Garmin 500 GPS Receiver User Manual

400W / 500W Series
Garmin Optional Displays
Pilot’s Guide Addendum For:
• GDL 69/69A XM Satellite Datalink
• GTX 330/330D TIS
• Garmin TAWS (GPS 500W & GNS 530W)
Foreward
This Pilot’s Guide Addendum is written for:
• Garmin GPS 400W, GNC 420W/420AW, and GNS 430W/430AW Main System Software Version 2.00
• Garmin GPS 500W & GNS 530W/530AW Main System Software Version 2.00
• GTX 330/330D Main Software Version 4.05
• GDL 69/69A Main Software Version 3.02
Some differences in operation may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
© Copyright 2006 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All Rights Reserved.
Garmin International, Inc., 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, KS 66062, U.S.A.
Tel. 913/397.8200 or 800/800.1020
Fax 913/397.8282
Garmin AT, Inc., 2345 Turner Rd., S.E., Salem, Oregon 97302, U.S.A.
Tel: 503/581.8101
Fax: 503/364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd., Unit 5, The Quadrangle, Abbey Park, Romsey, Hampshire S051 9DL, U.K.
Tel: 44/0870.851241 (Europe)
Fax: 44/1794.519222
Tel: 0808.2380000 (UK)
Garmin Corporation, No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road, Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
Tel. 886/2.2642.9199
Fax 886/2.2642.9099
Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this addendum may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded,
or stored in any storage medium, for any purpose without the express prior written consent of Garmin. Garmin hereby grants permission to download a single copy of this manual and of any revision to this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic storage medium
to be viewed and to print one copy of this manual or of any revision hereto, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual
or revision must contain the complete text of this copyright notice and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution
of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited. Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Garmin
reserves the right to change or improve its products and to make changes in the content without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes or improvements.
Garmin® is a registered trademark, and GTX™ and GDL™ are trademarks of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries and may
not be used without the express permission of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries.
October 2006 190-00356-30
Revision A
The screen display examples shown in this
addendum are taken from the GNS 430W
and GNS 530W. TIS and Weather Data Link
Display Interface functionality is the same
for the 400W and 500W Series Units. TIS
Traffic Display and Weather Data Link are
available only when the 400W/500W units
are configured with the GTX 330 Mode S
Transponder and GDL 69/69A Data Link
Transceiver, respectively.
Introduction
Warnings and Cautions
WARNING: Terrain data is obtained from third party sources. Garmin is not able to independently verify the accuracy of this
data which should be used only as an aid for situational awareness. Terrain data must not be used as the sole basis for decisions or maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Terrain data must not be used for navigation.
CAUTION: Use the 400W/500W Series Units at your own risk. To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review and
understand all aspects of the Owner’s Manual and the Flight Manual Supplement, and thoroughly practice basic operation
prior to actual use.
CAUTION: The Global Positioning System is operated by the United States government, which is solely responsible for its
accuracy and maintenance. The system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and performance of all GPS
equipment. Although Garmin 400W/500W Series Units are precision electronic NAVigation AIDS (NAVAID), any NAVAID can be
misused or misinterpreted and therefore become unsafe.
CAUTION: Use the Weather Data Link Interface, TIS, TAWS, and TERRAIN at your own risk. To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, thoroughly practice basic operation prior to actual use. When in actual use, carefully compare indications from the
Garmin unit to all available navigation sources, including the information from other NAVAIDS, visual sightings, charts, etc.
For safety, always resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation. The GPS altitude format calculated by the Garmin
400W/500W Series units is geometric height above mean sea level and could vary significantly from altitude displayed by pressure altimeters in aircraft. Never use GPS altitude to determine aircraft altitude.
CAUTION: The Jeppesen database incorporated in the Garmin 400W/500W Series Units must be updated regularly in order to
ensure that its information is current. Updates are released every 28 days. A database information packet is included in your
Garmin 400W/500W Series Unit package. Pilots using an out-of-date database do so entirely at their own risk.
CAUTION: The Weather Data Link, TIS, TAWS, and TERRAIN information contained in this Pilot’s Guide Addendum is not
intended to replace the documentation that is supplied with the applicable Garmin 400W/500W Series Unit and the GTX 330
Transponder. The user must know how to operate the 400W/500W Series Unit and be knowledgeable of the information in the
400W/500W Pilot’s Guide.
TIS CAUTION: TIS is NOT intended to be used as a collision avoidance system and does not relieve pilot responsibility to “see
and avoid” other aircraft. TIS should not be used for avoidance maneuvers during IMC or other times when there is no visual
contact with the intruder aircraft. TIS is intended only to assist in visual acquisition of other aircraft in VMC. Avoidance maneuvers are not recommended, nor authorized, as a direct result of a TIS intruder display or TIS alert.
While TIS is a useful aid to visual traffic avoidance, it has some system limitations that must be fully understood to ensure
proper use. Many of these limitations are inherent in secondary radar surveillance. In other words, the information provided by
TIS will be no better than that provided to ATC.
CAUTION: Garmin would like to remind pilots flying with GDL 69/69A-equipped aircraft that TFRs are only advisory and
are not a replacement for a thorough preflight briefing on TFR times and locations. Always confirm TFR data through official
sources and contact your Flight Service Station for interpretation of TFR data.
i
Introduction
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Part One: Traffic Information Service (TIS) Interface 1
Section 1: TIS Operation and Symbology....................1
TIS Operation............................................................................1
How TIS differs from TCAS.........................................................2
TIS Limitations ..........................................................................2
Improving TIS ............................................................................3
TIS Symbology ..........................................................................4
Section 2: Control and Display .....................................5
TIS Traffic Display Status and Pilot Response ..............................5
Traffic Page ...............................................................................6
Traffic Page Display Range ........................................................6
Map Page .................................................................................7
Configuring TIS Traffic Data on the Map Page .......................7
Highlighting TIS Traffic Using Map Page Panning ........................8
Section 3: TIS Operational Procedures ........................9
Introduction ..............................................................................9
Power-Up Test ...........................................................................9
Manual Override .....................................................................10
Flight Procedures ....................................................................10
After Landing..........................................................................10
Part Two: XM Radio .....................................................11
Section 1: Introduction ...............................................11
Overview ................................................................................11
XM Radio Pages .....................................................................11
XM NAV Pages ..................................................................11
XM WPT Pages ..................................................................12
XM AUX Pages ..................................................................12
Section 2: XM Weather ................................................12
XM Nexrad Weather................................................................13
NEXRAD Intensity ..............................................................14
NEXRAD Abnormalities ......................................................14
NEXRAD Limitations ..........................................................15
XM Weather METARs ..............................................................15
Textual METAR Page ..........................................................16
TAF Page ...........................................................................17
TFR Information ................................................................18
Section 3: XM AUX Pages .............................................19
XM Information Page .............................................................19
XM WX Timestamps ................................................................20
Section 4: XM Audio .....................................................21
XM Audio Menu .....................................................................23
Add to Presets List ..................................................................23
Enter Channel Number............................................................24
Display Channel In List ............................................................24
ii
Display Artist In List ................................................................25
Display Title In List ..................................................................25
Enable/Mute Audio Output......................................................26
Change Volume ......................................................................26
Part Three: TAWS Interface .........................................27
Section 1: Introduction ...............................................27
Overview ................................................................................27
Operating Criteria ...................................................................27
GPS Position and GPS-MSL Altitude .........................................27
TAWS Alerting using the GPS Position/GPS-MSL Altitude ..........27
Baro-Corrected Altitude verses GPS-MSL Altitude.....................27
Premature Descent Alerting (PDA) using GPS-MSL Altitude ......28
Limitations..............................................................................28
Section 2: TAWS Operation .........................................29
Requirements .........................................................................29
Limitations..............................................................................29
TAWS Alerting Using the GPS Position/GPS-MSL Altitude .........29
Baro-Corrected Altitude Versus GPS-MSL Altitude ....................29
Power Up ...............................................................................30
TAWS Page .............................................................................30
Inhibit Mode ...........................................................................31
External TAWS Inhibit Control ............................................31
TAWS Manual Test ..................................................................32
TAWS Symbols ........................................................................32
TAWS Alerts ............................................................................32
Color Interpretation ................................................................33
General Database Information.................................................34
Database Versions...................................................................34
Database Updates ..................................................................34
Terrain/Obstacle Database Areas of Coverage ..........................35
Navigation Database ..............................................................35
TAWS Phase of Flight ..............................................................35
Nearest Airport Criteria & TAWS Phase of Flight .......................36
TAWS Destination Airport ........................................................36
Section 3: TAWS Alerts ................................................37
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance .........................................37
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance and Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance ............................................................37
Imminent Terrain Impact and Imminent Obstacle Impact .....37
Premature Descent Alerting (PDA) ...........................................38
Excessive Descent Rate Alert (EDR) ..........................................39
Negative Climb Rate After Takeoff Alert (NCR) .........................40
“Five-Hundred” Aural Alert .....................................................41
TAWS Failure Alert ..................................................................41
TAWS Not Available Alert ........................................................41
TAWS Alert Summary ..............................................................41
Part One: Section 1
TIS Operation and Symbology
Part One:
Traffic Information Service
(TIS) Interface
Section 1: TIS Operation and
Symbology
TIS Operation
NOTE: Part One of this Addendum assumes the user
has experience operating the 400W/500W Series units
and the Garmin GTX 330 Transponder.
The Traffic Information Service (TIS) provides
a graphic display of traffic advisory information in
the cockpit for non-TCAS (Traffic alert and Collision
Avoidance System) equipped aircraft. TIS is a groundbased service providing relative location of all ATCRBS
(Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System) Mode A
and Mode C transponder-equipped aircraft within a
specified service volume. The TIS ground sensor uses
real-time track reports to generate traffic notification.
TIS Traffic display is available to aircraft equipped
with a Mode S Data Link such as the Garmin GTX 330
Transponder. TIS Traffic from a GTX 330 Transponder can then be displayed on a Garmin 400W/500W
Series unit. Surveillance data includes all transponderequipped aircraft within the coverage volume. Aircraft
without an operating transponder are invisible to TIS.
TIS displays up to eight traffic targets within seven
nautical miles horizontally from 3000 feet below to
3500 feet above the requesting aircraft.
• Your aircraft must be equipped with a Mode S
data link transponder, such as the GTX 330.
• You must be within range of a Mode S radar
that provides the TIS service. Not all Mode S
ground radars provide TIS service.
• The “intruder” aircraft must be equipped with
a transponder, and that transponder must be
turned on. Aircraft that are not equipped with
operating transponders will not be visible to the
Mode S surveillance radar.
• The “intruder” aircraft must be within the TIS
coverage volume for your aircraft. TIS displays
up to eight traffic targets within seven nautical
miles horizontally from the requesting aircraft,
and from 3,000 feet below to 3,500 feet above
the requesting aircraft.
• Both your aircraft and the intruder aircraft must
be visible to the Mode S surveillance radar on
the ground.
Always remember that TIS cannot alert you to
the presence of aircraft that are not equipped with
transponders, nor can it alert you to aircraft that may
be nearby, but obscured from the ground surveillance
radar by intervening terrain.
7.0 nm
3,500 ft
3,000 ft
TIS Coverage Volume (not to scale)
The TIS is a ground-based service that displays
nearby aircraft on your 400W/500W-series display.
For the TIS feature to inform you of a nearby aircraft’s
presence, several conditions must be met:
1
Part One: Section 1
TIS Operation and Symbology
How TIS differs from TCAS
The main difference between TIS and TCAS is the
source of surveillance data. TCAS uses an airborne
interrogator with a one-second update rate, while TIS
uses the terminal Mode S ground interrogator and its
Data Link to provide about a five-second update rate.
The range accuracy of TIS and TCAS is similar.
of the client aircraft comes between the transponder
antenna (usually located on the underside of the aircraft) and the ground-based radar antenna, the signal
may be temporarily interrupted. Other limitations and
anomalies associated with TIS are described in the
AIM, Section 1-3-5.
TIS Limitations
NOTE: This section on TIS Limitations is not comprehensive. Garmin recommends the user review the TIS
Limitations section of the Aeronautical Information
Manual, Section 1-3-5.
TIS is NOT intended to be used as a collision
avoidance system and does not relieve the pilot of
responsibility to “see and avoid” other aircraft. TIS
should not be used for avoidance maneuvers during
IMC or other times when there is no visual contact
with the intruder aircraft. TIS is intended only to assist
in visual acquisition of other aircraft in VMC. No recommended avoidance maneuvers are provided for, nor
authorized, as a direct result of a TIS intruder display
or TIS advisory.
While TIS is a useful aid to visual traffic avoidance, it has some system limitations that must be fully
understood to ensure proper use. Many of these limitations are inherent in secondary radar surveillance.
In other words, the information provided by TIS will
be no better than that provided to ATC. TIS will only
display aircraft with operating transponders installed.
TIS relies on surveillance of the Mode S radar,
which is a “secondary surveillance” radar similar to the
ATCRBS. TIS operation may be intermittent during
turns or other maneuvering. TIS is dependent on
two-way, “line-of-sight” communication between the
aircraft and the Mode S radar. Whenever the structure
2
Garmin is not responsible for Mode S geographical coverage. Operation of the ground
stations is the responsibility of the FAA. Refer
to the Aeronautical Information Manual for a
Terminal Mode S Radar Site Map covering the
U.S.
NOTE: TIS will be unavailable at low altitudes in many
areas of the U.S., particularly in mountainous regions.
Also, when flying near the “floor” of radar coverage
in a particular area, intruders below the client aircraft
may not be detected by TIS.
TIS information is collected one radar scan prior to
the scan during which the uplink occurs. Therefore,
the surveillance information is approximately five
seconds old. In order to present the intruders in a “real
time” position, the TIS ground station uses a “predictive algorithm” in its tracking software. This algorithm
uses track history data to extrapolate intruders to
their expected positions consistent with the time of
display in the cockpit. Occasionally, aircraft maneuvering will cause this algorithm to induce errors in the
400W/500W display. These errors primarily affect relative bearing information and traffic target track vector
(it will lag); intruder distance and altitude will remain
relatively accurate and may be used to assist in “see
Part One: Section 1
TIS Operation and Symbology
and avoid.” Some of the more common examples of
these errors follow:
•
When client or intruder aircraft maneuvers excessively or abruptly, the tracking algorithm may
report incorrect horizontal position until the
maneuvering aircraft stabilizes.
•
When a rapidly closing intruder is on a course that
crosses the client aircraft course at a shallow angle
(either overtaking or head on) and either aircraft
abruptly changes course within ¼ NM, TIS may
display the intruder on the opposite side of the
client than it actually is.
These are relatively rare occurrences and will
be corrected in a few radar scans once the course
has stabilized.
Improving TIS
Users of TIS can render valuable assistance in
the correction of malfunctions by reporting their
observations of undesirable performance. Reporters
should identify the time of observation, location, type
and identity of aircraft, and describe the condition
observed; the type of transponder processor and software in use can also be useful information. Since TIS
performance is monitored by maintenance personnel
other than ATC, it is suggested that malfunctions be
reported in the following ways:
•
By telephone to the nearest Flight Service Station
(FSS) facility.
•
By FAA Form 8000-7, Safety Improvement Report,
a postage-paid card designed for this purpose.
These cards may be obtained at FAA FSSs, General
Aviation District Offices, Flight Standards District
Offices, and General Aviation Fixed Based Operations.
3
Part One: Section 1
TIS Operation and Symbology
TIS Symbology
TIS traffic is displayed on the 400W/500W Series
unit according to TCAS symbology, graphically
displayed on a dedicated graphical page (Traffic Page;
see below), and on the moving Map Page. A Traffic
Advisory (TA) symbol appears as a solid yellow circle
(or half circle on the outer range ring if the traffic
is outside the range of the dedicated Traffic Page).
All other traffic is displayed as a hollow white diamond. Altitude deviation from own aircraft altitude
is displayed above the target symbol if traffic is above
own aircraft altitude, and below the symbol if they are
The TIS audio alert is generated from the
GTX 330 whenever the number of Traffic Advisories on the 400W/500W display increases
from one scan to the next. Limiting Traffic
Advisories only reduces the “nuisance” alerting
due to proximate aircraft. For example, when
the first Traffic Advisories appears on the TIS
display, the user is alerted audibly. So long as
a single aircraft remains on the TIS display, no
further audio alert is generated. If a second (or
more) aircraft appears on the display, a new
audio alert is sounded.
If the number of Traffic Advisories on the TIS
display decreases and then increases, a new
audio alert is sounded. The TIS audio alert is
also generated whenever TIS service becomes
unavailable. The volume, pitch, and duration
of the audio alert (including the choice between
a male or female voice) is configured during
installation.
The following TIS audio alerts are available:
• “Traffic” —TIS traffic alert is received.
• “Traffic Not Available” — TIS service is not
available or out of range.
4
below own aircraft altitude. Altitude trend is displayed
as an up arrow (> +500 ft/min), down arrow (< -500
ft/min), or no symbol if less than 500 ft/min rate in
either direction.
• Traffic Advisories (TA)—Yellow
• Proximity Advisories (PA)—White
• Other—White
Traffic Advisory (TA)—This symbol is generated when traffic
meets the advisory criteria described in TIS Operational Procedures.
Own Aircraft
Traffic Ground Track is indicated
on the 400W/500W display by a
“target track vector”, a short line
displayed in 45-degree increments.
This vector shows the flight direction of the traffic.
“Other” Traffic—This symbol represents
traffic detected within the selected display
range that does not generate a TA.
Part One: Section 2
TIS Controls and Display
Section 2: Control and Display
TIS Traffic Display Status and Pilot Response
• STBY — When the 400W/500W displays STBY
in the upper right hand corner of the display the
TIS system is in standby mode and cannot display
traffic data.
display due to the age of the data being too old
to “coast” (for the time period after 12 seconds
from the last receipt of a TIS message). The pilot
should be aware that traffic may be present but
not shown.
• OPER — When the 400W/500W displays OPER
in the upper right hand corner of the display the
TIS system is in operational mode and available
to display traffic on the Traffic or Map Page.
• AGE — If traffic data is not refreshed within 6
seconds, an age indicator (e.g., “AGE 00:06”) is
displayed in the lower right corner of the display (when displaying traffic). The pilot should
be aware that the quality of displayed traffic is
reduced in this condition.
• TRFC CST — If data is still not received between
six and twelve seconds, the “TRFC CST” (traffic
coasting) banner located above the AGE timer will
indicate that displayed traffic is held even though
the data is not current. The pilot should be aware
that the quality of displayed traffic is reduced in
this condition.
Traffic Age Indication showing “traffic coasting”.
• TRFC RMVD — If data is still not received after
twelve seconds, the “TRFC RMVD” banner will
indicate that traffic has been removed from the
Traffic Page displaying “TRFC RMVD”
banner.
• UNAVAIL — After a 60 second period elapses
with no data, TIS is considered to be unavailable.
This state is indicated by the text “UNAVAIL”.
The pilot should be aware that “UNAVAIL” could
indicate a TIS coverage limitation due to a lineof-sight situation, a low altitude condition, no
TIS service, or a result of flying directly over the
radar site providing coverage (cone of silence).
• NO DATA — “NO DATA” is displayed when no
data is being received from the GTX 330. The
pilot should be aware that this status may be a
normal mode of operation in a dual transponder installation where the GTX 330 with TIS is
not the selected transponder. The GTX 330 may
not be powered on.
• DATA FAIL — “DATA FAIL” is displayed when
data is being received from GTX 330, but there
was a failure detected in the data stream. The
pilot should see the dealer for corrective action.
• FAILED — “FAILED” is displayed when the
GTX 330 has indicated it has failed. The pilot
should see the dealer for corrective action.
5
Part One: Section 2
TIS Controls and Display
Traffic Ground Track
Traffic Page
Traffic ground track is indicated in the
400W/500W display by a “target track vector”, a short
line displayed in 45-degree increments, extending in
the direction of target movement.
TIS Traffic data is displayed on two 400W/500W
Series unit pages, the Traffic Page and the Map Page.
The 500W Series unit can also be configured to
display a traffic thumbnail window below the VLOC
frequency window. Unlike other forms of traffic, TIS
traffic does not require heading data to be valid on the
map. The only difference between TIS and other traffic
data occurs on the Traffic Page. If heading is available,
then the traffic data is compensated and displayed as
heading-up. If it’s not available, the Traffic Page is a
track-up display. It is labeled on the upper portion of
the Traffic Page.
Traffic Page Display Range
Traffic Target Track Vector.
Traffic Warning Window
When the unit is on any page (other than the
NAV Traffic Page or when a TAWS/Terrain, or Dead
Reckoning pop-up is displayed) and a traffic threat is
imminent, the Traffic Warning Window is displayed.
The Traffic Warning Window shows a small thumbnail map which can take the user to the Traffic Page
by pressing ENT, or go back to the previous page by
pressing CLR.
Traffic Warning Window
NOTE: The Traffic Warning Window is disabled when
the aircraft ground speed is less than 30 knots or when
an approach is active.
6
Various display ranges can be selected for optimal
display of TIS traffic information.
To change the display range on the Traffic
Page:
Press RNG to zoom through the range selections which are: 12/6 NM, 6/2 NM, and
2 NM.
Part One: Section 2
TIS Controls and Display
Map Page
•
TIS traffic is displayed on the Map Page in addition
to the Traffic Page.
TA only - Only traffic advisories are displayed on
the Map Page.
From the Map Page you can display traffic in
a thumbnail format in any of the top three (400W
Series) or four (500W Series) data fields on the right
side of the Map Page.
The Map Page displaying traffic.
Configuring TIS Traffic Data on the Map Page
To configure TIS traffic on the Map Page:
1.
Turn the small right knob to select the Map
Page.
2.
Press the MENU key.
Turn the small right knob to select “Setup
Map?”
3.
The flashing cursor highlights the GROUP field.
Turn the small right knob to select “Traffic” and
press ENT.
4.
5.
Turn the large right knob to
select the desired Traffic Mode
option. Turn the small right
knob to select the desired option
and press ENT. Repeat the step
for Traffic Symbol and Traffic
Label.
Press CLR to return the Map Page.
The traffic mode selection menu allows the user to
choose from the following:
•
All trfc - All traffic is displayed on the Map Page.
•
TA/PA - Only traffic advisories and proximity
advisories are displayed on the Map Page.
Thumbnail Traffic displayed on the
GNS 430W. NOTE: The thumbnail will display
traffic coasting “TRFC CST” or traffic
removed “TRFC RMVD” in the lower right
when TIS messages have been missed.
To display Thumbnail Traffic on the Map
Page:
1.
Turn the small right knob to select the Map
Page.
2.
Press the MENU key and display the Page Menu.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select “Change
Fields?” and press ENT.
4.
Select one of the top three (400W Series) or four
(500W Series) configurable fields. Select ‘TRFC’
from the Select Field Type List and press ENT. Note
that the thumbnail range defaults to 6 NM and
cannot be changed.
7
Part One: Section 2
TIS Controls and Display
Highlighting TIS Traffic Using Map Page Panning
Another Map Page feature is panning, which allows
you to move the map beyond its current limits without
adjusting the map scale. When you select the panning
function — by pressing the small right knob — a
target pointer will flash on the map display. A window
also appears at the top of the map display showing
the latitude/longitude position of the pointer, plus the
bearing and distance to the pointer from your present
position.
Displaying traffic range and altitude separation using the Map Panning feature.
To activate the panning feature and pan
the map display:
1.
Press the small right knob to activate the panning
target pointer.
2.
Turn the small right knob to move up (turn clockwise) or down (counterclockwise).
3.
Turn the large right knob to move right (turn
clockwise) or left (counterclockwise).
4.
To cancel the panning function and return to your
present position, press the small right knob.
When the target pointer is placed on traffic, the
traffic range and altitude separation are displayed.
8
Part One: Section 3
TIS Operational Procedures
Section 3: TIS Operational Procedures
Introduction
TIS warns the user with voice and visual traffic
advisories whenever it predicts an intruder to be a
threat (see illustration). Voice and visual data is sent
from the GTX 330. The user should not start evasive
maneuvers using information from the 400W/500W
display or on a traffic advisory only. The display and
advisories are intended only for assistance in visually
locating the traffic, due to the lack in resolution and
coordination ability. The flight crew should attempt
to visually acquire the intruder aircraft and maintain
a safe separation in accordance with the regulatory
requirements and good operating practice. If the flight
crew cannot visually acquire the aircraft, they should
contact ATC to obtain any information that may assist
concerning the intruder aircraft. Based on the above
procedures, minor adjustment to the vertical flight
path consistent with air traffic requirements are not
considered evasive maneuvers.
Power-Up Test
The TIS interface performs an automatic test
during power-up.
is displayed. The “FAILED” message indicates
the GTX 330 has failed. The “DATA FAIL” message indicates data is being received from the
GTX 330 but a failure was detected in the data
stream. The “NO DATA” message indicates that
data is not being received from the GTX 330.
NOTE: “NO DATA” may be a normal mode of operation in a dual transponder installation where the GTX
330 with TIS is not the selected transponder.
• UNAVAIL — When a 60 second period
elapses with no data, TIS is considered to be
unavailable. This state is indicated by the text
“UNAVAILABLE” (500W Series) and “UNAVAIL”
(400W Series). The pilot should be aware
that “UNAVAIL” could indicate a TIS coverage
limitation due to a line-of-sight situation, a low
altitude condition, no TIS service, or a result
of flying directly over the radar site providing
coverage (cone of silence).
Intruder Aircraft
0.5 nm
+ 500 ft
• If the system passes the power-up test, the
Standby Screen appears on the Traffic Page.
• If the system passes the power-up test and the
aircraft is airborne (as determined by system
configuration at the time of installation, see
your installer for detailed criteria information),
traffic is displayable on the Traffic Page in operating mode.
• If the system fails the power-up test, the “NO
DATA”, “DATA FAIL”, or “FAILED” message
is displayed. See your installer for corrective
action if the “DATA FAIL”, or “FAILED” message
This area within 34 seconds
- 500 ft
Conditions for Traffic Advisories
The following condition causes TIS to display a Traffic
Advisory (TA) on the 400W/500W Series unit:
• The intruder aircraft approaches your aircraft on
a course that will intercept (defined by a 0.5 NM
horizontal radius and a relative altitude of ± 500
feet) your course within 34 seconds.
9
Part One: Section 3
TIS Operational Procedures
Manual Override
The user can manually switch between standby
(STBY) and operating (OPER) mode of operation to
manually override automatic operation.
To place the display into operating mode
from the standby mode (to display TIS traffic):
1.
Turn the cursor on and highlight “STBY”.
2.
Turn the small right knob to select
“OPER?”.
3.
Press ENT to confirm.
To place the display into standby mode
from operating mode (to stop displaying
TIS traffic):
1.
Turn the cursor on and highlight “OPER”.
2.
Turn the small right knob to select “STBY?”
3.
Press ENT to confirm.
“DATA FAIL” Message
The ‘NO DATA’ message indicates that data is
not being received from the GTX 330.
NOTE: This may be a normal mode of operation in a dual transponder installation where
the GTX 330 with TIS is not the selected
transponder.
Flight Procedures
Once the aircraft is airborne (determined by system
configuration at the time of installation) the system
switches from standby mode to operating mode. The
400W/500W Series unit displays OPER in the upper
right hand corner of the display and begins to display
traffic on the Traffic or Map Page.
The TIS Traffic Advisory (TA) should alert the crew
to use additional vigilance to identify the intruding
aircraft. Any time the traffic symbol becomes a yellow
circle or a voice warning is announced, conduct a
visual search for the intruder. If successful, maintain
visual contact to ensure safe operation. See Section 2:
Control and Display for a description of pilot responses
to TIS display messages.
After Landing
Once the aircraft is “groundborne” (determined
by system configuration at the time of installation)
the system switches from operating mode to standby
mode. The 400W/500W Series unit displays “STBY”.
As described previously, both the standby and operating modes can be manually overridden by the display
controls.
10
Part Two: Section 1
XM Radio Introduction
Part Two:
XM Radio
Section 1: Introduction
be available with the unit.
The GDL 69 is a remote sensor that receives
broadcast weather data from a data service of XM Satellite Radio, Inc. The GDL 69A is similar to the GDL
69, but also receives audio entertainment broadcasts
from another service of XM Satellite Radio. The 400W
and 500W series units serve as the display and control
head for your remotely mounted GDL 69/69A satellite
radio.
Before the GDL 69/69A can be used, the unit
must be activated by XM Satellite Radio with a service
subscription through XM Satellite Radio. Please note
that the GDL 69 is a weather data link. The GDL 69A
is a weather data link and audio receiver. The data link
service and the audio entertainment services must be
activated separately.
Your GDL 69 or GDL 69A is shipped with one
or two radio hardware identifications, respectively.
These IDs serve as identification codes for your XMequipped GDL 69/69A and are needed in the activation process. The ID(s) is (are) attached to the Activation Instructions and printed on a label on the back of
the unit. The IDs can also be retrieved through your
unit in the XM Information page of the Aux function.
Contact your dealer or customer service if you are
unable to locate the radio hardware IDs.
Weather and/or audio data from your GDL 69/69A
are provided by XM Satellite Radio, a company
separate and independent from Garmin Corporation.
Have your radio hardware IDs ready before contacting XM Satellite Radio. During the process, you can
select services for subscription. Keep in mind that the
GDL 69 has no audio capability, audio services will not
XM Radio Pages
To reach the XM pages:
Overview
Follow the GDL 69/69A XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions (190-00355-04) enclosed with your
GDL 69/69A unit to activate the XM products.
1.
From any page, press and hold CLR to select
the Default NAV Page. (You may skip this step
if you are already viewing any of the main
pages.)
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the AUX
page group. “AUX” appears in the lower right
corner of the screen.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the XM
Audio, XM Information, or XM WX Timestamps
pages.
XM Weather page is displayed in the NAV page
group. The XM Audio function pages are displayed in
the AUX page group.
XM NAV Pages
When a GDL 69 or GDL 69A is installed, the following XM-related pages appear in the NAV group of
pages:
• Map Page. The Map page (the second page
in the NAV page group) becomes capable of
displaying weather data and the boundaries
of areas with Temporary Flight Restrictions
(TFRs).
• XM Weather Page. The XM Weather page is
inserted as the third page of the NAV page group,
immediately after the Map page. This page is
like the map page, but can show either NEXRAD
weather data or colored flags showing which
airports have METARs (current weather observations—Meteorological Aerodrome Reports).
11
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
XM WPT Pages
When a GDL 69 or GDL 69A is installed, two XMrelated pages are added to “airport” pages in the WPT
page group:
• Textual METAR Page. The Textual METAR
page shows the text of the most recent METAR
(Meteorological Aerodrome Report) that has
been received for an airport.
• TAF Page. The TAF page shows the text of the
most recent TAF (Terminal Aerodrome Forecast) that has been received for an airport.
XM AUX Pages
When a GDL 69 or GDL 69A is installed, the following XM pages appear in the AUX group of pages:
• XM Audio Page (GDL 69A only). See Section 4
below for a description of this page.
• XM Information Page. This page contains
information that you will use when activating your XM satellite radio subscription. It
also reports the GDL 69/69A’s software version
number.
• XM Weather Timestamps Page. This page
shows timestamp data for the most recently
received XM weather data.
12
Section 2: XM Weather
The XM Weather Function is capable of displaying
graphical weather information through the XM Satellite Radio Service when activated in the optional installation of the GDL 69/69A. Nexrad graphic weather
and METARs symbols are displayed on the NAV pages.
The types of products available depend on the subscription service with XM Satellite Radio.
Once you have activated an aviation weather service from XM Satellite Radio, the 400W/500W series
unit can display the following aviation-related data:
• NEXRAD Weather. An indication of the
intensity of weather radar echoes from the
National Weather Service’s network of NEXRAD
(NEXt generation RADar) sites can be shown
on the XM Weather Page and can optionally be
overlaid on the Map page. (Both these pages are
in the NAV page group.)
• Radar Coverage. Whenever NEXRAD radar
echoes are shown, a cross-hatch pattern indicates the limits of NEXRAD radar coverage.
The cross-hatched area shows where NEXRAD
information is unavailable.
• Meteorological Aerodrome Reports
(METARs). When a GDL 69/69A is installed,
a “Textual METAR” page is inserted among the
airport pages of the WPT page group. On this
page you can see the most recent METAR for
that airport, as downloaded from XM Satellite
Radio.
• Textual METARs. When you zoom in to show
the airport symbol associated with the colored
flag for a graphical METAR, and move the Map
Pointer to highlight that airport, you can then
press ENT to see the Textual METAR page for
that airport. The Textual METAR page is one of
the airport pages of the WPT page group.
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
• Graphical METARs. The MX Weather page
(in the NAV page group) can show colored flags
to indicate the level of current weather conditions at those airports for which textual METAR
reports are available. The flags are color-coded
to indicate the severity of the current weather at
the airport: cyan for VFR conditions, green for
Marginal VFR conditions, yellow for IFR conditions, or magenta of Low IFR conditions.
• TAFs. A TAF (Terminal Aerodrome Forecast)
page is added among the airport pages of the
WPT page group. The TAF page differs from the
Textual METAR page in that it describes forecast
future weather conditions rather than current
conditions.
• TFRs. The boundaries of areas with Temporary
Flight Restrictions are outlined in yellow on the
Map and XM Weather pages of the NAV page
group. In the 500W-series, TFR boundaries are
also shown on the NAV main page. You can
obtain more information about a TFR by bringing up the map cursor, moving the map cursor
to within the yellow outlined area, and pressing
the ENT key.
from the individual radar sweeps. The display is colorcoded to indicate the weather level severity. Information about with sites are operational or off-line is also
available.
To display NEXRAD weather on the Map
page:
1.
With the Map page (the second page of
the NAV page group) displayed, press the
MENU key. The Page Menu for the Map page
appears.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Display NEXRAD,” and then press ENT. (If “Hide
NEXRAD” appears, NEXRAD radar data is
already enabled; just press MENU again to
exit the Page Menu.)
XM Nexrad Weather
The National Weather Service’s network of WSR88D Doppler weather surveillance radars—also called
NEXRAD, for Next Generation Radar—has greatly
improved the detection of meteorological events such
as thunderstorms, tornados, and hurricanes. An extensive network of NEXRAD weather radars provides
almost complete coverage of the continental United
States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The unobstructed range of
each NEXRAD is up to 250 nautical miles.
When enabled, composite data from all the
NEXRAD radar sites in the United States is shown.
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity
To display NEXRAD weather on the XM
Weather page:
1.
With the XM Weather page (the third page of
the NAV page group) displayed, look at the
upper left corner of the page. Under the page
title (“XM Weather”) either “NEXRAD” or
“METAR” appears. If the word is “NEXRAD,”
do nothing; NEXRAD weather is already being
displayed.
2.
If the word in the upper left corner of the page
13
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
is “METAR” (rather than “NEXRAD”), press
the small right (CRSR) knob to highlight
that word. Then turn the small right knob to
change “METAR” to “NEXRAD.”
3.
Press the small right knob again to bring
down the cursor (that is, to stop the blinking
highlighting of “NEXRAD”) and retain the
selection.
NEXRAD Intensity
Colors are used to identify the different NEXRAD
echo intensities (reflectivity) measured in dBZ (decibels of Z). “Reflectivity” is the amount of transmitted
power returned to the radar receiver. Reflectivity
(designated by the letter Z) covers a wide range of
signals (from very weak to very strong). So, a more
convenient number for calculations and comparison, a
decibel (or logarithmic) scale (dBZ), is used. The dBZ
values increase as the strength of the signal returned
to the radar increases. There are seven gradations for
rain, two gradations for mixed rain and snow, and two
gradations for snow.
To display the Nexrad Intensity Legend:
3.
Press ENT to display the Nexrad Intensity
Legend.
4.
Turn the large or small knob to scroll through
the full table. Press CLR to return to the normal
view.
NEXRAD Abnormalities
There are possible abnormalities regarding displayed NEXRAD images. Some, but not all, causes of
abnormal displayed information include:
• Ground Clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes, when the radar antenna points
directly at the sun
• Military aircraft deploy metallic dust which can
cause alterations in radar scans
1.
While viewing the XM Weather page, press the
MENU key to display the Page Menu.
• Interference from buildings or mountains,
which may cause shadows
2.
Turn the large or small knob to select “Display
legend?”
• Scheduled maintenance may put a radar off-line
14
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
press the small right (CRSR) knob to highlight “NEXRAD”. Turn the small right knob
to change “NEXRAD” to “METAR,” and press
that small right knob again to bring down
the cursor (stop the highlighting) and retain
the “METAR” selection.
NEXRAD Limitations
Certain limitations exist regarding the NEXRAD
radar displays. Some, but not all, are listed for the
user’s awareness:
• NEXRAD base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or
precipitation characteristics (hail vs. rain, etc).
3.
• NEXRAD base reflectivity is sampled at the
minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude
storms at close ranges, and has no information
about storms directly over the site.
Now colored flags will be displayed at those airports that have METARs above a certain severity level. (If there are no colored flags visible,
you may have to search a wider area—zoom
out with the RNG key—before you see some
METAR flags.)
• The resolution of displayed NEXRAD data is 2
kilometers. Therefore, when zoomed in on the
display, each square block is 2 kilometers. The
intensity level reflected by the square will be the
highest level sampled within the 2 kilometer
square area.
XM Weather METARs
XM Weather METARs (Meteorological Aerodrome
Reports) are available on the XM Weather page. When
enabled (that is, when “METAR” is shown in the upper
left corner of the page rather than “NEXRAD”), airports with METAR information above a certain severity
level are marked with colored flags on the display.
Refer to the XM Weather legend for a description of
the color code. The update rate is every 12 minutes.
To display METARs on the XM Weather
page:
1.
While viewing the XM Weather page, check
the upper left corner to see whether “METAR”
or “NEXRAD” is displayed in the upper left
corner.
2.
If “NEXRAD” (rather than “METAR”) is shown,
To display the METAR Legend:
1.
Press the MENU key to display the Page
Menu.
2.
Turn the large or small right knob to select
“Display legend?”
3.
Press ENT to display the METAR symbols
legend. Press the CLR key to remove the
METAR Symbols legend.
15
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
XM Weather METAR Symbols
VFR - Ceiling > 3000 ft and
Cyan
visibility > 5 statute miles
MVFR (Marginal VFR) - CeilGreen
ing 1000 to 3000 ft, and/or
visibility 3 to 5 statute miles
IFR - Ceiling 500 to 1000 ft,
Yellow
and/or visibility 1 to 3
statute miles
LIFR (Low IFR) - Ceiling less
Magenta
than 500 ft and/or visibility
less than 1 statute mile
Textual METAR Page
When the GDL 69/69A is installed, a Textual
METAR page is added among the APT (airport) pages
of the WPT page group. This page can be accessed
from the XM Weather page as well as from the WPT
page group.
To display Textual METARs from the Nav XM
Weather page:
1. While viewing the Nav XM Weather page, press
the MENU key to display the Page Menu.
2.
16
Turn the large or small right knob to highlight “Show Map Pointer?” and then press
ENT.
3.
Turn the large or small right knob to move
the Map Pointer to highlight an airport with a
METAR flag.
4.
Press ENT to display the METAR text. With
“Done?” highlighted, press ENT to return to
the map view.
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
To view any airport’s Textual METAR page:
1.
If not viewing the WPT page group, press CLR
and turn the large right knob to select the
WPT page group.
2.
Turn the small right knob until the Textual
METAR page appears.
3.
To select another airport, press the small right
(CRSR) knob to highlight the airport ID (in the
“APT” field).
4.
Turn the small and large right knobs to edit
the airport identifier for the desired airport.
Then, press ENT to confirm the airport name.
5.
Press the small right (CRSR) knob again to
remove the cursor (that is, to stop highlighting
the APT field).
Textual METAR/TAF Code
The current airport weather reports on the Textual
METAR page (and the airport weather forecasts on the
TAF page, too) use a rather cryptic format originally
devised for teleprinters. You can find information
about this format in an FAA publication, Aviation
Weather Formats: METAR/TAF, which can be downloaded from the FAA Web site.
You may see the following codes, which differ
slightly from the codes described in the FAA publication referenced above, at the start of a METAR on the
Textual METAR page:
• SA = METAR — a standard hourly METAR
report.
• SP = SPECI — a Special Report inserted
between regular hourly METARs to provide
late-breaking weather news.
TAF Page
When a GDL 69/69A is installed, the TAF (Terminal Aerodrome Forecast) page is inserted into the WPT
page group, immediately after the Textual METAR
page.
This page shows a text message giving a weather
forecast for a particular airport. The format is similar
to that used for METARS, but describes a weather
forecast rather than current weather at the particular
airport.
17
Part Two: Section 2
XM Weather
TFR Information
Areas with TFRs (Temporary Flight Restrictions)
are shown outlined in yellow on the NAV main page
of the 500W-series and on the Map and XM Weather
page of both the 400W and 500W-series. More
information about Temporary Flight Restrictions can
be seen on the TFR Information page, which can be
accessed from the Map page or the XM Weather page.
1a. With the Map page (the second page of the
NAV page group) displayed, press the small
right knob to bring up the map pointer.
or
1b. With the XM Weather page (the third page
of the NAV page group) displayed, press the
MENU key to bring up the Page Menu. Then,
turn the large right knob to highlight “Show
Map Pointer” and press ENT to bring up the
map pointer.
2. Turn the large and small right knobs to move
the map pointer to the yellow boundary of a
TFR region. When the map pointer is within
the TFR region, its boundary will be highlighted
with a wider yellow line.
18
3.
Press ENT. The first item is the pop-up Page
Menu will be “Review TFR?”.
4.
Press ENT again to see the TFR Information
page.
Press ENT when done viewing the TFR Information page.
The fields of the TFR Information page are as follows:
• Type. A brief description of the reason for the
temporary flight restriction appears here. Some
examples of the text that might appear here
are: “Fire,” “Miscellaneous,” “National Security
Area,” “Natural Disaster,” and “Sports Event.”
• Facility/NOTAM. This filed contains a code
for the name of the FAA facility that issued the
NOTAM (Notice to Airmen) announcing the
TFR, followed by the NOTAM number. For
instance, “ZSE 6/9507” would mean NOTAM
number 6/9507 from the Seattle ARTCC (KZSE).
5.
Part Two: Section 3
XM Aux Pages
NOTE: The full text of the NOTAM may be obtained
from a local FSS or from the FAA web site, using the
contents of this field as a reference to locate the
particular NOTAM. However, the information shown on
the TFR Information page is sufficient to let you comply
with the Temporary Flight Restriction by avoiding the
affected area.
• Active Time. This field is for the beginning and
ending times of the temporary flight restriction.
It may be blank, in which case the TFR is active
“until further notice.”
• Vert Limits. This field gives the upper and
lower limits of the airspace to which the TFR
applies.
Section 3: XM AUX Pages
When a GDL 69 (or GDL 69A) is installed, two
(or three) pages are inserted into the 500W/500W’s
AUX page group. Here we discuss the two pages that
are inserted regardless of whether the XM receiver is a
GDL 69 or GDL 69A:
• XM Information Page. This page contains
information that you will use when activating
your XM satellite radio subscription.
• XM Weather Timestamps Page. This page
shows timestamp data for the most recently
received XM weather data.
The other AUX page, which is installed only if the
XM receiver is a GDL 69A.
XM Information Page
The XM Information page in the AUX page group
is the page you will refer to when activating your subscription to the XM Satellite Radio services.
• Audio ID. The Audio ID contains the eightcharacter identification code of the XM Audio
radio built into the GDL 69A. Provide this ID
to XM Satellite Radio when activating an XM
audio subscription. (In the case of a GDL 69,
this field shows eight hyphens instead of an
19
Part Two: Section 3
XM Aux Pages
•
•
•
•
audio ID, because the GDL 69 is a data-only
receiver.)
Audio Signal. The Audio Signal field indicates
the signal strength of the GDL 69A’s audio
signal. (In the case of a GDL 69, this field shows
“antenna” rather than a signal strength indication.)
Data ID. The Data ID field contains the eightcharacter ID code of the XM data radio built
into the GDL 69 or GDL 69A. Provide this ID
to XM Satellite Radio when activating your XM
aviation data subscription.
Data Signal. The Data Signal field displays an
indication of the XM data signal strength.
Service Class. Once you have activated your
XM Satellite Radio service, the Service Class
field will show the XM subscription plan you
have purchased. Typical values would be “Aviator LT” or “Aviator.” Currently, the 400W and
500W-series only support a subset of the Aviator LT service from XM Satellite Radio.
Standard
Aviator LT
NEXRAD
TFRs
City Forecasts
County Warnings
Precipitation Type (at
surface)
METARs
TAFs
Supported
Aviator LT
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
• GDL 69 Version. This field shows the version
number of the software in your GDL 69 or GDL
69A XM radio receiver.
20
XM WX Timestamps
The XM WX Timestamps page, like the XM
Information page, is added to the 400W/500W’s AUX
page group when a GDL 69/69A is installed. This
page displays date/time stamps showing when the
various items of XM weather data were most recently
downloaded.
Each of these time stamps is a date-time group in
“DDHHMMZ” format, where:
• DD is the day of the month
• HH is the hour of the day
• MM is the minute of the hour
• Z is a time zone designator indicating that the
date and time are for standard time on the
Greenwich meridian: that is, UTC (Coordinated Universal Time).
Part Two: Section 4
XM Audio
Section 4: XM Audio
Audio entertainment is available through the XM
Satellite Radio Service when activated in the optional
installation of the GDL 69A. The 400W and 500W
series units serve as the display and control head for
your remotely mounted GDL 69A. XM Satellite Radio
allows you to enjoy a variety of radio programming
over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signal from satellites,
coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions. When
enabled, the XM Satellite Radio audio entertainment is
accessible in the AUX function.
The information on the XM Satellite Radio display
is composed of four areas: the Active channel, available Channels, Category of the highlighted channel,
and the Volume setting. The Active Channel window
shows the Channel Name and Number, Artist, Song
Title, Category, and provides an indication of signal
strength. A bar graph next to the antenna symbol
describes the signal strength. Maximum signal strength
is shown by three full bars.
The XM Audio page allows you to control the
functions of the XM Audio receiver in the GDL 69A,
such as, category and channel selection, artist
selection, and volume. Pressing the MENU key
displays the Page Menu selections.
Category name
Channel Name
Channel
number
Slider
Pointer showing
current selection
being played
Artist name
Audio output (enabled or disabled)
Song title
Channel
number
Signal strength
indicator
Channel name
XM Audio Page Description
21
Part Two: Section 4
XM Audio
Selecting categories
1.
Press the small right (CRSR) knob to highlight the category names. The categories will
be listed below in numeric order.
2.
Turn the small right knob to scroll through
the list of categories. Categories are shown in
the upper section of the display. The channels
for each category are shown in the list below
the category title.
4.
Turn the large right knob counterclockwise
to move the highlight back up to the category name window.
Selecting channels
3.
22
Press ENT to select the highlighted category.
The first channel in the selected category will
now be highlighted and the current song being
played in that channel will be shown in the
lower window.
1.
Press the small right (CRSR) knob to highlight the category names.
2.
Turn the large right knob clockwise, or press
ENT, to move the highlight into the channel
selections.
3.
Turn the small right knob to highlight a channel.
4.
Press ENT to select the highlighted channel
for listening. A triangle will point to the song
currently being played.
Part Two: Section 4
XM Audio
XM Audio Menu
The XM Audio Menu provides choices for selecting
a channel, displaying the channel, artist, or title,
enabling audio output, and controlling the volume.
1. While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key.
2.
3.
Turn the large right knob clockwise to move
the highlight into the presets list. Turn the
small right knob to highlight the position
where you want to place the preset.
4.
Press ENT to replace the previous preset channel with the newly selected channel.
Turn the large or small right knobs to highlight the choices. Press the ENT key to make a
selection.
Add to Presets List
Up to fifteen channels may be saved as presets to
easily return to your favorite channels.
1. While viewing the XM Audio page, selected
the desired channel.
2. While the desired channel is highlighted, press
the MENU key. With “Add to Presets List?”
highlighted, press ENT.
23
Part Two: Section 4
XM Audio
Enter Channel Number
Display Channel In List
You may directly select a specific channel by using
the “Enter Channel Number” item from the Page
Menu.
1. While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Enter Channel Number.”
2. Turn the large right knob to move the
highlight and the small right knob to select
a number.
Channels can be shown in a list of channels in the
middle pane by using the “Display Channel In List”
item from the Page Menu.
1. While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Display Channel In List.”
3.
24
Press the ENT key to make a selection. The
selected channel will now play and is displayed in the window at the bottom of the
display.
2.
Press the ENT key.
Part Two: Section 4
XM Audio
Display Artist In List
Display Title In List
The name of the artists in the range of displayed
channels can be shown in the middle pane by using
the “Display Artist In List” item from the Page Menu.
1. While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Display Artist In List.”
The Titles of the songs in the range of displayed
channels can be shown in the middle pane by using
the “Display Title In List” item from the Page Menu.
1. While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Display Title In List.”
2.
Press the ENT key.
2.
Press the ENT key.
25
Part Two: Section 4
XM Audio
Enable/Mute Audio Output
The Enable/Mute Audio Output selection of the
Page Menu allows you to toggle the audio output On
or Off. When Audio Output is muted, a green slash
will cross over the music symbol in the song pane.
1. While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Enable Audio Output” or “Disable
Audio Output.”
2. Press the ENT key to perform the highlighted
action. Pressing the CLR key toggles the
audio output.
Change Volume
The XM Audio volume may be changed in two
ways: directly with the Range keys or through the
Page Menu.
1.
While viewing the XM Audio page, press the
MENU key. Turn the large right knob to
highlight “Change Volume.”
2a. Press the ENT key and then turn the small
right knob to change the volume.
or
2b. Press the Range keys to adjust the volume.
26
Part Three: Section 1
TAWS Introduction
Part Three:
TAWS Interface
Section 1: Introduction
Overview
Garmin’s Terrain Awareness Warning System
(TAWS) is an optional feature (500W-series only) to
increase situational awareness and aid in reducing
controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Garmin TAWS
satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for
certification. Class B TAWS is required for all Part 91
turbine aircraft operations with six or more passenger
seats and for Part 135 turbine aircraft operations
with six to nine passenger seats (FAR Parts 91.223,
135.154).
Garmin TAWS satisfies TSO-C151b Class B
requirements for certification
Operating Criteria
Garmin TAWS requires the following to operate
properly:
• The system must have a valid 3D GPS position
solution
• The system must have a valid terrain/obstacle
database
GPS Position and GPS-MSL Altitude
Garmin TAWS uses information provided from
the 500W Series GPS receiver to provide a horizontal
position and altitude. GPS altitude is derived from
satellite measurements. GPS altitude is converted to
a Mean Sea Level (MSL)-based altitude (GPS-MSL
Altitude) and is used to determine TAWS alerts. GPSMSL Altitude accuracy is affected by factors such as
satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in
pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure
altitude devices. GPS-MSL Altitude does not require
local altimeter settings to determine MSL Altitude.
Therefore, GPS altitude provides a highly accurate and
reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and
obstacle alerts.
TAWS Alerting using the GPS Position/GPS-MSL
Altitude
Garmin TAWS utilizes terrain and obstacle
databases that are referenced to Mean Sea Level
(MSL). Using the GPS Position and GPS-MSL
Altitude, Garmin TAWS portrays a 2D picture of
the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the
position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore,
the GPS Position and GPS-MSL Altitude are used
to calculate and “predict” the aircraft’s flight path in
relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In
this manner, the Garmin TAWS system can provide
advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain
conditions. Detailed alert modes are described further
in Part Three, Section 3.
Baro-Corrected Altitude verses GPS-MSL Altitude
Baro-Corrected Altitude (or Indicated Altitude)
is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for the
local atmospheric conditions. The most accurate
Baro-Corrected Altitude can be achieved by frequently
updating the altimeter setting to the nearest reporting
station along the flight path. However, because actual
27
Part Three: Section 1
TAWS Introduction
atmosphere conditions seldom match the standard
conditions defined by the International Standard
Atmosphere model (where pressure, temperature, and
lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the
Baro-Corrected Altitude (as read from the altimeter) to
differ from the GPS-MSL Altitude.
Premature Descent Alerting (PDA) using GPS-MSL
Altitude
The Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is annunciated
when the aircraft is significantly below the
recommended minimum altitude for an approach.
The aircraft’s GPS-MSL altitude is compared to a
calculated Above-Ground-Level (AGL) altitude along
the estimated path to the airport. When the aircraft
descends below the calculated minimum altitude for
the estimated path, the PDA alert is annunciated.
28
Limitations
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases
comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot
guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
TAWS displays terrain and obstructions relative
to the altitude of the aircraft. The displayed alerts
and warnings are advisory in nature only. Individual
obstructions may be shown if available in the database.
However, all obstructions may not be available in the
database and data may be inaccurate. Never use this
information for navigation or to maneuver to avoid
obstacles.
Terrain information is based on terrain elevation
data contained in a database that may contain
inaccuracies. Terrain information should be used
as an aid to situational awareness. Never use it for
navigation or to maneuver to avoid terrain.
TAWS uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. The data undergoes verification by Garmin to confirm accuracy of the content,
per TSO-C151b. However, the displayed information
should never be understood as being all-inclusive.
Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
Section 2: TAWS Operation
TAWS (Terrain Awareness and Warning System)
is an optional feature to increase situational awareness and aid in reducing controlled flight into terrain
(CFIT). TAWS satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for certification. Class B TAWS is required for
all Part 91 aircraft operations with six or more passenger seats and for Part 135 turbine aircraft operations
with six to nine passenger seats (FAR Parts 91.223,
135.154).
TAWS provides visual and aural annunciations
when terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft.
Requirements
TAWS requires the following to operate
properly:
• The system must have a valid 3-D GPS position
solution.
• The system must have a valid terrain/obstacle/
airport terrain database.
Limitations
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases
comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot
guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
TAWS displays terrain and obstructions relative
to the altitude of the aircraft. The displayed alerts
and warnings are advisory in nature only. Individual
obstructions may be shown if available in the database.
However, all obstructions may not be available in the
database and data may be inaccurate. Never use this
information for navigation or to maneuver to avoid
obstacles.
Terrain information is based on terrain elevation
information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Terrain information should be used as an aid to
situational awareness. Never use it for navigation or to
maneuver to avoid terrain.
TAWS uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. The data undergoes verification by Garmin to confirm accuracy of the content,
per TSO-C151b. However, the displayed information
should never be understood as being all-inclusive.
TAWS Alerting Using the GPS Position/GPS-MSL
Altitude
TAWS uses information provided from the GPS
receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude.
GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements.
GPS altitude is converted to a mean sea level (MSL)based altitude (GPS-MSL altitude) and is used to
determine TAWS alerts. GPS-MSL altitude accuracy is
affected by factors such as satellite geometry, but it is
not subject to variations in pressure and temperature
that normally affect pressure altitude devices. GPSMSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings
to determine MSL altitude. Therefore, GPS altitude
provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude
source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
Baro-Corrected Altitude Versus GPS-MSL Altitude
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is
derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local
atmospheric conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating
the altimeter setting to the nearest reporting station
along the flight path. However, because actual atmosphere conditions seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where pressure, temperature, and
29
Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the
baro-corrected altitude (as read from the altimeter)
to differ from the GPS-MSL altitude. This variation
results in the aircraft’s true altitude differing from the
baro-corrected altitude.
Power Up
track, and GPS-derived MSL altitude are displayed
on the page. Altitude is shown in increments of 20
feet or in increments of 10 meters, depending on unit
configuration. The “G” to right of the MSL altitude
display reminds the pilot that altitude is GPS-derived.
The TAWS Page has two selectable view settings:
During power-up of the 500W Series unit, the
terrain/obstacle database versions are displayed along
with a disclaimer to the pilot. At the same time,
TAWS self-test begins. TAWS gives the following aural
messages upon test completion:
• “TAWS System Test, OK”, if the system passes the test
• “TAWS System Failure”, if the system fails the test
A test failure is also annunciated for TAWS, as
shown in the TAWS Alert Summary table.
120˚ Viewing Angle on the TAWS Page
TAWS Page
•360˚ View—View from above aircraft depicting
surrounding terrain on all sides
The TAWS Page is in the NAV group of pages (see
the 500W Series Pilot’s Guide for detailed information
regarding page groups and pages).
•120˚ View—View of terrain ahead of and 60˚ to
either side of the aircraft flight path
NOTE: The TAWS Page gives a “Track Up” display
orientation, as indicated by the “TRK” label shown on
the display. This is the only orientation available for the
TAWS Page.
To display a 120˚ view:
The TAWS Page
To display the TAWS Page, select the NAV group
and turn the small right knob until the TAWS Page
is displayed. Terrain information, aircraft ground
30
1.
Select the TAWS Page and press MENU. Select
“View 120˚?”.
2.
Press ENT. The TAWS Page displays the 120˚
view. To change to a 360˚ view, repeat step 1,
select “View 360˚?”, and press ENT.
Seven display ranges are available, allowing for a
more complete view of the surrounding area.
Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
To change the display range:
1.
Select the TAWS Page and press up or down
on the RNG key to select the desired range:
1 NM, 2 NM, 5 NM, 10 NM, 25 NM, 50 NM,
100 NM.
Aviation information such as airports, VORs, and
other navaids can be turned on or off on the TAWS
Page.
To show or hide aviation information:
1. Press MENU.
2.
Select “Show (or Hide) Aviation Data?” and
press ENT. Pressing the CLR key when the
TAWS Page is displayed can also be used to
toggle aviation information on or off.
Inhibiting Terrain
To inhibit PDA and FLTA alerts:
1.
Select the TAWS Page and press MENU.
“Inhibit Terrain?” is selected by default.
2.
Press ENT. The PDA/FLTA alerts are inhibited.
The
annunciation is displayed in
the terrain annunciator field whenever terrain
is inhibited.
Aviation Data
Inhibit Mode
TAWS provides an “inhibit mode”. This mode is
designed to deactivate PDA/FLTA aural and visual
alerts when they are deemed unnecessary by the
aircrew. Flying VFR into an area where unique terrain
exists could cause the system to annunciate a nuisance
alert. Pilots should use discretion when inhibiting
the TAWS system and always remember to enable the
system when appropriate. Only the PDA and FLTA
alerts are disabled in the inhibit mode. See section 3
for more information on TAWS alerts.
To enable PDA and FLTA alerts:
1.
Select the TAWS Page and press MENU.
“Enable Terrain?” is selected by default.
2.
Press ENT. The PDA/FLTA alerts are functional
again.
External TAWS Inhibit Control
An optional installation is allowed for providing
an external TAWS Inhibit switch. Pressing the external
TAWS Inhibit switch toggles the TAWS inhibit on and
off in the same manner as using the Page Menu selection.
31
Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
TAWS Manual Test
TAWS Symbols
Garmin TAWS provides a manual test capability
which verifies the proper operation of the aural and
visual annunciations of the system prior to a flight.
The symbols depicted below are used to represent
obstacles and potential impact points on the TAWS
Page. Note that obstacle symbols are shown on display
zoom ranges up to 10 NM.
TAWS Alerts
“Test Terrain” selection
To manually test the TAWS system:
1. Select the TAWS Page and press MENU.
2.
Select the “Test Terrain?” option.
3.
Press ENT to confirm the selection.
An aural message is played giving the test results:
• “TAWS System Test, OK” if the system passes the
test
• “TAWS System Failure” if the system fail the test
NOTE: TAWS System Testing is disabled when ground
speed exceeds 30 knots so as not to impede TAWS
alerting.
32
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet
parameters that are set within TAWS software algorithms that detect a potentially hazardous situation.
TAWS alerts typically employ either a CAUTION or a
WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert
is issued, visual annunciations are displayed. Aural
alerts are simultaneously issued.
Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
Color Interpretation
Garmin TAWS uses black, yellow, and red to
depict terrain information relative to aircraft altitude
as shown below. Each color is associated with an alert
severity level and a suggested course of action. Color
assignments are used by terrain graphics, obstacle
symbols, and visual annunciations.
Unlighted Obstacle
< 1000 ft
AGL
Lighted Obstacle
> 1000 ft < 1000 ft > 1000 ft
AGL
AGL
AGL
Potential
Impact
Points
Terrain
Color
Obstacle Symbol
Red
Yellow
Black
Terrain/Obstacle Location Alert Level
Terrain/Obstacle at or within
100 ft below current aircraft
altitude
Terrain/Obstacle between
100 ft and 1000 ft below
current aircraft altitude
Terrain more than 1000 ft
below the aircraft altitude
WARNING
CAUTION
NO DANGER
TAWS Terrain/Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Potential Impact Point
Projected Flight Path
100' Threshold
Unlighted Obstacle
1000' AGL
Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
33
Part Three: Section 2
TAWS Operation
General Database Information
Garmin TAWS uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. The data undergoes verification by Garmin to confirm accuracy of
the content, per TSO-C151b. However, the displayed
information should never be understood as being
all-inclusive. Pilots must familiarize themselves
with the appropriate charts for safe flight.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle
databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot
guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
The terrain/obstacle databases are contained on a
datacard which is inserted in the right-most slot of the
400W/500W Series units.
Database Versions
The version and area of coverage of each terrain/obstacle database is shown on the Terrain Database Versions Page, located in the AUX Page Group.
Databases are checked for integrity at power-up. If a
database is found to be missing and/or deficient, the
TAWS system fails the self-test and displays the TAWS
system failure message.
34
Terrain Database Information
Database Updates
Terrain/obstacle databases are updated periodically with the latest terrain and obstacle data. Visit the
Garmin website to check for newer versions of terrain/
obstacle databases. Compare database cycle numbers
to determine if a newer version is available.
The database update process includes either
reprogramming or replacing the database card and
inserting the updated card in the right card slot on the
unit front panel. The terrain/obstacle database may
be downloaded via the intenet and the card reprogrammed using a USB programmer available from
Garmin. Contact Garmin at 800-800-1020 or at
www.garmin.com for more information.
Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Operation
To update your terrain/obstacle databases:
1. Acquire a new terrain data card from
Garmin.
2.
Turn off the power to the 500W Series unit.
3.
Remove the old terrain data card and insert the
new card into the right-most slot of the 500W
Series unit.
4.
Turn on the 500W Series unit and verify that
the TAWS system passes self-test.
Terrain/Obstacle Database Areas of Coverage
The following describes the area of coverage available in each database. Regional definitions may change
without notice.
The terrain and airport terrain databases include
worldwide coverage that includes: Latitudes South 60°
to North 75°.
The obstacle database provides coverage for the
USA and Europe that includes:
United States: Limited to the United States, some
areas of Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and the
Pacific.
Europe: Limited to Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
NOTE: Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in
the Obstacle Database. It is very important to note that
not all obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore
may not be contained in the Obstacle Database.
Navigation Database
As explained in the “Premature Descent Alerting
(PDA)” section, Garmin TAWS Premature Descent
Alerting (PDA) algorithms utilize data contained in
the navigation database. It is therefore important to
also have the latest navigation database installed to
ensure correct TAWS alerting.
TAWS Phase of Flight
The TAWS Phase of Flight definitions are listed
below:
En Route Phase - Defined as when the aircraft
is more than 15 NM from the destination airport, or
when the conditions for Terminal, Approach, and
Departure Phases are not met.
Terminal Phase - Defined as when all three of the
following conditions are met:
• The aircraft is 15 NM or less from the destination runway.
• The distance to the destination runway threshold is decreasing.
• The aircraft is at or below (lower than) a
straight line drawn between the two points
specified in the table below (relative to the
destination runway).
Distance to Runway
Height above Runway
15 NM
3500 feet
5 NM
1900 feet
Approach Phase - Defined as when all three of
the following conditions are met:
• The distance to the destination runway threshold is equal to or less than 5 NM.
• The height above the destination runway
threshold elevation is equal to or less than 1000
feet.
• The distance to the destination runway threshold is decreasing.
35
Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Alerts
Departure Phase - Defined as when all five of the
following conditions are met:
• It has been determined that the aircraft was
previously “on-ground.”
• The aircraft has a vertical velocity greater than
zero.
• The aircraft has a ground speed greater than
35 knots.
• The aircraft has an altitude greater than 150 feet
AGL and less than 1500 feet AGL.
• The aircraft is within 15 NM of the departure
airport.
NOTE: There are additional factors beyond what is
outlined above that may alter the determined TAWS
flight phase.
Nearest Airport Criteria & TAWS Phase of Flight
Changes to the Nearest Airport Criteria Page affects
how TAWS performs. The nearest airport list is used
to derive the TAWS destination airport when there
is no loaded active flight plan or when off the active
flight plan or when deviating from the active flight
plan (whenever the TAWS algorithms go into estimation mode). In turn, the nearest airport list is used to
determine the TAWS phase of flight. The TAWS phase
of flight dictates the Required Terrain Clearance (RTC)
levels at which Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
(FLTA) alerting occurs. TAWS Premature Descent
Alerting (PDA) alerts are also affected by nearest
airport list configuration. Airports that are not in the
nearest list would not have PDA alerts issued.
36
Nearest Airport Criteria Page
As an example, if the pilot configures the unit
to include only airports with runways 5000 feet or
longer, only these are added to the nearest airport list.
The TAWS phase of flight is affected in that all airport
runways under 5000 feet are NOT included in TAWS
calculations. During a cross-country flight with this
configuration, only airports runways 5000 feet or
greater cause the unit to go into Terminal or Approach
Mode from En Route mode. If the pilot makes an
emergency landing at an airport that did not show up
in the nearest airport list, FLTA alerts would be issued
throughout the descent.
TAWS Destination Airport
The TAWS destination airport is considered to be
the next airport in the flight plan while adhering to
the flight plan path. If no flight plan is entered, or if
the aircraft is not adhering to the entered flight plan
path, the TAWS destination airport is estimated using
the Nearest Airport Criteria as described in the section
above.
Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Alerts
Section 3: TAWS Alerts
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet
parameters that are set within TAWS software
algorithms. TAWS alerts typically employ either a
CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or
both. When an alert is issued, visual annunciations
are displayed. Aural alerts are simultaneously issued.
Annunciations appear in a dedicated field in the lower
left corner of the display.
TAWS Annunciation Field
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance alert,
or FLTA, is used by TAWS and is composed of two
elements:
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance and Reduced
Required Obstacle Clearance
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) Avoidance
— Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC)
and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is
above terrain, yet is projected to come within the
minimum clearance values shown below. When
an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is
displayed on the TAWS Page.
TAWS Annunciation Field
Annunciations are color-coded according to the
TAWS Alert Summary table. Pop-up terrain alerts can
also appear during an alert, but only when the TAWS
Page is not displayed. There are two options when
an alert is displayed:
To acknowledge the pop-up alert and
return to the currently viewed page:
Press the CLR button.
To acknowledge the pop-up alert and
quickly access the TAWS Page:
Press the ENT button.
NOTE: To further capture the attention of the pilot,
TAWS issues aural (voice) messages that accompany
visual annunciations and pop-up alerts. Some aural
messages are configurable during installation of the
system. For a summary of aural messages, see the
TAWS Alert Summary table in Appendix A.
CAUTION—Estimated potential impact in approximately 60
seconds after pop-up alert and annunciation. RTC/ITI caution
alerts are accompanied by the aural message “Caution Terrain; Caution Terrain” OR “Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”.
Similarly, a “Caution Obstacle; Caution Obstacle” or “Obstacle
Ahead; Obstacle Ahead” alert is also provided.
Imminent Terrain Impact and Imminent Obstacle
Impact
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent
Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle
cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts
are accompanied by a potential impact point displayed
on the TAWS Page. The alert is annunciated when
the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come
within minimum clearance altitudes shown below.
37
Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Alerts
During the final approach phase of flight, RTC/ITI
alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is
below 200 feet AGL while within 0.5 NM of the approach
runway or is below 125 feet AGL while within 1.0 NM of
the runway.
Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
WARNING—Estimated potential impact in approximately 30
seconds after pop-up alert and annunciation. RTC/ITI warning
alerts are accompanied by the aural message “Terrain, Terrain;
Pull Up, Pull Up” or “Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead,
Pull Up”. Similarly, a “Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or “Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up” alert is
also provided.
Phase of Flight
En Route
Terminal
Approach
Departure
Level Flight
700 ft.
350 ft.
150 ft.
100 ft.
The TERRAIN system issues a Premature Descent
Alert (PDA) when the system detects that the aircraft
is significantly below the normal approach path to
a runway. PDA begins when the aircraft is within 15
NM of the destination airport. PDA ends when the
aircraft is either 0.5 NM from the runway threshold
or is below an altitude of 125 feet AGL while within
1.0 NM of the threshold.
Descending
500 ft.
300 ft.
100 ft.
100 ft.
Minimum TERRAIN Clearance Values for RTC/ITI Alerts
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38
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Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Alerts
PDA Severity Levels
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CAUTION — The above annunciation and pop-up
terrain alert are displayed during a PDA alert. For
TAWS, the PDA alert is accompanied by the aural
message “Too Low, Terrain”.
Excessive Descent Rate Alert (EDR)
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate alert
is to provide suitable notification when the aircraft is
determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain
at an excessive speed. The parameters for the alert as
defined by TSO-C151b are shown in the Descent Rate
graph.
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
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KR
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TE
IN
����
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"PULL UP"
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Excessive Descent Rate Graph
Excessive Descent Rate Severity Levels
CAUTION—The annunciation and pop-up terrain
alert are accompanied by the aural message “Sink
Rate”.
39
Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Alerts
WARNING—The annunciation and pop-up terrain
alert are accompanied by the aural message “Pull
Up”.
Negative Climb Rate After Takeoff Alert (NCR)
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
The purpose of the Negative Climb Rate After
Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After
Takeoff”) is to provide suitable alerts to the pilot
when the system determines that the aircraft is losing
altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff. The
aural message “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts,
accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the display.
The “Don’t Sink” pop-up terrain alert accompanies the aural
message for the NCR alert. The aural message “Don’t Sink” or
“Too low, terrain” is issued also.
NCR alerting is only active when departing from an
airport and when the following conditions are met:
• The height above the terrain is less than 700
feet
• The distance from the departure airport is 2 NM
or less
• The heading change from the heading at the
time of departure is less than 110 degrees
The NCR alerting parameters as defined by TSOC151b are shown in the Negative Climb Rate graph.
1000
800
600
400
"DON'T SINK"
200
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
Altitude Loss (feet)
Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Graph
40
120
140
Part Three: Section 3
TAWS Alerts
“Five-Hundred” Aural Alert
TAWS Not Available Alert
The purpose of the aural alert message “Five-Hundred” is to provide an advisory alert to the pilot that
the aircraft is five-hundred feet above terrain. When
the aircraft descends within 500 feet of terrain, the
aural message “Five-hundred” is generated. There are
no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the aural message.
Garmin TAWS requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums.
Should the navigation solution become degraded, or
if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the
annunciation “TER N/A” is generated in the annunciation window. When the GPS signal is re-established
and the aircraft is within the database coverage area,
the “TER N/A” annunciation is removed.
TAWS Failure Alert
TAWS continually monitors several system-critical
items, such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the aural message “TAWS System Failure” is issued
along with the “TER FAIL” annunciation.
TAWS Alert Summary
The aural alert voice gender is configurable to be
either male or female. Also, there are different alert
text phrases available for several of the alerts, as shown
below. See your Garmin installer for further information on configuring the alert system.
41
Appendix A
TAWS Alerts
TAWS Alerts Summary
Alert Type
TAWS Page
Annunciation
Pop-Up Alert
Aural Message
TAWS System Failure
None
“TAWS System Failure”
Terrain Inhibited
None
None
Terrain Not Available
None
“Terrain Not Available”
Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) Caution
“Sink Rate”
Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) Warning
“Pull Up”
Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) Caution
or
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
or
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
or
Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
or
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
Caution
or
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
Warning
or
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull
Up”
Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) Warning
Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) Caution
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) Warning
NOTE: TAWS Caution Alerts are displayed as constant black text on a yellow background; TAWS Warning Alerts are displayed as
constant white text on a red background.
42
Appendix A
TAWS Alerts
Alert Type
TAWS Page
Annunciation
Pop-Up Alert
Aural Message
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
or
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull
Up”
or
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) Caution
Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) Warning
Premature Descent Alert (PDA) Caution
“Too Low, Terrain”
Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Caution
or
“Don’t Sink”
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
“Five-Hundred”
Altitude Callout “500”
None
NOTE: TAWS Caution Alerts are displayed as constant black text on a yellow background; TAWS Warning Alerts are displayed as
constant white text on a red background.
TAWS Alerts Summary (continued)
43
Appendix A
Blank Page
44
© 2006 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries
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Garmin AT, Inc.
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Garmin Corporation
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Part Number: 190-00356-30 Revision A