is not configured for a
remote modem.
Connecting to Your Local Area Network 4-1
Chapter 4
Connecting to Your Local Area Network
This chapter describes how to physically connect the Netopia R9100 to your local area network (LAN). Before
you proceed, make sure the Netopia R9100 is properly configured. You can customize the router’s configuration
for your particular LAN requirements using console-based Management (see “Console-Based Management” on
page 6-1).
This section covers the following topics:
■
“Overview” on page 4-1
■
“Readying computers on your local network” on page 4-4
■
“Connecting to an Ethernet network” on page 4-5
■
“Adding an external modem” on page 4-7
■
“Connecting to a LocalTalk network” on page 4-8
Overview
You can connect the Netopia R9100 to an IP or IPX network that uses Ethernet.
If you have purchased the AppleTalk feature expansion kit, you can also connect the router to a LocalTalk
network that uses PhoneNET cabling.
Additionally, you can connect an external modem. See “Adding an external modem” on page 4-7.
Caution!
Before connecting the Netopia R9100 to any AppleTalk LANs that contain other AppleTalk routers, you should
read “Routers and seeding” on page 11-3.
See the later sections in this chapter for details on how to connect the Netopia R9100 to different types of
networks.
4-2 User’s Reference Guide
Network Model
The following diagrams illustrate network models for typical deployments of the Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router
as an Internet access device.
Before
With a DSL or cable modem, you can connect a single computer to the Internet.
using a DSL modem
using a cable modem
Connecting to Your Local Area Network 4-3
After
Using the Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router, you can connect multiple computers to the Internet with a single
user account.
using a DSL modem with a Netopia R9100
using a cable modem with a Netopia R9100
While this network model is typical, other network models are possible. For example, you may choose to attach
the Ethernet WAN port to an external Ethernet hub connected to a number of workstations.
4-4 User’s Reference Guide
Readying computers on your local network
PC and Macintosh computers must have certain components installed before they can communicate through
the Netopia R9100. The following illustration shows the minimal requirements for a typical PC or Macintosh
computer.
Application software
TCP/IP stack
Ethernet/EtherTalk/LocalTalk Driver
Your PC
or Macintosh
computer
To the Netopia R9100
Application software: This is the software you use to send e-mail, browse the World Wide Web, read
newsgroups, etc. These applications may require some configuration. Examples include the Eudora e-mail client
and the Web browsers Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.
TCP/IP stack: This is the software that lets your PC or Macintosh communicate using Internet protocols.
TCP/IP stacks must be configured with some of the same information you used to configure the Netopia
R9100. There are a number of TCP/IP stacks available for PC computers. Windows 95 includes a built-in
TCP/IP stack. See “Configuring TCP/IP on Windows 95, 98, or NT” on page 3-2. Macintosh computers use
either MacTCP or Open Transport. See “Configuring TCP/IP on a Macintosh Computer” on page 3-4.
Ethernet: Ethernet hardware and software drivers enable your PC or Macintosh computer to communicate on
the LAN.
EtherTalk and LocalTalk: These are AppleTalk protocols used over Ethernet.
Once the Netopia R9100 is properly configured and connected to your LAN, PC and Macintosh computers that
have their required components in place will be able to connect to the Internet or other remote IP networks.
Connecting to Your Local Area Network 4-5
Connecting to an Ethernet network
The Netopia R9100 supports Ethernet connections through its eight Ethernet ports. The router automatically
detects which Ethernet port is in use.
You can connect either 10Base-T or EtherWave Ethernet networks to the Netopia R9100.
The following table displays some important attributes of these types of Ethernet.
Attribute
EtherWave
10Base-T
Max. length of backbone,
branch, or end to end (cable
length)
330 feet
(100 meters)
330 feet
(100 meters)
Cable type
Twisted pair
(10Base-T)
Twisted pair
(10Base-T)
Ethernet
Ethernet
Maximum 8
devices (daisy
chained)
No daisy
chain
Netopia R9100 port used
Other restrictions
10Base-T
You can connect a standard 10Base-T Ethernet network to the Netopia R9100 using any of its available
Ethernet ports.
Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router back panel
Line 1 port
8
Ethernet
1
Line 2
Normal
1
Crossover switch
8 port Ethernet hub
Auxiliary
Console
Line 1
Power
Uplink
Auxiliary port
Power port
Console port
4-6 User’s Reference Guide
The Netopia R9100 in a 10Base-T network
Ethernet
8
4
Normal/
1
To connect your 10Base-T network to the Netopia R9100 through an Ethernet port, use a 10Base-T cable with
RJ-45 connectors.
If you have more than eight devices to connect, you can attach additional devices using either a 10Base-T hub
or an EtherWave daisy chain, or some combination of both.
If you add devices connected through a hub, connect the hub to Ethernet port number 1 on the Netopia R9100
and set the Normal/Uplink switch to Uplink.
When there are no more free ports on the 10Base-T hub, the network can be extended using EtherWave, a daisy-chainable
solution from Farallon.
Ethernet
8
4
Normal/
1
PC
Macintosh
PC
LaserWriter
EtherWave
ISA Card
EtherWave
Printer Adapter
EtherWave
NuBus Card
EtherWave
Transceiver
10BASE-T
Hub
Connecting to Your Local Area Network 4-7
Adding an external modem
You may want to add an external modem to your Auxiliary port. Remote modem terminal emulator setups can
dial in to the modem line and establish a remote console session. This allows Netopia Inc.'s “Up and Running,
Guaranteed!” department or other administrator with the appropriate security to remotely configure your router
for you.
Obtain the special external DB-25 modem cable (Netopia P/N TE6/DB25) either from your reseller or directly
from Netopia.
Netopia R9100 Auxiliary port for connecting an external modem
8
Ethernet
1
Line 2
Normal
1
Auxiliary
Console
Line 1
Power
Uplink
Auxiliary connection port
HD-15 (female)
By default, the Auxiliary port on your Netopia R9100 is enabled for remote console configuration via an
external asynchronous modem. This means that all you have to do is connect your modem to the Auxiliary port
and configure its settings in the Line Configuration screens under the WAN Configuration menu.
Full Auxiliary Port PPP capabilities can be enabled on a Netopia R9100 as an upgrade option.
For pinout information on the HD-15 to DB-25 modem cable, see “Pinouts for Auxiliary port modem cable,” in
Appendix F, “Technical Specifications and Safety Information.”
4-8 User’s Reference Guide
Connecting to a LocalTalk network
If you have purchased the AppleTalk feature expansion kit, you can also connect the router to an AppleTalk
network that uses either Ethernet or LocalTalk. Refer to the sheet of optional feature set add-ons in your
Netopia R9100 documentation folio.
The AppleTalk feature expansion kit includes a dual RJ-11 PhoneNET connector that attaches to the Auxiliary
port on the Netopia R9100.
Netopia R9100 Auxiliary port for connecting to LocalTalk
8
Ethernet
1
Line 2
Normal
1
Auxiliary
Console
Line 1
Power
Uplink
Auxiliary connection port
HD-15 (female)
Connect the male HD-15 end of the LocalTalk cable to the Auxiliary port on your Netopia R9100. Connect the
other end of the cable to your LocalTalk network. You can use only one connection on the Auxiliary port. You
cannot use both the PhoneNET connector and an external modem.
If your LocalTalk network is not based on standard PhoneNET cabling, use a PhoneNET-to-LocalTalk adaptor
cable available from Farallon Communications, Inc. Connect the adaptor cable’s RJ-11 connector to the
AppleTalk cable’s PhoneNET connector. Connect the cable’s mini-DIN-3 connector to your LocalTalk network.
Be sure to observe the standard rules governing maximum cable lengths and limits on the number of nodes on
a PhoneNET network. The dual RJ-11 PhoneNET connector allows insertion in the LocalTalk daisy chain or at the
end. If the device is connected at the end of the daisy chain, you must install the accompanying terminator.
Connecting to Your Local Area Network 4-9
Wiring guidelines for PhoneNET cabling
Topology
22 gauge
.642 mm
24 gauge
.510 mm
Daisy chain
n/a
n/a
Backbone
4500 ft.
1372 m
1125 ft.
343 m
3000 ft.
914 m
3000 ft.
229 m
750 ft.
229 m
2000 ft.
610 m
4-branch passive star*
LocalTalk StarController
12-branch active star
* Distance is per branch
For detailed configuration instructions see “AppleTalk Setup” on page 11-1.
26 gauge
.403 mm
1800 ft.
549 m
1800 ft.
549 m
450 ft.
137 m
1200 ft.
366 m
4-10 User’s Reference Guide
Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard 5-1
Chapter 5
Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard
Once you’ve connected your router to your computer and your telecommunications line and installed a web
browser, you’re ready to run the Netopia SmartStart™ Wizard. The SmartStart Wizard will help you set up the
router and share the connection. The SmartStart Wizard walks you through a series of questions and based on
your responses automatically configures the router for connecting your LAN to the Internet or to your remote
corporate network.
The SmartStart Wizard will:
■
automatically check your Windows 95, 98, or NT PC’s TCP/IP configuration to be sure you can accept a
dynamically assigned IP address, and change it for you if it is not set for dynamic addressing
■
check the physical connection from your computer to your router without your having to enter an IP address
■
assign an IP address to your router
This chapter covers the following topics:
■
“Before running SmartStart” on page 2
■
“Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard” on page 3
■
“Sharing the Connection” on page 6
5-2 User’s Reference Guide
Before running SmartStart
Be sure you have connected the cables and power source as described in Step 1 “Connect the Router” guide
contained in your Netopia folio.
Before you launch the SmartStart application, make sure your computer meets the following requirements:
PC
System
software
Connectivity
software
Windows 95, 98, or NT operating system
Macintosh
MacOS 7.5 or later
MacTCP or Open Transport TCP/IP must be
installed and properly configured. See
“Configuring TCP/IP on Macintosh
computers” on page 5-10.
Either a built-in or third-party Ethernet card
(10Base-T)
Netscape Communicator™ or Microsoft Internet Explorer, included on the Netopia CD.
Required for web-based registration and web-based monitoring.
TCP/IP must be installed and properly
configured. See “Configuring TCP/IP on
Windows 95, 98, or NT computers” on
page 5-6
Ethernet card (10Base-T)
Connectivity
hardware
Browser
software
Notes:
• The computer running SmartStart must be on the same Ethernet cable segment as the Netopia R9100.
Repeaters, such as 10Base-T hubs between your computer and the Netopia R9100, are acceptable, but
devices such as switches or other routers are not.
• SmartStart for the PC will set your TCP/IP control panel to “Obtain an IP address automatically” if it is
not already set this way. This will cause your computer to reboot. If you have a specified IP address
configured in the computer, you should make a note of it before running SmartStart, in case you do not
want to use the dynamic addressing features built in to the Netopia Router and need to restore the fixed IP
address.
Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard 5-3
Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard
The SmartStart Wizard is tailored for your platform, but it works the same way on either a PC or a Macintosh.
Insert the Netopia CD, and in the desktop navigation screen that appears, launch the SmartStart Wizard
application.
SmartStart Wizard configuration screens
The screens described in this section are the default screens shipped on the Netopia CD. They
derive from two initialization (.ini) files included in the same directory as the SmartStart
application file. Your reseller or your ISP may have supplied you with customized versions of these
files.
■
If you have received a CD or diskette that has been customized by your reseller or ISP, you
can run the SmartStart Wizard directly from the CD or diskette and follow the instructions
your reseller or ISP provides. This makes your Netopia R9100 configuration even easier.
■
If you have received only the .ini files from your reseller or ISP, perform the following:
■
Copy the entire directory folder containing the SmartStart Wizard application from the
Netopia CD to your hard disk.
■
Copy the customized .ini files to the same directory folder that contains the SmartStart
Wizard application, allowing the copy process to overwrite the original .ini files.
■
Run the SmartStart Wizard from your hard disk. You can then follow the instructions your
reseller or ISP provides.
The SmartStart Wizard presents a series of screens to guide you through the preliminary configuration of a
Netopia R9100. It will then create a connection profile using the information you supply to it.
Welcome screen. The first screen welcomes you to the
SmartStart Wizard configuration utility.
Click the Next button after you have responded to the
interactive prompts in each screen.
The Help button will display useful information to assist
you in responding to the interactive prompts.
5-4 User’s Reference Guide
Easy or Advanced options screen. You can choose either
Easy or Advanced setup.
■
If you choose Easy, SmartStart automatically uses
the preconfigured IP addressing setup built into your
router. This is the best choice if you are creating a
new network or don’t already have an IP addressing
scheme on your new network.
If you choose Easy, you will see a “Connection Test
screen,” like the one shown below while SmartStart
checks the connection to your router.
■
If you choose Advanced, skip to page 5-6 now. The
SmartStart Wizard displays the “Router IP Address
screen” on page 5-5, in which you can choose ways
to modify your router’s IP address.
Easy option
Connection Test screen. SmartStart tests the
connection to the router. While it is testing the
connection, a progress indicator screen is displayed and
the router’s Ethernet LEDs flash.
When the test succeeds, SmartStart indicates success.
If the test fails, the wizard displays an error screen. If the test fails, check the following:
■
Check your cable connections. Be sure you have connected the router and the computer properly, using the
correct cables. Refer to the Step 1 “Connect the Router” sheet in your Netopia R9100 documentation folio.
■
Make sure the router is turned on and that there is an Ethernet connection between your computer and the
router.
■
Check the TCP/IP control panel settings to be sure that automatic IP Addressing (Windows) or DHCP
(Macintosh) is selected. If you are using a Windows PC, SmartStart will automatically detect a static IP
address and offer to configure the computer for automatic addressing. On a Macintosh computer, you must
manually set the TCP/IP Control Panel to DHCP. See “Configuring TCP/IP on Macintosh computers” on
page 5-10. If you currently use a static IP address outside the 192.168.1.x network, and want to continue
using it, use the Advanced option to assign the router an IP address in your target IP range. See “Advanced
option” on page 5-5.
■
If all of the above steps fail to resolve the problem, reset the router to its factory default settings and rerun
SmartStart. See “Factory defaults” on page 14-6 for instructions.
Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard 5-5
When the test is successful, SmartStart presents you with the “Additional Configuration screen,” shown below.
Additional Configuration screen. If you have a router that
has a permanent unswitched connection to your ISP, such
as an Ethernet WAN interface router attached to a cable
modem, the Additional Configuration screen appears.
You may want to do additional configuration to customize
your network environment. SmartStart lets you launch
your Telnet application. Click the Telnet button to launch
your Telnet application.
Advanced configuration options available via Telnet are
explained in “Console-Based Management” on page 6-1.
However, if you need no further configuration options,
click Quit. Congratulations! You’re done!
Advanced option
Router IP Address screen. If you selected the Advanced
option in the “Easy or Advanced options screen” on
page 5-4, SmartStart asks you to choose between
entering the router’s current IP address and assigning an
IP address to the router.
If the router has already been assigned an IP address,
select the first radio button. If you do this, the “Known IP
Address screen,” appears (shown below.)
If you want to reconfigure the router with a new IP address
and subnet mask, select the second radio button. If you
do this, the “New IP Address screen” on page 5-6
appears.
When you have done this, click Next.
5-6 User’s Reference Guide
Known IP Address screen. SmartStart displays a
recommended address for the router based on the IP
address of the computer.
If you know the router has an IP address different from
the default value, enter it now. Otherwise, accept the
recommended address.
When you have done this, click Next.
SmartStart tests the connection to your router.
SmartStart then returns you to an “Additional
Configuration screen” on page 5-5.
New IP Address screen. If you want to change the router’s
IP address, you enter the new IP address, the subnet
mask, and the router’s serial number in this screen.
Remember, the serial number is on the bottom of the
router. It is also found in your documentation folio.
Note: Forcing a new IP address may turn off the Netopia
R9100’s IP address serving capabilities, if you assign an IP
address and subnet mask outside the router’s current IP
address serving pool. The Netopia R9100 does not allow
an invalid address to be served. Use this option with
caution.
When you have done this, click Next.
SmartStart forces the new IP address into the router, tests
the connection, and then resets the router.
SmartStart then returns you to the “Additional
Configuration screen” on page 5-5.
Sharing the Connection
Configuring TCP/IP on Windows 95, 98, or NT computers
Configuring TCP/IP on a Windows computer requires the following:
■
An Ethernet card (also known as a network adapter)
■
The TCP/IP protocol must be “bound” to the adapter or card
Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard 5-7
Dynamic configuration (recommended)
If you configure your Netopia R9100 using SmartStart, you can accept the dynamic IP address assigned by your
router. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, which enables dynamic addressing, is enabled
by default in the router. If your PC is not set for dynamic addressing, SmartStart will offer to do this for you
when you launch it. In that case, you will have to restart your PC and relaunch SmartStart. If you configure your
PC for dynamic addressing in advance, SmartStart need only be launched once. To configure your PC for
dynamic addressing do the following:
1.
Go to the Start
Menu/Settings/Control
Panels and double click
the Network icon. From
the Network components
list, select the
Configuration tab.
2.
Select TCP/IP-->Your Network Card. Then select
Properties. In the TCP/IP Properties screen (shown
below), select the IP Address tab. Click “Obtain an IP
Address automatically.”
3.
Click on the DNS Configuration tab. Click Disable DNS.
DNS will be assigned by the router with DHCP.
4.
Click OK in this window, and the next window. When
prompted, reboot the computer.
Note: You can also use these instructions to configure other computers on your network to accept IP addresses
served by the Netopia R9100.
5-8 User’s Reference Guide
Static configuration (optional)
If you are manually configuring for a fixed or static IP address, perform the following:
1.
Go to Start Menu/Settings/Control Panels and double click the Network icon. From the Network
components list, select the Configuration tab.
2.
Select TCP/IP-->Your Network Card. Then select Properties. In the TCP/IP Properties screen (shown
below), select the IP Address tab. Click “Specify an IP Address.”
Enter the following:
IP Address: 192.168.1.2
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0, or for 12-user models 255.255.255.240
This address is an example of one that can be used to configure the router with the Easy option in the
SmartStart Wizard. Your ISP or network administrator may ask you to use a different IP address and
subnet mask.
Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard 5-9
3.
Click on the Gateway tab (shown below).
Under “New gateway,” enter
192.168.1.1. Click Add. This is the
Netopia R9100’s pre-assigned IP
address.
Click on the DNS Configuration tab. Click Enable DNS.
Enter the following
information:
Host: Type the name
you want to give to
this computer.
Domain: Type your
domain name. If you
don't have a domain
name, type your ISP's
domain name; for
example,
netopia.com.
DNS Server Search
Order: Type the
primary DNS IP
address given to you
by your ISP. Click
Add. Repeat this process for the secondary DNS.
Domain Suffix Search Order: Enter the same domain
name you entered above.
4.
Click OK in this window, and the next window. When prompted, reboot the computer.
Note: You can also use these instructions to configure other computers on your network with manual or static
IP addresses. Be sure each computer on your network has its own IP address.
5-10 User’s Reference Guide
Configuring TCP/IP on Macintosh computers
The following is a quick guide to configuring TCP/IP for MacOS computers. Configuring TCP/IP in a Macintosh
computer requires the following:
You must have either Open Transport or Classic Networking (MacTCP) installed.
■
Note: If you want to use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server built into your Netopia
R9100 to assign IP addresses to your Macintoshes, you must be running Open Transport, standard in
MacOS 8, and optional in earlier system versions. You can have your Netopia R9100 dynamically assign IP
addresses using MacTCP; however, to do so requires that the optional AppleTalk kit be installed which can
only be done after the router is configured.
You must have built-in Ethernet or a third-party Ethernet card and its associated drivers installed in your
Macintosh.
■
Dynamic configuration (recommended)
If you configure your Netopia R9100 using SmartStart, you can accept the dynamic IP address assigned by your
router. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which enables dynamic addressing, is enabled by
default in the router. To configure your Macintosh computer for dynamic addressing do the following:
1.
Go to the Apple menu. Select Control Panels and then
TCP/IP.
2.
With the TCP/IP window open, go to the Edit menu and
select User Mode. Choose Basic and click OK.
3.
In the TCP/IP window, select “Connect via: Ethernet” and
“Configure: Using DHCP Server.”
Note: You can also use these instructions to configure other computers on your network to accept IP addresses
served by the Netopia R9100.
Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard 5-11
Static configuration (optional)
If you are manually configuring for a fixed or static IP address,
perform the following:
1.
Go to the Apple menu. Select Control Panels and then
TCP/IP or MacTCP.
2.
With the TCP/IP window open, go to the Edit menu and
select User Mode. Choose Advanced and click OK.
Or, in the MacTCP window, select Ethernet and click the
More button.
3.
In the TCP/IP window or in the MacTCP/More window, select or type information into the fields as shown in
the following table.
Option:
Connect via:
Configure:
IP Address:
Subnet mask:
Router or Gateway address:
Name server address:
Implicit Search Path:
Starting domain name:
Select/Type:
Ethernet
Manually
192.168.1.2
255.255.255.0, or for 12-user models
255.255.255.240
192.168.1.1
Enter the primary and secondary name server
addresses given to you by your ISP
Enter your domain name; if you do not have a
domain name, enter the domain name of your ISP
4.
Close the TCP/IP or MacTCP control panel and save the settings.
5.
If you are using MacTCP, you must restart the computer. If you are using Open Transport, you do not need
to restart. These are the only fields you need to modify in this screen.
Note: You can also use these instructions to configure other computers on your network with manual or static
IP addresses. Be sure each computer on your network has its own IP address.
5-12 User’s Reference Guide
Dynamic configuration using MacIP (optional)
If you want to use MacIP to dynamically assign IP addresses to the Macintosh computers on your network you
must install the optional AppleTalk feature set kit.
Note: You cannot use MacIP dynamic configuration to configure your Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router because
you must first configure the router in order to enable AppleTalk.
Once the AppleTalk kit is installed, you can configure your Macintoshes for MacIP. To configure dynamically
using MacIP, perform the following:
Using Open Transport TCP/IP
1.
Go to the Apple menu. Select Control Panels and then TCP/IP.
2.
With the TCP/IP window open, go to the Edit menu and select User Mode. Choose Advanced and click OK.
3.
In the TCP/IP window, select or type information into the fields as shown in the following table.
TCP/IP Option:
4.
Select/ Type:
Connect via:
AppleTalk (MacIP)
Configure:
Using MacIP server
MacIP Server zone:
(select available zone)
Name server address:
Enter the primary and secondary name server
addresses given to you by your ISP
Implicit Search Path:
Starting domain name:
Enter your domain name; if you do not have a
domain name, enter the domain name of your ISP
Close the TCP/IP control panel and save the settings.
These are the only fields you need to modify in these screens.
Setting up your Router with the SmartStart Wizard 5-13
Using Classic Networking (MacTCP)
1.
Go to the Apple Menu. Select Control Panels and then Network.
2.
In the Network window, select EtherTalk.
3.
Go back to the Apple menu. Select Control Panels and then MacTCP.
4.
Select EtherTalk.
From the pull-down menu under EtherTalk, select an available zone; then click the More button.
In the MacTCP/More window select the Server radio button. If necessary, fill in the Domain Name Server
Information given to you by your administrator.
5.
Restart the computer.
These are the only fields you need to modify in these screens.
Note: More information about configuring your Macintosh computer for TCP/IP connectivity through a Netopia
R9100 can be found in Technote NIR_026, “Open Transport and Netopia Routers,” located on the Netopia Web
site.
5-14 User’s Reference Guide
Console-Based Management 6-1
Chapter 6
Console-Based Management
Console-based management is a menu-driven interface for the capabilities built in to the Netopia R9100.
Console-based management provides access to a wide variety of features that the router supports. You can
customize these features for your individual setup. This chapter describes how to access the console-based
management screens.
This section covers the following topics:
■
“Connecting through a Telnet session” on page 6-2
■
“Connecting a console cable to your router” on page 6-3
■
“Navigating through the console screens” on page 6-4
Console-based management screens contain seven entry points to the Netopia Router configuration and
monitoring features. The entry points are displayed in the Main Menu shown below:
Netopia R9100 v4.3
Easy Setup...
WAN Configuration...
System Configuration...
Utilities & Diagnostics...
Statistics & Logs...
Quick Menus...
Quick View...
You always start from this main screen.
■
The Easy Setup menus display and permit changing the values contained in the default WAN and IP
configuration. Experienced users can use Easy Setup to initially configure the router directly through a
console session.
Easy Setup menus contain up to five descendant screens for viewing or altering these values. The number
of screens depends on whether you have optional features installed.
■
The WAN Configuration menu displays and permits changing your WAN and IP configuration(s) and default
profile, and configuring or reconfiguring the manner in which you may be using the router to connect to
6-2 User’s Reference Guide
more than one service provider or remote site.
■
The System Configuration menus display and permit changing:
■
Network protocols setup. See “IP Setup and Network Address Translation” on page 9-1, “IPX Setup”
on page 10-1, and “AppleTalk Setup” on page 11-1.
■
Filter sets (firewalls). See “Security” on page 13-1.
■
IP address serving. See “IP address serving” on page 9-16.
■
Date and time. See “Date and time” on page 8-12.
■
Console configuration. See “Connecting a console cable to your router” on page 6-3.
■
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). See “SNMP” on page 12-12.
■
Security. See “Security” on page 13-1.
■
Upgrade feature set. See “Upgrade feature set” on page 8-13.
■
The Utilities & Diagnostics menus provide a selection of seven tools for monitoring and diagnosing the
router's behavior, as well as for updating the firmware and rebooting the system. See “Utilities and
Diagnostics” on page 14-1 for detailed information.
■
The Statistics & Logs menus display a selection of tables and device logs that show information about
your router, your network and their history. See “Statistics & Logs” on page 12-3 for detailed information.
■
The Quick Menus screen is a shortcut entry point to a wide variety of the most commonly used
configuration menus that are accessed through the other menu entry points.
■
The Quick View menu displays at a glance current real-time operating information about your router. See
“Quick View status overview” on page 12-1 for detailed information.
Connecting through a Telnet session
Features of the Netopia R9100 can be configured through the console screens.
Before you can access the console screens through Telnet, you must have:
■
A network connection locally to the router or IP access to the router.
Note: Alternatively, you can have a direct serial console cable connection using the provided console cable
for your platform (PC or Macintosh) and the Console port on the back of the router. For more information on
attaching the console cable, see “Connecting a console cable to your router” on page 6-3.
■
Telnet software installed on the computer you will use to configure the router
Console-Based Management 6-3
Configuring Telnet software
If you are configuring your router using a Telnet session, your computer must be running a Telnet software
program.
■
If you connect a PC with Microsoft Windows, you can use a Windows Telnet application or simply run Telnet
from the Start menu.
■
If you connect a Macintosh computer, you can use the NCSA Telnet program supplied on the Netopia
R9100 CD. You install NCSA Telnet by simply dragging the application from the CD to your hard disk.
Connecting a console cable to your router
You can perform all of the system configuration activities for your Netopia R9100 through a local serial console
connection using terminal emulation software, such as HyperTerminal provided with Windows95 on the PC, or
ZTerm, included on the Netopia CD, for Macintosh computers.
The Netopia R9100 back panel has a connector labeled “Console” for attaching the Router to either a PC or
Macintosh computer via the serial port on the computer. (On a Macintosh computer, the serial port is called the
Modem port or Printer port.) This connection lets you use the computer to configure and monitor the Netopia
R9100 via the console screens.
8
Ethernet
1
Line 2
Normal
1
Auxiliary
Console
Line 1
Power
Uplink
Console connection port
DB-9 (male)
To connect the Netopia R9100 to your computer for serial console communication, use the supplied dual
console cable connector end appropriate to your platform:
■
One DB-9 connector end attaches to a PC.
■
The mini-DIN8 connector end attaches to a Macintosh computer.
■
The DB-9 end of the Console cable attaches to the Netopia R9100’s Console port.
■
If you connect a PC with Microsoft Windows 95 or NT, you can use the HyperTerminal application bundled
with the operating system.
■
If you connect a Macintosh computer, you can use the ZTerm terminal emulation program on the supplied
Netopia R9100 CD.
6-4 User’s Reference Guide
Launch your terminal emulation software and configure the communications software for the values shown in
the table below. These are the default communication parameters that the Netopia R9100 uses.
Parameter
Suggested Value
Terminal type
PC: ANSI-BBS
Mac: ANSI, VT-100, or VT-200
Data bits
8
Parity
None
Stop bits
1
Speed*
Options are: 9600, 19200, 38400, or 57600 bits per second
Flow Control
None
Note: The router firmware contains an autobaud detection feature. If you are at any screen on the
serial console, you can change your baud rate and press Return (HyperTerminal for the PC requires a
disconnect). The new baud rate is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
Navigating through the console screens
Use your keyboard to navigate the Netopia R9100’s configuration screens, enter and edit information, and
make choices. The following table lists the keys to use to navigate through the console screens.
To...
Use These Keys...
Move through selectable items in a screen or pop-up menu
Up, Down, Left, and Right Arrow
To set a change to a selected item or open a pop-up menu of
options for a selected item like entering an upgrade key
Return or Enter
Change a toggle value (Yes/No, On/Off)
Tab
Restore an entry or toggle value to its previous value
Esc
Move one item up
Up arrow or Control + k
Move one item down
Down arrow or Control + j
Display a dump of the device event log
Control + e
Display a dump of the WAN event log
Control + f
Refresh the screen
Control + L
Go to topmost selectable item
<
Go to bottom right selectable item
>
Easy Setup 7-1
Chapter 7
Easy Setup
This chapter describes how to use the Easy Setup console screens on your Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router.
After completing the Easy Setup console screens, your router will be ready to connect to the Internet or another
remote site.
This chapter covers the following topics:
■
“Easy Setup console screens” on page 7-1
■
“Quick Easy Setup connection path” on page 7-3
■
“More Easy Setup options” on page 7-5
Easy Setup console screens
Using three Easy Setup console screens, you can:
■
Define your Wide Area Network (WAN) connection for your router to connect to your ISP or remote location
■
Set up IP addresses and IP address serving
■
Password–protect configuration access to your Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router
Accessing the Easy Setup console screens
To access the console screens, Telnet to the Netopia Router over your Ethernet network, or physically connect
with a serial console cable and access the Netopia Router with a terminal emulation program. See “Connecting
through a Telnet session” on page 6-2 or “Connecting a console cable to your router” on page 6-3.
Note: Before continuing, make sure you have the information that your telephone service provider, ISP, or
network administrator has given you for configuring the Netopia Router.
The Netopia Router’s first console screen, Main Menu, appears in the terminal emulation window of the
attached PC or Macintosh computer when
■
The Netopia Router is turned on
■
The computer is connected to the Netopia Router
■
The Telnet or terminal emulation software is running and configured correctly
7-2 User’s Reference Guide
A screen similar to the following Main Menu appears:
Netopia R9100 v4.3
Easy Setup...
WAN Configuration...
System Configuration...
Utilities & Diagnostics...
Statistics & Logs...
Quick Menus...
Quick View...
Your Baud Rate has been changed to 57600
You always start from this main screen.
If you do not see the Main Menu, verify that:
■
The computer used to view the console screen has its serial port connected to the Netopia R9100’s
Console port or an Ethernet connection to one of its Ethernet ports. See “Connecting a console cable to
your router” on page 6-3 or “Connecting through a Telnet session” on page 6-2.
■
The Telnet or terminal emulation software is configured for the recommended values.
■
If you are connecting via the Console port, your computer’s serial port is not being used by another device,
such as an internal modem, or an application. Turn off all other programs (other than your terminal
emulation program) that may be interfering with your access to the port.
■
You have entered the correct password, if necessary. Your Netopia R9100’s console access may be
password protected from a previous configuration. See your system administrator to obtain the password.
See Appendix A, “Troubleshooting,” for more suggestions.
Easy Setup 7-3
Quick Easy Setup connection path
This section may be all you need to do to configure your Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router to connect to the
Internet.
If your ISP supports DHCP
Your Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router comes preconfigured with the ability to accept an IP address dynamically
assigned by your ISP. To do this, it acts as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol client to your ISP's DHCP
server. This means that each time you power the Router on when it is connected to the Internet connection line,
it configures itself with IP address settings without any input on your part. If your ISP supports this method, skip
these instructions and go to Chapter 4, “Connecting to Your Local Area Network.” You don’t need to do anything
else. This is the true Plug-and-Play solution.
If your ISP doesn’t support DHCP
Some ISPs may not be running a DHCP server. In this case, they may simply assign your router a Static IP
Address and will supply you with several values for you to enter into the Router. The ISP will provide the values
shown below:
Local WAN IP Address
Local WAN IP Mask
Default IP Gateway
Domain Name
Primary Domain Name Server
Secondary Domain Name Server
(You can record these values; print this page and use the spaces above.)
If your ISP assigns your Router a Static IP address, do the following:
1.
From the computer connected to your router, as described in the section “Identify the connectors and
attach the cables” on page 3-2, open a Telnet session to 192.168.1.1 to bring up the Main Menu.
If you don't know how to do this, see “Connecting through a Telnet session” on page 6-2.
Alternatively, you can connect the console cable and open a direct serial console connection, using a
terminal emulator program. See “Connecting a console cable to your router” on page 6-3.
7-4 User’s Reference Guide
The Main Menu appears.
Netopia R9100 v4.3
Easy Setup...
WAN Configuration...
System Configuration...
Utilities & Diagnostics...
Statistics & Logs...
Quick Menus...
Quick View...
Your Baud Rate has been changed to 57600
You always start from this main screen.
2.
Select the first item on the Main Menu list, Easy Setup. Press Return to bring up the Easy Setup menu
screen.
3.
Press the Down arrow key until the editable field labelled Local WAN IP Address is highlighted.
4.
Type the IP Address your ISP gave you. Press Return. The next field Local WAN IP Mask will appear.
5.
Type the Subnet Mask your ISP gave you. Press Return.
6.
Press the Down arrow key until you reach NEXT SCREEN. Press Return to bring up the next screen.
7.
Press the Down arrow key until the editable field labelled Domain Name is highlighted.
8.
Type the Domain Name your ISP gave you. Press Return. The next field Primary Domain Name Server will
be highlighted.
9.
Type the Primary Domain Name Server address your ISP gave you. Press Return. A new field Secondary
Domain Name Server will appear. If your ISP gave you a secondary domain name server address, enter it
here. Press Return until the next field Default IP Gateway is highlighted.
10. Enter the Default IP Gateway address your ISP gave you. Press Return.
11. Press the Down arrow key until you reach NEXT SCREEN. Press Return.
12. Do this again, through the next two screens until you reach RESTART DEVICE. When RESTART DEVICE is
highlighted, press Return. When prompted, select CONTINUE, and press Return.
The router will restart and your configuration settings will be activated. You can then Exit or Quit your Telnet
application.
For more Easy Setup options see “More Easy Setup options” on page 7-5.
Easy Setup 7-5
More Easy Setup options
You always begin Easy Setup by selecting Easy Setup in the Main Menu, then pressing Return.
The WAN Ethernet Configuration screen appears.
WAN Ethernet Configuration
Address Translation Enabled:
Local WAN IP Address:
Yes
0.0.0.0
TO MAIN MENU
NEXT SCREEN
Set up the basic IP attributes of your Ethernet Module in this screen.
WAN Ethernet Configuration
The WAN Ethernet Configuration screen is where you configure the parameters that control the Netopia
R9100’s connection to a specific remote destination, usually your ISP or a corporate site.
1.
To enable address translation, toggle Address Translation Enabled to Yes (the default). For more
information on Network Address Translation, see Chapter 9, “IP Setup and Network Address Translation,”
on page 9-1.
Address Translation Enabled allows you to specify whether or not the router performs Network Address
Translation (NAT) on the Ethernet WAN port. NAT is enabled by default.
2.
To manually configure an IP address for use on the Ethernet WAN port, select Local WAN IP Address and
enter the IP address you want to use.
Otherwise, accept the default value 0.0.0.0. If you accept the default, the Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router
will act as a DHCP client on the Ethernet WAN port and attempt to acquire an address from a DHCP server.
By default, the router acts as a DHCP client on the Ethernet WAN port and obtains its IP address and
subnet mask from the DHCP server.
3.
A new field Local WAN IP Mask (not shown) becomes visible only if you have configured a non-zero
Ethernet IP address. If you have configured a non-zero Ethernet IP address, enter an appropriate subnet
mask.
4.
Select NEXT SCREEN and press Return. The IP Easy Setup screen appears.
7-6 User’s Reference Guide
IP Easy Setup
The IP Easy Setup screen is where you enter information about your Netopia Router’s:
■
Ethernet IP address
■
Ethernet Subnet mask
■
Domain Name
■
Domain Name Server IP address
■
Default gateway IP address
■
Whether to serve IP addresses or not
Consult with your network administrator to obtain the information you will need. For more information about
setting up IP, see “IP Setup and Network Address Translation” on page 9-1.
IP Easy Setup
Ethernet IP Address:
Ethernet Subnet Mask:
192.168.1.1
255.255.255.0
Domain Name:
Primary Domain Name Server:
Secondary Domain Name Server:
173.166.4.10
0.0.0.0
Default IP Gateway:
173.166.1.1
IP Address Serving:
On
Number of Client IP Addresses:
1st Client IP Address:
100
192.168.1.100
PREVIOUS SCREEN
RESTART DEVICE
TO MAIN MENU
Enter an IP address in decimal and dot form (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx).
Set up the basic IP & IPX attributes of your Netopia in this screen.
1.
Select Ethernet IP Address and enter the first IP address from the IP address range your ISP has given
you. This will be the Netopia Router’s IP address.
If Network Address Translation is enabled in Easy Setup, the Ethernet IP Address defaults to an address
within a range reserved by the Internet address administration authority for use within private networks,
192.168.1.1.
Because this is a private network address, it should never be directly connected to the Internet. Using NAT
for all your WAN and IP configurations will ensure this restriction. See “IP Setup and Network Address
Translation” on page 9-1 of this guide for more information.
2.
Select Ethernet Subnet Mask and enter the subnet mask your ISP has given you. The Ethernet Subnet
Mask defaults to a standard class mask derived from the class of the Ethernet IP address you entered in
the previous step.
3.
Select Domain Name and enter the domain name your ISP has given you.
Easy Setup 7-7
Note: If the Netopia R9100’s WAN interface is acting as a DHCP client, do not change the default settings for
Steps 3, 4, and 5.
4.
Select Primary Domain Name Server and enter the IP address your ISP has given you. An alternate or
Secondary Domain Name Server field will appear, where you can enter a secondary DNS IP address if your
ISP has given you one.
5.
If you do not enter a Default IP Gateway value, the router defaults to the remote IP address you entered in
Easy Setup. If the Netopia Router does not recognize the destination of any IP traffic, it forwards that traffic
to this gateway.
Do not confuse the remote IP address and the Default IP Gateway’s address with the block of local IP
addresses you receive from your ISP. You use the local IP addresses for the Netopia R9100’s Ethernet port
and for IP clients on your local network. The remote IP address and the default gateway’s IP address
should point to your ISP’s router.
6.
Toggle IP Address Serving to On or Off.
7.
Select NEXT SCREEN and press Return. The Easy Setup Security Configuration screen appears.
Easy Setup Security Configuration
The Easy Setup Security Configuration screen lets you password-protect your Netopia R9100. Input your Write
Access Name and Write Access Password with names or numbers totaling up to eleven digits.
If you password protect the console screens, you will be prompted to enter the name and password you have
specified every time you log in to the console screens. Do not forget your name and password. If you do, you
will be unable to access any of the configuration screens.
Additional security features are available. See “Security” on page 13-1.
Easy Setup Security Configuration
It is strongly suggested that you password-protect configuration access to your
Netopia. By entering a Name and Password pair here, access via serial,
Telnet, SNMP and Web Server will be password-protected.
Be sure to remember what you have typed here, because you will be prompted for
it each time you configure this Netopia.
You can remove an existing Name and Password by clearing both fields below.
Write Access Name:
Write Access Password:
PREVIOUS SCREEN
TO MAIN MENU
RESTART DEVICE
Configure a Configuration Access Name and Password here.
The final step in configuring the Easy Setup console screens is to restart the Netopia R9100, so that the
configuration settings take effect.
1.
Select RESTART DEVICE. A prompt asks you to confirm your choice.
7-8 User’s Reference Guide
2.
Select CONTINUE to restart the Netopia Router and have your selections take effect.
Note: You can also restart the system at any time by using the Restart System utility (see “Restarting the
system” on page 14-12) or by turning the Netopia Router off and on with the power switch.
Easy Setup is now complete.
Part II: Advanced Configuration
User’s Reference Guide
WAN and System Configuration 8-1
Chapter 8
WAN and System Configuration
Console-based management is a menu-driven interface for the capabilities built in to the Netopia R9100.
Console-based management provides access to a wide variety of features that the router supports. You can
customize these features for your individual setup. This chapter describes how to access the console-based
management screens.
This section covers the following topics:
■
“WAN configuration” on page 8-1
■
“Creating a new Connection Profile” on page 8-3
■
“Default Answer Profile for Dial-in Connections” on page 8-7
■
“System configuration screens” on page 8-9
■
“Navigating through the system configuration screens” on page 8-10
■
“System configuration features” on page 8-11
WAN configuration
To configure your Wide Area Network (WAN) connection, navigate to the WAN Configuration screen from the Main
Menu and select WAN Configuration, then WAN Setup.
Main
Menu
WAN
Configuration
The WAN Ethernet Configuration screen appears.
WAN
Setup
WAN Ethernet
Configuration
8-2 User’s Reference Guide
WAN Ethernet Configuration
Address Translation Enabled:
Local WAN IP Address:
Yes
0.0.0.0
Filter Set...
Remove Filter Set
Receive RIP:
Both
Aux Serial Port...
Data Rate (kbps)...
Aux Modem Init String:
Async Modem
57.6
AT&F&C1&D2E0S0=1
Set up the basic IP attributes of your Ethernet Module in this screen.
■
Address Translation Enabled allows you to specify whether or not the router performs Network Address
Translation (NAT) on the Ethernet WAN port. NAT is enabled by default.
■
Local WAN IP Address allows you to manually configure an IP address for use on the Ethernet WAN port.
The value 0.0.0.0 indicates that the device will act as a DHCP client on the Ethernet WAN port and attempt
to acquire an address from a DHCP server. By default, the router acts as a DHCP client on the Ethernet
WAN port.
■
Local WAN IP Mask allows you to manually configure an IP subnet mask for use on the Ethernet WAN port.
This item is visible only if you have configured a non-zero Ethernet IP Address; otherwise, the router obtains
a subnet mask via DHCP.
■
The Filter Set pop-up allows you to associate an IP filter set with the Ethernet WAN port. See “About filters
and filter sets” on page 13-4.
■
Remove Filter Set allows you to remove a previously associated filter set.
■
The Receive RIP pop-up controls the reception and transmission of Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
packets on the Ethernet WAN port. The default is Both. The Transmit RIP pop-up is hidden if NAT is
enabled.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is needed if there are IP routers on other segments of your Ethernet
network that the Netopia R9100 needs to recognize. Set to “Both” (the default) the Netopia R9100 will
accept information from either RIP v1 or v2 routers. Alternatively, select Receive RIP and select v1 or v2
from the popup menu. With Receive RIP set to “v1,” the Netopia R9100’s Ethernet port will accept routing
information provided by RIP packets from other routers that use the same subnet mask. Set to “v2,” the
Netopia R9100 will accept routing information provided by RIP packets from other routers that use
different subnet masks.
WAN and System Configuration 8-3
If you want the Netopia R9100 to advertise its routing table to other routers via RIP, select Transmit RIP
and select v1, v2 (broadcast), or v2 (multicast) from the popup menu. With Transmit RIP v1 selected, the
Netopia R9100 will generate RIP packets only to other RIP v1 routers. With Transmit RIP v2 (broadcast)
selected, the Netopia R9100 will generate RIP packets to all other hosts on the network. With Transmit RIP
v2 (multicast) selected, the Netopia R9100 will generate RIP packets only to other routers capable of
recognizing RIP v2 packets.
■
Selecting Aux Serial Port displays the serial line configuration pop-up in which you specify the configuration
for the router’s auxiliary serial port.
There are three options: Unused, LocalTalk, or Async Modem. The default for the auxiliary port is Async
Modem for “Up & Running, Guaranteed” (URG). If you have installed the optional AppleTalk feature set the
default is LocalTalk.
For the Async Modem option (the default), the screen displays:
■
The Data Rate pop-up offers a limited set of clock rates: 19.2, 38.4, 57.6, 115.2, and 230.4. For
broadest application, 57.6 is the default.
■
You may specify an Aux Modem Init String for your modem type.
Creating a new Connection Profile
For a Netopia R9100, Connection profiles are useful only on an asynchronous modem attached to the Auxiliary
port. This requires enabling the Asynch modem feature set available as an add-on option (order TER/AD1). See
the accompanying list of available add-on options in your product folio. If you have enabled the Auxiliary port
option, you can create Connection Profiles. Otherwise, you can skip this section.
Connection Profiles define the telephone and networking protocols necessary for the router to make a remote
connection. A Connection Profile is like an address book entry describing how the router is to get to a remote
site, or how to recognize and authenticate a remote user dialing in to the router. For example, to create a new
Connection Profile, you navigate to the WAN Configuration screen from the Main Menu, and select Add
Connection Profile.
Main
Menu
WAN
Configuration
Add Connection
Profile
8-4 User’s Reference Guide
The Add Connection Profile screen appears.
Add Connection Profile
Profile Name:
Profile Enabled:
Profile 02
Yes
IP Enabled:
IP Profile Parameters...
Yes
IPX Enabled:
No
Data Link Encapsulation...
Data Link Options...
PPP
Telco Options...
ADD PROFILE NOW
CANCEL
Return accepts * ESC cancels * Left/Right moves insertion point * Del deletes.
Configure a new Conn. Profile. Finished? ADD or CANCEL to exit.
On a Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router you can add up to 15 more connection profiles, for a total of 16, but you
can only use one at a time.
1.
Select Profile Name and enter a name for this connection profile. It can be any name you wish. For
example: the name of your ISP.
2.
Toggle the Profile Enabled value to Yes or No. The default is Yes.
3.
Select IP Profile Parameters and press Return. The IP Profile Parameters screen appears.
IP Profile Parameters
Address Translation Enabled:
Yes
Local WAN IP Address:
0.0.0.0
Remote IP Address:
Remote IP Mask:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Filter Set...
Remove Filter Set
Receive RIP:
Off
Toggle to Yes if this is a single IP address ISP account.
Configure IP requirements for a remote network connection here.
WAN and System Configuration 8-5
4.
Toggle or enter any IP Parameters you require and return to the Add Connection Profile screen by pressing
Escape. For more information, see “IP Setup and Network Address Translation” on page 9-1.
5.
If you will be connecting with an IPX remote network, toggle IPX Enabled to Yes, and press Return.
Otherwise, accept the default No.
If you enable IPX routing, an IPX Profile Parameters menu item becomes available. Select IPX Profile
Parameters and press Return. The IPX Profile Parameters screen appears.
IPX Profile Parameters
Remote IPX Network:
Path Delay:
NetBios Packet Forwarding:
00000000
10
Off
Incoming Packet Filter Set...
Outgoing Packet Filter Set...
<<NONE>>
<<NONE>>
Incoming SAP Filter Set...
Outgoing SAP Filter Set...
<<NONE>>
<<NONE>>
Periodic RIP Timer:
Periodic SAP Timer:
60
60
Configure IPX requirements for a remote network connection here.
6.
Toggle or enter any IPX Parameters you require and return to the Add Connection Profile screen by pressing
Escape. For more information, see “IPX Setup” on page 10-1.
8-6 User’s Reference Guide
7.
Select Datalink Options and press Return. The Datalink Options screen appears.
Datalink (PPP/MP) Options
Data Compression...
Ascend LZS
Receive User Name:
Receive Password:
Maximum Packet Size:
1500
In this Screen you will configure the PPP/MP specific connection params.
You can accept the defaults, or change them if you wish. You can also specify user name and password for
both outgoing and incoming calls. the Send User Name/Password parameters are used to specify your
identity when dialing out to a remote location. The Receive User Name/Password parameters are used
when receiving dial-in clients such as via RAS configuration.
Return to the Add Connection Profile screen by pressing Escape.
8.
Select Telco Options and press return. the Telco Options screen appears.
Telco Options
Idle Timeout (seconds):
300
Return accepts * ESC cancels * Left/Right moves insertion point * Del deletes.
In this Screen you configure options for the ways you will establish a link.
WAN and System Configuration 8-7
You can set the Idle timeout duration to be greater or less than the default 300 seconds (five minutes).
When you are finished with these entries, press Escape to return to the Add Connection Profile screen.
9.
Select ADD PROFILE NOW and press Return. Your new Connection Profile will be added.
If you want to view the Connection Profiles in your router, return to the WAN Configuration screen, and
select Display/Change Connection Profile. The list of Connection Profiles is displayed in a scrolling pop-up
screen.
WAN Configuration
+-Profile Name---------------------IP Address----IPX Network-+
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| SmartStart Profile
127.0.0.2
|
| Profile 02
0.0.0.0
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
+------------------------------------------------------------+
Up/Down Arrow Keys to select, ESC to dismiss, Return/Enter to Edit.
Default Answer Profile for Dial-in Connections
The Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router can answer calls on the Auxiliary port. To answer calls, the Netopia R9100
uses a Default Answer Profile. The Default Answer Profile controls how incoming calls are set up, authenticated,
filtered, and more.
How the Default Answer Profile works
The Default Answer Profile works like a guard booth at the gate to your network: it scrutinizes incoming calls.
Like the guard booth, the Default Answer Profile allows calls based on a set of criteria that you define.
The main criterion used to check calls is whether they match one of the Connection Profiles already defined.
The default profile checks that the incoming call’s name and password match the receive name and password
of a Connection Profile.
If an incoming call is matched to an existing Connection Profile, the call is accepted. All of that Connection
Profile’s parameters, except for authentication, are adopted for the call.
You could set up the Default Answer Profile to allow calls in even if they fail to match a Connection Profile.
Continuing the guard booth analogy, this would be like removing the guards or having them wave all calls in,
regardless of their source.
8-8 User’s Reference Guide
If an incoming call is not required to match a connection profile, and fails to do so, it is accepted as a standard
IP connection. Accepted, unmatched calls adopt the call parameter values set in the Default Answer Profile.
To determine the call parameter values that unmatched calls will adopt, customize the Default Answer Profile
parameters in the Default Answer Profile screen.
Customizing the default profile
You can customize the Netopia Router’s default profile in the Default Answer Profile screen.
1.
Select Default Answer Profile in the WAN Configuration screen. Press Return. The Default Profile screen
appears.
Default Answer Profile
Must Match a Defined Profile:
Yes
PPP Authentication...
PAP
Return/Enter accepts * Tab toggles * ESC cancels.
Configure values which may be used when receiving a call in this screen.
2.
To force incoming calls to match connection profiles, select Must Match a Defined Profile and toggle it to
Yes. Incoming calls that cannot be matched to a connection profile are dropped. To allow unmatched calls
to be accepted as standard IP or IPX connections, toggle Must Match a Defined Profile to No.
If Must Match a Defined Profile is set to Yes, the answer profile only accepts calls that use the same
authentication method defined in the Authentication item. If PAP or CHAP are involved, the caller must
have a name and password or secret that match one of the connection profiles. The caller must obtain
these from you or your network administrator before initiating the call.
For example, if Must Match a Defined Profile is set to Yes, and Authentication is set to PAP, then only
incoming calls that use PAP and match a connection profile will be accepted by the answer profile.
If authentication in the Default Answer Profile is set to CHAP, the value of the CHAP Challenge Name item
must be identical to the value of the Send Host Name item of the Connection Profile to be matched by the
caller.
If Must Match a Defined Profile is set to No, Authentication is assumed to be None, even if you’ve set it
to PAP or CHAP. The answer profile uses the caller’s IP address to match a connection profile. However,
the answer profile cannot discover a caller’s subnet mask; it assumes that the caller is not subnetting its
IP address:
WAN and System Configuration 8-9
Class A addresses are assumed to have a mask of 255.0.0.0
Class B addresses are assumed to have a mask of 255.255.0.0
Class C addresses are assumed to have a mask of 255.255.255.0. Class C address ranges are generally
the most common subnet allocated.
If a remote network has a non-standard mask (that is, it uses subnetting), the only way for it to successfully
connect to the Netopia Router is by matching a connection profile. In other words, you will have to set up a
connection profile for that network.If Must Match a Defined Profile is set to No, you can also set the
following parameters for accepted calls that do not match a connection profile:
Call acceptance scenarios
The following are a few common call acceptance scenarios and information on how to configure the Netopia
R9100 for those purposes.
■
To accept all calls, regardless of whether they match a connection profile:
■
■
Toggle Must Match a Defined Profile to No.
To only accept calls that match a connection profile through use of a name and password (or secret):
■
Toggle Must Match a Defined Profile to Yes, and
■
Set Authentication to PAP or CHAP.
Note: The authentication method you choose determines which connection profiles are accessible to
callers. For example, if you choose PAP, callers using CHAP or no authentication will be dropped by the
answer profile.
■
To allow calls that only match a connection profile’s remote IP and/or IPX address:
■
Toggle Must Match a Defined Profile to Yes, and
■
set Authentication to None.
System configuration screens
You can connect to the Netopia R9100’s system configuration screens in either of two ways:
■
By using Telnet with the Router’s Ethernet port IP address
■
Through the console port, using a local terminal (see “Connecting a console cable to your router” on
page 6-3)
You can also retrieve the Netopia R9100’s configuration information and remotely set its parameters using the
Simple Network Management Protocol (see “SNMP” on page 12-12).
Open a Telnet connection to the router’s IP address; for example, “192.168.1.1.”
8-10 User’s Reference Guide
The console screen will open to the Main Menu, similar to the screen shown below:
Netopia R9100 v4.3
Easy Setup...
WAN Configuration...
System Configuration...
Utilities & Diagnostics...
Statistics & Logs...
Quick Menus...
Quick View...
You always start from this main screen.
Navigating through the system configuration screens
To help you find your way to particular screens, some sections in this guide begin with a graphical path guide
similar to the following example:
Main
Menu
System
Configuration
Network Protocols
Setup
IP Setup
This particular path guide shows how to get to the Network Protocols Setup screens. The path guide represents
these steps:
1.
Beginning in the Main Menu, select System Configuration and press Return. The System Configuration
screen appears.
2.
Select Network Protocols and press Return. The Network Protocols screen appears.
3.
Select IP Setup and press Return. The IP Setup screen appears.
To go back in this sequence of screens, use the Escape key.
WAN and System Configuration 8-11
System configuration features
The Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router’s default settings may be all you need to configure your Netopia R9100.
Some users, however, require advanced settings or prefer manual control over the default selections. For these
users, the Netopia R9100 provides system configuration options.
To help you determine whether you need to use the system configuration options, review the following
requirements. If you have one or more of these needs, use the system configuration options described in later
chapters.
■
System configuration of dynamic IP address distribution through DHCP, MacIP, or BootP
■
Greater network security through the use of filters
■
System configuration of AppleTalk LAN settings
■
System configuration of connections to AppleTalk networks through the Internet or any IP network, using
AURP (AppleTalk “tunneling”)
To access the system configuration screens, select System Configuration in the Main Menu, then press
Return.
The System Configuration menu screen appears:
System Configuration
Network Protocols Setup...
Filter Sets (Firewalls)...
IP Address Serving...
Date and Time...
Console Configuration...
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)...
Security...
Upgrade Feature Set...
Logging...
Return/Enter to configure Networking Protocols (such as TCP/IP).
Use this screen if you want options beyond Easy Setup.
Network protocols setup
These screens allow you to configure your network’s use of the standard networking protocols:
■
IP: Details are given in “IP Setup and Network Address Translation” on page 9-1.
■
IPX: Details are given in “IPX Setup” on page 10-1.
■
AppleTalk: Details are given in “AppleTalk Setup” on page 11-1.
Note: AppleTalk requires the optional AppleTalk feature expansion kit.
8-12 User’s Reference Guide
Filter sets (firewalls)
These screens allow you to configure security on your network by means of filter sets and a basic firewall.
■
Details are given in “Security” on page 13-1.
IP address serving
These screens allow you to configure IP address serving on your network by means of DHCP, WANIP, BootP, and
with the optional AppleTalk kit, MacIP.
■
Details are given in “IP address serving” on page 9-16.
Date and time
You can set the system’s date and time in the Set Date and Time screen.
Select Date and Time in the System Configuration screen and press Return. The Set Date and Time screen
appears.
Set Date and Time
System Date Format:
Current Date (MM/DD/YY):
MM/DD/YY
12/9/1998
System Time Format:
Current Time:
AM or PM:
AM/PM
04:18
PM
Follow these steps to set the system’s date and time:
1.
Select Current Date and enter the date in the appropriate format. Use one- or two-digit numbers for the
month and day, and the last two digits of the current year. The date’s numbers must be separated by
forward slashes (/).
2.
Select Current Time and enter the time in the format HH:MM, where HH is the hour (using either the
12-hour or 24-hour clock) and MM is the minutes.
3.
Select AM or PM and choose AM or PM.
Console configuration
You can change the default terminal communications parameters to suit your requirements.
WAN and System Configuration 8-13
To go to the Console Configuration screen, select Console Configuration in the System Configuration screen.
Console Configuration
Baud Rate...
57600
Hardware Flow Control:
No
SET CONFIG NOW
CANCEL
Follow these steps to change a parameter’s value:
1.
Select the parameter you want to change.
2.
Select a new value for the parameter. Return to step 1 if you want to configure another parameter.
3.
Select SET CONFIG NOW to save the new parameter settings. Select CANCEL to leave the parameters
unchanged and exit the Console Configuration screen.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
These screens allow you to monitor and configure your network by means of a standard Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP) agent.
■
Details are given in “SNMP” on page 12-12.
Security
These screens allow you to add users and define passwords on your network.
■
Details are given in “Security” on page 13-1.
Upgrade feature set
You can upgrade your Netopia R9100 by adding new feature sets through the Upgrade Feature Set utility.
See the release notes that came with your router or feature set upgrade, or visit the Netopia Web site at
www.netopia.com for information on new feature sets, how to obtain them, and how to install them on your
Netopia R9100.
8-14 User’s Reference Guide
Logging
You can configure a UNIX-compatible syslog client to report a number of subsets of the events entered in the
router’s WAN Event History. See “WAN Event History” on page 12-6.The Syslog client (for the PC only) is
supplied as a .ZIP file on the Netopia CD.
Select Logging from the System Configuration menu.
The Logging Configuration screen appears.
Logging Configuration
WAN
Log
Log
Log
Log
Log
Event Log Options
Boot and Errors:
Line Specific:
Connections:
PPP, DHCP, CNA:
IP and IPX:
Syslog Parameters
Syslog Enabled:
Hostname or IP Address:
Facility...
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Local 0
Return/Enter accepts * Tab toggles * ESC cancels.
By default, all events are logged in the event history.
■
By toggling each event descriptor either Yes or No, you can determine which ones are logged and which are
ignored.
■
You can enable or disable the syslog client dynamically. When enabled, it will report any appropriate and
previously unreported events.
■
You can specify the syslog server’s address either in dotted decimal format or as a DNS name up to 63
characters.
■
You can specify the UNIX syslog Facility to use by selecting the Facility pop-up.
Installing the Syslog client
The Goodies folder on the Netopia CD contains a Syslog client daemon program that can be configured to
report the WAN events you specified in the Logging Configuration screen.
To install the Syslog client daemon, exit from the graphical Netopia CD program and locate the CD directory
structure through your Windows desktop, or through Windows Explorer. Go to the Goodies directory on the CD
and locate the Sds15000.exe program. This is the Syslog daemon installer. Run the Sds15000.exe program
and follow the on screen instructions for enabling the Windows Syslog daemon.
WAN and System Configuration 8-15
The following screen shows a sample syslog dump of WAN events:
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Link 1 down: PPP PAP failure
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com >>Issued Speech Setup Request from our DN: 5108645534
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Requested Disc. from DN: 917143652500
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Received Clear Confirm for our DN: 5108645534
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Link 1 down: Manual disconnect
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com >>Issued Speech Setup Request from our DN: 5108645534
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Requested Disc. from DN: 917143652500
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Received Clear Confirm for our DN: 5108645534
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Link 1 down: No answer
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com --Device restarted----------------------------------------Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com >>Received Speech Setup Ind. from DN: (not supplied)
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Requested Connect to our DN: 5108645534
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com ASYNC: Modem carrier detected (more) Modem reports: 26400
V34
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com >>WAN: 56K Modem 1 activated at 115 Kbps
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Connect Confirmed to our DN: 5108645534
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
PPP: Channel 1 up, Answer Profile name: Default Profile
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
PPP: NCP up, session 1, Channel 1 Final (fallback)
negotiated auth: Local PAP , Remote NONE
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com PPP: PAP we accepted remote, Channel 1 Remote name: guest
Nov
5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
PPP: MP negotiated, session 1 Remote EDO: 06 03
0000C5700624 0
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
PPP: CCP negotiated, session 1, type: Ascend LZS Local
mode: 1, Remote mode: 1
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com PPP: BACP negotiated, session 1 Local MN: FFFFFFFF, Remote
MN: 00000001
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com PPP: IPCP negotiated, session 1, rem: 192.168.10.100 local:
192.168.1.1
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com >>WAN: 56K Modem 1 deactivated
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Received Clear Ind. from DN: 5108645534, Cause: 0
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Issued Clear Response to DN: 5108645534
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
Link 1 down: Remote clearing
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com
PPP: IPCP down, session 1
Nov 5 10:14:06 tsnext.netopia.com >>Received Speech Setup Ind. from DN: (not supplied)
8-16 User’s Reference Guide
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-1
Chapter 9
IP Setup and Network Address Translation
The Netopia R9100 uses Internet Protocol (IP) to communicate both locally and with remote networks. This
chapter shows you how to configure the Router to route IP traffic. You also learn how to configure the router to
serve IP addresses to hosts on your local network.
Netopia’s SmartIP features IP address serving and Network Address Translation. For a detailed discussion of
Network Address Translation, see Appendix C, “Understanding Netopia NAT Behavior” This chapter describes
how to use the Network Address Translation feature of SmartIP.
This section covers the following topics:
■
“Network Address Translation features” on page 9-1
■
“Using Network Address Translation” on page 9-3
■
“IP setup” on page 9-6
■
“IP address serving” on page 9-16
Network Address Translation allows communication between the LAN connected to the Netopia R9100 and the
Internet using a single IP address instead of a routed account with separate IP addresses for each computer on
the network.
Network Address Translation also provides increased security by hiding the local IP addresses of the LAN
connected to the Netopia R9100 from the outside world.
With SmartIP, the setup is simpler, so Internet service providers typically offer internet accounts supporting
Network Address Translation at a significant cost savings.
Network Address Translation features
Network Address Translation (NAT) offers users the following features:
■
The single proxy address is acquired at connection time from the answering side. The address can be
assigned by the remote router from either a dynamic pool of addresses or a fixed, static address.
■
Static NAT Security is simpler and more reliable because only one IP address needs a firewall, and because
the internal network structure is not visible from the Internet.
9-2 User’s Reference Guide
Network Address Translation works by remapping the source IP address of traffic from the LAN to a single static
or dynamically assigned IP address shown to the remote side of the router.
HOW NAT WORKS
With NAT
192.168.1.100
ISP*
192.168.1.102
192.168.1.103
163.167.132.1
192.168.1.104
192.168.1.105
192.168.1.106
Without NAT
163.167.132.1
163.167.132.1
163.167.132.2
163.167.132.3
163.167.132.4
163.167.132.5
163.167.132.6
163.167.132.2
163.167.132.3
163.167.132.4
163.167.132.5
163.167.132.6
*or corporate intranet router
When NAT is enabled, the Netopia R9100 can use either a statically assigned IP address or one dynamically
assigned each time the router connects to the ISP. While a dynamically assigned IP address offers the ISP more
flexibility, it does have an important limitation: the router requires a static IP address to support Web, FTP, or
other services available to the WAN. To support these services with NAT enabled, a service can be associated
with only one machine on the LAN.
When connected to the Internet or some other large network using Network Address Translation, the individual
machines on your LAN are not directly accessible from the WAN. NAT provides an inherently secure method of
connection to the outside world.
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-3
Using Network Address Translation
The following procedure describes how to use Network Address Translation.
1.
Pick a network number for your local network (referred to as the internal network). This can be any IP
address range you want. The Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router has a default IP address of 192.168.1.1. You
may choose to change this address to match a pre-existing addressing scheme. For this example, we will
use 10.0.0.0.
Note: The outside world (the external network) will not see this network number.
2.
Using the internal network number, assign addresses to the local nodes on your LAN. For example, you
could assign
■
10.0.0.1 to your Netopia R9100
■
10.0.0.2 to a node running as a World Wide Web server
■
10.0.0.3 to an FTP server
■
10.0.0.4 to a Windows NT PC
■
10.0.0.5 to a Windows 95 PC
Note: See “Associating port numbers with nodes” on page 9-5.
3.
By default, Network Address Translation is enabled in the Netopia R9100. If you disabled it and now want
to reenable it:
From the WAN Configuration menu in the Main Menu screen, select WAN (Wide Area Network) Setup.
The WAN Ethernet Configuration screen appears.
WAN Ethernet Configuration
Address Translation Enabled:
Local WAN IP Address:
Yes
0.0.0.0
Filter Set...
Remove Filter Set
Receive RIP:
Both
Aux Serial Port...
Data Rate (kbps)...
Aux Modem Init String:
Async Modem
57.6
AT&F&C1&D2E0S0=1
Set up the basic IP attributes of your Ethernet Module in this screen.
Toggle Address Translation Enabled to Yes or No (Yes to enable NAT) and press Return.
9-4 User’s Reference Guide
Or, from the Main Menu, select Easy Setup. The Easy Setup WAN Ethernet Configuration screen appears.
WAN Ethernet Configuration
Address Translation Enabled:
Local WAN IP Address:
Yes
0.0.0.0
TO MAIN MENU
NEXT SCREEN
Set up the basic IP attributes of your Ethernet Module in this screen.
Toggle Address Translation Enabled to Yes or No (Yes to enable NAT) and press Return.
For more information see Appendix B, “Understanding IP Addressing” and Appendix C, “Understanding
Netopia NAT Behavior”
4.
If your ISP uses numbered (interface-based) routing, select Local WAN IP Address and enter the local WAN
address your ISP gave you. Then select Local WAN IP Mask and enter the WAN subnet mask of the remote
site you will connect to.
The default address is 0.0.0.0, which allows for dynamic addressing, meaning that your ISP assigns an
address via DHCP each time you connect. However, if you want to use static addressing, enter a specific
address.
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-5
Associating port numbers with nodes
When an IP client such as a Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer, wants to establish a session
with an IP server such as a Web server, the client machine must know the IP address to use and the TCP
service port where the traffic is to be directed.
For example, a Web browser locates a Web server by using a combination of the IP address and TCP port that
the client machine has set up. Just as an IP address specifies a particular computer on a network, ports are
addresses that specify a particular service in a computer. There are many universally agreed-upon ports
assigned to various services. For example:
■
Web servers typically use port number 80
■
All FTP servers use port number 21
■
Telnet uses port number 23
■
SNMP uses port number 161
To help direct incoming IP traffic to the appropriate server, the Netopia R9100 lets you associate these and
other port numbers with distinct IP addresses on your internal LAN using exported services. See “IP setup” on
page 9-6 for details.
Network Address Translation guideline
Observe the following guideline when using Network Address Translation.
The router can export only one local IP address per UDP/TCP port, so you can have just one machine available
for a given service, such as one FTP server. However, some services, such as Web servers (www-http servers),
allow you to change the UDP/TCP port on both the server and client. With two different UDP/TCP ports
exported, you can have Web servers on two different IP hosts.
9-6 User’s Reference Guide
IP setup
Main
Menu
Network
Protocols
Setup
System
Configuration
IP Setup
The IP Setup options screen is where you configure the Ethernet side of the Netopia R9100. The information
you enter here controls how the router routes IP traffic.
Consult your network administrator or Internet service provider to obtain the IP setup information (such as the
Ethernet IP address, Ethernet subnet mask, default IP gateway and Primary Domain Name Server IP address)
you will need before changing any of the settings in this screen. Changes made in this screen will take effect
only after the Netopia R9100 is reset.
To go to the IP Setup options screen, from the Main Menu, select System Configuration then Network
Protocols Setup, and then IP Setup.
The IP Setup screen appears.
IP Setup
Ethernet IP Address:
Ethernet Subnet Mask:
Define Additional Subnets...
192.128.117.162
255.255.255.0
Default IP Gateway:
192.128.117.163
Primary Domain Name Server:
Secondary Domain Name Server:
Domain Name:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Receive RIP:
Transmit RIP:
Static Routes...
Both
v2 (multicast)
Address Serving Setup...
Exported Services...
Filter Sets...
Enter an IP address in decimal and dot form (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx).
Set up the basic IP attributes of your Netopia in this screen.
Follow these steps to configure IP Setup for your Netopia R9100:
■
Select Ethernet IP Address and enter the IP address for the Netopia R9100’s Ethernet port.
■
Select Ethernet Subnet Mask and enter the subnet mask for the Ethernet IP address that you entered in
the last step.
■
For unlimited-user models, if you desire multiple subnets select Define Additional Subnets. 12-user
models do not offer this option. If you select this item you will be taken to the IP Subnets screen. This
screen allows you to define IP addresses and masks for additional subnets. See “IP subnets” on
page 9-10 for details.
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-7
The Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router supports multiple IP subnets on the Ethernet interface. You may want
to configure multiple IP subnets to service more hosts that are possible with your primary subnet. It is not
always possible to obtain a larger subnet from your ISP. For example, if you already have a full Class C
subnet, your only option is multiple Class C subnets, since it is virtually impossible to justify a Class A or
Class B assignment. This assumes that you are not using NAT.
If you are using NAT, you can use the reserved Class A or Class B subnet.
■
Select Default IP Gateway and enter the IP address for a default gateway. This can be the address of any
major router accessible to the Netopia R9100.
A default gateway should be able to successfully route packets when the Netopia R9100 cannot recognize
the intended recipient’s IP address. A typical example of a default gateway is the ISP’s router.
■
Select Primary Domain Name Server and enter the IP address for a domain name server. The domain
name server matches the alphabetic addresses favored by people (for example, robin.hood.com) to the IP
addresses actually used by IP routers (for example, 163.7.8.202).
■
If a secondary DNS server is available, select Secondary Domain Name Server and enter its IP address.
The secondary DNS server is used by the Netopia R9100 when the primary DNS server is inaccessible.
Entering a secondary DNS is useful but not necessary.
■
Select Domain Name and enter your network’s domain name (for example, netopia.com).
■
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is needed if there are IP routers on other segments of your Ethernet
network that the Netopia R9100 needs to recognize. If this is the case select Receive RIP and select v1,
v2, or Both from the popup menu. With Receive RIP set to “v1,” the Netopia R9100’s Ethernet port will
accept routing information provided by RIP packets from other routers that use the same subnet mask. Set
to “v2,” the Netopia R9100 will accept routing information provided by RIP packets from other routers that
use different subnet masks. Set to “Both,” the Netopia R9100 will accept information from either RIP v1 or
v2 routers.
■
If you want the Netopia R9100 to advertise its routing table to other routers via RIP, select Transmit RIP
and select v1, v2 (broadcast), or v2 (multicast) from the popup menu. With Transmit RIP v1 selected, the
Netopia R9100 will generate RIP packets only to other RIP v1 routers. With Transmit RIP v2 (broadcast)
selected, the Netopia R9100 will generate RIP packets to all other hosts on the network. With Transmit RIP
v2 (multicast) selected, the Netopia R9100 will generate RIP packets only to other routers capable of
recognizing RIP v2 packets.
■
Select Static Routes to manually configure IP routes. See the section “Static routes,” below.
■
If you select Address Serving Setup you will be taken to the IP Address Serving screen (see “IP address
serving” on page 9-16. Since no two hosts can use the same IP address at the same time, make sure that
the addresses distributed by the Netopia R9100, and those that are manually configured are not the same.
Each method of distribution must have its own exclusive range of addresses to draw from.
■
Select Exported Services. The Exported Services screen appears with three options: Show/Change
9-8 User’s Reference Guide
Exports, Add Export, and Delete Export.
Exported Services
(Local Port to IP Address Remapping)
Show/Change Exports...
Add Export...
Delete Export...
Return/Enter to configure UDP/TCP Port-to-IP Address redirection.
■
Select Add Export. The Add Exported Service screen appears.
Add Exported Service
Service...
Local Server's IP Address:
ADD EXPORT NOW
0.0.0.0
CANCEL
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-9
■
Select Service. A pop-up menu of services and ports appears.
Add Exported Service
+-Type------Port--+
+-----------------+
Service...
| ftp
21
|
| telnet
23
|
| smtp
25
|
Local Server's IP Address:
| tftp
69
|
| gopher
70
|
| finger
79
|
| www-http 80
|
| pop2
109
|
| pop3
110
|
| snmp
161
|
| timbuktu 407
|
| pptp
1723 |
| irc
6667 |
| Other...
|
+-----------------+
ADD EXPORT NOW
5.
CANCEL
Select any of the services/ports and press Return to associate it with the address of a server on your local
area network. For example, if we select www-http 80, press Return, and type 10.0.0.2, the Netopia R9100
redirects any incoming traffic destined for a Web server to address 10.0.0.2.
Some services such as Timbuktu require the export of multiple TCP ports. When you associate Timbuktu
with a local server (or Timbuktu host) all of the major Timbuktu services are exported, i.e., Observe,
Control, Send, and Exchange.
Note: If the TCP port of a service you want to use is not listed, you can add it by selecting Other... on the
pop-up menu.
9-10 User’s Reference Guide
Press Escape when you are finished configuring exported services. You are returned to the IP Setup
screen.
IP Setup
Ethernet IP Address:
Ethernet Subnet Mask:
Define Additional Subnets...
192.128.117.162
255.255.255.0
Default IP Gateway:
192.128.117.163
Primary Domain Name Server:
Secondary Domain Name Server:
Domain Name:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Receive RIP:
Transmit RIP:
Static Routes...
Both
v2 (multicast)
Address Serving Setup...
Exported Services...
Filter Sets...
■
If you select Filter Sets you will be taken directly to the screen for configuring IP packet filters. For
information see “About filters and filter sets,” beginning on page 13-4.
IP subnets
The IP Subnets screen allows you to configure up to eight Ethernet IP subnets on unlimited-user models, one
“primary” subnet and up to seven secondary subnets, by entering IP address/subnet mask pairs:
IP Subnets
#1:
IP Address
---------------192.128.117.162
Subnet Mask
--------------255.255.255.0
#2:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
#3:
#4:
#5:
#6:
#7:
#8:
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-11
Note: You need not use this screen if you have only a single Ethernet IP subnet. In that case, you can continue
to enter or edit the IP address and subnet mask for the single subnet on the IP Setup screen.
This screen displays up to eight rows of two editable columns, preceded by a row number between one and
eight. If you have eight subnets configured, there will be eight rows on this screen. Otherwise, there will be one
more row than the number of configured subnets. The last row will have the value 0.0.0.0 in both the IP
address and subnet mask fields to indicate that you can edit the values in this row to configure an additional
subnet. All eight row labels are always visible, regardless of the number of subnets configured.
■
To add an IP subnet, enter the Netopia R9100’s IP address on the subnet in the IP Address field in a
particular row and the subnet mask for the subnet in the Subnet Mask field in that row.
For example:
IP Subnets
#1:
IP Address
---------------192.128.117.162
Subnet Mask
--------------255.255.255.0
#2:
192.128.152.162
255.255.0.0
#3:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
#4:
#5:
#6:
#7:
#8:
■
To delete a configured subnet, set both the IP address and subnet mask values to 0.0.0.0, either explicitly
or by clearing each field and pressing Return or Enter to commit the change. When a configured subnet is
deleted, the values in subsequent rows adjust up to fill the vacant fields.
Note that the subnets configured on this screen are tied to the address serving pools configured on the IP
Address Pools screen, and that changes on this screen may affect the IP Address Pools screen. In particular,
deleting a subnet configured on this screen will delete the corresponding address serving pool, if any, on the IP
Address Pools screen.
9-12 User’s Reference Guide
If you have configured multiple Ethernet IP subnets, the IP Setup screen changes slightly:
IP Setup
Subnet Configuration...
Default IP Gateway:
192.128.117.163
Primary Domain Name Server:
Secondary Domain Name Server:
Domain Name:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Receive RIP:
Transmit RIP:
Static Routes...
Both
v2 (multicast)
Address Serving Setup...
Exported Services...
Filter Sets...
The IP address and Subnet mask items are hidden, and the “Define Additional Subnets...” item becomes
“Subnet Configuration...”. If you select Subnet Configuration, you will return to the IP Subnets screen that
allows you to define IP addresses and masks for additional Ethernet IP subnets.
Static routes
Static routes are IP routes that are maintained manually. Each static route acts as a pointer that tells the
Netopia R9100 how to reach a particular network. However, static routes are used only if they appear in the IP
routing table, which contains all of the routes used by the Netopia R9100 (see “IP routing table” on page 12-8).
Static routes are helpful in situations where a route to a network must be used and other means of finding the
route are unavailable. For example, static routes are useful when you cannot rely on RIP.
To go to the Static Routes screen, select Static Routes in the IP Setup screen.
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-13
The Static Routes screen will appear.
Static Routes
Display/Change Static Route...
Add Static Route...
Delete Static Route...
Configure/View/Delete Static Routes from this and the following Screens.
Viewing static routes
To display a view-only table of static routes, select Display/Change Static Route. The table shown below will
appear.
+-Dest. Network---Subnet Mask-----Next Gateway----Priority-Enabled-+
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
163.176.8.1
Low
Yes
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
Select a Static Route to modify.
The table has the following columns:
Dest. Network: The network IP address of the destination network.
9-14 User’s Reference Guide
Subnet Mask: The subnet mask associated with the destination network.
Next Gateway: The IP address of the router that will be used to reach the destination network.
Priority: An indication of whether the Netopia R9100 will use the static route when it conflicts with information
received from RIP packets.
Enabled: An indication of whether the static route should be installed in the IP routing table.
To return to the Static Routes screen, press Escape.
Adding a static route
To add a new static route, select Add Static Route in the Static Routes screen. The Add Static Route screen
will appear.
Add Static Route
Static Route Enabled:
Yes
Destination Network IP Address:
0.0.0.0
Destination Network Subnet Mask:
0.0.0.0
Next Gateway IP Address:
0.0.0.0
Route Priority...
High
Advertise Route Via RIP:
No
ADD STATIC ROUTE NOW
CANCEL
Configure a new Static Route in this Screen.
■
To install the static route in the IP routing table, select Static Route Enabled and toggle it to Yes. To
remove the static route from the IP routing table, select Static Route Enabled and toggle it to No.
■
Be sure to read the rules on the installation of static routes in the IP routing table. See “Rules of static
route installation” on page 9-15.
■
Select Destination Network IP Address and enter the network IP address of the destination network.
■
Select Destination Network Subnet Mask and enter the subnet mask used by the destination network.
■
Select Next Gateway IP Address and enter the IP address for the router that the Netopia R9100 will use to
reach the destination network. This router does not necessarily have to be part of the destination network,
but it must at least know where to forward packets destined for that network.
■
Select Route Priority and choose High or Low. High means that the static route takes precedence over RIP
information; Low means that the RIP information takes precedence over the static route.
■
To make sure that the static route is known only to the Netopia R9100, select Advertise Route Via RIP
and toggle it to No. To allow other RIP-capable routers to know about the static route, select Advertise
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-15
Route Via RIP and toggle it to Yes. When Advertise Route Via RIP is toggled to Yes, a new item called RIP
Metric appears below Advertise Route Via RIP.
With RIP Metric you set the number of routers, from 1 to 15, between the sending router and the
destination router. The maximum number of routers on a packet’s route is 15. Setting RIP Metric to 1
means that a route can involve 15 routers, while setting it to 15 means a route can only involve one router.
■
Select ADD STATIC ROUTE NOW to save the new static route, or select CANCEL to discard it and return to
the Static Routes screen.
■
Up to 16 static routes can be created, but one is always reserved for the default gateway, which is
configured using either Easy Setup or the IP Setup screen in system configuration.
Modifying a static route
To modify a static route, in the Static Routes screen select Display/Change Static Route to display a table of
static routes.
Select a static route from the table and go to the Change Static Route screen. The parameters in this screen
are the same as the ones in the Add Static Route screen (see “Adding a static route” on page 9-14).
Deleting a static route
To delete a static route, in the Static Routes screen select Delete Static Route to display a table of static
routes. Select a static route from the table and press Return to delete it. To exit the table without deleting the
selected static route, press Escape.
Rules of static route installation
The Netopia R9100 applies certain rules before installing enabled static routes in the IP routing table. An
enabled static route will not be installed in the IP routing table if any of the following conditions are true:
■
The static route’s Next Gateway IP Address matches the IP address used by the Netopia R9100’s
Ethernet port.
■
The static route’s Next Gateway IP Address matches an IP address in the range of IP addresses being
distributed by MacIP or DHCP.
■
The static route’s Next Gateway IP Address is determined to be unreachable by the Netopia R9100.
A static route that is already installed in the IP routing table will be removed if any of the conditions listed above
become true for that static route. However, an enabled static route is automatically reinstalled once the
conditions listed above are no longer true for that static route.
9-16 User’s Reference Guide
IP address serving
Main
Menu
System
Configuration
IP Address
Serving
•
•
•
•
Serve
Serve
Serve
Serve
DHCP Clients
BootP Clients
Dynamic WAN Clients
MacIP/KIP Clients
In addition to being a router, the Netopia R9100 is also an IP address server. There are four protocols it can
use to distribute IP addresses.
■
The first, called Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), is widely supported on PC networks, as
well as Apple Macintosh computers using Open Transport and computers using the UNIX operating system.
Addresses assigned via DHCP are “leased” or allocated for a short period of time; if a lease is not
renewed, the address becomes available for use by another computer. DHCP also allows most of the IP
parameters for a computer to be configured by the DHCP server, simplifying setup of each machine.
■
The second, called BootP (also known as Bootstrap Protocol), is the predecessor to DHCP and allows older
IP hosts to obtain most of the information that a DHCP client would obtain. However, in contrast, BootP
address assignments are “permanent” since there is no lease renewal mechanism in BootP.
■
The third protocol, called Dynamic WAN, is part of the PPP/MP suite of wide area protocols used for WAN
connections. It allows remote terminal adapters and NAT-enabled routers to be assigned a temporary IP
address for the duration of their connection.
■
The fourth protocol, called MacIP, is used only for computers on AppleTalk networks. MacIP provides a
protocol translation (or gateway) function between IP and AppleTalk as well as an IP address assignment
mechanism. Like DHCP, MacIP address assignments are normally temporary, although you can also use
static IP addresses with MacIP.
Since no two hosts can use the same IP address at the same time, make sure that the addresses distributed
by the Netopia R9100 and those that are manually configured are not the same. Each method of distribution
must have its own exclusive range of addresses to draw from.
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-17
Go to the System Configuration screen. Select IP Address Serving and press Return. The IP Address Serving
screen will appear.
IP Address Serving
Number of Client IP Addresses:
1st Client Address:
Client Default Gateway...
5
176.163.222.10
176.163.222.1
Serve DHCP Clients:
DHCP NetBios Options...
Yes
Serve BOOTP Clients:
Yes
Serve MacIP/KIP Clients:
MacIP/KIP Static Options...
Yes
Follow these steps to configure IP Address Serving:
■
If you enabled IP Address Serving, DHCP, BootP clients, Dynamic WAN clients, and MacIP/KIP clients (if you
have the AppleTalk kit installed) are automatically enabled.
■
Select Number of Client IP Addresses and enter the total number of contiguous IP addresses that the
Netopia R9100 will distribute to the client machines on your local area network. 12-user models are limited
to twelve IP addresses.
■
In the screen example shown above, five Client IP addresses have been allocated.
■
Select 1st Client Address and enter the first client IP address that you will allocate to your first client
machine. For instance, on your local area network you may want to first figure out what machines are going
to be allocated specific static IP addresses so that you can determine the pool of IP addresses that you will
be serving addresses from via DHCP, BootP, Dynamic WAN, and/or MacIP.
Example: Your ISP has given your Netopia R9100 the IP address 192.168.6.137, with a subnet mask of
255.255.255.248. The subnet mask allocated will give you six IP addresses to use when connecting to the
ISP over the Internet (for more information on IP addressing refer to Appendix B, “Understanding IP
Addressing”). Your address range will be from .137-.143. In this example you would enter 192.168.6.138
as the 1st Client Address, since the router itself must have an IP address.
■
To enable DHCP, select Serve DHCP Clients and toggle it to Yes. DHCP serving is automatic when IP
Address Serving is enabled.
9-18 User’s Reference Guide
If you have configured multiple Ethernet IP subnets, the appearance of the IP Address Serving screen is altered
slightly:
IP Address Serving
Configure Address Pools...
Serve DHCP Clients:
DHCP NetBios Options...
Yes
Serve BOOTP Clients:
Yes
Serve Dynamic WAN Clients:
Yes
Serve MacIP/KIP Clients:
MacIP/KIP Static Options...
Yes
The first three menu items are hidden, and Configure Address Pools appears instead. If you select Configure
Address Pools you will be taken to the IP Address Pools screen that allows you to configure an address serving
pool for each of the configured Ethernet IP subnets. See “IP Address Pools,” in the next section.
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-19
IP Address Pools
The IP Address Pools screen allows you to configure a separate IP address serving pool for each of up to eight
configured Ethernet IP subnets:
IP Address Pools
Subnet (# host addrs)
--------------------192.128.117.0
(253)
1st Client Addr
--------------192.128.117.196
Clients
------16
Client Gateway
-------------192.128.117.162
192.129.117.0
192.129.117.110
8
192.129.117.4
(253)
This screen consists of between two and eight rows of four columns each. There are exactly as many rows as
there are Ethernet IP subnets configured on the IP Subnets screen.
■
The Subnet (# host addrs) column is non-selectable and non-editable. It indicates the network address of
the Ethernet IP subnet for which an address pool is being configured and the number of host addresses
available on the subnet. The network address is equal to the router’s IP address on the subnet
bitwise-ANDed with the subnet mask. The host address count is equal to the subnet size minus three,
since one address is reserved for the network address, one for the subnet broadcast address, and one for
the router’s interface address on the subnet.
You can edit the remaining columns in each row.
■
The 1st Client Addr and Clients columns allow you to specify the base and extent of the address serving
pool for a particular subnet. Entering 0.0.0.0 for the first client address or 0 for the number of clients
indicates that no addresses will be served from the corresponding Ethernet IP subnet.
■
The Client Gateway column allows you to specify the default gateway address that will be provided to
clients served an address from the corresponding pool. The value defaults to the Netopia R9100’s IP
address on the corresponding subnet (or the Netopia R9100’s default gateway, if that gateway is located
on the subnet in question). You can override the value by entering any address that is part of the subnet.
DHCP, BootP, dynamic WAN, and dynamic MacIP clients may receive an address from any one of the
address serving pools configured on this screen. Static MacIP clients are not “served” addresses, but
must be manually configured with addresses from within the specific range of addresses reserved for that
purpose on the MacIP (KIP) Forwarding Setup screen See “MacIP (KIP forwarding) setup” on page 9-23.
9-20 User’s Reference Guide
Numerous factors influence the choice of served address. It is difficult to specify the address that will be
served to a particular client in all circumstances. However, when the address server has been configured, and
the clients involved have no prior address serving interactions, the Netopia R9100 will generally serve the first
unused address from the first address pool with an available address. The Netopia R9100 starts from the pool
on the first row and continues to the pool on the last row of this screen.
Once the address server and/or the clients have participated in address serving transactions, different rules
apply:
■
When requesting an address, a client will often suggest an address to be assigned, such as the one it was
last served. The Netopia R9100 will attempt to honor this request if the address is available. The client
stores this address in non-volatile storage, for example, on disk, and the specific storage method/location
differs depending on the client operating system.
■
When requesting an address, a client may provide a client identifier, or, if it does not, the Netopia R9100
may construct a pseudo-client identifier for the client. When the client subsequently requests an address,
the Netopia R9100 will attempt to serve the address previously associated with the client identifier. This is
normally the last address served to the client.
■
Otherwise, the Netopia will select the least-recently used available address, starting from the first address
in the first pool and ending with the last address in the last pool.
Note that the address serving pools on this screen are tied to the IP subnets configured on the IP Subnets
screen. Changes to the IP Subnets screen may affect this one. In particular, deleting a subnet on the IP
Subnets screen will delete the corresponding address serving pool, if any, on this screen.
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-21
DHCP NetBIOS Options
If your network uses NetBIOS, you can enable the Netopia R9100 to use DHCP to distribute NetBIOS
information.
NetBIOS stands for Network Basic Input/Output System. It is a layer of software originally developed by IBM
and Sytek to link a network operating system with specific hardware. NetBIOS has been adopted as an industry
standard. It offers LAN applications a variety of “hooks” to carry out inter-application communications and data
transfer. Essentially, NetBIOS is a way for application programs to talk to the network. To run an application that
works with NetBIOS, a non-IBM network operating system or network interface card must offer a NetBIOS
emulator. Many vendors either provide a version of NetBIOS to interface with their hardware or emulate its
transport layer communications services in their network products. A NetBIOS emulator is a program provided
by NetWare clients that allow workstations to run applications that support IBM’s NetBIOS calls.
■
Select DHCP NetBios Options and press Return. The DHCP NetBIOS Options screen appears.
DHCP NetBios Options
Serve NetBios Type:
NetBios Type...
Yes
Type B
Serve NetBios Scope:
NetBios Scope:
No
Serve NetBios Name Server:
NetBios Name Server IP Addr:
No
0.0.0.0
Configure DHCP-served NetBIOS options here.
■
To serve DHCP clients with the type of NetBIOS used on your network, select Serve NetBios Type and
toggle it to Yes.
9-22 User’s Reference Guide
■
From the NetBios Type pop-up menu, select the type of NetBIOS used on your network.
DHCP NetBios Options
Serve NetBios Type:
NetBios Type...
Serve NetBios Scope:
NetBios Scope:
Serve NetBios Name Server:
NetBios Name Server IP Addr:
■
+--------+
+--------+
| Type B |
| Type P |
| Type M |
| Type H |
+--------+
No
0.0.0.0
To serve DHCP clients with the NetBIOS scope, select Serve NetBios Scope and toggle it to Yes.
Select NetBios Scope and enter the scope.
■
To serve DHCP clients with the IP address of a NetBIOS name server, select Serve NetBIOS Name Server
and toggle it to Yes.
Select NetBios Name Server IP Addr and enter the IP address for the NetBIOS name server.
You are now finished setting up DHCP NetBIOS Options. To return to the IP Address Serving screen press
Escape.
■
To enable BootP’s address serving capability, select Serve BOOTP Clients and toggle to Yes.
Note: Addresses assigned through BootP are permanently allocated from the IP Address Serving pool until
you release them. To release these addresses, navigate back to the Main Menu, then Statistics & Logs,
Served IP Addresses, and Lease Management.
Main
Menu
Statistics
& Logs
Served IP
Addresses
Lease Management
IP Setup and Network Address Translation 9-23
IP Address Lease Management
Reset All Leases
Release BootP Leases
Reclaim Declined Addresses
Hit RETURN/ENTER, you will return to the previous screen.
Select Release BootP Leases and press Return.
MacIP (KIP forwarding) setup
When hosts using AppleTalk (typically those using LocalTalk) are not directly connected to an IP network (usually
an Ethernet), they must use a MacIP (AppleTalk–IP) gateway.
The optional Netopia AppleTalk feature enhancement kit provides for this service. A MacIP gateway converts
network traffic into the correct format for AppleTalk or IP, depending on the traffic’s destination. The MacIP
gateway can also distribute IP addresses to AppleTalk computers on the network.
Note: Macintosh computers that have LocalTalk or EtherTalk selected in the MacTCP control panel, or
“AppleTalk (MacIP)” selected in the TCP/IP control panel, must use the MacIP gateway to communicate with the
Internet or any other IP network. Users should point their MacTCP or TCP/IP control panel to look in the
LocalTalk zone for the MacIP server. Macintosh computers that have Ethernet selected in the MacTCP or TCP/IP
control panel can do their own AppleTalk–IP conversions.
Setting up MacIP involves choosing MacIP dynamic address serving and then configuring that type. KIP
forwarding is simply a method for distributing IP addresses to AppleTalk clients.
■
In the IP Address Serving screen, select Serve Mac IP/KIP Clients and toggle to Yes to enable MacIP/KIP
address serving capability. This option is automatically enabled if the AppleTalk kit is installed and IP
Address Serving is enabled.
■
Select MacIP/KIP Static Options and press Return. The MacIP/KIP Forwarding screen appears.
9-24 User’s Reference Guide
The MacIP (KIP) Forwarding Setup screen tells the Netopia R9100 how many static addresses to allocate
for MacIP/KIP clients. The addresses must fall within the address pool from the previous screen.
■
Enter the number of static MacIP addresses to reserve.
Note that the address pool IP range is listed for your referral in this screen.
MacIP (KIP) Forwarding Setup
This screen tells the Netopia how many static addresses to allocate for
MacIP/KIP clients. The addresses must fall within one of the address pools
from the previous screen.
Number of Static Addresses:
0
First Static Client Address:
0.0.0.0
Enter the number of static MacIP addresses to reserve here.
Reserve static MacIP addresses for KIP Forwarding here.
You have finished your IP setup.
IPX Setup 10-1
Chapter 10
IPX Setup
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the network protocol used by Novell NetWare networks. This chapter
shows you how to configure the Netopia R9100 for routing data using IPX. You also learn how to configure the
router to serve IPX network addresses.
Note: Most cable modems do not currently support the IPX protocol over the WAN. The Netopia R9100
supports IPX routing over the Auxiliary port with an attached asynchronous modem. This requires the optional
add-on dial-in kit (order TER/AD1).
This section covers the following topics:
■
“IPX features” on page 10-1
■
“IPX definitions” on page 10-1
■
“IPX setup screen” on page 10-3
■
“IPX routing tables” on page 10-5
IPX features
The Netopia R9100 supports the following IPX features:
■
IPX RIP and SAP
■
NetBIOS broadcast packet forwarding (IPX type 20)
■
IPX packet filtering definable by source and destination IPX address and socket number for added security
■
IPX SAP filtering to aid in optimizing WAN bandwidth
■
Dial-on-demand features:
■
Spoofing of IPX keep-alive, SPX, and server serialization packets
■
Configurable RIP/SAP timers on connection profiles
IPX definitions
This section defines IPX-related protocols such as RIP, SAP, and NetBIOS, in addition to other related terms.
See the next section for setup instructions.
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)
IPX is a datagram, connectionless protocol that Novell adapted from Xerox Network System’s (XNS’s) Internet
Datagram Protocol (IDP). IPX is dynamically routed, and the routing architecture works by “learning” network
addressing automatically.
10-2 User’s Reference Guide
IPX address
An IPX address consists of a network number, a node number, and a socket number. An IPX network number is
composed of eight hexadecimal digits. The network number must be the same for all nodes on a particular
physical network segment. The node number is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits and is usually the
hardware address of the interface card. The node number must be unique inside the particular IPX network.
Socket numbers correspond to the particular service being accessed.
Socket
A socket in IPX is the equivalent of a port in TCP/IP. Sockets route packets to different processes within a
single node. Novell has reserved several sockets for use in the NetWare environment:
Field
Value
Packet Type
Description
00h
Unknown Packet Type
Used for all packets not
classified by any other type
01h
Routing Information Packet
Unused for RIP packets
04h
Service Advertising Packet
Used for SAP packets
05h
Sequenced Packet
Used for SPX packets
11h
NetWare Core Protocol Packet
Used for NCP packets
14h
Propagated Packet
Used for Novell NetBIOS
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
RIP, which was also derived from XNS, is a protocol that allows for the bidirectional transfer of routing tables
and provides timing information (ticks), so that the fastest route to a destination can be determined. IPX
routers use RIP to create and dynamically maintain databases of internetwork routing information. See “IPX
routing tables” on page 10-5 for more information.
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)
SAP is a protocol that provides servers and routers with a method for exchanging service information. Using
SAP, servers advertise their services and addresses. Routers collect this information to dynamically update
their routing tables and share it with other routers. These broadcasts keep all routers on the internetwork
synchronized and provide real-time information on accessible servers on the internetwork.
IPX Setup 10-3
The following is a list of common SAP server types:
Unknown
0000h
Print Queue
0003h
File Server
0004h
Job Server
0005h
Print Server
0007h
Archive Server
0009h
Remote Bridge Server
0024h
Advertising Print Server
0047h
Reserved Up To
8000h
NetBIOS
NetBIOS is a protocol that performs tasks related to the Transport and Session layers of the OSI model. It can
operate over IPX using a special broadcast packet known as “IPX Packet type 20” to communicate with IPX
NetBIOS servers.
IPX spoofing
The Netopia R9100 has several IPX features designed to restrict the traffic on the dial-up link when the unit is
not sending or receiving IPX data. When the link is idle and a user is logged into a Novell server, the server will
send “keep-alive” packets to ensure that the user is still there. If the link is idle, the keep-alive packets will be
sent back to the server by the locally connected Netopia R9100 as though they came back from the user
without bringing up the dial-up link.
SPX keep-alive packets are also treated in this manner. IPX RIP and SAP messages will not be sent if the link is
down. Together, these features enable the user to remain connected to a Novell server or SPX peer without
bringing up the dial-up link, except to send and receive actual user data.
IPX setup screen
Main
Menu
System
Configuration
Network
Protocols
Setup
IPX Setup
You will use the IPX Setup screen to configure the Ethernet side of the Netopia R9100. The information you
enter controls how the router routes IPX traffic.
Before changing any of the settings in this screen, consult your network administrator for the IPX setup
information you will need. Changes made in this screen will take effect only after the Netopia R9100 is reset.
10-4 User’s Reference Guide
To go to the IPX Setup screen, from the Main Menu select System Configuration and then select Network
Protocols Setup and then select IPX Setup.
Note: If you have completed Easy Setup, the information you have already entered will appear in the IP Setup
options screen.
IPX Setup
IPX Routing:
On
Ethernet Encapsulation...
Ethernet Network Address:
802.3
00000000
Ethernet Path Delay:
Ethernet NetBios Forwarding:
Ethernet Inbound SAP Filter Set...
1
No
<<NONE>>
Default Gateway Address:
00000000
Filters and Filter Sets...
IPX Wan Pool Base Address
00000000
Return/Enter accepts * Tab toggles * ESC cancels.
Set up the basic IPX attributes of your Netopia in this screen.
1.
To enable IPX routing, select IPX Routing, toggle it to On, and press Return.
2.
To change Ethernet encapsulation from the commonly used 802.3 standard, select Ethernet
Encapsulation and choose a different encapsulation method.
3.
Select Ethernet Network Address and enter the network address of the IPX network connected to the
Netopia R9100’s Ethernet port.
Note: If the Ethernet network address is set to zero, the router will attempt to learn the address from any
configured IPX device on the Ethernet network or from the remote IPX network when a call is established.
4.
To change the default path delay, select Ethernet Path Delay and enter a value (in ticks). This value is used
to determine the port cost of using the Ethernet port in IPX RIP calculations.
5.
To enable NetBIOS packet forwarding, select Ethernet NetBios Forwarding and toggle it to Yes. This
parameter will determine whether IPX Packet type 20 packets are forwarded on the Ethernet interface.
These packets are used by NetBIOS and some other applications.
6.
Select Ethernet Inbound SAP Filter Set to filter incoming IPX SAP advertisements on the Ethernet. By
attaching an incoming SAP filter on the Ethernet, you can restrict the number of SAP entries learned on a
large IPX network to only those required by remote users connecting to the Netopia R9100. An Ethernet
SAP filter must be used with networks that have so many servers advertised that the Netopia R9100 would
otherwise exhaust its internal memory storing server entries.
To attach a SAP filter set, first define the filter set using the Filters and Filter Sets option (see step 8
below). Then select the filter set from the Ethernet Incoming SAP Filter Set pop-up menu. To detach the
filter set, select Detach Filter Set.
IPX Setup 10-5
7.
Select Default Gateway Address and enter the network address of the IPX network to which all packets of
unknown destination address should be routed.
Note: The default gateway address is usually set up to match the IPX Address in your network connection
profile.
8.
To configure filters and filter sets, select Filters and Filter Sets and go to the IPX filters and filter sets
screens. For information on how to configure IPX filters and filter sets, see “IPX filters” on page 13-21.
9.
Select IPX Wan Pool Base Address and enter the first IPX network address to be allocated to requesting
IPX WAN clients. The base address you enter must not conflict with other IPX networks assigned to your IPX
internet.
IPX routing tables
Main
Menu
Statistics & Logs
• IPX Routing Table
• IPX SAP Bindery Table
IPX routing tables provide information on current IPX routes and services.
To go to the IPX Routing Table screen, select IPX Routing Table in the Statistics & Logs screen. This table
shows detailed information about current IPX network routes.
IPX Routing Table
Net Addr-Hops-Ticks-Type--Status-Interface--------------via Router----------------------------------------------SCROLL UP---------------------------------00000020
2
3 RIP
Active Ethernet
00000120:00000c465c2f
00000030
2
12 RIP
Active Ethernet
00000120:00000c465c2f
00000033
4
14 RIP
Active Ethernet
000000120:00000c465c2f
00000100
2
7 RIP
Active Ethernet
00000120:00000c465c2f
00000110
1
1 RIP
Active Ethernet
00000120:00000c465c2f
---------------------------------SCROLL DOWN----------------------------UPDATE
To go to the IPX SAP Bindery Table screen, select IPX SAP Bindery Table in the Statistics & Logs screen. This
table shows detailed information about available IPX services and their location.
10-6 User’s Reference Guide
AppleTalk Setup 11-1
Chapter 11
AppleTalk Setup
This chapter discusses the concept of AppleTalk routing and how to configure AppleTalk setup for a Netopia
R9100 with the AppleTalk kit installed.
AppleTalk support is available as a separate kit for the Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router. Skip this chapter if you
do not have the AppleTalk kit.
This section covers the following topics:
■
“AppleTalk networks” on page 11-1
■
“Installing AppleTalk” on page 11-4
■
“Configuring AppleTalk” on page 11-6
Note: To take effect, all changes to AppleTalk options require a restart.
AppleTalk networks
A network is a communication system that connects computers so that they share information using network
services such as electronic mail, print spoolers, and file servers. Information is transferred over a cabling
system or WAN using a common set of protocols. You can think of the cabling system as an organization of
cities, streets, and buildings and the protocols as the method of sending letters or packages, as illustrated on
the following pages. A cable is the physical medium (for example, twisted pair or coaxial) over which information
travels from one device to another.
AppleTalk protocol
AppleTalk is a protocol set for local area networks developed by Apple Computer. While initially applied to the
LocalTalk cabling system for connecting Macintosh computers and LaserWriter printers, it has been expanded
to use other cabling systems such as Ethernet, as well as dial-up telephone networks and packet switching
systems. LocalTalk was originally known as the AppleTalk Personal Network system.
Each computer or peripheral device (printer, client, file server) connected to a network is called a node and has
a unique node address, which can be any number from 1 to 254. Whenever you open the Chooser or any
application that communicates with other computers on your network, your application compiles a list of all
node names and addresses. All you see are the names --- for example, “Paul’sMac,” “TechSportsWriter,” or
“2nd Floor AppleShare” --- but your application also knows the node addresses of all these devices.
When you send information, commands, or requests to a printer, server, or another workstation, your
application formats the information into units known as packets. It then attaches the correct address to the
packets and sends them to the AppleTalk software on your computer, which forwards the packets across the
network. Packets also include a return address so the receiver will know where to reply.
11-2 User’s Reference Guide
If the cabling of your network were a street system, then a node address would correspond to a building’s
street address. Node addresses are not permanent. Each AppleTalk device determines its node address at
startup. Although a Macintosh that is starting up will try to use its previous address, the address will often be
different upon restart. This dynamic node addressing scheme prevents conflicts when devices are moved
between networks and simplifies the administrative tasks of a network. If you have only one network, the node
address alone is all the information AppleTalk needs to send a packet from one computer to another.
However, networks can be connected together through routers, such as the Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router,
into an internetwork (often shortened to internet). Because devices on different networks can have duplicate
node numbers, AppleTalk tells them apart according to an additional part of their addresses: the network
number.
The Netopia R9100 assigns a unique network number to each member network. In terms of the city street
metaphor, the network number is similar to the name of the street. Putting a network number together with a
node number fully specifies the address of a node on an internet.
To make the services on an internet manageable, groups of devices on a network can be grouped into zones.
When this is done, selecting a network service (server, etc.) includes choosing a zone from which the service
can be selected. Like network numbers, zone names are assigned by routers.
A routing table is maintained by each AppleTalk router. The table serves as a map of the internet, specifying
the path and distance, in hops, between its router and other networks. The routing table is used to determine
whether a router will forward a data packet and, if so, to which network.
You can use the information in the AppleTalk routing table to observe and diagnose the Netopia R9100’s
current connections to other AppleTalk routers. To go to the AT Routing Table screen from the Netopia R9100’s
console, select Statistics & Logs from the Main Menu and then select AppleTalk Routing Table. An AT Routing
Table similar to the one shown below appears.
AT Routing Table
-Net---Range--Def Zone Name----------Hops-State-Next Rtr Addr.--Pkts Fwded
----------------------------------SCROLL UP-------------------------1
-Admin
2
Good 46.131
0
2
-AdMan
2
Good 46.131
0
3
-Aspirations
2
Good 46.131
0
4
-Sales
2
Good 46.131
0
5
-Marketing
2
Good 46.131
0
6
-Molluscs
2
Good 46.131
1
7
-Customer Service
2
Good 46.131
1
8
-Telemarketing
2
Good 46.131
0
10
-Rio
2
Good 46.131
0
11
-Regiment
2
Good 46.131
0
12
-Rhinos
2
Good 46.131
0
16
-Unique Services
2
Good 46.131
0
*24
27
Aspirations
1
Good 46.131
79
28
31
Rhinos
1
Good 46.131
15
---------------------------------SCROLL DOWN------------------------UPDATE
'*' Entries have multiple zone names. Return/Enter on these to see zone list.
A router has multiple communications ports and is capable of forwarding information to other routers and
devices on the internet. The router performs packet forwarding, network and device address maintenance, and
other administrative functions required by the AppleTalk protocols.
AppleTalk Setup 11-3
MacIP
When Macintosh computers encapsulate TCP/IP packets in AppleTalk, either because they are on LocalTalk or
EtherTalk for administrative reasons, they must use the services of a MacIP gateway. This gateway converts
network traffic into the correct format for AppleTalk or IP, depending on the traffic’s destination. Setting up
MacIP involves enabling the feature and optionally setting up a range of addresses to be static.
See “IP address serving” on page 9-16 for more information on how to set up MacIP and other IP addressing
schemes.
AURP
AppleTalk Update-Based Routing Protocol (AURP) allows AppleTalk networks to communicate across an IP
network. Your local AppleTalk networks (connected to the Netopia R9100) can exchange data with remote
AppleTalk networks that are also connected to an AURP-capable router.
When two networks using AppleTalk communicate with each other through a network based on the Internet
Protocol, they are said to be “tunneling” through the IP network. The Netopia R9100 uses AURP to allow your
AppleTalk network to tunnel to designated AppleTalk partner networks, as well as to accept connections from
remote AppleTalk networks tunneling to your AppleTalk LAN.
Routers and seeding
To configure AppleTalk networks, you must understand the concept of seeding. Seeding is the process by which
routers (or more specifically, router ports) agree on what routing information is valid. AppleTalk routers that
have been reset, for example, must decide what zones and network numbers are valid before they begin
routing. In this case, a router may use the information it has stored or information it receives from another
router, depending on how it has been configured.
To help ensure agreement between routers on a network, a seed router is configured with the correct
information, and other routers obtain their information from that router when they are turned on or reset.
Routers commonly use one of three types of seeding procedures: hard seeding, soft seeding, and non-seeding.
Hard seeding: When a router that uses hard seeding is turned on or reset, it requests network number and
zone name information from any existing routers on the networks it will serve. If no other routers reply, the
router uses the network numbers and zone names specified in its own configuration. If other routers reply, and
their information matches the router’s own configuration information, the result is the same—the router uses
the values in its own configuration. However, if other routers provide network numbers or zone names that
conflict with those in the router’s configuration, the router disables any of its own ports for which there are
conflicts.
Soft seeding: When a router that uses soft seeding is turned on or reset, it requests network number and zone
name information from any existing routers on the networks it will serve. If no other routers reply, the router
uses the network numbers and zone names specified in its own configuration. If other routers reply, the router
uses the information they provide, regardless of whether or not there are conflicts between the information
received and its configured information. Once a soft- or hard-seeding router begins to route, it can serve as a
seed router, providing network number and zone name information to other routers upon request. The default
state of the Netopia R9100’s AppleTalk ports is soft seeding.
Non-seeding: When a router using non-seeding is turned on or reset, it requests network number and zone
name information from any existing routers on the networks it will serve. For any network where no other
routers reply, the non-seeding router will not have any active ports until the next reset.
11-4 User’s Reference Guide
It is important to set the Netopia R9100’s seeding action to work best in your particular network environment.
These scenarios may guide you in deciding how to set the router’s seeding:
■
If the Netopia R9100 is the only router on your network, you must set it to either hard seeding or soft
seeding. The default is soft seeding.
■
If there is another active router on your network and you want that router to configure the Netopia R9100’s
EtherTalk or LocalTalk parameters, you can set the Netopia R9100 to non-seeding.
■
If there is another active router on your network, you could set the Netopia R9100 to be soft seeding if you
are unsure whether the second router will always be available to configure the Netopia R9100’s EtherTalk
or LocalTalk parameters.
■
If you want the Netopia R9100 to configure the EtherTalk or LocalTalk parameters of other routers on your
network, you must set it to hard seeding. In this case, the other routers must be soft seeding or
non-seeding, and the Netopia R9100 must already be active when those other routers are rebooted.
■
If you want the Netopia R9100 and all other routers on your network to use only their own configurations,
set the Netopia R9100 and all other routers to hard seeding. In this case, any router (including the Netopia
R9100) that is rebooted will not begin routing if it detects a routing conflict between itself and any other
router. This last scenario could be useful for detecting and locating routing errors on your network.
Installing AppleTalk
The AppleTalk kit consists of hardware and firmware components that you enable on your router in order to
connect an AppleTalk network. The AppleTalk cable supplied in the AppleTalk feature expansion kit cable
connects to the Auxiliary port on the Netopia R9100.
Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router back panel
8
Ethernet
1
Line 2
Normal
1
Auxiliary
Console
Line 1
Power
Uplink
Auxiliary connection port
HD-15 (female)
You then enable AppleTalk routing through the console-based management screens.
To install the AppleTalk features from the Main Menu, go to System Configuration and select Upgrade Feature
Set.
AppleTalk Setup 11-5
Main
Menu
System
Configuration
Upgrade
Feature Set
The Netopia Feature Set Upgrade screen appears.
Netopia Feature Set Upgrade
You may be able to extend the features of your Netopia by purchasing a
'Software Upgrade'. For a list of available upgrades, please see the release
notes that came with your Netopia or visit the Netopia Communications web
site at www.netopia.com.
To purchase an upgrade, you must provide your Serial Number, which is:
xx-xx-xx
You will receive an Upgrade Key, which you should enter below.
Upgrade Key:
UPGRADE NOW
CANCEL
Follow the instructions to enable AppleTalk on your router. Once AppleTalk is enabled, you can configure your
network as described in the following sections.
11-6 User’s Reference Guide
Configuring AppleTalk
AppleTalk setup for Netopia R9100s consists of configuring EtherTalk, LocalTalk, and AURP.
EtherTalk setup
In the System Configuration screen, select Network Protocols Setup and then select AppleTalk Setup. Select
EtherTalk Phase ll Setup and press Return.
EtherTalk Phase II Setup
EtherTalk Phase II Enabled:
Show Zones...
Enter New Zone Name:
Delete Zone Name...
Set Default Zone...
Net Low:
Net Hi:
Seeding...
+---------ET II Zone List----------+
+----------------------------------+
| Unnamed
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
+----------------------------------+
Up/Down Arrow Keys to select, ESC to dismiss.
■
If you are using EtherTalk Phase ll on the Ethernet network connected to the Netopia R9100, select
EtherTalk Phase ll Enabled and toggle it to On.
■
To view the zones available to EtherTalk Phase ll, select Show Zones and press Return. You can dismiss
the list of zones by pressing Return or Escape.
■
Select Enter New Zone Name to enter a new zone name.
Note: Your EtherTalk network number and zone name must match the values in use on the EtherTalk
network.
If another router is already present on the EtherTalk network that you will be connecting to the Netopia
R9100, use the zone names and network numbers used by that router for that EtherTalk network.
Otherwise, your EtherTalk network may experience routing conflicts. The Netopia R9100 supports creating
up to 32 zone names.
As an alternative, you can set EtherTalk seeding to soft seeding and let the Netopia R9100 receive the
zone name and network number from the other router.
■
To remove zones from the list, select Delete Zone Name and press Return to see the zones list. Use the
Up and Down Arrow keys to select the zone to delete. Press Return to delete it and exit the list. Press
Escape to exit the list without deleting any zones.
■
Select Set Default Zone to choose a different default zone. This is the zone where the Netopia R9100’s
AppleTalk Setup 11-7
EtherTalk Phase II port is visible to other AppleTalk nodes. The default zone is also where new AppleTalk
nodes will appear. If you do not set a default zone, the first zone you create will be the default zone.
■
You can also set the range of EtherTalk Phase II network numbers. Select Net Low and enter the lower limit
of the network number range. Select Net High and enter the upper limit of the range.
■
Select the Seeding pop-up menu and choose the seeding method for the Netopia R9100 to use. (See
“Routers and seeding” on page 11-3).
You have finished configuring EtherTalk Phase II.
LocalTalk setup
Note: For instructions on making the physical connections for LocalTalk, see “Connecting to a LocalTalk
network” on page 4-8.
In the AppleTalk Setup screen, select LocalTalk Setup and press Return. The LocalTalk Setup screen appears.
LocalTalk Setup
LocalTalk Enabled:
On
LocalTalk Zone Name:
Unnamed
LocalTalk Net Number:
33126
Seeding...
Soft-Seeding
Use this screen to set up the LocalTalk Port Routing attributes.
■
If you are using LocalTalk with the Netopia R9100, select LocalTalk Enabled and make sure LocalTalk is
set to On, which is the default.
Note: Since the LocalTalk connector attaches to the Auxiliary port on the router, that port will no longer be
available for a third external modem.
■
Select LocalTalk Zone Name and enter a new or existing zone name.
Note: Your LocalTalk network may already have a zone and network number in place. For the Netopia
R9100’s LocalTalk port to be part of your LocalTalk network, it must have a network number and zone
name that matches the values in use on the LocalTalk network.
If another router is already present on the LocalTalk network that you will be connecting to the Netopia
R9100, use the zone name and network number used by that router for that LocalTalk network. Otherwise,
your LocalTalk network may experience routing conflicts.
11-8 User’s Reference Guide
As an alternative, you can set LocalTalk seeding to soft seeding and let the Netopia R9100 receive the
zone name and network number from the other router.
■
Select LocalTalk Net Number and enter the desired network number.
■
Select Seeding. From the pop-up menu, choose the type of seeding for the Netopia R9100’s LocalTalk port
to use (see “Routers and seeding” on page 11-3).
You have finished configuring LocalTalk.
AURP setup
From the Network Protocols screen, select AppleTalk Setup. Then select AURP Setup and press Return. The
AURP Setup screen appears.
AURP Setup
AURP Enable:
On
Display/Change Partner...
Add Partner...
Delete Partner...
Enter Free Trade Zone Name:
Accept Connections From...
Configured Partners Only
Advanced Options...
AURP Allows you to connect remote AppleTalk Networks across IP.
■
To activate AURP and enable connections to and from AURP partners, select AURP Enable and toggle it to
On.
Viewing AURP partners
■
To see a table of existing AURP partners, select Display/Change Partner and press Return.
Note: The Netopia R9100 can define a total of 32 AURP partners.
AURP Free Trade Zone
The Free Trade Zone is an AURP security feature. It allows the Netopia administrator to specify a single
AppleTalk zone that will be the only one visible to the remote side for partners that have this option enabled.
AppleTalk Setup 11-9
Example:
Site A has an AURP tunnel to site B. Both sides have multiple zones defined on the EtherTalk port and a unique
zone on their LocalTalk ports. If side A has indicated that one of its EtherTalk zones is the Free Trade Zone and
has opted to use the Free Trade Zone option for its tunnel to B, then only this Free Trade Zone will show up on
side B and only those machines or services in the Free Trade Zone will be accessible to side B. All of side A will
be able to see all of side B.
Adding an AURP partner
■
To add a new AURP partner, select Add Partner and press Return. The Add AURP Partner screen appears.
Add AURP Partner
Partner IP Address or Domain Name:
Initiate Connection:
No
Restrict to Free Trade Zone:
No
ADD PARTNER NOW
CANCEL
Enter Information about new Partner.
■
Select Partner IP Address or Domain Name and enter the new AURP partner’s IP address. If you do not
know the remote network’s IP address, enter its domain name. Domain names are the Internet addresses
favored by people (for example, chagall.arts.edu). Domain names are matched to the IP addresses actually
used by IP routers (for example, 163.7.8.202).
■
To initiate a connection with an AURP partner, select Initiate Connection and toggle it to Yes. This will open
a connection to the remote AppleTalk network after rebooting.
■
You can choose to restrict this partner to the Free Trade Zone by toggling Restrict to Free Trade Zone to
Yes. See “AURP Free Trade Zone” on page 11-8 for more information.
■
To add the new AURP partner, select ADD PARTNER NOW. To discard the new AURP partner, select
CANCEL.
Modifying an AURP partner
■
To modify an AURP partner, in the AURP Setup screen select Display/Change Partner and press Return. A
table of existing partners appears.
Use the Up and Down Arrow keys to select a partner, then press Return to go to the Change AURP Partner
screen. The Change AURP Partner screen appears.
11-10 User’s Reference Guide
Change AURP Partner
Partner IP Address or Domain Name: 176.163.8.134
Initiate Connection:
No
Restrict to Free Trade Zone:
No
The Change AURP Partner screen has all the values you entered when you added that partner. All of these
values may be modified in this screen.
Deleting an AURP partner
■
To delete an AURP partner, in the AURP Setup screen select Delete Partner and press Return. A table of
existing partners appears.
Use the Up and Down Arrow keys to select an AURP partner, then press Return to delete it. Press Escape
to exit without deleting a partner.
Receiving AURP connections
■
To control the acceptance of incoming AURP tunnels, select Accept Connections From and choose Anyone
or Configured Partners Only from the pop-up menu. If you choose Anyone, all incoming AURP connections
will be accepted.
The more secure option is Configured Partners Only, which accepts connections only from recognized
AURP partners (the ones you have set up).
Configuring AURP Options
In the AURP Setup screen, select Advanced Options and go to the AURP Options screen. Using AURP can cause
a problem when two networks, one local and one remote, have the same network number. This may cause
network routing ambiguities than can result in routing errors.
AppleTalk Setup 11-11
AURP Options
Tickle Interval (HH:MM:SS):
Update Interval (HH:MM:SS):
00:00:00
00:00:30
Enable Network Number Remapping:
Yes
Remap into Range
From:
To:
4096
32768
Cluster Remote Networks:
No
Enable Hop-Count Reduction:
No
Return accepts * ESC cancels * Left/Right moves insertion point * Del deletes.
■
Select Tickle Interval (HH:MM:SS) and set the timer to indicate how often a tickle or “Are you still there”
packet will be sent to the remote AppleTalk network.
The AURP tickle timer is a parameter that you can set anywhere between 0 and 100 hours. This parameter
tells the AURP partners when to send out an AURP tickle packet. If this value is set to 0, the Netopia
R9100 will never send out a tickle packet. Tickle packets verify that the remote router is working. The
minimum tickle interval is 90 seconds. The maximum tickle interval setting is 99:59:59 (100 hours), which
is the recommendation for small networks.
Raising the tickle packet interval does not ensure that the AURP tunnel is dropped or not brought up. If any
application on the local network generates AppleTalk traffic destined for the network at the remote end of
the AURP tunnel, the tunnel remains up. For example, if a host on the local network connects to a host on
the remote network using remote access software, the AURP tunnel remains up. The AURP tunnel also
remains up if a local user selects the Chooser and uses an AppleTalk service that involves a remote zone,
such as mounting a remote AppleShare volume.
■
In many AppleTalk internets, individual AppleTalk networks come and go. Routers are designed to notify
each other at the end of their Update Interval every time there's such a change in the network topology.
This will cause the Netopia's WAN link to be brought up. To minimize what may be unnecessary calls,
change the Update Interval value to some larger value. At the end of this time window, if there has been a
local AppleTalk network change, the Netopia R9100 will call any remote AURP partner and forward the new
network information.
■
To enable network number remapping, select Enable Network Number Remapping and toggle it to Yes.
You should enable network number remapping if you plan to use AURP when connecting to unknown
AppleTalk networks; for example, when “Accept Connections from Anyone” is enabled. With remapping, the
Netopia R9100 will substitute network numbers not used by your network for the numbers of other remote
networks. These safe remappings will only be used by local routers on your network; remote routers will not
be aware of the remapping.
11-12 User’s Reference Guide
When network number remapping is enabled, you must choose a safe range of network numbers as a
destination for the remapping. A safe range of network numbers does not intersect your local AppleTalk
network’s range of network numbers.
■
To choose a destination range for the remapping, select From under Remap into Range and enter a
starting value. Then select To and enter an ending value. Make sure the range you choose is large enough
to accommodate all expected incoming AURP network numbers.
■
To improve the efficiency of remapping network numbers into a safe range, select Cluster Remote
Networks and toggle it to Yes. This setting takes any number of remote networks being remapped and
causes them to be remapped into a continuous range.
■
To override the AppleTalk maximum limit of 15 hops, select Enable Hop-Count Reduction and toggle it to
Yes. Hosts on a local AppleTalk network will then “see” AppleTalk destinations across the IP tunnel as
being only one hop away.
AppleTalk allows a packet up to 15 hops (going through 15 AppleTalk routers) to reach its destination.
Packets that must reach destinations more than 15 hops away will not succeed; therefore, tunneling from
one large AppleTalk network to another could exceed that limit. In such a case, hop count reduction
enables full network to network communication.
You have finished configuring AURP.
Monitoring Tools 12-1
Chapter 12
Monitoring Tools
This chapter discusses the Netopia R9100’s device and network monitoring tools. These tools can provide
statistical information, report on current network status, record events, and help in diagnosing and locating
problems.
This section covers the following topics:
■
“Quick View status overview” on page 12-1
■
“Statistics & Logs” on page 12-3
■
“Event histories” on page 12-5
■
“Routing tables” on page 12-7
■
“Served IP Addresses” on page 12-10
■
“System Information” on page 12-12
■
“SNMP” on page 12-12
■
“SmartView” on page 12-16
Quick View status overview
You can get a useful, overall status report from the Netopia R9100 in the Quick View screen. To go to the Quick
View screen, select Quick View in the Main Menu.
Main
Menu
Quick View
The Quick View screen has three status sections:
■
General status
■
Current WAN Connection Status
■
LED Status
The status sections vary according to the interface of your Netopia R9100.
12-2 User’s Reference Guide
General status
Quick View
Default IP Gateway: 0.0.0.0
Domain Name Server: 0.0.0.0
Domain Name: netopia.com
CPU Load: 5%
12/14/1998 01:13:52 PM
Unused Memory: 1017 KB
----------------MAC Address--------IP Address-------IPX Address---EtherTalk--Ethernet Hub:
00-00-c5-70-03-48 192.168.1.1
34449:150
Ethernet WAN1: 00-00-c5-70-03-4a 0.0.0.0
LED Status
PWR-+-----WAN1------+--CON--AUX--+-----WAN2------+--EN--+--------LEDS--------LNK RDY CH1 CH2
LNK LNK
LNK RDY CH1 CH2 DATA | '-'= Off 'G'= Green
G
Y
| ’R’= Red ’Y’= Yellow
Current Date: The current date; this can be set with the Date and Time utility (see “Date and time” on
page 8-12).
Default IP Gateway: Actual IP address of the default gateway, if entered. 0.0.0.0 indicates automatic
addressing.
Domain Name Server: IP address of your DNS server.
Domain Name: Domain name you have entered, usually your ISP, such as netopia.com.
CPU Load: Percentage of the system’s resources being used by all current transmissions.
Unused Memory: The total remaining system memory available for use.
Ethernet Address: The Netopia R9100’s hardware address.
IP Address: The Netopia R9100’s IP address, entered in the IP Setup screen.
IPX Address: The Netopia R9100’s IPX address, entered in the IPX Setup screen.
EtherTalk Address: The Netopia R9100’s AppleTalk address on its EtherTalk Phase II interface, entered in the
EtherTalk Phase II Setup screen (only if the optional AppleTalk feature set is installed).
LocalTalk Address: The Netopia R9100’s AppleTalk address on its LocalTalk interface, entered in the LocalTalk
Setup screen (only if the optional AppleTalk feature set is installed).
Status lights
This section shows the current real-time status of the Netopia R9100’s status lights (LEDs). It is useful for
remotely monitoring the router’s status. The Quick View screen’s arrangement of LEDs corresponds to the
physical arrangement of LEDs on the router.
Monitoring Tools 12-3
-PWR-+-----WAN1------+--CON--AUX--+-----WAN2------+--EN--+--------LEDS--------LNK RDY CH1 Ch2
LNK LNK
LNK RDY CH1 CH2 DATA | '-'= Off 'G'= Green
G
G
Y
| 'R'= Red 'Y'= Yellow
Each LED representation can report one of four states:
–: A dash means the LED is off.
R: The letter “R” means the LED is red.
G: The letter “G” means the LED is green.
Y: The letter “Y” means the LED is yellow.
The section “Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router status lights” on page 3-4 describes the meanings of the colors
for each LED.
Statistics & Logs
Main
Menu
Statistics & Logs
• General Statistics
When you are troubleshooting your Netopia R9100, the Statistics & Logs screens provide insight into the recent
event activities of the router.
From the Main Menu go to Statistics & Logs and select one of the options described in the sections below.
12-4 User’s Reference Guide
General Statistics
To go to the General Statistics screen, select General Statistics and press Return. The General Statistics
screen appears.
General Statistics
Phys I/F---------Rx Bytes---Tx Bytes---Rx Pkts---Tx Pkts----Rx Err----Tx Err
Ethernet Hub
123456789 123456789 12345678 12345678 12345678 12345678
Aux Async
123456789 123456789 12345678 12345678
Ethernet Wan1
123456789 123456789 12345678 12345678
Unused 2
Console
123456789 123456789
Network----------Rx Bytes---Tx Bytes---Rx Pkts---Tx Pkts----Rx Err----Tx Err
IP
123456789 123456789 12345678 12345678 12345678 12345678
IPX
123456789 123456789 12345678 12345678 12345678 12345678
AppleTalk
123456789 123456789 12345678 12345678
The General Statistics screen displays information about data traffic on the Netopia R9100’s data ports. This
information is useful for monitoring and troubleshooting your LAN. Note that the counters roll over at their
maximum field width, that is, they restart again at 0.
Physical Interface
The top left side of the screen lists total packets received and total packets transmitted for the following data
ports:
■
Ethernet Hub
■
Aux Async or LocalTalk (if the optional AppleTalk feature set is installed)
■
SDSL 1
Network Interface
The bottom left side of the screen lists total packets received and total packets transmitted for the following
protocols:
■
IP (IP packets on the Ethernet)
■
IPX (IPX packets on the Ethernet) if IPX is enabled
■
AppleTalk (AppleTalk packets on Ethernet using EtherTalk Phase II if the optional AppleTalk feature set is
installed)
Monitoring Tools 12-5
■
LT (LocalTalk on the PhoneNET) if the optional AppleTalk feature set is installed
The right side of the table lists the total number of occurrences of each of six types of communication
statistics:
Rx Bytes. The number of bytes received
Tx Bytes. The number of bytes transmitted
Rx Packets: The number of packets received
Tx Pkts. The number of packets transmitted
Rx Err: The number of bad Ethernet packets received
Tx Err: An error occurring when Ethernet packets are transmitted simultaneously by nodes on the LAN
Event histories
The Netopia R9100 records certain relevant occurrences in event histories. Event histories are useful for
diagnosing problems because they list what happened before, during, and after a problem occurs. You can view
two different event histories: one for the router’s system and one for the WAN. The Netopia R9100’s built-in
battery backup prevents loss of event history from a shutdown or reset.
The router’s event histories are structured to display the most recent events first, and to make it easy to
distinguish error messages from informational messages. Error messages are prefixed with an asterisk. Both
the WAN Event History and Device Event History retain records of the 128 most recent events.
In the Statistics & Logs screen, select WAN Event History. The WAN Event History screen appears.
Main
Menu
Statistics & Logs
• WAN Event History
• Device Event History
12-6 User’s Reference Guide
WAN Event History
The WAN Event History screen lists a total of 128 events on the WAN. The most recent events appear at the
top.
WAN Event History
Current Date --Date-----Time-----Event---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SCROLL UP----------------------------------08/11/98 12:15:54 --Device restarted----------------------------------------08/11/98 12:11:12 --Device restarted----------------------------------------08/11/98 10:36:38
EN: IP up, WAN 1, gateway: 192.168.2.1
08/11/98 10:36:38 --Device restarted-----------------------------------------
---------------------------------SCROLL DOWN---------------------------------Clear History...
Return/Enter on event item for details or SCROLL [UP/DOWN] item for scrolling.
Each entry in the list contains the following information:
Time: Time of the event.
Date: Date of the event.
Event: A brief description of the event.
Ch.: The channel involved in the event.
Dir. Number: The directory number (number dialed) involved in the event (switched circuit models only).
The first event in each call sequence is marked with double arrows (>>).
Failures are marked with an asterisk (*).
If the event history exceeds the size of the screen, you can scroll through it by using the SCROLL UP and
SCROLL DOWN items.
To scroll up, select SCROLL UP at the top of the list and press Return. To scroll down, select SCROLL DOWN at
the bottom of the list and press Return.
To get more information about any event listed in the WAN Event History, select the event and then press
Return. A dialog box containing more information about the selected event will appear. Press Return or Escape
to dismiss the dialog box.
To clear the event history, select Clear History at the bottom of the history screen and press Return.
Monitoring Tools 12-7
Device Event History
The Device Event History screen lists a total of 128 port and system events, giving the time and date for each
event, as well as a brief description. The most recent events appear at the top.
In the Statistics & Logs screen, select Device Event History. The Device Event History screen appears.
Device Event History
Current Date -- 12/11/98 12:26:39 PM
-Date-----Time-----Event---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SCROLL UP----------------------------------08/11/98 12:25:28
Telnet connection up, address 163.176.8.134
08/11/98 12:25:05 * IP address server configuration error; server disabled
08/11/98 12:25:05 * IP: Route 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 not installed
08/11/98 12:25:05 --BOOT: Warm start v4.3 --------------------------------08/11/98 12:19:17 * IP address server configuration error; server disabled
08/11/98 12:19:17 * IP: Route 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 not installed
08/11/98 12:19:17 --BOOT: Warm start v4.3 --------------------------------08/11/98 12:18:15 * IP address server configuration error; server disabled
08/11/98 12:18:15 * IP: Route 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 not installed
08/11/98 12:18:15 --BOOT: Warm start v4.3 --------------------------------08/11/98 12:16:34
Telnet connection up, address 163.176.8.134
08/11/98 12:15:54
IP address server initialization complete
08/11/98 12:15:54 * IP: Route 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 not installed
08/11/98 12:15:54 --BOOT: Warm start v4.3 -----------------------------------------------------------------SCROLL DOWN---------------------------------Clear History...
Return/Enter on event item for details or SCROLL [UP/DOWN] item for scrolling.
If the event history exceeds the size of the screen, you can scroll through it by using SCROLL UP and SCROLL
DOWN.
To scroll up, select SCROLL UP at the top of the list and press Return. To scroll down, select SCROLL DOWN at
the bottom of the list and press Return.
To obtain more information about any event listed in the Device Event History, select the event and then press
Return. A dialog box containing more information about the selected event appears. Press Return or Escape to
dismiss the dialog box.
To clear the Device Event History, select Clear History and press Return.
Routing tables
You can view all of the IP, IPX, and AppleTalk routes in the Netopia R9100’s IP, IPX, and AppleTalk routing
tables, respectively.
To go to a routing table screen, select the routing table you are interested in from the Statistics & Logs screen.
Each of the routing table screens represents a “snapshot” of the routing table information at the time the
screen is first invoked. To take a new snapshot, select Update at the bottom of the screen and press Return.
12-8 User’s Reference Guide
Statistics & Logs
WAN Event History...
Device Event History...
IP Routing Table...
IPX Routing Table...
IPX SAP Bindery Table...
AppleTalk Routing Table...
Served IP Addresses...
General Statistics...
System Information...
IP routing table
In the Statistics & Logs screen, select IP Routing Table and press Return.
The IP routing table displays all of the IP routes currently known to the Netopia R9100.
IP Routing Table
Network Address-Subnet Mask-----via Router------Port------------------Type-------------------------------------SCROLL UP----------------------------------0.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
-Other
127.0.0.1
255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1
Loopback
Local
192.168.1.0
255.255.255.240 192.168.1.1
Ethernet
Local
192.168.1.1
255.255.255.255 192.168.1.1
Ethernet
Local
192.168.1.15
255.255.255.255 192.168.1.15
Ethernet
Bcast
224.0.0.0
224.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
-Other
255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 -Bcast
---------------------------------SCROLL DOWN---------------------------------UPDATE
IPX routing table
In the Statistics & Logs screen, select IPX Routing Table and press Return.
The IPX routing table displays all of the IPX routes currently known to the Netopia R9100.
Monitoring Tools 12-9
IPX Sap Bindery table
In the Statistics & Logs screen, select IPX Sap Bindery Table and press Return.
The IPX Sap Bindery table displays all of the IPX Sap Bindery routes currently known to the Netopia R9100.
AppleTalk routing table
In the Statistics & Logs screen, select AppleTalk Routing Table and press Return. An AT Routing Table similar
to the one shown below will appear.
The AppleTalk routing table displays information about the current state of AppleTalk networks connected to the
Netopia R9100, including remote AppleTalk networks connected with AURP. This information is gathered from
other active AppleTalk routers.
AT Routing Table
-Net---Range--Def Zone Name----------Hops-State-Next Rtr Addr.--Pkts Fwded
----------------------------------SCROLL UP-------------------------1
-Admin
2
Good 46.131
0
2
-AdMan
2
Good 46.131
0
3
-Aspirations
2
Good 46.131
0
4
-Sales
2
Good 46.131
0
5
-Marketing
2
Good 46.131
0
6
-Molluscs
2
Good 46.131
1
7
-Customer Service
2
Good 46.131
1
8
-Telemarketing
2
Good 46.131
0
10
-Rio
2
Good 46.131
0
11
-Regiment
2
Good 46.131
0
12
-Rhinos
2
Good 46.131
0
16
-Unique Services
2
Good 46.131
0
*24
27
Aspirations
1
Good 46.131
79
28
31
Rhinos
1
Good 46.131
15
---------------------------------SCROLL DOWN------------------------UPDATE
'*' Entries have multiple zone names. Return/Enter on these to see zone list.
Each row in the AppleTalk routing table corresponds to an AppleTalk route or network range. If the list of routes
shown exceeds the size of the screen, you can scroll through it by using SCROLL UP and SCROLL DOWN.
To scroll up, select SCROLL UP at the top of the table and press Return. To scroll down, select SCROLL DOWN
at the bottom of the table and press Return.
The table has the following columns:
Net: Displays the starting network number supplied by the AppleTalk router in the “Next Rtr Addr.” column. If a
network number is preceded by an asterisk (*), it has multiple zones. To display the zones, select the network
entry and press Return.
Range: Displays the ending network number for the extended network.
Def Zone Name: Displays the zone or zones associated with the specified network or network range. The zone
name shown is either the only zone or the default zone name for an extended network. To see the complete list
of zones for an extended network with multiple zones, select the entry in the table and press Return. Press
Return again to close the list of zones.
Hops: Displays the number of routers between the Netopia R9100 and the specified network.
12-10 User’s Reference Guide
State: Displays the state of the specified route, based on the frequency of Routing Table Maintenance Protocol
(RTMP) packets received for the route. The state can be Good, Suspect, or Bad. AppleTalk routers regularly
exchange RTMP packets to update AppleTalk routing information.
Next Rtr Addr.: Displays the DDP or IP address of the next hop for the specified route. A DDP address is
displayed if the router shown is on the local AppleTalk network. DDP address means that a connection to the
next-hop router is by a native AppleTalk network (e.g.: LocalTalk or EtherTalk Phase II). An IP address is
displayed if the Netopia R9100 is connected to the router shown using AURP. IP address means a connection
transports over AURP (AppleTalk encapsulated IP).
Pkts Fwded: The number of packets sent to the router shown.
Served IP Addresses
You can view all of the IP addresses currently being served by the Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router from the
Served IP Addresses screen.
From the Statistics & Logs menu, select Served IP Addresses. The Served IP Addresses screen appears.
Served IP Addresses
-IP Address-------Type----Expires--Client Identifier-----------------------------------------------------------SCROLL UP----------------------------------192.168.1.100
DHCP
00:36
EN: 00-00-c5-4a-1f-ea
192.168.1.101
DHCP
00:58
EN: 08-00-07-16-0c-85
192.168.1.102
192.168.1.103
192.168.1.104
192.168.1.105
192.168.1.106
192.168.1.107
192.168.1.108
192.168.1.109
192.168.1.110
192.168.1.111
192.168.1.112
192.168.1.113
---------------------------------SCROLL DOWN---------------------------------Lease Management...
EN = Ethernet Address; AT = AppleTalk Address; CP = Profile Name; HX = hex
To manage DHCP leases, select Lease Management in this screen.
Monitoring Tools 12-11
The IP Address Lease Management screen appears.
IP Address Lease Management
Reset All Leases
Release BootP Leases
Reclaim Declined Addresses
Hit RETURN/ENTER, you will return to the previous screen.
This screen has three options:
■
Reset All Leases: Resets all current IP addresses leased through DHCP without waiting for the default
one–hour lease period to elapse
■
Release BootP Leases: Releases any BootP leases that may be in place, and which may no longer be
required.
■
Reclaim Declined Addresses: Reclaims served leases that have been declined; for example by devices
that may no longer be on the network.
12-12 User’s Reference Guide
System Information
The System Information screen gives a summary view of the general system level values in the Netopia R9100
Ethernet Router.
From the Statistics & Logs menu select System Information. The System Information screen appears.
System Information
Serial Number
Firmware Version
70-03-48 (7340872)
4.3
Processor Speed (MHz)
Flash ROM Capacity (MBytes)
DRAM Capacity (MBytes)
33
1
4
Ethernet
Auxiliary Serial Port
WAN 1 Interface
WAN 2 Interface
8 Port 10Base-T
LocalTalk
Ethernet
Not Installed
AppleTalk Feature Set
Installed
Analog Dial-In Kit
Installed
The information display varies by model, firmware version, feature set, and so on. You can tell at a glance your
particular system configuration.
SNMP
The Netopia R9100 includes a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent, allowing monitoring and
configuration by a standard SNMP manager.
The Netopia R9100 supports the following management information base (MIB) documents:
■
MIB II (RFC 1213)
■
Interface MIB (RFC 1229)
■
Ethernet MIB (RFC 1643)
■
AppleTalk MIB I (RFC 1243)
■
Netopia MIB
These MIBs are on the Netopia R9100 CD included with the Netopia R9100. Load these MIBs into your SNMP
management software in the order they are listed here. Follow the instructions included with your SNMP
manager on how to load MIBs.
Monitoring Tools 12-13
The SNMP Setup screen
From the Main Menu, select SNMP in the System Configuration screen and press Return. The SNMP Setup
screen appears.
Main
Menu
System
Configuration
SNMP
SNMP Setup
System Name:
System Location:
System Contact:
Read-Only Community String:
Read/Write Community String:
public
private
Authentication Traps Enable:
Off
IP Trap Receivers...
Configure optional SNMP parameters from here.
Follow these steps to configure the first three items in the screen:
1.
Select System Name and enter a descriptive name for the Netopia R9100’s SNMP agent.
2.
Select System Location and enter the router’s physical location (room, floor, building, etc.).
3.
Select System Contact and enter the name of the person responsible for maintaining the router.
System Name, System Location, and System Contact set the values returned by the Netopia R9100 SNMP
agent for the SysName, SysLocation, and SysContact objects, respectively, in the MIB II system group. Although
optional, the information you enter in these items can help a system administrator manage the network more
efficiently.
Community strings
The Read-Only Community String and the Read/Write Community String are like passwords that must be used
by an SNMP manager querying or configuring the Netopia R9100. An SNMP manager using the Read-Only
Community String can examine statistics and configuration information from the router, but cannot modify the
router’s configuration. An SNMP manager using the Read/Write Community String can both examine and
modify configuration parameters.
12-14 User’s Reference Guide
By default, the read-only and read/write community strings are set to “public” and “private,” respectively. You
should change both of the default community strings to values known only to you and trusted system administrators.
Starting with the version 4.3 firmware, setting the Read-Only and Read-Write community strings to the empty
string will block all SNMP requests to the router. (The router may still send SNMP Traps if those are properly
enabled.)
Previously, if either community string was the empty string, SNMP Requests specifying an empty community
string were accepted and processed.
This change is designed to allow the administrator to block SNMP access to the router, and to provide more
granular control over the allowed SNMP operations to the router.
■
Setting only the Read-Write community string to the empty string will block SNMP Set Requests to the
router, but Get Requests and Get-Next Requests will still be honored using the Read-Only community string
(assuming that is not the empty string).
■
Setting only the Read-Only community string to the empty string will not block Get Requests or Get-Next
Requests since those operations (and Set Requests) are still allowed using the (non-empty) Read-Write
community string.
To change a community string, select it and enter a new value.
Caution! Even if you decide not to use SNMP, you should change the community strings. This prevents
unauthorized access to the Netopia R9100 through SNMP. For more information on security issues, see
“Suggested security measures” on page 13-1.
SNMP traps
An SNMP trap is an informational message sent from an SNMP agent (in this case, the Netopia R9100) to a
manager. When a manager receives a trap, it may log the trap as well as generate an alert message of its own.
Standard traps generated by the Netopia R9100 include the following:
■
An authentication failure trap is generated when the router detects an incorrect community string in a
received SNMP packet. Authentication Traps Enable must be On for this trap to be generated.
■
A cold start trap is generated after the router is reset.
■
An interface down trap (ifDown) is generated when one of the router’s interfaces, such as a port, stops
functioning or is disabled.
■
An interface up trap (ifUp) is generated when one of the router’s interfaces, such as a port, begins
functioning.
The Netopia R9100 sends traps using UDP (for IP networks).
You can specify which SNMP managers are sent the IP traps generated by the Netopia R9100. Up to eight
receivers can be set. You can also review and remove IP traps.
To go to the IP Trap Receivers screen, select IP Trap Receivers. The IP Trap Receivers screen appears.
Monitoring Tools 12-15
IP Trap Receivers
Display/Change IP Trap Receiver...
Add IP Trap Receiver...
Delete IP Trap Receiver...
Return/Enter to modify an existing Trap Receiver.
Navigate from here to view, add, modify and delete IP Trap Receivers.
Setting the IP trap receivers
1.
Select Add IP Trap Receiver.
2.
Select Receiver IP Address or Domain Name. Enter the IP address or domain name of the SNMP manager
you want to receive the trap.
3.
Select Community String. Enter whatever community string is appropriate for the traps to be sent to the
management station whose IP address or domain name you entered on the previous line.
4.
Select Add Trap Receiver Now and press Return. You can add up to seven more receivers.
Viewing IP trap receivers
To display a view-only table of IP trap receivers, select Display/Change IP Trap Receiver in the IP Trap
Receivers screen.
Modifying IP trap receivers
1.
To edit an IP trap receiver, select Display/Change IP Trap Receiver in the IP Trap Receivers screen.
2.
Select an IP trap receiver from the table and press Return.
3.
In the Change IP Trap Receiver screen, edit the information as needed and press Return.
Deleting IP trap receivers
1.
To delete an IP trap receiver, select Delete IP Trap Receiver in the IP Trap Receivers screen.
2.
Select an IP trap receiver from the table and press Return.
3.
In the dialog box, select Continue and press Return.
12-16 User’s Reference Guide
SmartView
This section discusses SmartView, the Netopia R9100’s device and network web-based monitoring tool. This
tool can provide statistical information, report on current network status, record events, and help in diagnosing
and locating problems.
SmartView overview
SmartView is a Java-based applet that runs in a Web browser window. It intermittently polls the router for
information to monitor the router’s state and event histories. SmartView should run under any Java Virtual
Machine (JVM)–enabled browser, and is therefore platform independent.
Note: The SmartView applet will only run under Java-enabled browsers. Be sure that the browser you are using
is at least Microsoft Internet Explorer Version 3.0 or higher, or Netscape Navigator Version 3.0 or Communicator
Version 4.0 or higher. If your browser does not meet this requirement, you can upgrade with a browser supplied
on the Netopia CD.
The information you can view about your router using SmartView is shown in the table below:
Machine Information
History Logs
Model
Device
Firmware version
WAN
Ethernet IP address
Update
Date
Time
LED status
Navigating SmartView
You access the SmartView monitor by launching your web browser and entering the URL:
http://router_IP_Address/smartview.html
where router_IP_address is the address of your router.
Once you have invoked the SmartView pages, bookmark SmartView in your browser for easy access.
Monitoring Tools 12-17
General Machine information page
SmartView uses tabbed pages to categorize information and reduce the amount of information displayed at
once. Click on the tabs to display the different informational categories.
In addition to the static machine information about your router, such as model and firmware version, SmartView
displays a real-time visual representation of the Netopia R9100’s status lights (LEDs). This is particularly
useful if the router is located out of visual range, such as in a wiring closet.
Event history pages
The Netopia R9100 records certain relevant occurrences in event histories. Event histories are useful for
diagnosing problems because they list what happened before, during, and after a problem occurs. You can view
two different event histories: one for the router’s system and one for the WAN. The Netopia R9100’s built-in
battery backup prevents loss of event history from a shutdown or reset.
12-18 User’s Reference Guide
The router’s event histories are structured to display the most recent events first, and to make it easy to
distinguish error messages from informational messages. Error messages are prefixed with an asterisk. Both
the WAN Event History and Device Event History pages retain records of up to 128 of the most recent events.
Device Event History page
WAN Event History page
You can refresh the Event history logs by clicking the Update button.
Monitoring Tools 12-19
Standard HTML web-based monitoring pages
You can also view connection profile information and event histories in the Web-based monitoring pages. These
pages are provided for users without Java-enabled browsers. Unlike the SmartView pages, they are not
dynamically updated.
You access the Web-based monitoring pages by launching your Web browser and entering the URL:
http://router_IP_address
where router_IP_address is the address of your router.
■
To view event histories, click the Statistics icon.
■
To go to SmartView if your browser is Java-enabled, click the SmartView icon.
12-20 User’s Reference Guide
Security 13-1
Chapter 13
Security
The Netopia R9100 provides a number of security features to help protect its configuration screens and your
local network from unauthorized access. Although these features are optional, it is strongly recommended that
you use them.
This section covers the following topics:
■
“Suggested security measures” on page 13-1
■
“User accounts” on page 13-1
■
“Dial-in console access” on page 13-3
■
“Enable SmartStart/SmartView/Web server” on page 13-4
■
“Telnet access” on page 13-4
■
“About filters and filter sets” on page 13-4
■
“Working with IP filters and filter sets” on page 13-12
■
“IPX filters” on page 13-21.
■
“Firewall tutorial” on page 13-29
Suggested security measures
In addition to setting up user accounts, Telnet access, and filters (all of which are covered later in this chapter),
there are other actions you can take to make the Netopia R9100 and your network more secure:
■
Change the SNMP community strings (or passwords). The default community strings are universal and
could easily be known to a potential intruder.
■
Set the answer profile so it must match incoming calls to a connection profile.
■
Set the Enable Dial-in Console Access option to No.
■
When using AURP, accept connections only from configured partners.
■
Configure the Netopia R9100 through the serial console port to ensure that your communications cannot
be intercepted.
User accounts
When you first set up and configure the Netopia R9100, no passwords are required to access the configuration
screens. Anyone could tamper with the router’s configuration by simply connecting it to a console.
However, by adding user accounts, you can protect the most sensitive screens from unauthorized access. User
accounts are composed of name/password combinations that can be given to authorized users.
13-2 User’s Reference Guide
Caution!
You are strongly encouraged to add protection to the configuration screens. Unprotected screens could allow an
unauthorized user to compromise the operation of your entire network.
Once user accounts are created, users who attempt to access protected screens will be challenged. Users who
enter an incorrect name or password are returned to a screen requesting a name/password combination to
access the Main Menu.
To set up user accounts, in the System Configuration screen select Security and press Return. The Security
Options screen appears.
Security Options
Enable Dial-in Console Access:
Yes
Enable SmartStart/SmartView/Web Server:
Yes
Enable Telnet Console Access:
Enable Telnet Access to SNMP Screens:
Yes
Yes
Show Users...
Add User...
Delete User...
Password for This Screen (11 chars max):
Return/Enter accepts * Tab toggles * ESC cancels.
Set up configuration access options here.
Protecting the Security Options screen
The first screen you should protect is the Security Options screen, because it controls access to the
configuration screens. Access to the Security Options screen can be protected with a password.
Select Password for This Screen in the Security Options screen and enter a password. Make sure this
password is secure and is different from any of the user account passwords.
Protecting the configuration screens
You can protect the configuration screens with user accounts. You can administer the accounts from the
Security Options screen. You can create up to four accounts.
To display a view-only list of user accounts, select Show Users in the Security Options screen.
Security 13-3
To add a new user account, select Add User in the Security Options screen and press Return. The Add Name
With Write Access screen appears.
Add Name With Write Access
Enter Name:
Enter Password (11 characters max):
ADD NAME/PASSWORD NOW
CANCEL
Follow these steps to configure the new account:
1.
Select Enter Name and enter a descriptive name (for example, the user’s first name).
2.
Select Enter Password and enter a password.
3.
To accept the new name/password combination, select ADD NAME/PASSWORD NOW. To exit the Add
Name With Write Access screen without saving the new account, select CANCEL. You are returned to the
Security Options screen.
To delete a user account, select Delete User to display a list of accounts. Select an account from the list and
press Return to delete it. To exit the list without deleting the selected account, press Escape.
Dial-in console access
Remote modem terminal emulator setups can dial in to the modem line and establish a remote console
session, even though they are not using PPP. This allows Netopia Inc.'s “Up and Running, Guaranteed!”
department or other administrator with the appropriate security to remotely configure your router for you.
■
To prevent any remote caller from establishing a remote session, set the option Enable Dial-in Console
Access to No.
■
To allow access for Up and Running, Guaranteed! with the default name and password in place, toggle this
option to Yes.
13-4 User’s Reference Guide
Enable SmartStart/SmartView/Web server
You may want to restrict access to the Web-based screens to prevent inadvertent switching or connecting and
disconnecting of connection profiles. Since SmartStart can be used to reconfigure the router, you may want to
block inadvertent damage resulting from unauthorized use of SmartStart. To prevent access to these features
toggle this option to No.
Telnet access
Telnet is a TCP/IP service that allows remote terminals to access hosts on an IP network. The Netopia R9100
supports Telnet access to its configuration screens.
Caution!
You should consider password-protecting or restricting Telnet access to the Netopia R9100 if you suspect there
is a chance of tampering.
To password-protect the configuration screens, select Easy Setup from the Main Menu, and go to the Easy
Setup Security Configuration screen. By entering a name and password pair in this screen, all access via
serial, Telnet, SNMP, and Web server will be password-protected.
To restrict Telnet access, select Security in the Advanced Configuration menu. The Security Options screen will
appear. There are two levels of Telnet restriction available:
To restrict Telnet access to the SNMP screens, select Enable Telnet Access to SNMP Screens and toggle it to
No. (See “SNMP traps” on page 12-14.)
To restrict Telnet access to all of the configuration screens, select Enable Telnet Console Access and toggle it
to No.
About filters and filter sets
Security should be a high priority for anyone administering a network connected to the Internet. Using packet
filters to control network communications can greatly improve your network’s security.
The Netopia R9100’s packet filters are designed to provide security for the Internet connections made to and
from your network. You can customize the router’s filter sets for a variety of packet filtering applications.
Typically, you use filters to selectively admit or refuse TCP/IP connections from certain remote networks and
specific hosts. You will also use filters to screen particular types of connections. This is commonly called
firewalling your network.
Before creating filter sets, you should read the next few sections to learn more about how these powerful
security tools work.
What’s a filter and what’s a filter set?
A filter is a rule that lets you specify what sort of data can flow in and out of your network. A particular filter can
be either an input filter—one that is used on data (packets) coming in to your network from the Internet—or an
output filter—one that is used on data (packets) going out from your network to the Internet.
A filter set is a group of filters that work together to check incoming or outgoing data. A filter set can consist of
a combination of input and output filters.
Security 13-5
How filter sets work
A filter set acts like a team of customs inspectors. Each filter is an inspector through which incoming and
outgoing packages must pass. The inspectors work as a team, but each inspects every package individually.
Each inspector has a specific task. One inspector’s task may be to examine the destination address of all
outgoing packages. That inspector looks for a certain destination—which could be as specific as a street
address or as broad as an entire country—and checks each package’s destination address to see if it matches
that destination.
TOR
INSPEC
ED
ROV
APP
FROM:
TO:
FROM:
FROM:
TO:
TO:
A filter inspects data packets like a customs inspector scrutinizing packages.
Filter priority
Continuing the customs inspectors analogy, imagine the inspectors lined up to examine a package. If the
package matches the first inspector’s criteria, the package is either rejected or passed on to its destination,
depending on the first inspector’s particular orders. In this case, the package is never seen by the remaining
inspectors.
13-6 User’s Reference Guide
packet
first
filter
match?
no
send
to next
filter
yes
pass or
discard?
discard
(delete)
pass
to network
If the package does not match the first inspector’s criteria, it goes to the second inspector, and so on. You can
see that the order of the inspectors in the line is very important.
For example, let’s say the first inspector’s orders are to send along all packages that come from Rome, and the
second inspector’s orders are to reject all packages that come from France. If a package arrives from Rome,
the first inspector sends it along without allowing the second inspector to see it. A package from Paris is
ignored by the first inspector, rejected by the second inspector, and never seen by the others. A package from
London is ignored by the first two inspectors, so it’s seen by the third inspector.
In the same way, filter sets apply their filters in a particular order. The first filter applied can pass or discard a
packet before that packet ever reaches any of the other filters. If the first filter can neither pass nor discard the
packet (because it cannot match any criteria), the second filter has a chance to pass or reject it, and so on.
Because of this hierarchical structure, each filter is said to have a priority. The first filter has the highest priority,
and the last filter has the lowest priority.
Security 13-7
How individual filters work
As described above, a filter applies criteria to an IP packet and then takes one of three actions:
A filter’s actions
■
Passes the packet to the local or remote network
■
Blocks (discards) the packet
■
Ignores the packet
A filter passes or blocks a packet only if it finds a match after applying its criteria. When no match occurs, the
filter ignores the packet.
A filtering rule
The criteria are based on information contained in the packets. A filter is simply a rule that prescribes certain
actions based on certain conditions. For example, the following rule qualifies as a filter:
Block all Telnet attempts that originate from the remote host 199.211.211.17.
This rule applies to Telnet packets that come from a host with the IP address 199.211.211.17. If a match
occurs, the packet is blocked.
Here is what this rule looks like when implemented as a filter on the Netopia R9100:
+-#--Source IP Addr--Dest IP Addr-----Proto-Src.Port-D.Port--On?-Fwd-+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 1 199.211.211.17 0.0.0.0
TCP
23
Yes No |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
To understand this particular filter, look at the parts of a filter.
Parts of a filter
A filter consists of criteria based on packet attributes. A typical filter can match a packet on any one of the
following attributes:
■
The source IP address (where the packet was sent from)
■
The destination IP address (where the packet is going)
■
The type of higher-layer Internet protocol the packet is carrying, such as TCP or UDP
Port numbers
A filter can also match a packet’s port number attributes, but only if the filter’s protocol type is set to TCP or
UDP, since only those protocols use port numbers. The filter can be configured to match the following:
■
The source port number (the port on the sending host that originated the packet)
■
The destination port number (the port on the receiving host that the packet is destined for)
13-8 User’s Reference Guide
By matching on a port number, a filter can be applied to selected TCP or UDP services, such as Telnet, FTP, and
World Wide Web. The tables below show a few common services and their associated port numbers.
Internet service
FTP
TCP port
20/21
Internet service
TCP port
Finger
79
80
Telnet
23
World Wide Web
SMTP (mail)
25
News
144
Gopher
70
rlogin
513
Internet service
UDP port
Internet service
UDP port
Who Is
43
AppleTalk Routing
Maintenance (at-rtmp)
202
World Wide Web
80
AppleTalk Name Binding
(at-nbp)
202
SNMP
161
AURP (AppleTalk)
387
TFTP
69
who
513
Port number comparisons
A filter can also use a comparison option to evaluate a packet’s source or destination port number. The
comparison options are:
No Compare: No comparison of the port number specified in the filter with the packet’s port number.
Not Equal To: For the filter to match, the packet’s port number cannot equal the port number specified in the
filter.
Less Than: For the filter to match, the packet’s port number must be less than the port number specified in the
filter.
Less Than or Equal: For the filter to match, the packet’s port number must be less than or equal to the port
number specified in the filter.
Equal: For the filter to match, the packet’s port number must equal the port number specified in the filter.
Greater Than: For the filter to match, the packet’s port number must be greater than the port number specified
in the filter.
Greater Than or Equal: For the filter to match, the packet’s port number must be greater than or equal to the
port number specified in the filter.
Security 13-9
Other filter attributes
There are three other attributes to each filter:
■
The filter’s order (i.e., priority) in the filter set
■
Whether the filter is currently active
■
Whether the filter is set to pass (forward) packets or to block (discard) packets
Putting the parts together
When you display a filter set, its filters are displayed as rows in a table:
+-#---Source IP Addr---Dest IP Addr-----Proto-Src.Port-D.Port--On?-Fwd-+
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 1
192.211.211.17
0.0.0.0
TCP
0
23
Yes No |
| 2
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
TCP
NC
=6000
Yes No |
| 3
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
ICMP --Yes Yes |
| 4
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
TCP
NC
>1023
Yes Yes |
| 5
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
UDP
NC
>1023
Yes Yes |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
The table’s columns correspond to each filter’s attributes:
#: The filter’s priority in the set. Filter number 1, with the highest priority, is first in the table.
Source IP Addr: The packet source IP address to match.
Dest IP Addr: The packet destination IP address to match.
Proto: The protocol to match. This can be entered as a number (see the table below) or as TCP or UDP if those
protocols are used.
Protocol
Number to use
Full name
N/A
0
Ignores protocol type
ICMP
1
Internet Control Message Protocol
TCP
6
Transmission Control Protocol
UDP
17
User Datagram Protocol
13-10 User’s Reference Guide
Src. Port: The source port to match. This is the port on the sending host that originated the packet.
D. Port: The destination port to match. This is the port on the receiving host for which the packet is intended.
On?: Displays Yes when the filter is in effect or No when it is not.
Fwd: Shows whether the filter forwards (Yes) a packet or discards (No) it when there’s a match.
Filtering example #1
Returning to our filtering rule example from above (see page 13-7), look at how a rule is translated into a filter.
Start with the rule, then fill in the filter’s attributes:
1.
The rule you want to implement as a filter is:
Block all Telnet attempts that originate from the remote host 199.211.211.17.
2.
The host 199.211.211.17 is the source of the Telnet packets you want to block, while the destination
address is any IP address. How these IP addresses are masked determines what the final match will be,
although the mask is not displayed in the table that displays the filter sets (you set it when you create the
filter). In fact, since the mask for the destination IP address is 0.0.0.0, the address for Dest IP Addr could
have been anything. The mask for Source IP Addr must be 255.255.255.255 since an exact match is
desired.
■
Source IP Addr = 199.211.211.17
■
Source IP address mask = 255.255.255.255
■
Dest IP Addr = 0.0.0.0
■
Destination IP address mask = 0.0.0.0
Note: To learn about IP addresses and masks, see Appendix B, “Understanding IP Addressing.”
3.
4.
Using the tables on page 13-8, find the destination port and protocol numbers (the local Telnet port):
■
Proto = TCP (or 6)
■
D. Port = 23
The filter should be enabled and instructed to block the Telnet packets containing the source address
shown in step 2:
■
On? = Yes
■
Fwd = No
This four-step process is how we produced the following filter from the original rule:
+-#---Source IP Addr---Dest IP Addr-----Proto-Src.Port-D.Port--On?-Fwd-+
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 1
192.211.211.17
0.0.0.0
TCP
0
23
Yes No |
|
|
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
Security 13-11
Filtering example #2
Suppose a filter is configured to block all incoming IP packets with the source IP address of 200.233.14.0,
regardless of the type of connection or its destination. The filter would look like this:
+-#---Source IP Addr---Dest IP Addr-----Proto-Src.Port-D.Port--On?-Fwd-+
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 1
200.233.14.0
0.0.0.0
0
Yes No |
|
|
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
This filter blocks any packets coming from a remote network with the IP network address 200.233.14.0. The 0
at the end of the address signifies any host on the class C IP network 200.233.14.0. If, for example, the filter
is applied to a packet with the source IP address 200.233.14.5, it will block it.
In this case, the mask, which does not appear in the table, must be set to 255.255.255.0. This way, all
packets with a source address of 200.233.14.x will be matched correctly, no matter what the final address byte
is.
Note: The protocol attribute for this filter is 0 by default. This tells the filter to ignore the IP protocol or type of
IP packet.
Design guidelines
Careful thought must go into designing a new filter set. You should consider the following guidelines:
■
Be sure the filter set’s overall purpose is clear from the beginning. A vague purpose can lead to a faulty
set, and that can actually make your network less secure.
■
Be sure each individual filter’s purpose is clear.
■
Determine how filter priority will affect the set’s actions. Test the set (on paper) by determining how the
filters would respond to a number of different hypothetical packets.
■
Consider the combined effect of the filters. If every filter in a set fails to match on a particular packet, the
packet is:
■
Passed if all the filters are configured to discard (not forward)
■
Discarded if all the filters are configured to pass (forward)
■
Discarded if the set contains a combination of pass and discard filters
Disadvantages of filters
Although using filter sets can greatly enhance network security, there are disadvantages:
■
Filters are complex. Combining them in filter sets introduces subtle interactions, increasing the likelihood
of implementation errors.
■
Enabling a large number of filters can have a negative impact on performance. Processing of packets will
take longer if they have to go through many checkpoints.
■
Too much reliance on packet filters can cause too little reliance on other security methods. Filter sets are
not a substitute for password protection, effective safeguarding of passwords, caller ID, the “must match”
13-12 User’s Reference Guide
option in the answer profile, PAP or CHAP in connection profiles, callback, and general awareness of how
your network may be vulnerable.
An approach to using filters
The ultimate goal of network security is to prevent unauthorized access to the network without compromising
authorized access. Using filter sets is part of reaching that goal.
Each filter set you design will be based on one of the following approaches:
■
That which is not expressly prohibited is permitted.
■
That which is not expressly permitted is prohibited.
It is strongly recommended that you take the latter, and safer, approach to all of your filter set designs.
Working with IP filters and filter sets
This section covers IP filters and filter sets. For working with IPX filters and filter sets, see “IPX filters” on
page 13-21.
Main
Menu
System
Configuration
Filter
Sets
IP Filter Sets
To work with filters and filter sets, begin by accessing the filter set screens.
Note: Make sure you understand how filters work before attempting to use them. Read the section “About
filters and filter sets,” beginning on page 13-4.
IP Filter Sets
Display/Change IP Filter Set...
Add IP Filter Set...
Delete IP Filter Set...
Return/Enter to configure and add a new Filter Set
Set Up IP Filter Sets (Firewalls) from this and the following Menus.
The procedure for creating and maintaining filter sets is as follows:
Security 13-13
1.
Add a new filter set.
2.
Create the filters for the new filter set.
3.
View, change, or delete individual filters and filter sets.
The sections below explain how to execute these steps.
Adding a filter set
You can create up to eight different custom filter sets. Each filter set can contain up to 16 output filters and up
to 16 input filters.
To add a new filter set, select Add IP Filter Set in the IP Filter Sets screen and press Return. The Add Filter Set
screen appears.
Note: There are two groups of items in the Add IP Filter Set screen, one for input filters and one for output
filters. The two groups work in essentially the same way, as you’ll see below.
Add IP Filter Set
Filter Set Name:
Filter Set
2
Display/Change Input Filter...
Add Input Filter...
Delete Input Filter...
Display/Change Output Filter...
Add Output Filter...
Delete Output Filter...
ADD FILTER SET
CANCEL
Configure the Filter Set name and its associated Filters.
Naming a new filter set
All new filter sets have a default name. The first filter set you add will be called Filter Set 1, the next filter will be
Filter Set 2, and so on.
To give a new filter set a different name, select Filter Set Name and enter a new name for the filter set.
To save the filter set, select ADD FILTER SET. The saved filter set is empty (contains no filters), but you can
return to it later to add filters (see “Modifying filter sets” on page 13-17). Or you can add filters to your new set
before saving it (see “Adding filters to a filter set” on page 13-14).
To leave the Add Filter Set screen without saving the new filter set Select CANCEL. You are returned to the IP
Filter Sets screen.
13-14 User’s Reference Guide
Input and output filters—source and destination
There are two kinds of filters you can add to a filter set: input and output. Input filters check packets received
from the Internet, destined for your network. Output filters check packets transmitted from your network to the
Internet.
packet
WAN
input filter
LAN
packet
output filter
The Netopia R-Series Router
Packets in the Netopia R9100 pass through an input filter if they originate in the WAN and through an output filter if they’re
being sent out to the WAN.
The process for adding input and output filters is exactly the same. The main difference between the two
involves their reference to source and destination. From the perspective of an input filter, your local network is
the destination of the packets it checks, and the remote network is their source. From the perspective of an
output filter, your local network is the source of the packets, and the remote network is their destination.
Type of filter
“Source” means
“Destination” means
Input filter
The remote network
The local network
Output filter
The local network
The remote network
Adding filters to a filter set
In this section you’ll learn how to add an input filter to a filter set. Adding an output filter works exactly the same
way, providing you keep the different source and destination perspectives in mind.
To add an input filter, select Add Input Filter in the Add IP Filter Set screen. The Add Filter screen appears. (To
add an output filter, select Add Output Filter.)
Security 13-15
Add Filter
Enabled:
Forward:
No
No
Source IP Address:
Source IP Address Mask:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Dest. IP Address:
Dest. IP Address Mask:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Protocol Type:
0
Source Port Compare...
Source Port ID:
Dest. Port Compare...
Dest. Port ID:
No Compare
0
No Compare
0
ADD THIS FILTER NOW
CANCEL
Enter the IP specific information for this filter.
1.
To make the filter active in the filter set, select Enabled and toggle it to Yes. If Enabled is toggled to No, the
filter can still exist in the filter set, but it will have no effect.
2.
If you want the filter to forward packets that match its criteria to the destination IP address, select Forward
and toggle it to Yes. If Forward is toggled to No, packets matching the filter’s criteria will be discarded.
3.
Select Source IP Address and enter the source IP address this filter will match on. You can enter a subnet
or a host address.
4.
Select Source IP Address Mask and enter a mask for the source IP address. This allows you to further
modify the way the filter will match on the source address. Enter 0.0.0.0 to force the filter to match on all
source IP addresses, or enter 255.255.255.255 to match the source IP address exclusively.
5.
Select Dest. IP Address and enter the destination IP address this filter will match on. You can enter a
subnet or a host address.
6.
Select Dest. IP Address Mask and enter a mask for the destination IP address. This allows you to further
modify the way the filter will match on the destination address. Enter 0.0.0.0 to force the filter to match on
all destination IP addresses.
7.
Select Protocol Type and enter ICMP, TCP, UDP, Any, or the number of another IP transport protocol (see
the table on page 13-9).
Note: If Protocol Type is set to TCP or UDP, the settings for port comparison that you configure in steps 8
and 9 will appear. These settings only take effect if the Protocol Type is TCP or UDP.
8.
Select Source Port Compare and choose a comparison method for the filter to use on a packet’s source
port number. Then select Source Port ID and enter the actual source port number to match on (see the
table on page 13-8).
9.
Select Dest. Port Compare and choose a comparison method for the filter to use on a packet’s destination
port number. Then select Dest. Port ID and enter the actual destination port number to match on (see the
table on page 13-8).
13-16 User’s Reference Guide
10. When you are finished configuring the filter, select ADD THIS FILTER NOW to save the filter in the filter set.
Select CANCEL to discard the filter and return to the Add IP Filter Set screen.
Viewing filters
To display a view-only table of input (output) filters, select Display/Change Input Filter or Display/Change
Output Filter in the Add IP Filter Set screen.
Modifying filters
To modify a filter, select Display/Change Input Filter or Display/Change Output Filter in the Add IP Filter Set
screen to display a table of filters.
Select a filter from the table and press Return. The Change Filter screen appears. The parameters in this
screen are set in the same way as the ones in the Add Filter screen (see “Adding filters to a filter set” on
page 13-14).
Change Filter
Enabled:
Forward:
No
No
Source IP Address:
Source IP Address Mask:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Dest. IP Address:
Dest. IP Address Mask:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Protocol Type:
0
Source Port Compare...
Source Port ID:
Dest. Port Compare...
Dest. Port ID:
No Compare
0
No Compare
0
Enter the IP specific information for this filter.
Deleting filters
To delete a filter, select Delete Input Filter or Delete Output Filter in the Add IP Filter Set screen to display a
table of filters.
Select the filter from the table and press Return to delete it. Press Escape to exit the table without deleting the
filter.
Viewing filter sets
To display a view-only list of filter sets, select Display/Change IP Filter Set in the IP Filter Sets screen.
Security 13-17
Modifying filter sets
To modify a filter set, select Display/Change IP Filter Set in the IP Filter Sets screen to display a list of filter
sets.
Select a filter set from the list and press Return. The Change IP Filter Set screen appears. The items in this
screen are the same as the ones in the Add Filter screen (see “Adding filters to a filter set” on page 13-14).
Change IP Filter Set
Filter Set Name:
Basic Firewall
Display/Change Input Filter...
Add Input Filter...
Delete Input Filter...
Display/Change Output Filter...
Add Output Filter...
Delete Output Filter...
Deleting a filter set
Note: If you delete a filter set, all of the filters it contains are deleted as well. To reuse any of these filters in
another set, before deleting the current filter set you’ll have to note their configuration and then recreate them.
To delete a filter set, select Delete IP Filter Set in the IP Filter Sets screen to display a list of filter sets.
Select a filter set from the list and press Return to delete it. Press Escape to exit the list without deleting the
filter set.
A sample IP filter set
This section contains the settings for a filter set called Basic Firewall, which is part of the Netopia R9100’s
factory configuration.
Basic Firewall blocks undesirable traffic originating from the WAN (in most cases, the Internet), but passes all
traffic originating from the LAN. It follows the conservative “that which is not expressly permitted is prohibited”
approach: unless an incoming packet expressly matches one of the constituent input filters, it will not be
forwarded to the LAN.
13-18 User’s Reference Guide
The five input filters and one output filter that make up Basic Firewall are shown in the table below.
Input filter
1
Input filter
2
Input filter
3
Input filter
4
Input filter
5
Enabled
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Forward
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Source IP
address
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Source IP
address mask
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Dest. IP
address
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Dest. IP
address mask
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Protocol type
TCP
TCP
ICMP
TCP
UDP
0
Source port
comparison
No
Compare
No
Compare
N/A
No
Compare
No
Compare
N/A
Source port ID
0
0
N/A
0
0
N/A
Dest. port
comparison
Equal
Equal
N/A
Greater
Than
Greater
Than
N/A
Dest. port ID
2000
6000
N/A
1023
1023
N/A
Setting
Output
filter 1
Basic Firewall’s filters play the following roles.
Input filters 1 and 2: These block WAN-originated OpenWindows and X-Windows sessions. Service origination
requests for these protocols use ports 2000 and 6000, respectively. Since these are greater than 1023,
OpenWindows and X-Windows traffic would otherwise be allowed by input filter 4. Input filters 1 and 2 must
precede input filter 4; otherwise they would have no effect since filter 4 would have already passed
OpenWindows and X-Windows traffic.
Input filter 3: This filter explicitly passes all WAN-originated ICMP traffic to permit devices on the WAN to ping
devices on the LAN. Ping is an Internet service that is useful for diagnostic purposes.
Input filters 4 and 5: These filters pass all TCP and UDP traffic, respectively, when the destination port is
greater than 1023. This type of traffic generally does not allow a remote host to connect to the LAN using one
of the potentially intrusive Internet services, such as Telnet, FTP, and WWW.
Output filter 1: This filter passes all outgoing traffic to make sure that no outgoing connections from the LAN
are blocked.
Security 13-19
Basic Firewall is suitable for a LAN containing only client hosts that want to access servers on the WAN, but not
for a LAN containing servers providing services to clients on the WAN. Basic Firewall’s general strategy is to
explicitly pass WAN-originated TCP and UDP traffic to ports greater than 1023. Ports lower than 1024 are the
service origination ports for various Internet services such as FTP, Telnet, and the World Wide Web (WWW).
A more complicated filter set would be required to provide WAN access to a LAN-based server. See the next
section, “Possible modifications,” for ways to allow remote hosts to use services provided by servers on the
LAN.
Possible modifications
You can modify the sample filter set Basic Firewall to allow incoming traffic using the examples below. These
modifications are not intended to be combined. Each modification is to be the only one used with Basic Firewall.
The results of combining filter set modifications can be difficult to predict. It is recommended that you take
special care if you are making more than one modification to the sample filter set.
Trusted host. To allow unlimited access by a trusted remote host with the IP address a.b.c.d (corresponding to
a numbered IP address such as 163.176.8.243), insert the following input filter ahead of the current input
filter 1:
■
Enabled: Yes
■
Forward: Yes
■
Source IP Address: a.b.c.d
■
Source IP Address Mask: 255.255.255.255
■
Dest. IP Address: 0.0.0.0
■
Dest. IP Address Mask: 0.0.0.0
■
Protocol Type: 0
Trusted subnet. To allow unlimited access by a trusted remote subnet with subnet address a.b.c.d
(corresponding to a numbered IP address such as 163.176.8.0) and subnet mask e.f.g.h (corresponding to a
numbered IP mask such as 255.255.255.0), insert the following input filter ahead of the current input filter 1:
■
Enabled: Yes
■
Forward: Yes
■
Source IP Address: a.b.c.d
■
Source IP Address Mask: e.f.g.h
■
Dest. IP Address: 0.0.0.0
■
Dest. IP Address Mask: 0.0.0.0
■
Protocol Type: 0
13-20 User’s Reference Guide
FTP sessions. To allow WAN-originated FTP sessions to a LAN-based FTP server with the IP address a.b.c.d
(corresponding to a numbered IP address such as 163.176.8.243), insert the following input filter ahead of the
current input filter 1:
■
Enabled: Yes
■
Forward: Yes
■
Source IP Address: 0.0.0.0
■
Source IP Address Mask: 0.0.0.0
■
Dest. IP Address: a.b.c.d
■
Dest. IP Address Mask: 255.255.255.255
■
Protocol Type: TCP
■
Source Port Comparison: No Compare
■
Source Port ID: 0
■
Dest. Port Comparison: Equal
■
Dest. Port ID: 21
Note: A similar filter could be used to permit Telnet or WWW access. Set the Dest. Port ID to 23 for Telnet or to
80 for WWW.
AURP tunnel. To allow an AURP tunnel between a remote AURP router with the IP address a.b.c.d
(corresponding to a numbered IP address such as 163.176.8.243) and a local AURP router (including the
Netopia R9100 itself), insert the following input filter ahead of the current input filter 1:
■
Enabled: Yes
■
Forward: Yes
■
Source IP Address: a.b.c.d
■
Source IP Address Mask: 255.255.255.255
■
Dest. IP Address: 0.0.0.0
■
Dest. IP Address Mask: 0.0.0.0
■
Protocol Type: UDP
■
Source Port Comparison: Equal
■
Source Port ID: 387
■
Dest. Port Comparison: Equal
■
Dest. Port ID: 387
Security 13-21
IPX filters
Main
Menu
System
Configuration
Filter Sets
(Firewalls)
IPX Filters
and Filter Sets
IPX packet filters work very similarly to IP packet filters. They filter data traffic coming from or going to remote
IPX networks. IPX filters can be set up to pass or discard IPX packets based on a number of user-defined
criteria. Like IP filters, IPX filters must be grouped in sets that are applied to the answer profile or to connection
profiles.
IPX SAP filters are used for filtering server entries not required to pass over the WAN links. When connecting to
a large IPX network via dial-up connection, the transfer of large numbers of SAP entries can consume significant
bandwidth on the WAN link.
Note: Using SAP filtering to prevent a server from being advertised does not provide security against that
server being accessed—IPX packet filtering must be used for that purpose.
Setting up and using IPX filter sets is a four-step process:
1.
Create the filters to use.
2.
Create the filter sets to use.
3.
Add filters to the filter sets.
4.
Attach the filter sets to the answer profile or to connection profiles.
You can configure IPX filters and set up IPX filter sets from the IPX Filters and Filter Sets screen.
IPX Filters and Filter Sets
Display/Change IPX Packet Filters...
Add IPX Packet Filter...
Delete IPX Packet Filter...
Display/Change IPX Packet Filter Sets...
Add IPX Packet Filter Set...
Delete IPX Packet Filter Set...
Display/Change IPX Sap Filters...
Add IPX Sap Filter...
Delete IPX Sap Filter...
Display/Change IPX Sap Filter Sets...
Add IPX Sap Filter Set...
Delete IPX Sap Filter Set...
Define your filters 1st. IPX Filter Sets refer to, but don't contain, filters.
13-22 User’s Reference Guide
The items in the IPX Filters and Filter Sets screen are grouped into four areas:
■
IPX packet filters
■
IPX packet filter sets
■
IPX SAP filters
■
IPX SAP filter sets
The following sections explain the items in each of these areas.
IPX packet filters
For each IPX packet filter, you can configure a set of parameters to match on the source or destination
attributes of IPX data packets coming from or going to the WAN.
Viewing and modifying packet filters
To display a view-only table of IPX packet filters, select Display/Change IPX Packet Filters in the IPX Filters and
Filter Sets screen.
To modify any of the filters in the table, note the desired filter and press Return to go to the Change Packet Filter
screen. The parameters in this screen are the same as the ones in the Add Packet Filter screen (see the next
section).
Adding a packet filter
To add a new IPX packet filter, select Add IPX Packet Filter in the IPX Filters and Filter Sets screen and press
Return. The Add Packet Filter screen appears.
Add Packet Filter
Filter Name:
IPX Filter 1
Source Network:
Source Node Address:
Source Socket:
00000000
000000000000
0000
Destination Network:
Destination Node Address:
Destination Socket:
00000000
000000000000
0000
ADD FILTER NOW
CANCEL
Configure a new IPX Packet Filter. Finished?
ADD or CANCEL to exit.
By default, the filter’s socket numbers and network and node addresses are null (all zeros). This sets the filter
to match on any IPX data packet. Configure the filter using criteria that meet your security needs.
Security 13-23
1.
Select Filter Name and enter a descriptive name for the filter.
2.
To specify a source network for the filter to match on, select Source Network and enter an IPX network
address.
3.
To specify a source node for the filter to match on, select Source Node Address and enter an IPX node
address.
4.
To specify a source socket for the filter to match on, select Source Socket and enter an IPX source socket
number.
5.
To specify a destination network for the filter to match on, select Destination Network and enter an IPX
network address.
6.
To specify a destination node for the filter to match on, select Destination Node Address and enter an IPX
node address.
7.
To specify a destination socket for the filter to match on, select Destination Socket and enter an IPX
destination socket number.
8.
Select ADD FILTER NOW to save the current filter. Select CANCEL to exit the Add Packet Filter screen
without saving the new filter.
Deleting a packet filter
To delete a packet filter, select Delete IPX Packet Filter in the IPX Filters and Filter Sets screen to display a
table of filters. Select a filter from the table and press Return to delete it. Press the Escape key to exit the table
without deleting the filter.
IPX packet filter sets
Before the individual filters can be used, IPX packet filters must be grouped into sets. A filter can be part of
more than one filter set.
Viewing and modifying packet filter sets
To display a table of IPX packet filter sets, select Display/Change IPX Packet Filter Sets in the IPX Filters and
Filter Sets screen.
To modify any of the filter sets in the list, select the desired filter set and press Return to go to the Change
Packet Filter Set screen. The parameters in this screen are the same as the ones in the Add Packet Filter Set
screen (see the next section).
Adding a packet filter set
To add a new IPX packet filter set, select Add IPX Packet Filter Set in the IPX Filters and Filter Sets screen and
press Return. The Add Packet Filter Set screen appears.
13-24 User’s Reference Guide
Add Packet Filter Set
Filter Set Name:
Show Filters/Change Action on Match...
Append Filter...
Remove Filter...
ADD FILTER SET NOW
CANCEL
Configure an IPX Filter Set here. You must ADD FILTER SET NOW to save.
Follow these steps to configure the new packet filter set:
1.
Select Filter Set Name and enter a descriptive name for the filter set.
2.
To change the forwarding action of filters in the filter set, select Show Filters/Change Action on Match
and press Return. The Show Filters/Change Actions on Match screen appears.
Show Filters/Change Actions on Match
Filter Name---------------------Forward
Filter 1
No
Filter 2
No
<<NO MATCH>>
Yes
Set whether filters forward or drop matching packets here.
Select a filter and toggle the packet forwarding action to Yes (pass) or No (discard).
Security 13-25
3.
To add a filter to the filter set, select Append Filter to display a table of filters. Select a filter from the table
and press Return to add it to the filter set. The default action of newly added filters is to not forward
packets that match their criteria.
To exit the table without adding the filter, press Escape.
4.
To remove a filter from the filter set, select Remove Filter to display a table of appended filters. Select a
filter from the table and press Return to remove it from the set. To exit the table without removing the filter,
press Escape.
5.
Select ADD FILTER SET NOW to save the current filter set. Select CANCEL to exit the Add Packet Filter Set
screen without saving the new filter set.
Deleting a packet filter set
To delete a packet filter set, select Delete IPX Packet Filter Set in the IPX Filters and Filter Sets screen to
display a list of filter sets. Select a filter set from the list and press Return to delete it. Press the Escape key to
exit the list without deleting the filter set.
Note: Deleting a filter set does not delete the filters in that set. However, the filters in the deleted set are no
longer in effect (unless they are part of another set). The deleted set will no longer appear in the answer profile
or any connection profiles to which it was added.
IPX SAP filters
For each IPX SAP filter, you can configure a set of parameters to match on certain attributes of IPX SAP packet
entries. The filters check IPX SAP packets for entries that match and then acts on those entries. The SAP
packets themselves are always allowed to continue after their entries are checked.
The purpose of filtering SAP packets is not to make your network more secure, but to add efficiency to network
bandwidth use. Filtering SAP packets may reduce the size of SAP packets and SAP bindery tables by removing
unwanted entries.
Viewing and modifying SAP filters
To display a table of IPX SAP filters, select Display/Change IPX SAP Filters in the IPX Filters and Filter Sets
screen.
To modify any of the filters in the table, select the desired filter and press Return. The Change SAP Filter screen
appears. The parameters in this screen are the same as the ones in the Add SAP Filter screen (see the next
section).
13-26 User’s Reference Guide
Adding a SAP filter
To add a new IPX SAP filter, select Add IPX SAP Filter in the IPX Filters and Filter Sets screen and press Return.
The Add SAP Filter screen appears.
Add Sap Filter
Filter Name:
Server Name:
Socket:
0000
Type:
0000
IPX Network:
IPX Node Address:
00000000
000000000000
ADD FILTER NOW
CANCEL
Return accepts * ESC cancels * Left/Right moves insertion point * Del deletes.
Configure a new IPX SAP Filter. Finished? ADD or CANCEL to exit.
By default, the filter’s socket and type numbers and network and node addresses are null (all zeros). This sets
the filter to match on any IPX SAP packet entry. Configure the filter using criteria that meet your needs.
Follow these steps to configure the new SAP filter:
1.
Select Filter Name and enter a descriptive name for the filter.
2.
To specify a server name for the filter to match on, select Server Name and enter the name of an IPX
server. You can use the wildcard characters * (asterisk) and ? (question mark). Use * to match any string,
including a null string (no characters), and ? to match any single character in the server’s name. For
example, the filter could match on the server name “NETOPIA” with “NETO*”, “NETO?IA”, and “NETOPIA*”.
3.
To specify a socket for the filter to match on, select Socket and enter an IPX socket number.
4.
To specify a type number for the filter to match on, select Type and enter an IPX type number.
5.
To specify an IPX network address for the filter to match on, select IPX Network and enter an IPX network
address.
6.
To specify an IPX node address for the filter to match on, select IPX Node Address and enter an IPX node
address.
7.
Select ADD FILTER NOW to save the current filter. Select CANCEL to exit the Add SAP Filter screen without
saving the new filter.
Deleting a SAP filter
To delete a SAP filter, select Delete IPX SAP filter in the IPX Filters and Filter Sets screen to display a table of
filters. Select a filter from the table and press Return to delete it. Press Escape to exit the table without deleting
the filter.
Security 13-27
IPX SAP filter sets
Before IPX SAP filters can be used, they must be grouped into sets. A SAP filter can be part of more than one
filter set.
Viewing and modifying SAP filter sets
To display a table of IPX SAP filter sets, select Display/Change IPX SAP Filter Sets in the IPX Filters and Filter
Sets screen to display a list of filter sets.
To modify any of the filter sets in the list, select the desired filter set and go to the Change SAP Filter Set
screen. The parameters in this screen are the same as the ones in the Add SAP Filter Set screen (see the
previous section).
Adding a SAP filter set
To add a new IPX SAP filter set, select Add IPX SAP Filter Set in the IPX Filters and Filter Sets screen. The Add
SAP Filter Set screen appears.
Add SAP Filter Set
Filter Set Name:
Show Filters/Change Action on Match...
Append Filter...
Remove Filter...
ADD FILTER SET NOW
CANCEL
Configure an IPX Filter Set here. You must ADD FILTER SET NOW to save.
Follow these steps to configure the new SAP filter set:
1.
Select Filter Set Name and enter a descriptive name for the filter set.
2.
To change the forwarding action of filters in the filter set, select Show Filters/Change Action on Match
and press Return. The Show Filters/Change Actions on Match screen appears.
13-28 User’s Reference Guide
Show Filters/Change Actions on Match
Filter Name---------------------Forward
Filter 1
No
Filter 2
No
<<NO MATCH>>
Yes
Set whether filters forward or drop matching packets here.
Select a filter and toggle the entry forwarding action to Yes (pass) or No (discard).
3.
To add a filter to the filter set, select Append Filter in the Add SAP Filter Set screen to display a table of
filters. Select a filter from the table and press Return to add it to the filter set. The default action of newly
added filters is to not forward (discard) packet entries that match their criteria.
To exit the table without adding the filter, press Escape.
4.
To remove a filter from the filter set, select Remove Filter in the Add SAP Filter Set screen to display a table
of appended filters. Select a filter from the table and press Return to remove it from the set. To exit the
table without removing the filter, press Escape.
5.
To save the current filter set, select ADD FILTER SET NOW in the Add SAP Filter Set screen. Select
CANCEL to exit the Add SAP Filter Set screen without saving the new filter set.
Deleting a SAP filter set
To delete a SAP filter set, select Delete IPX SAP Filter Set in the IPX Filters and Filter Sets screen to display a
list of filter sets. Select a filter set from the list and press Return to delete it. Press Escape to exit the list
without deleting the filter set.
Note: Deleting a filter set does not delete the filters in that set. However, the filters in the deleted set are no
longer in effect (unless they are part of another set). The deleted set will no longer appear in the answer profile
or any connection profiles to which it was added.
Security 13-29
Firewall tutorial
General firewall terms
Filter rule: A filter set is comprised of individual filter rules.
Filter set: A grouping of individual filter rules.
Firewall: A component or set of components that restrict access between a protected network and the Internet,
or between two networks.
Host: A workstation on the network.
Packet: Unit of communication on the Internet.
Packet filter: Packet filters allow or deny packets based on source or destination IP addresses, TCP or UDP
ports, or the TCP ACK bit.
Port: A number that defines a particular type of service.
Basic IP packet components
All IP packets contain the same basic header information, as follows:
Source IP Address
163.176.132.18
Destination IP Address
163.176.4.27
Source Port
2541
Destination Port
80
Protocol
TCP
ACK Bit
Yes
DATA
User Data
This header information is what the packet filter uses to make filtering decisions. It is important to note that a
packet filter does not look into the IP data stream (the User Data from above) to make filtering decisions.
Basic protocol types
TCP: Transmission Control Protocol. TCP provides reliable packet delivery and has a retransmission
mechanism (so packets are not lost). RFC 793 is the specification for TCP.
UDP: User Datagram Protocol. Unlike TCP, UDP does not guarantee reliable, sequenced packet delivery. If data
does not reach its destination, UDP does not retransmit the data. RFC 768 is the specification for UDP.
There are many more ports defined in the Assigned Addresses RFC. The table that follows shows some of these
port assignments.
13-30 User’s Reference Guide
Example TCP/UDP Ports
TCP Port
Service
UDP Port
Service
20/21
FTP
161
SNMP
23
Telnet
69
TFTP
25
SMTP
387
AURP
80
WWW
144
News
Firewall design rules
There are two basic rules to firewall design:
■
“What is not explicitly allowed is denied.”
and
■
“What is not explicitly denied is allowed.”
The first rule is far more secure, and is the best approach to firewall design. It is far easier (and more secure)
to allow in or out only certain services and deny anything else. If the other rule is used, you would have to figure
out everything that you want to disallow, now and in the future.
Firewall Logic
Firewall design is a test of logic, and filter rule ordering is critical. If a packet is passed through a series of filter
rules and then the packet matches a rule, the appropriate action is taken. The packet will not pass through the
remainder of the filter rules.
For example, if you had the following filter set...
Allow WWW access;
Allow FTP access;
Allow SMTP access;
Deny all other packets.
and a packet goes through these rules destined for FTP, the packet would pass through the first rule (WWW), go
through the second rule (FTP), and match this rule; the packet is allowed through.
If you had this filter set for example....
Allow WWW access;
Allow FTP access;
Deny FTP access;
Deny all other packets.
Security 13-31
and a packet goes through these rules destined for FTP, the packet would pass through the first filter rule
(WWW), match the second rule (FTP), and the packet is allowed through. Even though the next rule is to deny all
FTP traffic, the FTP packet will never make it to this rule.
Binary representation
It is easiest when doing filtering to convert the IP address and mask in question to binary. This will allow you to
perform the logical AND to determine whether a packet matches a filter rule.
Logical AND function
When a packet is compared (in most cases) a logical AND function is performed. First the IP addresses and
subnet masks are converted to binary and then combined with AND. The rules for the logical use of AND are as
follows:
0 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 1 = 0
1 AND 0 = 0
1 AND 1 = 1
For example:
Filter rule:
Deny
IP: 163.176.1.15
BINARY: 10100011.10110000.00000001.00001111
Mask: 255.255.255.255
BINARY: 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111
Incoming Packet:
IP 163.176.1.15
BINARY: 10100011.10110000.00000001.00001111
If you put the incoming packet and subnet mask together with AND, the result is:
10100011.10110000.00000001.00001111
which matches the IP address in the filter rule and the packet is denied.
Implied rules
With a given set of filter rules, there is an Implied rule that may or may not be shown to the user. The implied
rule tells the filter set what to do with a packet that does not match any of the filter rules. An example of implied
rules is as follows:
Implied
Meaning
Y+Y+Y=N
If all filter rules are YES, the implied rule is NO.
N+N+N=Y
If all filter rules are NO, the implied rule is YES.
Y+N+Y=N
If a mix of YES and NO filters, the implied rule is NO.
13-32 User’s Reference Guide
Established connections
The TCP header contains one bit called the ACK bit (or TCP Ack bit). This ACK bit appears only with TCP, not
UDP. The ACK bit is part of the TCP mechanism that guaranteed the delivery of data. The ACK bit is set
whenever one side of a connection has received data from the other side. Only the first TCP packet will not have
the ACK bit set; once the TCP connection is in place, the remainder of the TCP packets with have the ACK bit
set.
The ACK bit is helpful for firewall design and reduces the number of potential filter rules. A filter rule could be
created just allowing incoming TCP packets with the ACK bit set, since these packets had to be originated from
the local network.
Example IP filter set screen
This is an example of the Netopia IP filter set screen:
Change Filter
Enabled:
Forward:
Yes
No
Source IP Address:
Source IP Address Mask:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Dest. IP Address:
Dest. IP Address Mask:
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Protocol Type:
TCP
Source Port Compare...
Source Port ID:
Dest. Port Compare...
Dest. Port ID:
Established TCP Conns. Only:
No Compare
0
Equal
2000
No
Return/Enter accepts * Tab toggles * ESC cancels.
Enter the IP specific information for this filter.
Filter basics
In the source or destination IP address fields, the IP address that is entered must be the network address of
the subnet. A host address can be entered, but the applied subnet mask must be 32 bits (255.255.255.255).
The Netopia R9100 has the ability to compare source and destination TCP or UDP ports. These options are as
follows:
Item
What it means
No Compare
Does not compare TCP or UDP port
Not Equal To
Matches any port other than what is defined
Less Than
Anything less than the port defined
Security 13-33
Less Than or Equal
Any port less than or equal to the port defined
Equal
Matches only the port defined
Greater Than or Equal
Matches the port or any port greater
Greater Than
Matches anything greater than the port defined
Example network
Incoming
Packet Filter
Netopia
Internet
IP: 200.1.1.??
DATA
Example filters
Example 1
Filter Rule:
200.1.1.0
(Source IP Network Address)
255.255.255.128
(Source IP Mask)
Forward = No
(What happens on match)
Incoming packet has the source address of 200.1.1.28
IP Address
Binary Representation
200.1.1.28
00011100
(Source address in incoming IP packet)
10000000
(Perform the logical AND)
00000000
(Logical AND result)
AND
255.255.255.128
13-34 User’s Reference Guide
This incoming IP packet has a source IP address that matches the network address in the Source IP Address
field (00000000) in the Netopia R9100. This will not forward this packet.
Example 2
Filter Rule:
200.1.1.0
(Source IP Network Address)
255.255.255.128
(Source IP Mask)
Forward = No
(What happens on match)
Incoming packet has the source address of 200.1.1.184.
IP Address
Binary Representation
200.1.1.184
10111000
(Source address in incoming IP packet)
10000000
(Perform the logical AND)
10000000
(Logical AND result)
AND
255.255.255.128
This incoming IP packet (10000000) has a source IP address that does not match the network address in the
Source IP Address field (00000000) in the Netopia R9100. This rule will forward this packet because the
packet does not match.
Example 3
Filter Rule:
200.1.1.96
(Source IP Network Address)
255.255.255.240
(Source IP Mask)
Forward = No
(What happens on match)
Incoming packet has the source address of 200.1.1.184.
IP Address
Binary Representation
200.1.1.184
10111000
(Source address in incoming IP packet)
11110000
(Perform the logical AND)
10110000
(Logical AND result)
AND
255.255.255.240
Security 13-35
Since the Source IP Network Address in the Netopia R9100 is 01100000, and the source IP address after the
logical AND is 1011000, this rule does not match and this packet will be passed.
Example 4
Filter Rule:
200.1.1.96
(Source IP Network Address)
255.255.255.240
(Source IP Mask)
Forward = No
(What happens on match)
Incoming packet has the source address of 200.1.1.104.
IP Address
Binary Representation
200.1.1.104
01101000
(Source address in incoming IP packet)
11110000
(Perform the logical AND)
01100000
(Logical AND result)
AND
255.255.255.240
Since the Source IP Network Address in the Netopia R9100 is 01100000, and the source IP address after the
logical AND is 01100000, this rule does match and this packet will not be passed.
Example 5
Filter Rule:
200.1.1.96
(Source IP Network Address)
255.255.255.255
(Source IP Mask)
Forward = No
(What happens on match)
Incoming packet has the source address of 200.1.1.96.
IP Address
Binary Representation
200.1.1.96
01100000
(Source address in incoming IP packet)
11111111
(Perform the logical AND)
01100000
(Logical AND result)
AND
255.255.255.255
13-36 User’s Reference Guide
Since the Source IP Network Address in the Netopia R9100 is 01100000, and the source IP address after the
logical AND is 01100000, this rule does match and this packet will NOT be passed. This rule masks off a
single IP address.
Utilities and Diagnostics 14-1
Chapter 14
Utilities and Diagnostics
A number of utilities and tests are available for system diagnostic and control purposes.
This section covers the following topics:
■
“Ping” on page 14-2
■
“Trace Route” on page 14-4
■
“Telnet client” on page 14-5
■
“Disconnect Telnet console session” on page 14-6
■
“Factory defaults” on page 14-6
■
“Transferring configuration and firmware files with TFTP” on page 14-6
■
“Transferring configuration and firmware files with XMODEM” on page 14-9
■
“Restarting the system” on page 14-12
Note: These utilities and tests are accessible only through the console-based management screens. See
Chapter 6, “Console-Based Management,” for information on accessing the console-based management
screens.
You access the Utilities & Diagnostics screens from the Main Menu.
Utilities & Diagnostics
Ping...
Trace Route...
Telnet...
Disconnect Telnet Console Session...
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)...
X-Modem File Transfer...
Revert to Factory Defaults...
Restart System...
14-2 User’s Reference Guide
Ping
The Netopia R9100 includes a standard Ping test utility. A Ping test generates IP packets destined for a
particular (Ping-capable) IP host. Each time the target host receives a Ping packet, it returns a packet to the
original sender.
Ping allows you to see whether a particular IP destination is reachable from the Netopia R9100. You can also
ascertain the quality and reliability of the connection to the desired destination by studying the Ping test’s
statistics.
In the Utilities & Diagnostic screen, select Ping and press Return. The ICMP Ping screen appears.
ICMP Ping
Name of Host to Ping:
Packets to Send:
Data Size:
Delay (seconds):
5
56
1
START PING
Status:
Packets Out:
Packets In:
Packets Lost:
Round Trip Time
(Min/Max/Avg):
0
0
0 (0%)
0.000 / 0.000 / 0.000 secs
Enter the IP Address/Domain Name of a host to ping.
Send ICMP Echo Requests to a network host.
To configure and initiate a Ping test, follow these steps:
1.
Select Name of Host to Ping and enter the destination domain name or IP address.
2.
Select Packets to Send to change the default setting. This is the total number of packets to be sent during
the Ping test. The default setting is adequate in most cases, but you can change it to any value from 1 to
4,294,967,295.
3.
Select Data Size to change the default setting. This is the size, in bytes, of each Ping packet sent. The
default setting is adequate in most cases, but you can change it to any value from 0 (only header data) to
1664.
4.
Select Delay (seconds) to change the default setting. The delay, in seconds, determines the time between
Ping packets sent. The default setting is adequate in most cases, but you can change it to any value from
0 to 4,294,967. A delay of 0 seconds forces packets to be sent immediately, one after another.
5.
Select START PING and press Return to begin the Ping test. While the test is running, the START PING
item becomes STOP PING. To manually stop the Ping test, select STOP PING and press Return or Escape.
While the Ping test is running and when it is over, a status field and a number of statistical items are active on
the screen. These are described below.
Utilities and Diagnostics 14-3
Status: The current status of the Ping test. This item can display the status messages shown in the able below:
Message
Description
Resolving host name
Finding the IP address for the domain name-style address
Can’t resolve host name
IP address can’t be found for the domain name–style name
Pinging
Ping test is in progress
Complete
Ping test was completed
Cancelled by user
Ping test was cancelled manually
Destination unreachable from
w.x.y.z
Ping test was able to reach the router with IP address
w.x.y.z, which reported that the test could not reach the
final destination
Couldn’t allocate packet buffer
Couldn’t proceed with Ping test; try again or reset system
Couldn’t open ICMP port
Couldn’t proceed with Ping test; try again or reset system
Packets Out: The number of packets sent by the Ping test.
Packets In: The number of return packets received from the target host. To be considered “on time,” return
packets are expected back before the next packet in the sequence of Ping packets is sent. A count of the
number of late packets appears in parentheses to the right of the Packets In count.
In the example that follows, a Netopia R9100 is sending Ping packets to another host, which responds with
return Ping packets. Note that the second return Ping packet is considered to be late because it is not received
by the Netopia R9100 before the third Ping packet is sent. The first and third return Ping packets are on time.
time
send Ping packet 1
Netopia
receive Ping packet 1
send return Ping packet 1
Netopia
Netopia
send Ping packet 2
send return Ping packet 2
Netopia
send Ping packet 3
host
host
receive return Ping packet 2
receive Ping packet 3
send return Ping packet 3
Netopia
host
receive return Ping packet 1
receive Ping packet 2
Netopia
host
receive return Ping packet 3
host
host
14-4 User’s Reference Guide
Packets Lost: The number of packets unaccounted for, shown in total and as a percentage of total packets
sent. This statistic may be updated during the Ping test, and may not be accurate until after the test is over.
However, if an escalating one-to-one correspondence is seen between Packets Out and Packets Lost, and
Packets In is noticeably lagging behind Packets Out, the destination is probably unreachable. In this case, use
STOP PING.
Round Trip Time (Min/Max/Avg): Statistics showing the minimum, maximum, and average number of
seconds elapsing between the time each Ping packet was sent and the time its corresponding return Ping
packet was received.
The time-to-live (TTL) value for each Ping packet sent by the Netopia R9100 is 255, the maximum allowed. The
TTL value defines the number of IP routers that the packet can traverse. Ping packets that reach their TTL value
are dropped, and a “destination unreachable” notification is returned to the sender (see the table on the
previous page). This ensures that no infinite routing loops occur. The TTL value can be set and retrieved using
the SNMP MIB-II ip group’s ipDefaultTTL object.
Trace Route
You can count the number of routers between your Netopia Router and a given destination with the Trace Route
utility.
In the Statistics & Diagnostics screen, select Trace Route and press Return. The Trace Route screen appears.
Trace Route
Host Name or IP Address:
Maximum Hops:
Timeout (seconds):
30
5
Use Reverse DNS:
Yes
START TRACE ROUTE
Enter the IP Address/Domain Name of a host.
Trace route to a network host.
To trace a route, follow these steps:
1.
Select Host Name or IP Address and enter the name or address of the destination you want to trace.
2.
Select Maximum Hops to set the maximum number of routers to count between the Netopia Router and
the destination router, up to the maximum of 64. The default is 30 hops.
3.
Select Timeout (seconds) to set when the trace will timeout for each hop, up to 10 seconds. The default is
3 seconds.
Utilities and Diagnostics 14-5
4.
Select Use Reverse DNS to learn the names of the routers between the Netopia Router and the destination
router. The default is Yes.
5.
Select START TRACE ROUTE and press Return. A scrolling screen will appear that lists the destination,
number of hops, IP addresses of each hop, and DNS names, if selected.
6.
Cancel the trace by pressing Escape. Return to the Trace Route screen by pressing Escape twice.
Telnet client
The Telnet client mode replaces the normal menu mode. Telnet sessions can be cascaded, that is, you can
initiate a Telnet client session when using a Telnet console session. To activate the Telnet client, select Telnet
from the Utilities & Diagnostics menu.
The Telnet client screen appears.
Telnet
Host Name or IP Address:
Control Character to Suspend:
Q
START A TELNET SESSION
Enter the IP Address/Domain Name of a host.
■
Enter the host name or the IP address in dotted decimal format of the machine you want to telnet into and
press Return.
■
Either accept the default control character “Q” used to suspend the Telnet session, or type a different one.
■
START A TELNET SESSION becomes highlighted.
■
Press Return and the Telnet session will be initiated.
■
To suspend the session, press Control-Q, or whatever other control character you specified.
Two new options will appear in the Telnet screen (not shown):
Resume Suspended Session – select this one if you want to go back to your Telnet session
Terminate Suspended Session – select this one if you want to end the session
14-6 User’s Reference Guide
Disconnect Telnet console session
If you want to close your Telnet Console session, select Disconnect Telnet Console Session and press Return.
A dialog box appears asking you to cancel or continue your selection.
Utilities & Diagnostics
+------------------------------------------------------+
+------------------------------------------------------+
|
|
| Are you sure you want to close this Console Session? |
|
|
|
CANCEL
CONTINUE
|
|
|
|
|
+------------------------------------------------------+
X-Modem File Transfer...
Revert to Factory Defaults...
Restart System...
If you select Continue, you will immediately terminate your session.
Factory defaults
You can reset the Netopia R9100 to its factory default settings. In the Statistics & Diagnostics screen, select
Revert to Factory Defaults and press Return. Select CONTINUE in the dialog box and press Return. The
Netopia R9100 will reboot and its settings will return to the factory defaults, deleting your configurations.
In an emergency, you can also use the Reset switch to return the router to its factory default settings. Call
Netopia Tech Support for instructions on using the Reset switch.
Note: Reset to factory defaults with caution. You will need to reconfigure all of your settings in the router.
Transferring configuration and firmware files with TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a method of transferring data over an IP network. TFTP is a client-server
application, with the router as the client. To use the Netopia R9100 as a TFTP client, a TFTP server must be
available. Netopia, Inc. has a public access TFTP server on the Internet where you can obtain the latest
firmware versions.
To use TFTP, select Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) in the Statistics & Diagnostics screen and press
Return. The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) screen appears.
Utilities and Diagnostics 14-7
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
TFTP Server Name:
Firmware File Name:
GET ROUTER FIRMWARE FROM SERVER...
GET WAN MODULE FIRMWARE FROM SERVER...
Config File Name:
GET CONFIG FROM SERVER...
SEND CONFIG TO SERVER...
TFTP Transfer State -- Idle
TFTP Current Transfer Bytes -- 0
The sections below describe how to update the Netopia R9100’s firmware and how to download and upload
configuration files.
Updating firmware
Firmware updates may be available periodically from Netopia or from a site maintained by your organization’s
network administrator.
There are two types of firmware in the Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router: router firmware and WAN module
firmware. The router firmware governs how the router communicates with your network and the WAN module;
the WAN module firmware governs how the WAN module communicates with the remote site. WAN module
firmware is included on your Netopia CD for XMODEM transfer and later updates will be available on the Netopia
website. Router firmware updates are also periodically posted on the Netopia website.
To update either the router’s or the internal WAN module’s firmware, follow these steps:
■
Select TFTP Server Name and enter the server name or IP address of the TFTP server you will use. The
server name or IP address is available from the site where the server is located.
■
Select Firmware File Name and enter the name of the file you will download. The name of the file is
available from the site where the server is located. You may need to enter a file path along with the file
name (for example, bigroot/config/myfile).
■
Select GET ROUTER FIRMWARE FROM SERVER or GET WAN MODULE FIRMWARE FROM SERVER and
14-8 User’s Reference Guide
press Return. You will see the following dialog box:
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
|
|
|
Are you sure you want to read the firmware now?
|
|
The device will reset when the transfer is complete. |
|
|
|
CANCEL
CONTINUE
|
|
|
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
■
Select CANCEL to exit without downloading the file, or select CONTINUE to download the file. The system
will reset at the end of the file transfer to put the new firmware into effect. While the system resets, the
LEDs will blink on and off.
Caution!
■
Be sure the firmware update you load onto your router is the correct version for your particular model.
Some models do not support all firmware versions. Loading an incorrect firmware version can permanently
damage the unit.
■
Do not manually power down or reset the Netopia R9100 while it is automatically resetting or it could be
damaged.
■
If you choose to download the firmware, the TFTP Transfer State item will change from Idle to Reading
Firmware. The TFTP Current Transfer Bytes item will reflect the number of bytes transferred.
Downloading configuration files
The Netopia R9100 can be configured by downloading a configuration file using TFTP. Once downloaded, the file
reconfigures all of the router’s parameters as if someone had manually done so through the console port.
To download a configuration file, follow these steps:
■
Select TFTP Server Name and enter the server name or IP address of the TFTP server you will use. The
server name or IP address is available from the site where the server is located.
■
Select Config File Name and enter the name of the file you will download. The name of the file is available
from the site where the server is located. You may need to enter a file path along with the file name (for
example, bigroot/config/myfile).
Utilities and Diagnostics 14-9
■
Select GET CONFIG FROM SERVER and press Return. You will see the following dialog box:
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
|
|
|
Are you sure you want to read the configuration now?
|
|
The device will reset when the transfer is complete.
|
|
|
|
CANCEL
CONTINUE
|
|
|
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
■
Select CANCEL to exit without downloading the file, or select CONTINUE to download the file. The system
will reset at the end of the file transfer to put the new configuration into effect.
■
If you choose to download the configuration file, the TFTP Transfer State item will change from Idle to
Reading Config. The TFTP Current Transfer Bytes item will reflect the number of bytes transferred.
Uploading configuration files
Using TFTP, you can send a file containing a snapshot of the router’s current configuration to a TFTP server. The
file can then be downloaded by a different Netopia R9100 unit to configure its parameters (see “Downloading
configuration files” on page 14-8). This is useful for configuring a number of routers with identical parameters,
or just for creating configuration backup files.
Uploading a file can also be useful for troubleshooting purposes. The uploaded configuration file can be tested
on a different Netopia R9100 unit by Netopia or your network administrator.
To upload a configuration file, follow these steps:
1.
Select TFTP Server Name and enter the server name or IP address of the TFTP server you will use. The
server name or IP address is available from the site where the server is located.
2.
Select Config File Name and enter a name for the file you will upload. The file will appear with the name you
choose on the TFTP server. You may need to enter a file path along with the file name (for example,
Mypc/Netopia/myfile).
3.
Select SEND CONFIG TO SERVER and press Return. Netopia will begin to transfer the file.
4.
The TFTP Transfer State item will change from Idle to Writing Config. The TFTP Current Transfer Bytes
item will reflect the number of bytes transferred.
Transferring configuration and firmware files with XMODEM
You can transfer configuration and firmware files with XMODEM through the Netopia R9100’s console port. Be
sure your terminal emulation program supports XMODEM file transfers.
To go to the X-Modem File Transfer screen, select it in the Utilities & Diagnostics menu.
Note: The X-Modem File Transfer screen is only available if you are connected via the Console port.
14-10 User’s Reference Guide
X-Modem File Transfer
Send Firmware to Netopia...
Send Config to Netopia...
Receive Config from Netopia...
Send Firmware to Netopia WAN module...
WAN module Firmware Status:
IDLE
Updating firmware
Firmware updates may be available periodically from Netopia or from a site maintained by your organization’s
network administration. The procedure below applies whether you are using the console or the WAN interface
module.
Follow these steps to update the Netopia R9100’s firmware:
1.
Make sure you have the firmware file on disk and know the path to its location.
2.
Select Send Firmware to Netopia (or Send Firmware to Netopia WAN module) and press Return. The
following dialog box appears:
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Are you sure you want to send a firmware file to your Netopia?
|
| If so, when you hit Return/Enter on the CONTINUE button, you will |
| have 10 seconds to begin the transfer from your terminal program. |
|
|
|
CANCEL
CONTINUE
|
|
|
|
|
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
3.
Select CANCEL to exit without downloading the file, or select CONTINUE to download the file.
If you choose CONTINUE, you will have ten seconds to use your terminal emulation software to initiate an
XMODEM transfer of the firmware file. If you fail to initiate the transfer in that time, the dialog box will
disappear and the terminal emulation software will inform you of the transfer’s failure. You can then try
again.
Utilities and Diagnostics 14-11
The system will reset at the end of a successful file transfer to put the new firmware into effect. While the
system resets, the LEDs will blink on and off.
Caution!
Do not manually power down or reset the Netopia R9100 while it is automatically resetting or it could be
damaged.
Downloading configuration files
The Netopia R9100 can be configured by downloading a configuration file. The downloaded file reconfigures all
of the Router’s parameters.
Configuration files are available from a site maintained by your organization’s network administrator or from
your local site (see “Uploading configuration files,” below).
Follow these steps to download a configuration file:
1.
Make sure you have the configuration file on disk and know the path to its location.
2.
Select Send Config to Netopia and press Return. The following dialog box appears:
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
|
| Do you want to send a saved configuration to your Netopia?
|
| If so, when you hit Return/Enter on the CONTINUE button, you will |
| have 10 seconds to begin the transfer from your terminal program. |
|
|
|
CANCEL
CONTINUE
|
|
|
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
3.
Select CANCEL to exit without downloading the file, or select CONTINUE to download the file.
If you choose CONTINUE, you will have ten seconds to use your terminal emulation software to initiate an
XMODEM transfer of the configuration file. If you fail to initiate the transfer in that time, the dialog box will
disappear and the terminal emulation software will inform you of the transfer’s failure. You can then try
again.
The system will reset at the end of a successful file transfer to put the new configuration into effect.
Uploading configuration files
A file containing a snapshot of the Netopia R9100’s current configuration can be uploaded from the router to
disk. The file can then be downloaded by a different Netopia R9100 to configure its parameters (see
“Downloading configuration files,” above). This is useful for configuring a number of routers with identical
parameters or for creating configuration backup files.
Uploading a file can also be useful for troubleshooting purposes. The uploaded configuration file can be tested
on a different Netopia R9100 by Netopia or your network administrator.
14-12 User’s Reference Guide
The procedure below applies whether you are using the console or the WAN interface. To upload a configuration
file:
1.
Decide on a name for the file and a path for saving it.
2.
Select Receive Config from Netopia and press Return. The following dialog box appears:
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
|
| Are you sure you want to save your current Netopia configuration? |
| If so, when you hit Return/Enter on the CONTINUE button, you will |
| have 10 seconds to begin the transfer from your terminal program. |
|
|
|
CANCEL
CONTINUE
|
|
|
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
3.
Select CANCEL to exit without uploading the file, or select CONTINUE to upload the file.
If you choose CONTINUE, you will have ten seconds to use your terminal emulation software to initiate an
XMODEM transfer of the configuration file. If you fail to initiate the transfer in that time, the dialog box will
disappear and the terminal emulation software will inform you of the transfer’s failure. You can then try
again.
Restarting the system
You can restart the system by selecting the Restart System item in the Utilities & Diagnostics screen.
You must restart the system whenever you reconfigure the Netopia R9100 and want the new parameter values
to take effect. Under certain circumstances, restarting the system may also clear up system or network
malfunctions. Some configuration processes automatically restart the system to apply the changes you have
made.
Part III: Appendixes
User’s Reference Guide
Troubleshooting A-1
Appendix A
Troubleshooting
This appendix is intended to help you troubleshoot problems you may encounter while setting up and using the
Netopia R9100. It also includes information on how to contact Netopia Technical Support.
Important information on these problems can be found in the event histories kept by the Netopia R9100. These
event histories can be accessed in the Statistics & Logs screen.
This section covers the following topics:
■
“Configuration problems” on page A-1
■
“How to reset the router to factory defaults” on page A-3
■
“Power outages” on page A-3
■
“Technical support” on page A-4
Configuration problems
If you encounter problems during your initial configuration process, review the following suggestions before
calling for technical support. There are four zones to consider when troubleshooting initial configuration:
1.
The computer’s connection to the router
2.
The router’s connection to the telecommunication line(s)
3.
The telecommunication line’s connection to your ISP
4.
The ISP’s connection to the Internet
If the connection from the computer to the router was not successful, verify that the following conditions are in
effect:
■
The Netopia R9100 is turned on.
■
An Ethernet cable connects your PC’s Ethernet card or built-in Ethernet port to the Netopia R9100.
■
The SmartStart application is running and able to access the Netopia R9100.
■
Telnet is available on your PC or Macintosh. (On a PC, it must be specified in your system path. You can
usually find the application as “c:\windows\telnet.exe”.)
■
Your PC or Macintosh is properly configured for TCP/IP.
■
Your PC or Macintosh has an IP address.
■
Your PC or Macintosh has a subnet mask that matches or is compatible with the Netopia R9100’s subnet
mask.
A-2 User’s Reference Guide
Note: If you are attempting to modify the IP address or subnet mask from a previous, successful configuration
attempt, you will need to clear the IP address or reset your Netopia R9100 to the factory default before
reinitiating the configuration process. For further information on resetting your Netopia R9100 to factory
default, see “Factory defaults” on page 14-6.
Console connection problems
Can’t see the configuration screens (nothing appears)
■
Make sure the cable connection from the Netopia R9100’s console port to the computer being used as a
console is securely connected.
■
Make sure the terminal emulation software is accessing the correct port on the computer that’s being
used as a console.
■
Try pressing Ctrl-L or Return or the ▲ up or down▼ key several times to refresh the terminal screen.
■
Make sure that flow control on serial connections is turned off.
Junk characters appear on the screen
■
Check that the terminal emulation software is configured correctly.
■
Check the baud rate. The default values are 9600, N, 8, and 1.
Characters are missing from some of the configuration screens
■
Try changing the Netopia R9100’s default speed of 9600 bps and setting your terminal emulation software
to match the new speed.
Network problems
This section contains tips for troubleshooting a networking problem.
Problems communicating with remote IP hosts
■
Verify the accuracy of the default gateway’s IP address (entered in the IP Setup or Easy Setup screen).
■
Use the Netopia R9100’s Ping utility, in the Utilities & Diagnostics screen, and try to ping local and remote
hosts. See “Ping” on page 14-2 for instructions on how to use the Ping utility. If you can successfully ping
hosts using their IP addresses but not their domain names (198.34.7.1 but not garcia.netopia.com, for
example), verify that the DNS server’s IP address is correct and that it is reachable from the Netopia
R9100 (use Ping).
■
If you are using filters, check that your filter sets are not blocking the type of connections you are trying to
make.
Local routing problems
■
Observe the Ethernet LEDs to see if data traffic flow appears to be normal.
■
Check the WAN statistics and LAN statistics screens to see more specific information on data traffic flow
and address serving. See “Statistics & Logs” on page 12-3 for more information.
Troubleshooting A-3
How to reset the router to factory defaults
Lose your password? This section shows how to reset the router so that you can access the console screens
once again. Keep in mind that all of your connection profiles and settings will need to be reconfigured.
If you don't have a password, the only way to get back into the Netopia R9100 is the following:
1.
Turn the router upside down.
2.
Referring to the diagram below, find the paper clip size Reset Switch slot.
Reset Switch Slot
3.
Carefully insert the larger end of a standard size paper clip until you contact the internal Reset Switch. (No
need to unwind the paper clip.)
4.
Press this switch.
5.
This will reset the unit to factory defaults and you will now be able to reprogram the router.
Power outages
If you suspect that power was restored after a power outage and the Netopia R9100 is connected to a remote
site, you may need to switch the Netopia R9100 off and then back on again. After temporary power outages, a
connection that still seems to be up may actually be disconnected. Rebooting the router should reestablish the
connection.
A-4 User’s Reference Guide
Technical support
Netopia, Inc. is committed to providing its customers with reliable products and documentation, backed by
excellent technical support.
Before contacting Netopia
Look in this guide for a solution to your problem. You may find a solution in this troubleshooting appendix or in
other sections. Check the index for a reference to the topic of concern. If you cannot find a solution, complete
the environment profile below before contacting Netopia technical support.
Environment profile
■
Locate the Netopia R9100’s model number, product serial number, and firmware version. The serial
number is on the bottom of the router, along with the model number. The firmware version appears in the
Netopia R9100’s Main Menu screen.
Model number:
Serial number:
Firmware version:
■
What kind of local network(s) do you have, with how many devices?
Ethernet
LocalTalk
EtherTalk
TCP/IP
IPX
Other:
How to reach us
We can help you with your problem more effectively if you have completed the environment profile in the
previous section. If you contact us by telephone, please be ready to supply Netopia Technical Support with the
information you used to configure the Netopia R9100. Also, please be at the site of the problem and prepared
to reproduce it and to try some troubleshooting steps.
When you are prepared, contact Netopia Customer Service by e-mail, telephone, fax, or post:
Internet: techsports@netopia.com (for technical support)
info@netopia.com (for general information)
Phone: 1 800-782-6449
Fax: 1 510-814-5023
Netopia, Inc.
Customer Service
2470 Mariner Square Loop
Alameda, California 94501
USA
Troubleshooting A-5
Netopia Bulletin Board Service: 1 510-865-1321
Online product information
Product information can be found in the following:
Netopia World Wide Web server via http://www.netopia.com
Internet via anonymous FTP to ftp.netopia.com/pub
FAX-Back
This service provides technical notes that answer the most commonly asked questions, and offers solutions for
many common problems encountered with Netopia products.
FAX-Back: +1 510-814-5040
A-6 User’s Reference Guide
Understanding IP Addressing B-1
Appendix B
Understanding IP Addressing
This appendix is a brief general introduction to IP addressing. A basic understanding of IP will help you in
configuring the Netopia R9100 and using some of its powerful features, such as static routes and packet
filtering.
In packets, a header is part of the envelope information that surrounds the actual data being transmitted. In
e-mail, a header is usually the address and routing information found at the top of messages.
This section covers the following topics:
■
“What is IP?” on page B-1
■
“About IP addressing” on page B-1
■
“Distributing IP addresses” on page B-5
■
“Nested IP subnets” on page B-11
■
“Broadcasts” on page B-13
What is IP?
All networks use protocols to establish common standards for communication. One widely used network
protocol is the Internet Protocol, also known as IP. Like many other protocols, IP uses packets, or formatted
chunks of data, to communicate.
Note: This guide uses the term “IP” in a very general and inclusive way to identify all of the following:
■
Networks that use the Internet Protocol, along with accompanying protocols such as TCP, UDP, and
ICMP
■
Packets that include an IP header within their structure
■
Devices that send IP packets
About IP addressing
Every networking protocol uses some form of addressing in order to ensure that packets are delivered correctly.
In IP, individual network devices that are initial sources and final destinations of packets are usually called
hosts instead of nodes, but the two terms are interchangeable. Each host on an IP network must have a unique
IP address. An IP address, also called an Internet address, is a 32-bit number usually expressed as four
decimal numbers separated by periods. Each decimal number in an IP address represents a 1-byte (8-bit) binary
number. Thus, values for each of the four numbers range from 00000000 to 11111111 in binary notation, or
from 0 to 255 in decimal notation. The expression 192.168.1.1 is a typical example of an IP address.
B-2 User’s Reference Guide
IP addresses indicate both the identity of the network and the identity of the individual host on the network. The
number of bits used for the network number and the number of bits used for the host number can vary, as long
as certain rules are followed. The local network manager assigns IP host numbers to individual machines.
IP addresses are maintained and assigned by the InterNIC, a quasi-governmental organization now increasingly
under the auspices of private industry.
Note: It’s very common for an organization to obtain an IP address from a third party, usually an Internet
service provider (ISP). ISPs usually issue an IP address when they are contracted to provide Internet access
services.
The InterNIC (the NIC stands for Network Information Center) divides IP addresses into several classes.
Classes A, B, and C are assigned to organizations that request addresses. In Class A networks, the first byte of
an IP address is reserved for the network portion of the address. Class B networks reserve the first two bytes
of an IP address for the network address. Class C networks reserve the first three bytes of an IP address for the
network address. In all cases, a network manager can decide to use subnetting to assign even more bits to the
network portion of the IP address, but never less than the class requires. The following section gives more
information on subnetting.
Class A networks have a small number of possible network numbers, but a large number of possible host
numbers. Conversely, Class C networks have a small number of possible host numbers, but a large number of
possible network numbers. Thus, the InterNIC assigns Class A addresses to large organizations that have very
large numbers of IP hosts, while smaller organizations, with fewer hosts, get Class B or Class C addresses. You
can tell the various classes apart by the value of the first (or high-order) byte. Class A networks use values from
1 to 127, Class B networks use values from 128 to 191, and Class C networks use values from 192 to 223.
The following table summarizes some of the differences between Class A, B, and C networks.
Number of
hosts
possible per
network
First byte
Number of
networks
possible per
class
A
1–127
127
16,777,214
net.host.host.host
97.3.14.250
B
128–191
16,384
65,534
net.net.host.host
140.100.10.11
C
192–223
2,097,152
254
net.net.net.host
197.204.13.7
Class
Format of address
(without subnetting)
Example
Subnets and subnet masks
Often an entire organization is assigned only one IP network number. If the organization has several IP networks
connected together with IP routers, the network manager can use subnetting to distinguish between these
networks, even though they all use the same network number. Each physical network becomes a subnet with a
unique subnet number.
Subnet numbers appear within IP addresses, along with network numbers and host numbers. Since an IP
address is always 32 bits long, using subnet numbers means either the network number or the host numbers
must use fewer bits in order to leave room for the subnet numbers. Since the InterNIC assigns the network
number proper, it should not change, so the subnet numbers must be created out of bits that would otherwise
be part of the host numbers.
Understanding IP Addressing B-3
Subnet masks
To create subnets, the network manager must define a subnet mask, a 32-bit number that indicates which bits
in an IP address are used for network and subnetwork addresses and which are used for host addresses. One
subnet mask should apply to all IP networks that are physically connected together and share a single assigned
network number. Subnet masks are often written in decimal notation like IP addresses, but they are most easily
understood in binary notation. When a subnet mask is written in binary notation, each numeral 1 indicates that
the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the network or subnet address. Each 0 indicates that the
corresponding bit is part of the host address. The following table shows the proper subnet masks to use for
each class of network when no subnets are required.
Class
Subnet mask for a network with no subnets
A
Binary: 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
Decimal: 255.0.0.0
B
Binary: 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
Decimal: 255.255.0.0
C
Binary: 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
Decimal: 255.255.255.0
To know whether subnets are being used or not, you must know what subnet mask is being used—you cannot
determine this information simply from an IP address. Subnet mask information is configured as part of the
process of setting up IP routers and gateways such as the Netopia R9100.
Note: If you receive a routed account from an ISP, there must be a mask associated with your network IP
address. By using the IP address with the mask you can discover exactly how many IP host addresses you
actually have.
To configure subnets properly, you must also be able to convert between binary notation and decimal notation.
Example: Using subnets on a Class C IP internet
When setting up IP routing with a Class A Address, or even with multiple Class C Addresses, subnetting is fairly
straightforward. Subnetting a single Class C address between two networks, however, is more complex. This
section describes the general procedures for subnetting a single Class C network between two Netopia routers
so that each can have Internet access.
B-4 User’s Reference Guide
Network configuration
Below is a diagram of a simple network configuration. The ISP is providing a Class C address to the customer
site, and both networks A and B want to gain Internet access through this address. Netopia R9100 B connects
to Netopia R9100 A and is provided Internet access through Routers A and B.
Customer Site A
PC 1:
IP Address: 192.168.1.3
Subnet Mask:
255.255.255.128
Gateway: 192.168.1.1
Router B:
ISP Network
Router A:
IP Address: 10.0.0.1
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Netopia R9100 A:
IP Address: 192.168.1.1
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.128
Remote IP: 10.0.0.1
Remote Sub: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 10.0.0.1
Static Route:
192.168.1.128 [network]
255.255.255.128 [mask]
192.168.1.2 [via router]
Usable IP Addresses available to
Customer Site A: 192.168.1.1 -->
192.168.1.126
IP Address: 192.168.1.2
Subnet Mask:
255.255.255.128
Remote IP: 192.168.1.129
Remote Sub:
255.255.255.128
Gateway: 192.168.1.1
Usable IP Addresses available to Customer Site A:
192.168.1.1 -->
192.168.1.126
LAN
Customer Site B
Netopia R9100 B:
PC 2:
Internet
IP Address: 192.168.1.129
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.128
Remote IP: 192.168.1.2
Remote Sub: 255.255.255.128
Gateway: 192.168.1.2
Usable IP Addresses available to
Customer Site B: 192.168.1.129
--> 192.168.1.254
IP Address:
192.168.1.130
Subnet Mask:
255.255.255.128
Gateway:
192.168.1.129
LAN
Understanding IP Addressing B-5
Background
The IP addresses and routing configurations for the devices shown in the diagram are outlined below. In
addition, each individual field and its meaning are described.
The IP Address and Subnet Mask fields define the IP address and subnet mask of the device's Ethernet
connection to the network while the Remote IP and Remote Sub fields describe the IP address and subnet
mask of the remote router. This information is entered in the connection profile of the Netopia R9100.
The Gateway field describes the router or workstation's default gateway, or where they will send their packets if
the appropriate route is not known. The Static Route field, which is only shown on Router B, tells Router B what
path to take to get to the network defined by Netopia R9100 B. Finally, the Usable IP Address field shows the
range of IP addresses available to the hosts of that network.
Note that the IP addresses given in this section are for example purposes only. Do not use these addresses
when configuring your network.
With this configuration, both Customer Site A and B can gain Internet access through Routers A and B, with no
reconfiguration of the ISP's equipment. The most important item in this configuration is the static route defined
on Router B. This tells Router B what path to take to get to the network defined by Netopia R9100 B. Without
this information, Customer Site B will be able to access Customer Site A, but not the Internet.
If it is not possible to define a static route on Router B, RIP could be enabled to serve the same purpose. To
use RIP instead of a static route, enable Transmit RIP on Netopia R9100 A and Transmit and Receive RIP on
Router B. This will allow the route from Customer Site B to propagate on Router B and Customer Site A.
Example: Working with a Class C subnet
Suppose that your organization has a site with only 10 hosts, and no plans to add any new hosts. You don’t
need a full Class C address for this site. Many ISPs offer Internet access with only a portion of a full Internet
address.
For example, you might obtain the Class C address 199.14.17.48, with the mask 255.255.255.240. From the
previous example, you can see that this gives you 14 host addresses to distribute to the hosts at your site. In
effect, your existing network of 10 hosts is a subnet of the ISP’s network. Since the Class C address has
already been reduced to subnets, you cannot further subnet your network without the risk of creating network
routing problems (since you must use the mask issued by the ISP). This, however, is not a problematic
limitation for your small network.
The advantages of this situation are the greater ease and lower cost of obtaining a subnet rather than a full
Class C address from an ISP.
Distributing IP addresses
To set up a connection to the Internet, you may have obtained a block of IP host addresses from an Internet
service provider. When configuring the Netopia R9100, you gave one of those addresses to its Ethernet port,
leaving a number of addresses to distribute to computers on your network.
B-6 User’s Reference Guide
There are two schemes for distributing the remaining IP addresses:
■
Manually give each computer an address
■
Let the Netopia R9100 automatically distribute the addresses
These two methods are not mutually exclusive; you can manually issue some of the addresses while the rest
are distributed by the Netopia R9100. Using the router in this way allows it to function as an address server.
One reason to use the Netopia R9100 as an address server is that it takes less time than manually distributing
the addresses. This is particularly true if you have many addresses to distribute. You need to enter information
only once, rather than having to repeatedly enter it on each host separately. This also reduces the potential for
misconfiguring hosts.
Another reason to use the Netopia R9100 as an address server is that it will distribute addresses only to hosts
that need to use them.
All Netopia R9100s come with an integrated Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP) server. Some routers also
come with a Macintosh Internet Protocol (MacIP) server. These servers provide a means of distributing IP
addresses to either a Mac or PC workstation as needed.
When setting up the DHCP or MacIP servers in the Netopia R9100, it is necessary to understand how
workstations lease, renew, and release their IP addresses. This information is helpful in determining dynamic
address allocation for a network.
The term “lease” describes the action of a workstation requesting and using an IP address. The address is
dynamic and can be returned to the address pool at a later time.
The term “renew” refers to what the workstations do to keep their leased IP address. At certain intervals, the
workstation talks to the DHCP or MacIP server and renews the lease on that IP address. This renewal allows
the workstation to keep and use the assigned IP address until the next renewal period.
The term “release” refers to a situation where the workstation is no longer using its assigned IP address or has
been shut down. IP addresses can be manually released as well. The IP address goes back into the DHCP or
MacIP address pool to be reassigned to another workstation as needed.
Technical note on subnet masking
Note: The IP address supplied by the Netopia R9100 will be a unique number. You may want to replace this
number with a number that your ISP supplies if you are configuring the router for a static IP address. The
automatic IP mask supplied by SmartStart is a Class C address. However, the Netopia R9100 and all devices
on the same local network must have the same subnet mask. If you require a different class address, you can
edit the IP Mask field to enter the correct address. Refer to the table below.
Number of Devices (other than
Netopia R9100) on Local Network
Largest Possible Ethernet Subnet
Mask
1
255.255.255.252
2-5
255.255.255.248
6-13
255.255.255.240
14-29
255.255.255.224
Understanding IP Addressing B-7
Number of Devices (other than
Netopia R9100) on Local Network
Largest Possible Ethernet Subnet
Mask
30-61
255.255.255.192
62-125
255.255.255.128
125-259
255.255.255.0
Configuration
This section describes the specific IP address lease, renew, and release mechanisms for both the Mac and PC,
with either DHCP or MacIP address serving.
DHCP address serving
Windows 95 workstation:
■
The Win95 workstation requests and renews its lease every half hour.
■
The Win95 workstation does NOT relinquish its DHCP address lease when the machine is shut down.
■
The lease can be manually expired using the WINIPCFG program from the Win95 machine, that is a
command line program executable from the DOS prompt or from the START:RUN menu.
Windows 3.1 workstation (MSTCP Version 3.11a):
■
The Win3.1 workstation requests and renews its lease every half hour.
■
The Win3.1 workstation does NOT relinquish its DHCP address lease when the user exits Windows and
goes to DOS.
■
The lease can be manually expired by typing IPCONFIG/RELEASE from a DOS window within Windows or
from the DOS prompt.
Macintosh workstation (Open Transport Version 1.1 or later):
■
The Mac workstation requests and renews its lease every half hour.
■
The Mac workstation relinquishes its address upon shutdown in all but one case. If the TCP/IP control
panel is set to initialize at startup, and no IP services are used or the TCP/IP control panel is not opened,
the DHCP address will NOT be relinquished upon shutdown. However, if the TCP/IP control panel is opened
or if an IP application is used, the Mac WILL relinquish the lease upon shutdown.
■
If the TCP/IP control panel is set to acquire an address only when needed (therefore a TCP/IP application
must have been launched to obtain a lease) the Mac WILL relinquish its lease upon shutdown every time.
Netopia R9100 DHCP server characteristics
■
The Netopia R9100 ignores any lease-time associated with a DHCP request and automatically issues the
DHCP address lease for one hour.
■
The number of devices a Netopia R9100 can serve DHCP to is 512. This is imposed by global limits on the
size of the address serving database, which is shared by all address serving functions active in the router.
B-8 User’s Reference Guide
■
The Netopia R9100 does release the DHCP address back to the available DHCP address pool precisely
one hour after the last-heard lease request as some other DHCP implementations may hold on to the lease
for an additional time after the lease expired, to act as a buffer for variances in clocks between the client
and server.
MacIP serving
Macintosh workstation (MacTCP or Open Transport):
Once the Mac workstation requests and receives a valid address, the Netopia R9100 actively checks for the
workstation’s existence once every minute.
■
For a dynamic address, the Netopia R9100 releases the address back to the address pool after it has lost
contact with the Mac workstation for over 2 minutes.
■
For a static address, the Netopia R9100 releases the address back to the address pool after it has lost
contact with the Mac workstation for over 20 minutes.
Netopia R9100 MacIP server characteristics
The Mac workstation uses ATP to both request and receive an address from the Netopia R9100's MacIP server.
Once acquired, NBP confirm packets will be sent out every minute from the Netopia R9100 to the Mac
workstation.
Manually distributing IP addresses
If you choose to manually distribute IP addresses, you must enter each computer’s address into its TCP/IP
stack software. Once you manually issue an address to a computer, it possesses that address until you
manually remove it. That’s why manually distributed addresses are sometimes called static addresses.
Static addresses are useful in cases when you want to make sure that a host on your network cannot have its
address taken away by the address server. Appropriate candidates for a static address include: a network
administrator’s computer, a computer dedicated to communicating with the Internet, and routers.
Using address serving
The Netopia R9100 provides three ways to serve IP addresses to computers on a network. The first, Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), is supported by PCs with Microsoft Windows and a TCP/IP stack.
Macintosh computers using Open Transport and computers using the UNIX operating system may also be able
to use DHCP. The second way, MacIP, is for Macintosh computers. The third way, called Serve Dynamic WAN
Clients (IPCP), is used to fulfill WAN client requirements
The Netopia R9100 can use both DHCP and MacIP. Whether you use one or both depends on your particular
networking environment. If that environment includes both PCs and Macintosh computers that do not use Open
Transport, you need to use both DHCP and MacIP to distribute IP addresses to all of your computers.
Serve dynamic WAN clients
The third method, used to fulfill WAN client requirements, is called Serve Dynamic WAN Clients. This is a subset
of PPP. Originally, this would apply only to switched WAN interface routers, and not to leased line routers.
However, a new feature can give you Asynchronous PPP dial-in support on the Auxiliary port on any router
including leased line Netopia routers.
Understanding IP Addressing B-9
In any situation where a device is dialing into a Netopia router, the router may need to be configured to serve IP
via the WAN interface. This is only a requirement if the calling device has not been configured locally to know
what its address(es) are. So when a client, dialing into a Netopia router's WAN interface, is expecting
addresses to be served by the answering router, you must set the answering Netopia router to serve IP via its
WAN interface.
You can do this in either of two ways:
■
use the Serve Dynamic WAN Clients option in the Address Serving Setup screen.
Serve Dynamic WAN Clients enabled only allows a user to specify a pool of address from which the dial-in
client may get an IP address from. It does not allow static addressing.
If you want to obtain addresses dynamically, use Serve Dynamic WAN Clients.
■
define the address that the user wants to serve in the Connection Profile's IP Setup screen.
This method requires a static value to be used. Thus any user dialing in can obtain the same IP address for
every connection to the profile.
If you want to obtain addresses statically, define the address in the Connection Profile.
Notes:
■
The addresses that are to be served cannot be used elsewhere. For example you wouldn't want to
define a static address in a Connection Profile to be served via the WAN that is already defined in the
DHCP pool of addresses.
■
In order to work correctly, you must define a “host” or “node” address in the IP Profile Parameters of
the Connection Profile.
This is accomplished by specifying the IP address that is to be statically served via the WAN, and then
by entering a mask value of 255.255.255.255.
Tips and rules for distributing IP addresses
■
Before you allocate IP addresses using DHCP and MacIP, consider whether you need to set aside any static
addresses.
■
Note any planned and currently used static addresses before you use DHCP and MacIP.
■
Avoid fragmenting your block of IP addresses. For example, try to use a continuous range for the static
addresses you choose.
B-10 User’s Reference Guide
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Block of IP host addresses
(derived from network IP
address + mask issued by ISP)
1
Distributed to the Netopia R9100
(Ethernet IP address)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Manually distributed
(static)
Pool of addresses distributed
by MacIP and DHCP
The figure above shows an example of a block of IP addresses being distributed correctly.
The example follows these rules:
■
■
■
■
An IP address must not be used as a static address if it is also in a range of addresses being distributed
by DHCP or MacIP.
A single IP address range is used by all the address-served clients. These include DHCP, BootP, MacIP, and
WAN clients, even though BootP and static MacIP clients might not be considered served.
The address range specified for address-served clients cannot wrap around from the end of the total
available range back to the beginning. See below for a further explanation and an example.
The network address issued by an ISP cannot be used as a host address.
A DHCP example
Suppose, for example, that your ISP gave your network the IP address 199.1.1.32 and a 4-bit subnet mask.
Address 199.1.1.32 is reserved as the network address. Address 199.1.1.47 is reserved as the broadcast
address. This leaves 14 addresses to allocate, from 199.1.1.33 through 199.1.1.46. If you want to allocate a
sub-block of 10 addresses using DHCP, enter “10” in the DHCP Setup screen’s Number of Addresses to
Allocate item. Then, in the same screen’s First Address item, enter the first address in the sub-block to
allocate so that all 10 addresses are within your original block. You could enter 199.1.1.33, or 199.1.1.37, or
any address between them. Note that if you entered 199.1.1.42 as the first address, network routing errors
would probably result because you would be using a range with addresses that do not belong to your network
(199.1.1.49, 199.1.1.50, and 199.1.1.51).
Understanding IP Addressing B-11
Nested IP subnets
Under certain circumstances, you may want to create remote subnets from the limited number of IP addresses
issued by your ISP or other authority. You can do this using connection profiles. These subnets can be nested
within the range of IP addresses available to your network.
For example, suppose that you obtain the Class C network address a.b.c.0 to be distributed among three
networks. This network address can be used on your main network, while portions of it can be subnetted to the
two remaining networks.
Note: The IP address a.b.c.0 has letters in place of the first three numbers to generalize it for this example.
The figure at left shows a possible network configuration following this scheme. The main network is set up with
the Class C address a.b.c.0, and contains Router A (which could be a Netopia R9100), a Netopia R9100, and a
number of other hosts. Router A maintains a link to the Internet, and can be used as the default gateway.
Internet
a.b.c.16
a.b.c.1
Router A
a.b.c.0
a.b.c.2
Router B
Router C
a.b.c.128
a.b.c.248
a.b.c.129
a.b.c.249
B-12 User’s Reference Guide
Routers B and C (which could also be Netopia R9100s) serve the two remote networks that are subnets of
a.b.c.0. The subnetting is accomplished by configuring the Netopia R9100 with connection profiles for Routers
B and C (see the following table).
Connection profile
Remote IP address
Remote IP mask
Bits available for host
address
For Router B
a.b.c.128
255.255.255.192
7
For Router C
a.b.c.248
255.255.255.248
3
The Netopia R9100’s connection profiles for Routers B and C create entries in its IP routing table. One entry
points to the subnet a.b.c.128, while a second entry points to the subnet a.b.c.248. The IP routing table might
look similar to the following:
IP Routing Table
Network Address-Subnet Mask-----via Router------Port--Age--------Type---------------------------------------SCROLL UP-------------------------------0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
a.b.c.1 WAN
3719
Management
127.0.0.1
255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1 lp1
6423
Local
a.b.c.128
255.255.255.192 a.b.c.128 WAN
5157
Local
a.b.c.248
255.255.255.248 a.b.c.248 WAN
6205
Local
---------------------------------SCROLL DOWN------------------------------UPDATE
Let’s see how a packet from the Internet gets routed to the host with IP address a.b.c.249, which is served by
Router C. The packet first arrives at Router A, which delivers it to its local network (a.b.c.0). The packet is then
received by the Netopia R9100, which examines its destination IP address.
The Netopia R9100 compares the packet’s destination IP address with the routes in its IP routing table. It
begins with the route at the bottom of the list and works up until there’s a match or the route to the default
gateway is reached.
When a.b.c.249 is masked by the first route’s subnet mask, it yields a.b.c.248, which matches the network
address in the route. The Netopia R9100 uses the connection profile associated with the route to connect to
Router C, and then forwards the packet. Router C delivers the packet to the host on its local network.
Understanding IP Addressing B-13
The following diagram illustrates the IP address space taken up by the two remote IP subnets. You can see from
the diagram why the term nested is appropriate for describing these subnets.
1
Address range
available to
a.b.c.0, less
the two nested
subnets
129
valid addresses used
by a.b.c.128
190
valid addresses used
by a.b.c.248
249
254
Broadcasts
As mentioned earlier, binary IP host or subnet addresses composed entirely of ones or zeros are reserved for
broadcasting. A broadcast packet is a packet that is to be delivered to every host on the network if both the
host address and the subnet address are all ones or all zeros, or to every host on the subnetwork if the host
address is all ones or all zeros but the subnet address is a combination or zeros and ones. Instead of making
many copies of the packet, individually addressed to different hosts, all the host machines know to pay
attention to broadcast packets, as well as to packets addressed to their specific individual host addresses.
Depending on the age and type of IP equipment you use, broadcasts will be addressed using either all zeros or
all ones, but not both. If your network requires zeros broadcasting, you must configure this through SNMP.
Packet header types
As previously mentioned, IP works with other protocols to allow communication over IP networks. When IP is
used on an Ethernet network, IP works with the Ethernet or 802.3 framing standards, among other protocols.
These two protocols specify two different ways to organize the very first signals in the sequence of electrical
signals that make up an IP packet travelling over Ethernet. By default, the Netopia R9100 uses Ethernet packet
headers for IP traffic. If your network requires 802.3 IP framing, you must configure this through SNMP.
B-14 User’s Reference Guide
Understanding Netopia NAT Behavior C-1
Appendix C
Understanding Netopia NAT Behavior
This appendix describes how Network Address Translation (NAT) works within the Netopia R9100. The Netopia
R9100 implements a powerful feature called Network Address Translation as specified in RFC 1631. NAT is
used for IP address conservation and for security purposes since there will only be a single IP “presence” on
the WAN. This appendix describes the NAT functionality within the Netopia R9100 and provides examples for
setup and use.
Network configuration
Below is a diagram of the network referenced in this appendix.
ISP Network
IP: 200.1.1.1
Mask: 255.255.255.0
Router
Customer Site
Netopia Router
WAN IP: 200.1.1.40
Mask: 255.255.255.0
MAC: 00-00-c5-60-21-0a
Netopia Router
LAN IP: 192.168.5.1
Mask: 255.255.255.240
MAC: 00-00-c5-60-21-0a
Netopia
Internet
WWW Server
IP: 163.176.4.32
Mask: 255.255.255.0
MAC: 00-05-02-0c-1b-41
Workstation A
IP: 192.168.5.2
Mask: 255.255.255.240
MAC: 00-05-02-04-12-4f
LAN
Workstation B
IP: 192.168.5.3
Mask: 255.255.255.240
MAC: 00-05-02-00-1e-03
Background
NAT is a mechanism employed within the Netopia R9100 to acquire a statically or dynamically assigned IP
address on its WAN interface and proxy against locally assigned IP addresses on its LAN interface. The Netopia
R9100 uses a one-to-many IP address mapping scheme; that is against a single IP address the Netopia R9100
acquires on its WAN interface, the Netopia R9100 can proxy 14, 30, or an unlimited number of IP hosts on the
LAN interface.
In order to fully understand how NAT works, you must understand how a connection is established and IP
addresses are negotiated.
C-2 User’s Reference Guide
When the Netopia R9100 establishes a connection over its WAN interface with another router it uses the
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). Within PPP there is a Network Control Protocol (NCP) called Internet Protocol
Control Protocol (IPCP), which handles the negotiation of IP addresses between the two routers, in this case the
Netopia R9100 at the customer site above and the router at the Internet service provider (ISP).
If the Netopia R9100 calls the router at the ISP with NAT disabled, the Netopia negotiates its LAN interface
address (as specified in IP Setup within the Netopia R9100's console) with the router at the ISP through IPCP
and then sets up routing. From the diagram on the previous page you can see that the address for the Netopia
R9100 is 192.168.5.1 and the address of the router at the ISP is 200.1.1.1. Assuming that the addresses
negotiated by the routers are valid and unique for the Internet, the Netopia R9100 and the hosts on its LAN
would be able to access the Internet.
If the Netopia R9100 calls the router at the ISP with NAT enabled, instead of negotiating the LAN interface
address, the Netopia R9100 suggests the address 0.0.0.0 through IPCP. When the router at the ISP sees this
all-zeros IPCP request, the router can either pull a free dynamic IP address from its pool and assign it to the
Netopia R9100’s WAN interface or, if configured to do so, it can match the Netopia R9100's incoming
connection profile and assign a preconfigured static IP address to the Netopia R9100's WAN interface.
From the diagram, you can see that the IP address assigned to the Netopia R9100's WAN interface is
200.1.1.40, while the IP address assigned to the LAN interface remains the same. The LAN interface address
192.168.5.1 is thus hidden from the ISP and the Internet, and the Netopia R9100 only has a single valid IP
presence on the Internet. The LAN interface IP address for the Netopia R9100 can be any IP address; however,
it is recommended that you use the IANA-specified 192.168.X.X Class C address range, which is used for
networks not attached to the Internet. This address range is described in RFC 1597.
The dynamic IP address acquisition on the WAN interface of the Netopia R9100 is one of several features of
NAT. Another is the mapping of locally assigned IP addresses to the single globally unique IP address acquired
by the Netopia R9100 on its WAN interface. NAT employs several things to accomplish this seamlessly. You
must look at the formatting of an IP packet before IP address remapping can be explained.
Every IP packet that is transmitted across the Netopia R9100’s LAN interface or across the WAN interface to
the Internet contains several bits of information that indicate to any device where the packet is going and where
it came from. In particular, you have the source and destination port and source and destination IP addresses.
A port is used within IP to define a particular type of service and could be either a Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) port or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port. Both TCP and UDP are protocols that use IP as the
underlying transport mechanism. The major difference between TCP and UDP is that TCP is a reliable delivery
service, whereas UDP is a “best-effort” delivery service. A list of well-known TCP or UDP ports and services can
be found in RFC 1700.
If Workstation A wants to communicate with a World Wide Web (WWW) server on the Internet and the Netopia
R9100 does not have NAT enabled, Workstation A forms an IP packet with the source IP address of
192.168.5.2 and destination IP address of 163.176.4.32. The source port could be 400 while the destination
port would be 80 (WWW server). The Netopia R9100 then looks at this IP packet, determines the best routing
method and sends that packet on its way across the WAN interface to the WWW server on the Internet.
With NAT enabled, the Netopia R9100 does something different. For example, suppose that Workstation A
again wants to communicate with the WWW server on the Internet. Workstation A forms an IP packet with the
source IP address of 192.168.5.2 and destination IP address of 163.176.4.32, and source port could be 400
while the destination port would be 80 (WWW server).
Understanding Netopia NAT Behavior C-3
When the Netopia R9100 receives this IP packet, it cannot simply forward it to the WAN interface and the
Internet since the IP addresses on the LAN interface are not valid or globally unique for the Internet. Instead,
the Netopia R9100 has to change the IP packet to reflect the IP address that was acquired on the WAN
interface from the ISP.
The Netopia R9100 will first substitute the source IP address with the IP address that was acquired on the WAN
interface, which in this case is 200.1.1.40. Next the Netopia R9100 will substitute the source TCP or UDP port
with a TCP or UDP port from within a specified range maintained within the Netopia R9100. And finally the
modified IP packet's checksum is recalculated (as specified in RFC 1631) and the packet is transmitted across
the WAN interface to its destination, the WWW server on the Internet.
If the send and response IP packets were drawn out, this process would look like the following:
WWW Server
163.176.4.32
ISP Router
200.1.1.1
Netopia Router
LAN: 192.168.5.1
WAN: 200.1.1.40
Router
Workstation A
192.168.5.2
Netopia
ISP Router to WWW
Src IP: 200.1.1.40
Dst IP: 163.176.4.32
Src Port: 5001
Dst Port: 80
Netopia to ISP Router
Src IP: 200.1.1.40
Dst IP: 163.176.4.32
Src Port: 5001
Dst Port: 80
Wkstn A to Netopia
Src IP: 192.168.5.2
Dst IP: 163.176.4.32
Src Port: 400
Dst Port: 80
WWW to ISP Router
Src IP: 163.176.4.32
Dst IP: 200.1.1.40
Src Port: 80
Dst Port: 5001
ISP Router to Netopia
Src IP: 163.176.4.32
Dst IP: 200.1.1.40
Src Port: 80
Dst Port: 5001
Netopia to Wkstn A
Src IP: 163.176.4.32
Dst IP: 192.168.5.2
Src Port: 80
Dst Port: 400
As you can see, the IP packet from Workstation A is sent to the Netopia R9100 and the source IP address is
substituted with 200.1.1.40 and the source port is substituted with 5001, then the IP packet checksum is
recalculated. When this modified packet reaches the WWW server on the Internet, the WWW server responds
and sends the IP packet back to destination IP address 200.1.1.40 and destination port 5001.
When the Netopia R9100 receives this IP packet from the WWW server, the Netopia R9100 replaces the
destination IP address with 192.168.5.2, the address for Workstation A. The port is changed back to 400, the
IP packet checksum is recalculated, and the IP packet is sent to Workstation A on the Netopia R9100s LAN
interface.
C-4 User’s Reference Guide
The reasons for the IP address changes are obvious from the preceding diagram, but what is not so obvious is
why the TCP or UDP source ports need to be changed as well. These are changed and maintained in an internal
table so the Netopia R9100 can determine which host on the local LAN interface sent the IP packet and what
host the response from the WAN interface is going to go to on the LAN interface. This becomes especially
important when two or more hosts on the LAN interface are accessing the same type of service on the Internet,
like a WWW server (port 80), for example.
Now look at how two hosts on the LAN interface accessing the same WWW server on the Internet will work:
WWW Server
163.176.4.32
ISP Router
200.1.1.1
Router
ISP Router to WWW
Src IP: 200.1.1.40
Dst IP: 163.176.4.32
Src Port: 5001
Dst Port: 80
ISP Router to WWW
Src IP: 200.1.1.40
Dst IP: 163.176.4.32
Src Port: 5002
Dst Port: 80
WWW to ISP Router
Src IP: 163.176.4.32
Dst IP: 200.1.1.40
Src Port: 80
Dst Port: 5002
WWW to ISP Router
Src IP: 163.176.4.32
Dst IP: 200.1.1.40
Src Port: 80
Dst Port: 5001
Netopia Router
LAN: 192.168.5.1
WAN: 200.1.1.40
Workstations
A&B
Netopia
Netopia to ISP Router
Src IP: 200.1.1.40
Dst IP: 163.176.4.32
Src Port: 5001
Dst Port: 80
Netopia to ISP Router
Src IP: 200.1.1.40
Dst IP: 163.176.4.32
Src Port: 5002
Dst Port: 80
ISP Router to Netopia
Src IP: 163.176.4.32
Dst IP: 200.1.1.40
Src Port: 80
Dst Port: 5002
ISP Router to Netopia
Src IP: 163.176.4.32
Dst IP: 200.1.1.40
Src Port: 80
Dst Port: 5001
Wkstn A to Netopia
Src IP: 192.168.5.2
Dst IP: 163.176.4.32
Src Port: 400
Dst Port: 80
Wkstn B to Netopia
Src IP: 192.168.5.3
Dst IP: 163.176.4.32
Src Port: 400
Dst Port: 80
Netopia to Wkstn B
Src IP: 163.176.4.32
Dst IP: 192.168.5.3
Src Port: 80
Dst Port: 400
Netopia to Wkstn A
Src IP: 163.176.4.32
Dst IP: 192.168.5.2
Src Port: 80
Dst Port: 400
As you can see, when Workstation A and Workstation B transmit an IP packet to the WWW server on the
Internet, they have unique source IP addresses on the LAN interface but potentially the same source ports,
which in this case is 400. When the Netopia R9100 receives these packets, the source IP addresses are
substituted with the single globally unique IP address that was acquired on the WAN interface, which is
200.1.1.40.
Understanding Netopia NAT Behavior C-5
Now both IP packets have the exact same source IP address (200.1.1.40) and source ports (400). The Netopia
R9100 is then able to distinguish between the two IP packets by changing the source TCP or UDP ports and
keeping this information in an internal table. As seen above, the source port for Workstation A has been
changed to 5001 and the source port for Workstation B has been changed to 5002.
If you were to look at the internal port mapping table that is maintained by the Netopia R9100, it would look
similar to the following:
Source LAN IP
192.168.5.2
192.168.5.3
Source LAN Port
TCP 400
TCP 400
Remapped LAN Port
TCP 5001
TCP 5002
With this information the Netopia R9100 can determine the appropriate routing for an IP response from the
Internet. In this case, when the WWW server responds with a destination port of 5001, the Netopia R9100 can
see that this packet's destination on the local LAN interface is actually Workstation A at IP address
192.168.5.2. Likewise, with the response for port 5002, the Netopia R9100 can see that this packet's
destination on the local LAN interface is actually Workstation B at IP address 192.168.5.3.
Exported services
Note that this “automatic” port remapping and IP address substitution only works in one direction – for IP
packets that originated on the LAN interface destined to the WAN interface and the Internet. In order for port
remapping and IP address substitution to work in the other direction – that is, hosts on the Internet that want to
originate an IP packet destined to a host on the Netopia R9100s LAN interface – a manual redirection of TCP or
UDP ports as well as destination IP addresses within the Netopia R9100 is required. This manual port
remapping and IP address substitution is accomplished by setting up exported services.
Exported services are essentially user-defined pointers for a particular type of incoming TCP or UDP service
from the WAN interface to a host on the local LAN interface. This is necessary since the Netopia R9100 and
thus the attached local LAN has only one IP presence on the WAN interface and Internet. Exported services
allows the user to redirect one type of service – for example Port 21 (FTP) – to a single host on the local LAN
interface. This will then allow the Netopia R9100 to redirect any packets coming in from the Internet with the
defined destination TCP or UDP port of port 21 (FTP) to be redirected to a host on the local LAN interface.
For example, suppose the WWW server on the Internet with the IP address of 163.176.4.32 wants to access
Workstation B on the Netopia R9100s local LAN interface which is operating as an FTP server. The IP address
for Workstation B is 192.168.5.3, which is not a valid IP address, and thus the WWW server on the Internet
cannot use this IP address to access Workstation B.
The WWW server on the Internet would then have to use the single valid IP address that was acquired on the
Netopia R9100's WAN interface to access any host on the Netopia R9100's local LAN interface, since this is
the only valid address for the Internet. But if the WWW server on the Internet opens a connection to 200.1.1.40
via port 21 (FTP) and no exported services are defined on the Netopia R9100, the Netopia R9100 will discard
the incoming packet since the Netopia R9100 itself does not perform the requested service.
You can see why exported services are necessary. In the example above, an Exported Service needs to be
defined within the Netopia R9100 redirecting any incoming IP traffic with a destination port of 21 to the host on
the local LAN interface with the IP address of 192.168.5.3.
C-6 User’s Reference Guide
If the WWW server on the Internet then tries to open a connection to the IP address of 200.1.1.40 with the
appropriate Exported Service defined, the Netopia R9100 will look at the destination port and will find that it is
destined for port 21 (FTP). The Netopia R9100 then looks at the internal user-defined exported services table
and finds that any incoming IP traffic from the WAN port with a destination of port 21 (FTP) should be redirected
to the IP address of 192.168.5.3 on the local LAN interface, which in this case is Workstation B.
Once the appropriate exported services are defined, there can be seamless communication between a host on
the Internet and a host on the Netopia R9100’s local LAN interface.
Important notes
Even with the advantages of NAT, there are several things you should note carefully:
■
There is no formally agreed-upon method among router vendors for handling an all-zeros IPCP request. The
majority of router vendors use the all-zeros IPCP request to determine when a dial-in host wants to be
assigned an IP address. Some vendors however attempt to negotiate and establish routing with an
all-zeros IP address. The Netopia R9100 will not allow routing to be established with an all-zeros IP
address and the call will be dropped with an error logged in the Device Event History.
■
When using NAT it is most likely that the Netopia R9100 will be receiving an IP address from a “pool” of
dynamic IP addresses at the ISP. This means that the Netopia R9100's IP presence on the Internet will
change with each connection. This can potentially cause problems with devices on the Internet attempting
to access services like WWW and FTP servers or AURP partners on the Netopia R9100’s local LAN
interface. In this case, if a dynamic IP address is assigned to the WAN interface of the Netopia R9100
each time, the administrator of the Netopia R9100 will have to notify clients who want to access services
on the Netopia R9100’s LAN interface of the new IP address after each connection.
■
With NAT enabled, there cannot be two or more of the same types of service accessible from the Internet
on the LAN interface of the Netopia R9100. For example, there cannot be multiple FTP servers (Port 23) on
the Netopia R9100's LAN interface that can be accessible by workstations on the Internet. This is because
there is no way within the Netopia R9100 and IP to distinguish between multiple servers using the same
port, in this case port 23.
■
Fictional IP addresses may be assigned on the Netopia R9100’s LAN interface. It is strongly recommended
that for the Netopia R9100’s LAN interface, an IP address from the Class C address range of 192.168.X.X
be used. This is because this range is defined by the IANA as an address space that will never be routed
through the Internet and is to be used by private Intranets not attached to the Internet.
If the address range of 192.168.X.X is not used and another range of addresses such as 100.1.1.X is
used instead, this address space can potentially overlap an address space that is owned by a user
attached to the Internet. Thus if a user on the Netopia R9100’s LAN interface has an IP address of
100.1.1.2 while the Netopia R9100’s LAN interface is 100.1.1.2 and the local host wants to access a
host on the Internet with the address of 100.1.1.8, the Netopia R9100 has no way of knowing that the
200.1.1.8 address is actually on the Internet and not on its local LAN interface, since the local LAN
interface is assigned the IP address range of 200.1.1.1 to 200.1.1.14.
Understanding Netopia NAT Behavior C-7
Configuration
Network Address Translation is enabled by default with the SmartStart configuration utility. You can toggle
Address Translation Enabled to No or Yes in the WAN Ethernet Configuration screen in WAN Configuration under
the Main Menu. An example of enabling NAT is as follows:
WAN Ethernet Configuration
Address Translation Enabled:
Local WAN IP Address:
Yes
0.0.0.0
Filter Set...
Remove Filter Set
Receive RIP:
Both
Aux Serial Port...
Data Rate (kbps)...
Aux Modem Init String:
Async Modem
57.6
AT&F&C1&D2E0S0=1
Set up the basic IP attributes of your Ethernet Module in this screen.
Toggling Address Translation Enabled to Yes enables the Netopia R9100 to send out an all-zeros IPCP address
that requests an IP to be assigned to the Netopia R9100’s WAN interface. Note that the remote IP address is
127.0.0.2, which should also be the default gateway under IP Setup in System Configuration. This is done for
profile matching purposes and because the IP address of the router the Netopia R9100 is dialing is not always
known.
As mentioned earlier in this appendix, NAT works well for IP sessions originated on the Netopia R9100’s LAN
interface destined for the Internet without any additional configuration. For incoming IP connections from the
Internet to a host on the Netopia R9100’s LAN interface, exported services need to be used.
C-8 User’s Reference Guide
Exported services are configured under IP Setup in System Configuration. This is where a particular type of TCP
or UDP service originating from the Internet is redirected to a host on the Netopia R9100’s LAN interface. An
example of this screen follows:
Add Exported Service
+-Type------Port--+
+-----------------+
Service...
| ftp
21
|
| telnet
23
|
| smtp
25
|
Local Server's IP Address:
| tftp
69
|
| gopher
70
|
| finger
79
|
| www-http 80
|
| pop2
109
|
| pop3
110
|
| snmp
161
|
| timbuktu 407
|
| pptp
1723 |
| irc
6667 |
| Other...
|
+-----------------+
ADD EXPORT NOW
CANCEL
Within exported services is a pop-up list of well-known TCP and UDP services that can be redirected to a single
host on the Netopia R9100’s LAN interface. There is also an “Other...” option that allows for manual
configuration of additional TCP or UDP ports. There can be a total of 32 exported services that can be defined.
When a particular type of service is redirected to an IP address, that service is removed from the pop-up list,
since only one type of service can be redirected to a single host. However several different types of services
can be redirected to a single or multiple hosts. For example, port 80 (WWW server) could be redirected to
192.168.5.3 on the Netopia R9100’s LAN interface, and port 23 (Telnet) can be redirected to that same host.
Summary
NAT is a powerful feature of the Netopia R9100 and when used and set up properly can yield a secure network
while only using one IP address on the WAN interface. Note that the addresses listed in this appendix are for
demonstration purposes only. Do not use these addresses when configuring your local network.
Binary Conversion Table D-1
Appendix D
Binary Conversion Table
This table is provided to help you choose subnet numbers and host numbers for IP and MacIP networks that
use subnetting for IP addresses.
Decimal
Binary
Decimal
Binary
Decimal
Binary
Decimal
Binary
0
0
32
100000
64
1000000
96
1100000
1
1
33
1000001
65
1000001
97
1100001
2
10
34
100010
66
1000010
98
1100010
3
11
35
100011
67
1000011
99
1100011
4
100
36
100100
68
1000100
100
1100100
5
101
37
100101
69
1000101
101
1100101
6
110
38
100110
70
1000110
102
1100110
7
111
39
100111
71
1000111
103
1100111
8
1000
40
101000
72
1001000
104
1101000
9
1001
41
101001
73
1001001
105
1101001
10
1010
42
101010
74
1001010
106
1101010
11
1011
43
101011
75
1001011
107
1101011
12
1100
44
101100
76
1001100
108
1101100
13
1101
45
101101
77
1001101
109
1101101
14
1110
46
101110
78
1001110
110
1101110
15
1111
47
101111
79
1001111
111
1101111
16
10000
48
110000
80
1010000
112
1110000
17
10001
49
110001
81
1010001
113
1110001
18
10010
50
110010
82
1010010
114
1110010
19
10011
51
110011
83
1010011
115
1110011
20
10100
52
110100
84
1010100
116
1110100
21
10101
53
110101
85
1010101
117
1110101
22
10110
54
110110
86
1010110
118
1110110
23
10111
55
110111
87
1010111
119
1110111
24
11000
56
111000
88
1011000
120
1111000
25
11001
57
111001
89
1011001
121
1111001
26
11010
58
111010
90
1011010
122
1111010
27
11011
59
111011
91
1011011
123
1111011
28
11100
60
111100
92
1011100
124
1111100
29
11101
61
111101
93
1011101
125
1111101
30
11110
62
111110
94
1011110
126
1111110
31
11111
63
111111
95
1011111
127
1111111
D-2 User’s Reference Guide
Decimal
Binary
Decimal
Binary
Decimal
Binary
Decimal
Binary
128
10000000
160
10100000
192
11000000
224
11100000
129
10000001
161
10100001
193
11000001
225
11100001
130
10000010
162
10100010
194
11000010
226
11100010
131
10000011
163
10100011
195
11000011
227
11100011
132
10000100
164
10100100
196
11000100
228
11100100
133
10000101
165
10100101
197
11000101
229
11100101
134
10000110
166
10100110
198
11000110
230
11100110
135
10000111
167
10100111
199
11000111
231
11100111
136
10001000
168
10101000
200
11001000
232
11101000
137
10001001
169
10101001
201
11001001
233
11101001
138
10001010
170
10101010
202
11001010
234
11101010
139
10001011
171
10101011
203
11001011
235
11101011
140
10001100
172
10101100
204
11001100
236
11101100
141
10001101
173
10101101
205
11001101
237
11101101
142
10001110
174
10101110
206
11001110
238
11101110
143
10001111
175
10101111
207
11001111
239
11101111
144
10010000
176
10110000
208
11010000
240
11110000
145
10010001
177
10110001
209
11010001
241
11110001
146
10010010
178
10110010
210
11010010
242
11110010
147
10010011
179
10110011
211
11010011
243
11110011
148
10010100
180
10110100
212
11010100
244
11110100
149
10010101
181
10110101
213
11010101
245
11110101
150
10010110
182
10110110
214
11010110
246
11110110
151
10010111
183
10110111
215
11010111
247
11110111
152
10011000
184
10111000
216
11011000
248
11111000
153
10011001
185
10111001
217
11011001
249
11111001
154
10011010
186
10111010
218
11011010
250
11111010
155
10011011
187
10111011
219
11011011
251
11111011
156
10011100
188
10111100
220
11011100
252
11111100
157
10011101
189
10111101
221
11011101
253
11111101
158
10011110
190
10111110
222
11011110
254
11111110
159
10011111
191
10111111
223
11011111
255
11111111
Further Reading E-1
Appendix E
Further Reading
Alexander, S. & R. Droms, DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions, RFC 2131, Silicon Graphics, Inc.,
Bucknell University, March 1997.
Angell, David. ISDN for Dummies Foster City, CA: IDG Books Worldwide, 1995. Thorough introduction to ISDN
for beginners.
Apple Computer, Inc. AppleTalk Network System Overview. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,
Inc., 1989.
Apple Computer, Inc. Planning and Managing AppleTalk Networks. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company, Inc., 1991.
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Forum, Framing and Encapsulation Standards for ADSL: Packet
Mode, TR-003, June 1997.
Black, U. Data Networks: Concepts, Theory and Practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989.
Black, U. Physical Level Interfaces and Protocols. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1988.
Black, Uyless. Emerging Communications Technologies Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PTR Prentice Hall, 1994.
Describes how emerging communications technologies, including ISDN and Frame Relay, operate and where
they fit in a computer/communications network.
Bradley, T., C. Brown & A. Malis, Multiprotocol Interconnect over Frame Relay, Network Working Group, Internet
Engineering Task Force, RFC 1490, July 1993.
Case, J.D., J.R. Davins, M.S. Fedor, and M.L. Schoffstall. "Introduction to the Simple Gateway Monitoring
Protocol." IEEE Network: March 1988.
Case, J.D., J.R. Davins, M.S. Fedor, and M.L. Schoffstall. "Network Management and the Design of SNMP."
ConneXions: The Interoperability Report, Vol. 3: March 1989.
Chapman, D. Brent. “Network (In)Security Through IP Packet Filtering” Paper available from Great Circle
Associates, 1057 West Dana Street, Mountain View, CA 94041.
Chapman, D. Brent, and Elizabeth D. Zwicky. Building Internet Firewalls Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly & Associates,
1995. Dense and technical, but Chapter 6 provides a basic introduction to packet filtering.
Chappell, L. Novell's Guide to NetWare LAN Analysis. San Jose, CA: Novell Press, 1993.
Clark, W. "SNA Internetworking." ConneXions: The Interoperability Report, Vol. 6, No. 3: March 1992.
Comer, D.E. Internetworking with TCP/IP: Principles, Protocols, and Architecture Vol. I, 2nd ed. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.
Copper Mountain Networks, Internal Control Protocol (ICP) Interface Control Document (ICD), January 5, 1998.
Davidson, J. An Introduction to TCP/IP. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1992.
Droms, R., Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131, Bucknell University, March 1997.
Ferrari, D. Computer Systems Performance Evaluation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1978.
E-2 User’s Reference Guide
Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J. "Loop-Free Routing Using Diffusing Computations." Publication pending in IEEE/ACM
Transactions on Networking, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1993.
Garfinkel, Simson. PGP: Pretty Good Privacy Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly & Associates, 1991. A guide to the free
data encryption program PGP and the issues surrounding encryption.
Green, J.K. Telecommunications, 2nd ed. Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1992.
Heinanen, J., Multiprotocol Encpasulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5, RFC 1483, July 1993.
Jones, N.E.H., and D. Kosiur. MacWorld Networking Handbook. San Mateo, CA: IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.,
1992.
Kousky, K. "Bridging the Network Gap." LAN Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1: January 1990.
LaQuey, Tracy. The Internet Companion: A Beginner's Guide to Global Networking Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, 1994.
Leinwand, A., and K. Fang. Network Management: A Practical Perspective. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, 1993.
Levine, John R., and Carol Baroudi. The Internet for Dummies Foster City, CA: IDG Books Worldwide, 1993.
Covers all of the most popular Internet services, including e-mail, newsgroups, and the World Wide Web. Also
has information on setting up individual workstations with TCP/IP stacks.
Lippis, N. "The Internetwork Decade." Data Communications, Vol. 20, No. 14: October 1991.
McNamara, J.E. Local Area Networks. Digital Press, Educational Services, Digital Equipment Corporation, 12
Crosby Drive, Bedford, MA 01730.
Malamud, C. Analyzing Novell Networks. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.
Malamud, C. Analyzing Sun Networks. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.
Martin, J. SNA: IBM's Networking Solution. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1987.
Martin, J., with K.K. Chapman and the ARBEN Group, Inc. Local Area Networks: Architectures and Implementations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989.
Miller, A. Mark. Analyzing Broadband Networks (Frame Relay, SMDS, & ATM) M&T Books, San Mateo, CA, 1994.
An intermediate/advanced reference on Frame Relay technologies.
Miller, M.A. Internetworking: A Guide to Network Communications LAN to LAN; LAN to WAN, 2nd. ed. San Mateo,
CA: M&T Books, 1992.
Miller, M.A. LAN Protocol Handbook. San Mateo, CA: M&T Books, 1990.
Miller, M.A. LAN Troubleshooting Handbook. San Mateo, CA: M&T Books, 1989.
Perlman, R. Interconnections: Bridges and Routers. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1992.
Rose, M.T. The Open Book: A Practical Perspective on OSI. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Rose, M.T. The Simple Book: An Introduction to Management of TCP/IP-based Internets. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 1991.
Schwartz, M. Telecommunications Networks: Protocols, Modeling, and Analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, 1987.
Sherman, K. Data Communications: A User's Guide. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Further Reading E-3
Sidhu, G.S., R.F. Andrews, and A.B. Oppenheimer. Inside AppleTalk, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, 1990.
Siyan, Karanjit. Internet Firewall and Network Security Indianapolis, IN: New Riders Publishing, 1995. Similar to
the Chapman and Zwicky book.
Smith, Philip. Frame Relay Principles and Applications Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1996.
Covers information on Frame Relay, including the pros and cons of the technology, description of the theory and
application, and an explanation of the standardization process.
Spragins, J.D., et al. Telecommunications Protocols and Design. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company, 1991.
Stallings, W. Data and Computer Communications. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1991.
Stallings, W. Handbook of Computer-Communications Standards, Vols. 1–3. Carmel, IN: Howard W. Sams,
1990.
Stallings, W. Local Networks, 3rd ed. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1990.
Stevens, W.R. TCP/IP Illustrated, Vol 1. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1994.
Sunshine, C.A. (ed.). Computer Network Architectures and Protocols, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Plenum Press,
1989.
Tannenbaum, A.S. Computer Networks, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
Terplan, K. Communication Networks Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992.
Tsuchiya, P. "Components of OSI: IS-IS Intra-Domain Routing." ConneXions: The Interoperability Report, Vol. 3,
No. 8: August 1989.
Tsuchiya, P. "Components of OSI: Routing (An Overview)." ConneXions: The Interoperability Report, Vol. 3, No.
8: August 1989.
Zimmerman, H. "OSI Reference Model–The ISO Model of Architecture for Open Systems Interconnection." IEEE
Transactions on Communications COM-28, No. 4: April 1980.
E-4 User’s Reference Guide
Technical Specifications and Safety Information F-1
Appendix F
Technical Specifications and Safety Information
Pinouts for Auxiliary port modem cable
1300 ohms
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Shield
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Shield
BRAID
HD-15
DB-25
Pin 1
Ground
Pin 1
(not used)
Pin 2
TDA
Pin 2
TD
Pin 3
TDB
Pin 3
RD
Pin 4
RDA
Pin 4
RTS
Pin 5
RDB
Pin 5
CTS
Pin 6
(not used)
Pin 6
DCE Ready
Pin 7
DTR
Pin 7
Ground
Pin 8
CTS
Pin 8
RLSD
F-2 User’s Reference Guide
HD-15
DB-25
Pin 9
DSR
Pin 9
-RSET (EIA-530)
Pin 10
DCD
Pin 10
(not used)
Pin 11
(not used)
Pin 11
-TSET (EIA-530)
Pin 12
TCA
Pin 12
(not used)
Pin 13
TCB
Pin 13
(not used)
Pin 14
RCA
Pin 14
-TD (EIA-530) STD (EIA-232)
Pin 15
RCB
Pin 15
(not used)
Pin 16
-RD (EIA-530) SRD (EIA-232)
Pin 17
RSET
Pin 18
(not used)
Pin 19
-RTS (EIA-530) SRTS (EIA-232)
Pin 20
DTE Ready
Pin 21
(not used)
Pin 22
(not used)
Pin 23
Ground
Pin 24
TSET
Pin 25
(not used)
Note: Certain RS-232 modems do not properly accept signals on pins 12/24, 13/11,
14/17, and 15/9. For these applications, these pins may need to be cut.
Description
Dimensions: 124.0 cm (w) x 20.0 cm (d) x 5.3 cm (h)
9.4” (w) x 7.9” (d) x 2.1” (h)
Communications interfaces: The Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router has an RJ-45 jack for Ethernet line
connections; an 8–port 10Base-T Ethernet hub for your LAN connection; a DB-9 Console port; and an HD-15
Auxiliary port that can be used as either a serial or LocalTalk port.
Power requirements
■
12 VDC input
■
1.5 amps
Environment
Operating temperature: 0° to +40° C
Storage temperature: 0° to +70° C
Relative storage humidity: 20 to 80% noncondensing
Technical Specifications and Safety Information F-3
Software and protocols
Software media: Software preloaded on internal flash memory; field upgrades done via download to internal
flash memory via XMODEM or TFTP
Routing: TCP/IP Internet Protocol Suite, RIP, AppleTalk*, LocalTalk-to-Ethernet routing*, AURP tunneling*,
MacIP*, IPX
* Optional add-on feature
WAN support: Ethernet
Security: IP/IPX firewalls, UI password security
SNMP network management: SNMPv1, MIB-II (RFC 1213), Interface MIB (RFC 1229), Ethernet MIB (RFC
1643), AppleTalk MIB-I (1243), Netopia R9100 MIB
Management/configuration methods: HTTP (Web server), serial console, remote modem console, Telnet,
SNMP
Diagnostics: Ping, event logging, routing table displays, traceroute, statistics counters, web-based
management
Agency approvals
The Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router has met the safety standards (per CSA-950) of the Canadian Standards
Association for Canada.
The Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router has met the safety standards (per UL-1950) of the Underwriters
Laboratories for the United States.
Regulatory notices
Warning
This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference, in which case
the user may be required to take adequate measures. Adequate measures include increasing the physical
distance between this product and other electrical devices.
United States. This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against
harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction
manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential
area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at
his own expense. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful
interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
Service requirements. In the event of equipment malfunction, all repairs should be performed by our Company
or an authorized agent. Under FCC rules, no customer is authorized to repair this equipment. This restriction
applies regardless of whether the equipment is in or our of warranty. It is the responsibility of users requiring
service to report the need for service to our Company or to one of our authorized agents. Service can be
obtained at Netopia, Inc., 2470 Mariner Square Loop, Alameda, California, 94501.
F-4 User’s Reference Guide
Important
This product was tested for FCC compliance under conditions that included the use of shielded cables and
connectors between system components. Changes or modifications to this product not authorized by the
manufacturer could void your authority to operate the equipment.
Canada. This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class A limits for radio noise emission from digital
apparatus set out in the Radio Interference Regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications.
Le présent appareil numérique n'émet pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites applicables aux
appareils numériques de la classe A prescrites dans le Réglement sur le brouillage radioélectrique édicté par le
ministère des Communications du Canada.
Declaration for Canadian users
The Canadian Industry Canada label identifies certified equipment. This certification means that the equipment
meets certain telecommunications network protective, operation, and safety requirements. The Department
does not guarantee the equipment will operate to the user’s satisfaction.
Before installing this equipment, users should ensure that it is permissible to be connected to the facilities of
the local telecommunications company. The equipment must also be installed using an acceptable method of
connection. In some cases, the company’s inside wiring associated with a single line individual service may be
extended by means of a certified connector assembly (telephone extension cord). The customer should be
aware that compliance with the above conditions may not prevent degradation of service in some situations.
Repairs to the certified equipment should be made by an authorized Canadian maintenance facility designated
by the supplier. Any repairs or alterations made by the user to this equipment, or equipment malfunctions, may
give the telecommunications company cause to request the user to disconnect the equipment.
Users should ensure for their own protection that the electrical ground connections of the power utility,
telephone lines, and internal metallic water pipe system, if present, are connected together. This precaution
may be particularly important in rural areas.
Caution
Users should not attempt to make such connections themselves, but should contact the appropriate electric
inspection authority, or electrician, as appropriate.
The load number (LN) assigned to each terminal device denotes the percentage of the total load to be
connected to a telephone loop that is used by the device to prevent overloading. The termination on a loop may
consist of any combination of devices subject only to the requirement that the total of the load numbers of all
the devices does not exceed 100.
Important safety instructions
Caution
■
The direct plug-in power supply serves as the main power disconnect; locate the direct plug-in power supply
near the product for easy access.
■
For use only with CSA Certified Class 2 power supply, rated 12VDC, 1.5A.
Telecommunication installation cautions
■
Never install telephone wiring during a lightning storm.
Technical Specifications and Safety Information F-5
■
Never install telephone jacks in wet locations unless the jack is specifically designed for wet locations.
■
Never touch uninsulated telephone wires or terminals unless the telephone line has been disconnected at
the network interface.
■
Use caution when installing or modifying telephone lines.
■
Avoid using a telephone (other than a cordless type) during an electrical storm. There may be a remote risk
of electric shock from lightning.
■
Do not use the telephone to report a gas leak in the vicinity of the leak.
Battery
The Netopia R9100’s lithium battery is designed to last for the life of the product. The battery is not user-serviceable.
Caution!
Danger of explosion if battery is incorrectly replaced.
Replace only with the same or equivalent type recommended by the manufacturer. Dispose of used batteries
according to the manufacturer's instructions.
F-6 User’s Reference Guide
Glossary 1
Glossary
access line: A telephone line reaching from the telephone company central office to a point usually on your
premises. Beyond this point the wire is considered inside wiring.
analog: In telecommunications, telephone transmission and/or switching that is not digital. An analog phone
transmission is one that was originally intended to carry speech or voice, but may with appropriate
modifications be used to carry data of other types.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute): Devises and proposes recommendations for international
communications standards. See also CCITT.
AppleTalk: A comprehensive network system designed and developed by Apple Computer, Inc. AppleTalk
allows many different types of computer systems, printers, and servers to communicate on a variety of cabling
schemes, including LocalTalk and Ethernet cabling. In this manual, AppleTalk refers especially to the protocols
or rule sets that govern this communication.
AppleTalk address: A unique identifier for each device using AppleTalk that allows information to be sent and
received correctly. An AppleTalk address always includes a network number wherever two or more AppleTalk
networks are connected together by routers.
AURP (Apple Update-based Router Protocol): An enhanced AppleTalk routing protocol. AURP provides
improved support for AppleTalk over wide area networks (WANs) and tunneling through non-AppleTalk (IP)
networks. AURP features include network number remapping, clustering of remote network numbers, and hop
count reduction.
backbone: A network topology consisting of a single length of cable with multiple network connection points.
bandwidth: The range of frequencies, expressed in Kilobits per second, that can pass over a given data
transmission channel within a network. The bandwidth determines the rate at which information can be sent
through a channel - the greater the bandwidth, the more information that can be sent in a given amount of time.
BAP (Bandwidth Allocation Protocol): Protocol that manages the dynamic bandwidth allocation of
implementations supporting the PPP Multilink protocol. This is done by defining the Bandwidth Allocation
Protocol (BAP), as well as its associated control protocol, the Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP). BAP
can be used to manage the number of links in a multilink bundle.
baud rate: The rate of the signaling speed of a transmission medium.
bit: A binary digit; the smallest unit of data in the binary counting system. A bit has a value of either 0 or 1.
bits per second (bps): A measure of the actual data transmission rate. The bps rate may be equal to or greater
than the baud rate, depending on the modulation technique used to encode bits into each baud interval. The
correct term to use when describing modem data transfer speeds.
bps: See bits per second.
branch: A length of cable in a star network that goes from the center of the star to a wall jack.
broadcast: A network transaction that sends data to all hosts connected to the network.
burstiness: Data that uses bandwidth only sporadically; that is, information that does not use the total
bandwidth of a circuit 100 percent of the time. During pauses, channels are idle; and no traffic flows across
them in either direction. Interactive and LAN-to-LAN data is bursty in nature, because it is sent intermittently,
and in between data transmission the channel experiences idle time waiting for the DTEs to respond to the
transmitted data user’s input of waiting for the user to send more data.
2 User’s Reference Guide
byte: A group of bits, normally eight, which represent one data character.
CallerID: See CND.
CCITT (Comite Consultatif International Telegraphique et Telephonique): International Consultative
Committee for Telegraphy and Telephony, a standards organization that devises and proposes recommendations for international communications. See also ANSI (American National Standards Institute).
CHAP (Challenge Handshake Protocol): A method for ensuring secure network access and communications.
Class A, B, and C networks: The values assigned to the first few bits in an IP network address determine
which class designation the network has. In decimal notation, Class A network addresses range from 1.X.X.X to
126.X.X.X, Class B network addresses range from 128.1.X.X to 191.254.X.X, and Class C addresses range
from 192.0.1.X to 223.255.254.X. For more information on IP network address classes, see Appendix B,
“Understanding IP Addressing.”
client: An intelligent workstation that makes requests to other computers known as servers. PC computers on
a LAN can be clients.
clustering: A feature that clusters remapped network numbers into a range of sequential network numbers.
CNA (Calling Number Authentication): A security feature that will reject an incoming call if it does not match
the Calling Number field in one of the Netopia ISDN Router’s connection profiles.
CND (Calling Number Delivery): Also known as caller ID, a feature that allows the called customer premises
equipment (CPE) to receive a calling party’s directory number during the call establishment phase.
community strings: Sequences of characters that serve much like passwords for devices using SNMP.
Different community strings may be used to allow an SNMP user to gather device information or change device
configurations.
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check): A computational means to ensure the integrity of a block of data. The
mathematical function is computed, before the data is transmitted at the originating device. Its numerical value
is computed based on the content of the data. This value is compared with a recomputed value of the function
at the destination device.
DCE (Data Communications Equipment): Term defined by standards committees that applies to
communications equipment, typically modems or printers, as distinct from other devices that attach to the
network, typically personal computers or data terminals (DTE). The distinction generally refers to which pins in
an RS-232-C connection transmit or receive data. Also see DTE.
DDP (Datagram Delivery Protocol): Defines socket-to-socket delivery of datagrams over an AppleTalk internet.
default zone: When a Phase II EtherTalk network includes more than one zone, all routers on that network
must be configured to assign one of these zones as a default zone. The default zone is temporarily assigned to
any Phase II EtherTalk node that hasn’t chosen a zone. The user may choose another zone by opening the
Network Control Panel, selecting the correct physical connection, and then choosing a zone in the scrolling field
displayed.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol): A service that lets clients on a LAN request configuration
information, such as IP host addresses, from a server.
DNS (Domain Name Service): A TCP/IP protocol for discovering and maintaining network resource information
distributed among different servers.
download: The process of transferring a file from a server to a client.
Glossary 3
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment): Term defined by standards committees, that applies to communications
equipment, typically personal computers or data terminals, as distinct from other devices that attach to the
network, typically modems or printers (DCE). The distinction generally refers to which pins in an RS-232-C
connection transmit or receive data. Pins 2 and 3 are reversed. Also see DCE.
EIA (Electronic Industry Association):
A North American standards association.
Ethernet: A networking protocol that defines a type of LAN characterized by a 10 Mbps (megabits per second)
data rate. Ethernet is used in many mainframe, PC, and UNIX networks, as well as for EtherTalk.
Ethernet address: Sometimes referred to as a hardware address. A 48-bits long number assigned to every
Ethernet hardware device. Ethernet addresses are usually expressed as 12-character hexadecimal numbers,
where each hexadecimal character (0 through F) represents four binary bits. Do not confuse the Ethernet
address of a device with its network address.
EtherTalk: Apple’s data-link software that allows an AppleTalk network to be connected by Ethernet cables.
EtherTalk is a protocol within the AppleTalk protocol set. Two versions of EtherTalk are in common use,
designated as Phase I and Phase II EtherTalk.
extended network: A network using AppleTalk Phase II protocols; EtherTalk 2.0 and TokenTalk are extended
networks. LocalTalk networks are compatible with Phase II but are not extended because a single LocalTalk
network cannot have multiple network numbers or multiple zone names.
firmware: System software stored in a device’s memory that controls the device. The Netopia ISDN Router’s
firmware can be updated.
gateway: A device that connects two or more networks that use different protocols. Gateways provide address
translation services, but do not translate data. Gateways must be used in conjunction with special software
packages that allow computers to use networking protocols not originally designed for them.
hard seeding: A router setting. In hard seeding, if a router that has just been reset detects a network number
or zone name conflict between its configured information and the information provided by another router, it
disables the router port for which there is a conflict. See also non-seeding, seeding, seed router, and soft
seeding.
HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control): A generic link-level communications protocol developed by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). HDLC manages synchronous, code-transparent, serial
information transfer over a link connection. See also SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control).
header: In packets, a header is part of the envelope information that surrounds the actual data being
transmitted. In e-mail, a header is usually the address and routing information found at the top of messages.
hop: A single traverse from one node to another on a LAN.
hop count: The number of nodes (routers or other devices) a packet has gone through. If there are six routers
between source and destination nodes, the hop count for the packet will be six when it arrives at its destination
node. The maximum allowable hop count is usually 15.
hop count reduction: A feature of AURP supported by the Netopia ISDN Router. Tunnels and point-to-point
links over WANs can often exceed the maximum allowable hop count of 15 routers. Network administrators can
use the hop count reduction feature to set up tunnels and point-to-point links that exceed the 15-router limit.
host: A single, addressable device on a network. Computers, networked printers, and routers are hosts.
host computer: A communications device that enables users to run applications programs to perform such
functions as text editing, program execution, access to data bases, etc.
4 User’s Reference Guide
internet: A set of networks connected together by routers. This is a general term, not to be confused with the
large, multi-organizational collection of IP networks known as the Internet. An internet is sometimes also known
as an internetwork.
internet address, IP address: Any computing device that uses the Internet Protocol (IP) must be assigned an
internet or IP address. This is a 32-bit number assigned by the system administrator, usually written in the form
of 4 decimal fields separated by periods, e.g., 192.9.200.1. Part of the internet address is the IP network
number (IP network address), and part is the host address (IP host address). All machines on a given IP
network use the same IP network number, and each machine has a unique IP host address. The system
administrator sets the subnet mask to specify how much of the address is network number and how much is
host address. See also Class A, B, and C networks.
IP (Internet Protocol): A networking protocol developed for use on computer systems that use the UNIX
operating system. Often used with Ethernet cabling systems. In this manual, IP is used as an umbrella term to
cover all packets and networking operations that include the use of the Internet Protocol. See also TCP/IP.
IP address, IP host address, IP network address: See internet address.
IP broadcast: See broadcast.
IP tunneling: See AURP.
IPX (Internet Packet Exchange): A protocol used by Novell NetWare networks.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network): A method of transmitting data digitally over telephone lines.
ISP (Internet service provider): A company that provides Internet-related services. Most importantly, an ISP
provides Internet access services and products to other companies and consumers.
ITU (International Telecommunication Union): United Nations specialized agency for telecommunications.
Successor to CCITT.
LAN (local area network): A privately owned network that offers high-speed communications channels to
connect information processing equipment in a limited geographic area.
LocalTalk: The cabling specification for AppleTalk running at a speed of 230.4 kbps (kilobits per second).
MacIP: A protocol in which IP packets are encapsulated within AppleTalk headers, for transmission over
AppleTalk networks. MacIP requires the presence of at least one AppleTalk–IP gateway. MacIP is usually used to
allow an AppleTalk computer to communicate with an IP computer.
MacIP client: A Macintosh computer that is using the MacIP protocol to communicate with an IP computer.
MIB (management information base): A standardized structure for SNMP management information.
modem: A device used to convert digital signals from a computer into analog signals that can be transmitted
across standard analog (not ISDN) telephone lines. Modem is a contraction of modulator-demodulator.
NAT (Network Address Translation): A feature that allows communication between the LAN connected to the
Netopia ISDN Router and the Internet using a single IP address, instead of having a separate IP address for
each computer on the network.
NetBIOS: A network communications protocol used on PC LANs.
network: A group of computer systems and other computer devices that communicate with one another.
network administrator: A person who coordinates the design, installation, and management of a network. A
network administrator is also responsible for troubleshooting and for adding new users to the network.
Glossary 5
network log: A record of the names of devices, location of wire pairs, wall-jack numbers, and other information
about the network.
network number: A unique number for each network in an internet. AppleTalk network numbers are assigned
by seed routers, to which the network is directly connected. An isolated AppleTalk network does not need a
network number.
network number remapping: Resolves network number conflicts when two or more AppleTalk networks that
may have duplicate network numbers are connected together. The Netopia ISDN Router lets you set up a range
of network numbers into which remote AppleTalk network numbers are remapped.
network range: A unique set of contiguous numbers associated with an extended network; each number in a
network range can be associated with up to 253 node addresses.
node: See host.
non-seeding: A router setting that causes it to request network number and zone information from any other
routers on the network connected to the non-seeding port. If it receives this information, it begins to route
packets through that port. See also hard seeding, seeding, seed router, and soft seeding.
packet: A group of fixed-length binary digits, including the data and call control signals, that are transmitted
through an X.25 packet-switching network as a composite whole. The data, call control signals, and possible
error control information are arranged in a predetermined format. Packets do not always travel the same
pathway but are arranged in proper sequence at the destination side before forwarding the complete message
to an addressee.
packet-switching network: A telecommunications network based on packet-switching technology, wherein a
transmission channel is occupied only for the duration of the transmission of the packet.
PAP (PPP authentication protocol): A method for ensuring secure network access.
parameter: A numerical code that controls an aspect of terminal and/or network operation. Parameters
control such aspects as page size, data transmission speed, and timing options.
port: A location for passing data in and out of a device, and, in some cases, for attaching other devices or
cables.
port number: A number that identifies a TCP/IP-based service. Telnet, for example, is identified with TCP port
23.
POTS (plain old telephone service): Ordinary analog telephone service such as that used for voice
transmission, as distinct from digital service.
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol): A protocol for framing IP packets and transmitting them over a serial line.
protocol: A set of rules for communication, sometimes made up of several smaller sets of rules also called
protocols. AppleTalk is a protocol that includes the LocalTalk, EtherTalk, and TokenTalk protocols.
remapping: See network number remapping.
RFC (Request for Comment): A series of documents used to exchange information and standards about the
Internet.
RIP (Routing Information Protocol): A protocol used for the transmission of IP routing information.
RJ-11: A telephone-industry standard connector type, usually containing four pins.
RJ-45: A telephone-industry standard connector type usually containing eight pins.
6 User’s Reference Guide
router: A device that supports network communications. A router can connect identical network types, such as
LocalTalk-to-LocalTalk, or dissimilar network types, such as LocalTalk-to-Ethernet. However—unless a gateway is
available—a common protocol, such as TCP/IP, must be used over both networks. Routers may be equipped to
provide WAN line support to the LAN devices they serve. They may also provide various management and
monitoring functions as well as a variety of configuration capabilities.
router port: A physical or logical connection between a router and a network. Where a network only allows the
use of one protocol, each physical connection corresponds to one logical router port. An example is the Netopia
ISDN Router’s LocalTalk port. Where a network allows the use of several protocols, each physical connection
may correspond to several logical router ports—one for each protocol used. Each router port has its own
network address.
routing table: A list of networks maintained by each router on an internet. Information in the routing table
helps the router determine the next router to forward packets to.
SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control): A link-level communications protocol used in an International
Business Machines (IBM) Systems Network Architecture (SNA) network that manages synchronous,
code-transparent, serial information transfer over a link connection. SDLC is a subset of the more generic HDLC
(High-Level Data Link Control) protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
seeding: A method for ensuring that two or more routers agree about which physical networks correspond to
which network numbers and zone names. There are three options: non-seeding, soft seeding, and hard seeding.
Seeding can often be set separately for each router port. See also hard seeding, non-seeding, seed router, and
soft seeding.
seed router: A router that provides network number and zone information to any router that starts up on the
same network. See also hard seeding, non-seeding, seeding, and soft seeding.
serial port: A connector on the back of the workstation through which data flows to and from a serial device.
server: A device or system that has been specifically configured to provide a service, usually to a group of
clients.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): A protocol used for communication between management
consoles and network devices. The Netopia ISDN Router can be managed through SNMP.
soft seeding: A router setting. In soft seeding, if a router that has just been reset detects a network number or
zone name conflict between its configured information for a particular port and the information provided by
another router connected to that port, it updates its configuration using the information provided by the other
router. See also hard seeding, non-seeding, seeding, and seed router.
subnet: A network address created by using a subnet mask to specify that a number of bits in an internet
address will be used as a subnet number rather than a host address.
subnet mask: A 32-bit number to specify which part of an internet address is the network number, and which
part is the host address. When written in binary notation, each bit written as 1 corresponds to 1 bit of network
address information. One subnet mask applies to all IP devices on an individual IP network.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol): An open network standard that defines how
devices from different manufacturers communicate with each other over one or more interconnected networks.
TCP/IP protocols are the foundation of the Internet, a worldwide network of networks connecting businesses,
governments, researchers, and educators.
telephone wall cable: 2-pair, 4-pair, or 8-pair, 22- or 24-gauge solid copper wire cable. Telephone wall cable is
sometimes called telephone station cable or twisted-pair cable.
Glossary 7
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol): A protocol used to transfer files between IP nodes. TFTP is often used to
transfer firmware and configuration information from a UNIX computer acting as a TFTP server to an IP
networking device, such as the Netopia ISDN Router.
thicknet: Industry jargon for 10Base5 coaxial cable, the original Ethernet cabling.
thinnet: Industry jargon for 10Base2 coaxial cable, which is thinner (smaller in diameter) than the original
Ethernet cabling.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol): A TCP/IP protocol describing how packets reach applications in destination
nodes.
wall jack: A small hardware component used to tap into telephone wall cable. An RJ-11 wall jack usually has
four pins; an RJ-45 wall jack usually has eight pins.
WAN (wide area network): A network that consists of nodes connected by long-distance transmission media,
such as telephone lines. WANs can span a state, a country, or even the world.
WAN IP: In addition to being a router, the Netopia ISDN Router is also an IP address server. There are four
protocols it can use to distribute IP addresses over the WAN which include: DHCP, BootP, IPCP, and MacIP. WAN
IP is a feature for both the Small Office and Corporate Netopia ISDN Router models.
wiring closet: A central location where a building’s telephone and network wiring is connected. Multi-story
buildings often have a main wiring closet in the basement and satellite wiring closets on each floor.
zone: An arbitrary subset of nodes within an AppleTalk internet. Creating multiple zones makes it easier for
users to locate network services. The network administrator defines zones when he or she configures routers.
Isolated networks have no zones. LocalTalk and EtherTalk Phase I networks may have no more than one zone
each. EtherTalk Phase II and TokenTalk networks may have more than one zone each. Several networks of any
AppleTalk type may share a zone name.
8 User’s Reference Guide
Index-1
Index
Numerics
10Base-T 4-5
10Base-T, connecting 4-5
A
add static route 9-14
advanced configuration
features 8-11
answer profile
call acceptance scenarios 8-9
defined 8-7
answering calls 8-7
AppleTalk 1-2
configuring LocalTalk 11-7
routing table 12-9
setup 11-1
tunneling (AURP) 11-3, 11-8
zones 11-6, 11-7
AppleTalk Update-Based Routing Protocol, see
AURP
application software 4-4
AURP
adding a partner 11-9
configuration 11-10
connecting to a partner 11-9
hop-count reduction 11-12
network number remapping 11-11
receiving connections 11-10
setup 11-3, 11-8
tunnel 13-20
authentication
and answer profile 8-8
B
back panel 3-2
ports 3-3
basic firewall 13-18
BootP 9-16
clients 9-22
broadcasts B-13
C
cable modem 2-1
Call acceptance scenarios 8-9
capabilities 1-1
change static route 9-15
CHAP
and answer profile 8-8
community strings 12-13
configuration
troubleshooting
PC A-1
configuration files
downloading with TFTP 14-8
downloading with XMODEM 14-11
uploading with TFTP 14-9
uploading with XMODEM 14-11
configuration screens
protecting 13-2
configuring
with console-based management 6-1, 7-1,
8-1
Index-2
Configuring profiles for incoming calls. 8-8
configuring terminal emulation software 6-3
configuring the console 8-12
connecting to an Ethernet network 4-5
connecting to the configuration screens 8-9
connection profiles
defined 7-5
console
configuring 8-12
connection problems A-2
screens, connecting to 8-9
console configuration 8-13
console-based management
configuring with 6-1, 7-1, 8-1
D
D. port 13-10
date and time
setting 8-12
deciding on an ISP account 2-2
default terminal emulation software settings 64
delete static route 9-15
designing a new filter set 13-11
DHCP
defined B-8
DHCP NetBIOS options 9-21
display static routes 9-13
distributing IP addresses B-5
downloading configuration files 14-8, 14-11
with TFTP 14-8
with XMODEM 14-11
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) 916
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, see
DHCP
Dynamic WAN 9-16
E
Easy Setup
connection profile 7-5
IP setup 7-6
IPX setup 7-6
navigating 6-4
overview 7-1
quick connection path 7-3
Enabling CNA 8-8
Ethernet
4-4
Ethernet address 12-2
EtherTalk 4-4
event history
device 12-7
WAN 12-6
exported services 9-7
F
features 1-1
filter
parts 13-7
parts of 13-7
filter priority 13-5
filter set
adding 13-13
display 13-9
filter sets
adding 13-13
defined 13-4
deleting 13-17
disadvantages 13-11
modifying 13-17
sample (Basic Firewall) 13-17
using 13-12
viewing 13-16
filtering example #1 13-10
filters
actions a filter can take 13-7
adding to a filter set 13-14
defined 13-4
deleting 13-16
disadvantages of 13-11
input 13-14
modifying 13-16
output 13-14
Index-3
using 13-12
viewing 13-16
firewall 13-17
firmware files
updating with TFTP 14-7
updating with XMODEM 14-10
FTP sessions 13-20
further reading E-1
G
general statistics 12-4
Glossary GL-1
H
hard seeding 11-3
hops 12-9
how to reach us A-4
I
input filter 3 13-18
input filters 1 and 2 13-18
input filters 4 and 5 13-18
Internet addresses, see IP addresses
Internet Protocol (IP) 9-1
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) 10-1
IP address serving 9-16
IP addresses B-1
about B-1
distributing B-5
distribution rules B-10
static B-8
IP setup 9-6
IP trap receivers
deleting 12-15
modifying 12-15
setting 12-15
viewing 12-15
IPX packet filter sets 13-23
IPX packet filters 13-22
IPX SAP Bindery Table 10-5
IPX SAP filters 13-25
IPX setup 10-1
IPX spoofing 10-3
ISP
account types 2-2
information to obtain 2-2
L
LED status 12-2
LEDs 3-4, 12-2
LocalTalk 11-7
connecting 4-8
setup 11-7
M
MacIP 9-16
defined B-8
MacIP (KIP Forwarding) options 9-23
MacIP setup 11-3
MacIP/KIP clients 9-23
MacIP/KIP static options 9-23
MIBs supported 12-12
multiple subnets 9-10
N
NAT
defined 9-1
features 9-2
guidelines 9-5
using 9-3
navigating
Easy Setup 6-4
through the configuration screens 8-10
NCSA Telnet 6-3
nested IP subnets B-11
NetBIOS 9-21, 10-3
NetBIOS scope 9-22
Netopia
answering calls 8-7
Index-4
connecting to Ethernet, rules 4-5
connecting to LocalTalk 4-8
connection profile 7-5
distributing IP addresses 9-16, B-5
IP setup 7-6
IPX setup 7-6
LocalTalk configuration 11-7
monitoring 12-1
security 13-1
system utilities and diagnostics 14-1
Network Address Translation
see NAT 9-1
network problems A-2
network status overview 12-1
next router address 12-10
non-seeding 11-3
O
output filter 1 13-18
overview 1-1
P
packet
header B-13
packet filter
deleting 13-23
packet filters
viewing and modifying 13-23
packets forwarded 12-10
PAP
and answer profile 8-8
password
to protect security screen 13-2
user accounts 13-1
ping 14-2
ping test, configuring and initiating 14-2
port number
comparisons 13-8
port numbers 13-7
Q
Quick View 12-1
R
restarting the system 14-12
restricting telnet access 13-4
RIP 8-2, 9-7
router to serve IP addresses to hosts 9-1
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 10-2
routing tables
AppleTalk 12-9
IP 9-12, 12-8
S
SAP filter sets
viewing and modifying 13-28
SAP server types 10-3
screens, connecting to 8-9
security
filters 13-4–13-20
measures to increase 13-1
telnet 13-4
user accounts (passwords) 13-1
security options screen 13-2
protecting 13-2
seeding 11-3
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) 10-2
Simple Network Management Protocol, see
SNMP
SmartIP 9-1
SmartStart
before launching 5-2
requirements
Macintosh 5-2
PC 5-2
Windows 95 5-3
SmartView 12-16
launching SmartView 12-16
SNMP
community strings 12-13
Index-5
MIBs supported 12-12
setup screen 12-13
traps 12-14
socket 10-2
soft seeding 11-3
src. port
13-10
state 12-10
static IP addresses B-8
static route
rules of installation 9-15
static routes 9-7, 9-12
statistics, WAN 12-4
subnet masks B-3
subnets B-2–B-5
multiple 9-10
nested B-11
subnets and subnet masks B-2
support
technical A-4
T
TCP/IP stack 4-4
technical support A-4
telnet 6-2
access 8-9, 13-4
terminal emulation software
configuring 6-3
default settings 6-4
TFTP
defined 14-6
downloading configuration files 14-8
updating firmware 14-7
uploading configuration files 14-9
TFTP, transferring files 14-6
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) 14-6
Trivial File Transfer Protocol, see TFTP
troubleshooting A-1
configuration
PC A-1
console-based management 7-2
event histories 12-5, 12-17
WAN statistics 12-4
trusted host 13-19
trusted subnet 13-19
tunneling 11-3
U
updating firmware
router 14-7
with TFTP 14-7
with XMODEM 14-10
uploading configuration files 14-9
with TFTP 14-9
with XMODEM 14-11
user accounts 13-1
utilities and diagnostics 14-1
W
WAN
configuration 9-3
event history 12-6
statistics 12-4
WAN event history 12-6
Windows 95
SmartStart 5-3
X
XMODEM 14-9
XMODEM file transfers
downloading configuration files 14-11
updating firmware 14-10
uploading configuration files 14-11
Z
zone name 12-9
Index-6
Limited Warranty and Limitation of Remedies
1
Limited Warranty and Limitation of Remedies
Netopia warrants to you, the end user, that the Netopia R9100 Ethernet Router (the “Product”) will be free from
defects in materials and workmanship under normal use for a period of one (1) year from date of purchase.
Netopia’s entire liability and your sole remedy under this warranty during the warranty period is that Netopia
shall, at its sole option, either repair or replace the Product.
In order to make a claim under this warranty you must comply with the following procedure:
1.
Contact Netopia Customer Service within the warranty period to obtain a Return Materials Authorization
(“RMA”) number.
2.
Return the defective Product and proof of purchase, shipping prepaid, to Netopia with the RMA number
prominently displayed on the outside of the package.
If you are located outside of the United States or Canada, please contact your dealer in order to arrange for
warranty service.
THE ABOVE WARRANTIES ARE MADE BY NETOPIA ALONE, AND THEY ARE THE ONLY WARRANTIES MADE BY
ANYONE REGARDING THE ENCLOSED PRODUCT. NETOPIA AND ITS LICENSOR(S) MAKE NO OTHER
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, REGARDING THE ENCLOSED PRODUCT. EXCEPT AS
OTHERWISE EXPRESSLY PROVIDED ABOVE, NETOPIA AND ITS LICENSOR(S) DO NOT WARRANT, GUARANTEE OR
MAKE ANY REPRESENTATION REGARDING THE USE OR THE RESULTS OF THE USE OF THE PRODUCT IN TERMS
OF ITS CORRECTNESS, ACCURACY, RELIABILITY, CURRENTNESS, OR OTHERWISE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE
RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PRODUCT IS ASSUMED BY YOU. THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED
WARRANTIES IS NOT PERMITTED BY SOME STATES OR JURISDICTIONS, SO THE ABOVE EXCLUSION MAY NOT
APPLY TO YOU. IN THAT CASE, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARE LIMITED IN DURATION TO NINETY (90) DAYS
FROM THE DATE OF DELIVERY OF THE PRODUCT. THERE MAY BE OTHER RIGHTS THAT YOU MAY HAVE WHICH
VARY FROM JURISDICTION TO JURISDICTION.
REGARDLESS OF WHETHER OR NOT ANY REMEDY SET FORTH HEREIN FAILS OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE, IN
NO EVENT WILL NETOPIA, ITS LICENSOR(S) AND THE DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES OR AGENTS OF ANY
OF THEM BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL OR INDIRECT DAMAGES (INCLUDING
DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF BUSINESS INFORMATION,
AND THE LIKE) ARISING OUT THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PRODUCT EVEN IF NETOPIA OR ITS
LICENSOR(S) HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. BECAUSE SOME STATES OR
JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR
INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. NETOPIA AND ITS LICENSOR(S)
LIABILITY TO YOU FOR ACTUAL DAMAGES FROM ANY CAUSE WHATSOEVER, AND REGARDLESS OF THE FORM
OF THE ACTION (WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT [INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE], PRODUCT LIABILITY OR
OTHERWISE), WILL BE LIMITED TO $50. v.0300
2
User’s Reference Guide