Fluke Series II Network Card User Manual

TM
OneTouch Series II
Network Assistant
Users Manual
September 1999 Rev. 1, 11/00
© 1999, 2000 Fluke Corporation. All rights reserved. Printed in USA
All product names are trademarks of their respective companies.
LIMITED WARRANTY & LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
Fluke Corporation (Fluke) warrants its products to be free from
defects in material and workmanship under normal use and
service for one (1) year, beginning on the date of shipment. This
warranty extends only to the original buyer or end-user customer
of a Fluke authorized reseller, and does not apply to fuses, batteries or to any product which, in Fluke’s opinion, has been misused, altered, neglected or damaged by accident or abnormal
conditions of operation or handling. Fluke warrants that software
will operate on appropriate Fluke instruments substantially in
accordance with its functional specifications for 90 days and that
it has been properly recorded on non-defective media. Fluke
does not warrant that software will be error free or operate without interruption.
Fluke authorized resellers shall extend this warranty on new and
unused products to end-user customers only but have no
authority to extend a greater or different warranty on behalf of
Fluke.
Fluke’s warranty obligation is limited, at Fluke’s option, to refund
of the purchase price, or free of charge repair or replacement of
a defective product which is returned to an authorized Fluke
Service Center within the warranty period.
To obtain warranty service, call Fluke for instructions at the
number listed in the Appendix. Following warranty repair, the
product will be returned to Buyer, transportation prepaid (FOB
Destination). If Fluke determines that the failure was caused by
misuse, alteration, accident or abnormal condition of operation or
handling, Fluke will provide an estimate of repair costs and obtain authorization before commencing the work. Following repair, the product will be returned to the Buyer transportation
prepaid and the Buyer will be billed for the repair and return
transportation charges (FOB Shipping Point).
Warranty service is available outside the United States only if
product was purchased through a Fluke Authorized Sales Outlet
in the country of use or the applicable Fluke international price
was paid. Product transported from the United States for which
the applicable Fluke international price was not paid must be
returned to the U.S. to receive warranty service, at the shipment
expense and risk of Buyer. Fluke reserves the right to invoice
Buyer for importation costs of repair/replacement parts when
product purchased in one country is submitted for repair in another country.
THIS WARRANTY IS PURCHASER’S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE
REMEDY AND IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. FLUKE SHALL NOT
BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSSES, INCLUDING
LOSS OF DATA, WHETHER ARISING FROM BREACH OF
WARRANTY OR BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT, RELIANCE
OR ANY OTHER THEORY.
Since some countries or states do not allow limitation of the term
of an implied warranty, or exclusion or limitation of incidental or
consequential damages, the limitations and exclusions of this
warranty may not apply to every buyer. If any provision of this
Warranty is held invalid or unenforceable by a court of competent jurisdiction, such holding will not affect the validity or enforceability of any other provision of this warranty.
Fluke Corporation
P.O. Box 9090
Everett WA 98206-9090
FlukeEurope B.V.
P.O. Box 1186
5602 B.D. Eindhoven
The Netherlands
Table of Contents
Chapter
1
Title
Introduction.................................................................................................................. 1-1
Introducing the OneTouch Series II Network Assistant..................................................
Software Version.......................................................................................................
Supplied Equipment..................................................................................................
Optional Equipment ..................................................................................................
Placing Orders and Getting Assistance ....................................................................
2
Page
1-1
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-3
Autotest and Central Setup......................................................................................... 2-1
Introduction ....................................................................................................................
Device Discovery Process ........................................................................................
Identifying Routers ...............................................................................................
Device Icons.........................................................................................................
Station Detail Display................................................................................................
Viewing Multiple Protocols on Station Detail Displays..........................................
NetWare Devices List ...............................................................................................
NetWare Print Server List ..............................................................................................
TCP/IP Devices Display ............................................................................................
Sorting ......................................................................................................................
Address Entry Keypad ..............................................................................................
i
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-8
2-9
2-9
2-11
2-11
2-15
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OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
Central Setup ............................................................................................................
IP Config...............................................................................................................
Using DHCP to Get an IP Source Address...........................................................
SNMP ...................................................................................................................
3
Network Health ............................................................................................................. 3-1
Introduction ....................................................................................................................
Interpreting Error Results ..........................................................................................
Collisions ..............................................................................................................
Late Collisions ......................................................................................................
Short Frames ........................................................................................................
Jabbers .................................................................................................................
Bad Frame Check Sequence (FCS) .....................................................................
Tracking Addresses...................................................................................................
Local vs. Remote Stations.........................................................................................
4
2-17
2-17
2-19
2-21
3-1
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-9
Cable Tests ................................................................................................................... 4-1
Introduction ....................................................................................................................
Cable Autotest ...........................................................................................................
Split Pairs..............................................................................................................
Cable Length Results ...........................................................................................
Wiremap Cable .....................................................................................................
Identifying Cables ......................................................................................................
Toner ....................................................................................................................
Define Cable .........................................................................................................
Basic Cable Concepts ...............................................................................................
Twisted Pair Cables..............................................................................................
Reversed Pair .......................................................................................................
ii
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-6
Contents (continued)
Crossed Pair ........................................................................................................
Split Pair...............................................................................................................
Cable Length........................................................................................................
Cable Termination................................................................................................
Test Fiber Optic Cable...................................................................................................
Ensuring Accurate Measurements ............................................................................
Setting a Reference ..................................................................................................
Measuring Optical Loss.............................................................................................
Measuring Output Power ..........................................................................................
5
NIC/Hub Tests .............................................................................................................. 5-1
Introduction ....................................................................................................................
NIC Autotest..............................................................................................................
Hub Autotest .............................................................................................................
Viewing Hub Capabilities ..........................................................................................
NIC Detector .............................................................................................................
Flash Hub Port ..........................................................................................................
6
4-6
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-10
4-10
4-10
4-11
4-11
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-3
5-4
5-4
Connectivity Tests....................................................................................................... 6-1
Introduction ....................................................................................................................
IP Trace Route..........................................................................................................
IP & NetWare Ping....................................................................................................
Entering IPX Addresses .......................................................................................
Conducting a Ping Station Test.................................................................................
Key Device Ping........................................................................................................
Interpreting Ping Test Results...................................................................................
ConfigMaster.............................................................................................................
Station Locator..........................................................................................................
iii
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-6
6-8
6-8
6-10
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
Find MAC..............................................................................................................
Find IP ..................................................................................................................
Mode of Operation ................................................................................................
Results..................................................................................................................
7
6-10
6-11
6-11
6-11
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option ...................................................................... 7-1
Introduction ....................................................................................................................
ITO/xDSL Throughput Test .......................................................................................
ITO/xDSL Theory of Operation .............................................................................
Basic Operation ....................................................................................................
Conducting a Throughput Test .............................................................................
Connecting and configuring the Remote Unit .......................................................
Connecting and configuring the Local Unit ...........................................................
Results Displayed During the Throughput Test ....................................................
Final Test Results .................................................................................................
ITO/xDSL Traffic Generator.......................................................................................
MAC Mode............................................................................................................
IP Mode ................................................................................................................
MAC and IP Mode Results....................................................................................
Ping Mode ............................................................................................................
Ping Mode Results................................................................................................
7-1
7-2
7-2
7-4
7-4
7-7
7-7
7-13
7-13
7-15
7-17
7-17
7-18
7-19
7-20
Appendices
A
B
C
D
Specifications ..........................................................................................................
Basic Maintenance..................................................................................................
Web Remote Control...............................................................................................
Glossary ..................................................................................................................
Index
iv
A-1
B-1
C-1
D-1
List of Tables
Table
2-1.
2-2.
3-1.
4-1.
7-1.
Title
Device Icons .........................................................................................................................
TCP/IP Device Icons.............................................................................................................
Network Health Meters .........................................................................................................
Fiber Test Terminology .........................................................................................................
ITO and xDSL Terminology ..................................................................................................
v
Page
2-4
2-13
3-5
4-11
7-1
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
vi
List of Figures
Figure
1-1.
2-1.
2-2.
2-3.
2-4.
2-5.
2-6.
2-7.
2-8.
2-9.
2-10.
2-11.
2-12.
2-13.
2-14.
2-15.
2-16.
2-17.
2-18.
Title
OneTouch-10/100 Series II Network Assistant .....................................................................
Autotest Display ....................................................................................................................
Station Filter..........................................................................................................................
Station List Information .........................................................................................................
NetBIOS Information.............................................................................................................
Novell Server Information .....................................................................................................
Station Detail ........................................................................................................................
Ping SNMP Results ..............................................................................................................
Station Running Multiple Protocols .......................................................................................
NetWare File Server List.......................................................................................................
Netware File Server Information ...........................................................................................
TCP/IP Devices Display........................................................................................................
Local Station List...................................................................................................................
Sort Options ..........................................................................................................................
Address Entry Keypad ..........................................................................................................
Central Setup........................................................................................................................
IP Address Configuration ......................................................................................................
Address Entry Keypad ..........................................................................................................
DHCP Display .......................................................................................................................
vii
Page
1-2
2-2
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-9
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-15
2-16
2-16
2-17
2-18
2-19
2-20
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
2-19.
2-20.
2-21.
3-1.
3-2.
3-3.
3-4.
3-5.
4-1.
4-2.
4-3.
4-4.
4-5.
4-6.
4-7.
4-8.
4-9.
4-10.
5-1.
5-2.
5-3.
5-4.
5-5.
6-1.
6-2.
6-3.
6-4.
6-5.
Security Setup .......................................................................................................................
SNMP ....................................................................................................................................
Community String Editor........................................................................................................
Network Health......................................................................................................................
Top Senders Display .............................................................................................................
Station Detail .........................................................................................................................
Network Health Test Meter Icon ............................................................................................
Station Addresses .................................................................................................................
Cable Tests ...........................................................................................................................
Wiremap Results ...................................................................................................................
Reversed Pair........................................................................................................................
Crossed Pair..........................................................................................................................
Split Pair ................................................................................................................................
Cable Termination .................................................................................................................
Fiber Test Results .................................................................................................................
Connections for Setting a Reference Level ...........................................................................
Connections for Measuring Optical Loss ...............................................................................
Connections for Measuring Output Power.............................................................................
NIC/Hub Test.........................................................................................................................
NIC Autotest ..........................................................................................................................
Hub Autotest Display .............................................................................................................
NIC Detector..........................................................................................................................
Flash Hub Port Display..........................................................................................................
Connectivity Tests Display ....................................................................................................
IP Trace Route ......................................................................................................................
IP & NetWare Ping Display....................................................................................................
NetWare Ping ........................................................................................................................
IP Ping...................................................................................................................................
viii
2-21
2-22
2-23
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-8
4-1
4-3
4-6
4-6
4-7
4-9
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-6
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-3
Contents (continued)
6-6.
6-7.
6-8.
6-9.
6-10.
6-11.
6-12.
6-13.
6-14.
7-1.
7-2.
7-3.
7-4.
7-5.
7-6.
7-7.
7-8.
7-9.
7-10.
7-11.
C-1.
IP and NetWare Ping ............................................................................................................
IP Ping Results .....................................................................................................................
NetWare Ping Results...........................................................................................................
Ping Key Devices..................................................................................................................
IP Configuration ....................................................................................................................
Edit Key Devices...................................................................................................................
ConfigMaster ........................................................................................................................
Station Locator......................................................................................................................
Station Locator Information...................................................................................................
Local and Remote Units........................................................................................................
ITO Local Unit and Possible Remote Unit Locations ............................................................
xDSL Test Connections ........................................................................................................
Local Unit Configuration Display for Throughput Test...........................................................
xDSL Central Office (Remote) Connections .........................................................................
xDSL Subscriber-end Connections .......................................................................................
ITO Results Shown During the Test......................................................................................
Final ITO Throughput Test Results .......................................................................................
Traffic Generator Setup Display............................................................................................
MAC or IP Mode Sample Results .........................................................................................
Ping Mode Sample Results...................................................................................................
Web Agent ............................................................................................................................
ix
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-7
6-9
6-10
6-12
7-3
7-5
7-6
7-8
7-9
7-10
7-13
7-14
7-16
7-19
7-21
C-2
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
x
Chapter 1
Introduction
Introducing the OneTouch Series II
Network Assistant
The Fluke OneTouch Series II Network Assistant
(hereafter referred to as the "Network Assistant") provides
quick solutions to the most common problems found
when installing and troubleshooting Ethernet networks.
The Network Assistant is a portable, handheld instrument
that is operated using a touchscreen user interface.
XCaution
Take care not to damage the touchscreen
with any sharp, pointed, or hard objects. For
additional information, see “Essentials” in
the Getting Started Manual.
The OneTouch Series II is available in three models:
q
q
q
OneTouch Series II 10
OneTouch Series II 10/100
OneTouch Series II 10/100 Pro
OneTouch Series II Pro features include:
q
q
q
q
Station Locator
Key Device Ping
ConfigMaster
Web Remote Control
These features are discussed throughout this manual in
the pertinent sections. Read the OneTouch Series II
Network Assistant Getting Started Manual (P/N 1279870)
that came with your purchase to become familiar with and
quickly begin using your OneTouch Series II Network
Assistant. You can also access
http://www.flukenetworks.com and navigate to the
OneTouch Series II area to access software and
1-1
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
documents. Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view the
documents. It is included on the CD-ROM that came with
your purchase or downloadable from www.adobe.com.
Software Version
To determine the version of the software in the OneTouch
Series II Network Assistant, press the green button to turn
the Network Assistant on then press
.
The software version number is displayed on the Help
screen. To update the software version for your Network
Assistant, read the OneTouch Series II Getting Started
Manual and the OneTouch Link program online help.
Supplied Equipment
The following is supplied with the Network Assistant:
NiMH Rechargeable Battery Pack
Universal AC Power Adapter
Cable Identifier 1
Instrument Softcase
Power Cord
Network Assistant Strap and Holster
CD-ROM Disk
OneTouch Series II Users Manual
OneTouch Link Program
OneTouch Reporter
1-2
ace010f.eps
Figure 1-1. OneTouch-10/100 Series II Network
Assistant
Optional Equipment
The following optional items and can be purchased
through Fluke or your local distributor:
NiMH Rechargeable Battery Pack (P/N N6600/NBP)
Cable Identifier Set -- numbers 2 through 6 (P/N
N6600/RA)
Introduction
Introducing the OneTouch Series II Network Assistant
1
UTP Accessory Kit (P/N N6703)
Extra OneTouch Series II Network Assistant Getting
Started Manual
Placing Orders and Getting Assistance
To locate an authorized service center, visit us on the
World Wide Web at www.flukenetworks.com or call
Fluke using the phone numbers listed below:
North America : 1-800-28FLUKE (1-800-283-5853)
Europe: +31 40-267-8300
Japan: +81-3-3434-0188
*
Singapore: +65- -738-5655
Anywhere in the world: +1-425-446-4519
For application related questions, send email to:
fluke-assist@flukenetworks.com.
1-3
Chapter 2
Autotest and Central Setup
Introduction
q
AutoTest and Central Setup are two critical elements of
using your Network Assistant. To run AutoTest, press
(AutoTest) on the top-level display. The Network
Assistant will take one of several courses of action.
q
q
q
q
If a link pulse is detected, it searches for devices on
the network. The devices on your segment are
shown by protocol on the AutoTest display. The map
view shows a summary of device types, including the
Network Assistant
itself and the hub
, which
shows hub capability (Figure 2-1).
If it detects a wire mapper (office locator), it will map
the cable.
If it detects the Fiber Optic Module (FOM), it will
report the results.
If it detects an open cable, it will perform Time
Domain Reflectometry (TDR) on the cable to
determine cable length, characteristic impedance,
and other parameters.
If no link pulse is detected but it detects termination,
no data will be found and you will see the message,
No cable tests when plugged into an active
device. This could happen if it is plugged into a hub
or NIC that is not turned on.
If link is detected, you can get the same information via
AutoTest or Network Health from the main menu. You
can then use the tabs to navigate between the different
views. The difference between AutoTest and Network
Health is that AutoTest restarts the discovery process
from the beginning, including DHCP addresses (if
enabled). Network Health allows you to view the
information without a discovery restart. Pressing AutoTest
is the same as unplugging the network cable and then
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OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
plugging it back in. This is also the same as pressing
the
(Rerun) button.
Press a displayed device, cable, or hub icon to see a
popup screen showing more information about that item.
Close the resulting popup screen by pressing
.
AutoTest continues to discover devices and to count
frames and errors even after you exit the screen by
pressing
(up one level). The Network Health test runs
in the background (read Chapter 3).
Device Discovery Process
When you attach the Network Assistant to a network, it
immediately begins searching for servers, routers,
printers, and switches. This search occurs whenever the
Network Assistant gains link pulse regardless of the
current menu.
During the discovery process (5-20 seconds, depending
on network), the Network Assistant processes only the
discovery response frames and broadcast frames. When
the discovery process has finished, the Network Assistant
goes into promiscuous mode. In this mode, it processes all
frames and reports all stations that talk on the network.
Identifying Routers
ace201s.bmp
Figure 2-1. AutoTest Display
2-2
The Network Assistant also transmits RIP requests and
ICMP router requests as part of its router discovery
process. These discovery packets request router
information, allowing the Network Assistant to locate
routers that have little traffic and are not sending routing
updates.
Autotest and Central Setup
Introduction
2
The Network Assistant will identify as a router any device
advertising one of the following router protocols: RIP,
IGRP, EIGRP, IRDP, or OSPF.
Therefore, if a router is statically configured (i.e., is not
sending out routing updates), it may not show up as a
router.
The Network Assistant will identify any IP device that is
transmitting periodic router updates as a router. Therefore,
the Network Assistant identifies a workstation that is
inadvertently configured as a router.
Device Icons
Pressing a flashing device icon displays a popup screen
that shows information about problems with that device.
Close the popup window by pressing
icons are described in Table 2-1.
. The device
2-3
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
Table 2-1. Device Icons
Icon
Meaning
Network
Assistant
2-4
Operations
Press to display the MAC address and software/hardware versions for your instrument.
Station Filter
Press to filter out station types of low or no interest to you (Figure 2-2). You can unselect the
following: MAC Only (no L3 Address), IP Address, IPX, DECNET, and APPLETALK
Stations
Press to display a list of stations on the network (Figure 2-3). Stations are listed by name by
default. You can also sort other ways (Frame Count, Protocol, Device Type, and MAC
address) by pressing
(Station List Sort). For more details, see "Tracking Addresses" and
"Local versus Remote Stations" in Chapter 3. Press a line in the station list to see a Station
Detail display (Figure 2-6). For more information, read "Station Detail Display."
NetWare
Press to display a list of NetWare servers (Figure 2-5). Read “NetWare Devices List” for
more information. If there are more devices than will fit on the display, you can scroll through
the list.
NetBIOS
Press to display a scrollable list of all NetBIOS servers with their network addresses and
protocols detected on the segment (Figure 2-4).
Autotest and Central Setup
Introduction
2
Table 2-1. Device Icons (Cont.)
Icon
Meaning
Operation
TCP/IP
Devices
Press to display IP routers, servers, stations and other devices detected on the network that are
running TCP/IP (Figure 2-11). Pressing an icon on the TCP/IP Devices display generates a list
of devices of that type. For more information, read “TCP/IP Devices."
Hub
Cable
Press to display general information about the status of the Hub. This information includes
whether the link is active and its activity level. The following fields within the Hub popup window
indicate the Hub’s status.
Capability
Link Pulse Status
Speed
Duplex
Duplex Mode
Polarity
RX Level (receive pair)
Normal: Hub signal level is within specification.
Marginal: Hub signal level is not within specification. (The problem is either excessive
attenuation in the cable or a defective Hub port.)
Press to display cable length and fault information (when the Network Assistant is not connected
to an active device). The Network Assistant displays the length to the first fault it detects. For
more details, see "Cable Autotest" in Chapter 4.
2-5
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
ace216s.bmp
Figure 2-2. Station Filter
2-6
ace202s.bmp
Figure 2-3. Station List Information
ace205s.bmp
Figure 2-4. NetBIOS Information
Autotest and Central Setup
Introduction
ace206s.bmp
Figure 2-5. Novell Server
Information
2
ace207s.bmp
Figure 2-6. Station Detail
2-7
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
Station Detail Display
Pressing on a line in a station or server list brings up a
Station Detail display (Figure 2-6). This display shows
information pertaining to the resource. The information
may include the frame type used, the network, node, and
MAC addresses, the equipment manufacturer, and the
types of router protocols or algorithms available.
From the Station Detail Display menu, press
Menu) to access the following:
q
q
q
q
q
q
(Tool
IP Trace Route
Ping + SNMP
Ping
Ping Key Device
Add to Key Devices
Find Node
Press
(Ping + SNMP) to ping the station or resource
and get any SNMP information available. For an IP ping,
the Network Assistant uses the source and router IP
addresses currently entered in the IP configuration screen
under Connectivity Tests. These addresses must be valid
to get a ping response. For an IPX ping, the Network
Assistant automatically determines a source address.
2-8
To access the SNMP agent, the Network Assistant uses
the "public" community string (password). If the agent has
a different community string, access the SNMP Config
menu from the Central Setup screen (read “SNMP” in
Chapter 6).
(Ping+SNMP), the station's ping
After you press
results, SNMP name, description, and uptime (in days,
hours, minutes, and seconds) are displayed (Figure 2-7).
Note that the SNMP name is cut off at 22 characters to fit
on the display.
Autotest and Central Setup
Introduction
2
Viewing Multiple Protocols on Station Detail
Displays
The Station Detail display tells you if the station is running
multiple protocols. If multiple protocols are discovered,
the protocol name on the Station Detail display is followed
by a number. For example, Figure 2-8 shows part of the
Station Detail information for a station running three
(Station) to cycle through the
protocols. Press
protocols.
ace208s.bmp
Figure 2-7. Ping SNMP Results
From the Tool menu press
(Find Node) to activate
the Station Locator feature, which details switch
information. Read “Station Locator” in Chapter 6 for more
information.
ace209s.bmp
Figure 2-8. Station Running Multiple Protocols
NetWare Devices List
To see a NetWare file server list, run AutoTest then press
(NetWare Server) on the AutoTest display.
The NetWare File Server display (Figure 2-9) shows the
nearest server for each of the four Ethernet frame types
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OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
(IEEE 802.2 and 802.3, Ethernet II, and SNAP). If more
than one server responds for a given file type, the
Network Assistant reports the first server that responded.
The File Server List shows the nearest 50 file servers,
based on hop count. This list is derived from SAP
responses from the first server in the Nearest Server list.
If the list takes up more than one screen, use the arrow
keys to scroll through the list. Press on a server name to
see its frame type, hop count, network address, ping
results, SNMP information, and uptime (Figure 2-10).
.
ace210s.bmp
Figure 2-9. NetWare File Server List
2-10
Autotest and Central Setup
NetWare Print Server List
2
configured in the SNMP Config menu (see “Central
Setup”).
TCP/IP Devices Display
Pressing the TCP/IP icon from the Autotest display brings
up the TCP/IP Devices display (Figure 2-11). This display
may include such items as servers, printers, SNMP
devices, switches, routers, stations (local and remote), or
subnets that are running TCP/IP. The device icons are
described in Table 2-2.
ace211.bmp
Figure 2-10. NetWare File Server Information
NetWare Print Server List
From the NetWare File Server display (Figure 2-9), press
(View Print Servers) to see a list of the nearest 50
print servers based on hop count. Pressing a print server
name sends an SNMP query to the server and displays
the results (Figure 2-10). The SNMP query uses the
"public" community string in addition to the SNMP strings
2-11
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
ace204s.bmp
Figure 2-11. TCP/IP Devices Display
2-12
Autotest and Central Setup
NetWare Print Server List
2
Table 2-2. TCP/IP Device Icons
Icon
Meaning
Operation
Servers
TCP/IP Servers OneTouch has discovered. The Network Assistant will discover DNS,
WINS, POP2, POP3, SMTP, HTTP, DHCP, and BOOTP servers.
Duplicate IPs
IP addresses that are in use by more than one device on the network. The Network
Assistant actively discovers devices using the same IP address and lists them in the
TCP/IP menu in Autotest. From that point, you can see all known information for each
device using duplicate IP addresses.
Printers
Discovers printers running TCP/IP.
SNMP
TCP/IP stations running SNMP.
Switches
Automatically queries a switch and displays basic information (port summary and some
SNMP information).
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Table 2-2. Device Icons (Cont.)
Icon
2-14
Meaning
Operation
Routers
Local Routers and routing protocols on each router. The following routing protocols are
identified: RIP, RIP2, OSPF, IGRP, EIRGP, IRDP.
Servers
TCP/IP Servers the Network Assistant has discovered. It will discover DNS, WINS,
POP2, POP3, SMTP, HTTP, DHCP, and BOOTP servers.
Subnets
Subnets discovered on the local segment. The valid range of IP addresses that are legal
for the subnet, the broadcast address, and the mask are listed for each subnet.
Remote
Stations not physically located on the local segment but which have transmitted packets
onto the network.
Local
Stations physically located on the local segment.
Autotest and Central Setup
NetWare Print Server List
2
Sorting
Figure 2-12 shows a sample TCP/IP device list. Sorting
for devices running TCP/IP functions the same way as
Station Detail Display discussed in Table 2-1. Pressing
(Station List Sort) enables you to list devices based
on Name, Protocol, Device Type, Frame Count (Local
Stations), or MAC Address on the Sort Options screen
(Figure 2-13). You can also choose ascending or
descending sort order. Sorting does not apply for
Subnets and Routers.
ace212s.bmp
Figure 2-12. Local Station List
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ace213.bmp
ace214s.bmp
Figure 2-13. Sort Options
Address Entry Keypad
The Address Entry Keypad (Figure 2-14) is a decimal
keypad for entering addresses. Press the Left-Arrow and
Right-Arrow keys to select digits to change (or touch the
entry box directly at the desired position), the period (.) to
move between IP address octets, the OK button to exit
the display, and X to exit without saving changes.
2-16
Figure 2-14. Address Entry Keypad
Autotest and Central Setup
NetWare Print Server List
2
Central Setup
This section covers the elements of the Central Setup
screen (Figure 2-15) that are not covered in the Getting
Started Manual:
(SNMP Config).
(IP Config) and
IP Config
From the Central Setup screen (Figure 2-15), press
(IP Config) to access the IP Address screen (Figure 216).
ace219s.bmp
Figure 2-15. Central Setup
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The address must be:
Correct for the particular subnet to which the Network
Assistant is attached (to determine what range of
addresses is valid for a particular subnet you must
know the subnet mask).
Unique (there must not be a duplicate address on the
network).
The Network Assistant checks for duplicate IP addresses
before using a source address. Therefore, you can
choose just about any address. It is still best, however, to
check with your local IP address administrator to find out
the Source IP Address to use for the Network Assistant. If
the source IP address is not valid for the local subnet, you
probably will not get any ping responses.
Manually Entering Addresses
ace217s.bmp
Figure 2-16. IP Address Configuration
You can enter the Source IP manually or by using DHCP.
The Source IP Address is the address you assign to the
Network Assistant. The Network Assistant responds to
pings received from a network station. To return a
response, the Network Assistant must have a valid IP
source address.
2-18
To display the Address Entry Keypad (Figure 2-17) for
manual entry, press a boxed IP address. Use the keypad
to input digits for the desired IP address.
Autotest and Central Setup
NetWare Print Server List
2
Using DHCP to Get an IP Source Address
The DHCP feature lets you use Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol to automatically get an IP source
address for your Network Assistant.
To activate DHCP, press
(IP Config) from the Central
Setup screen; then select DCHP. When you press
(Get Address), the Network Assistant requests to lease
an IP address from a DHCP server (Figure 2-18). The
DHCP address request also occurs automatically if DHCP
is already selected when the Network Assistant detects a
link pulse.
If a DHCP server is found, the display shows the
accepted source IP address, DHCP server information,
and lease time. Pressing
(Get DHCP Address) again
restarts the DHCP process.
ace218s.bmp
Figure 2-17. Address Entry Keypad
To move the cursor, use the arrow keys or press the
desired octet within the IP address box.
To quickly move between address octets, press the “.”
key, then press the octet you want to modify.
After entering the address, press OK.
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The time at which OneTouch will renew its lease depends
on whether the DHCP server issued a renew time period.
If the DHCP server issued a renew time period,
OneTouch will attempt to renew its lease at the specified
time. Otherwise, OneTouch will attempt to renew the
lease at 50% of the lease period. If OneTouch is unable
to contact the DHCP server, it will try again to renew the
lease at 87.5% of the lease period or the time specified
by the server. This is called the rebind time.
If OneTouch is still unable to contact the DCHP server to
renew the lease, it continues to use the IP address it was
given, but it continues to try to renew the lease at the
renew and rebind times.
If at any time, the DHCP server explicitly notifies
OneTouch that its lease is no longer valid, OneTouch will
discontinue its use of the IP address it was given.
ace220s.bmp
Figure 2-18. DHCP Display
The Network Assistant determines if an assigned address
is already used by another device, and requests another
address if necessary. This cycle can occur up to five
times before the DHCP process fails.
OneTouch will renew its lease according the RFC2131,
which is the RFC that defines DHCP, or by using the
renew and rebind values received from the server.
2-20
(View Log) shows the details of the DHCP
Pressing
process, including the DHCP offers, any addresses
declined because they were in use, and the address of
the server providing the accepted IP address.
If no DHCP server is found, the message No Server
Found displays. In this case, you can enter the IP source
address manually as described earlier.
(Find Router)
Enter a known router address or press
to automatically fill in the Router’s IP Address. Pressing
Autotest and Central Setup
NetWare Print Server List
2
(Find Router) again cycles through a list of the
detected routers. This lets you see more routers than just
the first one detected. If the Network Assistant has
discovered more than one router, it assumes you want to
ping the busiest router, and so uses that router’s address.
(Apply Address) to see if the Source IP
Press
address is duplicated on the local subnet. If a duplicate is
found, its MAC address is displayed. Select Apply
Changes on Exit and this process will occur when you
exit the screen.
SNMP
Press
(SNMP Config) from the Central Setup to
access the Security Setup screen (Figure 2-19).
ace223s.bmp
Figure 2-19. Security Setup
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Press
SNMP Communities on the Security Setup
screen to access the SNMP Community String List
(Figure 2-20). The Network Assistant uses the “public”
community string (password) as the first default and also
provides the capability to enter four additional community
strings different than “public” for any given device or set
of devices.
You can also password-protect strings so they are not
visible on the Network Assistant screen. Press
(Password Protection) to password-protect the
community strings, an entry box displays enabling you to
enter and enable the password. Thereafter, you will be
prompted to enter that password in order to see and
access the Community String screen.
ace221s.bmp
Figure 2-20. SNMP
Press one of the address boxes to display a special
keypad to enter community strings (Figure 2-21). Refer
to the Help on the Network Assistant for an explanation of
the keypad.
2-22
Autotest and Central Setup
NetWare Print Server List
2
ace222s.bmp
Figure 2-21. Community String Editor
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Chapter 3
Network Health
Introduction
Network Health displays utilization (Util), errors (Error),
collisions (Colsn), broadcasts (Bcast), protocols (IPX),
and stations (Stations), as shown in Figure 3-1. To enter
(Network Health) on
the Network Health menu, press
the top-level display. The Network Health menu displays
six meter icons that indicate the overall health of the
network.
Press a meter icon to get more information about the
network indicator shown on that meter.
ace301s.bmp
Figure 3-1. Network Health
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For example, pressing Util displays the Top Senders
display (Figure 3-2).
To get more detail about a particular station, press the
boxed address of that station. Details about that station
will be displayed as shown Figure 3-3. Press
( Tool
Menu) to access the following (as applicable):
q
q
q
q
q
q
IP Trace Route
Ping + SNMP
Ping
Ping Key Device
Add to Key Devices
Find Node
ace303s.bmp
Figure 3-2. Top Senders Display
3-2
Network Health
Introduction
3
Each meter icon (except where indicated) has a
logarithmic scale with 0 at the minimum, 10 at the midpoint, and 100 at the maximum.
Tic marks identify the average and maximum data points.
Average
Maximum
Current
ace304s.bmp
Figure 3-3. Station Detail
The Network Health test display has six meter icons, each
of which indicates the current, average, and maximum
values. A representative meter icon is shown in Figure 34.
Figure 3-4. Network Health Test Meter Icon
Table 3-1 summarizes tests performed from the Network
Health test display.
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Table 3-1. Network Health Meters
Icon
Description
Press to display network utilization.
Percent Display – Displays the utilization percentage for the last one-second sample period.
Count Display – Displays the frame count, for the last one-second sample period.
The meter’s scale switches to high range when the frame rate exceeds 10,000/second.
Press to display the types of errors received.
Percent Display – Displays the number of errors as a percentage of the number of frames
received for the last one-second sample period.
Errors counted are: bad FCS, short frames, late collisions, and jabbers.
Count Display – Displays the error count for the last one-second sample period.
The meter has a logarithmic scale.
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Network Health
Introduction
3
Table 3-1. Network Health Test Icons (Cont.)
Icon
Operation
Press to display collision details (% collisions and collisions/second).
Percent Display – Displays the number of collisions as a percentage of the number of frames
received for the last one-second sample period.
The Network Assistant identifies preamble collisions.
Count Display – Displays the collision count for the last one-second sample period.
The meter’s scale switches to high range when the collision rate exceeds 1,000/ second.
Press to display stations sourcing the most broadcasts.
Percent Display – Displays the number of MAC broadcasts presented as a percentage of the
number of frames received for the last one-second sample period.
Count Display – Displays the MAC broadcast count for the last one-second sample period.
Displays the percent of frames on the network that are the top protocol since the beginning of the
test .
Press to display top protocols detected on the attached segment.
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Table 3-1. Network Health Test Icons (Cont.)
Icon
Operation
Displays the number of unique source addresses monitored since the beginning of this test.
Some of the source addresses may be off-segment, which are sourced from stations on the
other side of a router.
The meter has a logarithmic scale with 0 at the minimum, 25 at the mid-point and 250 at the
maximum.
Press to display the Station List. This information is the same for the Percent Display and
Count Display.
Rerun - Press to clear all of the Network Health test information and reset the elapsed time.
The Erase Health function does not change the display mode.
Press these tabs to view network statistics in terms of percent, frames per second, or a tabular
view. You can also display the Autotest Map by pressing (Map).
3-6
Network Health
Introduction
Interpreting Error Results
Collisions
A collision is the result of two or more nodes transmitting
at the same time on the segment. Collisions are not
necessarily bad. They are a normal part of Ethernet’s
operation. In general you need not worry about collisions
unless the AVERAGE collision rate is greater than 20%.
Excessive collisions are more often associated with too
much network traffic and less often a physical problem
with the network. Usually the best way to fix a “collision
problem” is to understand why there is excessive traffic.
You may find that the Network Assistant collision count
does not agree with that of some protocol analyzers that
under report collisions. Just like a Hub, the Network
Assistant identifies collisions that occur in the frame’s
preamble. These are the most common types of collisions
in a 10BASE-T network.
Late Collisions
A late collision is one that occurs after the first 64 bytes in
a frame. Consider late collisions a serious network error
to be resolved quickly. Late collisions may manifest
themselves as frames with a bad Frame Check Sequence
(FCS). Late collisions are caused by either a faulty NIC
or a network that is too long (i.e., end-to-end signal
3
propagation time is greater than the minimum legal frame
size of ~57.6 microseconds for 10BASE-T).
Short Frames
A short frame is a frame that is less than the minimum
legal size (less than 64 bytes) with a good frame check
sequence. In general, you should not see short frames.
The most likely cause of a short frame is a faulty card or
an improperly configured or corrupt NIC driver file.
Jabbers
A jabber is a frame greater than the maximum legal size
(greater than 1518 bytes) with a good or bad frame
sequence.
Consider jabbers a serious network error to be resolved
quickly. The most likely causes of Jabbers are a faulty
NIC or driver or perhaps a cabling problem.
Bad Frame Check Sequence (FCS)
A legal sized frame with a bad frame check sequence
(FCS) has been corrupted in some way. Bad FCSs can
be caused by late collisions, a faulty NIC/driver, cabling,
hub or induced noise.
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If the percentage of frames with a bad FCS is greater
than 1%, then it should be considered a serious problem
that is affecting network throughput.
A given rate of bad FCS frames has a much more serious
effect on network throughput than a similar collision rate.
This is because the retransmission time is so much
longer. When a collision occurs, the frame is
retransmitted within a few milliseconds because the
sending station knows that there was a problem acquiring
the media for transmission. Conversely, when a frame is
corrupted (resulting in a bad FCS) the receiving station
ignores the frame. The sending station does not know the
frame was corrupted and therefore it is up to the upper
protocol layer timeouts to cause a retransmission to
occur. This process can take several seconds to
retransmit a single frame.
Tracking Addresses
The Network Assistant tracks addresses by their layer-3
address when possible. It displays layer-3 addresses for
IPX, IP, NetBIOS, AppleTalk, and DECnet.
A station can appear in the station list more than once if it
is configured to run more than one protocol or has more
than one layer-3 address. (Figure 3-5.)
ace306s.bmp
Figure 3-5. Station Addresses
Local vs. Remote Stations
The Network Assistant initially classifies the location of all
stations as Unknown until it observes traffic that proves
that the station is either remote or local.
A local station is one that is connected to the same
Ethernet segment as the Network Assistant. In a switched
3-8
Network Health
Introduction
3
environment, a local station is one that is in the same
broadcast domain as the Network Assistant.
A remote station is one that is not on the same Ethernet
segment or broadcast domain as the Network Assistant.
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3-10
Chapter 4
Cable Tests
Introduction
The Network Assistant quickly identifies the most
common cable and wiring faults on twisted pair cabling
systems and automatically tests all four pairs. It also
detects fiber optic cable and enables you to begin fiber
tests if a fiber optic module is detected.
You can perform the following tests and operations from
the Cable Tests display (Figure 4-1).
Run Cable Autotest
Verify pin-to-pin continuity (wiremap)
Transmit toner
Fiber tests
Set units (feet or meters) and define category of
cable under test
Read the “Basic Cable Concepts” section for more
information.
ace401s.bmp
Figure 4-1. Cable Tests
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Cable Autotest
Cable Length Results
Press
(Cable Autotest) to measure cable length,
detect split pairs, and/or perform a wiremap test. The
Network Assistant does not measure cable length when it
detects a link pulse (i.e., when connected to an active
device such as a Hub).
When displaying cable length, the Network Assistant
always reports the length to the first fault (e.g., opens,
shorts, or split pairs). It shows the distance to the fault
and to the end of the cable on the same pair as illustrated
in the following example test results table.
The Network Assistant also starts the fiber tests
automatically if a DSP-FOM is connected and turned on
(Autotest). Read “Test Fiber Optic
when you press
Cable” later in this chapter.
Split Pairs
The Network Assistant automatically checks for split pairs
whenever Autotest or Cable Autotest is run. It will not
check for split pairs if the end of the cable is attached to a
Hub, a cable identifier, or the internal Wiremap
connection. Disconnect it to obtain a complete test.
Note
The cable under test must be longer than 20 feet.
The Network Assistant can identify split pairs that occur
either at the connector or at an intermediate point, such as
a punchdown block.
4-2
Pair
Length
Status
1,2
3,6
4,5
7,8
135 ft
91 ft
135 ft
91 ft
Open
Split Pair
Open
Split Pair
In the case of pairs 3,6 and 7,8 there is a split pair at 91
feet and it is most likely that both pairs continue for the
entire cable length of 135 feet.
A split pair at the connector is represented as Split/Open?
with a length of less than 5 feet (1.5 m). A Split/Open?
indication could also be an open at the indicated distance.
Wiremap Cable
The Wiremap Cable test verifies pin-to-pin continuity from
the near to the far end of the cable, making it easy to
identify miswires (the most common installation problem)
and other wiring errors.
Cable Tests
Introduction
4
The Wiremap Cable test can be run as a standalone test
or automatically when you run Cable Autotest or AutoTest.
The standalone test and Cable Autotest are run under
Cable Tests.
To run a standalone test Wiremap Cable test, attach the
cable to the Network Assistant and a remote unit to the far
end of the cable under test, then press
(Wiremap
Cable). Figure 4-2 shows an example of the Wiremap
Cable test results.
ace402s.bmp
Figure 4-2. Wiremap Results
If the Wiremap Cable test is conducted as part of the
Cable Autotest or AutoTest, and if the Wiremap Cable test
cannot run completely due to poor cable termination or
quality, the Network Assistant displays a message
recommending that you run the standalone version of the
test to obtain additional error information.
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If you explicitly run the Wiremap Cable test while the far
end of the cable is attached to a Hub, you may see
unexpected results like wires shorted together. This is a
normal side effect of forcing a wiremap to be done on a
remote device other than a Cable Identifier.
Identifying Cables
Use the Cable Identifiers in mapping a cable. (Cable
Identifier #1 is standard equipment and comes with the
Network Assistant; Cable Identifiers #2 through #6 are
optional. See "Optional Equipment" in Chapter 1.)
In mapping cables to individual offices from the wiring
closet, the Network Assistant identifies unique Cable
Identifiers and displays the wiremap and adapter number.
To map a cable, connect a Cable Identifier to the far end
of the cable that you wish to identify (in the wiring closet,
for example) and connect the near-end of the cable to the
Network Assistant’s RJ-45 network connector.
You can also connect the optional RJ-45-to-Punchdown
block adapter to the RJ-45 network connector (with an RJto-RJ cable) and quickly map cables to individual offices
(Wiremap Cable) or
(Cable
by running either the
AutoTest).
4-4
Toner
Press
(Toner) to transmit a low (185 Hz to 200 Hz) or
high (350 Hz to 375 Hz) tone on the cable for use with a
user supplied receiver, such as the Fluke 140 Tone Probe.
Using the tone is a way to trace a cable on the network.
Define Cable
Press
(Define Cable) to select units (meters or feet)
and the cable category for the cable you are ready to test.
This Define Cable operation is the same as the one that
can be accessed through the Setup screen.
Basic Cable Concepts
The remainder of this chapter provides some general
information about cabling.
Cable Tests
Introduction
4
Twisted Pair Cables
Twisted pair cable is currently the most popular cable in
LAN systems. The 10BASE-T standard for twisted pair
cabling systems is much more popular than coaxial based
Ethernet networks because it is easier to work with and is
inherently more reliable. The 10BASE-T standard is valid
for Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted
Pair (ScTP).
UTP cable typically consists of four pairs of 24 AWG
(American Wire Gauge) solid or stranded wire surrounded
by an insulating jacket. ScTP cable adds a foil shield
around the four pairs to improve its noise immunity. The
wires in each pair are twisted around each other, and the
four pairs, in turn, are twisted together inside the cable
sheath. Most UTP and ScTP cables have characteristic
impedance of 100Ω. However, in some countries UTP is
also available in 120Ω. The Cable Tests described in this
chapter are designed to work with 100Ω cabling systems.
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Special crossed-pair patch cords are useful when working
with non-standard cabling systems.
Reversed Pair
A cable pair is reversed when two individual wires of a pair
are reversed from end-to-end, as shown in Figure 4-3.
A reversed pair is not necessarily a catastrophic failure.
Some 10BASE-T adapter cards and Hubs can sense the
reversed polarity and continue to operate. It is always a
good idea, however, to fix this problem when found.
1
2
2
1
ace404f.eps
Figure 4-3. Reversed Pair
Crossed Pair
A pair is crossed when a wire pair is mapped to a different
set of connector pins on the other end of the cable. Figure
4-4 shows an example of a crossed pair.
Sometimes pairs are crossed intentionally. A cable with a
1-2 to 3-6 cross is commonly known as a crossover cable,
which is used for cascading Hubs together that do not
have uplink ports.
4-6
1
3
2
6
3
1
6
2
ace405f.eps
Figure 4-4. Crossed Pair
Split Pair
A split pair is different from a crossed pair in that the pinto-pin wiring is correct but the wire pairing is incorrect.
That is, a “connector” pair is made up of two wires from a
“cable” pair. Figure 4-5 shows an example of a split pair.
A split pair is much more susceptible to noise because the
two wires in the “pair” are not twisted around each other.
Split pairs can be especially difficult to find because the
symptoms depend upon the particular wires involved, the
cable length, and ambient noise.
Cable Tests
Introduction
The symptoms of a split pair range from non-existent to a
complete lack of communication. In some cases a split
pair cable may work just fine for 10BASE-T but not at all
for 100BASE-TX.
3
3
6
4
6
4
5
5
ace406f.eps
Figure 4-5. Split Pair
A split pair cannot be identified with a conventional
wiremap test because it is the wire pairing that is incorrect
rather than the physical connection. Another technique
must be used.
The most common method of identifying a split pair is by
measuring the Near End Crosstalk (NEXT). This is a very
reliable method but, unfortunately, it requires the use of a
remote unit at the far end. The Network Assistant uses
another equally reliable method that does not require a
remote unit at the far end (except in the case of short
cable lengths). The Network Assistant identifies split pairs
by measuring the characteristic impedance of each wire
4
pair. A split pair’s characteristic impedance is much
greater than the impedance of correctly paired wires.
Cable Length
The 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX cabling specifications
limit the maximum device-to-device cable length to 100
meters. There are many ways to measure a cable length;
the Network Assistant uses a very accurate method called
Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR).
The TDR method works much like a radar system that
emits a pulse of electrical energy and then interprets the
reflected electrical energy. To measure the length of a
cable using the TDR method, a pulse of electrical energy
is sent down a wire pair, the reflected electrical energy is
interpreted to get the time delay between the transmitted
and reflected pulse, and the length of the cable is
computed using the cable’s Nominal Velocity of
Propagation (NVP).
The NVP is a value for how fast a pulse travels down a
given cable. Cable manufacturers specify how fast
electricity travels down a cable as a percentage of the
speed of light (186,000 miles/second or 300,000,000
meters/second). A cable with an NVP of 72, for example,
means that electricity travels at 72% of the speed of light
along the cable.
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The Network Assistant is preprogrammed with typical NVP
values for CAT 3, 4, and 5 UTP cable. In addition, there
are two user-definable Cable Types for you to enter your
own NVP values.
Cable Termination
In addition to determining cable length, the TDR technique
provides information on the kind of termination at the far
end of the cable and the cable’s characteristic impedance.
The Network Assistant examines the polarity of the
reflected pulse to determine if the cable end is an open or
short, as shown in Figure 4-6. If the wire pair is perfectly
terminated there is no reflection.
4-8
Cable Tests
Introduction
Cable
4
End Of Fault
Transmitted Pulse
Open
Reflected Pulse
Transmitted Pulse
Short
Reflected Pulse
Transmitted Pulse
Non Reflected Pulse
Remote
Adapter
ace407f.eps
Figure 4-6. Cable Termination
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Test Fiber Optic Cable
This section describes how to use the Network Assistant
with a Fluke Fiber Optic Meter (FOM) to test fiber optic
cable. You can measure optical loss and output power on
multimode or singlemode cable.
The fiber tests require the following:
See the instruction sheet provided with the DSPFOM/FTK for specifications and maintenance information
for the fiber optic meter and source.
Ensuring Accurate Measurements
To help ensure accurate fiber measurements, do the
following:
Clean all fiber connectors before testing.
A Fluke DSP-FOM (Fiber Optic Meter; See "Placing
Orders and Getting Assistance" in Chapter 1 for
ordering information.)
A multimode fiber optic source, such as is included
with the Fluke DSP-FTK (Fiber Test Kit)
Two fiber optic patch cables (provided with the DSPFOM and DSP-FTK)
Network Assistant software version 2.XX, or later
(Read "Updating Software" in the Getting Started
Manual for information on software updates.)
W Warning
Never look directly into the fiber optic source
connector or attempt to adjust or modify the
source. Doing so might expose you to
hazardous LED radiation.
4-10
Before using the optical source, turn it on and let it
stabilize for 2 minutes.
Setting a Reference
Before measuring a cable’s optical loss, set a reference
level by measuring the loss in the fiber patch cables and
connectors, as follows:
1.
Make the connections shown in Figure 4-8. Use the
same type of cable as the cable to be tested.
2.
From the Network Assistant’s top level display, press
(AutoTest). The Network Assistant detects the
active fiber optic meter and the meter’s wavelength
setting and displays the fiber test results (Figure 4-7).
(Set Ref) from the Network Assistant’s fiber
Press
test display.
Cable Tests
Test Fiber Optic Cable
Table 4-1. Fiber Test Terminology
Measuring Optical Loss
After setting the reference, do not disturb the source
connection as you make connections to measure optical
loss (Figure 4-9). If the fiber test is not already running,
press
(AutoTest) from the top level display to start
the test.
Term
Definition
Reference
Power measured on a known reference
cable.
Power
Measured power in milliwatts and dBm.
dBm is the ratio of the measured power to
one miliWatt. The formula the Network
Assistant uses for calculating dBm is:
Power (dBm) = 10 × log × Power (mW)
Loss
The amount of power loss on the
measured cable.
Loss = Reference - Measured Power
Measuring Output Power
Make the connections shown in Figure 4-10. If the fiber
test is not already running, press
(Autotest) from the
top-level display to start the test.
Output power, optical power loss, and the current
reference level are shown in microwatts (µW) and
decibels (dBm or dB) (Figure 4-7). The power and loss
measurements are updated continuously. Table 4-1
defines the terms used during the Fiber Test.
4
Loss Limit Acceptable power loss. If the Loss is
greater than this value, the test reports
FAIL. Otherwise, it reports PASS.
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ace403s.bmp
Figure 4-7. Fiber Test Results
4-12
Cable Tests
Test Fiber Optic Cable
FOS 850/1300
FIBER
OPTIC
SOURCE
FOM
FIBER
OPTIC
METER
1300
1300
850
4
1300
850
OFF
1550
1300
850
OFF
850
Do not
disturb source
connection.
ace408f.eps
Figure 4-8. Connections for Setting a Reference Level
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OneTouch Series II
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FOM
FIBER
OPTIC
METER
1300
850
1550
1300
850
OFF
FOS 850/1300
FIBER
OPTIC
SOURCE
1300
850
1300
850
OFF
Do not
disturb source
connection.
ace409f.eps
Figure 4-9. Connections for Measuring Optical Loss
4-14
Cable Tests
Test Fiber Optic Cable
4
TX
FOM
FIBER
OPTIC
METER
1550
1300
850
1550
1300
850
OFF
ace410f.eps
Figure 4-10. Connections for Measuring Output Power
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OneTouch Series II
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4-16
Chapter 5
NIC/Hub Tests
Introduction
The
(NIC/Hub Tests) display provides access to the
following tests:
NIC Autotest
Hub Autotest
NIC Detector
Flash Hub Port
If the Network Assistant has a valid network connection, it
continues to monitor the network until one of these tests
is executed.
From the Network Assistant top level display, press
(NIC/Hub Tests) to access the NIC/Hub Tests display
(Figure 5-1).
ace501s.bmp
Figure 5-1. NIC/Hub Test
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NIC Autotest
In order for the NIC Autotest to complete, the NIC needs
to be set up (power on, drivers running, etc.).
Marginal: The NIC signal level is not within specification.
The problem is either excessive attenuation in the cable or
a defective NIC card.
(NIC Autotest) to verify the correct operation of
Press
an Ethernet (10 or 100 Mbps) adapter card.
The NIC Autotest determines as much as possible about
the physical connection to the network adapter card by:
Verifying the cabling from the desktop to the NIC.
Checking for a 100 Mbps or 10 Mbps link pulse and
configuring the Network Assistant accordingly.
q
Confirming network connectivity by pinging the NIC.
The NIC Autotest displays the network address used by
the device. It will also display packet errors if any are
detected. For example, it will tell you if a packet with a bad
CRC is transmitted by the NIC.
The NIC Autotest display is shown in Figure 5-2.
ace502s.bmp
The following fields on the NIC Autotest screen indicate
the results of the NIC test:
RX Level (Normal/Marginal)
Normal: The NIC signal level is within specification.
5-2
Figure 5-2. NIC Autotest
NIC/Hub Tests
Introduction
5
Hub Autotest
Press
(Hub Autotest) to verify the connectivity
between the desktop and the Hub.
Hub Autotest checks the link pulse signal level and
queries the NetWare and NetBIOS servers to determine
the Hub’s ability to send and receive frames. If
successful, the Network Assistant displays the map that is
identical to AutoTest (Figure 5-3).
ace505s.bmp
Figure 5-3. Hub Autotest Display
Viewing Hub Capabilities
When the Network Assistant is connected to a hub and
has an active link state, press the Link label at the top of
the display to see the polarity of the received data. If your
Network Assistant has hardware revision 2.2 or later, you
5-3
OneTouch Series II
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can also see the hub’s transmission speed and its ability
to perform half or full-duplex communication or autonegotiation. To determine your hardware revision, press
from the top-level display.
If the polarity of the data on the cable’s receive pair is
reversed, the cable on the Autotest display flashes.
NIC Detector
This test assists you in reclaiming unused hub ports. By
looking at the LED status indicators on the hub you cannot
determine whether a device is connected to the port or
merely turned off. NIC Detector works by determining
where there is any termination on the other end of the
cable. If the Network Assistant detects an open cable, it
will report that and the length of the cable.
Note
ace504s.bmp
The device at the far end does not have to be
powered up.
Locate a Hub port that you suspect is unused but that has
a cable attached. Remove the cable from the Hub and
connect the Network Assistant to it. Then run the NIC
Detector test.
Press
(NIC Detector) to determine if the device is
attached at the far end of the cable. The NIC Detector
display is shown in Figure 5-4.
5-4
Figure 5-4. NIC Detector
Flash Hub Port
Press
(Flash Hub Port) to locate where a particular
link connects to a hub. Connect the Network Assistant to
(Flash Hub Port),
the link you want to locate. Press
then select a flash rate (Figure 5-5). The Network
Assistant sends either 1-second or 4-second link pulses
NIC/Hub Tests
Introduction
5
that flash the LED on the hub, indicating the port that the
Assistant is connected to.
Note that some hub port link lights have a very slow
response time. The Flash Hub Port feature may not work
with these devices.
Note
The Network Assistant will not automatically
power off during Flash Hub Port.
ace503.bmp
Figure 5-5. Flash Hub Port Display
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5-6
Chapter 6
Connectivity Tests
Introduction
Connectivity Tests verify the IP or IPX connectivity
between a specific resource or station and the Network
Assistant. From the Network Assistant top-level display,
(Connectivity Tests). The Connectivity Tests
press
screen displays (Figure 6-1).
OneTouch Series II Pro features are provided on a trial
basis. Read the online help in the OneTouch Link
program for more information on enabling options. The
following features are discussed in this chapter:
IP Trace Route
IP & NetWare Ping
Key Device Ping (Pro)
ConfigMaster (Pro)
Station Locator (Pro)
Internetwork Throughput Option (Chapter 7)
ace060s.bmp
Figure 6-1. Connectivity Tests Display
6-1
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IP Trace Route
IP & NetWare Ping
From the Connectivity Tests display, press
(IP Trace
Route) to access the Trace Route screen (Figure 6-2).
Enter a target address by pressing the Target IP Address
box and using the Keypad (see “Manually Entering
to perform the Trace
Addresses” in Chapter 2). Press
Route and view the results.
From the Connectivity Tests display, press
(IP &
NetWare Ping) to access the IP Ping Tests or NetWare
Ping display (Figure 6-3). If you haven’t done so already,
press
(IP Config) to configure the Network Assistant
addresses. You can enter addresses manually or use
DHCP (read “Central Setup” in Chapter 2).
ace619s.bmp
Figure 6-2. IP Trace Route
6-2
ace620s.bmp
Figure 6-3. IP & NetWare Ping Display
Connectivity Tests
Introduction
Press IP Ping or NetWare Ping as appropriate.
Entering IPX Addresses
From the Connectivity Tests display, press
(IP &
NetWare Ping), then press the (NetWare Ping) tab to
access the NetWare Ping Configuration display (Figure 64).
6
The NetWare ping test requires only the IPX node
address of the station you want to ping. If you want the
Network Assistant to find the station’s network address,
enter 00000000 as the network address. Press an
address box to access the keypad for entering IPX
addresses.
ace604s.bmp
ace605s.bmp
Figure 6-5. IP Ping
Figure 6-4. NetWare Ping
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Conducting a Ping Station Test
After you have configured the appropriate IP address, you
can set the frame length from the by pressing
or
(Figure 6-5).
This sets the frame length of the ping packet between 64
and 1518 bytes. This is the total frame length.
(Begin Pinging) from the IP Ping or NetWare
Press
Ping display (Figure 6-7) to start the test.
Figure 6-7 shows a sample IP Ping test results screen.
Figure 6-8 shows an example of NetWare ping test
results.
6-4
Connectivity Tests
Introduction
Ace620s.bmp
Figure 6-6. IP and NetWare Ping
ace606s.bmp
Figure 6-7. IP Ping Results
6
ace607s.bmp
Figure 6-8. NetWare Ping Results
6-5
OneTouch Series II
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If you have trouble making the IP Ping test work, verify
that:
activated or deactivated quickly using the selection box
on the right side of the list.
The Source IP Address is correct for this subnet.
The Target station is active.
The Router IP Address is correct.
If you have trouble making the NetWare Ping test work,
verify that:
The station you are pinging has the Diagnostic
Responder loaded.
The node address you entered is correct.
The network address you entered (if used) is correct.
Key Device Ping
As part of your turn-on or repair procedures, you will need
to verify connectivity to key network resources. Key
Device Ping is a OneTouch Series II Pro option that
enables you to rapidly verify the availability of important
network devices. You can organize testing by business
function (e.g., accounting, manufacturing, etc.),
geographic locations (building 1, 2, etc.), device types
(routers, servers, etc.), or other ways that fit your needs.
(Key
From the Connectivity Tests display, press
Device Ping) to access the Key Devices display (Figure
6-9). After being added to the list, each device may be
6-6
ace615s.bmp
Figure 6-9. Ping Key Devices
(Add
Press
(Add IP) to add an IP Address or
IPX) to add an IPX address. The IP or NetWare
Configuration (Figure 6-10) screen displays.
Connectivity Tests
Introduction
ace617s.bmp
Figure 6-10. IP Configuration
When you press a address box the Edit Key Devices
screen displays (Figure 6-11) and enables you to edit
address information.
6
ace616s.bmp
Figure 6-11. Edit Key Devices
For IP, enter the IP address of the device. For IPX, you
must enter the Node and Network addresses. After you
enter the address, the Device Name box displays the
name assigned to the device (if available from the Station
List).
To edit an existing name or address of a device, press
the box that contains the item you wish to edit and make
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OneTouch Series II
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the changes using the alphanumeric keypad (read
“Central Setup” in Chapter 2). The device name you
assign is for the purposes of the Key Device Ping
function. You can also modify the name of a list by
pressing the List Name box.
Note
Renaming a device while using Key Device Ping
does not modify the original name assigned to
the device on the network (i.e., when the device
is listed again under Station List, the original
name will remain).
To begin pinging the addresses in Key Devices List,
press
(Begin Pinging). A series of boxes displays
showing the status of the ping for each Key List. Press a
Key List box to see another series of boxes displaying
(Stop
ping status of each device in the list. Press
Pinging) to stop this function.
Interpreting Ping Test Results
In general, Packets recv (packets received) should be at
about 100%.
Be aware that some devices, including routers, prioritize
ICMP ping packets lower than other traffic, so some
packet loss can be expected.
6-8
When evaluating the ping results it is important to
consider the path taken by the packets. Sometimes the
problem may be with an intermediate link.
ConfigMaster
ConfigMaster is a OneTouch Series II Pro feature that
provides network information you can use to properly
configure a device. It lists NetBIOS, TCP/IP, and
NetWare parameters (DNS, WINS, IP address range,
subnet mask, default gateway, POP3 server, frame type,
etc.). These parameters correspond to the Network
Properties in Microsoft Windows and to certain e-mail
settings. One or more of the following will be listed:
q
q
q
q
q
q
IP subnet(s)
IP address range for
each subnet
Subnet mask
Default gateway
DNS server
WINS server
q
q
q
q
q
q
POP3 server
SMTP server
HTTP server
NetBIOS domain
Frame type
IPX network number
From the Connectivity Tests display, press
(ConfigMaster) to access the ConfigMaster tabular
display (Figure 6-12). Each Active Key List box can
contain five device addresses. Press one of the tabs
(NetBIOS, TCP/IP, or NetWare) to display the
appropriate parameters as described below.
Connectivity Tests
Introduction
6
NetBIOS – The top two domains or workgroups, based
on the number of stations, are listed along with the
transport protocol used by the stations in that domain.
NetWare – The nearest file server is listed. This is a
server that responded to the “Get Nearest Server”
request. The network number and frame type are also
listed.
TCP/IP – Up to two devices in each category are listed.
For subnets, the two most predominant are listed.
ace608s.bmp
Figure 6-12. ConfigMaster
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OneTouch Series II
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Station Locator
Station Locator is a OneTouch Series II Pro feature that
determines the switch and switch port where a station is
connected. It does this by searching for the MAC address
of the station in the forwarding tables contained in the
switch. Station Locator then displays pertinent switch
status and configuration information with port
identification and the location of a suspect station.
(Station
From the Connectivity Tests display, press
Locator) to access the Station Locator tabular display
(Figure 6-13) then the Find MAC or Find IP tab.
(IP Config) to
If you haven’t done so already, press
configure the Network Assistant addresses. You can
enter addresses manually or use DHCP (read “Central
Setup” in Chapter 2).
ace609s.bmp
Figure 6-13. Station Locator
Find MAC
Enter the Target MAC address by pressing the address
box and using the keypad. The lookup is then performed
using the MAC address after you press
(Find).
6-10
Connectivity Tests
Introduction
6
Find IP
Results
Enter the Target IP by pressing the address box and
using the keypad. Press
(Find). If you enter an IP
address, the Network Assistant first tries to determine the
MAC address of that station before performing the
search. The actual search is performed using the MAC
address. Although the IP address does not have to be on
the same subnet as the Network Assistant, it does need
to be on the local segment. It can determine the MAC
address of the IP station only if it is on the local segment.
The Network Assistant reports all switches that have the
target MAC address in their forwarding tables. The target
MAC address may appear in more than one switch. This
can happen in a switch hierarchy environment. When a
station on one switch communicates with a station on
another switch, the MAC address of each station will
appear in the forwarding tables of each switch.
Mode of Operation
Before Station Locator can search for a MAC address, it
must first find all the switches on the network. Switch
Discovery is performed automatically during the discovery
process. When you run Station Locator, the Network
Assistant searches the forwarding tables of each switch
that it has discovered. It searches the Bridge MIB and
some switches’ private MIBs to get the port information.
In order for switch discovery to work properly, the
Network Assistant needs to know the community string of
the switches. You can configure the community strings in
the SNMP Config menu (read “SNMP” earlier in this
chapter). If you change or add community strings, you
can rerun Autotest or Network Health so the Network
Assistant will use the new community strings.
The Network Assistant does not attempt to determine the
switch to which the station is directly connected. To
determine the switch to which the station is directly
connected, you need to be familiar with switch hierarchy.
If you can recognize the description or port number as an
uplink port, then you can deduce that the station is not
directly connected to that switch.
For each switch discovered, the following information is
presented:
q
q
q
q
q
Name – SNMP name of the switch
IP – IP address of the switch
MAC – MAC address of the switch
Mfr - Manufacturer and model
Port – The port number on which the MAC address
was found. Some switches encode the slot and port
number into the port number. For example, a switch
may represent slot 10/port 3 with a port value of
6-11
OneTouch Series II
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q
1003. Typically, if a switch does not have slots but
looks like a hub, the port number will represent the
actual port on the unit.
Port Info – The interface description for the given
port. Port Information is the textual description of the
port on which the MAC address was found. This
description is either the interface description of the
port or a string constructed from the port information
collected from the private MIB of the switch.
Figure 6-14 is a sample of the information provided by
Station Locator.
ace610s.bmp
Figure 6-14. Station Locator Information
6-12
Chapter 7
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option
Introduction
ITO/xDSL consists of two components:
The Internetwork Throughput Option (ITO) is a Fluke
OneTouch Series II Network Assistant software option
that is used to test enterprise-wide throughput or to
evaluate line capacity. ITO’s counterpart, xDSL, verifies
the operation of digital subscriber lines.
Throughput Test – double ended test of network
bandwidth which requires two OneTouch Series II
Network Assistants.
ITO and xDSL throughput tests are identical in theory of
operation and will be described in tandem in this chapter.
The two options have different Fluke OneTouch hardware
revision and software version requirements and use
different terminology to reference their technology. Table
7-1 shows common terminology for ITO with its xDSL
equivalent.
Traffic Generator - tests traffic load capacity.
Table 7-1. ITO and xDSL Terminology
ITO Term
Local Unit
xDSL Equivalent
ATU-R Unit
Subscriber-end Unit
Remote Unit
ATU-C Unit
Central Office Unit
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OneTouch Series II
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ITO/xDSL Throughput Test
The following functions are covered in the Throughput
section
Theory of Operation
Configuring the Remote Unit
Local Unit Connections
Configuring the Local Unit
Results Displayed During the Test
Final Test Results
ITO/xDSL Theory of Operation
The ITO Throughput test refers to these two units as the
local and remote units and the xDSL Throughput test
refers to these two units as the subscriber-end unit (ATUR) and the central office unit (ATU-C), respectively. Both
options are double-ended tests of bandwidth which
require two Fluke OneTouch Series II units to execute the
test. Figure 7-1 shows the relationship between the local
unit (ATU-R unit, for xDSL) and the remote unit (ATU-C
unit, for xDSL).
For the ITO Throughput test both units must have
software version 4.50, or later. Only the local unit must
have the ITO option enabled.
For the xDSL Throughput test, the central office unit
(ATU-C) must have software version 4.50 or later but the
7-2
xDSL option is not required. The subscriber-end unit
(ATU-R unit) must have software version 4.50, or later
and must have the xDSL option enabled.
Read the OneTouch Series II Network Assistant Getting
Started Manual (P/N 1595893) and the OneTouch Link
program online help for more information on enabling
options.
Note
For the best operation, it is recommended that
you update all of your Network Assistants’ xDSL
software version 4.50, or later.
For the ITO Throughput test, a second, unattended
Network Assistant (the remote unit) is used as a remote
traffic source. For the xDSL Throughput test, a second,
unattended Network Assistant (the ATU-C unit) is used as
a remote traffic source. The subscriber-end unit (ATU-R
for xDSL) is used to configure the test, execute the test,
and display the test results.
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option
Introduction
Ethernet
Network
7
Ethernet
Network
WAN
Local
(ATU-R)
Network
Assistant
Remote
(ATU-C)
Unattended
Network
Assistant
ace702f.eps
Figure 7-1. Local and Remote Units
7-3
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
tracking the number of packets received from the
other unit. Then, both units generate the userconfigured traffic for the specified duration. The traffic
generated is IP level data-grams, which allows
routing. Both units transmit traffic simultaneously.
Basic Operation
For the ITO and xDSL Throughput Tests, starting the test
causes the following actions:
1.
2.
The local unit (ATU-R for xDSL) sends an ARP
request to the remote unit (ATU-C for xDSL)
specified in its Remote IP Address (Target
ATU-C IP in xDSL) and waits for a response to that
request.
After the ARP response is received, the local unit
(ATU-R for xDSL) requests the remote unit (ATU-C
for xDSL) to generate traffic using the local unit’s
(ATU-R for xDSL) user-configured duration, data
pattern, rate, and frame length. The local unit (ATU-R
for xDSL) waits for the remote unit (ATU-C for xDSL)
to acknowledge the receipt of the traffic generation
request.
The number of frames per second for the upstream
and downstream bit rates is also calculated and
displayed. The Ethernet preamble and
inter-frame gap are used in this calculation and the
number of frames per second is rounded up.
3.
7-4
After the remote unit (ATU-C for xDSL)
acknowledges the receipt of the traffic generation
request, both units zero their counters and setup for
4.
After the user-configured duration, the local unit
(ATU-R for xDSL) requests the remote unit (ATU-C
for xDSL) to send the number of packets counted
from the local unit (ATU-R for xDSL). Knowing the
number of packets sent and received from the
remote (ATU-C for xDSL) and itself, the local unit
(ATU-R for xDSL) calculates and displays the results.
Conducting a Throughput Test
The Throughput Test is part of the Internetwork
Throughput Option (ITO) or xDSL. The Throughput Test
is a double-ended test of line or network bandwidth that
requires two Network Assistants. After configuring each
unit, you connect the remote and local units to your
network in locations that allow you to test between the
two units. Figure 7-2 shows the relationship between the
local unit (ATU-R unit, for xDSL) and remote (A, B, C, or
D) units (ATU-C unit, for xDSL). Figure 7-3 shows the
equivalent connections for xDSL.
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option
Introduction
Router
7
Switch or Router
Hub
A
D
B
Network
Assistant
WAN
C
Switch or Router
703f.eps
Figure 7-2. ITO Local Unit and Possible Remote Unit Locations (A, B, C, or D)
7-5
OneTouch Series II
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External Network/
Internet Service
Providers
Existing Telephone Line
Enet
Router
Enet
Switch
xDSL
Modem
xDSL
Modem
Subscribers
Computer
Network
Central Office Network
Installation
Assistant
Installation
Assistant
Subscriber's Location
Central Office
ace710f.eps
Figure 7-3. xDSL Test Connections
7-6
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option
Introduction
The test allows Ethernet to Ethernet testing of any link. A
link can be wireless, routed, transparent LAN service, or
asymmetric service (such as xDSL or cable modems).
The ITO Throughput test requires both units to have
software version 4.50, or later. Only the local unit must
have the ITO option enabled. Read “Determining and
Installing Software” in the OneTouch Series II Getting
Started Manual for more information.
The following are some of the possible ways to use the
Throughput Test:
q
q
q
q
Test end-to-end WAN/LAN throughput
Test pattern, frame size, or rate sensitivity for
network devices such as modems, FRADS, hubs,
switches, or routers.
Compare your current WAN capacity to a Service
Level Agreement (SLA).
Test or evaluate equipment on the bench
Connecting and configuring the Remote Unit
All you have to do with the remote (ATU-C Central Office
unit for xDSL) Network Assistant is to connect its AC
adapter, connect it to the network, and enter and set its IP
address as described in Chapter 6. Figure 7-5 shows the
connections for xDSL.
7
Once a valid IP address is set, manually or through
DHCP, the remote unit is designed to remain unattended
and to respond to any local unit’s request to participate in
the testing. The Remote IP Address parameter on the
local unit must be configured with the remote unit’s
source IP address.
Connecting and configuring the Local Unit
At the local (subscriber-end for xDSL) end, connect a
Network Assistant to the desired segment. Figure 7-5
shows a sample connection. For xDSL, connect the
Network Assistant to the Ethernet port on the xDSL
modem. Figure 7-6 shows a sample connection for xDSL.
To configure Network Assistant at the local end,
press
(Connectivity Tests) from the top-level
display then press
(Internetwork Throughput
Option). If you are using the xDSL option, press
(xDSL Test) from the top-level display then press the
Throughput tab. Enter in the Remote IP field the IP
address of the Local (Subscriber) end in the
Throughput Test Configuration display (Figure 7-4).
7-7
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
Note
For xDSL, the central office unit only requires you to
enter an IP address. If the Network Assistant’s
Source IP Address is not set correctly for the network
segment that it will be attached to, you must set it
prior to performing any tests.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
ace704f.eps
Figure 7-4. Local Unit Configuration Display for
Throughput Test
7-8
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option
Introduction
7
Internet Service Provider
Subscriber
Lines
External Corporate Network
Router
Ethernet
Switches
Installation
Assistant
CO Unit
xDSL ATU-C
Modem Bank
Alternate CO
Connection
POTS
Splitters
Public Switched
Telephone Network
ace712f.eps
Figure 7-5. xDSL Central Office (Remote) Connections
7-9
OneTouch Series II
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Telephone
POTS
Splitter
xDSL Modem
Subscriber
Lines
Ethernet Port
Computer or Network Connection
Personal Computer
or
Business Network
Installation Assistant
ace711f.eps
Figure 7-6. xDSL Subscriber-end Connections
7-10
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option
Introduction
1.
Remote IP
Address
2.
IP Config
3.
Duration
4.
Enter the source IP address of the
Network Assistant at the remote end
by pressing the Remote IP Address
box. For xDSL, enter the Target IP
ATU-C Address. Enter the address
.
with the keypad then press
Enables you to enter the IP address for
the local (this) unit. Select the method
for configuring the IP Address (Manual
or DHCP). See Chapters 2 and 6 for
more information.
5.
Speed
Select from the following upstream (to
remote unit or central office for xDSL)
and downstream (from remote unit)
speeds to be tested:
ITO Speed Parameters
q
ISDN 128 Kbps, T1 1.544 Mbps,
E1 2.048 Mbps, and 1 Mbps/1
Mbps
XDSL Speed Parameters
Select 2, 10, 30, 60, 120 or 300
seconds, 1 hr, 12 hrs, or 18hrs as the
duration of the test.
Select to send all zeros (All 0s), all
ones (All 1s), alternating ones and
Data PRBS zeros (Alt 1/0), or a Pseudo-Random
Bit Sequence (PRBS). The PRBS
pattern simulates normal data traffic.
7
q
ANSI Asymmetrical Rates: 64
Kbps/1.5 Mbps, 160 Kbps/3 Mbps,
384 Kbps/4.6 Mbps,
640 Kbps/6 Mbps, 1 Mbps/1
Mbps.
Auto: Tests a range of speeds to
determine the operating speed of
RADSL modems. The following
additional icons are displayed:
Start at
Select the lowest speed
for the range of
downstream rates to be
tested.
7-11
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Users Manual
Stop at
Upstream
Incr by
7-12
Select the highest speed
for the range of
downstream rates to be
tested.
Select the speed of the
upstream traffic
generated during the
test.
Select the increment size
of the downstream
speeds within the range
you defined with the
Start at and Stop at
selections. The test
increments the
downstream speed and
continues testing only if
the channel passes 95%
of the transmitted data at
the current speed.
q
User 1 and User 2: Allows you to
define your own upstream and
downstream rates.
The total upstream and
downstream rates must not exceed
the values listed below:
10 Mb
Frame Size
64
128
256
512
768
1024
1280
1518
Max Bps
37Mbps
64Mbps
78Mbps
87Mbps
87Mbps
91Mbps
93Mbps
85Mbps
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option
Introduction
7
100 Mb
Frame Size
64
128
256
512
768
1024
1280
1518
Max Bps
32.8Mbps
65.5Mbps
75.8Mbps
86.0Mbps
86.0Mbps
90.1Mbps
92.2Mbps
85.0Mbps
Frm Len
Select from the following RFC 1242
frame sizes: 64, 128, 256, 512, 768,
1024, 1280, and 1518 bytes.
Run Test
After entering the above parameters,
press Run Test to start the test.
6.
7.
ace705s.bmp
Figure 7-7. ITO Results Shown During the Test
Results Displayed During the Throughput Test
Final Test Results
While the Throughput Test is running, the display (Figure
7-7) shows the elapsed test time, current network
utilization (the meter), and the test parameters that were
selected on the Throughput Test configuration display.
The needle indicator on the Utilization meter shows total
network utilization, which includes both the generated
traffic and any other traffic present on the network.
When Throughput Test is complete, the Network
Assistant displays the final results. Figure 7-8 shows an
example of final Throughput Test results screen, which
includes the following information:
7-13
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1.
The first four items show the upstream and
downstream test speeds (Speed), the duration of the
test (Duration), the frame length (Frm Len), and the
data pattern (Pattern) as selected on the Throughput
Test configuration display.
2.
The Upstream and Downstream rates show the
actual data upstream and downstream transmission
rates used during this Throughput Test excluding the
Ethernet overhead of preamble and inter-frame gap.
The number of frames (# Frms) shows the number of
frames successfully transmitted and the percentage
of successful transmissions. The number of frames
lost (# Lost) shows the number of frames lost during
transmission.
3.
4.
The bottom of the display shows the addresses used
for the local unit (This IP or ATU-R IP for xDSL), the
unit at the remote end (Rmt IP or ATU-C IP for
xDSL), and the router (Routr IP -- if any).
Hops are the number of routers (hops) between the
remote unit and the local unit.
1
2
3
4
ace706f.eps
Figure 7-8. Final ITO Throughput Test Results
7-14
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option
Introduction
ITO/xDSL Traffic Generator
Traffic Generator lets you generate network traffic to see
how your network responds to varying traffic loads. Traffic
Generator is available in trial mode. Read the OneTouch
Network Assistant Getting Started Manual (P/N 1279870)
and the OneTouch Link program online help for more
information on enabling options.
The following Traffic Generator modes are available and
are covered in this section:
q
MAC Mode
IP Mode
Ping Mode
The following are some of the possible ways to use
Traffic Generator in MAC or IP mode:
Test for errors on a segment by loading it to a
predetermined level of traffic
Test network error reporting by generating bad
frames (such as short or jabber frames)
Test single ended throughput by monitoring with a
remote device
Verify router/switch/probe RMON and SNMP
interface statistics
Simulate additional users on a LAN
7
The following are some of the possible ways to use
Traffic Generator in Ping mode:
Verify that a drop-to-network connection can pass a
high rate of traffic without having to do a cable test
Identify bottlenecks by successively pinging devices
along the suspect path
Stress a targeted PC with network activity
Test WAN/LAN’s two way throughput using a single
Network Assistant
Test symmetrical throughput of WAN links
XCaution
Traffic Generator can generate enough traffic to
saturate a 10 MB or 100 Mb Ethernet network.
Take care when using Traffic Generator.
Figure 7-9 shows the Traffic Generator setup display.
7-15
OneTouch Series II
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1.
Rate indicates the current Traffic Generator bit rate
excluding the Ethernet overhead of preamble and
inter-frame gap.
2.
Use the arrow icons to set the number of frames
transmitted per second.
3.
Use the arrow icons to set the frame length.
4.
Select the Frame Type as MAC (Media Access
Control), IP, or PING. Refer to the following sections
on Traffic Generator modes for more information.
5.
Select Broadcast (only available for a Frame Type
of MAC) to transmit traffic as broadcast or do not
select it to transmit traffic as unicast.
1
2
3
4
If you selected a Frame Type of IP or PING, the
Broadcast selection changes to Target IP Address
allowing you to specify an IP address by pressing the
box and then entering the address from the displayed
keypad.
5
6
6.
ce707f.eps
Figure 7-9. Traffic Generator Setup Display
7-16
Press
(Start Traffic) to start generating traffic.
Press
(Stop Traffic) to stop the Traffic
Generator.
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option
Introduction
MAC Mode
8.
Traffic Generator’s MAC mode allows you to transmit
traffic on the local segment. You can transmit unicast or
broadcast packets.
To run Traffic Generator in the MAC mode, do the
following:
1.
Connect the Network Assistant to your network.
2.
( Connectivity Tests) from the top-level
Press
display. For xDSL, press
(xDSL Test) from the
top-level display then press the Traffic Generator
tab.
3.
Press
(Traffic Generator).
4.
Press
or
5.
or
to configure Frame Length as 60,
Press
64, 128, 256, 512, 768, 1024, 1280, 1518, or 1520
bytes.
6.
Select MAC as the frame type.
7.
Select Broadcast if you want Traffic Generator to
transmit broadcast traffic. Otherwise the transmitted
traffic is unicast to 00c017310000 (Fluke - 310000),
which is an unused MAC address.
to configure Frames/second.
Press
7
(Start Traffic) to start generating traffic.
(Stop Traffic) to stop the Traffic
Press
Generator.
IP Mode
Traffic Generator’s IP mode allows you to transmit traffic
to a specific device or network. The target device can be
on the other side of a router.
To run Traffic Generator in the IP mode, do the following:
1.
Connect the Network Assistant to your network.
2.
Press
display.
(Connectivity Tests) from the top-level
3.
Press
(Internetwork Throughput Option)
4.
Press the (Traffic Gen) tab. For xDSL, press
(xDSL Test) from the top-level display then press the
Traffic Generator tab. The Traffic Generator screen
displays.
5.
Press
6.
or
to configure Frame Length as 60,
Press
64, 128, 256, 512, 768, 1024, 1280, 1518, or 1520
bytes.
or
to configure Frames/second.
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Note
The illegal sized frames of 60 and 1520 bytes
will not pass through a router and may not pass
through a switch.
7.
Select IP as the frame type.
8.
Configure the Target IP Address box by pressing
the box and entering the address from the displayed
keypad.
9.
Press
(Start Traffic) to run Traffic Generator.
Press
(Stop Traffic) to stop the Traffic
Generator.
The generated traffic for IP Mode consists of an IP frame
containing all zeros in the data field.
Traffic is transmitted to the specified Target IP Address. If
the Target IP Address specifies a station on the local
segment, the station must respond to an ARP request
sent by the Network Assistant before traffic generation is
started. If the Target IP address specifies a non-local
station, the default router must respond to an ARP
request sent by the Network Assistant before traffic
generation is started.
7-18
MAC and IP Mode Results
Traffic Generator displays MAC and IP mode results as it
is running. You can adjust Frames/second and Frame
Length while Traffic Generator is running to see the
effect of traffic loading on your network (MAC mode) or a
station (IP mode).
Two meters show the overall network utilization. One
meter shows the current measured frame rate (in frames
per second) and the other meter shows the utilization
percentage. Figure 7-10 shows MAC or IP mode sample
results.
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option
Introduction
1
7
1 Rate is the raw data rate, excluding the
Ethernet framing overhead (preamble and
inter-frame gap).
2 This gauge shows the Network Assistant’s
Traffic Generator transmission rate.
3 This gauge shows the Ethernet Utilization for all
traffic in the current collision domain. It does not
include the minimum inter-frame gap.
Ping Mode
2
3
Traffic Generator’s Ping mode allows you to rapidly
transmit ICMP Echo Request packet traffic to a specific
device or network. The target device can be on the other
side of one or more routers. The Network Assistant does
not wait for a response before transmitting the next ICMP
Echo Request. The ICMP Echo Request sets the don’t
fragment bit in the IP header.
XCaution
ace708f.eps
Figure 7-10. MAC or IP Mode Sample Results
Using Traffic Generator in Ping mode can
generate enough traffic to stress or saturate
a 10 MB or 100 Mb Ethernet station. Take
care when using Traffic Generator in Ping
mode.
7-19
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To run Traffic Generator in Ping mode, do the following:
1.
Connect the Network Assistant to your network.
2.
(Connectivity Tests) from the top-level
Press
xDSL Test then press
display (for xDSL, press
the Traffic Generator tab and go to step 5).
3.
Press (ITO).
4.
Press the (Traffic Generator) tab.
5.
Press
or
to configure Frames/second to the
desired amount.
6.
or
to configure Frame Length as 60,
Press
64, 128, 256, 512, 768, 1024, 1280, 1518, or 1520
bytes.
Note
The illegal sized frames of 60 and 1520 bytes
most likely will not be responded to by remote
devices.
7.
Select PING as the frame type.
8.
Configure the Target IP Address box by pressing
the box and then entering the address from the
displayed keypad.
7-20
9.
Press
(Start Traffic) to run Traffic Generator.
Traffic is transmitted to the specified Target IP
Address (station or network).
10. Press
(Stop Traffic) to stop Traffic Generator.
Traffic is transmitted to the specified Target IP Address
(station or network).
Ping Mode Results
Traffic Generator displays Ping mode results as it is
running. You can adjust Frames/second and Frame
Length while Traffic Generator is running to see the
effect of traffic loading on your network or on a station.
Two meters show the Ping mode results. One meter
shows the overall network traffic (in frames per second)
and the other meter shows the rate of Echo Response
packets received from the target device. Figure 7-8
shows Ping mode sample results.
ITO – Internetwork Throughput Option
Introduction
1
2
7
1.
Rate is the raw data rate, excluding the Ethernet
framing overhead (preamble and inter-frame gap).
2.
Network Utilization – This gauge shows the
Network Assistant’s Traffic Generator transmission
rate.
3.
Ping Responses – This is the response rate
(responses per second) received from the target
device.
3
ace709s.bmp
Figure 7-11. Ping Mode Sample Results
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7-22
Appendices
Appendix
A
B
C
D
Title
Specifications .....................................................................................................................
Basic Maintenence .............................................................................................................
Web Remote Control ..........................................................................................................
Glossary .............................................................................................................................
Page
A-1
B-1
C-1
D-1
Appendix A
Specifications
General Specifications
Media Access
10Base-T and 100Base-TX.
Cable Tests
Length, wiremap, and split pairs.
Ports
Shielded Hub/NIC connector (RJ45).
Shielded Wiremap connector (RJ45).
RS-232C PC/Printer port (DB-9).
Printers
Supported
HP LaserJet series.
Interface
Icon-based touchscreen display.
Battery
Removable/rechargeable NiMH
battery, 2-hour life.
Dimensions
20.3 cm x 10.7 cm x 5.3 cm (8 in x
4.2 in x 2.1 in).
Weight
0.7 kg (1.7 lbs).
Warranty
One year. (Extended warranty
available).
LED Indicators (5) Link, Utilization, Collision, Error,
and Battery Charge.
Toner
Frequencies
Low: between 185 Hz and 200
Hz. High: between 350 Hz and
375 Hz.
A-1
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Environmental Requirements
Operating Temperature
10°C to 30°C with up to 95% Relative Humidity
10°C to 40°C with up to 75% Relative Humidity
Non-Operating
Temperature
-20°C to +60°C
Approvals
The Universal AC Adapter for the Network Assistant has UL, CSA, and TÜV
approvals or other approvals valid in the USA, Canada, and Europe.
Electromagnetic
Interference
The Fluke OneTouch Network Assistant complies
with German Law Vfg. 243.1991 when it is operated at least 28 meters from
the boundary of the user’s facility or in a screen room. Exempt for USA and
Canadian emissions regulations if it does not interfere with licensed
communications.
Certifications
Connection to public
telephone network
A-2
The Network Assistant should never be connected
to the public telephone network.
Appendix B
Basic Maintenance
Service and Repairs
Maximizing Battery Life
To have the Network Assistant serviced or repaired, call
on of the numbers listed below:
The life of NiMH batteries is strongly influenced by the
care that they receive.
North America : 1-888-99-FLUKE (1-888-993-5853)
Europe: +31 40-267-8300
The greatest enemy of your battery pack is heat. Avoid
charging your batteries when they are hot.
Anywhere in the world: +1-425-446-4519
For example, the battery life will be shortened if you
frequently leave the Network Assistant in a hot place,
such as a car on a warm day, and then charge the
batteries immediately upon returning to your office.
Or visit Fluke’s website www.fluke.com.
Cleaning the Touchscreen
Japan: +81-3-3434-0181
*
Singapore: +65- -737-2922
Clean the touchscreen by wiping it gently with a soft cloth
or tissue moistened with isopropyl alcohol.
B-1
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Users Manual
Replacement Parts List
Part
Top Shell Assembly
B-2
Part No.
1281913
Bottom Shell Assembly
603050
Button, On/Off
603057
Digital Assembly
662509
Analog Assembly
662517
LCD/Display
688330
Softcase
603115
Universal AC Power Adapter
616216
Battery Pack
615986
Cable Identifier 1
603065
Cable Identifier 2
616232
Cable Identifier 3
616235
Cable Identifier 4
616240
Cable Identifier 5
616257
Cable Identifier 6
616265
Appendix C
Web Remote Control
Introduction
Web Remote Control is a OneTouch Series II Pro feature
that enables you to view and interact with the Network
Assistant attached to the network via a web browser.
Your web browser software must be “Java-enabled.” If
you do not have a Pro model, you will only be able to
view the current screen with no interaction.
q
q
Web Agent FAQ
OneTouch Series II News
View the Current Screen
Your web browser displays the Web Agent web page
(Figure C-1) with the current screen displayed and the
capability to interact with the screen via the web browser.
Enter the IP address of your Network Assistant in the web
browser's address area. To find out the IP address, run
(Network Assistant icon). The IP
Autotest then press
address will be listed. Enter it in the address area and
press Enter. These options are available:
q
q
View the Current OneTouch Screen
SNMP Setup
C-1
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
SNMP Setup
The SNMP Community String feature operates as
described in Chapter 6, “Connectivity Tests.” If you have
previously set up values for Community Strings, enter
them in the appropriate boxes and click Submit.
Web Agent FAQ
This link addresses frequently asked questions (FAQ)
about browser compatibility, configuration, and Network
Assistant operation in relation to the Web Agent.
OneTouch News
This link accesses the Fluke Network Solutions web page
http://www.fluke.com/nettools to the find out the latest
about Fluke products, get software downloads, etc.
ace101s.bmp
Figure C-1. Web Agent
Enter the password guest then press Enter. Press the
desired buttons on the Web Agent display using the
mouse and the resulting screens display on the web
browser screen. To view a larger image of the screens,
click Larger.
C-2
Appendix D
Glossary
10BASE2
Sometimes called ThinLAN or CheaperNet, 10BASE2 is
the implementation of the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard
on thin coaxial cable. The maximum segment length is
185 meters.
10BASE5
Sometimes called ThickLAN, 10BASE5 is the
implementation of the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard on
thick coaxial cable. The maximum segment length is 500
meters.
10BASEF
A point-to-point fiber link. This is the draft specification
for IEEE 802.3 Ethernet over fiber optic cable.
10BASE-T
10BASE-T is the implementation of the IEEE 802.3
Ethernet standard on unshielded twisted-pair wiring. It is
a star topology, with stations directly connected to a
multi-port Hub, and it has a maximum cable length of
100 meters.
100BASE-TX
100BASE-TX is the implementation of the IEEE 802.3u
Ethernet standard on two pairs of unshielded twisted-pair
wiring. It is a star topology with a maximum cable length
of 100 meters. The maximum network diameter is 205
meters with two class II repeaters.
D-1
OneTouch Series II
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802.2
This IEEE standard specifies Logical Link Control
(LLC), which defines services for the transmission of
data between two stations at the data-link layer of the
OSI model.
802.3
Often called Ethernet, this IEEE standard governs the
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection
(CSMA/CD) networks. Typical cabling standards are
10BASE-T, 10BASE2, and 10BASE5.
Access Method
The set of rules by which the network determines what
node has access to the network. The two most popular
access methods are Collision Sense Multiple
Access/Collision Detection (Ethernet) and token passing
(Token Ring and ARCNET).
Anomaly
An impedance discontinuity causing an undesired signal
reflection on a transmission cable.
AppleTalk
The set of protocols that define Apple Computer’s
networking specification.
D-2
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
A member of the TCP/IP protocol suite, ARP is the
method by which a station’s MAC address is determined
given a station’s IP (Internet Protocol) address.
Attenuation
A reduction in the strength of a signal; the opposite of
gain.
Bandwidth
Bandwidth is the rate at which data can be transmitted
over a channel, measured in bits per second. For
example, Ethernet has a 10 Mbps bandwidth and FDDI
has a 100 Mbps bandwidth. Actual throughput is almost
always less than the theoretical maximum.
BPS
Bits per second. A measure of speed or raw data rate.
Often combined with metric prefixes as in kbps (for
thousands of bits per second) or Mbps (for millions of
bits per second).
Bridge
A device that links two or more networks that use the
same OSI Data Link protocol. A bridge evaluates source
and destination addresses to pass only frames that have a
destination on the connecting network.
Appendices
Glossary
D
Broadcast
A message that is addressed to all stations on a network.
For Ethernet networks, the MAC broadcast address is
FFFFFFFFFFFF.
Client
A client is a computer that make requests of a server. A
client has only one user; a server is shared by many
users.
Broadcast Storm
A situation in which a large number of stations are
transmitting broadcast packets. This typically results in
severe network congestion. This problem is usually a
result of a misconfiguration.
Collision
A collision is the result of two or more nodes
transmitting at the same time. Excessive collisions are
most often caused by a problem with the physical media.
Bus Topology
A bus topology is a network architecture in which all of
the nodes simultaneously receive network traffic.
Ethernet is a bus topology.
Byte
A collection of bits. A byte usually contains 8 bits.
Crossed Pair
A wiring error in twisted pair cabling in which a pair on
one connector of the cable is wired to a different pair on
the other end of the cable.
Crosstalk
Crosstalk is electrical interference generated by signal
coupling between wires in a multiwire cable.
Characteristic impedance
Characteristic impedance is the opposition (resistance
and reactance) to signal propagation on a cable. It
depends on the physical properties of a cable, which are
determined at the time of manufacture. Manufacturing
variations can cause slight differences in characteristic
impedance for the same cable type.
D-3
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CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense, Multiple Access with
Collision Detection)
In CSMA/CD, each node or station has equal access to
the network. Before transmitting, each station waits until
the network is not busy. Since each node has equal
access to the network, a collision (two stations
transmitting at the same time) can occur. If a collision
occurs, the affected nodes will wait a random time to
retransmit. Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD access method.
dBm
Decibels below 1 mW (1 milliwatt). The logarithmic
measure of the ratio of the output power of a signal to an
input signal of 1 mW.
DECnet
Digital Equipment Corporation’s set of communication
protocols for networking computers.
Destination Address
The address of the station receiving a frame.
EIA568
Electronic Industries Association Commercial Building
Telecommunications Wiring Standard. Specifies
maximum cable lengths, installation practices, and
performance specifications for generic building wiring.
D-4
Encapsulation
Encapsulation is the method of placing one protocol into
another protocol’s format. For example, in a Novell
Ethernet environment there are four different methods to
encapsulate IPX in Ethernet/802.3 frames: 802.3 raw,
802.2, Ethernet II, and SNAP.
Ethernet
Ethernet is a 10 Mbps topology that runs over thick coax,
thin coax, twisted-pair, and fiber-optic cabling systems.
Fast Ethernet
Industry standard terminology for 100Base-T. Industry
groups do not agree on using the term to refer to 100VGAnyLAN; some call 100VG-AnyLAN a Fast Ethernet
technology while others do not.
FCS (Frame Check Sequence)
A field transmitted in LAN frames that encodes error
checking information.
Frame
A frame is the transmission unit on a network. In Token
Ring, a frame is the token joined with node data.
Appendices
Glossary
Full-Duplex
10Base-T and 100Base-TX network operation using a
switching Hub to establish a point-to-point connection
between LAN nodes that allows simultaneous sending
and receiving of data packets. Full-duplex performance is
twice that of half-duplex performance. A 10Base-T fullduplex network is capable of 20 Mb/s data throughput,
while a full-duplex 100Base-TX network is capable of
200 Mb/s throughput.
Half-Duplex
Network operation is one direction at a time only; either
sending or receiving data packets, but not both at the
same time.
Hops
Most commonly defined as the number of routers
traveled by a frame to reach its destination.
Hub
Today, most often referred to in 10BASE-T networks. A
10BASE-T Hub is essentially a multiport repeater Hub
with each segment dedicated to a single 10BASE-T
connection.
D
ICMP (Internet Control and Message Protocol)
A communication protocol used by every device that
uses IP. ICMP reports errors that occur during the
delivery of packets on the network.
IP (Internet Protocol)
IP is the network layer protocol for the TCP/IP suite.
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange)
IPX is the network layer protocol for Novell’s NetWare
protocol suite.
Jabber
A frame greater than the maximum legal size (greater
than 1518 bytes) with a good or bad frame check
sequence. In general, you should not see jabbers. The
most likely causes of jabbers are a faulty NIC/driver or
perhaps a cabling problem.
LAN (Local Area Network)
A physical network technology used over short distances
(up to a few thousand meters) to connect many
workstations and network devices using a
communication standard (Token Ring or Ethernet, for
example).
D-5
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Late Collision
A collision that occurs after the first 64 bytes in a frame.
In 10BASE-T networks, late collisions will be seen as
frames with a bad FCS. Causes of Late Collisions are a
faulty NIC or a network that is too long. A too-long
network is one in which the end-to-end signal
propagation time is greater that the minimum legal sized
frame.
Layer
One of seven levels in the Open Systems Interconnection
(OSI) reference model. See OSI.
Link Pulse
A single-bit test pulse that is transmitted at least every
150 milliseconds during idle periods on 10BASE-T link
segments to verify link integrity.
Manufacturer Prefix
The standard partial address used to identify a particular
manufacturer. The prefix of the address is predefined
uniquely for each manufacturer, while the remainder of
the address uniquely identifies the station.
D-6
Master Browser
The Master Browser maintains the browse list, a list of
all servers in the master browser’s domain or workgroup.
MBPS
Millions of bits per second. See BPS.
Multicast
Packets that are directed to a group of nodes rather than
to a single node or all nodes. This is contrasted to a
broadcast packet, which is directed to all nodes.
NEXT
Near-end crosstalk; crosstalk between two twisted pairs
measured at the same end of the cable as the disturbing
signal source.
NIC (Network Interface Card)
A network interface card is the adapter card that plugs
into a computer to provide a network connection.
NVP (Nominal Velocity of Propagation)
The speed that a pulse travels along a cable, expressed as
a percentage of the speed of light in a vacuum.
Appendices
Glossary
Packet
A group of bits in a defined format, containing a data
message that is sent over a network.
Protocol
A set of rules that machines must follow to exchange
information on a network.
Primary Domain Controller
A device that manages the common security policy and
user account databases for a group of NetBIOS servers.
The election protocols are such that the primary domain
controller has a tendency to become the master browser.
Remote Collision
A collision that occurs on the other side of a repeater.
Since a 10BASE-T Hub is a multi-port repeater with a
"segment" dedicated to each station, 10BASE-T
collisions are remote collisions.
Repeater
A repeater is a layer-1 device that regenerates and
retimes frames.
D
RJ-45 Connector
A modular connector used for UTP wiring. The RJ-45
connector has eight conductors to accommodate four
pairs of wires, and it has become the dominant connector
used in Ethernet and Token Ring UTP installations.
Router
A router is a network-layer device that connects
networks using like network-layer protocols. Routers can
span different network topologies. For example, a router
can interconnect Token Ring and Ethernet Novell
NetWare networks. For a router to pass traffic, unlike a
bridge, it must be configured for the desired protocol.
Routers are more difficult to configure but offer greater
security.
Runts
Typically defined as a Ethernet frame which is less than
64 bytes. Depending on what device is counting the
runts, the frame check sequence may be good or bad.
SAP (Service Advertising Protocol)
A NetWare protocol used to request and broadcast
information about file servers, print servers, and other
services on a network.
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Short Frame
A frame less than the minimum legal size (less than 64
bytes) with a good frame check sequence. In general, you
should not see Short Frames. The mostly likely cause of
a Short Frame is a faulty adapter card or driver.
Signal/Noise Ratio
The ratio of worst-case received signal level to noise
level measured at the receiver input (expressed in dB).
The S/N ratio may be expressed as NEXT(dB) Attenuation(dB), provided idle channel background noise
is low. Higher S/N ratios provide better channel
performance.
Source Address
The address of the station originating a frame.
Split Pair
The error of using wires from two different twisted pairs.
This error cancels the crosstalk elimination
characteristics of twisted pair wiring and produces
crosstalk. Use a single twisted pair for Transmit and
another twisted pair for Receive to minimize crosstalk.
SNAP (Subnetwork Access Protocol)
An IP protocol that is an extended version of the IEEE
LAN logical link control (LLC) frame. SNAP provides
access to additional protocols and allows vendors to
create their own protocol sub-types.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol)
TCP/IP is the protocol suite originally developed by the
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to
interconnect a research network. It later evolved into the
Internet. The TCP/IP is an open standard not owned by
any particular organization. The term TCP/IP is often
used to refer to the entire suite of related protocols that
includes IP, FTP, Telnet, RIP.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
Designed by the Department of Defense and commercial
TCP/IP implementors, SNMP is part of the TCP/IP
protocol suite. SNMP operates on top of the Internet
Protocol and can manage virtually any network type.
TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry)
A TDR is a method to determine a cable’s length,
characteristic impedance, and other parameters by
transmitting a pulse down into a cable and examining
reflected energy.
D-8
Appendices
Glossary
Terminator
A resistor connected to the end of a coax cable which is
intended to match the characteristic impedance of a
cable. Signals are dissipated in the terminator,
eliminating reflections.
Topology
Topology is the organization of network components.
The topology of Token Ring network components is a
ring.
Uptime
The amount of uninterrupted time that a resource (such
as a print server) has been available.
D
Twisted Pair
A pair of wires that are twisted together to minimize
crosstalk. Crosstalk is minimized with twisted pair
wiring by canceling the magnetic fields generated in each
of the twisted wires. Twisted pair cable (UTP or STP) is
typically made up of several twisted pairs of wires.
UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)
Cable that is twisted by pairs but not shielded. This
minimizes crosstalk by canceling the magnetic fields
generated in each of the twisted wires, but only when a
single twisted pair is used for Transmit or Receive.
Transceiver
In Ethernet networks, a transceiver is used to couple
electrical signals to and from an adapter to the
transmission media. In ThinLAN and 10BASE-T
networks, the transceiver is integrated directly onto the
network adapter card.
D-9
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
D-10
Index
—A—
—B—
AC adapter, universal, 1-2
Accessory Kit (UTP)
Optional Equipment, 1-3
Autotest
Device detection, 2-2
TCP/IP Devices, 2-5
AutoTest
Device icons, 2-3
Hub, 2-5
Network Assistant, 2-4
Novell Server, 2-4
Popup windows, 2-3
Bad Frame Check Sequence (FCS),
3-7
Battery
Battery Life
Maximizing, B-1
NiMH Rechargeable Battery Pack,
1-2
—C—
Cable Autotest, 4-2
Cable basics, introduction to, 4-4
Cable Identifier, 1-2
Cable Identifier, 4-3
Set, 4-3
Optional Equipment, 1-3
Cable Information, General
Cable Length, 4-6
Cable Termination, 4-7
Crossed Pair, 4-5
Reversed Pair, 4-5
Cable Length
Cable Information, 4-6
Cable length, test of, 4-2
Cable Termination
Cable Information, 4-7
Cable Tests
Cable Autotest, 4-2
Define Cable, 4-4
Toner, 4-4
Wiremap Cable, 4-2
Identifying Cables, 4-3
Collisions, 3-7
ConfigMaster, 6-8
Connectivity Tests
1
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
Ping, 6-1
Crossed Pair
Cable Information, 4-5
Flash hub port, 5-4
—N—
—G—
—D—
General Cable Information
Cable Length, 4-6
Cable Termination, 4-7
Crossed Pair, 4-5
Reversed Pair, 4-5
Twisted Pair, 4-4
NetWare
file server list, 2-8
ping station, 6-7
print server list, 2-9
Network Assistant
Strap, 1-2
Network Assistant
Maintenance, B-1
Optional Equipment, 1-3
Softcase, 1-2
Supplied Equipment, 1-2
Touchscreen
Cleaning, B-2
Network Health, 3-1
Meters
Broadcasts, 3-5
Collision, 3-5
Error, 3-4
Utilization, 3-4
NIC/Hub Tests, 5-1
NiMH Battery Pack, 1-2
NiMH Rechargeable Battery Pack
Optional Equipment, 1-3
Define Cable
Cable Tests, 4-4
Device icons
AutoTest, 2-3
Hub, 2-5
Network Assistant, 2-4
Novell Server, 2-4
Popup windows, 2-3
Duplicate IPs, 2-11
—E—
Environmental Requirements, A-1
Equipment
Optional, 1-3
Supplied, 1-2
—H—
Hub port locator, 5-4
—I—
IP
Duplicate, 2-11
—J—
Jabbers, 3-7
—F—
Fiber Optic Cable, 4-9
Find Router, 6-5
Firmware, version, 1-2
2
—M—
Maintenance, Instrument, B-1
Manual, Users, 1-2
Index (continued)
—O—
Optional Equipment, 1-3
Strap, 1-2
Supplied Equipment, 1-2
Switch Disovery, 6-14
—P—
—T—
Ping
Results, 6-12
Power cord, 1-2
Test Folders
Cable Tests
Cable Autotest, 4-2
Define Cable, 4-4
Toner, 4-4
Wiremap Cable, 4-2
Network Health, 3-1
Meters
Broadcasts, 3-5
Collision, 3-5
Error, 3-4
Utilization, 3-4
NIC/Hub Tests, 5-1
Toner, 4-4
Touchscreen
Cleaning, B-2
Twisted Pair, Basics, 4-4
—R—
Rechargeable Battery Pack (NiMH), 1-2
Rechargeable Battery Pack (NiMH)
Optional Equipment, 1-3
Reversed Pair
Cable Information, 4-5
—S—
Service and repairs, B-1
Short frames, 3-7
SNMP query, 2-7
Softcase, Network Assistant, 1-2
Software, version, 1-2
Split Pair, 4-2
Station detail display, 2-7
Station Locator, 6-14
UTP Accessory Kit
Optional Equipment, 1-3
—V—
Version number, software, 1-2
—W—
Wiremap Cable, 4-2
Identifying Cables, 4-3
—U—
Universal AC adapter, 1-2
Users Manual, 1-2
3
OneTouch Series II
Users Manual
4