Owner`s manual | Fitness Quest 386da Home Gym User Manual

®
®
Model 386da
Dual Action
Magnetic Bike
Congratulations on purchasing your
Edge® 386 Dual Action Magnetic Bike
With this product in your home, you have everything you need to start your own workout program
to tone and firm the major muscle groups of your upper and lower body. This is vital for all of us,
regardless of age, sex, or fitness level, and regardless of whether your primary goal is toning, health
maintenance, or more energy for daily activities.
Proper exercise, including a low fat diet, strength training and aerobic exercise, tones and conditions
the muscles we use every day to stand, walk, lift, and turn. It can actually transform our body
composition by reducing body fat and increasing the proportion of lean muscle in our bodies.
Be sure to read through this Owner’s Manual carefully. It is the authoritative source of
information about your Edge 386 Dual Action Magnetic Bike.
Retain this manual for future reference.
Table of Contents
Important Safety Instructions.......................................................3
Comments or Questions & Parts Identification............................4
Assembly Instructions...........................................................5 - 10
Exercise Program................................................................11 - 14
Computer Instructions.................................................................15
Parts List ...................................................................................16
Exploded Drawing...................................................................... 17
2
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Read all instructions before using this machine.
CAUTION:
Exercise of a strenuous nature, as is customarily done on this equipment,
should not be undertaken without first consulting a physician. No specific
health claims are made or implied as they relate to the equipment.
1. Know your heart rate and/or pulse, and your physician recommended target heart rate
training zone.
2. Proper medical clearance is recommended for anyone beginning an exercise program
especially if you are over 35 years of age or suffer from heart or respiratory problems.
3. Warm up before any exercise program by stretching, followed by 8 minutes of aerobic activity.
4. Wear comfortable clothes that allow freedom of movement and that are not tight or restricting.
5. Wear comfortable shoes made of good support with non-slip soles.
6. Breathe naturally, never holding your breath during an exercise.
7. Avoid over training. You should be able to carry on a conversation while exercising.
8. After an exercise session, cool down with slow walking or stretching.
9. This machine should not be used by or near children.
10. Handicapped or disabled people must have medical approval before using this machine and
should be under close supervision when using any exercise equipment.
11. Use this machine only for its intended use as described in this manual. Do not use
attachments not recommended by the manufacturer.
12. Only one person at a time should use this machine.
13. Do not put hands, feet, or any foreign objects on or near this machine when in use by others.
14. Always use this machine on a level surface.
15. Never operate the machine if the machine is not functioning properly.
16. Start exercise slowly and gradually increase the amount of resistance.
17. If the user experiences dizziness, nausea, chest pain, or any other abnormal symptoms,
stop exercise at once and consult a physician immediately.
18. Use caution not to pinch fingers or hands in moving parts when using the unit.
KEEP THESE INSTRUCTIONS
3
Comments or Questions?
Dear Customer,
Congratulations on your purchase of the Edge® 386 Dual Action Magnetic Bike.
We’re sure that you will be completely satisfied with the product and we invite your comments so that we can
hear about your success.
Please write or call our Customer Service Specialists at the address or phone number listed below, or contact
us on our web site, with any comments or questions you may have.
Edge 386 Bike
Customer Service Department
1400 Raff Road SW, Canton, OH 44750-0001
1-800-321-9236, Monday through Friday - 9:00am to 5:00pm, Eastern Time
www.fitnessquest.com
Ordering Missing or Defective Parts
When ordering parts, always provide the following information:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
NAME, MAILING ADDRESS AND TELEPHONE NUMBER
DATE OF PURCHASE
WHERE PRODUCT IS PURCHASED (NAME OF RETAIL STORE, CITY)
MODEL NUMBER (EXB01386)
PART ORDER NUMBER AND DESCRIPTION
All details depicted in this Owner’s Manual, and of the product itself, are subject to change without notice.
Grips
Cap
Parts Identification
Cap
Weight in box
86 lbs.
Length Width
42-1/2" 11-1/4"
Height
30"
Weight out of box
76 lbs.
Length Width
43-1/2" 25"
Height
52"
Electronic Console
Left Handlebar
Tension
Knob
Seat
Console Tube
Manual Packet Includes:
Manual
Warranty Card
Fastener Pack Includes:
2 Large Washers
2 Cap Nuts
1 6mm Allen Tool
1 Adjustable Wrench Tool
(Will need additional wrench
for assembly)
Left Pedal
(Not Shown)
Seat Post
Right Handlebar
Locking Knob
Hairpin
Cotter
Retainer
Top Left
Cover
Right Pedal
Rear Foot Tube
®
Top Right
Cover
Foot Cap
Right Connecting Arm
Bottom Right Cover
4
Wheel
Front Foot Tube
ASSEMBLY
Occasionally our products contain components that are pre-lubricated at the factory. We recommend that
you protect flooring, or anything else the parts may contact, with newspaper or cloth.
IMPORTANT
PLEASE READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY BEFORE ASSEMBLING.
FIGURE 1
NOTE: There are two FOOT TUBES. The REAR
FOOT TUBE has FOOT CAPS (6) on
each end and the FRONT FOOT TUBE
has WHEELS (7).
1
M8 x 1.25 x 60
CARRIAGE BOLT
6
FOOT
CAP
5
M8 x 1.25
CAP
NUT
Step 1. Remove the two M8 x 1.25 x 60
CARRIAGE BOLTS (1), M8 WASHERS
(4) and M8 x 1.25 CAP NUTS (5) from
the REAR FOOT TUBE (2) with FOOT
CAPS (6).
Step 2. Attach FOOT TUBE (2) to rear of
FRAME (3) with hardware removed in
Step 1. Make sure to insert BOLTS
through "square holes" first.
6
FOOT
CAP
2
REAR
FOOT
TUBE
3
FRAME
4
M8
WASHER
FIGURE 1
5
M8 x 1.25
CAP
NUT
7
WHEEL
4
M8
WASHER
FIGURE 2
Step 3. Remove the two M8 x 1.25 x 60
CARRIAGE BOLTS (1), M8 WASHERS (4) and M8 x 1.25 CAP NUTS
(5) from the FRONT FOOT TUBE (2).
7
WHEEL
Step 4. Attach FOOT TUBE (2) to front of
FRAME (3) with hardware removed
in Step 3. Make sure to insert BOLTS
through "square holes" first.
2
FRONT
FOOT
TUBE
3
FRAME
1
M8 x 1.25 x 60
CARRIAGE BOLT
FIGURE 2
5
ASSEMBLY
11
CRANK
FIGURE 3
Step 5. Slide PEDAL BUSHING (8) onto
SHAFTS of PEDALS (9 RIGHT and
10 LEFT) as shown.
Step 6. Thread SHAFTS of PEDALS (9 & 10)
into CRANK (11) until tight, then back
off 1/2 turn.
Step 7. Thread PEDAL LOCK NUT (12) onto
end of SHAFT. Hold SHAFT with
(additional wrench) and tighten
PEDAL LOCK NUT with other wrench
until tight.
8
PEDAL
BUSHING
9
RIGHT
PEDAL
NOTE: PEDAL BUSHING (8) must be able
to spin freely after tightening.
SHAFT
12
PEDAL
LOCK NUT
FIGURE 3
13
SEAT
FIGURE 4
Step 8. Turn LOCKING KNOB (15)
counterclockwise to loosen.
Step 9. Pull LOCKING KNOB (15) out and raise
SEAT POST (14) to desired SEAT (13)
height and release LOCKING KNOB so
that it snaps into hole in SEAT POST
then turn clockwise until tight.
WASHER
NUT
15
LOCKING
KNOB
IMPORTANT
14
SEAT
POST
LOCKING KNOB MUST be locked tightly
before you sit on the SEAT.
Step 10. Remove NUTS and WASHERS from
SEAT (13) and attach SEAT to SEAT
POST (14) with NUTS and WASHERS.
PULL
FIGURE 4
6
ASSEMBLY
NOTE: You may need two people to complete the following steps. One to hold CONSOLE TUBE (16) while
attachments are made.
FIGURE 5
Step 11. Remove the four BUTTON HEAD SCREWS (20) and M8 WASHERS (4) from the FRAME (3).
Step 12. Plug EXTENSION WIRE (17) into REED SWITCH WIRE (18). Secure connection with tape.
Step 13. NOTE: Turn TENSION KNOB to position 8 before connecting TENSION CABLE to
TENSION BLOCK (19).
Push EYE of TENSION CABLE into WIRE LOCK of TENSION BLOCK - see DETAIL.
Step 14. Pull TENSION CABLE through SLOT and place CABLE HOUSING on top of TENSION BLOCK
(19) - see DETAIL.
Make sure the EXTENSION WIRE (17) is through the top of the CONSOLE TUBE (16) and slide
CONSOLE TUBE over the FRAME (3). Fasten with hardware removed in Step 11.
NOTE: DO NOT pinch wires while attaching CONSOLE TUBE.
17
EXTENSION
WIRE
TENSION
KNOB
DETAIL
16
CONSOLE
TUBE
CABLE
HOUSING
20
BUTTON
HEAD
SCREW
SLOT
20
BUTTON
HEAD
SCREW
TENSION
CABLE
WIRE
LOCK
EYE
19
TENSION
BLOCK
4
M8
WASHER
17
EXTENSION
WIRE
18
REED
SWITCH
WIRE
TENSION
CABLE
3
FRAME
19
TENSION
BLOCK
FIGURE 5
7
ASSEMBLY
22
LEFT
HANDLEBAR
FIGURE 6
Step 16. With PIVOT TUBES on REAR side of
HANDLEBARS (21 RIGHT and 22 LEFT)
and CONNECTING ARMS (23 RIGHT and
24 LEFT) to inside, slide HANDLEBARS
onto AXLE.
(Remove tape at AXLE TUBE area).
Step 17. Slide LARGE WASHER (25) onto end of
AXLE and carefully tap PUSH NUT (26)
onto end of AXLE with hammer.
PIVOT
TUBE
ON REAR
SIDE
25
LARGE
WASHER
AXLE
26
PUSH NUT
FIGURE 6
23
RIGHT
CONNECTING
ARM
21
RIGHT
HANDLEBAR
Steps 18 and 19 are for DUAL ACTION MODE.
FIGURE 7
Step 18. Lower SLOT in CONNECTING ARMS (23 & 24) down over PEDAL BUSHING (8).
FIGURE 8
Step 19. Slide RETAINER (28) until CONNECTING ARMS (23 & 24) are locked in DUAL ACTION MODE.
28
RETAINER
SLOT
28
RETAINER
8
PEDAL
BUSHING
FIGURE 7
23
RIGHT
CONNECTING
ARM
8
23
RIGHT
CONNECTING
ARM
FIGURE 8
ASSEMBLY
Step 20 is for SINGLE ACTION MODE.
FIGURE 9
28
RETAINER
Step 20. Lower SLOT in
CONNECTING ARMS (23
RIGHT & 24 LEFT) onto
LOCKOUT ROD and slide
RETAINER (28) back over
LOCKOUT ROD to lock
CONNECTING ARM in
SINGLE ACTION MODE.
FIGURE 9
LOCKOUT
ROD
23
RIGHT
CONNECTING
ARM
NOTE: There are three ADJUSTMENT HOLES in each CONNECTING ARM (23 & 24). The CONNECTING
ARM comes attached to the END HOLE. The END HOLE puts the GRIP end of the HANDLEBARS
(21 & 22) closer to you, which is better for shorter people. The INSIDE HOLE puts the GRIP end
farther away from you which is better for taller people. To adjust, follow Steps 21 through 23.
21 RIGHT
HANDLEBAR
23
RIGHT
CONNECTING
ARM
29
HAIRPIN
COTTER
FIGURE 10
Step 21. Remove HAIRPIN COTTER (29) and
M8 WASHER (4) from PIVOT PIN in
HANDLEBAR (21 RIGHT & 22 LEFT).
4
M8
WASHER
Step 22. Slide desired ADJUSTMENT HOLE, of
CONNECTING ARM (23 & 24) onto
PIVOT PIN of HANDLEBAR (21 & 22).
Step 23. Place M8 WASHER (4) over PIVOT
PIN and insert HAIRPIN COTTER (29)
through hole in PIVOT PIN to lock
in place.
INSIDE
HOLE
FIGURE 10
PIVOT
PIN
END
HOLE
9
ASSEMBLY
TWO "AA" SIZE
BATTERIES
FIGURE 11
BATTERY
DOOR
Step 24. Remove BATTERY DOOR of CONSOLE
(32) and insert two "AA" SIZE BATTERIES
and replace BATTERY DOOR.
NOTE: DO NOT use rechargeable batteries.
Using rechargeable batteries will cause a
short circuit and destroy CONSOLE (32).
IMPORTANT
Your monitor includes low grade batteries
that will operate the computer for display
purposes only. You will need to replace the
batteries shortly after using the bike for the
first few times.
32
CONSOLE
FIGURE 11
30
CONSOLE
FIGURE 12
17
EXTENSION
WIRE
Step 25. Remove the four MACHINE
SCREWS (31) from back of
CONSOLE (30).
Step 26. Carefully plug EXTENSION
WIRE (17), into bottom of
CONSOLE (30).
16
CONSOLE
TUBE
31
MACHINE
SCREW
Step 27. Attach CONSOLE (30) to
CONSOLE TUBE (16) with
MACHINE SCREWS (31),
removed in Step 26.
31
MACHINE
SCREW
FIGURE 12
10
EXERCISE PROGRAM
HOW TO BEGIN
WARNING: Prior to undertaking any exercise, or program of exercise that requires a major increase in
physical activity, consultation with a competent medical authority is strongly recommended.
In addition, anyone who has a physical handicap, who suffers from a prolonged illness, or
who has increased risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, cardiocirculatory problems,
etc., should consult a competent medical authority before undertaking any exercise, or
engaging in a continuing program of exercise.
By first doing the above, you will then have a starting point from which to measure your
increased physical improvement.
_
CAUTION:
_
Stop exercising if you experience any of the following symptoms.
_ Pressure, tension, or pain in your chest, shoulders, neck, jaw, or arms.
_ Noticeable pain of any kind (i.e. leg or stomach cramps).
_ Lightheaded or dizziness (fainting-lack of vision).
_ Abnormal breathing (rapid or lack of air).
_ Sudden unsteadiness, weakness or numbness of the face, arms, legs or body.
_ Loss of speech, problems speaking, or understanding speech.
_ Unusual fatigue.
Lowering of your heart rate with increased exercise demands.
Fluttering in your chest (heart palpitations).
If any of these symptoms occur, call your doctor immediately. If exercise is new to you, don't push yourself
too fast. Be conscious of your body and what it is telling you. If pain develops anywhere in your body,
slow down.
SET FITNESS GOALS
General guidelines to follow.
The key to a healthful program is defining your personal goals, and establishing an exercise/nutrition program
that will help you to be successful.
What your individual exercise goals are will depend on many factors, some of which includes your age,
current fitness level, sex, heredity, and according to your lifestyle, the amount of time available to exercise.
Disciplining yourself not to skip a workout period is a very important short term goal. Many exercise
programs fail because this goal is not set as a priority. Just some of the advantages that you will receive
with a consistent long term exercise program include; a decrease in the percentage of stored fat, firmer
better toned muscles, increased vitality, and improved overall health in all areas of your physical and
mental efficiency.
11
PLANNING AN EXERCISE PROGRAM
When and how much exercise to do.
Probably the most important part of exercising, especially if exercise is new for you, is commitment,
commitment, commitment! Maintaining a physically fit body does not require hours and hours of your time.
For an average non-exercising person, a safe and generally accepted schedule is to exercise consistently
for 20 to 30 minutes, three times per week to maintain cardiovascular fitness.
Keeping a written record will help you to see your progress and may serve to help you keep your
commitment. It is extremely important to start out slow and not to overdo, especially for the first month or
two. Two reasonable times to work out, if it fits your schedule, is in the morning before breakfast, or early
evening before your evening meal.
Research shows that to increase your fitness level you should work out at a level of 70 to 80 percent of your
maximum heart rate. This is the target zone for best results. Exceeding your target zone will not increase your
fitness level, and could be very dangerous.
MONITORING YOUR HEART RATE
Before beginning your workout, check your normal resting heart rate. Place your fingers lightly against your
neck, or against your wrist over the main artery. After feeling your pulse, count the number of beats for 10
seconds. Multiply the number of beats by six to determine your pulse rate per minute. Keep a log of your
heart rate at rest; after warming up, during your workout, and two minutes during your cool down, then 10
minutes after your cool down. We recommend taking your heart rate at these times to accurately track your
progress as it relates to better physical fitness.
Your maximum heart rate and aerobic capacity naturally decreases as you age. In general, to determine your
maximum heart rate, subtract your age from 220. This may vary from one person to another, but use this
number to find your approximate effective target zone.
(MHR)= Maximum Heart Rate
(THR)= Target Heart Rate
220 - age = maximum heart rate (MHR). MHR x .70 = 70% of your heart rate.
MHR x .85 = 85% of your maximum heart rate.
For example, if you are 30 years old, your calculations will be as follows:
220 - 30 = 190
190 x .70 = 133 (Low end or 70% of THR)
190 x .85 = 161 (High end or 85% of THR)
See Table No. 1 for additional calculations.
If exercise is new to you, don’t push yourself too fast. Be conscious of your body and what it is telling you.
If pain develops anywhere in your body, slow down. Heart rhythm disturbances may occur if you stop
abruptly, so always remember to cool down.
You are an individual and your body is unique. All of the information in this manual is for an average person
with average physical fitness. Use these instructions as a guide.
12
HEART RATE TARGET ZONE FOR CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS
TABLE 1
200
195
190
190
185
180
180
175
170
170
165
165
161
160
160
157
155
153
Heart Rate
(Beats/Min)
150
150
140
148 144
145
140
140
136
136
133
130
131
129
127 123
129
129
119
120
119
115
112
85%
Target
Zone
108
110
100
20
Maximum
Attainable
Heart Rate
105 101
98
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
AGE (YRS)
TABLE 2
Exercise
Week
Warm Up
Period
THR%
Minutes
Cool Down
Period
Total
Time
Sessions
Per Wk.
Total Time
Per Wk.
1&2
3&4
5&6
7&8
9 & 10
11 & 12
4
5
5
5
5
5
60-65% -8
65-70% -10
70-75% -15
70-80% -20
70-85% -25
70-85% -25
5
5
5
5
5
5
17
20
25
30
35
35
3
3
3
3
3
3
51
60
75
90
105
105
13
70%
Target
Zone
WARMING UP
The greatest improvements are achieved when muscles are warm. Stretches should be slow, steady, and held
for 15 to 30 seconds, then gradually release back to the starting position. Stretch to a point where tension is
felt, not pain. Never bounce or jerk while stretching. The most important feature of balanced fitness is to be
consistent. Begin each workout period by first warming up. Start your warm up by walking in place or around
in the house for 2 to 5 minutes, then perform the stretches suggested below. This will slowly increase your
body temperature and blood flow, so your muscles are more flexible, thus preventing muscle strain and
injuries. The idea is to gradually build up your entire system for the workout period, then after your workout,
gradually return to normal.
Some suggested warm-up exercise are as follows:
WAIST TWIST: With your feet shoulder width apart, slowly twist your upper body right and left.
CALF STRETCH: Lean against a wall or a solid object keeping your body straight. Slowly raise up and
down on the balls of your feet.
SQUATS: From a standing position, balance yourself by holding onto a solid object or the wall. Slowly squat
down until the upper portion of your legs are level with your knees. Return to the standing position.
WORKING OUT
Too much...too little...how much is enough?
The key to a healthful program is defining your personal goals and establishing an exercise/nutrition program
that will help you to be successful. At approximately 20 minutes into an aerobic exercise your body shifts into
what is called the “fat-burning phase”. During this phase you are able to attack greater amounts of stored fat.
Although it is often neglected, stretching can effectively reduce muscle tension, help good posture, increase
range of motion and improve the loss of movement. It is a good idea to drink cool water before, during and
after your workout.
CAUTION: Immediately after a workout if you are over-heated, do not drink lots of ice cold water. Cool your
body down gradually using cool water. Drinking after a workout replaces the water that you have lost by
sweating during your workout.
If the water is not replaced, it could result in heat exhaustion and/or dehydration. Drinking eight glasses of
water a day is generally recommended. After completing the stretches and warm-up, you are ready to begin.
14
COMPUTER INSTRUCTIONS
COMPUTER FUNCTIONS
TIME: Accumulates the total working time
up to 99:59.
SPEED: Accumulates the current speed
up to 999.99 KM/H or MPH.
DISTANCE:
Accumulates the total working distance
up to
99.99 Miles from Zero.
CALORIE: Accumulates the calorie
consumption during exercise. Maximum
value is 9999 calories.
SCAN: Automatically scans through the
functions of DISTANCE, and CALORIES
for a period of 6 seconds.
ODO:
Total accumulate distance.
INTRODUCTION
OPERATION: To turn on the computer
press the button or begin pedaling. Then,
press the button again for the desired
function.
Your monitor will show approximate calories
burned, elapsed time, speed and distance
traveled to help you track your progress.
IMPORTANT:
NOTE: To reset, press and hold button
down for 4 seconds. This will provide a
total reset except for ODO.
Always consult with your physician before
beginning any exercise program. If you are
taking medication which may affect your
heart rate, a physician's advise is absolutely
essential.
TENSION CONTROL: 1 is the least
resistance and 8 is the greatest
resistance.
WARNING:
The batteries must be installed as
instructed in this manual. Do not carry
batteries loosely, such as in a purse or
pocket. The batteries may explode or
leak and cause injury if installed
improperly, misused, disposed of in a fire
or recharged.
15
PARTS LIST
ITEM QTY. PART NAME
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
4
2
1
10
4
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
4
2
2
2
1
4
1
2
2
ITEM QTY. PART NAME
M8 x 1.25 x 60mm Carriage Bolt
Foot Tube
Frame
M8 ID x 18.8mm OD Flat Washer
M8 x 1.25 Cap Nut
Foot Cap
Wheel
Pedal Bushing
Right Pedal
Left Pedal
Crank
Pedal Nut
Seat
Seat Post
Locking Knob
Console Tube
Extension Wire
Reed Switch
Tension Block
M8 x 1.25 x 12mm Button Head Screw
Right Handlebar
Left Handlebar
Right Connecting Arm
Left Connecting Arm
Large Washer
Push Nut
Grip
Retainer
Hairpin Cotter
Console
M6 x 1 x 10mm Machine Screw
"V" Belt
M10 Cap Nut
M10 Washer
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
HK
16
1
4
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
18
9
1
1
1
1
1
1
9
4
6
2
1
1
1
Magnetic Brake
M6 x 1 x 10mm Machine Screw
Spring
Belt Tension Bracket
M6 x 20mm Machine Screw
M6 x 1 Hex Nut
Idler Pulley
Idler Bushing
M8 x 45mm Button Head Screw
Eyebolt
Adjustment Channel
M6 x 1 Lock Nut
Bearing Cup
Bearing
Slotted Bearing Nut
Notched Bearing Nut
Crank Washer
Crank Nut
Pulley
Magnet
M4 x 12mm Sheet Metal Screw
M5 x .8 Hex Nut
Right Seat Post Bushing
Left Seat Post Bushing
Bottom Left Cover
Bottom Right Cover
Top Left Cover
Top Right Cover
M5 x 115mm Machine Screw
Pivot Bushing
M8 Lock Nut
Cap
Owner's Manual
Master Carton
Hardware Kit / Fastener Pack
FIGURE 13
17
Dedication to Quality
Fitness Quest warrants this product to be free from all
defects in material and workmanship when used
according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
See Limited Warranty Card for details.
If you have any comments or questions contact our
Customer Service Department, toll free at 1-800-321-9236,
Monday through Friday, 9:00 am to 5:00 pm, Eastern Time.
Please record the following information and keep for reference.
Serial #: ___________________
Date Of Purchase: ___________
Save your sales receipt.
(You may wish to staple it into this manual.)
©2002 Fitness Quest® Inc. All rights reserved.
Edge ® is a registered trademark of Fitness Quest® Inc. Made in Taiwan.
No part of this booklet may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic,
mechanical or otherwise, without the express written consent of the copyright holder.
11/11/02
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