Furuno FAR-2805 Series Radar Detector User Manual

Back
MARINE RADAR
FAR/FR-2805 Series
Radar
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
) FR-2815
) FR-2825
) FR-2855
) FR-2825W
) FR-2855W
) FR-2835S
) FR-2835SW
) FR-2865SW
ARPA
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
) FAR-2815
) FAR-2825
) FAR-2855
) FAR-2825W
) FAR-2855W
) FAR-2835S
) FAR-2835SW
) FAR-2865SW
) FA-2805
Bacic Spec.
X-band, 12 kW, TR up
X-band, 25 kW, TR up
X-band, 50 kW, TR up
X-band, 25 kW, TR down
X-band, 50 kW, TR down
S-band, 30 kW, TR up
S-band, 30 kW, TR down
S-band, 60 kW, TR down
Add-on ARPA
C
Your Local Agent/Dealer
9-52, Ashihara -cho,
Nishinomiya, Japan
Telephone:
Telefax:
0 7 9 8 - 6 5 - 2111
0798-65-4200
All rights reserved.
Printed in Japan
P U B . N o . O M E -3 4 0 4 0
(Y O S H)
FAR/FR-2805 SERIES
FIRST
EDITION
X2
:
:
AUG. 1995
FEB . 22, 200 2
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
DANGER
Before turning on the radar, make sure that there is no one near the
scanner unit.
Serious injury or even death may result if a rotating antenna strikes
someone standing nearby.
WARNING
Radio Frequency Radiation Hazard
The radar antenna emits electromagnetic radio frequency (RF) energy which can be
harmful, particularly to your eyes. Never look directly into the antenna aperture from a
close distance while the radar is in operation or expose yourself to the transmitting
antenna at a close distance.
Model
Radiator
type
Distance to
100 W/m2 point
Distance to
10 W/m2 point
XN12AF (4')
FR-2815
(X-band, 12 kW)
FR-2825/2825W
(X-band, 25 kW)
XN20AF (6.5')
RF power density on
antenna aperture
11.0 W/m2
Worst case
0.25 m*
Worst case
2.3 m*
9.6 W/m2
XN24AF (8')
9.6 W/m2
XN12AF (4')
29.0 W/m2
XN20AF (6.5')
Worst case
0.6 m*
Worst case
3.25 m*
23.8 W/m2
23.8 W/m2
XN24AF (8')
XN3A (6.5')
Nil
2.0m
76.0 W/m2
XN4A (8')
Nil
1.9m
64.0W/m2
XN5A (10')
Nil
1.8m
50.0W/m2
FR-2835S/2835SW
(S-band, 30 kW)
SN30AF (10')
Nil
1.06 m
20.0 W/m2
SN36AF (12')
Nil
0.5 m
16.0 W/m2
FR-2865SW
(S-band, 60kW)
SN30AF (10')
Nil
1.2 m
46.0 W/m2
SN36AF (12')
Nil
1.0 m
40.0 W/m2
FR-2855/2855W
X-band,50KW
*UK DRA measured on FR-2815/2825 with NARDA 8616. Other values by FURUNO.
i
WARNING
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
Do not open the equipment.
Do not place liquid-filled containers on
the top of the equipment.
Only qualified personnel
should work inside the
equipment.
Fire or electrical shock can result if a liquid
spills into the equipment.
Turn off the radar power
switch before servicing the
scanner unit. Post a warning sign near the switch
indicating it should not be
turned on while the scanner
unit is being serviced.
Prevent the potential risk of
being struck by the rotating
scanner and exposure to
RF radiation hazard.
Wear a safety belt and hard
hat when working on the
scanner unit.
Serious injury or death can
result if someone falls from
the radar scanner mast.
Do not disassemble or modify the
equipment.
Fire, electrical shock or serious injury can
result.
Turn off the power immediately if water
leaks into the equipment or the equipment is emitting smoke or fire.
Continued use of the equipment can cause
fire or electrical shock.
ii
WARNING
Do not operate the equipment with wet
hands.
Electrical shock can result.
Keep heater away from equipment.
Heat can alter equipment shape and melt
the power cord, which can cause fire or
electrical shock.
CAUTION
Do not use the equipment for other than
its intended purpose.
Use of the equipment as a stepping stool,
for example, can result in personal injury
or equipment damage.
No one navigation device should ever be
solely replied upon for the navigation of
a vessel.
Always confirm position against all available
aids to navigation, for safety of vessel and
crew.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
A Word to the Owner of FURUNO Radar ................................................................................ v
About This Manual .................................................................................................................. vi
Features................................................................................................................................... vii
Specifications........................................................................................................................... ix
SYSTEM CONFIGURATION ............................................................................................... xii
1. OPERATION
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.27
1.28
1.29
1.30
1.31
1.32
1.33
1.34
1.35
1.36
1.37
1.38
Turning on the Power ...................................................................................................1-1
Transmitter ON ............................................................................................................. 1-1
Controls ........................................................................................................................1-2
CRT Brilliance ..............................................................................................................1-6
Tuning the Receiver ...................................................................................................... 1-6
On-screen Legends and Markers .................................................................................. 1-7
Degaussing the CRT Screen ......................................................................................... 1-8
Initializing the Gyro Readout .......................................................................................1-9
Presentation Modes .......................................................................................................1-9
Selecting the Range Scale...........................................................................................1-12
Selecting the Pulsewidth .............................................................................................1-12
Adjusting the Sensitivity ............................................................................................1-14
Suppressing Sea Clutter ..............................................................................................1-14
Suppressing Precipitation Clutter ...............................................................................1-15
Interference Rejector ..................................................................................................1-15
Measuring the Range ..................................................................................................1-16
Measuring the Bearing................................................................................................1-16
Collision Assessment by Offset EBL .........................................................................1-17
Measuring Range and Bearing Between Two Targets ................................................1-18
Setting a Guard Zone (Guard Alarm) .........................................................................1-18
Off-Centering ..............................................................................................................1-19
Echo Stretch ................................................................................................................1-20
Echo Averaging...........................................................................................................1-21
Electronic Plotting Aid (EPA) ....................................................................................1-22
Target Trails (Echo Trails) ..........................................................................................1-24
Parallel Index Lines ....................................................................................................1-26
Anchor Watch .............................................................................................................1-28
Origin Mark ................................................................................................................1-29
Zoom...........................................................................................................................1-30
Markers .......................................................................................................................1-30
Menu Keys ..................................................................................................................1-31
RADAR 1 and 2 Menu Settings .................................................................................1-32
Function Keys .............................................................................................................1-33
EPA Menu ...................................................................................................................1-39
NAV INFORMATION Menu and Navigation Data Display ......................................1-40
Radar Map ..................................................................................................................1-42
Suppressing Second-trace Echoes ..............................................................................1-43
Adjusting Relative Brilliance Levels of Screen Data .................................................1-44
iii
1.39 Set and Drift (Set and Rate) ........................................................................................1-44
1.40 Display of Ancillary Information ...............................................................................1-45
1.41 Alarms ........................................................................................................................1-46
2. OPERATION OF ARPA
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18
General ......................................................................................................................... 2-1
Keys Used for ARPA ....................................................................................................2-1
ARPA Menu Operation ................................................................................................. 2-2
Start-up Procedure ........................................................................................................2-3
Automatic Acquisition .................................................................................................. 2-4
Manual Acquisition.......................................................................................................2-7
Changing Plot Symbol Size .......................................................................................... 2-7
Adjusting Brilliance of Plot Marks .............................................................................2-10
Displaying Target Data ...............................................................................................2-10
Mode and Length of Vectors....................................................................................... 2-11
Past Position Display .................................................................................................. 2-11
Setting CPA/TCPA Alarm Ranges ..............................................................................2-12
Setting a Guard Zone ..................................................................................................2-13
Operational Warnings .................................................................................................2-14
Trial Maneuver ...........................................................................................................2-15
ARPA Track Test ........................................................................................................2-17
Criteria for Selecting Targets for Tracking .................................................................2-18
Factors Affecting ARPA Functions .............................................................................2-19
3. RADAR OBSERVATION
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
General ......................................................................................................................... 3-1
False Echoes ................................................................................................................. 3-2
SART (Search and Rescue Transponder) ..................................................................... 3-3
RACON (Radar Beacon) .............................................................................................. 3-5
4. MAINTENANCE
4.1 Periodic Maintenance Schedule ....................................................................................4-1
4.2 Life Expectancy of Major Parts ....................................................................................4-2
5. TROUBLESHOOTING
5.1 Easy Troubleshooting ...................................................................................................5-1
5.2 Advanced-level Troubleshooting .................................................................................. 5-2
5.3 Diagnostic Test ............................................................................................................. 5-5
APPENDIX
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
Performance Monitor ...................................................................................................A-1
For Fishing Vessel .......................................................................................................A-2
Navigation Data (IEC 61162-1 Edition 1 and Edition 2) ............................................ A-3
Sentence Description ...................................................................................................A-7
MENU TREE ............................................................................... MN-1
Declaration of conformity to type
Declaration of Conformity (FR/FAR-2855, FR/FAR-2855W, FR/FAR-2865SW)
iv
INTRODUCTION
A Word to the Owner of FURUNO Radar
Thank you for purchasing this FURUNO radar and/or ARPA. We are confident you will discover why FURUNO has become synonymous with quality and reliability.
Dedicated in the design and manufacture of marine electronics equipment for 50 years,
FURUNO Electric Company has gained an unrivaled reputation as a world leader in the industry. This is the result of our technical excellence as well as our worldwide distribution and
service network.
Please carefully read and follow the safety information and operating and maintenance instructions set forth in this manual before attempting to operate the equipment and conduct
any maintenance. Your radar set will perform to the utmost of its ability only if it is operated
and maintained in accordance with the correct procedures.
FR-2805 Series
The FR-2805 Series are available in the following two types:
Regular type and IMO type
The Regular type is for fishing boats and pleasure boats where some more functions are
provided in addition to the functions of IMO type.
Note: You can easily recognize which type your radar/ARPA is by looking at the range scale
provided.
The FURUNO FR-2805 Series of radars are designed to meet the exacting requirements of
international and national standards and regulations including:
–IMO MSC-64 (67) Annex 4: Performance Standards for Radar Equipment
–IMO A.477 (XII): Performance Standards for Radar Equipment
–A. 694 (17): General requirements for shipborne radio equipment forming part of the
global
maritime distress and safety system (GMDSS) and for electronic navigation aids
–IEC 60936-1: Shipborne Radar Operational and Performance Requirements
–IEC 60936-2: Radar for HSC
–IEC 60945: Marine Navigational Equipment General Requirements
FAR-2805 Series ARPA
There are also Regular type and IMO type as in the FR-2805-I series radars. The IMO type
ARPA complies with the following (Regular type also complies with but includes more additional functions convenient for practical uses in fishing):
–IMO Resolution A.823 (19): Performance standards for Automatic Radar Plotting Aids
–A. 694 (17): General requirements for shipborne radio equipment forming part of the
global maritime distress and safety system (GMDSS) and for electronic navigation aids
–Results of NAV 40/WP.3/Add. l which is to be met for new building on or after January 1,
1997
–IEC 60945:1996-11: Marine Navigational Equipment General Requirements
–Us Navigation safety regulations, Labeling requirement in § 164.38(d)(1) of CFR33
v
"This device was designed and manufactured to comply with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Performance Standards for Automatic Radar Plotting Aids
(ARPA)."
WARNING
If your ship is 10,000 or more gross tons and scheduled to operate in the navigable waters of
the United States, make sure the above label is attached on the ARPA. Otherwise please
make one yourself by typing and gluing overleaf with the transparent seal.
Precautions on high speed craft
Assume your ship is making 40 kt and a target ship is approaching at 40 kt right toward
you. Then the relative speed is 80 kt. With the antenna revolving at 42 rpm, the target blip
appears jumping to a new location 59 m nearer. This jump corresponds to 23 mm on the
360 mm display using the 0.25 nm range scale. On such a short range you may lose the
track of target in the midst of sea clutter, random noise or other targets. Use one step larger
range scale.
ARPA can fail to track a target when the relative speed exceeds 100 kt.
About This Manual
This manual is designed to provide information on operation and maintenance of the FR-2805
series radars as well as fault diagnosis and troubleshooting procedures which may be performed by suitably qualified personnel on board.
In producing this manual, we tried to provide as "user friendly" an operation guide as possible
to the many functions of this sophisticated equipment. We would appreciated feedback from
you about this manual. Your comments and suggestions would be valuable inputs for future
improvement.
Categorization by specification
See the table on the next page.
vi
Item
Range Scales
IMO-type
0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.5,
3, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48, 96 nm
R-type
FR-2805 and FAR-2805
0.125, 0.25. 0.5, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6,
12, 24, 48, 72nm
Other models:
0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6,
12, 16, 24, 32, 48, (72) 120 nm
Guard Zone
IRange depth fixed to 0.5
nm with both outer and
inner limits settable
between 3 and 6 nm.
Inward (CZ) or outward (Anchor)
guard alarm selectable.
Outer and inner limits can be set
at any distance from own ship.
ARPA guard ring:
Outer limit: 0.7-32 nm
Width of ring: 0.5 nm
Sector angle: 1-360°
Off-centering
Up to 75% of range in use
in any direction
Up to 100% of range in use in
any direction
Anchor Watch
Available in stand-by only
Available in either stand-by or
transmit status
Own Ship Mark
Standard mark
Displayed when Anchor Watch is
activated. (Entry of ship data
required.)
x2 Zoom
No
Yes
Stern Marker
No
Yes
Features
The new FR-2805 series of radar and the FAR-2805 series of ARPAs are the results of combination of the FURUNO's many years of experience in the marine field and the advanced
computer technology. The FR-2805 series and FAR-2805 series are designed to fully meet
the exacting rules of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for installations on all classes
of vessels.
The display unit employs a 28" diagonal high-resolution green-phosphor CRT. It provides an
effective radar picture of 360 mm diameter leaving sufficient space for on-screen alphanumeric data.
Target detection is enhanced by the sophisticated signal processing technique such as multilevel quantization (MLQ), echo stretch, echo average, and a built-in radar interference rejector. Audible and visual guard zone alarms are provided as standard. Other ship's movement is
assessed by trails of target echoes or by electronic plotting. The FAR-2805 series ARPA further provides target assessment by historical plots, vectors and target data table.
On-screen data readouts include CPA, TCPA, range, bearing, speed/course of own ship and
up to 3 targets. The ARPA functions include automatic acquisition of up to 20 targets, or
manual acquisition of 40 targets. In addition, the ARPA features display of a traffic lane, buoys,
dangerous points, and other important reference points.
vii
General features
Daylight-bright high-resolution display
28" diagonal CRT presents radar picture of 360 mm effective diameter with alphanumeric
data area around it
User friendly operation by combination of tactile backlit touchpads, a trackball and rotary
controls
Audio-visual alert for targets in guard zone
Echo trail to assess targets' speed and course by simulated afterglow
Electronic plotting of up to 10 targets in different symbols (This function is disabled when
ARPA is activated.)
Electronic parallel index lines
Interswitch (optional) built in radar or ARPA display unit
Enhanced visual target detection by Echo Average, Echo Stretch, Interference Rejector,
and multi-level quantization
Stylish display
Choice of 10, 25 or 50 kW output for X-band; 30 kW output for S-band, either in the transceiver aloft (gearbox) or RF down (transceiver in bridge)
Exclusive FURUNO MIC low noise receiver
ARPA features
Acquires up to 20 targets automatically plus up to 20 targets manually, or all 40 targets
manually
Movement of tracked targets shown by true or relative vectors. (Vector length 1 to 99 min.
selected in 1 min. steps.)
Setting of nav lines, buoy marks and other symbols to enhance navigation safety
On-screen digital readouts of range, bearing, course, speed, CPA (Closest Point of Approach), TCPA (Time to CPA), BCR (Bow Crossing Range) and BCT (Bow Crossing Time)
of 2 targets out of all tracked targets.
Audible and visual alarms against threatening targets coming into operator-selected CPA/
TCPA limits, lost targets, targets, two guard rings, visual alarm against system failure and
target full situation
viii
FR/FAR-2825W, 2855, 2855W, 2835S,
2835SW, 2865SW:
Specifications
ANTENNA RADIATORS
1. Type
Slotted waveguide array
2. Beamwidth and sidelobe attenuation
Band
X-band
S-band
XN20AF XN24AF
Radiator
XN5A SN36AF SN30AF
XN12AF XN3
type
(XN3A) (XN4A)
Beamwidth
1.23°
1.23°
0.75°
2.1°
2.5°
1.8°
0.95°
(Hor.)
Beamwidth
20°
20°
20°
25°
25°
20°
25°
(Ver.)
Sidelobe att
26 db 25 dB
24 db
28 dB 24 dB 28 dB
28 db
within ±10°
Sidelobe att
32 dB
30 db
32 dB 30 db 30 dB
outside ±10° 32 dB 30 dB
* 10 ft radiator SN30AF available for NON-SOLAS ship. (FAR-2835S HSC is
available for SOLAS ship.)
3. Polarization
Horizontal
4. I.F.
60 MHz, Logarithmic
S1-M1: 28 MHz
M2-Lpulse: 3 MHz
5. Duplexer
Ferrite circulator with diode limiter for
FR/FAR-2815/2825/2835S/2835sw
Ferrite circulator with TR limiter for FR2825W/2855/2855W/2865SW
6. Noise figure
4. Rotation
FR/FAR-2815/2825: 24/42 rpm
FR/FAR-2825W2855W,
FR/FAR-2835SW/2865SW: 21 rpm (50 Hz),
26 rpm (60 Hz)
FR/FAR-2835S: 21 rpm (50 Hz),
26 rpm (60 Hz),
45 rpm (for HSC)
FR/FAR-2855: 16 rpm (50 Hz),
20 rpm (60 Hz or DC)
RF TRANSCEIVER
1. Frequency
X-band: 9410 MHz ±30 MHz
9415 MHz ±30 MHz(50kW)
S-band: 3050 MHz ±30 MHz
2. Output power
FR/FAR-2815:
FR/FAR-2825/2825W:
FR/FAR-2855-I/2855W:
FR/FAR-2835S-I/2835SW:
FR/FAR-2865SW:
12 kW
25 kW
50 kW
30 kW
60 kW
3. Pulselength/PRF
FR/FAR-2815/2825
Range(nm)
0.125, 0.25
0.5, 0.75
1.5
3
6
12, 24
48, 96
Range (nm)
Pulselength (µs)
PRR (Hz)
0.125, 0.25, 0.5 0.08
2200
0.75, 1.5
0.08/0.3*
2200
3
Two from 0.08, 0.3*, 0.6 2200/1100
6
Two from 0.08, 0.3*, 0.6 2200/1100
12, 24
0.6, 1.2
1000/600
48, 96
1.2
600/500
*: In case of FR-2855, FR-2855W, FR-2865SW
0.3 is replaced with 0.2.0
Pulselength (µs)
0.07
0.07/0.15
Two from 0.07, 0.15, 0.3
Two from 0.15, 0.3, 0.5
Two from 0.3, 0.5, 1.2
Two from 0.5, 1.2
1.2
PRR (Hz)
2200
2200
2200/1000
2200/1000
1000/600
1000/600
600 (48
nm)/500
(96 nm)
FR/FAR-2815/2825/2825W/2855/2855W/
2835S: 6 dB
FR/FAR-2835SW: 4 dB
FR/FAR-2865SW: 4.5 dB
RADAR DISPLAY
1. Picture tube
28" color CRT, Effective radar diameter 360
mm
IMO type: Yellow or green echoes in 16 levels
R-type: Yellow or green echoes in 16 levels or
3 colors depending on echo strengths
Different color for VRM, range rings, alarms,
etc.
Raster scan at 32.25 kHz horizontal, 60 Hz
vertical. Number of scanning lines 1024,
interlaced.
2. Minimum range and discription
35 m
3. Range scales (nm)
IMO type:
0.125 (.025), 0.25 (0.05), 0.5 (0.1), 0.75
(0.25), 1.5 (0.25), 3 (0.5), 6 (1), 12 (2), 24 (4),
48 (8), 96 (16)
R-type:
0.125 (.025), 0.25 (0.05), 0.5 (0.1), 0.75
(0.25), 1.5 (0.25), 3 (0.5), 6 (1), 12 (2), 16 (4),
24 (4), 32 (8), 48 (8), 72 (16), 120 (20)
4. Range accuracy
1% of range in use or 15 m whichever is the
greater
ix
5. Bearing accuracy
±1°
6. Bearing discrimination
Better than 2.5° except S-band 10 ft radiators
(SN-30AF)
7. Presentation modes
Head-up, Head-up TB, North-up, Course-up,
True motion north-up
(Automatically set to HU in case of compass
failure)
8. Variable Range Markers
Two Variable Range Markers, switched
9. Electronic Bearing Lines
Two Electronic Bearing Lines, switched
Range merker on EBL
10. Offcenter
IMO type: Sweep origin can be offcentered
by 75% of range in use in any direction.
Regular type: Any direction up to 100%
11. Target alarm zone
2 TAZ at 3 and 6 nm in width of 0.5 nm, any
sector.
12. Electronic plotting (E-plot)
10 targets manual plotting. Not operative in
ARPA mode.
13. Parallel index lines
5. Collision warning
CPA limit: 0.2 to 10 nm
TCPA limit: 0 to 99 min
6. Guard zone (Guard ring)
2 guard zones (guard rings) of operatordefined width in 0.7 to 32 nm, Sector 1 to
360° any direction
7. Trial maneuver
Simulates the effect on all tracked targets of
own ship maneuver with course, speed and
delay time.
INTERFACING
1. IEC 61162-1
OSD, RSD, TTM, etc. (Listener 2 mA at 2V,
Talker 60 mA max)
2. Analog
RGB video, H/V sync for VDR with optional
board)
3.Gyrocompass
Built-in interface accepts synchro signal (2050 V, 50-400 Hz) or stepper signal (20-50
VDC, any polarity).
4. Speed log (IEC 61192-1 interface)
IEC 61192-1 contact closure or 200/400/500
pulses/nm.
2, 3 and 6 lines (selectable on menu)
14. Navigation lines (option)
Two lines to define a navigation channel
(with RP-25)
ARPA FUNCTIONS
1. Acquisition
Instant selection of auto or manual acquisition
in 0.2 to 32 nm, relative speed 100 kt. Auto
20 targets plus manual 20 targets, or Manual
40 targets
2. Tracking
Automatic tracking of all acquired targets on
the display for 5 out of 10 consecutive scans
in 0.1 to 32 nm
3. Prediction of target motion
True or relative vectors, time scaled.
Length: 1 to 99 min
4. Past positions
5 or 10 past positions of tracked targets at
intervals of 2 min
x
POWER SUPPLY
1. FR/FAR-2815/2825
115/230 VAC, 1ø, 470 VA(2815), 500
VA(2825), DC set not available
2. FR/FAR-2825W/2855/2855W
Display unit: 115/230 VAC, 1ø, 500 VA
(2825W), 115 VAC, 1ø, 550 VA (2855/
2855W)
Antenna unit: 115/230 VAC, 1ø, 150 VA
(2825W/2855W), 230 VAC, 3ø, 120 VA, 380/
440 VAC, 3ø, 120 VA (2825W/2855W), 24 V,
30 W (2855)
3. FR/FAR-2835S/2835SW
Display unit: 115/230 VAC, 1ø, 500 W
Antenna unit: 220 VAC, 50-60 Hz, 3ø,
440 VA, 380/440 VAC, 50-60 Hz, 3ø, 440 VA
4. FR/FAR-2865SW
Display unit: 115 VAC, 1ø, 550 VA
Antenna unit: 220 VAC, 3ø, 50-60 Hz, 440
VA, 380/440 VAC, 3ø, 50-60 Hz, 440 VA
PROGRAM NUMBER
SPU Board
MAIN: 0359096132
SUB: 0359057134
ARP Board
ARP: 1859038106
SUB: 18590399101
RP Board
0359094111
Category of Equipment Units
Equipment for Protected Area
•Display unit
•Power supply unit
•RF transceiver unit
•Interswitch unit
Equipment for Exposed
•Antenna unit
•Performance monitor
Compass safe distance
See each corresponded Installation Manual.
EQUIPMENT LIST
Standard Supplies
1. Display unit
Radar: RDP-115 (w/RP-25)
ARPA: RDP-115A (w/ARP-25, RP-25)
2. Antenna unit with 30 m antenna cable
3. RF transceiver unit for RF-down system
4. PSU-004 for FR/FAR-2825W/2855W/
2835S/2835SW/2865SW
5. PSU-001 for FR/FAR-2855
6. Standard spare parts and installation
materials
Optional Supplies
1. Waveguide for RF-down system
(Coax cable for S-band)
2. Gyro interface GC-8
3. Interswitch box RJ-7 or 8
4. Performance monitor PM-30* (X-band),
PM-50* (S-band)
5. 42 rpm scanner motor
(FR/FAR-2815/2825 only)
6. 45 rpm scanner motor for HSC
(FAR-2835S only)
7. Video plotter RP-25**
8. ARPA Board ARP-25
9. Hand grip
10. Display pedestal
11. Interface unit IF-2300*
* Necessary in IMO-type Radar and ARPA
** RP-25 (Radar Video Picture) necessary for
all class of SOLAS ships for radar maps and
navlines
*** ARP-25 (Auto Radar Plotter) may not be
necessary on ships below 1,000 GT. Check
with the Administrations.
xi
RW-6895
RW-4873 (for 2815/2825)
FR/FAR-2855/2835S
ANTENNA UNIT
CO-SPEVV-SB-C
2C 1.5 m
115/230 VAC, 1φ, 50/60 Hz
(Ant and disp for FR/FAR2815/2825)
xii
Radar system data
and target data in
IEC61162 chart data, etc.
NAV data (GLL ..)
Interface
IF-2300
Speed (VBW, VHW)
TRUE Heading (HDT)
Interswitch
RJ-7.8
Other Radar system
External Buzzer
ANTENNA UNIT (Turning unit or Gearbox)
Model
FR/FAR-2815
FR/FAR-2825
FR/FAR-2855
FR/FAR-2825W
FR/FAR-2855W
FR/FAR-2835S
FR/FAR-2835SW
Antenna unit
Motor type
RSB-0074 (24 rpm, 24 VDC)*
D8G-516
RSB-0075 (42 rpm, 24 VDC)*
D8G-571
RSB-0074 (24 rpm, 24 VDC)*
D8G-516
RSB-0075 (42 rpm, 24 VDC)*
D8G-571
RSB-0049 (16 rpm (50 Hz)/20 rpm (60 Hz),
200/220 VAC, 3φ)
GOB-8222
RSB-0050 (20 rpm, 24 VDC)
RM-6585
RSB-0076 (21 rpm (50 Hz)/26 rpm (60 Hz),
200/220 VAC, 3φ) *
RM-8123
RSB-0077 (21 rpm (50 Hz)26 rpm (60 Hz),
380/440 VAC, 3φ) *
RM-8124
RSB-0078 (21 rpm (50 Hz)26 rpm (60 Hz),
380/440 VAC, 1φ) *
RM-8247
RSB-0026 (21 rpm (50 Hz)26 rpm (60 Hz),
200/220 VAC, 3φ)
RM-7398
RSB-0031 (21 rpm (50 Hz)26 rpm (60 Hz),
200/220 VAC, 3φ)
RM-7435
RSB-0088 (45 rpm, 220 VAC, 3φ, 50 Hz) for
HSC S-band
RM-9519
RSB-0089 (45 rpm, 220 VAC, 3φ, 60 Hz)
HSC S-band
RM-9520
RSB-0090 (45 rpm, 440 VAC, 3φ, 60 Hz)
HSC S-band
RM-9521
RSB-0027 (21 rpm (50 Hz)26 rpm (60 Hz),
200/220 VAC, 3φ)
RM-7398
RSB-0032 (21 rpm (50 Hz)26 rpm (60 Hz),
380/440 VAC, 3φ)
RM-7435
NOTE: The gearboxes marked * work with new radiators (such as XN12AF *). The new radiator
has different physical dimensions at the rotary joint and only fits on the new gear box. The slotted
waveguide array radiators are the same as the current ones. The gearing and motors are the
same as those in the former counterpart. Assembled antenna are compatible to each other within
the same for RF output.
RADIATOR
4 ft
Type XN-12AF*
8 ft
Type XN-4A, 24AF*
6.5 ft
Type XN-3, 3A, 20AF*
10 ft
Type XN-5A
12 ft
SN-36AF
10 ft
SN-30AF
X-Band
S-Band
NOTE: Radiators marked * for RSB-0074/0075/0076/0077/0078
xiii
1. OPERATION
WARNING
Before turning on the radar, make sure that
there is no one near the antenna unit.
Serious injury or even death may result if
a rotating antenna strikes someone
standing nearby.
1.1 Turning on the Power
The POWER switch is located at the lower
right corner of the display. Push it to switch
on the radar set. To turn off the radar, push
it again; the switch will extend. The screen
shows the bearing scale and digital timer
approximately 15 seconds after power-on.
The timer counts down three minutes of
warm-up time. During this period the magnetron, or the transmitter tube, is warmed
for transmission. When the timer has
reached 0:00, the legend STBY appears
indicating that the radar is now ready to
transmit pulses.
POWER
ON
OFF
Power
switch
Location of power switch
In warm-up and standby condition, you
will see the message BRG SIG MISSING.
This is normal because a bearing signal
is not yet generated when the antenna is
not rotating. ON TIME and TX TIME values shown at the bottom of the screen
are the time counts in hours and tenths
of hour when the radar has been powered on and transmitted.
1.2 Transmitter ON
When the STANDBY status is displayed
on the screen, press the Transmit switch
labeled ST-BY/TX on the control panel of
the display unit.
The radar is initially set to previously used
range and pulsewidth. Other settings such
as brilliance levels, VRMs, EBLs and
menu option selections are also set to
previous settings.
The Transmit switch toggles the radar between STANDBY and TRANSMIT status.
The antenna stops in STANDBY status
and rotates in TRANSMIT status.
Notes:
1) If the antenna does not rotate in
TRANSMIT status, check whether the
antenna switch in the tuning compartment is in the OFF position.
2) The magnetron ages with time resulting in a reduction of output power. It is
highly recommended that the radar be
set to STANDBY status when not used
for an extended period of time.
Quick Start
Provided that the radar was once in use with the
transmitter tube (magnetron) still warm, you can
turn the radar into TRANSMIT condition without
3-minutes standby. If the Power Switch has been
turned off by mistake or the like and you wish to
restart the radar promptly, follow the steps
below:
• Turn on the Power Switch not later than 5 sec
after power-off.
• Press the ST-BY switch in the tuning
compartment.
• Press the Transmit Switch STBY/TX.
Antenna switch
ORIGIN
MARK
VECTOR
TRUE/
REL
VECTOR
TIME
ST-BY switch
1-1
1.3 Controls
FR-2805 Series Radar Display Unit Overview
1-2
Main control panel
A/C RAIN control
Reduces clutter from
rain, snow and clouds.
BRILLIANCE control
Adjusts brightness of
entire screen.
OFF
A/C SEA control
Reduces sea clutter.
ON
OFF
EBL
BRILL
A/C RAIN
A/C SEA
GAIN
ON
VRM
ACQ
A/C
AUTO
FUNC1
FUNC2
FUNC3
ST-BY
FUNC4
TX
AUDIO
OFF
RANGE
A/C AUTO key
Reduces sea
clutter at preset level. Permits manual
override by
A/C SEA and
A/C RAIN
controls.
FUNCTION keys
#1 key: Setup 1
#2 key: Setup 2
#3 key: Setup 3
#4 key: Setup 4
EBL ON/OFF control
Pressing ON key toggles
between No.1 EBL and
No.2 EBL. Bearing is
read either Relative or
True at the lower left
corner of the screen.
GAIN control
Adjusts receiver
sensitivity.
TRANSMIT switch
RANGE keys
Selects range
scales.
Trackball
Shifts cursor
on radar
screen.
ACQ key
Press key after
selecting target by
trackball. The target
will be acquired in
30 sec.
AUDIO OFF key
Silences aural alarm
(except guard alarm)
and ARP-23 (option)
generated alarm.
VRM ON/OFF keys and rotary control
Press ON to activate VRM. Turn
rotary control clockwise to increase
VRM diameter; counterclockwise to
decrease it. Read range at lower-right
hand corner of screen. There are two
VRMs which are toggled by each press
of ON key. Press OFF key to deactivate
each VRM.
GAIN, A/C RAIN, A/C SEA and BRILL controls are of push-and-rotate type. Push in
wanted switch lightly, and it will pop up. Rotate it to the wanted setting and push it in.
The retracted position of the controls provides a better protection for water splash.
1-3
Display controls
Mode Panel
HM
OFF
ECHO
TRAILS
MODE
GUARD
ORIGIN
ALARM
MARK
VECTOR
EBL
TRUE/
OFFSET
REL
VECTOR
OFF
CENTER
TIME
X2
ZOOM
BKGR
COLOR
INDEX
LINES
CU, TM
RESET
INT
REJECT
RINGS
HM OFF
Temporarily erases the heading marker.
ECHO TRAILS
Shows trails of target echoes in the form
of simulated afterglow.
MODE
Selects presentation modes: Head-up,
Head-up/TB, North-up, Course-up and
True Motion.
GUARD ALARM
Used for setting the guard alarm.
EBL OFFSET
Activates and deactivates off-centering of
the sweep origin.
BKGR COLOR
Selects the background color.
INDEX LINES
Alternately shows and erases parallel index lines.
1-4
X2 ZOOM
Enlarges a user-selected portion of picture twice as large as normal. (R-type
only)
CU, TM RESET
Resets the heading marker to 000° in
course-up mode; moves own ship position to 50% radius in stern direction in the
true motion mode.
INT REJECT
Reduces mutual radar interference.
RINGS
Adjusts the brightness of range rings.
Plotting keypad and tuning compartment
Keys for ARPA (FAR)
VECTOR
TRUE/
REL
TARGET
ORIGIN
MARK
DATA
VECTOR
TARGET
BASED
TRUE/
DATA
REL
VECTOR
TIME
AUTO
RADAR
MENU
1
2
3
TUNE
AUTO
ORIGIN
MARK
GYRO SET
LOST
TARGET
VECTOR
AUTO
PLOT
TIME
HOLD
4
E,AUTO
PLOT
MENU
5
6
HISTORY
;;;;;;
;;;;;;
;;;;;;
VIDEO
CHART ;;;;;;
;;;;;;
;;;;;;
MARK ;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;
PLOT
ALIGN
;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;
NAV
MENU
7
8
–
9
CANCEL
9
ANTENNA
TRIAL
MANU
ON
OFF
DEGAUSS
+
–
ERROR
STBY
ENTER
PM-ON/OFF
Keys for RP-25 (option)
ORIGIN MARK
Show and erases the origin mark (a reference point for range/bearing measurement).
Keys for ARPA (optional in R-type)
VECTOR TRUE/REL
Selects true or relative vector.
TARGET BASED DATA
Own ship's speed is measured relative to
a fixed target.
VECTOR TIME
Sets vector length in time.
RADAR MENU
Opens and closes RADAR menus.
E-PLOT, AUTO PLOT MENU
Opens and closes E-Plot and optional
AUTO PLOT menus.
NAV MENU
Opens and closes NAV menu.
Keys 0-9
Select plot symbols. Also used for entering numeric data.
CANCEL
Terminates plotting of a specified target
or all tracked targets.
ENTER
Used to save settings on menu screen.
TARGET DATA
Displays the acquired target data.
AUTO PLOT
Activates and deactivates the Auto Plotter.
TRIAL
Initiates a trial maneuver.
LOST TARGET
Silences the lost target audible alarm and
erases the lost target symbol.
HISTORY
Shows and erases past positions of
tracked targets.
Keys for Video Plotter (optional)
MARK Enter/erase marks
CHART ALIGN
Used to align chart data.
VIDEO PLOT
Turns the video plotter on/off.
1-5
1.4 CRT Brilliance
2. Push the tune control so that it pops
up.
Operate the BRILL control on the control
panel of the display unit to adjust the entire screen brightness. Note that the optimum point of adjustment varies with
ambient light conditions, especially between daytime and nighttime.
3. While observing the picture on the 48
mile scale, slowly adjust TUNE control
and find the best tuning point.
Brilliance
control
BRILL
A/C RAIN
4. So the TUNE selector to AUTO and
wait for about 10 seconds or four scanner rotations.
5. Make sure that the radar has been set
to the best tuning point. This condition
is where the tuning indicator lights to
about 80% of its total length.
A/C SEA
GAIN
Note: The CRT brilliance should be adjusted before adjusting relative brilliance
levels on the BRILLIANCE menu to be
explained later.
1.5 Tuning the Receiver
Auto tune
The radar receiver is tuned automatically
each time the power is turned on, thus
there is no front panel control for tuning
purpose. The tuning indicator and the label AUTO TUNE at the top right corner of
the display unit show the tuning circuit is
working. If the label AUTO TUNE is not
displayed, check that the TUNE selector
in tuning compartment is in the AUTO
position.
6. Push the TUNE control into the retracted position.
Video Lockup Recovery
Video lockup, or picture freeze, can occur unexpectedly on digital rasterscan radars. This is
mainly caused by heavy spike noise in the power
line and can be noticed by carefully watching the
nearly invisible sweep line. If you suspect that the
picture is not updated every scan of the antenna
or no key entry is accepted notwithstanding the
apparently normal picture, do Quick Start to
restore normal operation:
1. Turn of the power switch and turn it on again
within five seconds.
2. Push the ST-BY switch in the tuning compartment.
3. Push the Transmit switch labeled ST-BY/TX
for Transmit status.
This LED lights if video lockup is associated
with fundamental malfunction of CPU.
Manual tune
If you are not satisfied with the current
auto tune setting, follow these steps to
fine-tune the receiver:
1. Set the TUNE selector in the tuning
compartment to MAN for manual tuning.
TUNE control
TUNE selector
ORIGIN
MARK
1-6
VECTOR
TRUE/
REL
VECTOR
TIME
ST-BY switch for
quick start
1.6 On-screen Legends and Markers
Heading
mark
Guard zone
Range and bearing of
cursor from own ship
Antenna/Radar in use
Heading
line
Range ring
interval/Range
Tuning indicator
Alarm clock
Presentation
mode
Pulselength
Interference
rejector
Echo stretch
No.1 EBL
No.2 EBL
Automatic
clutter
Noise
rejector
Off-center
6/1
NM
350 000
340
1.5 NM
330
330.0°T
HEAD UP
320
RM
PULSE 1
310
010
AUTO TUNE
ANT 1 MAIN
020
030
040
IR3
300
ES1
WATCH
11:30
1997
050 02/08
13:28*
060
070
290
280
080
270
090
260
100
250
110
240
A/C
GYRO 132.7°
LOG
2.2KT
ARPA
REL VECTOR 6MIN
RNG
1 BRG
TRU CSE
TRU SPD
4.91NM
226.1°T
263.3°T
12.4KT
CPA 2.9NM TCPA *** MIN
BCR 8.9NM BCT 20MIN
RNG 4.91NM
2 BRG 226.1°T
TRU CSE 263.3°T
TRU SPD 12.4KT
CPA 2.9NM TCPA *** MIN
BCR 8.9NM BCT 20MIN
CURRENT *.*KT
*.*°T
WIND
*.*KT
*.*°R
120
230
130
AUTO
220
NOISE
210
REJ
200
OFFCENTER
190
EBL
>287.2°T<
239.6°T
140
150
180 170
160
VRM
>5.65NM<
2.35NM
PI
348.6°T
OS
[GPS]
+
GYRO LOG EPSF
AZIMUTH HDG TRIG
VIDEO LOST TARGET
AUTO MAN TGT FULL
GZ COLLOSION SOG
Fixed
range ring
Target alarm
ON
Echo trail
settings
Error Message
appears in red.
North marker No.1 VRM (upper)
No.2 VRM (lower)
Parallel Index Line
No.1 EBL (upper)
No.2 EBL (lower)
TGT ALARM
TRU TRAIL
30MIN
15:26
Target data
display
(See next
page.)
No.1 VRM
No.2 VRM
1-7
1.7 Degaussing the CRT
Screen
Each time the radar is turned on, the degaussing circuit automatically demagnetizes the CRT screen to eliminate color
contamination caused by earth's magnetism or magnetized ship structure.
The screen is also degaussed automatically when own ship has made a significant course change. While being
degaussed, the screen may be disturbed
momentarily with vertical lines. If you wish
to degauss by manual operation at an
arbitrary time, open and press the "DEGAUSS" switch.
Gyro
LED
DEGAUSS switch
ORIGIN
MARK
VECTOR
TRUE/
REL
VECTOR
TIME
Gyro readout
adjustment
switches
1-8
1.8 Initializing the Gyro
Readout
1.9 Presentation Modes
Provided that your radar is interfaced with
a gyrocompass, ship's heading is displayed at the top of the screen. Upon turning on the radar, align the on-screen
GYRO readout with the gyrocompass
reading by the procedure shown below.
Once you have set the initial heading correctly, resetting is not usually required.
However, if the GYRO readout goes
wrong for some reason, repeat the procedure to correct it.
1. Open the tuning compartment and
press the HOLD button. The Gyro LED
lights.
Gyro
LED
This radar has the following presentation
modes:
Relative Motion (RM)
Head-up:
Unstabilised
Head-up TB:Head-up with compassstabilized bearing scale
(True Bearing)
Course-up: Compass-stabilized relative to ship's intended
course
North-up:
Compass-stabilized with
reference to north
True Motion (TM)
North-up:
Ground or sea stabilized
with compass and speed inputs
DEGAUSS switch
ORIGIN
MARK
VECTOR
TRUE/
REL
Selecting presentation mode
VECTOR
TIME
Gyro readout
adjustment
switches
2. Press the UP or DOWN button to duplicate the gyrocompass reading at the
on-screen GYRO readout. Each press
of these buttons changes the readout
by 0.1-degree steps. To change the
readout quickly, hold the UP or DOWN
button for over two seconds.
3. Press the HOLD switch when the onscreen GYRO readout has matched
the gyrocompass reading. The Gyro
LED goes out.
Note: The HOLD button is used to disengage the built-in gyro interface from the
gyrocompass input in the event that you
have difficulty in fine-adjusting the GYRO
readout due to ship's yawing, for example.
When initializing the GYRO readout at a
berth (where the gyrocompass reading is
usually stable), you may omit steps 1 and
3 above.
Press the MODE key on the mode panel.
Each time the MODE key is pressed, the
presentation mode and mode indication
at the upper-left corner of the screen
change cyclically.
HL
OFF
ECHO
TRAILS
MODE
ORIGIN
GUARD
ALARM
MARK
VECTOR
EBL
TRUE/
OFFSET
REL
VECTOR
OFF
CENTER
TIME
Loss of Gyro Signal
When the gyro signal is lost, the presentation
mode automatically becomes head-up and
the GYRO readout at the screen top shows
asterisks (***.*). The message SET HEADING
appears at the lower-left corner of the screen.
This warning stays on when the gyro signal is
restored, to warn the operator that the readout
may be unreliable. Press the MODE key to
select another presentation mode (the asterisks
are erased at this point). Then, align the GYRO
readout with the gyrocompass reading and press
the CANCEL key to erase the message SET
HEADING.
1-9
Presentation mode,
representative display
North
marker
340
350
000
010
Description
Head-up Mode
Heading
line
020
330
A display withouth azimuth stabilization in which
the line connecting the center with the top of the
display indicates own ship's heading.
030
320
040
310
050
060
300
070
290
280
080
090
270
260
100
250
110
240
120
230
130
140
220
210
150
200
North
marker
340
190
350
180
000
170
010
160
Heading
line
330
Course-up Mode
030
320
040
050
060
300
070
290
280
080
270
090
260
100
250
110
240
120
230
130
140
220
210
150
200
North
marker
A short line on the bearing scale is the north marker
indicating compass north. A failure of the gyro
input will cause the north marker to disappear and
the GYRO readout to show asterisks (***.*) and the
message SET HDG appears on the screen.
020
310
340
190
180
170
350
000
010
160
Heading
line
330
030
320
040
050
060
300
070
290
280
080
270
090
260
100
250
110
240
120
230
130
140
220
210
150
200
190
180
170
An azimuth stabilized display in which a line connecting the center with the top of the display indicates own
ship's intended course (namely, own ship's previous
heading just before this mode has been selected).
Target pips are painted at their measured distances
and in their directions relative to the intended course
which is maintained at the 0-degree position while the
heading marker moves in accordance with ship's
yawing and course changes. This mode is useful to
avoid smearing of picture during course change. After
a course change, press the [CU, TM RESET] key to
reset the picture orientation if you wish to continue
using the course-up mode.
Head-up TB (True Bearing) Mode
020
310
160
The bearing scale rotates with
a compass signal.
1-10
The target pips are painted at their measured distances and in their directions relative to own ship's
heading.
Radar echoes are shown in the same way as in the
head-up mode. The difference from normal head-up
presentation lies in the orientation of the bearing
scale. The bearing scale is compass stabilized, that
is, it rotates in accordance with the compass signal,
enabling you to know own ship's heading at a
glance.
This mode is available only when the radar is interfaced with a gyrocompass.
Presentation mode,
representative display
North
marker
Description
Heading
line
340
350
000
010
North-up Mode
In the north-up mode, target pips are painted at their
measured distances and in their true (compass)
directions from own ship, north being maintained
UP of the screen. The heading marker changes its
direction according to the ship's heading.
020
330
030
320
040
310
050
060
300
070
290
280
080
270
090
260
100
250
If the gyrocompass fails, the presentation mode
changes to head-up and the north maker disappears.
Also, the GYRO readout shows asterisks (***.*)
and the messageSET HEADING appears at the
lower-left corner of the screen.
110
240
120
230
130
140
220
210
150
200
340
190
350
170
180
000
010
160
True Motion Mode
020
330
030
320
040
310
Own ship and other moving objects move in accordance with their true courses and speeds. All fixed
targets, such as landmasses, appear as stationary
echoes.
050
060
300
070
290
280
080
270
090
260
100
250
When own ship reaches a point corresponding to 75%
of the radius of the display, the own ship is automatically reset to a point of 50% radius opposite to
the extension of the heading marker passing through
the display center. Resetting can be made at any
moment before the ship reaches the limit by pressing
the [CU, TM RESET] key. Automatic resetting is
preceded by a beep sound.
110
240
120
230
130
140
220
210
150
200
190
170
180
160
If the gyrocompass fails, the presentation mode is
changed to the head-up mode and the north marker
disappears. The GYRO readout at the top of the
screen shows asterisks (***.*) and the message SET
HEADING appears at the lower-left corner of the
screen.
Heading
line
340 350 000
010
North
maker
020
330
340 350 000
030
320
010
310
340 350 000 010
020
330
030
320
040
050
300
310
060
290
050
300
070
020
330
030
320
040
060
290
040
310
050
300
070
060
290
070
280
080
280
080
280
270
090
270
090
270
090
260
100
260
100
260
100
250
110
240
120
230
130
220
140
210
150
200
190
180 170
160
250
110
240
120
230
130
220
140
210
150
200
(a) True motion
is selected
190
180 170
160
(b) Own ship has reached a
point 75% of display radius
080
250
110
240
120
230
130
220
140
210
150
200
190 180 170
160
(c) Own ship is automatically
reset to 50% of radius
Automatic resetting of sweep center in true motion mode
1-11
1.10 Selecting the Range Scale
Legend
The display range scale is changed in 13
steps on the R-type (11 steps on the IMOtype) by pressing the [+] and [-] keys. The
selected range scale and range ring interval are shown at the upper left corner
on the screen.
The display range can be expanded by
75% (100% in R-type) in any direction by
using the off-centering control.
1.11 Selecting the Pulsewidth
The pulsewidth in use is displayed at the
upper-left position of the screen using the
abbreviations shown in the table above.
Appropriate pulsewidths are preset to individual range scales and function keys.
Therefore, you are not usually required
to select them. If you are not satisfied with
the current pulsewidth settings, however,
it is possible to change them by the Radar menu operation shown below.
You can choose the pulsewidth 1 or 2 on
the scales 0.5 to 24 nm ranges on Xband models (0.75 to 24 nm ranges on
S-band models).
Selecting pulsewidth 1 or 2
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
2. Press the [1] key to select menu item 1
PULSEWIDTH.
3. Press the [1] key to select (or highlight)
PULSEWIDTH 1 OR 2 as appropriate.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection followed by the RADAR
MENU key to close the FUNCTION
menu.
Pulsewidth
X-band
S-band
–
0.08 µs
S1 (Short pulse 1)
0.07 µs
–
S2 (Short pulse 2)
0.15 µs
–
M1 (Medium pulse 1)
0.3 µs
0.3 µs
M2 (Medium pulse 2)
0.5 µs
0.6 µs
L (Long pulse)
1.2 µs
1.2 µs
S (Short pulse)
For FR/FAR-2855, 2855W and 2565SW,
0.3 µs becomes 0.2 µs.
Presetting pulsewidths 1 and 2
Pulsewidth 1 and 2 can be preset on the
Pulsewidth 1 and 2 menus. Shown below
are examples of the pulsewidth setup procedure:
1. To enable selection of S1 (0.07 µs) and
S2 (0.15 µs) pulsewidth on the 0.5 nm
range on an X-band model, select S1
at 0.5 nm on the PULSEWIDTH 1
menu and S2 at 0.5 nm on the PULSEWIDTH 2 menu.
2. To enable selection of S2 (0.15 µs) and
M1 (0.3 µs) pulsewidth on the 3 nm
range on an X-band model, select S2
at 3 nm in the PULSEWIDTH 1 menu
and M1 at 3 nm in the PULSEWIDTH
2 menu.
A longer pulse provides an increased detection range, but with reduced discrimination. If you need discrimination in
preference to detection, choose a shorter
pulse.
Example: To select S1 (0.07 µs) as
Pulsewidth 1 for the 0.5 nm range, display the PULSEWIDTH 1 menu following
the steps shown above and hit the [2] key
to choose "2 0.5 NM." Further hit the [2]
key until the menu option "S1" is highlighted to the right of "2 0.5 NM."
Note: For FR-2815/2825, the menus on
the next page are for the R-type. Refer to
paragraph 1.32 or the menus on the IMO
type.
1-12
[RADAR 1]
1 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
2 EBL1 (R-type only)
REL/TRUE
3 EBL2 (R-type only)
REL/TRUE
4
5
6 TRAIL
REL/TRUE
7 TRAIL GRAD
SGL/MULT
8 [PULSEWIDTH 1] (IMO-type only)
9 [PULSEWIDTH 2] (IMO-type only)
0 RADAR2
Hit [9].
Hit [RADAR MENU].
[FUNCTIONS 1]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Hit [8].
PULSE WIDTH
ECHO STRETCH
ECHO AVERAGE
PANEL DIMMER
ECHO COLOR
SHIP'S SPEED
INDEX LINES
SET/DRIFT
1/2
OFF/1/2
OFF/1/2/3
OFF/DIM/M/BRT
YEL/GRN/COLOR*
LOG/NAV*/MAN
NO.2 VRM/MAN
OFF/MAN
SET 000.0
DRIFT 00.0 KT
[PULSE WD 1]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
[RADAR 1]
0.5
NM
0.75 NM
1.5
NM
3
NM
6
NM
12-24 NM
S1/S2
S1/S2
S1/S2/M1
S2/M1/M2
M1/M2/L
M2/L
-- (Blank on S-band)
-- (S/M1 on S-band)
-- (S/M1 on S-band)
-- (S/M1/M2 on S-band)
9 BRILLIANCE
0 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
* R-type only
Hit [0].
[FUNCTIONS 2]
[PULSE WD 2]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
[RADAR 1]
0.5
NM
0.75 NM
1.5
NM
3
NM
6
NM
12-24 NM
Hit [2].
S1/S2
S1/S2
S1/S2/M1
S2/M1/M2
M1/M2/L
M2/L
-- (Blank on S-band)
-- (S/M1 on S-band)
-- (S/M1 on S-band)
-- (S/M1/M2 on S-band)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
[FUNCTIONS 1]
RADAR 1
FUNCTION KEY 1
FUNCTION KEY 2
FUNCTION KEY 3
FUNCTION KEY 4
RADAR 2
ANCHOR WATCH
1/2
[SYSTEM SETTING 2]
1-13
1.12 Adjusting the Sensitivity
The GAIN control is used to adjust the
sensitivity of the receiver, and thus the
intensity of echoes as they appear on the
screen. It should be adjusted so that
speckled background noise is just visible
on the screen.
To become acquainted with the way the
GAIN control works, try rotating it between
fully counterclockwise and clockwise positions while observing the radar picture.
You will notice that clockwise rotation increases the echo intensity level. A low
gain setting results in the loss of weak
echoes and a reduced detection range. If
you turn the GAIN control too far clockwise for an excessive gain setting, desired
echoes will be masked in the strong background noise.
A/C SEA control
off
A/C SEA control
adjusted
Automatic anti-clutter control
The easiest way to suppress the surface
clutter is to use the automatic control.
Press the A/C AUTO key next to the EBL
rotary control at the left corner on the control panel. Use of a function key is also a
good method for reducing sea clutter. For
this purpose, presetting is required. Consult a FURUNO representative.
GAIN control
OFF
CAUTION
ON
EBL
A/C
AUTO
BRILL
FUNC1
FUNC2
FUNC3
A/C RAIN
A/C SEA
GAIN
The auto A/C function can erase weak
targets.
FUNC4
Manual anti-clutter control
1.13 Suppressing Sea Clutter
In rough weather conditions returns from
the sea surface are received over several miles around own ship and mask
close targets. This situation can be improved by properly adjusting the A/C SEA
(Anti-Clutter Sea) control.
OFF
ON
EBL
A/C
AUTO
BRILL
FUNC1
FUNC2
A/C AUTO key
1-14
FUNC3
A/C RAIN
A/C SEA
GAIN
FUNC4
A/C SEA control
From the fully counterclockwise position,
slowly turn the A/C SEA control clockwise.
For optimum target detection, you should
leave speckles of the surface return
slightly visible.
The anti-clutter sea control is often referred to as STC (Sensitivity Time Control) which decreases the amplification of
the receiver immediately after a radar
pulse is transmitted, and progressively
increases the sensitivity as the range increases.
A common mistake is to over-adjust the
A/C SEA control so that the surface clutter is completely removed. By rotating
the control fully clockwise, you will see
how dangerous this can be; a dark zone
is created near the center of the screen
and close-in targets can be lost. This dark
zone is even more dangerous if the gain
has not been properly adjusted. Always
leave a little surface clutter visible on the
screen. If no surface clutter is observed
(on a very calm water), set the control at
the fully counterclockwise position.
1.14 Suppressing Precipitation
Clutter
In adverse weather conditions, clouds,
rain or snow produce a lot of spray-like
spurious echoes and impairs target detection over a long distance. This situation can be improved by using a function
key provided that it is so programmed. If
the function key fails to offer a favorable
suppression of the rain clutter, adjust the
A/C RAIN control on the front control
panel.
A/C RAIN
control
OFF
1.15 Interference Rejector
Mutual radar interference may occur in the
vicinity of another shipborne radar operating in the same frequency band (9 GHz
for X-band, 3 GHz for S-band). It is seen
on the screen as a number of bright spikes
either in irregular patterns or in the form
of usually curved spoke-like dotted lines
extending from the center to the edge of
the picture. This type of interference can
be reduced by activating the interference
rejector circuit.
The interference rejector is a kind of signal correlation circuit. It compares the received signals over successive
transmissions and suppresses randomly
occurring signals. There are three levels
of interference rejection depending on the
number of transmissions that are correlated. These are indicated by the legends
IR1, IR2 and IR3 at the upper-left position of the screen.
ON
EBL
A/C
AUTO
A/C RAIN
BRILL
FUNC1
FUNC2
FUNC3
A/C SEA
GAIN
FUNC4
Mutual radar interference
The A/C RAIN control adjusts the receiver
sensitivity as the A/C SEA control does
but rather in a longer time period (longer
range). Clockwise rotation of this control
increases the anti-clutter effect.
A/C RAIN control
OFF
A/C RAIN control
adjusted
Press the INT REJECT key to activate the
interference rejector circuit. Successive
presses of the key increase the effect of
interference rejection, up to level 3. A
fourth press deactivates the interference
rejector. Switch off the interference rejector when no interference exists; otherwise
weak targets may be lost.
HL
OFF
ECHO
TRAILS
MODE
GUARD
ORIGIN
ALARM
MARK
VECTOR
EBL
TRUE/
OFFSET
REL
VECTOR
OFF
CENTER
TIME
X2
ZOOM
BKGR
COLOR
INDEX
LINES
CU, TM
RESET
INT
REJECT
RINGS
Inside mode panel
1-15
Note: For stable reception of certain types
of radar beacons (racons) or SART
(Search and Rescue Radar Transponder)
as required by SOLAS 1974 as amended
1988 (GMDSS), it is recommended to turn
the interference rejector off.
1.16 Measuring the Range
Use the fixed range rings to obtain a rough
estimate of the range to a target. They
are concentric solid circles about own
ship, or the sweep origin. The number of
rings is automatically determined by the
selected range scale and their interval is
displayed at the upper-left position of the
screen. Press the RINGS key on the
mode panel to show the fixed range rings
if they are not displayed. Successive
presses of the RINGS key gradually increase their brightness in 4 steps and fifth
press erases the range rings.
Use the Variable Range Markers (VRMs)
for more accurate measurement of the
range to a target. There are two VRMs,
No.1 and No.2, which appear as dashed
rings so that you can discriminate them
from the fixed range rings. The two VRMs
can be distinguished from each other by
different lengths of dashes.
340
No.1
VRM
350 000
010
020
330
030
320
Target
blip
040
310
050
060
300
070
290
280
080
090
270
260
100
250
110
240
120
230
No.2
VRM
130
Align the active VRM with the inner edge
of the target of interest and read its distance at the lower-right corner of the
screen. Each VRM remains at the same
geographical distance when you operate
the RANGE+ or RANGE- key. This means
that the apparent radius of the VRM ring
changes in proportion to the selected
range scale.
Press the VRM OFF key to key to erase
each VRM.
1.17 Measuring the Bearing
Use the Electronic Bearing Lines (EBLs)
to take bearings of a target. There are two
EBLs, No.1 and No.2, which are toggled
by successive presses of the EBL ON key.
Each EBL is a straight dashed line extending out from the own ship position up to
the circumference of the radar picture.
The fine dashed line is the No.1 EBL and
the coarse dashed one is the No.2 EBL.
Press the EBL ON key to display either of
the EBLs.
Successive presses of the EBL ON key
toggle the active EBL between No.1 and
No.2 and the currently active EBL readout is circumscribed by >...<.
Rotate the EBL rotary control clockwise
or counterclockwise until the active EBL
bisects the target of interest, and read its
bearing at the lower-left corner of the
screen.
140
220
210
150
200
190
180 170
Active VRM is identified
with this marker.
160
VRM
>0.665NM<
1.186NM
Measuring the range
Press the VRM ON key to display either
of the VRMs.
1-16
Successive presses of the VRM ON key
toggle the active VRM between No.1 and
No.2 and the currently active VRM readout is circumscribed by >.....<.
The EBL readout is affixed by "R" (relative) if it is relative to own ship's heading,
"T" (true) if it is referenced to the north,
as determined by RADAR 2 menu settings.
Each EBL carries a range marker, or a
short line crossing the EBL at right angles
and its distance from the EBL origin is indicated at the VRM readout whether or
not the corresponding VRM is displayed.
The range marker changes its position
along the EBL with the rotation of the VRM
control.
Press the EBL OFF key to erase each
EBL.
No.2
EBL
340
350 000
010
020
330
Target
blip
030
320
040
310
050
If relative motion is selected, it is also
possible to read CPA (Closest Point of
Approach) by using a VRM as shown
below (Figure (a)). If the EBL passes
through the sweep origin (own ship) as
illustrated (Figure (b)), the target ship
is on a collision course.
5. To return the EBL origin to the own
ship's position, press the EBL OFFSET
key again.
060
300
070
290
340
280
080
Range scale
markers on EBLs
260
250
240
100
110
No.1
EBL
EBL
> 32.5°T<
298.0°T
140
210
150
200
190
180 170
160
VRM
>0.978NM<
1.118NM
Active EBL is indicated
with this marker.
1.18 Collision Assessment by
Offset EBL
030
040
310
290
050
060
070
A
280
130
220
020
300
120
230
010
320
Cursor
090
270
350 000
330
No.1
EBL
080
A1
270
090
260
100
250
110
240
120
230
130
140
220
210
EBL
> 140.0°R<
150
200
190 180 170
160
1. Press the EBL ON key to display or activate an EBL (No.1 or 2).
2. Place the cursor (+) on a target of interest (A in the illustrated example) by
operating the trackball.
VRM
> 3.85NM<
(a) Evaluating target ship's course and
CPA in relative motion mode
340
350 000
010
020
330
030
320
The origin of the EBL can be placed anywhere with the trackball to enable measurement of range and bearing between
any targets. This function is also useful
for assessment of the potential risk of
collision. To assess possibility of collision:
No.1
VRM
Cursor
040
310
050
060
300
290
070
A
280
080
A1
270
090
260
100
250
No.1
EBL
110
240
120
230
130
140
220
EBL
> 118.2°R<
210
150
200
190 180 170
160
VRM
> 0.00NM<
(b) Target ship on collision course
3. Press the EBL OFFSET key on the
mode panel, and the origin of the active EBL shifts to the cursor position.
Press the EBL OFFSET key again to
anchor the EBL origin.
4. After waiting for a few minutes (at least
3 minutes), operate the EBL control
until the EBL bisects the target at the
new position (A'). The EBL readout
shows the target ship's course, which
may be true or relative depending on
the settings on the RADAR 2 menu.
1-17
1.19 Measuring Range and
Bearing Between Two
Targets
1.20 Setting a Guard Zone
(Guard Alarm)
Press the EBL OFFSET key, and place
the origin of No.1 EBL, for example, on a
target of interest (target 1 in the illustrated
example) by operating the trackball.
CAUTION
Turn the EBL control until the EBL passes
through another target of interest (target
2).
The guard zone (guard alarm) feature
should never be relied upon as the sole
means for detecting the risk of potential
collision. The operator of a ship is not
relieved of the responsibility to keep visual
lookout for avoiding collisions, whether or
not the radar is in use.
Turn the VRM control until the range
marker aligns with target 2. The active
VRM readout at the lower-right corner of
the screen indicates the distance between
the two targets.
A guard zone (guard alarm) may be set
to alert the navigator to targets (ships,
landmasses, etc.) entering a certain area
with visual and audible alarms.
You can repeat the same procedure on
third and forth targets (targets 3 and 4)
by using No.2 EBL and No.2 VRM.
Bearing is shown relative to own ship with
suffix "R" or as a true bearing with suffix
"T" depending on EBL relative/true settings on the RADAR 2 menu. To return
the EBL origin to the own ship position,
press the EBL OFFSET key again.
Range
marker
340
350 000
010
No.2
EBL
020
330
030
320
040
310
No.1
EBL
050
Target 2
Target 4
300
290
270
250
090
Target 3
100
110
240
120
230
No.2 VRM
140
210
150
200
190
180 170
335.2°R
160
HL
OFF
ECHO
TRAILS
MODE
ORIGIN
GUARD
ALARM
MARK
VECTOR
EBL
TRUE/
OFFSET
REL
OFF
CENTER
No.1 VRM
130
220
EBL
> 140.0°R<
1. Place the cursor (+) at point "A" (see
figure at the top of the next page) using the trackball and press the GUARD
ALARM key on the mode panel (left key
group). The message SET GUARD
appears at the bottom-right corner of
the screen.
080
R2
R1
EBL
origin
260
To set a guard zone (guard alram):
070
R2
Target 1
280
Range
marker
060
The guard zone (guard alarm) has a fixed
width of 0.5 nm in the radial direction and
is adjustable only within 3.0 to 6.0 nm from
own ship. The guard zone (guard alarm)
can be set to any sector angle between 0
and 360 degrees in any direction.
VRM
> 0.505NM<
0.985NM
Inside mode panel
Range/bearing
between targets
1 and 2
1-18
Range/bearing
between targets
3 and 4
340
350 000
010
Guard zone
(guard alarm)
020
330
030
320
040
050 zone (guard alarm)
Guard
be set060between 3 and
070 G-type; at any
6 nm on
distance080from own ship
on R- and
N-types.
090
310
300
A
290
B
280
270
260
100
250
110
240
6 nm
120
230
130
140
220
210
150
200
190
180 170
160
3 nm
2. Move the cursor (+) to point "B" and
press the GUARD ALARM key. Then,
a guard zone (guard alarm) as illustrated is created and the label GUARD
appears instead of SET GUARD at the
lower-right corner of the screen.
Note: If you wish to create a guard
zone (guard alarm) having a 360degree coverage around own ship, set
point "B" in almost the same direction
(approx. ±3°) as point "A" and press
the GUARD ALARM key.
Silencing audible alarm,
reactivating guard alarm
A target entering the guard zone (guard
alarm) produces both visual (flashing) and
audible (beeping) alarms. To silence the
audible alarm, press the GUARD ALARM
key, and the label GUARD ACK replaces
GUARD on the display.
This will deactivate the audible alarm but
will not stop the flashing of the target in
the guard zone (guard alarm). To reactivate the audible alarm, press the GUARD
ALARM key again.
Disabling guard zone (guard alarm)
Hold the GUARD ALARM key depressed
for at least 3 seconds.
Note: The guard alarm is given to targets
having a certain level of echo strength.
This level does not always imply a landmass, reef, ships or other surface objects
but can mean returns from the sea surface or precipitation. Properly adjust the
GAIN, A/C SEA, and A/C RAIN controls
to reduce noise to avoid generation of
guard alarm against false target detection.
Inward and outward guard alarms
On the R-type, an inward or outward
guard alarm can be selected on the RADAR 2 menu. On the IMO type, only the
inward guard alarm is available. The inward guard alarm generates visual and
audible warnings when an approaching
target enters the guard zone (guard
alarm) from any direction. The outward
guard alarm is produced when a target
leaves the guard zone.
(a) Inward guard
(b) Outward guard
alarm available on
alarm available on
IMO and R-types
R-type only
1.21 Off-Centering
Own ship position, or sweep origin, can
be displaced to expand the view field without switching to a larger range scale. On
the R-type, the sweep origin can be offcentered to a point specified by the cursor, up to 100% of the range in use in any
direction. On the IMO-type, the sweep
origin can be off-centered to the cursor
position, but not more than 75% of the
range in use; if the cursor is set beyond
75% of the range scale, the sweep origin
will be off-centered to the point of 75% of
the limit.
This feature is not available on the longest range scale. The number of range
rings increases keeping the original range
intervals unchanged.
To off center the radar picture:
1. Place the cursor at a position where
you wish to move the sweep origin by
operating the trackball.
1-19
2. Press the OFF CENTER key. Then, the
sweep origin is off-centered to the cursor position.
3. To cancel off-centering, press the OFF
CENTER key again.
HL
OFF
ECHO
TRAILS
MODE
ORIGIN
GUARD
ALARM
MARK
VECTOR
EBL
TRUE/
OFFSET
REL
VECTOR
OFF
CENTER
TIME
2. Press the [2] key to select 2 ECHO
STRETCH.
3. Press [2] until Echo Stretch option 1, 2
or OFF as desired is highlighted.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection followed by the RADAR
MENU key to close the FUNCTIONS
menu.
Hit [RADAR MENU].
[FUNCTIONS 1]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Inside mode panel
PULSE WIDTH
ECHO STRETCH
ECHO AVERAGE
PANEL DIMMER
ECHO COLOR
SHIP'S SPEED
INDEX LINES
SET/DRIFT
1/2
OFF/1/2
OFF/1/2/3
OFF/DIM/M/BRT
YEL/GRN/COLOR*
LOG/NAV*/MAN
NO.2 VRM/MAN
OFF/MAN
SET 000.0
DRIFT 00.0 KT
9 BRILLIANCE
0 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
Cursor
Cursor
* R-type only
Off-centered to cursor position – Max.
offset
100% of range in use on R-type
75% of range in use on IMO-type
Enlarged in bearing
(circumferential)
direction with ES1
The picture cannot be off centered in
the true motion mode.
1.22 Echo Stretch
On long ranges target echoes tend to
shrink in the bearing direction, making
them difficult to see. On short and medium ranges such as 1.5, 3 and 6 nm
scales, the same size targets get smaller
on screen as they approach the own ship.
These are due to the inherent property of
the radiation pattern produced by the antenna. To enhance target video, use the
echo stretch function. There are two
types: echo stretch 1 for long range detection and echo stretch 2 on 1.5-6 nm
scales.
To activate the echo stretch:
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
1-20
If a distant target
is hard to see, use
ES 1.
(a) Echo stretch 1 for 12 nm range
and above
Enlarged with
ES2
If a target becomes
smaller as it
approaches own
ship, use ES 2.
(b) Echo stretch 2 for 1.5–6 nm ranges
Notes:
1) If the 1.5 nm range is preset for
pulsewidth of S1 (0.08 µs) or S2 (0.2
µs), and the 3 nm scale for S2 (0.2 µs),
the echo stretch function is not available on these range scales.
2) The echo stretch function magnifies not
only small target pips but also returns
from sea surface, rain and radar interference. For this reason make sure
these types of interference have been
sufficiently suppressed before activating this function.
1.23 Echo Averaging
The echo average feature effectively suppresses sea clutter. Echoes received from
stable targets such as ships appear on
the screen at almost the same position
every rotation of the antenna. On the other
hand, unstable echoes such as sea clutter appear at random positions.
To distinguish real target echoes from sea
clutter, this radar performs scan-to-scan
correlation. Correlation is made by storing and averaging echo signals over successive picture frames. If an echo is solid
and stable, it is presented in its normal
intensity. Sea clutter is averaged over successive scans resulting in the reduced brilliance, making it easier to discriminate real
targets from sea clutter.
To properly use the echo average function, it is recommended to first suppress
sea clutter with the A/C SEA control and
then do the following:
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
Hit [RADAR MENU].
[FUNCTIONS 1]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PULSE WIDTH
ECHO STRETCH
ECHO AVERAGE
PANEL DIMMER
ECHO COLOR
SHIP'S SPEED
INDEX LINES
SET/DRIFT
1/2
OFF/1/2
OFF/1/2/3
OFF/DIM/M/BRT
YEL/GRN/COLOR*
LOG/NAV*/MAN
NO.2 VRM/MAN
OFF/MAN
SET 000.0
DRIFT 00.0 KT
9 BRILLIANCE
0 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
* R-type only
2. Press the [3] key to select 3 ECHO
STRETCH.
2 or OFF as desired is highlighted.
OFF: No averaging effect
1:
Helps distinguish targets from
sea clutter and suppresses
brilliance of unstable echoes
2:
Distinguishes small stationary
targets such as navigation
buoys.
3:
Stably displays distant targets.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection followed by the RADAR
MENU key to close the FUNCTIONS
menu.
(a) Echo average OFF
(b) Echo average ON
Echo averaging uses scan-to-scan signal
correlation technique based on the true
motion over the ground of each target.
Thus, small stationary targets such as
buoys will be shown while suppressing
random echoes such as sea clutter. True
echo average is not however effective for
picking up small targets running at high
speeds over the ground.
Echo average is inoperable when a gyrocompass signal is not available. If you
wish to use this feature without a gyrocompass signal, consult a FURUNO representative.
Manual speed entry is done at menu item
6 SHIP'S SPEED on the FUNCTIONS
menu which is accessed by pressing the
RADAR MENU key.
CAUTION
Do not use the Echo Average feature under
heavy pitching and rolling; loss of true
targets can result.
3. Press [3] until echo average option 1,
1-21
1.24 Electronic Plotting Aid
(EPA)
Plotting a target
A maximum 10 operator-selected targets
can be plotted electronically (manually)
to assess their motion trend. Five past positions can be displayed for each of the
plotted targets. If you enter a 7th plot on
a certain target, the oldest plot (past position) will be erased.
1. Place the cursor(+) on a target of interest by operating the trackball.
A vector appears when you enter a second plot for the target and is updated each
time a new plot is entered. The vector
shows the target motion trend based on
its latest two plots.
Alphanumeric readouts at the upper righthand corner of the screen show range,
bearing, course, speed, CPA, TCPA, BCR
and BCT of the last-plotted target.
It should be noted that the true course and
true speed data are not updated in real
time.
E-plot label
340
350 000
010
EPA
020
330
030
320
TRUE VECTOR 1 MIN WT
040
310
050
070
290
280
080
Vector
270
260
090
100
1
250
RNG 4.91NM
BRG 226.1°T 13:28
TRU CSE 263.3°T
TRU SPD 12.4KT
CPA 2.9NM TCPA *** MIN
BCR 8.9NM BCT 20MIN
1
060
300
110
240
120
230
2. Select a desired plot no. by pressing
one of the plot no. keys on the plotting
keypad.
3. Press the ACQ key on the operator
control panel, and the selected plot no.
is marked at the cursor position.
4. Watching the EPA time (TIM xx:xx)
shown at the upper right margin of the
screen, wait for at least 30 seconds.
Place the cursor (+) on the target at its
new location, select the same plot no.
for the target and press the ACQ key.
The plot no. moves to the new target
position and previous position is
marked by a small dot.
5. To acquire other targets, repeat the
above steps selecting different plot no.
Note: If a target once plotted is not plotted again within 10 minutes, the warning
"UPDATE PLOT No" will appear on the
upper right margin of the screen and the
plot no. of the target flashes. If you want
to continue plotting this target, reacquire
it within five minutes. Otherwise, the target will be regarded as a "lost target" and
its plot no. and target data will be erased.
The larger the plotting interval, the less
accurate the plotted target data.
130
140
220
210
150
200
190
180 170
160
Target
data
Note: EPA reguires own speed input (automatic or manual) and a compass signal. The vector and data are updated on
real time between plot entires. Note that
the plots will be lost when the compass
fails.
1-22
To perform electronic plotting:
When a target has been plotted more than
once, the radar calculates its motion trend
and automatically displays a vector on the
target.
If you make entry of plot at the unintentional position by mistake, re-enter the plot
no. at the intentional position within five
seconds. Then, a correction is accepted.
True or relative vector
True vectors can be displayed with reference to the north. Press the VECTOR
TRUE/REL key to select the proper indication. This feature is available in all presentation modes (gyrocompass must be
working correctly). The current vector
mode is indicated at the upper-right corner of the screen.
Vector time
Vector time (or the length of vectors) can
be set to 30 sec, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 15 or 30
minutes and the selected vector time is
indicated at the upper-right corner of the
screen. Press the VECTOR TIME key
until the desired vector time is reached.
The vector tip shows an estimated position of the target after the selected vector
time elapses. It can be valuable to extend
the vector length to evaluate the risk of
collision with any target.
Target data
The radar calculates motion trends
(range, bearing, course, speed, CPA,
TCPA, BCR and BCT) of all plotted targets.
In head-up and head-up true bearing
modes, target bearing, course and speed
shown in the upper-right target data field
become true (suffix "TRU") or relative (suffix "REL") to own ship in accordance with
relative vector setting. In north-up, courseup, and true motion modes, the target data
field always displays true bearing, true
course and speed over the ground.
CSE/SPD (Course/Speed): Course and
speed are displayed for the last-plotted
target with suffix "TRU" (True) or :"REL"
(Relative) plot symbol.
CPA/TCPA: CPA (Closest Point of Approach) is a closest range the target will
approach to own ship. TCPA is the Time
to CPA. Both CPA and TCPA are automatically calculated. TCPA is counted up
to 99.9 min and beyond this, it is indicated
as TCPA > *99.9 MIN.
BCR/BCT: BCR (Bow Cross Range) is
the range at which target will cross own
ship's bow. BCT (Bow Cross Time) is the
estimated time at which target will cross
own ship's bow. If BCR is negative, BCR
readout should be displayed as *.*. (When
BCT is negative, BCT is x.x.)
Terminating target plotting
With EPA you can plot up to 10 targets.
You may wish to terminate plotting of less
important targets to newly plot other
threatening targets.
By Symbol: To terminate plotting of a certain target, press the corresponding plot
no. key. Then press the CANCEL key.
With Trackball: Place the cursor (+) on
a target which you do not want to be
tracked any longer by operating the
trackball and press the CANCEL key.
All Targets: To terminate plotting of all
targets at once, press and hold the CANCEL key until all plot symbols and marks
disappear in about 3 seconds.
Entering own ship's speed
Reading the target data
Press the corresponding plot symbol key,
and the following target data is displayed.
EPA requires an own ship speed input and
compass signal. The speed can be entered from a speed log (automatic) or
through the plotting keypad (manual).
RNG/BRG (Range/Bearing): Range and
bearing from own ship to last-plotted target with suffix "T" (True) or "R" (Relative)
plot symbol.
1-23
2. Press the [6] key to select menu 6
SHIP'S SPEED.
Automatic speed input
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
Hit [RADAR MENU].
[FUNCTIONS 1]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PULSE WIDTH
ECHO STRETCH
ECHO AVERAGE
PANEL DIMMER
ECHO COLOR
SHIP'S SPEED
INDEX LINES
SET/DRIFT
1/2
OFF/1/2
OFF/1/2/3
OFF/DIM/M/BRT
YEL/GRN/COLOR*
LOG/NAV*/MAN
NO.2 VRM/MAN
OFF/MAN
SET 000.0
DRIFT 00.0 KT
9 BRILLIANCE
0 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
* R-type only
2. Press the [6] key to select menu item 6
SHIP'S SPEED.
3. Press the [6] key to select (or highlight)
LOG option.
4. Press the ENTER key to confirm your
selection followed by the RADAR
MENU key to close the FUNCTIONS
menu. The ship's speed readout at the
screen top shows own ship's speed fed
from the speed log preceded by the
label "LOG."
Notes:
1) IMO Resolution A.823(19) for ARPA
recommends that a speed log to be interfaced with an ARPA should be capable of providing through-the-water
speed data.
2) Be sure not to select LOG when a
speed log is not connected. If the log
signal is not provided, the ship's speed
readout at the screen top will be blank.
Manual speed input
If the radar is not interfaced with a speed
log, or the speed log does not feed correct speed enter the ship's speed as follows:
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS
menu.
1-24
3. Press the [6] key to select (or highlight)
MAN option.
4. Press the ENTER key to confirm selection. At this point, "MAN = XX. KT"
appears at the bottom of FUNCTIONS
menu.
5. Enter the ship speed by hitting corresponding numeric keys followed by the
ENTER without omitting leading zeros,
if any. A example, if the ship speed is 8
knots, [0] [8] [ENTER].
6. Press the RADAR MENU key to close
FUNCTIONS menu. The ship speed
read at the screen top shows own ship
speed entered preceded by the label
"MAN."
1.25 Target Trails (Echo Trails)
Echo trails are simulated afterglow of target echoes that represent their movements relative to own ship or true
movements with respect to land in a single
tone or gradual shading depending on the
settings on the RADAR 1 menu.
True or relative trails
You may display echo trails in true or relative motion. Relative trails show relative
movements between targets and own
ship. True motion trails require a gyrocompass signal and own ship speed input to
cancel out own ship's movement and
present true target movements in accordance with their over-the-ground speeds
and courses. Refer to the automatic and
manual speed input procedures for entering own ship's speed information.
Hit [RADAR MENU].
[FUNCTIONS 1]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
(a) True echo trails without
smearing of stationary targets
PULSE WIDTH
ECHO STRETCH
ECHO AVERAGE
PANEL DIMMER
ECHO COLOR
SHIP'S SPEED
INDEX LINES
SET/DRIFT
1/2
OFF/1/2
OFF/1/2/3
OFF/DIM/M/BRT
YEL/GRN/COLOR*
LOG/NAV*/MAN
NO.2 VRM/MAN
OFF/MAN
SET 000.0
DRIFT 00.0 KT
9 BRILLIANCE
0 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
* R-type only
Hit [0].
[FUNCTIONS 2]
(b) Relative echo trails painted
on all targets moving relative
to own ship
Note: When true trail is selected on the
RM mode, the legend TRUE TRAIL appears in red. No true-relative selection on
TM, it is only TRUE TRAIL on TM mode.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
[FUNCTIONS]
RADAR 1
FUNCTION KEY 1
FUNCTION KEY 2
FUNCTION KEY 3
FUNCTION KEY 4
RADAR
ANCHOR WATCH
1/2
[SYSTEM SETTING 2]
Hit [2].
[RADAR 1]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
[SYSTEM SETTING 1]
TRAIL REF
TRAIL GRAD
[PULSE WD 1]
[PULSE WD 2]
RADAR 2
REL/TRUE
SGL/MULT
To select true or relative echo trail presentation:
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
2. Press the [0] key to show the SYSTEM
SETTING 1 menu.
3. Press the [2] key to show the RADAR
1 menu.
4. Press the [6] key to select menu item 6
TRAIL REF.
5. Press the [6] key to select (or highlight)
REL (Relative) or TRUE option.
6. Press the ENTER key to confirm your
selection followed by the RADAR
MENU key to close the menu.
1-25
Trail gradation
Echo trails may be shown in monotone
or gradual shading. Gradual shading
paints the trails getting thinner with time
just like the afterglow on an analog PPI
radar.
Monotone
(Single)
Gradual shading
(Multi)
Selection of monochrome or gradual
shading requires almost the same operation as for true or relative trails setup procedure described above except that you
should:
- Press the [7] key to select menu
item 7 TRAIL GRAD (graduation) in
step 4.
- Press the [7] key to select (or highlight) SGL (single tone) or MULT
(multiple shading) option in step 5.
Displaying and erasing echo trails
Suppose that "3 MIN" has just been selected. If the ECHO TRAILS key is hit
more than 5 seconds later, echo trails are
removed from the display (memory still
alive with echo trail timer count going on).
Next hitting of the key calls out the echo
trails on the screen. To proceed to longer
plot intervals, successively push the
ECHO TRAILS key with a hit-and-release
action. The larger the echo trail length,
the larger the echo trail plot interval.
Note: Holding the ECHO TRAILS key depressed for about 3 seconds will cause a
loss of echo trail data so far stored in an
in memory.
Resetting echo trails
To reset (or clear) the echo trail memory,
hold the ECHO TRAILS key depressed
for about 3 seconds. Echo trails are
cleared and the trailing process restarts
from time count zero at current echo trail
plot interval. When memory assigned to
echo trailing becomes the echo trail timer
at the lower-right corner of the screen
freezes and the oldest trails are erased
to show the latest trails.
Press the ECHO TRAILS key to activate
or deactivate the echo trails feature.
1.26 Parallel Index Lines
HL
OFF
ECHO
TRAILS
MODE
ORIGIN
GUARD
ALARM
MARK
VECTOR
EBL
TRUE/
OFFSET
REL
VECTOR
OFF
CENTER
TIME
Each press of the ECHO TRAILS key
within 5 seconds cyclically changes echo
trail length (time) to 30 seconds, 1, 3, 6,
15 and 30 minutes, continuous echo trailing and OFF. The current echo trail setting is displayed at the lower-right corner
of the screen.
OFF → 30 sec → 1 min → 3 min → 6 min
↵
1-26
Continuous ← 30 min ← 15 min ↵
Parallel index lines are useful for keeping
a constant distance between own ship
and a coastline or a partner ship when
navigating. Index lines are drawn in parallel with the No.2 EBL (No.2 EBL must
be active). The orientation of the index
lines is controlled with the EBL control and
the intervals between the lines adjusted
with the VRM rotary control (provided that
No.2 VRM is active).
Maximum number of the index line can
be set the Initial Setting menu: 2, 3 or 6.
Adjusting index line intervals
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
No.2 EBL
Index lines
Hit [RADAR MENU].
[FUNCTIONS 1]
Displaying and erasing the index
lines
1. Press the INDEX LINES key if the index lines are not already shown.
2. Make sure that the No.2 EBL is active
and orient the index lines in a desired
direction with the EBL rotary control.
3. To erase the index lines, press the INDEX LINES key again.
HM
OFF
ECHO
TRAILS
MODE
GUARD
ORIGIN
ALARM
MARK
VECTOR
EBL
TRUE/
OFFSET
REL
VECTOR
OFF
CENTER
TIME
X2
ZOOM
BKGR
COLOR
INDEX
LINES
CU, TM
RESET
INT
REJECT
RINGS
Inside mode panel
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PULSE WIDTH
ECHO STRETCH
ECHO AVERAGE
PANEL DIMMER
ECHO COLOR
SHIP'S SPEED
INDEX LINES
SET/DRIFT
1/2
OFF/1/2
OFF/1/2/3
OFF/DIM/M/BRT
YEL/GRN/COLOR*
LOG/NAV*/MAN
NO.2 VRM/MAN
OFF/MAN
SET 000.0
DRIFT 00.0 KT
9 BRILLIANCE
0 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
* R-type only
2. Press the [7] key to select menu item 7
INDEX LINES.
3. Press the [7] key to select (or highlight)
No.2 VRM or MAN (manual) option.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection.
5. If you have selected MAN in step 3
above, "MAN = XX.XX NM" appears
at the bottom of the FUNCTIONS
menu. Enter a desired line interval by
hitting numeric keys followed by the
ENTER key without omitting leading
zeroes, if any. There are six index lines
but the number of lines visible on the
screen may be less than six depending on the line setting interval.
6. If you have selected NO.2 VRM in step
3 above, make sure that the No.2 VRM
is active and adjust the spacing between the index lines by operating the
VRM control.
7. Press the RADAR MENU key to close
the FUNCTIONS menu.
1-27
1.27 Anchor Watch
The anchor watch feature helps you monitor whether own ship is dragged by wind
and/or tide while at anchor. This feature
requires ship position data from a suitable
radio navigational aid. Provided that own
ship's physical data has been entered, an
own ship mark can be displayed when the
anchor watch feature is activated. The
message "ANCHOR WATCH ERR" appears in red when position data is not inputted.
Notes:
1) The own ship mark is available on the
R-type radar only; unavailable on the
IMO type.
2) The own ship mark is created with data
on ship's length, width, radar antenna
location, etc. To display an own ship
mark, ask your nearest FURUNO representative or dealer.
Anchor watch in standby or
transmit status
3. Press the [3] key to select menu item 3
ALARM OFF/ON. Further press the [3]
key to select (or highlight) ON or OFF,
followed by the ENTER key to conclude
your selection. (This operation determines whether to activate the anchor
watch audible alarm.)
Alarm range setting
Press the [4] key to select menu item 4
ALARM RANGE on the ANCHOR
WATCH menu. Enter a desired alarm
range between 0.1 and 9.999 nm with
numeric keys and press the ENTER key
to conclude your key input.
An anchor watch alarm circle thus established shows up as a red circle on the
screen. When own ship is dragged out of
this alarm circle, an audible alarm is generated and the on-screen label ANCHOR
WATCH turns red.
To silence the audible alarm, press the
AUDIO OFF key on the control panel.
Hit [RADAR MENU].
IMO-type
On the IMO type the anchor watch feature is available only in STANDBY status.
R-type
On the R-type the anchor watch feature
is available in either STANDBY or
TRANSMIT status.
[FUNCTIONS 1]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PULSE WIDTH
ECHO STRETCH
ECHO AVERAGE
PANEL DIMMER
ECHO COLOR
SHIP'S SPEED
INDEX LINES
SET/DRIFT
1/2
OFF/1/2
OFF/1/2/3
OFF/DIM/M/BRT
YEL/GRN/COLOR*
LOG/NAV*/MAN
NO.2 VRM/MAN
OFF/MAN
SET 000.0
DRIFT 00.0 KT
9 BRILLIANCE
0 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
* R-type only
Hit [0].
[SYSTEM SETTING 1]
Activating anchor watch
To set up the anchor watch feature:
1. On the ANCHOR WATCH menu, press
the [2] key to select menu item 2 ANCHOR WATCH OFF/ON.
2. Further press the [2] key to select (or
highlight) ON, followed by the ENTER
key to conclude your selection. The
label WATCH appears at the lower-left
corner of the screen.
1-28
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
[FUNCTIONS]
RADAR 1
FUNCTION KEY 1
FUNCTION KEY 2
FUNCTION KEY 3
FUNCTION KEY 4
RADAR
ANCHOR WATCH
1/2
[SYSTEM SETTING 2]
Hit [9].
[ANCHOR WATCH]
1
2
3
4
5
[SYSTEM SETTING 1]
OFF/ON
ANCHOR WATCH
OFF/ON
ALARM
0.000 NM
ALARM RANGE
OFF/ON
HISTORY
Showing drag line
1.28 Origin Mark
Press the [5] key to select menu item 5
HISTORY on the ANCHOR WATCH
menu. Further press the [5] key to select
(or highlight) ON, followed by the ENTER
key to conclude your selection.
You can mark any dangerous point, prominent target or a particular reference point
using the origin mark feature. This mark
is geographically fixed.
A drag line, or a series of dots along which
own ship was carried by wind and water
current, appears as illustrated below.
During the first 50-minute period, dots or
own ship's past positions are plotted every minute. When 50 dots have been plotted in 50 minutes, the plot interval
becomes 2 minutes and up to 25 dots are
plotted during the succeeding 50-minute
period. Next, the dot interval becomes 4
minutes and the maximum number of dots
will be 12.
Initial own ship
position
Dragged
positions
Alarm circle
To use the origin mark:
1. Place the cursor (+) at a point where
you want to place a reference mark by
operating the trackball.
2. Press the ORIGIN MARK key on the
plotting keypad. The origin mark appears at the cursor position of which
range and bearing are indicated at the
lower-left section of the screen.
3. To measure the range and bearing to
a target of interest from the origin mark,
move the cursor to the target of interest. Then, the range and bearing from
the origin mark to the target are shown
at the target data display.
4. To erase the origin mark, press the
ORIGIN MARK key once again.
Present own
ship position
ORIGIN
MARK
VECTOR
TRUE/
REL
VECTOR
TIME
RADAR
MENU
Plotting keypad
(a) Anchor watch in
true motion mode
340
350 000
010
020
030
330
320
040
310
050
060
300
Present own
ship position
070
290
Origin
mark
280
270
080
090
260
100
250
110
240
Alarm
circle
120
230
130
140
220
210
150
200
Own ship's past
positions dragged
by wind/tide
+3.1NM
123.5°T
190
180 170
160
Origin
mark data
(b) Anchor watch in
head-up mode
1-29
1.29 Zoom
The zoom function is available on the Rtype radar only to enlarge an area of interest.
1. Place the cursor (+) close to the point
of interest by operating the trackball.
pears at zero degrees on the bearing
scale in head-up mode, in any direction
depending on the ship orientation in northup and true motion modes.
Temporarily erasing heading marker
2. Press the X2 ZOOM key. The area
around the cursor and own ship is enlarged twice as large as the original size
and the label ZOOM appears at the
lower-left corner of the screen.
To temporarily extinguish the heading
marker to look at targets existing dead
ahead of own ship, press the HM OFF
key on the mode panel. The heading
marker reappears when the key is released.
3. To cancel zoom, press the X2 ZOOM
key again.
North marker
Note: The zoom feature is inoperative
when the display is off centered.
HL
OFF
ECHO
TRAILS
MODE
GUARD
ORIGIN
ALARM
MARK
VECTOR
EBL
TRUE/
OFFSET
REL
VECTOR
OFF
CENTER
TIME
X2
ZOOM
BKGR
COLOR
INDEX
LINES
Stern marker
The stern marker (a dot-and-dash line)
appears opposite to the heading marker.
This marker can be displayed on the Rtype only provided that STERN MARK ON
is selected on the RADAR 2 menu.
ZOOM key is available on R-type only.
Blank key top on N- and G-types.
1.31 Menu Keys
+
+
Cursor
Cursor
(a) Cursor placed at
point of interest
(b) Zoom in
(R-type only)
1.30 Markers
Heading marker
The heading marker indicates the ship's
heading in all presentation modes. It ap1-30
The north marker appears as a short
dashed line. In the head-up mode, the
north marker moves around the bearing
scale in accordance with the compass
signal.
Three menu keys are provided on the plotting keypad: RADAR MENU, E-AUTO
PLOT MENU and NAV MENU keys.
RADAR MENU: Permits setting of basic
radar parameters.
E, AUTO PLOT MENU: Provides a choice
of standard or large size of plotting symbols for plot.
NAV MENU: Provides a choice of navigation data for on-screen display. Also
selects display data for the Video Plotter.
ORIGIN
MARK
VECTOR
TRUE/
REL
VECTOR
TIME
TARGET
ORIGIN
MARK
DATA
VECTOR
TARGET
BASED
TRUE/
DATA
REL
VECTOR
AUTO
PLOT
TIME
TRIAL
LOST
TARGET
HISTORY
CHART
ALIGN
VIDEO
PLOT
MARK
RADAR
MENU
E,AUTO
PLOT
MENU
NAV
MENU
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
–
9
CANCEL
ENTER
1.32 RADAR 1 and 2 Menu Settings
R-type
1-31
IMO-type radar
1-32
Suppose that you have been navigating
along a coast for hours and now you are
approaching a harbor, your final destination. You will have to adjust your radar to
change from the settings for coastal navigation to those for harbor approach. Every time your navigating environment or
task changes, you must adjust the radar,
which can be a nuisance in a busy situation. Instead of changing radar settings
case by case, it is possible to assign the
function keys to provide optimum settings
for often encountered situations.
1.33 Function Keys
The four function keys (#1-4) on the control panel work like the auto-dialing feature of a telephone, instantly calling out
desired settings to perform specially assigned functions. The function keys provide optimum radar settings for a specific
purpose with a single key operation.
Each function key can be assigned a combination of particular radar settings that
will be most suited to your specific navigating purpose, and an adhesive label
(such as BUOY, HARBOR, COAST or the
like) is usually attached to the key top for
easy identification of the assigned purpose.
The radar's internal computer offers several picture setup options to be assigned
to each function key for your specific navigating requirements. For instance, one of
the function keys may be assigned the
buoy detecting function and labeled
BUOY on the key top. If you press this
key, the radar will be instantly set for optimum detection of navigation buoys and
similar objects and the label BUOY is
shown at the left margin of the screen. If
you re-press the same key, the radar returns to the previous settings.
The individual function keys are preset,
or programmed, for the following purposes by qualified service personnel at
the time of installation using the procedures described in the succeeding paragraphs:
Function key #1: Picture setup
Function keys #2 and #3: Picture setup
and specific
operation
Function key #4: Specific operation or
watch alarm
Picture setup
OFF
ON
OFF
EBL
BRILL
A/C RAIN
A/C SEA
GAIN
ON
VRM
ACQ
A/C
AUTO
FUNC1
FUNC2
FUNC3
ST-BY
FUNC4
TX
RANGE
AUDIO
OFF
Function key #1
Function key #2
Function key #3
Function key #4
1-33
Picture setup options for function keys
Note: Function key presetting requires a
good knowledge of optimum radar settings. If you want to change the original
function key settings, consult your nearest FURUNO representative or dealer.
Label
Description
Specific operation
RIVER
Optimum setting for
navigation on a river.
BUOY
Optimum setting for detecting
navigation buoys, small
vessels and other small
surface objects.
Optimum setting for detecting
vessels.
The picture setup options assignable to
any of the function keys are shown in the
table below.
SHIP
SHORT
Optimum setting for short
range detection using a range
scale of 6 nm or larger.
CRUISING For cruising using a range
scale of 1.5 nm or larger.
HARBOR
COAST
Optimum setting for short
range navigation in a harbor
area using a range scale of 1.5
nm or less.
For coastal navigation using a
range of 12 nm or less.
OCEAN
Transoceanic voyage using a
range scale of 12 nm or
larger.
ROUGH
SEA
Optimum setting for rough
weather or heavy rain.
Each picture setup option defines a combination of several radar settings for
achieving optimum setup for a particular
navigating situation. Those involved are
interference rejector, echo stretch, echo
average, automatic anti-clutter,
pulsewidth and noise rejector settings.
Adjusting these features on a function key
menu changes the original function key
settings. To restore the original settings
for a particular function key, it is necessary to display the relevant function key
menu and select appropriate menu options.
1-34
Most often used controls are placed on
the center panel while less often used
controls are provided inside the covered
compartments on the right and left sides.
To avoid opening the covers or menus to
set up the radar for a particular situation,
function keys #2, #3 and #4 may be assigned a combination of the following settings at the time of installation.
- Head-up, Course-up, North-up or True
Motion (See paragraph 1.9.)
- Echo trails (See paragraph 1.25.)
- Course-up and True Motion reset
function (See paragraph 1.9.)
- Off-centering (See paragraph 1. 21.)
- Echo stretch 1 or 2 (See paragraph
1.22.)
- Pulsewidth 1 or 2 (See paragraph
1.11.)
- Echo averaging 1, 2 or 3 (See paragraph 1 .23.)
- Echo color (See paragraph 1.32.)
- Echo trail graduation (See paragraph
1.23.)
- Panel illumination
- Label brilliance
- Noise rejection
Provided that the function key is assigned
the specific operation feature, press the
key to instantly set the radar for the preset purpose. The corresponding label will
be displayed at the left margin of the
screen. If you re-press the function key,
the radar returns to the previous settings.
Note: Function key presetting requires a
good knowledge of optimum radar settings. If you want to change the original
function key settings, consult your nearest FURUNO representative or dealer.
Watch alarm
The watch alarm sounds an external
buzzer selected time intervals to help you
keep regular watch of the radar picture
for safety or other purposes. This feature
can be assigned to function key #4 with a
choice of alarm intervals of 3, 6, 10, 12,
15 and 20 minutes. (See the flowchart on
page 1-39 for keystroke sequence.)
Provided that function key #4 is assigned
the watch alarm feature, just press function key #4 to activate the feature. The
label WATCH appears at the lower-left
corner of the screen associated with a
watch alarm timer counts down from the
initial value (namely, "12:00").
When an audible watch alarm is released
the preset time interval has elapsed, the
screen label WATCH turns red and the
watch alarm timer freezes at "0:00."
To silence the alarm, press the AUDIO
key. The label WATCH turns to normal
color and the watch alarm timer is reset
to the initial value and starts the countdown sequence again.
If you press the AUDIO OFF key before
the selected time interval is reached, the
watch alarm timer is reset to the initial
value and starts the count-down sequence again.
1-35
1-36
1-37
Setting for function key #3
1-38
Setting for function key #4
1.34 EPA Menu
Hit [E, AUTO PLOT MENU].
[EPA]
1 CPA/TCPA WARNING
OFF/ON
CPA
0.0NM
TCPA
00.0 MIN
2 MARK SIZE
STD/LARGE
3 PLOT NO.
OFF/ON
4 REL VECT TGT DATA
REL/TRUE
5 AUDIO ALARM OFF/ON
EPA menu appears by pressing the E,
AUTO PLOT MENU key. You can set the
following items.
1. COLLISION ALARM: You can set CPA
and TCPA for the tracked target. Refer
to 2.12 Setting CPA/TCPA Alarm range.
Note that TCPA setting is available over
one-minute.
2. MARK SIZE: Change the size of the
plotting.
3. PLOT NO.: Displays or hides plot number at the rigth side of the plot symbol
(circle and square). The selected target (square) has its number though
PLOT NO. is OFF.
4. REL VECT TGT DATA: When the target vector is relative, select the target
data mode REL(ative) or TRUE on HU
and HUTB. For CU, NU and NUTM
modes, the target data is always TRUE.
5. AUDIO ALARM: Select the audio alarm
On or OFF for the target generating the
collision alarm.
1-39
1.35 NAV INFORMATION Menu
and Navigation Data
Display
Various navigation data can be displayed
on the radar screen. The data includes,
depending on whether appropriate information is fed into the radar, own ship position, cursor position, waypoint data, wind
data, water current data, depth data, water temperature, rudder angle, rate of turn
and navigation lane.
Note that data not directly related with the
radar presentation is not available. Shown
below is a typical navigational data display.
1. Press the NAV MENU key on the plotting keypad to show the NAV INFORMATION menu.
2. Select navigation data input device and
press the ENTER key to confirm your
selection.
Notes:
1) Own ship position display requires an
input from an EPFS (electronics position-fixing system) such as a GPS receiver or a Loran-C receiver. Such an
EPFS should be of the type which provides output data in accordance with
IEC 61162.
2) When the sensor in use changes (ex.
from GPS or DGPS), the name of sensor in the own ship call turns red, and
EPFS label appears. To erase, press
the CANCEL key.
Displaying External Waypoint
The mark and data of external waypoint
from an EPFS can be displayed by setting NAV LINE menu as follows. To display the menu, press [NAV MENU] [7] in
order.
[WAYPOINT]
3. Also, set other nav data parameters as
appropriate referring to the operation
flow shown on the next page.
1 [NAV INFORMATION 1]
2 WPT
OFF/ON
4. Press the NAV MENU key to close the
NAV INFORMATION menu.
4 WPT LINE
5 WPT NO.
OFF/ON
OFF/ON
8 ARRIVAL ALARM*
OFF/ON
0.00 NM
Note: When the waypoint is more than
5000 nm, from own ship, the data reads
">5000 nm".
1-40
340
350 000
010
020
330
030
320
040
310
300
050
Intended
course
290
060
W12
070
W11
280
080
090
270
260
W10
250
Range and bearing
from origin mark
to cursor
100
+4.7NM
123.5°R
2.2NM
29.5°R
110
Waypoints
240
120
230
130
140
220
210
150
200
190
180 170
160
Range and bearing
to next waypoint
OWN PSN 35°20.370N
141°18.390E
+ PSN
35°20.370N
141°18.390E
Own ship
position
Cursor position in
latitude and longitude
When WPL and RTE sentences are input, the following display appears by selecting
NAV LINE ON.
When WPL and RTE sentences are input,
the following display appears by selecting
NAV LINE ON.
WA2
WA4
WA1
WA3
Working route
1-41
1.36 Radar Map
By Cursor position;
A radar map is combination of map lines
and symbols whereby the user can define and input the navigation, route planning and monitoring data on the radar
equipment. Map lines are navigational
facility whereby the observer can define
lines to indicate channels or traffic separation schemes. Also called nav lines,
these line can be ground stabilized to stop
them drifting. (Definition in Annex C of IEC
60936-1 and IEC 60872-1)
1. Press the MARK key to display the ENTER MARK menu.
Marking radar map
Select mark entry mode as follows.
1. Press the NAV MENU key to display
the NAV INFORMATION 1 menu.
2. Press [1] key to display the RADAR
MAP menu.
[RADAR MAP]
1 [NAV INFORMATION 1]
2 MAP
OFF/ON
3 NAV DATA POSN
4 ALIGN +CURSOR
OFF/ON
5 MARK ENTRY MODE
CORSOR/L/L/OWN SHIP POSN
6 ERASE MARK
OFF/AREA/ALL
3. Press [2] key to twice to select ON, and
then press the ENTER key. MAP indication appears at the right-hand of the
screen.
4. Press [5] key several times to select
the entry mode, cursor, L/L or own ship
position.
5. Press the ENTER key followed by the
NAV MENU key.
[ENTER MARK]
MARK 01
01.
02.
03.
04.
05.
06.
07.
08.
09.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16. NAV LINE
17. COAST LINE
18. CONTOUR LINE
19. PROHIBITED AREAS
20.CABLE
21.LINE CHANGE
22.MARK CANCEL*
*The mark cancel may be used when
the new line is entered at the other position
after marking a line by using the same number mark.
2. Enter mark number to select desired
mark, followed by the ENTER key.
3. Place + cursor an appropriate point.
4. Press the ENTER key.
5. Repeat steps 2 to 4 above. To enter
the same mark selected at step 2, simply repeat step 3 and 4.
6. To escape the mark entry mode, press
the MARK key.
A radar map contain 1500 points of mark
and line data.
By L/L position entry mode
Mark a radar map as follows.
1. Press the MARK key to display the ENTER MARK menu. On L/L entry mode,
the latitude and longitude are appears.
1-42
Latitude and longitude area
[ENTER MARK]
0000.000 N/S
5-N 6-S
000.000 E/W
7-E 8-W
MARK 01
01.
2. Key in the latitude. If necessary, press
the following key.
[5] key; N, [6] key; S
3. Key in the longitude. If necessary, press
the following key.
Other items
3. NAV DATA POSN:
Reset the chart alignment.
4. ALIGN + CURSOR
Select ON, plus the alignment rate to the
cursor data which is appeared at the lower
of the display.
6. ERASE MARK
AREA; Erase all marks on the current appearing display.
ALL; Erase all marks in the CPU.
[7] key; E, [8] key; W
4. Select mark.
5. Press the ENTER key.
By own ship position entry mode
1. Press the VIDEO PLOT key.
2. Press the MARK key.
3. Enter mark number.
4. Press the ENTER key.
Note: Waypoints used to make NAV lines,
as described on page 1-40, can be erased
on the NAV LINE menu.
Chart alignment
You can align the chart data and radar
image, by using the ALIGN key.
1. Press the ALIGN key.
2. Operate the trackball to align the chart
on the radar.
3. Press the ALIGN key to fix.
1.37 Suppressing Second-trace
Echoes
In certain situations, echoes from very distant targets may appear as false echoes
(second-trace echoes) on the screen. This
occurs when the return echo is received
one transmission cycle later, that is, after
a next radar pulse has been transmitted.
To activate or deactivate the second-trace
echo rejector:
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
2. Press the [8] key to select menu item 8
2ND ECHO REJ.
3. Further press the [8] key to activate
(ON) or deactivate (OFF) the secondtrace echo rejector.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude selection followed by the RADAR MENU
key to close the FUNCTIONS menu.
1-43
1.38 Adjusting Relative
Brilliance Levels of
Screen Data
You can adjust relative brilliance levels of
various marks and alphanumeric readouts
displayed on the screen by following the
steps shown below:
The table below describes which menu
item adjusts the brilliance of which picture element.
Menu
item
Of which brilliance is
adjusted?
CHAR
Alphanumeric readouts
MARKS
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
TRAILS
Bearing scale, EBLs and
VRMs
Echo trails
PANEL
Operator control panel
2. Press the [9] key to show the BRILLIANCE menu.
+CURSOR Trackball cursor (+)
3. Select a desired menu item by pressing the corresponding numeric key. As
an example, press [4] if you want to
change the brilliance of echo trails.
4. Further press the same numeric key
as you pressed in step 3 above to select or highlight a desired brilliance
level.
5. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection followed by the RADAR
MENU key to close the FUNCTIONS
menu.
Hit [RADAR MENU].
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
[FUNCTIONS]
1/2
PULSEWIDTH
OFF/1/2
ECHO STRETCH
OFF/1/2/3
ECHO AVERAGE
YEL/GRN/COLOR*
ECHO COLOR
LOG/NAV*/MAN
SHIP'S SPEED
NO.2 VRM/MAN
INDEX LINES
OFF/ON
2ND ECHO REJ
BRILLIANCE
[SYSTEM SETTING 1]
* R-type only
Hit [9].
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1-44
[BRILLIANCE]
[FUNCTION]
CHAR
BRILL
DIM/M1/M2/BRT
MARK
BRILL
DIM/M1/M2/BRT
TRAIL
BRILL
DIM/M1/M2/BRT
PANEL
DIMMER OFF/DIM/MBRT
+CURSOR BRILL
OFF/DIM/MBRT
PLOT
BRILL
OFF/DIM/MBRT
HDG MARK BRILL
DIM/M/BRT
L/L GRID BRILL
DIM/M1/M2/BRT
CHART
BRILL
DIM/M1/M2/BRT
PLOT
HDG
MARK
Plot symbols and marks for
E-plot and optional Auto
Plotter ARP-25
Heading line and stern marker
(Stern marker displayed on
R-type only.)
L/L GRID
Lat/long grid lines generated
by optional Auto Plotter
ARP-25
CHART
Chart generated by optional
Auto Plotter ARP-25
Note: You should adjust the entire CRT
brilliance by operating the BRILL control
before adjusting relative brilliance levels
on the BRILLIANCE menu.
1.39 Set and Drift
(Set and Rate)
Set the direction in which a water current
flos, can be manually entered in 0.1 - degree steps. Drift, in another word Rate,
the speed of tide, can also be entered
manually in 0.1 knot steps.
Set and drift corrections are benefcal for
increasing the accuracy of vectors and
target data. The correction is best made
in the head-up mode with true vector,
watching landmasses, or other
stationarytargets. If they have vectors, set
and drift values should be adjusted until
they lose vectors.
Note: Set and drift correction is available
on selecting the water tracking mode only.
Proceed as follows to enter set and drift
(rate):
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keyboard to show the FUNCTIONS 1 menu.
2. Press the [8] key to select menu item
8; SET, DRIFT.
3. Further press the [8] key to select OFF
or MAN option.
OFF: No correction against set and
drift.
MAN: Manual entry of set and drift data.
4. If OFF is selected, press the ENTER
key.
5. If you have selected MAN in step 3
above, the highlight cursor will advance
one line down requesting you to enter
SET xxx.x°. Enter the value of set in
degrees by hitting numeric keys without omitting leading zeroes, if any, and
press the ENTER key.
The highlight cursor will then advance
to the next line DRIFT xx.x KT. Enter
the value of drift in knots by hitting numeric keys without omitting leading
zeroes, if any, and press the ENTER
key. Set and drift have the same effect
on own ship and all targets.
4. Do the same to indicate ocean current
graph and echo-sounding chart. Depth
scales can be selected among 10, 20,
50, 100, 200 and 500 m on the NAV
INFORMATION 2 menu.
5. Press [0] key twice to show the NAV
INFORMATION 3 menu.
6. Press [2] key twice and press ENTER
key to select UTC.
Note: Wind data current data require the
respective sensors. The depth data requires an adequate echo-sounding equipment. The echogram shows the last 30
minutes of depths along the ship's track.
Wind vector shows a direction from which
the wind blows in, relative to own ship
heading, and labeled T*. Wind velocity is
a true wind speed as a result of compensating for own ship's speed and orientation. Ocean current (tide) is the direction
to which the current is flowing away from
os position, relative to north.
*T in this case means a true value meanwhile T denotes "relative to True North"
in the case of EBLs and target ship vectors.
6. Press the RADAR MENU key to close
the menu.
1.40 Display of Ancillary
Information
Wind and tide data and depth sounding
data can be displayed in the text cell which
is normally used to indicate third target
ship data. Do as follow:
1. Press the NAV MENU key to show the
NAV INFORMATION 1 menu.
2. Press [8] key twice to set WIND DATA
ON and press the ENTER key.
3. Press [9] key twice to set WIND
GRAPH ON and press the ENTER key.
1-45
0
OS heading
Present depth
20
N
40
E
Last 30 minutes
of depth
Current relative to north,
full scale 10 kt. Vector will go off
if a positional data fails.
60
80
100m
-30
10
min
Wind direction relative to OS heading, full
scale 100 kt. Wind velocity is calculated Example of Depth graph
value to exclude the ship's orientation
and speed.
S
W
20
Example of Head-up mode
1.41 Alarms
This radar generates visual and audible alarms to alert you to certain events or systems failures, to provide enhanced safety and convenience. The table below summarizes these alarms.
Problem
Audible alarm Visual alarm
To quit alarm status
Gyro failure
2 beeps
HDG label reads ***.* and GYRO
in red appears at the lower-right
corner of the screen. Display is
automatically switched to head-up
mode within 1 min.
Target alarm
(TAZ)
Beeps
Target flashes
Press the GUARD ALARM key to silence the
alarm.
Watch alarm
Beeps
WATCH 0:00
(Label "WATCH" turns red and
time count freezes at 0:00.)
Press the AUDIO OFF key to silence the alarm.
THe label WATCH turns to normal video and the
timer is reset.
Own ship
lat/lon,
Cursor lat/lon
None
***.* in own ship position field
***.* in own cursor position field
Make sure that own ship position data is fed from
external EPFS.
System
failure
None
Message BRG SIGNAL MISSING
shows at screen bottom. No radar
Make sure the Antenna switch in the turning
echoes. SYSTEM FAILURE in red
compartment is ON.
at the lower left of the display
during Track Test.
Incorrect
Keystroke
Double beep
tone (Key
beep not
available on
IMO-type.)
None
Perfome correct key operation. Correct keystroke
is responded by a single beep tone provided that
KEY BEEP ON is selected in initial settings.
LOG failure
2 beeps
LOG **.* and the label LOG turns
red, if no log signal is input for 30
sec while the ship speed has
been more than 5.0 kt.
If the SDME has field, use the Manual Speed
mode or other appropriate sensor.
AZIMUTH
HDG
TRIG
VIDEO
1
1
1
1
AZIMUTH in red
HDG in red
TRIG in red
VIDEO in red
When input signal corners in.
1-46
beeps
beeps
beeps
beeps
Change the presentation mode when the gyro
input has been restored. Align the on-screen
GYRO readout, if necessary. Then, press the
CANCEL key to erase the message SET
HEADING.
2. OPERATION OF ARPA
2.1 General
The FAR-2805 series with ARP-25 board
provide the full ARPA (Automatic Radar
Plotting Aid) functions complying with IMO
A. 823 as well as complying with the radar
performance in MSC.64 (67) Annex 4.
This chapter describes the operation of
the ARPA. For operation of normal radar,
refer to Chapter 1.
Principal specifications
Trial maneuver: Predicted situation appears in 1 min after selected delay (1-60
minutes).
2.2 Keys Used for ARPA
The Auto Plotter uses the keys on the plotting keypad on the right side of the radar
screen and two keys on the control panel.
Below is a brief description of these keys.
Acquisition and tracking
E-plot is inperable in ARPA mode. For Eplot reber to section 1.24 and 1.34.
• Automatic acquisition of up to 20 targets plus manual acquisition of 20 targets, or fully manual acquisition of 40
targets between 0.1 and 32 nm (0.1
and 24 nm depending on initial setting)
CANCEL: Terminates tracking of a single
target specified by the trackball if the key
is pressed with a hit-and-release action.
If the key is held depressed for about 3
seconds, tracking of all targets is terminated.
• Automatic tracking of all acquired targets between 0.1 and 32 nm (0.1 and
24 nm depending on initial setting)
ENTER: Registers menu options selected.
Vectors
VECTOR TRUE/REL: Selects true or relative presentation of target vectors.
Vector length: 30 sec, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 15,
30 min.
VECTOR TIME: Selects a vector length
of 30 sec, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 15 or 30 min.
Orientation:
True velocity or relative
velocity
TARGET DATA: Displays data on one of
tracked targets selected by the trackball.
Motion trend: Displayed within 20
scans, full accuracy within
60 sacans after acquisition.
TARGET BASED SPEED: Own ship's
speed is measured relative to a fixed target.
Past positions: Choice of 5 or 10 past
positions at intervals of 30
sec, 1, 2, 3 or 6 min.
Alarms:
Visual and audible alarms
against targets violating
CPA/TCPA limits, lost targets, targets crossing
guard zone (guard ring),
system failure and target
full status.
AUTO PLOT: Activates and deactivates
the ARPA functions.
TRIAL: Shows consequences of own
ship's speed and course against all
tracked targets.
LOST TARGET: Silences the lost target
aural alarm and erases the lost target
symbol.
HISTORY: Shows and erases past positions of tracked targets.
2-1
ACQ (on control panel): Manually acquires a target.
4. Select a desired menu item by pressing the corresponding numeric key.
AUDIO OFF (on control panel): Silences
aural alarm.
5. Select a menu option by pressing the
same numeric key as pressed in step 3
above. If there is more than one option
on the current menu item, you may
need to press the numeric key several
times. Press it until the desired option
is highlighted. (Note that certain menu
items will prompt you to enter numeric
data or to define points on the radar
screen with the trackball.)
OFF
ON
VRM
ACQ
6. Press the ENTER key to register settings.
AUDIO
OFF
7. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
to close the menu.
Control panel
Hit [AUTO PLOT].
ORIGIN
MARK
VECTOR
TRUE/
REL
VECTOR
TIME
TARGET
ORIGIN
MARK
DATA
VECTOR
TARGET
BASED
TRUE/
DATA
REL
VECTOR
AUTO
PLOT
TIME
TRIAL
MARK
RADAR
MENU
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
–
9
E,AUTO
PLOT
MENU
LOST
TARGET
HISTORY
CHART
ALIGN
VIDEO
PLOT
NAV
MENU
CANCEL
ENTER
Plotting keypad
CRITERIA OF TRACKING
A target measuring 800 m or more in the radial
or circumferential direction is regarded as a
landmass and not acquired or tracked.
Echoes smaller than 800 m are regarded as
targets to be tracked.
2.3 ARPA Menu Operation
Various parameters for the Auto Plotter are
set on the ARPA 1 and ARPA 2 menus. To
do this, follow the steps shown below:
1. Press the AUTO PLOT key if the Auto
Plotter is not yet activated. Note that
the label ARPA appears in the upperright box on the screen.
2. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
to show the ARPA 1 menu.
3. Press the [0] key once if you wish to go
to the ARPA 2 menu.
2-2
Hit [E, AUTO PLOT MENU].
1
2
3
4
5
6
[ARPA 1]
AUTO ACQ
OFF/ON
AUTO ACQ AREA
3, 6 NM/SET
GUARD RING
OFF/ON
GUARD RING SET
CPA, TCPA SET
CPA
TCPA
7 HISTORY POINTS
8 HISTORY INTERVAL
9
0 [ARPA 2]
x.xNM
xx.xMIN
5/10/20*
30S/1/2/3/6MIN
* 5/10 only on G-type
Hit [0].
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
[ARPA 2]
[ARPA 1]
TRIAL MANEUVER
STATIC/DYNAMIC
MARK SIZE
STANDARD/LARGE
CPA, TCPA DISPLAY OFF/ON
SET DRIFT
OFF/MAN
SET xxx.x°
DRIFT xx.xKT
GUARD RING, ACQ NORTH/CRT
LINE STABILIZE
SPEED REF
WT/BT
INPUT SIG CHECK
ARP TRACK TEST
INITIAL SETTING
Hit [0].
[
ARPA
]
[INITIAL SETTING]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
[ARPA 2]
TARGET SELECT
TRACK RANGE
QV SELECT
TGT OUTPUT DATA
[ARPA PRESET]
0/1/2/3/4
24/32NM
0/1/2/3
OFF/REL/TRUE
1. Adjust the A/C RAIN, A/C SEA and
GAIN controls for proper radar picture.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection followed by the RADAR
MENU key to close the FUNCTIONS
menu. The ship's speed readout at the
top of the screen shows own ship's
speed fed from the speed log preceded
by the label "LOG."
2. Press the AUTO PLOT key. The label
ARPA appears in the box at the upperright on the screen.
5. When the speed log is used, select
speed reference to either of SEA or
GND(ground) on the ARPA 2 menu.
2.4 Start-up Procedure
Activating the ARPA
To activate the ARPA:
Entering own ship's speed
The ARPA requires own ship's speed and
heading data. Of these, the speed data
can be entered automatically from a
speed log, navaid, or manually through
the numeric keys or based on a selected
reference target (such as a buoy or other
prominent stationary target).
Automatic speed input
For speed log input:
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
FUNCTION KEY 1
1. SYSTEM SETTNG 1
2. FUNCTION
(FUNC1, RIVER, BUOY, SHIP, SHORT,
LONG, CRUISING, HARBOR, COAST,
OCEAN, ROUGH SEA)
3. INT REJECT (OFF, 1, 2, 3)
4. ECHO STRETCH (OFF, 1, 2)
5. ECHO AVERAGE (OFF, 1, 2, 3)
6. A/C AUTO (OFF, ON)
7. FUNC 1 PULSE WD
8. NOISE REJ (OFF, ON)
FUNCTION KEY 2, 3
1. SYSTEM SETTING 1
2. FUNC KEY 2 or 3 (PICTURE/OPERATION)
3. FUNCTION
1. FUNCTION KEY 1, 2 or 3
2. 0.5 NM (S1, S2)
3. 0.75 NM (S1, S2)
4. 1.5 NM (S1, S2, M1)
5. 3 NM (S1, S2, M1)
6. 6 NM (M1, M2, L)
7. 12-24 NM (M2, L)
(FUNC2(3), RIVER, BUOY, SHIP, SHORT,
LONG, CRUISING, HARBOR, COAST,
OCEAN, ROUGH SEA)
4. INT REJECT (OFF, 1, 2, 3)
5. ECHO STRETCH (OFF, 1, 2)
6. ECHO AVERAGE (OFF, 1, 2, 3)
7. A/C AUTO (OFF, ON)
8. FUNC 2(3) PULSE WD
9. NOISE REJ (OFF, ON)
FUNCTION KEY 4
1. SYSTEM SETTING 1
2. FUNC KEY 4 (OPERATION, WATCH ALARM)
3. ALARM INTERVAL (6, 10, 12, 15, 20 MIN)
Notes:
1) IMO Resolution A.823:1995 for ARPA
recommends that a speed log to be interfaced with an ARPA should be capable of providing through-the-water
speed data rather than over-the-ground
speed.
2) Be sure not to select LOG when a
speed log is not connected. If the log
signal is not provided, the ship speed
readout at the top of the screen will be
blank. In the event of a log error, you
can continue plotting by entering a
manual speed.
3) If a log signal interval becomes more
then 30 seconds with the ship's speed
5KT or more, the radar regards the
speed log is in a trouble and LOG FAIL
appears, reading xx-x KT. For R-type,
if no speed input is present for 3 minutes at below 0.1KT, the radar regards
the log is in failure.
Manual speed input
To manually enter the ship's speed with
the numeric keys:
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
1. SYSTEM SETTING 1
2. FUNC KEY 2 (3) (PICTURE/OPERATION)
3. OPERATION
(HU, HU TB, CU, NU, TM, TRAIL; CU, TM RESET;
2. Press the key [6] to select menu item
6SHIP'S SPEED.
OFF CENTER, IDX LINES, CURSOR OFFSET,
ECHO STRETCH1, ECHO STRETCH2, PLS WD1,
PLS WD2, ECHO AVG1, ECHO AVG2, ECHO AVG3,
ECHO COLOR, TRAIL BRILL, PANEL BRILL,
CHAR BRILL, NOISE REJ, TARGET DATA, CANCEL)
2. Press the [6] key to select menu item
6SHIP'S SPEED.
3. Press the [6] key to select (or highlight)
LOG option.
3. Press the key [6] to select (or highlight)
MAN option.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection. At this point, "MAN = xx.x KT"
appears at the bottom of the FUNCTIONS menu.
2-3
5. Enter the ship speed by hitting corresponding numeric keys followed by the
ENTER key without omitting leading
zeroes, if any. As an example, if the ship
speed is 8 knots, press [0] [8] [ENTER].
For 4.5 knots, [0] [4] [5] [ENTER].
6. Press the RADAR MENU key to close
the FUNCTIONS menu. The ship
speed readout at the screen top shows
own ship's speed you entered preceded by the label "MANU."
Target-based speed
The use of target-based speed is recommended when:
Notes:
1) When the reference target is lost or
goes out of the acquisition range, the
reference target mark blinks and the
speed reads "xx.x." Select a different
reference target in this case.
2) When all targets are deleted, the reference target mark is also deleted and
the target-based speed becomes invalid. The speed is indicated in KTBT
where BT means Bottom Track (speed
over ground).
3) The vector of the reference target can
be displayed by menu operation (Auto
Plot 1 menu).
• The speed log is not operating properly or not connected to the radar.
Canceling target-based speed
• The vessel has no device which can
measure ship's leeward movement
(doppler sonar, speed log, etc.) though
leeward movement can not be disregarded.
To cancel the target-based speed, just
press the TARGET BASED SPEED key.
The speed is shown by LOG, NAV* or
MANUAL as selected previously. (NAV
only on R-type)
If you select target-based speed, the Auto
Plotter calculates own ship's speed relative to a fixed reference target.
Deactivating the ARPA
Note: When the target-based speed is
adopted, automatically or manually entered ship's speed is disregarded.
To establish target-based speed:
1. Select a small fixed island or any radar
prominent point located at 0.2 to 24 nm
from own ship.
2. Place the cursor (+) on the target by
operating the trackball.
3. Press the TARGET BASED SPEED
key.
The reference target mark (see below)
appears at the cursor position and the
own ship data label changes from
"LOG," "NAV" or "MANU" to "REF."
Note that it takes one minute before a
new speed is displayed.
R
2-4
Reference target mark
To deactivate the ARPA, just press the
AUTO PLOT key. Target plotting symbols
and the on-screen label ARPA will disappear.
Note: Even when the ARPA is turned off,
target tracking still goes on until the radar
is turned off. (For G-type, target tracking
goes off at STBY.)
2.5 Automatic Acquisition
The ARPA can acquire up to 40 targets
(20 automatically and 20 manually or all
40 manually. If AUTO ACQ is selected after more than 20 targets have been manually acquired, only the remaining capacity
of targets can be automatically acquired.
For example, when 30 targets have been
acquired manually, then the ARPA is
switched to AUTO ACQ. Only 10 targets
can be acquired automatically. A target just
acquired automatically is marked with a
broken square and a vector appears about
one minute after acquisition indicating the
target's motion trend. Three minutes after acquisition, the initial tracking stage is
finished and the target becomes ready for
stable tracking. At this point, the broken
square mark changes to a solid circle.
(Targets automatically acquired are distinguished from those acquired manually,
displayed by bold symbol.)
Enabling and disabling auto
acquisition
1. Press the E, AUTO PLOT key if the
ARPA is not yet activated. Note that the
label ARPA appears in the box at the
upper-right on the screen.
Hit [E, AUTO PLOT MENU].
[ARPA1]
1
2
3
4
5
6
AUTO ACQ
AUTO ACQ AREA
GUARD RING
GUARD RING SET
OFF/ON
6 NM/SET
OFF/ON
CPA, TCPA SET
CPA 00.0NM
TCPA 00.0MIN
5/10/20*
30S/1/3/3/6MIN
7 HISTORY POINTS
8 HISTORY INTERVAL
0 [ARPA 2]
*5/10 only on IMO-type
Setting auto acquisition areas
Instead of limit lines, auto acquisition areas are provided in the system. There are
two setting methods:
3, 6NM: Two predefined auto acquisition
areas; one between 3.0 and 3.5 nm and
the other between 5.5 and 6.0 nm.
SET: Two sector-shaped or full-circle auto
acquisition areas set by using the trackball.
To set 3 & 6 NM auto acquisition areas
To activate two predefined auto acquisition areas:
1. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
to show the ARPA 1 menu.
2. Press the [2] key to select menu item
2AUT O ACQ AREA.
3. Further press the [2] key to select (or
highlight) menu option 3, 6NM.
4. Press the ENTER key to confirm your
selection followed by the E, AUTO
PLOT MENU key to close the ARPA 1
menu.
3. Press the [1] key to select menu item
1AUT O ACQ.
The illustration below shows how the auto
acquisition areas are displayed on the
screen. Up to 20* targets within the auto
acquisition areas are acquired automatically.
4. Further press the [1] key to select (or
highlight) ON (enable auto acquisition)
or OFF (disable auto acquisition) as
appropriate.
*If 30 targets have already been acquired
manually in the MAN ACQ mode (AUTO
OFF on ARPA 1 menu), only 10 more targets can be acquired automatically.
2. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
to show the ARPA 1 menu.
5. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection followed by the E, AUTO
PLOT MENU key to close the AUTO
PLOT 1 menu. Note that the label
AUTO+MAN is displayed in the box at
the upper-right on the screen when
auto acquisition is enabled; MAN when
auto acquisition is disabled.
Note: When the ARPA has acquired 20
targets automatically, the message AUTO
TARGET FULL is displayed in the box at
the right-hand side of screen.
3-3.5 nm
5.5-6 nm
Predefined auto acquisition areas
2-5
To set auto acquisition areas with
trackball
To set auto acquisition areas with
trackball:
1. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
to show the ARPA 1 menu.
2. Press the [2] key to select menu item
2AUT O ACQ AREA.
3. Further press the [2] key to select (or
highlight) SET option.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection. At this point the AUTO ACQ
SETTING menu is displayed at the
screen bottom.
[AUTO ACQ SETTING]
1 [AUTO PLOT 1]
2 1/2
5. Press the [2] key to select menu item
21/2 and press the ENTER key . Then,
you will see the message as shown
below:
[AUTO ACQ SETTING]
1 [AUTO PLOT 1]
2 1/2
SET LEFT/RIGHT BOUNDARY
CANCEL PREVIOUS AREA: CANCEL KEY
6. Place the cursor at the outer counterclockwise corner of the area (point A)
and press the ENTER key.
7. Place the cursor at the clockwise edge
of the area (point B) and press the
ENTER key.
0.5 nm
8. Repeat steps 5 to 7 above if you want
to set another auto acquisition area with
the trackball.
9. Press the [1] key followed by the E,
AUTO PLOT MENU key to close the
ARPA 1 menu.
An auto acquisition area like the example
shown above appears on the display.
Note that each auto acquisition area has
a fixed radial extension (width) of 0.5 nm.
Note that the auto acquisition areas are
preserved in an internal memory of the
ARPA even when auto acquisition is disabled or the ARPA is turned off.
Terminating tracking of targets
When the ARPA has acquired 20 targets
automatically, the message AUTO TARGET FULL is displayed in the box at righthand side of the screen and no more auto
acquisition occurs unless targets are lost.
You may find this message before you set
an auto acquisition area. Should this happen, cancel tracking of less important targets or perform manual acquisition.
Individual targets
Place the cursor (+) on a target to cancel
tracking by operating the trackball. Press
the CANCEL key.
All targets
Press and hold the CANCEL key down
more than 3 seconds. In the automatic
acquisition mode, acquisition begins
again.
A
B
Automatic acquisition area set by
trackball
Note: If you wish to create an auto
acquisition area having a 360-degree
coverage around own ship, set point B
in almost the same direction (approx.
±3°) as point A and press the ENTER
key.
2-6
Discrimination between
landmass and true targets
A target is recognized as a landmass and
thus not acquired if it is 800 m or more in
range or bearing direction.
2.6 Manual Acquisition
In auto acquisition mode (AUTO ACQ
ON), up to 20 targets can be manually
acquired in addition to 20 auto acquired
targets. When auto acquisition is disabled
(AUTO ACQ OFF), up to 40 targets can
be manually acquired and automatically
tracked.
To manually acquire a target:
1. Place the cursor (+) on a target of interest by operating the trackball.
2. Press the ACQ key on the control
panel. The selected plot symbol is
marked at the cursor position.
Note that the plot symbol is drawn by broken lines during the initial tracking stage.
A vector appears in about one minute after acquisition indicating the target's motion trend. If the target is consistently
detected for three minutes, the plot symbol changes to a solid mark. If acquisition
fails, the target plot symbol blinks and disappears shortly.
(a) Immediately after acquisition—
Plot symbol shown in broken lines.
(b) 20 scans after acquisition—
Vector appears to show a trend of
movement.
(c) 60 scans after acquisition—
Plot symbol shown in solid lines
indicating stable tracking.
Notes:
CAUTION
Target Swap
When a tracked target nears another
tracked target, the targets may be
"swapped." When two targets acquired
either auomatically or manually come
close to each other, one of the two may
become a "lost target." Should this happen
manual re-acquisition of the "lost target"
may be required after the two targets have
separated.
2.7 Changing Plot Symbol
Size
Press a desired plot symbol key, and the
symbol is enlarged for about 7 seconds.
You may also choose plot symbol size.
To choose a large or standard size for all
plot symbols:
1. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
on the plotting keypad followed by the
keys [0] to show the ARPA 2 menu.
2. Press the [3] key to select 3MARK
SIZE.
3. Further press the [3] key to select (or
highlight) STANDARD or LARGE as
appropriate.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection followed by the E, AUTO
PLOT MENU key to close the ARPA 2
menu.
1) For successful acquisition, the target
to be acquired should be within 0.1 to
32 nm from own ship and not obscured
by sea or rain clutter.
2) When you have acquired 40 targets
manually, the message MAN TARGET
FULL is displayed at the screen bottom. Cancel tracking of non-threatening targets if you wish to acquire
additional
targets
manually.
(See"T erminating tracking of acquired
targets" on page 2-6.)
2-7
ARPA symbols
The symbols used in this equipment are designed to comply with Annex E (ARPA
Video Symbols) to IEC 872, Operational Requirements for ARPA.
Item
Symbol
Automatically
acquired targets
Status
Initial stage
EPVS symbol NO. 3
Remarks
Broken square around an echo to
indicate the target under acquisition
and initial stage of tracking, before
steady-state tracking.
Between 20 and 60 scans of antenna
after acquisition (vector still unreliable)
EPVS symbol NO. 3
Steady tracking
EPVS symbol NO. 4a
CPA alarm
(flashing)
Solid circle with vector indicating
steady state tracking (60 scans after
acquisition)
Plot symbol changes to an equilateral
triangle flashing to indicate the target is
predicted to come into CPA or TCPA.
EPVS symbol NO. 8
CPA alarm
acknowledge
Flashing stops after CPA/TCPA alarm
is acknowledged.
EPVS symbol NO. 8
Lost target
(flashing)
Manually
acquired targets
EPVS symbol NO. 9
Initial stage
EPVS symbol NO. 3
EPVS symbol NO. 3
Steady tracking
EPVS symbol NO. 4a
Lost target is indicated by flashing
diamond symbol. The diamond is
formed from two equal triangles.
Plot symbol selected for a target
acquired manually is shown in bold
broken lines.
Bold broken square for 20 - 60 scans of
antenna after acquisition.
Manual plot symbol in a bold solid
circle (60 scans after acquisition)
CPA alarm
Plot symbol changes to an equilateral
(collision course) triangle flashing if a target is predicted
to come into the preset CPA or TCPA.
(flashing)
EPVS symbol NO. 8
EPVS symbol NO. 8
Lost target
(flashing)
2-8
EPVS symbol NO. 9
Flashing stops after CPA/TCPA alarm
is acknowledged.
Lost target is indicated by flashing
diamond symbol. The diamond is
formed from two equal triangles (one
apex up and the other apex down).
ARPA symbols (continued)
Item
Symbol
Guard zone
(flashing)
Automatic
acquisition area
Status
Remarks
On target passing
through operatorset guard zone
EPVS symbol NO. 7
Plot symbol changes to an equilateral
triangle apex down, flashing together
with vector if target entering guard
zone (guard ring).
5.5-6.0 nm, 3-3.5
nm or anywhere
Sector or full circle as selected by the
operator.
EPVS symbol NO. 2
Target selected
for data readout
On selected
target
1
Target data (range, bearing, course,
speed, CPA and TCPA).
EPVS symbol NO. 12
Reference target
R
(In 60 scans,
change to
Trial maneuver
T
(flashing)
Auto Plotter
performance
test
Item
Non-ARPA
symbols
R
On reference
target
Used to calculate own ship’s overthe-ground speed (target-based speed)
for ground stabilization.
Bottom center
Appears during execution of a trial
maneuver.
)
EPVS symbol NO. 10
Bottom center
XX
(flashing)
EPVS symbol NO. 11A
Symbol
Status
Appears during execution of a
performance test (Track Test).
Remarks
These are non-ARPA symbols but only
for E-prot. Not available in the ARPA
mode.
2-9
2.8 Adjusting Brilliance of
Plot Marks
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the
plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
2. Press the [9] key to show the BRILLIANCE menu.
3. Press the [7] key to select 7 PLOT
BRILL.
4. Further press the [7] key to select (or
highlight) a desired brilliance level.
5. Press the ENTER key to confirm your
selection followed by the RADAR
MENU key to close the FUNCTION
menu.
Note: Refer to paragraph 1.37 for the
BRILLIANCE menu screen.
2.9 Displaying Target Data
The Auto Plotter calculates motion trends
(range, bearing, course, speed, CPA and
TCPA) of all plotted targets.
In head-up and head-up true bearing
modes, target bearing, course and speed
shown in the upper-right target data field
become true (suffix "T") or relative (suffix
340
350 000
010
020
330
040
310
050
Guard
ring
300
290
060
070
280
080
270
260
250
Target on
Target in
collision course guard ring
Auto acquisition area
090
100
110
240
120
230
130
140
220
Manually
acquired
target
2-10
210
150
200
190
180 170
160
Place the cursor on a desired target and
press the TARGET DATA key on the plotting keypad. Data on the selected target
is displayed at the upper-right corner of
the screen. A typical target data display
is shown in the illustration below.
RNG/BRG (Range/Bearing): Range and
bearing from own ship to the selected target with suffix "T" (True) or "R" (Relative).
CSE/SPD (Course/Speed): Course and
speed are displayed for the selected target with suffix "T" (True) or "R" (relative).
CPA/TCPA: CPA(Closest Point of Approach) is the closest range a target will
approach to own ship. TCPA is the time
to CPA. Both CPA and TCPA are automatically calculated. When a target ship
has passed clear of own ship, CPA is prefixed with an asterisk such as,
CPA*1.5NM. TCPA is counted to 99.9 min
and beyond this, it is indicate as
TCPA>*99.9MIN.
BCR/BCT: Bow crossing range is a range
of a target which will pass dead ahead of
own ship at a calculated distance. BCT is
the time when BCR occures.
RNG 3.4 NM
BRG 25.5°R
CSE 264.0°R
030
320
"R") to own ship in accordance with the
true/relative vector setting. In north-up,
course-up and true motion modes, the
target data field always displays true bearing, true course and speed over the
ground.
Automatically
acquired
target
SPD 12.3 KT
CPA 2.9NM TCPA 12.2MIN
BCR 8.7NM BCT20MIN
RNG: Range from own ship
to target
BRG: Bearing from own ship
to target (true or relative)
CSE: Course of target
(true or relative)
SPD: Speed of target
CPA: CPA between own ship and
target
TCPA: TCPA between own ship
and target
BCR: Bow Cross Range
BCT: Bow Cross Time
2.10 Mode and Length of
Vectors
True or relative vector
Target vectors can be displayed relative
to own ship's heading (relative) or with
reference to the north (true).
Press the VECTOR TRUE/REL key to
select true or relative vectors. This feature is available in all presentation modes
(gyrocompass must be working correctly).
The current vector mode is indicated at
the upper-right corner of the screen.
Relative vector
With relative vectors the radar display will
look like (b).
Relative vectors on targets which are not
moving over the ground such as land,
navigational marks and ships at anchor
will represent the reciprocal of own ship’s
ground track. A target of which vector extension passes through own ship is on the
collision course. (Dotted lines in the figure are for explanation only.)
ORIGIN
MARK
VECTOR
TRUE/
REL
VECTOR
TIME
With true vectors the radar display will look
like the one shown below in head-up
mode.
TARGET
DATA
TARGET
BASED
DATA
AUTO
PLOT
In the true motion mode, all fixed targets
such as land, navigational marks and
ships at anchor remain stationary on the
radar screen with vector length zero. But
in the presence of wind and/or current,
true vectors appear on fixed targets representing the reciprocal of set and drift
affecting own ship unless set and drift
values are properly entered (see paragraph 2.12).
TRIAL
LOST
TARGET
HISTORY
True vector
A
Buoy
Target on collision course
Own ship
B
(a) True vectors in head-up mode
Vector time
Vector time (or the length of vectors) can
be set to 30 seconds, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 15 or
30 minutes and the selected vector time
is indicated at the upper-right corner of
the screen.
Press the VECTOR TIME key to select
desired vector time. The vector tip shows
an estimated position of the target after
the selected vector time elapses. It can
be valuable to extend the vector length to
evaluate the risk of collision with any target.
2.11 Past Position Display
The ARPA displays equally time-spaced
dots marking the past positions of any
targets being tracked.
A
Buoy
Target on collision course
Own ship
B
(b) Relative vectors in head-up mode
A new dot is added every minute (or at
preset time intervals) until the preset number is reached. If a target changes its
speed, the spacing will be uneven. If it
changes the course, its plotted course will
not be a straight line.
2-11
Displaying and erasing past
positions
To display past positions, press the
HISTORY key to display past positions of
targets being tracked. The label HISTORY
appears at the upper-right corner of the
screen.
ORIGIN
MARK
VECTOR
TRUE/
REL
VECTOR
TIME
TARGET
DATA
TARGET
BASED
DATA
AUTO
PLOT
TRIAL
LOST
TARGET
HISTORY
To erase past positions, press the HISTORY key again.
Selecting the number of dots and
past position plot intervals
1. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
on the plotting keyboard to show the
ARPA 1 menu.
Hit [E, AUTO PLOT MENU].
1
2
3
4
5
6
[ARPA1]
AUTO ACQ
OFF/ON
AUTO ACQ AREA
6 NM/SET
GUARD RING
OFF/ON
GUARD RING SET
CPA, TCPA SET
7 HISTORY POINTS
8 HISTORY INTERVAL
0 [ARPA 2]
CPA 00.0NM
TCPA 00.0MIN
5/10/20*
30S/1/3/3/6MIN
*5/10 only on IMO-type
2. Press the [7] key to select menu item
7HIST ORY POINTS.
3. Further press the [7] key to select a desired number of past positions (5, 10,
20, 30, 100, 150 or 200). The IMO-type
has the selection of only 5 or 10.
4. Press the ENTER key to confirm your
selection.
5. Press the [8] key to select menu item
8HIST ORY INTERVAL.
2-12
6. Further press the [8] key to select a desired past position plot interval (30 seconds, 1, 2, 3 or 6 minutes).
7. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection.
8. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
to close the menu.
2.12 Setting CPA/TCPA Alarm
Ranges
The ARPA continuously monitors the predicted range at the Closest Point of Approach (CPA) and predicted time to CPA
(TCPA) of each tracked target to own ship.
When the predicted CPA of any target becomes smaller than a preset CPA alarm
range and its predicted TCPA less than a
preset TCPA alarm limit, the ARPA releases an aural alarm and displays the
warning label COLLISION on the screen.
In addition, the ARPA symbol changes to
a triangle and flashes together with its vector.
Provided that this feature is used correctly,
it will help prevent the risk of collision by
alerting you to threatening targets. It is
important that GAIN, A/C SEA, A/C RAIN
and other radar controls are properly adjusted.
CPA/TCPA alarm ranges must be set up
properly taking into consideration the size,
tonnage, speed, turning performance and
other characteristics of own ship.
CAUTION
CPA/TCPA Alarm
The CPA/TCPA alarm feature should never
be relied upon as the sole means for detecting the risk of collision.
The navigator is not relieved of the responsibility to keep visual lookout for avoiding
collisions, whether or not the radar or other
plotting aid is in use.
To set the CPA/TCPA alarm ranges:
1. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
on the plotting keypad to show the
ARPA 1 menu.
2. Press the [6] key to select menu item
6CP A, TCPA SET. At this point, a highlight cursor appears at the "CPA x.xNM"
field.
3. Enter the CPA alarm range in nautical
miles (max 9.9 min) without omitting
leading zeroes, if any, and press the
ENTER key. The highlight cursor now
moves to the "TCPA xx.xMIN" field.
4. Enter the TCPA alarm limit in minutes
(max. 99.0 min) without omitting leading zeroes, if any, and press the ENTER key.
2.13 Setting a Guard Zone
When a target transits the operator-set
guard zone, the buzzer sounds and the
indication GUARD RING appears at the
screen bottom. The target causing the
warning is clearly indicated with an inverted flashing triangle.
CAUTION
Guard Zone
The Guard Zone (Guard Ring) should never
be relied upon as a sole means for detecting
the risk ofcollision. The navigator is not
relieved of the responsibility to keep a visual
lookout foravoiding collisions, whether or
not the radar or other plotting aid is in use.
5. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
to close the menu.
Activating the guard zone
Silencing CPA/TCPA aural alarm
Press the AUDIO OFF key to acknowledge and silence the CPA/TCPA aural
alarm.
The warning label COLLISION and the
flashing of the triangle plot symbol and
vector remain on the screen until the dangerous situation is gone or you intentionally terminate tracking of the target by
using the CANCEL key.
No.1 Guard Zone is available between 3
and 6 nm with a fixed range depth of 0.5
nm. No.2 GZ may be set anywhere when
No.1 GZ is valid.
To set and activate the guard zone:
1. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
on the plotting keyboard to show the
ARPA 1 menu.
2. Press the [3] key to select menu item
3GUARD RING.
3. Further press the [3] key to select (or
highlight) ON to activate the guard
zone.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection.
5. Press the [4] key to select menu item
4GUARD RING SET . At this point the
GUARD SETTING menu is displayed
at the screen bottom.
[GUARD SETTING]
1 [AUTO PLOT 1]
2 1/2
SET LEFT/RIGHT BOUNDARY
CANCEL PREVIOUS AREA: CANCEL KEY
6. Press the [2] key and ENTER key. ([2]
[2] [ENTER] when setting the no.2 ring.)
2-13
7. Referring to figure below, place the
cursor at the outer left corner of the
area (point A) and press the ENTER
key.
8. Place the cursor at the right edge of
the area (point B) and press the ENTER key.
Note: If you wish to create a guard
zone having a 360-degree coverage
around own ship, set point B in almost
the same direction (approx. ±3°) as
point A and press the ENTER key.
9. Press the [1] key followed by the E,
AUTO PLOT MENU key to close the
ARPA 1 menu.
The guard zone as an example shown below appears on the display. Note that the
guard zone has a fixed radial extension
(width) of 0.5 nm. The label GZ is displayed in the box at the upper-right on the
screen when guard zone is enabled.
Silencing the guard zone (guard
ring) audible alarm
Press the AUDIO OFF key to acknowledge and silence the guard zone audible
alarm.
2.14 Operational Warnings
There are six main situations which cause
the Auto Plotter to trigger visual and aural alarms:
• CPA/TCPA alarm
• Guard zone alarm
• Lost target alarm
• Target full alarm for manual acquisition
• Target full alarm for automatic acquisition
• System failures
The audible alarm can be set to OFF
through the AUTO PLOT 2 menu.
CPA/TCPA alarm
A
0.5nm
B
Target in guard zone
is marked by inverted
flashing triangle.
Visual and aural alarms are generated
when the predicted CPA and TCPA of any
target become less than their preset limits. Press the AUDIO OFF key to acknowledge and silence the CPA/TCPA aural
alarm.
Guard zone (guard ring) alarm
1. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
on the plotting keyboard to show the
ARPA 1 menu.
Visual and audible alarms are generated
when a target transits the operator-set
guard zone. Press the AUDIO OFF key
to acknowledge and silence the guard
zone audible alarm. (Refer to paragraph
2.14 Setting a Guard Zone for further information.)
2. Press the [3] key to select menu item
3GUARD RING.
Lost target alarm
Deactivating the guard zone
(guard ring)
3. Further press the [3] key to select (or
highlight) OFF to deactivate the guard
zone.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection followed by the E, AUTO
PLOT MENU key to close the ARPA 1
menu.
2-14
When the system detects a loss of a
tracked target, the target symbol becomes
a flashing diamond ( ) and the label
"LOST" appears at the screen bottom. At
the same time, an aural alarm is produced
for one second.
Press the LOST TARGET key to acknowledge the lost target alarm. Then, the lost
target mark disappears.
Target full alarm
2.15 Trial Maneuver
When the memory becomes full, the
memory full status is indicated and the
relevant indication appears on the screen
and a short beep sounds.
Trial simulates the effect on all tracked
targets against own ship's maneuver without interrupting the updating of target information.
Manually acquired targets
There are two types of trial maneuvers:
static and dynamic.
The indication "MAN TARGET FULL" appears at the screen bottom and a short
beep tone sounds when the number of
manually acquired targets reaches 20 or
40 depending on whether auto acquisition is activated or not.
Automatically acquired targets
The indication "AUTO TARGET FULL" appears at the screen bottom and a short
beep tone sounds when the number of
automatically acquired targets reaches
20.
System failure alarm
When the ARP board receives no signal
input from the radar or external equipment, the screen shows both "SYSTEM
FAIL" associated with an indication denoting offending equipment, also releasing an aural alarm. The missing signals
are denoted as shown below:
Missing Signal
*Speed log signal
*Gyrocompass
Indication
LOG
GYRO
Trigger signal from radar
T
Video from radar
V
*Bearing signal from
radar antenna
B
*Heading pulses from
radar antenna
H
Dynamic trial maneuver
A dynamic trial maneuver displays predicted positions of the tracked targets and
own ship. You enter own ship's intended
speed and course with a certain "delay
time." Assuming that all tracked targets
maintain their present speeds and
courses, the targets' and own ship's future movements are simulated in one-second increments indicating their predicted
positions in one-minute intervals as illustrated below.
The delay time represents the time lag
from the present time to the time when
own ship will actually start to change her
speed and/or course. You should therefore take into consideration own ship's
maneuvering characteristics such as rudder delay, turning delay and acceleration
delay. This is particularly important on
large vessels. How much the delay is set
the situation starts immediately and ends
in a minute.
In the example shown below, own ship
will advance straight ahead (even after a
maneuver) for a delay time of 5 minutes
and then alters speed and course until
operator-specified intended speed and
course are achieved (position OS7 in this
example).
*The alarm is available with or without
ARPA.
2-15
B8
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
OS8
OS7
OS6
OS5
A8
A7
B2
B1
B0
B
1
2
3
4
5
6
OS4
OS3
A6
Delay time = 5 min.
OS2
A5
OS1
7
8
9
0
[ARPA 2]
[ARPA 1]
TRIAL MANEUVER
STATIC/DYNAMIC
MARK SIZE
STANDARD/LARGE
CPA, TCPA DISPLAY OFF/ON
SET DRIFT
OFF/MAN
SET xxx.x°
DRIFT xx.xKT
GUARD RING, ACQ NORTH/CRT
LINE STABILIZE
SPEED REF
WT/BT
INPUT SIG CHECK
ARP TRACK TEST
INITIAL SETTING
OS0
A4
A3
Present own
ship position
A2
A1
A0
A
T
Dynamic trial maneuver
Note that once a dynamic trial maneuver
is initiated, you cannot alter own ship's
trial speed, course or delay time until the
trial maneuver is terminated.
2. Press the [2] key to select 2TRIAL
MODE.
3. Further press the [2] key to select (or
highlight) STATIC or DYNAMIC trial
maneuver option as appropriate.
4. Press the ENTER key to conclude your
selection followed by the E, AUTO
PLOT MENU key to close the ARPA 2
menu.
5. Press the VECTOR TRUE/REL key to
select true or relative vector.
ORIGIN
MARK
VECTOR
TRUE/
REL
VECTOR
TIME
TARGET
DATA
TARGET
BASED
DATA
AUTO
PLOT
TRIAL
LOST
TARGET
HISTORY
Static trial maneuver
A static trial maneuver displays only the
final situation of the simulation. If you enter the same trial speed, course and delay time under the same situation as in
the aforementioned example of dynamic
trial maneuver, the screen will instantly
show position OS7 for own ship, position
A7 for target A and position B7 for target
B, omitting the intermediate positions.
Thus, the static trial maneuver will be convenient when you wish to know the maneuver result immediately.
Note: For accurate simulation of ship
movements in a trial maneuver, own ship's
characteristics such as acceleration and
turning performance should be properly
set in initial settings at the time of installation.
To perform a trial maneuver:
1. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
on the plotting keypad followed by the
[0] key to show the ARPA 2 menu.
2-16
6. Press the TRIAL key. The TRIAL DATA
SETTING menu appears at the screen
bottom associated with the current own
ship's speed and course readouts.
TRIAL DATA SETTING
[DYNAMIC MODE]:
SPEED (VRM) 15.0KT
COURSE (EBL) 53.6°
DELAY TIME
xx.x MIN
Note: The second line reads [STATIC
MODE] in the event of a static trial
maneuver.
7. Enter own ship's intended speed,
course and delay time in the following
manner:
Speed:
Course:
Set with the VRM control.
Set with the EBL control.
Delay time:Enter in minutes by hitting
numeral keys. This is the
time after which own ship
takes a new situation, not
the time the simulation
begins. Change the delay
time according to own
ship loading condition,
etc.
8. Press the TRIAL key again to start a
trial maneuver.
Trial maneuver takes place in three minutes with the letter "T" displayed at the
bottom of the screen. If any tracked target is predicted to be on a collision course
with own ship (that is, the target ship
comes within preset CPA/TCPA limits), the
target plot symbol changes to a triangle
(∆) and flashes. If this happens, change
own ship's trial speed, course or delay
time to obtain a safe maneuver. The trial
maneuver is automatically terminated and
the normal radar picture is restored three
minutes later.
Terminating trial maneuver
6. It takes approximately three minutes
for all vectors to be displayed. The track
test display does not need echo signal, gyro nor speed log input. Seven
targets having various speeds and
courses, as shown in the table on the
next page, are simulated automatically.
7. The track test continues for 5 minutes
and then repeats.
To terminate the track test, press the STBY/TX key twice and the ST-BY display
will appear.
CPA and TCPA shown below are initial
values.
Course
Speed
(kt)
CPA
(nm)
TCPA
(min)
Target A
90.0˚ T
10.0
1.0
10.4
Target B
0.0˚ T
0.0
4.0
*
Target C
180.0˚ T
10.0
1.7
28.2
Target D
216.5˚ T
23.8
0.9
15.0
Target E
273.5˚ T
14.2
6.0
22.5
Target F
180.0˚ T
20.0
0.0
30.0
Target G
24.6˚ T
15.6
4.0
43.6
Target
* Invalid value
Press the TRIAL key again at any time.
F
2.16 ARPA Track Test
+
E
C
Test program is provided for assessing
ARPA overall performance. Note that normal operation is interrupted and the label
"XX" is displayed at the bottom of the
screen during this test. The Test may be
terminated at any moment.
D
A
B
To execute the ARPA track test:
1. Select north-up mode presentation on
the 12 nm range.
2. Enter manual speed of 0 knots.
3. Press the E, AUTO PLOT MENU key
on the plotting keypad followed by the
[0] key to show the ARPA 2 menu.
XX
G
Note: Alphabets mark targets in the
above table and figure; on the actual display figures mark targets. Note that target numbering varies.
4. Press the [9] key to select 9 ARP
TRACK TEST. A track test picture appears on the screen.
5. Press the ENTER key.
2-17
2.17 Criteria for Selecting
Targets for Tracking
The FURUNO ARPA video processor detects targets in midst of noise and discriminates radar echoes on the basis of their
size. Target whose echo measurements
are greater than those of the largest ship
in range or tangential extent are usually
land and are displayed only as normal
radar video. All smaller ship-sized echoes
which are less than this dimension are
further analyzed and regarded as ships
and displayed as small circles superimposed over the video echo.
When a target is first displayed, it is shown
as having zero true speed but develops a
course vector as more information is collected. In accordance with the International Marine Organization Automatic
Radar Plotting Aid (IMO ARPA) requirements, an indication of the motion trend
should be available in 1 minute and full
vector accuracy in 3 minutes of plotting.
The FURUNO ARPAs comply with these
requirements.
Acquisition and tracking
A target which is hit by 5 consecutive radar pulses is detected as a radar echo.
Manual acquisition is done by designating a detected echo with the trackball.
Automatic acquisition is done in the acquisition areas when a target is detected
5-7 times continuously depending upon
the congestion. Tracking is achieved
when the target is clearly distinguishable
on the display for 5 out of 10 consecutive
scans whether acquired automatically or
manually.
Targets not detected in 5 consecutive
scans become "lost targets."
Quantization
The entire picture is converted to a digital
from called "Quantized Video." A sweep
range is divided into small segments and
each range element is "1" if there is radar
echo return above a threshold level, or
"0" if there is no return.
2-18
The digital radar signal is then analyzed
by a ship-sized echo discriminator. As the
antenna scans, if there are 5 consecutive
radar pulses with I's indicating an echo
presence at the exact same range, a target "start" is initiated. Since receiver noise
is random, it is not three bang correlated,
and it is filtered out and not classified as
an echo.
The same is true of radar interference.
Electronic circuits track both the closet
and most distant edges of the echo. At
the end of the scanning of the echo, the
discriminator indicates the measured
maximum range extent and total angular
extent subtended by the echo. If the echo
is larger than a ship-sized echo in range
extent and/or angular width, adjusted as
a function of range, it is declared to be a
coastline and the closet edge is put into
memory as a map of the area. This land
outline is used to inhibit further acquisition and tracking of ship sized echoes
beyond the closest coast outline. 5 consecutive scans of coastal outline are retained in memory to allow for signal
variation. All smaller echoes are declared
to be ship sized and the middle of the leading edge is used to provide precise range
and bearing coordinates of each echo on
every scan. This range/bearing data is
matched to previous data and analyzed
from scan-to-scan for consistency. When
it is determined to be as consistent as a
real target, automatic acquisition occurs
and tracking is initiated. Continued tracking and subsequent calculation develop
the relative course and speed of the target just as a man would do when plotting
the relative course and speed of the target on the scope with a grease pencil.
The true course and speed of own ship
are computed from own ship's gyro and
speed inputs, and the resulting course
and speed of each tracked target is easily computed by vector summing of the
relative motion with own ship’s course and
speed. The resulting true or relative vector is displayed for each of the tracked
targets. This process is updated continually for each target on every scan of the
radar.
Automatic acquisition areas and
suppression lines
Performance of auto-acquisition is enhanced by controlling the limit lines (suppression line) in the former series of
FURUNO ARPAs. In this new series of
ARPAs, the automatic acquisition rings
are used instead of the limit lines.
Auto acquisition rings work as suppression lines when viewed from the opposite
direction. They should be placed clear of
a landmass or shoreline. The acquisition
areas may be a full 360 degree circle or
sector of any angles are gyro stabilize.
Rain and snow
Clutter can be acquired and tracked as
targets. Adjust the A/C RAIN control. If it
is heavy rain, switch to S-band if provided,
or switch on the interference rejector on
the radar. If heavy clutter still exists, switch
to manual acquisition. Accuracy can be
affected.
Low clouds
Usually no effect. If necessary, adjust the
A/C RAIN control.
Non-synchronous emissions
Qualitative description of
tracking error
No effect.
The FURUNO ARPA accuracies comply
with or exceed IMO standards.
Low gain
Own ship maneuvers
For slow turns there is no effect. For very
high turning rates (greater than 150°/
minute, depending on gyro), there is some
influence on all tracked targets which last
for a minute or two and then all tracked
targets revert to full accuracy.
Other ship maneuvers
Target ship courses, lag 15 to 30 seconds
at high relative speed, or 3 to 6 seconds
at low (near 0) relative speed. It is less
accurate during a turn due to lag, but accuracy recovers quickly.
2.18 Factors Affecting ARPA
Functions
Insufficient or low radar receiver gain will
result in some targets not being acquired
at long distance. ARPA display will be
missing on one or more targets that could
only be visible if the radar sensitivity control (GAIN control) were increased.
The setting of the correct radar receiver
gain is not critical but the target should
be on the radar PPI and be clearly visible
and well defined.
Manual acquisition is done if a target is
positively displayed more than once. Automatic acquisition is done when the target is detected 5-7 times continuously.
Tracking is achieved when the target is
detected 5 times (not necessarily continuously) out of 10 scans. If not detected 6
times out of 10 scans, the target will become a "lost target." The ARPA will acquire a radar echo that is present once in
every six antenna scans and continue
tracking if 1 in 10.
Sea returns
If the radar anti-clutter control is adjusted
properly, there is no serious effect because distant wave clutter, not eliminated
by this control, is filtered out by more than
one bang correlation and scan-to-scan
matching of data.
Second trace echoes
When the radar beam is super refracted,
strong echoes may be received at such
long ranges that they appear on a different timebase sweep than the transmitted
2-19
pulse. This gives an incorrect range indication. Second and third trace echoes can
be tracked if they are consistent enough
to meet acquisition and tracking criteria
but target course and speed data will be
in error.
Blind and shadow sectors
Radar shadow or blind areas caused by
obstructions aboard ship, for example,
funnels and masts, in the path of the radar beam can result in reduction of radar
beam intensity in that particular direction.
This may eliminate the detection of some
targets. The ARPA system will lose track
of targets shortly after they are lost on the
radar picture and if they remain in a blind
zone. These targets will however be acquired and tracked when they pass out of
the blind zone and again present normal
radar echo. The angular width and bearing of any shadow sector should be determined for their influence on the radar.
In certain cases false echoes in the
shadow sector cause the ARPA system
to acquire, track, and vector them.
Shadow sectors should be avoided.
Indirect echoes
A target at close range is usually picked
up directly, but it can also be received as
reflection from a large, flat surface. This
will result in the radar presenting two or
more echoes on the display, each at a
different range. The ARPA can acquire
and track the false echo if it is detected
by five consecutive scans. Reduction in
radar GAIN can eliminate the multiple
echoing but care should be taken as
range detection also will be reduced.
Radar interference
If interference is extreme due to another
radar operating at close range, spiral "dotting" and/or false targets may appear
momentarily. The interference rejector can
clear the display.
2-20
To receive radar beacon or SART signals,
turn off the radar interference rejection
and echo average which operate on the
correlation technique.
3. RADAR OBSERVATION
3.1 General
Minimum and maximum ranges
For example, if the height of the antenna
above the waterline is 9 meters and the
height of the target is 16 meters, the maximum radar range is;
Minimum range
The minimum range is defined by the
shortest distance at which, using a scale
of 1.5 or 0.75 nm, a target having an echoing area of 10 m2 is still shown separate
from the point representing the antenna
position.
It is mainly dependent on the pulselength,
antenna height, and signal processing
such as main bang suppression and digital quantization. It is a good practice to use
a shorter range scale as far as it gives favorable definition or clarity of picture. The
IMO Resolution A. 477 (XII) and IEC 936
require the minimum range to be less than
50 m. All FURUNO radars satisfy this requirement.
Maximum range
The maximum detecting range of the radar, Rmax, varies considerably depending
on several factors such as the height of
the antenna above the waterline, the height
of the target above the sea, the size, shape
and material of the target, and the atmospheric conditions.
Under normal atmospheric conditions, the
maximum range is equal to the radar horizon or a little shorter. The radar horizon is
longer than the optical one by about 6%
because of the diffraction property of the
radar signal. The Rmax is given in the following equation.
Rmax= 2.2 x ( h1 + h2 )
where Rmax: radar horizon (nautical miles)
h1:
antenna height (m)
h2 : target height (m)
Radar horizon
Optical horizon
Rmax= 2.2 x ( 9 + 16 ) = 2.2 x (3 + 4) = 15.4 nm
It should be noted that the detection range
is reduced by precipitation (which absorbs
the radar signal).
X-band and S-band
In fair weather, the above equation does
not give a significant difference between
X- and S-band radars. However, in heavy
precipitation condition, an S-band radar
would have better detection than an Xband radar.
Radar resolution
There are two important factors in radar
resolution (discrimination): bearing resolution and range resolution.
Bearing resolution
Bearing resolution is the ability of the radar to display as separate pips the echoes received from two targets which are
at the same range and close together. It is
proportional to the antenna length and reciprocally proportional to the wavelength.
The length of the antenna radiator should
be chosen for a bearing resolution better
than 2.5° (IMO Resolution). This condition
is normally satisfied with a radiator of 1.2
m (4 ft) or longer in the X-band. The Sband radar requires a radiator of about 12
feet (3.6 m) or longer.
Range resolution
Range resolution is the ability to display
as separate pips the echoes received from
two targets which are on the same bearing and close to each other. This is deter3-1
mined by pulselength only. Practically, a
0.08 microsecond pulse offers the discrimination better than 25 m as do so with all
FURUNO radars.
Test targets for determining the range and
bearing resolution are radar reflectors having an echoing area of 10 m2.
Bearing accuracy
One of the most important features of the
radar is how accurately the bearing of a
target can be measured. The accuracy of
bearing measurement basically depends
on the narrowness of the radar beam.
However, the bearing is usually taken relative to the ship’s heading, and thus, proper
adjustment of the heading marker at installation is an important factor in ensuring bearing accuracy. To minimize error
when measuring the bearing of a target,
put the target echo at the extreme position on the screen by selecting a suitable
range.
Range measurement
Measurement of the range to a target is
also a very important function of the radar. Generally, there are two means of
measuring range: the fixed range rings and
the variable range marker (VRM). The
fixed range rings appear on the screen with
a predetermined interval and provide a
rough estimate of the range to a target.
The variable range marker’s diameter is
increased or decreased so that the marker
touches the inner edge of the target, allowing the operator to obtain more accurate range measurements.
Multiple echoes
Multiple echoes occur when a transmitted
pulse returns from a solid object like a large
ship, bridge, or breakwater. A second, a
third or more echoes may be observed on
the display at double, triple or other multiples of the actual range of the target as
shown below. Multiple reflection echoes
can be reduced and often removed by
decreasing the gain (sensitivity) or properly adjusting the A/C SEA control.
True
echo
Target
Own ship
Multiple
echo
Sidelobe echoes
Every time the radar pulse is transmitted,
some radiation escapes on each side of
the beam, called "sidelobes." If a target
exists where it can be detected by the side
lobes as well as the main lobe, the side
echoes may be represented on both sides
of the true echo at the same range. Side
lobes show usually only on short ranges
and from strong targets. They can be reduced through careful reduction of the gain
or proper adjustment of the A/C SEA control.
Target A
Target B
(Spurious) Target B
(True)
3.2 False Echoes
Occasionally echo signals appear on the
screen at positions where there is no target or disappear even if there are targets.
They are, however, recognized if you understand the reason why they are displayed. Typical false echoes are shown
below.
3-2
Virtual image
A relatively large target close to your ship
may be represented at two positions on
the screen. One of them is the true echo
directly reflected by the target and the other
is a false echo which is caused by the mirror effect of a large object on or close to
your ship as shown in the figure below. If
your ship comes close to a large metal
bridge, for example, such a false echo may
temporarily be seen on the screen.
Target ship
;;;
;;;;;;
;;;;;
;;
;;;;;;
;;;
;;
;;
Own
ship
;;;
;;
;;
;
;;
;;
;
;;
;;
;;
;;;
;;;
True
;;
; echo
;;
;;
Mirror image
of target ship
False
echo
Shadow sectors
Funnels, stacks, masts, or derricks in the
path of the antenna block the radar beam.
If the angle subtended at the scanner is
more than a few degrees, a non-detecting
sector may be produced. Within this sector targets can not be detected.
Radar
antenna
Radar
mast
3.3 SART (Search and Rescue
Transponder)
A Search and Rescue Transponder
(SART) may be triggered by any X-Band
(3 cm) radar within a range of approximately 8 nm. Each radar pulse received
causes it to transmit a response which is
swept repetitively across the complete radar frequency band. When interrogated, it
first sweeps rapidly (0.4 µs) throught the
band before beginning a relatively slow
sweep (7.5 µs) through the band back to
the starting frequency. This process is repeated for a total of twelve complete
cycles. At some point in each sweep, the
SART frequency will match that of the interrogating radar and be within the pass
band of the radar receiver. If the SART is
within range, the freguency match during
each of the 12 slow sweeps will produce a
response on the radar display, thus a line
of 12 dots equally spaced by about 0.64
nautical miles will be shown.
When the range to the SART is reduced
to about 1 nm, the radar display may show
also the 12 responses generated during
the fast sweeps. These additional dot responses, which also are equally spaced
by 0.64 nm, will be interspersed with the
original line of 12 dots. They will appear
slightly weaker and smaller than the original dots.
General procedure for detecting
SART response
1. Use range scale of 6 or 12 nm as the
spacing between the SART responses
is about 0.6nm (1125 m) to distinguish
the SART.
2. Turn off the automatic clutter suppression.
Blind zone
3. Turn off the Interference Rejector.
4. Turn off the Echo Average.
3-3
When the range to the SART is reduced
to about 1 nm, the radar display may show
also the 12 responses generated during
the fast sweeps. These additional dot responses, which also are equally spaced
by 0.64 nm, will be interspersed with the
original line of 12 dots. They will appear
slightly weaker and smaller than the original dots.
Screen B: When SART
is close
Screen A: When SART
is distant
Echo of SART
Lines of 12 dots
are displayed in
concentric arcs.
Radar antenna
beamwidth
24 NM
Echo of
SART
1.5 NM
Position of
SART
General remarks on receiving
SART
SART range errors
When responses from only the 12 low frequency sweeps are visible (when the
SART is at a range greater than about 1
nm), the position at which the first dot is
displayed may be as much as 0.64 nm
beyond the true position of the SART.
When the range closes so that the fast
sweep responses are seen also, the first
of these will be no more than 150 meters
beyond the true position.
Radar bandwidth
Own ship's
position
9500 MHz
9200 MHz
Own ship's
position
SART mark
length
7.5 s
Sweep time
Position of
SART
Radar receiver
bandwidth
95 s
Low speed sweep signal
Sweep start
High speed sweep signal
General procedure for detecting
SART response
1. Use range scale of 6 or 12 nm as the
spacing between the SART responses
is about 0.6nm (1125 m) to distinguish
the SART.
2. Turn off the automatic clutter suppression.
3. Turn off the Interference Rejector.
4. Turn off the Echo Average.
This is normally matched to the radar
pulselength and is usually switched with
the range scale and the associated
pluselength. Narrow bandwidths of 3-5
MHz are used with long pulses on long
range and wide bandwidths of 10-25 MHz
with short pulses on short ranges.
Any radar bandwidth of less than 5 MHz
will attenuate the SART signal slightly, so
it is preferable to use a medium bandwidth
to ensure optimum detection of the SART.
Radar side lobes
As the SART is approached, side lobes
from the radar antenna may show the
SART responses as a series of arcs or
conentric rings. These can be removed by
the use of the anti-clutter sea control although it may be operationally useful to
observe the side lobes as they may be
easier to detect in clutter conditions and
also they will confirm that the SART is near
to the ship.
Gain
For maximum range SART detection the
normal gain setting for long range detection should be used, that is, with background noise speckle visible.
3-4
A/C SEA control
3.4 RACON (Radar Beacon)
For optimum range SART detection, this
control should be set to the minimum. Care
should be exercised as wanted target in
sea clutter may be obscured. Note also
that in clutter conditions the first few dots
of the SART response may not be detectable, irrespective of the setting of the anticlutter sea control. In this case, the position
of the SART may be estimated by measuring 9.5 nm miles from the furthest dot
back towards own ship.
A racon is a radar transponder which emits
a characteristic signal when triggered by
a ship's radar (usually only the 3 centimeter band). The signal may be emitted on
the same frequency as that of the triggering radar, in which case it is superimposed
on the ship's radar display automatically.
Some sets have automatic/manual anticlutter sea control facilities in which case
the operator should switch to manual.
The racon signal appears on the PPI as a
radial line originating at a point just beyond
the position of the radar beacon or as a
Morse code signal (figure below) displayed
redially from just beyond the beacon.
A/C RAIN control
This should be used normally (to break up
areas of rain) when trying to detect a SART
response which, being a series of dots, is
not affected by the action of the anti-clutter rain circuitry. Note that Racon responses, which are often in the from of a
long flash, will be affected by the use of
this control.
Some sets have automatic/manual anticlutter rain control facilities in which case
the operator should switch to manual.
Note: This SART information is excerpted
from IMO SN/Circ 197 Operation of Marine Radar for SART Detection.
3-5
4. MAINTENANCE
DANGER
DANGER: Electrical Shock Hazard
This equipment contains high voltages which can cause death at several
internal circuits including a cathode ray tube (CRT) which uses several
thousand volts. Any internal adjustment, servicing and repair shall only be
performed by qualified service personnel totally familiar with electrical
circuits and servicing of the equipment. A residual charge remains in
capacitors and other devices several minutes after turning off the power.
It is therefore essential to wait at least 3 minutes to allow residual charge to
subside before accessing the inside of the equipment. Special care must be
taken when approaching the following parts:
• Power supply circuit (Display unit and separate power supply units)
• CRT circuit (Display unit)
• Modulator circuit and magnetron (Antenna unit or separate transceiver
unit)
• Motor drive circuit (Antenna unit)
WARNING
WARNING: When Working on the Antenna Unit
Wear a safety belt and a hard hat when working on the antenna unit.
Always make sure that the radar is POWERED OFF and the Antenna
switch in the display unit is OFF before working on the antenna unit.
Also take all steps to ensure that the radar will not be accidentally operated
by someone else, to prevent the potential risk of being struck by the
rotating antenna and exposure to RF radiation hazards.
Periodic checks and maintenance are important for proper operation of any electronic systems. This
chapter contains maintenance instructions to be followed to obtain optimum performance and the longest possible life of the equipment.
4.1 Periodic Maintenance Schedule
Interval
Check point
Check and measures
Remarks
Weekly
Display unit
Periodically clean the exterior of
display unit using dry soft clean. Use
of commercially available CRT
cleaner (spray) having antistatic
effect is recommended.
CRT screen produces static
charge which would attract dust.
DO NOT use strong solvent like
paint thinner or abrasive cleaners
for cleaning.
Dust and dirt on CRT creates
symptoms similar to poor
sensitivity.
(Continued on next page)
4-1
Interval
Check point
Check and measures
Remarks
3 to 6
months
Exposed nuts
and bolts on
antenna unit
Check for corroded or loosened nuts
and bolts. If necessary, clean and
repaint them thickly. Replace them if
heavily corroded.
Sealing compound may be used
instead of paint. Apply a small
amount of grease between nuts
and bolts for easy removal in
future.
Antenna
radiator
Check for dirt and cracks on radiator
surface. Thick dirt should be wiped
off with soft cloth dampened with
fresh water. if a crack is found, apply
a slight amount of sealing compound
or adhesive as a temporary remedy,
then call for repair.
Do not use plastic solvent
(acetone) for cleaning. If you need
to remove ice from antenna unit,
use a wooden hammer or plastic
head hammer. Crack on the unit
may cause water ingress, causing
serious damages to internal
circuits.
Terminal strips
and plugs in
antenna unit
Open antenna cover to check
terminal strip and plug connections
inside. Also check the rubber gasket
of antenna covers for deterioration.
When closing antenna covers in
position, be careful not to catch
loose wires between covers and
unit.
High voltage at CRT and
surrounding components attract dust
in environment which will cause
poor insulation. Ask your nearest
FURUNO representative or dealer to
clean internal high-voltage
components.
If CRT anode rubber cap or wire
sheath is cracked, ask your dealer
to replace it. Wait for at least 3
minutes until high voltage
components (CRT and HV
capacitors) discharge their residual
charges before accessing them.
6 months CRT and
to one
surrounding
year
components
Terminal strips, Check for loose connections. Check
sockets, earth
contacts and plugs for proper seating,
terminal
etc.
4.2 Life Expectancy of Major Parts
Part
Type
Antenna
motor
RM-8123
RM-8124
RM-8247
RM-7398
RM-7435
RM-9519
RM-9520
RM-9521
Magnetron
MG5241 (X-band 10 kW)
2,000-3,000 hours
9M752/M5187F (X-band, 25 kW)
MG5223F (S-band, 30 kW)
MG5240 (S-band, 60 kW)
4-2
(X-band)
(X-band)
(X-band)
(S-band)
(S-band)
(S-band)
(S-band)
(S-band)
Life expectancy
Remarks
Gears more than
10,000 hours
Wind load
100 knots
5. TROUBLESHOOTING
DANGER
DANGER: Electrical Shock Hazard
This equipment contains high voltages which can cause death at several
internal circuits including a cathode ray tube (CRT) which uses several
thousand volts. Any internal adjustment, servicing and repair shall only be
performed by qualified service personnel totally familiar with electrical
circuits and servicing of the equipment. A residual charge remains in
capacitors and other devices several minutes after turning off the power.
It is therefore essential to wait at least 3 minutes to allow residual charge to
subside before accessing the inside of the equipment. Special care must be
taken when approaching the following parts:
• Power supply circuit (Display unit and separate power supply units)
• CRT circuit (Display unit)
• Modulator circuit and magnetron (Antenna unit or separate transceiver
unit)
• Motor drive circuit (Antenna unit)
WARNING
WARNING: When Working on the Antenna Unit
Wear a safety belt and a hard hat when working on the antenna unit.
Always make sure that the radar is POWERED OFF and the Antenna
switch in the display unit is OFF before working on the antenna unit.
Also take all steps to ensure that the radar will not be accidentally operated
by someone else, to prevent the potential risk of being struck by the
rotating antenna and exposure to RF radiation hazards.
5.1 Easy Troubleshooting
This paragraph describes how to cure operational problems, which can be made by observing the
radar picture and using operator controls and keys without opening the display unit, antenna unit
or other equipment units.
The table below shows user-level troubleshooting procedures.
Problem
Remedy
Key beep inaudible
Adjust key beep level on RADAR 2 menu referring to
paragraph 1.32.
No own ship mark
On the R-type radar, check that SHIP'S MARK ON is selected
at the RADAR 2 menu, referrring to paragraph 1.32. Also, own
ship information (length, width, etc.) should have been entered
in initial settings. Consult a FURUNO representative or dealer
for details. On the IMO type, the own ship mark is not
available.
5-1
5.2 Advanced-level
Troubleshooting
This paragraph describes how to cure hardware and software troubles which should be
carried out by qualified service personnel.
Note: This radar equipment contains complex
modules in which fault diagnosis and repair
down to component level are not practicable
by users.
Serviceman qualification
person holding an operator certificate containing a ship radar endorsement.
This is what the U.S. Codes of Federal Regulations part 80.169 implies (not exact extract).
As such, every administration sets forth its own
rule; service personnel must be aware of this
kind of competency requirements.
Service call
When making a service call to your service
agent, check S/N and symptom beforehand.
All adjustments of radio transmitter during or
coinciding with the installation, servicing, or
maintenance which may affect the proper operation must be performed by or under the immediate supervision and responsibility of a
Problem
Check point and
probable cause
Power turned on but radar 1. Blown fuse F1 or F2
2. Mains voltage/polarity
does not operate at all.
3. Power Supply Board
Control panel is not
4. Illumination lamps
illuminated either.
CRT brilliance adjusted but 1. RADAR 1/2 menu settings
no picture
2. CRT voltage
3. SPU Board
Antenna not rotating
Alphanumeric data and
marks are not displayed in
Transmit status.
5-2
1. Antenna drive
mechanism (Note that the
message BRG SIG
MISSING appears in
stand-by.)
2. Defective antenna drive
motor relay (thermal
relay K2, 200/220/380,
440/100VAC)
3. INT-9170 Board
1. SPU Board
Remedy
1. Replace blown fuse.
2. Correct wirings and input voltage.
3. Replace Power Supply Board.
4. Replace defective lamps.
1. In case of single display installation without radar interswitching), make sure RADAR 1
is selected on SYSTEM
SETTING menu.
2. Check high voltage supply with
utmost care.
3. Replace SPU Board.
1. Make sure that there is no
short circuit across #1 and #2 of
J461 on IN-9170 Board.
2. Press relay reset button.
3. Check that atenna switch is on.
1. Replace SPU Board.
Problem
Check point and
probable cause
1. IF amplifier
2. Signal cable between
antenna and display
Remedy
1. Replace IF amplifier.
2. Check continuity and isolation of
coaxial cable. (Note: Disconnect
the plug and lugs at both ends of
coaxial cable before checking it
by ohmmeter.)
3. Check video coax line for secure
3. Video Amplifier Board
connection. If connection is good,
replace SPU Board.
1. Tx fuse F801 (Trans. Unit) 1. If fuse is blown, replace it. If it
Marks, legends and noise
blows again, the modulator or
appear but no echo.
modulator circuit may be
(Transmission leak,
defective.
representing own ship
2. Check magnetron current with the
position, is absent.)
2. Magnetron
check meter in the sub panel.
Replace magnetron.
3. Replace Modulator Board.
3. Modulator Board
3. Replace SCR. DANGER: HIGH
VOLTAGE.
4. Replace SPU Board.
4. SPU Board
Picture not updated
1. Bearing Signal Generator 1. Check the connection of signal
cable.
Board (antenna unit)
2. Replace SPU Board.
2. SPU Board
3. Turn off and on radar.
3. Video lockup
1. The message "HD SIG
Incorrect orientation of
1. SPU Board
MISSING" appears when the
picture
heading pulse is not received
during stand-by.
2. Replace gyro interface.
2. Gyro Interface
1. With radar transmitting on 48 mm
TUNE control adjusted but 1. Deteriorated magnetron
range, check magnetron
poor sensitivity
current. If current is below normal
value, magnetron may be
defective. Replace magnetron.
2. Check MIC detecting current. If it
2. Detuned MIC
is below normal value, MIC may
have become detuned. MIC must
be tuned.
3. Clean radiator surface.
3. Dirt on radiator face
4. Water ingress to the wave- 4. Remove water from the feeder
line.
guide or other feeder line
5. Disable the second-trace rejector
5. Second trace rejection is
referring to paragraph 1.36.
ON.
1. Try to hit [+] and [-] RANGE
Range changed but radar
1. Defective RANGE key
keys several times. If unsuccesspicture does not change
ful, replacement of keypad may
be required.
2. Replace SPU Board.
2. SPU Board
3. Replace Mother Board.
3. Mother Board
4. Turn off and on radar.
4. Video lockup
Adjust GAIN control with
A/C SEA control set at
minimum. Marks and
legends appear but no noise
or echo.
5-3
Problem
Interference rejector
inoperable (interference
rejection level not
displayed)
Echo stretch ineffective
(Neither "ES1" nor "ES2" is
displayed.)
Only 2 parallel index lines
(6 lines wanted)
Range rings are not
displayed.
Check point and
probable cause
1. Bad contact of key
2. SPU Board
3. Mother Board
Remedy
1. Bad contact of key
2. SPU Board
1. Repair contact of key.
2. Replace SPU Board.
1. Incorrect setting of index
line interval
1. Press RINGS key to see if
intensity is increased.
control to see if intensity is
increased.
2. Bad contact of key
3. SPU Board
1. Improper setting on
RADAR 2 menu
1. Set index line interval referring to
paragraph 1.26.
1. Replace associated circuit board if
unsuccessful.
1. Repair contact of key.
2. Replace SPU Board.
3. Replace Mother Board.
2. Replace keypad.
3. Replace SPU Board.
Key beep inaudible
1. Adjust key beep level on
RADAR 2 menu referring to
paragraph 1.32.
Poor discrimination at
1. Sea clutter control not
1. Improper setting of A/C SEA
range
functioning properly.
control. If A/C SEA is seen only
at very close range, suspect
inaccurate frequency of
crystal oscillator.
True motion presentation
1. Poor contact of MODE
1. Try to press MODE key a little
not working correctly
key.
harder.
2. Selection is not accessed. 2. Press MODE key until "TM"
appears.
3. Enter correct own ship speed
3. Speed entry is incorrect.
referring to paragraph 1.24.
4. Make sure that speed and compass
4. TM display inaccurate
inputs are accurate.
Target not tracked correctly 1. Poor definition of targets in 1. Adjust A/C SEA and A/C RAIN
sea clutter
controls referring to paragraphs
1.13 and 1.14.
5-4
5.3 Diagnostic Test
A diagnostic test program is provided to enable testing of major circuit boards in the radar
display unit. Note that the normal radar picture
is lost during this test.
Proceed as follows to execute the diagnostic
test:
1. Press the RADAR MENU key on the plotting keypad to show the FUNCTIONS menu.
2. Press numeric key [0][0] to show the SYSTEM SETTING 2 menu.
3. On the R-type, press the key [3] to select
menu item 3TEST . Then, press the ENTER
key.
On the IMO-type, press the key [3] to
select menu item 3TEST . Then, press
numeric key [3] again to highlight select
TEST ON, followed by the ENTER key.
Now, the diagnostic test is executed and
the screen shows test results as shown on
the next page.
4. To terminate the diagnostic test, turn off the
power switch. Perform "quick start" (see
page 1-1) if you wish to restore normal radar operation immediately.
Hit [RADAR MENU].
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
[FUNCTIONS]
PULSEWIDTH
1/2
ECHO STRETCH OFF/1/
ECHO AVERAGE OFF/1/2/3
ECHO COLOR
YEL/GRN/COLOR
SHIP'S SPEED
LOG/MAN
INDEX LINES
NO.2/MAN
2ND ECHO REJ
OFF/ON
BRILLIANCE
[SYSTEM SETTING 1]
Hit [0].
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
[SYSTEM SETTING 1]
[FUNCTIONS]
RADAR 1
FUNCTION KEY 1
FUNCTION KEY 2
FUNCTION KEY 3
FUNCTION KEY 4
RADAR
1/2
INTERSWITCH
ANCHOR WATCH
[SYSTEM SETTING 2]
Hit [0].
IMO-type
[SYSTEM SETTING 2]
Hit [0]. 12 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
3 TEST
G-type
[SYSTEM SETTING 2]
1 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
2
OFF/ON
3 TEST
Small squares displayed at the right and bottom of the test result screen are for testing the
switches and keys in the hinged compartments
of the display unit and on the operator control
panel. As you operate these switches and keys,
corresponding squares are highlighted, indicating that your switch/key operations are properly recognized.
5-5
FR-2005 TEST
PROGRAM NO
ROM RAMCRAM DIPSW
MAIN XXXXXXXXXXX
OK OK OK 1111
SUB
XXXXXXXXXX
OK OK
ARP
XXXXXXXXXX
OK OK OK 0000
DSP
XXXXXXXXXX
OK OK OK
RP
XXXXXXXXXX
OK OK OK 1000
DRAM
RP BOARD BAT OK
RP CARD1 OK CARD2
OK
VRAM
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Square are highlighted as
corresponding keys are pressed.
Two lines are for control panel.
5-6
These squares are for
ST-BY, DEGAUSS and
AUTO/MAN TUNE
switches from above.
APPENDIX
A.1 Performance Monitor
For X-band radars, the FURUNO PM-30
satisfies the reguirement covering
9410±50 MHz. For S-band radars, the
PM-50 is available covering 3050±30
MHz.
The performance monitor is an independent unit, namely, it is not interconnected
with any unit of the radar system except
for the 100 VAC power cable. In some
radars the power cable is not routed via
the power switch or other control of the
radar and the monitor is operated as completely a separate device.
Operating the performance
monitor
When Radar Interswitch RJ-7 is connected, set it to the "straight" mode. Press
the PM ON/OFF button at the lower left
corner in the Turning Compartment, and
the range scale is automatically set to 24
nm range scale, producing the monitor
display. The radar screen will show several arcs, opposite to the heading marker
(provided that the performance monitor
is installed behind the radar antenna as
is normally the case). If the radar transmitter and receiver are in good working
conditions in as much as the original state
when the monitor was turned up, the innermost are should appear at 12 nm and
there should be a total of 4 arcs.
The range of the innermost arc reduces
3 nm with every 3 dB loss of transmitted
power. The receiver sensitivity can be
evaluated from the number of visible arcs;
one arc is lost every 3 dB deterioration of
the sensitivity.
Transmitter
performance
Receiver
performance
Range to
innermost
arc
Loss
No. of
arcs
Loss
12 nm
0 dB
4
0 dB
9 nm
3 dB
3
3 dB
6 nm
6 dB
2
6 dB
10 dB
1
9 dB
0
12 dB
3 nm or
less or none
Display
Meaning
TRANSMITTER: normal
RECEIVER: normal
12 nm
9 nm
9 nm
TRANSMITTER: 3 db loss
(Transmitter system has lost
half of initial power.
Suspect magnetron and
feeder system.)
RECEIVER: normal
TRANSMITTER: 3 db loss
(Transmitter system has lost
half of initial power.
Suspect magnetron and
feeder system.)
RECEIVER: 3 db loss
(Receiver has lost half of
normal sensitivity. Suspect
receiver front end, water
leakage in feeder system,
etc.
A-1
A.2 For Fishing Vessel
This radar can be customized as a fishing vessel version with an internal setting.
The fishing vessel version offers an additional picture setup option "BIRD," which
is assignable to one of the function keys
depending on a setting on FUNCTION
KEY 1, 2 , 3 or 4 menu shown below.
[FUNCTION KEY 1]
1 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
2 FUNCTION
FUNC1/RIVER/BUOY/
SHIP/SHORT/LONG/
CRUISING/HARBOR/
COAST/OCEAN/
ROUGH SEA/ BIRD
3 INT REJECT
OFF/1/2/3
4 NEXT PAGE
[FUNCTION KEY 2]
1 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
2 FUNC KEY2
PICTURE/OPERATION
3 FUNCTION
FUNC2/RIVER/BUOY/
SHIP/SHORT/LONG/
CRUISING/HARBOR/
COAST/OCEAN/
ROUGH SEA/BIRD
4 INT REJECT
OFF/1/2/3
5 NEXT PAGE
[FUNCTION KEY 3]
1 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
2 FUNC KEY3 PICTURE /
3 FUNCTION
WATCH ALARM
FUNC3/RIVER/BUOY/
SHIP/SHORT/LONG/
CRUISING/HARBOR/
COAST/OCEAN/
ROUGH SEA/BIRD
4 INT REJECT
5 NEXT PAGE
If the BIRD option is menu-selected at the
time of installation, the corresponding
function key is labeled "BIRD." Press the
function key "BIRD" and the radar will be
set for optimum detection of sea birds
between 6 and 16 nm. As is well known
by professional fishermen, locating a flock
of sea birds is useful for finding certain
species of fish.
Hit [3].
Hit [4].
Hit [RADAR MENU].
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
[FUNCTIONS]
PULSE WD
1/2
ECHO STRETCH
2
OFF/1/2
ECHO AVERAGE
OFF/1/2/3
ECHO COLOR
YEL/GRN/COLOR
SHIP'S SPEED
LOG/MAN
INDEX LINES
NO.2/MAN
2ND ECHO REJ
OFF/ON
BRILLIANCE
[SYSTEM SETTING 1]
Hit [0].
Hit [5].
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
[SYSTEM SETTING 1]
[FUNCTIONS]
RADAR 1
FUNCTION KEY 1
FUNCTION KEY 2
FUNCTION KEY 3
FUNCTION KEY 4
1/2
RADAR
INTERSWITCH
ANCHOR WATCH
[SYSTEM SETTING 2]
OFF/1/2/ 3
[FUNCTION KEY 4]
1 [SYSTEM SETTING 1]
2 FUNC KEY4 PICTURE /
3 FUNCTION
WATCH ALARM
HU/HU TB/CU/NU/TM/
TRAILCU, TM RESET/
OFF CENTERIDX LINES/
CURSOR OFFSET/
ECHO STRETCH1/
ECHO STRETCH2/
ECHO STRETCH3/
ECHO COLOR/
TRAIL BRILL/PANEL BRILL/
CHAR BRILL/NOISE REJ
Hit [6].
Note: Items enclosed by dashed lines should be left in the default settings. For further
information, contact a FURUNO representative.
A-2
A.3 Navigation Data (IEC 61162-1 Edition 1 and Edition2)
1. I/O Sentences for Channel 1
Input
BWC, BWR, DBT, DPT, GGA, GLL, MTW, MWV, RMA, RMB, RMC, VDR, VTG(*),
ZDA
*: not recommended in IMO-type
2. I/O Sentences of Channel 2
Input
VBW, VHW, HDT
Output
RAOSD, RARSD (An interval of three seconds)
3. I/O Sentences of Channel 3
Output
RATTM (Every five seconds when acquiring 10 targets)
4. Sentence Description
See pages which follow.
Note: Checksum for RMA, RMB, and RMC is mandatory. Checksum for other sentences is evaluated if it exists.
5. Priority
Nav data sentences below are read left to right, and in case of timeout the sentence
right of last read sentace is read. In case of multiple high priority sentences the sentences having the highest priority is read. ** is read regardless of talker. Timeout is 30
seconds unless specified otherwise. Difficult time-outs for data sentences are required
by German authorities.
Position data
GPGGA>GPRMC>GPGLL>LCRMA>LCGLL>**GLL
Timeout: 30 seconds
A-3
Data, time data
GPZDA
Timeout: 10 seconds
Course heading, speed over ground
(In the case of log)
VDVBW>**VBVBW
(In the case of navigator)
GPVTG>GPRMC (Not recommended in IMO-type)
Course heading, speed over water
VDVBW>**VBW>VD VHW
Water depth data
SDDPT>SDDBT>**DBT>**DBS
Water temperature data
**MTW
Waypoint range and bearing data
GPBWR>GPBWC>GPRBM
Route data (WPL, RTE)
*WPL
*RTE
Ship's heading
**HDT
A-4
RD1
RD2
IF-2300
INPUT NAV-RXDA
INPUT NAV-RXDB
(LISTENER (2 mA at 2V)
A-5
SIMPLIFIED INTERCONNECTION DIAGRAM
(See Installation Manual for terminal connection)
INPUT: POSITION (GLL)
CHANNEL 2 PORT
OUT: OWN SHIP DATA
INPUT:
SDME (VBW)
IF-2300
GYRO (HDT)
GYROCOMPASS
OR
GYRO CONVERTER
SDME (Speed pulse)
Note: The FR/FAR-2805 does not process the IEC61162-2 data. Therefore, the system may only work as HSC radar by receiving gyro compass data thru GC-8 or AD100.
A-6
Mode indication *2
(A/D/E/M/S/N)
*1
Checksum
.
,a*hh<CR><LF>
.
UTC of observation *1
*1 Not used
*2 Edition 2 only
*1
Mode indication *2
(See note in below.)
Checksum
.
.
.
,a*hh<CR><LF>
UTC of observation *1
*1 Not used
*2 Edition 2 only
Note: The mode indicatior charactor "a" has been defined as follows:
A= Automonous mode
D= Differential mode
E= Estimated (dead reckonning) mode
M= Manual input mode
S= Simulator mode
N= Data not valid
A-7
Checksum
, x.x*hh<CR><LF>
Maximum range scale in use *1
*1 Edition 2 only, not used.
*1
*1
*1
*1
*1
*1
*1
,
UTC of position *1
*1 Not used
A-8
Number of satellite in use, 00-12 *1
Status (0= data invalid,
1= GPS SPS mode,
2= DGPS SPS mode,
3= GPS PPS mode,
4= RTK,
5= Float RTK,
6= Estimated mode,
7= Manual input mode,
8= Simulator mode)
Latitude and longitude of vessel position, time of position fix and status.
Mode indicator (See note on page A-7.) *2
,a*hh<CR><LF>
Checksum
*1
*1 Not used
*2 Edition 2 only
A-9
°
*1
*1
*1
*1
*1
,a*hh<CR><LF>
Mode indicator
(See note on page A-7.) *2
*1 Not used
*2 Edition 2 only
*1
*1
,a*hh<CR><LF>
Mode indicator
(See note on page A-7.) *2
*1
*1
*1
*1 Not used
*2 Edition 2 only
A-10
°
*1
*1
,a*hh<CR><LF>
Mode indicator
Speed over ground, knots
(See note on
page A-7.) *2
*1
*1 Not used
*2 Edition 2 only
Not used on G-type
A-11
*1
*1 Not used
Checksum
,a*hh<CR><LF>
Mode indicator (A/D/E/M/S/N) *2
Speed over ground, K = km/h
Speed over ground, knots
Couse over ground, degrees magnetic *1
Couse over ground, degrees true
*1 Not used
*2 Edition 2 only
,
*1
*1
*1 Not used
A-12
Checksum
,x.x,A,x.x,A*hh<CR><LF>
Status: stern ground speed *1
Stern transverse ground speed (knots) *1
Status: stern water speed *1
Stern transverse water speed (knots) *1
Status, ground speed (A= data valid, V= data invalid)
Transverse ground speed (knots)
Longitudinal ground speed (knots)
Status (A= data valid, V= data invalid)
Transverse water speed (knots)
Longitudinal water speed (knots)
*1 Edition 2 only
Checksum
Heading, degrees true
A-13
A-14
Type of acqiusition (A/M/R) *2
*1
*1
*1 Not used
*2 Edition 2 only
A-15
MENU TREE
MN-1
MN-2
1 CPA/TCPA WARNING (OFF, ON)
CPA 0.0NM
TCPA 00.0 MIN
2 MARK SIZE
(STD, LARGE)
3 PLOT NO.
(OFF, ON)
4 REL VECT TGT DATA (REL, TRUE)
5 AUDIO ALARM (OFF, ON)
MN-3
MN-4
1/2
2/2