Specifications | Fluke 7250A Time Clock User Manual

®
DSP-100/2000
LAN CableMeter®/Cable Analyzer
Users Manual
PN 642964
January 1997
© 1997 Fluke Corporation. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.
All product names are trademarks of their respective companies.
LIMITED WARRANTY & LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
Each Fluke product is warranted to be free from defects in material and workmanship under normal use and
service. The warranty period is one year and begins on the date of shipment. Parts, product repairs and
services are warranted for 90 days. This warranty extends only to the original buyer or end-user customer of a
Fluke authorized reseller, and does not apply to fuses, disposable batteries or to any product which, in Fluke’s
opinion, has been misused, altered, neglected or damaged by accident or abnormal conditions of operation or
handling. Fluke warrants that software will operate substantially in accordance with its functional specifications
for 90 days and that it has been properly recorded on non-defective media. Fluke does not warrant that software
will be error free or operate without interruption.
Fluke authorized resellers shall extend this warranty on new and unused products to end-user customers only
but have no authority to extend a greater or different warranty on behalf of Fluke. Warranty support is available if
product is purchased through a Fluke authorized sales outlet or Buyer has paid the applicable international price.
Fluke reserves the right to invoice Buyer for importation costs of repair/replacement parts when product
purchased in one country is submitted for repair in another country.
Fluke’s warranty obligation is limited, at Fluke’s option, to refund of the purchase price, free of charge repair, or
replacement of a defective product which is returned to a Fluke authorized service center within the warranty
period.
To obtain warranty service, contact your nearest Fluke authorized service center or send the product, with a
description of the difficulty, postage and insurance prepaid (FOB Destination), to the nearest Fluke authorized
service center. Fluke assumes no risk for damage in transit. Following warranty repair, the product will be
returned to Buyer, transportation prepaid (FOB Destination). If Fluke determines that the failure was caused by
misuse, alteration, accident or abnormal condition of operation or handling, Fluke will provide an estimate of
repair costs and obtain authorization before commencing the work. Following repair, the product will be returned
to the Buyer transportation prepaid and the Buyer will be billed for the repair and return transportation charges
(FOB Shipping Point).
THIS WARRANTY IS BUYER’S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY AND IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. FLUKE SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR
ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSSES, INCLUDING LOSS
OF DATA, WHETHER ARISING FROM BREACH OF WARRANTY OR BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT,
RELIANCE OR ANY OTHER THEORY.
Since some countries or states do not allow limitation of the term of an implied warranty, or exclusion or
limitation of incidental or consequential damages, the limitations and exclusions of this warranty may not apply to
every buyer. If any provision of this Warranty is held invalid or unenforceable by a court of competent
jurisdiction, such holding will not affect the validity or enforceability of any other provision.
Fluke Corporation
P.O. Box 9090
Everett, WA 98206-9090
U.S.A.
5/94
Fluke Europe B.V.
P.O. Box 1186
5602 BD Eindhoven
The Netherlands
Table of Contents
Chapter
Page
1
Introduction ......................................................................................
Overview of Features ......................................................................................
Standard Accessories ......................................................................................
Using This Manual ..........................................................................................
1-1
1-1
1-3
1-5
2
Getting Started .................................................................................
W Safety and Operational Information ..........................................................
Quick Start.......................................................................................................
Quick Configuration........................................................................................
Results within Accuracy Range ......................................................................
Autotest on Twisted Pair Cable ......................................................................
Autotest on Coaxial Cable ..............................................................................
Main Unit Features..........................................................................................
Remote Features..............................................................................................
Strap and Bail ..................................................................................................
Rotary Switch..................................................................................................
Turning On the Test Tool................................................................................
Configuring the Test Tool...............................................................................
Remote Lights, Messages, and Audible Tones ...............................................
Remote End Testing ........................................................................................
Remote Communication Error ........................................................................
Battery Status ..................................................................................................
2-1
2-1
2-3
2-4
2-6
2-7
2-10
2-12
2-14
2-16
2-16
2-20
2-22
2-29
2-30
2-31
2-31
3
Autotest ............................................................................................
Autotest Softkeys ............................................................................................
Autotest on Twisted Pair Cable ......................................................................
Link Performance Grade Result (Headroom) .................................................
Automatic Diagnostics (Model DSP-2000) ....................................................
Autotest Results for Twisted Pair Cable .........................................................
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-4
3-4
3-6
i
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Autotest on Coaxial Cable ..............................................................................
Autotest Results for Coaxial Cable ................................................................
Saving Autotest Results ..................................................................................
The Autotest Report........................................................................................
3-19
3-21
3-23
3-25
4
Running Individual Tests ................................................................
Single Tests for Twisted Pair Cable ...............................................................
Scanning Function ..........................................................................................
When to Use a Remote Unit ...........................................................................
The TDX Analyzer .........................................................................................
The TDR Test .................................................................................................
Single Test Results for Twisted Pair Cable....................................................
Single Tests for Coaxial Cable .......................................................................
Monitoring Network Activity .........................................................................
Identifying Hub Port Connections ..................................................................
Monitoring Impulse Noise ..............................................................................
Determining Hub Port Capabilities (Model DSP-2000).................................
Using the Tone Generator (Model DSP-2000) ...............................................
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-6
4-9
4-12
4-14
4-16
4-20
4-20
4-23
4-24
5
Viewing and Printing Saved Reports.............................................. 5-1
Printing Test Reports ...................................................................................... 5-1
Viewing, Renaming, and Deleting Test Reports ............................................ 5-6
6
Calibrations and Custom Test Standards ......................................
Calibrating the Test Tool................................................................................
NVP Calibration .............................................................................................
Configuring a Custom Cable ..........................................................................
6-1
6-1
6-3
6-4
7
Basic Cable Testing.........................................................................
LAN Cable Construction ................................................................................
Attenuation .....................................................................................................
Noise ..............................................................................................................
Characteristic Impedance................................................................................
Crosstalk and Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT) ...................................................
Nominal Velocity of Propagation (NVP) .......................................................
Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)...............................................................
ACR ..............................................................................................................
RL ..............................................................................................................
Troubleshooting Basics ..................................................................................
7-1
7-1
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-9
7-14
7-15
7-19
7-20
7-21
8
Maintenance and Specifications.....................................................
Maintenance....................................................................................................
If the Test Tool Fails ......................................................................................
Specifications..................................................................................................
8-1
8-1
8-4
8-7
ii
Contents (continued)
Appendices
A
Using DSP-LINK ................................................................................. A-1
B
Glossary................................................................................................ B-1
C
Tests Run per Test Standard During an Autotest................................. C-1
Index
iii
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
iv
List of Tables
Table
2-1.
2-2.
2-3.
2-4.
2-5.
2-6.
2-7.
3-1.
3-2.
3-3.
3-4.
3-5.
3-6.
3-7.
3-8.
3-9.
3-10.
4-1.
4-2.
4-3.
4-4.
4-5.
4-6.
4-7.
4-8.
7-1.
8-1.
8-2.
8-3.
8-4.
8-5.
Page
International Electrical Symbols.................................................................
Key Functions for the Menu System ..........................................................
Quick Configuration Settings .....................................................................
Main Unit Features .....................................................................................
Remote Connectors and Features ...............................................................
Status Indications from Remotes ................................................................
Battery Status Messages .............................................................................
Wire Map Displays .....................................................................................
Items on the Attenuation Results Screen ....................................................
Items on the Attenuation Plot Screen .........................................................
Items on the NEXT Results Screen ............................................................
Items on the NEXT Plot Screen..................................................................
Items on the ACR Results Screen...............................................................
Items on the ACR Plot Screen ....................................................................
Items on the RL Results Screen ..................................................................
Items on the RL Plot Screen .......................................................................
Items on the Autotest Save Screen..............................................................
Remote Requirements for Cable Tests .......................................................
Items on the TDX Analyzer Results Screen ...............................................
Items on a TDX Analyzer Plot....................................................................
Effects of Termination on TDR Results .....................................................
Items on the TDR Results Screen (Twisted Pair Results) ..........................
Items on the TDR Plot (Twisted Pair Results) ...........................................
Items on the Traffic Monitor Screen...........................................................
Items on the Noise Monitor Screen ............................................................
Identifying Cable Faults..............................................................................
Troubleshooting the Test Tool....................................................................
Replacement Parts.......................................................................................
Characteristic Impedance Test Specifications ............................................
Length Test Specifications .........................................................................
Length Test Specifications .........................................................................
v
2-1
2-3
2-4
2-13
2-15
2-29
2-31
3-6
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-24
4-3
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-11
4-12
4-19
4-23
7-22
8-5
8-6
8-8
8-9
8-9
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
8-6.
8-7.
8-8.
8-9.
A-1.
A-2.
A-3.
C-1.
Distance Specifications for TDR Test........................................................
PC Interface Cable Connections.................................................................
9-to 25-pin Adapter ....................................................................................
Certifications ..............................................................................................
Summary of DSP-LINK Functions ............................................................
Special Terms Used in DSP-LINK.............................................................
Formats for Uploaded Reports ...................................................................
Tests Run per Test Standard During an Autotest.......................................
vi
8-11
8-13
8-13
8-16
A-5
A-6
A-7
C-2
List of Figures
Figure
1-1.
2-1.
2-2.
2-3.
2-4.
2-5.
2-6.
3-1.
3-2.
3-3.
3-4.
3-5.
3-6.
3-7.
3-8.
3-9.
3-10.
3-11.
4-1.
4-3.
4-3.
4-4.
4-5.
4-6.
5-1.
6-1.
7-1.
7-2.
7-3.
7-4.
7-5.
Page
Standard Accessories ..................................................................................
The Asterisk and Test Tool Accuracy ........................................................
Autotest Connections for Twisted Pair Cable (Channel) ...........................
Autotest Connections for Coaxial Cable ....................................................
Main Unit Features .....................................................................................
Standard and Smart Remote Features .........................................................
Attaching the Strap and Opening the Bail ..................................................
Autotest Connections for Twisted Pair Cable (Basic Link) .......................
Examples of Automatic Diagnostics Displays............................................
The Attenuation Plot Screen.......................................................................
The NEXT Plot Screen ...............................................................................
The ACR Plot Screen..................................................................................
The RL Plot Screen.....................................................................................
Autotest Connections for Coaxial Cable ....................................................
Screen for Saving Autotest Results ............................................................
Part of an Autotest Report for Twisted Pair ...............................................
Autotest Report for Coaxial Cable .............................................................
Autotest Report Summary...........................................................................
Single Test Connections for Twisted Pair Cable........................................
Example of a TDX Analyzer Plot for a Good Twisted Pair Cable Run .....
Example of a TDR Plot (Twisted Pair Results)..........................................
Single Test Connections for Coaxial Cable................................................
Connections for Monitoring Network Traffic ............................................
Connections for Monitoring Impulse Noise ...............................................
Connections for Printing Test Reports .......................................................
Connections for Self-Calibration (Smart Remote Shown) .........................
Twisted Pair Cable Construction ................................................................
EIA/TIA RJ45 Connections........................................................................
Coaxial Cable Construction ........................................................................
Attenuation of a Signal ...............................................................................
Sources of Electrical Noise.........................................................................
vii
1-4
2-6
2-8
2-11
2-12
2-14
2-16
3-2
3-5
3-11
3-13
3-16
3-18
3-21
3-24
3-26
3-27
3-27
4-4
4-8
4-12
4-15
4-17
4-21
5-3
6-2
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
7-6.
7-7.
7-8.
7-9.
7-10.
7-11.
8-1.
8-2.
8-3.
A-1.
A TDX Analyzer Plot.................................................................................
Split Pair Wiring.........................................................................................
How NVP is Calculated .............................................................................
Signals Reflected from an Open, Shorted, and Terminated Cable.............
Example of a TDR Plot ..............................................................................
A Plot of NEXT, Attenuation, and the Resulting ACR .............................
Removing the Battery in the Standard Remote ..........................................
Removing the NiCad Battery Pack.............................................................
Operating Environment Specifications ......................................................
Connecting the Test Tool to a PC ..............................................................
viii
7-10
7-12
7-14
7-16
7-18
7-20
8-2
8-3
8-15
A-3
Chapter 1
Introduction
Chapter 1 provides the following information:
•
Features of the DSP-100 and DSP-2000 test tools.
•
A list of equipment included with the test tools.
•
A guide to using this manual.
Overview of Features
The Fluke DSP-100 LAN CableMeter® and DSP-2000 LAN Cable Analyzer test
tools (hereafter referred to collectively as “the test tool”) are hand-held
instruments used to certify cable and to test and troubleshoot coaxial and twisted
pair cable in local area network (LAN) installations. The test tool features new
measurement technology that combines test pulses with digital signal processing
to provide fast, accurate results and advanced testing capabilities.
The test tool includes the following features:
•
Checks LAN cable performance against IEEE, ANSI, TIA, and ISO/IEC
standards.
•
Presents test options and results in a simple menu system.
•
Presents displays and printed reports in English, German, French, Spanish, or
Italian.
•
Runs all critical tests automatically.
1-1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
•
Produces 2-way Autotest results in approximately 20 seconds.
•
Includes a stored library of common test standards and cable types.
•
•
Allows for configuration of up to 4 custom test standards.
Time Domain Crosstalk (TDX) analyzer locates the position of crosstalk
(NEXT) problems on a cable.
•
Tests for return loss (RL).
•
Produces plots of NEXT, attenuation, ACR, and RL. Shows NEXT, ACR, and
attenuation results up to 155 MHz.
•
Stores at least 500 cable test results in nonvolatile memory.
•
Monitors impulse noise and network traffic on Ethernet systems. Hub port
locator helps you identify port connections.
•
Sends stored test reports to a host computer or directly to a serial printer.
•
Flash EPROM accepts test standard and software upgrades.
•
Tests fiber optic cable when used with a Fluke DSP Fiber Optic Meter.
Model DSP-2000 includes the following additional features:
1-2
•
Monitors 100BaseTX network traffic.
•
Diagnostic routine provides specific information about the location and cause
of an Autotest failure.
•
Tests for remote return loss (RL@REMOTE) and power sum NEXT
(PSNEXT).
•
Determines which standards are supported by a hub port connection.
•
Tone generator lets you use an inductive pickup device to identify cables in a
LAN installation.
Introduction
Standard Accessories
1
Standard Accessories
The test tool comes with the following accessories, which are shown in Figure
1-1. If the test tool is damaged or something is missing, contact the place of
purchase immediately.
1 AC/adapter/charger (2 with smart remote package) 120V (US only) or universal
adapter/charger and line cord (outside North America)
2 RJ45 2m (6.6 ft), 100Ω, straight-through patch cables
1 RJ45 15 cm (6”), 100Ω, straight-through patch cable
1 50Ω BNC coaxial cable
1 RJ45 to BNC adapter (Model DSP-2000 only)
1 PC serial interface (EIA-232C) cable
1 Carrying strap (2 with smart remote package)
1 3.5” DSP-LINK utility diskette
1 Users manual (not shown)
1 Warranty registration card (not shown)
1 Soft carrying case for Model DSP-100 (2 with smart remote package, not shown.
Discard loose foam pieces.)
1 Smart remote unit with Model DSP-2000 (not shown)
1 Hard carrying case with Model DSP-2000 (not shown)
1-3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
RJ45
Straight Through
Patch
Coaxial
Cable
15 cm (1)
2m (2)
RJ45 to BNC Adapter
(DSP-2000 Only)
RS-232 Cable
DSP-Link Software
3.5-Inch Floppy Disk
BP7217
Nickel-Cadmium
Battery Pack
Strap
AC Adapter/Charger
or
gc01f.eps
Figure 1-1. Standard Accessories
1-4
Introduction
Using This Manual
1
Using This Manual
WWarning
Before using the test tool, carefully read "Safety and
Operational Information" at the beginning of Chapter 2.
If you are familiar with the general features, functions, and operation of LAN
cable testers and want to start testing cables immediately, proceed as follows:
1. Read “Quick Start” in Chapter 2 to prepare the test tool for operation, access
the test tool’s functions, and run an Autotest.
2. Refer to the test and setup features listed under “Rotary Switch” in Chapter 2
to locate functions in the test tool’s menu structure.
3. Refer to Appendix B, “Glossary,” to find definitions for unfamiliar terms.
If you have never used a LAN cable tester, but want to start testing cables
immediately and learn as you work, proceed as follows:
1. Read “Quick Start” in Chapter 2 to prepare the test tool for operation, access
the test tool’s functions, and run an Autotest.
2. Refer to Appendix B, “Glossary,” to find definitions for unfamiliar terms.
3. Refer to the test and setup features listed under “Rotary Switch” in Chapter 2
to locate functions in the test tool’s menu structure.
4. Refer to Chapter 3, “Autotest,” to find more detailed information about cable
tests and test results.”
5. Read Chapter 4, “Running Individual Tests,” to learn how to run individual
tests and monitor network traffic and impulse noise.
6. Read Chapter 7, “Basic Cable Testing,” to add to your cable testing and
troubleshooting knowledge.
1-5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
If you have never used a LAN cable tester and want to learn about cable testing
and troubleshooting before you use the test tool, proceed as follows:
1. Read Chapter 7, “Basic Cable Testing,” to learn the basics of LAN cable
characteristics, testing, and interpreting test results.
2. Read “Features” in Chapter 2 to familiarize yourself with the test tool.
3. Read “Getting Started” in Chapter 2 to learn how to prepare the test tool for
use.
4. Read Chapter 3, “Autotest,” to learn how to run the most commonly used
cable test and interpret the test results.
5. Read Chapter 4, “Running Individual Tests,” to learn how to run individual
tests and monitor network traffic and impulse noise.
6. Refer to the test and setup features listed under “Rotary Switch” in Chapter 2
to locate functions in the test tool’s menu structure.
7. Refer to Appendix B, “Glossary,” to find definitions for unfamiliar terms.
1-6
Chapter 2
Getting Started
Chapter 2 provides the following information:
•
Safety and cautions to observe when using the test tool.
•
Instructions for getting started quickly with the test tool.
•
Detailed information on the test tool’s features.
•
Detailed instructions on configuring the test tool.
Safety and Operational Information
The international electrical symbols used on the instrument or in this manual are
described in Table 2-1.
Table 2-1. International Electrical Symbols
Warning: Risk of electric shock.
Warning or Caution: Risk of damage or destruction to equipment or software. See
explanations in the manual.
Equipment is protected by double insulation or reinforced insulation to protect the user
against electric shock.
Do not connect this terminal to public communications networks, such as telephone
systems.
Battery should be recycled. Refer to "Replacing the NiCad Battery Pack" in Chapter 8.
2-1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
XWarning
To avoid possible fire or electric shock when charging the
battery or powering the test tool with ac power, use only
the ac adapter/charger provided with the test tool.
WCaution
Never connect the test tool to telephone lines of any type,
including ISDN lines. Doing so can damage the test tool.
•
Always turn on the test tool before connecting it to a cable. Turning the test
tool on activates the tool’s input protection circuitry.
•
Except when monitoring network activity, never connect the test tool to an
active network. Doing so may disrupt network operation.
•
When using a coaxial T-connector to connect the test tool to a network, never
allow the T-connector to touch a conductive surface. Such contact may disrupt
network operation.
Never attempt to insert any connector other than an RJ45 connector into the
RJ45 jack. Inserting other connectors, such as RJ11 (telephone) connectors,
can permanently damage the jack.
•
2-2
•
Never attempt to send data from a PC to the test tool while running a cable
test. Doing so may cause erroneous test results.
•
Never operate portable transmitting devices during a cable test. Doing so may
cause erroneous test results.
•
Never run tests with cables connected to both test connectors. Doing so may
cause erroneous test results.
•
To ensure maximum accuracy of test results, perform the self-calibration
procedure as described in “Calibrating the Test Tool” in Chapter 6.
Getting Started
Quick Start
2
Quick Start
This section is for users who want to start using the test tool immediately with
minimal instruction. For suggestions on additional reading that may be helpful to
you, see “Using this Manual” in Chapter 1.
Powering the Test Tool
Before powering the test tool or smart remote with the NiCad battery pack, charge
the battery for about 3 hours. To charge the battery, connect the ac adapter/charger
to the test tool or smart remote and to ac line power. You can operate the unit on
ac power while the battery charges. A fully-charged battery typically lasts 10-12
hours. See “Battery Status” on page 2-31 for information on battery status
messages.
Note
The ac adapter/charger will not power the test tool when the battery
pack is removed.
The standard remote unit is powered by a 9V alkaline battery. The test tool
monitors the remote unit and alerts you when the battery voltage is low.
Using the Menus
The test tool’s setup configuration, test selections, and test results are presented in
a menu system. Table 2-2 shows the keys used to select items and move between
screens in the menu system.
Table 2-2. Key Functions for the Menu System
Key
U D L R
E
Function
Allow up, down, left, and right movement on the display.
Selects the highlighted item.
T
Starts the highlighted test.
e
Exits the current screen.
!@
#$
Softkeys select the function displayed on the screen area above the key. Softkey
functions depend on the screen displayed.
2-3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Quick Configuration
The settings listed in Table 2-3 affect either the display format or the accuracy of
your test results. Following the table are instructions for changing the settings. For
a complete list of the test tool’s adjustable settings, refer to the later section
“Setup.”
Table 2-3. Quick Configuration Settings
SETUP Setting
2-4
Description
Test Standard and
Cable Type
Select the test standard and cable type you are using. Your selection
determines which test specifications are used and which tests are run during
cable testing. Fiber optic cable testing requires a Fluke DSP Fiber Optic
Meter.
Average Cable
Temperature
Select the cable temperature range that includes the average temperature
where the cable is installed. Cable temperature is not applicable to all test
standards.
Conduit Setting
The conduit setting is not applicable to all test standards.
Remote End
Testing
Enables execution of the REMOTE tests. Select Disable or Auto Detect when
using a standard remote.
Length Units
Select meters or feet as the unit for length measurements.
Numeric Format
Select a format (0.00 or 0,00) for display of decimal fractions.
Display and Report
Language
Select English, German, French, Spanish, or Italian.
Power Line Noise
Filter Frequency
Select the frequency of the ac power in your area. The test tool filters out 50
or 60 Hz noise from measurements.
Getting Started
Quick Configuration
2
To change any of the settings shown in Table 2-3, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. If the setting you want to change is not on the first Setup screen, press
$Page Down to see additional Setup screens.
3. Use D U to highlight the setting you want to change.
4. Press ! Choice.
5. Use D U to highlight the setting you want.
6. Press E to store the highlighted setting.
7. Repeat steps 2 through 6 to change additional settings.
2-5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Results within Accuracy Range
An asterisk following a test result value indicates that the value is within the test
tool’s range of accuracy, as shown in Figure 2-1. All tests except the wire map test
may produce results with an asterisk when the asterisk is required by the selected
test standard.
The asterisk appears on displayed and printed test results, but does not appear in
comma separated variable (CSV) data uploaded to a PC.
Pass
* Pass Region
Limit
Accuracy
Range of
Test Tool
* Fail Region
Fail
gc02f.eps
Figure 2-1. The Asterisk and Test Tool Accuracy
2-6
Getting Started
Autotest on Twisted Pair Cable
2
Autotest on Twisted Pair Cable
Autotest performs all of the tests necessary to determine if the cable you are
testing meets the test standards specified for your LAN installation.
The following tests apply to twisted pair cable:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wire Map
Resistance
Length
Propagation Delay
Delay Skew
Impedance
NEXT (Near-end Crosstalk)
Attenuation
ACR (Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio)
RL (Return Loss)
PSNEXT (Power Sum NEXT; Model DSP-2000 only)
Some test standards require a NEXT measurement from both ends of the cable. If
you are using another main unit (Model DSP-100 only) or a smart remote as the
remote unit, and you enable remote end testing on the main unit, the Autotest runs
the REMOTE tests supported by the test tool if those tests apply to the selected
test standard.
To Autotest twisted pair cable, refer to Figure 2-2 on the next page and proceed as
follows:
Note
Standard remote units do not support remote end testing.
Note
If the calibration message appears after you start the Autotest, refer
to “Calibrating the Test Tool” in Chapter 6 for complete calibration
instructions.
2-7
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Horizontal
Cross Connect Blocks
2 Meters
RJ45
Jacks
DSP-2000
CABLE ANALYZER
Test Tool
2
1
3
Transition
Connector
4
TEST
SAVE
FAULT
INFO
EXIT
ENTER
WAKE UP
MONITOR
SINGLE
TEST
AUTO
TEST
OFF
SETUP
PRINT
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
Wall
Outlet
SMART
REMOTE
DSP-2000SR
SMART REMOTE
PASS
TESTING
2 Meters
FAIL
LOW BATTERY
Smart
Remote
ON
OFF
gc03f.eps
Figure 2-2. Autotest Connections for Twisted Pair Cable (Channel Configuration and Model
DSP-2000 Shown)
2-8
Getting Started
Autotest on Twisted Pair Cable
2
1. If you are using a DSP-100 main unit as the remote, turn the remote unit’s
rotary switch to SMART REMOTE. If you are using a smart remote unit, turn
its rotary switch to ON.
2. Use a 2m patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the remote to the far
end of the cable link.
3. On Model DSP-100, remove any cable connected to the test tool’s BNC
connector.
4. Turn the rotary switch on the main unit to AUTOTEST.
5. Verify that the settings displayed are correct. You can change these settings in
the SETUP mode.
6. Use a 2m patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the test tool to the
near end of the cable link. On Model DSP-2000, connect to the CABLE TEST
jack.
7. Press T to start the Autotest.
2-9
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Autotest on Coaxial Cable
The following tests are run during an Autotest on coaxial cable:
•
•
•
•
Impedance
Resistance
Length
Anomaly detection (Results shown only if anomalies are detected.)
To run an Autotest on coaxial cable, refer to Figure 2-3 and proceed as follows:
1. Turn off any PC nodes connected to the cable you are testing.
2. If you want the Autotest to report cable length, remove the terminator from the
far end of the cable.
3. Turn the rotary switch to AUTOTEST.
4. Verify that the test standard and cable type displayed are correct. You can
change these settings in the SETUP mode.
5. Remove any cable connected to the test tool’s unused RJ45 connector.
6. Remove the terminator from the near end of the coaxial cable and connect the
cable to the BNC connector on the test tool. On Model DSP-2000, use the
RJ45 to BNC adapter to connect the cable to the CABLE TEST jack.
7. Press T to start the Autotest.
2-10
Getting Started
Autotest on Coaxial Cable
2
PC
PC
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
PC
8
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
For Length Test,
remove far-end
Terminator
BNC “T”
Connector
DSP-2000
2
1
CABLE ANALYZER
3
4
TEST
SAVE
FAULT
INFO
EXIT
ENTER
MONITOR
SINGLE
TEST
Test Tool
AUTO
TEST
OFF
SETUP
PRINT
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
SMART
REMOTE
gc04f.epc
Figure 2-3. Autotest Connections for Coaxial Cable (Model DSP-2000 Shown)
2-11
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Main Unit Features
Figure 2-4 shows the features on the main unit and Table 2-4 explains their
functions. Features shown in light gray are found on Model DSP-100 only.
DSP-100
DSP-2000
CABLE
TEST
14
15
14
DSP-2000
MONITOR
CABLE ANALYZER
14
11
6
12
7
2
1
5
4
3
4
TEST
SAVE
FAULT
INFO
3
EXIT
13
8
9
10
ENTER
WAKE UP
2
MONITOR
SINGLE
TEST
AUTO
TEST
OFF
SETUP
PRINT
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
SMART
REMOTE
gc05f.eps
Figure 2-4. Main Unit Features
2-12
Getting Started
Main Unit Features
2
Table 2-4. Main Unit Features
Item
Feature
1
Rotary Switch
2
3
e
Exits the current screen.
F
Model DSP-2000 only. Automatically provides more specific information on
the cause of an Autotest failure.
4
5
T
Starts the highlighted test or restarts the test last run.
6
7
8
9
0
! @
#$
Display
L R U D
S
E
C
WAKE UP
Description
Selects the test tool’s modes.
Provide functions related to the concurrent display. Softkey functions are
shown in the display area above the keys.
A LCD display with backlight and adjustable contrast.
Allow left, right, up, and down movement on the display. Increase or
decrease the numerical values of user-definable parameters.
Saves Autotest results and parameter changes in memory.
Selects the highlighted item from a menu.
Controls the display backlight. Pressing for 1 second allows adjustment of
the display contrast. Reactivates the test tool when the tool is in power
down mode.
f
RS-232C serial
port
A 9-pin connector for interfacing with a printer or host computer via a
standard IBM-AT EIA RS-232C serial cable.
g
AC adapter/
charger jack
Connection for the ac adapter/charger supplied with the test tool.
h
AC power
indicator
LED Style 1: A green LED that turns on when the test tool is powered with
the ac adapter/charger.
LED Style 2: A multicolor LED with four states:
Off: AC adapter/charger is not connected, or is connected without the
battery pack installed.
Blinking Red: The ac adapter/charger is trickle charging the battery in
preparation for fast charging. This mode indicates an extremely low
battery voltage. The test tool may not operate.
Steady Red: The ac adapter/charger is fast charging the battery.
Steady Green: Fast charging is complete. The ac adapter/charger
continues to trickle charge the battery.
i
RJ45
connector(s)
A shielded 8-pin jack for shielded and unshielded twisted pair cable. On
Model DSP-2000, this jack is labeled CABLE TEST. Model DSP-2000 has
an additional RJ45 jack labeled MONITOR, which is used for
10/100BaseTX traffic and hub tests.
j
BNC connector
Model DSP-100 only. A connector for coaxial cable.
2-13
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Remote Features
Figure 2-5 shows the features on the standard and smart remote units. Table 2-5
explains the functions of these items.
SS
IL
Smart Remote
FA
TE
PA
ST
Standard Remote
DSP-2000SR
SMART REMOTE
PASS
TESTING
FAIL
LOW BATTERY
ON
OFF
gc06f.eps
Figure 2-5. Standard and Smart Remote Features
2-14
Getting Started
Remote Features
2
Table 2-5. Remote Connectors and Features
Item
Feature
Description
1
RS-232C serial
port
A DB9P connector for loading software updates.
2
AC adapter/
charger jack
Connection for the ac adapter/charger supplied with the test tool.
3
AC power
indicator
LED Style 1: A green LED that turns on when the test tool is powered
with the ac adapter/charger.
LED Style 2: A multicolor LED with four states:
Off: AC adapter/charger is not connected, or is connected without
the battery pack installed.
Blinking Red: The ac adapter/charger is trickle charging the battery
in preparation for fast charging. This mode indicates an extremely
low battery voltage. The test tool may not operate.
Steady Red: The ac adapter/charger is fast charging the battery.
Steady Green: Fast charging is complete. The ac adapter/charger
continues to trickle charge the battery.
4
RJ45 connector
A shielded 8-pin jack for shielded and unshielded twisted pair cable.
5
Pass LED
A green LED that turns on at the end of a test if no faults were
detected.
6
Test LED
A yellow LED that turns on when a test is in progress.
7
Fail LED
A red LED that turns on at the end of a test if one or more faults were
detected.
8
Low-battery LED
A LED that turns on when the smart remote battery voltage is low.
9
Rotary switch
On/off switch for smart remote.
2-15
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Strap and Bail
The test tool and the smart remote have a strap and a bail. Figure 2-6 shows how
to attach the strap and open the bail.
gc07f.eps
Figure 2-6. Attaching the Strap and Opening the Bail
Rotary Switch
The following paragraphs summarize the modes you can select with the rotary switch on
the main unit.
Off
Turns the test tool off. Setup information and test results that were saved via the
SAVE key are stored in nonvolatile memory.
2-16
Getting Started
Rotary Switch
2
Autotest
Autotest is the most frequently used function in LAN cable testing. Autotest
performs all of the tests necessary to qualify the cable you are testing. When the
Autotest is complete, the tests that were run are listed with the overall result for
each test. You can also view detailed results for each test. Results from at least
500 Autotests can be saved for printing or transmission to a host computer.
The following tests apply to twisted pair cable:
Note
The tests run during an Autotest on twisted pair cable depend on the
test standard selected. Tests not applicable to the selected test
standard are not run or displayed. For a list of tests applicable to
various test standards, see Table C-1 in Appendix C.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wire Map: Tests for opens, shorts, crossed pairs, reversed wires, and split
pairs.
NEXT: Tests twisted pair cable for near-end crosstalk (NEXT).
Length: Displays the length of twisted pairs in feet or meters.
Propagation Delay: Measures the times taken for a signal to travel the length
of each cable pair.
Delay Skew: Calculates the differences in propagation delays between the
cable pairs.
Impedance: Measures the impedance of each cable pair. If impedance
anomalies are detected, the test reports the largest anomaly detected on each
cable pair.
Attenuation: Measures the attenuation of each cable pair.
Resistance: Measures the loop resistance of each cable pair.
ACR: Calculates the ratio of attenuation to crosstalk for all combinations of
cable pairs.
RL (Return Loss): Measures signal loss due to signal reflections in the cable.
PSNEXT (Power Sum Next; Model DSP-2000 only): For each cable pair,
PSNEXT is calculated as the sum of the NEXT from all other pairs.
2-17
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
The following tests apply to coaxial cable:
•
Impedance: Measures the impedance of the cable.
•
Resistance: Measures the loop resistance of the cable, shield, and terminator.
•
Length: Measures the length of unterminated cables.
•
Anomaly Detection: During a coaxial cable test, the test tool also detects and
reports the position of the largest impedance anomaly (if any are present) on
the cable.
Single Test
The SINGLE TEST mode provides access to the individual tests defined by the
selected test standard, except for the ACR test. This mode also allows execution
of TDR and TDX analyzer tests. A scanning function, which continuously
repeats the test, is available for the wire map, resistance, TDR, and TDX analyzer
tests.
Monitor
The MONITOR mode allows you to continuously monitor impulse noise on
network cables or network activity on Ethernet systems. Network activity is
monitored for collisions, jabber, and percentage of system utilization.
The MONITOR mode also includes a hub port locator, which helps you determine
port connections at a hub. Model DSP-2000 includes a hub port capabilities
feature that determines the standards supported by a port.
2-18
Getting Started
Rotary Switch
2
Setup
Allows you to do the following:
•
Select a test standard and cable type.
•
Select an average cable temperature when temperature is required by the
selected test standard.
•
Set the test tool to test cable installed in conduit when a conduit setting is
required by the selected test standard.
•
Enable remote testing or automatic remote detection when you use a second
main unit or a smart remote as a remote unit.
•
Set the cable identification number to increment automatically each time you
save Autotest results.
•
Set the backlight timer to turn off the backlight after a specified period of
inactivity.
•
Set the power-down timer to switch the test tool to a low-power mode after a
specified period of inactivity.
•
Set the fault threshold for the impulse noise test.
•
Select interface parameters for the serial port.
•
Enable or disable the test tool’s beeper.
•
Set the date and time.
•
Select a format for the date and time.
•
Select a unit for length measurements.
•
Select a format for displaying decimal fractions.
•
Select a language for the display and printed reports.
•
Select a frequency for the power line noise filter.
•
Enable or disable the shield continuity test.
•
Modify test standards for custom cable configurations.
•
Select 100 MHz or 155 MHz as the maximum frequency for NEXT, ACR, and
attenuation tests.
2-19
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Print
Allows you to send saved reports or report summaries to a serial printer. You can
print the results from previously stored Autotests. Also allows editing of the report
identification information.
Special Functions
Allows you to do the following:
•
View or delete test reports saved in memory.
•
Generate a tone to use with an inductive pickup to identify cable runs (Model
DSP-2000 only).
•
Determine the cable NVP to ensure maximum accuracy of length and
resistance results.
•
View the status of the NiCad battery in the main unit or smart remote.
•
Calibrate the test tool to work with a new remote unit.
•
Run a self-test to verify proper operation of the test tool and the remote.
Smart Remote (Model DSP-100)
The SMART REMOTE mode causes the test tool to function as a smart remote. In
the SMART REMOTE mode, when remote testing is enabled on the main unit, the
remote unit sends results from REMOTE tests to the main unit.
Turning On the Test Tool
To turn on the test tool, turn the rotary switch from OFF to any one of the
available modes. The power-up screen, which appears for about 3 seconds, shows
the software, hardware, and test standards versions for your main and remote
units.
During this time, the test tool also performs a self-test. If a fault is detected during
the self-test, the following message appears:
INTERNAL FAULT DETECTED. REFER TO MANUAL. For
information, see “If the Test Tool Fails” in Chapter 8.
2-20
Getting Started
Turning On the Test Tool
2
Selecting a Language for Displays and Reports
The test tool displays results and prints reports in English, German, French,
Spanish, and Italian.
To select a language for displays and reports, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $Page Down four times.
3. Use D to highlight the currently selected language.
4. Press ! Choice.
5. Use D U to highlight the language you want.
6. Press E to accept the highlighted language. The test tool’s display now
appears in the selected language.
Performing a Self-Test
The self-test verifies that the test tool and the remote are operating properly. To
run the self-test, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SPECIAL FUNCTIONS.
2. Use D to highlight Self Test.
3. Press E.
4. Use the 2m Cat5 patch cable provided to connect the test tool to the remote as
described on the display.
5. Press T to start the self-test.
6. When the self-test is complete, you can either return to the main Special
Functions menu by pressing e or start a new operation by turning the
rotary switch to a new position.
If the self-test fails, refer to “If the Test Tool Fails” in Chapter 8.
2-21
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Overvoltage Test
The test tool periodically checks for dc voltages on the cable connected to the
RJ45 jack. A dc voltage means that the test tool is connected to an active
telephone cable or other power source. If voltage is detected, the following
message appears:
WARNING! EXCESSIVE VOLTAGE DETECTED AT INPUT.
Voltage on the cable can damage the test tool or cause errors in measurements.
Voltage must be removed before you can run any tests.
Noise Test
The test tool periodically checks for excessive electrical noise on the cable under
test. If excessive noise is detected, the following message appears:
WARNING Excessive noise detected.
Measurement accuracy may be degraded. To continue the test,
press E. If you continue the test and then save the test results, the test
report will include the warning given above.
To stop the test and return to the first screen of the selected test mode, press e.
Configuring the Test Tool
Controlling the Backlight
To turn on the display backlight, press C on the keypad. Press the key again to
turn off the backlight. On Model DSP-2000, the backlight key toggles the
backlight between two levels of brightness.
You can set the backlight timer to automatically turn off the backlight after a
specified period of inactivity. You can also disable the backlight timer.
To set the backlight timer or disable the timer, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $Page Down once.
3. Use D to highlight the backlight time-out setting.
4. Press ! Choice.
5. Use D U to highlight the desired time-out period or the disable status.
6. Press E to accept the highlighted selection.
2-22
Getting Started
Configuring the Test Tool
2
When the backlight time-out is enabled, the backlight timer starts counting down
after all tests are complete or after the last key entry or movement of the rotary
switch. To restart the backlight timer while the backlight is on, press any key
(except the backlight key) or turn the rotary switch to a new mode.
Adjusting the Display Contrast
To adjust the display contrast, hold down C for 1 second or longer. The
following message appears: USE D U KEYS TO ADJUST CONTRAST.
Adjust the contrast to the desired level then press E to accept the new
level. The display contrast setting is saved in memory when you turn off the test
tool.
Selecting a Power Line Filter Frequency
The test tool has a noise filter to keep ac noise (50 or 60 Hz) from affecting
resistance measurements.
To set the frequency of the noise filter to the frequency of your ac power, proceed
as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $Page Down four times.
3. Use D to highlight the power line frequency.
4. Press ! Choice.
5. Use D U to highlight the frequency you want.
6. Press E to accept the highlighted frequency.
2-23
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Selecting a Test Standard and Cable Type
The test standard and cable type you select determine which standards are used
and which tests are run during cable testing. The test tool is equipped with
information for all the common test standards and cable types.
Several of the test standards for twisted pair cable are defined for both a channel
and a basic link configuration. The test limits for a channel are looser than those
for a basic link because the channel limits allow for the effects of two connections
at a horizontal cross-connect and a transition connector near the
telecommunications outlet in the work area. Figure 2-2 shows the connections
involved in a channel; Figure 3-1 shows the connections involved in a basic link.
To select a test standard and cable type, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press ! Choice.
3. Use D U to highlight the test standard you want.
4. Press E to accept the highlighted test standard. The test tool displays a
menu of the cable types that are valid for the selected test standard.
5. Use D U to select the cable type you want; then press E.
If you select a shielded cable type, you can enable or disable the shield continuity
test on page 6 of the SETUP screens.
You can test cables for NEXT, attenuation, and ACR up to 100 MHz or 155 MHz.
Because no industry standards specify cable performance beyond 100 MHz, there
are no test limits for these measurements.
The maximum frequency selection is on page 6 of the SETUP screens.
Selecting an Average Cable Temperature
Some test standards require you to select an average temperature for the cable you
are testing. The selected temperature appears on the display when you turn the
rotary switch to AUTOTEST. If the test standard has no temperature-dependent
limits, N/A is displayed.
If you select a test standard that has temperature-dependent limits, the test tool
uses a default value of below 21°C (69°F) for the average cable temperature.
2-24
Getting Started
Configuring the Test Tool
2
An increase in cable temperature causes an increase in attenuation. To compensate
for this increase, the test tool uses the temperature you select to modify the
attenuation test limits. To avoid passing faulty cables or failing good cables, select
the temperature that is closest to the cable’s average temperature.
To select an average cable temperature, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Use D to highlight the average cable temperature.
3. Press ! Choice.
4. Use D U to highlight the temperature range you want.
5. Press E to select the highlighted temperature range.
Selecting a Conduit Setting
Some test standards require you to specify whether or not the cable is installed
inside conduit. If the test standard requires a conduit setting, the current setting
(yes or no) appears on the display when you turn the rotary switch to
AUTOTEST. If the test standard does not require a conduit setting, N/A is
displayed.
Metal conduit slightly increases a cable’s attenuation. To compensate for this
increase, the test tool’s attenuation test limits are raised when the conduit setting
is set to “yes.”
To change the conduit setting, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Use D to highlight the conduit setting.
3. Press ! Choice.
4. Use D U to highlight the setting you want.
5. Press E to accept the highlighted setting.
2-25
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Selecting a Length Unit
The test tool displays length measurements in meters or feet.
To change the unit of measurement, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $Page Down four times.
3. Press ! Choice.
4. Use D U to highlight the desired unit.
5. Press E to accept the highlighted unit.
Selecting a Numeric Format
The test tool displays decimal fractions with a decimal point separator (0.00) or a
comma separator (0,00).
To change the numeric format, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $Page Down four times.
3. Use D to highlight the numeric format.
4. Press ! Choice.
5. Use D U to highlight the desired format.
6. Press E to accept the highlighted format.
2-26
Getting Started
Configuring the Test Tool
2
Setting the Date and Time
The test tool has a clock that records the date and time for saved test results.
To change the date or time or the format for the date or time, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $Page Down three times.
3. Use D to highlight the date or time parameter you want to change.
4. Press ! Choice. The display you see next depends on which parameter
you are changing.
If you are changing the date or time, use $INC or #DEC to
increment or decrement the highlighted number. Use L R to move the
highlighted area from one number to another number.
If you are changing the date or time format, use D U to highlight the format
you want.
5. Press E to accept the highlighted date, time, or format.
2-27
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Setting the Power-Down Timer
To extend battery life, you can set the power-down timer to automatically switch
the test tool to a low-power mode after a selected period of inactivity. You can
also disable the power-down timer.
When the test tool switches to low-power mode, the display goes blank. To
reactivate the display, press C.
To set the power-down timer or enable/disable the timer, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $Page Down once.
3. Use D to highlight the power-down timer status.
4. Press ! Choice.
5. Use D U to highlight the desired time-out period or the enable/disable
status.
6. Press E to accept your selection.
Model DSP-2000 turns itself off if not used for 30 minutes after power-down.
When this happens, pressing C turns on the test tool. The test tool then goes
through its power-on sequence as though it were turned on with the rotary switch.
Enabling or Disabling the Audible Tones
To enable or disable the test tool’s audible tones, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $Page Down twice.
3. Use D to highlight the audible tone status.
4. Press ! Choice.
5. Use D U to highlight the desired enable or disable status.
6. Press E to accept your selection.
2-28
Getting Started
Remote Lights, Messages, and Audible Tones
2
Remote Lights, Messages, and Audible Tones
The standard and smart remotes indicate various states by flashing light-emitting
diodes (LEDs) and emitting audible tones, as described in Table 2-6.
Table 2-6. Status Indications from Remotes
Status
Standard Remote Indications
Smart Remote Indications
Power on self-test passed.
The unit beeps and all LEDs
flash in sequence.
The unit beeps and all LEDs
flash in sequence.
Power on self-test failed.
The unit beeps and the fail LED
flashes continuously.
The unit beeps and the fail LED
flashes continuously.
Main unit is running a test.
Test LED is on. Pass and fail
LEDs flash as tests pass or fail.
Testing LED is on. Pass and
fail LEDs flash as tests pass or
fail.
Previous test passed.
Pass LED turns on for 15
seconds.
Pass LED turns on for 15
seconds.
Previous test failed.
Fail LED turns on for 15
seconds.
Fail LED turns on for 15
seconds.
Battery voltage is low.
Message appears on main unit.
The unit beeps and the lowbattery LED flashes
continuously.
Battery voltage is too low to
operate.
Message appears on main unit.
The unit beeps and the lowbattery LED is on continuously.
Overvoltage condition detected
on cable under test.
Message appears on main unit.
The unit beeps and all LEDs
flash continuously.
2-29
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Remote End Testing
If you have a second test tool or a smart remote, you can perform remote end
testing. The remote end testing feature allows you to run the near-end crosstalk
(NEXT) test at the far end of the cable and get the attenuation to crosstalk ratio
(ACR) from the far end of the cable without switching the positions of the main
and remote units.
When you enable remote testing the NEXT@REMOTE and ACR@REMOTE
tests appear in the AUTOTEST and SINGLE TEST modes if the selected test
standard requires the tests. Model DSP-2000 also includes RL@REMOTE and
PSNEXT@REMOTE tests.
Selecting Auto Detect allows the test tool to identify the remote as a standard or
smart remote and run the REMOTE tests as appropriate.
To enable remote end testing, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch on the main unit to SETUP.
2. Use D to highlight the remote end testing status.
3. Press ! Choice.
4. Use U to highlight Enable or Auto Detect; then press E
If you use a DSP-100 unit as a remote, the remote unit displays the following
status messages:
SMART REMOTE READY: The remote unit is waiting for the main unit to
start a test.
SMART REMOTE TESTING: The main unit is running a test.
SMART REMOTE PASS or FAIL: Pass or fail is the overall result of the test
just completed. This message is displayed for about 3 seconds after a test is
completed.
SMART REMOTE READY
PREVIOUS TEST: PASS or PREVIOUS TEST: FAIL: The remote is
waiting for the main unit to start another test. Pass or fail is the overall result of
the previous test.
2-30
Getting Started
Remote Communication Error
2
Remote Communication Error
If you are running the NEXT@REMOTE or RL@REMOTE test, and the main
unit detects a communication problem with the remote, the following message
appears on the main unit: REMOTE communication error. This
message means that the REMOTE data cannot be transmitted to the main unit,
usually because the cable is defective. To verify proper remote operation, run a
self-test as described in the earlier section “Performing a Self-Test.”
Battery Status
The test tool displays a message when its battery voltage or the remote battery
voltage is low. Table 2-7 shows the battery status messages and what you should
do if a battery message appears.
Note
To ensure continued operation while charging the battery, always
connect the ac adapter/charger when the message
WARNING RECHARGEABLE BATTERY VOLTAGE IS
LOW appears.
Table 2-7. Battery Status Messages
Message Displayed
What You Should Do
WARNING RECHARGEABLE BATTERY VO
LTAGE IS LOW.
Connect the ac adapter/charger.
RECHARGEABLE BATTERY VOLTAGE IS
TOO LOW TO OPERATE.
Turn the test tool off and connect the ac
adapter/charger. If the tool does not operate
when you turn it on, turn it off again and allow
the battery to charge for about 30 minutes.
WARNING
IS LOW.
REMOTE BATTERY VOLTAGE
For a standard remote, have a 9V alkaline
battery available. For a smart remote or second
main unit, connect the ac adapter/charger.
WARNING REMOTE BATTERY VOLTAGE
IS TOO LOW TO OPERATE.
Replace the alkaline battery in standard remote.
Charge the NiCad battery in a second main unit
or smart remote.
INTERNAL DATA STORAGE BATTERY VO
LTAGE IS LOW.
Have the lithium battery replaced at a Fluke
Service Center.
2-31
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Battery Status Display
To see the charge level of the main unit’s NiCad battery, turn the rotary switch to
SPECIAL FUNCTIONS; then select Battery Status. To see the charge
level of the smart remote’s battery, connect the smart remote to the main unit (use
the CABLE TEST jack on Model DSP-2000); then use ! to toggle the display.
Note
Connecting the battery charger can change the readings displayed
on the battery status screen. These changes are due to the charger’s
effect on the test tool’s charging circuit.
2-32
Chapter 3
Autotest
Chapter 3 provides the following information:
•
•
•
Instructions and test result descriptions for an Autotest on twisted pair cable.
Instructions and test result descriptions for an Autotest on coaxial cable.
Instructions for saving Autotest results.
Autotest Softkeys
The following softkey functions are active on the Autotest screens noted. The
PSNEXT screen is available on Model DSP-2000 only.
! or @ View Result: ! shows the results of the last Autotest run.
Active on the first Autotest screen. @ shows detailed test results regarding the
highlighted cable pair or pairs. Active on the first screens for the NEXT,
attenuation, ACR, RL, and PSNEXT tests.
@ View Plot: Press to see a frequency response plot of the test results.
Active on the first screen and the results screen for the NEXT, attenuation, ACR,
RL, and PSNEXT tests.
@ Next Pair, @ Next Pairs: Press to see the detailed results or
the plot for the next cable pair or pairs tested. Active on the results and plot
screens for the NEXT, attenuation, ACR, and RL tests.
! 155 MHz: Press to see NEXT, ACR, or attenuation results plotted up to
155 MHz. This key is available only if the frequency option under SETUP is set to
155 MHz.
3-1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Autotest on Twisted Pair Cable
The procedures for an Autotest on shielded and unshielded twisted pair cable are
the same. When shielded cable is selected, the test tool performs an additional test
for shield continuity if the shield test is enabled in SETUP.
To run the Autotest on twisted pair cable, refer to Figure 3-1 and proceed as
follows:
RJ45
Jack
Wall Outlet
DSP-2000
2 Meters
CABLE ANALYZER
2 Meters
2
1
3
4
TEST
SAVE
FAULT
INFO
EXIT
ENTER
Patch Panel
WAKE UP
MONITOR
SINGLE
TEST
AUTO
TEST
OFF
SETUP
PRINT
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
SMART
REMOTE
DSP-2000SR
Test Tool
SMART REMOTE
PASS
TESTING
FAIL
LOW BATTERY
Smart
Remote
ON
OFF
gc08f.eps
Figure 3-1. Autotest Connections for Twisted Pair Cable (Basic Link Configuration and DSP2000 Shown)
3-2
Autotest
Autotest on Twisted Pair Cable
3
Note
The REMOTE tests will run only if the remote is a smart remote or a
DSP-100 with the SMART REMOTE mode selected.
1. If you are using a DSP-100 main unit as the remote, turn the remote unit’s
rotary switch to SMART REMOTE. If you are using a smart remote unit, turn
its rotary switch to ON.
2. Use a 2m patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the remote to the far
end of the cable link.
3. On Model DSP-100, remove any cable connected to the test tool’s BNC
connector.
4. Turn the rotary switch on the main unit to AUTOTEST.
5. Verify that the settings displayed are correct. You can change these settings in
the SETUP mode.
6. Use a 2m patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the test tool to the
near end of the cable link. On Model DSP-2000, connect to the CABLE TEST
jack.
7. Press T to start the Autotest.
Notes
Pressing T when the previous Autotest was not saved causes the
test tool to display a warning message. In this case, you can either
save the results of the previous test by pressing S or delete the
results and start a new Autotest by pressing T.
If a remote is not connected, the test tool displays the message
SCANNING FOR REMOTE and does not run the Autotest until a
remote is connected.
If the calibration message appears, refer to “Calibrating the Test
Tool” in Chapter 6 for complete calibration instructions.
3-3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Link Performance Grade Result (Headroom)
When an Autotest is complete, the display shows the overall result (pass or fail)
and the worst-case NEXT margin, or headroom. Headroom is the smallest
difference found between the measured NEXT value and the limit. This number
serves as a figure of merit that reflects the overall performance of the link.
Automatic Diagnostics (Model DSP-2000)
If an Autotest fails, you can press the FAULT INFO key to see more specific
information on the cause of the failure. Figure 3-2 shows examples of automatic
diagnostics displays for a NEXT failure and an open pin failure.
The arrow in the diagram at the top of the display shows the location of the
failure. The bottom half of the display describes the failure and suggests ways to
fix the fault. When appropriate, softkeys let you see the plot or plots relevant to
the failure. If more than one fault was found, you can use the
$Next Fault and #Prev Fault softkeys to scroll through the
diagnostics displays.
3-4
Autotest
Automatic Diagnostics (Model DSP-2000)
3
gc09c.eps
Figure 3-2. Examples of Automatic Diagnostics Displays
3-5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Autotest Results for Twisted Pair Cable
To see detailed results from a test, use D U to highlight the test on the main
Autotest menu; then press E.
Note
The tests run during an Autotest on twisted pair cable depend on the
test standard selected. Tests not applicable to the selected test
standard are not run or displayed. For a list of tests applicable to
various test standards, see Table C-1 in Appendix C.
Wire Map Test
The wire map test tests and displays the wire connections between the near and far
ends of the cable on all four pairs. Shield continuity is also tested if a shielded
cable type is selected and you have not disabled shield testing in SETUP. The
pairs tested are those defined by the selected test standard. Table 3-1 shows
examples of wire map displays.
If the wire map test passes, the Autotest continues. You can view the wire map
test results when the Autotest is complete. If the wire map test fails, the Autotest
halts and the wire map screen appears with the word FAIL. You can then save
the wire map results by pressing S. To continue the Autotest, press
$Continue Test.
Table 3-1. Wire Map Displays
Wire Map
Condition
Display
Schematic
(only affected pairs
shown)
Correct wiring
(Top row
represents nearend connector.)
1
1
2
2
3
3
6
6
4
4
5
5
7
7
8
gc42i.eps
3-6
8
gc43i.eps
Description
Cable wiring is
correct. Shield (S)
shown only if
required by
selected test
standard.
Autotest
Autotest Results for Twisted Pair Cable
3
Table 3-1. Wire Map Displays (continued)
Wire Map
Condition
Display
Schematic
(only affected pairs
shown)
Crossed wires
1
1
2
2
3
3
6
6
gc44i.eps
gc45i.eps
Reversed pairs
1
1
2
2
gc46i.eps
Crossed pairs
1
1
2
2
3
3
6
6
Wires 1 and 2 are
crossed.
Pairs 1,2 and 3,6
are crossed.
gc49i.eps
1
1
2
2
3
3
6
6
gc50i.eps
Wires 1 and 3 are
shorted. You can
use the TDR test
to locate the short.
gc51i.eps
Open
1
1
2
2
gc52i.eps
Wire 1 is open.
You can use the
TDR test to locate
the open.
gc53i.eps
Split pair
gc54i.eps
A wire in the 1,2
pair is crossed with
a wire in the 3,6
pair. Wiring does
not form a
recognizable
circuit.
gc47i.eps
gc48i.eps
Short
Description
1
1
2
2
3
3
6
6
A wire in the 1,2
pair is twisted with
a wire in the 3,6
pair. You can use
the TDX analyzer
to locate the split
pair.
gc55i.eps
3-7
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Resistance
The resistance test measures the dc loop resistance for each cable pair. The
resistance results screen displays the resistance, limit, and pass/fail result for each
cable pair. A PASS result means that the measured resistance is less than the
limit. A FAIL result means that the measured resistance exceeds the limit.
Length
The length test measures the length of each cable pair tested. The main Autotest
results screen shows the length of the cable pair having the shortest electrical
delay. Length is displayed in meters or feet. The length results screen displays the
length, limit, and pass/fail result for each cable pair. You can change the length
units in the SETUP mode, as described in “Selecting a Length Unit” in Chapter 2.
Notes
A 2 to 5 percent difference in measured length between twisted pairs
is typical. This difference is due to differences in the number of
twists in the cable pairs.
Differences between measured and actual values of cable length can
be caused by variations in the cable’s NVP value. To ensure
maximum accuracy of length measurements, perform an NVP
calibration as described in Chapter 6.
The length test limits include an extra 10% to account for variations
in NVP.
A PASS result means that the measured length is within the specified limit for the
selected test standard. A FAIL result means that the measured length exceeds the
limit.
3-8
Autotest
Autotest Results for Twisted Pair Cable
3
Propagation Delay and Delay Skew
Propagation delays are the times taken in nanoseconds for a test pulse to travel the
length of each cable pair.
Delay skews are the differences in propagation delays between the shortest delay,
which is displayed as 0 ns, and the delays of the other cable pairs.
The propagation delay and delay skew results show a limit if the test is required
by the selected test standard. If the test is not required, the results always show
PASS.
Characteristic Impedance
The characteristic impedance test determines the approximate characteristic
impedance of each cable pair.
Note
Impedance measurements require a cable at least 5m (16 ft) long.
Cables shorter than this length will always pass the impedance test.
A PASS result means that the measured impedance is within the specified limit
for the selected test standard. A FAIL result means that the measured impedance
exceeds the specified limit, or an impedance anomaly is detected.
A Warning result means that the measured impedance exceeds test limits, but
the characteristic impedance test is not required by the selected test standard. The
warning result causes a warning to appear as the test summary result in printed
reports.
If an impedance anomaly is detected on a cable pair, the display shows the
distance to the anomaly (in meters or feet) and the result is displayed as FAIL.
The test tool reports an anomaly if 15% or more of the test signal is reflected. If
more than one anomaly is detected on a cable pair, the distance to the largest
anomaly is displayed. You can use the TDR test to plot the locations and sizes of
impedance anomalies on the cable.
3-9
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Attenuation
Note
Incorrect conduit or temperature settings can cause false
attenuation results. You can change these settings in the SETUP
mode, as described in “Configuring the Test Tool” in Chapter 2.
The attenuation test measures the loss of signal strength over the length of the
cable.
The first attenuation results screen shows the cable pairs tested, the worst-case
attenuation margin found, and a PASS or FAIL result for each pair.
To see detailed results for the cable pairs, use D U to highlight a cable pair, then
press @ View Result. Table 3-2 describes the items on the attenuation
results screen.
Table 3-2. Items on the Attenuation Results Screen
Item
3-10
Description
Pair
The cable pair relevant to the results.
Result
The overall result for the test. A PASS result means that measured
attenuation is lower than the specified limit for the selected test standard. A
FAIL result means that the measured attenuation is higher than the
specified limit.
Attenuation
If the test passed, this value is the highest measured attenuation. If the test
failed, this value is the highest measured attenuation that exceeds the test
limits.
Frequency
If the test passed, this frequency is where the highest measured attenuation
occurred. If the test failed, this is where the highest failing value of
attenuation occurred.
Limit
The highest attenuation value acceptable at the frequency shown. This value
is based on the maximum allowable cable length.
Margin
The difference between the worst-case attenuation and the limit. A positive
number means that the measured attenuation value is lower than the limit. A
negative number means that the attenuation is higher than the limit.
Autotest
Autotest Results for Twisted Pair Cable
3
Pressing @ View Plot produces the attenuation plot screen. Figure 3-3
shows an example of the screen and Table 3-3 describes the items on the screen.
1
6
2
5
4
3
gc10c.eps
Figure 3-3. The Attenuation Plot Screen
Table 3-3. Items on the Attenuation Plot Screen
Item
Description
1
The cable pair relevant to the plot.
2
Frequency range in MHz of the attenuation test.
3
Margin is the difference between the limit and measured values plotted at the cursor’s
position. Use L R to move the cursor left or right. If you move the cursor beyond the highest
test frequency specified by the selected test standard, the readout shows the attenuation
value at the cursor’s position.
4
The measured attenuation for the cable pair.
5
The attenuation limits, as defined by the selected test standard. A crosshair is shown if the
limit is defined for only one frequency.
6
Decibels of attenuation.
3-11
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
NEXT Test
The NEXT test measures the crosstalk between cable pairs. This crosstalk value is
expressed as the difference in amplitude (in dB) between the test signal and the
crosstalk signal. NEXT is measured from the main-unit end of the cable over a
frequency range defined by the selected test standard.
If the NEXT test fails, you can use the TDX analyzer to locate the source of the
crosstalk on the cable.
The first NEXT screen displays the cable pairs tested, the worst-case NEXT
margin, and the test result for each set of pairs.
To see detailed results for the cable pairs, use D U to highlight the pairs; then
press @ View Result. Table 3-4 describes the items on the NEXT results
screen.
Table 3-4. Items on the NEXT Results Screen
Item
3-12
Description
Pairs
The cable pairs relevant to the results.
Result
The overall result for the NEXT test. A PASS result indicates that the NEXT
between the cable pairs was higher than the specified NEXT for the selected test
standard. A FAIL result indicates that the NEXT was lower than specifications.
NEXT
The worst-case NEXT. Worst-case NEXT is the measured NEXT value that is
closest to falling below specifications. If the NEXT falls below specifications, the
value displayed is the value that falls the farthest below specifications.
Frequency
The frequency where the worst-case NEXT value is measured.
Limit
The lowest NEXT value acceptable for the worst-case frequency.
Margin
The difference between the worst-case NEXT value and the limit. A positive number
means that the measured NEXT value is higher than the limit (PASS). A negative
number means that the NEXT is lower than the limit (FAIL).
Autotest
Autotest Results for Twisted Pair Cable
3
Pressing @ View Plot produces the NEXT plot screen. Figure 3-4 shows
an example of the screen and Table 3-5 describes the items on the screen.
1
6
2
5
4
3
gc11c.eps
Figure 3-4. The NEXT Plot Screen
Table 3-5. Items on the NEXT Plot Screen
Item
Description
1
The cable pairs relevant to the plot.
2
Frequency range in MHz of the NEXT test.
3
Margin is the difference between the limit and measured values plotted at the cursor’s
position. Use L R to move the cursor left or right. If you move the cursor beyond the highest
test frequency specified by the selected test standard, the readout shows the NEXT value at
the cursor’s position.
4
The limits for NEXT, as defined by the selected test standard. A crosshair is shown if the
limit is defined for only one frequency.
5
Decibels of crosstalk attenuation (NEXT) between the cable pairs.
6
The measured NEXT for the cable pairs.
3-13
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
NEXT@REMOTE Results
The NEXT@REMOTE test and its results are identical to the NEXT test
described above, except that the NEXT@REMOTE measurements are taken from
the remote end of the cable and sent to the main unit.
ACR
The ACR test calculates the ratio of attenuation to crosstalk (ACR) for each
combination of cable pairs. ACR is expressed as the difference (in dB) between
the measured NEXT and attenuation values. ACR is calculated using values
obtained from the NEXT and attenuation tests.
ACR Results
The first ACR results screen shows the NEXT pairs and attenuation pair used to
calculate the ACR result, the worst-case ACR margin, and a PASS or FAIL
result for each set of pairs.
To see detailed results for the cable pairs, use D U to highlight the pairs; then
press @ View Result. Table 3-6 describes the items on the ACR results
screen.
3-14
Autotest
Autotest Results for Twisted Pair Cable
3
Table 3-6. Items on the ACR Results Screen
Item
Description
NEXT Pairs
The pairs that produced the crosstalk value used in calculating the ACR result.
Atten. Pair
The pair that produced the attenuation value used in calculating the ACR result.
Result
The overall result for the ACR test. A PASS result means that the calculated ACR
is higher than the value specified for the selected test standard. A FAIL result
means that the calculated ACR is lower than the specified value.
ACR (dB)
The worst-case ACR. Worst-case ACR is the calculated ACR value that is closest
to exceeding specifications. If the ACR exceeded specifications, the value
displayed is the ACR value that exceeded specifications by the greatest amount.
Frequency
The frequency where the worst-case ACR value is calculated.
Limit
The specified limit for the ACR at the worst-case frequency. The limit is defined by
the test standard selected.
Margin
The difference between the worst-case ACR and the limit. A positive number
means that the worst-case ACR is higher than the limit. A negative number means
that the worst-case ACR is lower than the limit.
3-15
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Pressing @ View Plot produces the ACR plot screen. Figure 3-5 shows an
example of the screen and Table 3-7 describes the items on the screen.
1
6
2
5
4
3
gc12c.eps
Figure 3-5. The ACR Plot Screen
Table 3-7. Items on the ACR Plot Screen
Item
3-16
Description
1
The cable pairs relevant to the plot.
2
Frequency range in MHz of the ACR test.
3
Margin is the difference between the limit and measured values plotted at the cursor’s
position. Use L R to move the cursor left or right. If you move the cursor beyond the highest
test frequency specified by the selected test standard, the readout shows the ACR value at
the cursor’s position.
4
The ACR limits, as defined by the selected test standard.
5
Decibels of ACR for the cable pair.
6
The measured ACR for the cable pairs.
Autotest
Autotest Results for Twisted Pair Cable
3
ACR@REMOTE
The ACR@REMOTE test is identical to the ACR test, except that the ACR values
are calculated using NEXT@REMOTE values.
Return Loss (RL)
The RL test measures the difference between a test signal’s amplitude and the
amplitude of signal reflections returned by the cable. The results of the RL test
indicate how well the cable’s characteristic impedance matches its rated
impedance over a range of frequencies.
The first RL results screen shows the cable pairs tested, the worst-case RL margin,
and a PASS or FAIL result for each pair. To see detailed results for the cable
pairs, use D U to highlight a pair; then press @ View Result. Table 3-8
describes the items on the RL results screen.
Table 3-8. Items on the RL Results Screen
Item
Description
Pair
The cable pair relevant to the results.
Result
The overall result for the RL test. A PASS result means that the measured RL is
lower than the specified limit for the selected test standard. A FAIL result means
that the measured RL is higher than specified limit.
RL
The worst-case return loss. Worst-case RL is the measured RL value that is closest
to exceeding specifications. If the RL exceeds specifications, the value displayed is
the value that exceeds specifications by the greatest amount.
Frequency
The frequency where the worst-case RL occurred.
Limit
The specified limit for RL at the worst-case frequency. The limit is defined by the
test standard selected.
Margin
The difference between the worst-case RL and the Limit. A positive number means
that the worst-case RL is better than the limit. A negative number means that the
worst-case RL exceeds the limit.
3-17
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Pressing @ View Plot produces the RL plot screen. Figure 3-6 shows an
example of the screen and Table 3-9 describes the items on the screen.
1
6
2
5
4
3
gc13c.eps
Figure 3-6. The RL Plot Screen
Table 3-9. Items on the RL Plot Screen
Item
Description
1
The cable pair relevant to the plot.
2
Frequency range in MHz of the RL test.
3
Margin is the difference between the limit and measured values plotted at the cursor’s
position. Use L R to move the cursor left or right. If you move the cursor beyond the highest
test frequency specified by the selected test standard, the readout shows the RL value at
the cursor’s position.
4
The limits for RL, as defined by the selected test standard.
5
Decibels of RL for the cable pair.
6
The measured RL for the cable pair.
RL@REMOTE (Model DSP-2000)
The RL@REMOTE test is identical to the RL test, except that the RL values are
measured from the remote end of the cable.
3-18
Autotest
Autotest on Coaxial Cable
3
PSNEXT (Power Sum NEXT; Model DSP-2000)
The PSNEXT results show how much each cable pair is affected by the combined
NEXT from the other pairs. PSNEXT is expressed as the difference in amplitude
(in dB) between the crosstalk received on a cable pair and a test signal transmitted
on the other pairs.
PSNEXT is calculated from NEXT values. The descriptions of the results are the
same as for NEXT results, except that they show the sum effect of NEXT on a
cable pair.
Autotest on Coaxial Cable
To run an Autotest on coaxial cable, refer to Figure 3-7 and proceed as follows:
3-19
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
PC
PC
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
PC
8
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
For Length Test,
remove far-end
Terminator
BNC “T”
Connector
DSP-2000
2
1
CABLE ANALYZER
3
4
TEST
SAVE
FAULT
INFO
EXIT
ENTER
MONITOR
SINGLE
TEST
Test Tool
AUTO
TEST
OFF
SETUP
PRINT
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
SMART
REMOTE
gc04f.eps
Figure 3-7. Autotest Connections for Coaxial Cable (Model DSP-2000 Shown)
3-20
Autotest
Autotest Results for Coaxial Cable
3
1. Turn off any PC nodes connected to the cable you are testing.
2. If you want the Autotest to report cable length, remove the terminator from the
far end of the cable.
3. Turn the rotary switch to AUTOTEST.
4. Verify that the test standard and cable type displayed are correct. You can
change these settings in the SETUP mode.
5. On Model DSP-100, remove any cable connected to the test tool’s RJ45
connector.
6. Remove the terminator from the near end of the coaxial cable and connect the
cable to the BNC connector on the test tool. On Model DSP-2000, use the
RJ45 to coaxial adapter to connect the cable to the CABLE TEST jack.
7. Press T to start the Autotest.
Autotest Results for Coaxial Cable
An Autotest on coaxial cable performs the following tests:
Characteristic Impedance
Note
Impedance measurements require a cable at least 5m (16 ft) long.
Terminated cables shorter than this length will always pass the
impedance test. Unterminated cables shorter than this length will
always fail the impedance test.
The characteristic impedance test determines the approximate characteristic
impedance for the cable. A PASS result means that the impedance is within the
limit specified by the selected test standard. A FAIL result means that the
impedance exceeds the limit. You can use the TDR test to plot the locations and
sizes of all impedance anomalies on the cable.
3-21
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Resistance
The resistance test measures the loop resistance of the cable and the terminator. If
a terminator is not connected or if the cable is open, the resistance value is
reported as OPEN. If the cable or the terminator is shorted, the resistance value is
reported as near 0Ω. Resistance values over 400Ω are reported as OPEN.
Length
Note
Because a cable terminator eliminates signal reflections in coaxial
cable, the test tool cannot measure the length of a terminated
coaxial cable.
The length test measures the length of the cable when a terminator is not
connected. If a terminator is connected, the result of the length test is reported as
NO REFLECTION.
A PASS result means that the measured length is within the limit specified by the
selected test standard. A FAIL result means that the measured length exceeds the
limit.
Notes
Differences between measured and actual values of cable length can
be caused by variations in the cable’s NVP value. To ensure
maximum accuracy of length measurements, perform an NVP
calibration as described in Chapter 6.
The length test limits include an extra 10% to account for variations
in NVP.
Anomaly
This result is shown at the bottom of the screen only if an impedance anomaly is
detected. The test tool reports an anomaly if 10% or more of the test signal is
reflected. The result shows the distance to the largest anomaly detected.
3-22
Autotest
Saving Autotest Results
3
Saving Autotest Results
The test tool’s memory can store the results of 500 or more Autotests, depending
on the software version and test standard used. You can save the results from an
Autotest anytime after the Autotest is complete, but before another Autotest or a
Single Test is started.
To save Autotest results, proceed as follows:
1. After an Autotest is complete, press S. The test save screen appears, as
shown in Figure 3-8. Table 3-10 describes the items on the screen.
2. Use the appropriate editing keys to enter a cable identification name for the
test results you are saving.
To delete the character left of the cursor, press $Delete. To add
characters to the name, use the L R and D U keys to highlight characters in
the list, then enter the highlighted character in the cable identification by
pressing E. To edit characters in the middle of a name, use ! to
move the cursor into the name.
Model DSP-2000 allows you to increment or decrement an alphanumeric
character anywhere in the cable identification. Use ! to highlight the
desired character; then press @ INC or #DEC. To move the cursor
back to the right-most character, press ! until the cursor wraps back to
the right.
3. Press S to store the test results with the cable identification displayed. A
confirmation screen appears for about 2 seconds.
3-23
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
1
2
5
3
4
gc15c.eps
Figure 3-8. Screen for Saving Autotest Results
Table 3-10. Items on the Autotest Save Screen
Item
3-24
Description
1
The characters you can use to make a name for the test results you are saving.
2
The date and time when the Autotest was saved.
3
The default name assigned to the results from the most recently completed test.
4
Softkey for moving the cursor to edit characters in the middle of the cable
identification. On Model DSP-100 with software versions 3.0 and earlier, use the
@ ³ softkey to move the cursor back to the right. On Model DSP-2000, press
! Â until the cursor wraps back to the right.
5
The remaining number of locations available for storing Autotest results.
Autotest
The Autotest Report
3
Automatically Incrementing the Cable Identification Name
The test tool’s auto increment function increments the last alphanumeric character
of the cable identification name each time you save Autotest results.
To enable or disable the auto increment function, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $ Page Down once.
3. Press ! Choice.
4. Use D U to highlight the status you want.
5. Press E to select the highlighted status.
If Memory is Full
If the Autotest results you save fill the last available memory location, the
following message appears:
WARNING! TEST RESULT MEMORY IS NOW FULL. If you try to
save additional test results after the memory has been filled, the following
message appears:
UNABLE TO SAVE TEST RESULTS. MEMORY IS FULL.
To save additional test results, you must first delete one or more test reports from
memory. You can delete test reports in the SPECIAL FUNCTIONS mode. For
complete instructions, see Chapter 5, “Viewing and Printing Saved Reports.”
You can see how many memory spaces are available by pressing the
$Memory softkey, which appears on several Autotest displays.
Note
The test tool can store the results from more than 500 Autotests. The
exact number of memory spaces available depends on the number of
tests run by the selected test standard.
The Autotest Report
Figures 3-9, 3-10, and 3-11 on the following pages show how Autotest results
appear in printed reports. You can print Autotest reports or edit the report’s
identification information in the PRINT mode. See Chapter 5, “Viewing and
Printing Saved Reports,” for complete instructions.
3-25
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
The result printed on a report summary can be a pass or fail, or warning. A failure
of any test required by the selected test standard produces a fail result on the
report summary. A warning appears on reports for twisted pair cable if a length,
impedance, propagation delay, or delay skew test produced a warning. The table
in Appendix C shows which test standards can produce a warning result for these
tests.
Mukilteo Cable Co.
SITE: Westshore Business Park
OPERATOR: Kim Nguyen
NVP: 69.0%
FAULT ANOMALY THRESHOLD: 15%
FLUKE DSP-2000 S/N: 6680915
HEADROOM: -20.4
Wire Map FAIL
Result
Split pairs detected: 1,2-3,6
Patch Cable BAD or Patch Cable too short
Test Summary: FAIL
Cable ID: Bldg7Rm9Cbl3
Date / Time: 01/07/97 10:01:05am
Test Standard: TIA Cat 5 Channel
Cable Type: UTP 100 Ohm Cat 5
Software Version: 3.29
Standards Version: 3.06
RJ45 PIN:
RJ45 PIN:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 S
| | | | | | | |
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Pair
1,2
3,6
4,5
7,8
Impedance (ohms), Limit 80-120
Anomaly (ft)
107
105 W
71
106
108
Length (ft), Limit 328
Prop. Delay (ns)
Delay Skew (ns), Limit 50
75
110
1
77
113
4
74
109
0
74
109
0
Resistance (ohms)
4.6
4.9
4.9
4.6
5.1
24.0
18.9
100.0
6.7
22.5
15.8
88.3
5.2
24.0
18.8
100.0
4.9
24.0
19.1
100.0
1,2-7,8
3,6-4,5
3,6-7,8
4,5-7,8
Attenuation (dB)
Limit (dB)
Margin (dB)
Frequency (MHz)
Pairs
NEXT (dB)
Limit (dB)
Margin (dB)
Frequency (MHz)
1,2-3,6
36.6 F
49.2
-12.6
4.9
1,2-4,5
43.5*F
44.6
-1.1
9.3
40.2
34.9
5.3
35.4
26.1 F
46.5
-20.4
7.1
31.8 F
45.6
-13.8
8.1
50.1*F
50.8
-.7
3.9
* Measurement is within the accuracy limits of the instrument.
gc16f.eps
Figure 3-9. Part of an Autotest Report for Twisted Pair
3-26
Autotest
The Autotest Report
Mukilteo Cable Co.
SITE: World Technology Ctr.
OPERATOR: Mike Marshall
NVP: 80.0%
FAULT ANOMALY THRESHOLD: 10%
FLUKE DSP-2000 S/N: 6680915
3
Test Summary: PASS
Cable ID: Rm16COAX34
Date / Time: 01/07/97 10:50:12am
Test Standard: Coax Cables
Cable Type: 10Base2 (50 Ohms)
Software Version: 3.29
Standards Version: 3.06
Impedance (ohms), Limit 42-58
49
Length (ft), Limit 607
Prop. Delay (ns)
No Reflection
No Reflection
Resistance (ohms), Limit 48.0-65.0
50.5
gc17f.eps
Figure 3-10. Autotest Report for Coaxial Cable
MUKILTEO CABLE CO.
Cable ID:
RM1CBL1
RM1CBL2
RM2CBL1
RM2CBL2
RM2CBL3
Date / Time:
01/06/97
01/06/97
01/06/97
01/06/97
01/06/97
09:51:46am
09:56:53am
10:00:44am
10:01:50am
10:04:16am
MOUNTAIN
MOUNTAIN
MOUNTAIN
MOUNTAIN
MOUNTAIN
SITE:
Length(ft):
ESTATE
ESTATE
ESTATE
ESTATE
ESTATE
77
98
77
120
99
Total Length:
471
REAL
REAL
REAL
REAL
REAL
PASS
FAIL
PASS
PASS
PASS
gc18f.eps
Figure 3-11. Autotest Report Summary
3-27
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
3-28
Chapter 4
Running Individual Tests
Chapter 4 provides the following information:
•
•
•
•
•
Descriptions of the test results produced by the TDX analyzer and TDR
test.
Instructions for running Single Tests on twisted pair cable.
Instructions for running Single Tests on coaxial cable.
Instructions for using the tests available in the MONITOR mode.
Instructions for using the tone generator (Model DSP-2000).
Single Tests for Twisted Pair Cable
The SINGLE TEST mode on the rotary switch allows individual execution of the
tests available in the Autotest mode, except the ACR test. SINGLE TEST mode
features two additional tests: the TDX analyzer and the TDR test.
4-1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Scanning Function
The Single Test versions of the wire map, resistance, TDR, and TDX analyzer
tests include a scanning function, which you can activate by pressing the
#Scanning ON softkey. The scanning function runs the test repeatedly
and updates the display each time a test is complete. This function is useful for
finding intermittent problems on a cable.
Note
To extend battery life, connect the ac adapter/charger when using
the scanning function for more than 1 minute.
When to Use a Remote Unit
A remote unit is required only when testing twisted pair cable. Table 4-1 shows
which cable tests require a remote and which remotes support each test.
If a remote unit is detected at the start of a Single Test, the test tool runs a wire
map test before running the selected test. If the wire map test fails, the test tool
stops the test and displays the wire map. Press $Continue Test to run
the selected test.
Note
Model DSP-2000 is compatible only with Model DSP-2000SR units.
Model DSP-100 is not compatible with Model DSP-2000SR units.
4-2
Running Individual Tests
When to Use a Remote Unit
4
Table 4-1. Remote Requirements for Cable Tests
Test
Remote Unit
Autotest
Required. Supported by all remotes.
Wire Map
Required. Supported by all remotes.
NEXT
Required. Supported by all remotes.
NEXT@REMOTE
Required. Supported by smart remotes and DSP-100 main units used as
remotes. With a standard remote, results can be obtained by switching the
positions of the remote and main unit and retesting.
Length
Optional. Supported by all remotes. Without a remote, the limit and pass/fail
result are not shown.
Impedance
Optional. Supported by all remotes.
Attenuation
Required. Supported by all remotes.
Resistance
Optional. Supported by all remotes. Without a remote, the resistance of
cable pairs is reported as “open,” assuming the cable pair is not shorted.
RL
Required. Supported by all remotes.
RL@REMOTE
Required. Supported by DSP-2000 smart remote.
ACR
Required. Supported by all remotes. Test available only in Autotest mode.
ACR@REMOTE
Required. Supported by smart remotes and DSP-100 main units used as
remotes. With a standard remote, results can be obtained by switching the
positions of the remote and main unit and retesting. Test is available only in
Autotest mode.
PSNEXT
PSNEXT@REMOTE
Required. Supported by DSP-2000 smart remote. Test is available only in
Autotest mode.
TDR
Optional. Supported by all remotes. Without a remote, the end of the cable
is not identified.
TDX Analyzer
Recommended. Supported by all remotes. Without a remote, results from
tests on short cables may be unreliable.
Impulse Noise
Recommended. Supported by all remotes. Without a remote, test results
may not represent the level of noise present on a terminated cable.
Traffic Monitor
Never used.
4-3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Running a Single Test on Twisted Pair Cable
To run a test as a Single Test, refer to Figure 4-1 and proceed as follows:
RJ45
Jack
Wall Outlet
DSP-2000
2 Meters
CABLE ANALYZER
2 Meters
2
1
3
4
TEST
SAVE
FAULT
INFO
EXIT
ENTER
Patch Panel
WAKE UP
MONITOR
SINGLE
TEST
AUTO
TEST
OFF
SETUP
PRINT
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
SMART
REMOTE
DSP-2000SR
Test Tool
SMART REMOTE
PASS
TESTING
FAIL
LOW BATTERY
Smart
Remote
ON
OFF
gc19f.eps
Figure 4-1. Single Test Connections for Twisted Pair Cable (Model DSP-2000 Shown)
Note
For instructions on running the TDR test or TDX analyzer, or
running tests from the MONITOR mode, see the later sections on
those topics in this chapter.
Note
The standard remote does not support remote end testing.
4-4
Running Individual Tests
When to Use a Remote Unit
4
1. If you are using a DSP-100 main unit as the remote, turn the remote unit’s
rotary switch to SMART REMOTE. If you are using a smart remote unit, turn
its rotary switch to ON.
2. Use a 2m patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the remote to the far
end of the cable link.
3. On Model DSP-100, remove any cable connected to the test tool’s BNC
connector.
4. Turn the rotary switch on the main unit to SINGLE TEST.
5. Use a 2m patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the test tool to the
near end of the cable link. On Model DSP-2000, connect to the CABLE TEST
jack.
6. Use U D to highlight the test you want to run.
7. Press E to start the highlighted test.
Note
If a remote is required for the test, but is not connected, the test tool
displays the message SCANNING FOR REMOTE and does not
run the test until a remote is connected.
If the calibration message appears, refer to “Calibrating the Test
Tool” in Chapter 6 for complete calibration instructions.
4-5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
The TDX Analyzer
The TDX (Time Domain Crosstalk) analyzer displays the locations where
crosstalk is occurring on the cable. You can view the test results in a list or plot
format. The list format shows the largest crosstalk value detected on the cable.
The plot shows all of the crosstalk detected.
The crosstalk values displayed are adjusted to compensate for cable attenuation.
The values represent the approximate levels of crosstalk as they appear at the
sources of the crosstalk. A level over 50 represents a crosstalk magnitude that
exceeds the limit specified by the selected test standard.
The TDX analyzer results are not intended for use in determining if a cable meets
specifications; the results are intended to help you locate the sources of crosstalk
on a cable. To determine if a cable meets specifications for crosstalk, run the
NEXT test.
Running the TDX Analyzer
Note
You can run the TDX analyzer with or without a remote. If you run
the analyzer without a remote, the results may be unreliable.
To run the TDX analyzer, proceed as follows:
1. Turn off any PCs connected to the link you are testing.
2. If you are using a DSP-100 main unit as a remote, turn the remote unit’s
rotary switch to SMART REMOTE. If you are using a smart remote unit, turn
its rotary switch to ON.
3. If you are testing with a remote, connect the remote to the far end of the cable
link.
4. Turn the rotary switch on the main unit to SINGLE TEST.
5. Verify that the test standard and cable type displayed are correct.
6. On Model DSP-100, remove any cable connected to the test tool’s BNC
connector.
7. Connect the test tool to the near end of the cable link. On Model DSP-2000,
connect to the CABLE TEST jack.
8. Use D to highlight TDX Analyzer.
9. Press E to run the TDX analyzer.
4-6
Running Individual Tests
The TDX Analyzer
4
If the test tool does not detect a remote, the following message appears:
NO REMOTE DETECTED. To run the TDX analyzer, press E. To
restart the analyzer and scan for the remote again, press T. To return to the first
Single Test screen, press e.
TDX Analyzer Results
When the TDX analyzer test is complete, the TDX analyzer results screen
appears. Table 4-2 describes the items on the analyzer screen.
Table 4-2. Items on the TDX Analyzer Results Screen
Item
Description
Pairs
The cable pairs relevant to the results.
Peak
The highest magnitude of crosstalk measured on the cable pair. A peak over
50 indicates a crosstalk level that exceeds the limit specified by the selected
test standard. Crosstalk levels are adjusted to compensate for cable
attenuation.
Distance
The measured distance from the main unit to the peak crosstalk value.
# View Plot
Press to see a plot that shows where crosstalk is detected on the cable.
4-7
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
TDX Analyzer Plot
To view a TDX analyzer plot for a set of cable pairs, use D U to highlight the
pairs, then press #View Plot to see the plot screen for the pairs. Figure
4-2 shows an example of a TDX analyzer plot and Table 4-3 describes the items
on the screen.
1
2
3
4
5
gc20c.eps
Figure 4-2. Example of a TDX Analyzer Plot for a Good Twisted Pair Cable Run
Table 4-3. Items on a TDX Analyzer Plot
Item
1
2
3
4
5
4-8
Description
The cable pairs relevant to the results.
The distance along the cable under test. The 0 at the left of the scale represents the
location of the main test tool.
Magnitude of crosstalk on the cable pair. A peak over 50 indicates a crosstalk level
that exceeds the limit specified by the selected test standard. Crosstalk levels are
adjusted to compensate for cable attenuation.
The Cursor Readout shows the distance to the crosstalk source at the cursor’s
position. Use L R to move the cursor left or right.
Use D U to change the maximum distance of the horizontal scale.
Running Individual Tests
The TDR Test
4
The TDR Test
The TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) test helps you locate impedance
anomalies on a cable by reporting the locations of signal reflections caused by the
anomalies.
The test locates anomalies caused by problems such as shorts, opens, poor
connections, and mismatches in cable types. You can view the location and size of
the anomalies in a list or plot format.
The reflection values displayed are adjusted to compensate for cable attenuation.
The values represent the approximate size of the reflections as they appear at the
anomalies.
How to Terminate the Cable
You can run the TDR test on twisted pair cable with or without a remote unit, and
on coaxial cable with or without a terminator. Table 4-4 describes how
termination devices affect the results reported for twisted pair and coaxial cable.
Table 4-4. Effects of Termination on TDR Results
Cable Type and
Termination
Listed Results Show the Following:
Plotted Results Show the Following:
Twisted pair
with no
termination
Displays the message
No Remote Detected. Results
show the two largest reflections
greater than or equal to 15%. The
largest reflection probably comes from
the end of the cable, but is not
identified as the end.
All reflections are shown.
Twisted pair
with remote
Two largest reflections greater than or
equal to 15%. Largest reflection is
identified as the end of the cable.
All reflections are shown.
Coaxial cable
with no
terminator
Two largest reflections greater than or
equal to 10%. The largest reflection
comes from the end of the cable, but is
not identified as the end.
All reflections are shown. The largest
reflection comes from the end of the
cable.
Coaxial Cable
with terminator
No Reflection reported for a
good cable. On a faulty cable, the test
reports the two largest reflections, but
does not identify end of cable.
All reflections are shown. The plot will
not show a reflection from the
terminated end.
4-9
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Running the TDR Test on Twisted Pair Cable
To run the TDR test on twisted pair cable, proceed as follows:
1. Disconnect any PCs from the link you are testing.
2. If you are using a DSP-100 main unit as a remote, turn the remote unit’s
rotary switch to SMART REMOTE. If you are using a smart remote unit, turn
its rotary switch to ON.
3. If you are testing with a remote, connect the remote to the far end of the cable
link.
4. Turn the rotary switch on the main unit to SINGLE TEST.
5. Verify that the test standard and cable type displayed are correct.
6. On Model DSP-100, remove any cable connected to the test tool’s BNC
connector.
7. Connect the test tool to the near end of the cable link. On Model DSP-2000,
connect to the CABLE TEST jack.
8. Use D to highlight TDR.
9. Press E to run the TDR test.
Running the TDR Test on Coaxial Cable
To run the TDR test on coaxial cable, proceed as follows:
1. Turn off any PC nodes connected to the cable you are testing.
2. If desired, remove the terminator from the far end of the cable.
3. Turn the rotary switch to SINGLE TEST.
4. Verify that the test standard and cable type displayed are correct.
5. Remove any cable connected to the test tool’s unused RJ45 connector.
6. Remove the terminator from the near end of the coaxial cable and connect the
cable to the BNC connector on the test tool. On Model DSP-2000, use the
RJ45 to BNC adapter to connect the cable to the CABLE TEST jack.
7. Use D to highlight TDR.
8. Press E to run the TDR test.
4-10
Running Individual Tests
The TDR Test
4
TDR Results Screen
When the TDR test is complete, the TDR results screen appears. Table 4-5
describes the items on the screen.
Table 4-5. Items on a TDR Results Screen (Twisted Pair Results)
Item
Description
Pair
The cable pair relevant to the results. Not shown for coaxial cable results.
Distance
The first distance is the measured distance from the test tool to the end of the
cable. The second distance, if shown, is the distance from the test tool to the
beginning of the largest anomaly that caused a reflection greater than the
limit defined by the selected test standard.
Peak
The percentage of the test signal reflected at the peak of the anomaly.
# View Plot
Press to see a plot of the locations and reflection percentages of the
impedance anomalies detected.
Note
It is possible for impedance anomalies to be detected when testing
from one end of the cable, but not from the other end. This
discrepancy is caused by attenuation of the signal reflections
returning from the anomaly.
TDR Plot Screen
To view the TDR plot for a cable pair, use D U to highlight one of the pairs;
then press #View Plot to see the plot screen for that pair. Figure 4-3
shows an example of a TDR plot and Table 4-6 describes the items on the plot.
4-11
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
gc21c.eps
Figure 4-3. Example of a TDR Plot (Twisted Pair Results)
Table 4-6. Items on a TDR Plot (Twisted Pair Results)
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Description
The cable pair relevant to the results.
The peak value as reported on the results screen.
The distance along the cable under test. The 0 at the left of the scale represents the location
of the main test tool.
The distance to the end of the cable as reported on the results screen.
The percentage of reflected signal relative to the size of the TDR test signal. Positive values
indicate locations on the cable where the impedance is higher than the cable’s characteristic
impedance. Negative values indicate locations on the cable where the impedance is lower
than the cable’s characteristic impedance.
The Cursor Readout shows the location and the reflection percentage at the cursor’s
position. Use L R to move the cursor left or right.
Use D U to change the maximum distance of the horizontal scale.
Single Test Results for Twisted Pair Cable
The Single Test results for twisted pair cable are identical to those displayed by an
Autotest, with exceptions noted in the following paragraphs.
Tests not required by the selected test standard produce a Warning result when
measured values exceed the test’s limits.
4-12
Running Individual Tests
Single Test Results for Twisted Pair Cable
4
Wire Map
Wire map results are identical to the Autotest version. See “Wire Map” in Chapter
3 for details. The Single Test version of the wire map test includes the scanning
function.
Length
If a remote is connected, the length test and results are identical to the Autotest
version. See “Length” in Chapter 3 for details.
If a remote is not connected, the test tool displays the message
NO REMOTE DETECTED, and the limit and result columns are not shown. If
the length of a cable pair cannot be determined, the length value on the display is
blank and WARNING appears in the result column.
NEXT and NEXT@REMOTE
The NEXT test and results are identical to the Autotest version. See “NEXT” in
Chapter 3 for details.
The NEXT@REMOTE test is available only when using a second main DSP-100
unit or a smart remote as a remote unit. Remote end testing must be enabled on the
main unit. The NEXT@REMOTE test and results are identical to the Autotest
version. See “NEXT@REMOTE” in Chapter 3 for details.
Impedance
The impedance test and results are identical to the Autotest version. See
“Impedance” in Chapter 3 for details.
Attenuation
The attenuation test and results are identical to the Autotest version. See
“Attenuation” in Chapter 3 for details.
Resistance
If a remote is connected, the results displayed are identical to the display in
Autotest. See “Resistance” in Chapter 3 for details.
If a remote is not connected, the test tool displays the message
NO REMOTE DETECTED and all pair resistances are reported as OPEN. A
cable pair with a resistance greater than 400Ω is also reported as OPEN.
4-13
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Return Loss (RL) and RL@REMOTE
The RL test is identical to the Autotest version. See “Return Loss” in Chapter 3
for details.
The RL@REMOTE test is available only when using a DSP-2000 with a DSP2000 smart remote. Remote end testing must be enabled on the main unit. See
"RL@REMOTE" in Chapter 3 for details.
Single Tests for Coaxial Cable
The Single Test mode on the rotary switch allows individual execution of the
coaxial cable tests available in the Autotest mode. The TDR test is also available
as a Single Test for coaxial cable.
The coaxial cable tests available as Single Tests produce results displayed in the
same format as displayed in the Autotest mode.
Running a Single Test on Coaxial Cable
Note
For instructions on running the TDR test, see the earlier section
“The TDR Test.” For instructions on running tests in the MONITOR
mode, see the later section “Monitoring Network Activity.”
To run a Single Test on coaxial cable, refer to Figure 4-4 and proceed as follows:
1. Turn off any PC nodes connected to the cable you are testing.
2. If you want to measure cable length, remove the terminator from the far end of
the cable you are testing.
3. Turn the rotary switch to SINGLE TEST.
4. Verify that the test standard and cable type are correct. You can change these
settings in the SETUP mode.
5. Remove any cable connected to the test tool’s unused RJ45 connector.
6. Remove the terminator from the near end of the coaxial cable and connect this
end of the cable to the BNC connector on the test tool. On Model DSP-2000,
use the RJ45 to BNC adapter to connect the cable to the CABLE TEST jack.
7. Use U D to highlight the test you want to run.
8. Press E to start the highlighted test.
4-14
Running Individual Tests
Single Tests for Coaxial Cable
4
PC
PC
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
PC
8
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
For Length Test,
remove far-end
Terminator
BNC “T”
Connector
DSP-2000
2
1
CABLE ANALYZER
3
4
TEST
SAVE
FAULT
INFO
EXIT
ENTER
MONITOR
SINGLE
TEST
Test Tool
AUTO
TEST
OFF
SETUP
PRINT
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
SMART
REMOTE
gc22f.eps
Figure 4-4. Single Test Connections for Coaxial Cable (Model DSP-2000 Shown)
4-15
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Single Test Results for Coaxial Cable
The Single Test results for coaxial cable are identical to those displayed by an
Autotest, with exceptions noted as follows.
Impedance
Identical to Autotest version. See “Impedance” in Chapter 3 for details.
Resistance
Identical to Autotest version. See “Resistance” in Chapter 3 for details. The Single
Test version of the resistance test includes the scanning function.
Length
Identical to Autotest version. See “Length” in Chapter 3 for details.
TDR for Coaxial Cable
The TDR test is described for both twisted pair and coaxial cable in the earlier
section “The TDR Test.”
Monitoring Network Activity
The MONITOR mode on the rotary switch allows you to monitor Ethernet traffic
for collisions, jabber, peak traffic and percentage of network utilization. You can
monitor traffic on 10BaseT twisted pair or 10Base2 coaxial cable. Model DSP2000 can monitor traffic on 10/100BaseTX cable as well.
This feature allows you to identify active cables and provides some information
on network activity. If you want to troubleshoot active networks, contact your
Fluke representative for information on LAN diagnostic tools.
When connected to a network, the test tool automatically generates link pulses to
activate the hub. Model DSP-2000 uses Auto-Negotiation when attempting to link
to monitor 10/100BaseTX traffic. If a link state with the hub does not occur, the
test tool displays the warning message NO LINK PULSE.
To monitor network traffic on a twisted pair or coaxial Ethernet network, refer to
Figure 4-5 and proceed as follows:
4-16
Running Individual Tests
Monitoring Network Activity
4
WCaution
When using a coaxial T-connector to connect the test tool
to a network, never allow the T-connector to touch a
conductive surface. Such contact could disrupt network
operation by creating a ground loop.
Note
To extend battery life, use the ac adapter/charger when monitoring
network traffic for extended periods. While monitoring network
traffic, the test tool’s automatic power-down function is disabled.
RJ45
Jacks
Test Tool
8
PC
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
8
BNC
Connection
Shown
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
PC
DSP-2000
2
1
CABLE ANALYZER
3
4
TEST
SAVE
FAULT
INFO
Test Tool
EXIT
ENTER
MONITOR
SINGLE
TEST
AUTO
TEST
OFF
SETUP
PRINT
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
SMART
REMOTE
gc23f.eps
Figure 4-5. Connections for Monitoring Network Traffic (Model DSP-2000 Shown)
4-17
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
1. Turn the rotary switch to MONITOR.
2. Use D to highlight either 10BaseT Traffic on RJ45
(10/100BaseTX Traffic on RJ45 on Model DSP-2000) or
10Base2 Traffic on BNC.
3. Remove any cable connected to the test tool’s unused test connector.
4. Use a patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the test tool to the
network as shown in Figure 4-5. On Model DSP-2000, connect to the jack
indicated by the arrow at the top of the display. Use the RJ45 to BNC adapter
if necessary.
5. Press T to start the traffic test.
6. When using Model DSP-2000, use the #10T Only or
#100TX Only softkey to select traffic monitoring at 10 Mb/s or 100
Mb/s.
If you don't know which speed to use, and the test tool is not already trying to
link using Auto-Negotiation, press #until the display reads
Auto-Negotiation. This causes the test tool to select the proper speed
to match the hub.
As the traffic test runs, the results shown on the test tool’s display are updated
every second. Table 4-7 describes the items on the screen.
4-18
Running Individual Tests
Monitoring Network Activity
4
Table 4-7. Items on the Traffic Monitor Screen
Item
Description
Utilization
Last 1
second
Percentage of the network’s transmission bandwidth used over the last 1
second. Utilization includes correct frames, collisions, and jabber. The
percentage indicates the current traffic density.
Utilization
Average
The average of all the 1-second utilization percentages since the start of the
test.
Utilization
Peak
The highest 1-second utilization percentage recorded since the start of the test.
Collisions
Last 1
second
The percentage of collision frames as compared to the total number of frames
detected in the last 1 second. Collisions are counted when runt packets are
detected.
Collisions
Average
The average of all the 1-second collision percentages since the start of the test.
Collisions
Peak
The highest 1-second collision percentage recorded since the start of the test.
Bottom of screen
If jabber is detected, the message Jabber Detected appears in this space.
A jabber is reported if a frame is detected to be larger than the maximum legal
size. If no link pulse is detected, the message NO LINK PULSE appears in
this space.
! Sound
On
Activates and deactivates a sound that represents network activity.
@ Sound
Off
$Stop
Test
Stops the traffic test and freezes the screen. To restart the traffic test, press
T.
4-19
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Identifying Hub Port Connections
The hub port locator helps you determine which port a cable is connected to at a
hub. The locator sends a link pulse to the hub, causing the port’s LED to blink.
To identify a hub port connection, proceed as follows:
1. On Model DSP-100, remove any cable connected to the test tool’s BNC
connector.
2. Use a patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the test tool to the
network connection. On Model DSP-2000, connect to the MONITOR jack.
3. Turn the rotary switch to MONITOR.
4. Use D to highlight the hub port locator selection; then press E.
5. Locate the connected port by finding the flashing LED on the hub’s LED
panel.
Monitoring Impulse Noise
The Monitor Impulse Noise function allows you to monitor electrical noise on
inactive twisted pair cable. Pair 3, 6 is monitored.
The noise test takes noise voltage samples every second. Voltages that exceed the
impulse noise threshold are regarded as noise “hits.” If the 10BaseT standard is
selected, the noise test results include a pass or fail indication. A fail result is
displayed if more than two noise hits are detected in a 10-second interval.
Changing the Impulse Noise Threshold
You can set the impulse noise threshold to a value from 100 to 500 mV in
increments of 10 mV. The default noise threshold value is 270 mV.
To change the noise threshold, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $ Page Down once.
3. Use D to highlight the impulse noise threshold setting.
4. Press ! Choice.
5. Use # DEC or $INC to change the threshold.
6. Press E to store the threshold setting.
4-20
Running Individual Tests
Monitoring Impulse Noise
4
Running the Impulse Noise Test
The connector type for the noise test is always RJ45. The noise test is not valid for
coaxial cable because the level of noise on coaxial cable is negligible.
To monitor impulse noise, refer to Figure 4-6 and proceed as follows:
RJ45
Jack
Wall Outlet
DSP-2000
2 Meters
CABLE ANALYZER
2 Meters
2
1
3
4
TEST
SAVE
FAULT
INFO
EXIT
ENTER
Patch Panel
WAKE UP
MONITOR
SINGLE
TEST
AUTO
TEST
OFF
SETUP
PRINT
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
SMART
REMOTE
DSP-2000SR
Test Tool
SMART REMOTE
PASS
TESTING
FAIL
LOW BATTERY
Smart
Remote
ON
OFF
gc24f.eps
Figure 4-6. Connections for Monitoring Impulse Noise (Model DSP-2000 Shown)
4-21
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Note
To extend battery life, use the ac adapter/charger when monitoring
impulse noise for extended periods. While monitoring impulse noise,
the test tool’s automatic power-down function is disabled.
Note
Monitoring impulse noise without a remote connected may produce
unreliable test results.
1. If you are using another main unit as the remote, turn the remote unit’s rotary
switch to SMART REMOTE. If you are using a smart remote unit, turn its
rotary switch to ON.
2. Use a 2m patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the remote to the far
end of the cable link.
3. On Model DSP-100, remove any cable connected to the test tool’s BNC
connector.
4. Turn the rotary switch to MONITOR.
5. Use D to highlight Impulse Noise on RJ45.
6. Use a 2m patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the test tool to the
near end of the cable link. On Model DSP-2000, connect to the CABLE TEST
jack.
7. Press T to start the noise test.
4-22
Running Individual Tests
Determining Hub Port Capabilities (Model DSP-2000)
4
Noise Test Results
As the noise test runs, the displayed test results are updated every second after the
first 10-second sample period. Table 4-8 describes the items on the screen.
Table 4-8. Items on the Noise Monitor Screen
Item
Description
Impulse Noise
Threshold
The minimum level of noise that is considered to be a noise hit. The default
threshold is 270 mV. If you want to change the fault threshold, see the earlier
section “Changing the Impulse Noise Threshold.”
Noise Test
The overall result of the noise test. Displayed only when 10BaseT is
selected. A PASS result means that no 10-second intervals included more
than two noise hits. A FAIL result means that more than two noise hits were
detected during a 10-second interval.
Average
The average number of noise hits per second since the start of the test.
Peak
The highest number of noise hits per second and the time at which the peak
was recorded.
$Stop Test
Stops the noise test and freezes the screen. To restart the noise test, press
T.
Determining Hub Port Capabilities (Model DSP-2000)
This test determines if a hub supports the following standards:
•
Auto-Negotiation
•
10BaseT
•
100BaseTX
•
100BaseT4
•
100BaseTX Full Duplex
•
10BaseT Full Duplex
To determine hub port capabilities, proceed as follows:
1. Use a patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the network connection
to the test tool’s MONITOR jack.
2. Turn the rotary switch to MONITOR.
3. Use D to highlight HUB Port Capabilities; then press E.
4-23
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Using the Tone Generator (Model DSP-2000)
If you have an inductive pickup device, you can use the test tool’s tone generator
to identify cable runs and connections. The tone generator produces a signal on
the cable under test. You can hear the signal as an audible tone when you place an
inductive pickup device near the cable or one of the cable’s connectors.
To use the tone generator, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SPECIAL FUNCTIONS.
2. Use a patch cable of the correct impedance to connect the test tool to the
CABLE TEST jack.
3. Use D to highlight Tone Generator; then press E.
4. Use an inductive pickup device along the cable run or at far end connectors to
determine which cable is connected to the test tool.
4-24
Chapter 5
Viewing and Printing Saved Reports
Chapter 5 provides the following information:
•
•
•
Instructions for sending saved test reports to a serial printer.
Instructions for editing the report identification information.
Instructions for viewing, deleting, and renaming test reports saved in the test
tool’s memory.
Printing Test Reports
This section describes how to send reports directly to a printer. If you want to send
reports to a computer, use the DSP-LINK software provided with the test tool. See
Appendix A for instructions on running DSP-LINK.
The PRINT mode on the rotary switch allows you to send saved Autotest reports
or report summaries to a serial printer or a PC through the test tool’s EIA-232C
serial port. You can also edit the header, operator name, and site name that appear
at the top of reports. Examples of printed Autotest reports are shown in “The
Autotest Report” in Chapter 3.
5-1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Configuring the Serial Port
Before you send a report to a printer, set the test tool’s serial port settings to match
the printer’s serial port settings. The serial port settings include baud rate, flow
control, and printer type. For the type of printer, you can select Hewlett-Packard,
Epson, or Text Only. The Text Only setting, which omits formatting commands
for the printer, is suitable for sending Autotest reports to a terminal emulator or to
a printer other than a Hewlett-Packard or Epson.
To configure the test tool’s serial port, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $ Page Down twice.
3. Use D U to highlight the parameter you want to change.
4. Press ! Choice.
5. Use D U to highlight the setting you want.
6. Press E to select the highlighted setting.
7. Repeat steps 2 through 6 to change additional serial port settings.
Printer Interface Cable
The interface cable provided with the test tool is configured for serial
communication with a PC. To communicate with a serial printer, you will
probably need a different cable or an adapter for the cable provided. The pin
configuration for the cable provided and for Fluke’s 9-to 25-pin adapter is given in
“Specifications” in Chapter 8. Refer to your printer’s manual for specifications on
your printer’s serial port.
Printing
To send a report through the test tool’s serial port directly to a serial printer, refer
to Figure 5-1 and proceed as follows:
5-2
Viewing and Printing Saved Reports
Printing Test Reports
5
Test Tool
gc25f.eps
Figure 5-1. Connections for Printing Test Reports
1. Remove any cables connected to the connectors at the top of the test tool.
2. Configure the test tool’s serial port, as described in the previous section.
3. Use an appropriate cable to connect the test tool to the printer.
4. Turn the rotary switch to PRINT.
5. Use D U to highlight the print function you want.
6. Press E to select the highlighted function.
The results of selecting each function are as follows:
•
All Autotest Reports: Prints all of the reports stored in the test
tool’s memory. Before printing, the test tool’s baud rate, printer type, and flow
control are displayed. You can change these settings in the SETUP mode, as
described in the earlier section “Configuring the Serial Port.”
Press E to start printing. To stop printing and return to the main print
screen, press e.
5-3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
•
Selected Autotest Reports: Displays the SELECT
AUTOTEST REPORTS screen where you can select the reports you want to
print, as follows:
1. Use #Page Up, $Page Down, and/or D U to highlight a
report label.
2. Press E to select the highlighted report. An asterisk appears on the
label to show that the report is selected for printing. To select several
consecutive reports, hold down E. To remove an asterisk,
highlight the report label; then press E.
3. To print the selected reports, press ! Start Print. To stop
printing and return to the main Print menu, press e.
•
All Report Summary: Same as All Autotest Reports, except that
reports are printed in summary form. The summaries give the date and time
each report was saved, the cable identification entered for each report, and an
overall test result for each report.
•
Selected Report Summary: Same as Selected Autotest Reports,
except that reports are printed in summary form.
Edit Report Identification: Displays the REPORT
IDENTIFICATION screen, where you can edit the Custom Header, Operator
Name, or Site Name, as follows:
•
1. Turn the rotary switch to PRINT.
2. Use D to highlight Edit Report Identification; then
press E.
3. Use D U to highlight the information you want to edit; then press
E.
If you are editing an operator or site name, you can press @ New to
add a new name. The New softkey appears only if less than 20 names
have been entered.
To rename or delete an existing operator or site name, press ! Edit,
select the desired name; then press ! Rename or @ Delete.
Changes to names preceeded by a "$" appear on printed test reports. You
cannot delete a name that is used on a saved report.
5-4
Viewing and Printing Saved Reports
Printing Test Reports
5
4. To delete characters in the name, press $Delete. To add a
character to the name, use L R and D U to highlight a character in the
list; then press E.
5. To store the name, press S.
6. When printing is complete, the test tool displays the following message:
Delete All Printed Reports?. To delete the printed
reports from memory, press #Yes twice. To exit without deleting the
printed reports, press $No or e.
If the Printer Does Not Respond
If the printer does not respond correctly to the test tool, the message
Serial Port Error appears. In this case, check the following:
•
Verify that the printer indicates an online condition.
•
Verify that the baud rate and flow control settings are the same for the test
tool and the printer.
•
Verify that the printer type in Setup matches the type of printer connected to
the test tool.
•
Verify that the interface cable is securely connected to the printer and the test
tool.
•
Verify that the cable or adapter you are using is compatible with your printer.
Pin assignments for the test tool’s serial port are given in “Specifications” in
Chapter 8. Refer to your printer’s manual for specifications on your printer’s
serial port.
5-5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Viewing, Renaming, and Deleting Test Reports
To view, rename, or delete test reports, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SPECIAL FUNCTIONS.
2. Press E to select View/Delete Test Reports. The
VIEW/DELETE TEST REPORTS screen appears showing the first screen of
test record labels. The reports are listed in the order saved, starting with the
oldest report in memory. Each test report label shows the date and time the
report was saved, the cable identification name, and an overall test result
(pass, fail, or warning).
3. Use #Page Up, $Page Down, and/or D U to highlight the
record you want to view, rename, or delete.
4. Press the softkey labeled with the function you want. The softkeys function as
follows:
•
! Delete Report: Allows you to delete the highlighted report
from memory.
•
@ View Result: Displays the list of tests stored in the
highlighted report. An overall result is given for each test. This softkey
also gives access to the @ Rename Report softkey.
To delete all of the Autotest reports stored in memory, select
Delete All Test Reports from the main SPECIAL FUNCTIONS
menu.
5-6
Chapter 6
Calibrations and Custom Test
Standards
Chapter 6 provides the following information:
•
Instructions for calibrating the test tool.
•
Instructions for determining a cable’s NVP value.
•
Instructions for defining a custom test standard.
Calibrating the Test Tool
Before shipment, each test tool is calibrated to work with the remote unit shipped
in the same package. If you want to use your test tool with a different remote, you
must perform a self-calibration to store the new remote’s calibration parameters in
the test tool. You must also recalibrate after replacing the battery in a standard
remote.
Calibrating the test tool also ensures maximum accuracy of cable test results.
The test tool stores the remote’s calibration data in non-volatile memory. You can
calibrate your test tool to work with two different remotes.
6-1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
To recalibrate the test tool, refer to Figure 6-1 and proceed as follows:
15 cm
UTP Patch Cable
Test Tool
Smart Remote
gc26f.eps
Figure 6-1. Connections for Self-Calibration (DSP-2000 Shown)
1. Turn the rotary switch to SPECIAL FUNCTIONS.
2. Use D to highlight Self Calibration.
3. Press E.
4. On Model DSP-100, remove any cable connected to the test tool’s BNC
connector.
5. Connect the test tool to the remote as directed by the displayed messages. On
Model DSP-2000, connect the cable to the CABLE TEST jack.
6. Press T to start the calibration.
When the calibration is complete, the calibration data and the remote’s serial
number are automatically stored in the test tool’s calibration library.
If the message SELF CALIBRATION FAIL appears, check the following:
•
Verify that the main test tool and the remote are connected with the patch
cable described on the test tool’s display.
•
Check the patch cable for breaks or damaged connectors.
•
Check the connectors on the main and remote units for damage.
If the self calibration continues to fail, send both the main and remote units to the
nearest Fluke service center. See “Service Center Repair” in Chapter 8 for details.
6-2
Calibrations and Custom Test Standards
NVP Calibration
6
NVP Calibration
The Determine Cable NVP function allows you to determine the NVP (nominal
velocity of propagation) for a known length of cable and save the value for
additional measurements of unknown lengths of the same type of cable. The
calibrated NVP value applies only to the selected test standard. You can also enter
a known NVP value or use the Set to Default softkey to set the NVP to
the default value, which is the NVP for a typical sample of the selected cable type.
To determine a cable’s NVP value, proceed as follows:
Notes
To determine a cable’s NVP, you should use a cable at least 15m
(50 ft) long. The recommended length is 30m (100 ft).
NVP is determined for the cable pair with the shortest electrical
delay.
1. Turn the rotary switch to SPECIAL FUNCTIONS.
2. Use D to highlight Determine Cable NVP.
3. Press E.
4. As prompted by the display, connect a known length of the appropriate cable
to the test tool. On Model DSP-2000, connect the cable to the CABLE TEST
jack.
5. Verify that no cables are connected to the unused cable connector or DB9
connector on the test tool.
6. Press T.
7. Use D or U to change the displayed length to the known length of the
attached cable. As you adjust the length measurement, the NVP value changes
automatically. The range for NVP values is 50.0% to 99.9%.
8. When the displayed length matches the known length of the cable, press S
to store the new NVP value and return to the main Special Functions menu.
To exit the screen without saving the new NVP value, press e.
If the message CABLE FAULT DETECTED appears, verify that the selected
cable type is correct, check the cable for proper pin connections, or calibrate with
a different cable.
6-3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Configuring a Custom Cable
The Configure Custom Cable function allows you to define custom test standards
for up to four custom cables. You can change the following parameters for your
custom configuration:
•
Baseline standard for cable definition
•
NVP (Nominal Velocity of Propagation)
•
Maximum cable length
•
Fault threshold for impedance anomalies
•
Active pair assignments for cable pairs
•
Resistance
•
Characteristic impedance test enabled or disabled
•
Attenuation test enabled or disabled
•
NEXT and NEXT@REMOTE tests enabled or disabled
•
RL test enabled or disabled
•
ACR and ACR@REMOTE tests enabled or disabled
•
PSNEXT and PSNEXT@REMOTE tests enabled or disabled (Model
DSP-2000)
Note
To determine the NVP for a custom cable configuration refer to the
previous section, “NVP Calibration.”
During the configuration process, you can abandon the changes you have made by
pressing ! Abort. To reset a parameter back to the default value, highlight
the parameter; then press @ Set to Default. To reset all of the
parameters back to default values, highlight the test standard on Page 1 of 6 of the
configuration screens; then press @ Set to Default.
6-4
Calibrations and Custom Test Standards
Configuring a Custom Cable
6
To configure a custom cable, proceed as follows:
1. Turn the rotary switch to SETUP.
2. Press $Page Down five times.
3. Highlight the custom cable configuration; then press E to see the menu
of custom cable names. The default cable names are
*Custom Cable 1* through *Custom Cable 4*. You can
change the cable name after configuring the test parameters. An asterisk
always proceeds and follows the name of a custom cable configuration.
4. Use D U to highlight the custom cable name you want to configure; then
press E.
5. To select a new baseline test standard, press E. Highlight the desired
test standard; then press E.
6. To change the parameters of the test standard shown on Page 1 of 6, use
#Page Up, $Page Down, and D U to highlight the parameter
you want to change; then press E.
7. Use the appropriate keys to select the value you want; then press E.
If you selected to change the custom cable name or the cable type, the
alphanumeric entry screen appears. Use the appropriate keys to enter a name
up to 27 characters long. When you are finished entering characters, press
S.
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 to change additional parameters.
9. When you are finished configuring test parameters, press S to store the
custom configuration.
6-5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
6-6
Chapter 7
Basic Cable Testing
Chapter 7 provides the following information:
•
A description of LAN cable construction.
•
Definitions and explanations of attenuation, noise, characteristic impedance,
crosstalk, near-end crosstalk (NEXT), NVP, ACR, and RL.
•
Explanations of the TDR and TDX analyzer tests and plots.
•
Basic troubleshooting procedures for LAN cable.
LAN Cable Construction
LAN cables have a number of characteristics in common with other types of
electrical cables. All electrical cables have continuity, which means that they
serve as a complete path for electrical current flow. Each end of a cable has some
type of connector for connecting the cable to the appropriate electrical device.
Cables with multiple wires usually have a pin assignment that describes how the
wires are arranged in the connectors.
7-1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Cables are designed to perform best in specific applications. For example, power
cables are designed to minimize power losses at frequencies of 50 or 60 Hz. LAN
cables are designed to minimize signal distortion at higher frequencies.
Two types of cables are designed for use with LAN systems: twisted pair cable
and coaxial cable.
Twisted Pair Cable
Twisted pair cable consists of wire pairs that are twisted together, as shown in
Figure 7-1. The wires are twisted to minimize crosstalk between the cable pairs.
1
1
Transformer
Transformer
2
2
gc27f.eps
Figure 7-1. Twisted Pair Cable Construction
Each cable pair forms a complete electrical path for signal transmission. The
currents flowing through the wires in each pair are equal, but flow in opposite
directions. These currents produce electromagnetic fields that could transmit
electrical noise to nearby wires. However, the fields surrounding the two wires
have opposite polarities. Twisting the wires together causes the fields to cancel
out, which minimizes the electrical noise, or crosstalk, generated by each cable
pair.
There are two types of twisted pair cable: shielded twisted pair (STP) and
unshielded twisted pair (UTP). STP cable, which may also be referred to as ScTP
(screened twisted pair) or FTP (foil-screened twisted pair), contains a conductive
shield that is electrically grounded to protect the wires inside from electrical
noise. STP cable is more expensive and more difficult to install than UTP.
Figure 7-2 shows the pin connections and wire colors for correct wiring on
standard 568A and 568B RJ45 connectors.
7-2
Basic Cable Testing
LAN Cable Construction
7
568A
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 3
Pin 4
Pin 5
Pin 6
Pin 7
Pin 8
WG
G
WO
BL
WBL
O
WBR
BR
Pair 1
Pair 3
Pair 4
Pair 2
568B
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 3
WO
O
WG
Pair 2
Pin 4
BL
Pin 5
WBL
Pin 6
G
Pair 1
Pin 7
WBR
Pin 8
BR
Pair 4
Pair 3
gc28f.eps
Figure 7-2. EIA/TIA RJ45 Connections
7-3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable consists of a conductor surrounded first by an insulating material,
then by a braided conductive sheath, as shown in Figure 7-3. In LAN applications,
the sheath is electrically grounded and serves as a shield that protects the inner
conductor from electrical noise. The shield also helps eliminate signal loss by
keeping the transmitted signal confined to cable.
Coaxial cable can carry a wider range of frequencies and can be used in greater
lengths than twisted pair cable. However, coaxial cable is more expensive than
twisted pair.
Jacket
Shield
Dielectric
Conductor
able
ial C
x
Coa
gc29f.eps
Figure 7-3. Coaxial Cable Construction
7-4
Basic Cable Testing
Attenuation
7
Attenuation
Attenuation is a decrease in the strength of a signal over the length of a cable, as
shown in Figure 7-4.
Cable
Signal
Source
Signal
Receiver
Loss
VIN
VOUT
gc30f.eps
Figure 7-4. Attenuation of a Signal
Attenuation is caused by a loss of electrical energy in the resistance of the cable
wire and by leakage of energy through the cable’s insulating material. This loss of
energy is expressed in decibels. Lower attenuation values correspond to better
cable performance. For example, when comparing the performance of two cables
at a particular frequency, a cable with an attenuation of 10 dB performs better than
a cable with an attenuation of 20 dB.
Cable attenuation is determined by the cable’s construction, length, and the
frequencies of the signals sent through the cable. At higher frequencies, the skin
effect and the cable’s inductance and capacitance cause attenuation to increase.
7-5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Noise
Electrical noise is unwanted electrical signals that alter the shape of the signals
transmitted on a LAN cable. Figure 7-5 shows an example of how noise affects
the shape of an electrical signal known as a sine wave. Signals that are severely
distorted by noise can cause communication errors in a LAN.
OUT
IN
gc31f.eps
Figure 7-5. Sources of Electrical Noise
Electrical noise is generated by any device that uses or generates voltages that
vary over time. Varying voltage generates a varying electromagnetic field, which
transmits noise to nearby devices in the same way that a radio transmitter
transmits signals to your radio. For example, fluorescent lights, which use 50 or
60 Hz ac (alternating current) power, continuously radiate a 50 or 60 Hz signal
that can be received by nearby devices as electrical noise.
7-6
Basic Cable Testing
Characteristic Impedance
7
LAN cables act as antennas that can pick up noise from fluorescent lights, electric
motors, electric heaters, photocopiers, refrigerators, elevators, and other electronic
devices. Coaxial cable is far less susceptible to noise than twisted pair cable
because it is shielded by a conductive sheath. The sheath is electrically grounded
to prevent noise from reaching the inner conductor.
The test tool measures impulse noise on the cable under test. Impulse noise is
abrupt “spikes” of interference. This noise is caused by electronic devices that run
intermittently, such as elevators, photocopiers, and microwave ovens. You can
monitor impulse noise in the test tool’s MONITOR mode. The test tool counts
impulse noise spikes that have an amplitude greater than the selected impulse
noise threshold.
Characteristic Impedance
Characteristic impedance is the impedance that a cable would have if the cable
were infinitely long. Impedance is a type of resistance that opposes the flow of
alternating current (ac). A cable’s characteristic impedance is a complex property
resulting from the combined effects of the cable’s inductive, capacitive, and
resistive values. These values are determined by physical parameters such as the
size of the conductors, distance between conductors, and the properties of the
cable’s insulation material.
Proper network operation depends on a constant characteristic impedance
throughout the system’s cables and connectors. Abrupt changes in characteristic
impedance, called impedance discontinuities or impedance anomalies, cause
signals reflections, which can distort signals transmitted through LAN cables and
cause network faults.
7-7
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Minimizing Impedance Discontinuities
Characteristic impedance is usually altered slightly by cable connections and
terminations. Sharp bands or kinks in LAN cable can also alter the cable’s
characteristic impedance. Networks can operate with small discontinuities because
the resulting signal reflections are small and are attenuated in the cable. Larger
impedance discontinuities can interfere with data transmission. Such
discontinuities are caused by poor electrical contacts, improper cable terminations,
mismatched cable or connector types, and by disturbances in the twisting pattern
of twisted pair cable.
You can avoid problems with impedance discontinuities by observing the
following precautions during installation:
7-8
•
Never mix cables with different characteristic impedances (unless you use
special impedance-matching circuitry).
•
Always terminate coaxial cables with a resistance equal to the cable’s
characteristic impedance. The terminating resistance prevents signal
reflections by absorbing the signal’s energy.
•
When untwisting cable pairs to install connectors or make connections at
punch-down blocks, make the untwisted sections as short as possible.
•
Do not make sharp bends or kinks in the cable. The radius of bends in a cable
should be larger than 1 inch (2.54 cm).
•
Handle LAN cable carefully during installation. Do not step on the cable or
pinch it with tight cable ties.
Basic Cable Testing
Crosstalk and Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT)
7
Crosstalk and Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT)
Crosstalk is undesirable signal transmission from one cable pair to another nearby
pair. Like electrical noise from outside sources, crosstalk can cause
communication problems in networks. Of all the characteristics of LAN cable
operation, crosstalk has the greatest effect on network performance.
The test tool measures crosstalk by applying a test signal to one cable pair and
measuring the amplitude of the crosstalk signals received by the other cable pairs.
The crosstalk value is computed as the difference in amplitude between the test
signal and the crosstalk signal when measured from the same end of the cable.
This difference is called near-end crosstalk (NEXT) and is expressed in decibels.
Higher NEXT values correspond to less crosstalk and better cable performance.
All signals transmitted through a cable are affected by attenuation. Because of
attenuation, crosstalk occurring at the far end of a cable contributes less to NEXT
than crosstalk occurring at the near end of a cable. To verify proper cable
performance, you should measure NEXT from both ends of the cable.
Locating NEXT Problems
If the test tool reports a NEXT failure on a cable pair, you can use the TDX
analyzer to locate the source of the crosstalk problem.
Like the TDR results, the TDX analyzer results are presented in both a list and a
plot format. The list format shows the cable pairs tested, the peak magnitude of
crosstalk detected on the pairs, and the distance to the peak magnitude.
The TDX analyzer plot shows the location and magnitude of all crosstalk sources
detected on the cable. An example of a TDX analyzer plot from a test on a good
twisted pair cable is shown in Figure 7-6.
7-9
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
The plot’s horizontal scale represents the distance along the cable under test. In
the above example, the cursor is placed at a small crosstalk source caused by a
connector 77 ft (23.5m) from the test tool.
The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the crosstalk detected. The
crosstalk levels shown on the plot are adjusted to compensate for cable
attenuation. Without this adjustment, the peak on the right side of the plot (farther
from the test tool) would appear much smaller. The adjusted plot makes it easier
for you identify crosstalk sources because you can use the scale on the vertical
scale to measure crosstalk magnitudes plotted at any distance from the test tool.
You can also compare the relative magnitudes of crosstalk peaks to determine the
largest sources of crosstalk on the cable.
gc32c.eps
Figure 7-6. A TDX Analyzer Plot
7-10
Basic Cable Testing
Crosstalk and Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT)
7
The scale of the vertical scale increases logarithmically. The scale units are
arbitrary. A level of 50 represents a crosstalk magnitude that is close to causing a
cable failure. The level of 100 is approximately 20 times greater than the level of
50. A level of 100 represents an extremely high level of crosstalk that is typically
due to split pairs. Cables or other hardware that cause crosstalk levels of 100 or
above are considered unusable. Crosstalk levels near 0 are considered to be
inconsequential.
The TDX plot from a cable that failed a NEXT test may show one or more peaks
of crosstalk greater than a level of 50. A failure can also be caused by a crosstalk
level less than 50 if the level is sustained over a substantial distance of the cable.
7-11
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Split Pairs and NEXT
A split pair occurs when one wire from a cable pair is twisted together with a wire
from a different cable pair. Split pairs most frequently result from miswires at
punchdown blocks and cable connectors. Figure 7-7 shows an example of split
pair wiring. Notice that the pin-to-pin connections across the cable are correct, but
the pairs twisted together do not form a complete circuit.
1
2
1
2
3
6
3
6
Incorrect Wiring: Split Pair
gc33f.eps
Figure 7-7. Split Pair Wiring
Split pairs cause severe crosstalk because the signals in the twisted pairs come
from different circuits. The high crosstalk levels produced by split pairs cause low
NEXT values during cable tests. If the NEXT value is low enough, the test tool
reports a split pair during the wire map test.
The tool may also report split pairs if you test untwisted cable, such as ribbon
cable or untwisted telephone line.
If the tool reports split pairs when you are testing a cable made of multiple
segments, you can determine which segment has the split pair by running the TDX
analyzer. The TDX analyzer plot will show a large value of crosstalk starting at a
distance that corresponds to the beginning of the segment with the split pair.
7-12
Basic Cable Testing
Crosstalk and Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT)
7
Minimizing Crosstalk
Crosstalk problems are minimized by twisting together the two wires in each cable
pair. Twisting the two wires together causes the electromagnetic fields around the
wires to cancel out, leaving virtually no external field to transmit signals to nearby
cable pairs.
You can avoid problems with crosstalk by observing the following precautions
during installation:
•
When untwisting cable pairs to install connectors or make connections at
punch-down blocks, make the untwisted sections as short as possible.
•
Be attentive when making wiring connections. Wiring errors that cause split
pairs create severe crosstalk problems.
•
Do not make sharp bends or kinks in the cable. The radius of bends in a cable
should be larger than 1 inch (2.54 cm).
•
Handle LAN cable carefully during installation. Do not step on the cable or
pinch it with tight cable ties.
7-13
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Nominal Velocity of Propagation (NVP)
NVP is the speed of a signal through a cable relative to the speed of light. In a
vacuum, electrical signals travel at the speed of light. In a cable, signals travel
slower than the speed of light. Typically, the speed of an electrical signal in a
cable is between 60% and 80% of the speed of light. Figure 7-8 shows how the
NVP percentage is calculated.
Signal Speed
in Cable
DSP-2000
300,000,000 NVP m/s
CABLE ANALYZER
= 300,000,000 m/s
2
1
3
4
TEST
SAVE
FAULT
INFO
EXIT
ENTER
NVP =
MONITOR
SINGLE
TEST
AUTO
TEST
OFF
SETUP
PRINT
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
Speed Pulse Travels in Cable
Speed of Light
X 100%
SMART
REMOTE
gc34f.eps
Figure 7-8. How NVP is Calculated
NVP values affect the limits on cable length for Ethernet systems because
Ethernet operation depends on the system’s ability to detect collisions in a
specified amount of time. If a cable’s NVP is too low or the cable is too long,
signals are delayed and the system cannot detect collisions soon enough to prevent
serious problems in the network.
NVP and Length Measurements
Length measurements depend directly on the NVP value entered for the selected
cable type. To measure length, the test tool first measures the time it takes for a
test pulse to travel the length of the cable. The test tool then calculates cable
length by multiplying the travel time by the signal speed in the cable.
Because the test tool uses the length measurement to determine cable resistance
limits, the NVP value also affects the accuracy of resistance measurements.
7-14
Basic Cable Testing
Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)
7
NVP Calibration
The NVP values specified for standard cables are included in the cable
specifications stored in the test tool. These values are accurate enough for most
length measurements. However, the actual NVP for one cable type can vary up to
20% between batches because of variations in the manufacturing process.
Therefore, if accurate length measurements are critical to your installation or
testing process, you should determine the actual NVP value for each spool of
cable. Determining the NVP value involves measuring a known length of cable
and adjusting the test tool’s length measurement to match the known length. As
you adjust the length measurement, the NVP value changes accordingly. The
calibration procedure is explained in “NVP Calibration” in Chapter 6.
Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)
TDR is a measurement technique used to determine a cable’s length and
characteristic impedance and locate faults along the cable. TDR is sometimes
referred to as cable radar because it involves analyzing signal reflections in the
cable.
If a signal traveling through a cable encounters an abrupt change in the cable’s
impedance, some or all of the signal is reflected back to the source. The timing,
size, and polarity of the reflected signals indicate the location and nature of
impedance discontinuities in the cable.
7-15
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Reflections from Opens
An open, or break, in the cable represents an abrupt increase in the cable’s
impedance. The impedance of an open is nearly infinite. In an open cable, a
signal’s energy is not dissipated by a terminating impedance, so the signal
bounces back towards the source. This reflection appears at the source with the
same amplitude and polarity as the original signal, as shown on the next page in
Figure 7-9. By measuring the amount of time taken for the reflected pulse to
return, the test tool can determine the location of the open in the cable.
Cable
End of Fault
Transmitted Pulse
1
TEST
EXIT
FAULT
INFO
SETUP
4
SAVE
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
PRINT
SMART
REMOTE
CABLE ANALYZER
3
ENTER
MONITOR
DSP-2000
2
SINGLE
TEST
AUTO
TEST
OFF
Open
Reflected Pulse
Transmitted Pulse
1
TEST
EXIT
FAULT
INFO
SETUP
4
SAVE
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
PRINT
SMART
REMOTE
CABLE ANALYZER
3
ENTER
MONITOR
DSP-2000
2
SINGLE
TEST
AUTO
TEST
OFF
Short
Reflected Pulse
Transmitted Pulse
1
TEST
EXIT
FAULT
INFO
SETUP
SAVE
4
SPECIAL
FUNCTIONS
PRINT
SMART
REMOTE
CABLE ANALYZER
3
ENTER
MONITOR
DSP-2000
2
SINGLE
TEST
AUTO
TEST
OFF
Terminator
No Reflected Pulse
(Matches cable
characteristic
impedance)
gc35f.eps
Figure 7-9. Signals Reflected from an Open, Shorted, and Terminated Cable
7-16
Basic Cable Testing
Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)
7
Reflections from Shorts
A short represents an abrupt decrease in the impedance between the two
conductors in a cable. A short is caused when the insulation surrounding a cable’s
wires is damaged, allowing the wires to touch each other. The result is a near-zero
impedance connection between the conductors.
A short also causes signal reflections, but in a manner opposite of an open. In a
shorted cable, the signal’s energy is not dissipated because the short’s impedance
is close to zero. The signal is reflected back to the source, where it appears with
the same amplitude but a polarity opposite of the original signal, as shown in
Figure 7-9.
Reflections from Other Discontinuities
Reflections are also caused by impedance discontinuities that measure somewhere
between infinite and zero impedance. These discontinuities can be caused by
mechanical stress that damages cable wire or insulation without causing a
complete open or short. They can also be caused by cable mismatches and faulty
contacts at connectors or punch-down blocks.
A cable fault that has an impedance higher than the cable’s characteristic
impedance reflects a signal that has the same polarity as the original signal. If the
fault is not a complete open, the amplitude of the reflected signal will be less than
the original signal.
If the fault’s impedance is lower than the cable’s characteristic impedance, but is
not a complete short, the reflected signal will have the opposite polarity and less
amplitude than the original signal.
7-17
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Cable Termination
Because signal reflections can distort the shape of communication signals, the
unused ends of cable segments must be terminated to prevent reflections. The
terminating device is a resistor with a value equal to the cable’s characteristic
impedance. A signal reaching the terminator is neither reflected nor passed: the
signal is absorbed and dissipated by the terminating resistance.
Because the test tool relies on signal reflections to determine cable length, the tool
cannot measure the length of properly terminated cables.
Interpreting the TDR Plot
The TDR plot has a horizontal scale that represents distance and a vertical scale
that represents the percentage of reflection relative to the original signal, as shown
in Figure 7-10.
gc36c.eps
Figure 7-10. A TDR Plot
Notice that the reflection percentages can be positive or negative. A positive value
indicates that the polarity of the reflection is the same as the polarity of the
original signal. As discussed earlier, positive reflections are caused by abrupt
increases in the cable’s impedance, such as those caused by mismatches in cable
types, poor connections, or breaks in the cable.
7-18
Basic Cable Testing
ACR
7
A negative reflection percentage indicates that the polarity of the reflection is the
opposite of the original signal. Negative reflections are caused by abrupt decreases
in the cable’s impedance, such as those caused by mismatches in cable types or
shorts on the cable.
The results plotted in Figure 7-10 are the results from a TDR test on pair 4,5 in a
good twisted pair cable. The results show a positive anomaly caused by the open
end of the cable at about 219 feet. Note that the left edge of a TDR reflection
represents the location of the anomaly on the cable, while the peak of the
reflection represents the size of the anomaly.
The test tool’s TDR plot includes a movable cursor with a readout that displays
the cursor’s position and the reflection percentage of the anomaly at the cursor’s
position. You can move the cursor left and right by pressing the L R keys on the
test tool. Figure 7-10 shows the cursor positioned near the beginning of an
anomaly.
ACR
ACR (attenuation to crosstalk ratio) is the difference between NEXT in dB and
attenuation in dB. The ACR value indicates how the amplitude of signals received
from a far-end transmitter compares to the amplitude of crosstalk produced by
near-end transmissions. A high ACR value means that the received signals are
much larger than the crosstalk. In terms of NEXT and attenuation values, a high
ACR value corresponds to high NEXT and low attenuation.
7-19
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Figure 7-11 shows a plot of NEXT and attenuation limits, along with the resulting
ACR plot. Notice that the ACR is lower where NEXT and attenuation values are
near each other.
70.0
60.0
Limit in dB
50.0
40.0
NEXT
GOOD
30.0
ACR
GOOD
20.0
ATTEN.
GOOD
10.0
0.0
0
20
40
60
Frequency in MHz
80
100
gc37f.eps
Figure 7-11. A Plot of NEXT, Attenuation, and the Resulting ACR
RL
RL (return loss) is the difference between the power of a transmitted signal and
the power of the signal reflections caused by variations in the cable’s impedance.
A RL plot indicates how well a cable’s impedance matches its rated impedance
over a range of frequencies. High RL values mean a close impedance match,
which results in a large difference between the powers of transmitted and reflected
signals. Cables with high RL values are more efficient at transmitting LAN signals
because little of the signal is lost in reflections.
7-20
Basic Cable Testing
Troubleshooting Basics
7
Troubleshooting Basics
Troubleshooting LAN cable installations is most often required during cable
installation or modification. When cable is handled carefully and installed
correctly, it usually operates trouble-free for years.
Finding Cable Faults
A general rule for finding cable faults is as follows: With very few exceptions,
faults occur at cable connections. Cable connections include telecommunication
outlets, patch panels, punchdown blocks, and transition connectors.
Connections are the most likely places for faults for at least three reasons: (1)
Connections always alter the impedance of the transmission path, (2) connections
are likely places for faults caused by wiring errors and faulty or incompatible
hardware installation, and (3) connections always cause some crosstalk due to the
untwisting of cable pairs.
When cable is handled carelessly, faults can occur in the middle of the cable.
These faults can happen when the cable is stepped on, sharply bent, pinched by
cable ties or other hardware, or otherwise stressed.
A general procedure for finding cable faults (excluding sources of noise and
traffic faults) involves the following steps:
1. Run an Autotest on the cable.
2. Analyze the results of failed tests and determine a probable cause for the
failure. If you are using Model DSP-2000, press F for specific information
on the fault.
3. If the Autotest results do not indicate the location of the fault, run an
additional test (such as TDR or TDX analyzer) that will help you locate the
fault. Model DSP-2000 provides these test results on its diagnostics displays.
4. Visually inspect the cable at the location indicated by the tests.
5. Repair the fault and retest the cable.
Table 7-1 on the next four pages shows possible causes for test failures and shows
examples of displays from tests that can help you locate the cause of a failure.
7-21
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Table 7-1. Identifying Cable Faults
Test Failure
Wire map: open
Likely Causes of Failure
Wires connected to wrong pins at connector or punchdown blo cks.
Faulty connections.
Cables routed to the wrong location.
Wires broken by stress at connections.
Damaged connector.
Cuts or breaks in cable.
7-22
Wire map: split pair
Wires connected to wrong pins at connector or punchdown blocks.
Wire map: reversed pairs
Wires connected to wrong pins at connector or punchdown blocks.
Wire map: crossed pairs
Wires connected to wrong pins at connectors or punchdown
blocks.
Basic Cable Testing
Troubleshooting Basics
7
Table 7-1. Identifying Cable Faults (continued)
Examples of Test Displays and Plots
gc52i.eps
Wire map display showing an
open on pair 1,2.
gc58i.eps
gc57i.eps
TDR results showing open on
pair 1,2 at near-end connector.
TDR plot of results shown at
left.
gc59i.eps
Wire map display showing a
split pair on pairs 1,2 and 3,6.
gc60i.eps
TDX plot showing split pair in a short cable segment that starts
about 100 ft from test tool.
Inspect the cable connectors for reversed pairs.
gc61i.eps
Wire map display showing
reversed pair on pair 1,2.
Inspect the cable connectors for crossed pairs.
gc62i.eps
Wire map display showing
crossed pairs on 1,2 and 3,6.
7-23
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Table 7-1. Identifying Cable Faults (continued)
Test Failure
Wire map: short
Likely Causes of Failure
Wires connected to wrong pins at connector or punchdown blo cks.
Conductive material stuck between pins at a connection.
Damage to cable insulation.
NEXT
Excessive untwisting of pairs at connection.
Insufficient quality of connecting hardware.
Damage to cable (pinches, kinks, etc.)
Damaged connector
Insufficient cable quality.
Impedance anomaly detected
Poor connection between two lengths of cable.
Damage to cable (pinches, kinks, etc.)
Taps into wire pair. (Twisted pair cable should never be tapped.)
Excessive loading at coaxial cable tap.
Mismatch of cable types.
Incorrect terminator value.
7-24
Basic Cable Testing
Troubleshooting Basics
7
Table 7-1. Identifying Cable Faults (continued)
Examples of Test Displays and Plots
gc63i.eps
Wire map display showing
short between pins 1 and 2.
gc64i.eps
TDR results showing short 78 ft
from test tool.
gc65i.eps
TDR plot of results shown at left.
NEXT test fails.
gc66i.eps
TDX plot showing NEXT caused by excessive untwisting of cable
pair at far-end connector.
Impedance anomaly is
detected.
gc67i.eps
TDR plot showing impedance anomaly caused by a 150Ω cable
segment in a 100Ω run.
7-25
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
7-26
Chapter 8
Maintenance and Specifications
Chapter 8 provides the following information:
•
Instructions for cleaning and storing the test tool.
•
Instructions for replacing batteries.
•
A troubleshooting guide to use when the test tool is not operating correctly.
•
Instructions for returning the unit for repair.
•
A list of replacement parts.
•
Electrical and mechanical specifications.
Maintenance
Cleaning and Storage
Clean the test tool and remote with a soft cloth dampened with water or water and
a mild soap.
WCaution
To avoid damaging the display or the case, do not use
solvents or abrasive cleansers.
8-1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
If you are storing the test tool or the smart remote for an extended period of time,
charge the NiCad battery pack before storing. Do not remove the battery pack.
Removing the battery pack for extended periods shortens the life of the backup
lithium battery.
Before storing the standard remote for an extended period of time, remove the
alkaline battery to prevent damage from battery leakage. Figure 8-1 shows how to
remove the remote battery.
gc38f.eps
Figure 8-1. Removing the Battery in the Standard Remote
Replacing the NiCad Battery Pack
Replace the NiCad battery pack when its life between full charges becomes
noticeably shorter. The battery is normally good for up to 1,000 charge/discharge
cycles. Figure 8-2 shows how to remove the battery pack.
N
Note
This instrument contains a Nickel-Cadmium battery. Used batteries
should be disposed of by a qualified recycler or hazardous materials
handler. Contact your authorized Fluke Service Center for recycling
information.
8-2
Maintenance and Specifications
Maintenance
8
BATTERY ACCESS
BATTERY ACCESS
1
3
BATTERY ACCESS
2
gc39f.eps
Figure 8-2. Removing the NiCad Battery Pack
Note
The ac adapter/charger will not power the test tool when the battery
pack is removed.
Internal Lithium Backup Battery
A lithium battery maintains the test tool’s memory contents when you remove the
NiCad battery pack. The memory contents maintained are the stored Autotest
reports, all SETUP settings, self-calibration and NVP calibration data, custom
cable configurations, and the report identification information.
The lithium battery lasts about five years if you always keep the main battery
installed. Removing the main battery pack for extended periods shortens the life
of the lithium battery.
8-3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
When the lithium battery voltage is low, have the battery replaced at a Fluke
Service Center. See the later section “Service Center Repair” for shipping and
warranty information.
If the Test Tool Fails
If the test tool does not operate properly, refer to Table 8-1 on the next page for
troubleshooting procedures. If the self-test fails, return the unit for service as
described in “Service Center Repair.”
Service Center Repair
If the test tool requires service, pack it in the original shipping container and send
it, postage paid and insured, to the nearest Fluke Service Center. Include a written
description of the problem. Fluke assumes no responsibility for shipping damage.
A test tool covered under warranty will be promptly repaired or replaced (at
Fluke’s option) and returned to you, postage paid, at no charge. See the
registration card for warranty terms. If the warranty has lapsed, Fluke will repair
the test tool for a fixed fee and return it to you postage paid. Contact the nearest
Service Center for information and repair prices.
For application or operation assistance or information on Fluke products, call:
800-44-FLUKE (800-443-5853) in U.S.A. and Canada
31-40-267 8200 in Europe
206-356-5500 from other countries
For service information in the U.S.A., call 1-800-825-9810. Outside the U.S.A.,
contact the nearest Fluke Service Center.
8-4
Maintenance and Specifications
If the Test Tool Fails
8
Table 8-1. Troubleshooting the Test Tool
Symptom 1: Display is blank
Press C. The test tool may have switched to low-power mode.
Connect the ac adapter/charger. The NiCad battery pack may need charging.
Hold down C for 2 seconds, then hold down U for 5 seconds. The display contrast may be too low.
Hold down C for 2 seconds, then hold down D for 5 seconds. The display contrast may be too
high.
Symptom 2: Remote unit is not detected.
Charge or replace the battery in the remote.
Verify that the cable is securely connected to the main and remote units.
Connect the remote with a different cable. The cable you are using may be defective.
Check the connectors on the main and remote units for damage.
Symptom 3: Test results appear to be incorrect.
Perform a self-test to verify correct operation. See “Performing a Self-Test” in Chapter 2 for details.
Verify that the test standard, cable type, temperature, conduit setting, and power line frequency (all
in SETUP) are correctly set. See Chapter 2 for details.
Perform a self-calibration. See “Calibrating the Test Tool” in Chapter 6 for details.
Perform a NVP calibration. See “Calibrating the NVP Value” in Chapter 6 for details.
Symptom 4: Internal fault detected.
Note any error number displayed. Turn the unit off, then turn it on again. Stored data may be lost.
If the error occurs again, contact a Fluke Service Center for assistance.
Symptom 5: Test tool does not operate with ac adapter/charger connected.
Verify that the NiCad battery pack is installed. The ac adapter/charger will not power the test tool if
the battery is removed.
Turn off the test tool; then charge the battery for about 30 minutes before resuming operation.
Replace the NiCad battery pack.
Symptom 6: Self calibration fails.
See “Calibrating the Test Tool” in Chapter 6 for details.
Symptom 7: Test tool is locked in the power-on sequence.
Turn off the test tool; then charge the battery for about 30 minutes before resuming operation.
8-5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Replacement Parts
Table 8-2 lists the replacement parts for the test tool, the standard remote, and the
smart remote. To order replacement parts in the USA and Canada, call Fluke
Service Parts at 1-800-526-4731. Outside the USA and Canada, call 1-206-3565500.
Table 8-2. Replacement Parts
Description
8-6
Part Number
NiCad battery pack
938170
9V alkaline battery
614487
AC adapter/charger, North America version
106200
AC adapter/charger, international version
944223
Battery door, main unit and smart remote
938357
Battery door, standard remote
116183
Cable, 100Ω RJ45, 2m (6.56’)
107109
Cable, 100Ω RJ45, 15 cm (6”)
107117
Cable, 50Ω BNC coaxial, 1m (3')
927876
Cable, 9-pin PC interface
944806
Adapter, RJ45 to BNC
642402
Conductive case, bottom, CE, DSP-100
625415
Conductive case, bottom, CE, DSP-2000
625423
Conductive case, top, CE, DSP-100
621364
Conductive case, top, CE, DSP-2000
625431
Conductive case, smart remote top, CE,
DSP-100
621398
Conductive case, smart remote top, CE,
DSP-2000
625434
Side connector plate, conductive
100435
Case, standard remote top
116160
Case, standard remote bottom
100385
Maintenance and Specifications
Specifications
8
Table 8-2. Replacement Parts (continued)
Description
Part Number
Bail
938340
Strap
946769
Soft carrying case
948992
Hard carrying case
625407
Users manual, English
642964
Users manual, French
603719
Users manual, Spanish
604477
Users manual, German
604451
Users manual, Italian
604469
DSP-LINK software
116145
Specifications
Service Center Calibration Period
One year.
Self-Calibration Period
To ensure maximum accuracy of test results, perform the self-calibration
procedure, as described in “Calibrating the Test Tool” in Chapter 6, every 30
days.
Note
All specifications for tests on twisted pair cable apply to cable with
100Ω of characteristic impedance.
Compatibility with Remote Units
Model DSP-100 is compatible with DSP-R and DSP-SR units and with other
DSP-100 test tools set to the SMART REMOTE mode. It can store calibration
data for eight different remotes.
Model DSP-2000 is compatible with DSP-2000SR units. It can store calibration
data for two different smart remotes.
8-7
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Cable Types Tested
Unshielded twisted pair LAN cables of all categories (UTP category 3, category 4,
and category 5).
Foil-screened twisted pair cables (ScTP): category 3, category 4, and category 5.
Shielded twisted pair cables (STP) (IBM Type 1, 6, and 9; adapter required).
Coaxial cables: Thicknet (10Base5; adapter required), Thinnet (10Base2), RG-58,
RG-58 foam, RG-59, RG-59 foam, RG-8, RG-8A/U, and RG-62.
Test Standards
TIA category 3, 4, and 5, basic link or channel, and TIA TP-PMD.
IEEE 802.3 10Base5, 10Base2, and 10BaseT.
IEEE 802.5 Token Ring 4 Mb/s or 16 Mb/s.
IEEE 100BaseTX, 100BaseT4, IEEE 802.12 (100BaseVG).
ISO Class A, B, C, and D.
ANSI TP-PMD
Time for Autotest
Full 2-way Autotest of category 5 UTP cable in approximately 20 seconds.
Characteristic Impedance
Table 8-3 shows the specifications for the characteristic impedance test.
Table 8-3. Characteristic Impedance Test Specifications
Range
Accuracy
Anomaly Threshold
Resolution
8-8
Twisted Pair cable
Coax
70 - 180Ω
35 - 100Ω
± (5Ω + 5%Nominal - Measured)
± (5Ω + 5%Nominal - Measured)
15% Reflection
10% Reflection
1Ω
1Ω
Maintenance and Specifications
Specifications
8
Length Test
Table 8-4 shows the specifications for the length test.
Table 8-4. Length Test Specifications
Range
Twisted Pair cable
Coax
0 to 328 ft (100m)
0 to 328 ft (100m)
1 ft or 0.1m
1 ft or 0.1m
± (1 ft (.3m) + 2% of reading)
± (1 ft (.3m) + 2% of reading)
328 to 2500 ft (762m)
328 to 4000 ft (1219m)
1 ft or 0.1m
1 ft or 0.1m
± (1 ft (.3m) + 4% of reading)
± (1 ft (.3m) + 4% of reading)
Resolution
Accuracy
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Note
Specifications are relative to calibrated value using a representative
reference cable. Variations occur because of variations in the cable
manufacturing process.
Propagation Delay Test
Table 8-5 shows the specifications for the propagation delay test.
Table 8-5. Propagation Delay Test Specifications
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Twisted Pair cable
Coax
0 to 500 ns
0 to 500 ns
1 ns
1 ns
±(2 ns + 2% of reading)
±(2 ns + 2% of reading)
500 to 3800 ns
500 to 6000 ns
1 ns
1 ns
±(2 ns + 4% of reading)
±(2 ns + 4% of reading)
8-9
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
DC Loop Resistance
Range: 0 to 400Ω
DSP-100 accuracy: ±(500 mΩ +1% of reading)
DSP-2000 accuracy: ±(2Ω +2% of reading)
Resolution: 0.1Ω
Overload recovery time: Less than 10 minutes to rated accuracy following an
overvoltage. Self-calibration is required after repeated or prolonged overvoltage.
Attenuation
The following attenuation specifications are defined per TIA TSB-67.
Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 105 MHz in 100 kHz steps. Range is determined by
the selected test standard.
Amplitude Range: 0 to >30 dB (random noise floor for NEXT: 30 dB)
Resolution: 0.1 dB
Return Loss: Better than 15 dB from 1 MHz to 100 MHz. Typically better than
20 dB.
Dynamic Accuracy: Better than ±0.75 dB from 1 MHz to 100 MHz. Typically
better than ±0.25 dB at 30 dB of attenuation from 1 MHz to 100 MHz.
Measurement Accuracy (calculated from above parameters): Better than ±1.0 dB
from 1 MHz to 100 MHz. Typically better than ±0.3 dB at 30 dB of attenuation
from 1 MHz to 100 MHz.
NEXT
The following NEXT specifications are defined per TIA TSB-67.
Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 105 MHz in 100 kHz steps. Range is determined by
the selected test standard.
Amplitude Range: 85 dB at 1 MHz to 65 dB at 100 MHz (residual NEXT: 10 dB)
Resolution: 0.1 dB
Return Loss: Better than 15 dB from 1 MHz to 100 MHz. Typically better than
20 dB.
Dynamic Accuracy: Better than ±0.75 dB from 1 MHz to 100 MHz. Typically
better than ±0.6 dB.
Residual NEXT Loss (after connector compensation): Better than 55 dB at
100 MHz.
8-10
Maintenance and Specifications
Specifications
8
Random Noise Floor: Better than 65 dB at 100 MHz. Typically better than 75 dB
at 100 MHz.
Output Signal Balance: Better than 37 dB at 100 MHz.
Common Mode Rejection: Better than 37 dB at 100 MHz.
Measurement Accuracy (calculated from above parameters): Better than ±1.5 dB
from 1 MHz to 100 MHz. Typically better than ±1.25 dB.
TDX Analyzer Specifications for Cables <100m (328 ft)
The following performance is typical for cables less than 100m (328 ft):
Distance accuracy: ±(1 ft (0.3m) + 2% distance)
Distance resolution: 1 ft or 0.1m
TDR Specifications for Cables <100m (328 ft)
Table 8-6 shows the distance specifications for TDR tests on cables less than
100m (328 ft) long.
Table 8-6. Distance Specifications for TDR Test
Twisted Pair
Coaxial
Distance accuracy
±(1 ft (0.3m) + 2% distance)
±(1 ft (0.3m) + 2% distance)
Distance resolution
1 ft or 0.1m
1 ft or 0.1m
Return Loss
Return loss range: 0 to 30 dB
Accuracy: ±3 dB over the following ranges:
0 to 18 dB from 1 to 10 MHz
0 to 15 dB from 10.1 to 20 MHz
0 to 10 dB from 20.1 to 100 MHz
8-11
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Impulse Noise
Adjustable from 100 mV to 500 mV in 10 mV steps. The default threshold is
270 mV.
Monitors either polarity of noise on pair 3, 6.
Minimum detectable impulse width: 10 ns
Model DSP-100 LAN Traffic
Monitors 10 Mb/s Ethernet only; UTP or coaxial cable.
Monitors pair 3, 6 for either polarity of data.
Generates a positive polarity link pulse on pair 1, 2.
Model DSP-2000 LAN Traffic
Monitors 10BaseT traffic using the MONITOR RJ45 jack. Monitors pair 3, 6 for
either polarity of traffic. Generates a positive polarity link pulse on pair 1,2.
Monitors 100BaseTX traffic Ethernet traffic using the MONITOR RJ45 jack.
Monitors pair 3, 6 for either polarity of traffic. Generates 100BaseTX link signals
on pair 1, 2.
Auto-negotiates between 10BaseT and 100BaseTX using the MONITOR RJ45
jack. Monitors pair 3, 6 for 10BaseT or 100BaseTX link pulses. Generates AutoNegotiation signals on pair 1, 2.
Monitors 10 Mb/s Ethernet traffic using the COAX jack with the RJ45 to BNC
adapter provided.
Serial Interface
Connector: DB9 (DTE male)
Baud rate: 1200 to 38,400 baud
Flow control: hardware, XON/XOFF, or none
Data format: 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity
Printer formats: Epson, HP LaserJet, or Text Only
8-12
Maintenance and Specifications
Specifications
8
PC Interface Cable
Table 8-7 shows the pin connections for the PC interface cable provided with the
test tool. Table 8-8 shows the pin connections for the 9-to 25-pin adapter available
from Fluke (part number 929187).
Table 8-7. PC Interface Cable Connections
Test Tool End
DB9S (female)
Pin
Direction
PC End
DB9S (female)
Data Carrier Detect
1
<-----
4
Receive Data
2
<-----
3
Transmit Data
3
----->
2
Data Terminal Ready (always true)
4
----->
1
Signal Ground
5
<---->
5
Not connected
6
Request To Send (used only with hardware
flow control)
7
----->
8
Clear To Send
8
<-----
7
Not connected
9
6
9
Table 8-8. 9-to 25-pin Adapter (available from Fluke)
9-pin Connector
25-pin
Connector
3
2
2
3
7
4
8
5
6
6
5
7
1
8
4
20
9
22
Shell
Shell
8-13
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Power
Main unit and smart remote: NiCad battery pack, 7.2V, 1700 mA hr
Typical NiCad battery life for DSP-100: 10 to 12 hours
Typical NiCad battery life for DSP-2000: 8 to 11 hours
AC adapter/charger, USA version: Linear power supply; 108 to 132V ac input;
15V dc, 1A output
AC adapter/charger, international version: Switching power supply; 90 to 264V
ac input; 15V dc; 1A output
Remote unit: 9V alkaline battery
Typical life of alkaline battery in remote: 6 months
Memory backup power in main unit: Lithium battery
Typical life of lithium battery: 5 years
Environmental Requirements
Operating temperature: 32 to 113°F (0 to 45°C)
Storage temperature: -4 to 140°F (-20 to 60°C)
Pollution degree: 2
Altitude: 9843 ft (3000m)
Avoid use outside the operating boundaries shown in Figure 8-3.
8-14
Maintenance and Specifications
Specifications
8
100
90
80
70
60
%RH
50
40
30
20
10
0
-20
-4
0
40
60
80 100
32
Temperature (deg F)
-20
30
0
Temperature (deg C)
+
20
120
140
50
60
40
= Storage (-20˚ C to 60˚ C)
= Normal Operation (0˚ C to 45˚ C)
gc40f.eps
Figure 8-3. Operating Environment Specifications
Input Ratings
Models DSP-100 and DSP-2000 are designed to measure unpowered cables. The
inputs are protected against continuous, current-limited telco voltages (<100 mA).
Model DSP-2000 can withstand occasional overvoltages of less than 30V rms
(42V peak, 60V dc).
8-15
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Certifications
Table 8-9 shows the certifications that apply to the test tool.
Table 8-9. Certifications
Symbol
Description
Conforms to relevant European Union directives.
LISTED
950Z
Safety listed by UL.
The control number of the Fluke Corporation is 950Z.
ALSO CLASSIFIED
TIA TSB-67
ACCURACY
BASIC LINK:LEVEL II
CHANNEL:LEVEL II
This instrument meets the requirements of
Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) Technical
System Bulletin (TSB) 67 Accuracy Level II performance for
both basic link and channel test configurations.
Listed by Canadian Standards Association.
NRTL: Instrument has been tested by CSA for compliance
with UL safety standards.
Memory
512K-byte nonvolatile RAM stores results from at least 500 Autotests. More
storage may be available depending on the software version used and the number
of tests run by the selected test standard.
1 M-byte Flash EPROM for firmware and test standard updates.
Dimensions
Main unit and smart remote: 9.25” x 5” x 3” (23.5 cm x 12.7 cm x 7.6 cm)
Standard remote: 6” x 3” x 1.5” (15.2 cm x 7.6 cm x 3.8 cm)
Weight
Main unit: 3 lbs, 4 oz (1.5 kg)
Smart remote: 3 lbs, 1 oz (1.4 kg)
Standard remote: 8.5 oz (241g)
8-16
Maintenance and Specifications
Specifications
8
Display
Type: Graphic bit-mapped LCD with backlight and adjustable contrast.
Size and resolution: 2.8” x 2.4” (7.1 cm x 6.1 cm), 15 lines, 30 characters per
line, 240 x 200 bits.
RJ45 Connector
Typical life: > 5000 cycles
Warranty
One year from date of purchase.
8-17
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
8-18
Appendices
Appendix
A
B
C
Page
Using DSP-LINK ................................................................................. A-1
Glossary................................................................................................ B-1
Tests Run per Test Standard During an Autotest................................. C-1
Appendix A
Using DSP-LINK
Introduction
DSP-LINK is a Windows program that allows you to do the following:
•
Configure a PC’s serial port for communication with the test tool.
•
Transfer saved Autotest reports and report summaries from the test tool to a
PC.
•
View and print saved Autotest reports and summaries.
•
Transfer test data in CSV format from the test tool to a PC.
•
View and print plots from the last test run.
•
Transfer software updates and new test standards from a PC to the test tool.
The minimum requirements for running DSP-LINK are an 80386 microprocessor
system with 4 M-bytes of RAM, Windows 3.1 software, and a VGA monitor.
A-1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Installing DSP-LINK
The DSP-LINK installation program copies the DSP-LINK files from the diskette
provided to the drive of your choice. The program creates a \DSPLINK directory
for storing the files. The installation program also allows you to change the name
and path of this directory.
To install DSP-LINK on your computer, proceed as follows:
1. Put the DSP-LINK diskette in either the A: or B: floppy disk drive.
2. From Windows, use the Program Manager or the File Manager to run the file
SETUP.EXE from the DSP-LINK diskette.
3. Follow the instructions given by the SETUP program.
Preparing for Data Transfer
For all data transfer operations, you must connect the test tool to the PC with the
appropriate interface cable and set the test tool’s and PC’s serial ports to the same
configuration.
Connecting to a PC
To connect the test tool to a PC, use the 9-pin serial interface cable provided with
the test tool. Refer to Figure A-1. If your PC has a 25-pin serial port, you can use a
Fluke 25-pin adapter, Fluke P/N 929187.
To verify the pin assignments for a different 25-pin adapter or a different cable,
refer to the pin assignments for the serial interface cable given in “Specifications”
in Chapter 8.
A-2
Using DSP-LINK
Preparing for Data Transfer
A
PC Rear Panel (Typical)
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Use the 9-pin to 25-pin
adapter if necessary.
gc41f.eps
Figure A-1. Connecting the Test Tool to a PC
Configuring the Serial Ports
Transferring data requires the serial ports on the test tool and the PC to have the
same interface configurations.
You can view or change the test tool’s serial port configuration in the SETUP
mode. For complete instructions, refer to Chapter 5, “Viewing and Printing Saved
Reports.”
The DSP-LINK software allows you to configure a PC’s serial port. The PC serial
port configuration includes baud rate, flow control protocol, and a port number
selection.
A-3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
To use DSP-LINK to configure a PC’s serial port and establish communications,
proceed as follows:
1. Use the serial interface cable provided to connect the test tool to the PC.
2. Start the DSP-LINK program on the PC.
3. Click on Setup.
4. Select the following:
(a) the baud rate that matches the test tool’s baud rate setting;
(b) the PC serial port number that is connected to the test tool;
(c) and the flow control that matches the test tool’s flow control setting.
5. Click on Connect.
When communication is established, the Setup menu closes and the bottom of the
main DSP-LINK menu shows which COM port and baud rate are in use.
Communication Problems
If DSP-LINK cannot connect to the test tool, check the following:
A-4
•
Verify that the baud rates and flow control protocols are the same for the test
tool and the PC.
•
Verify that the test tool is connected to the COM port selected on the DSPLINK Setup menu. If you are not sure which port number you are connected
to, change the COM number on the Setup menu and try again.
•
Verify that the interface cable is securely connected to the test tool and to the
selected serial port on the PC.
•
If you are not using the cable provided, verify that the cable’s pin assignment
matches the pin assignment given for the serial PC interface cable given in
“Specifications” in Chapter 8.
•
If the PC still can’t connect, set the test tool and the PC to a lower baud rate
and try again.
Using DSP-LINK
DSP-LINK Functions
A
DSP-LINK Functions
Table A-1 summarizes the functions available in DSP-LINK. Table A-2 defines
some of the special functions and terms used in DSP-LINK. For additional
information, see the online help in DSP-LINK.
Table A-1. Summary of DSP-LINK Functions
DSP-LINK
Function
Autotest Reports
Detailed Test Data
Quick Plot
What You Can Save
on a PC
What You Can View
on a PC
What You Can Print
Autotest reports and
report summaries
saved in the test tool
can be saved as CSV
or TXT file types.
Autotest reports saved
in the test tool.
Autotest reports and
report summaries saved
in the test tool.
CSV data from the
last test run.
NA. Use Quick Plot to
create plots of data
from the last test run.
NA. Use Quick Plot to
create and print plots of
data from the last test run.
Or, save the CSV data;
then use a spreadsheet
program to work with
the data.
Or, save the CSV data;
then use a spreadsheet
program to work with the
data.
Plots from the last test
run.
Plots from the last test
run.
NA. Use the Detailed
Test Data function to
save CSV data for
plots.
Use a database
program, such as Fluke
Cable Manager*, to
work with CSV data
saved on the PC.
* Fluke Cable Manager software lets you organize, sort, edit, print, and save Autotest reports
generated by a DSP-100 or DSP-2000 test tool. To purchase Cable Manager, contact your local
Fluke distributor.
A-5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Table A-2. Special Terms Used in DSP-LINK
DSP-LINK Function
Autotest Reports
Detailed Test Data
Description of Related Function or Term
Summary Data: Summary data are the cable identification name, date and
time of the test, cable length, test result summary (pass, fail, or warning), total
length, and site name for the selected summaries, as shown in the Autotest
Reports window.
Save File as Type .CSV: Comma-separated values are test data formatted
for use in spreadsheet and database applications. The test data are uploaded
as a list of values separated by commas. When you open the data file in
another application, the application places each comma-separated value in a
separate cell. You can then use the data to create plots of NEXT, attenuation,
ACR, and RL. See your spreadsheet or database manual or help file for
instructions on using CSV data.
If your test tool’s numeric format is set to use a comma as the decimal
separator, the test tool automatically uses a semicolon as the data separator
in CSV files.
Save File as Type .TXT: Text files uploaded to a PC can be edited and
printed using a word processor.
Data from the Last Test Run: This data, which is temporarily stored in a
block of the test tool’s memory, include 1550 measurement points for each
cable pair for each test that produces a plot. Only data from tests specified by
the selected test standards are available. The data remain memory until you
save the test, run another test, or turn the rotary switch to a new position.
When you save an Autotest, the test tool saves only the worst-case point for
each test.
Quick Plot
Find Worst Margin: Worst Margin is the margin that comes closest to
exceeding the limit, or the margin that exceeds the limit by the greatest
amount. Worst margin is reported for the cable pair selected with the cursor.
Find Worst Pair: Worst Pair is the pair having the worst margin of all the
cable pairs. Quick Plot finds the worst pair even if all of the pairs are not
shown on the plot.
The Find menu does not appear with TDR and TDX plots.
A-6
Using DSP-LINK
Formatting Hints for Uploaded Reports
A
Table A-2. Special Terms Used in DSP-LINK (continued)
DSP-LINK Function
Quick Plot
Description of Related Function or Term
Using a Mouse to Control the Cursor: When the pointing hand is shown on
the plot, you can move the cursor by sliding the mouse from side to side. To
freeze the cursor at a point on the line, click the mouse. Click again to move
the cursor. To move the cursor to a different plotted line, click on a cable pair
listed near the lower-right side of the plot.
Using a Keyboard to Control the Cursor: Use the left and right arrow keys
to move the cursor in 100 kHz increments. Use the shift key with the arrow
keys to move the cursor in 1 MHz increments. To move the cursor to a
different plotted line, use the up and down arrow keys to move the cursor up
and down among the cable pairs on the plot.
To View Pairs One at a Time in Forward or Reverse Sequence: Use the
tab and shift-tab keys, respectively. The cursor moves to the worst margin for
each pair. You can also view the next pair by selecting Next Pair(s) from the
Pair(s) menu.
Formatting Hints for Uploaded Reports
To fit an uploaded Autotest report on one 8.5” x 11” or A4 page, use a word
processor to set the font and margins as shown in Table A-3.
Table A-3. Formats for Uploaded Reports
Courier
Point Size
Maximum Left and
Right Margins for 8.5” x 11” Page
Maximum Left and
Right Margins for 210 mm x 297 mm (A4)
Page
8-point
1.3”
3.0 cm
9-point
0.9”
2.1 cm
10-point
0.5”
1.1 cm
A-7
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Getting Software Updates from Fluke
The Fluke bulletin board system (BBS) and the LAN Products web site give you
access to new versions of software and test standards for your test tool.
Using the BBS requires a modem and a communication software package.
Following is the phone number for Fluke’s LAN Products BBS:
(206) 353-5966
(8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity)
If you require assistance in using the BBS, call the Fluke Applications Help Line
at 1-800-44-Fluke. Or, send email to lans@fluke.com.
Using the web site requires internet access and a web browser. Following is the
address for Fluke's LAN Products page:
http://www.fluke.com/nettools/
A-8
Using DSP-LINK
Getting Software Updates from Fluke
A
Downloading New Test Standards
When new test standards are available, you can download the standards from
Fluke’s LAN Products BBS or web site to your PC, then use DSP-LINK to
download the standards to your test tool.
WCautions
Downloading new test standards erases all test result
data stored in the test tool’s memory. To save stored
Autotest or Single Test results, upload the results to a PC.
To prevent an unexpected loss of battery power to the
test tool, connect the battery charger to the test tool
during the downloading process.
To download cable standards from the BBS or web site to your test tool, proceed
as follows:
1. Copy the test standards file from the BBS or web site to a PC. The file is
compressed and self-executing.
2. Execute the file to expand the data. Expanding the file creates a file with a
.SDB extension.
3. Connect the test tool to the PC and configure the serial ports as described in
the earlier section “Preparing for Data Transfer.”
4. In the DSP-LINK window, click on Test Standards Update.
5. If you want to save the Autotest reports stored in memory, click on no in
response to the next dialog box. Save the reports by uploading them to the PC.
If you do not want to save the stored reports, click on yes.
6. Enter the path and file name of the expanded (.SDB) test standards file.
7. Click on OK.
A-9
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Downloading New Software
When a software update becomes available from Fluke, you can download the
software from Fluke’s LAN Products BBS or web site to your PC, then use DSPLINK to download the software to your test tool.
WCautions
Downloading new software overwrites the existing test
software in your test tool. You will not have access to the
old version of the software.
Downloading new software erases all data stored in the
test tool’s memory. To save stored Autotest or Single
Test results, use DSP-link to upload the results to a PC.
To save Setup data, write down the settings shown on the
displays in the test tool’s SETUP mode.
To prevent an unexpected loss of battery power to the
test tool, connect the battery charger to the test tool
during the downloading process.
To download new software from the BBS or web site to your test tool, proceed as
follows:
1. Copy the software update file from the BBS or web site to a PC. The file is
compressed and self-executing.
2. Execute the file to expand the data. Expanding the file creates files with the
extensions .SDB or .DSP. More than one file may be created.
3. Connect the test tool to the PC and configure the serial ports as described in
the earlier section “Preparing for Data Transfer.”
4. In the DSP-LINK window, click on Software Update.
5. If you want to save the Autotest reports stored in memory, click on no in
response to the next dialog box. Save the reports by uploading them to the PC.
If you do not want to save the stored reports, click on yes.
6. Enter the path and file name of the expanded software update file (.DSP or
.SDB).
7. Click on OK.
8. Repeat steps 4 through 6 for all files created by the expansion process.
A-10
Appendix B
Glossary
10Base2
An IEEE Standard for Thin Coax Ethernet networks: 10 Mb/s transmission, baseband
signaling, 185 meters per coax segment. Also known as Thinlan, Thinnet, or Cheapernet.
10BaseT
An IEEE Standard for unshielded twisted pair Ethernet networks: 10 Mb/s transmission,
baseband signaling, unshielded twisted pair cable. Maximum cable length is 100 meters.
100BaseTX
An IEEE Standard for twisted pair Ethernet networks: 100 Mb/s transmission; baseband
signaling; two-pair, category 5 twisted pair cable. Maximum cable length is 100 meters.
ACR
Attenuation to crosstalk ratio. The difference between NEXT in dB and attenuation in dB.
Good cable performance corresponds to high ACR values (in negative dB), which result
when NEXT is much higher than attenuation.
Anomaly
A location on a network cable where the cable’s impedance changes abruptly.
B-1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Attenuation
A reduction in the strength of a signal. Attenuation is usually expressed in decibels.
Auto-Negotiation
The ability of a network device to determine the capabilities of a far end device, then
select settings for optimal communication.
Bandwidth
A measure of the information capacity of a transmission medium. The measurement is
expressed in hertz (Hz) and is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies
that the medium will pass without significant attenuation.
Baseband Signaling
A method of signal transmission where the entire bandwidth of the medium is used to send
a single signal. Compare with broadband signaling.
Basic Link
A network connection consisting of (1) a patch cable to a patch panel, (2) one connection
at the patch panel, (3) a horizontal cable segment up to 90m (295 ft), (4) a
telecommunications outlet or transition connector, and (5) a patch cable from the outlet or
transition connector. Cable test limits for a link are tighter than those for a channel
because the channel limits allow for additional connections at the horizontal cross-connect
and near the telecommunications outlet.
BNC
A coaxial cable connector used with Thin-wire (10Base2) Ethernet networks.
Broadband Signaling
A method of signal transmission where the bandwidth of the medium is shared by multiple
signals. The signals are separated into channels carried on different frequencies within the
bandwidth. This transmission method is often used to transmit voice, data, and video
signals over a single medium. Compare with baseband signaling.
Cable Pair
Two wires, usually twisted together, that form a complete circuit for signal transmission.
B-2
Glossary
Capacitance
B
Capacitance
A measurement of the capacity to store electrical charge across conductive elements that
are separated by an insulating material (dielectric). Undesirable capacitance that occurs
between conducting wires in a network cable results in capacitive coupling, which causes
crosstalk between cable pairs.
Channel
A network connection consisting of (1) a patch cable to a horizontal cross-connect, (2) two
connections at the cross-connect, (3) a horizontal cable segment up to 90m (295 ft), (4) a
transition connector near the telecommunications outlet, and (5) a telecommunications
outlet. Cable test limits for a channel are looser than those for a basic link because the
channel limits allow for the effects of two connections at the cross-connect and an extra
connector near the telecommunications outlet.
Characteristic Impedance
The total opposition (dc resistance and ac reactance) to the flow of ac current that a
network cable would have if the cable were infinitely long.
Coaxial Cable
A type of transmission cable in which an inner conductor is surrounded first by an
insulating layer, then by a braided, conductive sheath. The braided sheath acts as a shield
that protects the inner conductor from electrical noise. Coaxial cables typically have a
wide bandwidth. Two types of coaxial cable are used with Ethernet networks: Thicknet
(10Base5 standard) and Thinnet (10Base2 standard).
Collision
The result of two stations simultaneously attempting to transmit data on a shared network
transmission medium (such as Ethernet).
Crossed Pair
A wiring error in twisted pair cabling where a pair on one end of the cable is wired to a
different pair in the connector on the other end of the cable.
B-3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Crosstalk
Unwanted signal transfer between adjacent cable pairs. Crosstalk occurs because electrical
signals passing through a cable pair create an electromagnetic field that transmits the
signal to nearby pairs.
CSV Data
Abbreviation for comma-separated variable. A list of data separated by commas. When
CSV data is loaded into a spreadsheet application, the application puts each commaseparated value into a separate cell.
dB
Abbreviation for decibel. A logarithmic unit used for expressing the loss or gain of signal
strength.
Download
To transfer data from a computer to a remote device.
EIA 568A
Electronic Industries Association Commercial Building Telecommunications wiring
standard. Specifies maximum cable lengths, installation practices, and performance
specifications for generic building wiring.
Ethernet
A local area network protocol using Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Detection (CSMA/CD). Ethernet is available with four cabling alternatives: thin coaxial,
standard (thick) coaxial, twisted pair, and fiber optic. This protocol uses 10 Mb/s
baseband transmission and is defined by the IEEE standard 802.3.
Flash Memory
Computer memory that requires no power to maintain its contents, yet, unlike ROM, can
be reprogrammed while installed in a system.
Foil-Screened Twisted Pair (FTP)
See Screened Twisted Pair.
B-4
Glossary
Hardware Flow Control
B
Hardware Flow Control
A hardware method of controlling data flow between two devices. The receiving device
tells the sending device to start or stop data transmission by sending control signals on a
cable wire that is dedicated to flow control signals.
Horizontal Cabling
The cabling between a telecommunications outlet and a horizontal cross-connect.
Horizontal Cross-Connect
A group of connectors, such as a patch panel or punch-down block, that allows equipment
to be cross-connected with patch cords or jumpers. The horizontal cross-connect is usually
located in a wiring closet.
Impedance
Opposition to the flow of ac (alternating current) signals. Impedance is caused by
inductance and capacitance. Unlike resistance, impedance varies with the frequency of the
applied ac signal.
Impedance Discontinuity
An abrupt change in a cable’s characteristic impedance. Impedance discontinuities can be
caused by faulty connections, mismatched cable types, and untwisted sections on twisted
pair cable. Also called an anomaly.
Inductance
A property of a device that tends to oppose changes in current. Inductance is an
undesirable characteristic of cables because it causes signal attenuation.
Inductive Pickup
A device that emits sound when placed near a source of electromagnetic emissions.
Jabber
A network fault condition where a frame longer than 1518 bytes is detected. Network
protocols specify a maximum packet length that one station may transmit before other
stations are allowed to transmit.
B-5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Link Pulse
A single-bit, 100 ns test pulse that is transmitted at least every 50 ms during idle periods
on 10BaseT link segments to verify link integrity.
Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT)
The amount of coupling loss (in decibels) occurring when a signal sent on one cable pair
is received as crosstalk by another cable pair. Higher NEXT levels correspond to better
cable performance.
NVP
Nominal Velocity of Propagation. The speed of a signal through a cable, expressed as a
percentage of the speed of light. Typically, the speed of a signal through a cable is
between 60% and 80% of the speed of light.
Packet
A group of bits in a specific format, containing a data message that is sent over a network.
Plenum Cable
Cable certified for installation in air ducts and open spaces over suspended ceilings
without conduit. Plenum cable is fire resistant and does not emit toxic fumes when burned.
Propagation Delay
The time required for an electrical signal to travel the length of a cable.
PSNEXT
Power-sum NEXT. The combined NEXT received by a cable pair from the other pairs.
Resistor
An electronic component that resists the flow of electrical current. Resistors are used in
the terminators that are connected to the ends of coaxial cable.
Return Loss (RL)
The loss of signal strength in a cable due to signal reflections. A cable’s RL value
indicates how well the cable’s characteristic impedance matches its rated impedance over
a range of frequencies.
B-6
Glossary
Reversed Pair
B
Reversed Pair
A wiring error in twisted pair cabling where the pins on a cable pair are reversed between
connectors on each end of the cable.
RJ45
An 8-pin modular connector used with twisted pair cable. The RJ45 connector resembles a
telephone connector (RJ11).
ROM
Read-only memory. A device used for permanent storage of data or programs. A ROM
does not require power to maintain its contents. Once a ROM is programmed, its contents
cannot be altered.
Runt Packet
An Ethernet data packet that is shorter than the valid minimum packet length of 64 bytes.
Runt packets are usually caused by a collision.
Screened Twisted Pair (ScTP)
Twisted pair cable wrapped in a metallic sheath. The sheath, which is grounded at a single
location in the network, acts as a shield that protects the cable pairs from crosstalk and
other sources of electrical noise.
Serial Data Transmission
The transmission of data over a single wire.
Segment
A network cable terminated at both ends.
Shielded Twisted Pair
Refers to shielded twisted pair IBM cable with an impedance of 150Ω.
Skin Effect
The tendency of current to flow only near the surface of a conductor. This effect becomes
more pronounced at higher frequencies.
B-7
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Split Pair
A wiring error in twisted pair cable where a wire from one cable pair is twisted with a
wire from another cable pair. Though the pin-to-pin connections may be correct, splitting
the cable pairs causes excessive crosstalk because the electromagnetic fields around the
wires cannot cancel properly.
TDR
Time domain reflectometry. A technique used for finding cable faults and measuring cable
length and characteristic impedance. A test pulse applied to the cable is reflected by
impedance discontinuities along the cable (such as a short or an open). The cable’s
characteristics are determined by timing the duration between the test pulse and the
reflection and analyzing the shape of the reflected pulse.
TDX
Time domain crosstalk. The TDX analyzer locates sources of NEXT along a cable. This
measurement technique is patented by Fluke corporation.
Terminator
A resistor connected to the end of a coaxial cable. The terminator, which is intended to
match the characteristic impedance of the cable, eliminates signal reflections by
dissipating signals in the cable.
Token Ring
A local area network that is arranged in a ring or star topology and uses token passing to
control access.
Twisted Pair
A cable pair made of two wires that are twisted together to minimize crosstalk to other
cable pairs. The twisting minimizes crosstalk because it causes cancellation of the
electromagnetic fields generated by each wire in the twisted pair.
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Twisted pair cable that is not shielded. UTP cable is more susceptible to crosstalk than
shielded twisted pair (STP) cable.
B-8
Glossary
XON/XOFF Flow Control
B
XON/XOFF Flow Control
Transmitter ON/transmitter OFF. A software method of controlling data flow between two
devices. The receiving device tells the sending device to start or stop data transmission by
sending commands over the data transmission line.
B-9
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
B-10
Appendix C
Tests Run per Test Standard During
an Autotest
C-1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Table C-1. Tests Run per Test Standard During an Autotest
1
Test Standard
Wire Map
Resistance
2
Length Impedanc
e
NEXT
TIA Cat 5 Channel
■ 4 pair
■✳
❒
■
1-100 MHz
TIA Cat 5 Basic Link
■ 4 pair
■✳
❒
■
1-100 MHz
TIA Cat 4 Channel
■ 4 pair
■✳
❒
■
1-20 MHz
TIA Cat 4 Basic Link
■ 4 pair
■✳
❒
■
1-20 MHz
TIA Cat 3 Channel
■ 4 pair
■✳
❒
■
1-16 MHz
TIA Cat 3 Basic Link
■ 4 pair
■✳
❒
■
1-16 MHz
Fiber Optic
C-2
ISO11801 EN50173 Class A
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■ 0.1 MHz
ISO11801 EN50173 Class B
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■
■ 0.1-1 MHz
ISO/IEC11801 Class C
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■
■ 1-16 MHz
ISO/IEC11801 Class D
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■
■ 1-100 MHz
ISO 11801 Class D - No RL
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■
■ 1-100 MHz
EN 50173 Class C
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■
■ 1-16 MHz
EN 50173 Class D
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■
■ 1-100 MHz
EN 50173 Class D - No RL
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■
■ 1-100 MHz
IEEE 10Base2
■
■
■
IEEE 10Base5
■
■
■
Tests Run per Test Standard During an Autotest
C
Table C-1. Tests Run per Test Standard During an Autotest (continued)
1
Test Standard
Attenuation
ACR
Return Loss
Prop.
2
Delay
Delay
2
Skew
TIA Cat 5 Channel
■
1-100 MHz
❒
TIA Cat 5 Basic Link
■
1-100 MHz
❒
TIA Cat 4 Channel
■
1-20 MHz
❒
TIA Cat 4 Basic Link
■
1-20 MHz
❒
TIA Cat 3 Channel
■
1-16 MHz
❒
TIA Cat 3 Basic Link
■
1-16 MHz
❒
Fiber Optic
■ (Loss)
ISO11801 EN50173 Class A
■ 0.1 MHz
■
ISO11801 EN50173 Class B
■ 0.1-1 MHz
■
ISO/IEC11801 Class C
■ 1-16 MHz
ISO/IEC11801 Class D
■ 1-100 MHz
■ 1-100 MHz
ISO 11801 Class D - No RL
■ 1-100 MHz
■ 1-100 MHz
EN 50173 Class C
■ 1-16 MHz
EN 50173 Class D
■ 1-100 MHz
■ 1-100 MHz
EN 50173 Class D - No RL
■ 1-100 MHz
■ 1-100 MHz
■ 1-16 MHz
■
❒
■ 1-100 MHz
■
❒
■
❒
■ 1-16 MHz
■
❒
■ 1-100 MHz
■
❒
■
❒
IEEE 10Base2
IEEE 10Base5
1.
Test standards version 4.0.
2.
Resistance, propagation delay, and delay skew are always measured; results appear on printed test
reports.
■
Pass/Fail result given.
❒
Pass/Warning result given.
Results within the accuracy specifications of the test tool are marked with an asterisk.
NEXT test is run but not displayed. Results are used to calculate ACR.
C-3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
Table C-1. Tests Run per Test Standard During an Autotest (continued)
1
Test Standard
Wire Map Resistance
■
Coax Cables
Length Impedance
■
■
NEXT
IEEE 10BaseT
■ 2 pair
■
❒
■ 5-10 MHz
100BaseTX
■ 2 pair
■
■
■ 1-80 MHz
100BaseT4
■ 4 pair
■
■
■ 12.5 MHz
IEEE 802.12 4-UTP
■ 4 pair
■
■
■ 1-15 MHz
IEEE 802.12 STP
■ 2 pair
■
■
■ 1-100 MHz
TokenRing, 4 Mb/s
■ 2 pair
■
■
4 MHz
TokenRing, 16 Mb/s, Passive
■ 2 pair
■
■
16 MHz
TokenRing, 16 Mb/s, Active
■ 2 pair
■
■
16 MHz
TP-PMD
■ 2 pair
■
■
■ 1-80 MHz
Twin-Ax: RJ45 pins 4,5,S
■ 1 pair
■
■
■
■
■
■
ARCnet
C-4
2
Aus/NZ Class C Channel
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■
1-16 MHz
Aus/NZ Class D Channel
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■
1-100 MHz
Aus/NZ Class C Basic Link
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■
1-16 MHz
Aus/NZ Class D Basic Link
■ 4 pair
■
❒
■
1-100 MHz
All Tests
■ 4 pair
❒
■ 1-100 MHz
■
■
Tests Run per Test Standard During an Autotest
C
Table C-1. Tests Run per Test Standard During an Autotest (continued)
1
Test Standard
Attenuation
ACR
Return Loss
Prop.
2
Delay
Delay
2
Skew
Coax Cables
IEEE 10BaseT
■ 5-10 MHz
100BaseTX
■ 16 MHz
100BaseT4
■ 2-12.5 MHz
■
■
IEEE 802.12 4-UTP
■ 1-15 MHz
■
■
IEEE 802.12 STP
■ 1-100 MHz
■ 1-100 MHz
TokenRing, 4 Mb/s
■ 4 MHz
■ 1-12 MHz
TokenRing,16 Mb/s, Passive
■ 16 MHz
■ 1-25 MHz
TokenRing,16 Mb/s, Active
■ 16 MHz
■ 1-25 MHz
TP-PMD
■ 16 MHz
■ 1-80 MHz
■ 1-80 MHz
■
Twin-Ax: RJ45 pins 4, 5, S
ARCnet
Aus/NZ Class C Channel
■
1-16 MHz
Aus/NZ Class D Channel
■
1-100 MHz
Aus/NZ Class C Basic Link
■
1-16 MHz
Aus/NZ Class D Basic Link
■
1-100 MHz
All Tests
■ 1-100 MHz
❒
■ 1-100 MHz
❒
❒
■ 1-100 MHz
■ 1-100 MHz
❒
■ 1-100 MHz
❒
1.
Test standards version 4.0.
2.
Resistance, propagation delay, and delay skew are always measured; results appear on printed test
reports.
■
Pass/Fail result given.
❒
Pass/Warning result given.
❒
Results within the accuracy specifications of the test tool are marked with an asterisk.
NEXT test is run but not displayed. Results are used to calculate ACR.
C-5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
C-6
Index
—A—
AC adapter/charger, 2-3
Accessories
standard accessories, 1-3
Accuracy range, 2-6
ACR
ACR@Remote test, 3-17
explanation of ACR, 7-19
plot description, 3-16
results screen items, 3-15
test for twisted pair, 3-14
Anomaly. See Impedance anomaly
Asterisk
in test results, 2-6
on custom configurations, 6-5
on selected report, 5-4
Attenuation
explanation of attenuation, 7-5
plot description, 3-11
results screen items, 3-10
test for twisted pair, 3-10
Audible tones, enabling/disabling, 2-28
Auto increment, 3-25
Automatic diagnostics, 3-4
Auto-Negotiation
traffic test, 4-16
Autotest
coaxial cable, 3-19
connections, 2-11, 3-19
descriptions of tests and results, 3-21
list of tests, 2-18
quick start, 2-10
organizing reports on a PC, A-5
printing reports, 5-1
print options, 5-3
serial port error, 5-5
report samples, 3-25
saving results, 3-23
twisted pair, 3-2
connections, 3-2
connections for basic link, 3-2
connections for channel, 2-8
descriptions of tests and results, 3-6
list of tests, 2-17
quick start, 2-7
—B—
Backlight, 2-22
Bail, 2-16
Basic link
configuration diagram, 3-2
test standard selection, 2-24
Battery
charging, 2-3
lithium, 8-3
NiCad
removal and replacement, 8-2
when to replace, 8-2
remote battery removal and replacement,
8-2
status messages, 2-31
Beeper, enabling/disabling, 2-28
BNC connector, 2-13
Bulletin board system, A-8
1
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
—C—
Cable
basic troubleshooting, 7-21
configuring a custom cable, 6-4
construction, coaxial and twisted pair, 7-1
identifying hub port connections, 4-20
interface for PC, 8-13
interface for printing, 5-2
pin connections for 568 standard, 7-3
Cable temperature
effect on test results, 2-25
selecting, 2-24
selecting, quick start, 2-4
Cable type
selecting, 2-24
selecting, quick start, 2-4
Calibrating the test tool, 6-1
Certifications, 8-16
Channel
configuration diagram, 2-8
test standard selection, 2-24
Characteristic impedance. See Impedance
Communicating with a PC, A-2
downloading software updates, A-10
downloading test standards, A-9
problems with communications, A-4
Conduit setting
effect on test results, 2-25
selecting, 2-25
selecting, quick start, 2-4
Configure custom cable, 6-4
Connectors
main unit, 2-13
remote, 2-15
RJ11 (telephone), 2-2
Crossed pair
wire map display, 3-7
Crossed wires
wire map display, 3-7
Custom cable configuration, 6-4
—D—
Date, 2-27
Delay skew test, 3-9
2
Display
adjusting contrast, 2-23
size, 8-17
DSP-LINK
hardware requirements, A-1
installing, A-2
summary of functions, A-5
—E—
Email address for Fluke, A-8
—F—
False test results, 8-5
Fault anomaly threshold (twisted pair), 3-9
Fault info key, 3-4
Fiber optic cable testing, 2-4
Frequency, 155 MHz, 2-24
Front panel
main unit, 2-13
remote, 2-14
—H—
Headroom, 3-4
Hub port capabilities, 4-23
Hub port locator, 4-20
—I—
Impedance
anomaly on coaxial cable, 3-22
anomaly on twisted pair, 3-12
explanation of characteristic impedance, 77
minimizing impedance discontinuities, 7-8
test for coaxial cable, 3-21
test for twisted pair, 3-9
warning result, 3-9
Impulse noise threshold, 4-20
Inductive pickup device, 4-24
Installing DSP-LINK, A-2
Internal fault detected (error message), 8-5
ISDN lines, 2-2
Index (continued)
—K—
Keys
for moving around screens, 2-3
functions, 2-13
—L—
Language
selecting a language, 2-21
selecting, quick start, 2-4
LED functions, 2-15, 2-29
Length
test for coaxial cable, 3-22
test for twisted pair, 3-8
variations between cable pairs, 3-8
variations between measured and actual, 714
Length units
selecting, 2-26
selecting, quick start, 2-4
Link. See Basic link
Link performance grade, 3-4
—M—
Maintenance, 8-1
Memory
capacity and type, 8-16
full, 3-25
maintained by lithium battery, 8-3
space available, 3-25
Monitor
hub port capabilities, 4-23
monitoring impulse noise, 4-20
changing the noise threshold, 4-20
connections, 4-21
screen items, 4-23
monitoring network activity, 4-16
connections, 4-17
screen items, 4-18
—N—
NEXT
explanation of NEXT, 7-9
minimizing NEXT, 7-13
NEXT@Remote test results, 3-14
plot description, 3-13
results screen items, 3-12
Noise
causes of electrical noise, 7-6
changing the impulse noise threshold, 4-20
monitoring impulse noise, 4-20
Noise test, 2-22
Numeric format
selecting, 2-26
selecting, quick start, 2-4
NVP
determining cable NVP, 6-3
explanation of NVP, 7-14
—O—
Open
wire map display, 3-7
Overvoltage test, 2-22
—P—
PC interface cable, 8-13
Power line filter frequency
selecting, 2-23
selecting, quick start, 2-4
Power sum NEXT test, 3-19
Power-down timer, 2-28
Power-off timer, 2-28
Printing
configuring the serial port, 5-2
connections for printing, 5-3
error, 5-5
options, 5-3
printer interface cable, 5-2
Problems
with the test tool, 8-5
Propagation delay test, 3-9
PSNEXT test, 3-19
—Q—
Quick configuration, 2-4
Quick start, 2-3
3
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
—R—
Reflection
causes of reflections, 7-15
length test result message, 3-22
Remote
calibrating for a new remote, 6-1
communication error, 2-31
compatibility between models, 8-7
effects on TDR test, 4-9
lights, messages, and audible tones, 2-29
messages displayed on remote, 2-30
smart remote features, 2-14
standard remote features, 2-14
when to use a remote unit, 4-2
Remote end test
how to enable/disable, 2-30
quick start, 2-4
Replacement parts, 8-6
Reports
formatting uploaded reports, A-7
organizing reports on a PC, A-5
printing reports, 5-1
samples of Autotest reports, 3-25
viewing, deleting, and renaming reports, 5-6
Resistance
test for coaxial cable, 3-22
test for twisted pair, 3-8
Reversed pairs
wire map display, 3-7
RJ11 connector, 2-2
RJ45 connector, 2-13
RL
explanation of RL, 7-20
plot description, 3-18
results screen items, 3-17
test for twisted pair, 3-17
Rotary switch modes, 2-16
—S—
Safety and operational information, 2-2
Saving Autotest results, 3-23
Scanning, 4-2
Self test
failure, 8-4
4
how to run, 2-21
Self-calibration, 6-1
Serial port
cable for printer interface, 5-2
configuring a PC serial port, A-3
configuring for PC communications, A-3
configuring for printing, 5-2
connection for printing, 5-3
error, printing, 5-5
interface description, 8-12
problems with PC communications, A-4
Servicing, 8-4
Setup
configuring the test tool, 2-22
list of settings, 2-19
quick setup, 2-4
Shield test, 2-24
Short
wire map display, 3-7
Single test
tests for coaxial cable, 4-14
tests for twisted pair, 4-1
Smart remote. See Remote
mode on rotary switch, 2-20
Softkeys
description, 2-13
on Autotest screens, 3-1
Software update, A-10
Special Functions
list of functions, 2-20
Split pair
explanation of split pair, 7-12
wire map display, 3-7
Standard remote. See Remote
Storage, 8-2
Strap, 2-16
Switch modes, 2-16
—T—
TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry)
effects of termination results, 4-9
example plots, 7-23
explanation of TDR, 7-15
interpreting the plot, 7-18
Index (continued)
plot description, 4-11
results screen items, 4-11
test for twisted pair and coaxial cable, 4-9
TDX analyzer
example plots, 7-23
interpreting the plot, 7-9
plot description, 4-8
results screen items, 4-7
running the analyzer, 4-6
Terminator
connection during length test, 3-22
connection during resistance test, 3-22
effects on TDR test, 4-9
Test standard
selecting, 2-24
selecting, quick start, 2-4
Test standards updates, A-9
Time, 2-27
Tone generator, 4-24
Troubleshooting
finding cable faults, 7-21
troubleshooting the test tool, 8-4
—U—
Using this manual, 1-5
—V—
Version
hardware, 2-20
software, 2-20
test standards, 2-20
—W—
Warning messages
battery voltage messages, 2-31
characteristic impedance warning, 3-9
excessive noise detected, 2-22
excessive voltage detected, 2-22
printed reports, 3-26
test result memory is now full, 3-25
test summary result, 3-9
the previous test results have not been
saved, 3-3
unable to save test results, 3-25
warning in test results, 4-12
Web site address for Fluke, A-8
Wire map
description of test, 3-6
displays, 3-6
pin connections for 568 standard, 7-3
5
DSP-100/2000
Users Manual
6
Manual Supplement
Manual Title:
Part Number:
Print Date:
Revision/Date:
DSP-100,DSP-2000 Users Supplement Issue:
642964
Issue Date:
January 1997
Page Count:
---
4
7/00
5
This supplement contains information necessary to ensure
the accuracy of the above manual.
© 2000 Fluke Corporation. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

DSP-100,DSP-2000 Users
Manual Supplement
Change #1
On page 6-1, under Calibrating the Test Tool, add the following note after
the first paragraph:
Note
Allow a 1 minute warm-up time prior to performing self-calibration (see
Chapter 6). Self-calibration should be performed only after the test tool
and remote unit have warmed up to an ambient temperature between
10°C and 40°C (50°F and 104°F).
On page 8-11, replace the Return Loss specification with:
Return Loss (RL)
Return Loss range: 0 to 30 dB
Accuracy: ± 3 dB over the following ranges:
0 to 18 dB from 5 to 10 MHz
0 to 15 dB from 10.1 to 20 MHz
0 to 10 dB from 20.1 to 100 MHz
1/99
1
Manual Supplement
DSP-100,DSP2000 Users
Change #2
On pages 3-6 and 3-7, replace Table 3-1 with the following:
Table 3-1. Wire Map Displays
Wire Map Condition
Displayed Schematic
Correct wiring
Description
Cable wiring is correct. Shield(sS)
shown only if required by selected
test standard.
(Left side of display represents
near-end connector.)
gc43i.eps
Crossed wires
A wire in the 1,2 pair is crossed with a
wire in the 3,6 pair.
gc45i.eps
Reversed pairs
Wires 1 and 2 are crossed.
gc47i.eps
Transposed pairs
The wire pair connected to pins 1 & 2
at one end is connected to pins 3 & 6
at the other end.
gc49i.eps
2
7/00
DSP-100,DSP-2000 Users
Manual Supplement
Table 3-1. Wire Map Displays (continued)
Short
Wires 1 and 2 are shorted. You can
use the TDR test to locate the short.
gc51i.eps
Open
Wire 1 is not connected from end to
end or "open". You can use the TDR
test to locate the open.
gc53i.eps
Split pair
A wire in the 3,6 pair is twisted with a
wire in the 4,5 pair. You can use the
TDX analyzer to locate the split pair.
gc55i.eps
On page 7-23, Table 7-1, replace the entire first column and the bottom two
cells of the second column with the following:
gc53i.eps
Wire map display showing an
open on pair 1, 2.
7/00
3
Manual Supplement
DSP-100,DSP2000 Users
gc59i.eps
Wire map display showing a split
pair on pairs 1, 2 and 3, 6.
Inspect the color code at each
connection/termination.
gc47i.eps
Wire map display showing
reversed pair on pair 1, 2.
Inspect the color codes of the
wires at each
connection/termination.
gc49i.eps
Wire map display showing
transposed pairs on 1, 2 and 3, 6.
4
7/00
DSP-100,DSP-2000 Users
Manual Supplement
On page 7-25, replace the wire map display at the top of the first column with
the following:
gc51i.eps
Wire map display showing a short
between pins 1 and 2.
Change #3
On page 6-1, under Calibrating the Test Tool add the following note:
Note
The test tool requires a traceable calibration once a year to make sure
that it meets or exceeds the published accuracy specifications. Send it to
an authorized Fluke service center for a complete traceable calibration
once a year.
On page 8-7, change Service Center Calibration Period,
To:
Traceable Calibration Period
Change #4
On page 8-2, under Replacing the NiCad Battery Pack, add the following note:
Note
Do not use a NiMH battery pack in place of the NiCad battey pack. The
test tool will not charge properly with a NiMH battery pack.
7/00
5
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