Owner`s manual | Garmin 250 GPS Receiver User Manual

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OWNER’S MANUAL
& REFERENCE
ACTV
STBY
GNC 250
CLR
ENT
CRSR
SQ
NRST
RTE
WPT
NAV
MSG
TM
GNC 250
Pilot’s Guide
®
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Page i
INTRODUCTION
Foreword
Software Version 2.06 or above
© 1995 GARMIN International
9875 Widmer Road, Lenexa, KS 66215, USA
Romsey House, Station Approach Romsey, Hampshire, UK S051 8DU
All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, for any purpose without the express written permission of GARMIN.
GARMIN™, GNC 250™, Spell’N’Find™,
AutoLocate™, MultiTrac8™, GPSCOM™
and AutoStore™ are trademarks of GARMIN
and may only be used with permission.
NavData® is a registered trademark of Jeppesen
Sanderson, Inc.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice. GARMIN reserves
the right to change or improve their products and to make changes in the content of
this material without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes
or improvements.
October 1995
190-00067-50 Rev. A
All rights reserved.
Printed in USA
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INTRODUCTION
Cautions
CAUTION
NOTE: This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC
limits for Class B digital devices. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if
not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference, the
user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by relocating the equipment or connecting the equipment to a different circuit than the affected equipment. Consult an
authorized dealer or other qualified avionics technician for
additional help if these remedies do not correct the problem.
Operation of this device is subject to the following
conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference
received, including interference that may cause undesired
operation.
ii
The GARMIN GNC 250 does not contain any userserviceable parts. Repairs should only be made by an
authorized GARMIN service center. Unauthorized repairs
or modifications could void your warranty and authority
to operate this device under Part 15 regulations.
The Global Positioning System is operated by the United States government,
which is solely responsible for its accuracy and maintenance. The system is subject to
changes which could affect the accuracy and performance of all GPS equipment.
Although the GARMIN GNC 250 is a precision electronic NAVigation AID (NAVAID),
any NAVAID can be misused or misinterpreted and therefore become unsafe.
Use the GNC 250 at your own risk. To reduce the risk of unsafe operation,
carefully review and understand all aspects of this Owner’s Manual and thoroughly
practice using the simulator mode prior to actual use. When in actual use, carefully
compare indications from the GNC 250 to all available navigation sources, including
the information from other NAVAIDS, visual sightings, charts, etc. For safety, always
resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation.
The altitude calculated by the GNC 250 is geometric height above mean sea level
and could vary significantly from altitude displayed by pressure altimeters in aircraft.
Never use GPS altitude for vertical navigation.
The Jeppesen database incorporated in the GNC 250 must be updated regularly
in order to ensure that its information is current. Updates are released every 28 days.
A database information packet is included in your GNC 250 package.
Pilots using an out-of-date database do so entirely at their own risk.
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INTRODUCTION
Accessories & Packing List
Accessories and
Packing List
Congratulations on choosing the finest, most advanced panel mount VFR
GPSCOM available. The GNC 250 represents GARMIN’s commitment to provide
an accurate, easy-to-use GPS for all of your aviation needs.
Before installing and getting started with your unit, please check to see that your
package includes the following items. If any parts are missing or damaged, please see
your GARMIN dealer immediately.
Standard Package:
•
•
•
•
•
GNC 250 unit & NavData® Card
Installation Rack & Connectors
Pilot’s Guide & Quick Reference Guide
Database Subscription Packet
Warranty Registration Card
To obtain accessories for your GNC 250,
please contact your nearest GARMIN dealer.
Optional Accessories
•
•
•
•
•
Remote Battery Pack
AC Adapter
PC 250 Interface Kit
User Data Card
28 to 14 volt DC converter
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INTRODUCTION
Warranty
Every GARMIN GPS is built to exacting standards to provide years of
trouble-free service. GARMIN warrants this product to be free from defects
in materials and workmanship for one year from the date of purchase.
To obtain warranty service, see your local
dealer or call the GARMIN Customer Service
department for a returned merchandise
tracking number. The unit should be securely
packaged with the tracking number clearly
marked on the outside of the package, and
sent freight prepaid and insured to a
GARMIN authorized warranty service
facility.
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GARMIN International, Inc. will at its sole option, repair or replace any
components which fail in normal use. Such repairs or replacement will be
made at no charge to the customer for parts or labor. The customer is, however, responsible for any transportation costs. This warranty does not cover
failures due to abuse, misuse, accident or unauthorized alteration or repairs.
GARMIN International, Inc. assumes no responsibility for special, incidental,
punitive or consequential damages, or loss of use.
THE WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES CONTAINED HEREIN ARE
EXCLUSIVE, AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY LIABILITY ARISING UNDER WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE,
STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE. THIS WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC
LEGAL RIGHTS, WHICH MAY VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.
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PART ONE: INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Table of Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i
Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii
Accessories/Packing List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii
Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v-vi
Key and Knob Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii-viii
GNC 250 Takeoff Tour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-8
PART TWO: REFERENCE
Section 1: Navigation with the GNC 250 ( N key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Navigating and planning functions
Section 2: Communicating with the GNC 250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Using the GNC 250’s radio
Section 3: Waypoint and Database Information ( W key) . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Finding and using database and waypoint information
To quickly and easily locate information
on specific tasks, please refer to the Index
on page 97.
Section 4: Nearest Waypoints ( T key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Finding nearest waypoints, SUAs and FSS frequencies
Section 5: Direct-to & Route Navigation ( R key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Creating and using routes
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INTRODUCTION
Table of Contents
Section 6: Messages and Unit Settings ( M key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Appendix A: NavData® and User Data Card Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Appendix B: Installation and Maintenance of the GNC 250 . . . . . . . . . .83
Appendix C: Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Appendix D: GNC 250 Abbreviations and Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Appendix E: Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Appendix F: Map Datums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Appendix G: Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
GARMIN is fully committed to your satisfaction as a customer. If you have any
questions regarding the GNC 250, please contact our customer service department at:
GARMIN International, Inc.
9875 Widmer Rd.
Lenexa, KS 66215-1239
(913) 599-1515
FAX (913) 599-2377
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INTRODUCTION
Key and Knob Functions
B
Q
D
Key and Knob
Functions
The power/volume knob controls unit power and radio volume.
The squelch button activates automatic squelch control.
The direct-to key performs an instant direct-to, allows you to enter a
waypoint, and sets a direct course to the destination.
T
The nearest key is used to obtain information on the 9 nearest airports,
VORs, NDBs, intersections, user waypoints and 2 nearest FSSs.
The nearest key also accesses any active SUA information.
See Section 4 for more information on the nearest waypoints.
R
The route key enables you to create, edit, activate and invert routes. Searchand-rescue, parallel offset and closest point of approach are also performed
using the route key. See Section 5 for more information on routes.
W
The waypoint key is used to view information such as runways, frequencies, position and comments on airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections and
user waypoints. See Section 3 for more information on the database.
N
The navigation key is used to view navigation and position information.
Planning operations are also performed using the N key. See Section 1
for more information on navigation and planning operations.
The GNC 250 is designed to minimize keystrokes when performing operations. There are
typically several ways to perform the same operation. In general, using the knobs will decrease
keystrokes and time spent using the GNC 250.
Experiment to find the most effective way to use
the GNC 250 to your advantage.
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INTRODUCTION
Key and Knob
Functions
This manual will describe entering data using the
K and O knobs. Experiment with them and become
efficient in entering data with the concentric knobs.
This will greatly reduce the amount of time required
to navigate with the GNC 250.
viii
M
The message key is used to view system messages. The M key is also
used to access the GNC 250’s unit settings. See Section 6 for more information on messages and unit settings.
@
The transfer key flip-flops the active and standby frequencies.
\
The clear key is used to erase information or cancel an entry.
E
The enter key is used to approve an operation or complete data entry.
It is also used to confirm information, such as during power on.
C
The cursor key is used to activate or deactivate the cursor in the separate
areas of the GNC 250. Pressing C once will activate the cursor in the
comm ‘window’ and enable the pilot to change frequencies. Pressing C
again will activate the cursor in the GPS window (indicated by flashing
characters in a GPS window field). It is used to highlight fields for data
entry, changing information or cycling through available options.
O
The outer knob is used to advance through pages, advance the cursor,
or move through data fields.
K
The inner knob is used to change data or scroll through information that
cannot fit on the screen all at once.
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Page 1
The GARMIN GNC 250 is a powerful navigational tool that provides pilots with accurate navigational data and communication capability, along with a host of database information at your fingertips. The Takeoff Tour is designed to familiarize you with the operation of the GNC 250,
including powering up the unit, changing frequencies, entering data and performing a simple
direct-to, and a limited introduction to the ‘Nearest’ functions. In addition, this section also briefly
covers the position, CDI and frequency pages available from the NAV key. These pages will be
used for most of your in-flight navigation.
TAKEOFF TOUR
Power On
The Takeoff Tour assumes that the GPSCOMTM and antennas have been properly
installed and you have not changed any of the GNC 250’s default settings. If you have
changed any of the factory default settings (position format, units of measure, selectable
fields, etc.), the pictures used may not match your configuration. Prior to using your GNC
250 for the first time, we recommend that you taxi to a location that is well away from
buildings and other aircraft so the unit can collect satellite data without interruption.
Powering up the GNC 250
The GNC 250’s power and volume are controlled using the B (power/volume) knob
at the bottom left of the unit. Rotating it clockwise will turn the unit on and increase the
radio volume. After turning the unit on, a welcome page will be displayed while the unit
performs a self test.
Welcome Page
The database page will appear, showing the current database information on the NavData
card, with the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type indicated. Databases are
updated every 28 days and are available for one-time or subscription purchase.
To acknowledge the database information:
Database Confirmation Page
1. Press the E key.
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Acquiring Satellites
Once the database has been acknowledged, the satellite status page will appear,
and the GNC 250 will begin to collect satellite information. An ‘Acquiring’ status will
be displayed on the Satellite Status page, and the signal values on the bottom line of
the page will begin displaying numeric values. This is a good indication that you are
receiving signals, and satellite lock will occur. Following the first-time use of your
GNC 250, the time required for a position fix will vary- usually from 2 to 5 minutes.
If the unit can only obtain enough satellites for 2D navigation (no altitude), the
unit will use the altitude provided by your altitude encoder (if one is connected and
working). If not, you will be prompted to enter the altitude with a ‘Need alt- Press
NAV’ message. If this message occurs, press the N key and use the K and O
knobs to enter the altitude shown on your altimeter. Press E when finished.
Satellite Status Page
Enter the altitude manually if necessary.
If the GNC 250 has not been operated for a period of six months or has moved
over 300 miles without actively tracking satellites, it may have to ‘Search the Sky’ to
collect new data. This means the unit is acquiring satellite data to establish almanac
and satellite orbit information, which can take 7 1/2 to 30 minutes. The satellite status page will display a ‘Search Sky’ status, and the message annunciator (U), next to
the M key, will also flash to alert you of a system message.
To view a system message:
1. Press M.
The message page will appear and display the status or warning information
applicable to the receiver’s current operating condition.
Searching the Sky
2
To return to the previous page after viewing a message:
1. Press M.
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While the GNC 250 is acquiring a position, let’s take a minute to dial in the active
and standby frequencies you’ll be using for the first phase of your flight. The GNC
250’s display can be broken down into two separate ‘windows’, the comm window
(the top line of the display) and the GPS window (the bottom three lines of the
display).
Active
{
TAKEOFF TOUR
Selecting Comm Frequencies
Comm Window
Standby
}
}
{
GPS Window
The C key is used to activate the cursor in a particular window (see right) to
provide access to various comm and navigation features. To select the active frequency,
you must first enter the frequency in the standby field, and use the @ key to move it
to the active field.
Status page with cursor active in comm window.
To change the standby communication frequency:
1. Press C once to activate the cursor in the comm window.
2. Rotate the outer knob (O) to select the MHz, and the inner knob (K) to select the kHz of
the desired frequency.
To place the standby frequency in the active field, press @.
Once you’ve entered the active frequency, simply repeat steps 1 and 2 to enter the
standby frequency. After both frequencies have been entered, you may elect to keep
the comm window ‘hot’ by leaving the cursor on the standby frequency, or remove the
cursor by pressing the C key twice.
Switching the active and standby frequencies will
not remove the cursor from the comm window.
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Position Page
After the GNC 250 acquires satellites and computes a position, the position page will appear
automatically, and you’ll be informed with a ‘Ready for navigation’ message on the message page.
Altitude, MSA or ESA
Position (lat/lon)
Reference Waypoint Field
The position page displays your present latitude and longitude, altitude and a reference waypoint field. The altitude and reference waypoint fields are also selectable (see Section 1 for more
information) to allow you to configure the unit to your own preferences. The default settings are:
The CDI page with active destination.
• Altitude— Your present GPS altitude
• Present Position— Latitude and longitude displayed in degrees/minutes
• Reference Waypoint— The bearing and distance to the nearest airport
The position page is one of six pages available under the GNC 250’s NAV key:
• CDI page
• Position page
• NAV menu 1
• NAVCOM page
• Satellite status page
• NAV menu 2
Navigation Communications Page
4
During most flights, the position, CDI (course deviation indicator) and NAVCOM pages will be
the primary pages used for navigation. The pages available under each key are accessible by pressing the desired key and rotating the outer knob, or by pressing the NAV key repeatedly.
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The GNC 250 uses direct point-to-point navigation to guide you from takeoff to
touchdown in the VFR environment. Once a destination is selected, the unit will provide speed, course and distance data based upon a direct course from your present
position to your destination. A destination can be selected from any page with the
direct-to ( D ) key.
TAKEOFF TOUR
Direct-To Navigation
To select a direct-to destination:
1. Press the D key. The CDI page will appear with the destination field flashing.
2. Rotate the K knob to enter the first letter of the destination waypoint identifier. The destination waypoint may be an airport, VOR, NDB, intersection or user waypoint, as long as
it is in the database or stored in memory as a user waypoint.
3. Rotate the O knob to the right to move the cursor to the next character position.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 to spell out the rest of the waypoint identifier.
5. Press E to confirm the identifier. The direct-to confirmation page will appear.
The CDI page without a direct-to destination.
6. Press E to confirm the destination.
Entering the direct-to waypoint identifier.
Once the direct-to destination is confirmed, the CDI page will appear with the
destination indicated in the lower left hand corner of the screen. Your present speed
and track over the ground, and the distance and estimated time enroute to your destination are also displayed. The graphical CDI, located at the top left of the screen, displays your position relative to the desired course and provides turn anticipation and
waypoint messages during route navigation.
Direct-to Confirmation Page
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REFERENCE
TAKEOFF
TOUR
Nearest Airport Info &
CDI & NAVCOM
Pages
Navigation
Diagram
In addition to the destination field and graphical CDI, the GNC 250 CDI page features four selectable fields for various navigation data so that the page may be configured to your own preferences (see Section 1 for more information). The default settings for the CDI page are:
• Ground Speed (gs)— Your present speed over the ground in knots
• Distance (dis)— The distance to your destination in nautical miles
• Track (trk)— Your present course over the ground
• Estimated Time Enroute (ete)— The time to your destination based
upon your present speed and course in hours and minutes
CDI page with ‘trn’ and ‘trk’ displayed.
The next page available under the GNC 250’s NAV key is the navigation communications (NAVCOM) page. It provides you with a complete list of airport frequencies at your departure and arrival airports, allowing convenient selection of frequencies
you’ll need along your flight path. If you do not have an active departure airport, the
navigation communications page will display the frequencies for the airport nearest
your present position.
To view the NAVCOM page from the CDI page, rotate O one stop to the right.
CDI page with ‘brg’ and ‘trk’ displayed.
The NAVCOM page lists your departure and arrival airports on the left side of the
page, with all the database frequencies listed in a column down the right side of the
page. To scroll through the list of frequencies, simply rotate the inner knob (K) in the
direction of the arrow prompts at the bottom left of the page.
To place a frequency from the list in the standby field:
NAVCOM Page
6
1. Press the C key twice to activate the cursor in the GPS window.
2. Use the O knob to select the desired frequency. Press E to place the frequency in the
standby field. The cursor will automatically advance to the next frequency on the list.
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Once a direct-to is activated, the CDI page will provide navigation to the destination until the direct-to is cancelled or another direct-to destination is activated.
To cancel a direct-to from the CDI page:
TAKEOFF TOUR
Cancelling a Direct-To
Nearest Waypoints
1. Press the C key twice to activate the cursor in the destination field.
2. Press \.
3. Press E.
The GNC 250’s NRST key provides the nine nearest airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections and user waypoints, as well as the two closest FSSs (Flight Service Stations)
and any SUA (special use airspace) alerts for your present position. The nearest waypoint feature is a handy safety feature that may be used to execute a quick direct-to in
case of an in-flight emergency or to review the closest facilities to your present position.
The nearest feature can also be used to quickly find the contact frequency of the nearest airport and enter it in the standby field.
Nearest Airport Page
To view the nine nearest airports:
1. Press the T key. The nearest airport will be displayed, with the range and bearing from
your present position, along with elevation, frequency and runway data.
2. To review the rest of the nearest airport list, rotate the K knob to the right.
To place a nearest airport frequency in the standby field, press ENT.
To place a nearest airport frequency in the standby field:
1. Press E. Press the @ key to place the frequency in the active field.
To view the nearest list for other waypoint categories (VOR, NDB, etc.):
Nearest VOR Page
1. Rotate the O knob to the right, or press the T key repeatedly.
2. Rotate K to scroll through the list.
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REFERENCE
TAKEOFF
TOUR
NearestAcquisition
Airports
Satellite
Shutting Down
Once the nearest airport (or any other nearest waypoint) page is displayed, the
selected waypoint can be quickly reviewed or selected as a direct-to destination.
To review the selected waypoint from the nearest waypoint list:
1. Press C twice to activate the waypoint field.
2. Press E to display the waypoint identification page.
3. Rotate O to view any additional waypoint information available.
4. Press T to return to the nearest waypoint page.
To select a nearest waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1. Press the D key. The direct-to confirmation page for the selected waypoint will appear.
2. Press E to confirm.
Third Nearest Airport Page
Congratulations! You’ve now gone through the basic operation of the GNC 250.
We encourage you to experiment with your new GPSCOM to get to know all the
advanced navigation features it has to offer. If you’d like a little more practice, try
using the built-in simulator described in Appendix C. An optional AC adapter will
even let you plan and simulate flights in the comfort of your home or office.
To turn the GNC 250 off:
To review a nearest waypoint, highlight the identifier and press ENT.
8
1. Turn the B knob to the left until the unit shuts off.
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REFERENCE
NAV KEY
Section 1
Navigation Key
NAV Overview
key overview
SECTION
1
The GNC 250 features six navigation pages to provide various position, course,
speed, status and planning information. The pages may be viewed by pressing the
NAV key and rotating the outer knob, or by pressing the NAV key repeatedly.
NAVCOM page
CDI page
Position page
NAV Menu 2
Satellite Status Page
NAV Menu 1
The CDI, NAVCOM and position pages are the primary pages used during inflight navigation, while the nav menu and status pages offer access to planning, calculation and status functions. Note that rotating the outer knob clockwise will continuously cycle through all the nav pages, whereas turning the knob counterclockwise will
stop the page selection sequence at the CDI page.
Whenever the NAV key pages are in use, the indicator light (U) next to the NAV
key will illuminate. If the GNC 250 requires you to enter data on a navigation page,
a message prompt with specific instructions will appear and the indicator will flash.
If you leave the NAV page sequence for another set of pages, the last NAV page displayed will appear when you return to the nav sequence.
Remember! The NAV pages will only display information
AFTER the position and navigational information has
been calculated from the satellites. If you are on the
Position page before the unit has calculated a position, you
will be able to enter an approximate position and altitude.
This is helpful in speeding satellite acquisition if the unit
has moved a great distance with the power off.
If you are not sure the GPS is actively calculating position,
check the receiver status field for ‘2D NAV’ or ‘3D NAV’
by pressing the NAV key and rotating the outer knob until
the Satellite Status page appears. The current receiver status is displayed at the top left of the page.
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SECTION
1
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REFERENCE
NAV KEY
Position Page
CDI Page
The GNC 250’s CDI page provides you with the important information needed to
navigate directly to your destination. The destination field, located at the bottom left
of the page, displays the current destination waypoint or active route leg being navigated. If no direct-to destination or route is being navigated, the destination field will
remain blank.
Ground Speed
Messages or
CDI
Direction
field
Distance
field
Active Waypoint
The TO/FROM arrow will indicate whether you
are ‘to’ or ‘from’ the destination waypoint.
The CDI page will display ‘No actv wpt’’ in the CDI
field if there is no active-to destination.
10
Time Field
The graphical CDI at the top left of the page shows your position relative to the
desired course (the moving D-bar) to the destination waypoint. The TO/FROM
arrow in the center of the scale indicates whether you are heading to (an up arrow)
the waypoint or if you have passed the waypoint (a down arrow). The default setting
of the CDI scale is 5.0 nm. If you are not navigating to a destination, the CDI field
will display a ‘no actv wpt’ message, and only speed and track data will be available.
The CDI field is also used to display the GNC 250’s turn anticipation and waypoint
alert data during route operations (see section 5).
In addition to displaying your active destination and the course deviation scale,
the CDI page features four selectable fields for various distance, direction and time
options. This allows you to configure the CDI page to your preferences. The default
settings displayed are ground speed, distance, track and estimated time enroute.
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REFERENCE
NAV KEY
The following functions may be displayed in the ground speed field:
SECTION
1
Proximity
Field
Configuring
the
CDI Page
• gs— Your present speed over the ground.
• str— Steer direction and distance, or digital crosstrack error. An ‘L’ or ‘R’
indicates which direction to steer, while the distance value indicates how far you are off course.
The following functions may be displayed in the distance field:
• dis— Distance from present position to the ‘active to’ waypoint.
• str— Steer direction and distance, or digital crosstrack error. An ‘L’ or ‘R’
indicates which direction to steer, while the distance value indicates how far you are off course.
WPT 2
NORTH
The following steering functions may be displayed in the direction field:
•
•
•
•
•
DT
K
trk— Track, the direction of movement relative to the ground.
brg— Bearing, the direction from your present position to the waypoint.
cts— Course to steer to reduce cross track error and re-intercept course.
dtk— Desired track, the course between the active from and to waypoints.
trn— Turn, the direction and degrees to turn to get back on course.
DIS
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NORTH
BRG
ST
The following information can be displayed in the time field:
•
•
•
•
eta— Estimated Time of Arrival (at the active to waypoint).
ete— Estimated Time Enroute (to the active to waypoint).
trk— Track, or the direction of movement relative to the ground.
vn— Vertical Navigation, or VNAV. If VNAV has been activated, this field
indicates either the elapsed time before the VNAV maneuver is to
begin or the VNAV altitude (the suggested altitude you should be flying in order to complete the maneuver).
R
G
TRK
S
L
R
AI
PL
AN
E
WPT 1
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REFERENCE
NAV KEY
Waypoint
CDI &
NAVCOM
Pages
Communication
To change any of the selectable fields on the CDI page:
1. Press C twice to activate the cursor in the GPS window.
2. Rotate O to highlight the field you would like to change.
3. Rotate K to change the field to display the desired information.
4. Rotate O to highlight another field, or C to finish.
The NAVCOM page lists the frequencies for your
departure (or nearest) and arrival airports in the
following order:
12
Departure
Arrival
• Unicom
• ATIS
• Clearance Delivery
• Clearance Pretaxi
• Ground
• Tower
• Multicom
• Other
• Departure
• TCA
• TMA
• CTA
• ARSA
• TRSA
• ATIS
• Approach
• Arrival
• TCA
• TMA
• CTA
• ARSA
• TRSA
• Tower
• Multicom
• Other
• Ground
• Unicom
The next page available from the GNC 250’s NAV key is the navigation communications (NAVCOM) page. The NAVCOM page provides a list of the airport
frequencies at your departure and arrival airports, allowing convenient selection of
frequencies you’ll need along your flight path. To scroll through the list of frequencies, rotate the inner knob (K) in the direction of the arrow prompts at the bottom left of the page.
The frequencies displayed for the departure and arrival airports are listed in the
order you are most likely to use them (see left), with the available frequencies displayed to the right of the airport identifier. If you do not have an active route with
a departure airport, the NAVCOM page will display the frequencies for the airport
nearest your present position.
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If a frequency has sector or altitude restrictions, the frequency will be followed by
a ‘brg?’ indication.
To view restrictions on a frequency:
REFERENCE
NAV KEY
WaypointPage
NAVCOM
Communication
SECTION
1
1. Press C twice to activate the cursor in the GPS window.
2. Rotate O to highlight the ‘brg?’ next to the frequency you wish to view.
3. Press E to begin viewing restrictions.
Once you begin viewing restrictions, you can view any additional frequencies with
restrictions by rotating K. You can also view the airport information pages by rotating O. Information contained on these pages is covered in Section 3. To return to the
NAVCOM page, press N.
NAVCOM Page
Some frequencies in the NAVCOM page have tags which designate their usage:
‘tx’ – transmit only
‘pt’ – part time frequency
‘rx’ – receive only
To make any of the frequencies on the NAVCOM page the standby frequency:
1. Press C twice to activate the cursor in the GPS window.
NAVCOM page with receive only (rx) frequencies
and frequencies with restrictions (brg).
2. Rotate O until the desired frequency is highlighted.
3. Press E to make the highlighted frequency the standby frequency. The cursor will automatically advance to the next frequency on the list.
An arrow prompt displayed on the bottom line indicates additional frequencies are
available.
Frequency restrictions on 124.60.
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REFERENCE
NAV
KEY
CDI Page
Position Page
The GNC 250 position page displays your present latitude and longitude, altitude and a reference waypoint field. The altitude and reference waypoint fields are
selectable to configure the page to your own preferences and current navigation
needs.
Altitude, MSA or ESA
Position (lat/lon)
Reference Waypoint Field
Position page displaying MSA.
The altitude field can display either the present altitude, minimum safe altitude
(MSA) or enroute safe altitude (ESA). MSA is the recommended minimum altitude
within a ten mile radius of your present position. ESA is the recommended minimum
altitude within a ten mile radius of your course on an active route or direct-to. MSA
and ESA altitudes are calculated from information contained in the database and generally include mountains, buildings and other permanent features (see left).
To change the altitude field:
14
The same position page displaying ESA. MSA and
ESA are computed based on data stored in the
NavData card. This information cannot be solely
relied upon as an absolute measure of safe altitude
in your area, particularly if the data card is out of
date. Consult current charts and NOTAMS for
more complete information.
1. Press C twice to obtain a flashing cursor in the GPS window.
2. Rotate O until the ‘alt/ESA/MSA’ field is highlighted.
3. Rotate K to display the desired data. Press C to return to normal navigation.
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The position page also features a reference waypoint field, located at the bottom
of the page, to indicate your bearing and distance from a selected waypoint. The reference waypoint field can display the following:
REFERENCE
NAV KEY
SECTION
Changing
Fields
Reference
on the CDI Page
Waypoint Field
1
• Range, bearing and identifier from the nearest airport, VOR, NDB,
intersection, or user waypoint
• Range, bearing, and identifier from a user specified waypoint
The default setting is to display the nearest airport.
To change the reference waypoint field to display the nearest airport, VOR, NDB,
intersection, user waypoint or the range and bearing from a user selected waypoint:
1. Press C twice to activate the cursor in the GPS window.
2. Rotate O to highlight the proximity field after the fr.
3. Use K to choose which waypoint type you would like displayed. (Choose ‘wpt’ if you
would like a specific waypoint range and bearing to be displayed.)
4. Press C to remove the cursor, or:
Position page displaying the nearest airport
(KIXD) as the reference waypoint.
If you have selected ‘wpt’:
5. Rotate O to advance the cursor to highlight the identifier field.
6. Use the K and O knobs to enter the identifier name. (This waypoint identifier can be
an airport, VOR, NDB, intersection, or user waypoint.) Press E.
7. Press C to confirm the selection.
This allows any waypoint’s distance and bearing to be listed continuously on the
position page, and is especially useful when trying to locate your position on a
sectional.
Position page displaying the TOP VOR as the reference waypoint. This configuration can be used to
help monitor your distance and radial to a waypoint of your choice.
Note the waypoint category is listed as ‘wpt’ rather
than ‘VOR’ because the GNC 250 is not using the
nearest VOR for the reference waypoint.
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REFERENCE
NAV KEY
NAV Menu
1 & Trip
Satellite
Status
Page
Planning
The GNC 250’s satellite status page provides satellite information to monitor
GPS coverage and receiver performance. This is helpful when you may be experiencing low signal levels due to poor coverage or installation problems.
To view the satellite status page:
1. Press N and rotate O until the satellite status page appears.
EPE/DOP
Receiver Status
EPE/DOP
value
Satellites in view
Status page with EPE displayed.
Signal strength of
satellite being tracked (1-9)
Satellite in view
but not receiving signal
The top line of the status page displays the receiver status and the current position accuracy in DOP or EPE. The default setting is DOP.
The following functions may be displayed in the DOP/EPE field:
Status page with DOP displayed.
16
• dop— Dilution of Precision, a measure of the satellite geometry quality
and relative accuracy of your position, with 1 meaning good
geometry and 10 meaning poor.
• epe— Estimated Position Error, an overall measure of your positional
accuracy in feet or meters using signal and data quality, receiver
tracking status and DOP.
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To change the DOP/EPE field:
1. Press N and rotate O to display the satellite status page.
REFERENCE
NAV KEY
Density
Altitude/
Receiver
True
Air
Speed
Status Field
2. If the desired field (EPE or DOP) is not displayed, press C twice.
SECTION
1
3. Use K to change between ‘epe’ and ‘dop’. Press C to finish.
The receiver status field, located at the top left of the page, can display the following messages under various conditions:
Search sky - The GNC 250 is searching the sky for visible satellites. You
will be informed with the message ‘Searching the Sky’.
Acquiring - The GNC 250 is acquiring satellites for navigation.
2D Nav -
3D Nav -
The GNC 250 is in 2D navigation mode. If your installation
does not include an altitude serializer, you must enter the
altitude manually (see page 2).
Acquiring satellites for navigation.
The GNC 250 is in 3D navigation mode and will compute
altitude.
Simulator - The GNC 250 is in simulator mode, which should only be
used for practice and trip planning. Never use simulator
mode for actual navigation.
Poor cvrg - The GNC 250 cannot acquire sufficient satellites for navigation.
Need alt -
The GNC 250 needs altitude in order to start/continue navigation. Go to the position page and enter the altitude.
Not usable - The GNC 250 is unusable due to incorrect initialization or
abnormal satellite conditions. Turn the unit off and on again.
Searching the Sky.
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REFERENCE
NAVPlanning
KEY
Fuel
Satellite Data Page
The second and third lines of the satellite status page provide the satellite number
and signal strength of each satellite in view. Additional information regarding each
satellite’s azimuth, elevation and other data is also available.
To view individual satellite information:
1. Press N and use O to display the satellite status page.
2. Press C twice to activate the cursor in the GPS window.
3. Use O to highlight the satellite number you wish to view and press E.
This will display the satellite data page, showing the selected satellite’s number,
elevation angle, rise or fall indication, User Range Accuracy (URA, or the range
measurement accuracy as determined by the satellite), azimuth and signal strength.
To view other satellites:
Viewing individual satellite information.
18
4. Rotate K to view information for the next satellite.
5. Rotate O and press C on the satellite status page when you are finished.
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In addition to the other four pages, the GNC 250 features two menu pages to perform a host of planning and navigation functions. NAV Menu 1 provides access to
the following functions:
• Trip Planning
• Density altitude/true air speed calc.
• Fuel Planning
• Winds aloft calculations
• VNAV Planning
• Checklists
REFERENCE
NAV KEY
Winds
Aloft &
NAV Menu
1
VNAV
Trip Planning
Calculations
SECTION
1
To display NAV Menu 1:
1. Press N.
2. Rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
Trip Plan is the first function listed on NAV Menu 1 and allows the pilot to view
distance, ESA, bearing and estimated time enroute (ETE) between any two waypoints,
and for programmed route legs. The ground speed can be varied manually to calculate several possible ETEs.
NAV Menu 1
To use the trip planning function:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C twice, then E to access trip planning.
3. Rotate K to select waypoint mode or desired route number and press E.
Trip Planning Page
4. For direct-to navigation, use K and O to enter the ‘to’ and ‘from’ waypoints. Press
E to accept the waypoints. To use your present position as a waypoint, leave the waypoint field blank.
5. For route calculations, choose either ‘cum’ for cumulative data (from beginning to end) or
the leg desired by rotating K.
6. Use K and O to enter the ground speed. Press E to calculate the values and C
to finish.
Trip planning with values calculated.
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REFERENCE
NAV KEY
VNAV
Checklists
Density&Altitude
&
True Airspeed
The density altitude/true airspeed function is also accessed from NAV Menu 1.
Density altitude is the altitude at which your aircraft will perform depending on several
environmental conditions, including air pressure and total air temperature (the temperature including the effect of speed, read on a standard outside temperature gauge on most
aircraft). True airspeed considers the same factors.
To calculate the density altitude and true air speed:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C twice and rotate O to highlight ‘Dalt/tas?’.
3. Press E to access the density altitude page.
4. Use K and O to enter the indicated altitude and press E.
Nav Menu 1
5. Use K and O to enter the calibrated airspeed (cas). Press E.
6. Use K and O to enter the air pressure (‘pres’) and press E.
7. Use K and O to enter the total air temperature.
8. Press E and the density altitude and true airspeed will be calculated and displayed.
Density Altitude/True Airspeed Page
9. Press C to remove the cursor.
If your installation includes components to provide any of the information
required on the density altitude page, they will be used as the defaults.
Fuel Planning Page
20
The fuel planning page will display fuel requirements for both direct-to navigation and programmed routes. The fuel planning function requires the pilot to know
the initial amount of fuel on board and the flow rate. You may also enter different
ground speeds to view various information based on different travel times. If your
installation is interfaced to a fuel flow sensor, the flow rate and other information will
be used from the fuel flow sensor.
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To perform fuel planning operations:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C twice and rotate O until ‘Fuel Plan?’ is highlighted. Press E.
REFERENCE
NAV KEY
SECTION
Checklists,
NAV
NAV Menu
1
Fuel
Planning
Menu
2&
1
3. Rotate K to select either ‘wpt’ for direct navigation or the desired route number. Press E.
4. For waypoint-waypoint navigation, use K and O to enter the ‘to’ and ‘from’ waypoints.
Press E to accept the waypoints. To use the present position as a waypoint, leave the
corresponding waypoint field blank.
5. For route calculations, choose either ‘cum’ for cumulative route fuel requirements
(from beginning to end) or the leg desired by rotating K .
If leg is selected, it displays the amount of fuel required to fly until that leg is complete.
For example: The fuel required to complete leg 2 is leg 1 + leg 2.
Fuel required to complete leg 4 is leg 1 + leg 2 + leg 3 + leg 4.
6. Rotate O to advance the cursor to ‘fob:’ or ‘gs:’ (depending on which is displayed).
Fuel Planning Page
7. Use K and O to enter the fuel on board or the ground speed. Press E.
8. Rotate O back two positions to highlight the ‘fob:’ or ‘gs:’ field again.
9. Rotate K to display the other information. Press E.
10. Use K and O to enter the remaining data. Press E.
11. Use K and O to enter the flow rate, in units per hour, if needed. Press E.
The GNC 250 will calculate the range and endurance (how long the fuel will last)
of your aircraft. These are found in the first field on the bottom row of the page. The
fuel left on board (lfob) and reserve after the selected direct-to, leg or route will also
be displayed in the second field on the bottom row.
Fuel planning page with other information.
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REFERENCE
NAV KEY
Date &Aloft
Time,
Winds
&
Trip
Timer
VNAV Functions
The GNC 250’s winds aloft function is used to calculate the true direction and
speed of the any winds, and indicates whether you are flying with a head wind or tail
wind, and the wind speed.
To calculate winds aloft:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C twice and rotate O until ‘Winds?’ is highlighted. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter your present heading in the ‘hdg:’ field. If your installation
includes a fuel/air data computer, this will be displayed automatically. Press E.
4. Use K and O to enter your true airspeed (TAS) in the ‘tas:’ field. If you have previously
calculated it using the density altitude/true air speed function, it will be displayed as the
default. Press E. The wind direction and speed and head/tail wind will be displayed.
NAV Menu 1
The VNAV function calculates vertical speed requirements to reach a desired altitude before
or after a specified distance from a waypoint. This is helpful when you’d like to descend to a certain altitude near an airport or climb to an altitude before reaching a route or direct-to waypoint.
To calculate vertical navigation parameters:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
Winds Aloft Page
2. Press C twice and rotate O until ‘Vnav Plan?’ is highlighted. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the initial (from) altitude. Your GPS altitude will be displayed
as the default. Press E.
4. Use K and O to enter the desired final (to) altitude. Press E.
Vertical Navigation Page
5. Use K and O to enter the distance from the waypoint. Press E.
6. Use K to select ‘before’ or ‘after’ the waypoint. Press E.
22
7. Use K and O to select the waypoint identifier (it must be a waypoint in the active route
or a direct-to waypoint). Press E.
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You will now notice that the vertical speed field has been calculated, based on
your present speed. If you desire a more rapid climb or descent:
8. Use K and O to enter the new desired vertical speed, or press E to accept the
calculated value.
REFERENCE
NAV KEY
GPS
NAVPlanning
Menu 1
VNAV & Checklists
SECTION
1
9. Press E to activate the vertical navigation function.
If you enter a greater value, the GNC 250 will display the elapsed time before the
maneuver is to begin. When the countdown reaches 15 seconds, you will be informed with
the message ‘Start altitude chng’. The VNAV function will automatically be cancelled if the
active direct-to or route is changed in any way, and you will be informed with a ‘VNAV
cancelled’ message.
The GNC 250 will allow you to create up to nine checklists with 30 items each to
remind you of repetitive tasks that can be called up at any time for review. The checklist
feature is useful for creating pre-flight checklists, landing checklists, emergency procedures, etc. Each name or function can have up to 16 characters each.
VNAV function in the active state.
To create a checklist:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C twice and rotate O until ‘Chklist?’ is highlighted. Press E.
3. Press C and use O to highlight the checklist you would like to create or edit.
Press E.
VNAV displayed on CDI page.
4. Use K and O to enter the title of the checklist. Press E.
This will display the checklist items page. On this page, you can enter each task,
such as ‘Check Fuel’.
Checklist Catalog page.
5. Use K and O to enter the checklist item. Press E.
6. You may repeat step 5 to enter additional items, or press C to finish.
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REFERENCE
NAV KEY
Scheduler,
Checklists
Sunrise
& Timer
Sunset
Approach
To execute a checklist:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C twice and rotate O until ‘Chklist?’ is highlighted. Press E.
3. Use O to highlight the checklist you would like to see. Press E.
4. Press E to check off list items.
To delete a checklist item or an entire checklist:
1. To delete a checklist item, highlight the desired item and press \, followed by E.
2. To delete an entire checklist, highlight the desired list and press \, followed by E.
Executing a checklist.
NAV Menu 2
The GNC 250’s NAV Menu 2 provides access to various timer and planning functions, including:
• Approach timer
• Clock (Date and time)
• Trip Timer
• RAIM Prediction
• Scheduler
• Sunrise and sunset calculations
The approach timer acts as either a count up or a count down timer that can be
set or reset at any time.
To activate/change/view the approach timer:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 2 is displayed.
2. Press C twice and rotate O until ‘Appr Time?’ is highlighted. Press E.
Approach Timer
3. Rotate K to select either ‘Count up’ or ‘Count down’. Press E.
4. Use K and O to set the time to begin counting from. Press E.
5. Rotate O to select the desired function: ‘Start’, ‘Stop’, or ‘Reset’. Press E to execute.
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When the count down timer reaches zero, you will be informed with a ‘Timer
expired’ message. The timer will then begin to count up, keeping track of how long it
has been since it expired. The timers run, if not altered, anytime the GNC 250 is on.
REFERENCE
NAV KEY
Comm
Features
Clock Function/
Trip Timer
SECTION
1
The GNC 250 clock function keeps track of both UTC time (Greenwich Mean
Time or Zulu Time calculated from the satellites) and local time, and allows you to
designate which format is used for ETA calculations. The local time and date can be
set without doing a UTC to local time conversion.
To set the local date/time:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 2 is displayed.
2. Press C twice and rotate O until ‘Clock?’ is highlighted. Press E.
3. Use K to select either ‘UTC’ or ’local’ time to be displayed in the time fields. Press E.
4. Use K and O to set the local date. Press E.
Timer expired message.
5. Use K and O to set the local time. Press E.
6. Press C to complete.
The GNC 250’s trip timer will automatically keep track of the duration of your
current trip and can be configured to run when the GNC 250 is on, or when your
ground speed exceeds a specified value (see section 6).
Entering a local time.
To view or reset the trip timer:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 2 is displayed.
2. Press C twice and rotate O until ‘Trip time?’ is highlighted. Press E. The current
time of day, departure time and time enroute will be displayed.
3. To reset the timer, press E. To skip resetting the timer, press C.
Resetting the trip timer.
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REFERENCE
NAV KEY
CommPrediction
Features
RAIM
Scheduler
The RAIM Prediction function allows you to confirm that GPS coverage is
available for a specific location or waypoint any day of the year. Receiver
Autonomous Integrity Monitoring performs checks to ensure that the GNC 250 will
have adequate satellite geometry to work with during your flight. RAIM availability
will be near 100% in Oceanic, En route and Terminal phases of flight.
To predict RAIM availability:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 2 is displayed.
2. Press C twice and rotate O to highlight ‘RAIM Prd?’. Press E.
3. Rotate O to highlight the field which you would like to change.
Enter the time and date for RAIM prediction.
4. Use K and O to enter the waypoint name, or leave it blank to use your current
position. Press E to accept.
5. Use K and O to enter the ETA in hours and minutes (in local or UTC time, whichever
you have selected from the clock display), and the day, month and year. The current date
will be displayed automatically. Press E to accept.
6. Rotate O to highlight ‘Compute RAIM?’.
Confirm the selected waypoint.
7. Press E to compute information.
When the computations are complete, the GNC 250 will display whether or not
RAIM is available for the specified waypoint at the specified date and time.
RAIM available for the entered time and date.
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The scheduler function will display reminder messages after a certain elapsed time
such as Change oil, Switch fuel tanks, Overhaul, etc. For example, if you enter ‘Change Oil’
to be displayed in 30 hours, the message ‘Change Oil’ will be displayed after the GNC 250
has been on in Normal operating mode for 30 hours. After appearing, the message will be
displayed each time the GNC 250 is turned on until it is changed or deleted.
REFERENCE
NAV KEY
WPTNAV
KeyMenu
Overview
2
Scheduler
SECTION
1
To enter a scheduled message:
1. Press N and rotate O to display NAV Menu 2.
2. Press C twice and rotate O until ‘Scheduler?’ is highlighted.
3. Press E.
4. Rotate O to highlight the message you would like to edit. To delete, press \,
then E.
Entering a scheduled message.
5. Use K and O to enter the message. Press E.
6. Use K and O to set the elapsed time until the message is displayed, in hours and
minutes, up to 99 hours and 59 minutes (this time is cumulative and counts whenever
the GNC 250 is on in normal operating mode).
7. Press E.
The scrolling arrow prompt indicates which direction to scroll to view additional listings.
You may edit another scheduled message by repeating steps 3, 4 and 5, or if you are finished, press C.
The scheduled message will appear after the timer
expires and after the GNC 250 is powered up
until the message is changed.
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NAV KEY
Sunrise/Sunset
Calculations
The GNC 250’s sunrise/sunset planning function allows you to calculate the time of
sunrise or sunset at any waypoint or your present position for a specified date.
To calculate sunrise and sunset times at a waypoint or at your present location:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 2 is displayed.
2. Press C twice and rotate O to highlight ‘Sunrise?’. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the waypoint identifier, or leave blank to use current position.
Press E.
4. Press E to accept the waypoint information.
5. Use K and O to enter the date desired.
6. Press E and the sunrise and sunset times will be calculated and displayed.
Sunrise/Sunset Planning Page
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Section 2
Communicating with the GNC 250
REFERENCE
COMM
FEATURES
SECTION
Waypoint
Overview
Information
2
The GNC 250 features a digital VHF radio that provides a seamless transition from
communication to navigation, bringing the two most important functions in flying
together in one panel-mount unit. The GNC 250 operates in the aviation voice band,
from 118.000 to 136.975 MHz, in 25 kHz steps.
Communication frequencies are selected by activating the cursor in the standby
frequency field and using the inner and outer knobs to dial in the desired frequency.
A frequency may also be quickly selected from the navigation database by simply
highlighting the frequency and pressing the E key. Once a desired frequency is displayed in the standby field, it may be made the active frequency by pressing the @
key. Note that the active frequency may not by accessed directly. Whenever the cursor is
active in the comm window, the standby frequency will by highlighted (e.g.,
‘<121.50>’).
CDI page with cursor inactive.
To access the standby frequency, press C.
This allows you to change the megahertz (number to the left of the decimal) by
rotating O and the kilohertz (number to the right of the decimal) by rotating K. If
you would like to keep the standby field ‘hot’ (ready for an immediate frequency
change), leave the cursor active in the comm window. To remove the cursor, press
C twice after you have selected the desired frequency.
CDI page with standby field active.
To make the standby frequency the active frequency, press @.
The frequencies will be flip-flopped and you’ll be able to transmit and receive on
the standby frequency previously entered. This can be done at any time, regardless of
cursor or GPS status.
To flip-flop the frequencies, press @.
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2
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REFERENCE
COMM FEATURES
Entering
Waypoints
Overview/
Auto-Tuning
During the course of navigating with the GNC 250, there may be times when you
need to quickly select a comm frequency while you are entering data in the GPS window. Whenever data entry in the GPS window is interrupted by activating the standby frequency field, the GPS field in use will become ‘splatted’, or blocked out.
To auto-tune from the nearest airport page, press
ENT.
Once the standby frequency has been entered, you may return to data entry by
pressing the CRSR key. The flashing cursor will return you to the active GPS field at
the point where you stopped data entry.
To select a frequency from a list, highlight the
desired frequency and press ENT.
The GNC 250’s auto-tune feature allows you to quickly select any database frequency in the GPS window as your standby frequency.
To auto-tune a single frequency displayed in the GPS window:
1. Press E with the cursor inactive.
2. To make the standby frequency the active frequency, press @.
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To auto-tune a frequency from a list displayed in the GPS window:
1. Press C twice to activate the cursor in the GPS window.
2. Rotate O to highlight the desired frequency.
REFERENCE
COMM
FEATURES
Airport
Auto-Tuning/
Volume
& Squelch
Information
SECTION
2
3. Press E to make the selected frequency the standby frequency.
Another useful feature integrating the GNC 250’s navigation and communication
capabilities is the Navigation Communications (NAVCOM) page, which is
accessed using the N key. See pages 12-13 for more on the NAVCOM page.
The GNC 250’s automatic squelch and volume controls are located at the bottom left of the unit, near the NavData card slot.
To adjust the radio volume:
1. Rotate the B knob.
‘TX’ indicating radio transmission.
Whenever the GNC 250 is powered up, the automatic squelch will be in the ‘on’
position, allowing only transmissions which are powerful enough for clear broadcast
to be received. Manual squelch control is not available.
To override the automatic squelch control:
1. Press the Q key. Press Q again to return to automatic squelch.
Whenever the GNC 250 is transmitting, a ‘tx’ icon will appear between the active
and standby frequency fields. If the microphone is stuck or accidentally left in the
keyed position, or if the headsets continue to transmit after the key is released, the
radio will timeout after 35 seconds of continuous broadcasting. You’ll also receive a
‘Stuck mic/Tx disabled’ message as long as the stuck condition exists.
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Page 32
COMM FEATURES
Emergency
Channel Selection
The emergency channel will appear in the active field.
The GNC 250’s emergency channel select feature provides a quick method of
selecting the 121.5 MHz frequency as the active frequency in the event of an in-flight
emergency. The emergency channel select is available whenever the unit is on, regardless of GPS or cursor status, or loss of the display.
To automatically tune for emergency transmission:
1. Press and hold the @ key for more than two seconds.
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Section 3
Waypoint and Database Information
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
SECTION
Airport
Overview
Communication
3
The GNC 250 uses a Jeppesen NavData® card to provide position and facility information for thousands of airports, VORs, NDBs and intersections. Each facility in the
database is stored as a waypoint with its own latitude/longitude, identifier (up to five letters and/or numbers), and other pertinent information. Up to 1,000 user waypoints may
also be created and stored in the GNC 250’s internal memory.
Waypoint Menu Page
Proximity Waypoints Page
Waypoint Comments List
User Waypoint List
Waypoint information is available through four primary waypoint pages accessible
from the GNC 250’s WPT key. The waypoint pages may be scrolled through by pressing
the WPT key and rotating the outer knob until the desired page is displayed, or by
pressing the WPT key repeatedly.
Please note that your GNC 250 uses ICAO identifiers
for all airports. All U.S. airport identifiers which contain
only letters use the prefix ‘K’. For example, Los Angeles
International is KLAX under the ICAO standard. Other
airports, such as Otten Memorial (3VS), that contain
numbers in the identifier, do not require the ‘K’ prefix.
Many foreign countries use two letter prefixes. For more
information on ICAO identifiers, contact:
Document Sales Unit
International Civil Aviation Organization
1000 Sherbrooke, Suite 400
Montreal, Quebec
Canada H3A 2R2
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SECTION
REFERENCE
WPT
KEY
3
Waypoint
AirportCategories
Runway
Information
& Menu Page
The GNC 250 organizes waypoints into one of five waypoint categories for your
convenience. Each waypoint category provides different types of detailed information
for a selected facility:
• Airports - Identifier, city/state, country, facility name, position (lat/lon),
elevation, fuel services and communications frequencies.
• VORs - Identifier, city/state, country, facility name, position (lat/lon),
frequency, magnetic variation, co-located DME or TACAN and weather
broadcast indication.
• NDBs - Identifier, city/state, country, facility name, position (lat/lon),
frequency and weather broadcast indication.
Waypoint Menu Page
• Intersections - Identifier, country, position (lat/lon), nearest VOR.
• User - Identifier (name), position (lat/lon), reference waypoint.
To view the waypoint information for a desired waypoint, select the waypoint
category from the waypoint menu page.
Airport Position Page
To choose a waypoint category (for viewing information):
1. Press W and rotate O to display the waypoint menu page.
2. Press C twice and rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint category.
VOR Position Page
34
3. Press E to accept the waypoint category. The waypoint identification or position page
for the selected category will appear with the waypoint identifier field ready for entry.
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After a waypoint category is selected, information for a waypoint may be viewed
by entering the identifier or name of the desired waypoint. Airports, VORs and NDBs
may be entered by either the identifier, name or the location (city) of the facility.
Intersections and user waypoints must be entered by the identifier.
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
VOR Information
Entering
Waypoints
SECTION
3
To enter a waypoint identifier:
1. With the flashing cursor over the waypoint field, use K and O to enter the
waypoint identifier.
As the identifier is entered, the GNC 250’s Spell’N’FindTM feature will scroll
through the available database, displaying any waypoints with the same identifier letters you have entered to that point. When the desired waypoint is displayed, press
C to remove the cursor.
To obtain waypoint information by entering the facility name of the
airport, the name of the VOR or NDB, or its location:
1. Press W and rotate O to display the waypoint menu page.
Entering a waypoint by identifier.
2. Press C twice and rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint category.
3. Press E to accept the waypoint category.
4. Rotate O to highlight the middle field to enter location (city) OR:
Rotate O to highlight the bottom field to enter facility name or VOR/NDB name.
5. Use K and O to enter the location or the name, and press C to finish.
As the information is entered, the GNC 250 will display any entries in its database
that match the letters you have entered. If duplicate entries exist for the entered identifier, name or location, additional entries may be viewed by rotating K. Once the
desired waypoint is displayed, press C to continue.
Entering a waypoint by city. Note that punctuation marks are not used when entering locations
or names. Use spaces, where appropriate, to identify these marks. For example, St. Louis would be
entered as “ST LOUIS” without a period.
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3
Page 36
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
VOR
Position Page
Airport Information
Once a waypoint category and identifier have been selected, the GNC 250 will
provide extensive information through a set of waypoint pages for the selected category. We’ll now go through the pages available for each waypoint category in the
order they appear on the waypoint menu page: airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections
and user waypoints.
Airport Information
Airport Identification Page
Airport Position Page
Airport Comments Page
Airport Runway Page
Airport
Communication Page
To scroll through the airport pages:
1. Make sure the cursor is not flashing. If it is, press C.
2. Rotate O in either direction to scroll through the available pages.
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REFERENCE
WPT KEY
The GNC 250 features five airport pages:
airport identification— allows entry of desired airport by identifier,
facility name or city; displays region and/or country of facility.
Airport
Pages
NDB
Information
SECTION
3
airport position— allows entry of desired airport by identifier; displays
latitude, longitude and elevation; indicates usage and fuel availability;
displays available approaches and airport control/radar capability.
airport communication— allows entry of desired airport by identifier;
displays radio frequencies/usage, and sector and altitude restrictions.
airport runway— allows entry of desired airport by identifier; indicates
runway designations, length, surface and lighting information; displays
ILS/localizer and/or pilot-controlled lighting frequencies.
airport comments— allows entry of desired airport by identifier; displays
user comments for the selected airport.
Waypoint Type
and Identifier
Airport Position Page
Region/Country
Airport Communication Page
Location
(city/state)
Facility name
The airport identification page displays a selected airport’s identifier, region and
country, city/state and facility name. The identification page is always the first airport
page available, allowing you to quickly review an airport facility or select another
facility by entering the identifier, facility name or city of the desired airport.
Airport Runway Page
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REFERENCE
WPT KEY
SECTION
3
The airport position page displays the latitude, longitude and elevation of the
selected airport, as well as usage or fuel availability, available approaches and airport
control/radar capability. The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the
airport position page:
Airport &
Intersections
Position
Page
User
Waypoints
1
2
Elevation— In feet or meters
Usage/Fuel— If the airport is for military use, it will display ‘military’.
If it is private, the GNC 250 will display ‘private’. If it is a public airport, it will display the fuel type(s) available:
• av gas— 80-87 octane, 100 LL, 100-130 octane, or mogas is
available
• jet—
Jet A, Jet A-1 or Jet A+ fuel is available
• av/jet— Both av gas and jet fuel are available
3
Position— In degrees/minutes or degrees/minutes/seconds of latitude
and longitude.
4
5
6
Airport Position Page
1. Identifier (selectable)
2. Elevation
3. Fuel Availability
4. Airport Position
5. Approach Information
6. Controlled Airspace/Radar Capability
38
Approach Information— displays the airport approaches available
• no apr— No approach is available
• np-apr— Non-precision approach is available
• loc—
Localizer approach is available
• ils—
ILS approach is available
Controlled Airspace Information— displays controlled airspace type
• class B
• cta
• class C
• tma
Radar— displays approach/departure radar capability
• radar— indicates radar is present
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The airport communication page displays the radio frequencies and usage for
the selected airport, as well as sector and altitude restrictions.
To view the communication page from any of the airport information pages:
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
User Airport
Waypoints
Communications Page
SECTION
3
1. Rotate O with the flashing cursor removed to display the communication page.
2. Rotate K in the direction of the arrow prompt to view additional frequencies. You may
also view additional frequencies with the cursor on by rotating the O knob.
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the communication page:
Frequencies without restriction information:
• ats - Automatic terminal information service (ATIS)
• ptx - Pre-taxi
• clr - Clearance delivery
• gnd - Ground
• twr - Tower
• uni - Unicom
• mul - Multicom
• atf - Aerodrome traffic frequency
• ctf - Common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF)
• mf - Mandatory frequency
• oth - Other frequencies
Frequencies with restriction information:
• dep - Departure
• apr - Approach
• arv - Arrival
• class B
• cta - ICAO control area • tma - ICAO terminal control area
• class C
• trsa - Terminal radar service area
‘Receive only’ frequencies will display an ‘rx’ indicator, while ‘transmit only’
frequencies will display a ‘tx’. If a frequency has sector and/or altitude restrictions,
they will also be displayed. Sector restrictions define a range of radials from the
facility, while altitude restrictions may describe an area above, below or between
altitudes. Additional instructions, if available, will be displayed on the bottom line.
Airport Communications Page for KCLT.
Frequency Page with Sector Restrictions.
Airport Communication Page for 3VS.
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Page 40
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
Autostore
Airport™ &
User
Comments
Runway
Page
The airport runway page displays runway designations, length, surface and
lighting for the selected airport, as well as ILS/localizer and/or pilot-controlled lighting frequencies.
To view the runway page from any of the airport information pages:
1. Rotate O with the flashing cursor removed to display the runway page.
2. To view additional runway information, rotate K with the flashing cursor removed.
The scrolling arrow prompt, located beside the identifier field, indicates which direction to
scroll for additional runway information.
If a localizer and ILS are used on the same runway, rotating K will display
both sets of information.
Airport Runway Page for KICT.
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the airport runway
page:
Runway surfaces:
• hard - Hard (concrete, asphalt, etc.)
• seal - Sealed surface
• dirt - Dirt surface
• unkn -Unknown surface
To view additional runways, rotate the inner knob
in the direction of the arrow prompts.
• turf - Turf (grass)
• grav - Gravel surface
• soft - Unknown soft surface
• watr - Water landing site
Runway lighting:
• pt lights - Part time lights
• ft lights - Full time lights
• pc Pilot controlled (with frequency)
• no lights - No runway lighting
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VOR Information
The GNC 250 features three VOR waypoint pages:
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
Proximity
VOR
Information
Waypoints
SECTION
3
VOR identification— allows entry of desired VOR by identifier,
facility name or city; displays region and/or country of facility.
VOR position— allows entry of desired VOR by identifier; displays
latitude, longitude and frequency; provides magnetic variation, weather
broadcasts and DME/TACAN information.
VOR comments— allows entry of desired VOR by identifier; displays user
comments for the selected facility.
VOR information is accessed by entering the desired facility by identifier, city or
facility name (see page 35) on any VOR waypoint page. The VOR identification and
comments pages are identical in form and function to their airport page counterparts.
VOR Identification Page
To scroll through the VOR pages:
1. Make sure the cursor is not flashing. If it is, press C.
2. Rotate O in either direction to scroll through the available pages.
VOR Position Page
In addition to displaying the VOR frequency, magnetic variation and position, the
VOR position page indicates if a DME or TACAN is co-located at the facility. The ‘wx
bdcst’ field indicates that the VOR also transmits weather information.
VOR Comments Page
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Page 42
REFERENCE
WPT Waypoints
KEY
Proximity
NDB Information
NDB Information
&
NDB Position Page
The GNC 250 also uses identification, position and comments pages for NDB
information. The NDB waypoint pages are used in the same manner as VOR pages:
NDB information is accessed by entering the desired facility’s identifier, city or name
(see page 35) on the NDB identification page.
To scroll through the NDB pages:
NDB Identification Page
1. Make sure the cursor is not flashing. If it is, press C.
2. Rotate O in either direction to scroll through the available pages.
NDB Comments Page
42
The NDB position page (see above) displays the selected facility’s identifier, frequency and position, as well as any weather broadcasts available. The NDB comment
page will display any user comments for the selected NDB (see page 50 for instructions on entering user comments).
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Intersection Information
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
UserIntersection
Waypoints &
Waypoint
Information
Comment Catalog
SECTION
3
Intersection Position Page
The last database waypoint category available is intersections. Two intersection
pages are available: intersection position and intersection comments. Intersections
may be entered by identifier only (not city or name) on either intersection page.
To scroll through the Intersection pages:
1. Make sure the cursor is not flashing. If it is, press C.
2. Rotate O to toggle between the available pages.
Intersection Comments Page
The intersection position page displays the selected facility’s identifier, region and/or
country, latitude and longitude, and the identifier, distance and bearing to the nearest
VOR (not necessarily the VOR used to define the intersection). The intersection comment page will display any user comments for the selected intersection (see page 50).
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Page 44
REFERENCE
WPT &KEYLocked
Duplicate
User Waypoint Information
User
Waypoints
Waypoints
In addition to the airport, VOR, NDB and intersection waypoints contained in your
NavData® card, the GNC 250 allows you to store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints.
Once a user waypoint is created, two user waypoint pages will display the following
information:
•
•
•
•
User Waypoint Page
User Waypoint Comments Page
Waypoint identifier
Position in latitude and longitude
Identifier, range and bearing from a reference waypoint
User comments
To scroll between the user waypoint position page and the user comments page,
rotate O. User waypoints may be created or modified using the W key. After selecting the waypoint identifier, as shown on page 35, you will be prompted to enter information if the waypoint is new. There are three ways to create a user waypoint’s position from the W key:
1. Enter the exact position of the new waypoint.
2. Reference a known waypoint.
3. Enter a range and bearing from your current position.
To create or edit a user waypoint:
1. Press W.
Entering a user waypoint name.
2. Press C twice and use O to highlight the ‘user?’ field. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the waypoint identifier. Press E.
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If the waypoint identifier entered does not exist in the database, you will be
prompted to select a method to enter the new waypoint’s position into the database. If
the waypoint exists (you’re just reviewing or editing a user waypoint), skip step 4 and
move on to the next set of instructions.
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
Route
Overview
Creating
User Waypoints
SECTION
3
4. Select the desired waypoint entry method using O and press E.
You will automatically be placed on the latitude and longitude field (if you
selected ‘enter posn?’), the ‘from’ field (if you select ‘ref wpt?’) or the ‘bearing’ field (if
you select ‘rng/brg from posn?’).
To enter/edit the position of the user waypoint:
1. Use K and O to enter the latitude. You may select either north or south and enter a
latitude up to (but not including) 90°.
2. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the longitude. You may select either east or west and enter a
longitude up to (but not including) 180°.
Selecting a method to enter a new user waypoint.
4. Press E.
Once the latitude and longitude have been entered, the flashing cursor will move
to the reference waypoint field,where you may enter a reference waypoint to calculate
a bearing and distance to the new waypoint position. If you are not entering a reference waypoint:
Entering the user waypoint’s exact position.
5. Press E to advance the flashing cursor to the ‘ok?’ prompt and press E to save the
new waypoint in internal memory.
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Page 46
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
Route Information
Reference Waypoints
To enter/edit a user waypoint position from a reference waypoint:
1. Use K and O to enter the reference waypoint’s identifier.
2. Press E. The waypoint’s position will appear.
3. Use K and O to enter the bearing from the reference waypoint.
4. Press E.
5. Use K and O to enter the distance from the reference waypoint.
6. Press E. The latitude and longitude will be calculated for the waypoint.
7. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt and save the waypoint position.
Entering a user waypoint by reference waypoint.
If you have chosen to create a waypoint at a certain bearing and distance from
your current position, your current position will be displayed and you will enter the
bearing and distance at which you would like the new waypoint to be located.
To create a user waypoint offset from your present position:
1. Use K and O to enter the bearing from your position.
2. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the distance from your position.
To create a user waypoint from your present position, leave the reference waypoint field blank and
enter a bearing and distance from your present
position. The GNC 250 will calculate the new
waypoint’s coordinates automatically.
46
4. Press E. The latitude and longitude will be calculated for the new waypoint.
5. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt and save the waypoint position.
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The GNC 250’s AutoStoreTM function provides another method of creating user
waypoints. AutoStore is used to instantly capture your present position as a user waypoint with a touch of a button and add the new waypoint to the end of a specified
route if desired.
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
Route
Information
Creating
Waypoints
with AutoStore
SECTION
3
To perform an AutoStore:
1. Press N and rotate O to display the position page.
2. Press E.
This will display the ‘Save’ waypoint screen, which will allow you to rename the
waypoint and choose the route for it to be added to. The GNC 250 will assign the
next available three-digit number as the default waypoint name, preceded by a ‘+’
sign. This will help you differentiate AutoStore waypoints from other user waypoints.
To change the name or the route of an AutoStore waypoint:
AutoStore waypoint with default name.
1. Rotate O to select the name or route number field.
2. Use K and O to enter the name or route number. If you do not want to add the waypoint to a route, be sure to keep the route field blank.
3. Press E to accept.
4. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt.
If the waypoint name is already used for another waypoint, you will be informed
with the message ‘WPT exists ______’. The default waypoint number will be redisplayed, and you may enter a different name.
The default waypoint name may be changed
before saving the waypoint.
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Page 48
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
Editing
Routes
Proximity Waypoints
The second page available from the GNC 250’s WPT key is the proximity waypoints page. This page allows you to define an alarm circle around a selected waypoint
and is useful in defining alarm circles around towers or obstructions. Up to nine proximity waypoints can be entered, with an alarm radius of up to 99.9 nm.
To create or edit a proximity waypoint:
1. Press W and use O to display the ‘Proximity waypoints’ page.
2. Press C twice and use O to highlight the first available field.
4. Use K and O to enter the identifier. It may be an airport, VOR, NDB, INT or user
waypoint. Press E.
5. Use K and O to enter the radius of the alarm circle. Press E.
Proximity Waypoints Page
If two proximity waypoints are entered and their regions overlap, you will be
informed with the message ‘Proximity overlap’. This message will be displayed each time
you turn on the GNC 250 for as long as the overlap remains. Warning: If you enter the
overlap area you will only be informed of the nearest proximity waypoint.
To remove a waypoint from the proximity waypoints page:
1. Press C twice, if necessary, to obtain a cursor in the GPS window.
Proximity Alarm
2. Press \ to erase the name, and then E to delete.
To scroll through the proximity waypoints list:
1. Rotate K with the flashing cursor inactive (or use O with the flashing cursor active) to
scroll through the available proximity waypoints. The scrolling arrow prompt will indicate the
direction to scroll to view additional waypoints, if available.
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The third page available from the GNC 250’s WPT key is the user waypoint list,
which can be used to quickly scan, review, rename or delete user waypoints.
To display the user waypoint list:
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
Route
Copying and
User Waypoint
List
Closest Pt of
Approach (CPA)
SECTION
3
1. Press W and use O to display the user waypoint list.
2. To scroll through the list, rotate K.
The total number of user waypoints is displayed at the top of the page, with user
waypoints listed two at a time in alphabetical order. The scrolling arrow prompt,
located at the top left of the page, will indicate which direction to scroll to view additional waypoints. The status of each waypoint, if applicable, will be displayed to the
right of the identifier. A status will appear when it is the active-to waypoint, part of an
active or stored route or a proximity waypoint. To edit, rename or delete waypoints,
the cursor must highlight the desired waypoint.
To highlight a waypoint:
1. Press C twice and use O to highlight the desired waypoint.
User Waypoint List
To edit a highlighted waypoint:
1. Press E to obtain the waypoint position page. Edit the waypoint position as described on
pages 45-46. Note: The active-to waypoint cannot be edited.
To delete a waypoint from the list:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint and press \. Press E to confirm the deletion.
Renaming a user waypoint.
To rename a waypoint from the list:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint. Use K and O to enter a new
identifier for the waypoint.
2. Press E on the confirmation page to change the name, or press \ to cancel.
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3
Page 50
REFERENCE
WPTDiagram
KEY
CPA
Waypoint Comments
The last page available through the GNC 250’s WPT key is the waypoint comments page, which lists all waypoints that have a user comment. User comments
may be added to 250 waypoints stored in the user or NavData® database, and allow
you to note two lines of special information concerning a particular waypoint.
To enter user comments:
1. Enter the waypoint identifier from any waypoint page (see page 35), and press C to
remove the flashing cursor.
2. Rotate O to display the ‘comments’ page.
3. Press C twice and use O to highlight either the second or third line.
4. Use K and O to enter the comment.
5. Press E to accept, and repeat steps 4 and 5, if necessary, to enter information on
another line.
Entering waypoint comments.
6. Press C to remove the cursor.
To view the ‘waypoints with comments’ list:
1. Press W and use O to display the ‘Wpts with comments’ page.
2. Use K to scroll through the list.
Waypoints with Comments List
The GNC 250 will display the waypoints with comments in alphabetical order, up
to six waypoints at a time. The scrolling arrow prompt will indicate which direction
to scroll to view additional waypoints.
To view comments for a selected waypoint:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint and press E.
50
2. Rotate O to display any other available pages for the selected waypoint.
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The GNC 250’s extensive waypoint database makes it possible for several waypoints to share the same identifier. To ensure that you are selecting the waypoint
desired, the GNC 250 will always offer the waypoint confirmation page (which
shows the waypoint’s position) when an identifier is entered for a particular function.
REFERENCE
WPT KEY
Search and
Rescue
Waypoint
Confirmation
Operations
Duplicate Waypoints
SECTION
3
To accept the waypoint position:
1. Press E with the cursor over the ‘ok?’ prompt.
To reject the waypoint position:
1. Press \ with the cursor over the ‘ok?’ prompt.
Once a waypoint has been accepted or rejected, the previous page will be displayed. If there is more than one waypoint available for a selected identifier, the GNC
250 will display a duplicate waypoint page for you to choose the desired waypoint.
The waypoint identifier and number of duplicates will be shown at the top of the
page, with the waypoint type and region of each duplicate indicated below. The waypoints listed are sorted by the distance from your present position.
Waypoint Confirmation Page
To scroll through additional duplicate waypoints:
1. Rotate O with the flashing cursor active, or K with the flashing cursor inactive.
To select the desired waypoint from the duplicates list:
1. Activate the flashing cursor and rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint.
Duplicate Waypoints Page
2. Press E. The waypoint confirmation page will appear.
3. Press E over the ‘ok?’ prompt to accept the waypoint or \ to reject the waypoint
and return to the duplicate waypoints list.
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SECTION
REFERENCE
WPT
KEY
3
User Comments
&
Locked
Waypoints
Parallel
Track
Waypoint Scanning
Because the GNC 250 relies on a NavData card for most waypoint information,
there may be instances when waypoint information is not available for use. Locked
waypoints exist when a waypoint contained in a route or used as a proximity waypoint is not contained on the NavData card, or no card is inserted in the unit. If this
condition exists, you’ll be alerted with a ‘Proximity wpt locked’, ‘Route wpt locked’ or
‘Wpt comment locked’ message when the unit is powered up. The identifier of a
locked waypoint will be replaced with a ‘lockd’ message, which indicates you cannot
obtain waypoint information or navigate to the waypoint. The identifier of a locked
waypoint may be displayed by highlighting ‘lockd’ and pressing ENT. Locked waypoints may be deleted from routes, the user waypoint list or the proximity waypoints
list by following the instructions in the appropriate section.
The waypoint scanning feature provides a fast way to scan through airports,
VORs, NDBs and intersections in the database by identifier, facility name or city.
Waypoint scanning may be used from any blank identifier field in the GPS window.
Alarms possible for locked waypoints.
To enter a waypoint by scanning the identifier, facility name or city:
1. With the cursor over a blank identifier field, press W. If the identifier field is not blank,
highlight the field with the flashing cursor and press \ before pressing W.
2. Use O to highlight the waypoint category you wish to scan.
3. Press E to activate the scanning mode.
To blank a waypoint field, highlight the field and
press the CLR key.
4. Rotate O to place the flashing cursor over the field you want to scan (identifier, facility
or city name).
5. Use K and O to enter the letters of the identifier, city or facility name. The GNC 250
will scan the database and display the first waypoint that matches your entry.
52
6. Press E to accept the waypoint, and E again to confirm the waypoint for the
function being used.
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Page 53
The GNC 250’s NRST key provides detailed information on the nine nearest airports,
VORs, NDBs, intersections and user waypoints within 200 nm of your current position.
In addition, it will display the two nearest Flight Service Station (FSS) points of communication and alert you to any Special Use Airspace (SUA) you may be in or near. The
NRST key can be used in conjunction with the GNC 250’s direct-to function to quickly
set a course to a nearby facility in case of an in-flight emergency.
REFERENCE
NRST KEY
SECTION
Nearest
Waypoints
Overview
4
To view the nearest waypoint information:
1. Press T.
This will display the nearest airport to your present position, subject to the runway
surface type and minimum runway length selected (see page 73).
To scroll through the next eight nearest airports, rotate K.
You may examine both the communication frequencies and the runway information
directly from the nearest airport page. You may also place the displayed frequency into
the standby field by pressing E from the nearest airport page.
To view more comm/runway information:
Nearest airport with other frequency information.
If an airport has multiple frequencies available,
they may be quickly viewed without activating
the cursor by pressing the CLR key repeatedly.
1. Press C twice and rotate O to highlight the comm field or the runway field.
2. Rotate K to scroll through more information, if available.
To perform a direct-to from any of the nearest waypoint pages:
1. Press D. The waypoint confirmation page will appear.
2. Press E to accept the waypoint or \ to cancel.
The nearest waypoints for other categories (VORs, NDBs, etc.) may be viewed
by rotating O. Rotating O continuously to the left will stop page selection on the
nearest airport category.
Nearest FSS page. To view additional frequencies
(if available), highlight the frequency and rotate
the outer knob.
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SECTION
4
Page 54
REFERENCE
NRST KEY
Special
SpecialUse
UseAirspace
Airspace
The next page available under the GNC 250’s NRST key is the SUA alert page. The
SUA alert page will alert you with up to nine controlled or restricted airspaces near or in
your flight path, according to the following conditions:
• If your projected course will take you inside an SUA within the next 10
minutes, the message ‘SUA ahead < 10 min’ will be displayed.
• If you are within two nautical miles of an SUA and your current course will take
you inside, the message ‘SUA Near & Ahead’ will be displayed.
• If you are within two nautical miles of an SUA and your current course will not
take you inside, the message ‘Near SUA < 2nm’ will be displayed.
• If you have entered an SUA, the message ‘Inside SUA’ will be displayed.
Nearest SUA
Nearest SUA with controlling agency displayed.
54
NOTE: The GNC 250 will flash the U next to the M key
to inform you of SUA alerts. You do not have to repeatedly
check the Nearest Waypoint page for SUA information. It is
provided to supply more information on the SUA and its
boundaries. The GNC 250 will not flash alerts, however, if
it has been turned off or if your altitude is such that you
will not enter the buffered airspace. Turning off SUA alerts
and setting the altitude buffer is described on page 77. Any
SUA that meets these conditions will be displayed on the
nearest pages.
Note that the GNC 250’s SUA alerts are based on three-dimensional data (latitude,
longitude and altitude) to avoid nuisance alerts. The alert boundaries for controlled airspace are also sectorized to provide complete information on any nearby airspace. Once
you have met one of the described conditions, the message annunciator will flash, alerting you of an SUA message.
To view an SUA message:
1. Press the M key.
2. Press M again to return to the previous page.
Once you are notified of a SUA alert, detailed information concerning the specific
SUA is provided by the NRST key.
To view the SUA alert page:
1. Press the T key.
2. Rotate O one stop to the right to view the SUA alert page.
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REFERENCE
NRST KEY
The SUA alert page contains the following information:
SUA Information
Special
Use Airspace
Alert type
SUA number
4
ETE
(if applicable)
SUA Name or
controlling
agency
Controlling
airport identifier
SECTION
SUA type
SUA Ceiling altitude
SUA Floor altitude
The ‘SUA number’ field displays which SUA you are viewing (you may be alerted with
up to nine SUAs). SUAs are ranked with ‘sua1’ being the highest priority, and ‘sua9’ being the
lowest priority from your current position. The ‘SUA alert’ field displays the corresponding
alert message for this SUA, such as near, near and ahead, etc. (see page 54). The ETE (estimated time enroute), located at the top right of the page, will only be displayed if you are
projected to enter the airspace.
The second line of the SUA alert page displays the name or controlling agency of the
SUA, along with the SUA type to which you are being alerted.
To toggle between the SUA name and controlling agency display:
1. Rotate K one stop in either direction.
If the SUA name or controlling agency is too long to fit on the display, the GNC 250 will
automatically scroll to display the rest of the information.
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SECTION
4
Page 56
REFERENCE
NRSTandKEY
SUAs
other
SUA Messages
Nearest
Waypoints
SUA Alert Page
Frequency information for SUA.
56
The following SUA types can appear in the SUA type field:
Message
alrt
caut
cl B
cl C
cta
dngr
moa
proh
rstc
tma
trng
trsa
unsp
warn
Airspace Type
- Alert
- Caution
- Class B
- Class C
- ICAO Control Area
- Danger
- Military Operations Area
- Prohibited
- Restricted
- ICAO Terminal Control Area
- Training
- Terminal Radar Service Area
- Unspecified
- Warning
The last line on the SUA alert page displays the SUA’s controlling airport identifier
and the ceiling and floor altitudes for the SUA alert. Controlling agency frequencies
may be viewed by highlighting the controlling airport identifier with the cursor and
pressing E. The following are examples of what can appear in the altitude fields:
Message
8000ftM
Meaning
3000ftA
ground
msl
notam
- 3000 feet above ground level (AGL)
- Ground level
- Mean sea level
- See Notice to Airmen (NOTAM)
for altitude restrictions
- Altitude is not specified
- Altitude is unlimited
not sp
unlmtd
- 8000 feet mean sea level (MSL)
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APPENDIX
NRST KEYA
Special List
Unit Settings
Use Airspace
SECTION
4
SUA Settings Page
All SUA alert messages except for prohibited areas may be turned on or off
through the GNC 250’s unit settings options, found under the MSG key (see page
77). Alerts for prohibited areas will always be displayed, regardless of unit settings or
operating mode. SUA alerts may be turned off so the pilot can avoid continuous alerts
in areas with extensive special use airspace.
Important: Turning off the SUA alerts only stops the display of SUA messages.
Any applicable SUA alert pages will still be available from the NRST key.
Altitude buffer set at 500 feet.
The GNC 250 also features an altitude buffer which may be set to provide a
greater level of protection from penetrating an SUA. By specifying an altitude in the
buffer, you can effectively stretch an SUA’s altitude boundaries in both directions. This
allows the pilot to add an extra margin of prevention around controlled or restricted
airspace. For instructions on setting the altitude buffer, see page 77.
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SECTION
5
Page 58
APPENDIX A
DIRECT-TO
Current Messages
& ROUTE
NAV
&
Section 5
Direct-to & Route Navigation
One of the many benefits of GPS navigation is the ability to fly directly to a waypoint or fly a chain of waypoints without using ground-based navigation aids. To take
advantage of the convenience and efficiency provided by point-to-point GPS navigation, the GNC 250 provides two basic methods of selecting a destination for your
flight: direct-to and route navigation. The direct-to function provides a fast way to
set a course to a destination waypoint from your present position. The route function
allows the pilot to create a chain of waypoints to fly in sequence.
KSTL
ROUTE TERMINOLOGY
The diagram at the right shows a basic route
consisting of five waypoints and four legs.
MAP
'ACTIVE FROM' WAYPOINT
The waypoint you are travelling to is called the
‘active to’ waypoint, and the waypoint immediately
behind you is called the ‘active from’ waypoint. The
course line between the active from and the active to
waypoint is called the ‘active leg’.
'ACTIVE TO' WAYPOINT
SGF
ACTIVE LEG
EOS
KTUL
As you pass each waypoint in the route, the GNC 250’s automatic leg sequencing
and turn anticipation features will automatically select the next waypoint as the
‘active to’ waypoint and provide smooth steering guidance around the turn. If you are
not currently navigating a particular route leg (e.g., your starting position is not a
route waypoint), the GPS will select the appropriate leg as the active route segment.
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Page 59
The GNC 250’s direct-to function provides a quick method of setting a course to
a destination waypoint. Once a direct-to destination is activated, the GNC 250 will
establish a point-to-point route line along the great circle from your present position
to the destination and provide steering guidance and navigation data to the waypoint
until it is cancelled. If you are navigating to a waypoint and get off course, the directto function may also be used to re-center the d-bar to proceed to the same waypoint.
APPENDIX
A
DIRECT-TO
SelectingStatus
and
Receiver
Cancelling A Direct-To
SECTION
5
To select a direct-to destination:
1. Press the D key. The CDI page will appear with the destination field flashing.
2. Use K and O to enter the identifier of the desired waypoint.
3. Press E to confirm the identifier, and E to accept the direct-to confirmation page.
To re-center the d-bar to the same active-to waypoint:
1. Press the D key, followed by E twice.
A direct-to may also be quickly activated from many pages that display a single
waypoint identifier (e.g., the nearest airport page) by simply pressing D and E.
For pages that display a list of waypoints (e.g., the user waypoint list page), you must
highlight the desired waypoint with the flashing cursor before pressing the D key.
Once a direct-to is activated, the GNC 250 will provide navigation guidance until the
direct-to is cancelled or the unit is turned off.
To cancel a direct-to destination:
1. Place the flashing cursor over the destination field on the CDI page.
2. Press \. The destination field will go blank.
To select a direct-to destination, press the D key
and enter the waypoint identifier.
To quickly select a direct-to from any page
that displays a single waypoint identifier (e.g.,
the nearest airport page), press D, followed
by ENT.
3. Press E. The GNC 250 will resume navigating Route 0 (the active route) if available.
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SECTION
5
Page 60
APPENDIX A
DIRECT-TO
CDI ScaleSelecting
Settings
Manually
A Course
Whenever you perform a direct-to, the GNC 250 will set a point-to-point great
circle course to your destination. You can also manually define the magnetic course to
your destination with the GNC 250’s course select feature. The course select feature
is available from the bottom line of the direct-to confirmation page and works like
selecting your desired course on a VOR indicator.
Waypoint
Position
The waypoint sequencing field, located at the bottom left of the direct-to confirmation page, allows
you to ‘hold’ on a selected route waypoint and
prevent the GNC 250 from sequencing to the next
route waypoint.
If you have selected the ‘hold’ setting from the
waypoint sequencing field, your selected course
will appear at the bottom left of the CDI page.
You may change your selected course right
from this field by highlighting the course field and
rotating the inner knob. Press ENT to confirm the
course.
60
Waypoint Identifier Field
Waypoint
Sequencing Field
(see page 69)
Course Select Field
To manually set a course:
1. Press the D key. The direct-to confirmation page will appear.
2. Rotate O to place the flashing cursor on the course select field.
3. Use K to begin entry of the selected course (the O and K knobs may be used once
you have started editing the course select field).
4. Press E to accept the course, and E again to acknowledge the ‘ok?’ prompt.
The GNC 250 will now use the selected course for your CDI and DTK steering
guidance. To reset the course to a GPS-calculated course from your present position,
simply press D, followed by E.
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Page 61
APPENDIX
ROUTESA
The GNC 250 lets you create up to 20 routes (numbered 0 through 19), with up
to 31 waypoints each. Routes are created, copied and edited through the R key,
which features two route pages selectable from the GNC 250’s outer knob: the active
route page and the route catalog page. The active route page provides information
and editing functions for Route 0, which always serves as the route you are currently
navigating. The route catalog page serves as the main page for creating, editing, activating, deleting and copying all routes.
To add user comments to any route (except route 0):
1. Rotate K to display the route you would like to add comments to.
2. Press C twice and use O to highlight the bottom row.
5
RouteOverview
Leg Settings
Route Catalog Page
Routes 1-19 are used as storage routes, which are stored in the GNC 250’s internal
memory. Once a storage route is ‘activated’, it is placed into Route 0 for navigation
until it is cancelled, overwritten by activating another route or erased when the GPS is
turned off. If you want to save a route currently in Route 0, be sure to copy it to an
open storage route (routes 1-19) before it is cancelled, overwritten or erased.
The GNC 250’s route catalog page is used to create, edit, delete or copy routes,
and serves as the main page for a host of functions. These include route activation,
determining the closest point of approach and search and rescue operations. It also
displays a summary of routes currently stored in memory, with the departure and
arrival route waypoints and total distance for the selected route number. To scroll
through the available routes, rotate K. A one-line user comment may be added to
any storage route, which will be displayed on the route catalog page.
SECTION
1
3
2
5
4
Route Catalog Page
1. Route selection field
2. Route action field
3. Departure/Arrival waypoints
4. Cumulative distance of route
5. Comments/Parallel track offset field
3. Use K and O to enter comments, and press E. To erase, press \, then E.
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SECTION
5
Page 62
APPENDIX A
ROUTES
Creating
&
Magnetic
Variation
Editing&Routes
Arrival Alarm
The route action field, located at the top right of the page, is used to select the desired
route operation. The following functions are available:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Activate Reverse Edit Delete Copy CPA Search -
activate the route for navigation
activate a route in reverse order
create a new route, or edit an existing route
delete a route
copy the current route to an empty route
calculate the closest point of approach
perform search and rescue ladder operations
The route editing function allows you to create new routes and edit existing routes.
Creating routes before takeoff can help make route operations faster and easier during
your flight.
To create or edit a route from the route catalog page:
Selecting the route edit function.
1. Use K to display the route number you would like to edit.
2. Press C twice.
3. Use K to select ‘edit?’. Press E. The route review page will appear.
To add a waypoint:
4. Rotate O to highlight the first blank waypoint field or the point where you want to enter the new
waypoint. The first waypoint field will already be flashing if you’re creating a new route.
Adding a waypoint to route 1.
5. Use K and O to enter the waypoint’s identifier. Press E.
6. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt on the waypoint confirmation page.
7. Repeat steps 4 through 6 to add the next waypoint, or press C to finish.
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To delete a waypoint:
1. Rotate O to highlight the waypoint you wish to delete.
2. Press \ to remove the name, then press E to delete.
APPENDIX
ROUTESA
Runway
Length
Deleting
&&
Display
Timeout
Activating Routes
SECTION
5
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 to delete additional waypoints, or press C to finish.
To delete an entire route:
1. Use K to display the route number you would like to delete (route 0 for the active route).
2. Press C twice and use O to highlight the action field.
3. Use K to select ‘delete?’. Press E to delete.
Once a route is defined through the route catalog page, it may be activated from
the route catalog page. Activating or reversing a route places the selected route into
route 0 and overwrites the existing active route.
To activate a route:
1. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
Deleting route 0.
2. Rotate K to display the route you would like to activate.
3. Press C twice and use K to display ‘activate?’. Press E.
After travelling a route or creating a route with the GNC 250’s AutoStore feature,
the route activation field may be used to activate the route in reverse order.
Reversing route 0.
To activate a route in reverse order:
1. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
2. Use K to display the route number you would like to reverse.
3. Press C twice and use K to display ‘reverse?’. Press E.
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APPENDIX A
ROUTES
SECTION
5
Page 64
The route action field also features a copy function that permits you to copy any
route to another open storage route. The copy function can be used to save the contents of the active route (route 0) to an open storage route.
Display
Intensity
Copying
Routes &
Trip
Timer
CPA Function
To copy a route:
1. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
2. Use K to display the route to which you would like to copy to. The route must be empty.
3. Press C twice and rotate K to select ‘copy?’. Press E.
4. Use K to enter the route you would like to copy. The departure/arrival identifiers will be
displayed for your reference. Press E to copy the route.
Calculating Closest Point of Approach.
KLIT
The CPA function calculates the closest distance that a route will pass to a reference waypoint, and helps when creating new route waypoints referenced to a NAVAID.
To calculate the closest point of approach (CPA) from the route catalog page:
1. Use K to display the route you would like to use for the CPA function. The route must consist of at least two waypoints, and the reference facility must fall between the waypoints of
a route leg.
2. Press C twice and rotate K to select ‘cpa?’. Press E.
TXKO
NORTH
327°
26.7 nm
TXK
KDAL
Closest Point of Approach
64
3. Use K and O to enter the identifier of the reference waypoint.
4. Press E. The bearing and distance of the closest point on the route will be displayed.
5. Press E to add the cpa waypoint to the route, or \ to finish. If you do add the cpa
waypoint to the route, it will be named based on the reference waypoint plus a number (09) added to the end (e.g., KMCI3 for KMCI). If the waypoint does not fall between waypoints
on the route, the reference waypoint does not exist or a unique name cannot be assigned to
the CPA waypoint, you’ll be informed with the ‘Invald CPA wpt ____’ message.
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APPENDIX A
ROUTES
Navigation Units
The GNC 250’s search and rescue function provides navigation guidance for
search and rescue operations, navigating in a ladder pattern to maximize coverage and
efficiency. This is done in reference to two waypoints called ‘anchor waypoints’. The
first leg will be a specified distance from the line connecting the anchor waypoints.
This is called the ‘offset distance’. The ‘increment distance’ is the distance between
each subsequent leg. The ladder can be created on either side of the waypoints.
Search & Rescue
Operations
SECTION
5
To perform a search and rescue operation:
1. Create a route of only two waypoints.
2. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
3. Use K to select the 2-waypoint route.
ANCHOR
WAYPOINT
4. Press C twice and use K to display ‘search?’. Press E.
5. Use K and O to enter the leg increment value and R or L. Press E.
LEG
LEG
LEG
INCREMENT INCREMENT INCREMENT
DISTANCE DISTANCE DISTANCE
6. Rotate O to highlight the initial offset, and use K and O to enter the initial offset
value, and R or L.
7. Press E three times to accept the operation values and begin navigation.
After activating a search and rescue, you will be informed with an ‘Offset nav in
effect’ message each time you traverse the route offset from the anchor waypoints.
Once you’ve arrived at the destination waypoint, the leg increment will be added to
your present offset, and the route will be automatically reversed. If a search and rescue is interrupted, note the parallel track direction (R or L) and distance on the catalog page for route 0. When you resume search and rescue operations, use this as the
initial offset.
INITIAL
OFFSET
ANCHOR
WAYPOINT
Performing a search and rescue operation.
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APPENDIX
ROUTES A
SECTION
5
Page 66
Parallel
Track
SUA Settings
Offset Navigation
Enter parallel track value after route activation.
ARRIVAL
WAYPOINT
During route navigation, it is sometimes desirable to navigate a specified distance
away from the ‘active leg’ to help avoid certain airspaces or regions. The GNC 250’s
parallel track feature will automatically guide you along a selected offset from the
active leg.
To use offset navigation, or parallel track:
ET E
FS NC
OF TA
DIS
L
RP
E
AN
AI
1. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
2. Use K to display route 0 (parallel track can only be used on the active route).
3. Press C twice and use O to highlight the parallel track value field.
DEPARTURE WAYPOINT
4. Use K and O to enter the desired distance and direction (R or L) from the leg.
5. Press E to accept.
Parallel Track
66
It is important to note that offset navigation is only available on route navigation,
not direct-to navigation. When offset navigation is activated, an ‘Offset nav in effect’
message will be displayed with the distance and direction noted on the route catalog
page for route 0. If you enter an offset which causes a leg to be reversed, you’ll be
informed with the message ‘Ofst too big for rte’. If you change the active route in any
way or perform a direct-to, you’ll be informed with an ‘Offset nav cancelled’ message.
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Page 67
Flying and Modifying the Active Route
Once a route has been created and activated, the GNC 250 will provide navigation
to each route waypoint through the active route and CDI pages. From the active route
page, you may also create and modify the active route. The CDI page will display
detailed navigation data on your progress to each route waypoint and provide turn
anticipation, waypoint arrival and next desired track information. By understanding
the relationship between the active route and CDI pages and the role of the waypoint
sequencing selector, you’ll be able to get the most out of the GNC 250’s advanced
route features.
Whenever the GNC 250 is navigating an on-route direct-to or route, the active
route page will provide a list of the route waypoints in sequence, along with distance, time and course information. You may also create and edit a route directly from
the active route page. If you want to save a route created from the active route page
(route 0), you must copy it to an open storage route (see page 64) before turning the
unit off or activating another route. The active route page may be displayed by pressing the R key and rotating O left continuously. It will also appear whenever a
route is activated.
To scroll through the active route waypoints:
1. Rotate K with the flashing cursor inactive (or O with the cursor active).
The active leg identifiers field, located at the top left of the page, displays the waypoint identifiers of the route leg you are currently navigating. The first waypoint identifier displayed is the ‘active from’ waypoint. The second waypoint is the ‘active to’
waypoint. The line connecting these waypoints is known as the ‘active leg’. If you are
navigating a direct-to, the field will display the destination with a ‘goto’ designation.
APPENDIX A
ROUTES
Map
Datums
Active Route Page
SECTION
5
USING THE ACTIVE ROUTE PAGE
The GNC 250’s active route page provides a
working list of the route you are navigating,
allowing you to view all route waypoints, along
with distance, timing or desired track information.
The scrolling arrow prompt to the left of the route
waypoint list indicates which way to scroll to
view additional route waypoints.
The active route page can also be used to manually select your next ‘active-to’ destination, which
allows you to fly the route out of sequence without
modifying it. The GNC 250 will resume navigation of the remainder of the route in sequence
once you arrive at the selected waypoint.
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SECTION
5
Page 68
APPENDIX A
ROUTES
Active
Page
DataRoute
Transfer
Inserting Waypoints
The leg field can be selected to display cumulative distance or the distance for each
route leg. If cumulative is selected, the first leg’s distance will be displayed. The second
leg will represent the first leg’s distance plus the second leg, and so on. The time field
may be configured to display the estimated time enroute (ete), estimated time of arrival
(eta) or desired track (dtk) for each leg.
To change the leg and time fields:
1. With the flashing cursor active, rotate O to highlight the field you want to change.
2. Rotate K to select the desired setting and press C.
Active route page with cumulative distance and
desired track displayed.
The active route page may also be used to create a new route or edit the route you
are currently navigating, and provides a fast method of selecting any route waypoint as
your next destination waypoint without modifying the active route. If you are editing
the active route and want to save it in its original form, copy it to an open storage route
before editing.
To add waypoints to the active route:
1. Press C twice, if necessary, to activate the cursor.
Active route page with leg distance and estimated
time enroute displayed.
2. Use O to highlight the first blank waypoint field, or highlight the waypoint before which
you would like to add the new waypoint.
3. Use K and O to enter the new waypoint identifier. Press E.
Adding KEMP waypoint to the active route.
68
4. Press E to accept or \ to cancel. The cursor will automatically move to the next
waypoint field, and the remaining route waypoints (if any are present) will move down the
list accordingly.
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To delete a waypoint from the active route:
1. Press C twice, if necessary, to activate the cursor.
APPENDIX
ROUTESB
NavData
&
On-Route
Direct-To
User
Data
Cards
Waypoint Sequencing
SECTION
5
2. Use O to highlight the waypoint you would like to delete from the active route.
3. Press \, followed by E. The next route waypoint (if available) will move up to take
the position of the deleted waypoint.
The active route page also allows you to select your next destination waypoint
manually from the active route waypoint list and resume the remainder of the route in
sequence. This procedure, referred to as an ‘on-route’ direct-to, allows the pilot to
fly the active route in a different sequence without editing the active route itself.
To perform an on-route direct-to from the active route page:
1. Press C twice and rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint.
2. Press D, followed by E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt on the waypoint
confirmation page.
The GNC 250 will now provide guidance to the selected waypoint and resume
navigating the remainder of the route in sequence once you arrive at the next destination waypoint. The waypoint sequencing field, located at the bottom left of the
direct-to confirmation page, allows you to select manual or automatic waypoint
sequencing of route waypoints. Setting the selector to the ‘hold’ setting holds your
current ‘active-to’ waypoint as your navigation reference and prevents the GPS from
sequencing to the next waypoint in the route. The waypoint sequencing selector may
be used in conjunction with the course select feature (see page 60) to manually select
the course to the ‘hold’ waypoint.
You can hold on a destination waypoint by setting
the waypoint sequencing field to the ‘hold’ position. A user-defined course may also be entered in
the course select field.
Whenever waypoint sequencing is set to ‘hold’, the
desired course is displayed at the bottom left of
the CDI page. See page 70 for more details.
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Page 70
APPENDIX B
ROUTES
UserWaypoint
Data Transfer
Sequencing
To ‘hold’ on the active-to waypoint:
1. Press D. The direct-to confirmation page will appear.
2. Rotate O to highlight the waypoint sequencing field, and rotate K to select ‘hold’.
3. Press E. The cursor will advance to the course select field where you may manually
enter the desired course to the ‘hold’ waypoint. The default course is the GPS course calculated from your present position.
4. Press E to accept the course select field.
5. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt.
As you approach a route waypoint, the graphical
CDI will be replaced by a flashing ‘next dtk xxxº’
prompt indicated the desired track of the next leg.
If the turn angle and your present speed will
require a bank angle that exceeds 25º, you’ll be
notified with a ‘Steep turn ahead’ message
approximately 90 seconds before arrival at the
active to waypoint.
70
During route operations, the CDI page is used to provide turn anticipation, next
desired track and waypoint arrival information to the pilot. The GNC 250’s turn
anticipation feature will smooth out the transition between adjacent route legs by
providing CDI guidance along a curved path segment. This leg transition is based on
the aircraft’s actual ground speed and the difference between the course angle of the
two legs. The GNC 250 will automatically sequence to the next leg when you are
abeam the ‘active to’ waypoint on the curved transition segment, and the to/from
indicator on the CDI will flip momentarily. During the transition, the CDI display will
be referenced to the dotted line illustrated at the left of this page. As you approach a
route waypoint, the graphical CDI will be replaced by a flashing ‘Next dtk xxxº’
prompt, indicating the desired track of the next route leg.
Turn anticipation will not be provided if you have set the waypoint sequencing
field to ‘hold’ or your current ground speed and the course angle between the two
legs would require a bank angle greater than 25º. If the leg transition is too short for
a smooth transition, a ‘Leg not smoothed’ message will appear, and the pilot should
expect a rapid change in the CDI deflection.
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Section 6
Messages and Unit Settings
APPENDIX C
UNIT SETTINGS
Installation,
Messages &
Settings
Submenus
Removal
&
SECTION
6
The GNC 250’s MSG key provides access to system messages and allows you to customize your GPSCOM to your own preferences through a settings submenu. Whenever
the GNC 250 needs to alert you to a navigation, communication or system message, the
annunciator light next to the M key will flash. Some messages are advisory in nature
(e.g., the arrival and countdown alarms), while others may require your immediate attention (e.g., a stuck microphone message). For a complete list of GNC 250 messages,
please see Appendix D.
To view a message, press M. Press M again to return to the previous page.
The GNC 250’s settings submenu is also accessed from the MSG key.
To view a message, press MSG.
To view the settings submenu, press and hold M for more than 2 seconds.
Once the settings submenu has been accessed, the following setup pages are available
by rotating O with the flashing cursor inactive:
•
•
•
•
•
CDI scale settings
Nearest airport search
Display intensity settings
Navigation units
Map datums
•
•
•
•
•
Mag. var./arrival alarm settings
Battery saver
Trip timer settings
SUA settings
I/O Settings (channel 2 only)
The first available page under the settings submenu is the CDI settings page, which
allows you to define the scale of the GNC 250’s course deviation indicator.
To access the settings submenu pages, press and
hold the MSG key for two seconds. The GNC 250
will return to the last submenu viewed the next
time you access the unit settings.
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APPENDIX C
UNIT SETTINGS
CDI
Settings
Maintenance
Magnetic Variation
To change the CDI scale:
1. Press and hold M, and rotate O to select the ‘CDI Settings’ page.
2. Press C twice and rotate K to select ‘Auto’, ‘+- 5.0 nm’, ‘+- 1.0 nm’ or ‘+- 0.3 nm’.
3. Rotate O to highlight ‘ok?’ and press E to approve.
Note: the selected CDI scale will not take effect until approved.
The scale values represent full scale deflection of the CDI to either side. The
default setting is +- 5.0 nm. The ‘Auto’ setting will start the CDI scale at 5 nm, and
gradually ramp down the scale to the 1 nm range once you are within 30 nm of a
departure or arrival airport. You must have an active direct-to or route with an airport
as your final destination waypoint, or be within 30 nm of a departure airport. Note
that the GNC 250 uses Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) to
cross-check its position. The RAIM protection limits listed below follow the selected
CDI scale, changing automatically with the ‘Auto’ setting:
When the ‘auto’ CDI setting is selected, the
GNC 250 will automatically change the CDI
scale when you are within 30 nm of a departure
or arrival airport.
CDI Scale
RAIM Protection
+/-5.0 nm or Auto (en route)
+/- 1.0 nm or Auto (terminal)
+/- 0.3 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
The GNC 250 has three magnetic variation options: true, auto, or user-defined.
To set the magnetic variation:
1. Press and hold M and use O to display the ‘Mag Var/Arvl Alarm’ page.
2. Press C twice and use K to select auto, true or user.
Entering a user magnetic variation.
72
3. If user is selected, use O to highlight the magnetic variation value, and use K and O
to enter the value and E or W. Press C to finish.
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If ‘auto’ mag var is selected, all track, course and heading information will be corrected
with the variation computed by the GPS. The ‘true’ setting will reference all information to
true north, and the ‘user’ setting will correct information to an entered value.
APPENDIX D
UNIT SETTINGS
Messages
&
Arrival Alarm
Abbreviations
Nearest Airport Search
SECTION
6
The GNC 250’s arrival alarm can be set to notify the pilot with a message when you
have reached a user defined distance to a final destination waypoint (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a route). Once you have reached the set distance (up to 99.9
units), an ‘Arrival at _____’ message will be displayed.
To set the arrival alarm distance:
1. Press and hold M and use O to display the ‘Mag Var/Arvl Alarm’ page.
2. Press C twice and use O to select the arrival distance field.
3. Use K and O to enter the desired distance. Press C to finish.
The nearest airport search settings allow you to define the runway length and
surface type used in determining the nine nearest airports displayed. A minimum runway
distance and surface may be entered to prevent airports with small runways, or runways
that are not of appropriate surface, from being displayed. The default settings are ‘0 ft/mt’
for runway length and ‘any’ for runway surface.
Setting the arrival alarm.
To set the minimum runway length and runway surface:
1. Press and hold M and use O to display the ‘Nearest apt search’ page.
2. Press C twice and use K and O to enter the minimum runway length upon which your
aircraft can land (up to 9999 units). Press E to accept the distance.
Runway length and surface type settings.
3. Rotate K to display the surface selection you desire. Choices include:
• any surface
• soft/hard surface
• hard only surface
• water only surface
4. Use O to select ‘ok?’ and press E to confirm and C to complete.
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APPENDIX D
UNIT SETTINGS
Battery
Saver
Messages
&
Display
Intensity
Abbreviations
The GNC 250’s battery saver feature can be programmed to automatically
turn off the display when using the optional remote battery pack. This will increase
the remote battery life in event of power failure. During this time, the GNC 250 will
continue to navigate and track satellites, but will not display information until a key
is pressed or a knob is turned.
To set the display timeout:
1. Press and hold M and rotate O to display the ‘Battery saver’ page.
2. Press C twice to activate the cursor.
3. Rotate K until the desired value is displayed (0, 30, 60 or 90 seconds). Entering 0 will
leave the display on at all times. Press C to finish.
Display timeout settings.
The GNC 250 features automatic brightness control to adjust the display for optimum viewing in any condition. This is done using a photocell at the top left corner
of the display bezel. It is important that this photocell not be covered to ensure proper display adjustment. You may also select manual control of the display brightness to
tailor the GNC 250 to your needs.
To change the display intensity settings:
1. Press and hold M and rotate O to display the display intensity page.
Automatic display intensity.
2. Press C twice and use K to select ‘auto’ or ‘manual’ control.
3. Press E.
4. If manual is selected, use K to set the display intensity.
5. Press C to complete.
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The trip timer provides a running clock on NAV Menu 2 (see page 25), and can be
configured to run when power is on or when your ground speed exceeds a user-defined
minimum.
APPENDIX D
UNIT SETTINGS
Trip Timer
Messages
&
Abbreviations
Units
of Measure
SECTION
6
To change the trip timer settings:
1. Press and hold M, and use O to display the trip timer settings page.
2. Press C twice to activate the cursor.
3. Use K to select either ‘pwr is on’ or ‘gs exceeds’.
4. If you choose ‘pwr is on’, press C to complete.
5. If you choose ‘gs exceeds’, use O to highlight the speed field.
6. Enter the speed using K and O.
7. Press E to accept, and press C to complete.
The GNC 250 can be configured to display data in standard or metric units of measure. These apply to: distance, position, speed, altitude, fuel, pressure and
temperature.
Trip Timer Settings.
To change the units of measure:
1. Press and hold M and rotate O to display the nav units page.
2. Press C twice and rotate O to highlight the field you would like to change.
Default Units of Measure Settings.
3. Use K to change the unit of measure.
4. Rotate O to advance to the next field, or press C when finished.
(Continued on the next page.)
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APPENDIX D
UNIT SETTINGS
Messages &
Units
of Measure
Abbreviations
The available units of measure are:
position :
• degrees, minutes and seconds (dms) [hddd° mm’ ss.s”]
• degrees and minutes (dm) [hddd° mm.mmm’]
altitude :
• feet (ft)
vertical speed : • feet per minute (fpm)
• meters per second (mps)
Units of Measure Settings (metric).
• meters per minute (mpm)
nav units :
• nautical miles and knots (nm, kt)
• statute miles and miles per hour (mi and mh)
• kilometers and kilometers per hour (km and kh)
fuel :
• gallons (gl)
• kilograms (kg)
• liters (lt)
• imperial gallons (ig)
• pounds (lb)
pressure :
• inches of mercury (hg)
• millibars (mb)
temperature : • degrees Fahrenheit (°f)
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• meters (mt)
• degrees Celsius (°c)
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The Special Use Airspace settings page will allow you turn the controlled/restricted airspace message alerts on or off. This will not affect the alerts being listed on the
nearest page. It will simply turn off the warning when you are approaching or near an
SUA. Warnings can be turned off for the following airspaces:
class B/cta : ICAO control area
class C/tma : ICAO Terminal Control Area
rstc:
Restricted areas
APPENDIX D
UNIT SETTINGS
SUA Settings
Messages
&
Abbreviations
Altitude Buffer
SECTION
6
moa: Military operations area
other: Other areas
SUA warnings for prohibited airspace cannot be turned off. The ‘alt’ field, located at
the bottom of the SUA settings page, is an altitude buffer which ‘expands’ the vertical
range of the SUA, so you will be notified if you are within a certain range of an SUA. For
example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and you are 500 feet above or below an SUA, you
will not be notified with an alert message; if you are less than 500 feet above or below an
SUA and projected to enter it, you will be notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
SUA Settings
To set the warnings or change the altitude buffer:
1. Press and hold M, and use O to display the SUA settings page.
2. Press C twice.
3. Rotate O to highlight the field you would like to change.
4. Use K to change to ‘on’ or ‘off’.
Altitude Buffer set at 500 feet.
5. To change the altitude buffer, highlight the buffer value, and use K and O to change the
data. Press E to accept.
6. Press C to complete.
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UNIT SETTINGS
Map Datums
The GNC 250 NavData® card contains over 100 map datums for you to use when
navigating. By default, your unit calculates positions using the WGS-84 map datum.
If you are using charts based on another datum, you must set the GNC 250 to use
the same datum. Using a map datum that does not match the sectionals you are using
can result in significant differences in position information. If you are using maps for
reference only, the GNC 250 will provide correct navigation guidance to the waypoints contained in the database, regardless of the datum selected.
To change the map datum to one listed in Appendix F:
1. Press and hold M, and use O to highlight the map datum page.
2. Press C twice.
Map Datum Page
3. Use O to highlight the current map datum.
4. Use K to change the datum.
5. Press C to complete.
To create a user datum:
1. Press and hold M, and use O to highlight the map datum page.
Map Datum Page with ‘USER’ selected.
2. Press C twice.
3. Use O to highlight ‘Define user datum?’. Press E.
4. Enter the five parameters of the map datum using K and O. Press E to accept a
field. The signs of each value (+/-) should follow the convention: WGS84-local geodetic
system.
User Datum page.
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5. Use O to highlight ‘ok?’, and press E.
6. To activate the user datum, select ‘USER’ on the map datum page as described above.
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The last page available under the GNC 250’s setup menu is the I/O setup page.
The I/O setup page lets you configure the GNC 250 to output to a RS-232 mapping
device or a PC (with the optional GARMIN PC Kit or other mapping software) and
select the appropriate baud rate. The I/O setup page only provides access to I/O channel 2 output. For information on using I/O channel 1, please see your GNC 250
installation manual. The input option for channel 2 is intended for future interfacing
capabilities and is not a selectable option at this time.
UNIT SETTINGS
I/O Settings
SECTION
6
To change the output settings for I/O channel 2:
1. Press and hold M, and rotate O until the I/O setup page is displayed.
2. Press C twice, and rotate K to select ‘off’ or ‘plotting’ for output to a RS-232 device.
3. Rotate O to advance the cursor to the baud rate field.
4. Use K to select the desired baud rate (300,1200, 2400, 4800 or 9600).
5. Press C to finish.
I/O Page Settings
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Appendix A
NavData® and User Data Installation and Operation
NAVDATA CARD
SECTION
Saving User Data
A
The NavData card supplied with your GNC 250 can be installed or removed when
the GNC 250 is on or off. Insert the card with the thumb tab at the top, and the
beveled corner at the bottom. If the NavData card is not present when the unit is
powered on, you will receive a ‘No Jeppesen database’ message on the database confirmation page, and you will only be able to use user waypoints for navigation. If the
NavData card is removed during operation, a ‘No data card present’ warning will
appear, asking you to reinsert the data card within 30 seconds. If the card is not
replaced within 30 seconds, the GNC 250 will automatically reinitialize. You may also
reinitialize the unit manually by pressing ENT.
An optional user data card can be used to make a backup of user waypoints,
routes, etc. and transfer information to another GNC 250.
To save user data to the user data card:
Insert the card with the thumb tab at the top, and
the beveled corner on the bottom right.
1. Install the user data card.
2. Rotate O to highlight ‘Save user data?’. Press E to confirm.
The message ‘Saving to card’ is displayed while the GNC 250 transfers all user
data to the User Data card. It may take a few minutes to complete the transfer. When
all user data is transferred, the GNC 250 will instruct you to turn the unit off, remove
the user card and insert the Jeppesen NavData card. After this is complete, the GNC
250 is ready for normal operation.
Data Card Warning
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A
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NAVDATA CARD
Saving User Data
To restore user data from a user data card to the GNC 250:
1. Install the user data card.
2. Rotate O to highlight ‘Restore user data?’.
3. Press E.
The GNC 250 will ask you which type of data to replace. You may choose checklists, scheduler messages, user waypoints, proximity waypoints, routes, waypoint
comments, or all data.
4. Rotate K to select the type of data to replace.
You may either replace or update the information in the database. Replacing the
data will replace ALL user data with the data from the card. Updating the data will
not delete unrelated material, but will only change what is necessary to use the data
received from the user data card.
Data Transfer Page
5. Rotate O to select either ‘Replace?’ or ‘Update?’.
6. Press E to begin transferring data to the GNC 250. The GNC 250 will now transfer all
of the data requested. This may take a few minutes.
7. To continue with more data transfer types, repeat steps 4, 5 and 6. Otherwise, press E
when ‘ok?’ is highlighted.
Restore Data Page
82
8. Turn the GNC 250 off and replace the user data card with a NavData card. The GNC 250 is
now ready for normal operation.
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Appendix B
Installation, Removal and Maintenance of the GNC 250
INSTALLATION &
MAINTENANCE
SECTION
B
The aviation rack is designed to allow easy removal of the GNC 250. This enables you to use
the unit at home to create routes, interface to a PC, etc. using an optional AC adapter.
To install the GNC 250 into the aviation rack:
1. Insert a 3/32” allen wrench in the small hole adjacent to the dual knob.
2. Rotate the wrench counterclockwise until it stops to ensure the pawl latch is in the
proper position.
3. Insert the GNC 250 into the aviation rack and rotate the wrench clockwise to secure the unit. To ensure
proper connector seating, gently press on the left side of the unit until tightened.
3/32” ALLEN
WRENCH
To remove the GNC 250 from the aviation rack:
The GNC 250 is built to exacting standards and does not
require user maintenance. If the faceplate and lens require
cleaning, use a soft cloth and non-abrasive cleaner.
The user data is maintained by an internal battery with a
projected life of 3 to 5 years. If the GNC 250 detects a low
memory battery, you will be informed with the message
‘Memory battery low’. Failure to have the battery replaced
may result in loss of data each time you turn your unit off.
This will greatly increase satellite acquisition time and no
user data will be saved. This condition will be accompanied
by the message ‘Stored data lost’.
The GNC 250 contains a crystal oscillator which may drift
after many years of operation. If the unit detects excessive
oscillator drift, you will be informed with the message ‘Osc
needs adjustment’. When this occurs, contact an authorized
GARMIN service center for service. Failure to do so may
result in severely degraded acquisition performance.
1. Insert a 3/32” allen wrench in the small hole adjacent to the dual knob.
2. Rotate the wrench counterclockwise until the GNC 250 can be removed from the rack.
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Page 84
SIMULATOR
The GNC 250’s simulator mode allows you to plan and practice flights in your
home and office using an optional remote battery pack or AC adapter. The simulator
is not accessible when the GNC 250 is running off the master avionics switch. All
waypoint and route planning done in simulator mode will be saved in the unit’s internal memory.
To operate the GNC 250 in simulator mode:
1.Turn the unit on by rotating the B knob clockwise. The welcome page will appear while
the unit conducts a self test. Once the self test is complete, the welcome page will be
replaced by the operating mode page.
2. Rotate O to move the flashing cursor over the operating mode field (‘Normal’) .
Operating Mode Page
3. Rotate K to select ‘Simulator’ and press the E key. The cursor will advance to the
‘ok?’ prompt.
4. Press E to confirm.
Selecting the simulator mode.
Once the GNC 250 has been placed in simulator mode, the database confirmation
page will appear, showing the operating dates, cycle number and database type
available.
To acknowledge the database information:
1.Press E.
Database Confirmation Page
84
After the database has been acknowledged, the initial position reference page will
appear, where you may specify the starting position for your simulated trip. You can
define the initial position by entering a waypoint identifier in the reference field, or
by manually entering coordinates in the lat/lon field.
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To enter an initial position reference by waypoint identifier:
SIMULATOR
1.Rotate O to highlight the waypoint identifier field.
SECTION
C
2. Use K and O to spell out the identifier of the desired airport, navaid or user waypoint.
3. Press E to confirm the identifier. The waypoint confirmation page will appear, displaying the waypoint’s position.
4. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt.
The position page will now appear, and you may now use most of the GNC 250
navigation features for practice and planning. You’ll also receive a ‘Do not use for nav’
message to remind you that the simulator mode should never be used for actual navigation. During simulator operation, you will be able to enter a ground speed from the
CDI page, and define a course to a destination from the direct-to confirmation page.
Altitude may only be entered by using the VNAV function available from the NAV
menu 1 page (see page 22).
Entering an initial position reference.
To enter a ground speed from the CDI page:
1.Press N and rotate O to display the CDI page.
2. Press C twice to activate the cursor in the GPS window.
Enter simulated ground speed from the CDI page.
3. Rotate O to highlight the ground speed field.
4. Use K and O to enter the desired speed. Press E to accept, and C to finish.
To exit the simulator mode, the GNC must be turned off by rotating the B knob
counter-clockwise until the unit shuts down. All waypoints and routes created in simulator mode will be retained in the GNC 250’s internal memory.
Enter a simulated course from the direct-to confirmation page. The GNC 250 will set the course
between route legs automatically when simulating
navigation.
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D
Page 86
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
Appendix D
GNC 250 Messages and Abbreviations
The GNC 250 uses the Message Page to communicate important information to you. Some messages are advisory in nature, others are warnings that may require your intervention. This appendix
provides a complete list of GNC 250 messages and their meanings.
Altitude input fail
Arrival at _____
Arrvl at offst _____
Battery low
Battery rqrs service
86
- The altitude serializer input is not available for
the GNC 250. Check the I/O settings and/or
the serializer installation. If enough satellites are
available for a 3D position fix, no pilot action is
required, providing no RAIM warnings are present. If only a 2D fix is possible, the pilot
should maintain the GPS altitude within 1,000
feet of the pressure altitude from the position
page.
- Your craft has entered the arrival alarm circle for the
indicated waypoint.
- Your craft has entered the arrival alarm circle
for the indicated waypoint offset by the parallel
track distance.
- The optional remote battery pack is low on
power and limited operating time remains. The
battery should be recharged for continued
operation.
- A problem has been detected in the optional
remote battery pack. The battery should be serviced at an authorized GARMIN service center.
Cannot chng actv wpt - An attempt has been made to modify the position of
the ‘active to’ or ‘active from’ waypoint. The GNC
250 will not allow the modifications.
Cannot nav lockd rte - An attempt has been made to activate a route
containing a locked waypoint. The GNC 250
cannot perform navigation in this situation.
Cannot ofst goto rte - An attempt has been made to engage the offset
navigation feature while the GNC 250 is navigating using a single waypoint route. The GNC
250 will not allow offset navigation in this
situation.
Checklist is full
- The selected checklist is full. No new items can
be added until existing items are deleted.
Collecting data
- The GNC 250 is collecting orbital data while
searching the sky. The antenna should have a
good view of the sky and the GNC 250 should
be allowed to finish data collection before turning the unit off.
COM failed
- The comm in the GNC 250 has failed. Take the
unit to an authorized GARMIN service center
immediately.
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Comment memory full - The waypoint comment memory is full. You
must delete existing waypoint comments
before adding new ones.
Configuration reset
- The GNC 250 has detected a failure in its
installation configuration memory. Data from
the user memory has been used to reset the
configuration. Check the installation settings
for correctness. If the message persists, the
unit is not usable and should be taken to an
authorized service center for repair.
Data card failed
- The GNC 250 has detected a problem with
the data card. The data is not usable and the
card should be returned to Jeppesen or an
authorized GARMIN service center.
Data card write fail
- The user data card failed to program. The
card should be returned to an authorized
GARMIN service center.
Degraded accuracy
- The GNC 250 has detected poor satellite
geometry while RAIM is not available.
Additional cross-checking with a secondary
navigation source should be performed to
verify the integrity of the GPS position.
Do not use for nav
- The GNC 250 is in the simulator mode and
must not be used for actual navigation.
EEPROM write fail
- The GNC 250 has detected a failure while
programming its installation configuration
memory. The unit is not usable and should
be taken to an authorized service center.
Final altitude alert
- The suggested altitude is within 1000 feet of
the final altitude entered on the VNAV
Planning page.
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
Fuel/Air input fail
Inside SUA
Invald CPA wpt _____
Invalid copy route
Invalid CPA route
Invalid SAR route
SECTION
D
- The fuel and/or air data input is not available
to the GNC 250. Check the I/O settings or
fuel/air data system installation.
- You have entered a Special Use Airspace.
- The closest point of approach cannot be created
from the waypoint entered on the CPA Page.
This occurs when the computed point does not
fall on one of the route legs, or when a unique
waypoint name for the closest point of approach
cannot be found.
- A non-empty route was selected for a copy
operation. A route must be empty before
another route can be copied to it.
- The selected route contains less than two
waypoints and cannot be used for CPA operations.
- The selected route does not contain exactly
two waypoints and cannot be used for SAR
operations.
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D
Page 88
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
Offset nav in effect
Ofst too big for rte
Osc needs adjustment
Poor GPS coverage
Prox alarm-press NAV
Leg not smoothed
Memory battery low
Near SUA < 2 nm
Need alt - press NAV
Offset nav cancelled
88
- The upcoming leg is too short for smooth
waypoint transitions. Expect a rapid change
in the CDI.
- The battery that sustains user memory is low
and should be replaced by an authorized
GARMIN service center as soon as possible.
Failure to do so may result in loss of stored
data, including all user waypoints and routes.
- Your position is within 2 nautical miles of an
SUA, and your current course will not take
you inside.
- The GNC 250 needs altitude input in order
to start and/or continue 2D navigation. Press
the NAV key and enter your antenna altitude
on the Position page. The altitude you enter
should be as accurate as possible. An inaccurate altitude will directly translate into inaccurate position information.
- Offset navigation has been cancelled due to a
direct-to operation or modification of the
active route.
Proximity overlap
Proximity wpt locked
Proximity wpt moved
Proximty wpt deleted
Pwr down and re-init
- Offset navigation mode is in effect.
- The parallel track distance is too large for the
active route.
- The GNC 250 has detected excessive drift in its
internal crystal oscillator which may result in
longer acquisition time. The unit should be taken
to an authorized service center immediately.
- The GNC 250 cannot acquire sufficient satellites necessary to provide navigation.
- Your craft has penetrated the alarm circle of a
proximity waypoint. Press NAV to see the bearing
and distance to the proximity waypoint.
- The circles defined by two proximity waypoints overlap. When entering the area of the
overlap, the GNC 250 will warn you of the
closest proximity waypoint, but not both.
You should be certain this condition is
desirable.
- At least one proximity waypoint is locked
because the waypoint has been removed
from the Jeppesen NavData®, the data card
is missing, or the data card has failed.
- One or more proximity waypoints were
moved at least 0.33 arc minutes due to a
database change.
- One or more proximity waypoints were
deleted while receiving data from the PC
Interface Kit.
- The GNC 250 is unusable until power has
been cycled and the unit re-initialized.
Abnormal satellite conditions may exist.
250 real
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Page 89
- The GNC 250 is unable to cross-check its
position using RAIM. You may continue to
navigate using visual flight rules. Your position should be verified every 15 minutes
using other navigation sources. If you have
selected a CDI scale other than ‘Auto’, selecting a larger CDI scale may remove the conditions causing this message.
RAIM position warn
- RAIM has detected position errors. If you
have selected a CDI scale other than ‘Auto’,
selecting a larger CDI scale may remove the
conditions causing this message.
RAM failed
- The GNC 250 has detected a failure in its
internal memory. If the message persists, the
GNC 250 is unusable and should be taken to
an authorized GARMIN service center.
Rcvr needs service
- The GNC 250 has detected a condition
requiring service in the receiver hardware.
The GNC 250 should be taken to an authorized GARMIN service center.
Ready for navigation
- The GNC 250 is ready for navigation.
Received invalid wpt
- A waypoint was received in an upload operation that has an invalid identifier or position.
Receiver failed
- The GNC 250 has detected a failure in the
receiver hardware. If the message persists, the
GNC 250 is unusable and should be taken to
an authorized GARMIN service center.
Remote ENT key stuck - The remote ENT key is stuck in the ‘pressed’
state. Check the installation.
Remote XFR key stuck - The remote XFR key is stuck in the ‘pressed’
state. Check the installation.
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
RAIM not available
ROM failed
Route is empty
Route is full
Route wpt deleted
Route wpt locked
Route wpt moved
SECTION
D
- The GNC 250 has detected a failure in its
permanent memory. If this message occurs,
the unit is unusable and should be taken to
an authorized GARMIN service center.
- An attempt has been made to activate an
empty route.
- An attempt has been made to add more than
31 waypoints to a route. The GNC 250 will
not allow more than 31 waypoints per route.
- One or more route waypoints were deleted
while receiving data from the optional PC150
Interface Kit.
- At least one route waypoint is locked because
the waypoint has been removed from the
Jeppesen NavData®, the data card is missing,
or the data card has failed.
- One or more route waypoints were moved at
least 0.33 arc minutes due to a database
change.
89
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SECTION
D
APPENDIX D
MESSAGES &
Messages &
ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviations
Searching the sky
Start altitude chng
Steep turn ahead
Stored data lost
Stuck mic/tx disabled
90
Page 90
- The GNC 250 is in the search-the-sky mode.
Allow the unit to complete data collection
before turning it off.
- The altitude change entered on the VNAV
Planning page is about to begin.
- This message appears approximately 90 seconds prior to a turn that requires a bank angle
in excess of 25 degrees in order to stay on
course. Turn anticipation will not be provided
for the turn.
- Stored user data, including waypoints, routes
and satellite orbital data have been lost due to
a low memory battery or inadvertent master
reset.
- The microphone/headsets have been transmitting continuously for 35 seconds, and the
transmitter has been disabled. Releasing the
transmit key will allow you to transmit again.
If this message persists, check the installation.
SUA ahead < 10 min
- The projected course and current speed will
take you inside an SUA within the next 10
minutes.
SUA near & ahead
- Your position is within two nautical miles of
an SUA and your current course will take
you inside.
Timer expired
- The approach timer has expired.
User data RX started
- Data receive operations have started.
Usr data TX complete - Data transmit operations are complete.
VNAV cancelled
- The VNAV function has been cancelled due to a
change in the active route.
WGS 84 datum selectd - The system map datum was changed to
WGS 84 because the selected map datum
has been removed from the NavData card,
the data card is missing, or the data card has
failed.
Wpt comment locked - At least one waypoint comment is locked
because the waypoint has been removed
from the Jeppesen NavData®, the data card
is missing, or the data card has failed.
Wpt exists _____
- You have entered a waypoint name on the
AutoStore™ Page or User Waypoint Catalog
Page that already exists in memory. Enter a
waypoint name that does not exist.
Wpt memory full
- The waypoint memory is full. You should
delete unused waypoints to make room for
new waypoints.
250 real
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Page 91
This section of Appendix D provides a complete list of GNC 250 abbreviations and
their meanings.
ALTAPPAPRAPTARVATFATSAVGSAZMBRGCASCDICL BCL CCLRCPACTACTAFCTFCTSCUMDALTDEGDEP-
Altitude
DISApproach
DME Approach
DOPAirport Waypoint
DTKArrival
ELEVAerodrome Traffic Frequency ENDURAutomatic Terminal Information EPEService (ATIS)
ESAAviation Gas
ETAAzimuth (bearing)
ETEBearing
FLOWCalibrated Airspeed
FOBCourse Deviation Indicator
FPMClass B
FRClass C
FSSClearance Delivery
FTClosest Point of Approach
FTICAO Control Area
GLCommon Traffic Advisory
GNDFrequency
GPSCommon Traffic Advisory
GSFrequency
HDGCourse To Steer
HGCumulative
IALTDensity Altitude
ILSDegrees
IGDeparture
INT-
Distance To Waypoint
Distance Measuring Equipment
Dilution of Precision
Desired Track
Elevation
Endurance
Estimated Position Error
Enroute Safe Altitude
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time Enroute
Fuel Flow Rate
Fuel On Board
Feet Per Minute
From
Flight Service Station
Feet
Full Time
Gallons
Ground
Global Positioning System
Ground Speed
Heading
Inches of Mercury
Indicated Altitude
Instrument Landing System
Imperial Gallons
Intersection Waypoint
APPENDIX D
MESSAGES &
Messages &
ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviations
SECTION
D
91
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SECTION
D
92
Page 92
APPENDIX D
MESSAGES &
Messages &
ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviations
JET A- Jet Fuel - Type A
JET B- Jet Fuel - Type B
KHKilometers Per Hour
KMKilometers
KTKnots
LBPounds
LCLLocal
LENLength
LFOB- Leftover Fuel On Board
LFLOW- Left Fuel Flow
LOCLocalizer
LTLiters
MAG VAR-Magnetic Variation
MBMillibars Of Pressure
MFMandatory Frequency
MHStatute Miles Per Hour
MIStatute Miles
MICMicrophone
MINMinimum
MIN - Minutes
MOA- Military Operations Area
MPM- Meters Per Minute
MPSMeters Per Second
MSAMinimum Safe Altitude
MTMeters
MUL- Multicom
NDBNMNPNROBS-
NDB Waypoint
Nautical Miles
Non-Precision
Nearest
Omni-directional Bearing Select
(Inbound Course Select)
OTHOther
ºCDegrees Celsius
ºFDegrees Fahrenheit
PCPilot Controlled
POSN- Position
PRES- Barometric Pressure
(Altimeter Setting)
PROX- Proximity
PRXProximity
PTPart Time
PTXPre-Taxi
PWR- Power
RDRRadar
REQRequired
RFReference
RFLOW- Right Fuel Flow
RNGRange
RNWY- Runway
RSTCD- Restricted
RSVReserves
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RTERXSARSECSEQSGLSLCTSRFCSTRTACANTASTAT TEMPTMATRKTRNTRSATWRTXUUNIURAUSER-
Page 93
Route
Receive Only
Search And Rescue
Seconds
Sequence
Signal
Select
Surface
Steer To
TACtical Air Navigational Aid
True Airspeed
Total Air Temperature
Temperature
ICAO Terminal Control Area
Track Angle
Turn Angle
Terminal Radar Service Area
Tower
Transmit Only
UTC Time
Unicom
User Range Accuracy
User Waypoint
USRUTCVNVNAVVORWPTWXXFR-
User Waypoint
Universal Time Coordinated
(GMT/ Zulu)
VNAV or Vertical Navigation
Vertical Navigation
VOR Waypoint
Waypoint
Weather
Transfer
APPENDIX E
MESSAGES &
Specifications
ABBREVIATIONS
SECTION
D
93
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SECTION
E
Page 94
APPENDIX F
Map Datums
SPECIFICATIONS
Appendix E
Specifications
PHYSICAL
Size:
Weight:
Rack Size:
Rack Weight:
6.25”W x 5.8”D x 2”H (159mm x 147mm x 51mm)
39 ounces (1.11kg)
6.32”W x 5.64”D x 2”H (161mm x 143mm x 51mm)
11 ounces (0.31kg)
POWER
Input:
** Subject to accuracy degradation to 100m 2DRMS under
the US DOD-imposed Selective Availability Program.
10-15V DC with power cable (aircraft power)
Optional remote battery pack
115V or 230V AC w/ optional adapter
ENVIRONMENTAL
Temperature:
-4° F to 158° F (-20°C to 70°C) Operating
-67°F to 185°F (-55°C to 85°C) Storage
PERFORMANCE
Whenever the GNC 250 is connected to the
optional remote battery pack and power from the
master switch is lost, the unit will revert to battery power. To continue navigation, press any key
when the power down page appears.
Comm:
Receiver:
Acquisition Time:
Update Rate:
Accuracy:
Dynamics:
760 channel, aviation band 118-136.975 MHz
5 watt minimum transmit power
MultiTrac 8™
2-2.5 minutes (typical)
15 seconds (warm start, with ephemeris)
1 per second, continuously
15 meters (49ft.) RMS**
999 knots velocity, 3g acceleration
INTERFACES
94
ARINC 429, Plotting (NMEA 0183 V2.0), Aviation, PC Interface, Altitude
Serializer, Fuel Sensor, Fuel/Air Data Computer
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Page 95
APPENDIX F
MAP
DATUMS
Map Datums
Appendix F
Map Datums
ADINDAN
Ethiopia, Mali, Senegal,
Sudan
AFGOOYE
Somalia
AIN EL ABD 1970
Bahrain Island, Saudi Arabia
ANNA 1 ASTRO 1965
Cocos Islands
ARC 1950
Botswana, Lesotho,
Malawi, Swaziland, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
ARC 1960
Kenya, Tanzania
ASCENSION IS 1958
Ascension Island
ASTRO B4 SOROL ATOLL Tern Island
ASTRO BEACON “E”
Iwo Jima Island
ASTRO DOS 71/4
St. Helena Island
ASTRONOMIC STN 1952 Marcus Island
AUSTRALIAN GEOD 1966 Australia, Tasmania Island
AUSTRALIAN GEOD 1984 Australia, Tasmania Island
AUSTRIA NS
Austria
BELGIUM 1950
Belgium
BELLEVUE (IGN)
Efate and Erromango
Islands
BERMUDA 1957
Bermuda Islands
BOGOTA OBSERVATORY Colombia
BUKIT RIMPAH
Indonesia
CAMP AREA ASTRO
Antarctica
CAMPO INCHAUSPE
Argentina
CANTON ASTRO 1966
Phoenix Islands
CAPE
South Africa
CAPE CANAVERAL
Florida, Bahama Islands
CARTHAGE
Tunisia
CH-1903
Switzerland
CHATHAM 1971
Chatham Island (New
Zealand)
CHUA ASTRO
Paraguay
CORREGO ALEGRE
Brazil
DANISH GI 1934
Denmark
DJAKARTA (BATAVIA)
Sumatra Island (Indonesia)
DOS 1968
EASTER ISLAND 1967
EUROPEAN 1950
EUROPEAN 1979
FINLAND HAYFORD 1910
G. SEGARA
GANDAJIKA BASE
GEODETIC DATUM 1949
GGRS 87
GUAM 1963
GUX 1 ASTRO
HERAT NORTH
HJORSEY 1955
HONG KONG 1963
HU-TZU-SHAN
INDIAN BNGLDSH NEPAL
INDIAN MEAN VALUE
INDIAN THAILAND VIETN
INDONESIA 74
IRELAND 1965
ISTS 073 ASTRO 1969
JOHNSTON ISLAND 1961
KANDAWALA
KERGUELEN ISLAND
KERTAU 1948
L.C. 5 ASTRO
LIBERIA 1964
LUZON MEAN VALUE
LUZON MINDANAO IS
Gizo Island
(New Georgia Islands)
Easter Island
Austria, Belgium, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany,
Gibraltar, Greece, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Norway, Portugal, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland
Austria, Finland,
Netherlands, Norway,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
Finland
Borneo
Republic of Maldives
New Zealand
Greece
Guam Island
Guadalcanal Island
Afghanistan
Iceland
Hong Kong
Taiwan
Bangladesh, India, Nepal
India
Thailand, Vietnam
Indonesia
Ireland
Diego Garcia
Johnston Island
Sri Lanka
Kerguelen Island
West Malaysia, Singapore
Cayman Brac Island
Liberia
Philippines
Mindanao Island
SECTION
F
95
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SECTION
F
Page 96
APPENDIX F
MapDATUMS
Datums
MAP
LUZON PHILIPPINES
MAHE 1971
MARCO ASTRO
MASSAWA
MERCHICH
MIDWAY ASTRO 1961
MINNA
NAD27 ALASKA
NAD27 BAHAMAS
NAD27 CANADA
NAD27 CANAL ZONE
NAD27 CARIBBEAN
NAD27 CENTRL AMERICA
NAD27 CONUS
NAD27 CUBA
NAD27 GREENLAND
NAD27 MEXICO
NAD27 SAN SALVADR IS
NAD83
NAHRWAN MASIRAH IS
NAHRWAN SAUDI ARABIA
NAHRWAN UNITD ARAB E
NAPARIMA BWI
NETHERLAND TRIAG ‘21
NOU TRIAG FRANCE
NOU TRIAG LUXEMBOURG
OBSERVATORIO 1966
96
OLD EGYPTIAN
OLD HAWAIIAN KAUAI
OLD HAWAIIAN MAUI
OLD HAWAIIAN MEAN
OLD HAWAIIAN OAHU
Philippines
(excluding Mindanao Isl.)
Mahe Island
Salvage Islands
Eritrea (Ethiopia)
Morocco
Midway Island
Nigeria
North American 1927- Alaska
Bahamas (excluding San
Salvador Island)
Canada (including
Newfoundland Island)
Canal Zone
Caribbean (Barbados,
Caicos Islands, Cuba,
Dom. Rep., Grd. Cayman,
Jamaica, Leeward and
Turks Islands)
Central America (Belize,
Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua)
Mean Value (CONUS)
Cuba
Greenland (Hayes Peninsula)
Mexico
San Salvador Island
North American 1983Alaska, Canada, Central
America, CONUS, Mexico
Masirah Island (Oman)
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Trinidad and Tobago
Netherlands
France
Luxembourg
Corvo and Flores Islands
(Azores)
Egypt
Kauai
Maui
Mean Value
Oahu
OMAN
ORD SRV GRT BRITAIN
Oman
England, Isle of Man,
Scotland, Shetland Islands,
Wales
PICO DE LAS NIEVES
Canary Islands
PITCAIRN ASTRO 1967
Pitcairn Island
PORTUGUESE 1973
Portugal
POTSDAM
Germany
PROV SO AMERICAN ‘56 Bolivia, Chile,Colombia,
Ecuador, Guyana, Peru,
Venezuela
PROV SO CHILEAN 1963 South Chile
PUERTO RICO
Puerto Rico & Virgin Isl.
QATAR NATIONAL
Qatar
QORNOQ
South Greenland
REUNION
Mascarene Island
ROME 1940
Sardinia Island
RT 90
Sweden
SANTO (DOS)
Espirito Santo Island
SAO BRAZ
Sao Miguel, Santa Maria
Islands (Azores)
SAPPER HILL 1943
East Falkland Island
SCHWARZECK
Namibia
SOUTH AMERICAN 1969 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,
Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Guyana, Paraguay, Peru,
Venezuela, Trinidad/Tobago
SOUTH ASIA
Singapore
SOUTHEAST BASE
Porto Santo and Madeira
Islands
SOUTHWEST BASE
Faial, Graciosa, Pico, Sao
Jorge and Terceira Islands
(Azores)
TANANARIVE OBSV 1925 Madagascar
TIMBALAI 1948
Brunei and East Malaysia
(Sarawak and Sabah)
TOKYO
Japan, Korea, Okinawa
TRISTAN ASTRO 1968
Tristan da Cunha
USER
User datum
VITI LEVU 1916
Viti LevuIsland/Fiji Islands
WAKE-ENIWETOK 1960 Marshall Islands
WGS 72
World Geodetic System 1972
WGS 84
World Geodetic System 1984
YACARE
Uruguay
ZANDERIJ
Surinam
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Page 97
Appendix G
Index
A
Abbreviations
Accessory list
Activating a direct-to
Activating a route
Activating a route in reverse
Active frequency
Active to & from waypoints
Active route page
Adding waypoints to a route
Airport comments page
Airport communications page
Airport runway page
Airport position page
Airport identification page
Airport information
Altitude buffer
Approach information
Approach timer
Arrival alarm setting
AutoStore™
Auto-tune
B
Battery Pack
Battery saver
C
Cautions
91-93
iii
5, 58-60
63
63
3, 29
58
61, 67
62, 68
36, 37
37, 39
40
38
37
34, 36
77
37, 40
24, 25
73
47
30, 31
94
74
ii
NAVIGATION PAGE
Overview G
APPENDIX
Index
INDEX
SECTION
G
CDI
4-6, 70
CDI page
4-6, 9-12, 70
CDI sensitivity setting
72
Channel 2 I/O
79
Checking GPS coverage
16-17, 26
Checklists
23, 24
Clear key
viii
Clock function
25
Closest point of approach (CPA)
64
Communication features
29-32
Communications pages
29-30, 37-39
Communication frequencies
3,29
Communication window
3
Controlled airspace
38, 54-57
Copying routes
64
Creating user waypoints
45,46
Cursor key
viii
D
Database
33
Date & time
25
Deleting user waypoints
49
Deleting routes
63
Deleting waypoints from routes
63, 69
Density altitude
20
Direct-to key
vii
Direct-to navigation
58-60
DOP
16
Downloading data to another GNC 250 81
Duplicate waypoints
51
97
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SECTION
G
Page 98
APPENDIX G
Index
INDEX
E
Editing routes
Editing user waypoints
ENT key
Entering waypoints
EPE
Emergency channel select
F
Foreword
Flying the active route
Fuel planning
G
Going to a nearest airport
GPS planning
Ground speed (setting)
i
67-70
20, 21
53
26
85
I
Inner knob
Initial position reference page
Installation of the GNC 250
Intersections
I/O Outputs
viii
84-85
83
34, 43
72
K
Key functions
Knob functions
vii,viii
vii,viii
L
Leg/time field
Locked waypoints
98
62-63, 67-69
44,46,49
viii
35,46
16
32
68
52
M
Magnetic variation
Maintenance of the GNC 250
Map datums
Measurement units
Messages
MSG key
72-73
83
78, 95-96
76
71, 86-90
viii
N
NAVCOM page
NavData cards
Navigation diagram
NAV Key
NAV menu 1
NAV menu 2
Nav units
NDBs
NRST key
Nearest airport
Nearest SUA
Nearest waypoints
6, 12, 13
33, 81-82
11
vii, 9
9, 19-23
9, 24-27
76
34, 42
vii,7,53
8,76
54-57, 77
8, 53
O
Offset navigation
Outer knob
Operating mode
P
Packing list
Parallel track
Position page
Power/volume knob
Power on (normal)
Power on (simulator)
Proximity Waypoints
66
viii
84
iii
66
4, 9, 14-15
vii
1
84
33,48
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Page 99
R
RAIM prediction
RAIM protection
Radar information
Receiver status
Removal of the GNC 250
Renaming user waypoints
Restoring user data
Reversing a route
Route catalog page
Route comments
Route key
Route navigation
Routes
Runway page
Runway surface
26
72
38
16-17
83
47,49
81-82
63
61
61
vii
58
61-70
40
40, 73
S
Satellite acquisition
Scheduler
Search and rescue operations
Simulator mode
Special Use Airspace (SUA)
Specifications
Standby frequency
Storing user data
SUA alert page
SUA altitude fields
SUA messages
SUA settings page
Sunrise/sunset planning
Squelch
2
27
65
84
54-57
94
3, 29
81
54
55
56
57, 77
28
vii, 30
T
Table of contents
Time
Transfer key
Trip planning
Trip timer
Trip timer settings
True air speed
Turn anticipation
v-vi
25
viii
19
25,75
75
20
70
U
Unit settings
Updating user data
User comments
User data cards
User map datums
User waypoints
71-79
80
81
80
79
33,44,49
V
Vertical navigation (VNAV)
Volume
VORs
W
Warranty
Waypoint comments page
Waypoint confirmation page
Waypoint entry
Waypoint identification page
Waypoint information
Waypoint key
Waypoint list
Waypoint menu
APPENDIX G
Index
INDEX
SECTION
G
22,23
31
7,34,41
iv
50
51
35
35
35-52
vii,33
49
34
99
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SECTION
G
100
Page 100
APPENDIX G
Index
INDEX
Waypoint scanning
Waypoint sequencing
Waypoints with comments
Winds aloft
52
69-70
50
22
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Page 101
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Page 102
®
© 1995 GARMIN International
9875 Widmer, Lenexa, KS 66215, USA
GARMIN/Europe LTD
Robert House, Station Approach Romsey, Hampshire SO51 8DU UK
Part No. 190-00067-50 Rev. A
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