Ford 1999 Contour Automobile User Manual

Table of contents
Introduction
2
Diesel information
4
Warning lights
7
Starting
9
Driving tips
12
General maintenance information
16
Scheduled maintenance
32
Minor troubleshooting guide
33
Capacities and specifications
36
Service points
38
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system or translation in whole or part is not permitted without written
authorization from Ford Motor Company. Ford may change the contents without
notice and without incurring obligation.
Copyright © 2000 Ford Motor Company
1
Introduction
The following warning may be required by California law:
California Proposition 65 Warning: Diesel engine exhaust, some
of its constituents, and certain vehicle components contain or
may emit chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer or
birth defects or other reproductive harm.
Your new diesel engine will feel, drive and function somewhat differently
than a gasoline engine. Therefore it is very important that you read and
thoroughly familiarize yourself and others operating the vehicle with this
guide.
This guide will acquaint you with the Power Stroke (7.3L DIT) diesel
engine. It provides recommendations on engine care and operating
procedures. For complete vehicle information, also refer to the Owner
Guide included with the vehicle. It also describes equipment and gives
specifications for equipment that was in effect when this guide was
approved for printing, and should be considered a permanent part of the
vehicle.
Some aftermarket products may cause severe engine and/or
transmission damage. There are various manufacturers offering
devices to increase turbocharger boost, exhaust brakes to
increase stopping/hauling capacity or other such devices to
increase the power/torque of the 7.3L engine. Many owners’ past
experience with these products has been very poor. Severe
powertrain damage may result from the use of these aftermarket
products which will not be covered by the Ford warranty.
Ford may discontinue models or change specifications without any notice
and without incurring obligations.
IMPORTANT NOTICE
Ford vehicles are suitable for producing ambulances only if equipped
with the Ford Ambulance Preparation Package. In addition, Ford
urges ambulance manufacturers to follow the recommendation of the
Ford Incomplete Vehicle Manual, Ford Truck Body Builder’s Layout
Book (and pertinent supplements) and the “Qualified Vehicle Modifiers
Guidelines.” Using a Ford vehicle without the Ford Ambulance
Preparation Package to produce an ambulance voids the Ford warranty
and could result in elevated underbody temperatures, fuel
overpressurization and the risk of fuel expulsion and fires. To determine
whether the vehicle is equipped with the Ford Ambulance Preparation
2
Introduction
Package, inspect the information plate on the driver’s side door pillar.
Contact the manufacturer of your vehicle to determine whether the
ambulance manufacturer’s followed Ford’s recommendations.
WARNING: Engine exhaust, some of its constituents, and
certain vehicle components contain or emit chemicals known to
the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other
reproductive harm. Certain fluids contained in vehicles and certain
products of component contain or emit chemicals known to the State
of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive
harm.
WARNINGS
Throughout this guide, you will find warnings. Warnings remind you to
be especially careful to avoid personal injury.
NEW VEHICLE BREAK-IN
Your vehicle does not need an extensive break-in. Try not to drive
continuously at the same speed for the first 1 600 km (1 000 miles) of
new vehicle operation. Vary your speed to allow parts to adjust
themselves to other parts.
Drive your new vehicle at least 800 km (500 miles) before towing a
trailer.
Do not add friction modifier compounds or special break-in oils during
the first few thousand kilometers (miles) of operation, since these
additives may prevent piston ring seating. See “Engine oil” in the
General Maintenance Information chapter for more information on oil
usage.
3
Diesel information
DIESEL ENGINE INFORMATION
The diesel engine fuel system consists of:
• a frame-mounted electric fuel supply pump
• an engine mounted fuel filter/water separator
• a fuel restriction sensor
• a unit injector for each cylinder
The combination fuel filter/water separator removes both water and
impurities from the fuel. The filter should be changed at the
recommended service interval. Refer to the “Service Guide” for more
information. The filter bowl should be drained at regular intervals or
when the “WATER IN FUEL” light illuminates in the instrument cluster.
The fuel injectors are located in the center of the combustion chambers
in the cylinder head between the rocker arm assemblies. The glow plug
system and fuel injection system are controlled through the powertrain
control module (PCM).
Fuel is drawn from the fuel tank by a frame-mounted electric fuel pump.
The fuel pump provides pressurized fuel to the engine and is
electronically controlled by the fuel pump PCM relay. The fuel pump
contains a pressure relief valve for overpressure protection in the event
of restricted flow.
Lubrication system
It is important to change the engine oil at the recommended service
intervals, because oil viscosity is important in maintaining the oil
pressure required to actuate the fuel injectors. Extended oil change
intervals can negatively affect engine performance and fuel economy.
Pressurized oil from the turbocharger is also used to actuate an exhaust
backpressure warm-up system (if equipped). Pressurized oil from the
turbocharger is routed to the exhaust backpressure actuator. During
exhaust backpressure operation, the engine’s sound will be altered and
you may notice a change in engine performance while it’s engaged. This
function occurs only during cold weather warm-up cycle.
4
Diesel information
Fast start glow plug system
The glow plug system consists of:
• eight glow plugs
• the glow plug relay
• engine oil temperature (EOT) sensor
• barometric pressure (BARO) sensor
The glow plug system is electronically controlled by the PCM. The PCM
energizes the glow plugs immediately after the ignition is placed in the
ON position, then determines how long the glow plugs will be on
according to the EOT and BARO sensors. The required time for the glow
plugs to be energized decreases as the engine oil temperature and
barometric pressure increase.
Engine cooling system
The cooling system contains an engine oil cooler which is mounted to
the side of the cylinder block. The cooler’s function is to regulate engine
oil temperature.
Engine governed speed
The engine governor is controlled by the PCM. The PCM controls fuel
input to limit maximum engine speed. It will not, however, prevent
engine overspeeding resulting from downshifting at high vehicle speed or
by descending steep grades at too high a vehicle speed for the selected
transmission gear.
For maximum vehicle speed in various gears, refer to the “Transmission
shift speed” chart in the Driving tips chapter. Do not exceed 3,600 rpm.
Maximum engine governed speed is 3,000–4,000 rpm depending on
engine load. Excessive rpm can only be achieved by manually
downshifting at too high of a vehicle speed.
Operating the engine beyond the governed speed can cause severe
engine damage.
5
Diesel information
Air filter restriction gauge
The restriction gauge, located on
the clean-air side of the air cleaner
upper housing, shows if the air filter
is clogged. Refer to “Engine
Compartment” in Service Points
chapter.
The air filter element should be
replaced when the colored band on
the gauge reaches the CHANGE
FILTER mark. Engine performance
and fuel economy are adversely
affected when maximum restriction
is reached. After servicing the air
filter element, reset the restriction
gauge by pressing the button the
end of the gauge.
6
AIR FILTER GAUGE
FILTER CHANGE FILTER
CHANGE
AIR FILTER GAUGE
E FI
CHANG
LTER
CHANGE FILTER
Warning lights
ECONOLINE
F–250/350/450/550, EXCURSION
WAIT TO START
With the key in the ON position, the
WAIT
WAIT TO START light will illuminate
TO
if glow plug heat is necessary as a
starting aid. Wait until the light goes
START
off before starting. The light should
always illuminate briefly, when the ignition key is in the ON position. If
the light does not illuminate, there may be a problem. Refer to the
Starting chapter in this guide. After the engine starts, the light should
remain off.
The light should always illuminate at least momentarily when the engine
is cold and the ignition is turned to ON. If it does not illuminate, the
glow plug system should be checked and repaired promptly to avoid
difficulty in cold starting.
7
Warning lights
WATER IN FUEL
During refueling, it is possible for
WATER
water-contaminated diesel fuel to be
IN
pumped into your tank. Your vehicle
fuel system is equipped with a fuel
FUEL
filter/water separator to remove
water from the fuel. The WATER IN FUEL light will illuminate when the
ignition is turned to START (as part of the light function check) and
when the fuel filter/water separator has a significant quantity of water in
it.
If the light illuminates when the engine is running, stop the vehicle as
soon as safely possible, shut off the engine, then drain the filter bowl.
Refer to the General maintenance chapter for drain procedure.
Allowing water to stay in the system could result in extensive damage to,
or failure of, the fuel injection system.
Do not drain the water separator while the engine is running.
Fuel may ignite if the separator is drained while the engine is
running or the vehicle is moving.
8
Starting
STARTING THE ENGINE
Read all starting instructions carefully before you start your vehicle.
For temperatures below 0°C (32°F), the use of the correct grade engine
oil is essential for proper operation.
If your vehicle is equipped with a manual transmission, make sure the
parking brake is set fully before you turn the key. Depress the clutch
pedal and place the gearshift in the neutral position. The clutch must be
fully depressed in order to operate the starter. Do not press the
accelerator during starting.
If your vehicle is equipped with an automatic transmission, ensure the
gearshift lever is in P (Park) and the parking brake is set before you turn
the key. Do not press the accelerator during starting.
COLD WEATHER STARTING
Do not crank the engine for more than 30 seconds at a time as starter
damage may occur. If the engine fails to start, turn the key to OFF and
wait 30 seconds before trying again.
Do not use starting fluid such as ether in the air intake system (see Air
Cleaner Decal). Such fluid could cause immediate explosive damage to
the engine and possible personal injury.
Do not add gasoline, gasohol or alcohol to diesel fuel. This practice
creates a serious fire hazard and causes engine performance problems.
1. Make sure all vehicle occupants have buckled their safety belts. For
more information on safety belts and their proper usage, refer to Seating
and safety restraints chapter in the owner guide.
2. Make sure the headlamps and vehicle accessories are off.
3. Turn the key to the ON position.
WAIT
When the WAIT TO START light
TO
goes off, turn the key to START.
(For Canadian vehicles, the daytime
START
running lamps will be on if the
parking brake is not applied and the key is turned to ON.)
4. When the engine starts, release the key. The glow plugs will continue
to be activated for up to two minutes. If the engine is not started before
the activation ceases, the glow plug system must be reset by turning the
ignition key to OFF.
9
Starting
5. After the engine starts, allow it to idle for about 15 seconds. (Do not
increase engine speed until the oil pressure gauge indicates normal
pressure.)
STOPPING THE ENGINE
Turn the ignition to OFF. To prolong engine life (after extended high
speed or maximum GVW operation), it is recommended that a hot engine
be allowed to operate at low idle for about 7–10 minutes which would
allow sufficient time for the turbocharged engine to cool down.
COLD WEATHER OPERATION
Changing to a lighter grade engine oil also makes starting easier under
these conditions. Refer to “Engine Oil Specifications” in the General
maintenance information chapter.
At temperatures below –7°C (20°F), Number 2–D diesel fuel may thicken
enough to clog the fuel filter. Your engine is equipped with a fuel
filter/heater/water/separator to keep the wax melted which will help
prevent fuel filter clogging. However, if the engine starts but stalls after a
short time and will not restart, the fuel filter may be clogged. For best
results in cold weather, use Number 1–D diesel fuel or “winterized”
Number 2–D diesel fuel which has an additive to minimize wax
formation.
Your vehicle is also equipped with a bypass relief valve, located on the
in-tank fuel sending unit, which provides fuel flow to the engine if the
fuel pickup should become plugged by ice or wax. To allow this bypass
valve to function and avoid engine fuel starvation, it is recommended
that, during cold weather operation 0°C (32°F) or below, the fuel level in
your tank should not be allowed to drop below 1/4 full. This will help
prevent air from entering the fuel system and stalling the engine.
In cold weather below 0°C (32°F) your diesel engine will slowly increase
to a higher idle speed if left idling in P (Park). The sound of the engine
may change also, as an exhaust device engages to improve heater
performance and reduce exhaust smoke.
Operation in snow
Vehicle operation in heavy snowfall or in dry loose snow that may swirl
around the front of the vehicle may feed excessive amounts of snow into
the air intake system. This could plug the air cleaner with snow and
cause the engine to stall.
10
Starting
Operation in standing water
Ingestion of water into the diesel engine can result in immediate and
severe damage to the engine. If driving through water, slow down to
avoid splashing water into the intake. If the engine stalls, and ingestion
of water into the engine is suspected, do not try to restart the engine.
Consult your dealer for service immediately. Follow the cylinder
compression test procedure outlined in the Workshop Manual, then
check the engine oil for contamination.
Engine block heater (if equipped)
Refer to the Starting chapter in your Owner Guide.
11
Driving tips
DUAL FUEL TANK SELECTOR CONTROL (IF EQUIPPED)
If your vehicle is equipped dual fuel tanks, you will have a selector
control, located to the right of the steering wheel, which allows you to
draw fuel from either tank. Your fuel gauge will display the amount of
fuel in the currently selected tank.
Fuel level indication is delayed for several minutes when the tank
selector switch is actuated. Fuel level indication can be obtained
immediately by turning off and restarting the engine.
MANUAL TRANSMISSION SHIFT SPEEDS
Do not overspeed the engine when going downhill or steep grades. If
equipped, use the tachometer and do not allow engine speed to exceed
the redline area. Operating the engine beyond the recommended speeds
can cause severe engine damage.
If your vehicle is an F-Series equipped with a manual
transmission, your vehicle has an electronic operating strategy
which protects the engine system when the engine is operating
with high coolant temperatures; fueling to the engine will be
modified to prevent damage to the engine. Some power loss may
be experienced if the vehicle is overloaded.
12
Driving tips
Upshift and downshift according to the following shift speed charts:
Upshifts when accelerating
(recommended for best fuel economy)
6-speed transmission
Shift from:
Transfer case position1 (if equipped)
2H or 4H
4L
LO-1
8 km/h (5 mph)
3 km/h (2 mph)
1-2
16 km/h (10 mph)
6 km/h (4 mph)
2-3
32 km/h (20 mph)
13 km/h (8 mph)
3-4
48 km/h (30 mph)
19 km/h (12 mph)
64 km/h (40 mph)
24 km/h (15 mph)
4- D
(Overdrive)
Shift from:
D
1
2
Maximum downshift speeds 1
6-speed transmission
Transfer case position (if equipped)2
2H or 4H
4L
72 km/h (45 mph)
26 km/h (16 mph)
(Overdrive) - 4
4-3
56 km/h (35 mph)
19 km/h (12 mph)
3-2
32 km/h (20 mph)
13 km/h (8 mph)
2-1
8 km/h (5 mph)
3 km/h (2 mph)
1-LO
Only shift to LO when at a stop.
Use 2H or 4H for 4WD equipped vehicles.
Downshift at lower speeds when driving on slippery surfaces.
TRAILER TOWING
Refer to your “Owner Guide” for full details on towing a trailer.
13
Driving tips
Econoline trailer towing tables
Your vehicle may tow a class I, II or III trailer provided the maximum
trailer weight is less than or equal to the maximum trailer weight listed
for your engine and rear axle ratio on the following charts.
GCWR (Gross Combined Weight Rating)/Trailer Weights
Maximum
Trailer weight
Maximum Frontal
Rear axle
range-kg (lbs.)
Area Of
GCWR-kg
ratio
(lbs.)
(0-Maximum)
Trailer-m2 (ft2)
Regular Van E-350
3.55
7 258 (16 000)
4 536 (10 000)
5.52 (60)
4.10
9 072 (20 000)
4 536 (10 000)
5.52 (60)
Super Van E-350
3.55
7 258 (16 000)
4 445 (9 800)
5.52 (60)
4.10
9 072 (20 000)
4 536 (10 000)
5.52 (60)
Regular E-350 12 passenger Wagon
3.55
7 258 (16 000)
4 309 (9 500)
5.52 (60)
4.10
9 072 (20 000)
4 536 (10 000)
5.52 (60)
Super E-350 15 passenger Wagon
3.55
7 258 (16 000)
4 173 (9 200)
5.52 (60)
4.10
9 072 (20 000)
4 536 (10 000)
5.52 (60)
E-350 RV Cutaway (single rear wheel)
4.10
9 072 (20 000)
4 717 (10 400)
5.52 (60)
E-350 RV Cutaway (dual rear wheel)
4.10
9 072 (20 000)
4 309 (9 500)
5.52 (60)
E-350 Commercial Cutaway (single rear wheel)
4.10
9 072 (20 000)
4 717 (10 400)
5.52 (60)
E-350 Commercial Cutaway (dual rear wheel)
4.10
9 072 (20 000)
4 400 (9 700)
5.52 (60)
E-Super Duty
4.10
9 072 (20 000)
4 536 (10 000)
5.52 (60)
For high altitude operation reduce GCWR by 2% per 300 meters (1 000 ft)
elevation.
To determine the maximum trailer weight designed for you particular
vehicle as equipped, follow the section Calculating the load your vehicle
can tow/carry earlier in this chapter.
14
Driving tips
Your vehicle’s load capacity is designated by weight, not by volume, so
you cannot necessarily use all available space when loading a vehicle.
Distribute the load so that only 10 to 15% of the total is on the tongue.
Tie down the load so that it does not shift and change the weight on the
hitch.
Towing a trailer places an additional load on your vehicle’s engine,
transmission, axle, brakes, tires and suspension. Inspect these
components carefully after any towing operation.
Do not exceed the GVWR or the GAWR specified on the
certification label.
Towing trailers beyond the maximum recommended gross trailer
weight could result in engine damage, transmission/axle damage,
structural damage, loss of control, and personal injury.
F-Series and Excursion trailer towing tables
GCWR (Gross Combined Weight Rating)/Trailer Weights
Maximum
Rear axle
Maximum trailer
Model
GCWR-kg
ratio
weight-kg (lbs.) 1
(lbs.)
F-250 and
3.73
9 072 (20 000)
4 536 (10 000)
Excursion
F-250
4.10
9 072 (20 000)
4 536 (10 000)
F-350
3.73
9 072 (20 000)
4 536 (10 000)
F-350 (DRW)
4.10
9 072 (20 000)
4 536 (10 000)
F-450
4.88
11 794 (26 000)
4 536 (10 000)
F-550
4.88
11 794 (26 000)
4 536 (10 000)
(17 500 GVW)
F-550
4.88
11 794 (26 000)
4 536 (10 000)
(19 000 GVW)
F-550
4.88
13 608 (30 000)
4 536 (10 000)
(19 000 GVW)
1
Conventional/Class IV trailer hitch only. Fifth wheel trailer maximum
weights can be calculated by subtracting the GVW from the GCWR.
15
General maintenance information
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE
The Scheduled Maintenance Services in the Service Guide are required
because they are considered essential to the life and performance of
your vehicle.
Use only recommended fuel, lubricants, fluids and service parts
conforming to Ford specifications. Motorcraft parts are designed and
built for best performance in your vehicle.
WASHING THE DIESEL ENGINE
Never wash the engine when it is warm, hot or running. Spraying water
or other cleaning fluids on a warm engine can seriously damage the
engine’s fuel system. When washing the engine, the air cleaner must be
in place to prevent water from splashing into the engine.
FUEL REQUIREMENTS
The engine is designed to use low sulfur number 1–D or 2–D diesel fuel
only. At temperatures below -7°C (20°F), number 1–D or winter blend
number 2–D fuel is recommended. (See “Cold Weather Operation” in the
Starting chapter.)
Do not use fuel intended for agricultural use (agricultural fuel is
dyed red), home heating oil or any diesel fuel not intended for
highway use. Damage to the fuel injection system or engine can
occur if an improper fuel is used.
Do not add gasoline, gasohol or alcohol to diesel fuel. This practice
creates a serious fire hazard and engine performance problems.
It should not be necessary to add any aftermarket additives to your fuel
tank if you use a properly formulated diesel fuel that meets the ASTM D
975 industry specification. Aftermarket additives can damage the injector
system or engine.
Do not blend used engine oil with diesel fuel under any circumstances.
Blending used oil with the fuel will significantly increase your vehicle’s
exhaust emissions and reduce engine life due to increased internal wear.
Do not crank the engine for more than 30 seconds at a time as
damage to the starter motor may result.
If the engine fails to start in 30 seconds, turn the key to the OFF
position and wait 30 seconds before trying again.
16
General maintenance information
Truck stops have pumps and nozzles designed for larger, heavy-duty
trucks. When refueling at truck stops: if the nozzle shuts off repeatedly
when refueling, wait 5–10 seconds; then use a slower rate of flow (don’t
depress the nozzle trigger as far).
If air is allowed to enter the fuel system (during fuel filter change or if
you run out of fuel) the engine will purge the trapped air as it runs. The
engine may run rough and produce white smoke while air is in the
system. This is normal and should correct itself in a short time.
An engine that suddenly becomes noisy or operates poorly after a fuel fill
could be using substandard fuel (i.e., high water content, low cetane
rating or gasoline in the fuel). Diesel fuel should be purchased from a
reputable station which sells a large amount of diesel fuel.
Care should be taken whenever diesel fuel is stored. Use only clean,
approved containers which will prevent the entry of dirt or water.
Diesel fuel must not be stored in a galvanized container. The fuel will
dissolve the zinc in a galvanized container. The zinc will then remain in
solution until it is run through the engine where it will be deposited in
the fuel injectors causing expensive-to-repair damage.
17
General maintenance information
CHANGING FUEL FILTER
Removal — F-Series Super Duty and Excursion only
1. Remove the engine appearance
cover.
2. Remove the fuel filter cap by
turning counterclockwise.
3. Remove and discard old fuel filter
element and fuel filter o-ring.
4. Carefully clean the mating
surfaces.
Removal — Econoline only
1. Remove the engine appearance cover.
2. Disconnect the battery ground cable, then all electrical connectors,
vacuum tubes and fasteners as necessary for removal.
3. Release the four retaining clamps on the air cleaner assembly, then lift
the air cleaner cover and remove the air cleaner(s).
4. Loosen the clamp on the air inlet tube, then disconnect the air inlet
tube from the resonator.
5. Remove the three bolts on the turbocharger heat shield, then the
turbocharger heat shield.
6. Remove the bolt and resonator from the vehicle.
18
General maintenance information
7. Remove the fuel filter cap by
turning counterclockwise.
8. Remove and discard old fuel filter
element and fuel filter o-ring.
9. Carefully clean the mating
surfaces.
Installation — F-Series Super Duty and Excursion only
The engine will not run properly if the fuel filter is not installed
in housing.
1. Apply a coating of clean diesel fuel to the new fuel filter o-ring.
2. Install new fuel filter o-ring onto fuel filter element.
3. Install new fuel filter and o-ring into the fuel filter housing.
4. Tighten cap onto fuel filter housing slowly, allowing fuel to soak into
the fuel filter element. Tighten cap until it contacts the housing.
5. Install engine appearance cover.
After replacing the fuel filter, the engine will purge the trapped
air as it runs. The engine may run roughly and smoke until the air
is completely eliminated.
Using a fuel which has more than average impurities may require
the fuel filter to be replaced more frequently than the service
interval specifies.
19
General maintenance information
Installation — Econoline only
The engine will not run properly if the fuel filter is not installed
in housing.
1. Apply a coating of clean diesel fuel to the new fuel filter o-ring.
2. Install new fuel filter o-ring onto fuel filter element.
3. Install new fuel filter and o-ring into the fuel filter housing.
4. Tighten cap onto fuel filter housing slowly, allowing fuel to soak into
the fuel filter element. Tighten cap until it contacts the housing.
5. Install the resonator and resonator bolt.
6. Install the turbocharger heat shield, then the three bolts on the
turbocharger heat shield.
7. Connect the air inlet tube to the resonator, then tighten the clamp on
the air inlet tube.
8. Install the air cleaner(s), close the air cleaner cover, then close the
four retaining clamps on the air cleaner assembly.
9. Connect the battery ground cable, then all electrical connectors,
vacuum tubes and fasteners as necessary for installation.
10. Install the engine appearance cover.
After replacing the fuel filter, the engine will purge the trapped
air as it runs. The engine may run roughly and smoke until the air
is completely eliminated.
Using a fuel which has more than average impurities may require
the fuel filter to be replaced more frequently than the service
interval specifies.
20
General maintenance information
ENGINE OIL
Checking engine oil level
Because it is normal to add some oil between oil changes, check your
engine oil level each time you stop for fuel. To check the engine oil level
consistently and accurately, the following procedure is recommended:
1. Have engine at normal operating temperature (at least into the
NORMAL range on the engine coolant temperature gauge).
2. Park the vehicle on a level surface, then turn off the engine and open
the hood.
3. Allow at least 20 minutes after engine shutdown to assure that the oil
contained in the upper parts of the engine has returned to the oil pan.
4. Protecting yourself from engine
heat, pull out the dipstick, wipe it
clean and reinsert fully.
5. Read oil level on both sides of dipstick and use highest level (reading)
for the actual engine oil level.
6. Maintain the oil level between ADD and OPERATING RANGE on the
dipstick by adding oil as required. The distance from ADD to
OPERATING RANGE on the dipstick represents 1.9L (2 quarts). Do not
overfill. If the oil level exceeds OPERATING RANGE, oil consumption
may result.
21
General maintenance information
Engine oil specifications
To help achieve proper engine performance and durability, it is important
that only engine lubricating oils of the proper quality are used in your
diesel engine and that the engine oil is changed no later than the
recommended interval. Diesel engines require specially formulated oil to
resist contamination. Proper quality oils also provide maximum efficiency
of the crankcase ventilating system which reduces air pollution.
For normal or severe service, use Motorcraft oil or an equivalent oil
conforming to Ford Specification WSS-M2C171–C or API Service
categories CG-4/SH. Do not use oil labeled with only one of the following
category designations; SG, SH, CE, CF-4, or CG-4, as they could cause
engine damage.
Engine oils with improved fuel economy properties (energy conserving)
are currently available. If you use an energy conserving oil, be sure it
meets the recommended Ford Specification, API service categories and
SAE viscosity grades listed in the Lubricant and Maintenance Materials
Specifications chart. Some energy conserving oils do not meet the
requirements necessary for your diesel engine.
SAE VISCOSITY GRADES
*
Preferred
15W-40 Preferred
10W-30
5W-30
0W-30
F˚
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C˚
-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
EXPECTED TEMPERATURE RANGE
22
General maintenance information
API
S
/SH
-4
The use of correct oil viscosities for diesel engines is important for
satisfactory operation. Determine which oil viscosity best suits the
temperature range you expect to encounter for the next service interval.
A symbol has been developed by the
VICE CG
American Petroleum Institute (API)
ER
to help you select the proper engine
SAE
15W-40
oil. It will be included on the oil
container you purchase. The top
section of the symbol shows the oil
performance by the API designation.
This should match the owner guide recommendation. The center section
will show the SAE viscosity grade. The lower section will state energy
conserving if the oil has proven fuel saving capabilities.
Changing engine oil and filter
Change your oil and filter according to the “Service Guide”. Change more
frequently if your vehicle operation includes extended periods of idling
or low-speed operation, driving for a long time in cold temperatures or
driving short distances. See the following section “Engine Lubrication for
Severe Service Operation” for all severe duty restrictions.
Use Ford Engine Oil Filter Part No. F4TZ-6731–A (FL–1995) or
equivalent. These filters protect your engine by filtering harmful,
abrasive or sludge particles. The FL–1995 filters particles significantly
smaller than most available “will fit” filters.
To replace, use an oil filter wrench to unscrew the filter from the oil
cooler fitting. Turn it horizontally to let excess oil drain off, and remove.
Do not handle a hot oil filter with bare hands.
Clean the filter mounting area on the oil cooler, lightly coat the gasket
surface of the new filter with clean engine oil and hand tighten until the
gasket contacts the base. Then tighten another 1–1/4 to 2 turns. Fill
the crankcase and run the engine to check for leaks.
Continuous contact with USED motor oil has caused cancer in
laboratory mice. Protect your skin by washing with soap and
water.
23
General maintenance information
Engine lubrication for severe service operation
The following severe service operating conditions require unique engine
maintenance procedures:
• towing a trailer over 1 600 km (1 000 miles)
• sustained, high speed driving at Gross Vehicle Weight Rating
(maximum loaded weight for vehicle operation during hot
weather-above 32°C [90°F]).
• frequent or extended idling (over 10 minutes per hour of normal
driving).
• operating in severe dust conditions.
• frequent, short trips of 16 km (10 miles) or less during freezing
weather
If you are operating your vehicle under any of these conditions, observe
the following service procedures:
• Change engine oil and filter every 5 000 km (3 000 miles).
• Use Motorcraft oil or an equivalent oil conforming to Ford
Specification ESR-M2C171–C or API categories CG-4/SH. Do not use
oils labeled with only one of the following category designations, SG,
SH, CE, CF-4 or CG-4, as they could cause engine damage.
For more information refer the Severe Duty Maintenance Schedule in
the “Service Guide”.
REPLACING THE AIR FILTER ELEMENT
When replacing the air filter element, use the Motorcraft air filter
element listed. Refer to Lubricant and Maintenance Materials
Specifications in this supplement.
Failure to use the correct air filter element may result in severe
engine damage.
1. Remove air filter element from the housing, taking care to prevent dirt
from falling into the engine air intake.
2. Clean the air filter housing and cover to ensure good sealing.
3. Install a new air filter element. Be careful not to crimp the filter edges
between the air filter housing and cover. This could cause damage to the
air filter element and possible severe damage to the engine.
24
General maintenance information
4. On F-Series Super Duty and Excursion vehicles, be sure that the
rubber water drain hose is not kinked under the air filter housing. If it’s
kinked, adjust the hose so that it hangs free.
When servicing the air filter, always be sure that the rubber
water drain hose is not kinked or obstructed. Failure to do so
may result in severe engine damage when driving through deep water
and/or encountering unusually heavy precipitation conditions.
FUEL FILTER/WATER SEPARATOR
The engine is equipped with a combination fuel filter/water separator
located in the “V” of the engine.
Water should be drained from the
WATER
filter bowl whenever the warning
IN
light comes on or every 8 000 km
(5 000 miles). The WATER IN FUEL
FUEL
light will come on when
approximately 100 cc (0.2 pints) of water accumulates in the separator.
Replace the fuel filter with Motorcraft Part No. FD-4596 (Ford Part No.
F81Z-9N184–AA).
Fuel filter/water separator drain procedure
1. Stop the vehicle and shut off the engine.
The vehicle must be stopped with the engine off when draining
the fuel filter/water separator. Fuel may ignite if separator is
drained while the engine is running or vehicle is moving.
25
General maintenance information
2. Open the hood. Place an
appropriate container under the
filter drain under the vehicle.
DR
3. Locate the fuel filter drain valve. If necessary, remove the engine
appearance cover. Refer to “Engine Compartment” in the Service points
chapter.
4. On F-Series and Excursion
models, open fuel filter drain valve
by turning clockwise. Allow to drain
for approximately 25 seconds or
until clean fuel is observed. Close
filter drain valve by turning
counterclockwise until firmly seated.
AIN
SE
CLO
26
General maintenance information
4. On Econoline models, open fuel filter drain valve by pulling on the
release handle. Allow to drain for approximately 25 seconds or until
clean fuel is observed. Close filter drain valve by resetting handle to
original position.
5. Verify that the fuel filter drain valve is closed. If removed, install the
engine appearance cover.
6. Close the hood and remove the container from under the vehicle.
7. Restart the engine and check WATER IN FUEL indicator light. The
light should not glow. If it continues to glow, have fuel system checked
and repaired.
27
General maintenance information
ENGINE COOLANT
Replacing coolant
A coolant mixture of 50% coolant concentrate and 50% water is
recommended to maintain best overall performance. To avoid damaging
the engine and radiator, the coolant concentrate should not exceed 60%.
When refilling the coolant system either as part of the regular
maintenance (48 months, or 80 000 km [50 000 miles], whichever comes
first and then every 36 months or 48 000 km [30 000 miles], whichever
comes first), or due to service performed, adhere to the following
instructions:
1. Drain and flush the cooling system to remove dirt deposits, oil, rust
particles.
2. Add 1.89L (4 pints) of supplemental coolant additive FW-15, directly
to the cooling system. An additional 237–295 ml (8–10 oz.) of
supplemental coolant additive FW-15 should be added at 24 000 km
(15 000 mile) intervals to maintain proper concentration.
3. Fill the coolant reservoir with the specified coolant/water mixture until
the level stabilizes at the top hose fitting. Replace and tighten cap. Fill
the radiator when cold. Level the coolant in the coolant bottle.
4. Reinstall the coolant bottle cap.
5. Start and idle engine until the radiator upper hose is warm
(approximately 10–15 minutes). If the hose does not get warm then
repeat at a higher engine speed.
6. Immediately shut off engine. Cautiously remove coolant bottle cap and
add coolant to Cold Fill mark.
Checking coolant level
Check coolant level in coolant reservoir bottle at least once a month,
only when the engine is cool. Fill to within the “Cold Fill Level” range
noted on the reservoir as required with a 50/50 mixture of coolant
concentrate and water.
A coolant mixture of 50% coolant concentrate and 50% water is
recommended to maintain best overall performance. A 60/40 antifreeze
to water ratio is acceptable for extremely cold climates, but must be
returned to a 50/50 ratio at the end of the winter season.
Vehicles with diesel engines typically are used to carry heavy loads and
accumulate mileage rapidly. These two factors cause the additives in the
28
General maintenance information
coolant to “wear out” in a shorter time. Ford recommends an interim
service interval performed at 12 months or 24 000 km (15 000 miles),
whichever occurs first. Add 237–295 ml (8–10 oz.) of supplemental
coolant additive FW-16 to the cooling system. For vehicles with extensive
idling time, add 237–295 ml (8–10 oz.) of coolant additive FW-15 after
every 500 hours of operation.
Operating engine with insufficient coolant and/or coolant additive can
cause severe engine damage.
Failure to follow these instructions could result in serious
personal injury from hot coolant or steam blow out and/or
damage to the cooling system or engine. Never remove the coolant
bottle cap under any circumstances while the engine is operating.
Switch off the engine and wait until it has cooled. Wrap a thick cloth
around the cap and turn it slowly while the pressure is relieved. Step
back while the pressure is released from the cooling system. When you
are sure all the pressure has been released, still with a cloth — turn
and remove it. Stand clear of the opening. Hot coolant may splash out.
Whenever coolant level checks are made, check condition of coolant
bottle cap rubber seal. Make sure it is clean and free of any dirt
particles. Rinse off with water, if necessary. When replacing cap on
coolant bottle, also make sure coolant bottle neck seal is clean. Check
that overflow hose is not kinked.
Coolant specification
Use only a permanent-type coolant that meets Ford Specification
ESE-M97B44–A such as Ford Premium Cooling System Fluid
E2FZ-19549–AA. Do not use alcohol or methanol antifreeze or mix them
with the specified coolant.
Use of the wrong coolant may cause radiator and/or engine damage.
Plain water may be used in an emergency, but replace it with the
specified coolant as soon as possible to avoid damage to the system. With
only water in the system, do not let the engine run hot or remain parked
in temperatures below 0°C (32°F).
Coolant conditioner (liquid)
A supplemental coolant additive FW-16 has been added to the coolant in
this engine.
29
General maintenance information
This additive aids in the prevention of rust and scale buildup on the
internal parts of the cooling system. Prevention of rust and scale buildup
allows for proper dissipation of heat generated by combustion.
See the “Service Guide” for recommended intervals.
EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM(S) LAWS
Federal law prohibits vehicle manufacturers, dealers and other persons
engaged in the business of repairing, servicing, selling, leasing or trading
motor vehicles as well as fleet operations from unknowingly removing or
rendering emission control system(s) inoperative. Further, modifications
of the emission control system(s) could create liability on the part of the
individual owners under the laws of some states. In Canada,
modifications of the emission control system(s) could create liability
under applicable Federal or Provincial laws.
Do not remove or alter the original equipment floor covering or
insulation between it and the metal floor of the vehicle. The floor
covering and insulation protect occupants of the vehicle from the engine
and exhaust system heat and noise. On vehicles with no original
equipment floor covering insulation, do not carry passengers in a manner
that permits prolonged skin contact with the metal floor. Provide
adequate insulation.
30
General maintenance information
NOISE EMISSIONS WARRANTY, PROHIBITED TAMPERING ACTS
AND MAINTENANCE
On January 1, 1978, Federal regulation became effective governing the
noise emission on trucks over 4 536 kg (10 000 lbs.) GVWR (Gross
Vehicle Weight Rating). The following statements concerning prohibited
tampering acts and maintenance, and the noise warranty found in the
Warranty Facts Booklet, are applicable to complete chassis cabs over
4 536 (10 000 lbs.) GVWR.
Tampering with noise control system prohibited
Federal law prohibits the following acts or the causing thereof: (1) The
removal or rendering inoperative by any person other than for purposes
of maintenance, repair or replacement of any device or element of design
incorporated into any new vehicle for the purpose of noise control prior
to its sale or delivery to the ultimate purchaser or while it is in use, or
(2) the use of the vehicle after such device or element of design has
been removed or rendered inoperative by any person.
Among those acts which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency may
presume to constitute tampering are the acts listed below:
• Removal of hood blanket, fender apron absorbers, fender apron
barriers, underbody noise shields or acoustically absorptive material.
• Tampering or rendering inoperative the engine speed governor, so as
to allow engine speed to exceed manufacturer’s specifications.
31
Scheduled maintenance
VEHICLE EMISSIONS CONTROL INFORMATION (VECI)
Emissions information appears on
the VECI decal on the engine valve
cover. This decal identifies engine
displacement and provides certain
engine specifications.
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE SERVICES
Refer to your “Service Guide” for details of maintenance on your vehicle.
If you are using your vehicle in a manner in which it will remain
stationary (door to door service, taxi, etc.), then it is recommended that
you change the engine oil every 200 engine hours as opposed to a
mileage limit. Since most vehicles are not equipped with hourmeters, it
may be necessary for you to approximate your time and plan engine oil
and filter changes accordingly.
Any modification of the emissions control system could create liability
under federal law (U.S.) if made prior to sale and registration, under the
laws of some states if made thereafter. Further, federal law prohibits
vehicle manufacturers, dealers and other persons engaged in the
business of repairing, servicing, selling, leasing or trading motor vehicles
as well as fleet operations from knowingly removing or rendering an
emissions control system inoperative after sale and delivery to an
ultimate purchaser. In Canada, modifications of the emissions control
system could create liability under applicable federal or provincial laws.
32
Minor troubleshooting guide
The complexity of the diesel engine makes it so the owner is discouraged
from attempting to perform maintenance other than the services
described in this supplement.
If you experience difficult starting, rough idling, excessive exhaust
smoke, a decrease in engine performance or excess fuel consumption,
perform the following checks:
• a plugged air inlet system.
• water in the fuel filter/water separator.
• a clogged fuel filter.
• contaminated fuel.
• air in the fuel system, due to loose connections.
• an open or pinched sensor hose.
• low engine oil level.
• wrong fuel for climactic conditions.
If these checks do not help you correct the engine performance problem
you are experiencing, consult an authorized dealer.
FUELING
Do not use starting fluid such as ether or gasoline in the diesel
air intake system. Such fluids can cause immediate explosive
damage to the engine and possible personal injury.
If you fuel your vehicle at a truck stop, you may notice that the fuel
nozzle may shut off every 5–10 seconds. This is due to the flow rates
being designed for larger heavy duty trucks. You may have to fuel at a
slower rate (don’t depress the nozzle trigger fully).
Do not run your diesel vehicle out of fuel as this will allow air to enter
the fuel system which will make restarting difficult. Longer engine
cranking time may be required once air is in the fuel system. If air enters
the fuel system (either through running the fuel tank(s) empty or during
a fuel filter change), the engine will self-purge the trapped air once it
starts running. The engine may run roughly and produce white smoke
while air is in the fuel system; this is normal and should stop after a
short time.
33
Minor troubleshooting guide
IF THE ENGINE WON’T CRANK
Turn on the headlights. If the lights are dim, do not go on at all or if
when the ignition is turned to START the lights become dim or go out,
the battery connections may be loose or corroded, or the battery may be
discharged. If there is a clicking or stuttering sound coming from the
engine compartment when you turn the key to START, this may also
indicate a loose or corroded battery connection.
Check the battery connections at the battery posts, cable connection to
the engine grounding point and at the starter relay terminals. Also, make
sure the relay bracket is securely fastened to its mounting surface.
If the starter relay clicks, but the starter does not crank, check the
connections at the starter terminal. If a discharged battery is suspected,
have it checked and corrected.
• For vehicles with manual transmissions, the clutch pedal must be fully
depressed in order for the starter to operate.
• For vehicles with automatic transmissions, the gearshift lever must be
in Park or Neutral in order for the starter to operate.
• Try operating the starter switch several times. Should the switch be
corroded, this operation may clean the contacts or make the switch
temporarily operable until you can reach the dealer.
• If all electrical connections are tight and you need assistance to start,
see “Jump Starting Your Vehicle” in the Starting chapter.
IF ENGINE CRANKS BUT WON’T START
Prolonged starter cranking (in excess of 30 seconds) could cause
damage to the starter motor.
• Check the fuel gauge. You may be out of fuel. If the gauge shows that
there is fuel in the tank, the trouble may be in the electrical system or
the fuel system. If equipped with an auxiliary tank, be sure that the
tank control switch is set for the tank with fuel and not on an empty
tank.
• Leaving the ignition key ON for over two minutes without starting may
make starting difficult because the glow plugs will cease activation.
Reset the system by turning the ignition key to OFF and then back to
ON again.
34
Minor troubleshooting guide
IF THE ENGINE RUNS HOT
The following could cause the engine to overheat:
• Lack of coolant.
• Dirty cooling system.
• Driving with frozen coolant.
• Sticking thermostat.
• Overloading or pulling heavy trailers during hot weather.
• Grill or radiator air blockage.
• Slipping or missing drive belt.
• Plugged or very dirty air cleaner element.
IF FUSES BURN OUT
Burned-out or blown fuses usually indicate an electrical short-circuit,
although a fuse may occasionally burn out from vibration. Insert a second
fuse. If this fuse immediately burns out and you cannot locate the cause,
return your vehicle to your dealer for a circuit check.
Replacement fuses and circuit breakers must always be the same
rating as the original equipment shown. Never replace a fuse or
circuit breaker with one of a higher rating. Higher rated fuses or circuit
breakers could allow circuit overloading in the event of a circuit
malfunction, resulting in severe vehicle damage or personal injury.
Refer to the “Owner Guide” for replacement of fuses.
35
Capacities and specifications
REFILL CAPACITIES
Component
Cooling system (F-Series and Excursion)
Cooling system (Econoline) 1, 2
Engine oil 3
Fuel tank (F- Series)
Fuel tank (Excursion)
Fuel tank (Econoline) 4
Radiator cap
Manual transmission 5
Automatic transmission
1
Capacity
31.0L (32.75 quarts)
28.5L (30.0 quarts)
14.2 L (15.0 quarts)
Refer to Owner Guide
166.6L (44.0 gallons)
132.5L (35.0 gallons)
90 kPa (13 psi)
5.5L (5.8 quarts)
Refer to Owner Guide
1
Includes heater and 4.7L (5 quarts) in coolant recovery.
Add 2.5L (2.6 quarts) if equipped with auxiliary heater option.
3
Includes 1.9L (2 quarts) in engine oil filter.
4
Optional DRW cutaway and all standard E-450 models are 208.2L
(55.0 gallons).
5
Use Motorcraft MERCONt ATF, Ford part number XT-2–QDX, meeting
Ford specification MERCONt.
2
BULB SPECIFICATIONS
Lamp description
Wait to Start Light
Water-in-Fuel Light
Engine Temp. Light
36
Number of bulbs
required
1
1
1
Trade number
194
194
194
Capacities and specifications
LUBRICANT AND MAINTENANCE MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Engine Oil
Engine Oil Filter
(Use this filter
Only)
Air Filter
(F-Series and
Excursion) 1
Air Filter
(Econoline) (2
Required)
Battery (2
Required)
1
Ford Part
Ford Part
Ford
Name
Number
Specification
Motorcraft
Motor Oil 15W40
XO-15W40-QSD, WSS-M2C171-C,
Super Duty,
XO-10W30-QSD
CH-4/SJ/SH
10W30 Super
Duty
-
F4TZ-6731-A
(FL-1995)
-
-
FA-1680
ES-E95AE9601-AA
-
FA-1618
ES-E95AE9601-AA
-
BXT-65-750
-
Engine Coolant
Premium
Cooling System
Fluid
E2FZ-19549-AA
ESE-M97B44-A
Engine Coolant
Additive
-
FW-16
_
Always use the authorized Motorcraft air filter listed.
Failure to use the correct air filter may result in severe engine
damage.
37
Service points
ECONOLINE ENGINE COMPARTMENT
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
11
1. Battery
2. Windshield washer fluid reservoir
3. Engine oil dipstick
4. Fuel filter/water separator drain valve release handle
5. Automatic transmission fluid dipstick
6. Air filter assembly
7. Engine oil filler
8. Air filter restriction gauge
9. Power steering fluid reservoir
10. Brake fluid reservoir
11. Engine coolant recovery reservoir
38
Service points
F-SERIES AND EXCURSION ENGINE COMPARTMENT
1. Battery (dual batteries shown)
2. Engine coolant recovery reservoir
3. Engine oil filler
4. Engine oil dipstick
5. Automatic transmission dipstick (if equipped)
6. Fuel filter drain valve
7. Clutch fluid reservoir (if equipped)
8. Brake fluid reservoir
9. Air filter restriction gauge
10. Air filter assembly
11. Power steering fluid reservoir
12. Windshield washer fluid reservoir
39