Garmin GNS 400W GPS Receiver User Manual

400W Series
Pilot’s Guide
& Reference
Foreword
Foreword
Garmin International, Inc., 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Tel: 913/397.8200
Fax: 913/397.8282
Garmin AT, Inc., 2345 Turner Rd., S.E., Salem, Oregon 97302, U.S.A.
Tel: 503/581.8101
Fax: 503/364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Bulls Copse Road, Hounsdown Business Park, Southhampton, SO40 9RB, U.K.
Tel. +44 (0) 870 850 1243
Fax +44 (0) 238 052 4004
Garmin Corporation, No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road, Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
Tel: 886/02.2642.9199
Fax: 886/02.2642.9099
Web Site Address: www.garmin.com
This manual reflects the operation of Main System Software versions 2.00, 3.00, or later. Some differences in operation
may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
© 2009 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved. Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this
manual may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored in any storage medium,
for any purpose without the express written permission of Garmin. Garmin hereby grants permission to download a single copy of this manual and of any revision to this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic storage
medium to be viewed for personal use, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual or revision
must contain the complete text of this copyright notice and provided further that any unauthorized commercial
distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Garmin reserves the right to change or improve
their products and to make changes in the content of this material without obligation to notify any person or
organization of such changes or improvements.
July 2009
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INTRODUCTION
Cautions
Cautions
Introduction
WARNING: The altitude calculated by the 400W-series
is geometric height above mean sea level and could
vary significantly from altitude displayed by pressure
altimeters in aircraft.
CAUTION: The Terrain feature is for supplemental
awareness only. The pilot/crew is responsible for all
terrain and obstacle avoidance using information not
provided by the 400W-series Terrain feature.
WARNING: The Jeppesen database incorporated in
the 400W-series must be updated regularly in order
to ensure that its information is current. Updates are
released every 28 days. A database information packet
is included in your 400W-series package. Pilots using
an out-of-date database do so entirely at their own
risk!
CAUTION: The Garmin 400W-series does not contain
any user-serviceable parts. Repairs should only
be made by an authorized Garmin service center.
Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void your
warranty and authority to operate this device under
FCC Part 15 regulations.
WARNING: VNAV is to be used for advisory purposes
only. VNAV messages or vertical speed required should
not be used to maintain terrain or ATC clearances. Terrain and ATC clearances are the sole responsibility of
the pilot.
CAUTION: The Global Positioning System is operated
by the United States government, which is solely responsible for its accuracy and maintenance. The system
is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy
and performance of all GPS equipment. Although the
Garmin 400W-series are precision electronic NAVigation AIDs (NAVAID), any NAVAID can be misused or
misinterpreted and therefore become unsafe.
CAUTION: GPS receivers operate by receiving and
decoding very low power radio signals broadcast by
satellites. It is possible that in some situations other
radio equipment or electronic equipment used in close
proximity to a GPS receiver may create electromagnetic
interference (EMI) which may affect the ability of the
GPS receiver to receive and decode the satellite signals.
In such event, the interference may be reduced or
eliminated by switching off the source of interference
or moving the GPS receiver away from it.
NOTE: The GNS 400W-series units use a different
database than in the legacy units. The databases are incompatible between units. The GNS 400W-series units
must use a WAAS enabled database.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components
contain chemicals known to the State of California to
cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This
notice is being provided in accordance with California’s
Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like
additional information, please refer to our website at
www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: It is the pilot’s responsibility for initial missed
approach guidance in accordance with published procedure. The unit may not provide correct guidance until
established on a defined leg.
NOTE: GPS level of service annunciations (LPV, ENR,
etc.) are not applicable to the external CDI (or HSI)
when VLOC is active.
CAUTION: Use the 400W-series at your own risk. To
reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review
and understand all aspects of this Owner’s Manual and
the Flight Manual Supplement, and thoroughly practice
basic operation prior to actual use. When in actual use,
carefully compare indications from the 400W-series to
all available navigation sources, including the information from other NAVAIDS, visual sightings, charts, etc. For
safety, always resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation.
CAUTION: The electronic chart is an aid to navigation and is designed to facilitate the use of authorized
government charts, not replace them. Land and water
data is provided only as a general reference to your
surroundings. The positional accuracy of the land and
water data is not of a precision suitable for use in
navigation and it should not be used for navigation.
Only official government charts and notices contain
all information needed for safe navigation – and, as
always, the user is responsible for their prudent use.
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INTRODUCTION
Cautions
NOTE: This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC limits for
Class B digital devices. This equipment generates, uses, and
can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and
used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful
interference to radio communications. Furthermore, there is
no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular
installation.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by relocating the
equipment or connecting the equipment to a different circuit
than the affected equipment. Consult an authorized dealer or
other qualified avionics technician for additional help if these
remedies do not correct the problem.
Operation of this device is subject to the following conditions:
(1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2)
this device must accept any interference received, including
interference that may cause undesired operation.
To obtain accessories for your 400W-series, please contact
your Garmin dealer.
Help us better support you by completing our on-line registration form today! Registration ensures that you will be notified
of product updates and new products and provides lost or stolen unit tracking. Please, have the serial number of your unit
handy, connect to our web site (www.garmin.com) and look for
our Product Registration link on the home page.
The 400W-series display lenses are coated with a special antireflective coating which is very sensitive to skin oils, waxes
and abrasive cleaners. It is very important to clean the lens
using an eyeglass lens cleaner which is specified as safe for
anti-reflective coatings and a clean, lint-free cloth.
AC 90-100 Statement of Compliance: The Garmin 400W
navigational unit meets the performance and functional
requirements of AC 90-100A.
Garmin is fully committed to your
satisfaction as a customer. If you
have any questions regarding the
400W-series, please contact our
customer service department at:
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, KS 66062-3426 U.S.A.
Phone: (913) 397-8200
Fax: (913) 397-8282
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INTRODUCTION
Accessories and Packing List
Accessories and Packing List
Congratulations on choosing the world’s finest
panel-mounted IFR navigation/communication system!
The 400W-series represents Garmin’s continued commitment to providing you with the most advanced
technology available today — in an accurate, easy-touse design suitable for all of your flying needs.
Unless otherwise specified within this manual,
the term "400W-series" applies to the GPS 400W,
GNC 420W, GNC 420AW, GNS 430W, and GNS
430AW models. Please note that the difference
between these models is indicated in the Specifications section of this manual (see Appendix B).
Before installing and getting started with your new
system, please ensure that your package includes the
following items. If any parts are missing or are damaged, please contact your Garmin dealer.
Standard Package:
• Garmin 400W-series Unit
• NavData® Card
• Terrain Card
• GPS Antenna
• Installation Rack & Connectors
• Pilot’s Guide
• Quick Reference
• 400W/500W Series Display Interfaces
Addendum
• 400W/500W Series Garmin Optional Display
Interfaces Addendum
• GNS 400W/500W-series Simulator Training
CD-ROM
• Database Subscription Packet
• Warranty Registration Card
Upgrade Package:
• Garmin 400W-series Unit
• NavData® Card
• Terrain Card (optional)
• GPS Antenna
• Pilot’s Guide & Reference
• Quick Reference
• 400W/500W Series Display Interfaces
Addendum
• 400W/500W Series Garmin Optional Display
Interfaces Addendum
• GNS 400W/500W-series Simulator Training
CD-ROM
• Database Subscription Packet
• Warranty Registration Card
Your Garmin dealer will perform the installation
and configuration of your new 400W-series unit. After
installation, the NavData® card will already be installed
into the correct slot on the front of the unit (see
Appendix A). The 400W-series will be secured in the
installation rack with the proper wiring connections.
Have your dealer answer any questions you may have
about the installation — such as location of antennas
or any connections to other equipment in the panel.
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INTRODUCTION
Warranty
Limited Warranty
This Garmin product is warranted to be free from defects in materials or workmanship for two years from the
date of purchase. Within this period, Garmin will, at its sole option, repair or replace any components that fail in
normal use. Such repairs or replacement will be made at no charge to the customer for parts and labor, provided
that the customer shall be responsible for any transportation cost. This warranty does not cover failures due to
abuse, misuse, accident, or unauthorized alterations or repairs.
THE WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES CONTAINED HEREIN ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL
OTHER WARRANTIES EXPRESS OR IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING ANY LIABILITY ARISING UNDER
ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, STATUTORY OR
OTHERWISE. THIS WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, WHICH MAY VARY FROM STATE TO
STATE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL GARMIN BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER RESULTING FROM THE USE, MISUSE, OR INABILITY TO USE THIS
PRODUCT OR FROM DEFECTS IN THE PRODUCT. Some states do not allow the exclusion of incidental or
consequential damages, so the above limitations may not apply to you.
Garmin retains the exclusive right to repair or replace the unit or software, or to offer a full refund of the purchase price, at its sole discretion. SUCH REMEDY SHALL BE YOUR SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR ANY
BREACH OF WARRANTY.
To obtain warranty service, contact your local Garmin Authorized Service Center. For assistance in locating
a Service Center near you, visit the Garmin Web site at “http://www.garmin.com” or contact Garmin Customer
Service at 800-800-1020.
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INTRODUCTION
Table of Contents
Contents
Introduction..................................................................................................i
Cautions...............................................................................................i
Accessories and Packing List...........................................................iii
Limited Warranty.............................................................................. iv
Model Descriptions...........................................................................1
GPS 400W.................................................................................1
GNC 420W/420AW...................................................................1
GNS 430W/430AW....................................................................1
Takeoff Tour.................................................................................................1
Key and Knob Functions...................................................................2
Left-hand Keys and Knobs..........................................................2
Right-hand Keys and Knobs.......................................................3
Bottom Row Keys.......................................................................4
Power On............................................................................................5
Powering up the 400W-Series Unit.................................................5
Instrument Panel Self-Test................................................................6
Fuel On Board and Checklists..........................................................7
Acquiring Satellites/Messages.........................................................8
Selecting COM and VLOC Frequencies............................................9
Page Groups.....................................................................................10
Nav Pages.........................................................................................12
Default Nav Page.............................................................................13
Map Page..........................................................................................14
NavCom Page...................................................................................15
Direct-To Navigation.......................................................................16
IFR Procedures.................................................................................17
Nearest (NRST) Pages......................................................................18
Nearest Airport........................................................................19
Nearest Airspace Page....................................................................20
Flight Plans.......................................................................................21
Section 1 - COM - Communicating Using the GNC 420W/AW and
GNS 430W/AW............................................................................................23
Volume..............................................................................................23
Squelch..............................................................................................23
COM Window and Tuning................................................................24
Auto-Tuning......................................................................................25
Emergency Channel.........................................................................27
Stuck Microphone............................................................................27
Remote Frequency Selection Control............................................28
Section 2 NAV Pages...............................................................................29
Main Page Groups...........................................................................29
NAV Page Group..............................................................................29
Default NAV Page............................................................................30
Selecting Desired On-Screen Data............................................31
Restoring Factory Settings........................................................32
Dual Unit Considerations.........................................................32
Map Page..........................................................................................32
Map Symbols...........................................................................33
Map Range..............................................................................33
Map Page Auto Zoom..............................................................34
Map Panning...........................................................................35
Map Direct-To..........................................................................36
Airspace Information on the Map.............................................36
Map Page Options...........................................................................37
Map Setup...............................................................................37
Data Fields on the Map............................................................40
Selecting Desired On-Screen Data............................................40
Restoring Factory Settings........................................................41
Terrain Operation.............................................................................41
Operating Criteria....................................................................41
Terrain Limitations...................................................................41
TERRAIN Alerting.....................................................................42
Baro-Corrected Altitude...........................................................42
Terrain Page ...........................................................................42
Inhibit Mode............................................................................43
Terrain Symbols........................................................................44
General Database Information..................................................45
Database Versions....................................................................45
Database Updates...................................................................45
Terrain/Obstacle Database Areas of Coverage...........................46
Navigation Database...............................................................46
TERRAIN Alerts.................................................................................46
Pop-up Alerts...........................................................................46
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance..........................................47
Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)............................................48
TERRAIN Failure Alert...............................................................48
“TERRAIN Not Available” Alert.................................................49
NAVCOM Page..................................................................................51
Position Page....................................................................................52
Restoring Factory Settings.............................................................54
Satellite Status Page.......................................................................55
Vertical Navigation Page................................................................56
Dead Reckoning...............................................................................59
Section 3 Direct-To Navigation............................................................61
Selecting a Direct-To Waypoint by Facility Name or City...........62
Selecting a Direct-To Waypoint from the Active Flight Plan......63
Selecting the Nearest Airport as a Direct-To Waypoint..............63
Shortcuts...........................................................................................64
Cancelling Direct-To Navigation....................................................65
Specifying a Course to a Waypoint................................................65
Selecting Direct-To a Holding Pattern...........................................66
Section 4 Flight Plans..............................................................................67
Flight Plan Catalog..........................................................................67
Flight Plan Catalog Editing.............................................................67
Flight Plan Catalog Options...........................................................68
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INTRODUCTION
Activating Flight Plans..............................................................68
Inverting Flight Plans...............................................................69
Create a new flight plan...........................................................69
Crossfill...................................................................................70
Copying Flight Plans................................................................70
Deleting Flight Plans................................................................70
Deleting All Flight Plans...........................................................71
Sort List By Number?/Sort List by Comment? ...........................71
Active Flight Plan Page...................................................................72
Active Flight Plan Options..............................................................72
Activate Leg.............................................................................72
Crossfill...................................................................................73
Copy Flight Plan......................................................................73
Invert Flight Plan......................................................................73
Delete Flight Plan....................................................................73
Select Approach.......................................................................73
Select Arrival............................................................................74
Select Departure......................................................................75
Remove Approach, Arrival, or Departure...................................75
Closest Point of FPL.................................................................75
Parallel Track............................................................................76
Change Fields..........................................................................77
Restore Defaults......................................................................77
Shortcuts...........................................................................................78
Flight Plan Transfer Feature (optional with software V 3.20 or
later).................................................................................................80
Section 5 - Procedures - Approaches, Departures, & Arrivals........83
Basic Approach Operations............................................................85
Approaches with Procedure Turns.................................................86
Flying the Procedure Turn...............................................................87
Flying the Missed Approach...........................................................90
Flying an Approach with a Hold.....................................................91
Flying a DME Arc Approach............................................................94
Vectors to Final................................................................................97
Flying the Vectors Approach...........................................................98
Course From Fix Flight Plan Legs.................................................100
ILS Approaches...............................................................................104
Selecting an ILS Approach......................................................105
Flying the ILS Approach..........................................................106
Selecting an LPV Approach...........................................................109
Flying the LPV Approach........................................................110
Flying the LP Approach.................................................................112
RNAV Approach Procedures.........................................................113
Points to Remember for All Approaches.....................................113
Points to Remember for Localizer or VOR-based Approaches.114
Enabling Autopilot Outputs for the King KAP140/KFC225.......115
Section 6 WPT Pages.............................................................................117
WPT Page Group............................................................................117
vi
Duplicate Waypoints.....................................................................119
Airport Runway Page....................................................................121
Airport Frequency Page................................................................122
Airport Approach Page..................................................................124
Airport Arrival Page.......................................................................126
Airport Departure Page................................................................127
Intersection Page...........................................................................129
NDB Page........................................................................................129
VOR Page........................................................................................130
User Waypoint Page.......................................................................131
Creating User Waypoints..............................................................131
Creating User Waypoints from the Map Page............................133
Modifying User Waypoints...........................................................133
User Waypoint Page Options........................................................134
User Waypoint List.........................................................................135
Section 7 NRST Pages...........................................................................137
NRST Page Group...........................................................................137
Navigating to a Nearby Waypoint...............................................139
Nearest Airport Page.....................................................................139
Nearest Intersection Page............................................................141
Nearest NDB Page.........................................................................141
Nearest VOR Page..........................................................................141
Nearest User Waypoint Page........................................................142
Nearest Center (ARTCC) Page.......................................................142
Nearest Flight Service Station (FSS) Page..................................143
Nearest Airspace Page..................................................................144
Section 8 VLOC (VOR/Localizer/Glideslope) Receiver Operations....
. ..........................................................................................................149
Ident Audio and Volume................................................................149
VLOC Window and Tuning.............................................................149
CDI Key............................................................................................152
Section 9 AUX Pages.............................................................................153
AUX Page Group............................................................................153
Flight Planning Page......................................................................154
Fuel Planning.........................................................................155
Trip Planning.........................................................................157
Density Alt / TAS / Winds........................................................158
Crossfill Operation.................................................................159
Scheduler..............................................................................161
Utility Page.....................................................................................162
Checklists..............................................................................164
Flight Timers..........................................................................165
Trip Statistics.........................................................................166
RAIM Prediction.....................................................................167
Sunrise / Sunset.....................................................................168
Software / Database Versions.................................................168
Setup 1 Page..................................................................................169
Airspace Alarms.....................................................................171
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INTRODUCTION
CDI Scale / Alarms.................................................................172
Units / Mag Var......................................................................173
Position Format......................................................................174
Map Datum ..........................................................................174
Date / Time............................................................................174
Restoring Factory Settings......................................................175
Setup 2 Page..................................................................................175
Display..................................................................................177
Nearest Airport Criteria..........................................................178
SBAS Selection.......................................................................178
Restoring Factory Settings......................................................179
Section 10 Fault Detection & Exclusion............................................180
Detection and Exclusion...............................................................180
Section 11 Messages, Abbreviations, and Navigation Terminology
. ..........................................................................................................181
Messages........................................................................................181
Turn Advisory and Arrival Annunciations....................................187
Flight Plan Transfer Messages......................................................188
Abbreviations.................................................................................189
Navigation Terms...........................................................................193
Appendix A NavData Card Use...........................................................195
Appendix B Specifications...................................................................196
Appendix C Troubleshooting Q&A.....................................................197
Index..........................................................................................................203
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Model Descriptions
Model Descriptions
This guide covers the operation of the GPS 400W,
GNC 420W, GNC 420AW, GNS 430W, GNS 430AW.
In general, all models will be referred to as the 400Wseries, except where there are physical or operational
differences. The 400W-series units are 6.25” wide and
2.66” high. The display is a 240 by 128 pixel color LCD.
The units include two removable data cards, one with
a Jeppesen database (inserted in the left-most card slot)
and the second being a Terrain database (inserted in the
right-most card slot).
GPS 400W
The GPS 400W has a WAAS GPS engine and is TSO
C146a certified for primary domestic, oceanic, and
remote navigation including en route, terminal, and
non-precision approaches, and approaches with vertical
guidance, such as LPV and LNAV/VNAV. The GPS 400W
can simultaneously give aviators vital approach information and weather and traffic data in relation to their
position on a color moving map display. Thanks to a
high-contrast color display, the information can be easily
read from wide viewing angles even in direct sunlight. Its
color moving map features a built-in database that shows
cities, highways, railroads, rivers, lakes, coastlines, and a
complete Jeppesen database. The huge Jeppesen database
(that can be updated with a front-loading data card)
contains all airports, VORs, NDBs, Intersections, FSS,
Approach, DPs/STARs, and SUA information.
Pilots will enjoy the GPS 400W as an MFD, especially
when it is coupled with traffic, lightning detection, and
weather interfaces like Ryan TCAD, TIS from the Garmin
GTX 330 Mode S transponder, or L3 SKYWATCH™, or
STORMSCOPE® WX 500. With the PC-based FDE prediction program, the GPS 400W may be used for oceanic
or remote operations. For the latest in graphical and
textual weather information, the GPS 400W can connect
to XM Satellite Radio’s XM WX Weather Service via the
GDL 69/69A datalink receiver.
GNC 420W/420AW
The GNS 430W/AW includes all of the features of
the GPS 400W, and also includes TSO’d airborne VHF
communications transceiver. This multipurpose unit is
available with either a 10-watt (GNS 420W) or 16-watt
28 V dc (GNS 420AW) COM.
GNS 430W/430AW
The GNS 430W/AW includes all of the features of the
GPS 420W/420AW, and also includes TSO’d airborne
VOR/Localizer and Glideslope receivers. This multipurpose unit is available with either a 10-watt (GNS 430W)
or 16-watt 28 V dc (GNS 430AW) COM.
Takeoff Tour
This Takeoff Tour is intended to provide a brief
introduction of the 400W-series major features. The
rest of this manual describes these features, and others,
in additional detail. Use this guide, as needed, to learn
or review the details regarding a particular feature. The
Index may be used to quickly locate the information
you want. Before flying with your 400W-series unit, take
the time to review the information in the manuals and
practice with the trainer.
After you’re familiar with the basics, some suggested
reading within the Reference section includes:
• Flight plan features - Section 4
• Waypoint information pages (database information)
- Section 6
• IFR procedures - Section 5
• Unit settings (configuring the unit to your preferences) - Section 9
If you’re unable to locate the information you need,
we’re here to help! Garmin’s Customer Service staff is
available during normal business hours (U.S. Central
time zone) at the phone and fax numbers listed on page
ii. You can also reach us by mail (see page ii) or at our
web site address: www.garmin.com.
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Key and Knob Functions
Key and Knob Functions
The 400W-series unit is designed to make operation
as simple as possible. The key and knob descriptions on
the next three pages provide a general overview of the
primary function(s) for each key and knob. This Takeoff
Tour section is intended to provide a brief overview of
the primary functions of your 400W-series unit. Experiment with the unit and refer to the Reference sections
for more information.
Left-hand Keys and Knobs
GPS 400W
GNC 420W/AW
W
GNS 430W/AW
The small left knob (COM/VLOC)
(420W/430W only) is used to tune the kilohertz (kHz) value (to the right of the decimal
point) of the standby frequency for the communications transceiver (COM) or the VLOC
receiver, whichever is currently selected by the
tuning cursor. Press this knob momentarily
to toggle the tuning cursor between the COM
and VLOC frequency fields.
The COM flip-flop key (420W/430W only)
is used to swap the active and standby COM
frequencies. Press and hold to select emergency channel (121.500 MHz).
f
V
Left-hand Keys and Knobs
k
The COM power/volume knob (420W/430W
only) controls unit power and communications
radio volume. Press momentarily to disable
automatic squelch control. In the GPS 400W,
this control is used only for power.
j
The VLOC volume knob (430W only)
controls audio volume for the selected VOR/
Localizer frequency. Press momentarily to
enable/disable the ident tone.
h
The large left knob (COM/VLOC)
(420W/430W only) is used to tune the megahertz (MHz) value (to the left of the decimal
point) of the standby frequency for the communications transceiver (COM) or the VLOC
receiver, whichever is currently selected by
the tuning cursor.
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The VLOC flip-flop key (430W only) is
used to swap the active and standby VLOC
frequencies (i.e., make the selected standby
frequency active).
TAKEOFF TOUR
Key and Knob Functions
Right-hand Keys and Knobs
E The enter key (ENT) is used to approve an
operation or complete data entry. It is also
used to confirm information, such as during
power on.
Right-hand Keys and Knobs
d
The large right knob is used to select
between the various page groups: NAV, WPT,
AUX or NRST. With the on-screen cursor
enabled, the large right knob allows you to
move the cursor about the page.
a
The small right knob (CRSR) is used to
select between the various pages within one
of the groups listed above. Press this knob
momentarily to display the on-screen cursor.
The cursor allows you to enter data and/or
make a selection from a list of options.
R The range key (RNG) allows you to select
the desired map scale. Use the up arrow side
of the key to zoom out to a larger area, or
the down arrow side to zoom in to a smaller
area.
D The direct-to key provides access to the
direct-to function, which allows you to enter
a destination waypoint and establishes a
direct course to the selected destination. See
Section 3.
m The MENU key displays a context-sensitive
list of options. This options list allows you
to access additional features or make settings
changes which relate to the currently displayed page.
c The clear key (CLR) is used to erase infor-
mation or cancel an entry. Press and hold
this key to immediately display the Default
Navigation Page, regardless of which page is
currently displayed.
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Key and Knob Functions
Bottom Row Keys
N The nearest (NRST) key (400W/420W
only) displays the nearest airports page.
Then, turning the small right knob steps
through the NRST pages.
GPS 400W / GNC 420W
C The CDI key (430W only) is used to toggle
}
O The OBS key is used to select manual or
automatic sequencing of waypoints. Pressing
the OBS key selects OBS mode, which will
retain the current “active to” waypoint as
your navigation reference even after passing the waypoint (i.e., prevents sequencing
to the next waypoint). Pressing the OBS
key again will return to normal operation,
with automatic sequencing of waypoints.
Whenever OBS mode is selected, you may set
the desired course to/from a waypoint using
the OBS Page, or an external OBS selector on
your HSI or CDI.
Whenever the 400W-series unit is displaying a list of information that is too
long for the display screen, a scroll bar
will appear along the right-hand side
of the display. The scroll bar graphically
indicates the number of additional items
available within the selected category.
Simply press the small right knob to
activate the cursor and turn the large
right knob to scroll through the list.
M The message key (MSG) is used to view
system messages and important warnings and
requirements. See Sections 11 and 9 for more
information on messages and unit settings.
F
4
scroll bar
GNS 430W
which navigation source (GPS or VLOC) provides output to an external HSI or CDI.
P The procedures key (PROC) allows you to
The flight plan key (FPL) allows you to
create, edit, activate and invert flight plans,
as well as access approaches, departures and
arrivals. A closest point to flight plan feature
is also available from the flight plan key. See
Section 4 for more information on flight
plans.
190-00356-00 Rev E
select and remove approaches, departures
and arrivals from your flight plan. When
using a flight plan, available procedures for
your departure and/or arrival airport are
offered automatically. Otherwise, you may
select the desired airport, then the desired
procedure.
TAKEOFF TOUR
Power On
Power On
Powering up the 400W-Series Unit
The Garmin 400W-series provides you accurate
navigational data and some models also have communication capability, along with non-precision and
precision approach certification in the IFR environment. The Takeoff Tour is designed to familiarize you
with the operation of the 400W-series — including
powering up the unit, changing frequencies, entering
data, performing a simple direct-to, selecting IFR procedures and provides a limited introduction to using
flight plans. In addition, this section briefly covers the
default navigation, map and frequency pages available
as part of the NAV page group. These pages will be
used for most of your in-flight navigation.
The 420W and 430W power and COM volume
are controlled using the power/volume knob at the
top left corner of the unit. The 400W power knob
is located at the top left corner of the unit. Turning
it clockwise will turn unit power on and increase the
COM radio volume. After turning the unit on, a Welcome page will be displayed while the unit performs a
self test, followed by the database confirmation pages
which show the current database information on the
NavData card (with the valid operating dates, cycle
number and database type indicated). The database
is updated every 28 days, and must be current for
approved instrument approach operations. Information on database subscriptions is available inside your
400W-series package.
The Takeoff Tour assumes that the unit and antennas have been properly installed and you have not
changed any of the 400W-series unit default settings.
If you have changed any of the factory default settings
(position format, units of measure, selectable fields,
etc.), the pictures shown here may not exactly match
what you see on your 400W-series unit. Prior to using
your unit for the first time, we recommend that you
taxi to a location that is well away from buildings
and other aircraft so the unit can collect satellite data
without interruption.
To acknowledge the database information, press
ENT.
Power-up Sequence
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Instrument Panel Self-Test
Check CDI/HSI,
RMI and other
instruments
to verify these
indications
{
}
Fuel Figures: May be
entered manually if no
sensor present
Select to Set Fuel Level
to Full Capacity
Select to display
Checklists Page
Should match current
OBS course selection
Instrument Panel Self-Test
Once the database has been acknowledged, the
instrument panel self-test page will appear. To ensure
that your 400W-series unit and any connected instruments are working properly, check for the following
indications on your CDI/HSI, RMI, external annunciators and other connected instruments:
To enter fuel capacity, fuel on board or fuel flow
figures (if not provided by sensors):
1.
Turn the large right knob to select the “CAP”,
“FOB” or “FF” field.
2.
Turn the small and large right knobs to enter
the desired figure, then press ENT.
• Course deviation
• Glideslope
• TO/FROM flag
• Time to destination
• Bearing to destination
• Desired track
• Distance to dest.
• Ground speed
• All external annunciators (if installed)
The instrument panel self-test page indicates the currently selected OBS course, fuel capacity (CAP), fuel
on board (FOB) and fuel flow (FF). The fuel capacity,
fuel on board and fuel flow may be manually entered
if your installation does not include connection to sensors which automatically provide these figures.
6
190-00356-00 Rev E
Enter the fuel capacity, fuel on board or fuel
flow figures directly onto the appropriate
field of the instrument panel self-test page.
These figures will automatically be provided
if your installation includes connection to
external sensors.
TAKEOFF TOUR
Fuel On Board & Checklists
Fuel On Board and Checklists
To view the checklists page:
The instrument panel self-test page includes selections to set fuel on board (FOB) to full capacity and
access the checklists page. This allows you to quickly
set fuel to full limits and display any checklists you’ve
entered, such as start up or takeoff checklists.
1.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Go To
Chklist?” and press ENT.
To set fuel on board to full (if not provided by
sensor):
1.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Set
Full Fuel?”.
Select “Set Full Fuel?” to set fuel on board
(FOB) to full capacity.
2.
Press ENT and verify that fuel on board
(“FOB”) now matches the fuel capacity (CAP)
figure. Fuel on board will now be reduced, over
time, based on the fuel flow (FF) figure.
Select “Go To Chklist?” to display the checklist page and any available checklists. The
400W-series unit can hold up to nine checklists with up to 30 entries in each checklist.
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
checklist, then follow the steps in Section 9
- Aux Pages - Utility Page to execute each
step in the selected checklist.
3.
Once you complete the desired checklist(s),
press the small right knob to return to the
checklists page. Press the small right knob
again to return to normal operation on the
satellite status or map pages.
Once you’ve verified instrument operation with
the instrument panel self-test page displayed,
press the ENT key.
The satellite status page will appear as the 400Wseries unit begins to collect satellite information. An
“Acquiring” status will be displayed on the satellite
status page, and the signal strength of any satellites
received will appear as “bar graph” readings. This is
a good indication that you are receiving signals and a
position fix will be determined. Following the firsttime use of your 400W-series unit, the time required
for a position fix will vary—within two minutes.
190-00356-00 Rev E
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Acquiring Satellites / Messages
Acquiring Satellites/Messages
If the 400W-series unit has not been operated for a
period of six months or more, it may have to “Search
the Sky” to collect new data. This means the unit is
acquiring satellite data to establish almanac and satellite orbit information, which can take 5 to 10 minutes.
The Satellite Status Page displays a “Searching Sky”
status, and the message annunciator (MSG) above the
MSG key also flashes to alert you of a system message,
“Searching the Sky”.
The Time and other data may not be displayed
until the unit has acquired enough satellites for a fix.
To view a system message, press the MSG key.
The satellite status page shows the ID numbers for the satellites and the relative signal
strength of each satellite received (as a “bar
graph” reading.
“Searching Sky” indicates that satellite almanac
data is not available. The data is recollected from the
first available satellite.
“Acquiring” indicates that satellites have been
located and information is being acquired, but the
receiver does not have enough satellites for a 3-dimensional position.
“3D NAV” indicates that a 3-dimensional position
is available.
Message Page
The message page will appear and display the status
or warning information applicable to the receiver’s current operating condition.
To return to the previous page after viewing a
message, press the MSG key again.
8
“3D DIFF NAV” indicates when a 3-dimensional
position is available and differential corrections are
being used.
The “INTEG” annunciator (bottom left corner of
the screen) indicates that satellite coverage is insufficient to pass built-in integrity monitoring tests.
190-00356-00 Rev E
TAKEOFF TOUR
420W / 430W Only
Selecting COM and VLOC Frequencies
While the 400W-series unit is acquiring a position,
let’s take a minute to dial in the active and standby
frequencies you’ll be using for the first phase of your
flight. The 400W-series display is divided into separate
“windows” (or screen areas), including a COM window,
VLOC window, and the GPS window.
COM Window:
Active Frequency
VLOC Window:
Active Frequency
COM Window:
Standby Frequency
with tuning cursor
Pushing the small left knob activates the tuning
cursor in the desired frequency window. To select the
active frequency, you must first enter the frequency
in the standby field, and use the COM flip-flop (or
VLOC flip-flop) key to move it to the active field.
Once you’ve entered the active frequency, simply
repeat steps 1 through 3, above, to enter the standby
frequency. After both communication frequencies have
been entered, you may elect to keep the COM window
‘hot’ by leaving the cursor on the standby frequency, or
move the cursor to the VLOC window by pressing the
small left knob.
Once you’ve entered the active frequency, simply
repeat steps 1 to 3, above, to enter the standby frequency. After both communication frequencies have
been entered, you may elect to keep the COM window
“hot” by leaving the cursor on the standby frequency,
or move the cursor to the VLOC window by pressing
the small left knob.
To change the standby communication (COM) or
VLOC frequency:
1.
2.
3.
4.
If the tuning cursor is not currently in the
desired window (COM or VLOC), press the
small left knob momentarily to switch the
highlight between the COM and VLOC windows. Adjusting the frequencies with the large
and small left knobs will affect the standby
frequency.
Turn the large left knob to select the desired
megahertz (MHz) value. For example, the
“135” portion of the frequency “135.325”.
Turn the small left knob to select the desired
kilohertz (kHz) value. For example, the “.325”
portion of the frequency “135.325”.
Selecting COM and VLOC Frequencies
NOTE: When selecting VLOC frequencies, the
tuning cursor automatically returns to the COM
window after 30 seconds of inactivity.
NOTE: GPS level of service annunciations (LPV,
ENR, etc.) are not applicable to the external CDI
(or HSI) when VLOC is active.
These features are only available in the 420W/430W
units.
To activate the selected frequency, press the
appropriate flip-flop key—COM for communication frequencies or VLOC for VOR/Localizer
frequencies.
190-00356-00 Rev E
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Page Groups
Page Groups
d
(Large right knob to change page groups)
NAV Group
WPT Group
a
(Small right knob to select pages within the group)
Default NAV
Map
Arpt Location
Arpt Departure
Arpt Runway
Intersection
Arpt Frequency
NDB
Arpt Approach
VOR
Arpt Arrival
User Waypoint
Terrain
NAVCOM
Position
Satellite Status
VNAV
Selection of any main page is performed using the large and small right knobs. The large right knob selects the page group: NAV, WPT, AUX or
NRST. The small right knob selects the desired page within a group. To quickly select the default NAV page, press and hold the CLR key.
10
190-00356-00 Rev E
TAKEOFF TOUR
Page Groups
d
(Large right knob to change page groups)
a
(Large right knob to select pages with the group)
AUX Group
NRST Group
Flight Planning
Nrst Airport
Nrst User Waypnt
Utility
Nrst Intersection
Nrst Center
Setup 1
Nrst NDB
Nrst Flight Service
Setup 2
Nearest VOR
Nrst Airspace
FPL Group
Flight plan pages are selected by pressing the
FPL key and using the small right knob to
select the desired page.
Active Flight Plan
PROC Group
The Procedures pages are selected by pressing the
PROC key and using the small or large right knobs
to select a procedure.
Flight Plan Catalog
Procedure
190-00356-00 Rev E
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Nav Pages
Nav Pages
The map page is one of seven, or more, pages available under the NAV group*:
• Default NAV page
• Map page
• Terrain page
• NAVCOM page
• Position page
• Satellite status page
• Vertical navigation page
To select the desired NAV page, turn the small
right knob until the desired page is displayed.
If you are currently viewing a page that is not part
of the NAV group, you can quickly return to the NAV
group using the CLR key.
To select the NAV group and display the default
NAV page, press and hold CLR.
NAV
WPT
7+ available pages*
(see list above)
10 available pages
(see Section 6)
AUX
NRST
4 available pages
(see Section 9)
8 available pages
(see Section 7)
MAIN PAGE GROUPS
In addition to the NAV group of pages, additional
groups of pages are available for waypoint information
(WPT), auxiliary (AUX) functions such as flight planning or unit settings, and listings for nearest (NRST)
airports or other facilities.
To select the desired page group, turn the large
right knob until a page from the desired group is
displayed.
To select the desired page within the group, turn
the small right knob until the desired page is
displayed.
12
190-00356-00 Rev E
The bottom right corner of the screen
indicates the page group currently being
displayed (e.g., NAV or NRST), the number
of screens available within that group
(indicated by square icons) and the placement of the current screen within that group
(indicated by a highlighted square icon). To
select a different page within the group, turn
the small right knob.
* Seven, or more, NAV Pages are available when the 400W-series installation
includes connection to traffic, XM radio,
and/or weather information sources. See the
400W/500W Series Display Interfaces Pilot’s
Guide Addendum, part number
190-00356-31 and the 400W/500W Series
Garmin Optional Displays Pilot’s Guide Addendum, part number 190-00356-30.
TAKEOFF TOUR
Default Nav Page
Default Nav Page
During most flights, the default NAV, map and
NAVCOM pages will be the primary pages used for
navigation. The default NAV page displays a graphic
course deviation indicator (CDI), the active leg of
your flight plan (as defined by the current “from” and
“to” waypoints), and six user-selectable data fields.
The default settings for these fields are distance to
waypoint (DIS), desired track (DTK), bearing to
waypoint (BRG), ground speed (GS), ground track
(TRK) and estimated time en route (ETE). See Section 11 for definitions of these navigation terms. The
default NAV page is selected by pressing and holding
the CLR key or turning the small right knob.
Active Leg of
Flight Plan
To change the data fields in the corners of the
Default NAV Page:
1.
2.
Press MENU (with the Map Page displayed).
Turn the large right knob to highlight
“Change Fields?” and press ENT.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
data field you wish to change.
4.
Turn the small right knob to select the type
of data you want to appear on this field and
press ENT.
5.
Press the small right knob to remove the
cursor.
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
Userselectable
Data Fields
Default NAV Page
190-00356-00 Rev E
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Map Page
Map Page
The map page displays your present position (using
an airplane symbol) relative to nearby airports, VORs,
NDBs, intersections, user waypoints and airspace
boundaries—and your route displayed as a solid line.
Data fields for destination waypoint (WPT), distance
to waypoint (DIS), desired track (DTK) and ground
speed (GS) appear on the right hand side of the
display. These fields are user-selectable to allow you to
configure the unit to your own preferences. Available
settings include: altitude, bearing, en route safe altitude, estimated time of arrival, minimum safe altitude,
and ground track. See Section 11 for definitions of
these navigation terms.
Map Display
Data
Fields
The map page combines a moving map
display and navigation data for complete
situational awareness. Map setup pages
are provided to designate the maximum
scale at which each map feature will appear. These settings provide an automatic
decluttering of the map (based upon your
preferences) as you adjust the scale.
While viewing the map page, you can
quickly declutter and remove many of
the background map details by pressing
the CLR key (repeatedly) until the desired
detail is depicted.
To change the map scale, press the ‚ or 
sides of the RNG key.
Map
Scale with
declutter
value
14
Desired Track
Present
Position
Map Page
190-00356-00 Rev E
TAKEOFF TOUR
NAVCOM Page
NavCom Page
From the default NAV page, simply turn the small
right knob to display the map page and again to display the NAVCOM page. The NAVCOM page displays
the available frequencies (communications and navigation) for the departure airport, any en route airports
that are included in your flight plan, and the final
destination airport. When using the direct-to function,
frequencies will be listed for the airport nearest to your
starting position and the destination airport.
To select a communication or navigation frequency:
1.
On the NAVCOM page, push the small right
knob to activate the cursor in the GPS window.
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
frequency from the list.
A frequency listed on the NAVCOM page can be
quickly transferred to the standby field of the COM
or VLOC windows. This time-saving process prevents
having to “re-key” a frequency already displayed elsewhere on the screen.
To display the frequency list for the active flight
plan or direct-to airport:
1.
In the Nav function, turn the small right knob
to reach the NAVCOM page.
2.
Push the small right knob to activate the
cursor on the airport identifier field (in the
GPS window). Turn the small right knob to
display the list of airports (departure, arrival
and en route) for your flight plan or direct-to.
Continue to turn the small right knob until
the desired airport is selected.
3.
Selecting a frequency on the NAVCOM page.
3.
Press ENT to transfer the selected frequency to
the standby field in the COM or VLOC window.
COM frequencies will automatically go to the
standby field of the COM window and navigation
frequencies will automatically go to the standby
field of the VLOC window, regardless of which
window is currently highlighted by the cursor.
4.
To activate the selected frequency, press the
COM flip-flop (or VLOC flip-flop) key.
Press ENT to display the frequency list for the
selected airport.
Swap the standby COM frequency into the
active Com frequency location.
Press ENT to show the frequencies for the
selected airport.
190-00356-00 Rev E
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Direct-To Navigation
Direct-To Navigation
5.
The 400W-series unit can use direct point-to-point
navigation to guide you from takeoff to touchdown,
even in the IFR environment. Once a destination
is selected, the unit will provide speed, course and
distance data based upon a direct course from your
present position to your destination. A destination can
be selected from any page with the direct-to key.
Press ENT to confirm the identifier. The “Activate?” function field will be highlighted.
Confirm the selected direct-to destination by
highlighting “Activate?” and pressing ENT.
Destination
Waypoint Identifier
Field
6.
Press ENT to activate a direct-to course to the
selected destination.
“Activate?”
Function Field
Select Direct-To Waypoint Page
To select a direct-to destination:
1.
16
Press the direct-to key. The Select Direct-To
Waypoint page will appear with the destination
field highlighted. The direct-to waypoint may
also be selected by facility or city name. See
Section 3 for more information.
2.
Turn the small right knob to enter the first
letter of the destination waypoint identifier. The
destination waypoint may be an airport, VOR,
NDB, intersection or user waypoint, as long as
it is in the database or stored in memory as a
user waypoint.
3.
Turn the large right knob to the right to move
the cursor to the next character position.
4.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 to spell out the rest of
the waypoint identifier.
190-00356-00 Rev E
Once a direct-to destination is selected,
press and hold CLR to display the default
NAV page.
You can then press and hold the CLR key to
return to the default NAV page, as desired.
TAKEOFF TOUR
IFR Procedures
IFR Procedures
4.
Once the direct-to or flight plan is confirmed, the
whole range of instrument procedures is available to
you. Departures (SIDs), arrivals (STARs), non-precision and precision approaches are stored within the
NavData card and available using the PROC (procedures) key.
To display the procedures page, press PROC.
The steps required to select and activate an
approach, departure or arrival are identical. In this
introductory section, we’ll show examples of the steps
required to select an approach, but keep in mind the
same process also applies to departures and arrivals.
For approaches, a window appears to select the
desired initial approach fix (IAF) or provide a
“vectors” option to select just the final course
segment of the approach. Turn the small right
knob to select the desired option and press
ENT. Vectors guidance is relative to the final
inbound course. A line is drawn beyond the
final approach fix, allowing you to intercept
the final course segment beyond its normal
limits.
To select an approach, departure, or arrival:
1.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
option (“Select Approach?”, “Select Arrival?”
or “Select Departure?”) from the procedures
page.
Press the PROC key to display the procedures
page. Turn the large right knob to select the
desired option.
2.
Press ENT to display a list of available procedures for the arrival (when using approaches
or STARs) or departure (when using SIDs)
airport.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
procedure and press ENT.
A window will appear to select the desired
procedure. Use the large right knob to make
your selection.
5.
For departures and arrivals, a window appears
to select the desired transition. Turn the small
right knob to select the desired option and
press ENT.
6.
With “Load?” highlighted, press ENT to add
the procedure to the flight plan or direct-to.
In your flight plan or direct-to, the departure
or arrival airport is replaced with the sequence of
waypoints contained within the selected procedure.
190-00356-00 Rev E
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Nearest Pages
Nearest (NRST) Pages
To display the NRST pages:
The NRST main page groups provides listings for
nearest airports or other facilities. The NRST group
provides detailed information on the 25 nearest
airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections and user-created
waypoints within 200 NM of your current position.
In addition, pages are also provided to display the five
nearest center (ARTCC/FIR) and Flight Service Station
(FSS) points of communication, plus alert you to any
special-use or controlled airspace you may be in or
near.
1.
If necessary, press the small right knob to
remove the cursor from the page.
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the NRST
page group, as indicated by “NRST” appearing
in the lower right corner of the screen.
The nearest airport page is one of eight pages available under the NRST group:
To display a list of nearby airports, turn the
large right knob to select the NRST page
group and (if needed) the small right knob to
select the nearest airport page.
• Nearest airport page
• Nearest intersection page
• Nearest NDB page
3.
• Nearest VOR page
Press and then turn the large right knob to
select the desired NRST page.
• Nearest user waypoints page
• Nearest ARTCC page
• Nearest FSS page
• Nearest airspace page
To scroll through the list, press the small right
knob, then turn the large right knob.
18
190-00356-00 Rev E
TAKEOFF TOUR
Nearest Airport
Nearest Airport
You may examine both the communication
frequencies and runway information directly from
the nearest airport page. As discussed earlier for the
NAVCOM page, you may also place any displayed
frequency into the standby COM or VLOC field by
highlighting the frequency with the cursor and pressing ENT.
To view additional information for a nearby airport from the Nearest Airport page:
1.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
airport from the list.
3.
Press ENT to display waypoint (WPT) information pages for the selected airport.
The nearest airport page may be used in conjunction with the direct-to key to quickly set a course to
a nearby facility in an in-flight emergency. Selecting a
nearby airport as a direct-to destination will override
your flight plan or cancel a previously selected directto destination. You’ll still have the option of returning
to your flight plan by cancelling the direct-to.
To select a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
From the nearest airport page...
1. Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
2. Turn the large right knob to select the desired
airport from the list.
3. Press direct-to, ENT, and ENT (again) to
navigate to the nearby airport.
Additional information for a nearby airport
is available by highlighting an identifier on
the list and pressing ENT.
4.
To select a nearby airport as a new destination, highlight its identifier, press direct-to,
ENT, and ENT (again).
To display runway and frequency information, press the small right knob to remove
the cursor and turn the small right knob to
display the desired information page.
From an airport information page...
1. Press direct-to, ENT, and ENT (again) to
navigate to the nearby airport.
190-00356-00 Rev E
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TAKEOFF TOUR
Nearest Airspace
Nearest Airspace Page
To view an airspace alert message:
The last page in the NRST group, the nearest
airspace page, provides information for up to nine
controlled or special-use airspaces near or in your
flight path. Airspace information appears on this page
based upon the same criteria used for airspace alert
messages. Nearby airspace information and airspace
alert messages are provided according to the following
conditions:
• If your projected course will take you inside an
airspace within the next ten minutes, the message “Airspace ahead -- less than 10 minutes” will
appear.
• If you are within two nautical miles of an airspace
and your current course will take you inside, the
message “Airspace near and ahead” will appear.
1.
Press the MSG key. The message page appears
with the alert message.
When an airspace alert occurs, the message
(MSG) annunciator will flash. Press MSG to
view the alert message.
2.
Press MSG again to return to the previous
display.
To view nearest airspace information:
1.
Turn the large right knob to reach the NRST
function.
• If you are within two nautical miles of an airspace
and your current course will not take you inside,
the message “Near airspace less than 2NM” will
appear.
• If you have entered an airspace, the message
“Inside Airspace” will appear.
By default, airspace alert messages are turned off.
When turned on, the message (MSG) annunciator
located directly above the MSG key will flash to alert
you to the airspace message. (See Section 9 Aux Pages
- Setup 1 for information on enabling airspace alert
messages.)
20
To view additional information about the
airspace, select the nearest airspace page.
Detailed information is available by highlighting the airspace name and pressing ENT.
2.
Turn
the small right knob to reach the Nearest
Airspace page.
Note that the airspace alerts are based upon threedimensional data (latitude, longitude and altitude) to
avoid nuisance alerts. The alert boundaries for controlled airspace are also sectorized to provide complete
information on any nearby airspace. Additional information about a nearby airspace—such as controlling
agency, frequency and floor/ceiling limits—is available
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Flight Plans
To create a new flight plan:
from the nearest airspace page.
Flight Plans
The 400W-series lets you create up to 20 flight
plans, with up to 31 waypoints in each flight plan.
Flight plans are created, edited and activated using the
FPL key. The FPL page group includes two pages: the
active flight plan page and the flight plan catalog. The
active flight plan page provides information and editing
features for the flight plan currently in use (referred to
as “flight plan 00”). The flight plan catalog serves as the
main page for creating new flight plans, as well as editing or activating previously created flight plans.
1.
Press the FPL key and turn the small right
knob to select the flight plan catalog.
2.
Press the MENU key to display the flight plan
catalog options.
3.
Turn the large right knob to select “Create
New Flight Plan?” and press ENT.
To create a new flight plan, select “Create
New Flight Plan?” from the flight plan
catalog options.
4.
Active flight plan page with flight plan
currently in use.
Since using flight plans is arguably one of the more
complex features of the 400W-series, we’ll only discuss
it briefly here — focusing on creating a new flight
plan and activating it to use for navigation. Additional
information about flight plans can be found in Section
4 Flight Plans.
T h e
cursor will appear on the first waypoint identifier field (located directly below “WAYPOINT”).
Use the large and small right knobs to enter
the identifier of the first waypoint in the flight
plan. (The small knob is used to select the
desired letter or number and the large knob
is used to move to the next character space.)
Enter the identifier for each airport and/or
navaid into the flight plan in the same
sequence you wish to fly.
5.
190-00356-00 Rev E
Press
ENT once the identifier has been selected. The
cursor will move to the next blank waypoint
21
TAKEOFF TOUR
Flight Plans
identifier field.
6.
Repeat steps 4 and 5, above, until all waypoints
for the flight plan have been entered. Once the
flight plan is created, it may be activated from
an options window. Activating the flight plan
will place a copy into “flight plan 00” (the
original flight plan still resides in the flight
plan catalog). It replaces any flight plan which
currently exists in “flight plan 00.”
To activate the new flight plan:
1.
On the Flight Plan Catalog page, press the
small right knob to activate the cursor. Rotate
the large right knob to highlight the desired
flight plan.
2.
Press the MENU key to display the flight plan
catalog options.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select “Activate
Flight Plan?” and press ENT.
Select “Activate Flight Plan?” from the page
menu to begin using the new flight plan.
22
190-00356-00 Rev E
420W / 430W Only
Section 1 - COM Communicating Using the
GNC 420W/AW and GNS 430W/AW
Some models of the 400W-series feature a digitallytuned VHF COM radio that provides a seamless transition from communication to navigation. The GNC
420W and GNS 430W’s COM radio operates in the
aviation voice band, from 118.000 to 136.975 MHz,
in 25 kHz steps (default). For European operations, a
COM radio configuration of 8.33 kHz steps is provided (Section 9 - Aux - Setup 2). The GNC 420AW
and GNS 430AW use a 16-watt transmitter, instead of
the standard 10-watt transmitter.
1 - COM
Radio Volume / Auto Squelch
Squelch
The COM radio features an automatic squelch to
reject many localized noise sources. You may override
the squelch function by pressing the COM power/
volume knob. This facilitates listening to a distant station or setting the desired volume level.
Press the COM power/volume knob momentarily to override the automatic squelch.
Note the “RX” receive indication when
receiving a station.
To override the automatic squelch, press the COM
power/volume knob momentarily. Press the COM
power/volume knob again to return to automatic
squelch operation.
“TX” appears at the upper right corner of
the screen while transmitting.
Volume
COM radio volume is adjusted using the COM
power/volume knob. Turn the COM power/volume
knob clockwise to increase volume, or counterclockwise to decrease volume.
190-00356-00 Rev E
23
1 - COM
Com Window and Tuning
420W / 430W Only
COM Window and Tuning
Communication frequencies are selected with the
tuning cursor in the standby COM frequency field,
and using the small and large left knobs to dial in
the desired frequency. The standby frequency always
appears below the active frequency. The active frequency is the frequency currently in use for transmit
and receive operations.
While receiving a station, an “RX” indication
appears in the upper right corner of the COM window
— to the immediate right of “COM”. A “TX” indication
appears at this location while you are transmitting.
NOTE: The tuning cursor will normally appear
in the COM window, unless placed in the VLOC
window by pressing the small left knob. When
the tuning cursor is in the VLOC window, it will
automatically return to the COM window after 30
seconds of inactivity. This does not apply to the
GNS 420W.
The active frequency in either window cannot be
accessed directly—only the standby frequency will be
highlighted by the tuning cursor.
To select a COM frequency:
Tuning cursor in the COM window. Use the
small and large left knobs to dial in the
desired standby frequency.
A frequency may also be quickly selected from the
database by simply highlighting the desired frequency
on any of the main pages and pressing the ENT key.
This process is referred to as auto-tuning. Once a
frequency is selected in the standby field, it may be
transferred to the active frequency by pressing the
COM flip-flop key.
1.
If the tuning cursor is not currently in the COM
window, press the small left knob momentarily.
2.
Turn the large left knob to select the desired
megahertz (MHz) value. For example, the
“118” portion of the frequency “118.300”.
3.
Turn the small left knob to select the desired
kilohertz (kHz) value. For example, the “.300”
portion of the frequency “118.300”.
To make the standby frequency the active frequency, press the COM flip-flop key.
Once the standby frequency is selected, use
the COM flip-flop key to make the frequency
active for transmit and receive operations.
24
The tuning cursor will remain in the COM window.
The GNS 430W/AW unit has a built-in VOR/Localizer/
Glideslope capability. If you wish to select a VOR/
localizer/ILS frequency, press the small left knob
momentarily to place the cursor in the VLOC window.
Additional instructions for VOR/localizer/ILS operations are available in Sections 5 and 8.
190-00356-00 Rev E
420W / 430W Only
3.
1 - COM
Auto-Tuning from Nearest Airport Page
Press ENT to place the frequency in the standby
field of the COM window.
Cursor in VLOC window allows for VOR and
ILS operations. See Section 8.
Nearest airport page with the Tower
frequency (TWR) for the closest airport
highlighted.
Auto-Tuning
The 400W-series auto-tune feature allows you
to quickly select any database frequency in the GPS
window as your standby frequency. Any COM frequency displayed in the GPS window can be transferred to the standby COM frequency field, with a
minimum of keystrokes required. The following are
some examples of selecting COM frequencies from
some of the main GPS pages.
4.
To select a COM frequency for a nearby airport:
1.
2.
Select the nearest airport page from the NRST
page group. Press and hold the CLR key, then
turn the large right knob until the nearest
pages appears. Finally, if necessary, turn the
small right knob to display the nearest airport
page.
Press the Com flip/flop key to swap the
standby and active frequencies.
From the nearest airport page, select the
desired airport to show a more detailed listing of frequencies for that airport.
5.
Press the small right knob momentarily to
place the cursor on the airport identifier field
of the first airport in the list. Turn the large
right knob to highlight the desired airport
frequency.
190-00356-00 Rev E
Before leaving the frequency page, use the
large right knob to highlight “Done?” and
press ENT. “Done?” always needs to be
acknowledged before leaving a page group.
25
1 - COM
Auto-Tuning from Flight Plan/Database
420W / 430W Only
2.
Press the small right knob to place the cursor
on the airport identifier field. To the left of this
field appears Departure, En Route or Arrival
— depending on the placement of the displayed airport within your flight plan.
3.
Turn the small right knob to display a
window listing the airports in your flight plan.
Continue turning the small right knob to
select the desired airport.
4.
Press ENT to return to the NAVCOM page with
the frequencies for the selected airport.
5.
Use the nearest ARTCC page to quickly retrieve the frequency(s) for the nearest center
(ARTCC) facility.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
desired frequency.
6.
Press ENT to place the highlighted frequency
in the standby COM window field.
2.
Press the small right knob momentarily to
place the cursor on the page.
To select a COM frequency for any airport in the
database:
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
FSS/ARTCC frequency and press ENT to place
the frequency in the standby field of the COM
window.
To select a COM frequency for a nearby flight service station (FSS) or center (ARTCC):
1.
Select the nearest center or flight service page
from the NRST page group. Turn the large
right knob until the NRST pages appear. Then,
if necessary, turn the small right knob to
display the desired NRST page.
1.
To select a COM frequency for any airport in your
flight plan:
1.
Select the airport frequencies page from the
WPT page group. (Turn the large right knob
to select the WPT page group. Then turn the
small right knob until the airport frequencies
page appears.)
Select the NAVCOM page from the NAV page
group. (Press and hold the CLR key, then turn
the small right knob until the NAVCOM page
appears.)
Use the airport frequencies page to retrieve
a frequency list for ANY airport in the
Jeppesen NavData database.
The NAVCOM page provides a frequency list
for all the airports (departure, en route and
arrival) along your active flight plan.
26
2.
Press the small right knob to place the cursor
on the airport identifier field.
3.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the identifier of the desired airport. Press ENT
190-00356-00 Rev E
420W / 430W Only
1 - COM
Emergency Channel
when finished.
Stuck Microphone
4.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
desired frequency.
5.
Press ENT to place the highlighted frequency
in the standby COM window field.
Whenever the 420W/430W is transmitting, a ‘TX’
indication will appear in the COM window. If the
microphone is stuck or accidentally left in the keyed
position, or continues to transmit after the key is
released, the COM transmitter will automatically time
out (or cease transmitting) after 35 seconds of continuous broadcasting. You’ll also receive a “COM push-totalk key stuck” message as long as the stuck condition
exists.
Emergency Channel
The 420W/430W emergency channel select provides a quick method of selecting 121.500 MHz as the
active frequency in the event of an in-flight emergency.
The emergency channel select is available whenever
the unit is on, regardless of GPS or cursor status, or
loss of the display.
To quickly tune and activate 121.500, press
and hold the COM (or remote) flip-flop key for
approximately two seconds. If the remote key is
used, further changes in COM frequency will not
be possible without recycling power.
A “COM push-to-talk key stuck” message
appears to warn you of a stuck microphone.
Transmitting is disabled after 35 seconds of
continuous broadcasting.
Press and hold the COM flip-flop key for
two seconds to activate the 121.500 MHz
emergency frequency.
Note: Under some circumstances if the com system loses communication with the main system,
the radio will automatically tune to 121.500
MHz for transmit and receive regardless of the
displayed frequency.
190-00356-00 Rev E
27
1 - COM
Remote Frequency Selection
Remote Frequency Selection Control
On units configured for remote Com frequency
recall*, pressing the remote recall switch will load the
next preset Com frequency into the unit’s Standby frequency box and display a temporary pop-up window
with the current Preset ID number—e.g., Preset 1 or
Preset 12. The remote recall switch can be pressed
multiple times to scroll the entire preset frequency
list through the Standby frequency box (the list will
“wrap” from the bottom of the list back up to the top,
skipping any empty preset positions).
* Preset Com Frequencies are only available with SW
Version 3.00, or later.
The standby frequency isn’t activated until a Com
flip flop switch (either remote- or bezel-mounted) is
pressed. Remote Frequency Selection only functions
on units configured for a remote Com Frequency
recall switch. See Aux Pages - Setup 2 Page - Preset Com
Frequencies for instructions on storing preset Com
frequencies.
28
190-00356-00 Rev E
2 - NAV PAGES
Page Groups / NAV Page Group
Section 2
NAV Pages
Main Page Groups
Default NAV
Map
Terrain
NAVCOM
Position
Satellite Status
The 400W-series main pages are divided into
groups: NAV, WPT, AUX and NRST. While viewing any of these pages, selection of another page is a
simple selection process using the small and large
right knobs.
NAV
WPT
7+ available pages
(see list below)
10 available pages
(see Section 6)
AUX
NRST
4 available pages
(see Section 9)
8 available pages
(see Section 7)
VNAV
To select the desired page group, turn the large
right knob until a page from the desired group is
displayed.
To select the desired page within the group, turn
the small right knob until the desired page is
displayed.
The bottom right corner of the screen indicates which page
group is currently being displayed (e.g., NAV or NRST), the
number of screens available within that group (indicated by
square icons) and the placement of the current screen within
that group (indicated by a highlighted square icon). To select a
different page within the group, turn the small right knob.
NAV Page Group
The NAV page group includes seven, or more,
pages. While viewing any NAV page, turn the small
right knob to select a different NAV page. You may
find this selection process convenient to cycle between
the default NAV and map pages—two of the most
frequently used pages. Other pages are provided to
list frequencies for your flight plan, show your current
position, display current satellite reception, and make
vertical navigation settings.
This part of the screen is also used to display the 400W-series
turn advisories (e.g., “DTK 313° 9 S”, or LT TO 030° NOW) and
waypoint alerts (e.g., “ARRIVING WPT” or “HOLD TEARDROP”)
during flight plan and approach operations. Seconds will be
abbreviated as “S” and Now may be seen as “N”. See Section
5 for more information.
190-00356-00 Rev E
29
2 - NAV PAGES
Default Nav Page
Default NAV Page
The first NAV page is the default NAV page. This
page may be quickly selected from ANY page by using
the CLR key.
To select the NAV group and display the default NAV
page, press and hold the CLR key.
The default NAV page displays a graphic course
deviation indicator (CDI) across the top of the page.
Unlike the angular limits on a CDI coupled to a VOR
or ILS receiver, full scale limits for this CDI are defined
by a GPS-derived distance (2.0, 1.0 or 0.3 NM). By
default, the CDI scale automatically adjusts to the
desired limits based upon the current phase of flight:
en route, terminal area or approach.
Active Leg of
Flight Plan
The graphic CDI shows your position at the center
of the indicator, relative to the desired course (the
moving course deviation needle). As with a traditional
mechanical CDI, when you’re off course simply steer
toward the needle. The TO/FROM arrow in the center
of the scale indicates whether you are heading to the
waypoint (an up arrow) or if you have passed the
waypoint (a down arrow).
The following symbols are used—on the default
NAV page directly below the CDI—to depict the
“active leg” of a flight plan or direct-to:
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
Direct-To a Waypoint
Course to a Waypoint, or Desired
Course between Two Waypoints
Right Procedure Turn
Left Procedure Turn
Userselectable
Data Fields
DME Arc to the left
DME Arc to the right
Right-hand Holding Pattern
NOTE: Approaching the FAF, the GNS 400W-series
unit automatically rescales in an angular fashion.
This allows the LPV approach to be flown identically
to a standard ILS. At 2.0 NM from the FAF, CDI scaling is tightened from 1.0 to the angular full scale
deflection defined for the approach.
You may also manually select the desired scale setting as outlined in the Aux Setup section.
30
Vectors-To-Final
Left-hand Holding Pattern
Page location in NAV
group or advisory
Directly below the CDI appears the active leg of
your flight plan, or the direct-to destination when
using the direct-to key. This will automatically
sequence to the next leg of your flight plan as you
reach each interim waypoint. If no flight plan or
direct-to destination has been selected, the destination
field will remain blank.
190-00356-00 Rev E
2 - NAV PAGES
Default Nav Page
Selecting Desired On-Screen Data
To select a different data item for any data field:
At the bottom of the default NAV page you’ll find
six user-definable fields which display the data you’ll
need as your flight progresses. By default these fields
display: distance to destination (DIS), desired track
(DTK), bearing to destination (BRG), ground speed
(GS), ground track (TRK) and estimated time en route
(ETE). However, each of these fields can be customtailored to your preferences by selecting a different
data item. Available data items include:
1.
Starting with the default NAV page, press the
MENU key to display an options menu.
2.
The “Change Fields?” option is already highlighted, so press ENT to select this option.
3.
Use the large right knob to highlight the data
field you wish to change.
4.
Turn the small right knob to display the list
of available data items. Continue turning the
small right knob to select the desired data
item from the list.
5.
Press ENT to select the desired data item and
return to the default NAV page.
6.
Press the small right knob momentarily to
remove the cursor from the page.
• Bearing to destination (BRG)
• Distance to destination (DIS)
• Desired track (DTK)
• En route safe altitude (ESA)
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA)
• Estimate time en route (ETE)
• Fuel Flow (FLOW) (When Configured)
• Ground speed (GS)
• Minimum safe altitude (MSA)
• Track angle error (TKE)
• Ground track (TRK)
• Vertical speed required (VSR)
• Cross track error (XTK)
If no flight plan or direct-to destination has been
selected only speed, track, altitude and minimum
safe altitude data may be displayed. All other data
types will appear as blank lines—on the default NAV
page—until a destination is selected.
190-00356-00 Rev E
31
2 - NAV PAGES
Map Page
Restoring Factory Settings
Map Page
You can also quickly return all data field settings to
their original factory settings.
The second NAV page is the map page, which displays your present position using an airplane symbol,
along with nearby airports, navaids, user-defined
waypoints, airspace boundaries, lakes, rivers, highways and cities.
To restore all six data fields to factory default
settings:
1.
Starting with the default NAV page, press the
MENU key to display an options menu.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
“Restore Defaults?” option and press ENT.
2.
Dual Unit Considerations
Map Range
A “Crossfill?” option is provided from the Default
NAV Page. This option allows you to transfer a directto destination, the active flight plan including VNAV
parameters, any stored flight plan or user waypoints to
a second 400W or 500W-series Garmin unit.
See Section 9 - Aux Pages - Flight Planning Crossfill Operation for additional details on using the
“Crossfill?” option.
32
NOTE: The electronic chart is an aid to navigation
and is designed to facilitate the use of authorized
government charts, not replace them. Land and
water data is provided only as a general reference
to your surroundings. The positional accuracy
of the land and water data is not of a precision
suitable for use in navigation and it should not
be used for navigation. Only official government
charts and notices contain all information needed
for safe navigation – and, as always, the user is
responsible for their prudent use.
NOTE: The databases of the 400/500 series and
the 400W/500W are incompatible so you may not
mix systems.
190-00356-00 Rev E
Map Display
Data
Fields
Present
Position
Page location
in NAV group
NOTE: If the 400W-series unit is unable to
determine a GPS position, the present position
(airplane) symbol will appear on the Map Page in
yellow. No symbol will be present when there is
no active flight plan.
2 - NAV PAGES
Map Page
Map Symbols
Map Range
Various symbols are used to distinguish between
waypoint types. The identifiers for any on-screen
waypoints can also be displayed. (By default the identifiers are enabled). Special-use and controlled airspace
boundaries appear on the map, showing the individual
sectors in the case of Class B or Class C airspace.
The following symbols are used to depict the various
airports and navaids on the map page:
The map display can be set to 23 different scale
settings from 500 feet to 2000 NM (statute and metric
units are also available). The scale is indicated in the
lower left-hand corner of the map display, and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map
display.
Airport with hard surface runway(s); Primary runway shown
Airport with soft surface runway(s) only
Private Airfield
Intersection
VOR
VORTAC
VOR/DME
TACAN
DME
NDB
Localizer Heliport
To select a map Range:
1.
Press the up arrow side of the RNG key to
zoom out to a larger map area.
2.
Press the down arrow side of the RNG key
to zoom in to a smaller map area and more
detail.
Locator Outer Marker
190-00356-00 Rev E
33
2 - NAV PAGES
Map Page
Map Page Auto Zoom
An autozoom feature is available which will automatically adjust from an en route range of 200 NM
through each lower range, stopping at a range of
1.0 NM as you approach your destination waypoint.
The autozoom feature is turned on/off from the map
setup page.
The map page also displays a background map
showing lakes, rivers, coastlines, highways, railways
and towns. When a map scale is selected below the
lower limit at which the map detail was originally created, an “overzoom” indication will appear on the map
display, below the scale reading. “Overzoom” indicates
that the detail at this scale may not accurately represent actual conditions. If you continue to zoom in to
lower scale settings, “overzoom” will be replaced with
“no map” and the geographic detail is removed from
the map display (but, the airport and navaid detail will
remain).
The “Setup Map?” option allows you to define the
maximum scale at which each map feature will appear.
This provides you with complete control to minimize
screen clutter. You can also quickly remove items from
the map using the CLR key.
The CLR key allows you to quickly declutter
the map display, providing four levels of
map detail. Note the “-1” and “-2” (“-3” is
also provided) suffix designations above,
indicating each successive declutter level.
Declutter Level
-1
To quickly declutter the map display, press the CLR key
momentarily (as often as needed) to select the desired
amount of map detail.
The right-hand side of the map page includes four
user-selectable data fields. By default, the displayed
data is: destination waypoint name (WPT), desired
track (DTK), distance to destination waypoint (DIS)
and ground speed (GS). Any of these data fields may
be changed to display a different data type. You may
also remove the four data fields from the map to show
a larger map image.
34
190-00356-00 Rev E
-2
-3
Detail
Removes all land data except rivers
and lakes.
Removes all airspace except Prohibited and Restricted. Also removes NDBs,
Intersections, and User waypoints.
Removes all data except the Active
Flight Plan, Prohibited airspace ,rivers,
lakes, traffic, and lightning data (also
equivalent to “-A” approach mode
decluttering.
2 - NAV PAGES
Map Page
Map Panning
Panning allows you to move the map beyond its
current limits without adjusting the map range. When
you select the panning function — by pressing the
small right knob — a target pointer will flash on the
map display. A window will also appear at the top of
the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer, plus the bearing and distance to
the pointer from your present position.
To select the panning function and pan the map
display:
1.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
panning target pointer.
When the target pointer is placed on an object,
the name of that object will be highlighted (even if
the name wasn’t originally displayed on the map).
This feature applies to airports, navaids, user-created
waypoints, roads, lakes, rivers — almost everything
displayed on the map except route lines.
When an airport, navaid, or user waypoint is
selected on the map display, you can review information about the waypoint or designate the waypoint as
your direct-to destination.
To review information for an on-screen airport,
navaid or user waypoint:
1.
Use the panning function (as described above)
to place the target pointer on a waypoint.
2.
Press ENT to display the waypoint information
page(s) for the selected waypoint.
3.
Press CLR to exit the information page(s).
Turn the small right knob to move up (turn
clockwise) or down (counterclockwise).
3.
Turn the large right knob to move right (turn
clockwise) or left (counterclockwise).
4.
To cancel the panning function and return to
your present position, press the small right
knob.
190-00356-00 Rev E
35
2 - NAV PAGES
Map Page
Map Direct-To
To designate an on-screen airport, navaid or user
waypoint as your direct-to destination:
1.
Use the panning function (see previous page)
to place the target pointer on a waypoint.
2.
Press direct-to key to display the select directto waypoint page, with the selected waypoint
already listed.
3.
2.
Press ENT to display an options menu.
3.
“Review Airspace?” should already be highlighted, if not select it with the small right
knob. Press ENT to display the airspace information page for the selected airspace.
Press ENT twice to confirm the selection and
begin navigating to the waypoint.
The direct-to function can be used anywhere on
the map. If nothing currently exists at the crosshair
position, a new waypoint (called “+MAP”) will be created at the target pointer location before the direct-to
is initiated.
Airspace Information on the Map
When a special-use or controlled airspace boundary appears on the map display, you can quickly
retrieve information — such as floor/ceiling limits and
controlling agency — directly from the map.
To display airspace frequencies:
1.
While viewing the airspace information display
in the above example, turn the large right
knob to highlight “Frequencies?” and press
ENT. Press CLR to return to the airspace
information page.
2.
Press CLR to exit the airspace information
page. Press the small right knob (CRSR) to
exit panning.
To view airspace information for an on-screen
special-use or controlled airspace:
1.
36
Use the panning function (see previous page)
to place the target pointer on an open area
within the boundaries of an airspace. If the
area is congested and it is difficult to select an
open area, you may need to zoom in or press
CLR to make the selection easier.
190-00356-00 Rev E
2 - NAV PAGES
Map Page Options
Map Page Options
Many of the 400W-series functions are menu
driven. Each of the main pages has an options menu,
allowing you to custom tailor the corresponding page
to your preferences and/or select special features
which specifically relate to that page. A map page
options menu provides additional settings to customize
the map page and additional features related specifically to the map page.
To display the map page options menu, press
MENU (with the map page displayed).
The following options are available: “Setup Map?”,
“Measure Dist?”, “Data Fields Off?”, “Change Fields?”
and “Restore Defaults?”.
Feature
Airspace
City
Road
Other
Description
Special-Use Airspace: Restricted, MOA,
Other, (TFR, if GDL 69 equipped)
Large/Medium/Small Cities and Text
Freeway, National Highway, Local Hwy,
Local Road
States/Prov, Rivers/Lakes, Railroads, Wind
Vector
* Weather and Traffic settings are only available
when the 400W-series unit installation includes connection to traffic and/or weather information sources.
See 400W/500W Series Display Interfaces Pilot’s Guide
Addendum.
Map Setup
“Setup Map?” allows you to configure the map display
to your preferences, including map orientation, land data
enable/disable, Jeppesen data enable/disable, automatic
zoom, airspace boundaries, and text size. The following
table lists the group names and available settings:
Feature
Map
Weather*
Traffic*
Airport
NAVAID
Waypoint
Line
Control
Description
Orientation, AutoZoom, Land Data, Aviation Data
Lightning Mode/Symbol (when applicable)
Traffic Mode/Symbol/Label (when applicable)
Large/Medium/Small Airports and Text
VORs, NDBs, Intersections and Text
User Waypoints, Flight Plan Wpts, and Text
Active Flight Plan/Direct-To, Lat/Long Grid
Controlled Airspace: Class B, C, D (tower
zone)
190-00356-00 Rev E
Large, Medium and Small classifications are
used on the 400W-series for airports and
cities. Large airports are those with a runway
longer than 8100 feet. Medium airports
include those with a runway longer than
5000 feet or with a control tower. Large cities are those with approximate populations
greater than 200,000 and Medium cities are
greater than 50,000.
37
2 - NAV PAGES
Map Page Options
To change a map setup feature:
1.
On the Map page, press MENU to bring up the
Page Menu. Then, turn the large right knob
to highlight “Setup Map?” and press ENT.
2.
To change map orientation, turn the small
right knob to select “Map” and press ENT.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
“Orientation” field and turn the small right
knob to select the desired option. Select “North
up” to fix the top of the map display to a north
heading. Select “Track up” to adjust the top
of the map display to your current track heading.
4.
To enable/disable automatic zoom, turn the
small right knob to select “Map” and press
ENT. Turn the large right knob to highlight
the “Auto Zoom” field and turn the small
right knob to select “On” or “Off”. Press ENT
to accept the selected option. The automatic
zoom feature will automatically adjust the
map scale from 2000 NM through each lower
scale, stopping at 1.0 NM as you approach
your destination waypoint.
5.
To enable/disable background land data, or all
Jeppesen aviation data, turn the small right
knob to select “Map” and press ENT. Use the
large right knob to highlight the appropriate field and turn the small right knob to
select “On” or “Off”. Press ENT to accept the
selected option.
6.
For airports, NAVAIDs, active flight plan
waypoints, user-created waypoints, state/provincial boundaries, rivers/lakes and cities: turn
the small right knob to select the appropriate
“Group” name (per the chart on the previous
page) and press ENT. Use the large right
knob to highlight the zoom field for the desired
feature and turn the small right knob to
select the maximum scale at which the feature
should appear on screen. Or select “Off” to
never display the selected feature. Press ENT
to accept the selected option. Next, turn the
large right knob to highlight the text field for
the desired feature and turn the small right
knob to select the desired text size, or select
“None” to disable text descriptions. Press ENT
to accept the selected option.
Select “DTK up” to fix the top of the map display
to your desired course. Press ENT to accept the
selected option.
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2 - NAV PAGES
Map Page Options
7.
For airspace boundaries, highways, roads, railroad lines, wind vector, active flight plan course
lines, and lat/long grid lines: turn the small
right knob to select the appropriate “Group”
name (per the chart on the previous page)
and press ENT. Use the large right knob to
highlight the zoom field for the desired feature
and turn the small right knob to select the
maximum scale at which the feature should
appear on screen. Or select “Off” to never display the selected feature. Press ENT to accept
the selected option. Distance Measurements
4.
To exit the “Measure Dist?” option, press the
small right knob.
The “Measure Dist?” option provides a quick, easy
method for determining the bearing and distance
between any two points on the map display.
To measure bearing and distance between two
points:
1.
On the Nav Map page, press MENU. Then,
turn the large right knob to highlight “Measure Dist?” and press ENT. An on-screen reference pointer will appear on the map display at
your present position.
2.
Use the small and large right knobs to place
the reference pointer at the location you wish
to measure FROM and press ENT.
3.
Again, use the small and large right knobs to
place the reference pointer at the location you
wish to measure TO. The bearing and distance
from the first reference location will appear at
the top of the map display.
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2 - NAV PAGES
Map Page Options
Data Fields on the Map
To change a data field:
The “Data Fields Off?” option provides a full-screen
map display (shown bottom right), without the four
data fields along the right-hand side of the screen.
Select this option when you wish to display a larger
map area. If this option has been selected and the
data fields are off, “Data Fields On?” will appear as an
option instead.
1.
Press MENU on the Map page and then turn
the large right knob to highlight “Change
Fields?”. Then, press ENT.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
data field you wish to change.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the type
of data you want to appear on this field and
press ENT.
4.
Press the small right knob to remove the
cursor.
To turn the data fields on or off, press MENU and
turn the large right knob to highlight “Data Fields
Off?” (or “Data Fields On?”), then press ENT.
Selecting Desired On-Screen Data
“Change Fields?” allows you to choose the data
displayed on the four user-selectable data fields along
the right-hand side of the map page. There are twelve
available data types, including bearing to destination, distance to destination, estimated time of arrival,
ground speed, minimum safe altitude and track. See
Section 11 for descriptions of these (and other) navigation terms.
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NOTE: The on-screen traffic information will occupy two data fields, leaving room to display only
two additional data types. Traffic information is
only available when the 400W-series installation
includes connection to traffic information sources.
See the 400W Series Pilot’s Guide Addendum,
part number 190-00356-31.
2 - NAV PAGES
Terrain Operation
Restoring Factory Settings
Terrain Operation
“Restore Defaults?” resets all four user-selectable
data fields to their original factory default settings.
During power-up of the 400W Series unit, the
terrain/obstacle database versions are displayed along
with a disclaimer. At the same time, the Terrain system
self-test begins. A failure message is issued if the test fails.
Garmin TERRAIN is a non-TSO-C151b-certified
terrain awareness system provided as a standard feature
of 400W-Series units to increase situational awareness
and help reduce controlled flight into terrain (CFIT).
To restore the factory default settings, press
MENU and turn the large right knob to highlight
“Restore Defaults?”, then press ENT.
Operating Criteria
TERRAIN requires the following to operate properly:
• The system must have a valid 3-D GPS position
solution.
• The system must have a valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database.
Terrain Limitations
TERRAIN displays terrain and obstructions relative
to the altitude of the aircraft. The displayed alerts are
advisory in nature only. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. However, all obstructions may not be available in the database and data may
be inaccurate. Never use this information for navigation
or to maneuver to avoid obstacles.
Terrain information is based on terrain elevation
information in a database that may contain inaccuracies.
Terrain information should be used as an aid to situational
awareness. Never use it for navigation or to maneuver to
avoid terrain.
TERRAIN uses terrain and obstacle information
supplied by government sources. The data undergoes
verification by Garmin to confirm accuracy of the content,
per TSO-C151b. However, the displayed information
should never be understood as being all-inclusive.
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Terrain Operation
NOTE: The data contained in the TERRAIN databases
comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot
guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
TERRAIN Alerting
TERRAIN uses information provided from the GPS
receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude.
GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS
altitude is converted to a mean sea level (MSL)-based
altitude (GPS-MSL altitude) and is used to determine
TERRAIN alerts. GPS-MSL altitude accuracy is affected
by factors such as satellite geometry, but it is not subject
to variations in pressure and temperature that normally
affect pressure altitude devices. GPS-MSL altitude does
not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL
altitude. Therefore, GPS altitude provides a highly accurate
and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and
obstacle alerts.
TERRAIN utilizes terrain and obstacle databases that
are referenced to mean sea level (MSL). Using the GPS
position and GPS-MSL altitude, TERRAIN displays a 2-D
picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative
to the position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore,
the GPS position and GPS-MSL altitude are used to
calculate and “predict” the aircraft’s flight path in relation
to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner,
TERRAIN can provide advanced alerts of predicted
dangerous terrain conditions. Detailed alert modes are
described later in this section.
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values),
it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read from
the altimeter) to differ from the GPS-MSL altitude. This
variation results in the aircraft’s true altitude differing from
the baro-corrected altitude.
Terrain Page
To display the TERRAIN Page, select the NAV
group and turn the small right knob until the
TERRAIN Page is displayed. The page displays terrain
information, aircraft ground track, and GPS-derived
MSL altitude. Altitude is shown in increments of 20
feet or in increments of 10 meters, depending on unit
configuration. The “G” to the right of the MSL altitude
display reminds the pilot that altitude is GPS-derived.
The TERRAIN Page has two selectable view
settings:
• 360˚ View—View from above aircraft depicting
surrounding terrain on all sides
• 120˚ View—View of terrain ahead of and 60˚ to
either side of the aircraft flight path
Baro-Corrected Altitude
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived
by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude
can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight
path. However, because actual atmosphere conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the
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TERRAIN Page
NOTE: The TERRAIN Page gives a “Track Up” display orientation, as indicated by the “TRK” label
shown on the display. This is the only orientation
available on this page.
2 - NAV PAGES
Terrain Operation
Inhibit Mode
To display a 120˚ view:
1.
Select the TERRAIN Page and press MENU.
2.
Select “View 120˚?”.
3.
Press ENT. To switch back to a 360˚ view,
repeat step 1, select “View 360˚?”, and press
ENT.
Seven display ranges are available, allowing for a
more complete view of the surrounding area.
To change the display range:
1.
Select the TERRAIN Page and press up or down
on the RNG key to select the desired range:
1 NM, 2 NM, 5 NM, 10 NM, 25 NM, 50 NM,
100 NM.
Aviation information such as airports, VORs,
and other navaids can be turned on or off from the
TERRAIN Page.
The Garmin TERRAIN system provides an
“inhibit mode”. This mode is designed to deactivate
Premature Descent Alert/Forward Looking Terrain
Avoidance (PDA/FLTA) visual alerts when they are
deemed unnecessary by the pilot. Flying VFR into
an area where unique terrain exists could cause the
system to annunciate a nuisance alert. Pilots should
use discretion when inhibiting the TERRAIN system
and always remember to enable the system when
appropriate. When terrain is inhibited, the Terrain
page will still be active, but alerts and messages will
not be generated. See the Terrain Alerts section for
more information on terrain alerts.
TERRAIN configured units will restore the “inhibit
state” at startup to the last pilot-selected setting.
To show or hide aviation data:
1.
Select the TERRAIN Page and press MENU.
2.
Select “Show (or Hide) Aviation Data” and
press ENT. Pressing the CLR key when the
TERRAIN Page is displayed will also toggle
aviation information on or off.
Inhibiting Terrain
To inhibit TERRAIN:
1.
Select the TERRAIN Page and press MENU.
“Inhibit Terrain?” is selected by default.
2.
Press ENT. The TERRAIN system is inhibited.
The
annunciation is displayed in
the terrain annunciator field whenever terrain
is inhibited.
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Terrain Operation
Terrain Symbols
The symbols shown below are used to represent
obstacles and potential impact points on the Terrain
Page. Note that obstacle symbols are shown on display
zoom ranges up to 10 NM:
To enable TERRAIN:
Enabling Terrain
Select the TERRAIN Page and press MENU.
“Enable Terrain?” is selected by default.
2.
Press ENT. The TERRAIN system is functional
again.
Obstacle Symbol
1.
Unlighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
The Garmin TERRAIN system uses yellow (caution)
and red (warning) to depict terrain information relative
to aircraft altitude. Each color is associated with an
alert severity level. Terrain graphics and visual annunciations also use these color assignments.
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
NOTE: If an obstacle and the projected flight path of
the aircraft intersect, the display automatically zooms in
to the closest potential point of impact on the TERRAIN
page.
Color
(Alert Level)
Red
(Warning)
Yellow
(Caution)
TERRAIN/Obstacle
Location
Terrain/Obstacle above or
within 100 ft below current
aircraft altitude
Terrain/Obstacle between
100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain Color Symbology
Potential Impact Point
Projected Flight Path
£ääÊvÌÊ/…ÀiŜ`Ê
Unlighted Obstacle
4ERRAINABOVEOR
WITHINFT
BELOWTHEAIRCRAFT
ALTITUDE2ED
£äääÊvÌÊ
4ERRAINBETWEENFTANDFTBELOWTHE
AIRCRAFTALTITUDE9ELLOW
4ERRAINMORETHANFTBELOWTHEAIRCRAFTALTITUDE"LACK
TERRAIN Altitude/Color Correlation
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2 - NAV PAGES
Terrain Operation
General Database Information
The Garmin TERRAIN system uses terrain and
obstacle information supplied by government sources.
The data undergoes verification by Garmin to confirm
accuracy of the content, per TSO-C151b. However, the
information displayed should never be understood to
be all-inclusive. Pilots must familiarize themselves
with the appropriate charts for safe flight.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and
obstacle databases comes from government
agencies. Garmin accurately processes and crossvalidates the data, but cannot guarantee the
accuracy and completeness of the data.
The terrain/obstacle databases are contained on a
datacard which is inserted in the right-most slot of the
400W Series units.
TERRAIN Database Information
Database Versions
The version and area of coverage of each terrain/
obstacle database is shown on the Terrain Database Versions Page, located in the AUX Page Group.
Databases are checked for integrity at power-up. If a
database is missing or corrupt, the TERRAIN system
will fail the self-test and issue a failure message.
Database Updates
Terrain/Obstacle databases are updated periodically with the latest terrain and obstacle data. Visit the
Garmin website to check for newer versions of terrain/
obstacle databases. Compare database cycle numbers
to determine if a newer version is available.
The database update process includes either
reprogramming or replacing the database card and
inserting the updated card in the right card slot on the
unit front panel. The terrain/obstacle database may
be downloaded via the intenet and the card reprogrammed using a USB programmer available from
Garmin. Contact Garmin at 800-800-1020 or at www.
garmin.com for more information.
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Terrain Operation
To update the terrain or obstacle database:
1.
Acquire a new terrain data card from
Garmin.
2.
Turn off the power to the 400W Series unit.
3.
Remove the old terrain data card from and
insert the new card into the right-most slot of
the 400W Series unit.
4.
Turn on the 400W Series unit and verify that the
TERRAIN system passes the self-test. The “TER
TEST” annunciator will clear after checking and
no failure message appears.
Terrain/Obstacle Database Areas of Coverage
The following describes the area of coverage available in each database. Regional definitions may change
without notice.
Coverage Area
Latitudes: N 75° to S 60°
Worldwide (WW)
Longitudes: W 180° to E 180°
Limited to the United States plus
United States (US) some areas of Canada, Mexico,
Caribbean, and the Pacific.
Alaska, Austria, Belgium, Canada*,
Caribbean*, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hawaii, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
US/Europe
Mexico*, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, United
Kingdom, United States
* Indicates partial coverage
CAUTION: Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in the Obstacle Database. It is very important to note that not all obstacles are necessarily
charted and therefore may not be contained in
the Obstacle Database.
Navigation Database
It is therefore important to also have the latest
Navigation Database installed to ensure correct Terrain
alerting.
TERRAIN Alerts
TERRAIN alerts are issued when flight conditions
meet parameters that are set within the TERRAIN system
software algorithms. When an alert is issued, visual
annunciations are displayed. Annunciations appear in a
dedicated field in the lower left corner of the display.
TERRAIN Annunciation Field
TERRAIN Pop-Up Alert
Database
TERRAIN Annunciation and Pop-Up
Alert
Pop-up Alerts
On any page except the TERRAIN Page, when a terrain
or obstacle alert is issued, a pop-up window is displayed
with the appropriate alert.
To acknowledge the pop-up alert and return to
the currently viewed page:
Press the CLR key.
To acknowledge the pop-up alert and quickly
display the TERRAIN Page:
Press the ENT key.
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Terrain Alerts
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
The unit will issue terrain alerts not only when the
aircraft altitude is below the terrain elevation but also
when the aircraft is projected to come within minimum
clearance values of the terrain. This alerting, called
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA), is also
provided for obstacles. Any potential impact points will
be depicted on the display.
Minimum Terrain Clearance Values
NOTE: During the final approach phase of flight,
FLTA alerts are automatically inhibited when the
aircraft is below 200 feet AGL while within 0.5
NM of the approach runway or is below 125 feet
AGL while within 1.0 NM of the runway.
FLTA Severity Levels
“TERRAIN ADVISORY” advisory—Similarly, an
“OBSTACLE ADVISORY” alert is also provided.
“TERRAIN AHEAD” alert (flashing)—Similarly, an
“OBSTACLE AHEAD’’ alert is also provided.
Phase of Flight
En Route
Terminal
Approach
Departure
Level Flight
700 ft.
350 ft.
150 ft.
100 ft.
Descending
500 ft.
300 ft.
100 ft.
100 ft.
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Terrain Alerts
Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
TERRAIN Failure Alert
The TERRAIN system issues a Premature Descent
Alert (PDA) when the system detects that the aircraft
is significantly below the normal approach path to a
runway.
The TERRAIN system continually monitors
several system-critical items, such as database validity,
hardware status, and GPS status. Should the system
detect a failure, a message is annunciated “TERRAIN
has failed”.
PDA ends when the aircraft is either:
• 0.5 NM from the runway threshold
OR
• is below an altitude of 125 feet AGL while
within
1.0 NM of the threshold.
PDA Severity Levels
“TERRAIN has failed” message
CAUTION — The above annunciation and pop-up
terrain alert are displayed during a PDA alert.
(EIGHT!BOVE4ERRAIN&EET
0$!!LERTING!REA
2UNWAY
4HRESHOLD
$ISTANCE&ROM$ESTINATION!IRPORTNM
Premature Descent Alerting (PDA) Threshold
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Terrain Alerts
“TERRAIN Not Available” Alert
The TERRAIN system requires a 3D GPS
navigation solution along with specific vertical
accuracy minimums. Should the navigation solution
become degraded, or if the aircraft is out of the
database coverage area, the annunciation “TERRAIN
NOT AVAILABLE” is displayed on the TERRAIN Page.
“TERRAIN NOT AVAILABLE” display
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2 - NAV PAGES
Terrain Alerts
Annunciation
Pop-Up Alert
Description
None
TERRAIN has failed
None
TERRAIN has been inhibited
None
TERRAIN not available due to degraded navigation solution
or the aircraft is outside of the database coverage area.
Terrain FLTA advisory generated by predicted or present
aircraft altitude being below minimum clearance values.
Unless there is a change in conditions a TERRAIN AHEAD
alert may be
generated.
(FLASHING)
(FLASHING)
Terrain FLTA alert generated by predicted or present aircraft
altitude being below minimum clearance values.
Obstacle FLTA advisory generated by predicted or present
aircraft altitude being below minimum clearance values. Unless there is a change in conditions a OBSTACLE AHEAD alert
may be generated.
(FLASHING)
(FLASHING)
Obstacle FLTA alert generated by predicted or present aircraft
altitude being below minimum clearance values.
PDA alert when the aircraft is significantly below the normal
approach path to the runway.
TERRAIN Alerts Summary
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NAVCOM Page
NAVCOM Page
The NAVCOM (navigation communications) page
provides a list of the airport communication and
navigation frequencies at your departure, en route and
arrival airports. The NAVCOM page makes selection
of the frequencies you’ll need along your flight plan
quick and convenient. If you do not have an active
flight plan with a departure airport, the NAVCOM page
will display the frequencies for the airport nearest
your departure position. Only the 420AW and 430AW
move frequencies to their Navcom.
To scroll through the list of frequencies:
1.
Activate the cursor, if not already active, by
pressing the small right knob.
2.
Turn the large right knob to move the cursor
through the list of frequencies. If there are more
frequencies in the list that can be displayed on
the screen, a scroll bar along the right-hand
side of the screen will indicate which part of
the list is currently being displayed.
Departure, En
Route or Arrival
Airport
Frequency
Type
}
Assigned Frequency
and Usage Information (when applicable)
To select a frequency list for a departure, en
route, or arrival airport:
1.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to place the cursor
on the airport identifier field (top line on the
NAVCOM page).
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
airport and press ENT.
scroll bar
Third Page
in NAV group
3.
190-00356-00 Rev E
To place a frequency in the standby field of the
COM or VLOC window, highlight the desired
frequency and press ENT. (420AW and 430AW
only)
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2 - NAV PAGES
Position Page
Some listed frequencies may include designations
for limited usage, as follows:
“TX” - transmit only
“RX” - receive only
“PT” - part time frequency
If a listed frequency has sector or altitude restrictions, the frequency will be preceded by an “Info?”
designation.
To view usage restrictions for a frequency:
1.
Turn the large right knob to place the cursor
on the “Info?” designation directly in front of
the desired frequency.
2.
Press ENT to display the restriction information.
3.
To return to the NAVCOM page, press ENT.
Position Page
The position page displays your present position (by
default, in latitude and longitude) and altitude. The
position page also displays your current track, ground
speed, time and a reference waypoint field. These
fields are user-selectable to configure the page to your
own preferences and current navigation needs.
Graphic “Track”
Indicator
Present
Position
Reference
Waypoint Fields
User-selectable
Data Fields
Page location in
NAV group
The graphic “track” indicator at the top of the
page indicates the direction you’re heading, or track,
only while you’re moving. Directly below are three
user-selectable fields, which by default, display track,
ground speed and altitude. Minimum safe altitude
(MSA) can also be displayed on these fields. MSA is
the recommended minimum altitude within approximately ten miles of your present position. MSA is calculated from the information contained in the database
and generally includes mountains, buildings and other
permanent features.
The Time and other data may not be displayed
until the unit has acquired enough satellites for a fix.
The graphic “track” indicator and the TRK
indication directly below it provide the same
information. Use the graphic “track” indicator
for quick at-a-glance ground track information.
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Position Page
NOTE: Do not rely solely on MSA as an absolute
measure of safe altitude. Consult current charts
and NOTAMs for your area.
To change the user-selectable data fields:
1.
Press MENU to display the Position page
options menu.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight
“Change Fields?” and press ENT.
6.
Press the small right knob momentarily to
remove the cursor from the page.
The position page also features a reference
waypoint field, located at the bottom of the page, to
indicate your bearing and distance to/from a selected
waypoint. The reference waypoint field can display
bearing and distance information for a nearby airport
(default), VOR, NDB, intersection or user waypoint.
To change the reference waypoint information:
3.
4.
5.
1.
Press MENU to display the position page
options menu.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight
“Change Fields?” and press ENT.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
waypoint type field (bottom left corner of the
page; default setting will show “APT”).
4.
Turn the small right knob to display the list of
available waypoint types. Continue turning the
small right knob to select the desired data
item from the list.
5.
Press ENT to select the desired type and return
to the position page.
6.
To select between “bearing FROM” or “bearing
TO” to the reference waypoint, turn the small
right knob to select the desired bearing reference and press ENT.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
data field you wish to change.
Turn the small right knob to display the list
of available data items. Continue turning the
small right knob to select the desired data
item from the list.
Press ENT to select the desired data item and
return to the position page.
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Restoring Factory Settings
Restoring Factory Settings
A “Restore Defaults?” option allows you to reset
all data fields to their original factory default settings.
This will return the three user-selectable fields at the
top of the page AND the reference waypoint fields to
default settings.
54
7.
Press the small right knob momentarily to
remove the cursor from the page.
8.
If “WPT” is selected as the waypoint type, you
can designate any airport, NAVAID or user
waypoint as a reference waypoint. Press the
small right knob, turn the large right knob
to highlight the waypoint identifier field, then
use the small and large right knobs to enter
the identifier of the desired waypoint. Press
ENT to confirm the selected waypoint. Press
the small right knob to remove the cursor.
To restore the factory default settings:
1.
Press MENU to display the position page
options menu.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight
“Restore Defaults?” and press ENT.
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Satellite Status Page
Satellite Status Page
The Satellite Status Page is helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. You may wish to
refer to this page occasionally to monitor GPS receiver
performance and establish a normal pattern for system
operation. Should problems occur at a later date, you
may find it helpful to have an established baseline
from which to compare.
(at top left corner of the page) shows which satellites are currently in view, and where they are. The
outer circle of the sky view represents the horizon
(with north at top of the page); the inner circle 45°
above the horizon; and the center point directly
overhead.
The “D” character inside the bars indicates differential corrections (e.g. WAAS) are being used for that
satellite.
GPS Receiver
Status
Horizontal Figure of Merit
and Vertical Figure of Merit
Sky View
of satellite
positions
Signal
Strength Bars
Satellite
Numbers
Estimated Position Uncertainty
Excluded
Satellite
(cyan)
Acquiring
Satellite,
not ready
for use
Satellite acquired, used for
position fix, and has differential
corrections
Satellite
Page location
acquired
in NAV group
and used for
position fix
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission
(green)
As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal
strength bar appears for each satellite in view, with the
appropriate satellite number (01-32, WAAS satellites
will have higher numbers) underneath each bar. The
progress of satellite acquisition is shown in the following conditions:
• Hollow signal strength bars — the receiver has found
the satellite(s) and is collecting data.
• Cross-hatch cyan signal strength bars — the receiver
has found the satellite(s) but it has been excluded
by the FDE program as a faulty satellite.
• Solid cyan signal strength bars — the receiver has
collected the necessary data, but is not using the
satellite in the position solution.
• Solid green signal strength bars — the receiver has
collected the necessary data and the satellite is being
used in the position solution. The sky view display
that must be collected (hollow signal strength bar)
before the satellite may be used for navigation (solid
signal strength bar). Once the GPS receiver has determined your position, the 400W-series unit indicates
your position, altitude, track and ground speed. The
GPS receiver status field also displays the following
messages under the appropriate conditions:
• Searching Sky —
The GPS receiver is searching the sky for ANY visible satellites. You are also informed of this status
with a “Searching the Sky” message.
• Acquiring Sat —
The GPS receiver is acquiring satellites for navigation. In this mode, the receiver uses satellite orbital
data (collected continuously from the satellites) and
last known position to determine the satellites that
should be in view.
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Satellite Status Page
NOTE Operating outside of an SBAS service
area with SBAS enabled may cause elevated EPU
values to be displayed on the satellite status
page. Regardless of the EPU value displayed, the
INTEG annunciation is the controlling indication
for determining the integrity of the GPS navigation solution.
Vertical Navigation Page
WARNING: VNAV is to be used for advisory
purposes only. VNAV messages or vertical speed
required should not be used to maintain terrain
or ATC clearances. Terrain and ATC clearances are
the sole responsibility of the pilot.
• 3D Navigation —
The GPS receiver is in 3D navigation mode and
computes altitude using satellite data.
• 3D Differential Navigation— The GPS receiver is
in 3D navigation mode and differential corrections
are being used.
The 400W-series vertical navigation page (the last
NAV page) allows you to create a three-dimensional
profile which guides you from your present position
and altitude to a final (target) altitude at a specified
location. This is helpful when you’d like to descend
to a certain altitude near an airport. Once the profile
is defined, message alerts and additional data on the
default NAV and map pages will keep you informed of
your progress.
Altitude Reference
(AGL or MSL)
Target Reference
Vertical Speed
Required
The Satellite Status Page also indicates the accuracy of the position fix, using Horizontal Figure of
Merit (HFOM), Vertical Figure of Merit (VFOM), and
Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU). HFOM and
VFOM represent the 95% confidence levels in horizontal and vertical accuracy. The lowest numbers are
the best accuracy and the highest numbers are worse.
EPU is the horizontal position error estimated by the
Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) algorithm, in feet
or meters.
56
Target
Altitude
Target
Distance
Vertical Speed
Desired
Page location in
NAV group
VNAV is inhibited in the following conditions:
190-00356-00 Rev E
•
•
•
•
•
•
Groundspeed is less than 35 knots
No active flight plan or direct-to destination
SUSP mode
Vectors-to-Final mode
VLOC mode
After the FAF on an approach
2 - NAV PAGES
Vertical Navigation - VNAV
5.
Turn the small and large right knobs to select
a distance from the target reference waypoint
and press ENT. If the target altitude should
occur at the target reference waypoint, enter
a distance of zero.
6.
Turn the small right knob to select “Before”
or “After”, and press ENT. This setting designates whether the offset distance defines a
point before you reach the target reference
waypoint or after you reach the waypoint.
“After” is not available for the last waypoint.
7.
When using a flight plan, the target reference waypoint itself can be specified from
the waypoints contained in the flight plan. By
default, the last waypoint in the flight plan will
be selected. To select a different waypoint, turn
the small right knob to select the desired
waypoint and press ENT.
8.
The default profile utilizes a 400 foot-perminute descent rate. To change the rate,
turn the large right knob to highlight the
“VS Profile” field and use the small and large
right knobs to enter a new rate. Press ENT
when finished.
To create a vertical navigation profile:
1.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
target altitude field.
3.
Turn the small and large right knobs to select
the target altitude and press ENT.
4.
Turn the small right knob to select “Above
Wpt” (AGL) or “MSL”, and press ENT. “Above
Wpt” will use the altitude of a destination airport as stored in the Jeppesen NavData card.
“MSL” lets you set a specific target altitude
for any waypoint category: airport, VOR, NDB,
intersection or user waypoint.
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57
2 - NAV PAGES
Vertical Navigation - VNAV
To disable/enable the vertical navigation (VNAV)
messages:
With the profile set, the vertical speed required
(VSR) is displayed on the vertical navigation page.
Expect the following to occur when using the vertical
navigation feature:
• At one minute prior to reaching the initial descent
point, a message “Approaching VNAV Profile”
occurs. The descent angle will also lock to prevent changes in speed from altering the profile.
• If selected, the vertical speed required (VSR)
readout on the default NAV and map pages will
show the desired vertical speed to maintain the
proper descent angle. Maximum VSR that can be
displayed is -6000 ft/min. If VSR exceeds -6000
ft/min, dashes will be displayed.
1.
P ress MENU to display the vertical navigation
page options menu.
2.
ith “VNAV Messages On?” highlighted, press
W
ENT. Or, if the messages are already on and you
wish to turn them off, make sure “VNAV Messages Off?” is highlighted and press ENT.
To restore the factory default VNAV settings:
1.
On the Nav VNAV page, press the MENU
key.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight
“Restore Defaults” and then press ENT.
• Course reversals are not included in the VNAV
calculations until the aircraft begins the course
reversal. While reversing course, VNAV includes
direct-to the course reversal wayopint in the
VNAV calculation.
• At 500 feet above the target altitude, an
“Approaching Target Altitude” message is provided. The VSR readout on the default NAV and
map pages is blanked out, at this point.
Vertical navigation messages can be turned on or
off. (By default the messages are off.) Turning the messages off allows you to keep the profile settings you’ve
entered previously, without having them generate messages when the feature isn’t needed.
58
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2 - NAV PAGES
Dead Reckoning
Dead Reckoning
Dead reckoning is the process of continuing navigation using your last known position and speed after
a loss of GPS navigation while on an active flight plan.
CAUTION: Navigation using dead reckoning is
therefore only an estimate and should not be
used as the sole means of navigation. Use other
means of navigation, if possible.
Dead reckoning becomes active after a loss of GPS
position while you are navigating using an active flight
plan. A pop-up message will appear and you must
clear the message before continuing operation.
compute navigation related information for the current
flight phase.
Dead Reckoning is only allowed in En Route and
Oceanic flight modes. If the unit is in a Terminal or
Approach flight mode when Dead Reckoning takes
place, “No GPS Position” will be displayed on the map
pages and all navigation data will be dashed. If you are
operating in Dead Reckoning mode and a transition to
Terminal or Approach flight modes would occur from
the projected Dead Reckoning position, Dead Reckoning mode will be discontinued. “No GPS Position” will
be displayed on the map pages and all navigation data
will be dashed.
The ownship icon color is changed to yellow. The To/
From flag is removed from the CDI. The Dead Reckoning annunciator (DR) appears on the left side of the
map display when GPS position is unavailable and the
unit is in Dead Reckoning mode. All external outputs
dependent on GPS position are flagged.
Terrain will be noted as not available and new terrain
advisory pop-ops will not occur. Traffic and Stormscope information will not be shown on the Map page,
but will continue to be available on their own dedicated pages. XM weather will still be available on the
Map page.
Dead Reckoning mode will continue until GPS position is restored, when GPS navigation is restored Dead
Reckoning mode is exited. The DR annunciations
will be removed and GPS information will be used to
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59
2 - NAV PAGES
Blank Page
60
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3 - DIRECT-TO
Selecting a Waypoint
Section 3
Direct-To Navigation
The direct-to function provides a quick method of
setting a course to a waypoint. Once a direct-to is activated, the unit will establish a point-to-point course
line (geodesic path) from your present position to
the selected direct-to waypoint. The unit will provide
navigation guidance to the selected direct-to waypoint
until the direct-to is manually cancelled or replaced by
a new active leg or direct-to.
To select a direct-to waypoint:
1.
Press ENT to confirm the selected waypoint,
and ENT again to activate the direct-to function.
3.
Press the direct-to key. The select direct-to
waypoint page will appear, with the waypoint
identifier field highlighted.
If you’re navigating to a waypoint and get off
course, the direct-to function may also be used to recenter the CDI (HSI) needle and proceed direct-to the
active waypoint.
To re-center the CDI (HSI) needle to the active
waypoint:
1. Press the direct-to key, followed by pressing
ENT twice.
2.
NOTE: If you’re navigating an approach with
the missed approach point (MAP) as the active
waypoint, re-centering the CDI (HSI) needle with
the direct-to key will cancel the approach.
Use the small and large right knobs to
enter the identifier of the desired direct-to
waypoint.
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61
3 - DIRECT-TO
Selecting a Waypoint
Selecting a Direct-To Waypoint by Facility
Name or City
In addition to selecting a direct-to waypoint by
identifier, the select direct-to waypoint page also allows
you to select airports, VORs and NDBs by facility
name or city location. If duplicate entries exist for the
entered facility name or city, additional entries may be
viewed by continuing to turn the small right knob
during the selection process.
Identifier, Symbol
and Region
4.
Continue turning the small right knob to
scroll through any additional database listings
for the selected facility name or city. You can
also scroll backwards with the small right
knob if you scroll past the desired waypoint.
5.
Press ENT to confirm the selected waypoint,
and ENT to activate the direct-to function.
Flight Plan
Field
Facility
Name
City
Nearest
Airport
Field
To select a direct-to waypoint by facility name or
city:
62
1.
Press the direct-to key. The select direct-to
waypoint page will appear, with the waypoint
identifier field highlighted.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
facility name (second line; see above) or the
city (third line; see above) field.
3.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the facility name or city location of the desired
direct-to waypoint. As you spell the facility
name or city, the Spell’N’Find feature will select
the first entry in the database based upon the
characters you have entered up to that point.
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To select the direct-to waypoint by facility
name (shown above) or city location (shown
below), highlight the second or third line on
the direct-to waypoint page. Use the small and
large right knobs to enter the facility name or
city. The identifier(s) for any matching entries
will appear on the top line of the page.
3 - DIRECT-TO
Selecting a Waypoint
Selecting a Direct-To Waypoint from the Active Flight Plan
Selecting the Nearest Airport as a Direct-To
Waypoint
If you’re navigating an active flight plan, any waypoint contained in the flight plan may be selected as
a direct-to waypoint from the select direct-to waypoint
page. (see Section 4 - Flight Plans, for more information
on flight plans.)
The select direct-to waypoint page always displays
the nearest airports (from your present position) on
the NRST field. Navigating directly to a nearby airport
is always just a few simple steps away. (Nearby airports
may also be selected as direct-to waypoints using the
steps described Section 7 - NRST Pages - Navigating to
a Nearby Waypoint.)
To select a direct-to waypoint from the active
flight plan:
1.
2.
3.
Press the direct-to key. The select direct-to
waypoint page will appear, with the waypoint
identifier field highlighted.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
flight plan (FPL) field.
To select a nearby airport as a direct-to waypoint:
1.
Press the direct-to key. The select direct-to
waypoint page will appear, with the waypoint
identifier field highlighted.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
nearest airport (NRST) field.
3.
Turn the small right knob to display a window
showing up to nine nearby airports.
4.
Continue turning the small right knob to
scroll through the list and highlight the desired
airport.
5.
Press ENT to confirm the selected airport, and
ENT to activate the direct-to function.
Turn the small right knob to display a window
showing all waypoints in the active flight
plan.
4.
Continue turning the small right knob to
scroll through the list and highlight the desired
waypoint.
5.
Press ENT to confirm the selected waypoint,
and ENT to activate the direct-to function.
190-00356-00 Rev E
NOTE: Performing a direct-to the MAP of an active approach will cancel approach mode.
63
3 - DIRECT-TO
Direct-to Shortcuts
Shortcuts
Shortcuts are available when using the direct-to
key, allowing you to bypass the use of the small and
large right knobs to enter the waypoint’s identifier. A
direct-to can be performed from any page displaying
a single waypoint identifier (such as the WPT pages
for airports and navaids) by simply pressing direct-to
and ENT. For pages that display a list of waypoints
(e.g., the nearest airport page), you must highlight the
desired waypoint with the cursor before pressing the
direct-to key.
Direct-to waypoints may also be selected from
the map page, by panning to the desired location
and pressing direct-to and ENT (twice). If no airport, navaid or user waypoint exists at the desired
location, a waypoint named “+MAP” will automatically be created at the location of the panning
pointer.
To select a direct-to waypoint from the map page:
1.
From the map page, press the small right
knob to display a panning pointer.
2.
Turn the small and large right knobs to place
the panning pointer at the desired location.
3.
If the panning pointer is placed on an existing
airport, navaid or user waypoint, the waypoint
name will be highlighted. Press direct-to and
then ENT twice to navigate to the waypoint.
4.
If the panning pointer is placed on an open
location, press direct-to and ENT twice to
create a “+MAP” waypoint and navigate to
it.
To select an on-screen waypoint (other than the
map page) as a direct-to waypoint:
1.
2.
64
If a single airport, navaid or user waypoint is
displayed on-screen: press direct-to, then
press ENT twice.
If a list of waypoints is displayed on-screen:
press the small right knob to activate the
cursor, turn the large right knob to highlight
the desired waypoint, then press direct-to
followed by ENT twice.
190-00356-00 Rev E
3 - DIRECT-TO
Cancelling / Manual Course
Cancelling Direct-To Navigation
Specifying a Course to a Waypoint
Once a direct-to is activated, the unit will provide
navigation guidance to the selected waypoint until the
direct-to is manually cancelled or replaced by a new
active leg or direct-to.
Whenever you perform a direct-to, the unit will
set a direct geodesic course to the selected waypoint.
You can also manually define the course to the selected
waypoint, using the “CRS” course field on the select
direct-to waypoint page.
To cancel a direct-to:
1.
2.
3.
Press the direct-to key to display the select
direct-to waypoint page.
Press MENU to display the direct-to options
menu.
With “Cancel Direct-To NAV?” highlighted,
press ENT. If a flight plan is still active, the unit
will resume navigating the flight plan along the
closest leg.
To manually define the direct-to course:
1.
Press the direct-to key.
2.
Use the small and large right knobs to select
the desired waypoint.
3.
Press ENT to confirm the selected waypoint,
then turn the large right knob to highlight
the course (“CRS”) field.
4.
Turn the small and large right knobs to select
the desired course and press ENT.
5.
Press ENT again to begin navigation using the
selected waypoint and course.
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65
3 - DIRECT-TO
Selecting Direct-To a Holding Pattern
You may select a Direct-To course to a holding pattern that is in your flight plan.
To set a direct-to course to a holding pattern:
66
1.
Press the FPL key to reach the active flight plan
page.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor. Turn the large right knob to highlight
the hold leg of the flight plan.
3.
Press direct-to. “Activate” will be highlighted.
Press ENT to activate a course Direct-To the
holding pattern. Or, press CLR to cancel the
process.
4.
The holding pattern waypoint will now be set
as the direct-to waypoint.
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4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Flight Plan Catalog
Section 4
Flight Plans
The 400W-series lets you create up to 20 different flight plans, with up to 31 waypoints in each flight
plan. The flight plan page group consists of two pages,
accessed by pressing the FPL key. The Active Flight
Plan page shows the legs and details in the active flight
plan. The Flight Plan Catalog contains flight plans that
you have created and saved for future use. The flight
plan pages allow you to create, edit and copy flight
plans. There are separate options available in both the
Active Flight Plan page and the Flight Catalog page.
Active Flight Plan Page
4.
Turn the large right knob to select the point
where you wish to add the new waypoint. If
an existing waypoint is highlighted, the new
waypoint will be placed directly in front of this
waypoint.
5.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the identifier of the new waypoint and press
ENT.
6.
Once all changes have been made, press the
small right knob to return to the flight plan
catalog.
Flight Plan Catalog Page
Flight Plan Catalog
The Flight Plan Catalog allows you to create, edit,
activate, delete and copy flight plans. Flight plans
numbered from 1 through 19 are used to save flight
plans for future use. “Flight plan 00” is reserved exclusively for the flight plan currently in use for navigation. Any time you activate a flight plan, a copy of the
flight plan is automatically transferred to “flight plan
00” and overwrites any previously active flight plan.
Flight Plan Catalog Editing
To delete a waypoint from an existing flight plan:
1.
Press FPL and turn the small right knob to
display the flight plan catalog.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
To add a waypoint to an existing flight plan:
1.
Press FPL and turn the small right knob to
display the flight plan catalog.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
desired flight plan and press ENT.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
4.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
desired flight plan and press ENT.
Turn the large right knob to select the
waypoint you wish to delete and press CLR
to display a “remove waypoint” confirmation
window.
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67
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Flight Plan Catalog
5.
With “Yes” highlighted, press ENT to remove
the waypoint.
6.
Once all changes have been made, press the
small right knob to return to the flight plan
catalog.
A one-line user comment may be added to any
flight plan, which will be displayed on the flight plan
catalog, next to the flight plan’s number. By default, as
the flight plan is being created, the comment will show
the first and last waypoints in the flight plan.
To change the comment line for an existing flight
plan:
1.
From the flight plan catalog, press the small
right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
desired flight plan and press ENT.
3.
Turn the large right knob to select the comment line at the top of the screen.
4.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the new comment. Press ENT when finished.
5.
68
Flight Plan Catalog Options
The following options are available for the Flight
Plan Catalog:
• Activate Flight Plan
• Invert and Activate Flight Plan
• Create New Flight Plan
• Crossfill
• Copy Flight Plan
• Delete Flight Plan
• Delete All Flight Plans
• Sort List by Number/Comment
Activating Flight Plans
Activate Flight Plan? allows you to select the
flight plan for navigation guidance. Once a flight plan
is defined through the Flight Plan Catalog, it may be
activated for navigation. Activating the flight plan
places it into “flight plan 00” and overwrites any previous information at that location.
To activate an existing flight plan:
1.
From the flight plan catalog, press the small
right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
desired flight plan and press MENU to display
the flight plan catalog options.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Activate Flight Plan?” and press ENT.
Once all changes have been made, press the
small right knob to return to the flight plan
catalog.
190-00356-00 Rev E
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Flight Plan Catalog Options
Inverting Flight Plans
Invert FPL? allows you to reverse the highlighted
flight plan and select it for navigation guidance. After
travelling along a flight plan, you may wish to reverse
the route for navigation guidance back to your original
departure point.
To activate an existing flight plan in reverse order:
1.
From the flight plan catalog, press the small
right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
desired flight plan and press MENU to display
the flight plan catalog options.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Invert
FPL?” and press ENT. The original flight plan
will remain intact in its flight plan catalog storage location.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Create
New Flight Plan?” and press ENT.
4.
A blank flight plan page will appear for the
first empty storage location. Use the small
and large right knobs to enter the identifier
of the departure waypoint and press ENT.
5.
Repeat step #4 above to enter the identifier
for each additional flight plan waypoint.
6.
Once all waypoints have been entered, press
the small right knob to return to the flight
plan catalog.
Create a new flight plan
Create New Flight Plan? allows you to create a
new flight plan. The new flight plan will be saved in
the Flight Plan Catalog.
To create a new flight plan:
1.
Press FPL and turn the small right knob to
display the flight plan catalog.
2.
Press MENU to display the flight plan catalog
options.
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69
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Flight Plan Catalog Options
Crossfill
Crossfill? allows you to transfer a direct-to destination, the active flight plan including VNAV parameters, any stored flight plan or user waypoints to a
second 400W-Series or 500W-Series Garmin unit.
See Section 9 - Aux Pages - Flight Planning Crossfill Operation for additional details on using the
“Crossfill?” option.
Copying Flight Plans
Copy Flight Plan? allows you to copy the selected
flight plan to a new flight plan location. The copy
function is useful for duplicating an existing flight plan
before making changes. If you want to save a flight
plan currently located in “flight plan 0”, be sure to
copy it to an open catalog location (1-19) before the
flight plan is cancelled, overwritten or erased.
To copy a flight plan to another flight plan catalog location:
1a. From the active flight plan page, press MENU
to display the active flight plan options
window.
or
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Copy
Flight Plan?” and press ENT.
3.
By default, the next empty catalog location will
be offered. To select a different location, turn
the large right knob to select the flight plan
number, use the small and large right knobs
to enter a different number and press ENT.
4.
With “Yes?” highlighted, press ENT to copy
the flight plan.
Deleting Flight Plans
Delete Flight Plan? allows you to remove the
selected flight plan from memory. Deleting a flight plan
does not delete the individual waypoints contained
in the flight plan from the database or user waypoint
memory. Once you are finished with a flight plan, it
can easily be deleted from the flight plan catalog or the
active flight plan page.
To delete a flight plan:
1b. From the flight plan catalog, press the small
right knob to activate the cursor, turn the
large right knob to highlight the flight plan
you wish to copy, then press MENU to display
the flight plan catalog options.
70
1a. From the active flight plan page, press MENU
to display the active flight plan options
window.
or
1b. From the flight plan catalog, press the small
right knob to activate the cursor, turn the
large right knob to highlight the flight plan
you wish to copy, then press MENU to display
the flight plan catalog options.
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4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Flight Plan Catalog Options
Sort List By Number?/Sort List by Comment?
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Delete
Flight Plan?” and press ENT.
3.
With “Yes?” highlighted, press ENT to delete
the flight plan.
Sort List By Number?/Sort List by Comment?
The sorting function allows you to select between a
flight plan catalog sorted numerically by the flight plan
number or sorted alphanumerically based upon the
comment assigned to each flight plan. When either
option is selected, the other option will appear on the
flight plan catalog options window.
To sort the catalog listing by number or comment:
1.
Deleting All Flight Plans
Delete All Flight Plans? allows you to remove all
flight plans from memory.
Select the “Sort List By Number?” or “Sort List
By Comment?” option (whichever is currently
displayed) from the flight plan catalog options
and press ENT.
To delete all flight plans:
1.
Select the “Delete All Flight Plans?” option
from the flight plan catalog options and press
ENT.
2.
A confirmation window will appear. With
“Yes?” highlighted, press ENT.
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71
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Flight Plan Catalog Options
Active Flight Plan Page
5.
The active flight plan page provides information
and editing functions for “flight plan 00”— the flight
plan currently in use for navigation. Once you have
activated a flight plan, the active flight plan page will
show each waypoint for the flight plan, along with the
desired track (DTK) and distance (DIS) for each leg.
The data fields for DTK and DIS are user-selectable
and may be changed to display cumulative distance
(CUM) to each waypoint, estimated time of arrival
(ETA), estimated time en route (ETE) or en route safe
altitude (ESA).
To change a data field on the active flight plan
page:
1.
With the active flight plan page displayed, press
MENU to display the active flight plan page
options window.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight
“Change Fields?” and press ENT.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the field
you wish to change.
4.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
data item and press ENT.
Press the small right knob to remove the
cursor.
To restore factory default settings for data fields
on the active flight plan page:
1.
With the active flight plan page displayed, press
MENU to display the active flight plan page
options window.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight
“Restore Defaults?” and press ENT.
Active Flight Plan Options
The following options (some covered on the preceding pages) are available for the active flight plan:
• Activate Leg
• Crossfill
• Copy Flight Plan
• Invert Flight Plan
• Delete Flight Plan
• Select Approach
• Select Arrival
• Select Departure
• Remove Approach
• Remove Arrival
• Remove Departure
• Closest Point of Flight Plan
• Parallel Track
• Change Fields
• Restore Defaults
Activate Leg
Activate Leg? activates/reactivates the flight plan
and selects the highlighted leg as the “active leg” (the
leg which will currently be used for navigation guidance).
To activate a flight plan along a specific leg:
1.
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190-00356-00 Rev E
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor and turn the large right knob to highlight
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Active Flight Plan
the desired destination waypoint.
Delete Flight Plan
2.
Select the “Activate Leg?” option from the
active flight plan page options and press
ENT.
3.
A confirmation window will appear. With
“Activate?” highlighted, press ENT.
Delete Flight Plan? allows you to remove all
waypoints from the selected flight plan. Deleting a
flight plan does not delete the waypoints contained
in the flight plan from the database or user waypoint
memory. This feature is described earlier in this section.
1. With the Active Flight Plan Page displayed,
press MENU to display the Active Flight Plan
Page Options window.
2. Turn the large right knob to highlight “Delete
Flight Plan?” and press ENT.
3. A window will appear with the message
“Delete all flight plans?”. Turn the large right
knob to highlight “Yes” or “No”. Press ENT.
Crossfill
Crossfill? allows you to transfer the active flight
plan, including VNAV parameters, between two
400W- or 500W-series Garmin units in a dual unit
installation. See the description on a previous page
in the Flight Plan section. See Section 9 - Aux Pages
- Flight Planning - Crossfill Operation for additional
details on using the “Crossfill?” option.
Copy Flight Plan
Copy Flight Plan? copies the active flight plan
to a flight plan catalog location. The copy function
is useful for duplicating the active flight plan before
making changes. This feature is described earlier in
this section.
Invert Flight Plan
I nvert Flight Plan? reverses the active flight plan.
This feature is described earlier in this section.
1. With the Active Flight Plan Page displayed,
press MENU to display the Active Flight Plan
Page Options window.
2. Turn the large right knob to highlight “Invert
Flight Plan?” and press ENT.
Select Approach
Select Approach? allows you to select a published
instrument approach for the destination airport, or
replace the current approach with a new selection. In
many cases, you’ll find it more convenient to select
approaches using the PROC key— as described in
Section 5 - Procedures.
To select an approach for a direct-to or flight plan
destination airport:
1.
190-00356-00 Rev E
Press MENU and choose the “Select
Approach?” option from the active flight plan
page options with the large right knob and
press ENT.
73
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Active Flight Plan Options
ing the original flight plan until cleared for the
approach—but, keeps the approach available
for quick activation when needed.
5.
2.
A window will appear listing the available
approaches for your destination airport. Turn
the small right knob to highlight the desired
approach and press ENT.
For approaches not approved for GPS, a
reminder window will appear indicating that
GPS guidance on such approaches is strictly
for monitoring only. To confirm this reminder,
highlight “Yes?” and press ENT.
Select Arrival
Select Arrival? allows you to select a published
standard terminal arrival route (STAR) for the destination airport, or replace the current arrival with a new
selection.
To select an arrival for a direct-to or flight plan
destination airport:
3.
A second window will appear listing available
transitions for the approach. Turn the small
right knob to highlight the desired transition waypoint and press ENT. (The “Vectors”
option assumes you will receive vectors to the
final course segment of the approach and will
provide navigation guidance to intercept this
final course.)
1. Select the “Select Arrival?” option from the
active flight plan page options and press
ENT.
2.
4.
74
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Load?”
or “Activate?” and press ENT. “Load?” will
add the approach to the flight plan without
immediately using the approach for navigation
guidance. This allows you to continue navigat190-00356-00 Rev E
A window will appear listing the available
transitions for your destination airport. Turn
the small right knob to highlight the desired
transition waypoint and press ENT.
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Active Flight Plan Options
3.
A second window will appear listing available
runways for the transition. Turn the small
right knob to highlight the desired runway
and press ENT.
Remove Approach, Arrival, or Departure
Remove Approach? deletes the currently selected
approach from the active flight plan. Remove Arrival?
deletes the current Arrival (STAR) from the active
flight plan. Remove Departure? deletes the current
departure (SID) from the active flight plan.
To remove an approach, arrival or departure from
the active flight plan:
4.
1.
Press MENU and turn the large right knob
to select the “Remove Approach?”, “Remove
Arrival?” or “Remove Departure?” option from
the active flight plan page options and press
ENT.
2.
A confirmation window will appear listing
the procedure you are about to remove. With
“Yes?” highlighted, press ENT.
With “Load?” highlighted, press ENT.
Select Departure
Select Departure? allows you to select a published standard instrument departure (SID) for the
departure airport, or replace the current departure
with a new selection. When using a direct-to, the
400W-series will use the nearest airport as a reference
when displaying available departures. See Sec 5 - Procedures for information on selecting departures using
the PROC key.
To select a departure for the departure airport:
1.
Select the “Select Departure?” option from
the active flight plan page options and press
ENT.
2.
A window will appear listing the available
departures for your departure airport. Turn
the small right knob to select the desired
departure and press ENT.
3.
A second window will appear listing available
transitions for the departure. Turn the small
right knob to highlight the desired transition
waypoint and press ENT.
4.
With “Load?” highlighted, press ENT.
Closest Point of FPL
Closest Point of FPL? calculates the bearing and
closest distance that a flight plan will pass from a reference waypoint. May also be used to create a new user
waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to
the reference waypoint.
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75
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Active Flight Plan Options
To determine the closest point, along the active
flight plan, to a selected waypoint:
1.
2.
Select the “Closest Point of FPL?” option from
the active flight plan page options and press
ENT.
A window will appear with the reference
waypoint field highlighted. Use the small and
large right knobs to enter the identifier of the
reference waypoint and press ENT.
3.
A confirmation window will appear for the
selected reference waypoint. Press ENT to
accept the waypoint.
4.
The 400W-series will display the bearing (BRG)
and distance (DIST) to the closest point along
the flight plan, from the selected reference
waypoint. To create a user waypoint at this
location and add it to the flight plan, highlight
“Load?” and press ENT. The name for the new
user waypoint will be derived from the identifier of the reference waypoint.
Parallel Track
Parallel Track? allows you to create a parallel
course offset of 1 to 99 NM to the left or right of your
current flight plan. After setting a parallel track to your
current flight plan, a magenta parallel track line will be
drawn offset from the original by the selected distance.
The original course line will be drawn in white. The
aircraft will navigate to the parallel track course line.
When you reach the end of the flight plan, an
annunciator message will state “PTK END X S”. The
message will give the pilot sufficient time to intercept
the original course.
Points to remember with Parallel Track:
• You must have an active flight plan
• The current leg must support parallel track
• Parallel track is not allowed for the active leg of an
approach
• Parallel track is not allowed if the active leg is not a
track-to-fix or direct-to-fix leg
• Parallel track may be allowed but not the selected
offset distance
North
Course
BRG
DTK
Parallel Track Distance
FROM
WPT
Offset
FROM
WPT
76
TO
WPT
190-00356-00 Rev E
Offset
TO
WPT
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Active Flight Plan Options
To set a parallel track to your flight plan.
To cancel a parallel track to your flight plan.
1.
1.
With the Active Flight Plan Page displayed,
press MENU to display the Active Flight Plan
Page Options window.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Parallel
Track?” and press ENT.
3.
“Cancel?” is highlighted. Press ENT.
With the Active Flight Plan Page displayed,
press MENU to display the Active Flight Plan
Page Options window.
Change Fields
Select “Parallel Track?” to set a parallel track
to your current flight plan.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Parallel
Track?” and press ENT.
3.
Turn the small and large right knobs to
set the Offset Distance value and then press
ENT.
Change Fields? allows you to select the desired
data items to display on the active flight plan page.
1. With the Active Flight Plan Page displayed,
press MENU to display the Active Flight Plan
Page Options window.
2. Turn the large right knob to highlight
“Change Fields?” and press ENT. The field
active for selection will flash. Turn the large
right knob to highlight the field to change.
Turn the small and large knobs to select the
parallel track distance from your current
flight plan.
4.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
Offset Direction.
5.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
Offset Direction and press ENT.
3.
Turn the small right knob to open the list of
selections and continue turning it to highlight
the desired selection and then press ENT.
Restore Defaults
Turn the small and large knobs to select the
parallel track direction from your current
flight plan.
6.
Activate? is highlighted. Press ENT to activate
the selected Parallel Track. Or, press CLR or the
CRSR to cancel Parallel Track selection.
Restore Defaults? returns the data items to factory defaults.
1. With the Active Flight Plan Page displayed,
press MENU to display the Active Flight Plan
Page Options window.
2. Turn the small right knob to highlight
“Restore Defaults?” and then press ENT.
190-00356-00 Rev E
77
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Active Flight Plan Shortcuts
Shortcuts
A number of shortcuts are available to save time
when using the active flight plan page. These shortcuts
speed the process of removing approaches, departures,
and arrivals, and aid in selecting a specific flight plan
leg for navigation guidance.
On the preceding page, options to remove
approaches, departures and arrivals were introduced.
This process may also be completed using the CLR
key, as described below and illustrated at left.
This same process may also be used to remove
individual waypoints from the active flight plan.
To remove a waypoint using the CLR key:
1.
With the active flight plan page displayed, press
the small right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
identifier for the waypoint you wish to delete.
Identifiers will appear in green text.
3.
Press CLR to display a confirmation window.
4.
With “Yes?” highlighted, press ENT to remove
the selected procedure.
To remove an approach, departure, or arrival
using the CLR key:
1.
With the active flight plan page displayed, press
the small right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
title for the approach, departure or arrival you
wish to delete. Titles will appear in light blue
directly above the procedure’s waypoints.
The “Activate Leg?” provides a shortcut that allows
you to specify which leg of the flight plan will currently be used for navigation guidance, using the
direct-to key.
To activate a specific leg of the active flight plan:
1.
78
3.
Press CLR to display a confirmation window.
4.
With “Yes?” highlighted, press ENT to remove
the selected procedure.
190-00356-00 Rev E
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor and turn the large right knob to highlight the desired destination waypoint.
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Active Flight Plan Shortcuts
2.
Press direct-to twice to display an “Activate
Leg” confirmation window.
3.
With “Activate?” highlighted, press ENT.
When using instrument procedures, this feature
can be used not only to activate a specific point-topoint leg, but to also activate the procedure turn
portion of an approach, follow a DME arc or activate a
holding pattern.
Any approach, departure or arrival can be reviewed
on the appropriate airport page in the Waypoint page
group.
To review a procedure while viewing a flight plan
page:
1.
With a flight plan page displayed, press the
small right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
procedure header and press ENT to select the
WPT page group.
190-00356-00 Rev E
79
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Active Flight Plan Shortcuts
Flight Plan Transfer Feature (optional with
software V 3.20 or later)
The Flight Plan Card feature is available for transferring flight plans to the unit via a Garmin proprietary
data card. The flight plans may be created on a PC
using flight planning software that is compatible with
Garmin equipment (Jeppesen FliteStar is an example).
In addition to the flight planning software, it is necessary to purchase a flight plan transfer kit from Garmin.
The kit contains the required hardware (including a
blank data card and card programmer) and Garmin
software that must be installed on the PC. Up to 19
flight plans and 1,000 user waypoints, created using
the flight planning software, can be loaded on to a
data card via the PC software and then transferred to
the 500W Unit using the procedure described below.
The process can be repeated as many times as desired
using the same card with different flight plans and user
waypoints loaded. If additional data cards are desired,
they can be purchased from Garmin separately.
NOTE: Flight plans are not verified by Garmin,
it is the pilot’s responsibility to verify all flight
plans.
Using the Flight Plan Card to load flight plans into
the 400W Unit:
1. With the unit powered off, remove the Terrain
Card, located in the right slot.
2. Place the Flight Plan Card in the empty right
slot.
3. Apply power to the unit.
4. Once initialization has completed, the unit
will default to the third FPL page (this third
page only exists when the Flight Plan Card is
in use).
80
Turn the small right knob to select the
flight plan file to transfer and catalog
number to use. Turn the large right knob
to move between fields. Press ENT to confirm selections and initiate transfers.
5.
190-00356-00 Rev E
NOTE: If a user waypoint with the same name
already exists in the 500W and is more than 10
meters from the imported user waypoint, the
imported user waypoint will be automatically
renamed by adding a digit (0-9) to the end of the
waypoint’s name. Also, a message will appear
to inform the user that a waypoint has been
renamed.
NOTE: Flight plan files that contain only user
waypoints (with no flight plan route) may be
transferred. In this case, only the user waypoints
will be transferred and no flight plans will be
modified. A message will appear to indicate this.
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
6.
Once all flight plans have been loaded, power
off the unit.
7.
Remove the Flight Plan Card from the right card
slot and place the Terrain Card back into the
empty card slot.
NOTE: The Flight Plan Card is only to be used on
the ground. It must be removed prior to flight.
8.
Apply power to the unit.
9.
To activate a newly transferred flight plan, refer
to Section Four “Activating Flight Plans.”
190-00356-00 Rev E
81
4 - FLIGHT PLANS
Blank Page
82
190-00356-00 Rev E
5 - PROCEDURES
Approaches/Departures/Arrivals
Section 5 - Procedures Approaches, Departures, & Arrivals
The 400W-series unit allows you to fly non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures. All available
approaches are stored on your Jeppesen NavData® card,
and are automatically updated when you replace the
card with a new one. Subscription information for NavData cards is included in your 400W-series package.
4.
A second window will appear listing the available transitions. Turn the large right knob to
highlight the desired transition waypoint and
press ENT. (The approach “Vectors” option
assumes you will receive vectors to the final
course segment of the approach and will provide navigation guidance relative to the final
approach course.)
5.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Load?”
or “Activate?” (approaches only) and press
ENT. “Load?” will add the procedure to the
flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows you to continue
navigating the original flight plan, but keeps
the procedure available on the active flight plan
page for quick activation when needed to later
activate a departure or arrival.
6.
For precision approaches and some nonprecision approaches, a reminder window
will appear indicating that GPS guidance on
such approaches is strictly for monitoring only
— use the VLOC receivers and external CDI
(or HSI) for primary navigation. To confirm this
reminder, highlight “Yes?” and press ENT.
The Procedures Page is displayed by pressing the
PROC key. The Procedures Page provides direct access
to approaches, departures and arrivals — based upon
the active flight plan or direct-to destination. In either
case, the departure and destination airports must have
published procedures associated with them.
To select an approach, departure or arrival:
1.
Press the PROC key to display the procedures page.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Select
Approach?”, “Select Departure?” or “Select
Arrival?” and press ENT.
3.
A window will appear listing the available procedures. Turn the large right knob to highlight
the desired procedure and press ENT. (When
a direct-to destination is selected, departures
are offered for the nearest airport.)
190-00356-00 Rev E
83
5 - PROCEDURES
Activating Approaches
Not all approaches in the database
are approved for GPS use. As you
select an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure
name indicates the procedure can be flown using
the GPS receiver. Some procedures will not have
this designation, meaning the GPS receiver may be
used for supplemental navigation guidance only. ILS
approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the
VLOC receiver to the proper frequency and coupling
the VLOC receiver to the external CDI (or HSI).
Once an approach is selected, it may be activated
for navigation from the procedures page. Activating the
approach overrides the “en route” portion of the active
flight plan, proceeding directly to the “approach”
portion (for a full approach, directly to the initial
approach fix).
To activate an approach:
1.
Press the PROC key to display the procedures
page.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Activate Approach?” and press ENT.
To activate the approach, with vectors to final:
1.
Press the PROC key to display the procedures
page.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Activate Vector-To-Final?” and press ENT.
In many cases, it may be easiest to “Load” the full
approach while still some distance away, en route to
the destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use
the steps above to select “Activate Vectors-To-Final”—
which makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint
active. Otherwise, activate the full approach using the
”Activate Approach?” option.
If you reactivate the approach currently being
flown using the PROC key, prior to reaching the MAP
a Restart Approach confirmation window appears on
the screen. If you have passed the MAP, the 400Wseries unit proceeds to the transition waypoint without
a restart confirmation.
Another procedures page option allows you to
activate the final course segment of the approach. This
option assumes you will receive vectors to the final
approach course and guides you to intercept the final
course, before reaching the FAF.
84
190-00356-00 Rev E
5 - PROCEDURES
Basic Approach Operations
Basic Approach Operations
Annunciation
Description
LPV
Localizer Performance with Vertical guidance (LPV) approach. Fly to LPV minimums.
A yellow background indicates that the approach is safe to continue but a downgrade
to LNAV may occur.
LP
Localizer Performance with no vertical guidance. Fly to LP minimums. SW V 3.30, or later.
L/VNAV
Lateral Navigation and Vertical Navigation
(LNAV/VNAV) approach. Fly to Lnav/Vnav
minimums.
LNAV+V
Non-precision GPS approach with advisory
vertical guidance. Note that some LNAV/
VNAV approaches are not yet marked in
the database as such and will show up as
LNAV+V. If the chart shows the approach as
Lnav/Vnav, it can be flown to Lnav/Vnav
minimums.
The 400W series provides precision vertical guidance and non-precision advisory guidance using its
built in GPS receiver. The moving map pages can also
be used as a supplemental aid to situational awareness
for ILS, VOR, and NDB approaches (and non-precision localizer-based approaches), but the appropriate
navigational aid MUST be used for primary approach
course guidance.
Approaches designed specifically for GPS are often
very simple and don’t require overflying a VOR or
NDB. Currently, many non-precision approaches have
“GPS overlays” to let you fly an existing procedure
(VOR, VOR/DME, NDB, RNAV, etc.) more accurately
using GPS. To date, there are over 2,400 GPS-only
approaches and over 2,900 GPS overlay approaches
worldwide.
LNAV
Lateral Navigation approach. Fly to LNAV
minimums.
MAPR
Missed Approach indicates the system is
providing missed approach integrity and CDI
full-scale deflection ±0.3 NM.
ENR
En route, CDI full-scale deflection is 2.0 NM
or current CDI scale selection, whichever is
smaller.
TERM
Terminal, CDI full-scale deflection is 1.0 NM
or current CDI scale selection, whichever is
smaller.
DPRT
Departure, indicates the system is using
non-precision approach integrity. HAL = 0.3
and CDI full-scale deflection is 0.3 NM.
OCN
Oceanic, CDI full-scale deflection is 2.0 NM.
LOW ALT
(lower window)
For LNAV+V, Lnav/Vnav, or LPV approaches, the LOW ALT annunciation
indicates the aircraft’s estimated height is
lower than the Final Approach Waypoint
height by more than the current VPL plus 50
meters. This annunciation will not be active
when Terrain is operational.
Many overlay approaches are more complex (in
comparison to GPS-only approaches). The 400Wseries unit displays and guides you through each leg
of the approach — automatically sequencing through
each of these legs, up to the missed approach point
(MAP). Approaches may be flown “as published” with
the full transition — using any published feeder route
or initial approach fix (IAF) — or may be flown with a
vectors-to-final transition.
Flight mode annunciations are provided in the
lower left corner of the display indicating the current
mode of flight.
190-00356-00 Rev E
85
5 - PROCEDURES
Procedure Turn Approach
Approach operations on the 400W-series will typically begin with the same basic steps:
Select Destination
“Select” and “Load” the
approach
“Activate” the approach
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
86
Select the destination airport using the directto key, or as the last waypoint in the active
flight plan.
Choose the “Select Approach?” option from
the procedures page or from the active flight
plan options.
“Load” the approach (often while en route) in
anticipation of its future use. This places the
approach in the active flight plan, but retains
course guidance in the en route section until
the approach is “activated”.
“Activate” the full approach or vectors-to-final,
as appropriate. In some scenarios, you may find
it more convenient to immediately activate the
approach and skip the “Load” process outlined
above in step #3. The 400W-series provides
both options.
Approaches with Procedure Turns
The procedure turn portion of an approach is
stored as one of the legs of the approach. For this
reason, the 400W-series requires no special operations
from the pilot — other than flying the procedure turn
itself — beyond what is required for any other type of
approach.
This example uses the VOR Runway 04 GPS
approach for Lynchburg (Virginia) Regional Airport,
KLYH, and assumes a departure from Frederick (Maryland) Municipal Airport, KFDK. The steps required to
set up and fly the approach are detailed below:
1. Prior to departing KFDK, the destination (KLYH)
is selected using the direct-to key or by creating a flight plan terminating at Lynchburg
Regional.
2. While en route to KLYH, some 40-50 NM
away, you select the ATIS frequency to monitor
airport conditions and runway usage. This is
accomplished by selecting the NAVCOM page
and selecting the ATIS frequency from the list.
This places the frequency on standby. Use the
COM flip-flop key to make the ATIS frequency
active.
3.
190-00356-00 Rev E
From ATIS you learn that runway 04 is in use
and plan your approach accordingly. Press
the PROC key and select the “VOR 04-GPS”
approach. From the transitions window, select
LYH VOR (the IAF). Also, select “Load?” to load
(but not activate) the approach.
5 - PROCEDURES
Procedure Turn Approach
Flying the Procedure Turn
1. Within 31 NM of the destination airport, the
400W-series will switch from “en route”
mode to “terminal” mode (as indicated in the
lower left corner of the screen). The switch to
terminal mode is accompanied by a gradual
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) scale transition from 2.0 to 1.0 NM, full scale deflection.
(See example below)
4. Once you are cleared for the approach, press
the PROC key, select “Activate Approach?”
and press ENT.

Lynchburg (VA) Regional
VOR or GPS Rwy 04

2.

Several miles prior to reaching the IAF (LYH),
you may wish to review the approach sequence.
Press the FPL key to display the active flight
plan page. Press the small right knob, and
then turn the large right knob to review each
segment of the approach. When finished, press
FPL again to return to the previous page.
[RW04]
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
190-00356-00 Rev E
87
5 - PROCEDURES
Procedure Turn Approach
3.
As you approach the IAF (LYH), a waypoint alert
(“LT TO 205° x S”) will appear in the lower right
corner of the screen. As the distance (DIS) to
the IAF approaches zero, the alert is replaced
by a turn advisory (“LT TO 205° NOW”). The
unit will guide you automatically, or you can
dial the outbound course of 205° into the CDI
(or HSI) using the OBS knob and initiate a
standard rate turn to this course heading.

RW04
31 nm


4.
Fly the outbound course, keeping the CDI
needle centered.
Once you have flown approximately one minute
past the FAF (LYH), the alert message “LT TO
160° x S” will appear in the lower right corner
of the screen. The unit will sequence to the
inbound leg when established inbound.
5.
88
NOTE: You may manually perform any type of
procedure turn in accordance with the AIM and
the charted procedure. However, the unit displays
a map of, and provides roll steering for, a 45/180
procedure turn. If you manually complete the
entire procedure turn prior to the unit’s initial
outbound turn alert, software versions prior to
3.20 may sequence to the inbound leg but enter
SUSP mode. In that case, press the OBS key to
resume automatic sequencing.

DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
6.
190-00356-00 Rev E
Turn left to a heading of 160° to initiate the
procedure turn. Course guidance is provided
relative to the outbound leg from the FAF. (The
procedure turn is displayed on the map page
and indicated as the active leg on the default
NAV and active flight plan pages.) The CDI
needle will start moving to the right.
5 - PROCEDURES
Procedure Turn Approach
7.
After approximately one minute, make a 180°
right turn to a heading of 340° to intercept
the inbound course. The unit will sequence to
the inbound leg to the FAF, the CDI needle will
swing to the opposite side to provide proper
sensing along the final course segment and
“DTK 025° NOW” will appear in the lower
right corner of the screen.
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
RW04



8.
As the CDI needle starts to center, make a right
turn to 025°—the final approach course.
9.
When within 45° of the final approach course
and the FAF is the TO waypoint, the 400W-series
unit switches from terminal mode to
“approach” mode. CDI scaling is tightened from
1.0 NM full scale deflection to either 0.3 NM
or 2° full scale deflection whichever is less at
the FAF. The change occurs over 2 NM and is
completed by the FAF.


10. As you approach the FAF, a waypoint alert in
the lower right corner (“NEXT DTK 025°”)
will appear. Make any course adjustments
necessary for the final course segment (FAF to
MAP).
11. As you cross the FAF, the destination sequences
to the MAP (“RW03”, the runway threshold).
With the needle centered, fly toward the MAP,
observing the altitude minimums dictated by
the approach plate.
NOTE: When viewing the map page, note that the final
course segment is displayed in magenta (the active leg
of the flight plan always appears in magenta) and a
dashed line extends the course beyond the MAP. The
dashed line is provided for situational awareness only
and should NOT be used for navigation. Follow the
published missed approach procedures.
12. As you approach the MAP, a waypoint alert
(“ARRIVING WPT”) will appear in the lower
right corner.
13. As you cross the MAP, “SUSP” will appear
above the OBS key, indicating that automatic
sequencing of approach waypoints will be sus-
190-00356-00 Rev E
89
5 - PROCEDURES
Missed Approach
pended at the MAP. A “from” indication will
be displayed on the CDI and default NAV page,
but course guidance along the final approach
course will continue. If a missed approach is
required, use the OBS key to initiate the missed
approach sequence.
Flying the Missed Approach
After you pass the MAP, if the runway isn’t in sight
you must execute a missed approach. The 400W-series
continues to give guidance along an extension of the final
course segment (FAF to MAP) until you manually initiate
the missed approach procedure (as mentioned previously
in reference to the “SUSP” advisory).



RW04

The OBS key is used to initiate the missed approach,
as follows:
1. After commencing the published missed
approach procedure, and after the SUSP
annunciator has appeared, press the OBS key
to sequence to the first waypoint in the missed
approach procedure. This will simultaneously
result in several changes:
a. SUSP annunciation will extinguish.
b. The first waypoint in the missed approach
procedure will be sequenced.
c. The current approach annunciation (LPV,
L/NAV, LNAV+V or LNAV) will be replaced
with either MAPR or TERM, depending
on the design of the approach. Normally,
MAPR will be annunciated for missed
approach procedures in which the first leg
is a climb straight ahead to a waypoint,
whereas TERM will be annunciated for
missed approach procedures requiring a
turn.
d. CDI scaling will change to ±0.3 NM full
scale deflection if MAPR is annunciated,
or ±1.0 NM if TERM is annunciated.
e. The “FROM” indicator will change to a
“TO” indication.
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
90
NOTE: It is the pilot’s responsibility for initial
missed approach guidance in accordance with
published procedure. The unit may not provide
correct guidance until established on a defined
leg.
2.
190-00356-00 Rev E
NOTE: In some cases, an additional hold waypoint is added to the missed approach sequence.
This additional waypoint is used as an aid in
establishing the holding pattern—
especially where the MAP and MAHP are the
same waypoint.
An alert message in the lower right hand corner
of the screen will recommend entry procedures
for the holding pattern (i.e., “HOLD DIRECT”,
“HOLD PARALLEL”, or “HOLD TEARDROP”).
5 - PROCEDURES
Approach with Hold
As you fly the holding pattern, a timer appears
on the default NAV page. The timer automatically resets on the outbound side of the hold
when you are abeam the hold waypoint. The
timer again resets as you turn inbound (within
approximately 30° of the inbound course). This
allows you to use standard timing (typically one
minute) to fly the inbound and outbound legs
of the hold.
2.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the destination airport’s identifier (KFVX).
Farmville (VA) Regional
GPS Rwy 21

.
The 400W-series unit will provide course guidance only on the inbound side of the holding
pattern. When leaving the holding pattern
to re-fly the approach (or another approach)
press the PROC key to “Select Approach?” or
“Activate Approach?” as previously described.
(Or, use the direct-to key to select another
destination.)
Flying an Approach with a Hold
Starting where the previous example left off,
we’ll assume weather conditions resulted in a missed
approach at Lynchburg Regional. Now, you’ve decided
to divert to Farmville Regional (KFVX) instead.
1. Press direct-to.
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
3.
Press ENT twice.
This time, you select the GPS runway 21 approach
into Farmville Regional. The GPS runway 21 approach
begins with a holding pattern at the IAF, BODRY
intersection.
4. Press PROC and select the “GPS 21”
approach.
190-00356-00 Rev E
91
5 - PROCEDURES
Approach with Hold
given the option and you must manually reselect
waypoint sequencing.
5.
8.
Just prior to crossing BODRY intersection, an
alert—”HOLD TEARDROP”—will appear in
the lower right corner of the screen to suggest the proper holding pattern entry. (“HOLD
DIRECT” or “HOLD PARALLEL” may be offered
on other similar approaches.)
9.
As mentioned in the missed approach example,
the default NAV page will display a timer or
distance, as appropriate, during the holding
pattern. Use this timer or distance to fly the
outbound portion of the holding pattern. (The
holding pattern is displayed on the map page
and indicated as the active leg on the default
NAV and active flight plan pages.)
From the transitions window, select BODRY
intersection as the IAF. Also, select “Activate?”
to load and activate the approach.
6.
Once you activate the approach, the active
flight plan page will appear. You may review
the approach sequence by pressing the small
right knob and turning the large right knob.
Press FPL to return to the navigation pages.


7.
As in the last example, within 31 NM of the
airport, the 400W-series unit will switch from
en route mode to terminal mode, and the CDI
scale will transition from 2.0 to 1.0 NM, full
scale deflection.
92


31nm (from airport)
NOTE: Upon activating an RNAV GPS approach,
you are given the option to skip any non-required
holding patterns during the initial transitions of
the approach. In a GPS approach, you will not be
190-00356-00 Rev E
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
5 - PROCEDURES
Approach with Hold
NOTE: If you need to lose extra altitude or speed
by going around the holding pattern again, press
OBS to manually suspend waypoint sequencing
BEFORE crossing the holding waypoint the second
time. If you’ve already passed this waypoint, reactivate the holding pattern.
11. Also as you approach BODRY intersection, a
waypoint alert (”NEXT DTK 209°”) will appear
in the lower right corner of the screen.
14. As you cross the FAF, the destination sequences
to the MAP (“RW21”, the runway threshold).
With the needle centered, fly toward the MAP,
observing the altitude minimums dictated by
the approach plate. (When viewing the map
page, you’ll note that the final course segment
is displayed in magenta—the active leg of the
flight plan always appears in magenta—and
a dashed line extends the course beyond the
MAP. Do NOT follow this extended course.
Instead, follow published missed approach
procedures.)
12. When within 45° of the final approach course
and the FAF is the TO waypoint. CDI scaling is
tightened from 1.0 NM full scale deflection to
either 0.3 nautical mile or 2° full scale deflection whichever is less at the FAF. The change
occurs over 2 NM and is completed by the
FAF.
13. As you approach the FAF, a waypoint alert
in the lower right corner (“NEXT DTK 209°”)
will appear. Make any course adjustments
necessary for the final course segment (FAF
to MAP).
190-00356-00 Rev E
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
93
5 - PROCEDURES
DME Arc Approach
15. As you approach the MAP, a waypoint alert
(“ARRIVING WPT”) will appear in the lower right
corner. CDI scaling continues to tighten from
0.3 NM to 350 feet, full-scale deflection.
16. As you cross the MAP, “SUSP” will appear
above the OBS key, indicating that automatic
sequencing of approach waypoints will be suspended at the MAP. A “from” indication will
be displayed on the CDI and default NAV page,
but course guidance along the final approach
course will continue. If a missed approach is
required, use the OBS key to initiate the missed
approach sequence.
Flying a DME Arc Approach
The GPS overlay for a DME arc approach uses
additional Jeppesen-provided waypoints to define the
arc. These waypoints are indicated by “D” as the first
letter in the waypoint name. This is followed by three
numbers which indicate the radial the waypoint lies
on. The last letter indicates the radius of the arc.
Billard Muni (Topeka, KS)
VOR or GPS Rwy 22

DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
NOTE: The letter/number DME arc names are
being replaced with standard five-letter intersection names. You may encounter either naming
convention for an approach you select.
This example is based upon a flight from Hutchinson (Kansas) Municipal (KHUT) to Billard Municipal
(KTOP) in Topeka, Kansas. The VOR/DME runway 22
approach will be selected, along with “D258G” as the
IAF.
1. Select Billard Muni (KTOP) as your destination,
via the Direct-To key or as the last waypoint
in a flight plan.
94
190-00356-00 Rev E
5 - PROCEDURES
DME Arc Approach
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION



2.
Press the PROC key and select the “VOR 22”
approach. From the transitions window, select
“LEBVY” as the IAF. Also, select “Load?” (or
“Activate?”, if already cleared direct to the IAF
for the approach).



31 nm (from airport)
Billard Muni (Topeka, KS)
VOR Rwy 22
3.
Within 31 NM of KTOP, the 400W-series unit
will switch from en route mode to terminal
mode and the CDI scale will transition from
2.0 to 1.0 NM, full scale deflection.
4.
If you haven’t already activated the approach
(in step #2 above), be sure to do so when
cleared for the approach.
5.
As you approach the IAF (LEBVY/D258G), a
waypoint alert (“LT TO 350° x S”, meaning
turn left to 350° in x seconds) will appear in
the lower right corner of the screen. As the
distance (DIS) to the IAF approaches zero, the
alert is replaced by a turn advisory (“LT TO 350°
NOW”).
190-00356-00 Rev E
95
5 - PROCEDURES
DME Arc Approach
less at the FAF. The change occurs over 2 NM
and is completed by the FAF.
9.
6.
96
As you approach the FAF, “RT TO 214° x S” will
appear in the lower right corner of the screen.
Select this course on the CDI (or HSI) using the
OBS knob and turn to the final course segment
(FAF to MAP) heading.
Follow the arc, keeping the CDI needle centered. When using an autopilot, the course
select on the CDI (or HSI) must be periodically
updated with the desired track (DTK) to ensure
proper tracking through the arc. Whenever the
course select setting and desired track differ
by more than 10°, a “Set course to ###°”
message will appear on the message page.
7.
The next point in the approach is an intermediate fix, labeled “DMARY/D025G”. As you
approach this intermediate fix, a waypoint alert
(“RT TO 205° x S”) will appear in the lower
right corner of the screen. As the distance to
this fix approaches zero, the alert is replaced
by a turn advisory (“RT TO 205° NOW”). Dial
this course into the CDI (or HSI) using the OBS
knob and initiate a standard rate turn to this
course heading.
8.
When within 45° of the final approach
course and the FAF is the TO waypoint, the
400W-series unit will switch from terminal
mode to approach mode. CDI scaling is tightened from 1.0 NM full scale deflection to either
0.3 NM or 2° full scale deflection whichever is
190-00356-00 Rev E
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION


NOTE: Since this is not a GPS approach, the pilot
should be using the VLOC receiver, tuned to the
correct VOR (TOP) for navigation.
5 - PROCEDURES
Vectors-To-Final Approach
10. As you cross the FAF, the destination sequences
to the MAP (“RW22”, the runway threshold).
With the needle centered, fly toward the MAP,
observing the altitude minimums dictated by
the approach plate. When viewing the map
page, you’ll note that the final course segment
is displayed in magenta (the active leg of the
flight plan always appears in magenta) and
a dashed line extends the course beyond the
MAP.
Vectors to Final
Let’s take a second look at the “VOR 22” approach
into Billard Municipal. Instead of following the DME
arc, ATC tells you to expect vectors onto the final
approach course. There are several ways to select “vectors to final” with the 400W-series unit. The first two
options below will normally require the least workload
to accomplish:
• When the approach is first selected, choose “VECTORS” from the transitions window.
• Load a full approach — including the IAF from
the transitions window. When cleared, press
PROC and select “Activate Vectors-To-Final?”.
11. As you approach the MAP, a waypoint alert
(“ARRIVING WPT”) will appear in the lower
right corner. CDI scaling continues to tighten
from 0.3 NM to 350 feet, full-scale deflection.
12. As you cross the MAP, “SUSP” will appear
above the OBS key, indicating that automatic
sequencing of approach waypoints will be
suspended at the MAP. A “from” indication
will be displayed on the CDI and default NAV
page, but course guidance along the final
approach course will continue. Do NOT follow
this extended course. Follow published missed
approach procedures using the OBS key to
initiate the missed approach sequence.
• Load the full approach. Use the direct-to key (by
pressing it twice) from the active flight plan page
to select the desired leg of the approach.
To select “VECTORS” from the transitions window:
1.
Select Billard Municipal (KTOP) as your destination, using the direct-to key, or as the last
waypoint in a flight plan.
2.
Press the PROC key and select the “VOR 22”
approach.
3.
From the transitions window, select “VECTORS”.
190-00356-00 Rev E
97
5 - PROCEDURES
Vectors-To-Final Approach
Flying the Vectors Approach
4.
Select “Load?” (or “Activate?”, if already on
vectors-to-final).
To activate vectors-to-final from the procedures
page:
1.
Select Billard Municipal (KTOP) as your destination, using the direct-to key or as the last
waypoint in a flight plan.
2.
Press the PROC key and select the “VOR 22”
approach.
3.
From the transitions window, select “LEBVY”
as the IAF. Also, select “Load?”.
With “vectors to final” selected, the CDI needle
will remain off center until you’re established on the
final approach course. With the approach activated,
the map page will display an extension of the final
approach course in magenta (remember, magenta is
used to depict the active leg of the flight plan) and
“VTF” will appear as part of the active leg on the
default NAV page (as a reminder that the approach was
activated with vectors-to-final). In this example, we’ll
assume ATC vectors result in a rectangular course to
intercept final, as follows:
DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION




4.
When cleared, press the PROC key and select
“Activate Vector-To-Final?”.
1.
98
190-00356-00 Rev E
When VTF is activated, the 400W-series unit
switches to approach mode and course guidance is given along the final approach course.
CDI full-scale deflection is as shown in Appendix C.
5 - PROCEDURES
Vectors-To-Final Approach
2.
The unit suspends automatic waypoint
sequencing in this case, because VTF was
activated while on the “From” side of the Final
Approach Fix.
3.
ATC instructs you to turn left to a heading
of 025°. This places you parallel to the final
approach course in the opposite direction. CDI
needle deflection is to the left.
6.
As the CDI needle centers, make any remaining
course corrections to establish yourself on the
final approach course.

4.

ATC instructs you to turn right to a heading of
115°.


5.
ATC instructs you to turn right to a heading of
175° to intercept the final approach course. As
you converge with the final approach course
the needle moves toward the center. (In the
illustration below, the needle has returned
to the on-screen CDI and your current position is less than 0.5 NM right of the final
approach course.) Once the aircraft is within
the approach course and the CDI is active,
automatic waypoint sequencing resumes and
SUSP is removed.

7.
190-00356-00 Rev E
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
As you approach the FAF, a waypoint alert in
the lower right corner (“Next DTK 214° in xx
sec”) appears. Make any course adjustments
necessary for the final course segment (FAF to
MAP). After the FAF, VLOC guidance should be
used for this approach. LNAV remains annunciated to indicate on-screen CDI sensitivity.
99
5 - PROCEDURES
Course-From-Fix Legs
name will always begin with a “D”, followed by a distance in tenths of nautical miles from the waypoint fix.
This example uses the VOR/DME RWY 25 approach
into Palmdale, California (KPMD) and includes a
teardrop course reversal.
Palmdale (CA) AF Plant 42
VOR/DME or GPS Rwy 25
8.
As you cross the FAF, the destination sequences
to the MAP (“RW22”). With the needle centered, fly toward the MAP, observing the altitude minimums dictated by the approach plate.
On-screen CDI scaling continues to tighten to
350 feet, full-scale deflection.
9. As you approach the MAP, a waypoint alert
(“ARRIVE WPT”) appears in the lower right
corner.
10. As you cross the MAP, “SUSP” appears
above the OBS key, indicating that automatic
sequencing of approach waypoints is suspended at the MAP. A “from” indication is
displayed on the CDI and Default NAV Page,
but course guidance along the final approach
course continues. Do NOT follow this extended
course. Follow published missed approach
procedures using the OBS key to initiate the
missed approach sequence.
Course From Fix Flight Plan Legs
Certain approach, departure, and arrival procedures
in the Jeppesen database contain course from fix flight
plan legs. The 400W-series is able to load these legs
into the flight plan along with the rest of the procedure
data, and to provide navigation along these legs.
There are three different types of course from fix legs:



 
100


DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
1.
As you reach the initial approach fix (PMD), a
waypoint alert (“RT TO 070° x S”) will appear
in the lower right corner of the screen. As the
distance to the IAF approaches zero, the alert
is replaced by a turn advisory (“RT TO 070°
NOW”). Dial the outbound course into the
CDI (or HSI) using the OBS knob and initiate a
standard rate turn to this course heading.
2.
Fly the outbound course, keeping the CDI
needle centered. You are now on the “course
from fix to distance” leg, as shown on the
TYPE 1: Course from fix to distance, or Course
from fix to DME distance
Course from fix to distance legs will appear in the
flight plan like normal waypoints, but the destination

190-00356-00 Rev E
5 - PROCEDURES
Course-From-Fix Legs
active flight plan and default NAV pages.
Note the magenta line in the bottom figure,
which represents the currently active leg of
the approach. The distance (DIS) displayed on
the above screens is TO the “D13.0” point. The
flight plan will automatically sequence to the
next leg upon reaching “D13.0”.
3.
At 13.0 NM from the IAF, a waypoint alert
(“DTK 265° x S”) will appear in the lower right
corner of the screen. Make a standard rate turn
to the right to intercept the final approach
course and watch for the CDI needle to begin
to center.
4.
As you approach the intermediate fix (CF25),
a waypoint alert (“DTK 265° x S”) will appear.
Make any necessary course adjustments.
5.
Approach is active when the FAF is the TO
waypoint and bearing and track are within 45°
of the final approach course. The 400W-series
unit will switch from terminal mode to
approach mode. (“LNAV” will appear in the
lower left corner of the screen—replacing
“TERM”.) CDI scaling will be tightened from
1.0 to 0.3 NM full scale deflection, or 2° full
scale deflection, whichever is less at the FAF,
and as defined for the approach. The change
occurs over 2 NM and is completed by the
FAF.
6.
7.
As you cross the FAF, the destination sequences
to the MAP (MA25). With the CDI needle
centered, fly toward the MAP, observing the
altitude minimums dictated by the approach
plate.
8.
As you approach the MAP, a waypoint alert
(“ARRIVING WPT”) will appear in the lower
right corner of the screen. The CDI will continue
to tighten to ±350 feet full-scale deflection.
9.
As you cross the MAP, “SUSP” will appear
above the OBS key, indicating that automatic
sequencing of approach waypoints is suspended at the MAP. If a missed approach is
required, use the OBS key to initiate the missed
approach sequence, as outlined below.
TYPE 2: Course from fix to altitude
Course from fix to altitude legs will show the specific
target altitude on the active flight plan and default
NAV pages. The missed approach sequence for the
Palmdale VOR/DME RWY 25 approach includes a
course from fix to altitude leg. In this instance, the
leg corresponds to the initial phase of the missed
approach, which reads “Climb to 5000’ outbound via
PMD VOR R-282”.
1.
As you approach the FAF, “DTK 265° x S” will
appear in the lower right corner of the screen.
190-00356-00 Rev E
After crossing the MAP, press the OBS key. The
missed approach sequence is automatically
offered, starting with the course from fix to altitude leg. The “DTK 282° NOW” alert appears
in the lower right corner of the screen. Follow
the missed approach procedures, as published
101
5 - PROCEDURES
Course-From-Fix Legs
on your approach plate, for proper climb and
heading instructions.

MISSED APPROACH:
Palmdale (CA) USAF Plant 42
VOR/DME or GPS Rwy 25


2.
Note that within a few seconds of pressing
OBS to release suspend mode and start the
approach sequence, “SUSP” re-appears above
the OBS key as the 400W-series unit returns
to suspend mode. This is normal when flying
a course from fix to altitude leg and indicates
that automatic leg sequencing is suspended.
3.
102

DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
MISSED APPROACH
Climb to 5000’ outbound
via PMD
VOR R-282, then climbing
RIGHT
turn to 7000’ direct PMD
VOR and
hold.
NOTE: If there is a valid baro-corrected pressure
altitude input, the SUSP is not annunciated and
the leg sequences automatically when the altitude
(5,000 ft) is reached.
Fly the outbound course keeping the CDI needle
centered. The map page will depict the flight
path extending from PMD VOR to 5,000 feet.
4.
Upon reaching the desired altitude (5000’),
press OBS to return to automatic leg sequencing. Confirm that “SUSP” no longer appears
directly above the OBS key.
5.
An alert (“DTK 123° NOW”) will appear
guiding you to the inbound course. The actual
desired track (DTK) will depend on your ground
speed and distance from PMD VOR. Intercept
and fly the inbound course, keeping the CDI
needle centered.
190-00356-00 Rev E
430W Only
5 - PROCEDURES
Course-From-Fix Legs
COASTAL ONE DEPARTURE
(CSTL1.CCC)
 
DEPARTING BARNES MUNI,
6.
As you approach PMD VOR (the missed
approach holding point), an alert message
in the lower right hand corner of the screen
will recommend the holding pattern entry
procedure (“HOLD PARALLEL”). As you fly the
holding pattern, a timer appears on the default
NAV page. The timer automatically resets on
each outbound and inbound portion of the
holding pattern.
7.
Note that the 400W-series unit again displays “SUSP” above the OBS key. Automatic
waypoint sequencing is suspended at the
missed approach holding point. A waypoint
alert (“ARRIVING WPT”) appears in the lower
right corner of the screen each time you
approach PMD VOR in the holding pattern.
8.
When leaving the holding pattern, press the
PROC key to reactivate the approach or select
a different approach, or press direct-to to
select another destination.
Fly assigned heading and altitude
for radar vectors to HFD
VOR. Expect clearance to
requested flight level 10
minutes after departure. From
over HFD VOR, proceed via the HFD R-143 to
Thumb Int,
then via the HTO R-010 to
Yoder Int, then via the CCC
R-057 to CCC VOR.
Then via transition
or assigned
route.


DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
TYPE 3: Course from fix to manual sequence
Course from fix to manual sequence legs will appear
on the active flight plan and map pages with “man seq”
in place of a waypoint identifier. An example of this
type of course leg appears in the COASTAL ONE DEPARTURE from Westfield, Massachusetts (Barnes
Muni). The example leg corresponds to the departure
leg from Barnes Municipal and appears as follows on
the active flight plan and default NAV pages:
190-00356-00 Rev E
103
5 - PROCEDURES
ILS Approach
1.
430W Only
Select the departure (CSTL1) from the procedures page. Then select the departure
runway (RW02, in this example) and transition
(GEDIC).
Once the OBS key is pressed, the 400W-series
unit will automatically sequence to each
waypoint along the remainder of the departure
route, including the selected transition.
4.
2.
3.
104
As you depart the airfield, “NEXT DTK 026°”
appears in the lower right corner of the screen
and “SUSP” appears directly above the OBS
key. You are now on the “course from fix to
manual sequence” leg. The distance displayed
on the active flight plan, default NAV and map
pages is FROM the waypoint fix (the departure
runway, in this example).
Fly the outbound course keeping the CDI needle
centered. Once you are cleared to sequence to
the next leg, press the OBS key. Confirm that
“SUSP” no longer appears directly above the
OBS key. An alert (“NEXT DTK 183°”) will
appear in the lower right corner of the screen
to guide you to the next waypoint (HFD VOR).
The actual desired track (DTK) will depend on
your ground speed and distance from HFD
VOR.
ILS Approaches
Precision approaches can be performed with the
GNS 430W’s built-in VLOC (VOR/localizer/glideslope)
receivers. The GPS receiver can be used for guidance
prior to reaching the final approach fix, but once
there, the proper frequency must be selected on the
VLOC window (left side of screen) and the CDI output
set to “VLOC”.
The GNS 430W can be set to automatically switch
the external CDI output from GPS to VLOC as you
intercept the final approach course (if used with a
KAP140/KFC225 autopilot, you will need to manually enable outputs). See instructions at the end of this
section. When the ILS approach is activated, the GNS
430W will automatically switch within 1.2 NM left or
right of the final approach course. This switch can take
place anywhere from 2.0 to 15.0 NM from the FAF.
The illustration at right shows multiple locations
along the approach path and which CDI selection
you can expect: GPS or VLOC. Within the area of the
shaded box, the automatic switch from GPS to VLOC
should occur.
190-00356-00 Rev E
NOTE: If you attempt to intercept the approach
course at a distance less than 2.0 NM from the
FAF, the GNS 430W will not automatically switch
the CDI to VLOC. In this case, press the CDI key to
manually switch from GPS to VLOC.
430W Only
The automatic switch from GPS to VLOC is not
immediate, but instead occurs gradually to prevent
abrupt CDI changes when coupled to an autopilot.
The CDI selection can also be changed manually by
pressing the CDI key. Once the switch from GPS to
VLOC has occurred, either automatically or manually, it will not automatically switch again until the
approach is reactivated or another approach is
selected. To prevent automatic ILS CDI selection,
choose the “Manual” ILS CDI setting. (The factory
default setting is “Auto”, which enables the automatic
switch to VLOC.)
1.2NM
1.2NM
5 - PROCEDURES
ILS Approach
Selecting an ILS Approach
For this example, we’ll use a flight from Laughlin
Bullhead (Arizona) International to Flagstaff Pulliam (KFLG) and select the ILS runway 21 approach.
“SHUTR” intersection will be selected as the IAF,
which will include an outbound leg and a procedure
turn. Of course, vectors-to-final could also be selected,
as previously described for the non-precision approach
examples.
1. Select Flagstaff Pulliam (KFLG) as your destination, via the direct-to key or as the last
waypoint in a flight plan.
15NM
GPS
OC
VL
to rea
a
tch is
wi th
S
to in
Au with
VLOC
GPS
2.
Press the PROC key and select the “ILS 21”
approach.
3.
From the transitions window, select “SHUTR”
as the IAF. Also, select “Load?” (or “Activate?”,
if already cleared for the approach).
VLOC
2NM
MANUAL
FAF
190-00356-00 Rev E
105
5 - PROCEDURES
ILS Approach
430W Only
Flying the ILS Approach
When you “Activate?” an ILS approach, automatic
switching of the external CDI is enabled (unless turned
off from the CDI/Alarms Page). When you are established
on the inbound course to the FAF, the external CDI
guidance will automatically switch from “GPS” (shown
in green text) to “VLOC” (shown in white text). If you
have forgotten to activate the ILS frequency (step #4 below),
automatic selection of “VLOC” will not occur.
Flagstaff (AZ) Pulliam
ILS DME Rwy 21


1.
Within 31 NM of KFLG, the GNS 430W will
switch from en route mode to terminal mode
and the CDI scale will transition from 2.0 to
1.0 NM, full scale deflection.
2.
If you haven’t already activated the approach
(in steps on previous page), be sure to do so
when cleared for the approach.
3.
As you approach the IAF (SHUTR), a waypoint
alert (“LT TO 030° x S”) will appear in the lower
right corner of the screen.
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
4.
A reminder message appears, indicating that
GPS can only be used for approach monitoring. As mentioned, you will need to use the
VLOC receiver for this approach. Press ENT to
acknowledge the message.
When you “Load?” (or “Activate?”) an ILS approach,
the ILS frequency is automatically placed in the standby
field of the VLOC window. To use this frequency, simply
press the VLOC flip-flop key to place it in the active
frequency field.
106
NOTE: GPS level of service annunciations (LPV,
ENR, etc.) are not applicable to the external CDI
(or HSI) when VLOC is active.
190-00356-00 Rev E
430W Only
4.
If you haven’t already done so, press the VLOC
flip-flop key to activate the ILS frequency. If
you forget this step, the GNS 430W will display
a reminder message (within 2 NM of the FAF)
to activate the ILS frequency.
7.
Once you have flown approximately one minute
past SHUTR intersection, prepare for the procedure turn.
8.
Turn right to a heading of 075° to initiate the
procedure turn. The GNS 430W will not guide
you through the turn. (The procedure turn is
displayed on the map page and indicated as
the active leg on the default NAV and active
flight plan pages.) The external CDI needle will
start moving to the left.
9.
After approximately one minute, make a 180°
left turn to a heading of 255° to intercept
the ILS. The GNS 430W will sequence to
the inbound leg and “DTK 210° NOW” will
appear in the lower right corner of the screen.
CDI coupling will automatically switch from
the “GPS” receiver to the “VLOC” receiver
as you complete the inbound turn. (If the ILS
frequency has not been activated, per step #4,
this automatic CDI switch will not occur.)
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION


5 - PROCEDURES
ILS Approach



31nm (from airport)
5.
As the distance (DIS) to the IAF approaches
zero, the alert is replaced by a turn advisory
(“LT TO 030° NOW”).
6.
Fly the outbound course (030°), keeping the
needle centered on the external CDI (or HSI).
10. As the CDI needle starts to center, make a
left turn to 210° to track the ILS approach
course.
190-00356-00 Rev E
107
5 - PROCEDURES
ILS Approach



DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
13. As you cross SHUTR, the destination sequences
to the MAP (“RW21”, the runway threshold).
With the needle on the external CDI (or HSI)
centered, fly toward the MAP, observing the
altitude minimums dictated by the approach
plate. (When viewing the map page, you’ll note
that the final course segment is displayed in
magenta — the active leg of the flight plan
always appears in magenta — and a dashed
line extends the course beyond the MAP.)
NOTE: From this point on, primary navigation is
provided by the VLOC receiver. You may continue
to use the GPS receiver for supplemental navigation guidance only. If automatic CDI switching is
disabled (“Manual” selected), the reminder message “Select VLOC on CDI for approach” appears
at 2.0 NM prior to the FAF. In this instance, you
must press CDI to manually switch CDI output to
the VLOC receiver and continue the approach.
11. As you approach the FAF (SHUTR), “LNAV”
will appear in the lower left corner of the
screen —indicating a CDI scale transition from
TERM to approach scaling. This scale transition applies only to the default NAV page’s
on-screen CDI, since the external CDI or HSI is
now coupled to the VLOC receiver.
12. Also as you approach SHUTR, a waypoint alert
(“DTK 210° x S”) will appear in the lower right
corner of the screen.
108
14. As you approach the MAP, a waypoint alert
(“ARRIVING WPT”) will appear in the lower
right corner.
15. As you cross the MAP, “SUSP” will appear
above the OBS key, indicating that automatic
sequencing of approach waypoints will be
suspended at the MAP.
190-00356-00 Rev E
5 - PROCEDURES
LPV Approach
DO NOT USE FOR
NAVIGATION
NOTE: In addition to using the OBS key to initiate the
missed approach sequence, you may wish to press the
CDI key to manually switch external CDI output to the
GPS receiver. “GPS” will be indicated above the CDI
key.
Selecting an LPV Approach
For this example, we’ll use a flight from Eugene
Oregon (KEUG) to Salem Oregon (KSLE) and select
the RNAV runway 31 approach. “GLORR” intersection is selected as the IAF. Of course, vectors-to-final
could also be selected, as previously described for the
non-precision approach examples. An approach plate
is shown on the following page.
1. With Salem (KSLE) as your destination in your
flight plan, press the PROC key and select the
“RNAV 31 Z (GPS) ” approach.
As you cross the MAP, “SUSP” appears above the
OBS key, indicating that automatic sequencing
of approach waypoints is suspended at the MAP.
A “FROM” indication is displayed on the Default
NAV Page, but course guidance along the final
approach course continues. Do NOT follow this
extended course. Follow published missed approach
procedures using the OBS key to initiate the missed
approach sequence.
2.
3.
190-00356-00 Rev E
From the transitions field, select “GLORR” as
the IAF. Review and execute the modified flight
plan. Go direct to GLORR when cleared “Direct
GLORR” for the approach.
Press the PROC key to display the Procedures
page. With “Load?” highlighted press ENT to
load the approach into the flight plan.
109
5 - PROCEDURES
LPV Approach
4.
After the approach is loaded into the flight
plan, you can view the approach waypoints.
5.
Sixty seconds prior to reaching the FAF (LOTKE), the
unit will check the required Horizontal Alarm Limit
(HAL) and Vertical Alarm Limit (VAL) to ensure the
GPS position integrity is within limits to complete the
LPV precision approach. In the event the HAL or VAL
limits are exceeded, the approach will be downgraded
to a non-precision approach indicated by “Lnav”
on the moving map, a message that the approach
is downgraded (“Approach downgraded - Use LNAV
minima”), and the glideslope indicator will be flagged.
You may continue the approach using LNAV non-precision minimums if there are LNAV minimums for this
approach. In the rare event the GPS integrity cannot
meet the non-precision HAL limits, the unit will send
a message to the pilot to abort the approach (“Abort
Approach - Loss of Navigation”). The unit will revert
to terminal limits to support navigation to the missed
approach when the message is acknowledged. \
6.
Capture the glideslope as you would an ILS
glideslope.
7.
As you cross LOTKE, the destination sequences to the
MAP (“RW31”, the runway threshold). With the needle
on the external CDI (or HSI) centered, fly toward the
MAP, observing the altitude minimums dictated by the
approach plate.
8.
When viewing the Map Page, you’ll note that the final
course segment is displayed in magenta (the active leg
Press the PROC key to display the Procedures page.
With “Activate?” highlighted press ENT to activate
the approach.
Flying the LPV Approach
1. Within 31 NM of KSLE, the 400W Series unit switches
from en route mode to terminal mode and the CDI
scale transitions from 2.0 to 1.0 NM, full scale deflection.
2. As you approach the IAF (GLORR), a waypoint message (“LT TO 314° x S”) appears on the bottom of the
screen.
5.
110
3.
As the distance (DIST) to the IAF approaches zero, the
message is replaced by a turn advisory that counts
down 10 seconds prior to the turn.
4.
As you approach the FAF (LOTKE), the 400W Series
unit will begin to automatically rescale in an angular
fashion. This will allow the LPV approach to be flown
in an identical fashion to a standard ILS. At 2.0 NM
from the FAF, CDI scaling is tightened from 1.0 to
the angular full scale deflection (typically the angular
full-scale deflection is 2.0°, but will be as defined for
the approach.
190-00356-00 Rev E
5 - PROCEDURES
Lnav/Vnav Approach
of the flight plan always appears in magenta).
As you approach the MAP, a waypoint message (“DTK
312° x S”) appears on the bottom of the screen.
10. Once the unit crosses the MAP (defined as the runway
end waypoint), sequencing will be suspended. Prepare
the aircraft for missed approach operation. Press the
OBS key to sequence to the Missed Approach procedure.
11. Fly the guidance provided by the unit to the
ARTTY intersection and hold.
9.
NW-1, 23 OCT 2008 to 20 NOV 2008
NW-1, 23 OCT 2008 to 20 NOV 2008
190-00356-00 Rev E
111
5 - PROCEDURES
Flying the LP Approach
Flying the LP Approach
“LNAV” on the moving map, otherwise the
approach will be aborted. A message will note
that the approach is downgraded and the NAV
indicator will be flagged. You may continue the
approach using LNAV non-precision minimums
if there are LNAV minimums for this approach.
In the rare event the GPS HAL limits cannot
meet non-precision limits, the 400W-series unit
will notify the pilot with a message to abort the
approach. The 400W-series unit will revert to
terminal limits of 1.0 NM to support navigation
to the missed approach.
LP approach capability is available for units with SW
Version 3.30, or later.
An LP approach is flown the same as an LPV
approach, except that vertical guidance is not provided.
Angular scaling is similar to a localizer approach. Most
LP approaches have step down altitudes associated with
them.
1. Within 30 nautical miles of the destination, the
400W-series unit switches from en route mode
to terminal mode and the CDI scale transitions
from 2.0 to 1.0 nautical miles, full scale deflection.
2. As you approach the IAF, a turn direction message appears on the bottom of the screen.
3. As the distance (DIST) to the IAF approaches
zero, the message is replaced by a time to turn
advisory that counts down 10 seconds prior to
the turn.
4. As you approach the FAF, the 400W-series
unit will begin to automatically rescale in an
angular fashion. This will allow the LP approach
to be flown in the same fashion as a standard
localizer approach. At 2.0 nautical miles from
the FAF, CDI scaling is tightened from up to
either 2° or 0.3 nautical miles, full scale deflection, whichever is smaller.
5. Sixty seconds prior to reaching the FAF, the
400W-series unit will check the required
Horizontal Alarm Limit (HAL) to ensure the GPS
position integrity is within limits to complete
the LP non-precision approach. In the event
the HAL limits are exceeded, the approach will
be downgraded, when available, indicated by
112
6. As you cross the FAF, the destination sequences
to the MAP. With the needle on the external CDI
(or HSI) centered, fly toward the MAP, observing
the altitude minimums dictated by the approach
plate.
7. When viewing the Map Page, you’ll note that
the final course segment is displayed in magenta (the active leg of the flight plan always
appears in magenta).
8. As you approach the MAP, a waypoint message
(“Arriving at Waypoint”) appears on the bottom
of the screen.
9. At the MAP initiate the missed approach, if
necessary. Once the 400W-series unit crosses
the MAP sequencing will be suspended. Prepare
the aircraft for missed approach operation.
Press the OBS key to sequence to the Missed
Approach procedure.
NOTE: For missed approaches with heading legs,
fly manually until the first active course leg is
reached, as described in earlier sections.
10. Fly the guidance provided by the 400W-series
unit to the MAHP and hold.
190-00356-00 Rev E
5 - PROCEDURES
RNAV Approach Procedures
RNAV Approach Procedures
The GNS 400W Series allows for flying LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV + V, LP, and LPV approaches according to
the published chart.
HSI
Annunciation
Description
L/VNAV
Lateral Navigation/Vertical Navigation. RNAV non-precision approach with advisory vertical
guidance.
Published LNAV/VNAV
minimums.
Lateral Navigation. RNAV non-precision approach.
Published LNAV minimums.
Lateral Navigation with Advisory Vertical Guidance. RNAV non-precision LNAV approach
with advisory vertical guidance. The glidepath is typically denoted by a light dashed line
on the vertical profile (Jeppeson only) with an associated glidepath angle (usually in the
3.00 degree range) and is provided to assist the pilot in maintaining a constant vertical
glidepath, similar to an ILS glideslope.
Published LNAV minimums.
LPV
Localizer Performance with Vertical guidance (LPV) approach.
RNAV precision approach.
Published LPV minimums.
LP
LP indicates Localizer Performance with no vertical guidance.
Published LP minimums.
LNAV
LNAV + V
Minimums
NOTE: Minimums will be controlling, do not
descend below applicable minimum descent altitude or decision height until criteria of FAR 91.175 are met.
Points to Remember for All Approaches
• The GNS 400W-series unit is designed to complement your printed approach plates and vastly
improve situational awareness throughout the
approach. However, you must always fly an approach
as it appears on the approach plate.
• The active leg (or the portion of the approach currently in use) is depicted in magenta on the Map
Page. As you fly the approach, the 400W-series
unit automatically sequences through each leg
of the approach unless “SUSP” appears above
the OBS key. “SUSP” indicates that automatic
sequencing of approach waypoints is suspended on
the current leg and normally appears at holding
patterns and upon crossing the missed approach
point (MAP).
• For roll steering autopilots: roll steering is terminated when approach mode is selected on the
autopilot and is available once the missed approach
is initiated.
• If Vectors-to-Final is activated while on the “FROM”
side of the FAF, automatic waypoint sequencing is
suspended and the SUSP annunciation will appear.
Automatic waypoint sequencing will resume once
the aircraft is on the “TO” side of the FAF and within
full-scale deflection. This is a new feature with the
400W-series.
• For all approaches and departures, make sure to
recheck the runway, transition, and all waypoints.
190-00356-00 Rev E
113
5 - PROCEDURES
Points to Remember
If ATC directs you to make a change, recheck each
element again.
Points to Remember for Localizer or VORbased Approaches
• The default factory setting allows the CDI output
to automatically switch from the GPS receiver to
the LOC receiver. This may be changed to manual
in some installations. If the “ILS CDI Selection” setting is changed to “Manual”, you must determine
when to select “GPS” or “VLOC” guidance during
the approach. Remember, “VLOC” is required for
the final course segment from Final Approach Fix
(FAF) to MAP.
NOTE: Installations with certain autopilots, such
as the KAP 140 and KFC225, do not allow automatic ILS CDI switching.
NOTE: GPS level of service annunciations (LPV,
ENR, etc.) are not applicable to the external CDI
(or HSI) when VLOC is active.
• If the CDI output has not automatically switched
from GPS to ILS upon reaching the FAF, you must
manually switch to the VLOC receiver by pressing
the CDI key. Verify that “VLOC” is displayed directly
above to the CDI key.
• Automatic switching of CDI output is available
for ILS, localizer, SDF and LDA approaches. Automatic CDI switching is not available for backcourse
approaches or VOR approaches.
• When flying an approach with the autopilot coupled,
you must monitor system functions at all times and
114
verify that the autopilot and external CDI (or HSI)
switch to the VLOC receiver with sufficient time to
capture and track the approach course. Switching
to “VLOC” late in the approach may not provide the
autopilot enough time to respond and intercept the
approach course prior to the FAF (depending upon
the performance characteristics of your autopilot and
aircraft). In such instances, you should manually fly
the approach or refer to the documentation provided
with your autopilot.
• When an ILS or VOR approach is first selected or
executed, the frequency is automatically checked.
If the frequency is correct, you will not receive a
message regarding the frequency. If the frequency
is incorrect, you will receive a message and you
must place the ILS or VLOC frequency in the active
frequency field.
• When flying a localizer-based approach
(other than backcourse) with automatic CDI
switching enabled:
1.
“GPS” guidance may be used while flying
outbound and on the initial portion of the
procedure turn.
2.
“VLOC” guidance is used on the remainder of
the approach from the time you turn inbound
on the procedure turn.
3.
The localizer frequency must be active to use
“VLOC” guidance at the MAP. Press the CDI
key to switch back to GPS data when the
missed approach is initiated.
190-00356-00 Rev E
5 - PROCEDURES
Enabling Autopilot Outputs
will prompt you to enable the autopilot outputs
before using your autopilot for an approach.
• When flying a localizer-based approach with automatic CDI switching disabled:
3.
Press PROC. Highlight “Enable A/P APR Outputs?” with the large right knob, if necessary,
and press ENT.
4.
Press the Approach button on the autopilot to
switch it to Approach mode. Your autopilot will
now use guidance from the 400W-series unit
for the approach.
190-00356-00 Rev E
115
1.
You may select “VLOC” guidance at any point
on the approach prior to reaching the FAF.
2.
The localizer frequency must be active to use
“VLOC” guidance.
Enabling Autopilot Outputs for the King
KAP140/KFC225
Autopilot outputs for the King KAP140/KFC225
autopilots are activated manually by the pilot after
being prompted during the approach procedure. After
enabling outputs, the 400W-series unit will provide
guidance information consistent with what the autopilot expects (i.e., angular CDI scaling and glideslope
capture for an LPV or other vertically guided GPS
approach.
Conditions for autopilot outputs
1.
The 400W-series unit must be configured during
installation to interface with these autopilots
and using “Prompt” for GPS Select.
2.
Guidance to the FAF is active as indicated by
Approach mode annunciation (LNAV, LNAV+V,
L/VNAV, or LPV).
To enable autopilot outputs
1.
Load and activate approach information as
usual.
2.
When you are turned on course to the FAF (Track
and Desired Track are within 10°), a message
5 - PROCEDURES
Blank Page
116
190-00356-00 Rev E
6 - WPT PAGES
WPT Page Group
Section 6
WPT Pages
To quickly select a WPT page:
1.
From any page, press and hold CLR to select
the default NAV page. (You may skip this step
if you are already viewing any of the main
pages.)
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the WPT
page group. “WPT” will appear in the lower
right corner of the screen.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
WPT page.
WPT Page Group
The Waypoint (WPT) page group provides information about the thousands of airports, VORs, NDBs,
intersections, runways, frequencies, and procedures
stored on your Jeppesen NavData® card. A WPT page
is also provided to display information for up to 1,000
user-created waypoints.
NAV
WPT
AUX
NRST
7+ available pages
(see Section 2)
10 available pages
(see list below)
4 available pages
(see Section 9)
8 available pages
(see Section 7)
Airport Location
Airport Runway
Intersection
Airport Frequency
NDB
Airport Approach
VOR
Airport Arrival
Airport Departure
User Waypoint
NOTE: Please note that your 400W-series uses ICAO identifiers for all airports. All U.S. airport identifiers which
contain only letters use the prefix “K”. For example, Los Angeles International is KLAX under the ICAO standard.
Other airports, such as Otten Memorial (3VS), that contain numbers in the identifier, do not require the “K” prefix.
Many foreign countries use two letter prefixes.
190-00356-00 Rev E
117
6 - WPT PAGES
Identifier, Facility, Location or City
The WPT page group includes ten pages. While
viewing any WPT page, turn the small right knob
to select a different WPT page. The first six pages
provide detailed information for the selected airport:
location, runways, frequencies, approaches, arrivals,
and departures. The last four pages provide information for intersections, NDBs, VORs and user-created
waypoints.
After a WPT page is selected, information for a
waypoint may be viewed by entering the identifier (or
name) of the desired waypoint. Airports, NDBs and
VORs may be selected by identifier, facility name or
location (city).
To enter a waypoint facility name or city location:
1.
Select the airport location page, NDB page or
VOR page from the WPT page group.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
3.
Turn the large right knob to select the facility
name or location (city) field.
4.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
character.
5.
Turn the large right knob to select the next
character field.
6.
Repeat steps 4 and 5 until the facility name or
location is selected, then press ENT.
7.
To remove the flashing cursor, press the small
right knob.
To enter a waypoint identifier:
118
1.
Select the desired WPT page and press the
small right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Turn the small right knob to select the first
character of the waypoint’s identifier.
3.
Turn the large right knob to select the next
character field.
4.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
character.
5.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 until the identifier is
selected, then press ENT.
6.
To remove the flashing cursor, press the small
right knob.
190-00356-00 Rev E
6 - WPT PAGES
Duplicate Waypoints
Duplicate Waypoints
Once the identifier, facility name or location is
entered, all six airport pages will display information for the selected airport. As you enter an identifier, facility name or location, the 400W-series
Spell’N’Find™ feature will scroll through the database,
displaying those waypoints matching the characters
you have entered to that point. If duplicate entries
exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing to turn
the small right knob during the selection process.
If duplicate entries exist for an entered identifier, a
duplicate waypoint page will appear once you select the
identifier (by pressing ENT).
To select a facility name or location, where duplicate entries exist:
1.
Select the desired facility name or location.
2.
As you spell the facility name or location,
using the small and large right knobs, the
400W-series Spell’N’Find feature will select
the first entry in the database based upon the
characters you have entered up to that point.
3.
4.
Press ENT to select the desired facility name
or location.
5.
To remove the flashing cursor, press the small
right knob.
To select a waypoint identifier from a list of
duplicates:
1.
Select the desired airport or navaid identifier.
2.
A duplicate waypoints window will appear.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
waypoint and press ENT.
3.
To remove the flashing cursor, press the small
right knob.
Continue turning the small right knob to
scroll through any additional database listings
for the selected facility name or location. You
can scroll backwards with the small right
knob if you scroll past the desired facility name
or location.
190-00356-00 Rev E
119
6 - WPT PAGES
Airport Location
Airport Location Page
(“HEL”), or VFR
The airport location page displays the latitude, longitude, and elevation of the selected airport. The airport location page also displays facility name and location, as well as fuel availability, available approaches,
radar coverage and airspace type.
Facility Name and
Location (city)
• Radar—
Radar coverage: Yes or No
• Airspace— Control environment: CTA, TMA,
TRSA, Class B, Class C, Class D, or
none
Airport Location Page Options
Airport Identifier,
Symbol and Type
Select Next FPL Apt?
Selecting the Next Airport page menu option
allows you to display the next waypoint in the
flight plan and activates it for editing.
Latitude/Longitude Position
To select the next FPL airport from the Airport
Location Page:
Best Available
Approach and
Radar Coverage
First Page
in WPT group
Field Elevation,
Available Fuels and
Airspace Type
The following descriptions and abbreviations are
used:
• Type—
sage type: Public, Military, Heliport,
U
or Private
1.
Press MENU to display the Airport Location
Page Options.
2.
Turn the small or large right knob to highlight “Select Next FPL Apt? and then press
ENT.
Select Destination Apt?
Selecting the Destination Airport page menu option
allows you to display the Destination waypoint in
the flight plan.
To select the Destination airport from the Airport
Approach Page:
• Position— L atitude/Longitude (degrees/minutes
or degrees/minutes/seconds), MGRS
or UTM/UPS
1.
Press MENU to display the Airport Approach
Page Options.
• Elevation— In feet or meters
2.
Turn the small or large right knob to highlight “Select Destination Apt? and then press
ENT.
• Fuel—
F or public-use airports, the available fuel type(s) are: Avgas (8087/100LL/100-130/Mogas), Jet, or
None
• Approach— Best available approach: ILS,
MLS, LOC, LDA, SDF, GPS, VOR,
RNAV (“RNV”), LORAN (“LOR”),
NDB, TACAN (“TCN”), Helicopter
120
190-00356-00 Rev E
6 - WPT PAGES
Airport Runway
Airport Runway Page
The airport runway page displays runway designations, length, surface type and lighting for the selected
airport. A map image of the runway layout and surrounding area is also displayed on the airport runway
page. The map image scale appears in the lower left
corner and is adjustable using the RNG key. For
airports with multiple runways, information for each
runway is available.
Runway
Designations
4.
Continue turning the small right knob to
select the desired runway.
5.
Press ENT to display information for the
selected runway on the airport runway page.
6.
To remove the flashing cursor, press the small
right knob.
Airport Identifier,
Symbol and Type
Map Image
Runway Surface
and Lighting
Second Page
in WPT group
Runway Length
and Width
To display information for each additional
runway:
1.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to place the cursor
on the runway designation field.
3.
Turn the small right knob to display a window
listing all runways for the selected airport.
To adjust the scale of the map image:
1.
Press the down arrow side of the RNG key to
display a smaller map area.
2.
Press the up arrow side of the RNG key to
display a larger map area.
190-00356-00 Rev E
121
6 - WPT PAGES
Airport Frequencies
The following descriptions and abbreviations are
used on the airport runway page:
Frequency
Scroll Bar
Airport Identifier,
Symbol and Type
Frequency Type
Usage Restrictions
Information
The airport frequency page displays radio frequencies and frequency types for the selected airport, as
well as sector and altitude restrictions (where applicable). If the selected airport has a localizer-based
approach, the localizer frequency(s) is also listed on
the airport frequency page. The airport frequency page
may be used to quickly select and tune a COM or
VLOC frequency.
To scroll through the frequency list and tune to a
desired frequency on the list:
Third Page
in WPT group
• Type—
Airport Frequency Page
sage type: Public, Military, HeliU
port, or Private
1.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to scroll through the
list, placing the cursor on the desired frequency.
If there are more frequencies in the list than can
be displayed on the screen, a scroll bar along
the right-hand side of the screen will indicate
where you are within the list.
3.
Press ENT to place the selected frequency
in the standby field of the COM or VLOC
window.
• Surface— R unway surface types include: Hard,
Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft,
Unknown or Water
• Lighting— Runway lighting types include:
No Lights, Part Time, Full Time,
Unknown or Frequency (for pilotcontrolled lighting)
Airport Runway Page Options
Select Next FPL Apt?
As described earlier in this section.
Select Destination Apt?
As described earlier in this section.
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6 - WPT PAGES
Airport Frequencies
4.
To remove the flashing cursor, press the small
right knob.
Some listed frequencies may include designations
for limited usage, as follows:
“TX” - transmit only
“RX” - receive only
“PT” - part time frequency
If a listed frequency has sector or altitude restrictions, the frequency will be preceded by an “Info?”
designation.
To view usage restrictions for a frequency:
1.
Turn the large right knob to place the cursor
on the “Info?” designation directly to the left of
the desired frequency. A reversed “c” is placed
to the left of CTAF frequencies.
The following descriptions and abbreviations are
used on the airport frequency page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Heliport, or
Private
• Frequency—
ommunication frequencies
C
which may include restrictions:
Approach
Arrival
Class B
Class C CTA
Departure
TMA
Terminal
TRSA
Communication frequencies without restrictions:
ATIS
ASOS
AWOS
Center
Clearance
Gate
Control
Ground
Helicopter
Multicom
Pre-taxi
Radar
Ramp
Other
Tower
Unicom
Navigation frequencies:
2.
Press ENT to display the restriction information.
3.
To return to the airport frequency page, press
ENT.
190-00356-00 Rev E
ILS
LOC
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6 - WPT PAGES
Airport Approaches
Airport Frequency Page Options
2.
Turn the large right knob to place the cursor
on the approach (APR) procedure name field.
3.
Turn the small right knob to display a window
of available approaches for the selected airport.
Continue turning the small right knob to
select the desired approach.
4.
Press ENT. The cursor moves to the transitions
(TRANS) field.
5.
Turn the small right knob to display a window
of available transitions. Continue turning
the small right knob to select the desired
transition or select “VECTORS” for guidance
only along the final course segment of the
approach.
6.
Press ENT. To remove the flashing cursor, press
the small right knob.
Select Next FPL Apt?
As described earlier in this section.
Select Destination Apt?
As described earlier in this section.
Airport Approach Page
WAAS
approach
ID
Identifier, Symbol
and Type
Approach
Procedure Name
Transitions: IAFs,
Feeder Routes and
Vectors-to-Final
WAAS service level
Map Image
Fourth Page in
WPT Group
The airport approach page shows the available
approach procedures for the selected airport. Where
multiple initial approach fixes (IAFs) and feeder routes
are available, that information may also be displayed.
A map image provides a layout diagram for each
approach and transition.
If a WAAS approach has been selected, the WAAS
approach ID is displayed in the top left corner of the
map. The approach service level is shown in the lower
right corner of the map. Service level annunciations
available are: LP, LPV, L/VNAV, LNAV+V, or LNAV.
To scroll through the available approaches and
transitions:
1.
124
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
190-00356-00 Rev E
6 - WPT PAGES
Airport Approaches
NOTE: Not all approaches in the database are
approved for GPS use. As you select an approach,
a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure
name indicates the procedure can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures will not
have this designation, meaning the GPS receiver
may be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. ILS approaches, for example, must be
flown by tuning the VLOC receiver to the proper
frequency and coupling the VLOC receiver to the
external CDI (or HSI).
Airport Approach Page Options
The following options are available for the airport
approach page, by pressing the MENU key:
Load into Active FPL? allows you to load the
selected approach into the active flight plan—without activating it. This performs the same operation
as selecting “Load?” from the procedures page “Select
Approach?” option.
To load an approach from the airport approach
page:
1.
Select the desired approach and transition
using the steps outlined in Section 5.
2.
Press MENU to display the airport approach
page options.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Load
into Active FPL?” and press ENT.
4.
The active flight plan page will appear. Press
FPL to return to the airport procedures page.
L oad and Activate? allows you to load the
selected approach into the active flight plan and
activate navigation guidance to the approach
transition.
T o load and activate an approach from the airport
approach page, follow the steps above, but select
“Load and Activate?” in step #3.
Select Approach Chnl? allows you to select the
channel number for a WAAS approach for the
current destination. The channel number for the
WAAS approach is available from an approved
approach chart.
If duplicate numbers are available for a channel,
a list will be available where you may select the
desired approach.
190-00356-00 Rev E
After selecting “Select Approach Chnl?”,
choose the WAAS channel number for the
current destination.
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6 - WPT PAGES
Airport Arrivals
After selecting the Approach Channel, the WAAS
approach ID will be shown in the top left corner of
the map display.
To select an approach channel from the Airport
Approach Page:
1.
Press MENU to display the Airport Approach
Page Options.
2.
Turn the small or large right knob to highlight
“Select Approach Chnl? and then press ENT.
3.
4.
Turn the small right knob to change values
and the large right knob to move the cursor.
After selecting the WAAS approach channel,
press ENT.
Airport Arrival Page
The airport arrival page shows the available Airport
Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) procedures for
the selected airport. Where multiple transitions or
runways are associated with the arrival procedure,
that information may also be displayed. A map image
provides a layout diagram for each arrival, transition
and runway.
Airport Identifier,
Symbol and Type
Arrival
Procedure Name
Transitions
Select the desired transition and press ENT.
Runways Associated
with Arrival
S elect Next FPL Apt?
As described earlier in this section.
Select Destination Apt?
As described earlier in this section.
126
Map Image
Fifth Page
in WPT group
To scroll through the available arrivals:
1.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to place the cursor
on the arrival procedure name field.
3.
Turn the small right knob to display a window
of available arrivals for the selected airport.
Continue turning the small right knob to
select the desired arrival.
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6 - WPT PAGES
Airport Arrivals
8.
Press ENT. To remove the flashing cursor, press
the small right knob.
Airport Arrival Page Options
The following options are available for the airport
arrival page, by pressing the MENU key:
4. Press ENT. The cursor moves to the transitions
(TRANS) field.
5.
Turn the small right knob to display a window
of available transitions. Continue turning the
small right knob to select the desired transition.
Load into Active FPL?
As described earlier in this section.
S elect Next FPL Apt?
As described earlier in this section.
Select Destination Apt?
As described earlier in this section.
Airport Departure Page
6.
Press ENT. The cursor moves to the runway
field.
7.
Turn the small right knob to display a window
of available runways. Continue turning the
small right knob to select the desired runway.
(“ALL” may appear in the runway field, indicating the arrival procedure applies to all runways.
For airports with parallel runways, “B” may
appear at the end of the runway designation
to indicate the arrival procedure applies to both
runways.)
The airport departure page shows the available Airport Standard Instrument Departure (SID) procedures
for the selected airport. Where multiple runways or
transitions are associated with the departure procedure, that information may also be displayed. A map
image provides a layout diagram for each departure,
runway and transition.
Airport Identifier,
Symbol and Type
Map Image
Departure Procedure
Name
Runways
Associated
with
Departure
Transitions
Sixth Page
in WPT group
To scroll through the available departures:
1.
190-00356-00 Rev E
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
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6 - WPT PAGES
Airport Departure Page
2.
3.
128
Turn the large right knob to place the cursor
on the departure (DEP) procedure name field.
Turn the small right knob to display a window
of available departures for the selected airport.
Continue turning the small right knob to
select the desired departure.
4.
Press ENT. The cursor moves to the runway
field.
5.
Turn the small right knob to display a window
of available runways. Continue turning the
small right knob to select the desired runway.
(“ALL” may appear in the runway field, indicating the departure procedure applies to all
runways. For airports with parallel runways,
“B” may appear at the end of the runway designation to indicate the departure procedure
applies to both runways.)
6.
Press ENT. The cursor moves to the transitions
(TRANS) field.
7.
Turn the small right knob to display a window
of available transitions. Continue turning the
small right knob to select the desired transition.
8.
Press ENT. To remove the flashing cursor, press
the small right knob.
Airport Departure Page Options
The following options are available for the airport
departure page, by pressing the MENU key:
Load into Active FPL?
As described earlier in this section.
Select Next FPL Apt?
As described earlier in this section.
Select Destination Apt?
As described earlier in this section.
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6 - WPT PAGES
Intersections
Intersection Page
NDB Page
The intersection page displays the latitude, longitude, region and country for the selected intersection.
The intersection page also displays the identifier, radial
and distance from the nearest VOR, VORTAC or VOR/
DME. Intersections may only be selected by identifier.
There are no Intersection page options.
The NDB page displays the facility name, city,
region/country, latitude and longitude for the selected
NDB. The NDB page also displays the frequency and
a weather broadcast indication (if applicable). NDBs
may be selected by identifier, facility name or location
(city). There are no NDB page options.
Nearest VOR
and Symbol
NDB Identifier
and Symbol
Radial and
Distance from
Nearest VOR
Facility Name,
City and Region/
Country
Intersection
Identifier and Symbol
Frequency and
Weather Broadcast Indication
Region/Country
Latitude/Longitude
Position
Latitude/Longitude
Position
Seventh Page
in WPT group
The following descriptions and abbreviations are
used:
• Position— L atitude/Longitude (degrees/minutes
or degrees/minutes/seconds), MGRS
or UTM/UPS
• RAD—
R adial from nearest VOR in degrees
magnetic or degrees true (depending
upon unit configuration)
• DIS—
istance from nearest VOR, in nautiD
cal miles/statute miles/kilometers
(depending upon unit configuration)
Eighth Page
in WPT group
The following descriptions and abbreviations are
used:
• Symbol— S ee Section 2 Nav Pages - Map Page
for a graphic illustration of available
NDB symbols
• Position— L atitude/Longitude
(degrees/minutes or degrees/
minutes/seconds), MGRS or
UTM/UPS
• FREQ—
Frequency in kilohertz (kHz)
• Wx Brdcst—
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the intersection
page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily the VOR
used to define the intersection.
190-00356-00 Rev E
eather information is
W
broadcast on the selected
facility’s frequency
129
6 - WPT PAGES
VORs
VOR Page
To select a VOR frequency from the VOR page:
The VOR page displays the facility name, city,
region/country, magnetic variation, latitude and longitude for the selected VOR. The VOR page also displays
the frequency and a weather broadcast indication (if
applicable). There are no VOR page options.
1.
Select the VOR page from the WPT page
group.
2.
Press the small right knob momentarily to
place the cursor on the VOR identifier field. If
you wish to select another VOR, use the small
and large right knobs and press ENT when
finished.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
frequency field and press ENT to place the
frequency in the standby field of the VLOC
window.
4.
To activate the standby VLOC frequency, press
the VLOC flip-flop key.
Magnetic
Variation
VOR Identifier
and Symbol
Facility Name,
City, and Region/
Country
Latitude/Longitude
Position
Ninth Page
in WPT group
Frequency
and Weather
Broadcast
Indication
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used:
• Symbol— See Section 2 Nav Pages - Map Page
for a graphic illustration of available
VOR symbols
• VAR—
Magnetic variation in degrees
• Position— L atitude/Longitude (degrees/minutes
or degrees/minutes/seconds), MGRS
or UTM/UPS
• FREQ—
Frequency in megahertz (MHz)
• Wx Brdcst—Weather information is broadcast
on the selected facility’s frequency
As mentioned in the beginning of Section 6, VORs
may be selected by identifier, facility name or location
(city). The VOR page may also be used to quickly tune
the VLOC receiver to the selected VOR’s frequency.
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190-00356-00 Rev E
6 - WPT PAGES
User Waypoints
User Waypoint Page
Creating User Waypoints
In addition to the airport, VOR, NDB and intersection information contained in your Jeppesen NavData®
card, the 400W-series units allow you to store up to
1,000 user-defined waypoints. The user waypoint
page displays the waypoint name (up to five characters long), identifier and radial from two reference
waypoints, distance from one reference waypoint, along
with the user waypoint’s latitude/longitude position.
User waypoints may be created from the user
waypoint page or the map page. To create a new user
waypoint, simply enter its name (identifier) and
position, or reference another waypoint by radial and
distance.
User Waypoint
Name
Latitude/Longitude
Position
Reference
Waypoint
Information
To create a new user waypoint by entering its
latitude/longitude position:
1.
With the user waypoint page displayed, press
the small right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
a name for the new waypoint and press ENT.
Your present position appears in the position
field at the bottom of the page. To create a
waypoint at your present position, turn the
large right knob to highlight “Create?” and
skip to step #6.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
position field at the bottom of the page.
4.
Use the small and large right knobs to
enter the position coordinates for the new
waypoint.
Create/Modify
Action Field
Tenth Page
in WPT group
The following descriptions and abbreviations
appear on the user waypoint page:
• REF WPT—Reference waypoint identifier
(name)
• RAD—
R adial from reference waypoint, in
degrees magnetic or degrees true
(depending upon unit configuration)
• DIS—
istance from reference waypoint, in
D
nautical miles/statute miles/kilometers (depending upon unit configuration)
• Position— L atitude/Longitude (degrees/minutes
or degrees/minutes/seconds), MGRS
or UTM/UPS
User waypoints may only be selected by name (identifier), as described in the beginning of Section 6.
190-00356-00 Rev E
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6 - WPT PAGES
Creating User Waypoints
5.
Press ENT to accept the selected position.
6.
The cursor moves to “Create?”. Press ENT to
add the new waypoint to memory.
7.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
To create a new user waypoint by referencing an
existing waypoint:
1.
With the user waypoint page displayed, press
the small right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Use the small and large right knobs to
enter a name for the new waypoint and press
ENT.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the first
reference waypoint (REF WPT) field.
4.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the identifier of the reference waypoint. The
reference waypoint can be an airport, VOR,
NDB, intersection or another user waypoint.
Press ENT to accept the selected identifier.
5.
The cursor moves to the radial (RAD) field. Use
the small and large right knobs to enter
the radial from the reference waypoint to the
new user waypoint. Press ENT to accept the
selected radial.
6.
The cursor moves to the distance (DIS) field.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the distance from the reference waypoint to the
new user waypoint. Press ENT to accept the
selected distance.
7.
Turn the large right knob to highlight
“Create?” and press ENT.
8.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
NOTE: The 400W-series units allow you to create
a new user waypoint at a defined radial and
distance from your present position. To reference
your present position, follow the steps above, but
press CLR in step #4. “P.POS” will appear in the
reference waypoint (REF WPT) field to indicate
that radial and distance information will reference your present position.
The second reference waypoint field (REF WPT) is
a temporary reference only—not a reference that
will be stored with the user waypoint. By default,
this field will display a radial from the nearest
VOR. However, you can select any waypoint—by
identifier—to use as a reference in this field.
Your 400W-series unit can store user-defined
132
190-00356-00 Rev E
6 - WPT PAGES
Creating User Waypoints
waypoints which are generated from other
equipment in your panel. For example, an EFIS
equipped with joystick inputs can be used to
create user waypoints which will (if your installation supports this) automatically transfer to your
400W-series unit.
Creating User Waypoints from the Map Page
4.
The cursor moves to the “Create?” action field.
Press ENT to save the new waypoint.
Modifying User Waypoints
To modify an existing waypoint, select that
waypoint on the user waypoint page and enter the new
position information directly over the old information.
To modify a user waypoint by changing its latitude/longitude position:
The map page and panning target pointer provide a
quick means of saving your present position as a userdefined waypoint.
1.
To capture and save your present position as a
user waypoint:
With the user waypoint page displayed, press
the small right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the name of the desired waypoint and press
ENT.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
position field at the bottom of the page.
4.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the new position coordinates and press ENT
to accept the selected position.
5.
The cursor moves to the “Modify?” action field.
Press ENT to modify the waypoint.
6.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
1.
2.
3.
With the map page displayed, press the small
right knob to activate the panning function.
The target pointer will appear at your present
position.
Press ENT to capture the position and display
the user waypoint page.
A four-digit name is automatically assigned to
the waypoint. To change this name, turn the
large right knob to highlight the name field,
then use the small and large right knobs to
select a new name. Press ENT to accept the
selected name.
To modify a user waypoint by changing reference
waypoint information:
1.
With the user waypoint page displayed, press
the small right knob to activate the cursor.
2.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter the
name of the desired waypoint and press ENT.
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6 - WPT PAGES
Modifying User Waypoints
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
first reference waypoint (REF WPT) field, if
you wish to change the reference waypoint.
Otherwise, continue turning the large right
knob to highlight the radial (RAD) or distance
(DIS) field, as desired.
4.
Use the small and large right knobs to
change the identifier — if desired — of the
reference waypoint. The reference waypoint
can be an airport, VOR, NDB, intersection or
another user waypoint. Press ENT to accept
the selected identifier.
5.
The cursor moves to the radial (RAD) field. Use
the small and large right knobs to change
the radial from the reference waypoint, if
desired. Press ENT to accept the selected
radial.
7.
The cursor moves to the “Modify?” action field.
Press ENT to modify the waypoint.
8.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
NOTE: If you attempt to modify or delete a
waypoint which is currently a direct-to waypoint
or the current “from” or “to” waypoint in the
active flight plan, the 400W-series unit will alert
you with the “Can’t change an active waypoint”
or “Waypoint is active and can’t be deleted” message. You must first cancel the direct-to or remove
the waypoint(s) from the active flight plan before
modifying or deleting the waypoint(s).
User Waypoint Page Options
The following user waypoint page options are available by pressing the MENU key:
View User Waypoint List? displays a list of all
user waypoints currently stored in memory.
To view a list of all user waypoints:
6.
134
1.
From the user waypoint page, press MENU to
display the user waypoint page options.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “View
User Waypoint List?” and press ENT.
The cursor moves to the distance (DIS) field. Use
the small and large right knobs to change
the distance from the reference waypoint to
the new user waypoint, if desired. Press ENT
to accept the selected distance.
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6 - WPT PAGES
User Waypoint Page Options
3.
The top of the user waypoint list will indicate
the total number of user waypoints currently
used and available memory. If more user
waypoints are stored than can be displayed
on a single screen, turn the large right knob
to scroll through the user waypoint list.
Press the small right knob to return to the
user waypoint page.
Delete User Waypoint? allows you to delete the
selected waypoint from memory.
4.
To delete a user waypoint:
1.
2.
Select the desired waypoint on the user waypoint page and press MENU to display the
user waypoint page options.
User Waypoint List
The user waypoint list allows you to review,
modify, rename or delete a selected user waypoint,
or to delete all user waypoints currently stored in
memory. The top of the page shows the number of
waypoints used and available memory.
To review and/or modify a user waypoint from the
user waypoint list:
1.
Select the user waypoint list, as described in
the User Waypoint Options.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
desired user waypoint.
3.
Press ENT to display the user waypoint page for
the selected waypoint. From this page you may
review all information defining the waypoint
and its position.
4.
To modify the waypoint’s position or reference waypoint information, follow the steps
described “Modifying User Waypoints.” (Keep
in mind that you’ve already selected a user
waypoint page which displays the desired user
waypoint, so you may skip the first two steps
of the procedure.)
5.
To exit the user waypoint page, turn the large
right knob to highlight “Done?” and press
ENT.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Delete
User Waypoint?” and press ENT.
Crossfill? allows you to transfer a user waypoint
to another 400W/500W series unit (if installed).
190-00356-00 Rev E
135
6 - WPT PAGES
User Waypoint Page Options
To rename a user waypoint from the user
waypoint list:
To delete a user waypoint from the user waypoint
list:
1.
Select the user waypoint list.
1.
Select the user waypoint list.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
desired user waypoint.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
desired user waypoint.
3.
Use the small and large right knobs to
change the name of the user waypoint. (Enter
the new name directly over the old name.)
Press ENT to accept the new name.
3.
Press CLR to display a “delete waypoint”
confirmation window.
4.
With “Yes?” highlighted, press ENT to delete
the selected user waypoint.
4.
136
A “rename waypoint” confirmation window is
displayed. With “Yes?” highlighted, press ENT
to rename the selected user waypoint.
To delete all user waypoints from memory:
1.
Select the user waypoint list.
2.
Press MENU to display an options window for
the user waypoint list.
3.
With “Delete All User Waypoints” highlighted,
press ENT.
4.
A “delete all waypoints” confirmation window
is displayed. With “Yes?” highlighted, press
ENT to delete all user waypoints from
memory.
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7 - NRST PAGES
NRST Page Group
Section 7
NRST Pages
To quickly select a NRST page:
1.
In the GPS 400W and GNC 420W, press the
NRST key. From any page in the GNS 430W,
press and hold CLR to select the default NAV
page. (You may skip this step if you are already
viewing any of the main pages. See Section 2 )
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the NRST
page group. “NRST” will appear in the lower
right corner of the screen.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
NRST page.
NRST Page Group
Section 2 introduced the 400W-series main page
groups—NAV, WPT, AUX, NRST—and described
each page in the NAV group. This fourth page group
(NRST) provides detailed information for the 25
nearest airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections and user
waypoints within 200 NM of your current position.
In addition, the NRST pages include the five nearest
Flight Service Station (FSS) and center (ARTCC/FIR)
points of communication, plus alerts you to any
Special Use (SUA) or Controlled Airspace you may be
in or near.
NAV
WPT
AUX
NRST
7+ available pages
(see Section 2)
10 available pages
(see Section 6)
4 available pages
(see Section 9)
8 available pages
(see list below)
Nearest Airport
Nearest Intersection
Nearest NDB
Nearest Flight Service
Nearest VOR
Nearest User
Nearest Center
Nearest Airspace
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7 - NRST PAGES
NRST Pages / Scrolling
Not all 25 nearest airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections or user waypoints can be displayed on the
corresponding NRST page at one time. The nearest
airport page displays detailed information for three
nearest airports, with a scroll bar along the right-hand
side of the page indicating which part of the list is currently being viewed. The nearest airspace page displays
detailed information for up to three special use or
controlled airspace alerts. The NRST pages for VORs,
NDBs, intersections, and user waypoints will display
five waypoints at a time. The flashing cursor and large
right knob are used to scroll and view the rest of the
waypoints or airspaces in the list.
To scroll through the list of nearest flight service
station or center points of communication:
1.
Select the desired NRST page.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
3.
Turn the small right knob to scroll through
the list.
4.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
To scroll through the list of nearest airports, VORs,
NDBs, intersections, user waypoints or SUAs:
1.
Select the desired NRST page.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
3.
Turn the large right knob to scroll through the
list. The scroll bar along the right-hand side of
the page will indicate which part of the list is
currently being viewed.
4.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
The nearest ARTCC and nearest FSS pages present detailed information for up to five nearby facilities—displaying only one facility at a time. Again, the
additional information is viewed using the flashing
cursor and small right knob to scroll through the list.
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7 - NRST PAGES
Nearest Airports
Navigating to a Nearby Waypoint
The NRST pages can be used in conjunction with
the direct-to function to quickly set a course to a
nearby facility. This feature can be a real time saver
compared to retrieving information from the database
using the WPT pages. More importantly, it instantly
provides navigation to the nearest airport in case of an
in-flight emergency.
To select a nearby airport, VOR, NDB, intersection or user
waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1.
Use the flashing cursor to scroll through a NRST
page list and highlight the desired nearest
waypoint.
Nearest Airport Page
The nearest airport page displays the identifier,
symbol, bearing and distance to the 25 nearest airports
(within 200 NM of your present position). For each
airport listed, the nearest airport page also indicates the
best available approach, common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) and the length of the longest runway.
Best Available
Approach
Scroll Bar
2.
3.
Press direct-to to display the select direct-to
waypoint page.
Press ENT to accept the selected waypoint’s
identifier and press ENT a second time (with
“Activate?” highlighted) to begin navigating
to the selected waypoint.
Airport Identifier,
Symbol, Bearing To
and Distance To
Tower or CTAF
Frequency and
Longest Runway
First Page
in NRST group
The nearest airport
page can be configured to exclude shorter runways or
undesirable runway surface types, so that the corresponding airports do not appear on the list. You may
wish to use this feature to exclude seaplane bases or
runway lengths which would be difficult or impossible
to land upon. See Sec 9 - Nearest Airport Criteria for
additional details.
The nearest airport page may be used to quickly
tune the COM transceiver to a nearby airport. The
selected frequency is placed in the standby field of the
COM window and activated using the COM flip-flop
key.
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7 - NRST PAGES
Nearest Airports
To quickly tune the common traffic advisory frequency
(CTAF) from the nearest airport page:
1.
Select the nearest airport page.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
3.
4.
5.
6.
140
Turn the large right knob to scroll through the
list, highlighting the COM frequency associated
with the desired airport.
Additional communication frequencies, runway
information and more is available from the nearest
airport page by highlighting the identifier of the desired
airport and pressing ENT.
To view additional information for a nearby
airport:
1.
Select the nearest airport page.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
3.
Turn the large right knob to scroll through
the list, highlighting the identifier of the desired
airport.
4.
Press ENT to display the airport location page
for the selected airport.
5.
To view additional WPT pages for the selected
airport (including the airport runway and
airport frequency pages) press the small right
knob to remove the flashing cursor. Turn the
small right knob to display the additional
WPT pages. When finished, press the small
right knob to return the flashing cursor to the
screen.
Press ENT to place the selected frequency in
the standby field of the COM window.
Press the COM flip-flop key to activate the
selected frequency.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
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7 - NRST PAGES
VORs, NDBs and Intersections
Nearest VOR Page
6.
To return to the nearest airport page, verify that
“Done?” is highlighted by the flashing cursor
and press ENT (or press CLR).
The nearest VOR page displays the identifier,
symbol, bearing and distance to the 25 nearest VORs
(within 200 NM of your present position). For each
VOR listed, the nearest VOR page also indicates the
frequency and may be used to quickly tune the VLOC
receiver to the nearby VOR. The selected frequency is
placed in the standby field of the VLOC window and
activated using the VLOC flip-flop key.
Nearest Intersection Page
VOR Frequency
The nearest intersection page displays the identifier,
symbol, bearing and distance to the 25 nearest intersections (within 200 NM of your present position).
To view additional information for a nearby intersection, start from the nearest intersection page
and follow steps 2 through 4 above.
Nearest NDB Page
The nearest NDB page displays the identifier,
symbol, bearing, distance and frequency to the 25
nearest NDBs (within 200 NM of your present position).
To view additional information for a nearby NDB,
start from the nearest NDB page and follow steps
2 through 4 above.
Scroll Bar
VOR Identifier
and Symbol
Bearing To and
Distance To
Fourth Page
in NRST group
To quickly tune a VOR’s frequency from the nearest VOR page:
1.
Select the nearest VOR page.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
3.
Turn the large right knob to scroll through
the list, highlighting the frequency associated
with the desired VOR.
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7 - NRST PAGES
Nearest ARTCC
4.
Press ENT to place the selected frequency in
the standby field of the VLOC window.
Nearest User Waypoint Page
The nearest user waypoint page displays the name,
bearing and distance to the 25 nearest user waypoints
(within 200 NM of your present position).
Nearest Center (ARTCC) Page
5.
Press the VLOC flip-flop key to activate the
selected frequency.
6.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
To view additional information for a nearby VOR:
142
1.
Select the nearest VOR page.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
3.
Turn the large right knob to scroll through
the list, highlighting the identifier of the desired
VOR.
4.
Press ENT to display the VOR page for the
selected VOR.
5.
To return to the nearest VOR page, verify that
“Done?” is highlighted by the flashing cursor
and press ENT (or press CLR).
6.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
The nearest center page displays the facility name,
bearing to and distance to the five nearest ARTCC
points of communication (within 200 NM of your
present position). For each ARTCC listed, the nearest
center page also indicates the frequency(s) and may be
used to quickly tune the COM transceiver to the center’s frequency. The selected frequency is placed in the
standby field of the COM window and activated using
the COM flip-flop key.
ARTCC Name
190-00356-00 Rev E
Frequency(s)
Bearing To and
Distance To
Sixth Page
in NRST group
7 - NRST PAGES
Nearest FSS
Nearest Flight Service Station (FSS) Page
To quickly tune an ARTCC’s frequency from the
nearest center page:
1.
Select the nearest center page.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
3.
Turn the small right knob to scroll through
the list, selecting the desired ARTCC.
The nearest flight service station page displays
the facility name, bearing to and distance to the five
nearest FSS points of communication (within 200 NM
of your present position). For each FSS listed, the
nearest flight service station page also indicates the
frequency(s) and may be used to quickly tune the
COM transceiver to the FSS’s frequency. The selected
frequency is placed in the standby field of the COM
window and activated using the COM flip-flop key.
FSS Name
4.
Turn the large right knob to scroll down the
page, highlighting the desired frequency.
5.
Press ENT to place the selected frequency in
the standby field of the COM window.
6.
Press the COM flip-flop key to activate the
selected frequency.
7.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
Frequency(s)
VOR Identifier
(for duplex
operation)
Bearing To and
Distance To
Page location
in NRST group
For duplex operations, “RX” and “TX” indications
will appear beside the listed frequencies—indicating “receive only” or “transmit only” frequencies. The
associated VOR is also provided for reference.
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7 - NRST PAGES
Nearest Airspaces
To quickly tune an FSS’s frequency from the nearest flight service station page:
1.
Select the nearest flight service station page
and press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
2.
Turn the small right knob to scroll through
the list, selecting the desired FSS.
3.
Nearest Airspace Page
The last page in the NRST group, the nearest airspace page, will alert you to as many as nine controlled
or special use airspaces near or in your flight path.
Alerts are provided according to the following conditions:
• If your projected course will take you inside an
airspace within the next ten minutes, the alert
message “Airspace ahead -- less than 10 minutes” will appear. The nearest airspace page will
show the airspace as “Ahead”.
Turn the large right knob to scroll down
the page, highlighting the desired frequency
(COM frequency[s] or VOR frequency for duplex
operation).
• If you are within two nautical miles of an airspace
and your current course will take you inside, the
message “Airspace near and ahead” will appear.
The nearest airspace page will show “Within 2nm
of airspace”.
4.
144
Press ENT to place the selected frequency in the
standby field of the COM or VLOC window.
5.
Press the COM flip-flop or VLOC flip-flop
key, as appropriate, to activate the selected
frequency.
6.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
• If you are within two nautical miles of an airspace
and your current course will not take you inside,
the message “Near airspace less than 2nm” will
appear. The nearest airspace page will show the
airspace as “Ahead < 2nm”.
• If you have entered an airspace, the message
“Inside Airspace” will appear. The nearest airspace page will show “Inside of airspace”.
190-00356-00 Rev E
7 - NRST PAGES
Nearest Airspaces
space page, additional details will be provided—including controlling agency, communication frequencies
and floor/ceiling limits.
To view additional details for an airspace listed
on the nearest airspace page:
Note that the airspace alerts are based on threedimensional data (latitude, longitude and altitude) to
avoid nuisance alerts. The alert boundaries for controlled airspace are also sectorized to provide complete
information on any nearby airspace. Once one of the
described conditions exists, the message annunciator
will flash, alerting you of an airspace message.
1.
Select the nearest airspace page.
2.
Press the small right knob to activate the
cursor.
3.
Turn the large right knob to scroll through
the list, highlighting the desired airspace.
4.
Press ENT to display the airspace page for the
selected nearby airspace.
5.
To return to the nearest airspace page, verify
that “Done?” is highlighted by the flashing
cursor and press ENT.
To view an airspace alert message:
Status and
Time to Entry
Airspace Name
Eighth Page
in NRST group
1.
When the message annunciator above the
MSG key flashes, press MSG.
2.
Press MSG again to return to the previous
page.
Once you have been provided an airspace alert
message, detailed information concerning the specific
airspace is provided on the nearest airspace page. The
nearest airspace page displays the airspace name, status
(“Ahead”, “Ahead < 2nm”, etc. as described on the
previous page), and a time to entry (if applicable). By
selecting any airspace name listed on the nearest air-
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7 - NRST PAGES
Nearest Airspaces
6.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
4.
Press ENT to place the selected frequency in
the standby field of the COM window.
5.
Press the COM flip-flop key to activate the
selected frequency.
6.
To return to the airspace page, turn the large
right knob to highlight “Done?” and press
ENT (or press CLR).
To view and quickly tune the frequency for a
controlling agency:
“Done?” Field
(return to
previous page)
“Frequency?”
Field (display
frequency page)
Airspace Name
and Type
Status and
Time to Entry
Floor/Ceiling Limits
1.
Follow steps #1 through #4 on the previous
page to display the airspace page for the
desired controlled or special use airspace.
7.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Frequencies?” and press ENT.
To return to the nearest airspace page, turn the
large right knob to highlight “Done?” and
press ENT (or press CLR).
8.
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
The airspace page displays (and airspace alert messages are provided for) the following airspace types:
3.
Turn the large right knob to scroll through
the list, highlighting the desired frequency.
• Alert
• Caution
• Class B
• Class C
• Class D
• CTA
• Danger
• MOA
• Prohibited • Restricted
• TMA
• Training
• TRSA
• Unspecified
• Warning
The bottom right-hand corner of the airspace page
displays the floor and ceiling limits of the airspace.
The following are examples of what may appear as
vertical limits for an airspace:
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190-00356-00 Rev E
7 - NRST PAGES
Nearest Airspaces
• 5000 ft msl (5000 feet mean sea level)
• 5000 ft agl (5000 feet above ground level)
• MSL (at mean sea level)
• Notam (see Notice to Airmen) *
• Unknown *
• Unlimited *
• See Chart *
• Surface *
* Not shown in this example
All airspace alert messages, except for prohibited
areas, may be turned on or off from the airspace alarms
page. An altitude buffer is also provided on the airspace
alarms page to provide an extra margin of safety above/
below the published limits.
190-00356-00 Rev E
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7 - NRST PAGES
Nearest Airspaces
Blank Page
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190-00356-00 Rev E
GNS 430W Only
Section 8
VLOC (VOR/Localizer/Glideslope)
Receiver Operations
VLOC Window and Tuning
The GNS 430W includes digitallytuned VOR/localizer and glideslope receivers with the desired frequency selected on
a VLOC window, along the left-hand side
of the display. Frequency selection is performed by
pressing the small left knob and turning the small
and large left knobs to select the desired frequency.
VLOC frequencies are selected with the tuning
cursor in the standby VLOC frequency field, and using
the small and large left knobs to dial in the desired
frequency. The standby frequency always appears
below the active frequency. The active frequency is the
frequency currently in use.
v
Ident Audio and Volume
VLOC ident is enabled by pressing the
VLOC volume knob. When VLOC ident
is enabled, an “ID” indication appears
in the upper right corner of the VLOC
window — to the immediate right of “VLOC”.
j
8 - VLOC RECEIVER
Ident, Volume and Tuning
y
Push for ident audio. Turn to
adjust audio volume.
VLOC audio volume is adjusted using the VLOC
volume knob. Turn the VLOC volume knob clockwise to increase volume, or counterclockwise to
decrease volume.
Push to toggle the tuning cursor
(small left knob) between COM
and VLOC windows. Turn to adjust
the kHz value (the portion after
the decimal point) of standby
VLOC frequency.
Turn to adjust the MHz value (the
portion before the decimal point)
of the standby VLOC frequency.
The tuning cursor will remain in the COM window.
If you wish to select a VOR/localizer/ILS frequency,
press the small left knob momentarily to place the
cursor in the VLOC window.
190-00356-00 Rev E
NOTE: The tuning cursor will normally appear
in the COM window, unless placed in the VLOC
window by pressing the small left knob. When
the tuning cursor is in the VLOC window, it will
automatically return to the COM window after 30
seconds of inactivity.
149
8 - VLOC RECEIVER
Auto-Tuning
To select a VOR/localizer/ILS frequency:
Auto-Tuning
1.
If the tuning cursor is not currently in the VLOC
window, press the small left knob momentarily.
2.
Turn the large left knob to select the desired
megahertz (MHz) value. For example, the
“117” portion of the frequency “117.80”.
A frequency may also be quickly selected from the
database by simply highlighting the desired frequency
on the VOR page or the nearest VOR page and pressing
the ENT key. This process is referred to as auto-tuning.
Once a frequency is selected in the standby field, it
may be transferred to the active frequency by pressing the VLOC flip-flop key. (Auto-tuning can also
be performed from VLOC frequencies listed on the
NAVCOM, airport frequency, and nearest flight service
station pages.)
3.
4.
150
GNS 430W Only
To select a VLOC frequency from the VOR or nearest VOR pages:
1.
Select the desired page from the main pages.
(See page references on the preceding page.)
2.
Press the small right knob momentarily to
activate the flashing cursor.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
frequency for the desired VOR.
4.
Press ENT to place the frequency in the standby
field of the VLOC window.
5.
Press the VLOC flip-flop key to activate the
selected frequency.
Turn the small left knob to select the desired
kilohertz (kHz) value. For example, the “.80”
portion of the frequency “117.80”.
To make the standby frequency the active
frequency, press the VLOC flip-flop key.
190-00356-00 Rev E
GNS 430W Only
Press the small right knob to remove the
flashing cursor.
6.
5.
A second window will appear listing available
transitions. Turn the small right knob to
highlight the desired transition waypoint and
press ENT. (The approach “Vectors” option
assumes you will receive vectors to the final
course segment of the approach and will
provide navigation guidance to intercept this
final course.)
6.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Load?”
or “Activate?” and press ENT. (“Load?” will
add the procedure to the flight plan without
immediately using it for navigation guidance.
This allows you to continue navigating the
original flight plan, but keeps the procedure
available on the active flight plan page for
quick activation when needed.)
7.
For VOR and ILS approaches, the standby field
of the VLOC window is automatically tuned to
the proper frequency. To activate the frequency
press the VLOC flip-flop key. To display VLOC
course information on the external CDI (or HSI)
press CDI and verify that “VLOC” is displayed
at the bottom left corner of the screen, directly
above the CDI key.
NOTE: For duplex COM operations, the VLOC receiver may be auto-tuned from the nearest flight
service station page.
When selecting a VOR or ILS approach, manual
tuning of the VLOC receiver is not required. Once
the approach procedure is “Loaded” or “Activated”, the GNS 430W will automatically place
the proper frequency in the standby field of the
VLOC window. If you wish to use this frequency,
simply press the VLOC flip-flop key to activate
the frequency. Additional information on approach
procedures is provided in Section 5.
To select an approach and automatically tune the
proper VLOC frequency:
1.
Select the destination airport using the directto key or as the last waypoint in the active
flight plan.
2.
Press the PROC key to display the procedures
page.
3.
Turn the large right knob to highlight “Select
Approach?” and press ENT.
4.
A window will appear listing the available procedures. Turn the small right knob to highlight
the desired procedure and press ENT. (When
a direct-to destination is selected, departures
are offered for the nearest airport.)
8 - VLOC RECEIVER
Auto-Tuning
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151
8 - VLOC RECEIVER
Auto-tuning / CDI Key
GNS 430W Only
CDI Key
The GNS 430W’s CDI key is used to couple the
GPS or VLOC receiver to the external CDI (or HSI).
When the external CDI (or HSI) is being driven by
the GPS receiver, “GPS” will appear at the bottom left
corner of the page, directly above the CDI key. When
the external CDI (or HSI) is being driven by the VLOC
receiver, “VLOC” will appear instead.
To couple the external CDI (or HSI) to the GPS
receiver or VLOC receiver, press the CDI key to
display “GPS” or “VLOC”, as desired.
8.
152
F or precision approaches and some nonprecision approaches, a reminder window will
appear indicating that GPS guidance on such
approaches is strictly for monitoring only—use
the VLOC receivers and external CDI (or HSI) for
primary navigation. To confirm this reminder,
highlight “Yes?” and press ENT.
190-00356-00 Rev E
NOTE: The external CDI (or HSI) must be coupled
to the VLOC receiver for approaches which are
not approved for GPS. See the ILS example in the
Procedures section.
NOTE: GPS level of service annunciations (LPV,
ENR, etc.) are not applicable to the external CDI
(or HSI) when VLOC is active.
9 - AUX PAGES
AUX Page Group
Section 9
AUX Pages
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the AUX
page group. “AUX” will appear in the lower
right corner of the screen.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
AUX page.
AUX Page Group
Section 2 introduced the 400W-series main page
groups—NAV, WPT, AUX, NRST—and described each
page in the NAV group. The third page group (AUX)
allows you to change unit settings, customizing operation to your preferences. The AUX pages also provide
E6B functions—such as trip planning, fuel planning,
density altitude, true airspeed and winds aloft calculations.
To quickly select an AUX page:
1.
From any page, press and hold CLR to select
the default NAV page. (You may skip this step
if you are already viewing any of the main
pages.)
NAV
WPT
AUX
NRST
7 available pages
(see Section 2)
10 available pages
(see Section 6)
4 available pages
(see list below)
8 available pages
(see Section 7)
Flight Planning
Utility
Setup 1
190-00356-00 Rev E
Setup 2
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9 - AUX PAGES
Flight Planning
Flight Planning Page
The flight planning page provides access to E6B
functions for fuel planning, trip planning, density
altitude/true airspeed/winds aloft calculations and
a “Crossfill” function to transfer flight plans/user
waypoints to a second 400W-series unit. When a flight
planning item is selected, the corresponding page will
appear providing additional information and features.
To select, highlight
with cursor and
press ENT.
The following flight planning items are available:
Press the small right knob momentarily, to
activate the flashing cursor.
Fuel Planning— when equipped with fuel flow
(FF) and/or fuel on board (FOB) sensors, this item
displays current fuel conditions along the active
direct-to or flight plan. You may also manually
enter fuel flow, ground speed (GS) and (in some
instances) fuel on board figures for planning purposes. Fuel planning figures can be displayed not
only for the currently active flight plan or directto, but also point-to-point between two specified
waypoints and for any programmed flight plan.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
menu option, and press ENT.
Trip Planning— allows the pilot to view desired
track (DTK), distance (DIS), estimated time en
route (ETE), en route safe altitude (ESA) and
estimated time of arrival (ETA) information for a
direct-to, point-to-point between two specified
waypoints or for any programmed flight plan.
First Page
in AUX group
To select an item from the flight planning page:
1.
2.
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190-00356-00 Rev E
NOTE: Point-to-point waypoints, flight plans
and/or ground speed (default is current GPScalculated ground speed) entered on the fuel
planning page will automatically transfer to the
trip planning page, and vice versa.
9 - AUX PAGES
Flight Planning
“FPL” (for a flight plan). To change the mode,
press MENU to display an options window for
the other mode, then press ENT to accept the
other mode.
Density Alt / TAS / Winds— indicates the theoretical altitude at which your aircraft will perform
depending upon several environmental conditions,
including indicated altitude (IND ALT), barometric
setting (BARO) and total air temperature (TAT; the
temperature, including the heating effect of speed,
read on a standard outside temperature gauge).
This computes true airspeed (TAS), based upon the
factors above and the calibrated airspeed (CAS).
Also, this determines winds aloft—the wind direction and speed—and a head wind/tail wind component, based upon the calculated density altitude
(DEN ALT), true airspeed, aircraft heading (HDG)
and ground speed.
Crossfill— allows the pilot to transfer the active
flight plan, including VNAV parameters any stored
flight plan, a user waypoint or all user waypoints
between two 400W-Series Garmin units in a dualunit installation.
Scheduler— displays reminder messages (such
as “Change oil”, “Switch fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”,
etc.). One-time, periodic, and event-based messages
are allowed. One-time messages will appear once
the timer expires and will reappear each time the
400W-series unit is powered on, until the message
is deleted. Periodic messages will automatically
reset to the original timer value, once the message
is displayed. Event-based messages do not use a
timer, but rather a specific date and time.
Fuel Planning
The “Flight Plan?” option allows you to
select the numbered flight plan for fuel planning. The “Change Fields?” option allows
you to select fuel information for each field
as desired.
3a. For point-to-point fuel planning, turn the small
and large right knobs to enter the identifier
of the “from” waypoint. Once the waypoint’s
identifier is entered, press ENT to accept the
waypoint. The flashing cursor moves to the
“to” waypoint. Again, turn the small and
large right knobs to enter the identifier of
the “to” waypoint and press ENT to accept
the waypoint.
To perform fuel planning operations:
1.
Select “Fuel Planning” from the flight planning
page.
2.
The current fuel planning “mode” is displayed
at the top of the page: “POINT TO POINT” or
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9 - AUX PAGES
Flight Planning
OR
3b. For flight plan fuel planning, turn the small
right knob to select the desired flight plan by
number (already stored in memory. “00” is the
active flight plan). Turn the large right knob
to highlight the “LEG” field and turn the small
right knob to select the desired leg of the flight
plan, or select “Cum” to apply fuel planning
calculations to the entire flight plan.
7.
The flashing cursor moves to the ground speed
(GS) field. Use the small and large right
knobs to enter the ground speed. Press ENT
when finished.
8.
With all variables entered, the following information will be provided:
• REQ — Quantity of fuel required
• LFOB —Left-over fuel on board
• LRES —Left-over fuel reserve time
• EFF —Efficiency, expressed in distance per
fuel units (e.g. nautical miles per
gallon)
• RNG —Range (distance)
4.
• ENDUR —Flight endurance, or total available
flight time
If your fuel management system does not enter
the data automatically, turn the large right
knob to highlight the fuel on board (FOB)
field.
9.
156
5.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the amount of fuel on board. Press ENT when
finished.
6.
The flashing cursor moves to the fuel flow (FF)
field. Use the small and large right knobs
to enter the fuel flow rate. Press ENT when
finished. Note that if a fuel system is providing
current fuel flow, the fuel flow field will default
to this value.
190-00356-00 Rev E
To reconfigure the data fields press MENU to
display the options window. Turn the small
right knob to highlight the “change fields?”
option. Press ENT to reconfigure the data
fields. Turn the large right knob to select the
desired field. Turn the small right knob to
highlight the desired data. Press ENT to select
the data configuration.
9 - AUX PAGES
Flight Planning
Trip Planning
To perform trip planning operations:
1.
NOTE: Fuel planning figures can be entered
and displayed based upon one of three possible
configurations:
1) No fuel sensors connected—In this instance
fuel flow is manually entered and is used to
calculate fuel on board. When fuel flow or fuel
on board is manually entered, the figures are
retained the next time you view the page (with
fuel on board continuously recalculated).
2) Fuel flow sensor installed, but no fuel on board
sensor—Fuel on board is manually entered. Fuel
flow is automatically provided by sensor. If fuel
flow is manually entered (to override the sensor), it will not affect the FOB figure and is not
retained the next time you view the page.
3) Fuel flow and fuel on board sensors installed—Fuel flow and fuel on board are
automatically provided by sensors. Fuel on board
can NOT be entered manually. Fuel flow can be
entered manually, but will not affect the FOB
figure and is not retained the next time you view
the page.
Select “Trip Planning” from the flight planning
page.
2. The current trip planning “leg mode” is displayed at the top of the page: “POINT TO
POINT” or “FPL LEG” (for a flight plan leg). To
change the leg mode, press MENU to display
an options window for the other leg mode, then
press ENT to accept the other leg mode.
3a. For point-to-point trip planning, turn the small
and large right knobs to enter the identifier
of the “from” waypoint. Once the waypoint’s
identifier is entered, press ENT to accept the
waypoint. The flashing cursor moves to the
“to” waypoint. Again, turn the small and
large right knobs to enter the identifier of
the “to” waypoint and press ENT to accept
the waypoint.
OR,
3b. For “flight plan leg” trip planning, turn the
small right knob to select the desired flight
plan (already stored in memory), by number.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
“LEG” field and turn the small right knob to
select the desired leg of the flight plan, or select
“Cum” to apply trip planning calculations to
the entire flight plan.
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Flight Planning
Density Alt / TAS / Winds
To calculate density altitude, true airspeed, winds
aloft:
4.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
departure time (DEP TIME) field.
5.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the departure time. Press ENT when finished.
(Departure time may be entered in local or UTC
time, depending upon unit settings.)
6.
7.
The flashing cursor moves to the ground speed
(GS) field. Use the small and large right
knobs to enter the ground speed. Press ENT
when finished.
1.
Select “Density Alt / TAS / Winds” from the
flight planning page.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights the indicated altitude (IND ALT) field. Use the small and large
right knobs to enter the altitude indicated on
your altimeter. Press ENT when finished.
3.
The flashing cursor moves to the calibrated
airspeed (CAS) field. Use the small and large
right knobs to enter the airspeed from your
airspeed indicator. Press ENT when finished.
4.
The flashing cursor moves to the barometric
setting (BARO) field. Use the small and large
right knobs to enter the barometric setting
(altimeter setting). Press ENT when finished.
5.
The flashing cursor moves to the total air temperature (TAT) field. Use the small and large
right knobs to enter the temperature. Press
ENT when finished.
With all variables entered, the following information will be provided:
• DTK— Desired track, or desired course
• DIS— Distance
• ETE— Estimated time en route
• ESA— En route safe altitude
• ETA— Estimated time of arrival
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Flight Planning
6.
The flashing cursor moves to the aircraft heading (HDG) field. Use the small and large right
knobs to enter the aircraft heading from the
directional gyro or compass. Press ENT when
finished.
7.
With all variables entered, the following information will be provided:
• DEN ALT— Density altitude
• TAS— True airspeed
• WIND— Wind direction and speed
NOTE: The databases of the 400/500 series and
the 400W/500W are incompatible, so you may
not mix systems.
To select Crossfill
Select “Crossfill?” from the Default NAV Page,
Flight Plan Catalog page, Active Flight Plan page,
or the User Waypoint page by pressing MENU,
scrolling down to “Crossfill” with the large right
knob and then pressing ENT. On the Aux Flight
Planning page scroll down to “Crossfill” with the
large right knob, and then press ENT.
• HEAD/TAIL WIND— Magnitude of head wind
or tail wind component
NOTE: If your installation includes components
(such as an airdata sensor) to provide any of the
variables above, the density alt/tas/winds page
data will default to the values provided by these
components.
Crossfill Operation
The Crossfill Function allows the pilot to transfer a
direct-to destination, the active flight plan including VNAV parameters, any stored flight plan, a
user waypoint, or all user waypoints between two
400W-Series (or 500W-Series) Garmin units in a
dual-unit installation. There is only one Crossfill
function page. It may be accessed pressing the
MENU key and selecting Crossfill while viewing
the default Nav page, Flight Plan Catalog, Active
Flight Plan, User Waypoint page, or the Aux mode
Flight Planning page and then pressing ENT.
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• Automatic Operation: If both units are set
to automatic, a change in the active flight plan
or VNAV parameters of one unit will also be
seen in the other. Initiating a direct-to to a
waypoint on one unit will also initiate a directto to the same waypoint on the other unit.
If one unit is set for automatic crossfill and the
other is set for manual crossfill, then only the
auto unit will automatically send data to the
manual unit. In this configuration, the auto
unit could be thought of as the master unit.
• Manual Operation: If manual operation is
desired, the pilot must invoke all transfers
from that unit. When a unit is configured
for automatic transfer, a manual transfer can
also be done on command. If either of the
messages “data transfer error” or “data transfer
cancelled” are received during an automatic or
manual transfer, the pilot must force another
transfer.
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Flight Planning
To transfer flight plans or user waypoints to/from
a second 400W (or 500W) Series unit:
1.
While viewing the default Nav page, Flight
Plan Catalog, Active Flight Plan page, User
Waypoint page, or the User Waypoint page by
pressing MENU, scrolling down to “Crossfill” with
the large right knob and then pressing ENT.
On the Aux Flight Planning page scroll down to
“Crossfill” with the large right knob, and then
press ENT.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
Method field. Turn the small right knob to
select “Auto” or “Manual”. “Auto” automatically transfers any selection of (or any change
to) a direct-to destination or active flight
plan, including VNAV parameters, to a second
400W/500W-Series Garmin unit.
2.
3.
160
• Flight Plan—transfers any stored flight
plan to/from a second 400W-Series (or
500W-Series) unit, by selecting the flight plan
by number. This option is the default when
selecting “Crossfill” from the Flight Plan Catalog.
• User Waypoints (all)—transfer all
stored user waypoints to/from a second
400W/500W-series unit.
• User Waypoint—transfer the specified user
waypoint to a second 400W/500W-series
unit.
NOTE: Crossfill requires both 400W and/or 500W
series units to have the same Jeppesen NavData®
database cycle number.
The flashing cursor highlights the transfer data
option (TRANSFER) field. Turn the small right
knob to display a window of available data
options:
• Active Flight Plan—transfers the active flight
plan, including VNAV parameters, to/from a
second 400W-Series (or 500W-Series) Garmin
unit in a dual unit installation. This option is
the default when selecting “Crossfill” from the
default Nav Page. Active Flight Plan information is automatically transferred between units
when the “Auto” method is selected above.
4.
Continue turning the small right knob to
highlight the desired data option. Press ENT
select the highlighted option.
5a. For a stored flight plan (“Flight Plan” data
option), the flight plan number field is highlighted. Turn the small right knob to select
the desired flight plan and press ENT.
OR
5b. For a specified user waypoint (“User Waypoint”
data option), the waypoint identifier field is
highlighted. Use the small and large right
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Flight Planning
knobs to enter the identifier of the desired user
waypoint. Press ENT when finished.
6.
7.
The flashing cursor moves to the “CROSS-SIDE”
field. Turn the small right knob to select “To”
or “From” and press ENT.
The flashing cursor moves to the “Initiate
Transfer?” confirmation field. Press ENT to
transfer the selected data.
Scheduler
To enter a scheduled message:
1.
Select “Scheduler” from the flight planning
page.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights the first message
field. If necessary, turn the large right knob
to highlight the first blank message field.
3.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the message text. Press ENT when finished.
(The 400W-series unit will store up to nine
scheduled messages holding 20 characters
each.)
4.
The flashing cursor moves to the type field
under the new message. Turn the small right
knob to display a window of available options:
(Event, One Time, Periodic). Press ENT to
select.
5.
The flashing cursor moves to the time/date
field. Use the small and large right knobs to
set the time or date required before the message is displayed. Time is entered as hours/minutes (hhh:mm). Event-based messages expire
at a specific date and time. Press ENT, when
finished.
To edit a scheduled message:
1.
Select “Scheduler” from the flight planning
page.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights the first message
field.
3.
To edit the message text, turn the large right
knob to highlight the desired message field. Use
the small and large right knobs to edit the
message text—entering the new text directly over
the old message. Press ENT when finished.
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Flight Planning
4.
To edit the time field, turn the large right
knob to highlight the field. Use the small
and large right knobs to edit the new date
or time—entering the new value directly over
the old figure. Press ENT when finished.
To delete a scheduled message:
1.
Select “Scheduler” from the flight planning
page.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights the first message
field. Turn the large right knob to highlight
the desired message field.
3.
Press CLR to delete the message text, followed
by ENT to confirm the deletion.
Utility Page
The utility page provides access to checklists, a
count down/up timer, trip timers, trip statistics, RAIM
(Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) prediction,
sunrise/sunset time calculations and software/database
version information.When a Utility item is selected, the
corresponding page will appear providing additional
information and features.
To select,
highlight with
cursor and
press ENT.
Second Page
in AUX group
To select an item from the utility page:
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1.
Press the small right knob momentarily, to
activate the flashing cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
menu option, and press ENT.
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Utility Page
The following items are available:
service for LPV approach availability.
Checklists— provides up to nine different userdefined checklists containing up to 30 items each.
Flight Timers— provides count up/down timers,
plus automatic recording of departure time and total
trip time. Departure and total trip time recording
can be configured to run either any time 400Wseries power is on, or only when your ground speed
exceeds 30 knots.
Trip Statistics— provides readouts for trip odometers, average speed and maximum speed. These
readouts are resettable (individually or all at once)
by pressing MENU to display an options window.
RAIM Prediction— predicts if GPS coverage is available for your current location or at a
specified waypoint at any time and date. Receiver
Autonomous Integrity Monitoring performs checks
to ensure that the 400W-series unit has adequate
satellite geometry during your flight. RAIM availability is near 100% in Oceanic, En Route and
Terminal phases of flight. Because the FAA’s TSO
requirements for non-precision approaches specify
significantly better satellite coverage than other
flight phases, RAIM may not be available when
flying some approaches. The 400W-series unit
automatically monitors RAIM during approach
operations and warns you if RAIM is not available.
In such cases, use the GNS 430W’s VLOC receiver
instead for the approaches. RAIM prediction helps
you plan for a pending flight to confirm GPS operation during an approach.
An “INTEG” annunciation at the bottom left corner of the
screen indicates that satellite coverage is insufficient to pass
built-in receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM)
tests. When this occurs, the GPS receiver will continue to
provide navigation information, but should not be used for
primary navigation guidance. Use the GNS 430W’s VLOC
receiver or another suitable navigation source.
Sunrise / Sunset— allows you to calculate the time
of sunrise and sunset at any waypoint or your present position for a specified date.
Software Versions — provides software version information for the operating software within
the GPS receiver, COM transceiver, VOR/localizer
receiver, glideslope receiver and main processor
board.
Database Versions — The Database Versions
Page displays the current Jeppesen database type,
effective date, and expiration date, along with the
version and type of built-in land database.
Terrain Database Versions — The Terrain
Database Versions Page displays the current terrain
and obstacle database types, version, cycle, effective
date, and expiration date.
RAIM prediction only predicts the availability of
Fault Detection (FD) integrity in the absence of
WAAS corrections. It cannot predict the availability
of LPV approaches. The FAA provides a NOTAM
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Utility Page
Checklists
2.
To create a checklist:
1.
As you complete each checklist item, press ENT
to move to the next item on the list.
Select “Checklist” from the utility page. Press
ENT to display a list of checklists.
To edit a checklist:
2.
Press MENU to display an options menu. Turn
the large right knob to select “Create New
Checklist?” and press ENT.
3.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the name of a checklist. Press ENT when finished. (Up to nine different checklists can be
created and stored in the 400W-series unit.)
4.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
each checklist item, followed each time by
ENT. (Each checklist may contain up to 30 line
items of as much as sixteen characters long.)
1.
With the checklists page displayed, turn the
large right knob to select the desired checklist
and press ENT.
2.
Press MENU to display an options menu.
Select “Edit Item?” and press ENT, then use
the small and large right knobs to edit each
checklist item. Press ENT when finished.
To execute a checklist:
1.
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With the checklists page displayed, turn the
large right knob to select the desired checklist
and press ENT.
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Utility Page
To insert a checklist step into an existing checklist:
1.
With the checklists page displayed, turn the
large right knob to select the desired checklist
and press ENT.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
existing checklist entry which will immediately
follow the new checklist step.
3.
Turn the small and large right knobs to
enter the new checklist step. Press ENT when
finished.
Flight Timers
To view, use or reset the generic timer:
1.
Select “Flight Timers” from the utility page.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights “Start?”. To start
the generic timer, press ENT. (You will typically
begin with this step for count up timers. However, for count down timers, you may wish to
enter a count direction and time before starting
the timer. )
3.
To change the count direction, turn the large
right knob to highlight count direction field:
“Down” or “Up”. Turn the small right knob
to select the desired count direction. Press ENT
when finished.
4.
For a count down timer, turn the large right
knob to highlight the time field. Use the small
and large right knobs to enter the count
down time—in hours, minutes and seconds.
Press ENT when finished.
5.
To stop the generic timer, turn the large right
knob to highlight “Stop?” and press ENT.
6.
To reset the generic timer, turn the large right
knob to highlight the time field. Press CLR,
followed by ENT.
To delete a checklist or all checklists:
1.
With the checklists page displayed, press
MENU to display an options menu.
2.
Turn the large right knob to select “delete
checklist” or “delete all checklists” and press
ENT to remove the checklist or all checklists
from memory.
To copy a checklist:
1.
With the checklists page displayed and the
desired checklist selected, press MENU.
2.
Turn the large right knob to select “Copy
Checklist?” and press ENT to copy the checklist to an empty checklist memory location.
To sort the checklists by name or entry:
1.
With the checklists page displayed, press
MENU to display an options menu.
2.
Turn the large right knob to select “Sort List
By Entry?” or “Sort List By Name?” and press
ENT.
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Utility Page
To record or reset the departure time:
5.
1.
Select “Flight Timers” from the utility page.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
reset mode field, under “Departure Time”.
(The reset mode field will indicate “Pwr-on”
or “GS>30kt”.)
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
reset mode. (“Pwr-on” will record a departure
time when the 400W-series unit is turned on.
“GS>30kt” will record a departure time once
the GPS-computed ground speed exceeds 30
knots.)
4.
Press ENT when finished.
5.
To reset the departure time, turn the large
right knob to highlight “Reset?” and press
ENT.
Trip Statistics
To reset trip statistics readouts:
1.
Select “Trip Statistics” from the utility page.
2.
Press MENU to display an options window
with several reset options:
• Reset Trip?— Resets trip odometer and average
ground speed readouts
• Reset Max Speed?— Resets maximum speed
readout only
• Reset Odometer?— Resets odometer readout
only
• Reset All?— Resets all trip statistics readouts
3.
Turn the large right knob to select the
desired reset option and press ENT.
To view, use or reset total trip time:
1.
Select “Flight Timers” from the utility page.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
reset mode field, under “Total Trip Time”.
(The reset mode field will indicate “Pwr-on”
or “GS>30kt”.)
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
reset mode. (“Pwr-on” will record trip time, in
hours/minutes/seconds, any time the 400Wseries unit is turned on. “GS>30kt” will record
trip time any time the GPS-computed ground
speed exceeds 30 knots.)
4.
166
To reset the total trip time, turn the large right
knob to highlight “Reset?” and press ENT.
Press ENT when finished.
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Utility Page
RAIM Prediction
5.
The flashing cursor moves to “Compute
RAIM?”. Press ENT to begin RAIM prediction.
Once calculations are complete, the 400Wseries unit will display one of the following in
the RAIM status field:
To predict RAIM availability:
1.
Select “RAIM Prediction” from the utility
page.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights the waypoint
field. Use the small and large right knobs
to enter the identifier of the waypoint at which
you wish to determine RAIM availability. Press
ENT when finished. (To determine RAIM availability for your present position, press CLR,
followed by ENT.)
• RAIM Not Available— Satellite coverage is
predicted to NOT be sufficient for reliable
operation during non-precision approaches
• RAIM Available— Satellite coverage is predicted
to be sufficient for reliable operation during
all flight phases, including non-precision
approaches
3.
The flashing cursor moves to the arrival date
field. Use the small and large right knobs to
enter the date for which you wish to determine
RAIM availability. Press ENT when finished.
4.
The flashing cursor moves to the arrival time
field. Use the small and large right knobs to
enter the time for which you wish to determine
RAIM availability. Press ENT when finished.
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NOTE: RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 minutes of the specified arrival
date and time. Refer to the CDI/Alarms section
of Aux pages Setup 1 for specific information
regarding RAIM protection limits.
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Utility Page
Sunrise / Sunset
Software / Database Versions
To calculate sunrise and sunset times at any
waypoint or your present position:
168
1.
Select “Sunrise / Sunset” from the utility
page.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights the waypoint
field. Use the small and large right knobs
to enter the identifier of the waypoint at which
you wish to determine sunrise and sunset
times. Press ENT when finished. (To determine
sunrise/sunset times for your present position,
press CLR, followed by ENT.)
3.
The flashing cursor moves to the date field. Use
the small and large right knobs to enter the
date for which you wish to determine sunrise
and sunset times.
4.
Press ENT to calculate sunrise and sunset times
for the selected location and date.
The software, database, and terrain database version pages display software version information for
each of the various subsystems contained within the
400W-series unit, as well as database versions for the
Jeppesen NavData® card and built-in land data. These
pages are for information purposes only—no user
functions are available from this page. Reach these
pages by turning the small or large right knobs and
then press ENT. Press CLR or the small right knob
to return to the utility page.
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Utility Page
Setup 1 Page
To select a setup item from the setup 1 page:
The Setup 1 page provides access to airspace
alarms, CDI scale adjustment, an arrival alarm, units
of measure settings, position formats, map datums and
settings for local or UTC time display. When a setup
item is selected, the corresponding page will appear
providing access to the various unit settings.
1.
Press the small right knob momentarily, to
activate the flashing cursor.
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
setup item, and press ENT.
To select, highlight
with cursor and press
ENT.
Third Page
in AUX group
The following setup items are available:
Airspace Alarms— allows you to turn the
controlled / special-use airspace message alerts on
or off. This will not affect the alerts listed on the
nearest airspace page or the airspace boundaries
depicted on the map page. It will simply turn on/off
the warning provided when you are approaching or
near an airspace.
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands”
the vertical range above or below an airspace. For
example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and you are
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Setup 1
more than 500 feet above or below an airspace, you
will not be notified with an alert message; if you are
less than 500 feet above or below an airspace and
projected to enter it, you will be notified with an
alert message. The default is 200 feet.
CDI / Alarms— allows you to define the scale for
the 400W-series unit on-screen course deviation
indicator. The scale values represent full scale
deflection for the CDI to either side. The default
setting is “Auto”. At this setting, the CDI scale is
set to 2.0 NM during the “en route” phase of flight.
Within 31 NM of your destination airport, the CDI
scale gradually ramps down to 1.0 NM (terminal area). Likewise, when leaving your departure
airport the CDI scale is set to 1.0 NM and gradually ramps up to 2 NM beyond 30 NM (from the
departure airport). During approach operations
the CDI scale gradually transitions down to an
angular CDI scale. At 2.0 NM of the final approach
fix (FAF), CDI scaling is tightened from 1.0 to the
angular full scale deflection (typically the angular
full-scale deflection is 2.0°, but will be as defined
for the approach).
CDI Scale
Auto (oceanic)
±2.0 NM or Auto (en route)
±1.0 NM or Auto (terminal)
±0.3 NM or Auto
(approach)
An “auto” ILS CDI selection allows the 400W-series
unit to automatically switch the external CDI from
the GPS receiver to the VLOC receiver, when
intercepting the final approach course. Or, select
“manual” to manually switch the external CDI
connection, as needed (using the CDI key). If the
unit is installed with a KAP140/KFC225 autopilot,
automatic switching will not take place. See AUX Setup 1 for ILS CDI Selection details.
If a lower CDI scale setting is selected (i.e., 1.0 or
0.3 NM), the higher scale settings are not selected
during ANY phase of flight. For example, if 1.0 NM
is selected, the 400W-series unit uses this for en
route and terminal phases and ramps down further
during an approach. Note that the Horizontal
Alarm (HAL) protection limits listed below follow
the selected CDI scale, unless corresponding flight
phases call for lower HAL. For example, if the 1.0
NM CDI setting is selected, full-scale deflection
during approach will still follow the approach CDI
scale settings.
170
Horizontal Alarm
Limit
2.0 NM
2.0 NM
1.0 NM
0.3 NM
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CDI scales and corresponding Flight Phases:
Oceanic
En Route
Terminal
Approach
9 - AUX PAGES
Setup 1
An arrival alarm, provided on the CDI / Alarms
Page, may be set to notify you with a message when
you have reached a user-defined distance to the
final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last
waypoint in a flight plan). Once you have reached
the set distance (up to 99.9 units), an “Arrival at
[waypoint]” message is displayed.
Units / Mag Var— allows you to configure the displayed data to standard or metric units of measure.
This setting applies to distance, speed, altitude,
fuel, pressure and temperature and also provides
three variation (heading) options: Magnetic, True,
or User. If “Magnetic” is selected, all track, course
and heading information is corrected to the magnetic variation computed by the GPS receiver. The
“True” setting references all information to true
north. The “User” selection allows the pilot to enter
values between 0º and 179º E or W.
Airspace Alarms
To set the airspace warning messages or change
the altitude buffer:
1.
Select “Airspace Alarms” from the setup 1
page.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
“On”/”Off” field next to the desired airspace
type.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select “On” or
“Off”, as desired. Press ENT to accept the
selection.
4.
To change the altitude buffer, turn the large
right knob to highlight the “Altitude Buffers”
field. Use the small and large right knobs
to enter the desired buffer distance. Press ENT
when finished.
Position / Map Datum— configures position
readout information to the desired position format
and shows the Map Datum. The NavData® card
uses the WGS 84 map datum to conform to WAAS
requirements.
Date / Time— provides settings for time format
(local or UTC; 12- or 24-hour) and time offset. The
time offset is used to define current local time. UTC
(also called “GMT” or “zulu”) date and time are calculated directly from the GPS satellites’ signals and
cannot be changed. If you prefer to use local time,
simply designate the offset by adding or subtracting
the correct number of hours and minutes.
Not all time zones are offset from UTC by a whole
number of hours (e.g., Newfoundland, Central
Australia, India, Iraq, ...).
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Setup 1
NOTE: When an approach has been loaded into
the active flight plan, airspace alert messages
will be disabled within 30 NM of the destination
airport.
CDI Scale / Alarms
To change the CDI scale:
1.
Select “CDI / Alarms” from the Setup 1 page.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights the “Selected
CDI” field. Turn the small right knob to select
the desired CDI scale. The selected scale and
any lower scale settings will be used during
the various phases of flight.
Press ENT to accept the selected scale. The
“System CDI” field will display the CDI scale
currently in use. The “System CDI” setting may
differ from the “Selected CDI” depending upon
the current phase of flight.
3.
172
To change the ILS CDI selection:
1.
Select “CDI / Alarms” from the setup 1 page.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
“Auto”/”Manual” ILS CDI field.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select “Auto” or
“Manual”, as desired. Press ENT to accept the
selection.
NOTE: Installations with certain autopilots, such
as the KAP 140 and KFC225) do not allow automatic ILS CDI switching.
To set the arrival alarm and alarm distance:
1.
Select “CDI / Alarms” from the setup 1 page.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
“On”/”Off” field (directly below “Arrival
Alarm”).
3.
Turn the small right knob to select “On” or
“Off”, as desired. Press ENT to accept the
selection.
4.
The flashing cursor moves to the alarm distance field (to the immediate right of “On” or
“Off”). To enter an arrival alarm distance, use
the small and large right knobs to enter
the desired alarm distance. Press ENT when
finished.
NOTE: The CDI scale is always measured in nautical miles, regardless of the current distance units
of measure selected on the units/mag var page.
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9 - AUX PAGES
Setup 1
Units / Mag Var
To change the units of measure:
To set the magnetic variation:
1.
Select “Units / Mag Var” from the Setup 1
page.
2.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights the heading
mode field. Turn the small right knob to select
the desired heading mode: Magnetic, True, or
User. Press ENT to accept the selection.
3.
NOTE: Manual (User) selection of the heading
value is available for units with SW Version 3.30,
or later.
Select “Units / Mag Var” from the Setup 1
page.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
desired units of measure category. The following categories, and corresponding units of
measure, are available:
• DIS, SPD—distance and speed in Nautical
(nautical miles/knots), Statute (miles/miles
per hour) or Metric (kilometers/kilometers per
hour) terms.
• ALT, VS—altitude and vertical speed in Feet/
feet per minute, Meters/meters per minute, or
Meters/meters per second.
• PRESSURE—barometric setting in Inches or
Millibars.
• TEMP—temperature in degrees Celsius or
Fahrenheit.
• FUEL—fuel units in Gallons, Imperial Gallons, Kilograms, Liters or Pounds.
If User Heading is selected, the flashing cursor
will highlight the Heading field. Turn the small
right knob to the desired heading values,
hemisphere and then degrees.
4.
1.
3.
Press ENT to accept the selection.
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Turn the small right knob to select the desired
units of measure for the selected category.
Press ENT to accept the selection.
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9 - AUX PAGES
Setup 1
Position Format
Map Datum
To change the position format:
1.
Select “Position Format / Map Datum” from
the Setup 1 page.
NOTE: Per TSO C146a, the WGS-84 map datum is
used.
Date / Time
To display local time or UTC:
2.
174
Select “Date / Time” from the Setup 1 page.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights the time format
field. Turn the small right knob to display a
window of available time formats: Local 12hr,
Local 24hr, or UTC.
3.
Continue turning the small right knob to
select the desired time format.
4.
Press ENT to accept the selection.
The flashing cursor is on the position format
field. Turn the small right knob to select the
desired position format. The following position
formats are available:
• hddd°mm.mmm’—latitude and longitude in
degrees and decimal minutes
• hddd°mm’ss.s”—latitude and longitude in
degrees, minutes and decimal seconds
• MGRS—Military Grid Reference System
• UTM/UPS—Universal Transverse Mercator /
Universal Polar Stereographic grids
3.
1.
To set the local time:
1.
Select “Date / Time” from the Setup 1 page.
2.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
time offset field.
3.
Use the small and large right knobs to enter
the desired offset, beginning by entering a
minus (-) or plus (+) sign to indicate whether
the offset is behind UTC or ahead of UTC. (In
Press ENT to accept the selected format.
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9 - AUX PAGES
Setup 2
4.
the United States, all local time offsets will use
be minus, or behind UTC.)
Setup 2 Page
Press ENT to accept the selected offset.
To select, highlight
with cursor and
press ENT.
Restoring Factory Settings
When making changes to any setup 1 page option,
a “Restore Defaults?” menu selection allows you to
restore the original factory settings (for the selected
item only). For example, with the airspace alarms page
displayed, the “Restore Defaults?” option will restore
all airspace alarms page settings to the original factory
values.
To restore a Setup 1 item to the original factory
settings:
Fourth Page
in AUX group
The Setup 2 page provides access to display adjustments, parameters which define the nearest airport
search, and COM transceiver channel spacing. When
an item is selected, the corresponding page will appear
providing access to the various unit settings.
1.
Select the desired item from the Setup 1
page.
2.
Press MENU to display a page options
window.
1.
Press the small right knob momentarily, to
activate the flashing cursor.
3.
With “Restore Defaults?” highlighted, press
ENT.
2.
Turn the large right knob to select the desired
setup item, and press ENT.
To select an item from the Setup 2 page:
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9 - AUX PAGES
Setup 2
COM Configuration— allows you to select 8.33
kHz or 25.0 kHz COM frequency channel spacing.
The following setup items are available:
Display— allows you to adjust the display for
optimum viewing in any condition. Automatic backlighting is available which uses a built-in photocell
(at the top left corner of the display bezel) to make
the proper display adjustments without any user
intervention. Automatic contrast adjustment varies
the screen contrast level based upon current unit
temperature. You may also select manual control of
the display contrast and backlighting to tailor the
400W-series unit display to your needs.
NOTE: Display backlighting changes are not
saved when the 400W-series unit is turned off.
Backlighting will revert to the “Auto” setting the
next time the unit is turned on.
Nearest Airport Criteria— defines the minimum
runway length and surface type used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the
nearest airport page. A minimum runway length
and/or surface type may be entered to prevent airports with small runways, or runways that are not
of appropriate surface, from being displayed. The
default settings are “0 feet (or meters)” for runway
length and “any” for runway surface type.
SBAS Selection— selects the Space Based Augmentation System (SBAS) used for navigation and
allows turning WAAS on and off.
176
NOTE: 8.33 kHz VHF communication frequency
channel spacing is not approved for use in the
United States. Select the 25.0 kHz channel spacing option.
To set the COM channel spacing:
1.
Select “COM Configuration” and press ENT.
2.
Turn the small right knob to select “8.33 kHz”
or “25.0 kHz” and press ENT.
Preset Com Frequencies
On units configured for COM Frequency Presets
you may store up to 15 preset Com frequencies in the
Com Configuration page. On units configured with a
remote Com frequency recall switch, these preset frequencies can be loaded into the STBY frequency with
the press of a button.
NOTE: Preset Com Frequencies are only available
with SW Version 3.00, or later.
To store a preset Com frequency:
1.
Select “COM Configuration” from the Setup 2
Page.
2.
The flashing cursor will highlight the Channel
Spacing field. Turn the large right knob to
highlight the left (non-decimal) part of the first
frequency field.
3.
Turn the small right knob to select the desired
frequency.
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Setup 2
4.
Turn the large right knob to highlight the
right (decimal) part of the frequency field.
5.
Turn the small right knob to enter the desired
frequency.
6.
Repeat for any remaining desired frequencies,
then press the small right knob to finish.
When the remote Com frequency recall switch is
pressed, the next preset frequency will be moved into
the Com Standby frequency box and a small window
with the current Com Frequency Preset number will
appear next to it. You can scroll down through the preset
frequencies by repeatedly pressing the remote Com Frequency recall switch. Empty Preset slots are skipped.
Display
To change the backlighting intensity:
1.
Select “Display” from the Setup 2 page.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights the backlight
mode field. Turn the small right knob to select
the desired mode: Auto or Manual. Press ENT
to accept the selection.
3.
If “Manual” is selected, the flashing cursor
moves to the backlight level field. Turn the
small right knob to select the desired level.
Press ENT to accept the selection.
To change the display contrast:
Contrast setting is adjustable in either Auto or
Manual Mode. Auto mode is the preferred setting. The
contrast value edited in Auto Mode is not the actual
contrast, but an offset that is applied to the automatic
value generated by the formula based on unit temperature.
1. Select “Display” from the Setup 2 page.
2. Turn the large right knob to highlight the
contrast mode field.
3. Turn the small right knob to select the desired
mode: Auto or Manual. Press ENT to accept
the selection.
4. The flashing cursor moves to the contrast level
field. Turn the small right knob to select the
desired level. Press ENT to accept the selection.
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9 - AUX PAGES
Setup 2
Nearest Airport Criteria
To set the minimum runway length and runway
surface:
1.
Select “Nearest Airport Criteria” from the Setup
2 page.
2.
The flashing cursor highlights the runway surface field. Turn the small right knob to select
the desired surface. The following options are
available:
• Any surface
• Hard surfaces only
• Hard / Soft surfaces
• Water landings only
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NOTE: Exercise caution when changing the Nearest Airport Criteria. Remember, by excluding certain surface types or shorter runway lengths, you
may be excluding airports from the list that are
more than adequate for an emergency landing!
SBAS Selection
To enable WAAS operation, in the Setup 2 page
select the SBAS item and then select WAAS. If WAAS
is disabled, the unit will not be able to fly WAAS
approaches (LP, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, or LNAV+V).
If WAAS was previously disabled, it may take several minutes to achieve a 3D-Diff fix after re-enabling
WAAS.
1. Select “SBAS Selection” from the Setup 2 Page
and press ENT.
3.
Press ENT to accept the runway surface selection.
4.
The flashing cursor moves to the minimum
runway length field. To enter a different minimum runway length, use the small and large
right knobs to enter the desired length. Press
ENT when finished.
To enable WAAS operation, select the “SBAS
Selection”.
2.
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The flashing cursor highlights the WAAS status
selection. Turn the small right knob to allow
On/Off selection.
9 - AUX PAGES
Turn the small right knob to select On or Off
and then press ENT.
Turn the small right knob to select “On” or
“Off” and then press ENT. Press the small
right knob to exit WAAS selection.
3.
NOTE: There may be other SBAS selections available, such as MSAS.
Restoring Factory Settings
When making changes to any Setup 2 page item, a
“Restore Defaults?”menu selection allows you to restore
the original factory settings (for the selected option).
To restore a Setup 2 item to the original factory
settings:
1.
Select the desired item from the Setup 2
page.
2.
Press MENU to display a page item window.
3.
With “Restore Defaults?” highlighted, press
ENT.
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10 - FDE
Section 10
Fault Detection & Exclusion
Training CD for complete details on using the FDE
prediction program.
The Garmin 400W-series software incorporates
a Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) algorithm,
thus providing a basis for approval per FAA Notice
N8110.60 requirements for “GPS as a Primary Means
of Navigation for Oceanic/Remote Operations”.
The FDE consists of two distinct features, fault
detection and fault exclusion. The fault detection
feature detects the presence of an unacceptably large
pseudorange error for a satellite (and presumably,
position error) for a given mode of flight. Upon detection, fault exclusion follows and excludes the source
of the unacceptably large pseudorange error, thereby
allowing navigation to return to normal performance
without an interruption in service. To enhance safety,
FDE functionality is provided for other phases of flight
(non-precision approach, terminal, en route). The FDE
functionality for non-oceanic flight phases complies
with missed alert probability, false alert probability and
failed exclusion probability specified by DO-229C /
TSO-C146a.
Detection and Exclusion
An FDE prediction must be performed prior to
departure for a flight plan involving Oceanic/Remote
operation where GPS is to be the sole source of
navigation. Prior to departure, the operator must
use the FDE prediction program supplied with the
400W/500W-series Trainer CD to demonstrate that
there are no outages in the capability to navigate
on the specified route of flight (the FDE prediction
program determines whether the GPS constellation is
robust enough to provide a navigation solution for the
specified route of flight). Please, refer to the instructions included in the Garmin 400W/500W-series
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11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
Section 11
Messages, Abbreviations, and
Navigation Terminology
Messages
The 400W-series unit uses a flashing “MSG” annunciator
at the bottom of the screen (directly above the MSG key) to
alert you of any important information or warnings. While
most messages are advisory in nature, warning messages
may require your intervention.
Whenever the “MSG” annunciator flashes, press the
MSG key to display the message, when pilot workload
allows. Press MSG again to return to the previous page.
The following is a list of available messages and their
meanings:
Abort Approach — Loss of Navigation — Execute
missed approach using other navigation equipment.
Airport terrain database integrity error — The
400W-series unit has detected a problem with a database
on the Terrain data card. The message “<database name>
database integrity error” indicates the data base in error.
The data is not usable and the card should be returned to
your Garmin dealer.
Airspace ahead — less than 10 minutes — Your GPScalculated course is projected to enter a special use airspace
within 10 minutes. This message is automatically disabled
within 30 NM of an arrival airport, when an approach is
loaded.
Airspace near and ahead — Your GPS-calculated
position is within 2 NM of the boundary of a special use
airspace and your course is projected to enter the airspace
within 10 minutes. This message is automatically disabled
within 30 NM of an arrival airport, when an approach is
loaded.
All data referenced to True North — the unit’s Heading
mode has been set to “True” in the AUX Setup pages.
Approach downgraded — Use LNAV minima — This
message will occur 60 seconds prior to the FAF if flying
LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, or LPV approaches and WAAS
integrity parameters have fallen below minimal limits. As a
result, vertical guidance has been discontinued and the LPV,
LNAV+V, or L/VNAV approach you were flying has been
downgraded.
Approach is not active — The approach could not transition to “active”, at 2 NM or closer to the FAF. Verify that
“SUSP” DOES NOT appear directly above the OBS key,
indicating the auto waypoint sequencing is suspended.
Approaching target altitude — The current GPS-computed altitude is within 500 feet of the final Vertical Navigation target altitude.
Approaching VNAV profile — You are within one minute
of reaching the initial Vertical Navigation descent point.
APR Guidance Available - Use PROC before A/P APR
— For units configured with the KAP140 or KFC225
autopilot, this message reminds pilots, when they turn
on course to the FAF, that they need to enable autopilot
outputs (by pressing PROC and selecting “Enable A/P APR
Outputs?”) before switching the autopilot control panel to
APR.
Arrival at waypoint [waypoint name] — You are within
the arrival alarm circle for the indicated waypoint. The size
of the arrival alarm circle is defined from the “CDI / alarms”
menu option on the Setup Page.
Aviation database integrity error — The 400W-series
unit has detected a problem with a database on the
NavData® card. The message “<database name> database
integrity error” indicates the data base in error. The data is
not usable and the card should be returned to Jeppesen or
your Garmin dealer for service.
Bad geometry, parallel offset not activated — parallel
offset is not activated because of flight plan geometry.
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11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
Basemap database integrity error — The 400W-series
unit has detected a failure in the built-in basemap (land
data) database. Land data does not appear on the Map Page.
Other unit functions continue to work normally, however
the 400W-series unit should be taken to your Garmin
dealer for service at your earliest convenience.
Boot block verify failed - Return unit for repair
— System integrity testing has determined that the boot
block has become corrupted. Return the unit to your
Garmin dealer for service.
Cannot navigate locked FPL — You have attempted
to navigate a flight plan (FPL) with one or more locked
waypoints. A waypoint can be “locked” when the NavData®
card is replaced and the waypoint(s) does not exist in the
new database.
Can’t change an active waypoint — An attempt has
been made to modify the position of the active “to” or
“from” waypoint. The 400W-series unit does not allow
modifications to user waypoints currently being utilized for
navigation guidance.
Can’t delete an active or FPL waypoint — An attempt
has been made to delete the active “to” or “from” waypoint.
The 400W-series unit does not allow you to delete user
waypoints currently being utilized for navigation guidance.
CDI key stuck — The CDI key is stuck in the enabled (or
“pressed”) state. Try pressing the CDI key again to cycle its
operation. Check for proper operation of both the internal
and remote keys (if present). If the message persists, contact
your Garmin dealer for assistance.
CDI key disabled — The installation has disabled the
CDI key so that systems (such as an EFIS) connected to
the 400 series unit will always have GPS deviation data on
one output (main) and VLOC deviation data on the other
output (Nav). See your installer for more information.
182
Check unit cooling — The 400W-series unit has detected
excessive display backlighting temperature. The backlighting has been automatically dimmed to reduce the temperature. Check for adequate ventilation or check cooling
airflow. Contact your Garmin dealer for assistance.
COM has failed — (GNS 430W/GNC 420W only) A failure has been detected in the communications transceiver.
The COM transceiver is not available and the unit should
be returned to your Garmin dealer for service.
COM is not responding — (GNS 430W/GNC 420W
only) Internal system-to-system communication between the
main processor and the COM transceiver has failed. Operational status of the COM transceiver is unknown and the
unit should be returned to your Garmin dealer for service.
If the Com board is still working, it will automatically tune
to 121.500 MHz. Transmit and receive functions may still
operate regardless of the displayed frequency.
COM needs service — (GNS 430W/GNC 420W only)
A failure in the communications transceiver has been
detected. The COM transceiver may still be usable, but the
unit should be returned (at your earliest convenience) to
your Garmin dealer for service.
COM push-to-talk key stuck — (GNS 430W/GNC
420W only) The external push-to-talk (PTT) switch is stuck
in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Try pressing the PTT
switch again to cycle its operation. If the message persists,
contact your Garmin dealer for assistance.
COM remote transfer key is stuck — (GNS 430W/GNC
420W only) The remote COM transfer switch is stuck in
the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Try pressing the switch
again to cycle its operation. If the message persists, contact
your Garmin dealer for assistance.
COM transfer key stuck — (GNS 430W/GNC 420W
only) The COM flip-flop key is stuck in the enabled (or
“pressed”) state. Try pressing the COM flip-flop key again
to cycle its operation. If the message persists, contact your
Garmin dealer for assistance.
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11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
COM transmitter power has been reduced — (GNS
430W/GNC 420W only) Excessive unit temperature and/or
an insufficient voltage level has been detected. The COM
transceiver transmit power has been automatically reduced
to compensate for the condition. For excessive temperatures, check for adequate ventilation or check cooling air
flow. If the message persists, contact your Garmin dealer for
assistance.
Configuration error - Config service req’d — The configuration information provided by the installer has been
lost or corrupted. Contact your Garmin dealer for service.
Data transfer cancelled (crossfill is busy) — An
attempt to transfer flight plan data during a unit-to-unit
crossfill was cancelled. The host unit is busy. Wait until
any previous crossfill operation is complete, before reattempting the transfer.
Data transfer cancelled (data invalid) — An attempt
to transfer a single user waypoint during a unit-to-unit
crossfill was cancelled. No waypoint was specified on the
Crossfill Page. Select a user waypoint and re-attempt the
transfer.
Data transfer cancelled (version mismatch) — An
attempt to transfer data during a unit-to-unit crossfill was
cancelled. The database versions of the two 400W-series
unit are not identical. If necessary, update the database(s)
so they match. Contact Jeppesen or your Garmin dealer for
assistance.
Data transfer error, please re-transmit — An error was
detected during unit-to-unit crossfill of user data (user
waypoints and/or flight plans). The data transfer should be
re-attempted.
Data transfer is complete — The unit-to-unit crossfill of
all user waypoint data has finished.
Database changed, validate user modified procedures
— You have modified one or more approaches, departures
or arrivals from their original published form. When the
NavData® card is replaced (database update), you must
manually verify your changes in the new database. This
message occurs each time a flight plan containing a modified procedure (generated from a prior database version) is
activated. To eliminate the message, re-create the flight plan
from the new database, then make the desired modifications.
Display backlight failure — The 400W-series unit has
detected a failure in the display backlighting. The unit
should be taken to your Garmin dealer for service.
Do not use for navigation — The 400W-series unit is in
Demo Mode and must not be used for actual navigation.
FPL has been truncated — The flight plan (FPL) was
truncated because not enough room existed to insert an
approach, departure or arrival. This may occur upon
power up when a database change increases the number of
waypoints within an instrument procedure.
FPL is full — remove unnecessary waypoints — An
attempt has been made to add more than 31 waypoints to
a flight plan (FPL). The 400W-series unit does not allow
more than 31 waypoints per flight plan.
FPL waypoint is locked — At least one flight plan (FPL)
waypoint is locked because the waypoint has been removed
from the current NavData® card (database change), the data
card is missing, or the data card has failed.
FPL waypoint moved — The position data for one or
more flight plan (FPL) waypoints moved at least 0.33 arc
minutes in the current NavData® card (database change).
G/S has failed — (GNS 430W only) A failure in the
glideslope receiver has been detected. The glideslope
receiver is not available and the unit should be returned to
your Garmin dealer for service.
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11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
G/S is not responding — (GNS 430W only) Internal
system-to-system communication between the main processor and the glideslope receiver has failed. Operational status
of the glideslope receiver is unknown and the unit should
be returned to your Garmin dealer for service.
G/S needs service — (GNS 430W only) A failure in
the glideslope receiver has been detected. The glideslope
receiver may still be usable, but the unit should be returned
(at your earliest convenience) to your Garmin dealer for
service.
GAD configuration required — The GAD 42 Interface
Adapter has lost the configuration information stored in its
internal memory. Any mechanical indicators connected to
your 400W-series unit are unusable and the GAD 42 should
be returned to your Garmin dealer for service.
GAD needs service — The 400W-series unit has detected
a failure in the GAD 42 interface adapter. Any mechanical
indicators connected to your 400W-series unit are unusable
and the GAD 42 should be returned to your Garmin dealer
for service.
GDL 69 is not responding — No data is being received
from the GDL 69. If the problem persists, contact your
Garmin dealer for service.
GPS is not responding - Check GPS antenna — Internal system-to-system communication between the main
processor and the GPS receiver has failed. Operational
status of the GPS receiver is unknown and the unit should
be returned to your Garmin dealer for service after first
checking antenna connections or for a short in the antenna.
GPS needs service — The 400W-series unit has detected
a failure in its GPS receiver. The GPS receiver may still be
usable, but the unit should be returned (at your earliest
convenience) to your Garmin dealer for service.
Inside airspace — Your GPS-calculated position lies
within the boundaries of a special use airspace. This message is automatically disabled within 30 NM of an arrival
airport, when an approach is loaded.
184
Invalid closest pt of FPL — A closest point cannot be
created from the waypoint entered on the “Closest point of
flight plan” window. This occurs when the selected waypoint is beyond the limits of all legs in the flight plan, too
far away, or when a unique waypoint name for the closest
point cannot be created.
Invalid FPL modification — An attempt was made to
modify the final course segment (FAF to MAP) of an instrument approach. The 400W-series unit does not allow the
modifications.
Invalid waypoint ident — An attempt was made to
create a user waypoint with an invalid name. The 400Wseries unit does not allow spaces between characters in the
waypoint name.
Large magnetic variance — Verify all course angles
— A valid value of magnetic variation is not available for
this location. Check all course angles manually.
Loss of GPS Navigation - Use other nav if available
— The Dead Reckoning annunciator appears on the left
side of the map display when GPS position is unavailable
and the unit is in Dead Reckoning mode. Dead Reckoning
mode will continue until GPS position is restored. If there
is no flight plan, the message will only state “Loss of GPS
Navigation.”
Low Battery - Unit Needs Service — Time data may
have been lost due to a memory battery failure.
MAIN processor requires service — The 400W-series
unit has detected a failure in the main system processor.
The 400W-series unit is not usable and should be taken to
your Garmin dealer for service.
Near airspace — less than 2 NM — Your GPS-calculated
position is within 2 NM of a special use airspace boundary,
but you are not projected to enter the airspace. This message is automatically disabled within 30 NM of an arrival
airport, when an approach is loaded.
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11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
No altitude input is being received — No altitude data
is being received from RS-232 (Serializer: Icarus, Rosetta or
Shadin) or grey code inputs. If the problem persists, contact
your Garmin dealer and check the installation and installation settings.
No basemap data available — The 400W-series unit
has detected a failure in the built-in basemap (land data)
memory. Land data does not appear on the Map Page.
Other unit functions continue to work normally, however
the 400W-series unit should be taken to your Garmin
dealer for service at your earliest convenience.
Non-WGS84 wpt navigation — The active “to” and/or
“from” waypoints are based upon a map datum other than
WGS 84 and cannot be converted from that map datum
to WGS 84. Expect some error in the position of the
waypoint(s) and cross-check with an alternate means of
navigation.
Not receiving input data on 429 Channel #1 or #2
— No data has been received on the ARINC 429 channel
#1 connection for a period exceeding five seconds. If the
problem persists, the installation should be checked by your
Garmin dealer.
Not receiving input data on 232 Channel #(1 through
5) — No data has been received on one (or more) of the
RS-232 channel connections for a period exceeding ten
seconds. If the problem persists, the installation should be
checked by your Garmin dealer.
Not receiving traffic data — No traffic data is being
received. If the problem persists, the installation should be
checked by your Garmin dealer.
OBS key stuck — The OBS key is stuck in the enabled
(or pressed) state. Try pressing the OBS key again to cycle
its operation. Check for proper operation of both the internal and remote keys (if present). If the message persists,
contact your Garmin dealer for assistance.
OBS not available — The OBS mode could not be
activated, because 1) no destination waypoint has been
selected, or 2) the GPS receiver cannot currently determine
its position.
Poor GPS coverage — The GPS receiver cannot acquire
a sufficient number of satellites to compute a position and
provide navigation.
RAIM position warning — Although sufficient GPS
satellite coverage may exist, Receiver Autonomous Integrity
Monitoring (RAIM) has determined the information from
one or more GPS satellites may be in error. The resulting
GPS position may be in error beyond the limits allowed
for your current phase of flight. Cross-check your position
with an alternate navigation source. If the warning occurs
during a final approach segment (FAF to MAP), execute the
published missed approach.
Scheduler message [1-9] — [user entered text] — The
user-entered scheduler message time has expired, and the
scheduler message is displayed.
Searching the sky — The 400W-series unit is searching the
sky for GPS satellites.
Select appropriate frequency for approach — You are
inbound and within 3 NM of the FAF; and the active VLOC
frequency does not match the published frequency for the
approach. Tune the standby VLOC frequency to the proper
frequency and press the VLOC flip-flop key to “activate”
the frequency.
Select VLOC on CDI for approach — (GNS 430W only)
You are inbound and within 3 NM of the FAF; and the
active approach is not a GPS-approved approach. Verify
that the VLOC receiver is tuned to the proper frequency
and press the CDI key to display “VLOC” (directly above
the CDI key).
Set course to [###]° — The course select for the external
CDI (or HSI) should be set to the specified course. The
message only occurs when the current selected course differs
from the desired track by 10°, or greater.
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11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
Steep turn ahead — This message appears approximately
one minute prior to a turn in one of the following three
conditions: 1) the turn requires a bank angle in excess of
25° in order to stay on course, 2) the turn requires a course
change greater than 175°, or 3) during a DME arc approach
the turn anticipation distance exceeds 90 seconds.
True north approach - Change Mag Var HDG to true
— The selected approach requires navigation information
be referenced to true north. In the AUX function, change
Heading Mode to “true.”
Stored data was lost — All user waypoints, flight plans
and system settings have been lost due to a system reset.
VLOC has failed — The GNS 430W has detected a failure
in its VLOC receiver. The VLOC receiver is not available
and the unit should be returned to your Garmin dealer for
service.
Stormscope device has failed — The 400W-series unit
cannot communicate with the WX-500 and/or the WX-500
is reporting a system failure.
Stormscope heading has failed — The WX 500 is
reporting invalid heading data. The failure may be within
the WX 500 or other connected equipment.
TCAD altitude data invalid — If the Ryan TCAD has
an altitude failure, the TCAD will announce an altitude
failure aurally (“TCAD ALTITUDE DATA INVALID”) but
continue operating. The relative altitude for the targets will
be invalid.
TERRAIN configuration has changed — The unit’s
terrain settings have changed since it was last turned on in
normal mode. Contact your Garmin dealer for service.
TERRAIN has failed — The unit has detected a failure
in the terrain system. The most likely cause is a missing
or corrupt Terrain database. Terrain functionality is not
available. If the Terrain database is not the cause, the unit
should be returned to your Garmin dealer for service.
Timer has expired — The count down timer has reached
zero.
Traffic device has failed — The 400W-series unit cannot
communicate with the SKY497 or TCAD and/or the SKY497
or TCAD is reporting a system failure.
Traffic device needs service — the traffic device is reporting a system failure. The unit may still be usable, but should
be returned (at your earliest convenience) to your Garmin
dealer for service.
186
User card format unknown — A data card has been
inserted, but the format of the card is not recognized.
VLOC is not responding — (GNS 430W only) Internal
system-to-system communication between the main processor and the VLOC receiver has failed. Operational status
of the VLOC receiver is unknown and the unit should be
returned to your Garmin dealer for service.
VLOC needs service — (GNS 430W only) A failure in
the VLOC receiver has been detected. The VLOC receiver
may still be usable, but the unit should be returned (at your
earliest convenience) to your Garmin dealer for service.
VLOC remote transfer key is stuck — (GNS 430W
only) The remote VLOC transfer switch is stuck in the
enabled (or “pressed”) state. Try pressing the switch again
to cycle its operation. If the message persists, contact your
Garmin dealer for assistance.
VLOC transfer key stuck — (GNS 430W only) The
VLOC flip-flop key is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”)
state. Try pressing the VLOC flip-flop key again to cycle
its operation. If the message persists, contact your Garmin
dealer for assistance.
Waypoint already exists — The name you have entered
for a user waypoint already exists in memory.
Waypoint(s) have been replaced — One or more user
waypoints were updated during a unit-to-unit crossfill
operation.
Waypoint memory is full — You have used all 1000 user
waypoint locations in the 400W-series unit memory. Delete
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11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
unwanted waypoints to make room for new entries.
Turn Advisory and Arrival Annunciations
The following annunciator messages may appear in the
lower right corner of the 400W-series unit display:
Arriving wpt — Arriving at the destination waypoint
for the active leg (waypoint alert).
DTK xxx° xx S — Waypoint alert. Prepare to turn to the
indicated heading upon waypoint passage.
Hold direct — “Direct” holding pattern entry.
Hold parallel — “Parallel” holding pattern entry.
Hold Teardrop — “Teardrop” holding pattern entry.
LT to xxx° xx S — Turn advisory. Turn to the indicated
heading by the time shown.
LT to xxx° now — Turn advisory. Turn to the indicated
heading now.
PTK END xx S — Parallel Offset is terminating by the
time shown.
RT TO xxx° xx S — Turn advisory. Turn to the indicated
heading by the time shown.
RT to xxx° now — Turn advisory. Turn to the indicated
heading now.
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187
11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
Flight Plan Transfer Messages
Flight plan imported successfully — The Flight Plan
file contained Route Points (that is, it didn’t contain only
User Waypoints) and there were no errors when importing them to the target position within the unit’s Flight Plan
Catalog.
Verify FPL before use (appended to the import
results text) — One or more of the User Waypoints or
Route Points to be imported were modified in some way
(one or more of messages [f] through [i] were displayed) and
changes should be verified before using the flight plan for
navigation.
Waypoint import successful - No stored FPL data
was modified — The Flight Plan file contained one or
more User Waypoints and there were no errors when adding
them to the User Database.
Flight plan import failed — The unit failed to load
any information from the Flight Plan file. (Neither the Flight
Plan Catalog nor the User Database was modified.)
File contains waypoints only — The Flight Plan file
did not contain any Route Points but one or more User
Waypoints were imported successfully.
FPL import message(s): — The Flight Plan file contained Route Points (it didn’t contain only Waypoints) and
there were some errors or warnings (see below). Some or all
information was imported successfully.
FPL too long, truncated (appended to the import
results text) — The Flight Plan file contained more Route
Points than a flight plan can support.
Invalid FPL wpt(s) locked (appended to the import
results text) — The Flight Plan file contained one or more
Waypoints that could not be found in the navigation database or imported into the User Database.
User waypoint database full - Not all waypoints
loaded (appended to the import results text) — One or
more of the User Waypoints in the Flight Plan file were not
created because the unit’s User Database is full (or became
full during the import operation).
User waypoint(s) renamed (appended to the import
results text) — One or more of the User Waypoints in the
Flight Plan file was renamed during the import operation.
188
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11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
Abbreviations
DB—
The following is a list of abbreviations used on the 400Wseries unit and their meanings:
ACTV— Active
DEN— Density
ALT—
DEPT— Departure guidance
Altitude
Database
DEP— Departure
APR— Approach
DIS—
APT— Airport
DME— Distance Measuring Equipment
ARSPC—Airspace
DTK— Desired Track
Distance
ARTCC— Air Route Traffic Control Center
ARVL— Arrival
AUX— Auxiliary
AVGAS—Aviation-grade Gasoline
AVTN— Aviation
EFF—
Efficiency
ELEV— Elevation
ENDUR—Endurance
ENR— En Route
ENT— Enter
BARO— Barometric setting
EPU— Estimated Position Uncertainty
BRG— Bearing To
ESA—
En Route Safe Altitude
ETA— Estimated Time of Arrival
°C—
Degree Celsius
C/V—
COM/VLOC
ETE— Estimated Time En Route
CAS— Calibrated Airspeed
°F—
Degrees Fahrenheit
CDI—
FAF—
Final Approach Fix
CLR— Clear
FF—
Fuel Flow
COM— Communications Transceiver
FIR—
Flight Information Region
Course Deviation Indicator
CRSR— Cursor
CTA— ICAO Control Area
CTAF—Common Traffic Advisory Frequency
CTR— Center (see ARTCC)
CUM— Cumulative
FLTA— Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
FOB— Fuel On Board
FPL—
Flight Plan
fpm—
Feet Per Minute
FREQ— Frequency
FSS—
Flight Service Station
ft—
Feet
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11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
G/S—
Glideslope
lb—
gl—
gallons
LCL— Local
Pounds
GPS— Global Positioning System
LFOB— Left-over Fuel On Board
GS—
LNAV — Lateral Navigation only
Ground Speed
LNAV+V — Lateral Navigation with advisory vertical guidance
HAL— Horizontal Alarm Limit
LOC— Localizer
HDG— Heading
LPV — Lateral Precision Performance with Vertical Guidance
HFOM—Horizontal Figure of Merit
LRES— Left-over Fuel Reserve Time
hg—
Lrg—
Large
lt—
Liters
°M—
Degrees Magnetic
Meters
Inches of Mercury
HPL— Horizontal Protection Level
HWY— Highway
IAF—
Intermediate Approach Fix
m—
ID—
Identifier
MAP— Missed Approach Point
ig—
Imperial Gallons
MAHP— Missed Approach Hold Point
ILS—
Instrument Landing System
MAPR— Missed Approach guidance
IND— Indicated
mb—
INT—
Med— Medium
Intersection
Millibars of Pressure
INTEG—Integrity
MGRS— Military Grid Reference System
ITI—
MHz— Megahertz
Imminent Terrain Impact
mi—
Statute Miles
kg—
Kilograms
MOA— Military Operations Area
kHz—
Kilohertz
mph— Statute Miles Per Hour
km—
Kilometers
mpm— Meters Per Minute
kph—
Kilometers Per Hour
mps— Meters Per Second
kt—
Knots
MSA— Minimum Safe Altitude
L/VNAV — Lateral and vertical navigation guidance,
LNAV/VNAV service level
LAT/LON—Latitude/Longitude
190
MSG— Message
MSL— Mean Sea Level
mul—
190-00356-00 Rev E
Multicom
11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
NATNL— National
SPD— Speed
NAV— Navigation
SQ—
NAVAID— Navigational Aid
SRFC— Surface
NDB— Non-Directional Radio Beacon
STAR— Standard Terminal Arrival Route
NM—
SUA— Special Use Airspace
Nautical Miles
NRST— Nearest
NUM— Number
OBS— Omnibearing Selector
OCN— Oceanic
Squelch
SUSP— Waypoint sequencing suspended
°T—
Degree True
TACAN— Tactical Air Navigation
TAS—
True Airspeed
TAT—
Total Air Temperature
PDA— Premature Descent Alert
TEMP— Temperature
P.POS— Present Position
TER— Terrain
PROC— Procedure(s)
TERM— Terminal
PROV— Province
TKE— Track Angle Error
PTK— Parallel Track
PWR— Power
TMA— ICAO Terminal Control Area
TRANS—Transition
TRFC— Traffic
RAD— Radial
TRK— Track (also Ground Track) Angle
RAIM—Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
TRSA— Terminal Radar Service Area
REF— Reference
twr—
Tower
TX—
Transmit
uni—
Unicom
REQ— Required / Requirements
RESTRICTD— Restricted
RNG— Range
RTC— Required Terrain Clearance
RX—
Receive
UTC—Coordinated Universal Time (also GMT or “zulu”)
UTM/UPS—Universal Transverse Mercator / Universal Polar
Stereographic grids
SBAS— Space-Based Augmentation System
VAL—
SID—
Standard Instrument Departure
VAR— Variation
Sml—
Small
VER— Version
190-00356-00 Rev E
Vertical Alarm Limit
191
11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
VFOM— Vertical Figure of Merit
VFR— Visual Flight Rules
VLOC— VOR/Localizer Receiver
VNAV— Vertical Navigation
VOL— Volume
VOR— VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range
VPL — Vertical Protection Level
VS—
Vertical Speed
VSR— Vertical Speed Required
WAAS —Wide Area Augmentation System
WPT— Waypoint
WX—
Weather
XTK— Crosstrack Error
192
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11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
Navigation Terms
miles per gallon).
The following navigation terms are used on the
400W-series and in this Pilot’s Guide:
ENDUR (endurance)— Flight endurance, or total
available flight time based upon available fuel.
WPT 2
NORTH
DTK
DIS
ESA (en route safe altitude)— The recommended
minimum altitude within ten miles, left or right, of
your desired course on an active flight plan or directto.
BRG
ETA (estimate time of arrival)— The estimated time
at which you will reach your destination waypoint,
based upon current speed and track.
TRK
XT
K
ETE (estimated time en route)— The time it will
take to reach the destination waypoint, from present
position, based upon current ground speed.
E
S
G
N
LA
RP
AI
EPU (estimated position uncertainty)— A measure
of satellite geometry quality and additional factors,
expressed as a horizontal position error in feet or
meters.
FF (fuel flow)— The fuel flow rate, expressed in fuel
units per time (e.g., gallons per hour).
WPT 1
ALT (altitude)— Height above mean sea level (MSL).
BRG (bearing)— The compass direction from your
present position to a destination waypoint.
FOB (fuel on board)— The total amount of usable
fuel on board the aircraft.
CAS (calibrated airspeed)— Indicated airspeed corrected for instrument errors.
Geodesic — an arc path that follows the shortest distance along an ellipsoid model of the earth (WGS-84).
A geodesic is more accurate than a “great circle” which
assumes a perfect sphere model of the earch.
CUM (cumulative)— The total of all legs in a flight
plan (such as “cumulative distance”).
GS (ground speed)— The velocity you are travelling
relative to a ground position.
DIS (distance)— The geodesic path from your present position to a destination waypoint.
HDG (heading)— The direction an aircraft is
pointed, based upon indications from a magnetic
compass or a properly set directional gyro.
DTK (desired track)— The desired course between
the active “from” and “to” waypoints.
EFF (efficiency)— A measure of fuel consumption,
expressed in distance per fuel units (e.g., nautical
IND (indicated)— Information provided by properly
calibrated and set instrumentation in the aircraft panel
(e.g., “indicated altitude”).
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193
11 - MESSAGES
ABBREVIATIONS &
NAV TERMS
TRK (track)— The direction of movement relative to
a ground position. Also referred to as “ground track”.
LFOB (left-over fuel onboard)— The amount of
fuel remaining on board after the completion of one or
more legs of a flight plan (or a direct-to).
VSR (vertical speed required)— The vertical speed
necessary to descend from current position and altitude to a defined target position and altitude, based
upon your current ground speed.
LRES (left-over fuel reserve)— The amount of fuel
remaining on board after the completion of a one or
more legs of a flight plan (or a direct-to), expressed
in time and based upon a known fuel consumption
(flow) rate.
XTK (crosstrack error)— The distance you are off a
desired course in either direction, left or right.
MSA (minimum safe altitude)— Uses Grid Minimum Off-route Altitudes (Grid MORAs) to determine a safe altitude within ten miles of your present
position. Grid MORAs are one degree latitude by one
degree longitude in size and clear all reference points
within the grid by 1000 feet in areas where the highest
reference point is 5000 feet MSL or lower. If the highest reference point is above 5000 feet, the Grid MORA
will clear the highest reference point by 2000 feet.
TKE (track angle error)— The angle difference
between the desired track and your current track. An
arrow indicates the proper direction to turn to reduce
TKE to zero.
AL
IC
RT
VE
Vertical
Navigation
N
O
TIC
AL
LE
VER
FI
O
PR
CURRENT ALTITUDE
AND POSITION
I
AT
G
VI
NA
TIME AND DISTANCE
TO PROFILE
SPE
ED
RE
QU
IRE
D
TARGET ALTITUDE
AND POSITION
DISTANCE TO TARGET
AIRPORT
194
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APPENDIX A
NavData Card Use
Appendix A
NavData Card Use
To remove the NavData card:
The Jeppesen NavData® card supplied with your
400W-series unit can be installed or removed when
the 400W-series unit is off. Insert the card with the
swing arm handle at the bottom and the label facing
to the left (see illustration right). If the NavData card
is not present when the unit is turned on, you will
receive a “No Jeppesen Aviation Database - Limited to
user defined waypoints” message on the database confirmation page. If the NavData card is removed during
operation, a “Data card removed-Unit will restart in 30
seconds” warning. The 400W-series unit will automatically reinitialize even if the card is reinserted. You may
also reinitialize the unit manually by pressing ENT.
1.
Gently press on the tab—using a slight upward
motion—at the front center of the NavData
card. This will partially deploy the swing arm
handle.
2.
Turn the swing arm handle upward (and outward) until it locks into place, perpendicular to
the face of the 400W-series unit.
3.
Grasp the top and bottom surfaces of the swing
arm handle, between your thumb and forefinger, and pull directly away from the face of the
400W-series unit to unseat the connector and
remove the NavData card.
To insert the NavData card:
1.
Place the card into the NavData card slot, with
the label facing to the left and the swing arm
handle at the bottom front.

NOTE: There are two data card slots on the face
of the 400W-series. The Jeppesen NavData®
card should be inserted in the left-most slot. The
second slot is provided for the terrain card.
2.
Press the NavData card into place until it seats
on the internal connector and the front of the
card is flush with the face of the 400W-series
unit.
3.
If the swing arm handle is up, gently lower the
handle and push it into place—flush with the
face of the 400W-series unit.


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195
APPENDIX B
Specifications
Appendix B
Specifications
PHYSICAL
Unit Size:
6.25”W x 11.00”D x 2.69”H
(159 mm x 279 mm x 68 mm)
Unit Weight with tray:
400W
5.0 lbs (2.27 kg)
420W/420AW 5.5 lbs (2.49 kg)
430W/430AW 6.2 lbs (2.61 kg)
POWER
Input:
400W/420W/430W
14/28 Vdc
420AW/430AW 28 Vdc
ENVIRONMENTAL
Temperature:-20°C to +55°C (operating range)
(-4°F to +131°F)
Humidity: 95% non-condensing
Altitude:
-1,500 ft to 50,000 ft
(-457 m to 15,240 m)
GPS PERFORMANCE
Receiver:
15 parallel channel (12 + 3 WAAS)
Time to First Fix: 1 min 45 sec
Update Rate: Five per second, continuous
Accuracy: Position — < 1.25 m RMS horizontal
< 2 m vertical, with WAAS
Dynamics: 1000 kt maximum velocity
196
VHF COM PERFORMANCE (GNS 430W only)
Channels:
760 (25 kHz spacing) or
2280 (8.33 kHz spacing)
Frequency Range: 118.000 MHz to
136.992 MHz
Transmit Power:
10 watts minimum
(GNS 430W/GNC 420W)
16 watts minimum
(GNS 430AW/GNC 420AW)
VOR PERFORMANCE (GNS 430W/AW only)
Frequency Range: 108.00 MHz to
117.95 MHz
LOCALIZER PERFORMANCE
(GNS 430W/AW only)
Frequency Range: 108.10 MHz to
111.95 MHz
GLIDESLOPE PERFORMANCE
(GNS 430W/430AW only)
Frequency Range: 329.15 MHz to 335.00 MHz
INTERFACES
• Garmin GDL 69/69A
• ARINC 429
• Aviation RS-232
• CDI/HSI
• RMI (digital: clock/data)
• Superflag Out
• Altitude (serial: Icarus, Shadin-Rosetta or
encoded: Gillham/Greycode)
• Fuel Sensor
• Fuel/Air Data
• L3 WX 500 Stormscope
• L3 SKY497 SkyWatch
• TIS from GTX 330
• Ryan 9900B TCAD
190-00356-00 Rev E
APPENDIX C
Troubleshooting Q & A
Appendix C
Troubleshooting Q&A
This section is designed to answer some of the
common questions regarding the 400W-series capabilities and operation. If you have a problem operating
the unit, read through this appendix and refer to the
reference section noted. If you don’t find answers to
your particular question here, use the index to find the
appropriate section elsewhere in this manual. If, after
reading through the appropriate reference section, you
still haven’t found the answer to your question, please
see your authorized dealer or contact GARMIN directly
at the address or phone numbers listed on page ii.
GARMIN is dedicated to supporting its products and
customers.
What is RAIM, and how does it affect approach operations?
RAIM is an acronym for Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring, a GPS receiver function that performs a
consistency check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures
that the available satellite geometry will allow the receiver
to calculate a position within a specified protection limit
(4 NM for oceanic, 2 NM for en route, 1 NM for terminal
and 0.3 NM for non-precision approaches).
During oceanic, en route and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM will be available nearly 100% of the time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches,
there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
400W-series unit automatically monitors RAIM and
will warn you with an alert message (see Section 11)
when it is not available, and the INTEG annunciator
(
) will appear at the bottom left corner of the
screen. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the
pilot must fly the missed approach procedure. The 400Wseries unit RAIM prediction function will also allow you
to see whether RAIM will be available for a specified date
and time.
NOTE: RAIM prediction is not directly related to
WAAS integrity.
RAIM integrity prediction is performed by the internal
GPS receiver and is performed at all times. WAAS integrity
is reported by the WAAS satellite system and only works
within the WAAS service volume. WAAS approaches require WAAS integrity. Outside of the WAAS service volume, such as an Oceanic flight, RAIM prediction will be
used.
Why aren’t there any approaches available for my
flight plan?
Approaches are available for the final destination airport in a flight plan or as a direct-to (keep in mind that
some VOR/VORTAC identifiers are similar to airport identifiers). If a destination airport does not have a GPS approach, the 400W-series unit will indicate “NONE” for
the available procedures—as listed on the airport approach
page. For more information on selecting an approach, see
Section 4 - Flight Plans, Select Approach.
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APPENDIX C
Troubleshooting Q & A
What happens when I select an approach? Can I store a
flight plan with an approach, departure or arrival?
Whenever you load an approach, departure or arrival
into the active flight plan, a set of approach, departure or
arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan—along
with a header line describing the instrument procedure
you selected. The original en route portion of the flight
plan will remain active, unless you “Activate” the instrument procedure; which may be done when the procedure
is loaded or at a later time.
Can I file slant Golf (“/G”) using my GPS?
Yes, you may file your flight plan as /G if your 400Wseries unit is an authorized IFR installation. The 400W
series is a TSO C146a Gamma-3 (Class 3) authorized
GPS navigator. If you are flying en route, you may file
/G with an expired database only after you have verified
all route waypoints. Approaches may not be flown with
an expired database. See your approved Airplane Flight
Manual Supplement for more information.
What does the OBS key do and when do I use it?
Flight plans can also be stored with an approach, departure or arrival. Keep in mind that the active flight plan
is erased when the unit is turned off and overwritten when
another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans
with an approach, departure or arrival, the 400W-series
unit will use the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database is
changed or updated, the 400W-series unit will automatically update the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure or arrival procedure
is no longer available, the flight plan will become locked
until the procedure is deleted from the flight plan or the
correct database is installed. For information on loading
an approach, departure or arrival. See Section 4 - Flight
Plans for instructions on saving and copying flight plans.
The OBS key is used to select manual (OBS mode) or
to suspend automatic sequencing of waypoints. Activating OBS mode (as indicated by an
annunciation
directly above the OBS key) holds your current “active to”
waypoint as your navigation reference and prevents the
GPS from sequencing to the next waypoint. When OBS
mode is cancelled, automatic waypoint sequencing is selected, and the 400W-series unit will automatically select
the next waypoint in the flight plan once the aircraft has
crossed the present active-to waypoint.
NORMAL
(no “OBS” annunciator)
Automatic sequencing of
waypoints
Change in HSI does not
affect CDI deflection
Always navigates “TO” the
active waypoint
Must be in this mode for
final approach course
OBS
Manual sequencing“holds” on selected
waypoint
Manually select course to
next waypoint from HSI
Will indicate “TO” or
“FROM” waypoint
Cannot be set for final approach course or published
holding patterns
Whenever OBS mode is active, the 400W-series unit
allows you to select the desired course to/from a waypoint
using the HSI (much like a VOR) and display a to/from
198
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APPENDIX C
Troubleshooting Q & A
flag for the active-to waypoint. If an external course input is not available, you may select the OBS course onscreen, via a “Select OBS Course” pop-up window. With
OBS mode cancelled, the CDI will always display a “TO”
indication for the next waypoint once you’ve crossed the
active waypoint (provided the active waypoint is not the
last waypoint). Refer to Section 5 - Flying the Missed Approach for an example using the OBS key.
One application for the OBS key is holding patterns.
The OBS key is used to suspend waypoint sequencing and
select the desired course along the waypoint side of the
hold. For many approach operations, setting and resetting
of waypoint sequencing is automatic. Holding patterns
that are part of an approach will automatically disable
waypoint sequencing, then re-enable waypoint sequencing after one time around the holding pattern. A “SUSP”
annunciation will appear directly above the OBS key (see
illustration left) to indicate that automatic waypoint sequencing is temporarily suspended and course selection
is not available. If more than one trip around the holding pattern is desired, press the OBS key to again suspend
waypoint sequencing. An example of this operation is an
approach which begins with a holding pattern at the initial approach fix (IAF). Section 5 - Flying an Approach with
a Hold for more information on the “SUSP” annunciation
and approaches with holding patterns.
When should I use the OBS key to return to auto
sequencing, and what happens when I do?
The most common application for using the OBS key
is the missed approach. The 400W-series unit will suspend
automatic waypoint sequencing (indicated by a “SUSP” annunciation directly above the OBS key; see right) when
you cross the missed approach point (MAP). This prevents
the 400W-series unit from automatically sequencing to
the missed approach holding point (MAHP). If a missed
approach is required, press the OBS key to return to automatic waypoint sequencing and sequence the approach
to the MAHP. See Section 5 - Flying the Missed Approach for
more information on missed approaches.
Why won’t my unit automatically sequence to the next
waypoint?
The 400W-series unit will only sequence flight plan
waypoints when automatic sequencing is enabled (i.e.,
no “OBS” or “SUSP” annunciation directly above the OBS
key). For automatic sequencing to occur, you must also
cross the “bisector” of the turn you are navigating. The
bisector is a line that bisects the angle formed by two flight
plan legs; it passes through the waypoint common to both
legs.
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APPENDIX C
Troubleshooting Q & A
How do I skip a waypoint in an approach, departure,
or arrival?
The 400W-series unit allows you to manually select
any approach, departure or arrival leg as the active leg of
your flight plan. This procedure is performed from the
active flight plan page by highlighting the desired waypoint
and pressing direct-to twice, then ENT to approve the selection (see illustration right). The GPS will then provide
navigation along the selected flight plan leg, so be sure
you have clearance to that position.
NOTE: If activating a leg while on the From side,
sequencing will be suspended as indicated with
the SUSP annunciation shown above the OBS
key.
How do I fly the GPS with an autopilot and DG heading bug?
If you do not have an HSI, you should make your
course selections on the external CDI’s OBS knob and the
DG heading bug.
When does turn anticipation begin, and what bank
angle is expected?
The 400W-series unit will smooth adjacent leg transitions based upon a nominal 15º bank angle (with the ability to increase the bank angle up to 30º) and provide three
pilot cues for turn anticipation:
1) A waypoint alert (“LT or RT to ###° x S”) will flash
in the lower right corner of the screen 10 seconds
before the turn point.
2) A flashing turn advisory (“LT or RT TO ###° NOW”)
will appear in the lower right corner of the screen
200
when you are to begin the turn. Set the HSI to the
next DTK value and begin the turn.
3) The To/From indicator on the HSI (or CDI) will
flip momentarily to indicate that you have crossed
the midpoint of the turn. For more information on
waypoint alerts and turn advisories, see section 5.
When does the CDI scale change, and what does it
change to?
The CDI scale is 1.0 NM (terminal mode) within 31
NM of the departure airport. The CDI will smoothly scale
to 2.0 NM (en route mode) once beyond 31 NM from the
departure airport.
The unit begins a smooth CDI scale transition from the
2.0 NM (en route mode) to the 1.0 NM (terminal mode)
scale within 31 NM from the destination airport. When
within 45° of the final approach course and the FAF is
the TO waypoint, the 400W-series unit switches from terminal mode to approach mode. CDI scaling is tightened
from 1.0 NM full scale deflection to either 0.3 NM or 2°
full scale deflection whichever is less at the FAF. The scaling change occurs gradually over a 2 NM distance and is
completed before crossing the FAF.
If Vectors to Final is selected, the unit provides CDI
scaling appropriate to the approach, which is typically ±2
degrees angular from the origin of the approach. This angular course deviation reaches the max ±1 NM deviation
at approximately 27 NM from the MAP. The course width
and angular deviation for GPS approaches are similar to
what is provided for VHF localizer signals. (see the figure – Full-Scale deflection and defined path for VTF approach).
If a missed approach is executed, the CDI scale will
change to ±0.3 NM or ±1.0 NM, as described in Section
5 - Procedures - Flying the Missed Approach.
190-00356-00 Rev E
APPENDIX C
Troubleshooting Q & A
Why does my CDI not respond like a VOR when OBS
mode is active?
Full-Scale deflection and defined path for normal approach
Sensitivity must change from ±1 NM FSD to either ±0.3 NM or
±2° FSD, whichever is less at the FAF. Change occurs over 2 NM
and is completed at the FAF.
Unlike a VOR, the CDI scale used on GPS equipment
is based on the cross-track distance to the desired course,
in OBS mode not an angular relationship to the destination. Therefore, the CDI deflection on the GPS will be
constant regardless of the distance to the destination, and
will not become less sensitive when you are further away
from the destination.
1
1
NM NM
Full-Scale deflection and defined path for VTF approach
2 NM
2 NM
2 NM
2 NM
CDI Comparison: GPS vs. VOR
190-00356-00 Rev E
201
APPENDIX C
Troubleshooting Q & A
What is the correct missed approach procedure? How
do I select the missed approach holding point?
The 400W-series unit does not automatically sequence
past the MAP. Waypoint sequencing to the first waypoint
in the missed approach procedure will be enabled when
the OBS key is pressed after crossing the MAP. All published missed approach procedures must be followed, as
indicated on the approach plate.
To execute the missed approach procedure prior to
the MAP (not recommended), select the active flight plan
page and use the direct-to key (by pressing it twice) to
activate the missed approach portion of the procedure.
To activate a new approach to a different airport, press
direct-to and select the desired airport using the small
and large right knobs. Press ENT to accept the selected
airport, then follow the steps in the preceding paragraph
to select an approach for the new airport. See Section 4 Flight Plan Options for more information on selecting and
activating approaches.
How do I re-select the same approach or activate a new
approach after a missed approach?
After flying all missed approach procedures, you may
reactivate the same approach for another attempt from the
procedures page. Once you have been given clearance for
another attempt, activate the approach from the procedures
page by highlighting “Activate Approach?” and then pressing ENT. The 400W-series unit will provide navigation
along the desired course to the waypoint and rejoin the
approach in sequence from that point on. See Section 4
- Active Flight Plan Leg Selection for information on activating a specific flight plan leg.
To activate a new approach for the same airport, select the new procedure from the procedures page. To view
the procedures page, press PROC and turn the large right
knob to highlight “Select Approach?”. Press ENT and turn
the large right knob to highlight the new approach you
want to fly. Press ENT to select the approach, then select
the desired transition. Finally, highlight “Activate?” at the
bottom right corner of the screen and press ENT to activate the new approach.
202
190-00356-00 Rev E
NOTE: Do not attempt to reactivate the same approach you’re currently on, prior to crossing the
missed approach point (MAP). If you attempt to
do so, an alert message (“Are you sure you want
to discontinue the current approach?”) appears.
If you still proceed with reactivating the approach, the 400W-series unit directs you back to
the transition waypoint and does NOT take into
consideration any missed approach procedures.
APPENDIX D
Index
Index
Symbols
3D navigation 8, 56
A
Abbreviations 120, 122, 123, 129, 130, 131, 181, 189
Accessories iii
Acquiring satellites 8, 55
Activate flight plan 22, 68
Active flight plan 21, 67, 70, 72, 75, 76, 78, 83, 125, 134,
155, 159, 160
Active leg 13, 30, 72, 76, 93, 98, 187, 200
Airport
Approach 117, 120, 124, 125, 197
Arrival 126
Departure 127
Frequency 122
Runway 121
Airspace 36, 144, 181, 184
Alarm 169, 171
Alert 20, 138, 145, 146, 147, 172
Frequencies 36
Alarms 169, 170, 172
Alerts
Terrain 46
ALT 193
Altitude i, 14, 20, 31, 40, 42, 44, 52, 55, 56, 72, 89, 93, 97,
100, 101, 108, 110, 122, 123, 145, 147, 153, 154,
155, 158, 159, 169, 171, 173, 181, 185, 193, 196
Altitude buffer 147, 169, 171
Altitude input 102, 185
Annunciations 46, 59, 85, 124, 187
Approach 17, 73, 78, 83, 181, 185, 197, 200
Activate 84
Airport 124
DME arc 94
Hold 91
ILS 104
Localizer 114
LPV 109
Procedure turn 86
VTF 84, 97
Approach Channel 126
ARINC 185, 196
Arrival 17, 51, 74, 78, 83, 126, 172, 181, 200
ARTCC 18, 26, 137, 138, 142, 143, 189
Auto-tuning 24, 25, 150
Automatic CDI switching 114
Automatic operation 159
Autopilot 96, 105, 113, 114, 115, 200
Auto zoom 34, 38
Aux pages 153
Flight planning 154
Setup 1 169
Setup 2 175
Utility 162
Aviation data 43
B
Backcourse 114
Backlight 176, 177, 182, 183
Bank angle 186, 200
Barometric pressure 155, 158, 173
Basemap 182, 185
Basic approach operation 85
C
Catalog 11, 21, 67, 68
Cautions i, 46, 48, 146
CDI 4, 61, 114, 152, 170, 172, 182, 199, 200
Ceiling 20, 36, 145, 146
Channel spacing 175, 176
Checklists 7, 163, 164
City 37, 62, 129, 130
Clear 3
CLR 3
Com 2, 9, 182, 196
Configuration 176
Squelch 23
Tuning 24
Volume 23
Window 24
Comment 68, 71
Controlled airspace 20, 33, 36, 137, 138, 145
Count down timer 186
Course from 100
190-00356-00 Rev E
203
APPENDIX D
Index
Course from fix to altitude 101
Course from fix to distance 100
Course from fix to DME distance 100
Course from fix to manual sequence 103
Create flight plan 21
Creating user waypoints 131
Crossfill 159
Cross-side 161
Crossfill 70, 135, 155, 159, 183
CRSR 3, 189
CTAF 139, 140, 189
Cursor 3
Emergency channel 2, 27
ENDUR 156, 189
ENR 85
ENT 3
Enter 3
Environmental 196
En route 51
EPU 56, 189, 193
F
D
Database i, iii, 32, 41, 45, 46, 49, 84, 125, 159, 160, 162,
195, 198
Database version 45, 163, 168
Data base integrity error 181, 182
Data fields 13, 14, 30, 32, 34, 37, 40, 52, 72, 156
Data transfer 159, 183
Date 161, 167, 168, 171, 174
Dead reckoning 59, 184
Declutter 14, 34
Default Nav page 13, 16, 30
Density altitude 155, 158
Departure 17, 51, 75, 78, 83, 127, 200
Departure time 158, 163, 166
DG heading 200
Direct-To 3, 16, 36, 61
Cancelling 65
Flight plan destination 63
Manual course 65
Nearest airport 63
Shortcuts 64
Display backlight 176, 177
Distance measurements 39
DME Arc 94
Dual units 32
Duplicate waypoint 119
E
E6B 153, 154
EFF 156, 189, 193
EFIS 133
204
Facility name 62, 118, 119, 120, 129, 130, 142, 143
Factory settings 32, 41, 54, 175, 179
FDE 56, 180
FIR 18, 137, 189
Flight plan 4, 21, 67, 154
Activate 22, 68
Active 72
Catalog 21, 67, 68
Copy 70
Create 21, 69
Delete 70
Editing 67
Invert 69
Shortcuts 78
Flight timers 163, 165
Flip-flop key 2
Floor 20, 36, 145, 146
Foreword ii
FPL 4
Frequency 122
Frequency list 15, 26, 51, 122
FSS 26, 137, 138, 143
Fuel flow 6
Fuel on board 6
Fuel planning 154
G
GAD 184
Geodesic 193
Glideslope 24, 149, 183, 196
GNC 420W/AW 1
GNS 430W/AW 1
GPS 184, 196
GPS 400W 1
190-00356-00 Rev E
APPENDIX D
Index
Great circle 193
H
HFOM 56
Hold 91, 187
HSI 61, 152, 198
I
Ident audio and volume 149
IFR 17
IFR procedures 17
ILS 104, 172
ILS CDI Selection 105, 114, 170, 172
Inhibit terrain 43
Inside airspace 20
Instrument panel self-test 6
Integ 8, 163, 190, 197
Interfaces 196
Intersection 129, 141
J
Jeppesen 195
K
Key descriptions 2
Key stuck 182
King autopilot 115
Knob descriptions 2
L
LFOB 156
LNAV/VNAV Approach 85, 110, 112
Localizer 149, 196
Localizer Approach 114
Low alt 85
LPV Approach 85, 109
LRES 156
M
Magnetic variation 171, 173
Map
Auto zoom 34
Create user waypoint 133
Data fields 40
Datum 171, 174, 185
Page 14, 32
Panning 35
Scale 33, 121
Setup 37
Symbols 33
MAPR 85
Measure dist? 39
Menu 3
Messages 4, 8, 181
Minimum safe altitude 52, 194
Missed approach 90, 202
Model descriptions 1
MSA 52, 194
MSG 4
N
Navcom 15, 51
NavData Card 195
Navigation database 46
Navigation Terms 193
Nav pages 12, 29
On-screen data 31
NDB 129, 141
Nearest 4, 18, 137
Airport 176, 178
Airspace 20, 144
ARTCC 142
FSS 143
Intersection 141
Navigate to 139
NDB 141
User waypoint 142
VOR 141
Next FPL airport 120, 122, 124, 126, 127, 128
NRST 4
O
OBS 4, 185, 198
OCN 85
Odometer 166
P
Packing list iii
Page groups 10, 29
190-00356-00 Rev E
205
APPENDIX D
Index
Panning 35
Parallel track 76
PDA 48
Position 52, 171, 174
Power on 5
Power up 5
Premature descent alerting 48
Preset Com frequency 176
PROC 4
Procedures 4, 17
Procedure turn 86
PTT 182
R
Railroads 37
RAIM 163, 167, 197
Range 3
Reference waypoint 53, 131
Remote frequency control 28, 176
REQ 156
Reset all 166
Reset max speed 166
Reset odometer 166
Reset trip 166
Restore defaults 77
Restoring factory settings 32, 54, 175, 179
Rivers and Lakes 37
RNG 156
Roll steering 113
Runway 121, 178
S
Satellite status 55
SBAS 178
Scheduler 155, 161, 185
Searching sky 8, 55
Select frequency 9, 15
Self-test 6
Setup page 169, 175
SIDs 17, 127
Slant golf 198
Software version 163, 168
Sort list 71
Special use airspace 20
206
Specifications 196
Squelch 23
Standard package iii
Standby frequency 9
STARs 17, 74, 126
Stormscope 186
Stuck microphone 27
Sunrise/sunset 163, 168
Symbols 44
T
Takeoff tour 1
Target altitude 181
TAS 155, 158
TERM 85
Terminology 181
Terrain 41
Alerts 50
Symbols 44
Time 8, 52, 171, 174
Timer 186
Traffic 40, 186
Transitions 124
Trip planning 154
Trip statistics 166
Troubleshooting 197
Turn anticipation 200
U
Units of measure 171, 173
User comment 68
User waypoint 131
UTC 171, 174
Utility 162
V
Vectors to Final 74, 84, 97
Vertical navigation 56
Vertical speed 58, 173
VFOM 56
VHF com 196
VLOC 2, 9, 114, 149, 185, 186
Ident audio 149
Tuning 149
190-00356-00 Rev E
APPENDIX D
Index
VNAV 56, 181
Volume 23
VOR 130, 141, 149, 196
VSR 58, 194
W
WAAS approach ID 126
Warranty iv
Waypoint 117, 200
Airport 120
Airport frequency 122
Airport runway 121
Approach 124
Arrival 126
City 118
Departure 127
Duplicate 119
Facility 118
Identifier 118
Intersection 129
Modify user 133
NDB 129
User 131, 142
VOR 130
WGS 84 171, 185
Winds 155, 158
Wind vector 37, 39
Wx broadcast 130
190-00356-00 Rev E
207
APPENDIX D
Index
Blank Page
208
190-00356-00 Rev E
© 2009 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Rd., S.E., Salem, Oregon 97302, U.S.A.
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Bulls Copse Road, Hounsdown Business Park,
Southhampton, SO40 9RB, U.K.
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road, Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
www.garmin.com
Part Number 190-00356-00 Rev E