Garmin GPS 12XL GPS Receiver User Manual

GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
7/10/98 11:18 AM
Page 1
GPS
12XL
Personal
Navigator
Owner’s
Manual
& Reference
®
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
7/10/98 11:18 AM
Page 2
Software Version 3.0 or above
© 1997 GARMIN Corporation
1200 E. 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062 USA
Tel: 913-397-8200 or 800-800-1020
Fax: 913-397-8282
GARMIN (Europe) Ltd.
Unit 5, The Quadrangle, Abbey Park, Romsey, Hampshire SO51 9AQ UK
Tel: 011-44-1794-519944
Fax: 011-44-1794-519222
Web Site Address: www.garmin.com
All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in
any form or by any means including photocopying and recording, for any purpose
without the express written permission of GARMIN.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice. GARMIN
reserves the right to change or improve its products and to make changes in the content without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes.
GARMIN, Personal Navigator, AutoLocate, TracBack, and PhaseTrac12 are all
trademarks of GARMIN Corporation and may not be used without the expressed permission of GARMIN.
June 1997 - Part Number 190-00134-00 Rev. C - Printed in Taiwan
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
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Page 3
INTRODUCTION
GPS 12XL
Packing List
Operator’s
Manual
Thank you for choosing the GARMIN GPS 12XL —the smallest, easiest-to-use GPS navigator for outdoor use! The GPS 12XL represents
GARMIN’s continuing commitment to provide quality navigation information in a versatile and user-friendly flexible design you’ll enjoy for years.
To get the most from your new GPS, take the time to read through the
owner’s manual in order to understand the operating features of the GPS
12XL. This manual is organized into four sections for your convenience:
Introduction gives a quick overview of the manual and contains the
table of contents and the glossary of navigational terms.
Getting Started introduces you to the basic features of the unit and
provides a quick-start orientation to the GPS 12XL.
Reference provides details about the advanced features and operations of the GPS 12XL by topic.
The Appendix section contains initialization instructions and items
with multiple listings, such as map datums, time offsets, and the
index.
Before getting started with your GPS, check to see that your GARMIN
GPS 12XL package includes the following items. If you are missing any
parts, please contact your dealer immediately.
Standard Package:
• GPS 12XL Unit
• Owner’s Manual
• Wrist Strap
• Quick Reference Guide
• Carrying Case
• 4 AA Batteries
See your GARMIN dealer for accessories including our PC kit, swivel
mounts, external antennas, and power/data cables.
We at GARMIN hope the GPS 12XL will help you meet all of your
navigation needs and know it will become a valuable piece of your
outdoor gear.
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INTRODUCTION
Caution
The GPS system is operated by the government of the United States,
which is solely responsible for its accuracy and maintenance. The system is
subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and performance of all
GPS equipment. Although the GPS 12XL is a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID), any NAVAID can be misused or misinterpreted and, therefore,
become unsafe.
Use the GPS 12XL at your own risk. To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review and understand all aspects of this Operator’s Manual
and thoroughly practice operation using the simulator mode prior to actual
use. When in actual use, carefully compare indications from the GPS 12XL to
all available navigation sources including the information from other
NAVAIDs, visual sightings, maps, etc. For safety, always resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation.
NOTE: This device meets requirements for Part 15 of the FCC limits for
Class B digital devices for home or office use. It has been tested for compliance with all necessary FCC standards. This equipment generates, uses, and
can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to
other equipment, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and
on, the user is encouraged to try and correct the interference by relocating the
equipment or connecting the equipment to a different circuit than the affected
equipment. Consult an authorized dealer or other qualified service technician
for additional help if these remedies do not correct the problem. Operation is
subject to the following conditions: (1) This device cannot cause harmful
interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received,
including interference that may cause undesired operation. The GPS 12XL
does not contain any user-serviceable parts. Repairs should only be made by
an authorized service center. Unauthorized repairs or modifications could
void your warranty and your authority to operate this device under Part 15
regulations.
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Page 1
INTRODUCTION
Table of
Contents
SECTION ONE Introduction
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
SECTION TWO Getting Started
Battery & Remote Antenna Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Keypad Usage & Data Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Primary Page Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-7
Power On & Marking a Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Position Page, Map Basics, & Going To A Waypoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Compass Page & Cancelling A GOTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Clearing the Map Display, Screen Contrast, & Power Off . . . . . . . . . . .11
SECTION THREE Reference
Satellite Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-13
Battery Level Indicator, Backlighting, and Emergency Erase . . . . . . . . .14
Position Page & User Selectable Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-16
Marking a Position & Position Averaging Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Waypoint Pages & Managing Waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-23
TracBack Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24-25
Creating and Using Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26-30
Using the Compass & Highway Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31-34
Map Page, Zooming, & Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35-38
Map Page & Track Log Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38-40
Menu Page & Distance/Sun Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
System Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41-42
Navigation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43-44
Interface Setup & DGPS Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45-46
Navigation Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
SECTION FOUR Appendices
Appendix A––Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48-49
Appendix B—Specifications & Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50-51
Appendix C—Messages and Time Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52-53
Appendix D—Map Datums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54-55
Appendix E––Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56-58
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Page 2
INTRODUCTION
Glossary
The GPS 12XL is a powerful navigation tool that can guide you anywhere
in the world. To better understand its operation and capabilities, it may be
helpful to review the basic terms and concepts briefly explained below.
Other navigation and GPS definitions used in the manual are defined in the
appropriate reference sections of the manual.
Almanac Data
Satellite constellation information (including location and health of satellites) that is transmitted to your receiver from every GPS satellite. Almanac data
must be acquired before GPS navigation can begin.
Bearing
The compass direction from your position to a destination.
Course Made Good (CMG)
The bearing from the “active from” position (your starting point) to your
present position.
Crosstrack Error (XTK)
The distance you are off a desired course in either direction.
Desired Track (DTK)
The compass course between the “from” and “to” waypoints.
Differential GPS (DGPS)
An extension of the GPS system that uses land-based radio beacons to
transmit position corrections to GPS receivers.
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
The time of day of your arrival at a destination.
Estimated Time Enroute (ETE)
The time left to your destination at your present speed.
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Page 3
INTRODUCTION
Glossary
Grid
Coordinate system that projects the earth on a flat surface, using square
zones for position measurements. UTM/UPS and Maidenhead formats are grid
systems.
Ground Speed
The velocity you are traveling relative to a ground position.
Latitude
The north/south measurement of position perpendicular to the earth’s
polar axis.
Longitude
An east/west measurement of position in relation to the Prime Meridian,
an imaginary circle that passes through the north and south poles.
Navigation
The process of traveling from one place to another and knowing where
you are in relation to your desired course.
Position
An exact, unique location based on a geographic coordinate system.
Track (TRK)
The direction of movement relative to a ground position.
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
A grid coordinate system that projects global sections onto a flat surface to
measure position in specific zones.
Velocity Made Good (VMG)
The speed you are traveling in the direction of the destination.
Waypoint
A specific location saved in the receiver’s memory.
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INTRODUCTION
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Page 4
Battery Installation
Battery
Installation
Remote Antenna
Installation
An optional remote
antenna may be used
with the GPS 12XL.
The remote antenna
will improve the
receiving capabilities
of the unit by magnifying weaker signals
which the built-in
antenna may not be
able to use.
The remote
antenna is attached
by plugging it into
the connector on the
back of the unit (see
above).
Contact your
GARMIN dealer for
remote antennas and
accessories.
4
The GPS 12XL operates on 4 AA batteries (included), which are installed at the base of the unit. These
batteries provide up to 12 hours of use.
To install the batteries:
1. Remove the battery cover by turning the thumb
loop at the bottom of the unit 1/4 turn counterclockwise.
2. Insert the batteries into position. The battery pole
you can still see should match the symbol (+ or –)
marked on the case.
3. Replace and secure the battery cover by turning
the thumb loop 1/4 turn clockwise.
Battery life varies due to a variety of factors,
including temperature and backlighting. You may
find that lithium batteries provide longer life in colder
conditions.
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Page 5
INTRODUCTION
Keypad Usage &
Data Entry
B
Turns the unit on and off and
activates screen backlighting.
P
Scrolls through the main data
pages in sequence and returns
display from a submenu page
to a primary page.
M
Captures a position and displays the mark position page.
G
Displays GOTO page with
the waypoint highlighted for
GOTO operation. Pressing
GOTO twice activates MOB.
E
Confirms data entry and
activates highlighted fields
to allow data entry.
Q
Returns display to a previous
page, or restores a data field’s
previous value.
UD
Selects alphanumerical
characters and menu choices
and moves the field highlight
from field to field.
L R
Moves the selected character
field and moves the field
highlight from field to field.
DATA ENTRY
The arrow keypad is
used for all data entry.
Use the U and D
keys to select letters,
numbers, and menu
options; use the L and
R keys to move the cursor forward or backward along the line.
Press E to confirm
your entry.
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GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
INTRODUCTION
Primary Pages
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Page 6
Primary Pages
Before we start the tour, let’s briefly look at the five
primary information pages used for the GPS 12XL.
Switch between pages by pressing either the Q or
J keys.
J
Satellite
Position
Map
Compass
Menu
Q
Satellite Page
Satellite Page
The Satellite Page will
allow you to monitor
satellite signal reception
and strength.
The Satellite Page shows satellite positions and
signal strength. Satellite positions are displayed using
two circles and a center point. The outer circle shows
satellites on level with the horizon; the inner circle is
45º above the horizon; and the center point represents
satellites directly overhead. Knowing satellite positions
will show you the direction of any blocked signals.
The bottom of the page contains a row of signal
strength bars corresponding to each satellite being used.
Position Page
The Position Page shows you where you are, what
direction you’re heading and how fast you’re going.
The top of the page contains a compass tape which
is a graphic representation of your heading. Your track
and speed are indicated immediately below.
#
!
Position Page
6
The graphic compass tape reflects your heading only while you are moving.
The rest of the page shows your current position in
three dimensions: latitude, longitude, and altitude. A
trip odometer and 12/24-hour clock are also provided.
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Page 7
Map Page
The Map Page acts as a window. It allows you to
view your position, the “path” you have traveled over,
and nearby waypoints.
INTRODUCTION
Primary Pages
A diamond icon in the center of the screen represents your current position. As you move, you will see
a thin line - called a track log - appear along the path
you have just covered. Names of stored waypoints can
also be shown on the map.
The bottom corners of the map will always display
your current track and speed. When going to a waypoint, highlighting an on-screen waypoint, or using the
panning target crosshair, the corresponding distance
and bearing are shown at the top corners of the map.
The top of the screen contains the zoom, pan, and configuration fields.
Navigation Page
A navigation page gives you steering guidance
when going to a waypoint. The GPS 12XL has two navigation page choices: the Compass Page and the
Highway Page. The Compass Page is the default and
will be briefly explained here. The Highway Page is
covered on pages 35 and 38.
The Compass Page shows the destination waypoint at the top of the page with the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DST) to the waypoint shown below. The center of the page contains a compass ring and arrow to
show you the direction of the waypoint from the direction you are moving. The bottom of the page gives
your track (TRK), speed (SPD), and a selectable field
for estimated time to arrival (ETA), estimated time
enroute (ETE), course to steer (CTS), crosstrack error,
(XTK), velocity made good (VMG), or turn bearing
(TRN).
Menu Page
The last primary page is the Menu Page. The
Menu Page gives you access to the GPS 12XL’s waypoint
management, route, track log, and setup features
through a list of submenus.
Map Page
The Map Page shows
your progress on a moving map plotter and gives
a bird’s-eye-view of surrounding waypoints.
Compass Page
The Compass Page is the
default navigation page
and will show you the
way to the waypoint from
the direction you are
moving.
7
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
GETTING
STARTED
Power On &
Marking a
Position
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Page 8
Getting Started Tour
Now that you’ve seen the primary pages, let’s get
started by taking a simple tour to show you the basics
about using your GPS 12XL. The tour assumes that
your unit has been turned on and that none of the factory settings ( units of measure, selectable fields, etc.)
have been changed. If these settings have been
changed, the pictures and descriptions you see in this
manual may not match what you see on your screen.
Turning the GPS 12XL On
1. Press B until the receiver turns on.
The welcome page will appear while the unit conducts a self test. Once testing is complete, the Satellite
Page will appear. When sufficient satellite signals have
been acquired, the Satellite Page will be replaced by the
Position Page.
The welcome page will be
shown while the unit conducts a self test
Marking a Position
GPS is really about marking and going to places
called waypoints. Before we can use our GPS 12XL to
guide us somewhere, we have to mark a position as a
waypoint. (Your GPS 12XL can hold up to 500 waypoints.)
To mark your present position:
1. Press the M key. The mark position page will
appear, with a default three-digit name for the new
waypoint in the upper-left portion of the page.
To rename the waypoint:
1. Highlight the name field, and press E.
2. Enter the waypoint name ‘HOME’, and press E.
(See pg. 9 for data entry.) The waypoint symbol field
will become highlighted.
Press the UP arrow to
move forward through the
alphabet or numbers and
the DOWN arrow to
move backward.
Each waypoint may also be assigned a custom waypoint symbol for easy waypoint recognition on the map.
To change the waypoint symbol:
1. Highlight the waypoint symbol field, and press E.
2. Select the house symbol, and press E.
3. Move the cursor to the ‘DONE?’ prompt, and press
E.
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Page 9
Using the Position Page
Walk for 3-4 minutes and watch the Position Page.
The direction you are moving (track), your speed, trip
distance, and altitude are shown on the upper half of
the screen. The latitude and longitude of your position
are displayed in the middle of the page, with the time
of day shown below.
GETTING
STARTED
Position/Map
Pages & Going
To a Waypoint
Let’s continue by moving to the next page:
1. Press P.
Map Page
The next page is the Map Page.To ensure we can
see our entire trip on the map, lets change the map
scale from .2nm (default) to 5nm.
1. Use the arrow keys to highlight the ‘ZM’ field at the
top left of the Map Page and press E
2. Press the U arrow until ‘1nm’ is shown and press
E.
The Map Page shows your present position as a
diamond icon in the center of the map. The house
symbol labeled ‘HOME’ is the waypoint you created
and the line connecting the two is your track log.
1. Now turn approximately 90º to your right and continue
walking at for another 2-3 minutes. Notice how the
display changes, always keeping the direction you
are moving at the top of the map (see right).
The Map Page displays
your present position as a
diamond icon and provides a real-time graphic
“breadcrumb” display of
your track right on the
screen.
Going to a Waypoint
Once you’ve stored a waypoint in memory, you
may return to it by performing a GOTO. A GOTO is a
straight-line course from your present position to the
destination you’ve selected. Let’s navigate back to our
starting position, the HOME waypoint.
To select a GOTO destination:
1. Press G.
2. Highlight the ‘HOME’ waypoint, and press E.
You’ll notice that you’ll automatically return to the
Map Page, and a straight line will connect your current
position to the position of the GOTO waypoint.
The GOTO waypoint
page allows you to select
a destination from a
list of all available waypoints in the GPS 12XL’s
memory.
Let’s continue by moving to the next page:
1. Press P.
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GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
GETTING
STARTED
Compass Page
and Cancelling
a GOTO
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Page 10
Compass Page
Bearing to
Waypoint
Graphic
Compass
Pointer to
Waypoint
Destination
Waypoint
Distance to
Waypoint
Speed Over
Ground
Track Over
Ground
Selectable Field
The GPS 12XL will also
provide steering guidance
with a Highway Page.
To change the display
from the Compass Page,
press ENTER twice.
Once a GOTO is activated, the GPS 12XL provides steering guidance
until the GOTO is canceled. To cancel a GOTO,
highlight the cancel
prompt at the bottom of
the page and press
ENTER.
10
Whenever you select a destination waypoint, the
GPS 12XL provides graphic steering guidance with the
Compass Page (the default navigation page). The “compass ring” in the middle of the page shows your course
over ground while you’re moving, with a pointer arrow
to the destination displayed in the center. The arrow
shows the direction of your destination from the direction you are moving. For instance, if the arrow points
up, you are going directly to the waypoint. If the arrow
points any other direction (left, right, down, etc.), turn
toward the arrow until it points up. Then continue in
that direction.
The bearing and distance to a waypoint are displayed at the top of the screen, and your current track
and speed are shown below. The default ‘ETE’ field, at
the bottom of the screen, is a user-selectable field that
can provide a variety of navigation information. We’ll
cover more about that field in the reference section (see
page 36).
As you get close to ‘HOME’, you’ll be alerted to
press PAGE. The GPS 12XL will give you the message
“Approaching HOME”. Once you’ve arrived, you’ll
notice the distance field will read 0.00.
Cancelling a GOTO
If you decide to stop navigating to the active waypoint, all you have to do is cancel the GOTO.
To cancel an active GOTO:
1. Press the G key.
2. Use the arrow keypad to move the field highlight to the
‘CANCEL GOTO’ prompt at the bottom of the page and
press E.
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Page 11
Clearing a Cluttered Map Display
After you’ve used the GPS 12XL for a few trips, you
may find that your map display has become a bit messy
from keeping track of your every move. For practice,
let’s clean up the screen by clearing the track log (the
plot points left on the Map Page) we’ve just created
during the Getting Started tour.
GETTING
STARTED
Clearing the
Map, Adjusting
Contrast, &
Power Off
1. Press P or Q until the Map Page appears.
2. Highlight the ‘CFG’ field and press E.
3. Highlight ‘Track Setup’ and press E.
4. Highlight the ‘CLEAR LOG?’ option and press E.
The clear log confirmation page will appear.
5. Use the L key to highlight the ‘Yes’ prompt.
6. Press E to finish.
Adjusting Screen Contrast
You can access the GPS 12XL’s contrast feature from
the Satellite Page.
To adjust the screen contrast:
1. Press P or Q until the Satellite Page
appears.
2. Press Lor Rto adjust the level of contrast, and press
E.
Screen Backlighting
Screen backlighting is available for nighttime use.
Activate backlighting by pressing the B key briefly.
Backlighting will remain on for the time specified on
the system setup page (See page 42).
Highlight the ‘CLEAR
LOG?’ prompt and press
ENTER to clear the track
log.
Note: Once all 1024
points are used during
normal operation, the oldest point will be continuously deleted to make
room for the latest track
log point to be stored.
Turning the Receiver Off
You’ve now gone through the basic operation of
your new GPS receiver and probably know a little more
than you think about how it works. We encourage you
to experiment with the GPS 12XL until it becomes an
extension of your own navigation skills. If you
encounter any problems using the unit or want to take
advantage of the GPS 12XL’s more advanced features,
turn to the reference section.
To turn the GPS 12XL off:
1. Press and hold the B key for 3 seconds.
Pressing the LEFT or
RIGHT arrows from the
Satellite Page will automatically activate the
screen contrast bar.
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REFERENCE
Satellite Page
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Page 12
Satellite Page
Status
Field
Battery
Indicator
Horizontal
Accuracy
Skyview
Display
Signal Strength
Indicators
The GPS 12XL Satellite
Page will help you determine which satellites are
in view, and whether or
not any satellites are
being “shaded” or blocked
from receiving satellite
signals (See satellites 07
and 09 above).
By periodically monitoring the signal strength
bars at the bottom of the
page and the north up
sky view, you will be able
to see how moving to
another area with a
clearer view of the sky
will improve satellite
reception and speed up
signal acquisition.
12
The GPS 12XL’s Satellite Page displays the status of
various receiver functions. The status information will
help you understand what the GPS 12XL is doing at
any given time, and will tell you whether or not the
receiver has calculated a position fix.
Sky View and Signal Strength Bars
The sky view and signal strength bars give you an
indication of what satellites are visible to the receiver,
whether or not they are being used to calculate a position fix, and the signal quality. The satellite sky view
shows a bird’s-eye-view of the position of each available
satellite relative to the unit’s last known position. The
outer circle represents the horizon (north up); the inner
circle is 45º above the horizon; and the center point is
directly overhead. You can use the sky view to help
determine if any satellites are being blocked, and
whether you have a current position fix (indicated by a
‘2D NAV’ or ‘3D NAV’ in the status field). You can also
set the sky view to a track up configuration by changing
the ‘orientation’ option on the Map Page. (See pg. 38 for
setup instructions.)
When the receiver is looking for a particular satellite, the corresponding signal strength bar will be blank
and the sky view indicator will be highlighted. Once the
receiver has found the satellite, a hollow signal strength
bar will appear, indicating that the satellite has been
found and the receiver is collecting data from it. The
satellite number in the sky view will no longer appear
highlighted. As soon as the GPS 12XL has collected the
necessary data to calculate a fix, the status field will
indicate a 2D or 3D status.
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Page 13
Receiver Status
Receiver status is indicated at the top left of the
page, with the current horizontal accuracy (estimated
position error, in feet or meters) at the top right. The
status will be shown as one of the following conditions:
Searching— the GPS 12XL is looking for any
available satellites in view.
AutoLocate— the GPS 12XL is initializing and
collecting new almanac data. This process can take
5 minutes, depending on the satellites currently in
view.
Acquiring— the receiver is collecting data from
available satellites, but has not collected enough
data to calculate a 2D fix.
2D Nav (2D Navigation)— at least three satellites with good geometry have been locked onto and
a 2-dimensional position fix (latitude and longitude)
is being calculated. ‘2D Diff’ will appear when you
are receiving DGPS corrections in 2D mode.
3D Nav (3D Navigation)— at least four satellites
with good geometry have been locked onto, and
your position is now being calculated in latitude,
longitude and altitude. ‘3D Diff’ will appear when you
are receiving DGPS corrections in 3D mode.
Poor Cvg (Poor GPS Coverage)— the receiver
isn’t tracking enough satellites for a 2D or 3D fix
due to bad satellite geometry.
Not Usable— the receiver is unusable, possibly
due to incorrect initialization or abnormal satellite
conditions. Turn the unit off and back on to reset,
and reinitialize the receiver if necessary.
Simulator— the receiver is in simulator mode.
REFERENCE
Receiver Status
& EZinit
The signal strength bars at
the bottom of the page will
not appear until the GPS
12XL has found the satellites indicated at the bottom of the screen.
EZinit Option Prompt
The Satellite Page also provides access to the EZinit
prompt whenever a position fix has not been calculated.
(The unit must be in searching, AutoLocate, acquiring,
simulator, or poor coverage mode.) This allows you to
reinitialize the unit (see Appendix A), and is useful if
you have traveled over 500 miles with the receiver off
and must initialize your new position. (The EZinit
prompt will automatically appear if the receiver needs
to be initialized. The prompt may also appear during
normal use if the antenna is shaded or the unit is
indoors.
If you travel more than
500 miles with the receiver off, reinitialize the unit
to your new position by
using the EZinit feature.
To access EZinit, press
ENTER from the Satellite
Page before any satellites
are acquired.
13
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
REFERENCE
Battery Level,
Backlighting &
Emergency Erase
7/10/98 11:18 AM
Page 14
Battery Level Indicator
The Satellite Page also features a battery level indicator, located to the left of the sky view, which displays
the strength of the unit’s batteries. The battery indicator
will not appear if the receiver is using external power.
#
!
The battery level indicator is calibrated for
alkaline batteries. Voltage differences will display Ni-Cad and lithium batteries differently .
No other receiver functions are affected.
The GPS 12XL features an internal lithium battery
that will maintain the unit’s memory when the receiver
is not running off batteries or external power.
Backlighting Bulb Icon
When backlighting is on, a
bulb icon will appear on
the Satellite Page.
Use the icon to determine
if backlighting is turned
on during daylight hours.
The GPS 12XL features full-screen backlighting.
Activate the backlight by pressing the B key briefly.
Note: A bulb icon will appear on the Satellite Page
when backlighting is turned on.
Emergency Erase Function
You may erase the GPS 12XL’s memory in four quick
steps. This will cause all stored data to be deleted,
including: routes, waypoints, and the track log.
To erase all stored data:
1. Ensure that the GPS 12XL is turned off.
2. While holding down the Mkey, hold down the B
key to turn the unit on. A warning message will appear
with “Yes?” highlighted, and ask you to confirm your
selection.
3. If you do not wish to erase all stored data, press R
and E to cancel the emergency erase.
Upon activating the
Emergency
Erase
Function, you will be
asked to confirm your
decision.
14
4. If you do wish to complete the emergency erase, press
E to confirm.
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
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Page 15
Position Page
The second page in the GPS 12XL’s primary page
sequence is the Position Page. This page shows you
where you are, what direction you’re heading, and how
fast you’re going, and it’s most useful when you are
traveling without an active destination waypoint. The
graphic heading display at the top of the page indicates
the direction you’re heading (while you’re moving).
Directly below this display are the track, speed, and
trip odometer fields (default). Track is the compass
direction representing your course over the ground,
and speed is how fast you’re moving. The lower lefthand corner of the page shows your current latitude
and longitude in degrees and minutes. The GPS 12XL
uses this basic information to mark exact positions as
waypoints, which help guide you from one place to
another. The lower right-hand corner of the page contains the altitude field (default). Below that field is a
12- or 24-hour clock.
Both the trip odometer and the altitude fields are
user selectable, and both offer a trip odometer, trip
timer, and elapsed time. This way, you can always be
sure of viewing this information regardless of the
option you’ve selected to view in the other user-selectable field.
The following user-selectable options are available
on the Position Page:
Trip Odometer (TRIP)— total distance
traveled since last reset.
Trip Timer (TTIME)— total (cumulative)
time in which a ground speed has been
maintained since last reset.
Elapsed Time (ELPSD)— hours and
minutes since last reset.
Average Speed (AVSPD)— average speed
traveled.
Maximum Speed (MXSPD)— maximum
speed traveled since last reset.
Altitude (ALT)— vertical distance above
sea level.
REFERENCE
Position Page
The speed and track displayed on the Position
Page may fluctuate at
slow speeds (or when
you’re standing still)
because of position errors
caused by Selective
Availability.
The user selectable fields
on the Position Page give
you a variety of information to choose from.
15
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
REFERENCE
Maximum Speed
& Altitude
Fields
7/10/98 11:19 AM
Page 16
To reset timer, speed measurement, or odometer:
1. Highlight the user-selectable field, and press E.
2. Press E to confirm or Q to exit.
The trip odometer, trip timer, and average speed
fields are linked. Resetting one of these options in a
user-selectable field will automatically reset the corresponding data in the other. This ensures that information shown in these fields reflects your current trip.
Maximum Speed Field
To obtain the most accurate reading of average
speed, keep in mind that due to the sensitivity of the
GPS 12XL’s antenna, your maximum speed value may
include the effects of rapid movement, such as swinging
your arm while holding the unit.
To reset the maximum speed field:
Resetting the trip odometer will erase the previous
mileage and set the
odometer to 0.
1. Highlight the ‘MXSPD’ field, and press E.
2. Press E to confirm the ‘RESET?’ prompt .
Altitude Field
When the GPS 12XL is acquiring satellites or navigating in the 2D mode, the last known altitude is used
to compute your position. You may also manually enter
your altitude for greater accuracy. In cases where the
GPS 12XL has 2D coverage, entering your approximate
altitude will enable the receiver to determine a 3D fix.
To enter an altitude:
1. Highlight the ‘ALT’ field, and press E.
2. Enter a value, and press E.
You may enter a known
altitude to assist the GPS
12XL in establishing a 3D fix.
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Page 17
Marking a Position
The GPS 12XL allows you to mark and store up to
500 position as waypoints. A waypoint can be entered
by taking an instant electronic fix, by manually entering coordinates (pg. 20), or by using the bearing and
distance to a known position (pg. 20).
REFERENCE
Position
Averaging
To mark your present position:
1. Press M. The mark position page will appear,
showing the captured position and a default threedigit name.
2. To save a default name and symbol, press E to
confirm the ‘SAVE?’ prompt.
Position Averaging Function
The GPS 12XL positioning averaging function will
help reduce the effects of selective availability upon
position error when marking a waypoint.
1. After you have pressed the M key, highlight the
‘AVERAGE?’ field and press E. The Figure of
Merit (FOM) field will display the value reflecting estimated accuracy of the averaged position. Note: As
the GPS 12XL calculates the FOM, it will rapidly
change before it stabilizes on one number.
After initiating the position averaging function, a
Figure of Merit value will
be displayed, and the
‘SAVE?’ field will automatically be highlighted.
2. The unit will continue averaging until you have highlighted ‘SAVE?’ and pressed E.
To enter a different waypoint name:
1. Highlight the waypoint name field, and press E.
2. Make the appropriate changes, and press E.
3. Highlight ‘SAVE?’, and press E.
Note: To enter a different waypoint symbol or comment, see pg. 21.
To add this waypoint to a route:
1. Highlight the ‘Add to route number’ field, and press
E.
2. Enter a route number, press E to confirm the
route number, and E again to save the waypoint.
The GPS 12XL will save
new waypoints with a
default three-digit name.
To add the waypoint to a
route, enter the desired
route number, highlight
‘SAVE?’ and press
ENTER.
17
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
REFERENCE
Nearest
Waypoints &
Waypoint List
7/10/98 11:19 AM
Page 18
Waypoint Pages
The GPS 12XL has three waypoint pages that let
you quickly manage up to 500 waypoints. These
pages—nearest waypoints, waypoint list, and waypoint
definition—can be accessed through the Menu Page.
To select a waypoint page:
1. Access the Menu Page, and highlight a waypoint page
option.
2. Press E.
Nearest Waypoints Page
The nearest waypoints page shows the nine nearest
waypoints that are within 100 miles of your present
position, with the bearing and distance noted for each
waypoint. This page will also let you retrieve a waypoint
definition page or GOTO a selected waypoint right from
the list.
To select a waypoint submenu, highlight the
desired option and press
ENTER.
To review the waypoint definition page of a selected waypoint:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint.
2. Press E.
To return to the nearest waypoint page:
1. Highlight ‘DONE?’.
2. Press E.
To go to a highlighted list waypoint:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint, and press G.
2. Press E.
Waypoint List Page
Nearest Waypoints
Page
The compass heading
(BRG) and distance
(DST) to the nine nearest
waypoints are updated
continuously.
The waypoint list page provides a complete list of
all waypoints currently stored in the GPS 12XL and
their respective waypoint symbols. The total number of
empty and used waypoints is also indicated. From the
waypoint list page, you can retrieve a waypoint definition page, delete all user-defined waypoints, delete waypoints by symbol, or review and perform a GOTO to a
selected waypoint.
To delete all user-defined waypoints:
1. Highlight ‘DELETE WPTS?’, and press E.
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Page 19
Waypoint List Page (continued)
An options page will appear, asking if you want to
delete all user-defined waypoints or if you want to
delete waypoints by symbol type.
1. Highlight either ‘ALL’ or ‘SYMBOL’, and press E.
REFERENCE
Waypoint List &
Proximity
Waypoints
If you highlight ‘SYMBOL,’ you’ll be asked to
select a symbol.
1. Select the symbol to be deleted, and press E.
2. Press E to confirm the ‘DONE’ prompt, highlight
the ‘YES?’ prompt, and press E.
Note: This feature is handy for deleting temporary
waypoints created by the TracBack function.
Proximity Waypoints
The GPS 12XL’s proximity waypoint function warns
you when you are getting too close to hazardous waypoints. This function allows you to create up to nine
proximity waypoints and designate an alarm circle for
each waypoint. If you enter this circle, a warning message will alert you.
To enter a proximity waypoint from the Menu
Page:
Deleting waypoints by
symbol enables you to
delete a specific group of
waypoints without losing
all other waypoints.
1. Highlight ‘PROXIMITY WPTS’ and press E.
2. Highlight the first empty waypoint field and press
E.
3. Use the U or D key to scroll through stored
waypoints until the desired waypoint appears.
4. Press E. The distance (DST) field will be automatically highlighted. Enter the desired distance.
5. Press the E key.
To review or remove a proximity waypoint:
1. Use U and D to select a proximity waypoint and
press E.
2. Highlight ‘REVIEW?’ or ‘REMOVE?’ and press E.
If ‘REVIEW?’ is chosen, the waypoint page will
appear, and you may make any changes to the selected
waypoint. If ‘REMOVE?’ is chosen, the proximity waypoint page will reappear with the waypoint removed.
Press Q or P to return to the Menu Page.
Quickly edit proximity
waypoints by highlighting
the waypoint name and
pressing ENTER.
19
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
REFERENCE
Waypoint
Definition &
Reference
Waypoints
7/10/98 11:19 AM
Page 20
Waypoint Definition Page
Waypoint
Name
Position
Coordinates
Waypoint Comment
Reference
Waypoint
Distance from
Reference
Waypoint
Bearing from
Reference
Waypoint
Function Prompts
The GPS 12XL’s advanced
waypoint planning features allow you to create
new waypoints and practice navigation without
ever setting foot outside.
If you create a new waypoint by entering coordinates from a map, you
may want to re-mark the
waypoint’s exact position
once you get there.
To re-define an existing
waypoint’s position coordinates from the waypoint
definition page, simply
highlight the DST field
and press ENTER. Use the
LEFT arrow key to set the
distance to 0.00, and press
ENTER to confirm.
The old coordinates will be
replaced by the coordinates of your present position (you must have a
valid 2D or 3D position
fix).
20
The waypoint definition page lets you create new
waypoints manually or review and edit an existing waypoint’s coordinates, symbols, and comments. It is also
used to delete an individual waypoint from memory
(see pg. 22). To create a new waypoint manually, you’ll
need to know its position coordinates or its approximate distance and bearing from an existing waypoint.
To create a waypoint by entering coordinates:
1. From the waypoint definition page, highlight ‘NEW?’,
and press E.
2. Enter a waypoint name, and press E.
3. Press E to select a waypoint symbol, make your
selection, and press E.
4. Highlight the ‘DONE?’ prompt, and press E to
return to the waypoint page.
5. Highlight the “position” field, enter your position, and
press E.
6. Press E to confirm the ‘DONE?’ prompt.
Reference Waypoints
To create a new waypoint manually without knowing its position coordinates, you’ll need to enter its
bearing and distance from an existing waypoint or your
present position.
To create a new waypoint by referencing a stored
waypoint:
1. From the waypoint definition page, highlight ‘NEW?’,
and press E.
2. Enter a waypoint name, and press E.
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Page 21
Reference Waypoints (cont.)
3. Highlight the ‘REF’ field, and press E.
4. Enter a reference waypoint name (or leave the field
blank to use your present position), and press E.
5. Enter the bearing and distance of your new waypoint
from the reference waypoint.
REFERENCE
Waypoint
Symbols &
Comments
6. Press E to confirm the ‘DONE?’ prompt.
Waypoint Symbols
The GPS 12XL allows you to select one of 16 symbols for each waypoint for easy recognition on the map
display. From the symbol page, you may also select
how the waypoint appears on the map.
To select a waypoint symbol:
1. Highlight the symbol field, and press E.
2. Use the arrow keypad to select the desired symbol,
and press E.
3. The cursor will move to the display field, where you
can select which waypoint information is displayed
on the map.
Waypoint symbols enable
you to instantly get more
information about a waypoint than just its name.
4. Press E, and select one of the following display
options: ‘NAME WITH SYMBOL’, ‘SYMBOL ONLY,’ or
‘COMMENT WITH SYMBOL’.
5. Press E to confirm your selection, and E
again to confirm the ‘DONE?’ prompt.
Waypoint Comments
Each waypoint stored in the GPS 12XL has a userdefined 16-character comment field. The default comment is the UTC (or Greenwich mean time) date and
time of the waypoint’s creation.
To change or add a comment:
1. Highlight the comment field.
2. Press E.
Note: You can clear the comment field by pressing the left side of the rocker keypad.
3. Enter the desired comment.
4. Press E.
The waypoint comment
field will automatically
assign the date and time of
creation to the waypoint
comment field. You may
enter a 16-character user
comment at any time.
21
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
REFERENCE
Rename, Delete
& Scan
Waypoints
7/10/98 11:19 AM
Page 22
Renaming and Deleting Waypoints
The rename and delete function fields are located
along the bottom side of the waypoint definition page.
To rename a stored waypoint:
1. Highlight ‘RENAME?’, and press E.
2. Enter the new waypoint name, and press E.
3. Press E to confirm the ‘Yes?’ prompt.
To delete a stored waypoint:
1. Highlight ‘DELETE?’, and press E.
2. Highlight the ‘Yes?’ prompt, and press E.
Note: To delete a waypoint that’s part of a route,
first remove the waypoint from the route (see pg. 30),
and then delete it. If you attempt to delete a waypoint
that’s part of a route, you’ll be given a “Route Waypoint
Can’t be Deleted” message.
You may wish to quickly
save waypoints by pressing MARK and then
ENTER, thus assigning a
default name. You may
then rename the waypoint
at a later date. Any waypoint may be renamed at
any time.
Scanning Waypoints
As you manually enter a waypoint’s name, the GPS
12XL’s waypoint scanning feature will automatically display the first numerical or alphabetical match of the
character you have entered to that point. This helps
eliminate the need to always enter a waypoint’s complete name.
To scan waypoints from a waypoint field:
1. Highlight the waypoint name field, and press E.
2. Press the left side of the keypad to clear the name
field.
3. Scroll through the waypoints.
Scanning waypoints from
the waypoint definition
page gives you instant
access to a specific waypoint’s information.
22
Note: The GPS 12XL’s waypoint scanning feature
will offer the first waypoint that matches the character
or characters you have entered up to that point. If you
have more than one waypoint that begins with the same
letter or number, move to the next character position as
needed.
4. When you find the desired waypoint, press E.
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Page 23
Selecting a GOTO Destination
The GPS 12XL provides four ways to navigate to a
destination: GOTO, MOB, TracBack, and route navigation. The most basic method of selecting a destination
is the GOTO function, which lets you choose any
stored waypoint as the destination and quickly sets a
direct course from your present position.
REFERENCE
Select a GOTO
& MOB
Function
To activate the GOTO function:
1. Press G.
2. Select the waypoint you want to navigate to, and
press E.
Once a GOTO waypoint has been activated, the
Compass Page or Highway Page will provide steering
guidance to the destination until either the GOTO is
cancelled or the unit has resumed navigating the active
route (see pg 30).
To cancel an active GOTO:
1. Press the G key.
2. Highlight ‘CANCEL GOTO?’, and press E.
Select a destination waypoint from the GOTO
waypoint list.
Man Overboard Function
The GPS 12XL’s man overboard function (MOB) lets
you simultaneously mark and set a course to a position
for quick response to passing positions.
To activate the MOB mode:
1. Press G twice. The GOTO waypoint page will
appear with ‘MOB’ selected.
2 Press E to begin MOB navigation.
The GPS 12XL will now guide you to the MOB
waypoint until the MOB GOTO is cancelled. If you
want to save the MOB waypoint, be sure to rename it
because it will be overwritten the next time a MOB is
activated.
Once the MOB mode has
been activated, steering
guidance will be provided
by the Compass or
Highway Page. Activating
another MOB will overwrite the previous MOB
waypoint.
23
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
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REFERENCE
TracBack Navigation
TracBack
Page 24
GARMIN’s patented TracBack feature allows you to
quickly retrace your path using the track log automatically stored in the receiver. This feature eliminates the
need to mark waypoints along the way and manually
create and activate a route back to where you began
your trip. Three track recording options are available:
Off—no plot will be recorded.
Fill—a track plot will be recorded until track memory is full.
Wrap—a track plot will be continuously recorded,
wrapping through the available memory (replacing
the oldest data with new data).
To select a track log option:
1. Highlight the ‘RECORD’ field, press E, select an
option, and press E.
WARNING:
Setting the track recording to OFF will disable
the TracBack function.
Once a TracBack route is activated, it will lead you
back to the oldest track log point stored in memory, so
it’s usually a good idea to clear the existing track log at
the start of each trip.
To clear the track log and define a starting point
for a TracBack route:
1. From the Map Page, press E, highlight the ‘TRACK
SETUP’ option, and press E.
2. Highlight ‘CLEAR LOG?’, press E, highlight ‘Yes?’,
and press E.
To activate a TracBack route:
1. Press G, highlight ‘TRACBACK?’, and press E.
Highlight ‘TRACBACK?’
and press ENTER to begin
TracBack navigation.
24
Once the TracBack function has been activated, the
GPS 12XL will take the track log currently stored in
memory and divide it into segments called legs. Up to
30 temporary waypoints will be created to mark the
most significant features of the track log in order to
duplicate your exact path as closely as possible. These
points will be indicated by a ‘T001’ number on the waypoint list, and by a ‘T’ symbol on the Map Page.
The active route page will appear, showing a route
from your present position to the oldest track log point
in memory. Steering guidance to each waypoint will be
provided back to the starting point of your track log. Note:
You may delete a TracBack waypoint from a route, but
only if the route is not active.
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Page 25
Tips On the TracBack Feature
• Always clear your track log at the exact point that
you want to go back to (trail head, truck, etc.).
• The ‘RECORD’ option on the track log setup page
can be set to either the ‘WRAP’ or ‘FILL’ positions.
• There must be at least two track log points stored
in memory to create a TracBack route.
• If there are not enough available waypoints in
memory to create a TracBack route, you will be
alerted with a ‘waypoint memory full’ message,
and the receiver will use any available waypoints
to create a TracBack route with an emphasis on
the track log closest to the destination (the oldest
track log point in memory).
• If the ‘METHOD’ option on the track log setup
page is set to a time interval, the TracBack route
may not follow your exact path. (Keeping the criteria set to automatic will always provide the
most detailed TracBack route.)
• If the receiver is turned off or you lose satellite
coverage during your trip, the TracBack route will
simply draw a straight line between any point
where coverage was lost and where it resumed.
• If the changes in direction and distance of your
track log are complex, 30 waypoints may not be
enough to accurately mark your exact path. The
receiver will then assign the 30 waypoints to the
most significant points of your track, and simplify
segments with fewer changes in direction.
• To save a TracBack route, copy route 0 to an open
storage route before activating another TracBack.
Activating another TracBack or storage route will
overwrite the existing TracBack route.
• Whenever a TracBack route is activated, the
receiver will automatically erase any temporary
waypoints that are not contained in routes 1-19.
If there are temporary waypoints stored in routes
1-19, the receiver will create any new temporary
waypoints using the first three-digit number
available. (You can also quickly delete all temporary TracBack waypoints in memory by using the
‘DELETE BY SYMBOL’ method described on pg.
19.)
REFERENCE
TracBack
The TracBack feature will
navigate your track log
back to the oldest point in
the receiver’s memory.
The track log will be
divided into segments with
temporary waypoints to
create a route back to the
beginning of the track log.
25
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
REFERENCE
7/10/98 11:19 AM
Page 26
Route Navigation
The last form of navigating to a destination with the
GPS 12XL is by creating a user-defined route. The route
navigation feature lets you plan and navigate a course
from one place to another using a set of pre-defined
waypoints. Routes are often used when it’s not practical,
safe, or possible to navigate a direct course to a particular destination (e.g., through a body of water or impassable terrain).
Routes
ä
Waypoint 2
“Active Leg”
(“active to” waypoint)
ä
ä
}
ä
Waypoint 1
(“active from” waypoint)
Routes are broken down and navigated in smaller
segments called “legs”. The waypoint you are going to
in a leg is called the “active to” waypoint and the waypoint immediately behind you is called the “active from”
waypoint. The line between the “active to” and the
“active from” waypoint is called the “active leg”.
Whenever you activate a route with the GPS 12XL,
it will automatically select the route leg closest to your
position as the active leg. As you pass each waypoint in
the route, the receiver will automatically sequence and
select the next waypoint as the “active to” waypoint.
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Page 27
REFERENCE
Route Definition Page
Route
Number
Comment
Field
Desired
Track of Leg
Leg Distance
Route Definition
Page
Total
Distance
Copy Field
Function Prompts
The last form of navigating to a destination with
the GPS 12XL is by creating a user-defined route. The
GPS 12XL lets you create and store up to 20 routes of
30 waypoints each.
The route navigation feature lets you plan and navigate a course from one place to another using a set of
pre-defined waypoints. Routes are often used when it’s
not practical, safe, or possible to navigate a direct
course to a particular destination (e.g., through a body
of water or impassable terrain).
The bottom of the route definition page features
several ‘function’ fields which let you copy, clear, invert,
or activate the displayed route. Routes 1-19 are used as
storage routes, with route 0 always serving as the active
route you are navigating. If you want to save a route
that’s currently in route 0, be sure to copy it to another
open route, as it will be overwritten by the next route
activation.
Routes can be copied, cleared, inverted, and activated through the route definition page.
Routes enable you to store
and use groups of frequently used waypoints
together.
To select the route definition page:
1. Highlight ‘ROUTES’ from the Menu Page, and press
E.
The ‘route number’ field is displayed at the top of
the page, with a 16-character ‘user comment’ field to
the right. If no user comment is entered, the field displays the first and last waypoint in the route. The waypoint list on the left side of the page accepts up to 30
waypoints for each route, with fields for desired track
and distance between legs. The total route distance is
indicated below the waypoint list.
Enter each waypoint in
the order you would like to
navigate them. If you
enter a waypoint not
stored in memory, you’ll
need to define the position
on the waypoint definition
page.
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GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
REFERENCE
7/10/98 11:19 AM
Page 28
Creating and Navigating Routes
To create a route from the route definition page:
Using Routes
1. Highlight the ‘ROUTE:’ field, and press E.
2. Enter a route number, and press E. (Only open
routes will be available.)
3. Press E to begin entry of a route comment.
4. Enter your comment, and press the E key.
5. Enter the first waypoint of your route, and press
E. As you continue entering the rest of your waypoints, the list will automatically scroll down.
Whenever you activate a route, it will automatically
select the route leg closest to your position as the active
leg. As you pass each waypoint in the route, the receiver
will automatically sequence and select the next waypoint as the active to waypoint.
You may use up to 16
characters to custom
name a route. The default
name will be the first and
last waypoint in the route.
Activating and Inverting Routes
After a route has been entered, it can be either activated in sequence or inverted from the route definition
page. The process of activating or inverting a stored
route takes a storage route (routes 1-19) and copies it
into the active route (route 0) for navigation. The storage route is now no longer needed and will be retained
in its original format under its existing route number.
This system allows you to have an active route that
you may edit during navigation and save as an entirely
new route from the original. You will have to copy the
active route to an unused storage route to save it, since
new route or TracBack activation overwrites route 0.
To activate a route:
1. From the route definition page, highlight the ‘ROUTE:’
field.
To activate a route, highlight the ‘ACT?’ prompt
and press ENTER.
2. Enter the route number to be activated, and press
E.
3. Highlight ‘ACT?’, and press E.
To activate a route in inverted order:
1. Follow the steps above, but select ‘INV?’, and press
E.
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Page 29
Active Route Page
Once a route has been activated, the active route
page will display the waypoint sequence of your route
with the estimated time enroute (ETE) at your present
speed and the distance to each waypoint. As long as
you are navigating an active route, the active route page
will become part of the main page sequence of the unit.
The active route page will also allow you to change the
‘ETE’ field to display desired track (DTK) or estimated
time of arrival (ETA) for each leg. You can also clear or
invert the active route.
REFERENCE
Active Route,
Copying, &
Clearing
To display DTK or ETA for each leg:
1. Highlight ‘ETE’, and press E.
2. Select ‘DTK’ or ‘ETA’, and press E.
The active route page also allows you to clear (stop
navigating) or invert the active route without using the
route definition page.
To invert a route from the active route page:
1. Highlight ‘INV?’, and press E.
To stop route navigation:
1. Select ‘CLR?’, and press E.
Copying and Clearing Routes
Active Route Page
Whenever you have an
active route, the active
route page will appear in
the
primary
page
sequence after the
Compass/Highway Page.
The route definition page is also used to copy a
route to another route number. This feature is useful
when you make changes to the active (or TracBack)
route and want to save the route in its modified form
for future use.
To copy a route:
1. Highlight the ‘route number’ field, and press E.
2. Select the route number to be copied, and press
E.
3. Highlight the ‘COPY TO’ field, and press E.
4. Scroll through the available routes and select a destination route number. (Only open routes will be available.) Press E to copy the route.
To clear a route from memory:
1. Highlight the ‘ROUTE:’ field, and press E.
2. Enter the route number, and press E.
3. Select ‘CLR?’, and press E.
4. Highlight ‘Yes?’, and press E.
To copy a route, select an
open storage route and
press the ENTER key. If
you select a route that is
already used, you’ll be
alerted with a ‘Route Full’
message.
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REFERENCE
Editing Routes
& On-Route
GOTO’s
7/10/98 11:19 AM
Page 30
Editing Routes
A route can be edited any time after its creation.
To edit a route from the active route page or
the route definition page:
1. Select the waypoint you want to edit, and press E.
An on-screen menu of editing choices will appear,
with options for reviewing, inserting, deleting, or
changing the waypoint field highlighted. This field contains the following options:
• Review?— reviews the waypoint’s definition page
• Insert?— adds a new waypoint that precedes the
selected waypoint
• Remove?— deletes a selected waypoint
• Change?— replaces the selected waypoint with a
Use the on-screen menu to
select the desired editing
function.
new waypoint
You may delete a waypoint from a route, but only if
the route is not active. Note: Editing the original storage
route will not affect route 0. If you want to save an edited version of route 0, save it to an open storage route.
On-Route GOTOs
At the beginning of this section, we mentioned that
the GPS 12XL will automatically select the route leg
closest to your position as the active leg. This will give
you steering guidance to the desired track of the active
leg. Note that the first waypoint selected as the destination waypoint will be the route leg closest to your present position. This may mean you’re not navigating to
the first waypoint in the active route—you may be navigating to the last. If you prefer to navigate a route out of
sequence, you can perform an “on-route GOTO” from
the active route page.
To perform an “on-route GOTO” from the active
route page:
To edit or review a route
waypoint from the active
route page, highlight the
desired waypoint and
press ENTER.
30
1. Highlight the desired route waypoint, and press G.
2. Once the GOTO waypoint page appears with the waypoint highlighted, press E.
Note that after you reach the on-route GOTO waypoint, the GPS 12XL will automatically resume navigating the rest of the route in sequence using the page you
were on before performing a GOTO.
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Page 31
Selecting a User-Defined Navigation Page
Once you’ve selected a GOTO destination or activated a TracBack, MOB, or route, the GPS 12XL will
provide graphic steering guidance to the destination
with one of two navigation pages:
Compass Page
REFERENCE
Navigation
Pages
Highway Page
•The Compass Page (default) provides a directional pointer to the destination, with a rotating
compass display to show your direction of travel.
The Compass Page provides better steering guidance for car travel, hiking, or biking, where
straight-line navigation usually is not possible.
•The Highway Page provides a graphic highway
that shows your movement relative to the desired
course, with an emphasis on your crosstrack error
(the distance and direction you are off course).
This page also features a course deviation indicator (CDI) (see pg. 34). The Highway Page is wellsuited for water or off-road recreation where
straight-line navigation is possible.
Both pages provide a digital display of the bearing
and distance to the destination, and your current speed
and track over the ground. You can switch to either
Navigation Page at any time.
To select either Navigation Page:
To switch the navigation
page to the Compass
Page, press ENTER twice.
To switch the navigation
page to the Highway Page,
press ENTER twice.
1. Press E from the existing Navigation Page, and
E again to change the page.
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REFERENCE
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Page 32
Selecting a User-Defined Navigation Page (cont.)
Navigation
Pages
Distance to
Waypoint
Graphic
Compass
Track Over
Ground
User-Selectable Field
The ‘ETE’ field, located in the middle-bottom of
both pages, is a user-selectable field that allows you to
display a variety of navigation values for your trip.
To access the user-selectable field:
Use the user selectable
field to customize the navigation pages.
The turn option will show
you the number of degrees
you need to turn to head
directly to your destination.
32
1. Highlight ‘ETE’, and press E.
2. Use the keypad to scroll through the possible options.
The following data options are available for the
Navigation Pages:
Estimated Time Enroute (ETE)— the time left
to your destination based on your present speed
and track.
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)— the time of
day of your arrival at a destination, based on current
ground speed and track.
Course to Steer (CTS)— the bearing which will
give you the most efficient way to stay on course to
your destination.
Crosstrack Error (XTK)— the distance you are
off the desired course in either direction. This field
will give you a digital representation of the CDI
scale.
Velocity Made Good (VMG)— the speed you
are traveling toward the destination.
Turn (TRN)— the amount of correction in
degrees needed to travel directly to the destination.
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Page 33
REFERENCE
Using the Compass Page
Bearing to
Waypoint
Pointer to
Waypoint
Destination
Waypoint
Compass Page
Speed Over
Ground
The Compass Page provides better steering guidance than the Highway Page for travel at slower speeds
(ex. walking) and for travel with many directional
changes.
The bearing (BRG) and distance (DST) to the waypoint are displayed at the top of the page, below the
destination waypoint name. The distance displayed is
the straight-line distance from your present position to
the destination waypoint. The bearing indicates the
exact compass heading from you to the destination.
The middle of the page features a rotating “compass
ring” that shows your course over ground while you
are moving (track up orientation), with a pointer arrow
to the destination displayed in the center. The arrow
shows the direction of your destination from the direction you are moving. For instance, if the arrow points
up, you are going directly to the waypoint. If the arrow
points any direction (left, right, down, etc.), turn
toward the arrow until it points up. Then continue in
that direction.
The bottom of the page shows your track (TRK),
speed (SPD), and a user-selectable field for ETE, ETA,
CTS, XTK, VMG, or TRN.
When you are one minute away from your destination (based on your current speed and track over
ground), the GPS 12XL will alert you with a flashing
on-screen message box.
In this example, the
Compass Page indicates
that you are traveling in a
west (261 degrees) direction and the destination
waypoint is north (291
degrees) of your current
direction of travel.
In this example, the
Compass Page indicates
that you are traveling
in a north (350 degrees)
direction and the
destination waypoint is
west (291 degrees) of
your current direction of
travel.
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REFERENCE
Highway Pages
7/10/98 11:19 AM
Page 34
Using the Highway Page
Bearing to
Waypoint
Track Over
Ground
Distance to
Waypoint
Speed Over
Ground
Destination
Waypoint
Graphic
Highway
CDI Scale
User Selectable
Field
In this example, the
Highway Page indicates
that you are off course to
the left. Steer right to get
back on course. Notice the
highway always shows the
direction to turn. If the
highway leads straight up
the page, you should continue in your current
direction.
If you get too far off
course, a message box will
appear to indicate what
course to steer to get back
on course most efficiently.
34
The GPS 12XL’s Highway Page provides graphic
steering guidance to a destination waypoint, with a
greater emphasis on the straight-line desired course and
the distance and direction you are off course. The bearing and distance to a waypoint - along with your current track and speed - are displayed at the top of the
screen.
As you head toward your destination, the middle of
the screen provides visual guidance to your waypoint
on a moving graphic “highway.” Your present position is
represented by the diamond in the center of the course
deviation scale. The line down the middle of the highway represents your desired track. As you navigate
toward a waypoint, the highway will actually move—
indicating the direction you’re off course—relative to
the position diamond on the CDI scale. When the highway is pointing straight up the screen, the waypoint is
directly ahead. If the destination waypoint is to the left,
the top of the highway will lead to the left, and vice
versa. To stay on course, simply steer in the direction
the highway leads (left or right) until the highway leads
straight up the page.
If you do get off the desired course by more than
1/5th of the selected CDI range, the exact distance you
are off course will be displayed where the CDI scale setting normally appears. If you get too far off course (the
highway has disappeared), a message box will appear to
indicate what course to steer to get back on course. (For
information on how to set this scale, see pg. 44.) As you
approach a waypoint, a horizontal “finish line” will
move toward the bottom of the highway. When the finish line reaches the CDI scale, you’ve arrived at your
destination.
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Page 35
REFERENCE
Map Page
Zoom Scale
Bearing to
Waypoint
Pan & Configure
Fields
Map Page
Distance to
Waypoint
Present
Position
Track Over
Ground
Speed Over
Ground
The Map Page shows your position and surroundings, and provides you with a target cursor that lets
you pan ahead to nearby waypoints, determine the distance and bearing to a map position, and mark new
waypoints while you navigate. The Map Page is broken
down into two sections: control fields and map section.
The zoom function, panning control, and configuration fields are located at the top of the screen. The
zoom function uses 12 selectable zoom ranges from 0.2
to 320 miles or 0.5 to 600 km. (Using the zoom, panning, and configure fields will be addressed in the next
section.)
The map portion of the page displays your present
position as a diamond icon, with your track and/or
route displayed as a solid line. Nearby waypoints are
represented as squares, with the waypoint name also
listed. You may select which of these features are
shown through the map setup submenu page (see pg.
38-39 for more information).
The four corners of the Map Page are used to display various navigation data, including the bearing and
distance to a destination waypoint and your current
track and speed over the ground. The two fields at the
top corners of the map show your bearing and distance
to one of three selectable destinations: an active destination waypoint, a highlighted on-screen waypoint, or
the panning target crosshair. If you are not navigating
to a waypoint or using the panning function, the top
data fields will not be displayed. Your current track and
speed are shown at the bottom corners of the display.
Note: A map scale represents the distance shown
from the bottom to the top
of the Map Page. For
example, when viewing
the 10 mile scale, the distance represented between
the top of the screen and
bottom is 10 miles.
The four corners of the
Map Page are used to
show your course, speed,
and distance to either a
cursor or to a destination
waypoint.
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REFERENCE
Zooming,
Panning, &
Configuring
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Page 36
Zooming, Panning, and Configuring
There are four main functions you can perform from
the Map Page— zooming, pointing, panning, and configuring (changing the map and track setup). Each of
these functions has its own “field”, which may be selected and activated for use. Whenever the Map Page first
appears, the zoom field (at the top left) is always highlighted. The map has 12 map scales which are selected
through the zoom function field.
To select a zoom scale:
1. Use the arrow keypad to highlight the zoom field.
2. Press the E key to begin range selection.
3. Select a range scale and press E.
A crosshair will appear
when you activate the pan
function. The distance and
direction of the crosshair
from your current position
will be shown in the upper
corners of the Map Page.
The second function field on the Map Page is the
pan field, located at the top middle of the screen. The
pan function allows you to move the map with the four
arrow keys to view areas outside the current map.
To activate the pan function:
1. From the zoom field, highlight the pan field.
2. Press the E key to activate the pan function.
3. Use the arrow keys to move the map in any direction.
On-Screen Pointing
The crosshair will “snap”
to displayed waypoints,
which allows you to quickly review or go to the
selected waypoint right
from the Map Page.
36
As you begin to move the map, a crosshair (plus
sign) will appear. This crosshair will now serve as a target marker for the moving map. The distance and bearing to your destination will now be replaced by the distance and bearing from your present position to the target crosshair.
When you pan around the map, you’ll notice the
target crosshair will “snap” to on-screen waypoints and
highlight the waypoint name. Once a waypoint name is
highlighted, you can either review its waypoint definition page or waypoint display options, or execute a
GOTO function right from the Map Page.
To review the waypoint definition page for a highlighted waypoint:
1. Press E while the waypoint is highlighted.
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Page 37
Zooming, Panning, and Configuring (cont.)
From the waypoint definition page, you can also
define how each individual waypoint is displayed on
the map. The GPS 12XL displays waypoints as a name
with a corresponding symbol (e.g., “nearest fuel” and a
gas pump symbol), a symbol only (e.g., a fish symbol),
or a 16-character comment and corresponding symbol
(e.g., “great view” and the camp site symbol). The waypoint name has a six character limit while the “comment” field has a 16-character limit, and there are 16
individual waypoint symbols available.
REFERENCE
Waypoint
Display &
Marking Cursor
To select a waypoint display option:
1. Highlight the “symbol” field (to the right of the name
field), and press E.
2. Move the cursor to the ‘DISPLAY’ field, and press
E.
3. Select a display option, and press E to select one
of the following display options: ‘NAME WITH SYMBOL,’ ‘SYMBOL ONLY,’ or ‘COMMENT WITH SYMBOL.’
4. Press E to confirm the ‘DONE?’ prompt.
5. Press E again (on the waypoint definition page)
to return to the Map Page.
You may custom tailor the
Map Page to show waypoints by any of three
options.
The last function you can perform with a waypoint
highlighted on the Map Page is a GOTO directly to the
waypoint.
To go to a waypoint highlighted on the Map Page:
1. Press G.
2. Press E to confirm the GOTO waypoint page.
Using the Cursor to Mark and Go to Waypoints
During panning, the crosshair represents a target
position right on the Map Page, with the range and
bearing to the target displayed at the top corners of the
screen. You can also use the target crosshair to mark a
new waypoint position or as a GOTO destination right
from the map field.
To mark the target crosshair as a new waypoint:
1. Press M.
2. Enter a name and/or route number, and press E.
Marking a Cursor
Position
To mark a new waypoint
with the crosshair, simply
pan to the desired position
and press the MARK key.
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REFERENCE
Using Cursor &
Map Setup
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Page 38
Using the Cursor to Mark and Go to (cont.)
You can also use the target crosshair as an instant
GOTO destination. This feature is similar to the MOB
mode, and will allow you to mark and instantly set a
course for a new waypoint called ‘MAP’.
To go to the target crosshair:
1. Press G, and press E.
To save the MAP waypoint, be sure to rename it
because it will be overwritten with the next GOTO.
To stop the panning function:
1. Press Q.
Accessing Map Setup/Track Setup Windows
The ‘CFG’ field gives
access to the map setup
and track setup pages,
right from the Map Page.
You can access two additional pages—the map
setup page and the track setup page—by highlighting
the ‘CFG’ field at the top right of the Map Page, and
pressing E. The map setup and track setup window
will appear, ready for you to select one.
To select map setup or track setup:
1. Highlight either option, and press E.
Map Setup Page and Orientation
The map setup page lets you select the Map Page
and satellite sky view (see pg. 38) orientation, as well as
specify what items are displayed. The Map and Satellite
Pages may be oriented to ‘NORTH UP,’ ‘TRACK UP’ (the
direction of current travel), or ‘DTK UP’ (desired track
up, or the direction of travel to stay on course). The
default setting is track up.
To change the map orientation:
The Map Page’s default
screen orientation is track
up. “Track Up” means
that your current direction
of travel is always up (or
towards the top of) the
screen. It can also be set
for north up or desired
track up orientation.
38
1. Highlight the ‘map’ field, and press E.
2. Select the desired orientation, and press E.
Note: Selecting the ‘DTK UP’ option will set the
satellite sky view to track up orientation.
The rest of the map setup page lets you specify what
items are displayed or plotted on the Map Page by
selecting ‘YES’ or ‘NO’ in the appropriate field.
• ’Rings’— displays the three present position range
rings on the map.
• ’Route’— plots the straight-leg lines between waypoints of an active route and displays all
route waypoint names.
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Page 39
Map Setup Page and Orientation (cont.)
• ’Nearest’— shows the nine nearest waypoints to your
position (black diamond) on the map.
• ’Names’— displays the waypoint name for the nine
nearest waypoints.
REFERENCE
Map & Track
Setup
• ’Track Log’— displays and plots track points on the
map.
To turn a map item on or off:
1. Highlight ‘YES’ or ‘NO’ for the specific map item, and
press E.
Track Setup Page
The track setup page lets you manage the GPS
12XL’s track log data. You can also select whether to
record a track log and define how it is recorded.
To turn the track log on or off:
1. Highlight the ‘RECORD’ field, and press E.
2. Select ‘OFF, FILL, or WRAP’, and press E. (Note:
Turning the track recording off will prevent using
TracBack).
Use the track setup page
to control the way the GPS
12XL manages your track
log.
Track Method
The stored track method determines how often
positions are stored in the track log. The default setting
is automatic, which will store a track based on resolution. This setting gives the most efficient use of track
memory and provides the best TracBack route.
To change the method to record points based on
a specific time interval:
1. Highlight the ‘METHOD’ field, and press E.
2. Select ‘TIME INTERVAL’, and press E twice.
3. Enter hours, minutes, and seconds, and press E.
Track Log Display
The track log option sets the number of points the
unit will attempt to display on the Map Page. The
default setting of 250 points provides good resolution
with minimal screen clutter. The maximum setting is
1024 points. Once you’ve reached the maximum number of track points, the older points will be lost as new
points are added. Note that adjusting the track points
displayed will not affect whether the receiver records a
track log or the ability to create a TracBack route.
Entering a time interval in
to the track recording criteria will plot your position points further apart
than they would be in the
‘Automatic’ setting. This
will increase the distance
you can travel without
using up your track log,
but will greatly reduce the
effectiveness of TracBack.
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GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
REFERENCE
Track Log &
Distance/Sun
Calculation
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Page 40
Managing and Clearing the Track Log
The rest of the track setup window displays the percentage of available memory currently used to store
track log data, as well as function fields to clear the
track log memory and activate the TracBack feature.
To clear the track log:
1. Highlight ‘CLEAR LOG?’, and press E.
2. Highlight ‘Yes?’, and press E.
Note: It’s a good idea to clear the track log at the
end of the trail head, etc., in order to make the best use
of the TracBack feature.
Menu Page
Clear the track log any
time your screen gets cluttered or to make more
room to store points to be
used for a TracBack.
The GPS 12XL’s Menu Page provides access to additional pages (submenus) that are used to select and customize operation and navigation setup. These eight
pages are divided into categories by function. We’ve
already gone over the waypoint and route management
pages in their respective sections. Let’s review the rest of
these pages in the order they appear on the Menu Page.
To select a submenu page from the Menu Page:
1. Highlight the page, and press E.
2. To return to the Menu Page, press Q.
Distance and Sun Calculations
The distance and sun calculation page will give you
the distance and bearing between any two waypoints or
between your present position and a waypoint. It will
also calculate the sunrise and sunset (in local time) for a
particular date at either your present position or any
stored waypoint.
To perform a distance and sun calculation:
The GPS 12XL will calculate the sunrise and sunset
times of any stored waypoint or your present position. To calculate, enter
the date and year and
press ENTER.
40
1. Highlight the ‘FROM’ field, enter the desired waypoint,
and press E.
2. Highlight the ‘TO’ field, enter the destination waypoint,
and press E.
3. The ‘DATE’ field will become highlighted. Enter the
date you’ll arrive at your destination, and press E.
If you haven’t marked your present position as a
waypoint or you leave the ‘TO’ field blank, the sunrise
and sunset at your present position will be shown.
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Page 41
System Setup
The system setup page is used to select the operating mode, time offset, and screen preferences. The GPS
12XL has two operating modes:
• Normal Mode operates the unit at maximum
performance, and provides battery life of up to 12
hours on alkaline batteries.
REFERENCE
Date & Time
Setup
• Simulator Mode allows you to operate the unit
without acquiring satellites, and is ideal for practicing or entering waypoints and routes while at
home.
To select an operating mode:
1. Highlight the ‘MODE’ field, and press E.
2. Select a mode, and press E.
Date and Time Setup
The date and time is located directly below the
mode field. Note: Date and time information is derived
from the GPS satellites and cannot be changed by the
user. Because the time shown is UTC (Greenwich mean
time) time, you will need to enter a time offset to display the correct local time for your area. To determine
the time offset for your area, note your position and
refer to the chart in Appendix C.
The GPS 12XL’s two operating modes are accessed
through the system setup
submenu.
To enter the time offset:
1. Highlight the ‘OFFSET’ field, and press E.
2. Enter the time offset, and press E.
Note: Move the cursor to the left to change the plus
or minus sign.
Time Format
The time display shown on the system setup and
Position Pages may be set to display the time in a 12or 24-hour format.
To select the time format:
1. Highlight the ‘HOURS’ field, and press E.
2. Select 12- or 24-hour display, and press E.
To display the correct
local time, you must enter
the appropriate offset
from the chart at the end
of Appendix C.
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REFERENCE
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Page 42
Screen Contrast
Screen Contrast
& Backlighting
The GPS 12XL has adjustable screen contrast controlled by an on-screen bar scale.
To set the screen contrast:
The “Stay On” setting will
keep your backlighting on
continuously. However,
this will significantly
reduce your battery life.
1. Highlight the ‘CONTRAST’ field, and press E.
2. Adjust the bar scale to the desired contrast, and press
E.
Note: The screen contrast can also be adjusted by
pressing the rocker keypad while on the Satellite Page
(see pg. 11).
Backlighting Timer
The screen backlight timer is adjustable for 15, 30,
60, 120, or 240 seconds. The timer also may be set to
the ‘Stay On’ setting for continuous use. Whenever
backlighting is on, a bulb icon will appear on the
Satellite Page.
To set the backlight timer:
1. Highlight the ‘light timeout’ field, and press E.
The tone setting has three
options to customize it to
your preference.
2. Select the desired setting, and press E.
3. To turn lighting on and off, press the B briefly.
Tone Setting
The GPS 12XL allows you to choose a tone for messages only, messages and keystrokes, or no tone setting
at all.
To set the tone:
42
1. Highlight the ‘TONE’ field and press the E key.
2. Select the desired setting and press E.
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Page 43
Navigation Setup
The navigation setup submenu page is used to
select units of measurement for position formats, map
datums, CDI scale, units, and heading information.
Position Formats
REFERENCE
Navigation
Setup
The default position format for the GPS 12XL is latitude and longitude in degrees and minutes
(hdddºmm.mmm’). You may also select degrees, minutes and seconds (hdddºmm’ss.s’’); degrees only
(hddd.dddddº); UTM/UPS coordinates; or British,
German, Irish, Maidenhead, Swedish, Swiss, or Taiwan,
or User grid formats.
To select a position format:
1. Highlight the ‘POSITION FRMT’ field, and press E.
Select the desired setting, and press E.
User Grid Position Format
The user grid option lets you create a user defined
position format by establishing factors such as longitude of origin, scale, and false Easting or Northing.
To define a user grid:
1. Select ‘User Grid’, and press E. Enter values for
longitude origin, scale, and false Easting and
Northing, and press E. Highlight ‘SAVE?’, and
press E.
The position format may
be set to display your
choice of many formats.
Note: degree and minutes
is the default setting.
Map Datums
The ‘MAP DATUM’ field comes with a WGS 84
default setting. Although 106 total map datums are
available for use (see Appendix D for map datums),
you should only change the datum if you are using
maps or charts that specify a different datum than
WGS 84.
To select a map datum:
1. Highlight the ‘MAP DATUM’ field, and press E.
2. Select the desired setting, and press E.
The default map datum
covers world-wide navigation. However, if you are
using a paper map or
chart which uses a different map datum that WGS
84, then you may wish to
switch to that datum.
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Page 44
Map Datums (continued)
To define a user datum:
Datums, CDI
Settings, &
Measurement
1. Highlight the ‘MAP DATUM’ field, and press E.
2. Scroll through the map datum options until ‘User’
appears, and press E.
3. Enter values for ‘DX’, ‘DY’, ‘DZ’, ‘DA’, and ‘DF’ using the
rocker keypad, and press E.
4. Highlight ‘SAVE?’, and press E. The setup menu
will reappear.
CDI Scale Settings
The course deviation indicator (CDI) field lets you
select the +/- range of the CDI bar scale on the Highway
Page. Three scales are available: +/- 0.25 (default), 1.25,
and 5.0 miles or kilometers. Note: This CDI value represents the full deflection of scale to either side.
To enter a CDI scale setting:
The user datum feature
allows you to define the
earth model used to calculate position coordinates.
WARNING: Incorrect
entries may result in substantial position errors.
1. Highlight the ‘CDI SCALE’ field, and press E.
2. Select the desired setting, and press E.
Units of Measure
The GPS 12XL lets you select statute (default), nautical, or metric units of measure for all “speed” and “distance” fields.
To change the unit of measure:
1. Highlight the ‘UNITS’ field, and press E.
2. Select the desired unit of measure, and press E.
Magnetic Heading Reference
To enter a user-defined
magnetic variation, select
the ‘User Mag’ option and
enter the desired direction
and value.
The GPS 12XL’s heading information can be displayed referencing magnetic north (automatic or userdefined), true north, or calculated grid headings. The
default setting is automatic magnetic north, which is
suitable for most applications.
To select a heading reference:
1. Highlight the ‘HEADING’ field, and press E.
2. Select the desired heading preference, and press
E.
To enter a user-defined magnetic heading:
.
44
1. Select ‘User Mag’ and press E.
2. Enter the degrees and direction of magnetic variation,
and press E.
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Page 45
Interface Setup
The GPS 12XL’s interface page lets you specify the
formats for connecting external devices. There are six
options: GRMN/GRMN, None/None, RTCM/None,
RTCM/NMEA, NMEA/NMEA, and None/NMEA. Each
option lists the input format first, followed by the output format.
REFERENCE
Interface Setup
& DGPS
To select I/O format:
1. Highlight the I/O field, and press E.
2. Select the desired setting, and press E.
The GRMN/GRMN setting is a proprietary format
that lets you exchange information such as waypoints,
routes, and track logs between two GARMIN GPS units
or a GARMIN GPS and a PC. There are eight data
transfer options: send alm, send wpt, send trk, send
rte, request alm, request wpt, request trk, request rte.
To select a transfer option:
1. Highlight ‘HOST’, and press E.
2. Select a desired setting, and press E.
To disable all interfacing capabilities, select the
None/None setting. If you want to output NMEA data
without any differential input capability, select
‘None/NMEA.’
Choose an interface
option based upon what
equipment you are using
to transfer information.
DGPS Interface
The last two format settings allow the differentialready GPS 12XL to accept RTCM DGPS corrections in
RTCM 104 version 2.0 format. Using DGPS corrections
will improve receiver accuracy to 1-5 meters, regardless
of errors induced by the government’s Selective
Availability (SA) program. Two RTCM options are available: RTCM/NONE, which allows connection to a beacon receiver with no output capability; and
RTCM/NMEA, which allows DGPS input and NMEA
output.
Once a RTCM setting has been selected, the GPS
12XL will either automatically try to tune the last frequency and bit rate you selected or will switch to the
default frequency of 304.0 kHz with a bit rate of 100
bps if no previous beacon has been tuned. You may
also enter your own frequency and bit rate if desired.
Once the RTCM option is
selected the GPS 12XL
will automatically tune
itself or display a default
frequency.
45
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
REFERENCE
DGPS Interface
7/10/98 11:19 AM
Page 46
DGPS Interface (continued)
To enter a DGPS beacon frequency:
1. Highlight the ‘FREQ’ field, and press E.
2. Enter the desired frequency, and press E.
3. Highlight the ‘RATE’ field, and press E.
4. Select the desired transmission rate, and press E.
The selectable baud rate is
available for all RTCM
interface options.
Alert messages will signal
any problems with DGPS
operation.
46
When the GPS 12XL is receiving DGPS corrections
from the GBR 21, the ‘BEACON RECVR’ section of the
I/O setup page will display the beacon frequency and
signal strength, as well as the distance from the transmitter to the beacon receiver. At the bottom of the beacon receiver field, a status message will keep you
informed of DGPS activity:
• A ‘Tuning’ message will be displayed while a beacon signal is being tuned.
• Once the beacon signal has been tuned, a
‘Receiving’ message will be displayed.
• If a beacon signal is tuned and no corrections are
being received, a ‘No Data’ message will be displayed.
• If a beacon signal cannot be tuned, a ‘No Status’
message will be displayed.
The message page will alert you to any problems
relating to DGPS operation. You may also monitor the
DGPS status from the status field on the interface page.
The GPS 12XL will display one of three alert messages
concerning DGPS operation:
No DGPS Position— there is not enough data
available to compute a DGPS position.
No RTCM Input— the beacon receiver is not
properly connected or the baud rates do not match.
RTCM Input Failed— DGPS data was being
received but has been lost.
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Page 47
Navigation Simulator
The GPS 12XL’s simulator mode lets you practice all
aspects of its operation without active satellite acquisition. You can plan and practice trips, enter new waypoints and routes, and save them for use during normal operation.
REFERENCE
Navigation
Simulator
To activate the simulator:
1. From the Menu Page, highlight ‘SYSTEM SETUP’, and
press E.
2. Highlight the ‘MODE’ field, and press E.
3. Select ‘Simulator?’, and press E.
Once the simulator mode has been activated, use
the Position, Compass, or Highway Page to set your
speed and track by highlighting the appropriate field,
entering the desired value, and pressing E. You
may also enter a new position if you desire (from the
Position Page).
#
!
The GPS 12XL does not track satellites in simulator mode. Although you can create and save
waypoints and routes while using the simulator mode, never attempt to use the simulator
mode for actual navigation.
Select the simulator mode
from the operation mode
choices and press ENTER.
You may return to normal
operation by changing the
operation mode or by
turning the unit off.
47
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
APPENDIX A
Initialization
7/10/98 11:19 AM
Page 48
Initializing Your GPS 12XL for First-Time Use
The GPS 12XL typically acquires a position so fast
that initialization is completed automatically. However,
initialization will be necessary for the following:
• After memory loss
• When the receiver has been moved more than
500 miles with the power off.
Additionally, it may be necessary to initialize the
unit the first time you use it, if it does not acquire a fix
in a few minutes.
The receiver is shipped from the factory in
AutoLocate™ mode, which enables the GPS 12XL to
determine its location anywhere in the world. To speed
up the initialization process, we recommend using the
graphic initialization described below, which will usually provide a fix in a few minutes.
To turn the GPS 12XL on:
Welcome Page
1. Press and hold B until the receiver turns on.
The welcome page will be displayed while the unit
conducts a self test.
Once testing is complete, the welcome page will be
replaced by the Satellite Page, with the EZinit prompt
ready for you to select one of two initialization
methods:
•Select Country––allows you to initialize the
receiver by selecting your present position from a
list of countries in the GPS 12XL’s internal database. This usually provides a position fix in a few
minutes.
•AutolocateTM ––allows the GPS 12XL to initialize
itself and calculate a position fix without knowing
your present position. This usually provides a position fix in 3-5 minutes.
The EZinit prompt will
automatically appear if
the receiver needs to be
initialized. The prompt
may also appear during
normal use if the antenna
is shaded.
48
If the EZinit prompt has not automatically
appeared on the Satellite Page:
1. Press the E key.
Note: If the EZinit prompt ever appears after you
have initialized the receiver (due to the antenna’s view
of satellites being obstructed by trees, etc.), highlight
the ‘NO RE-INIT’ selection with the arrow keypad and
press E.
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Page 49
To initialize the receiver:
1. If the ‘COUNTRY’ option is not highlighted, press the
D key repeatedly to move the field highlight to the
‘COUNTRY’ option.
APPENDIX A
Initialization
2. Press the E key.
3. Use the D key to scroll through the list options until
the country of your present position appears.
4. Use theU key to highlight the country/state/region
you’re in. If the country you’re in is not listed, select
another country within 500 miles of your present
position.
5. Press E to finish.
The GPS 12XL will now begin searching for the
appropriate satellites for your location and should
acquire a position within 3-5 minutes. You can verify
that you have acquired a position by watching the
Satellite Page transition to the Position Page (provided
you haven’t pressed any other buttons) or by looking
for a ‘2D NAV’ or ‘3D NAV’ status at the top-left corner
of the Satellite Page.
Initialization Troubleshooting
If you have trouble initializing the receiver or
acquiring a position, check the following:
Use the arrow keypad to
highlight the country,
region, or state of your
present position from the
list and press ENTER. If
the country is not listed,
select the closest country
instead.
• Does the unit have a clear view of the sky?
If there are large buildings or mountains nearby, or
if there is heavy tree cover, the receiver may not be
receiving enough satellite signals to calculate a
position.
• Have you selected the right country/state/region
from the EZinit list?
Check for the correct approximate lat/lon on the
Position Page, or reselect the appropriate country
from the list to restart the initialization.
• Have you moved more than 500 miles from the
last calculated position with the receiver off?
Reinitialize the receiver, selecting the country/state/
region of your new location from the EZinit list.
Your unit should now be initialized.
49
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Page 50
APPENDIX B
Specifications &
Wiring
Never attempt any repairs yourself. To protect your GPS 12XL,
keep it in its carrying case when not in use, and never allow gasoline or other solvents to come into contact with the case. Clean the
case and lens with a soft cloth and a household window cleaner.
PHYSICAL
Case:
waterproof*
Size:
14.6 x 5.1 x 3.4 cm
Weight:
Approx 9.5 ounces (269g) w/ batteries
Temperature Range:
5º to 158ºF (-15º to 70ºC)
PERFORMANCE
Receiver:
Acquisition Time:
12 parallel channel, differential-ready
Approx. 15 seconds (warm start)
Approx. 45 seconds (cold start)
Approx. 5 minutes (AutoLocateTM)
Update Rate:
1/second, continuous
Position Accuracy:
1-5 meters (3-17 ft.) with DGPS corrections**
15 meters (49 ft.) RMS***
Velocity Accuracy:
0.1 knot RMS steady state
Dynamics:
6g
POWER
Input:
Four 1.5 volt AA batteries or 10-32 vDC
Power Consumption: 1 watt
Battery Life:
Up to 12 hours (with 4 AA batteries)
Internal Backup:
lithium battery
NOTE: Alkaline batteries lose a significant amount of their capacity as temperature decreases. If you’re using the GPS 12XL in below freezing temperatures, use lithium batteries for longer battery life. Extensive use of screen backlighting will significantly
reduce battery life.
50
Specifications subject to change without notice.
* Meets IEC (European Community Specification) 529 IPX7 for protection against immersion for
30 minutes at a depth of 1 meter.
** With optional DGPS Input.
*** Subject to accuracy degradation to 100m 2DRMS under the US DOD-imposed Selective
Availability Program.
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Page 51
APPENDIX B
unit view
DATA IN
(WHITE)
POWER
(RED)
GROUND
(BLACK)
Specifications &
Wiring
DATA OUT
(BROWN)
Three optional cables are available to connect the GPS 12XL to an external
power source or interface with another unit or PC:
• Cigarette Lighter Adapter— Allows connection to a 12-volt DC cigarette
lighter plug. Part No. 010-10085-00.
• Data Transfer Cable— Allows data transfer between GARMIN GPS units. The
GPS 12XL is compatible with the following units: GPS 38/40/45/45XL, GPS
II/II plus, GPS 12, and GPS 12XL. Information that can be transferred
includes the almanac, waypoints, routes, and tracklog. However, waypoint
symbols are only transferrable from or to units that support waypoint symbols
such as the GPS II plus, GPS 12, and GPS 12XL software version 3.01 or
later. Part No. 010-10142-00.
• PC Kit Interface Cable— PC interface cable with 9-pin ‘D’ serial data connector. Part No. 010-10141-00.
The following interface formats are supported by the GPS 12XL for driving
three NMEA devices:
NMEA 0180
NMEA 0182
NMEA 0183 version 1.5
Approved sentences:
GPRMB, GPRMC, GPWPL
Proprietary sentences:
PGRMM (map datum),
PGRMZ (altitude), PSLIB
(beacon rec. control)
NMEA 0183 version 2.0
Approved sentences:
GPGGA, GPGSA, GPGSV,
GPRMB, GPRMC, GPRTE,
GPWPL
Proprietary sentences:
PGRME (estimated error),
PGRMM (map datum), PSLIB
(beacon receiver control)
DGPS corrections are accepted on
RTCM-104 v. 2.1 format.
51
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
APPENDIX C
Messages &
Time Offsets
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Page 52
The GPS 12XL uses a flashing on-screen message indicator to alert you to important information. Whenever the
message indicator appears, press PAGE to view the message page. There are two types of messages: temporary
alerts and condition alerts. Temporary alerts are cleared
from the message page after viewing, while condition
alerts remain until the condition has been resolved. Pay
careful attention to all messages for your own safety.
Active WPT Can’t be Deletd—You have attempted to change the “active to” or “active from”
waypoint. Clear the active route or GOTO before making your changes.
Accuracy has been Degraded—The accuracy of the GPS 12XL has been degraded beyond 500
meters due to poor satellite geometry or data quality. You should check other navigational
sources to verify the position indicated.
Already Exists—The name you are entering already exists in the GPS 12XL’s memory.
Approaching—You are one minute away from reaching a destination waypoint.
Battery Power is Low—The batteries are low and should be replaced.
No DGPS Position—Not enough data is available to compute a DGPS position.
No RTCM Input—Beacon receiver is improperly connected or baud rates do not match.
Poor GPS Coverage—The GPS 12XL cannot acquire the necessary number of satellites to compute a position. Try another location with a clearer view of the sky.
Power Down and Re-init—The GPS 12XL is not able to calculate a position due to abnormal
satellite conditions. Turn the unit off and verify the last position shown by other means. Try the
unit again later, possibly in a different location.
PROX Alarm—You have entered the alarm circle for a specific proximity waypoint.
Proximity Overlapped—The alarm circles of two proximity waypoints overlap which could
cause difficulty in monitoring distances to each waypoint.
Proximity Wpt can’t be Deleted—The waypoint you are trying to delete is listed as a proximity waypoint and must be removed from the list before it can be deleted.
Read Only Mem has Failed—The permanent memory has failed and the unit is not operable.
Received an Invalid WPT—A waypoint was received during upload transfer that has an
invalid identifier.
Receiver has Failed—A failure in receiver hardware has been detected. If this message persists,
do not use the unit and take it to an authorized dealer for repair.
Route is Full—You have attempted to add more than 30 waypoints to a route.
Route is not Empty—You have attempted to copy into a route already in use.
Route Waypoint Can’t be Deleted—The waypoint you are trying to delete is part of a route.
Delete the waypoint from the route before removing it from memory.
Route Waypoint was Deleted—A route waypoint entered does not exist in the database and
has been deleted from the route
52
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Page 53
APPENDIX C
Messages &
Time Offsets
RTCM Input has Failed—DGPS data being received has been lost. You are no longer receiving the beacon signal.
Searching the Sky—The GPS 12XL is in searching the sky for almanac data or the unit is in
AutoLocateTM mode.
Stored Data was Lost—All waypoints, routes, time and almanac data has been lost due to
battery failure or clearing the receiver’s memory.
Track Memory is Full—All track log points in memory have been used. You must either
delete the current tracklog or switch the record option to ‘WRAP’ which will begin erasing the
oldest tracklog points as new ones are added.
Transfer has been Completd—The receiver is finished uploading or downloading information to the connected device.
WPT Memory is Full—You have used all 500 waypoints in the GPS 12XL. Delete unwanted
waypoints to make room for new entries.
Time Offset Chart
The table below gives approximate UTC time offset for various longitudinal
zones. If you are in daylight savings time, add one hour to the offset.
Longitudinal Zone
Offset
Longitudinal Zone
Offset
W180.0º to W172.5º
-12
E007.5º to E022.5º
1
W172.5º to W157.5º
-11
E022.5º to E037.5º
2
W157.5º to W142.5º
-10
E037.5º to E052.5º
3
W142.5º to W127.5º
-9
E052.5º to E067.5º
4
W127.5º to W112.5º
-8
E067.5º to E082.5º
5
W112.5º to W097.5º
-7
E082.5º to E097.5º
6
W097.5º to W082.5º
-6
E097.5º to E112.5º
7
W082.5º to W067.5º
-5
E112.5º to E127.5º
8
W067.5º to W052.5º
-4
E127.5º to E142.5º
9
W052.5º to W037.5º
-3
E142.5º to E157.5º
10
W037.5º to W022.5º
-2
E157.5º to E172.5º
11
W022.5º to W007.5º
-1
E172.5º to E180.0º
12
W007.5º to E007.5º
0
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Page 54
APPENDIX D
Map Datums
Adindan
Afgooye
AIN EL ABD ‘70
Anna 1 Ast ‘65
ARC 1950
ARC 1960
Ascnsn Isld ‘58
Astro B4 Sorol
Astro Bcn “E”
Astro Dos 71/4
Astr Stn ‘52
Astrln Geod ‘66
Astrln Geod ‘84
Austria
Bellevue (IGN)
Bermuda 1957
Bogata Observ
Campo Inchspe
Canton Ast ‘66
Cape
Cape Canavrl
Carthage
CH-1903
Chatham 1971
Chua Astro
Corrego Alegr
Djakarta
Dos 1968
54
The following list shows the map datums available for
the GPS 12XL. Menu abbreviations are listed first, followed by the corresponding map datum name and area.
The default map datum for the GPS 12XL is WGS 84.
Adindan- Ethiopia, Mali,
Senegal, Sudan
Afgooye- Somalia
AIN EL ANBD 1970- Bahrain
Island, Saudi Arabia
Anna 1 Astro ‘65- Cocos Isl.
ARC 1950- Botswana,
Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
ARC 1960- Kenya, Tanzania
Ascension Island ‘58Ascension Island
Astro B4 Sorol Atoll- Tern
Island
Astro Beacon “E”- Iwo Jima
Astro Dos 71/4- St. Helena
Astronomic Stn ‘52- Marcus
Island
Australian Geod ‘66Australia, Tasmania Island
Australian Geod ‘84Australia, Tasmania Island
Austria
Efate and Erromango Islands
Bermuda 1957- Bermuda
Islands
Bogata Obsrvatry- Colombia
Campo Inchauspe- Argentina
Canton Astro 1966- Phoenix
Islands
Cape- South Africa
Cape Canaveral- Florida,
Bahama Islands
Carthage- Tunisia
CH 1903- Switzerland
Chatham 1971- Chatham
Island (New Zealand)
Chua Astro- Paraguay
Corrego Alegre- Brazil
Djakarta (Batavia)- Sumatra
Island (Indonesia)
Dos 1968- Gizo Island
Easter Isld 67
European 1950
European 1979
Finland Hayfrd
Gandajika Base
Geod Datm ‘49
Guam 1963
Gux 1 Astro
Hjorsey 1955
Hong Kong ‘63
Hu-Tzu-Shan
Indian Bngldsh
Indian Thailand
Indonesia ‘74
Ireland 1965
ISTS 073 Astro
Johnston Island
Kerguelen Islnd
Kertau 1948
L. C. 5 Astro
Liberia 1964
Luzon Mindanao
Luzon Philippine
(New Georgia Islands)
Easter Island 1967
European 1950- Austria,
Belgium, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Gibraltar,
Greece, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland
European 1979- Austria,
Finland, Netherlands,
Norway, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland
Finland Hayford- Finland
Gandajika Base- Republic of
Maldives
Geodetic Datum ‘49New Zealand
Guam 1963- Guam Island
Gux 1 Astro- Guadalcanal
Island
Hjorsey 1955- Iceland
Hong Kong ‘63- Hong Kong
Taiwan
Indian- Bangladesh, India,
Nepal
Indian- Thailand, Vietnam
Indonesia 1974- Indonesia
Ireland 1965- Ireland
ISTS 073 ASTRO ‘69Diego Garcia
Johnston Island Kandawala
Kandawala- Sri Lanka
Kerguelen Island, Kandawala,
Sri Lanka
Kertau 1948- West Malaysia,
Singapore
Cayman Brac Island
Liberia 1964- Liberia
Luzon- Mindanao Island
Luzon- Philippines
(excluding Mindanao Island)
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Mahe 1971- Mahe Island
Marco Astro- Salvage Island
Massawa- Eritrea (Ethiopia)
Merchich- Morocco
Midway Astro ‘61- Midway
Minna- Nigeria
North American 1927- Alaska
North American 1927Bahamas (excluding San
Salvador Island)
NAD27 Canada
North American 1927Canada and Newfoundland
NAD27 Canal Zone North Am. 1927- Canal Zone
NAD27 Caribbn
North American 1927Caribbean (Barbados, Caicos
Islands, Cuba, Dom. Rep.,
Grand Cayman, Jamaica,
Leeward and Turks Islands)
NAD27 Central
North American 1927Central America (Belize, Costa
Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Nicaragua)
NAD27 CONUS
North Am. 1927- Mean Value
NAD27 Cuba
North American 1927- Cuba
NAD27 Grnland
North American 1927Greenland (Hayes Peninsula)
NAD27 Mexico
N. American 1927- Mexico
NAD27 San Sal
North American 1927- San
Salvador Island
NAD83
North American 1983- Alaska,
Canada, Central America,
CONUS, Mexico
Nhrwn Masirah
Nahrwn- Masirah Island
(Oman)
Nhrwn Saudi A
Nahrwn- Saudi Arabia
Nhrwn United A
Nahrwn- United Arab
Emirates
Naparima BWI
Naparima BWI- Trinidad and
Tobago
Obsrvtorio ‘66
Observatorio 1966- Corvo
and Flores Islands (Azores)
Old Egyptian
Old Egyptian- Egypt
Old Hawaiian
Old Hawaiian- Mean Value
Oman
Oman- Oman
Ord Srvy GB
Old Survey Grt BritnEngland, Isle of Man,
Scotland, Shetland Isl., Wales
Pico De Las Nv
Canary Islands
Potsdam
Potsdam-Germany
Ptcairn Ast ‘67
Pitcairn Astro ‘67- Pitcairn Is
Page 55
APPENDIX D
Mahe 1971
Marco Astro
Massawa
Merchich
Midway Ast ‘61
Minna
NAD27 Alaska
NAD27 Bahamas
Map Datums
Prov S Am ‘56
Prov S Chln ‘63
Puerto Rico
Qatar National
Qornoq
Reunion
Rome 1940
RT 90
Santo (Dos)
Sao Braz
Sapper Hill ‘43
Schwarzeck
Sth Amrcn ‘69
South Asia
SE Base
SW Base
Timbalai 1948
Tokyo
Tristan Ast ‘68
Viti Levu 1916
Wake-Eniwetok
WGS 72
WGS 84
Zanderij
Prov So Amricn ‘56- Bolivia,
Chile,Colombia, Ecuador,
Guyana, Peru, Venezuela
Prov So Chilean ‘63- S. Chile
Puerto Rico & Virgin Islands
Qatar National- Qatar
Qornoq- South Greenland
Reunion- Mascarene Island
Rome 1940- Sardinia Island
Sweden
Santo (Dos)- Espirito Santo
Island
Sao Braz- Sao Miguel, Santa
Maria Islands (Azores)
Sapper Hill 1943- East
Falkland Island
Schwarzeck- Namibia
South American ‘69Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,
Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Guyana, Paraguay, Peru,
Venezuela, Trinidad and
Tobago
South Asia- Singapore
Southeast Base- Porto Santo
and Madiera Islands
Southwest Base- Faial,
Graciosa, Pico, Sao Jorge and
Terceira Islands (Azores)
Timbalai 1948- Brunei and E.
Malaysia (Sarawak and Sabah)
Tokyo- Japan, Korea, Okinawa
Tristan Astro 1968- Tristan da
Cunha
Viti Levu 1916- Viti Levu/ Fiji
Islands
Wake-Eniwetok- Marshall Isl.
World Geodetic System 1972
World Geodetic System 1984
Zanderij- Surinam
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Page 56
APPENDIX E
Index
A
D
Acquisition Time . . . . . . .50
Activating a Route . . . . . .28
Active Route Page . . . . . .29
Acquiring a position . . . . .48
Alkaline batteries . . . . . . .50
Altitude (ALT) . . . . . . . . .15
AutoLocate™ . . . . . . . . . .48
Average Speed (AVSPD) . .15
DGPS Interface . . . . . . . .45
Date and Time . . . . . . . . .41
Deleting Waypoints . . . . .22
Distance/Sun Calculations 40
Battery Installation . . . . . . .4
Battery Level . . . . . . . . . .14
Battery Life . . . . . . . . .4, 50
EZinit . . . . . . . . . . . .13, 48
Editing Routes . . . . . . . . .30
Elapsed Time (ELPSD) . . .15
Emergency Erase . . . . . . .14
Est. Time Enroute (ETE) .32
Est. Time of Arrival (ETA) 32
European Community Spec50
C
G
CDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34, 44
Cancelling a GOTO . . . . .10
Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii
Cigarette Lighter Adapter .51
Clearing Routes . . . . . . . .29
Clearing the Track Log 11,40
Compass Page .7, 10, 31, 33
Configuring the Map Page 38
Copying Routes . . . . . . . .29
Course deviation indicator 44
Course to Steer (CTS) . . .32
Creating Routes . . . . . . . .28
Crosstrack Error (XTK) . .32
Customer Service Dept. . .59
GOTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Getting Started Tour . . . . . .8
Going To a Waypoint . . . . .9
Graphic heading display . .15
Graphic steering . . . . . . .34
B
56
E
H
Highway Page . . . . . .31, 34
I
I/O format . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Initializing . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Interface Setup . . . . . . . . .45
Inverting a Route . . . . . . .28
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APPENDIX E
Index
M
Mag. Heading Reference . .44
Man Overboard Function .23
Map Cursor . . . . . . . . . . .37
Map Datums . . . . . . .43, 54
Map Orientation . . . . . . .38
Map Page . . . . . . . . .7, 9, 35
Map Setup . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Marking a Position . . . . . . .8
Maximum Speed . . . . . . .16
Maximum Speed (MXSPD) 15
Menu Page . . . . . . . . . .7, 40
Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Pre-defined waypoints . . .27
Primary Pages . . . . . . . . . .6
Proximity Waypoints . . . .19
R
NMEA Formats . . . . . . . . 51
Navigating Routes . . . . . .28
Navigation Page . . . . . .7, 31
Navigation Setup . . . . . . .43
Nearest Waypoints . . . . . .18
Receiver Status . . . . . . . . .13
Reference Waypoints . . . .20
Renaming Waypoints . . . .22
Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Routes
Clearing . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Copying . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Creating . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Inverting . . . . . . . . . . .28
Navigating Routes . . . . .28
On-Route GOTO’s . . . .30
Route Definition Page . .27
Route Navigation . . . . .26
User-defined route . . . .27
O
S
On-Route GOTOs . . . . . .30
Operating modes . . . . . . .41
Satellite Page . . . . . . . .6, 12
Scanning Waypoints . . . . .22
Screen Backlighting . .14, 42
Screen Contrast . . . . .11, 42
Signal Strength Bars . . . . .12
Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Sky View . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Specifications . . . . . . . . . .50
System Setup . . . . . . . . . .41
N
P
PC Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . .i, 51
Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Position Accuracy . . . . . .50
Position Averaging . . . . . .17
Position Formats . . . . . . .43
Position Page . . . . . . . .6, 15
Power and Data Cables . . .51
57
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APPENDIX E
Index
T
Time Format . . . . . . . . . .41
Time Offset . . . . . . . . . . .53
TracBack Navigation . . . . .24
TracBack Tips . . . . . . . . .25
Track Log Display . . .24, 39
Track Method . . . . . . . . .39
Track Setup . . . . . . . . . . .39
Trip Timer (TTIME) . . . . .15
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . .49
Turn (TRN) . . . . . . . . . . .32
Trip odometer . . . . . . . . .15
U
Units of Measure . . . . . . .44
User-defined route . . . . . .27
User Grid . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Using the Keypad . . . . . . .5
Using the Position Page . . .9
V
Velocity Made Good (VMG)32
W
Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Waypoints
Comments . . . . . . . . . .21
Definition Page . . . . . . .20
Deleting . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Going to a Waypoint . . . .9
Nearest Waypoints . . . .18
Pre-defined Waypoints .27
Proximity Waypoints . . .19
58
Reference Waypoints . . .20
Renaming . . . . . . . . . . .22
Waypoint List . . . . . . . 19
Waypoint Pages . . . . . .18
Waypoint Symbols .21, 37
Z
Zooming . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
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LIMITED WARRANTY
GARMIN Corporation warrants this product to be free from
defects in materials and workmanship for one year from the date of
purchase. GARMIN will at its sole option, repair or replace any components which fail in normal use. Such repairs or replacement will
be made at no charge to the customer for parts or labor. The customer is, however, responsible for any transportation costs. This warranty does not cover failures due to abuse, misuse, accident or unauthorized alteration or repairs. GARMIN assumes no responsibility for
special, incidental, punitive or consequential damages, or loss of use.
The warranties and remedies contained herein are exclusive and
in lieu of all other warranties expressed or implied, including any liability arising under warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, statutory or otherwise. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, which may vary from state to state.
To obtain warranty service, call the GARMIN Customer Service
department (913-397-8200) for a returned merchandise tracking
number. The unit should be securely packaged with the tracking
number clearly marked on the outside of the package, and sent
freight prepaid and insured to a GARMIN warranty service station. A
copy of the original sales receipt is required as the proof of purchase
for warranty repairs. GARMIN retains the exclusive right to repair or
replace the unit or software at its sole discretion.
GPS 12XL Manual Rev C
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Page 60
®
© 1997 GARMIN Corporation
1200 E. 151st Street, Olathe, KS USA 66062
GARMIN (Europe) Ltd. - Unit 5, The Quadrangle,
Abbey Park, Romsey, Hampshire, SO51 9AQ, UK
Part Number 190-00134-00 Rev. C Printed in Taiwan