Garmin GPS 155XL GPS Receiver User Manual

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Page i
G P S 1 5 5 X L
P i l o t ’ s
G u i d e
a n d
R e f e r e n c e
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Page ii
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Page i
INTRODUCTION
This manual is written for software version 2.04 or above, and is not suitable for
earlier software versions.
Foreword
© 1999 GARMIN Corporation
GARMIN International, Inc., 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062 USA
Tel: 913-397-8200
Fax: 913-397-8282
GARMIN (Europe) LTD, Unit 5, The Quadrangle, Abbey Park, Romsey, Hampshire S051 9AQ, UK
Tel: 011-44-1794-519944
Fax: 011-44-1794-519222
GARMIN (Asia) Corp., 3rd Fl., No. 1, Lane 45, Pao-Hsing Road, Hsin Tien, Taipei, Taiwan R.O. C.
Tel: 011-886-02-2917-3773
Fax: 011-886-02-2917-1758
GARMIN, GPS 155XL, Spell’N’Find, AutoLocate,
PhaseTrac12, and AutoStore are trademarks of
GARMIN and may only be used with permission.
Web Site Address: www.garmin.com
NavData® is a registered trademark of
Jeppesen, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording,
for any purpose without the express written permission of GARMIN.
All rights reserved.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice. GARMIN reserves
the right to change or improve their products and to make changes in the content of this
material without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes or
improvements.
January 1999
190-00067-20 Rev. B
Printed in USA
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Page ii
INTRODUCTION
Cautions
NOTE: This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC
limits for Class B digital devices. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if
not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference, the
user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by relocating the equipment or connecting the equipment to a different circuit than the affected equipment. Consult an
authorized dealer or other qualified avionics technician for
additional help if these remedies do not correct the problem.
Operation of this device is subject to the following
conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference
received, including interference that may cause undesired
operation.
The GARMIN GPS 155XL does not contain any userserviceable parts. Repairs should only be made by an
authorized GARMIN service center. Unauthorized repairs
or modifications could void your warranty and authority
to operate this device under Part 15 regulations.
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CAUTION
The Global Positioning System is operated by the United States government,
which is solely responsible for its accuracy and maintenance. The system is subject to
changes which could affect the accuracy and performance of all GPS equipment.
Although the GARMIN GPS 155XL is a precision electronic NAVigation AID
(NAVAID), any NAVAID can be misused or misinterpreted and therefore become
unsafe.
Use the GPS 155XL at your own risk. To reduce the risk of unsafe operation,
carefully review and understand all aspects of this Owner’s Manual and the Flight
Manual Supplement, and thoroughly practice using the simulator mode prior to actual use. When in actual use, carefully compare indications from the GPS 155XL to all
available navigation sources, including the information from other NAVAIDS, visual
sightings, charts, etc. For safety, always resolve any discrepancies before continuing
navigation.
The altitude calculated by the GPS 155XL is geometric height above mean sea
level and could vary significantly from altitude displayed by pressure altimeters in aircraft. Never use GPS altitude for vertical navigation.
The Jeppesen database incorporated in the GPS 155XL must be updated regularly
in order to ensure that its information is current. Updates are released every 28 days.
A database information packet is included in your GPS 155XL package.
Pilots using an out-of-date database do so entirely at their own risk.
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Page iii
Accessories & Packing List
Congratulations on choosing the finest, most advanced panel mount IFR
GPS receiver available. The GPS 155XL represents GARMIN’s commitment to provide
an accurate, easy-to-use GPS for all of your aviation needs.
INTRODUCTION
Accessories and
Packing List
Before installing and getting started with your unit, please check to see that your
package includes the following items. If any parts are missing or damaged, please see
your GARMIN dealer immediately.
Standard Package:
•
•
•
•
•
•
GPS 155XL Unit & NavData® Card
GPS Antenna
Installation Rack & Connectors
Pilot’s Guide & Quick Reference Guide
Database Subscription Packet
Warranty Registration Card
To obtain accessories for your GPS 155XL,
please contact your nearest GARMIN dealer.
Optional Accessories:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Remote Battery Pack
AC Adapter
PC Software/Interface Kit
User Data Card
28 to 14 volt DC converter
MD-41 External Switch/Annunciator
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INTRODUCTION
Warranty
To obtain warranty service, see your local dealer
or call the GARMIN Customer Service department
for a returned merchandise tracking number. The
unit should be securely packaged with the tracking
number clearly marked on the outside of the
package, and sent freight prepaid and insured to a
GARMIN authorized warranty service facility.
GARMIN is fully committed to your satisfaction as
a customer. If you have any questions regarding
the GPS 155XL, please contact our customer service department at:
GARMIN International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, KS 66062-3426
(913) 397-8200
FAX (913) 397-8282
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Every GARMIN GPS is built to exacting standards to provide years of trouble-free
service. GARMIN warrants this product to be free from defects in materials and
workmanship for one year from the date of purchase.
GARMIN International, Inc. will at its sole option, repair or replace any
components which fail in normal use. Such repairs or replacement will be made at
no charge to the customer for parts or labor. The customer is, however, responsible
for any transportation costs. This warranty does not cover failures due to abuse,
misuse, accident or unauthorized alteration or repairs. GARMIN International, Inc.
assumes no responsibility for special, incidental, punitive or consequential damages,
or loss of use.
THE WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES CONTAINED HEREIN ARE EXCLUSIVE,
AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY LIABILITY ARISING UNDER WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE. THIS
WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, WHICH MAY VARY FROM
STATE TO STATE.
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Page v
PART ONE: INTRODUCTION
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i
Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii
Accessories/Packing List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii
Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v-vi
Key and Knob Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii-viii
GPS 155XL Takeoff Tour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
INTRODUCTION
Table of Contents
PART TWO: REFERENCE
Section 1: Navigation with the GPS 155XL ( N key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Navigating and planning functions
Section 2: Waypoint and Database Information ( W key) . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Finding and using database and waypoint information
Section 3: Nearest Waypoints ( T key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Finding nearest waypoints, SUAs and FSS/ARTCC frequencies
To quickly and easily locate information
on specific tasks, please refer to the Index
on page 130.
Section 4: Direct-to ( D key) & Route Navigation ( R key) . . . . . . . .58
Creating and using routes
Section 5: Approaches, SIDs and STARs ( R key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Selecting and flying non-precision approaches
Section 6: Messages and Unit Settings ( M key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
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INTRODUCTION
Table of Contents
Page vi
Appendix A: NavData® and User Data Card Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Appendix B: Installation and Maintenance of the GPS 155XL . . . . . . .110
Appendix C: Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Appendix D: GPS 155XL Messages and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Appendix E: Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Appendix F: Map Datums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Appendix G: Troubleshooting Q & A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
Appendix H: Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
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Page vii
Key and Knob Functions
B
The power/intensity knob controls unit power and display intensity.
b
The zoom-in key is used to zoom in to the next smaller scale setting when
viewing the map page.
a
The zoom-out key allows you to zoom out to the next larger scale setting
when viewing the map page.
T
The nearest key is used to obtain information on the 9 nearest airports,
VORs, NDBs, intersections, user waypoints and 2 nearest FSS/ARTCC
points of communication. The nearest key also accesses any active SUA
information. See Section 3 for more information on the nearest waypoints.
R
The route key enables you to create, edit, activate and invert routes, and
access approaches, SIDs and STARs. Search-and-rescue, parallel offset and
closest point of approach functions are also performed using the route key.
See Section 4 for more information on routes and Section 5 for more information on approaches, SIDs and STARs.
W
The waypoint key is used to view information such as runways, frequencies, position and comments on airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections and
user waypoints. See Section 2 for more waypoint information.
N
The navigation key is used to view navigation and position information.
Planning operations are also performed using this key. See Section 1
for more information on navigation and planning operations.
INTRODUCTION
Key and Knob
Functions
The GPS 155XL is designed to minimize
keystrokes when performing operations. There are
typically several ways to perform the same operation. In general, using the knobs will decrease keystrokes and time spent using the GPS 155XL.
Experiment to find the most effective way to use
the GPS 155XL to your advantage.
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Page viii
INTRODUCTION
M
The message key is used to view system messages and to alert you to
important warnings and requirements. This key is also used to access the
GPS 155XL’s unit settings. See Section 6 for more information on messages
and unit settings.
D
The direct-to key performs an instant direct-to, allows you to enter a
waypoint, and sets a direct course to the destination. See Section 4.
\
The clear key is used to erase information or cancel an entry.
E
The enter key is used to approve an operation or complete data entry.
It is also used to confirm information, such as during power on.
C
The cursor key is used to activate/deactivate the cursor on the GPS
155XL’s display. Pressing once will activate the cursor (indicated by highlighted characters on a data field), which is used to highlight fields for data
entry, changing information or cycling through available options. Press a
second time to deactivate the cursor.
O
The outer knob is used to advance through pages, advance the cursor
or move through data fields.
K
The inner knob is used to change data or scroll through information that
cannot fit on the screen all at once.
Key and Knob
Functions
This manual will describe entering data using
the K and O knobs. Experiment with them and
become efficient in entering data with the concentric knobs. This will greatly reduce the amount of
time required to navigate with the GPS 155XL.
Whenever the GPS 155XL is displaying a list
of information that is too long for the display
screen, the scrolling arrow prompt will indicate
which direction to scroll to view additional information. To scroll through a list (with the cursor
active), simply rotate the outer knob. When the
cursor in not active, use the inner knob to view
additional information.
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Page 1
The GARMIN GPS 155XL is a powerful navigational tool that provides pilots with accurate
navigational data, including non-precision approaches, SIDs and STARs. The Takeoff Tour is
designed to familiarize you with the operation of the GPS 155XL, including powering up the unit,
entering data and performing a simple direct-to, and provide a limited introduction to the
‘Nearest’ functions. In addition, this section also briefly covers the position, NAV summary, map
and frequency pages available from the NAV key. These pages will be used for most of your inflight navigation.
TAKEOFF TOUR
Power On
The Takeoff Tour assumes that the receiver and antenna have been properly installed
and you have not changed any of the GPS 155XL’s default settings. If you have changed
any of the factory default settings (position format, units of measure, selectable fields, etc.),
the pictures shown here may not match your configuration. Prior to using your GPS
155XL for the first time, we recommend that you taxi to a location that is well away from
buildings and other aircraft so the unit can collect satellite data without interruption.
Powering up the GPS 155XL
The GPS 155XL’s power and display intensity are controlled using the B knob at the
bottom left of the unit. Rotating it clockwise will turn unit power on and progressively
increase the display intensity. After turning the unit on, a welcome page will be displayed
while the unit performs a self test.
The welcome page appears when the GPS 155XL
is turned on. During the time this screen is
displayed, the GPS 155XL performs a self test to
ensure proper operation.
The database page will appear next, showing the current database information on the
NavData card, with the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type indicated. The
database is updated every 28 days, and must be current for approved approach and IFR operations. Information on database subscriptions is available inside your GPS 155XL package.
To acknowledge the database information:
1. Press the E key.
The database confirmation page shows the
effective and expiration dates of the Jeppesen
database on the NavData Card.
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Page 2
TAKEOFF TOUR
Acquiring Satellites
Once the database has been acknowledged, the satellite status page will appear,
and the GPS 155XL will begin to collect satellite information. An ‘Acquiring’ status
will be displayed on the satellite status page, and the signal values on the bottom line
of the page will begin displaying numeric values. This is a good indication that you
are receiving signals and satellite lock will occur. Following the first-time use of your
GPS 155XL, the time required for a position fix will vary — usually from one to two
minutes.
If the unit can only obtain enough satellites for 2D navigation (no altitude), the
unit will use the altitude provided by your altitude encoder, if one is connected and
working. If not, you will be prompted to enter the altitude with a ‘Need alt- Press
NAV’ message. If this message occurs, press the N key and use the K and O
knobs to enter the altitude shown on your altimeter. Press E when finished.
The satellite status page shows the ID numbers for
the satellites and the relative signal strength of
each satellite received. Turn the K knob to view
additional satellites.
If the GPS 155XL has not been operated for a period of six months or more, it
may have to ‘Search the Sky’ to collect new data. This means the unit is acquiring
satellite data to establish almanac and satellite orbit information, which can take 5 to
10 minutes. The satellite status page will display a ‘Search Sky’ status, and the
message annunciator (U), next to the M key, will also flash to alert you of a system
message — ‘Searching the Sky’.
To view a system message:
1. Press M.
‘Search Sky’ indicates that satellite almanac data
is not available or has expired (if the unit hasn’t
been used for six months or more). The data will
be recollected from the first available satellite.
2
The message page will appear and display the status or warning information
applicable to the receiver’s current operating condition.
To return to the previous page after viewing a message:
1. Press M again.
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Page 3
After the GPS 155XL acquires satellites and computes a position, the position page
will appear automatically, and you’ll be informed with ‘Ready for navigation’ on the
message page.
Position Page
{
Altitude, MSA or ESA
Position (lat/lon)
TAKEOFF TOUR
Reference Waypoint Field
The position page displays your present latitude and longitude, altitude and a reference waypoint field. The altitude and reference waypoint fields are also selectable (see
Section 1 for more information) to allow you to configure the unit to your own preferences. The default settings are:
The map page combines a moving map display
and navigation data for complete situational
awareness.
• Altitude— Your present GPS altitude
• Present Position— Latitude and longitude displayed in degrees/minutes
• Reference Waypoint— The bearing and distance to the nearest airport
The position page is one of seven pages available under the GPS 155XL’s N key:
• NAV summary page
• NAVCOM page
• Satellite status page
• NAV menu 2
• Map page
• Position page
• NAV menu 1
During most flights, the position, NAV summary, map and NAVCOM pages will be the
primary pages used for navigation. The pages are accessible by pressing the N key and
rotating the outer knob, or by pressing the N key repeatedly.
The navigation communications (NAVCOM) page
provides a complete list of airport frequencies at
your departure and arrival airports.
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Page 4
TAKEOFF TOUR
Direct-To Navigation
NAV Summary Page
The GPS 155XL uses direct point-to-point navigation to guide you from takeoff to
touchdown in the IFR environment. Once a destination is selected, the unit will provide
speed, course and distance data based upon a direct course from your present position
to your destination. A destination can be selected from any page using the D (directto) key.
To select a direct-to destination:
1. Press the D key. The NAV summary page will appear with the destination field highlighted.
2. Rotate the K knob to enter the first letter of the destination waypoint identifier. The destination waypoint may be an airport, VOR, NDB, intersection or user waypoint, as long as it is in
the database or stored in memory as a user waypoint.
3. Rotate the O knob to the right to move the cursor to the next character position.
The NAV summary page without a direct-to
destination or active route appears blank, except
for ground speed (GS) and track (TRK) figures,
if displayed.
When a destination is selected, the direct-to
confirmation page appears to verify the
destination you selected.
4
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 to spell out the rest of the waypoint identifier.
5. Press E to confirm the identifier. The direct-to confirmation page will appear.
6. Press E to confirm the destination.
Once the direct-to destination is confirmed, the NAV summary page will appear
with the destination indicated in the lower left hand corner of the screen. Your present
speed and track over the ground, and the distance and estimated time enroute to your
destination are also displayed. The graphical CDI (course deviation indicator), located at
the top of the screen, displays your position relative to the desired course and provides
turn anticipation and waypoint messages during route navigation.
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In addition to the destination field and graphical CDI, the GPS 155XL NAV summary page features five selectable fields for various navigation data so that the page may be
configured to your own preferences (see Section 1 for more information). The default
settings for the NAV summary page are:
• Distance (dis)— The distance to your destination in nautical miles
• Ground Speed (gs)— Your present speed over the ground in knots
• Bearing (brg)— The direction from present position to your destination
• Desired Track (dtk)— The course between the ‘from’ and ‘to’ waypoints
• Estimated Time Enroute (ete)— The time to your destination (in hours
and minutes) based upon your present speed and course
The next page available from the N key is the map page. The map page combines
the primary navigation information from the NAV summary page – distance to waypoint, ground speed, bearing, desired track and ETE – with a moving map display. The
moving map display shows your current position (using an airplane symbol or a diamond symbol) relative to nearby airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections, user waypoints
and airspace boundaries. Notice that the graphical CDI does not appear on the map
page; the graphical CDI does appear on all other GPS 155XL pages.
TAKEOFF TOUR
NAV Summary &
Map Pages
NAV summary page with ‘trk’, ‘brg’ and ‘eta’
displayed.
The map page can be divided into two main sections:
Map Display
{
Data
Fields
NAV summary page with ‘dtk’, ‘brg’ and ‘trk’
displayed.
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Page 6
Airspace
Boundaries
TAKEOFF TOUR
Airport Waypoint
Map Page
Present
Position
The map display may be oriented along your
ground track (track up), course (desired track up)
or fixed at north up. Desired track up or north up
settings show your present position with a diamond symbol instead of the airplane symbol.
The map display occupies the right side of the display. Your present position is indicated by a plane symbol (in track up mode) or a position diamond (in other orientation modes), with your route displayed as a solid line. Nearby airports, navaids and
user waypoints may be depicted on the map—with unique identifying symbols for each
waypoint type. Boundaries for special use and controlled airspaces can also appear on
the map display. You may select which features are shown on the map using the map
setup page (see page 97).
Distance & Bearing
to Waypoint
Destination
Waypoint
DTK
Distance and bearing to waypoint, destination
waypoint name and desired track are shown on
the left hand side of the map page. To remove the
data fields that border the map display, press \.
6
GS
ETE
TRK
Map
Scale
The data fields on the map page indicate distance and bearing to destination waypoint, desired track, ground track, ground speed, time to waypoint and map scale. The
destination waypoint name, bearing to waypoint, distance to waypoint and desired track
appear on the left side of the page. The other data fields are located at the corners of the
map display, as shown in the illustration above, and may be removed by pressing \.
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The map display has 14 available scales from 0.5 to 300 (nautical miles, statute miles or
kilometers) representing the vertical height of the map. The map scale is controlled by
the a and b keys, with the current scale displayed in the lower right corner.
To select a map scale:
1. Press
a
to increase the map scale and show a larger area (or turn K to the right).
2. Press
b
to decrease the map scale and show a smaller area (or turn K to the left).
Another page available under the GPS 155XL’s N key is the navigation
communications (NAVCOM) page. It provides you with a complete list of airport frequencies at your departure and arrival airports, allowing convenient selection of frequencies you’ll need along your flight path. If you do not have an active departure airport, the navigation communications page will display the frequencies for the
airport nearest your departure position.
To view the NAVCOM page from the map page, rotate O one stop to the right.
TAKEOFF TOUR
Map Scales
NAVCOM Page
To change the map scale press a to increase the
scale or b to decrease the scale.
The NAVCOM page lists your departure and arrival airports on the left side of the
page, with all the database frequencies listed in a column down the right side of the
page. To scroll through the list of frequencies, simply rotate the inner knob (K) in the
direction of the arrow prompts at the bottom left of the page.
Once a direct-to is activated, the NAV summary page will provide navigation to the
destination until the direct-to is cancelled or another direct-to destination is activated.
To cancel a direct-to from the NAV summary page:
1. Press the C key to activate the cursor in the destination field.
The NAVCOM page lists the frequencies for your
departure (or nearest) and arrival airports.
2. Press \.
3. Press E.
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Page 8
TAKEOFF TOUR
Nearest Waypoints
The GPS 155XL’s T key provides the nine nearest airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections, user waypoints and any SUA (special use airspace) alerts, as well as the two
closest FSS (Flight Service Station) and center (ARTCC) frequencies for your present
position. The nearest waypoint feature is a handy safety feature that may be used to
execute a quick direct-to in case of an in-flight emergency or to review the closest facilities to your present position. The nearest feature can also be used to quickly find the
contact frequency of the nearest airport.
To view the nine nearest airports:
1. Press the T key. The nearest airport will be displayed, with the range and bearing from
your present position, along with elevation, frequency and runway data.
2. To review the rest of the nearest airport list, rotate the K knob to the right.
The nearest airport page shows up to nine
nearest airports from your present position.
To view the nearest list for other waypoint categories (VOR, NDB, etc.):
1. Rotate the O knob to the right, or press the T key repeatedly.
2. Rotate K to scroll through the list.
Once the nearest airport (or any other nearest waypoint) page is displayed, the
selected waypoint can be quickly reviewed or selected as a direct-to destination.
To review the selected waypoint from the nearest waypoint list:
1. Press C to activate the waypoint field.
2. Press E to display the waypoint identification page.
To view additional nearest airports, rotate the
K knob.
8
3. Rotate O to view any additional waypoint information available.
4. Press T to return to the nearest waypoint page.
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Page 9
To select a nearest waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1. Press the D key. The direct-to confirmation page for the selected waypoint will appear.
2. Press E to confirm.
TAKEOFF TOUR
Nearest Waypoints
Shutting Down
Congratulations! You’ve covered the basic operation of the GPS 155XL. We
encourage you to experiment with your new GPS receiver to get to know all the
advanced navigation features it has to offer. If you’d like a little more practice, try
using the built-in simulator described in Appendix C. An optional AC adapter will
even let you plan and simulate flights in the comfort of your home or office.
To turn the GPS 155XL off:
1. Turn the B knob to the left until the unit shuts off.
NOTE: The GPS 155XL is normally connected to power through the avionics master
switch. With the optional remote battery installed, the unit will display a power down
warning when the master switch is turned off. This warning page features a timer which
will count down from 30 seconds when the unit senses that power is off. After 30 seconds, the GPS 155XL will shut off. If you wish to continue operating the unit, press
any key during the countdown period, and the GPS 155XL will continue operating
from the backup battery.
To review a nearest waypoint, highlight the identifier and press E.
To select a nearest waypoint as your direct-to
destination, press D and E.
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SECTION
1
Page 10
Section 1
Navigation Key
NAV KEY
Overview
The GPS 155XL features seven navigation pages to provide various position,
course, speed, status and planning information. The pages may be viewed by pressing
the N key and rotating the outer knob, or by pressing the N key repeatedly.
NAV Summary Page
NAV Menu 2
Remember! The NAV pages will only display information AFTER the position and navigational information has been calculated from the satellites. If you
are on the position page before the unit has calculated a position, you will be able to enter an approximate position and altitude. This is helpful in speeding
satellite acquisition if the unit has moved a great distance with the power off.
If you are not sure the GPS is actively calculating
position, check the receiver status field for ‘2D NAV’
or ‘3D NAV’ by pressing the N key and rotating
the outer knob until the satellite status page appears.
The current receiver status is displayed at the top left
of the page.
10
NAV Menu 1
Map Page
NAVCOM Page
Position Page
Satellite Status Page
The NAV summary, map, NAVCOM and position pages are the primary pages
used during in-flight navigation, while the nav menu and status pages offer access to
planning, calculation and status functions. Note that rotating the outer knob clockwise will continuously cycle through all the nav pages, whereas turning the knob
counterclockwise will stop the page selection sequence at the NAV summary page.
Whenever the N key pages are in use, the indicator light (U) next to the N
key will illuminate. If the GPS 155XL requires you to enter data on a navigation page,
a message prompt with specific instructions will appear and the indicator will flash. If
you leave the NAV page sequence for another set of pages, the last NAV page displayed will reappear when you return to the nav sequence.
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The GPS 155XL’s NAV summary page provides you with the important information needed to navigate directly to your destination. The destination field, located at
the bottom left of the page, displays the current destination waypoint or active route
leg being navigated. If no direct-to destination, route or approach is being navigated,
the destination field will remain blank.
Ground Speed
NAV KEY
NAV Summary Page
SECTION
1
Messages
or CDI
Direction
field
Distance
field
Direction
field
Destination Field
Time or Direction Field
The graphical CDI (course deviation indicator) at the top of the page shows your
position relative to the desired course (the moving D-bar) to the destination waypoint. The TO/FROM arrow in the center of the scale indicates whether you are
heading to (an up arrow) the waypoint or if you have passed the waypoint (a down
arrow). Note that the GPS 155XL always navigates TO a waypoint unless the GPS
SEQ switch is set to the HOLD position, or you have passed the last waypoint in a
route. The default setting of the CDI scale is ‘Auto’. If you are not navigating to a destination, the CDI field will display a ‘No active waypoint’ message, and only speed
and track data will be available. The CDI field is also used to display the GPS 155XL’s
turn anticipation and waypoint alert data during route and approach operations (see
sections 4 and 5).
In addition to displaying your active destination and the course deviation scale,
the NAV summary page features five selectable fields for various distance, direction,
speed and time options. This allows you to configure the NAV summary page to your
preferences. The default settings displayed are distance, ground speed, bearing,
desired track and estimated time enroute.
The TO/FROM arrow indicates whether you are
heading to (an up arrow) the waypoint or if you’ve
passed the waypoint (a down arrow).
‘No Active Waypoint’ appears on the CDI field if
there is no destination waypoint selected using the
D key and no active route.
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The following functions may be displayed in the distance field:
NAV KEY
• dis— Distance from present position to the ‘active to’ waypoint.
• str— Steer direction and distance, or digital crosstrack error. An ‘L’ or ‘R’
indicates which direction to steer, while the distance value indicates how far you are off course.
Configuring the
NAV Summary Page
The following functions may be displayed in the ground speed field:
WPT 2
• gs— Your present speed over the ground.
• str— Steer direction and distance, or digital crosstrack error. An ‘L’ or ‘R’
indicates which direction to steer, while the distance value indicates how far you are off course.
NORTH
The following steering functions may be displayed in the direction fields:
DT
DIS
K
NORTH
BRG
S
ST
R
G
TRK
•
•
•
•
•
brg— Bearing, the direction from your present position to the waypoint.
cts— Course to steer to reduce cross track error and re-intercept course.
dtk— Desired track, the course between the active from and to waypoints.
trk— Track, the direction of movement relative to the ground.
trn— Turn, the direction and degrees to turn to get back on course.
L
E
AN
The following information can be displayed in the time field:
PL
R
AI
WPT 1
12
•
•
•
•
eta— Estimated time of arrival (at the active to waypoint).
ete— Estimated time enroute (to the active to waypoint).
trk— Track, or the direction of movement relative to the ground.
vn— Vertical navigation, or VNAV. If VNAV has been activated, this field
indicates either the elapsed time before the VNAV maneuver is to
begin or the VNAV altitude (the suggested altitude you should be flying in order to complete the maneuver).
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To change any of the selectable fields on the NAV summary page:
NAV KEY
1. Press C to activate the cursor.
NAV Summary
& Course Select
2. Rotate O to highlight the field you would like to change.
3. Rotate K to change the field to display the desired information.
SECTION
1
4. Rotate O to highlight another field, or C to finish.
Destination
Selected
Course
N
30
33
3
E
W
TO
GPS SEQ
AUTOHOLD
15
24
FR
12
S
21
OBS
6
The GPS 155XL’s course select feature allows the pilot to define the inbound course
to, or outbound course from, the ‘active’ waypoint, using an external HSI. Once the
course select function is activated, the selected course will be displayed next to the destination waypoint identifier and the CDI will provide guidance relative to the desired
course. The course select feature is only available during route, approach or direct-to
navigation. For more information on the course select feature and the GPS SEQ switch,
see Section 5.
To set a desired inbound course:
1. Dial the desired course on the HSI.
2. Set the external GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position.
The GPS 155XL’s course select feature uses the
external GPS SEQ switch, allowing you to dial in
the desired course to or from your destination
directly from your HSI.
3. To stop the course select function, set the GPS SEQ switch back to the AUTO position.
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Map Display
SECTION
1
NAV KEY
Map Page
{
Data
Fields
Present
Position
Map Scale
The next page available from the GPS 155XL’s N key is the map page. The map
page displays your present position, using an airplane symbol (in track up mode) or a
position diamond (in other orientation modes), along with nearby airports, VORs,
NDBs, intersections, user waypoints and airspace boundaries. Note: If the GPS 155XL
is unable to determine a GPS position, the present position symbol will not appear on
the map page.
The map page, showing only airports and airspaces on the map display.
The map page, showing airports, airspaces, VORs
and NDBs on the map display.
14
The map display occupies the right side of the display and shows your position
relative to nearby airports, navaids, user waypoints and airspaces. Different symbols
are used to distinguish between waypoint types. The identifiers for any on-screen
waypoints can also be displayed. Special-use and controlled airspace boundaries
appear on the map, showing the individual sectors in the case of Class B or Class C
airspace. The map display can be configured to display airports, navaids, user waypoints, airspaces only at certain scales or these items may be disabled entirely (see page
95). This allows you to de-clutter the map display at larger scale settings.
The map display can be set to 14 different scale settings (from 0.5 to 300 nautical
miles, statute miles or kilometers) during en route operation; while in terminal or
approach mode 12 different scale settings are available (with the two highest en route
scales disabled). The scale represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map
display.
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To select a map scale:
1. Press
2. Press
a to increase the map scale and show a larger area (or turn K to the right).
b to decrease the map scale and show a smaller area (or turn K to the left).
An autozoom feature is available which will automatically adjust from an en route
scale of 300 through each lower scale, stopping at a scale of 1 as you approach your
destination waypoint. The autozoom feature is turned on/off from the map setup page
described on page 97.
The orientation of the map may be fixed at ‘north up’ (nrthup), or set to ‘desired
track up’ (dtk up) or ‘track up’ (trk up). The ‘north up’ setting will keep the top of the
map display fixed on north. ‘Track up’ will cause the map to rotate so the top of the
map is the direction you are heading. ‘Desired track up’ keeps the map display fixed
along your desired course. Map orientation is changed on the map setup page
described on page 97.
NAV KEY
Map Page
SECTION
1
To change the map scale press the a key to
increase the scale or b to decrease the scale.
Navigation data is also provided on the map page to guide you during your flight.
The destination waypoint name, distance & bearing to waypoint, and desired track
(dtk) appear on the left side of the page. Four additional data fields are located at the
corners of the map display (and may be removed by pressing \), as follows:
Ground speed (gs)
Ground track (trk)
Estimated time en route (ETE)
Map scale
- upper left corner
- lower left corner
- upper right corner
- lower right corner (cannot be removed)
To remove the North indicator and/or data fields
from the map display, press \.
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Page 16
NAV KEY
NAVCOM Page
The next page available from the GPS 155XL’s N key is the navigation communications (NAVCOM) page. The NAVCOM page provides a list of the airport frequencies
at your departure and arrival airports, allowing convenient selection of frequencies you’ll
need along your flight path. To scroll through the list of frequencies, rotate the inner
knob (K) in the direction of the arrow prompts at the bottom left of the page.
The NAVCOM page lists the frequencies for your
departure (or nearest) and arrival airports in the
following order:
16
Departure
Arrival
• Unicom
• ATIS
• Clearance Delivery
• Clearance Pretaxi
• Ground
• Tower
• Multicom
• Other
• Departure
• TCA
• TMA
• CTA
• ARSA
• TRSA
• ATIS
• Approach
• Arrival
• TCA
• TMA
• CTA
• ARSA
• TRSA
• Tower
• Multicom
• Other
• Ground
• Unicom
The frequencies displayed for the departure and arrival airports are listed in the
order you are most likely to use them (see left), with the available frequencies
displayed to the right of the airport identifier. If you do not have an active route with a
departure airport, the NAVCOM page will display the frequencies for the airport nearest
your departure position.
If a frequency has sector or altitude restrictions, the frequency will be followed by a
‘brg?’ indication.
To view restrictions on a frequency:
1. Press C to activate the cursor.
2. Rotate O to highlight the ‘brg?’ next to the frequency you wish to view.
3. Press E to begin viewing restrictions.
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Once you begin viewing restrictions, you can view any additional frequencies for
the selected airport by rotating K. (Note: An arrow prompt displayed next to the airport identifier indicates additional frequencies are available.) You can also view the
other airport information pages by rotating O. Information contained on these pages
is covered in Section 2. To return to the NAVCOM page, press N.
NAV KEY
NAVCOM &
Position Pages
SECTION
1
Some frequencies in the NAVCOM page have tags which designate their usage:
‘tx’ – transmit only
‘pt’ – part time frequency
‘rx’ – receive only
The GPS 155XL position page displays the graphical CDI along with your present
latitude and longitude, altitude and a reference waypoint field. The altitude and reference waypoint fields are selectable to configure the page to your own preferences and
current navigation needs.
Altimeter Setting
Field
(user-selectable)
Position (lat/lon)
NAVCOM page with receive only (rx) frequency
and frequencies with restrictions (brg).
{
Altitude, MSA or ESA
Reference Waypoint Field
An altimeter setting field appears on the position page when you are within 30 nm
of a destination airport. The altimeter setting field allows you to define the current
barometric pressure, which is used by the integrity monitoring to crosscheck altitude.
The altitude field can display either the present altitude, minimum safe altitude
(MSA) or enroute safe altitude (ESA). MSA is the recommended minimum altitude
within a ten mile radius of your present position. ESA is the recommended minimum
altitude within ten miles of your course on an active route or direct-to. MSA and ESA
altitudes are calculated from information contained in the database and generally
include mountains, buildings and other permanent features (see following page).
Frequency restrictions on 124.60, showing range
of applicable radials from 130º through 309º.
17
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To change the altitude field:
SECTION
1
NAV KEY
Position Page &
Reference Waypoints
1. Press C to obtain a cursor.
2. Rotate O until the ‘alt/esa/msa’ field is highlighted.
3. Rotate K to display the desired data. Press C to return to normal navigation.
The position page also features a reference waypoint field, located at the bottom of
the page, to indicate your bearing and distance from a selected waypoint. The reference
waypoint field can display the following:
• Range, bearing and identifier from the nearest airport (default), VOR, NDB,
intersection, or user waypoint
• Range, bearing and identifier from a user specified waypoint
During DME arc approach operations, the reference field will automatically display
the DME reference as long as the ‘active to’ waypoint is part of the DME arc.
The position page displaying MSA. MSA and ESA
are based on data stored in the NavData card.
This information cannot be solely relied upon as
an absolute measure of safe altitude in your area.
Consult current charts and NOTAMS.
To change the reference waypoint field to display the nearest airport, VOR, NDB,
intersection, user waypoint or the range and bearing from a user selected waypoint:
1. Press C to activate the cursor.
2. Rotate O to highlight the category field after the fr.
3. Use K to choose which waypoint type you would like displayed. (Choose ‘wpt’ if you would
like range and bearing from a specific waypoint to be displayed.)
4. Press C to remove the cursor, or:
If you have selected ‘wpt’:
5. Rotate O to advance the cursor to highlight the identifier field.
18
Position page displaying the ‘TOP’ VOR as the reference waypoint. This configuration can be used to
help monitor your distance and radial from a
waypoint of your choice. (Note: the waypoint category is listed as ‘wpt’ rather than ‘VOR’ because
the GPS 155XL is not using the nearest VOR.)
6. Use the K and O knobs to enter the identifier name. (This waypoint identifier can be an
airport, VOR, NDB, intersection, or user waypoint.) Press E.
7. Press C to confirm the selection.
This allows the distance and bearing from any waypoint to be displayed continuously, which may be useful when an approach reference is not the closest navaid.
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The GPS 155XL’s satellite status page provides satellite information to monitor
GPS coverage and receiver performance. This is helpful when you may be experiencing low signal levels due to poor coverage or installation problems.
To view the satellite status page:
1. Press N and rotate O until the satellite status page appears.
CDI
Receiver Status
NAV KEY
Satellite
Status Page
SECTION
1
EPE/DOP
value
Satellites in view
Signal strength of
satellite being tracked (1-9)
Satellite in view
but not receiving signal
Satellite status page with ‘EPE’ displayed.
Estimated Position Error (EPE) gives an overall
measure of your position accuracy in feet or
meters.
The top lines of the status page display a graphical CDI, followed by the receiver
status and the current position accuracy in DOP or EPE. The default setting is DOP.
The following functions may be displayed in the DOP/EPE field:
• dop— Dilution of Precision, a measure of the satellite geometry quality
and relative accuracy of your position, with 1 indicating good
geometry and 10 meaning poor.
• epe— Estimated Position Error, an overall measure of your positional
accuracy in feet or meters using signal and data quality, receiver
tracking status and DOP.
Satellite status page with ‘DOP’ displayed.
Dilution of Precision (DOP) measures relative
accuracy from 1 to 10.
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To change the DOP/EPE field:
SECTION
1
NAV KEY
1. Press N and rotate O to display the satellite status page.
Receiver
Status Field
2. If the desired field (EPE or DOP) is not displayed, press C.
3. Use K to change between ‘epe’ and ‘dop’. Press C to finish.
The receiver status field, located on the second line (left side) of the page, will
display the following messages under the appropriate conditions:
‘Acquiring’ satellites for navigation. In this case,
the satellites are being received, but the data is
still being collected before a position can be
determined.
‘Searching the Sky’ for satellites. No satellite
almanac data exists in the GPS 155XL. It must
be recollected from the first available satellite.
20
Search Sky - The GPS 155XL is searching the sky for visible satellites. You
will be informed with the message ‘Searching the Sky’.
Acquiring - The GPS 155XL is acquiring satellites for navigation.
2D Nav The GPS 155XL is in 2D navigation mode. If your installation
does not include an altitude serializer, you must enter the altitude manually (see page 2). ‘2D Dif Nav’ will appear when you
are receiving DGPS corrections in 2D mode.
3D Nav The GPS 155XL is in 3D navigation mode and will compute
altitude. ‘3D Dif Nav’ will appear when you are receiving DGPS
corrections in 3D mode.
Simulator - The GPS 155XL is in simulator mode, which should only be
used for practice and trip planning. Never use simulator mode
for actual navigation.
Poor Cvrge - The GPS 155XL cannot acquire sufficient satellites for navigation.
Need Alt The GPS 155XL needs altitude in order to start/continue navigation. Press N to display the position page and enter altitude.
Not Usable - The GPS 155XL is unusable due to incorrect initialization or
abnormal satellite conditions. Turn the unit off and on again.
AutoLocate - The GPS 155XL is looking for any satellite whose almanac has
been collected. This process can take up to five minutes.
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The third and fourth lines of the satellite status page provide the satellite number
and signal strength of each satellite in view. The satellite status page shows signal
strength for up to eight satellites at a time. If additional satellites are being received
an arrow on the ‘sat’ line will indicate additional data is available.
NAV KEY
Satellite Data Page
SECTION
1
To view additional satellites:
1. Rotate K to view more satellites.
Additional information regarding each satellite’s azimuth, elevation and other data
is also available.
To view individual satellite information:
1. Press N and use O to display the satellite status page.
Viewing individual satellite information.
2. Press C to activate the cursor.
3. Use O to highlight the satellite number you wish to view and press E.
This will display the satellite data page, showing the selected satellite’s number,
elevation angle, rise or fall indication, User Range Accuracy (URA, or the range
measurement accuracy as determined by the satellite), azimuth and signal strength.
To view other satellites:
4. Rotate K to view information for the next satellite.
5. Rotate O and press C on the satellite status page when you are finished.
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NAV KEY
NAV Menu 1
Trip Planning
In addition to the five other navigation pages, the GPS 155XL features two menu
pages to perform a host of planning and navigation functions. NAV Menu 1 provides
access to the following functions:
• Trip Planning
• Density altitude/true airspeed calc.
• Fuel Planning
• Winds aloft calculations
• VNAV Planning
• Checklists
To display NAV Menu 1:
1. Press N.
2. Rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
NAV Menu 1
Trip Plan is the first function listed on NAV Menu 1 and allows the pilot to view
distance, ESA, bearing and estimated time enroute (ETE) between any two waypoints,
and for programmed route legs. The ground speed can be varied manually to calculate several possible ETEs.
To use the trip planning function:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C, then E to access trip planning.
3. Rotate K to select waypoint mode or desired route number and press E.
4. For direct-to navigation, use K and O to enter the ‘to’ and ‘from’ waypoints. Press
E to accept the waypoints. To use your present position as a waypoint, leave the waypoint field blank.
Trip planning with values calculated between two
waypoints.
22
5. For route calculations, choose either ‘cum’ for cumulative data (from beginning to end) or
the leg desired by rotating K.
6. Use K and O to enter the ground speed. Press E to calculate the values and C
to finish.
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The density altitude/true airspeed function is also accessed from NAV Menu 1.
Density altitude is the theoretical altitude at which your aircraft will perform depending
on several environmental conditions, including air pressure and total air temperature
(the temperature including the heating effect of speed, read on a standard outside temperature gauge on most aircraft). True airspeed considers the same factors.
NAV KEY
SECTION
Density Altitude &
True Airspeed
1
To calculate the density altitude and true air speed:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘Dalt/tas?’.
3. Press E to access the density altitude page.
4. Use K and O to enter the indicated altitude (‘ialt’) and press E.
5. Use K and O to enter the calibrated airspeed (‘cas’). Press E.
Density altitude/true airspeed page
6. Use K and O to enter the air pressure (‘pres’) and press E.
7. Use K and O to enter the total air temperature (‘tat’).
8. Press E and the density altitude and true airspeed will be calculated and displayed.
9. Press C to remove the cursor.
If your installation includes components to provide any of the information
required on the density altitude page, they will be used as the defaults.
The fuel planning page will display fuel requirements for both direct-to navigation and programmed routes. The fuel planning function requires the pilot to enter
the initial amount of fuel on board and the flow rate. You may also enter different
ground speeds to view information based on different travel times. If your installation
is interfaced to a fuel flow sensor, the flow rate and other information will be supplied by the fuel flow sensor, and need not be entered manually.
Fuel planning page showing calculation from present position to ‘KDAL’.
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To perform fuel planning operations:
SECTION
1
NAV KEY
NAV Menu 1
Fuel Planning
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C and rotate O until ‘Fuel Plan?’ is highlighted. Press E.
3. Rotate K to select either ‘wpt’ for direct navigation or the desired route number. Press E.
4. For waypoint-waypoint navigation, use K and O to enter the ‘to’ and ‘from’ waypoints.
Press E to accept the waypoints. To use the present position as a waypoint, leave the
corresponding waypoint field blank.
5. For route calculations, choose either ‘cum’ for cumulative route fuel requirements
(from beginning to end) or the leg desired by rotating K .
If leg is selected, it displays the amount of fuel required to fly until that leg is complete.
Fuel planning page showing calculations between
two waypoints.
For example: The fuel required to complete leg 2 is leg 1 + leg 2.
Fuel required to complete leg 4 is leg 1 + leg 2 + leg 3 + leg 4.
6. Rotate O to advance the cursor to ‘fob:’ or ‘gs:’ (depending on which is displayed).
7. Use K and O to enter the fuel on board or the ground speed. Press E.
8. Rotate O back two positions to highlight the ‘fob:’ or ‘gs:’ field again.
9. Rotate K to display the other information. Press E.
10. Use K and O to enter the remaining data. Press E.
11. Use K and O to enter the flow rate, in units per hour, if needed. Press E.
Fuel planning page with other information
indicating ‘endurance’ and ‘reserve’ times.
24
The GPS 155XL will calculate the range and endurance (i.e., how long the fuel
will last) of your aircraft. These are found in the first field on the bottom row of the
page. The amount of fuel left on board (lfob) and reserve time after the selected
direct-to, leg or route is flown are displayed in the second field on the bottom row.
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The GPS 155XL’s winds aloft function is used to calculate the true direction and
speed of any winds, and indicates whether you are flying with a head wind or tail
wind, and the wind speed.
To calculate winds aloft:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
NAV KEY
Winds Aloft &
VNAV Functions
SECTION
1
2. Press C and rotate O until ‘Winds?’ is highlighted. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter your present heading in the ‘hdg:’ field. If your installation
includes a fuel/air data computer, this will be displayed automatically. Press E.
4. Use K and O to enter your true airspeed (TAS) in the ‘tas:’ field. If you have previously
calculated it using the density altitude/true air speed function, it will be displayed as the
default. Press E. The wind direction and speed and head/tail wind will be displayed.
The VNAV function calculates vertical speed requirements to reach a desired altitude before
or after a specified distance from a waypoint. This is helpful when you’d like to descend to a certain altitude near an airport or climb to an altitude before reaching a route or direct-to waypoint.
Winds aloft page
To calculate vertical navigation parameters:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C and rotate O until ‘Vnav Plan?’ is highlighted. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the initial (from) altitude. Your current GPS altitude will be displayed as the default. Press E.
4. Use K and O to enter the desired final (to) altitude. Press E.
5. Use K and O to enter the distance from the waypoint. Press E.
Vertical navigation page
6. Use K to select ‘before’ or ‘after’ the waypoint. Press E.
7. Use K and O to select the waypoint identifier (it must be a waypoint in the active route
or a direct-to waypoint). Press E.
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NAV KEY
NAV Menu 1
VNAV & Checklists
You will now notice that the vertical speed has been calculated, based on your
present speed. If you desire a more rapid climb or descent rate:
8. Use K and O to enter the new desired vertical speed, or press E to accept the
calculated value.
9. Press E to activate the vertical navigation function.
If you enter a value greater than the value computed by the GPS 155XL, the time
remaining before the maneuver is to begin will be displayed. When the countdown reaches
15 seconds, you will be informed with the message ‘Start altitude chng’. The VNAV function will automatically be cancelled if the active direct-to or route is changed in any way,
and you will be informed with a ‘VNAV cancelled’ message.
VNAV displayed on NAV summary page. The
VNAV altitude should be compared with the reading on the aircraft altimeter to ensure you are on
the proper climb/descent angle.
The GPS 155XL will allow you to create up to nine checklists with 30 items each
to remind you of repetitive tasks (that can be called up at any time for review). The
checklist feature is useful for creating pre-flight checklists, landing checklists, emergency
procedures, etc. Each name or function can have up to 16 characters each.
To create a checklist:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C and rotate O until ‘Chklist?’ is highlighted. Press E.
3. Press C and use O to highlight the checklist you would like to create or edit.
Press E.
4. Use K and O to enter the title of the checklist. Press E.
Checklist catalog page.
This will display the checklist items page. On this page you can enter each task,
such as ‘Check Fuel’.
5. Use K and O to enter the checklist item. Press E.
26
6. You may repeat step 5 to enter additional items, or press C to finish.
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To execute a checklist:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 1 is displayed.
2. Press C and rotate O until ‘Chklist?’ is highlighted. Press E.
3. Use O to highlight the checklist you would like to see. Press E.
NAV KEY
Checklists
Approach Timer
SECTION
1
4. Press E to check off list items.
To delete a checklist item or an entire checklist:
1. To delete a checklist item, highlight the desired item and press \, followed by E.
2. To delete an entire checklist, highlight the desired list and press \, followed by E.
The GPS 155XL’s NAV Menu 2 provides access to various timer and planning functions, including:
• Approach timer
• Clock (Date and time)
• Trip Timer
• RAIM Prediction
• Scheduler messages
• Sunrise and sunset calculations
Executing a checklist.
The approach timer acts as either a count up or a count down timer that can be
set or reset at any time.
To activate/change/view the approach timer:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 2 is displayed.
2. Press C and rotate O until ‘Appr Time?’ is highlighted. Press E.
3. Rotate K to select either ‘Count up’ or ‘Count down’. Press E.
NAV Menu 2
4. Use K and O to set the time to begin counting from. Press E.
5. Rotate O to select the desired function: ‘Start’, ‘Stop’, or ‘Reset’. Press E to execute.
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NAV KEY
Clock Function
Trip Timer
When the countdown timer reaches zero, you will be informed with a ‘Timer
expired’ message. The timer will then begin to count up, displaying the time since it
expired. The timer runs, if not altered, whenever the GPS 155XL is turned on.
The GPS 155XL clock function keeps track of both UTC time (Greenwich Mean
Time or Zulu Time calculated from the satellites) and local time, and allows you to
designate which format to use in all time displays. The local time and date can be set
without displaying local time on other GPS 155XL pages.
To set the local date/time:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 2 is displayed.
2. Press C and rotate O until ‘Clock?’ is highlighted. Press E.
Clock function set to display local time in the time
fields of all other GPS 155XL pages.
3. Use K to select either ‘utc’ or ’local’ time to be displayed in the time fields. Press E.
4. Use K and O to set the local date. Press E.
5. Use K and O to set the local time. Press E.
6. Press C to complete.
The GPS 155XL’s trip timer will automatically keep track of the duration of your
current trip and can be configured to run when the GPS 155XL is on, or only when your
ground speed exceeds a specified value (see Section 6).
To view or reset the trip timer:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 2 is displayed.
To reset the trip timer, highlight ‘Reset?’ and
press E.
2. Press C and rotate O until ‘Trip Time?’ is highlighted. Press E. The current time of
day, departure time and time enroute will be displayed.
3. To reset the timer, press E. To skip resetting the timer, press C.
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The RAIM Prediction function allows you to confirm that GPS coverage is
available for your current location or at a specified waypoint any day of the year.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring performs checks to ensure that the GPS
155XL will have adequate satellite geometry to work with during your flight. RAIM
availability will be near 100% in Oceanic, En route and Terminal phases of flight.
Because the FAA’s TSO requirements for non-precision approaches specify significantly better satellite coverage than other flight phases, RAIM may not be available when
flying some approaches. The GPS 155XL will automatically monitor RAIM during
approach operations and warn you if RAIM is not available. RAIM prediction will
help you plan for a pending flight to confirm GPS operation during an approach.
NAV KEY
RAIM Prediction
SECTION
1
To predict RAIM availability:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 2 is displayed.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘RAIM Prd?’. Press E.
3. Rotate O to highlight the field which you would like to change.
Enter the location, time and date for RAIM prediction.
4. Use K and O to enter the waypoint name, or leave it blank to use your current
position. Press E to accept.
5. Use K and O to enter the ETA in hours and minutes (in local or UTC time, whichever
you have selected from the clock display), and the day, month and year. The current date
will be displayed automatically. Press E to accept.
6. Rotate O to highlight ‘Compute RAIM?’.
7. Press E to compute information.
When the computations are complete, the GPS 155XL will display whether or not
RAIM is available for the specified waypoint at the specified date and time, +/- 15
minutes of your ETA. Refer to the table on page 99 for specific RAIM protection
limits as they relate to CDI scale figures.
RAIM available for the entered time, date and
waypoint location.
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NAV KEY
NAV Menu 2
Scheduler
The scheduler function will display reminder messages (such as ‘Change oil’, ‘Switch
fuel tanks’, ‘Overhaul’, etc) after a specified time has elapsed. For example, if you enter
‘Change oil’ to be displayed in 30 hours, the message ‘Change oil’ will be displayed after the
GPS 155XL has been running in Normal mode for 30 hours. After appearing, the message
will be displayed each time the GPS 155XL is turned on until it is changed or deleted.
To enter a scheduled message:
1. Press N and rotate O to display NAV Menu 2.
2. Press C and rotate O until ‘Scheduler?’ is highlighted.
3. Press E.
The scrolling arrow prompt indicates which direction to scroll to view additional listings.
4. Rotate O to highlight the message you would like to edit. To delete, press \,
then E.
5. Use K and O to enter the message. Press E.
6. Use K and O to set the time to elapse before the message is displayed, in hours and
minutes, up to 99 hours and 59 minutes (this time is cumulative and counts whenever
the GPS 155XL is on in Normal operating mode).
7. Press E.
You may edit another scheduled message by repeating steps 4, 5, 6 and 7 or if you
are finished, press C.
The scheduled message will appear after the timer
expires and reappear every time the GPS 155XL
is powered on until the message is changed.
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The GPS 155XL’s sunrise/sunset planning function allows you to calculate the time
of sunrise or sunset at any waypoint or your present position for a specified date.
To calculate sunrise and sunset times at a waypoint or at your present location:
1. Press N and rotate O until NAV Menu 2 is displayed.
NAV KEY
Sunrise/Sunset
Calculations
SECTION
1
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘Sunrise?’. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the waypoint identifier, or leave blank to use current position.
Press E.
4. Press E to accept the waypoint information.
5. Use K and O to enter the date desired.
6. Press E and the sunrise and sunset times will be calculated and displayed. The times
will be displayed in your local time or UTC time, whichever is specified from the clock
function on NAV Menu 2.
Sunrise/sunset planning page showing UTC (Zulu)
sunrise and sunset times for ‘KROG’.
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WPT KEY
Overview
Section 2
Waypoint and Database Information
The GPS 155XL uses a Jeppesen NavData® card to provide position and facility
information for thousands of airports, VORs, NDBs and intersections. Each facility in the
database is stored as a waypoint with its own latitude/longitude, identifier (up to five letters and/or numbers), and other pertinent information. Up to 1,000 user waypoints may
also be created and stored in the GPS 155XL’s internal memory.
Please note that your GPS 155XL uses ICAO
identifiers for all airports. All U.S. airport identifiers
which contain only letters use the prefix ‘K’. For
example, Los Angeles International is KLAX under
the ICAO standard. Other airports, such as Otten
Memorial (3VS), that contain numbers in the
identifier do not require the ‘K’ prefix. Many foreign
countries use two letter prefixes. For more
information on ICAO identifiers, contact:
Document Sales Unit
International Civil Aviation Organization
999 University Street
Montreal, Quebec
Canada H3C 5H7
Waypoint Menu Page
Proximity Waypoints Page
Waypoints With Comments List
User Waypoint List
Waypoint information is available through four primary waypoint pages accessible
from the GPS 155XL’s W key. The waypoint pages may be scrolled through by pressing
the W key and rotating the outer knob until the desired page is displayed, or by pressing the W key repeatedly.
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The GPS 155XL organizes waypoints into one of five waypoint categories for your
convenience. Each waypoint category provides different types of detailed information
for a selected facility:
• Airports - Identifier, city/state, country, facility name, position (lat/lon),
elevation, fuel services, control and approach information, IFR procedures, runways and communication frequencies.
WPT KEY
SECTION
Waypoint Categories
& Menu Page
2
• VORs - Identifier, city/state, country, facility name, position (lat/lon),
frequency, magnetic variation, co-located DME or TACAN and weather
broadcast indication.
• NDBs - Identifier, city/state, country, facility name, position (lat/lon),
frequency and weather broadcast indication.
• Intersections - Identifier, country, position (lat/lon) and nearest VOR.
The waypoint menu page allows you to select the
desired waypoint type (or category).
• User - Identifier (name), position (lat/lon) and reference waypoint.
To view detailed waypoint information for a desired waypoint, select the appropriate waypoint category from the waypoint menu page.
To choose a waypoint category (for viewing information):
1. Press W and rotate O to display the waypoint menu page. (If pressing W once
does not display the waypoint menu page, press W a second time.)
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint category.
3. Press E to accept the waypoint category. The waypoint identification or position page
for the selected category will appear with the waypoint identifier field ready for entry.
The airport position page shows the position,
field elevation and available fuel types for the
selected airport.
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WPT KEY
Entering Waypoints
After a waypoint category is selected, information for a waypoint may be viewed
by entering the identifier or name of the desired waypoint. Airports, VORs and NDBs
may be entered by either the identifier, name or the location (city) of the facility.
Intersections and user waypoints must be entered by the identifier.
To enter a waypoint identifier:
1. With the cursor over the waypoint field, use K and O to enter the
waypoint identifier.
As the identifier is entered, the GPS 155XL’s Spell’N’FindTM feature will scroll
through the available database, displaying those waypoints matching the identifier letters you have entered to that point. When the desired waypoint is displayed, press
C to remove the cursor.
Entering a waypoint by identifier.
To obtain waypoint information by entering the facility name of the airport or
navaid, or its location:
1. Press W and rotate O to display the waypoint menu page.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint category.
3. Press E to accept the waypoint category.
4. Rotate O to highlight the middle field to enter location (city) OR:
Rotate O to highlight the bottom field to enter facility name or VOR/NDB name.
5. Use K and O to enter the location or the name, and press C to finish.
34
Entering a waypoint by city. Note that punctuation marks are not used when entering locations
or names. Use spaces, where appropriate, to identify these marks. For example, St. Louis would be
entered as “ST LOUIS” without a period.
As the information is entered, the GPS 155XL will display any entries in its database that match the letters you have entered. If duplicate entries exist for the entered
identifier, name or location, additional entries may be viewed by rotating K. Once
the desired waypoint is displayed, press C to continue.
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Once a waypoint category and identifier have been selected, the GPS 155XL will
provide extensive information through a set of waypoint pages for the selected category. The pages available for each waypoint category are presented here in the order
they appear on the waypoint menu page: airports, VORs, NDBs, intersections and
user waypoints.
Airport Information
WPT KEY
Airport Information
SECTION
2
Airport Identification Page
Airport Comments Page
Airport Position Page
If the city or facility name information is too long
to fit the screen, the name will scroll across the
page every few seconds so the complete name can
be read.
Airport Runway Page
Airport Procedures Page
Airport Communication Page
To scroll through the airport pages:
1. Make sure the cursor is not present. If it is, press C.
2. Rotate O in either direction to scroll through the available pages.
The airport position page shows the position,
field elevation and available fuel types for the
selected airport.
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The GPS 155XL features six airport pages:
SECTION
2
WPT KEY
Airport Pages
airport identification— allows entry of desired airport by identifier,
facility name or city; displays region and/or country of facility.
airport position— allows entry of desired airport by identifier; displays
latitude, longitude and elevation; indicates usage and fuel availability;
displays available approaches and airport control/radar capability.
airport procedures— allows entry of desired airport by identifier; displays all available approaches, SIDs and STARs at the selected facility.
airport communication— allows entry of desired airport by identifier;
displays radio frequencies/usage, and sector and altitude restrictions.
Airport communication page. The down arrow
next to the identifier indicates additional frequencies may be displayed by rotating the K knob.
airport runway— allows entry of desired airport by identifier; indicates
runway designations, length, surface and lighting information; displays
ILS/localizer and/or pilot-controlled lighting frequencies.
airport comments— allows entry of desired airport by identifier; displays
user comments for the selected airport.
Waypoint Type
and Identifier
CDI
Region/Country
{
Location
(city/state)
Airport runway page. The down arrow next to
the identifier indicates additional runways may be
displayed by rotating the K knob.
36
Facility Name
The airport identification page displays a selected airport’s identifier, region and
country, city/state and facility name. The identification page is always the first airport
page available, allowing you to quickly review an airport facility or select another
facility by entering the identifier, facility name or city of the desired airport.
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The airport position page displays the latitude, longitude and elevation of the
selected airport, as well as usage or fuel availability, available approaches and airport
control/radar capability. The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the
airport position page:
Elevation— In feet or meters
Usage/Fuel— If the airport is for military use, it will display ‘military’.
If it is private, the GPS 155XL will display ‘private’. If it is a
public airport, it will display the fuel type(s) available:
• av gas— 80-87 octane, 100 LL, 100-130 octane, or mogas is
available
• jet—
Jet A, Jet A-1 or Jet A+ fuel is available
• av/jet— Both av gas and jet fuel are available
WPT KEY
SECTION
2
Airport
Position Page
1
2
3
Position— In degrees/minutes or degrees/minutes/seconds of latitude
and longitude
Approach Information— displays the airport approaches available
• no apr— No approach is available
• np-apr— Non-precision approach is available
• loc—
Localizer approach is available
• ils—
ILS approach is available
Controlled Airspace Information— displays controlled airspace type
• class B
• cta
• class C
• tma
Radar— displays approach/departure radar capability
• radar— indicates radar is present
4
5
6
Airport Position Page
1. Identifier (selectable)
2. Elevation
3. Fuel Availability
4. Airport Position
5. Approach Information
6. Controlled Airspace/Radar Capability
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WPT KEY
Airport Procedures
Page
The airport procedures page displays all the available approaches, SIDs and
STARs at any selected airport in the database, without placing a specific approach,
SID or STAR in the active route. This allows the pilot to quickly scan the procedures
of any nearby airport in case of an emergency or help plan future flights. You may
view the available non-precision approaches, SIDs or STARs by selecting the desired
list from the procedure type field.
Airport Identifier
(selectable)
CDI
Procedure Type
(selectable)
SID Procedures Page
Scrolling Arrow
Prompt
Available Procedures
To view the available procedures for a selected airport:
1. Press W and rotate O to display the airport procedures page.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight the procedure field.
3. Rotate K to select the approach, SID or STAR list.
4. Press C to remove the cursor.
STAR Procedures Page
38
Whenever there are more than two available procedures for a selected category,
the GPS 155XL will display a scrolling arrow prompt on the left side of the list. To
view additional procedures, simply rotate K with the cursor removed. As you scroll
through the list, the arrow prompt will point “down” to indicate additional listings
below the displayed procedures, “up” to indicate additional listings above, or a “double arrow” to indicate the list may be scrolled up or down.
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The airport communication page displays the radio frequencies and usage for
the selected airport, as well as sector and altitude restrictions.
To view the communication page from any of the airport information pages:
1. Rotate O with the cursor removed to display the communication page.
WPT KEY
SECTION
Airport
Communications Page
2
2. Rotate K in the direction of the arrow prompt to view additional frequencies. You may
also view additional frequencies with the cursor on the page by rotating the O knob.
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the communication page:
Frequencies without restriction information:
• ats - Automatic terminal information service (ATIS)
• ptx - Pre-taxi
• clr - Clearance delivery
• gnd - Ground
• twr - Tower
• uni - Unicom
• mul - Multicom
• atf - Aerodrome traffic frequency
• ctf - Common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF)
• mf - Mandatory frequency
• oth - Other frequencies
Frequencies with restriction information:
• dep - Departure
• apr - Approach
• arv - Arrival
• class B
• cta - ICAO control area • tma - ICAO terminal control area
• class C
• trsa - Terminal radar service area
‘Receive only’ frequencies will be followed by an ‘rx’ indicator, while ‘transmit
only’ frequencies will display a ‘tx’. If a frequency has sector and/or altitude restrictions, they will also be displayed. Sector restrictions define a range of radials from the
facility, while altitude restrictions may describe an area above, below or between
altitudes. Additional instructions, if available, will be displayed on the bottom line.
Airport communications page for KCLT.
Frequency page with sector restrictions.
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WPT KEY
Airport
Runway Page
The airport runway page displays runway designations, length, surface and
lighting for the selected airport, as well as ILS/localizer and/or pilot-controlled lighting
frequencies.
To view the runway page from any of the airport information pages:
1. Rotate O with the cursor removed to display the runway page.
2. To view additional runway information, rotate K with the cursor removed.
The scrolling arrow prompt, located beside the identifier field, indicates which direction to
scroll for additional runway information.
If a localizer and/or ILS are used on the same runway, rotating K will sequence
through both sets of information.
Airport runway page for KICT.
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the airport runway page:
Runway surfaces:
• hard - Hard (concrete, asphalt, etc.)
• seal - Sealed surface
• dirt - Dirt surface
• unkn -Unknown surface
• turf - Turf (grass)
• grav - Gravel surface
• soft - Unknown soft surface
• watr - Water landing site
Runway lighting:
To view additional runways, rotate the K knob in
the direction of the arrow prompts.
40
• pt lights - Part-time lights
• ft lights - Full-time lights
• pc Pilot-controlled (with frequency) lights
• no lights - No runway lighting
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VOR Information
The GPS 155XL features three VOR waypoint pages:
WPT KEY
VOR Information
VOR identification— allows entry of desired VOR by identifier,
facility name or city; displays region and/or country of facility.
SECTION
2
VOR position— allows entry of desired VOR by identifier; displays
latitude, longitude and frequency; provides magnetic variation, weather
broadcasts and DME/TACAN information.
VOR comments— allows entry of desired VOR by identifier; displays user
comments for the selected facility.
VOR information is accessed by entering the desired facility by identifier, city or
facility name (see page 34) on any VOR waypoint page. The VOR identification and
comments pages are identical in form and function to their airport page counterparts.
VOR identification page
To scroll through the VOR pages:
1. Make sure the cursor is not present. If it is, press C.
2. Rotate O in either direction to scroll through the available pages.
In addition to displaying the VOR frequency, magnetic variation and position, the
VOR position page indicates if a DME or TACAN is co-located at the facility. The ‘wx
bdcst’ field indicates that the VOR also transmits weather information.
VOR position page showing co-located TACAN
facility and weather broadcast.
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NDB Information
SECTION
2
WPT KEY
NDB Information
NDB Position Page
The GPS 155XL also uses identification, position and comments pages for NDB
information. The NDB waypoint pages are used in the same manner as VOR pages:
NDB information is accessed by entering the desired facility’s identifier, city or name
(see page 34) on the NDB identification page.
NDB identification page
To scroll through the NDB pages:
1. Make sure the cursor is not present. If it is, press C.
2. Rotate O in either direction to scroll through the available pages.
The NDB position page (see above) displays the selected facility’s identifier, frequency and position, as well as any weather broadcasts available. The NDB comment
page will display any user comments for the selected NDB (see page 50 for instructions on entering user comments).
NDB comments page
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Intersection Information
WPT KEY
Intersection
Information
SECTION
2
Intersection Position Page
The last database waypoint category available is intersections. Two intersection
pages are available: intersection position and intersection comments. Intersections
may be entered by identifier only (not city or name) on either intersection page.
To scroll through the intersection pages:
Intersection comments page
1. Make sure the cursor is not present. If it is, press C.
2. Rotate O to toggle between the available pages.
The intersection position page displays the selected facility’s identifier, region and/or
country, latitude and longitude, and the identifier, distance and bearing to the nearest
VOR (not necessarily the VOR used to define the intersection). The intersection comment page will display any user comments for the selected intersection (see page 50).
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User Waypoint Information
SECTION
2
WPT KEY
User Waypoints
In addition to the airport, VOR, NDB and intersection waypoints contained in your
NavData® card, the GPS 155XL allows you to store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. Once a user waypoint is created, two user waypoint pages will display the following information:
•
•
•
•
User waypoint page
Waypoint identifier
Position in latitude and longitude
Identifier, range and bearing from a reference waypoint
User comments
To scroll between the user waypoint position page and the user comments page,
rotate O. User waypoints may be created or modified using the W key. After selecting the waypoint identifier, as shown on page 34, you will be prompted to enter information if the waypoint is new. There are three ways to create a user waypoint’s position from the W key:
1. Enter the exact position of the new waypoint.
2. Reference a known waypoint by range and bearing.
3. Enter a range and bearing from your current position.
To create or edit a user waypoint:
1. Press W.
User waypoint comments page
2. Press C and use O to highlight the ‘user?’ field. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the waypoint identifier. Press E.
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If the waypoint identifier entered does not exist, you will be prompted to select a
method to enter the new waypoint’s position into memory. If the waypoint exists (i.e.,
you’re just reviewing or editing a user waypoint), skip step 4 and move on to the next
set of instructions.
4. Select the desired waypoint entry method using O and press E.
WPT KEY
Creating
User Waypoints
SECTION
2
You will automatically be placed on the latitude and longitude field (if you
selected ‘enter posn?’), the ‘from’ field (if you select ‘ref wpt?’) or the ‘bearing’ field (if
you select ‘rng/brg from posn?’).
To enter/edit the position of the user waypoint:
1. Use K and O to enter the latitude. You may select either north or south and enter a
latitude up to (but not including) 90°.
Selecting a method to enter a new user waypoint.
2. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the longitude. You may select either east or west and enter a
longitude up to (but not including) 180°.
4. Press E.
Once the latitude and longitude have been entered, the cursor will move to the
reference waypoint field, where you may enter a reference waypoint to calculate a
bearing and distance to the new waypoint position. If you are not entering a reference
waypoint:
5. Press E to advance the cursor to the ‘ok?’ prompt and press E to save the new
waypoint in internal memory.
Entering the user waypoint’s exact position.
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WPT KEY
Reference
Waypoints
To enter/edit a user waypoint position from a reference waypoint:
1. Use K and O to enter the reference waypoint’s identifier.
2. Press E. The waypoint’s position will appear.
3. Use K and O to enter the bearing from the reference waypoint.
4. Press E.
5. Use K and O to enter the distance from the reference waypoint.
6. Press E. The latitude and longitude will be calculated for the waypoint.
7. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt and save the waypoint position.
Creating a user waypoint by referencing another
waypoint.
If you have chosen to create a waypoint at a certain bearing and distance from
your current position, your current position will be displayed and you will enter the
bearing and distance at which you would like the new waypoint to be located.
To create a user waypoint offset from your present position:
1. Use K and O to enter the bearing from your position.
2. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the distance from your position.
4. Press E. The latitude and longitude will be calculated for the new waypoint.
46
To create a user waypoint from your present position, leave the reference waypoint field blank and
enter a bearing and distance from your present
position. The GPS 155XL will calculate the new
waypoint’s coordinates automatically.
5. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt and save the waypoint position.
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The GPS 155XL’s AutoStoreTM function provides another method of creating user
waypoints. AutoStore is used to instantly capture your present position as a user waypoint with a touch of a button and add the new waypoint to the end of a specified
route, if desired.
WPT KEY
SECTION
Creating Waypoints
with AutoStore
2
To perform an AutoStore:
1. Press N and rotate O to display the position page or map page.
2. Press E.
This will display the ‘Save waypoint’ screen, which will allow you to rename the
waypoint and choose the route to which it should be added. The GPS 155XL will
assign the next available three-digit number as the default waypoint name, preceded
by a ‘+’ sign. This will help you differentiate AutoStore waypoints from other user
waypoints.
AutoStore waypoint with default name.
To change the default name or route of an AutoStore waypoint:
1. Rotate O to select the name or route number field.
2. Use K and O to enter the name or route number. If you do not want to add the waypoint to a route, be sure to keep the route field blank.
3. Press E to accept.
4. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt.
If the waypoint name you entered is already assigned to another waypoint, you
will be informed with the message ‘WPT exists ______’. The default waypoint name
will be redisplayed, and you may enter a different name. The new waypoint will only
be added to a route if the desired route number is manually entered in the route field.
The default waypoint name may be changed
before saving the waypoint.
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WPT KEY
Proximity
Waypoints
The second page available from the GPS 155XL’s W key is the proximity
waypoints page. This page allows you to define an alarm circle around a selected
waypoint and is useful in defining alarm circles around towers or obstructions. Up to
nine proximity waypoints can be entered, each with an alarm radius of up to 99.9 nm.
To create or edit a proximity waypoint:
1. Press W and use O to display the ‘Proximity waypoints’ page.
2. Press C and use O to highlight the first available field.
3. Use K and O to enter the identifier. It may be an airport, VOR, NDB, intersection or user
waypoint. Press E.
4. Use K and O to enter the radius of the alarm circle. Press E.
Proximity waypoints page
If two proximity waypoints are entered and their regions overlap, you will be
informed with the message ‘Proximity overlap’. This message will be displayed each
time you turn on the GPS 155XL for as long as the overlap remains. Warning: If you
enter the overlap area you will only be informed of the nearest proximity waypoint.
To remove a waypoint from the proximity waypoints page:
1. Press C, if necessary, to obtain a cursor.
2. Press \ to erase the name, and then E to delete.
To scroll through the proximity waypoints list:
Proximity alarm message. Pressing N will
display the position page with the bearing and
distance from the proximity waypoint indicated
on the bottom line.
48
1. Rotate K with the cursor inactive (or use O with the cursor active) to scroll through the
available proximity waypoints. The arrow prompt will indicate the direction to scroll to view
additional waypoints, if available.
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The third page available from the GPS 155XL’s W key is the user waypoint list,
which can be used to quickly scan, review, rename or delete user waypoints.
To display the user waypoint list:
1. Press W and use O to display the user waypoint list.
WPT KEY
User Waypoint
List
SECTION
2
2. To scroll through the list, rotate K.
The total number of user waypoints is displayed at the top of the page, with the
individual user waypoints listed two at a time in alphabetical order below. The arrow
prompt, located at the top left of the page, will indicate which direction to scroll to
view additional waypoints. The status of each waypoint will be displayed to the right
of the identifier when it is the active-to waypoint, part of an active or stored route or
a proximity waypoint. To edit, rename or delete waypoints, the cursor must highlight
the desired waypoint.
To highlight a waypoint:
User waypoint list showing the current active-to
waypoint and a proximity waypoint.
1. Press C and use O to highlight the desired waypoint.
To edit a highlighted waypoint’s position:
1. Press E to obtain the waypoint position page. Edit the waypoint position as described on
page 45. (Note: The active-to waypoint cannot be edited.)
To delete a waypoint from the list:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint and press \. Press E to confirm the deletion.
To rename a waypoint from the list:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint. Use K and O to enter a new
identifier for the waypoint.
2. Press E on the confirmation page to change the name, or press \ to cancel.
Renaming a user waypoint.
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WPT KEY
Waypoint
Comments
The last page available through the GPS 155XL’s W key is the waypoints with
comments page, which lists all waypoints that have a user comment. User comments may be added to 250 waypoints stored in the user or NavData® database, and
allow you to note two lines of special information concerning a particular waypoint.
To enter user comments:
1. Enter the waypoint identifier from any waypoint page (see page 34), and press C to
remove the cursor.
2. Rotate O to display the ‘comments’ page.
3. Press C and use O to highlight either the second or third line.
4. Use K and O to enter the comment.
Entering waypoint comments
5. Press E to accept, and repeat steps 4 and 5, if necessary, to enter information on the
other line.
6. Press C to remove the cursor.
To view the ‘waypoints with comments’ list:
1. Press W and use O to display the ‘Wpts with comments’ page.
2. Use K to scroll through the list.
The GPS 155XL will display the waypoints with comments in alphabetical order,
with up to six waypoints at a time. The scrolling arrow prompt will indicate which
direction to scroll to view additional waypoints.
Waypoints with comments page
To view comments for a selected waypoint:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint and press E (or press \ and E to delete).
50
2. Rotate O to display any other available pages for the selected waypoint.
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The GPS 155XL’s extensive waypoint database makes it possible for several waypoints to share the same identifier. To ensure that you are selecting the waypoint
desired, the GPS 155XL will always offer the waypoint confirmation page (which
shows the waypoint’s position) when an identifier is entered for a particular function.
WPT KEY
Waypoint Confirmation
Duplicate Waypoints
SECTION
2
To accept the waypoint position:
1. Press E with the cursor over the ‘ok?’ prompt.
To reject the waypoint position:
1. Press \ with the cursor over the ‘ok?’ prompt.
Once a waypoint has been accepted or rejected, the previous page will be displayed. If there is more than one waypoint available for a selected identifier, the GPS
155XL will display a duplicate waypoint page for you to choose the desired waypoint.
The waypoint identifier and number of duplicates will be shown at the top of the
page, with the waypoint type and region of each duplicate indicated below. The waypoints listed are sorted by the distance from your present position.
Waypoint confirmation page
To scroll through additional duplicate waypoints:
1. Rotate O with the cursor active, or K with the cursor inactive.
To select the desired waypoint from the duplicate list:
1. Activate the cursor and rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint.
2. Press E. The waypoint confirmation page will appear.
3. Press E over the ‘ok?’ prompt to accept the waypoint or \ to reject the waypoint
and return to the duplicate waypoints list.
Duplicate waypoints page
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SECTION
WPT KEY
2
Locked Waypoints
Waypoint Scanning
Possible messages for locked waypoints.
Because the GPS 155XL relies on a NavData card for most waypoint information,
there may be instances when waypoint information is not available for use. Locked
waypoints exist when a waypoint contained in a route, used as a proximity waypoint
or with a comment, is not contained on the NavData card, or no card is inserted in
the unit. If this condition exists, you’ll be alerted with a ‘Proximity wpt locked’,
‘Route wpt locked’ or ‘Wpt comment locked’ message when the unit is powered up.
The identifier of a locked waypoint will be replaced with a ‘lockd’ message, which
indicates you cannot obtain waypoint information or navigate to the waypoint. The
identifier of a locked waypoint may be displayed by highlighting ‘lockd’ and pressing
E. Locked waypoints may be deleted from routes, the proximity waypoints list or
waypoints with comments page by following the instructions in the appropriate
section of this manual.
The waypoint scanning feature provides a fast way to scan through airports,
VORs, NDBs and intersections in the database by identifier, facility name or city.
Waypoint scanning may be used from any blank waypoint identifier field.
To enter a waypoint by scanning the identifier, facility name or city:
1. With the cursor over a blank identifier field, press W. If the identifier field is not blank,
highlight the field with the cursor and press \ before pressing W.
2. Use O to highlight the waypoint category you wish to scan.
3. Press E to activate the scanning mode.
4. Rotate O to place the cursor over the field you want to scan (identifier, facility or city
name).
To blank a waypoint field, highlight the field and
press the \ key.
52
5. Use K and O to enter the letters of the identifier, city or facility name. The GPS 155XL
will scan the database and display the first waypoint that matches your entry.
6. Press E to accept the waypoint, and E again to confirm the waypoint for the
function being used.
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Section 3
Nearest Waypoints
The GPS 155XL’s T key provides detailed information on the nine nearest airports,
VORs, NDBs, intersections and user waypoints within 200 nm of your current position. In
addition, it will display the two nearest Flight Service Station (FSS) and center (ARTCC/
FIR) points of communication, plus alert you to any Special Use Airspace (SUA) you may
be in or near. The T key can be used in conjunction with the GPS 155XL’s direct-to
function to quickly set a course to a nearby facility in case of an in-flight emergency.
NRST KEY
Overview
SECTION
3
To view the nearest waypoint information:
1. Press T.
This will display the airport nearest to your present position, subject to the runway
surface type and minimum runway length selected (see page 100).
To scroll through the next eight nearest airports, rotate K.
Nearest airport with other frequency information.
If an airport has multiple frequencies available,
they may be quickly viewed without activating
the cursor by pressing the \ key repeatedly.
You may examine both the communication frequencies and the runway information
directly from the nearest airport page.
To view more comm/runway information:
1. Press C and rotate O to highlight the comm field or the runway field.
2. Rotate K to scroll through more information, if available.
To perform a direct-to on any of the nearest waypoint pages:
1. Press D. The waypoint confirmation page will appear.
2. Press E to accept the waypoint or \ to cancel.
Nearest FSS page. To view additional frequencies
(if available), highlight the frequency and rotate
the O knob.
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Page 54
NRST KEY
Special
Use Airspace
The nearest waypoints for other categories (VORs, NDBs, etc.) may be viewed
by rotating O. Rotating O continuously to the left will stop page selection on the
nearest airport category.
The next page available under the GPS 155XL’s T key is the SUA (special-use
airspace) alert page. The SUA alert page will alert you to as many as nine controlled or
restricted airspaces near or in your flight path, according to the following conditions:
• If your projected course will take you inside an SUA within the next 10
minutes, the message ‘SUA ahead < 10 min’ will be displayed.
• If you are within two nautical miles of an SUA and your current course will take
you inside, the message ‘SUA near & ahead’ will be displayed.
Nearest SUA
• If you are within two nautical miles of an SUA and your current course will not
take you inside, the message ‘Near SUA < 2nm’ will be displayed.
• If you have entered an SUA, the message ‘Inside SUA’ will be displayed.
Nearest SUA with controlling agency displayed.
54
NOTE: The GPS 155XL will flash the U next to the M key
to inform you of SUA alerts. You do not have to repeatedly
check the Nearest Waypoint page for SUA information. It is
provided to supply more information on the SUA and its
boundaries. The GPS 155XL will not flash alerts, however, if
it has been turned off or if your altitude is such that you will
not enter the buffered airspace. Turning off SUA alerts and
setting the altitude buffer is described on page 105.
Note that the GPS 155XL’s SUA alerts are based on three-dimensional data (latitude,
longitude and altitude) to avoid nuisance alerts. The alert boundaries for controlled airspace are also sectorized to provide complete information on any nearby airspace. Once
you have met one of the described conditions, the message annunciator will flash, alerting you of an SUA message.
To view an SUA message:
1. Press the M key.
2. Press M again to return to the previous page.
Once you are notified of an SUA alert, detailed information concerning the specific
SUA is provided by the T key.
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To view the SUA alert page:
NRST KEY
1. Press the T key.
Special
Use Airspace
2. Rotate O one stop to the right to view the SUA alert page.
The SUA alert page contains the following information:
Alert type
SUA number
SUA Name or
controlling
agency
Controlling
airport identifier
SECTION
3
ETE
(if applicable)
SUA type
SUA Ceiling altitude
SUA Floor altitude
The ‘SUA number’ field displays which SUA you are viewing (you may be alerted to up
to nine SUAs). SUAs are ranked with ‘sua1’ being the highest priority, and ‘sua9’ being the
lowest priority from your current position. The ‘SUA alert’ field displays the corresponding
alert message for this SUA, such as ‘near’, ‘near & ahead’, etc. (see page 54). The ETE (estimated time enroute), located at the top right of the page, will only be displayed if you are
projected to enter the airspace.
The second line of the SUA alert page displays the name or controlling agency of the
SUA, along with the type of SUA to which you are being alerted.
To toggle between the SUA name and controlling agency display:
1. Rotate K one stop in either direction.
If the SUA name or controlling agency is too long to fit on the display, the GPS 155XL
will automatically scroll to display the rest of the information.
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The following SUA types can appear in the SUA type field:
SECTION
3
NRST KEY
SUA Messages
SUA alert page
Message
alrt
caut
cl B
cl C
cta
dngr
moa
proh
rstc
tma
trng
trsa
unsp
warn
Airspace Type
- Alert
- Caution
- Class B
- Class C
- ICAO Control Area
- Danger
- Military Operations Area
- Prohibited
- Restricted
- ICAO Terminal Control Area
- Training
- Terminal Radar Service Area
- Unspecified
- Warning
The last line on the SUA alert page displays the SUA’s controlling airport identifier
and the ceiling and floor altitudes for the SUA alert. Controlling agency frequencies
may be viewed by highlighting the controlling airport identifier with the cursor and
pressing E. The following are examples of what can appear in the altitude fields:
Frequency information for SUA. If the information is too long to fit on the display, the GPS
155XL will automatically scroll to display the rest
of the information.
56
Message
8000ftM
3000ftA
ground
msl
notam
not sp
unlmtd
Meaning
- 8000 feet mean sea level (MSL)
- 3000 feet above ground level (AGL)
- Ground level
- Mean sea level
- See Notice to Airmen (NOTAM)
for altitude restrictions
- Altitude is not specified
- Altitude is unlimited
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NRST KEY
Special Use
Airspace
SECTION
3
SUA Settings Page
All SUA alert messages except for prohibited areas may be turned on or off
through the GPS 155XL’s unit settings options, found under the M key (see page
105). Alerts for prohibited areas will always be displayed, regardless of unit settings
or operating mode. SUA alerts may be turned off so the pilot can avoid continuous
alerts in areas with extensive special use airspace. SUA alerts are automatically disabled during approach operations.
Important: Turning off the SUA alerts only stops the display of SUA messages.
Any applicable SUA alert pages will still be available from the T key.
Altitude buffer set at 500 feet. This provides an
added 500 foot margin beyond the floor and ceiling limits for an airspace.
The GPS 155XL also features an altitude buffer which may be set to provide a
greater level of protection from penetrating an SUA. By specifying an altitude in the
buffer, you can effectively stretch an SUA’s altitude boundaries in both directions. This
allows the pilot to add an extra margin of prevention around controlled or restricted
airspace. For instructions on setting the altitude buffer, see page 105.
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DIRECT-TO
& ROUTE NAV
Section 4
Direct-to & Route Navigation
One of the many benefits of GPS navigation is the ability to fly directly to a waypoint or fly a chain of waypoints without using ground-based navigation aids. To take
advantage of the convenience and efficiency provided by point-to-point GPS navigation, the GPS 155XL provides two basic methods of selecting a destination for your
flight: direct-to and route navigation. The direct-to function provides a fast way to
set a course to a destination waypoint from your present position. The route function
allows the pilot to create a chain of waypoints to fly in sequence and provides access
to the GPS 155XL’s approach, SID and STAR capabilities.
ROUTE TERMINOLOGY
KSTL
The diagram at the right shows a basic route
consisting of five waypoints and four legs.
MAP
The waypoint you are travelling to is called the
‘active to’ waypoint, and the waypoint immediately
behind you is called the ‘active from’ waypoint. The
course line between the active from and the active to
waypoint is called the ‘active leg’.
'ACTIVE FROM' WAYPOINT
'ACTIVE TO' WAYPOINT
SGF
ACTIVE LEG
EOS
KTUL
58
As you pass each waypoint in the route, the GPS 155XL’s automatic leg sequencing and turn anticipation features will automatically select the next waypoint as the
‘active to’ waypoint and provide smooth steering guidance around the turn. If you are
not currently navigating a particular route leg (e.g., your starting position is not a
route waypoint), the unit will select the appropriate leg as the active route segment.
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The GPS 155XL’s direct-to function provides a quick method of setting a course
to a destination waypoint. Once a direct-to destination is activated, the GPS 155XL
will establish a point-to-point route line along the great circle from your present
position to the destination and provide steering guidance and navigation data to the
waypoint until it is cancelled. If you are navigating to a waypoint and get off course,
the direct-to function may also be used to re-center the d-bar to proceed to the same
waypoint.
DIRECT-TO
Selecting and
Cancelling a Direct-To
SECTION
4
To select a direct-to destination:
1. Press the D key. The NAV summary page appears with the destination field highlighted.
2. Use K and O to enter the identifier of the desired waypoint.
3. Press E to confirm the identifier, and E to accept the direct-to confirmation page.
To re-center the d-bar to the same active-to waypoint:
1. Press the D key, followed by E twice. NOTE: If you’re navigating an active approach
with the MAP as the active waypoint, the approach will be cancelled.
To select a direct-to destination, press the D key
and enter the waypoint identifier using K and O.
A direct-to may also be quickly activated from many pages that display a single
waypoint identifier (e.g., the nearest airport page) by simply pressing D and E.
For pages that display a list of waypoints (e.g., the user waypoint list page), you must
highlight the desired waypoint with the cursor before pressing the D key. Once a
direct-to is activated, the GPS 155XL will provide navigation guidance until the
direct-to is cancelled or the unit is turned off.
To cancel a direct-to destination:
1. Place the cursor over the destination field on the NAV summary page.
2. Press \. The destination field will go blank.
3. Press E. The GPS 155XL will resume navigating Route 0 (the active route) if available.
To quickly select a direct-to from any page that
displays a single waypoint identifier (e.g., the
nearest airport page), press D, followed by E.
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DIRECT-TO
Manually Selecting
A Course
Whenever you perform a direct-to, the GPS 155XL will set a point-to-point great
circle course to your destination. You can also manually define the course to your
destination with the GPS 155XL’s Course Select feature. The course select feature is
available from the bottom line of the direct-to confirmation page whenever the
external GPS SEQ switch is in the ‘Auto’ position.
Waypoint Position, Facility
Name or City/Region
(selectable)
The waypoint sequencing field, located at the
bottom left of the direct-to confirmation page, displays the current status of the external GPS SEQ
switch.
To manually set your course from the course select
field, set the GPS SEQ switch to the ‘AUTO’ position and enter the selected course in the course
select field. NOTE: Whenever the GPS SEQ switch
is set to the ‘HOLD’ position, the selected course
will be determined by the external OBS/HSI.
When using the course select feature on the directto confirmation page or when the GPS SEQ switch
is set to the ‘HOLD’ position and external course
input is not present, you may also enter the
desired course from the NAV summary page using
the course field at the bottom of the page.
60
Waypoint Identifier Field
Waypoint
Sequencing Field
Course Select Field
To manually set a course:
1. Set/confirm the GPS SEQ switch in the ‘AUTO’ position.
2. Press the D key. The direct-to confirmation page will appear.
3. Rotate O to place the cursor on the course select field.
4. Use K to begin entry of the selected course (the O and K knobs may be used once
you have started editing the course select field).
5. Press E to accept the course, and E again to acknowledge the ‘ok?’ prompt.
The GPS 155XL will now use the selected course for your CDI and DTK steering
guidance. To reset the course to a GPS-calculated course from your present position,
simply press D, followed by E.
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The GPS 155XL lets you create up to 20 routes (numbered 0 through 19), with up
to 31 waypoints each. Routes are created, copied and edited through the R key,
which features five route pages selectable from the GPS 155XL’s outer knob.
Route Pages
Active Route Page
Route Catalog Page
SID Select Page
ROUTE NAV
SECTION
4
Approach Select Page
STAR Select Page
The five route pages can be divided into two types: active route pages and a
route catalog page. Active route pages provide information and editing functions for
route 0, which always serves as the route you are currently navigating. The route catalog page serves as the main page for creating, editing, activating, deleting and copying
all routes.
REMEMBER!
If you want to save the active route, be sure to
copy it to an empty storage route (1-19) before
turning the GPS 155XL off or activating a new
route (or direct-to destination). See page 65 for
instructions on copying routes.
Routes 1-19 are used as storage routes, which are stored in the GPS 155XL’s internal memory. Once a storage route is ‘activated’, a copy is placed into route 0 for navigation until it is cancelled, overwritten by activating another route or erased when the
unit is turned off. If you want to save a route currently in route 0, be sure to copy it
to an open storage route (routes 1-19) before it is cancelled, overwritten or erased.
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Page 62
The GPS 155XL’s route catalog page is used to create, edit, delete or copy routes,
and serves as the main page for a host of functions. These include route activation,
determining the closest point of approach and search-and-rescue operations. It also
displays a summary of routes currently stored in memory, with the departure and
arrival route waypoints and total distance for the selected route number. To scroll
through the available routes, rotate K. A one-line user comment may be added to
any storage route, which will be displayed on the route catalog page.
ROUTE NAV
4
Route Catalog Page
To add user comments to any route (except route 0):
1
1. Rotate K to display the route you would like to add comments to.
2
2. Press C and use O to highlight the bottom row.
{
3. Use K and O to enter comments, and press E. To erase press \, then E.
3
5
Route Catalog Page
1. Route selection field
2. Route action field
3. Departure/Arrival waypoints
4. Cumulative distance of route
5. Comments/Parallel track offset field
62
4
The route action field, located at the top right of the page, is used to select the
desired route operation. The following functions are available:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Activate - activate the route for navigation
Reverse - activate a route in reverse order
Edit create a new route, or edit an existing route
Approach - select an approach for the route (see Section 5)
Star select a STAR for the route (see Section 5)
Sid select a SID for the route (see Section 5)
Delete delete a route
Copy copy the current route to an empty route
CPA calculate the closest point of approach
Search - perform search-and-rescue ladder operations
RAIM prd - evaluate enroute RAIM availability over the entire route
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The route editing function allows you to create new routes and edit existing
routes. Creating routes before takeoff can help make route operations faster and easier
during your flight.
To create or edit a route from the route catalog page:
1. Use K to display the route number you would like to edit.
ROUTE NAV
SECTION
Creating &
Editing Routes
4
2. Press C.
3. Use K to select ‘edit?’. Press E. The route review page will appear.
To add a waypoint:
4. Rotate O to highlight the first blank waypoint field or the point where you want to enter
the new waypoint. The first waypoint field will already be highlighted if you’re creating a
new route.
5. Use K and O to enter the waypoint’s identifier. Press E.
Selecting the route edit function.
6. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt on the waypoint confirmation page.
7. Repeat steps 4 through 6 to add the next waypoint, or press C to finish.
To delete a waypoint:
1. Rotate O to highlight the waypoint you wish to delete.
2. Press \ to remove the name, then press E to delete.
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 to delete additional waypoints, or press C to finish.
To delete an entire route:
1. Use K to display the route number you would like to delete (route 0 for the active route).
Adding a waypoint to route 1.
2. Press C and use O to highlight the action field.
3. Use K to select ‘delete?’. Press E to delete.
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ROUTE NAV
Deleting &
Activating Routes
Once a route is defined through the route catalog page, it may be activated from the
route catalog page. Activating or reversing a route places the selected route into route 0
and overwrites the existing active route.
To activate a route:
1. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
2. Rotate K to display the route you would like to activate.
3. Press C and use K to display ‘activate?’. Press E.
After travelling a route or creating a route with the GPS 155XL’s AutoStore™ feature,
the route activation field may be used to activate the route in reverse order.
To activate a route in reverse order:
Deleting route 0.
1. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
2. Use K to display the route number you would like to reverse.
3. Press C and use K to display ‘reverse?’. Press E.
This will copy the reversed route to route 0 and display the active route page. The original route will remain intact in its storage route location.
The route action field also features a copy function that permits you to copy any route
to another open storage route. The copy function can be used to save the contents of the
active route (route 0) to an open storage route.
Reversing route 0.
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To copy a route:
1. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
2. Use K to display the route to which you would like to copy. The route must be empty.
3. Press C and rotate K to select ‘copy?’. Press E.
ROUTE NAV
SECTION
Copying Routes
CPA Function
4
4. Use K to enter the route you would like to copy. The departure/arrival identifiers will be
displayed for your reference. Press E to copy the route.
The CPA function calculates the closest distance that a route will pass to a
reference waypoint, and helps when creating new route waypoints referenced to a
NAVAID.
To calculate the closest point of approach (CPA) from the route catalog page:
1. Use K to display the route you would like to use for the CPA function. The route must
consist of at least two waypoints, and the reference facility must fall between the
waypoints of a route leg.
Calculating closest point of approach.
2. Press C and rotate K to select ‘cpa?’. Press E.
3. Use K and O to enter the identifier of the reference waypoint.
4. Press E. The bearing and distance of the closest point on the route will be displayed.
5. Press E to add the cpa waypoint to the route, or \ to finish. If you do add the cpa
waypoint to the route, it will be named based on the reference waypoint plus a number
(0-9) added to the end (e.g., KMCI3 for KMCI). If the waypoint does not fall between
waypoints on the route, the reference waypoint does not exist or a unique name cannot
be assigned to the CPA waypoint, you will be informed with the ‘Invald CPA wpt ____’
message.
Closest point of approach to ‘TXK’.
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SECTION
4
Page 66
ROUTE NAV
Search & Rescue
Operations
The GPS 155XL’s search-and-rescue function provides navigation guidance for
search-and-rescue operations, navigating in a ladder pattern to maximize coverage and
efficiency. This is done in reference to two waypoints called ‘anchor waypoints’. The
first leg will be a specified distance from the line connecting the anchor waypoints.
This is called the ‘offset distance’. The ‘increment distance’ is the distance between each
subsequent leg. The ladder can be created on either side of the anchor waypoints.
To perform a search-and-rescue operation:
1. Create a route of only two waypoints.
2. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
3. Use K to select the 2-waypoint route.
4. Press C and use K to display ‘search?’. Press E.
5. Use K and O to enter the leg increment value and R or L. Press E.
6. Rotate O to highlight the initial offset, and use K and O to enter the initial offset
value, and R or L.
The map page will show the active leg of the
search and rescue pattern as a solid line with the
anchor waypoints joined together by a dashed line.
Performing a search-and-rescue operation.
66
7. Press E three times to accept the operation values and begin navigation.
After activating a search-and-rescue, you will be informed with an ‘Offset nav in
effect’ message each time you traverse the route offset from the anchor waypoints. The
NAV summary page will guide you along each leg of the ladder pattern. Note that
bearing and distance information are referenced to the anchor waypoints. Once you’ve
arrived at the destination waypoint, the leg increment will be added to your present
offset, and the route will be automatically reversed. If a search-and-rescue is interrupted, note the parallel track direction (R or L) and distance on the catalog page for route
0. When you resume search-and-rescue operations, use this as the initial offset.
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The GPS 155XL’s Route RAIM Prediction Function evaluates enroute RAIM availability
over the entire route that the pilot intends to fly. Route RAIM Prediction ensures that
satellite coverage will be sufficient to meet the protection limits defined by
BRNAV/RNP-5 (FAA Advisory Circular 90-96).
ROUTE NAV
Route RAIM
Prediction
SECTION
4
To use the Route RAIM Prediction Function:
1. From the Route Catalog Page (Figure 1), select the desired route for RAIM prediction (if the
route is empty, enter the route first).
2. Highlight the route action field by pressing C , rotate K to select ‘RAIM prd?’ and
press E. The Route RAIM Prediction Page will be displayed (Figure 2).
3. Highlight and enter departure time, departure date, enroute altitude, and enroute ground
speed (valid enroute ground speed is “65 nm or greater”). Press E to accept.
Figure 1
4. When all parameters are properly entered, move the cursor to the ‘Compute?’ field, and
press E. The unit will start to predict the RAIM availability over the entire route, and
will switch to ‘WAIT ->’, with the arrow sign continually rotating, indicating that the prediction computation is in progress.
5. If RAIM is available for the entire route ‘RAIM OK’ will appear on the Route RAIM
Prediction Page, as shown in Figure 3 (pg. 68).
Figure 2
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ROUTE NAV
Route RAIM
Prediction
Page 68
The time required for RAIM prediction computation depends on the route
distance (i.e., 1000 nautical miles = approximately 2 minutes) and the enroute speed.
The longer the route distance and the slower the enroute speed, the longer the time.
If RAIM unavailability is detected based on the associated requirement, the prediction
process will stop immediately and display ‘NO RAIM’ as shown in Figure 4.
‘NO RAIM’ does not mean RAIM is unavailable for the entire route. This
message results when RAIM unavailability is detected for more than 5 minutes at any
point along the intended flight (based on BRNAV requirements).
If a satellite is listed as ‘out of service’ by NOTAM, you may use the ‘rem
sat’ (remove satellite) field to prevent a particular satellite from being used in the
Route RAIM prediction (e.g., removing satellite 9 in Figure 4).
Figure 3
To exclude a satellite from the Route RAIM prediction:
1. Highlight the ‘rem sat’ field.
2. Rotate K to select the satellite to be excluded.
3. Press E to accept.
Figure 4
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4. Press E again to begin Route RAIM Prediction without using the selected satellite.
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During route navigation, it is sometimes desirable to navigate a specified distance
away from the ‘active leg’ to help avoid certain airspaces or regions. The GPS 155XL’s
parallel track feature will automatically guide you along a selected offset from the
active leg. Bearing and distance information will be to the waypoints along the original
course, with the CDI centered on the offset course.
ROUTE NAV
Parallel Track
Offset Navigation
SECTION
4
To use offset navigation, or ‘parallel track’:
1. Press R and use O to display the route catalog page.
2. Use K to display route 0 (parallel track can only be used on the active route).
3. Press C and use O to highlight the parallel track value field.
4. Use K and O to enter the desired distance and direction (R or L) from the leg.
5. Press E to accept. The Map Page will display the offset route as a solid line and the
original route as a dashed line.
Enter parallel track value after route activation.
It is important to note that offset navigation is only available on route navigation,
not direct-to navigation. If an approach is present in the active route, parallel offset
navigation is cancelled when entering the 30 nm terminal area. Offset navigation is
NOT valid for IFR approach procedures. “Approach not active” message will display if
parallel navigation is re-instated after approach navigation has been armed. When offset navigation is activated, an ‘Offset nav in effect’ message will be displayed with the
distance and direction noted on the route catalog page for route 0. If you enter an offset which causes a leg to be reversed, you’ll be informed with the message ‘Ofst too big
for rte’. If you change the active route in any way or perform a direct-to, you’ll be
informed with an ‘Offset nav cancelled’ message.
Parallel Track
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ROUTE NAV
Active Route
Page
USING THE ACTIVE ROUTE PAGE
The GPS 155XL’s active route page provides a
working list of all waypoints for the route you are
navigating, along with distance, timing or desired
track information. The scrolling arrow prompt to
the left of the route waypoint list indicates which
way to scroll to view additional route waypoints.
The active route page can also be used to manually select your next ‘active-to’ destination (using
D), which allows you to fly directly to any waypoint in the route without modifying the route
itself. The GPS 155XL will resume navigation of
the remainder of the route in sequence once you
arrive at the selected waypoint.
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Flying and Modifying the Active Route
Once a route has been created and activated, the GPS 155XL will provide navigation to each route waypoint through the active route, NAV summary and map pages.
From the active route page, you may also create and modify the active route, and
insert an approach, SID or STAR. The NAV summary page will display detailed navigation data on your progress to each route waypoint, and provide turn anticipation,
waypoint arrival and next desired track information. By understanding the relationship between the active route and NAV summary pages and the role of the waypoint
sequencing (GPS SEQ) switch, you’ll be able to get the most out of the GPS 155XL’s
advanced route and approach features.
Whenever the GPS 155XL is navigating an approach, route or an on-route directto, the active route page will provide a list of the route waypoints in sequence,
along with distance, time and course information. You may also create and edit a
route directly from the active route page. If you want to save a route created from the
active route page (route 0), you must copy it to an open storage route (see page 65)
before turning the unit off or activating another route. The active route page may be
displayed by pressing the R key and rotating O left continuously. It will also
appear automatically whenever an approach, route, SID or STAR is activated.
To scroll through the active route waypoints:
1. Rotate K with the cursor inactive (or O with the cursor active).
The active leg identifiers field, located at the top left of the page, displays the waypoint identifiers of the route leg you are currently navigating. The first waypoint
identifier displayed is the ‘active from’ waypoint. The second waypoint is the ‘active
to’ waypoint. The line connecting these waypoints is known as the ‘active leg’. If
you are navigating a direct-to, the field will display the ‘goto’ destination only.
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The distance field can be selected to display cumulative (‘cum’) distance or the distance for each route leg (‘leg’). If cumulative is selected, the first leg’s distance will be
displayed. The second leg will represent the first leg’s distance plus the second leg, and
so on. The time field may be configured to display the estimated time enroute (ete),
estimated time of arrival (eta) or desired track (dtk) for each leg.
ROUTE NAV
Adding Active
Route Waypoints
SECTION
4
To change the distance and time fields:
1. With the cursor active, rotate O to highlight the field you want to change.
2. Rotate K to select the desired setting and press C.
The active route page may also be used to create a new route or edit the route you
are currently navigating (approach, SID or STAR waypoints cannot be edited), and provides a fast method of selecting any route waypoint as your next destination waypoint
without modifying the active route. If you are editing the active route and want to save
it in its original form, copy it to an open storage route before editing.
Active route page with cumulative distance (cum)
and desired track (dtk) displayed.
To add waypoints to the active route:
1. Press C, if necessary, to activate the cursor.
2. Use O to highlight the first blank waypoint field, or highlight the waypoint before which
you would like to add the new waypoint.
3. Use K and O to enter the new waypoint identifier. Press E.
4. Press E to accept or \ to cancel. The cursor will automatically move to the next waypoint field, and the remaining route waypoints (if any are present) will move down the list
accordingly.
Active route page with leg distance and estimated
time enroute displayed.
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SECTION
ROUTE NAV
4
On-Route
Direct-To
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You can hold on a destination waypoint by setting
the GPS SEQ switch to the ‘HOLD’ position. The
GPS 155XL will hold on the current ‘active to’
waypoint as your navigation reference and prevents the unit from sequencing to the next waypoint in the route. A user-defined course may also
be selected on the external HSI (OBS).
To delete a waypoint from the active route:
1. Press C, if necessary, to activate the cursor.
2. Use O to highlight the waypoint you would like to delete from the active route.
3. Press \, followed by E. The next route waypoint (if available) will move up to take
the position of the deleted waypoint.
The active route page also allows you to select your next destination waypoint manually from the active route waypoint list and resume the remainder of the route in
sequence. This procedure, referred to as an ‘on-route’ direct-to, allows the pilot to fly
directly to any waypoint in the active route without editing the active route, approach,
SID or STAR itself. For example, if you are flying a route with an armed approach, the
GPS 155XL will automatically provide the initial approach fix (IAF) for the selected
approach as your ‘active to’ waypoint. If you have been vectored directly to the final
approach fix (bypassing the IAF), you can manually “skip ahead” to the final approach
fix as your next active to waypoint.
To perform an on-route direct-to from the active route page:
1. Press C and rotate O to highlight the desired waypoint.
2. Press D, followed by E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt on the waypoint
confirmation page.
Whenever waypoint sequencing is set to ‘hold’, the
desired course is displayed at the bottom left of the
NAV summary page. See page 60 for more details.
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The GPS 155XL will now provide guidance to the selected waypoint and resume
navigating the remainder of the route in sequence once you arrive at the next destination waypoint. The waypoint sequencing field, located at the bottom left of the
direct-to confirmation page, indicates the current status of the waypoint sequencing
(GPS SEQ) switch. For more information on the waypoint sequencing switch and waypoint ‘hold’ operations, see Section 5.
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During route operations, the NAV summary page is used to provide turn anticipation, next desired track and waypoint arrival information to the pilot. The GPS
155XL’s turn anticipation feature will smooth out the transition between adjacent
route legs by providing CDI guidance along a curved path segment. This leg transition is based on the aircraft’s actual ground speed and the difference between the
course angle of the two legs. The GPS 155XL will automatically sequence to the next
leg when you are abeam the ‘active to’ waypoint on the curved transition segment,
and the to/from indicator on the CDI will flip momentarily. During the transition, the
CDI display will be referenced to the dotted line illustrated at the right. Turn anticipation will not be provided in the following scenarios:
ROUTE NAV
Turn Anticipation
SECTION
4
• Waypoint/fix crossing is a requirement of the approach, SID or STAR
you’re navigating.
• The GPS SEQ switch is in the HOLD position.
• Your current ground speed and the course angle between the two legs
require a bank angle greater than 25º (see right).
As you approach a route waypoint, the GPS 155XL’s external waypoint annunciator
will flash 15 seconds before the turn anticipation point, and the graphical CDI will be
replaced by a flashing ‘Next dtk xxxº’ prompt (and the desired track readout on the
map page will flash), indicating the desired track of the next route leg.
To use the turn anticipation feature, note the ‘Next dtk’ heading when the external
waypoint annunciator begins to flash, and start the turn when the annunciator glows
steadily (approximately 2 seconds before the turn anticipation point). Once you’ve
reached the turn anticipation point, the desired track (dtk) field on the NAV summary
page will change to display the course for the next leg. If you have not adjusted your
HSI course selector before the turn, the ‘Next dtk’ will continue to flash until you
have reached the midpoint of the turn. Please refer to your aircraft flight manual supplement for specific turn anticipation instructions.
Since the approach select, STAR select and SID select pages relate to the GPS
155XL’s approach features, these pages and their functions are described in Section 5.
As you approach a route waypoint, the graphical
CDI will be replaced by a flashing ‘Next dtk xxxº’
prompt indicating the desired track of the next leg.
When using the map page, the desired track readout will flash and indicate the dtk for the next leg.
If the turn angle and your present speed will
require a bank angle that exceeds 25º, you’ll be
notified with a ‘Steep turn ahead’ message
approximately 90 seconds before arrival at the
active to waypoint.
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APPROACH NAV
Overview
Once an approach is selected, the GPS 155XL will
replace the destination airport with the appropriate approach waypoints. The initial approach fix,
final approach fix and missed approach point
waypoints are indicated by an ‘if’, ‘ff’ and ‘mp’
designation to the immediate left of the waypoints.
In many instances, there may be approach waypoints in the GPS approach that are not shown on
the approach plate. These approach waypoints are
usually intermediate fixes designed to help the
GPS provide smooth navigation along the
approach path.
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Section 5
Approaches, SIDs and STARs
The GPS 155XL’s approach navigation mode allows you to fly non-precision
approaches to airports with GPS and overlay procedures using information contained
on your Jeppesen NavData® card. GPS approaches are similar to existing IFR
approach procedures, but provide additional course and distance information for a
higher level of accuracy, efficiency and safety. The non-precision approaches available
in the GPS 155XL are executed using the GPS route features covered in Section 4, so
it’s important to understand routes before attempting approach navigation. A GPS
approach is a sequence of waypoints linked together as an approach route which
replaces your destination airport waypoint when selected. It may be based on an
existing RNAV, VOR or NDB approach procedure, or be an entirely new approach
created specifically for GPS. Regardless of the type of approach on which a GPS procedure is based, the procedure is flown as a sequence of route legs in the active route.
The GPS 155XL’s auto-arming feature provides automatic control of the two
phases of approach operations: arm approach and active approach. The arm
approach phase consists of selecting an approach from the database and ensuring that
the receiver is ready to begin the tighter integrity monitoring and CDI adjustment
required for approach navigation. The active approach phase tightens the accuracy
requirements and sensitivity one step further to meet TSO standards for the non-precision approach. Auto-arming of the approach will occur once you are within 30 nm
of the destination airport, and will be indicated by an ‘ARM’ message on the external
GPS APR switch. The approach will then transition to the active phase when the aircraft is within 2 nm of the FAF along the inbound course to the final approach fix.
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The GPS 155XL works in conjunction with a set of external switches and your
HSI (OBS) to fly GPS approaches. The external switches are used to control GPS functions, and contain illuminated annunciators to indicate when functions are active.
Your installation must also have annunciators for waypoint arrival and GPS messages.
NAV GPS
NAV ACTV
GPS Approach
Switch
SECTION
5
NAV GPS
ARM GPS
The NAV/GPS switch determines which data (GPS or NAV1) will be displayed on
the HSI and used by the autopilot/flight director. The current selection will be
indicated by an annunciator light. If power to the GPS 155XL is lost, the system
will automatically revert to NAV1.
GPS APR
CTV
APPROACH NAV
GPS APR
ARM ACTV
GPS APR
ARM ACTV
The GPS APR switch is used to arm or deactivate an approach, and indicates the
current approach phase status (‘ARM’ or ‘ACTV’). The GPS 155XL will automatically arm a selected approach 30 nm from the airport. If the pilot wishes to terminate the approach or fly the missed approach, the GPS APR switch may be pressed
to disarm/deactivate the approach at any time and return the CDI scale sensitivity
to the 1.0 nm setting. The GPS APR switch may also be used to re-arm the
approach at any time before reaching the FAF. If the selected approach is disarmed
before the FAF, the unit will prompt you to re-arm the approach 3 nm before the
final approach fix.
Arm Approach Mode
The external GPS APR switch will automatically
be set to the ARM position 30 nm from the destination airport. Once the approach is armed, the
unit will provide a smooth transistion from the 5.0
to 1.0 nautical mile CDI scale, and down to 0.3
nm within 2 nm inbound to the FAF. If the
approach is manually disarmed, it may be rearmed at any time (before reaching the FAF) by
pressing the GPS APR switch.
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SECTION
APPROACH NAV
5
GPS SEQ Switch
N
W
E
24
GPS SEQ
AUTO ACTV
15
S
21
OBS
12
FR
Always set the desired course on the HSI (OBS)
BEFORE returning the GPS SEQ switch to the
‘AUTO’ position.
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GPS SEQ
AUTO ACTV
AUTOHOLD
The GPS SEQ switch is used to select manual or automatic waypoint sequencing
of waypoints. Setting the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position holds your current
‘active to’ waypoint as your navigation reference and prevents the GPS from sequencing to the next waypoint. When the GPS SEQ switch is set to the AUTO position,
automatic waypoint sequencing is selected. Whenever the GPS SEQ switch is
engaged, the HOLD annunciator will illuminate and the GPS will continue navigating
to the active-to waypoint regardless of your position relative to other waypoints.
3
TO
GPS SEQ
6
30
33
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The GPS SEQ switch must be set to the HOLD position any time you are deviating from the flight sequence of an approach (e.g., when you are flying radar vectors)
or when you must cross the same waypoint twice in succession (e.g., procedure turn,
IAF and FAF at the same waypoint). Whenever the GPS SEQ switch is set to the
HOLD position, the GPS 155XL allows you to select the desired course to/from a
waypoint using the HSI, much like a VOR.
Whenever the GPS SEQ switch is released from the HOLD position, the GPS
155XL will ‘capture’ the present HSI setting as your desired course. Always dial in
your next desired course before returning the GPS SEQ switch to the AUTO position.
The GPS SEQ switch may be released from the HOLD position 2 seconds after the
inbound course has been set. The GPS 155XL will continue navigation on the last
selected course through the active-to waypoint and sequence to the next approach
waypoint.
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Basic Rules of GPS Approaches
The GPS 155XL is the first GPS certified to meet the requirements of TSO
C-129a Category A1. When using the GPS 155XL for non-precision approaches,
you’ll encounter two types of approaches: overlay approaches (based on existing procedures) and GPS approaches (new approaches designed specifically for GPS). The
FAA has approved a large number of overlay approaches, with plans to add as many
GPS approaches as possible to take advantage of the safety and convenience of GPS.
APPROACH NAV
Basic Rules of
GPS Approaches
Flying a GPS approach is not difficult, and varies from conventional approaches
only in the operation of the equipment being used. Although you’ll often be following
the same flight path used in conventional approaches, the equipment operation procedures will be different from typical NDB or VOR approaches.
The following definitions, guidelines and examples that follow will help you
understand the basic rules of GPS approaches, and guide you through some typical
approaches. Think through the approach examples— this will assist you in getting
the greatest benefit from the GPS 155XL. There are a few basic rules that apply to all
GPS approaches. Remembering these rules will assist you in understanding the
approach procedures and ensure the greatest margin of safety for your flight.
SECTION
5
MAP
0.3 nm
FAF
2 nm
1 nm
30 nm
• The approach to be flown must be in the aviation database, and the database
must be current.
• You may select an approach any time after the destination airport is selected.
If the GPS APR switch does not indicate an ‘ARM’ status within 2 nm inbound
to the final approach fix, you run the risk of flying a non-approved approach.
• When performing an approach, the GPS SEQ switch must be set to the AUTO
position with the FAF as the active to waypoint for the approach to go active.
If the switch has not been set to the AUTO position 2 nm before the FAF, the
CDI scale transition will be compressed, making the CDI change more abrupt.
(continued on the next page...)
1 nm
1 minute
5 nm
CDI Scale ramping during approach.
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• If you cross the same waypoint twice in succession during an approach (e.g.,
the IAF and FAF at the same waypoint, or radar vectors to the FAF), you must
set the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position prior to crossing the fix the
first time to prevent the GPS from sequencing to the next waypoint.
APPROACH NAV
Basic Rules of
GPS Approaches
• During a GPS approach, keep in mind that your external HSI will display the
same CDI needle deflection and scale as the CDI on the GPS 155XL, which
will transition from 5.0 to 0.3 nm through the approach. Also note that unlike
a VOR CDI, the GPS CDI scale is based on the cross-track distance to the
desired course (the distance to the reference waypoint does not have an effect
on the CDI scale, see illustration left).
• The HSI course select should always be set 2 seconds before changing the
GPS SEQ from HOLD to AUTO to ensure the desired course to the next waypoint is settled prior to use by the GPS and give the autopilot sufficient time
to react to the heading change.
2 2
nm nm
• GPS always displays distance from the currently active waypoint. When determining distance along the approach, use caution to determine the correct distance from the approach chart.
• RAIM must be available (the GPS 155XL automatically monitors RAIM, and
will display a message if it is not available) from the FAF to the MAP. If RAIM
is not available or becomes unavailable during this leg, the HSI NAV flag will
appear, and you must fly the missed approach procedure.
5 nm
5 nm
5 nm
5 nm
Unlike a VOR, GPS CDI deflection is based on the
cross-track distance to the desired course, regardless of how far away you are from the destination.
78
• When flying a missed approach, SID or STAR, you must fly all published procedures and ensure that all printed course and altitude restraints are achieved.
• If you are off course to the MAP waypoint and use a direct-to to re-center the
d-bar, the active approach will be cancelled.
• SUA alerts are disabled when an approach is selected and armed and the aircraft is less than 30 nm from the destination airport. SUA information is still
available from the NRST key at all times.
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Flying A Typical Approach
The non-precision approaches available from the GPS 155XL will all follow the
same general flow of events described below. Specific details and instructions relating
to each step, along with several approach examples are provided later in this chapter.
APPROACH NAV
Typical Approach
Procedures
SECTION
5
1. Create a direct-to or route with an airport as the final destination
To save time during your flight, you may wish to create a route and select
an approach before takeoff using the route catalog page.
2. Select an approach for the destination airport
An approach may be selected at any time, but must be loaded before reaching the final approach fix. Once an approach is selected, the approach waypoints will replace the destination airport and the GPS 155XL will provide
navigation to the Initial Approach Fix.
Select the approach.
3. Transition to the Arm Approach Phase
The GPS 155XL will automatically arm the approach 30 nm from the
destination airport. The CDI scale will begin to ramp down from the 5.0 nm
to the 1.0 nm scale, and the GPS APR annunciator will indicate an ‘ARM’
status.
4. Establish yourself on the final approach course
a. No procedure turn approach– no special requirements
b. Radar vectors– requires use of GPS SEQ switch to hold on
designated approach waypoint
c. Procedure turn– requires use of GPS SEQ switch to hold on
active waypoint
d. DME arc– requires use of position page to monitor distance from
reference waypoint
(continued on the next page...)
GPS APR
CTV
GPS APR
ARM ACTV
The GPS 155XL will automatically arm the
approach 30 nm from the destination airport.
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APPROACH NAV
Typical Approach
Procedures
GPS approaches must be in the current aviation
database to be approved.
5. Transition to Active Approach Phase
The approach will automatically transition to the active approach stage and
the GPS APR annunciator will indicate an ‘ACTV’ status if the following
conditions are met:
a. The approach is armed
b. The aircraft is 2 nm from the FAF on an inbound course
c. The GPS SEQ switch is set to the ‘AUTO’ position
d. The FAF is the active-to waypoint
e. The GPS 155XL confirms that integrity monitoring will be available to
complete the approach
Once the active approach phase begins, the CDI scale will begin to gradually transition from the 1.0 nm scale to the 0.3 nm scale, and remain at the
0.3 nm scale from the FAF to the MAP unless the approach is cancelled by
pressing the external GPS APR switch, setting the GPS SEQ switch to
‘HOLD’ or by initiating a direct-to operation.
WARNING: You are not authorized to fly the final portion of the approach
unless the external GPS APR annunciator indicates an ‘ACTV’ status.
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TSO C-129a requires that satellite coverage and
navigational accuracy provided by the GPS system
meet minimum standards. A ‘No RAIM from FAF
to MAP’ message will appear if RAIM is predicted
to be unavailable for an approach. If you receive a
RAIM message, continue the approach ONLY if the
ACTV annunciator remains illuminated to the
MAP. If the ACTV annunciator does not stay illuminated, your HSI NAV flag will appear, and you
must fly the missed approach procedure.
6. Missed Approach Procedure
The GPS 155XL’s automatic waypoint sequencing stops at the missed
approach point. Once you have crossed the MAP, the GPS 155XL will give
you the option of flying direct to the missed approach holding point:
a. Press the GPS APR switch to return the CDI to the 1.0 nm scale.
b. AFTER crossing the MAP, press D, followed by E to fly directly to
the missed approach holding point.
WARNING! A direct course to the missed approach holding point may not
correspond to the published missed approach procedure. Always fly all
published procedures before selecting the holding fix on the GPS.
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Selecting and Loading an Approach
When an arrival airport is selected with the direct-to key (or created and activated in
a route to the arrival airport), the approaches for your arrival airport become available
through the approach select page, which can be viewed by pressing R and rotating
the outer knob. Remember that an airport must be the last waypoint in a route to select
an approach.
APPROACH NAV
Selecting
Approaches
SECTION
5
To select an approach:
1. Select the destination airport using the D key, or create and activate a route
to the destination airport (see Section 4).
2. Press R and rotate O to display the approach select page.
3. Rotate K (or O with the cursor active) to display the desired approach procedure.
4. Press C twice (if necessary) and rotate O until the desired approach is highlighted.
Select the Initial Approach Fix.
5. Press E to select the approach.
If an approach procedure has more than one Initial Approach Fix (IAF), you’ll need
to select the desired IAF identifier for your approach.
To select an IAF:
1. Rotate O until the desired IAF is highlighted.
2. Press E.
Once the IAF is selected, the approach waypoints will be inserted into Route 0,
replacing the destination airport, and the active route page will be displayed. To review
the active route, rotate the K knob. The scrolling arrow prompt will indicate which
direction to scroll to view additional waypoints, while the ‘if’, ‘ff’ and ‘mp’ designators
will indicate the IAF, FAF and MAP respectively.
Once the approach is loaded, the active route page
will appear.
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APPROACH NAV
Flying the
Approach
When the aircraft is within 30 nautical miles of the destination airport, the GPS
155XL will automatically arm the approach, and the GPS APR switch will indicate an
‘ARM’ status.
To fly the GPS approach (without radar vectors):
1. Confirm that the GPS APR switch indicates an ‘ARM’ status. The CDI scale will begin a
steady transition from the 5.0 nm to the 1.0 nm scale as you make your way to the FAF. If
the approach has been disarmed and the aircraft is within 3 nm of the FAF, the GPS 155XL
will prompt you to re-arm the approach.
2. The GPS 155XL will automatically sequence to each waypoint in the approach, with CDI,
course and timing guidance to each waypoint. For each waypoint in the approach, the GPS
155XL’s turn anticipation and waypoint alerting features will provide three pilot cues:
The GPS APR switch will indicate ‘ARM’ when the
approach is armed. This will begin automatic CDI
scale transitioning from 5.0 nm to 1.0 nm as you
make your way to the FAF.
a. The waypoint annunciator will flash approximately 15 seconds before reaching the
turning point for each approach waypoint, and glow steadily approximately 2 seconds
prior to the turn anticipation point.
b. The ‘Next dtk’ prompt will flash in the CDI field when the ‘WPT’ annunciator begins
flashing. Set the HSI course select to the next dtk value when the waypoint annunciator starts flashing. Start the turn when the annunciator glows steadily.
c. The To/From indicator flag on the GPS CDI will flip momentarily to indicate you have
transitioned to the next approach leg.
For more information on turn anticipation and waypoint alerting, please refer to Section 4.
3. If a procedure turn is required:
a. 2 miles prior to crossing the waypoint outbound, set the GPS SEQ switch to HOLD.
b. At the waypoint, set the outbound course on the HSI.
The ‘Next dtk’ prompt will flash to indicate the
desired course for the leg of the approach route.
Set the HSI course select to the next dtk value
when the waypoint annunciator starts flashing.
82
c. Fly the procedure turn. After the procedure turn outbound, set the inbound course on
the HSI.
d. On the inbound intercept to the final course, fly to center the CDI.
(continued on next page)
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e. Set the GPS SEQ switch to the AUTO position. The GPS 155XL will resume automatic
waypoint sequencing for the remaining approach waypoints.
4. Once the aircraft is within 2 nm of the FAF (and the approach is armed), the ‘ACTV’ annunciator will illuminate and the CDI scale will ramp down to 0.3 nm.
NOTE: If the ACTV annunciator does not illuminate, do not descend after crossing the FAF
and fly all published missed approach procedures.
APPROACH NAV
Flying the
Approach
SECTION
5
5. Upon reaching the FAF, the GPS 155XL will automatically sequence to the MAP waypoint.
To fly a missed approach procedure:
If an approach is terminated, the GPS 155XL may be used to navigate to the missed approach
holding point using one of the following procedures.
NOTE: To comply with TSO specifications, the GPS 155XL will not automatically sequence
to the missed approach holding point. The missed approach holding point will be displayed
as the next available waypoint, which the pilot may activate when authorized. You must
fly all published missed approach procedures before selecting the missed approach holding point on the GPS. If you want to disarm the approach and return the CDI scale to the
1 nm sensitivity, press the GPS APR switch.
After crossing the MAP, press the D key to display the missed approach holding point.
If the approach procedure permits navigation direct from the MAP to the missed
approach holding point:
1. After the MAP has been crossed, press the D key. The GPS 155XL will automatically
display the first waypoint of the missed approach as the next approach waypoint.
2. Press E to confirm the destination. The GPS 155XL will provide a direct navigation
course to the waypoint.
If you have clearance directly to the holding point,
press E. You must fly all published missed
approach procedures before navigating to the
holding point.
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Page 84
If you’re not authorized to fly direct-to the missed approach holding point:
SECTION
5
APPROACH NAV
Missed Approach
1. After the MAP has been crossed, press the D key. The GPS 155XL will automatically
display the first waypoint of the missed approach procedure as the next approach waypoint.
2. Press E to confirm the destination.
3. Stop automatic waypoint sequencing by setting the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position.
4. Fly the missed approach procedure. Remember to select the desired inbound course to the
missed approach holding point before setting the GPS SEQ switch to the AUTO position.
5. Set the GPS SEQ switch to the AUTO position for navigation to the missed approach
holding point.
Select the waypoint to which you have been given
clearance on the active route page and press D.
After a missed approach, the GPS 155XL will allow you to repeat the same
approach procedure and select the approach waypoint to which you have been
cleared as the next active to waypoint. Before reactivating the approach, make sure
you fly all published missed approach procedures.
To reactivate the same approach for another attempt:
1. Press the R key and rotate O to select the active route page.
2. Press C and rotate O to place the cursor over the identifier of the approach waypoint
to which you have been given clearance.
Confirm the starting waypoint for the next
attempt by pressing E.
84
3. Press the D key, followed by E. The GPS 155XL will provide navigation for the
repeat approach, starting with the approach waypoint you have selected.
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The GPS 155XL’s approach select page allows you to review the available approach procedures at the destination airport. From the procedures list, you may select and activate a new
procedure on the fly. The active approach is indicated by an on-screen asterisk, and the
scrolling arrow prompt indicates which direction to scroll to view additional procedures.
APPROACH NAV
Approach Select
Page
To select or replace a procedure from the approach select page:
SECTION
5
1. Press the R key and rotate O until the approach select page appears.
2. To review all available procedures, rotate K . “Unkn” (unknown) is displayed on
the Approach Select Page when the unit software does not know how to display
a new approach type in the database. DO NOT USE THIS APPROACH TYPE.
3. To review all available procedures, rotate K.
4. To select a procedure, press C and rotate O to highlight the desired procedure.
5. Press E. If there are multiple IAFs for the selected approach, rotate O to select the
desired IAF and press E.
Approach Select Page
You may also replace or delete the active approach from the route catalog page.
To replace or delete an approach from the route catalog page:
1. Press the R key and rotate O until the route catalog page appears.
2. Press C and rotate K until the ‘approach?’ prompt appears. Press E.
3. To replace the active approach procedure, rotate O to highlight the desired procedure
and press E. If there are multiple IAFs for the selected approach, rotate O to select
the desired IAF and press E.
4. To delete the active approach (denoted by an asterisk), highlight the approach and press
\, followed by E.
The Approach Select Page after deleting the
active approach. If direct-to navigation to a
SID/STAR/Approach waypoint is active when
the procedure is deleted, the direct-to waypoint
will be retained as an “off route” destination.
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Page 86
GPS APPROACH EXAMPLES
APPROACH NAV
SECTION
5
GPS Approach
Examples
In the examples that follow, the GPS waypoints are shown along the approach
path. In some cases, intermediate database waypoints have been added to approaches.
These waypoints are named using lower case letters using the following convention
(the most common database waypoints are defined below). Note that these waypoints
are not charted on NOS approach plates. They do appear on current Jeppesen
approach charts.
• dyyyj—
30
7°
082°
ff13
262°
MAGUS
387
1800
116° (7.9)
30
7°
n13hp
Ref: NDB RWY 13 approach
at Bay City TX (3R1)
86
10 NM
IAF
BAY CITY
344 BYY
DME arc waypoint where yyy is the radial from the
reference facility (VOR) and j represents the arc
radius (e.g., “a”= 1 nm, “b”= 2 nm, etc.)
• cfxx or cfxxx— course fix for runway xx or radial xxx
• ffxx or ffxxx— final approach fix for runway xx or radial xxx
• rwxx—
runway xx threshold
• nxxhp—
NDB approach runway xx intermediate holding
pattern waypoint
• maxx or maxxx— missed approach point for runway xx or radial xxx
• vxxhp—
VOR approach runway xx intermediate holding
pattern waypoint
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Page 87
EXAMPLE 1— GPS ONLY APPROACH
Example 1 uses the GPS approach into Frederick Municipal Airport (KFDK) and
illustrates the basic sequence of selecting and flying a GPS approach, and flying
directly to a missed approach holding point. Please refer to the previous sections of
this chapter for expanded keystroke instructions.
APPROACH NAV
SECTION
GPS Only
Approach Example
5
8°
GPS RWY 5
FREDERICK MUNI (FDK)
04
2. Select the desired approach (GPS RW05) from the approach select page. The GPS 155XL
will automatically select MRB as the IAF since it is the only IAF available.
8°
1. Select the destination airport (KFDK) using the D key, or create and activate a route
to the destination airport.
22
155xlb manual
RUSSY
3. Confirm that the GPS APR switch indicates an ‘ARM’ status 30 nm from the airport. The
CDI will automatically begin a smooth transition from the 5.0 nm to the 1.0 nm scale.
5. Set the HSI course to DTK at each waypoint. Confirm that the GPS APR switch indicates
an ‘ACTV’ status within 2 nm of the FAF (BAKEE). The CDI will automatically transition
from the 1.0 nm to 0.3 nm scale as you approach the FAF, and the unit will warn you if
RAIM is not available for your approach.
8°
(MAP)
MYRTA
04
4. Fly the approach. The GPS will provide navigation to each approach waypoint in sequence:
• MRB (initial approach fix)
• SUSII
• BAKEE (final approach fix)
• MYRTA (missed approach point)
• RUSSY (missed approach holding point)
300
120 0
(16 °
.5)
2000
048° (2.5)
(FAF)
BAKEE
2.5 NM FROM BAKEE
IAF
MARTINSBURG
SUSII
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB TO 3000 DIRECT
RUSSY AND HOLD
SUSII
3000
2.5 NM FROM
BAKEE
BAKEE
2700
6. Complete the approach by landing or perform the missed approach procedure.
2000
2700
048° (2.5)
MYRTA
MAP
048
°
3.10°
7. For direct navigation guidance to the missed approach holding point (RUSSY), press D
followed by E after crossing the MAP (MYRTA).
2.5 NM
S S
2.5 NM
3.8 NM
1.2
MISSED APPROACH
DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
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EXAMPLE 2 – VOR/GPS OVERLAY APPROACH
APPROACH NAV
SECTION
5
Example 2 uses the VOR/GPS RWY 19 approach into Kansas City Downtown
Airport (KMKC) from the south and illustrates an approach with a procedure turn,
which requires the pilot to set the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position prior to
crossing the IAF the first time. This example also illustrates the procedures required
when direct navigation to the missed approach holding point is not available.
VOR/GPS
Overlay Example
R-01
3
VOR RWY 19
KANSAS CITY
DOWNTOWN (MKC)
KANSAS CITY
°
238
°
058
2. Fly towards the IAF (JAMES) of the approach.
(IAF)
JAMES INT
RIS 5.3
193°
193°
2600
154° (4.7)
1. Select the VOR/GPS RW19 approach and confirm that the GPS APR switch indicates an
‘ARM’ approach status.
3. Two nautical miles before crossing the IAF, set the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position.
This prevents the GPS 155XL from automatically sequencing to the MAP (Riverside) before
the required procedure turn is completed.
R-2
81
°
228
°
048
260
28 0
(21 1°
.2)
R-260
4. After crossing the IAF, set the 013º outbound course on the HSI.
RIVERSIDE
10
EN
RO
UT
E
NM
49
R-1
NAPOLEON
5. Initiate the procedure turn and set the 193° inbound course on the HSI. As you turn to the
inbound intercept heading, set the GPS SEQ switch to the AUTO position. The GPS SEQ
switch must be set to the AUTO position for the approach to go active.
6. Confirm that the GPS APR switch indicates an ‘ACTV’ approach status within 2 nm of the
FAF. Complete the approach by landing, or follow the missed approach procedure.
FA
CIL
ITIE
S
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB RIGHT TURN TO 3000
ON HEADING 240° THEN VIA
R-260 TO ANX VORTAC
AND HOLD.
JAMES INT
RIS 7
REMAIN
WITHIN 10 NM
013
°
2600
VOR/DME
193°
7. To fly the missed approach procedure, cross the MAP (Riverside), climb to 3000 feet via
heading 240° and press D followed by E. This will select the missed approach
holding point (ANX) as your ‘active to’ waypoint.
2500
4.5 NM
DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
88
8. Since direct navigation to the holding waypoint is not authorized, set the GPS SEQ switch
to the HOLD position to prevent automatic waypoint sequencing.
9. Set the HSI to the 080° heading and turn left to intercept the inbound course to the
holding point.
Page 89
EXAMPLE 3 – VOR/DME ARC OVERLAY APPROACH
APPROACH NAV
SECTION
5
VOR/DME ARC
Example
VOR/DME RWY 21
TOPEKA/
FORBES FIELD (FOE)
3000
TOP
NoPT
rc
7 A 3000
205° (7)
IAF
TOPEKA
(IAF)
2. Fly towards the IAF (D094G). The GPS WPT annunciator will flash 15 seconds before you
reach the waypoint.
PT
0 No
300
Arc
P 7
TO
1. Select the VOR RW21 approach and select the D094G initial approach fix to fly the left
hand arc from the 094° radial. Thirty nautical miles from the airport, confirm that the GPS
APR switch indicates an ‘ARM’ status.
5°
Example 3 uses the VOR/DME RWY 21 approach into Topeka/Forbes Field
Airport (KFOE) and illustrates an approach based on a DME arc. Although DME arc
approaches are not based on a direct course, the GPS 155XL will still provide
approach navigation guidance through the arc by constantly displaying your distance
and bearing from the DME reference navaid on the position page. To fly the arc,
monitor the distance displayed on the position page and manually adjust your heading to maintain the course along the arc. When flying a DME arc, the GPS SEQ switch
must be set to the HOLD position to ensure proper CDI operation.
20
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2
1 M 05°
20 IN
5°
155xlb manual
R-258
(IAF)
R-094
200
°
2600
(7)
3. After crossing the IAF, set the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position.
TOP
7
(continued on next page)
8°
04
5. Press N and rotate O to display the position page. The position page will display the
DME navaid as the reference waypoint (on the bottom line) as long as your ‘active to’
waypoint is part of the DME arc you are flying.
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB TO 3000 VIA HEADING
240° AND TOP R-213 TO
ERASE 25 DME AND HOLD.
VORTAC
ONE MINUTE
HOLDING PATTERN
22
8°
4. Set the desired inbound course (205º) on the CDI/HSI.
TOP
12
ERASE
TOP 25
TOP
7
200°
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB TO 3000 VIA HEADING
240° AND TOP R-213 TO
ERASE 25 DME AND HOLD.
VORTAC
025°
205°
3000
2600
5 NM
7 NM
ONE
MINUTE
HOLDING PATTERN
DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
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Page 90
6. Monitor your distance and bearing from the DME navaid along the arc.
5
APPROACH NAV
7. The external CDI course deviation needle will begin to center as you approach the inbound
course. The GPS WPT annunciator will flash 15 seconds before reaching the course fix,
and the desired track for the final approach will appear in place of the graphic CDI.
VOR/DME Arc
Example
33
30
W
TO
20
5°
E
2
1 M 05°
20 IN
5°
21
OBS
S
(IAF)
PT
0 No
300
Arc
P 7
TO
IAF
TOPEKA
12
FR
24
NoPT
3000
rc
7 A 3000
TOP
205° (7)
3
6
VOR/DME RWY 21
TOPEKA/
FORBES FIELD (FOE)
N
GPS SEQ
AUTO ACTV
15
SECTION
R-258
(IAF)
R-094
200
°
2600
(7)
8. Dial in the final course (200º) on the HSI and set the GPS SEQ switch to the AUTO position. Automatic waypoint sequencing will resume for the rest of the approach. Locate the
step down fix by monitoring the distance to the MAP as shown on the profile view of the
approach plate. Confirm that the GPS APR switch indicates an ‘ACTV’ status 2 nm from
the FAF.
TOP
7
8°
04
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB TO 3000 VIA HEADING
240° AND TOP R-213 TO
ERASE 25 DME AND HOLD.
VORTAC
ONE MINUTE
HOLDING PATTERN
22
8°
9. To fly the missed approach procedure, cross the MAP and climb to 3000 feet via
heading 240°.
TOP
12
ERASE
TOP 25
TOP
7
200°
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB TO 3000 VIA HEADING
240° AND TOP R-213 TO
ERASE 25 DME AND HOLD.
VORTAC
2600
5 NM
7 NM
ONE
MINUTE
HOLDING PATTERN
DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
90
025°
205°
10. Press D, followed by E. This will select the missed approach holding point
(ERASE) as your ‘active to’ waypoint.
3000
11. Place the procedure on HOLD by pressing the GPS SEQ switch.
12. Set the HSI to the 213° course, fly until the CDI is centered and enter the holding
pattern.
Page 91
EXAMPLE 4— RADAR VECTORS TO FINAL APPROACH COURSE
APPROACH NAV
SECTION
5
Radar Vector
Example
VOR/DME RWY 21
TOPEKA/
FORBES FIELD (FOE)
3000
TOP
IAF
TOPEKA
2. When you are advised by the controller that you will be receiving radar vectors to the final
approach course:
(IAF)
PT
0 No
300
Arc
P 7
TO
1. Select the desired approach and initial approach fix. Thirty nautical miles from the airport,
confirm that the GPS APR switch indicates an ‘ARM’ status.
NoPT
rc
7 A 3000
205° (7)
5°
Example 4 uses the same VOR/DME RWY 21 approach into Topeka/Forbes Field
Airport (KFOE) used in Example 3 and illustrates an approach using radar vectors to
a point 3 miles out from the final approach fix. To fly a radar vector approach, you
must still select a desired approach and IAF from the database and set the GPS SEQ
switch to HOLD while you fly the vectors to the active approach waypoint. To accommodate radar vectors, the GPS 155XL allows manual selection of any approach waypoint as the destination waypoint.
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2
1 M 05°
20 IN
5°
155xlb manual
R-258
(IAF)
°
200
• Activate the final approach fix waypoint from the active route page:
a. Press the R key and rotate O until the active route page appears.
R-094
2600
(7)
TOP
7
b. Rotate K until ‘ff21’ is displayed.
c. Press C to activate the cursor.
d. Rotate O until ‘ff21’ is highlighted.
4. Confirm that the GPS APR switch indicates an ‘ACTV’ status 2 nm from the FAF. Complete
the approach by landing or perform the missed approach procedure.
8°
04
3. Set the 200º inbound course on the HSI. As the CDI needle begins to center to the final
approach course, set the GPS SEQ switch to the AUTO position.
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB TO 3000 VIA HEADING
240° AND TOP R-213 TO
ERASE 25 DME AND HOLD.
VORTAC
ONE MINUTE
HOLDING PATTERN
22
• Set the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position.
8°
e. Press D, followed by E.
TOP
12
ERASE
TOP 25
TOP
7
200°
MISSED APPROACH
CLIMB TO 3000 VIA HEADING
240° AND TOP R-213 TO
ERASE 25 DME AND HOLD.
VORTAC
025°
205°
3000
2600
5 NM
7 NM
ONE
MINUTE
HOLDING PATTERN
DO NOT USE FOR NAVIGATION
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Page 92
APPROACH NAV
Selecting &
Activating SIDs
The Jeppesen database used in the GPS 155XL features standard terminal arrival
routes (STARs) and standard instrument departures (SIDs) that may be placed into
any active or stored route.
Available SIDs may be selected for the departure airport at any time in the active
route as long as the departure airport is the first route waypoint and the route contains more than one waypoint. SIDs may be selected for the nearest airport when the
first route waypoint is not an airport or the route contains less than two waypoints.
Activating a SID will modify the waypoint sequence of Route 0. If you’d like to save
the contents of Route 0, be sure to copy it to an empty storage route first.
To select and activate a SID:
1. Press R and rotate O until the SID select page appears.
Selecting a SID.
2. With the cursor inactive, rotate K until the desired SID name appears.
3. Press C and rotate O until the SID name is highlighted.
4. Press E. The SID waypoints will be inserted in the route.
If a SID has more than one runway or transition, the SID select page will display
the available runway designations and/or transitions.
To select a transition:
1. Rotate O until the transition name is highlighted and press E.
Selecting a SID transition.
To select a runway:
1. Rotate O until the runway designation name is highlighted and press E.
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The SID select page also allows you to review all the available SIDs for the departure airport and select, delete or change the active SID.
To replace/delete the active SID:
1. Press R and rotate O until the SID select page appears.
APPROACH NAV
SECTION
Selecting &
Deleting SIDs
5
2. Press C. The active SID (denoted by an asterisk) is highlighted.
3. To replace the active SID with another available SID, rotate O to highlight the desired
SID. Complete the selection by pressing E.
4. To delete the active SID, press \, followed by E. The SID waypoints will be
removed from the active route.
SIDs can also be selected and deleted from storage routes through the Route
Catalog page.
The SID select page allows you to select a new
SID on the fly.
To select a SID from the route catalog page:
1. Display the desired route on the route catalog page.
2. Select ‘sid?’ in the route operations field and press E.
3. Select the desired SID and transitions.
4. The SID waypoints will be inserted into the route and the route review page
will be displayed.
To delete a SID from the route catalog page:
1. Display the desired route on the route catalog page.
SIDs may be saved with any stored route.
2. Select ‘sid?’ in the route operations field and press E.
3. Rotate O to highlight the selected SID (denoted by an asterisk). Press \, then E.
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5
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Page 94
APPROACH NAV
Selecting &
Activating STARs
Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) used in the GPS 155XL are selected
and activated with the same procedures as SIDs. Available STARs may be selected for
the destination airport at any time in the active route as long as the destination airport is the last waypoint in the active route or the direct-to waypoint. Activating a
STAR will modify the sequence of waypoints in Route 0. If you’d like to save the contents of Route 0, be sure to copy it to an empty storage route first.
To select and activate a STAR:
1. Press R and rotate O until the STAR select page appears.
2. Press C and rotate O until the desired STAR is highlighted.
3. Press E. The STAR waypoints will be inserted in the route.
Selecting a STAR.
If a STAR has more than one transition or runway, the STAR select page will
display the transitions and/or runway designations available.
To select a transition:
1. Rotate O until the desired transition is highlighted and press E.
To select a runway:
1. Rotate O until the runway designation is highlighted and press E.
Selecting a STAR transition.
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The STAR select page also allows you to review all available STARs for the destination airport and select, delete or change the active STAR.
To replace/delete a STAR:
1. Press R and rotate O until the STAR select page appears.
APPROACH NAV
Selecting &
Deleting STARs
SECTION
5
2. Press C. The active STAR (denoted by an asterisk) is highlighted.
3. To replace the active STAR with another available STAR, rotate O to highlight the
desired STAR. Complete the selection by pressing E.
4. To delete the active STAR, press \, followed by E. The STAR waypoints will be
removed from the active route.
STARs can also be selected and deleted from storage routes through the route
catalog page.
Deleting the active STAR.
To select a STAR from the route catalog page:
1. Display the desired route on the route catalog page.
2. Select ‘star?’ in the route operations field and press E.
3. Select the desired STAR and transitions.
4. The STAR waypoints will be inserted into the route and the route review page
will be displayed.
To delete a STAR from the route catalog page:
1. Display the desired route on the route catalog page.
2. Select ‘star?’ in the route operations field and press E.
3. Rotate O to highlight the selected STAR (denoted by an asterisk). Press \ followed
by E. The STAR waypoints will be deleted from the route.
STARs may be saved in any storage route.
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Page 96
Section 6
Messages and Unit Settings
UNIT SETTINGS
Messages &
Settings Submenus
The GPS 155XL’s M key provides access to system messages and allows you to
customize the unit to your own preferences through a settings submenu. Whenever the
GPS 155XL needs to alert you to a navigation or system message, the annunciator light
(U) next to the M key will flash. Some messages are advisory in nature (e.g., the arrival
and countdown alarms), while others may require your immediate attention (e.g., poor
GPS coverage). For a complete list of GPS 155XL messages, please see Appendix D.
To view a message, press M. Press M again to return to the previous page.
To view a message, press M.
The GPS 155XL’s settings submenu is also accessed from the M key.
To view the settings submenu, press and hold M for more than 2 seconds.
Once the settings submenu has been accessed, the following setup pages are available
by rotating O with the cursor inactive:
To access the settings submenu pages, press and
hold the M key for two seconds. The GPS 155XL
will return to the last submenu viewed the next
time you access the unit settings.
96
•
•
•
•
•
•
Map page settings
Nearest airport search
Battery saver
Backlighting settings
Navigation units
Map datums
•
•
•
•
•
•
CDI scale settings
Mag. var./arrival alarm settings
Display screen settings
Trip timer settings
SUA settings
I/O Settings (channel 2 only)
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Page 97
The GPS 155XL’s map page is designed to be a flexible tool that can be customtailored to your navigation needs. The map setup page provides access to many of
the features and functions that will help you configure the map page to your own
preferences. From the map setup page you can set the map orientation, automatic
zoom, and specify which waypoints and airspace boundaries you wish to display.
SECTION
6
UNIT SETTINGS
Map Page Setup
The map orientation setting allows you to orient the top of the map display to
your current ground track (‘trk up’), fix the top of the map to north like a paper chart
(‘nrth up’) or set the top of the map along your desired track (‘dtk up’).
To change the map orientation:
1. Press and hold M, then rotate O to select the ‘MAP Setup’ page.
2. Press C to highlight the orientation field.
Map setup page
3. Rotate K to select ‘trk up’, ‘dtk up’ or ‘nrth up’.
The automatic zoom feature will automatically adjust the map display scale during your flight. Starting at an en route scale of 300 (nautical miles, statute miles or
kilometers) the scale will adjust through each lower scale, stopping at a scale of 1 as
you approach your destination waypoint.
To turn the automatic zoom feature on or off:
1. Press and hold M, then rotate O to select the ‘MAP Setup’ page.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight the ‘auto zoom’ field.
3. Rotate K to select ‘on’ or ‘off’.
The map orientation may be set to north up, track
up or desired track up. This determines what
direction the top of the map display is oriented to.
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Page 98
UNIT SETTINGS
Map Page Setup
The map setup page also allows you to control whether or not the various waypoint types and the identifiers for these waypoints are displayed. Settings for each
waypoint type allow you to select the maximum scale at which that feature should be
displayed, or you may turn that waypoint type off for all scales. For example, by setting ‘VOR’ at 80, VOR waypoints will appear on the map display at all scales from 80
on down, but not at 120, 200 or 300.
To display airports, navaids and/or user waypoints:
1. Press and hold M, then rotate O to display the ‘MAP Setup’ page.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘apt’, ‘vor’, ‘ndb’, ‘int’ or ‘user’.
3. Rotate K to select the maximum map scale for that waypoint type, or select ‘off’ to disable the waypoint type entirely.
The automatic zoom feature will automatically
adjust the map display through progressively
lower scale settings as you approach your
destination waypoint.
To display waypoint identifiers:
1. Press and hold M, then rotate O to display the ‘MAP Setup’ page.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘apt ident’, ‘vor ident’, ‘ndb ident’, ‘int ident’
or ‘user ident’.
3. Rotate K to select the maximum map scale for that waypoint category, or select ‘off’ to
disable the waypoint identifiers.
A scale setting of ‘200’ for airports will display
airport locations on the map display for all scales
from ‘200’ and lower. Airports will not appear on
the map display at a scale setting of ‘300’.
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The boundaries for airspaces that appear on the map display may be enabled or
disabled by airspace type. As described above for waypoints, you select the maximum scale at which the airspace should appear or turn the airspace type off entirely.
Airspace categories for Class B/CTA, Class C/TMA, MOA, restricted and other SUAs
are provided. ‘Other sua’ includes alert, caution, danger, training and warning areas.
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To enable/disable airspace boundaries on the map:
1. Press and hold M, then rotate O to select the ‘MAP Setup’ page.
UNIT SETTINGS
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight ‘class B/cta’, ‘class C/tma’, ‘moa’,
‘restricted’ or ‘other sua’.
Map Page Setup
CDI Settings
SECTION
6
3. Rotate K to select the maximum map scale for the designated airspace type, or select
‘off’ to never display.
The next page under the settings submenu is the CDI settings page, which
allows you to define the scale of the GPS 155XL’s course deviation indicator.
To change the CDI scale:
1. Press and hold M, and rotate O to select the ‘CDI Settings’ page.
2. Press C and rotate K to select ‘Auto’, ‘+- 5.0 nm’, ‘+- 1.0 nm’ or ‘+- 0.3 nm’.
3. Rotate O to highlight ‘ok?’ and press E to approve.
(Note: The selected CDI scale will not take effect until approved.)
The scale values represent full scale deflection of the CDI to either side. The
default setting is ‘Auto’. The ‘Auto’ setting will start the CDI scale at 5 nm (en route),
and gradually ramp down the scale to the 1 nm range once you are within 30 nm of
a departure or arrival airport (terminal area). For auto CDI scaling to occur, you must
have an active direct-to or route with an airport as your final destination waypoint, or
be within 30 nm of a departure airport. Note that the Receiver Autonomous
Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) protection limits listed below follow the selected CDI
scale, changing automatically with the ‘Auto’ setting:
CDI Scale
RAIM Protection
+/-5.0 nm or Auto (en route)
2.0 nm
+/- 1.0 nm or Auto (terminal)
1.0 nm
+/- 0.3 nm
0.3 nm
When the ‘Auto’ CDI setting is selected, the
GPS 155XL will automatically change the CDI
scale when you are within 30 nm of a departure
or arrival airport. The CDI setting will be reset to
‘Auto’ during approach operations, to provide a
smooth CDI transition from 5.0 nm to 0.3 nm
scales.
The ‘auto mag’ setting will automatically calculate
the magnetic variation based upon your current
position.
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SECTION
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Page 100
UNIT SETTINGS
Magnetic Variation
Arrival Alarm
The GPS 155XL has three magnetic variation options: true, auto, or user-defined.
To set the magnetic variation:
1. Press and hold M, and use O to display the ‘Mag Var/Arvl Alarm’ page.
2. Press C and use K to select ‘auto mag’, ‘true hdg’ or ‘user mag’.
3. If user is selected, use O to highlight the magnetic variation value, and use K and O to
enter the value and ‘E’ or ‘W’. Press C to finish.
If ‘auto’ mag var is selected, all track, course and heading information will be corrected to
the magnetic variation computed by the GPS receiver. The ‘true’ setting will reference all
information to true north, and the ‘user’ setting will correct information to an entered value.
Setting the arrival alarm to 10 nautical miles.
The GPS 155XL’s arrival alarm can be set to notify the pilot with a message when you
have reached a user-defined distance to a final destination waypoint (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a route). Once you have reached the set distance (up to 99.9
units), an ‘Arrival at _____’ message will be displayed.
To set the arrival alarm distance:
1. Press and hold M, and use O to display the ‘Mag Var/Arvl Alarm’ page.
2. Press C and use O to select the arrival distance field.
3. Use K and O to enter the desired distance. Press C to finish.
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The runway length and surface type settings allow
pilots of large, high-performance aircraft to direct
the T key function to ignore those airports at
which it would be difficult, if not impossible, to
land their aircraft.
The nearest airport search settings allow you to define the runway length and
surface type used in determining the nine nearest airports displayed. A minimum runway
length and surface type may be entered to prevent airports with small runways, or runways that are not of appropriate surface, from being displayed. The default settings are ‘0
ft/mt’ for runway length and ‘any’ for runway surface type.
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To set the minimum runway length and runway surface:
1. Press and hold M and use O to display the ‘Nearest apt search’ page.
2. Press C and use K and O to enter the minimum runway length upon which your
aircraft can land (up to 9999 units). Press E to accept the distance.
UNIT SETTINGS
Nearest Airports
Battery Saver
SECTION
6
3. Rotate K to display the surface selection you desire. Choices include:
• any surface
• soft/hard surface
• hard only surface
• water only surface
4. Use O to select ‘ok?’ and press E to confirm.
The GPS 155XL’s battery saver feature can be programmed to automatically
turn off the backlighting when using the optional remote battery pack. This will
increase the remote battery life in the event of power failure. During this time, the
GPS 155XL will continue to navigate and track satellites, but will not backlight the
display until a key is pressed or a knob is turned.
Display timeout settings. As shown, the display
backlight will turn off after 30 seconds to conserve
power in the optional battery pack.
To set the display timeout:
1. Press and hold M and rotate O to display the ‘Battery saver’ page.
2. Press C to activate the cursor.
3. Rotate K until the desired value is displayed (0, 30, 60 or 90 seconds). Entering 0 will
leave the display on at all times. Press C to finish.
The GPS 155XL features automatic contrast and backlighting control to adjust the
display for optimum viewing in any condition. This is done using a photocell at the
top left corner of the display bezel. It is important that this photocell not be covered
to ensure proper display adjustment. You may also select manual control of the display contrast and backlighting to tailor the GPS 155XL to your needs.
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To change the display contrast settings:
SECTION
6
UNIT SETTINGS
1. Press and hold M and rotate O to show the ‘Display’ page.
Display Settings
2. Press C and use K to select ‘auto’ or ‘manual’ control.
3. Press E.
4. If ‘manual’ is selected, use K to set the display contrast level. (If ‘auto’ is selected you may
also change the offset level to your preference.)
5. Press C to complete.
The ‘mode’ selection allows you to display on-screen characters as black on a light
green background (positive) or light green on a black background (negative). With the
‘auto’ setting the photocell selects the best mode for day or night viewing.
The display contrast may be set to automatically
adjust to varying lighting conditions, using the
built-in photocell.
To change the display mode settings:
1. Press and hold M, and rotate O to show the ‘Display’ settings page.
2. Press C and use O to highlight the ‘mode’ field.
3. Rotate K to select ‘pstv’, ‘ngtv’ or ‘auto’.
4. If ‘auto’ is selected, rotate O to highlight the threshold level, and use K to select the level
where the display will switch from positive to negative for night time use. (Note: Some
experimentation may be necessary to obtain the desired response level.)
The backlight intensity settings control the backlighting level and allow for automatic
adjustment using the built-in photocell or manual adjustment.
Setting the display mode to ‘negative’ will display
on-screen characters as light green on a black
background. This setting is suitable for night
operation.
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To change the backlighting intensity:
1. Press and hold M, and rotate O to display the ‘Backlight intensity’ page.
2. Press C to highlight the ‘mode’ field.
3. Rotate K to select ‘auto’ or ‘manual’.
UNIT SETTINGS
Backlighting
Trip Timer
SECTION
6
4. If ‘manual’ is selected, rotate B to select the desired backlighting level.
The trip timer provides a running clock on NAV Menu 2 (see page 28) which
can be configured to run either when power is on or when your ground speed
exceeds a user-defined minimum.
To change the trip timer settings:
1. Press and hold M, and use O to display the trip timer settings page.
2. Press C to activate the cursor.
The backlight intensity settings page is used to
set/adjust the screen backlighting for day or night
operation.
3. Use K to select either ‘pwr is on’ or ‘gs exceeds’.
4. If you choose ‘pwr is on’, press C to complete.
5. If you choose ‘gs exceeds’, use O to highlight the speed field.
6. Enter the speed using K and O.
7. Press E to accept, and press C to complete.
Trip timer settings, showing timer active when
ground speed exceeds 100 knots.
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Page 104
UNIT SETTINGS
Units of Measure
The GPS 155XL can be configured to display data in standard or metric units of
measure. These apply to: distance, position, speed, altitude, fuel, pressure and
temperature.
To change the units of measure:
1. Press and hold M and rotate O to display the nav units page.
2. Press C and rotate O to highlight the field you would like to change.
3. Use K to change the unit of measure.
4. Rotate O to advance to the next field, or press C when finished.
The available units of measure are:
Default units of measure settings.
position :
• degrees, minutes and seconds (dms) [hddd° mm’ ss.s”]
• degrees and minutes (dm) [hddd° mm.mmm’]
altitude :
• feet (ft)
vertical speed : • feet per minute (fpm)
• meters per second (mps)
Units of measure settings with all metric values
displayed.
104
• meters (mt)
• meters per minute (mpm)
nav units :
• nautical miles and knots (nm, kt)
• statute miles and miles per hour (mi, mh)
• kilometers and kilometers per hour (km, kh)
fuel :
• gallons (gl)
• kilograms (kg)
• liters (lt)
• imperial gallons (ig)
• pounds (lb)
pressure :
• inches of mercury (hg)
• millibars (mb)
temperature : • degrees Fahrenheit (°f)
• degrees Celsius (°c)
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The Special Use Airspace settings page will allow you to turn the controlled/
restricted airspace message alerts on or off. This will not affect the alerts listed on the
nearest page. It will simply turn off the warning message when you are approaching or
near an SUA. Warnings can be turned on/off for the following airspaces:
class B/cta: ICAO control area
class C/tma: ICAO Terminal Control Area
rstcd:
Restricted areas
moa: Military operations area
other: Other areas includes: alert,
caution, danger, training, warning
SUA warnings for prohibited airspace cannot be turned off. The ‘alt’ field,
located at the bottom of the SUA settings page, is an altitude buffer which ‘expands’
the vertical range of the SUA, so you will be notified if you are within a certain range
of an SUA. For example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and you are more than 500 feet
above or below an SUA, you will not be notified with an alert message; if you are less
than 500 feet above or below an SUA and projected to enter it, you will be notified
with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
UNIT SETTINGS
SUA Settings
Altitude Buffer
SECTION
6
The SUA settings page with all airspace alerts
enabled and the altitude buffer set to 100 meters.
To set the warnings or change the altitude buffer:
1. Press and hold M, and use O to display the SUA settings page.
2. Press C.
3. Rotate O to highlight the field you would like to change.
4. Use K to change to ‘on’ or ‘off’.
5. To change the altitude buffer, highlight the buffer value, and use K and O to change the
data. Press E to accept.
6. Press C to complete.
The SUA settings page with ‘other’ airspaces disabled and the altitude buffer set to 500 feet.
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UNIT SETTINGS
Map Datums
The NavData card contains over 100 map datums for you to use when navigating.
By default, your unit calculates positions using the WGS 84 map datum. If you are
using charts based on another datum, you must set the GPS 155XL to use the same
datum. Using a map datum that does not match the charts you are using can result in
significant differences in position information. If you are using maps for reference
only, the GPS 155XL will provide correct navigation guidance to the waypoints
contained in the database, regardless of the datum selected.
To change the map datum to one listed in Appendix F:
1. Press and hold M, and use O to display the map datum page.
2. Press C to highlight the current map datum.
3. Use K to change the datum.
Map datum page showing the default WGS 84
datum. This setting should be used unless your
paper chart specifies a different datum.
4. Press C to complete.
To create a user datum:
1. Press and hold M, and use O to display the map datum page.
2. Press C.
3. Use O to highlight ‘Define user datum?’. Press E.
4. Enter the five parameters of the map datum using K and O. Press E to accept a
field. The signs of each value (+/-) should follow the convention: WGS84-local geodetic
system.
User datum page. To use this function you must
enter the parameters as differences from the WGS
84 default.
106
5. Use O to highlight ‘ok?’, and press E.
6. To activate the user datum, select ‘USER’ on the map datum page as described above.
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The last page available under the GPS 155XL’s setup menu is the I/O setup page.
The I/O setup page lets you configure the GPS 155XL to input RTCM SC-104 correction data, output to an RS-232 mapping device or a PC (with the optional GARMIN
PC Kit or other mapping software) and select the appropriate baud rate. The I/O setup
page only provides access to I/O channel 2 input/output. For information on using
I/O channel 1, please see your GPS 155XL installation manual.
UNIT SETTINGS
I/O Settings
SECTION
6
To change the output settings for I/O channel 2:
1. Press and hold M, and rotate O until the I/O setup page is displayed.
2. Press C, and rotate K to select ‘off’ or ‘rtcm’ to receive DGPS correction data.
3. Rotate O to advance the cursor to the output field.
4. Use K to select ‘off’ or ‘plotting’ for output to an RS-232 device.
I/O setup page
5. Rotate O to advance the cursor to the baud rate field.
6. Use K to select the desired baud rate (300, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600).
7. Press C to finish.
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APPENDIX
A
Page 108
NAVDATA CARD
Saving User Data
Appendix A
NavData and User Data Installation/Operation
®
The NavData card supplied with your GPS 155XL can be installed or removed
when the GPS 155XL is on or off. Insert the card with the thumb tab at the top, and
the beveled corner at the bottom. If the NavData card is not present when the unit is
powered on, you will receive a ‘No Jeppesen database’ message on the database confirmation page, and you will only be able to use user waypoints for navigation. If the
NavData card is removed during operation, a ‘No data card present’ warning will
appear, asking you to reinsert the data card within 30 seconds. If the card is not
replaced within 30 seconds, the GPS 155XL will automatically reinitialize. You may
also reinitialize the unit manually by pressing E.
An optional user data card can be used to make a backup of user waypoints,
routes, etc. and transfer information to another GPS 155XL.
Insert the card with the thumb tab at the top, and
the beveled corner on the bottom right.
To save user data to the user data card:
1. Install the user data card.
2. Rotate O to highlight ‘Save user data?’. Press E to confirm.
Data card warning
108
The message ‘Saving to card’ is displayed while the GPS 155XL transfers all user
data to the User Data card. It may take a few minutes to complete the transfer. When
all user data is transferred, the GPS 155XL will instruct you to turn the unit off,
remove the user card and insert the Jeppesen NavData card. After this is complete, the
GPS 155XL is ready for normal operation.
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To restore user data from a user data card to the GPS 155XL:
1. Install the user data card.
2. Rotate O to highlight ‘Restore user data?’.
NAVDATA CARD
Saving User Data
3. Press E.
APPENDIX
A
The GPS 155XL will ask you which type of data to replace. You may choose checklists, scheduler messages, user waypoints, proximity waypoints, routes, waypoint comments, or all data.
4. Rotate K to select the type of data to replace.
You may either replace or update the information in the database. Replacing the
data will replace ALL user data with the data from the card. Updating the data will
not delete unrelated material, but will only change what is necessary to use the data
received from the user data card.
Data transfer page
5. Rotate O to select either ‘Replace?’ or ‘Update?’.
6. Press E to begin transferring data to the GPS 155XL. The GPS 155XL will now transfer
all of the data requested. This may take a few minutes.
7. To continue with more data transfer types, repeat steps 4, 5 and 6. Otherwise, press E
when ‘ok?’ is highlighted.
8. Turn the GPS 155XL off and replace the user data card with a NavData card. The GPS
155XL is now ready for normal operation.
Restore data page
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APPENDIX
B
Page 110
INSTALLATION &
MAINTENANCE
Appendix B
Installation, Removal and Maintenance of the GPS 155XL
The aviation rack is designed to allow easy removal of the GPS 155XL. This enables
you to use the unit at home to create routes, interface to a PC, etc. using an optional AC
adapter.
To install the GPS 155XL into the aviation rack:
The GPS 155XL is built to exacting standards and does
not require user maintenance. If the faceplate and lens
require cleaning, use a soft cloth and non-abrasive
cleaner.
The user data is maintained by an internal battery with
a projected life of 3 to 5 years. If the GPS 155XL
detects a low memory battery, you will be informed
with the message ‘Memory battery low’. Failure to
have the battery replaced may result in loss of data
each time you turn your unit off. This will greatly
increase satellite acquisition time and no user data will
be saved. This condition will be accompanied by the
message ‘Stored data lost’.
110
The GPS 155XL contains a crystal oscillator which may
drift after many years of operation. If the unit detects
excessive oscillator drift, you will be informed with the
message ‘Osc needs adjustment’. When this occurs,
contact an authorized GARMIN service center for service. Failure to do so may result in severely degraded
acquisition performance.
1. Insert a 3/32” allen wrench in the small hole adjacent to the dual knob.
2. Rotate the wrench counterclockwise until it stops to ensure the pawl latch is in the
proper position.
3. Insert the GPS 155XL into the aviation rack and rotate the wrench clockwise to secure the unit.
To ensure proper connector seating, gently press on the left side of the unit until tightened.
3/32” ALLEN
WRENCH
To remove the GPS 155XL from the aviation rack:
1. Insert a 3/32” allen wrench in the small hole adjacent to the dual knob.
2. Rotate the wrench counterclockwise until the GPS 155XL can be removed from the rack.
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The GPS 155XL’s simulator mode allows you to plan and practice flights in your
home and office using an optional remote battery pack or AC adapter. The simulator is not accessible when the GPS 155XL is running off the master avionics
switch. All waypoint and route planning done in simulator mode will be saved in the
unit’s internal memory.
APPENDIX
C
SIMULATOR
To operate the GPS 155XL in simulator mode:
1. Turn the unit on by rotating the B knob clockwise. The welcome page will appear while
the unit conducts a self test. Once the self test is complete, the welcome page will be
replaced by the operating mode page.
2. Rotate O to move the cursor over the operating mode field (‘Normal’) .
3. Rotate K to select ‘Simulator’ and press the E key. The cursor will advance to the
‘ok?’ prompt.
Operating mode page
4. Press E to confirm.
Once the GPS 155XL has been placed in simulator mode, the database confirmation page will appear, showing the operating dates, cycle number and database type
available.
To acknowledge the database information:
1. Press E.
After the database has been acknowledged, the initial position reference page will
appear, where you may specify the starting position for your simulated trip. You can
define the initial position by entering a waypoint identifier in the reference field, or
by manually entering coordinates in the lat/lon field.
Selecting the simulator mode.
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To enter an initial position reference by waypoint identifier:
APPENDIX
C
SIMULATOR
1. Rotate O to highlight the waypoint identifier field.
2. Use K and O to spell out the identifier of the desired airport, navaid or user waypoint.
3. Press E to confirm the identifier. The waypoint confirmation page will appear, displaying the waypoint’s position.
4. Press E to confirm the ‘ok?’ prompt.
Database confirmation page
The position page will now appear, and you may now use most of the GPS 155XL
navigation features for practice and planning. You’ll also receive a ‘Do not use for nav’
message to remind you that the simulator mode should never be used for actual navigation. During simulator operation, you will be able to enter a ground speed from the
NAV summary page, and define a course to a destination from the direct-to confirmation page. Altitude may only be entered by using the VNAV function available from
the NAV menu 1 page (see page 25).
To enter a ground speed from the NAV summary page:
1. Press N and rotate O to display the NAV summary page.
2. Press C to activate the cursor.
3. Rotate O to highlight the ground speed field.
4. Use K and O to enter the desired speed. Press E to accept, and C to finish.
Entering an initial position reference.
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To exit the simulator mode, the GPS 155XL must be turned off by rotating the B
knob counterclockwise until the unit shuts down. All waypoints and routes created in
simulator mode will be retained in the GPS 155XL’s internal memory.
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Appendix D
GPS 155XL Messages and Abbreviations
The GPS 155XL uses the Message Page to communicate important information to you. Some
messages are advisory in nature, others are warnings that may require your intervention. This appendix provides a complete list of GPS 155XL messages and their meanings.
Altitude input fail
- The altitude serializer input is not available for
the GPS 155XL. Check the I/O settings and/or
the serializer installation. If enough satellites are
available for a 3D position fix, no pilot action is
required, providing no RAIM warnings are present. If only a 2D fix is possible, the pilot
should enter an altitude within 1,000 feet of
the current indicated altitude.
Appr switch stuck
- The GPS APR switch is stuck in the ‘pressed’
position. Check the switch/installation.
Approach deleted
- The selected approach was deleted from the
route because not enough room existed to
insert a SID or STAR.
Approach not active - The approach could not transition to the active
phase because the GPS SEQ switch is set to the
HOLD position, the automatic CDI scale is not
selected, or RAIM is not predicted to be available
from FAF to MAP. Do not descend to the FAF.
Arm approach mode - Approach navigation is available. Set the GPS
APR switch to the ARM position.
Arrival at _____
- Your craft has entered the arrival alarm circle for the
indicated waypoint.
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
APPENDIX
D
Arrvl at offst _____
- Your craft has entered the arrival alarm circle
for the indicated waypoint offset by the parallel
track distance.
Auto CDI slctd
- The GPS 155XL has reset the CDI scale preference to the AUTO setting to permit approach
navigation.
Battery low
- The optional remote battery pack is low on
power and limited operating time remains. The
battery should be recharged for continued use.
Battery rqrs service - A problem has been detected in the optional
remote battery pack. The battery should be serviced at an authorized GARMIN service center.
Cannot chng actv wpt - An attempt has been made to modify the position of
the ‘active to’ or ‘active from’ waypoint. The GPS
155XL will not allow the modifications.
Cannot chng wpt sqnc- An attempt has been made to modify an
approach, SID or STAR. The waypoint sequence
of approaches, SIDs and STARs may not be
modified.
Cannot nav lockd rte - An attempt has been made to activate a route
containing a locked waypoint. The GPS 155XL
cannot perform navigation in this situation.
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APPENDIX
D
114
Page 114
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
Cannot ofst goto rte - An attempt has been made to engage the offset
navigation feature while the GPS 155XL is navigating using a single waypoint route. The GPS
155XL will not allow offset navigation in this
situation.
Checklist is full
- The selected checklist is full. No new items can
be added until existing items are deleted.
Comment memory full -The waypoint comment memory is full. You
must delete existing waypoint comments before
adding new ones.
Configuration reset - The GPS 155XL has detected a failure in its
installation configuration memory. Data from the
user memory has been used to reset the configuration. Check the installation settings for correctness. If the message persists, the unit is not
usable and should be taken to an authorized service center for repair.
Course input fail
- The course input from RS-422 or ARINC 429 is
not available to the GPS 155XL. Check the I/O
settings and/or have the installation checked by a
certified technician.
Data card failed
- The GPS 155XL has detected a problem with the
data card. The data is not usable and the card
should be returned to Jeppesen or an authorized
GARMIN service center.
Data card write fail - The user data card failed to program. The card
should be returned to an authorized GARMIN
service center.
Degraded accuracy - The GPS 155XL has detected poor satellite
geometry while RAIM is not available. Additional
cross-checking with a secondary navigation
source should be performed to verify the integrity of the GPS position.
Do not use for nav - The GPS 155XL is in the simulator mode and
must not be used for actual navigation.
EEPROM write fail - The GPS 155XL has detected a failure while programming its installation configuration memory.
The unit is not usable and should be taken to an
authorized service center.
Final altitude alert - The suggested altitude is within 1000 feet of the
final altitude entered on the VNAV Planning page.
Fuel/Air input fail
- The fuel and/or air data input is not available to
the GPS 155XL. Check the I/O settings or
fuel/air data system installation.
Heading input fail
- The heading input from ARINC 429 is not available to the unit. Check the I/O settings and/or
have the installlation checked by a technician.
Inside SUA
- You have entered a Special Use Airspace.
Invald CPA wpt _____ - The closest point of approach cannot be created
from the waypoint entered on the CPA Page. This
occurs when the computed point does not fall on
one of the route legs, or when a unique waypoint
name for the closest point of approach cannot be
found.
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Invalid copy route
- A non-empty route was selected for a copy operation. A route must be empty before another route
can be copied to it.
Invalid CPA route
- The selected route contains less than two waypoints and cannot be used for CPA operations.
Invalid SAR route
- The selected route does not contain exactly two
waypoints and cannot be used for SAR operations.
Leg not smoothed
- The upcoming leg is too short for smooth waypoint transitions. Expect a rapid change in the
CDI.
Memory battery low - The battery that sustains user memory is low
and should be replaced by an authorized
GARMIN service center as soon as possible.
Failure to do so may result in loss of stored data,
including all user waypoints and routes.
Near SUA < 2 nm
- Your position is within 2 nautical miles of an
SUA, and your current course will not take you
inside.
Need alt - press NAV - The GPS 155XL needs altitude input in order to
start and/or continue 2D navigation. Press the
NAV key and enter your antenna altitude on the
position page. The altitude you enter should be
as accurate as possible. An inaccurate altitude
will directly translate into inaccurate position
information.
No altitude input
- The GPS 155XL has failed to receive altitude
data from the parallel input. Check the I/O settings and/or the installation. If enough satellites
are available for a 3D fix, no pilot action is
required, provided no RAIM warnings are present. If only a 2D fix is possible, the pilot should
maintain the GPS altitude within 1,000 feet of
pressure altitude, using the position page.
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
APPENDIX
D
No course input
- The GPS SEQ switch is set to the HOLD position
and has no selected course input from the
CDI/HSI. Check the state of configuration
switches if installed, or check the CDI/HSI unit.
No DGPS position
- Not enough data is available to compute a differential GPS (DGPS) position.
No RAIM FAF to MAP - RAIM is predicted to NOT be available from the
final approach fix to the missed approach point.
The approach is no longer active.
No RTCM input
- DGPS data, in an RTCM SC-104 format, is not
available.
Offset nav cancelled - Offset navigation has been cancelled due to a
direct-to operation or modification of the active
route.
Offset nav in effect - Offset navigation mode is in effect.
Ofst too big for rte - The parallel track distance is too large for the
active route.
Osc needs adjustment - The GPS 155XL has detected excessive drift in its
internal crystal oscillator which may result in longer
acquisition time. The unit should be taken to an
authorized service center immediately.
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RAIM not available
APPENDIX
D
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
Poor GPS coverage
- The GPS 155XL cannot acquire sufficient satellites necessary to provide navigation.
Prox alarm-press NAV - Your craft has penetrated the alarm circle of a proximity waypoint. Press NAV to see the bearing and distance
to the proximity waypoint.
Proximity overlap
- The circles defined by two proximity waypoints
overlap. When entering the area of the overlap,
the GPS 155XL will warn you of the closest proximity waypoint, but not both. You should be certain this condition is desirable.
Proximity wpt locked - At least one proximity waypoint is locked because
the waypoint has been removed from the
Jeppesen NavData®, the data card is missing, or
the data card has failed.
Proximity wpt moved - One or more proximity waypoints were moved at
least 0.33 arc minutes due to a database change.
Proximty wpt deleted - One or more proximity waypoints were deleted
while receiving data from the PC Interface Kit.
Pwr down and re-init - The GPS 155XL is unusable until power has been
cycled and the unit re-initialized. Abnormal satellite conditions may exist.
116
- RAIM is unavailable for the phase of flight you
are currently in (the HSI NAV flag should also
appear). Revert to alternate navigation.
RAIM position warn - RAIM has detected position errors exceeding
those allowed for the current phase of flight.
Revert to an alternate source of navigation.
RAM failed
- The GPS 155XL has detected a failure in its internal memory. If the message persists, the GPS
155XL is unusable and should be taken to an
authorized GARMIN service center.
Rcvr needs service
- The GPS 155XL has detected a condition
requiring service in the receiver hardware. The
GPS 155XL should be taken to an authorized
GARMIN service center.
Ready for navigation - The GPS 155XL is ready for navigation.
Receiver failed
- The GPS 155XL has detected a failure in the
receiver hardware. If the message persists, the
GPS 155XL is unusable and should be taken to
an authorized GARMIN service center.
Remote ENT key stuck- The remote ENT key is stuck in the ‘pressed’
position. Check the key/installation.
ROM failed
- The GPS 155XL has detected a failure in its permanent memory. If this message occurs, the unit
is unusable and should be taken to an authorized
GARMIN service center.
Route is empty
- An attempt was made to activate an empty route.
Route is full
- An attempt has been made to add more than 31
waypoints to a route. The GPS 155XL will not
allow more than 31 waypoints per route.
Route truncated
- The route was truncated because not enough
room existed to insert a SID, STAR or approach.
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Route wpt deleted
- One or more route waypoints were deleted
while receiving data from the optional PC
Interface Kit.
Route wpt locked
- At least one route waypoint is locked because
the waypoint has been removed from the
Jeppesen NavData®, the data card is missing,
or the data card has failed.
Route wpt moved
- One or more route waypoints were moved at
least 0.33 arc minutes due to a database change.
RTCM input fail
- The DGPS data signal was being received but
has now been lost. Check wiring.
SID deleted
- The SID was deleted from the route because of
insufficient space in the route.
STAR deleted
- The STAR was deleted from the route because
of insufficient space in the route.
Searching the sky
- The GPS 155XL is in the search-the-sky mode.
Allow the unit to complete data collection
before turning it off.
Select auto seq mode - The GPS SEQ switch should be set to the ‘Auto’
position to continue navigation.
Set course to ____° - The CDI/HSI should be set to the specified
course.
Start altitude chng - The altitude change entered on the VNAV
Planning page is about to begin.
Steep turn ahead
- This message appears approximately 90 seconds
prior to a turn that requires a bank angle in excess
of 25 degrees in order to stay on course. Turn
anticipation will not be provided for the turn.
Stored data lost
- Stored user data, including waypoints, routes
and satellite orbital data have been lost due to a
low memory battery or inadvertent master reset.
SUA ahead < 10 min - The projected course and current speed will take
you inside an SUA within the next 10 minutes.
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
APPENDIX
D
SUA near & ahead
- Your position is within two nautical miles of an
SUA and your current course will take you
inside.
Timer expired
- The approach timer has expired.
User data RX started - Data receive operations have started.
Usr data TX complete - Data transmit operations are complete.
VNAV cancelled
- The VNAV function has been cancelled due to a
change in the active route.
WGS 84 datum selectd-The system map datum was changed to WGS
84 because the selected map datum has been
removed from the NavData card, the data card
is missing, or the data card has failed.
Wpt comment locked - At least one waypoint comment is locked
because the waypoint has been removed from
the Jeppesen NavData®, the data card is missing, or the data card has failed.
Wpt exists _____
- You have entered a waypoint name on the
AutoStore™ page or user waypoint catalog page
that already exists in memory. Enter a waypoint
name that does not exist.
Wpt memory full
- The waypoint memory is full. You should delete
unused waypoints to make room for new waypoints.
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APPENDIX
D
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Page 118
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
This section of Appendix D provides a complete list of GPS 155XL abbreviations and
their meanings.
ALTAltitude
DEGDegrees
APPApproach
DEPDeparture
APRApproach
DISDistance To Waypoint
APTAirport Waypoint
DME - Distance Measuring Equipment
ARTCC- Air Route Traffic Control Center DOPDilution of Precision
ARVArrival
DTKDesired Track
ATFAerodrome Traffic Frequency
ELEV- Elevation
ATSAutomatic Terminal Information ENDUR- Endurance
Service (ATIS)
EPEEstimated Position Error
AVGS- Aviation Gas
ESAEnroute Safe Altitude
AZMAzimuth (bearing)
ETAEstimated Time of Arrival
BRGBearing
ETEEstimated Time Enroute
CASCalibrated Airspeed
FIRFlight Information Region
CDICourse Deviation Indicator
FLOW- Fuel Flow Rate
CL B- Class B
FOBFuel On Board
CL C- Class C
FPMFeet Per Minute
CLRClearance Delivery
FRFrom
CPAClosest Point of Approach
FSSFlight Service Station
CTAICAO Control Area
FTFeet
CTAF- Common Traffic Advisory
FTFull Time
Frequency
GLGallons
CTFCommon Traffic Advisory
GND- Ground
Frequency
GPSGlobal Positioning System
CTRCenter (ARTCC)
GSGround Speed
CTSCourse To Steer
HDG- Heading
CUM- Cumulative
HGInches of Mercury
DALT- Density Altitude
IALTIndicated Altitude
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ILSInstrument Landing System
IGImperial Gallons
INTIntersection Waypoint
JET A- Jet Fuel - Type A
JET B- Jet Fuel - Type B
KHKilometers Per Hour
KMKilometers
KTKnots
LBPounds
LCLLocal
LENLength
LFLOW- Left Fuel Flow
LFOB- Leftover Fuel On Board
LOCLocalizer
LTLiters
MAG VAR-Magnetic Variation
MBMillibars Of Pressure
MFMandatory Frequency
MHStatute Miles Per Hour
MIStatute Miles
MINMinimum
MIN - Minutes
MOA- Military Operations Area
MPM- Meters Per Minute
MPSMeters Per Second
MSAMinimum Safe Altitude
MTMeters
MUL- Multicom
NDBNDB Waypoint
NMNPNROBS-
Nautical Miles
Non-Precision
Nearest
Omni-directional Bearing Select
(Inbound Course Select)
OTHOther
ºCDegrees Celsius
ºFDegrees Fahrenheit
PCPilot Controlled
POSN- Position
PRES- Barometric Pressure
(Altimeter Setting)
PROX- Proximity
PRXProximity
PTPart Time
PTXPre-Taxi
PWR- Power
RDRRadar
REQRequired
RFReference
RFLOW- Right Fuel Flow
RNGRange
RNWY- Runway
RSTCD- Restricted
RSVReserves
RTERoute
RXReceive Only
SARSearch And Rescue
SECSeconds
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
APPENDIX
D
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APPENDIX
D
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Page 120
MESSAGES &
ABBREVIATIONS
SEQSGLSID-
Sequence
Signal
Standard Instrument
Departure
SLCT- Select
SRFC- Surface
STAR- Standard Terminal Arrival
Route
STRSteer To
TACAN- TACtical Area Navigational
Aid
TASTrue Airspeed
TAT Total Air Temperature
TEMP- Temperature
TMAICAO Terminal Control Area
TRKTrack Angle
TRNTransition
TRNTurn Angle
TRSA- Terminal Radar Service Area
TWR- Tower
TXTransmit Only
UUTC Time
UNIUnicom
URAUser Range Accuracy
USER- User Waypoint
USRUser Waypoint
UTCUniversal Time Coordinated
(GMT/ Zulu)
VNVNAVVORWPTWX-
VNAV or Vertical Navigation
Vertical Navigation
VOR Waypoint
Waypoint
Weather
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Appendix E
Specifications
PHYSICAL
Size:
Weight:
Rack Size:
Rack Weight:
APPENDIX
SPECIFICATIONS
E
6.25”W x 5.8”D x 2”H (159mm x 147mm x 51mm)
27.2 ounces (.77 kg)
6.32”W x 5.64”D x 2”H (161mm x 143mm x 51mm)
11 ounces (0.31kg)
POWER
Input:
10-33V DC with power cable (aircraft power)
Optional remote battery pack
115V or 230V AC w/ optional adapter
** Subject to accuracy degradation to 100m 2DRMS under
the US DOD-imposed Selective Availability Program.
ENVIRONMENTAL
Temperature:
-4° F to 158° F (-20°C to 70°C) Operating
-67°F to 185°F (-55°C to 85°C) Storage
PERFORMANCE
Receiver:
Acquisition Time:
Update Rate:
Accuracy:
Dynamics:
12 channel PhaseTrac12™
45 seconds (typical)
15 seconds (warm start, with ephemeris)
1 per second, continuously
15 meters (49ft.) RMS**
999 knots velocity, 3g acceleration
Whenever the GPS 155XL is connected to the
optional remote battery pack and power from the
master switch is lost, the unit will revert to battery
power. To continue navigation, press any key when
the power down page appears.
INTERFACES
ARINC 429, Plotting (NMEA 0183 V2.0), Aviation, PC Interface, Altitude
Serializer, Fuel Sensor, Fuel/Air Data Computer
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APPENDIX
F
122
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Appendix F
Map Datums
MAP DATUMS
ADINDAN
Ethiopia, Mali, Senegal,
Sudan
AFGOOYE
Somalia
AIN EL ABD 1970
Bahrain Island, Saudi Arabia
ANNA 1 ASTRO 1965
Cocos Islands
ARC 1950
Botswana, Lesotho,
Malawi, Swaziland, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
ARC 1960
Kenya, Tanzania
ASCENSION IS 1958
Ascension Island
ASTRO B4 SOROL ATOLL Tern Island
ASTRO BEACON “E”
Iwo Jima Island
ASTRO DOS 71/4
St. Helena Island
ASTRONOMIC STN 1952 Marcus Island
AUSTRALIAN GEOD 1966 Australia, Tasmania Island
AUSTRALIAN GEOD 1984 Australia, Tasmania Island
AUSTRIA NS
Austria
BELGIUM 1950
Belgium
BELLEVUE (IGN)
Efate and Erromango
Islands
BERMUDA 1957
Bermuda Islands
BOGOTA OBSERVATORY Colombia
BUKIT RIMPAH
Indonesia
CAMP AREA ASTRO
Antarctica
CAMPO INCHAUSPE
Argentina
CANTON ASTRO 1966
Phoenix Islands
CAPE
South Africa
CAPE CANAVERAL
Florida, Bahama Islands
CARTHAGE
Tunisia
CH-1903
Switzerland
CHATHAM 1971
Chatham Island (New
Zealand)
CHUA ASTRO
Paraguay
CORREGO ALEGRE
Brazil
DANISH GI 1934
Denmark
DJAKARTA (BATAVIA)
Sumatra Island (Indonesia)
DOS 1968
EASTER ISLAND 1967
EUROPEAN 1950
EUROPEAN 1979
FINLAND HAYFORD 1910
G. SEGARA
GANDAJIKA BASE
GEODETIC DATUM 1949
GGRS 87
GUAM 1963
GUX 1 ASTRO
HERAT NORTH
HJORSEY 1955
HONG KONG 1963
HU-TZU-SHAN
INDIAN BNGLDSH NEPAL
INDIAN MEAN VALUE
INDIAN THAILAND VIETN
INDONESIA 74
IRELAND 1965
ISTS 073 ASTRO 1969
JOHNSTON ISLAND 1961
KANDAWALA
KERGUELEN ISLAND
KERTAU 1948
L.C. 5 ASTRO
LIBERIA 1964
LUZON MEAN VALUE
LUZON MINDANAO IS
Gizo Island
(New Georgia Islands)
Easter Island
Austria, Belgium, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany,
Gibraltar, Greece, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Norway, Portugal, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland
Austria, Finland,
Netherlands, Norway,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
Finland
Borneo
Republic of Maldives
New Zealand
Greece
Guam Island
Guadalcanal Island
Afghanistan
Iceland
Hong Kong
Taiwan
Bangladesh, India, Nepal
India
Thailand, Vietnam
Indonesia
Ireland
Diego Garcia
Johnston Island
Sri Lanka
Kerguelen Island
West Malaysia, Singapore
Cayman Brac Island
Liberia
Philippines
Mindanao Island
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LUZON PHILIPPINES
MAHE 1971
MARCO ASTRO
MASSAWA
MERCHICH
MIDWAY ASTRO 1961
MINNA
NAD27 ALASKA
NAD27 BAHAMAS
NAD27 CANADA
NAD27 CANAL ZONE
NAD27 CARIBBEAN
NAD27 CENTRL AMERICA
NAD27 CONUS
NAD27 CUBA
NAD27 GREENLAND
NAD27 MEXICO
NAD27 SAN SALVADR IS
NAD83
NAHRWAN MASIRAH IS
NAHRWAN SAUDI ARABIA
NAHRWAN UNITD ARAB E
NAPARIMA BWI
NETHERLAND TRIAG ‘21
NOU TRIAG FRANCE
NOU TRIAG LUXEMBOURG
OBSERVATORIO 1966
OLD EGYPTIAN
OLD HAWAIIAN KAUAI
OLD HAWAIIAN MAUI
OLD HAWAIIAN MEAN
OLD HAWAIIAN OAHU
Page 123
Philippines
(excluding Mindanao Isl.)
Mahe Island
Salvage Islands
Eritrea (Ethiopia)
Morocco
Midway Island
Nigeria
North American 1927- Alaska
Bahamas (excluding San
Salvador Island)
Canada (including
Newfoundland Island)
Canal Zone
Caribbean (Barbados,
Caicos Islands, Cuba,
Dom. Rep., Grd. Cayman,
Jamaica, Leeward and
Turks Islands)
Central America (Belize,
Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua)
Mean Value (CONUS)
Cuba
Greenland (Hayes Peninsula)
Mexico
San Salvador Island
North American 1983Alaska, Canada, Central
America, CONUS, Mexico
Masirah Island (Oman)
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Trinidad and Tobago
Netherlands
France
Luxembourg
Corvo and Flores Islands
(Azores)
Egypt
Kauai
Maui
Mean Value
Oahu
OMAN
ORD SRV GRT BRITAIN
Oman
England, Isle of Man,
Scotland, Shetland Islands,
Wales
PICO DE LAS NIEVES
Canary Islands
PITCAIRN ASTRO 1967
Pitcairn Island
PORTUGUESE 1973
Portugal
POTSDAM
Germany
PROV SO AMERICAN ‘56 Bolivia, Chile,Colombia,
Ecuador, Guyana, Peru,
Venezuela
PROV SO CHILEAN 1963 South Chile
PUERTO RICO
Puerto Rico & Virgin Isl.
QATAR NATIONAL
Qatar
QORNOQ
South Greenland
REUNION
Mascarene Island
ROME 1940
Sardinia Island
RT 90
Sweden
SANTO (DOS)
Espirito Santo Island
SAO BRAZ
Sao Miguel, Santa Maria
Islands (Azores)
SAPPER HILL 1943
East Falkland Island
SCHWARZECK
Namibia
SOUTH AMERICAN 1969 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,
Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Guyana, Paraguay, Peru,
Venezuela, Trinidad/Tobago
SOUTH ASIA
Singapore
SOUTHEAST BASE
Porto Santo and Madeira
Islands
SOUTHWEST BASE
Faial, Graciosa, Pico, Sao
Jorge and Terceira Islands
(Azores)
TANANARIVE OBSV 1925 Madagascar
TIMBALAI 1948
Brunei and East Malaysia
(Sarawak and Sabah)
TOKYO
Japan, Korea, Okinawa
TRISTAN ASTRO 1968
Tristan da Cunha
USER
User datum
VITI LEVU 1916
Viti LevuIsland/Fiji Islands
WAKE-ENIWETOK 1960 Marshall Islands
WGS 72
World Geodetic System 1972
WGS 84
World Geodetic System 1984
YACARE
Uruguay
ZANDERIJ
Surinam
APPENDIX
MAP DATUMS
F
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APPENDIX
G
TROUBLESHOOTING
Q&A
Page 124
Appendix G
Troubleshooting Q & A
The GPS 155XL is a precision navigation instrument that offers a wide array of
performance navigation features. The ‘Q & A’ section is designed to answer some of
the common questions regarding the GPS 155XL’s capabilities and operation. If you
have a problem operating your unit, go through the troubleshooting section and refer
to the reference section noted. If your problem is not listed in the Q & A section, use
the index to find the appropriate reference in the manual. If you still encounter a
problem, please see your authorized dealer or call or fax our customer support staff at
913-397-8200 or 913-397-8282 FAX. GARMIN is dedicated to supporting its products and customers.
What is RAIM, and how does it affect approach operations?
RAIM is an acronym for Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring, a receiver
function that performs a consistency check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that
the available satellite geometry will allow the receiver to calculate a position within a
specified protection limit (2 nm for oceanic and en route, 1 nm for terminal and 0.3
nm for non-precision approaches).
During oceanic, enroute and terminal phases of flight, RAIM will be nearly 100%.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM
is not available. The GPS 155XL automatically monitors RAIM and will warn you
with an alert message (see Appendix D) when it is not available. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the ACTV annunciator will not illuminate and the pilot
must fly the missed approach procedure. The GPS 155XL’s RAIM prediction function
(see page 29) will also allow you to see whether RAIM will be available for a specified
date and time. NOTE: If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the final approach
course, the approach will not become active, as indicated by the ACTV annunciator.
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Why aren’t there any approaches available for my route?
Approaches are only available when the final route waypoint or direct-to destination is an airport (some VOR/VORTAC identifiers are similar to airport identifiers). If
a destination airport does not have a GPS approach, the GPS 155XL will display a ‘no
procedures in database’ message. For more on selecting an approach, see page 85.
TROUBLESHOOTING
Q&A
APPENDIX
G
What happens when I select an approach? Can I store a route with an
approach, SID or STAR?
Whenever you load an approach or STAR into the active route, the arrival airport
is moved, and a set of approach or arrival waypoints is inserted. If a SID is loaded
into the active route, the SID waypoints will be inserted following the departure airport in the active route. Note: these modifications only apply to the active route, and
will not affect the corresponding stored route (if you have activated one). Routes can
be stored with an approach, SID or STAR. Keep in mind that the active route is
erased when the unit is turned off and overwritten when another route is activated.
When storing routes with an approach, SID or STAR, the GPS will use the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database
is changed or updated, the GPS 155XL will automatically update the information if
the procedure name has not changed. If an approach, SID or STAR procedure is no
longer available, the route will become locked until the procedure is deleted from the
route or the correct database is installed. For information on loading an approach,
SID or STAR, see pages 74-91. See page 65 for instructions on saving and copying
routes.
Can I file slant Romeo ‘/R’ using my GPS?
Yes, you may file your flight plan as /R if your GPS 155XL is a certified A1 or A2
installation. If you are flying enroute, you may fly /R with an expired database only
after you have verified all route waypoints. Non-precision approaches may not be
flown with an expired database. See your approved Airplane Flight Manual
Supplement for more information.
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APPENDIX
G
TROUBLESHOOTING
Q&A
Page 126
What does the GPS APR switch do? What is ‘arming’ an approach?
The GPS APR switch must be set to the ARM position for an approach to enter the
active phase. It may be left in the ARM position to simplify approach operation. Its
main function is to provide the pilot with a quick method of deactivating the approach
and returning the CDI scale to the 1 nm scale in the event of a missed approach. For
more on the GPS APR switch and arming approaches, see pages 74-75.
What does the GPS SEQ switch do and when do I use it?
The GPS SEQ switch is used to select manual or automatic waypoint sequencing of
waypoints. Setting the GPS SEQ switch to the HOLD position holds your current
‘active to’ waypoint as your navigation reference and prevents the GPS from sequencing to the next waypoint. When the GPS SEQ switch is set to the AUTO position,
automatic waypoint sequencing is selected, and the GPS will automatically select the
next waypoint in the route once the aircraft has crossed the present active-to waypoint.
AUTO
Automatic sequencing of waypoints
Change in HSI does not affect CDI deflection
Always navigates ‘TO’ the active waypoint
Must be set to AUTO for approach to go active
HOLD
Manual sequencing- ‘HOLDs’ on selected waypoint
Manually select course to next waypoint from HSI
Will indicate ‘TO’ or ‘FROM’ waypoint
Approach will not go active
The GPS SEQ switch must be set to the HOLD position any time you are deviating
from the flight sequence of an approach (e.g., when you are flying radar vectors) or
when you must cross the same waypoint twice in succession (e.g., a procedure turn or
holding pattern). Whenever the GPS SEQ switch is set to the HOLD position, the GPS
155XL allows you to select the desired course to/from a waypoint using the HSI, much
like a VOR, and display a to/from flag for the active-to waypoint. In the AUTO position, the CDI will always display a ‘TO’ indication for the next waypoint once you’ve
crossed the active waypoint. Refer to page 88 for an approach example using a HOLD.
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When should I switch from HOLD to AUTO, and what happens when I do?
Once you are ready to resume automatic waypoint sequencing, you must set the
desired course on your HSI two seconds before changing the GPS SEQ switch to the
AUTO position. This allows the the desired course to ‘settle’ prior to the GPS 155XL
using it. Once the GPS SEQ switch is set back to the AUTO position, the GPS 155XL
will use the HSI course until you have crossed the active-to waypoint and sequenced
to the next route waypoint. See page 76 for more information on the GPS SEQ switch.
TROUBLESHOOTING
Q&A
APPENDIX
G
Why won’t my unit automatically sequence to the next waypoint?
The GPS 155XL will only sequence approach, SID or STAR waypoints when the
GPS SEQ switch is in the AUTO position. For automatic sequencing to occur, you
must also cross the bisector of the turn you are navigating.
How do I skip a waypoint in an approach, SID or STAR?
The GPS 155XL allows you to manually select any approach, STAR or SID waypoint as your next ‘active to’ destination. This procedure, called an on-route direct-to,
is performed from the active route page by highlighting the desired waypoint and
pressing D, then E to approve the selection. The GPS will then provide navigation directly to the selected waypoint, so be sure you have clearance directly to that
position. See pages 59 & 72 for more information.
How do I fly the GPS with an autopilot and DG heading bug?
If you do not have an HSI, you should make your course selections on the OBS
and the DG heading bug.
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When does turn anticipation begin, and what bank angle is expected?
The GPS 155XL will smooth adjacent leg transitions based upon a nominal 15º
bank angle (with the ability to roll up to 25º) and provide three pilot cues for turn
anticipation: 1) The waypoint annunciator will flash 15 seconds before the turn point
and glow steadily 2 seconds prior to the turn anticipation point. Begin the turn when
the annunciator goes steady. 2) A flashing ‘next dtk’ prompt will appear on the GPS
155XL’s CDI field. Set the HSI to the next dtk value when the waypoint annunciator
starts flashing. 3) The To/From indicator on the GPS CDI will flip momentarily to
indicate that you have crossed the midpoint of the turn. For more information on
turn anticipation, see page 73.
TROUBLESHOOTING
APPENDIX
G
Q&A
MAP
0.3 nm
FAF
2 nm
1 nm
30 nm
1 nm
1 minute
5 nm
CDI Scale Transition
128
When does the CDI scale change, and what does it change to?
Whenever an approach is selected and armed, the GPS 155XL will begin a smooth
CDI scale transition from the 5.0 nm to the 0.3 nm scale 30 nm from the destination
airport (see left). The CDI scale will remain at the 0.3 nm scale from the FAF to the
MAP during the active approach. If you are in a missed approach situation, and
would like to return the CDI to the 1 nm scale, you
may deactivate the approach by releasing the GPS
APR switch from the ARM position.
Why does my CDI not respond like a VOR
when the GPS SEQ switch is set to HOLD?
Unlike a VOR, the CDI scale used on GPS equipment is based on the cross-track distance to the
desired course, not an angular relationship to the
destination. Therefore, the CDI deflection on the
GPS will be consistent regardless of the distance to
the destination, and will not become less sensitive
when you are further away from the destination. For
more information on the CDI scale, see page 99.
2 2
nm nm
5 nm
5 nm
GPS
5 nm
5 nm
VOR
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What is the correct missed approach procedure? How do I select the missed
approach holding point?
To comply with TSO specifications, the GPS 155XL will not automatically
sequence to the missed approach holding point. The first waypoint in the missed
approach procedure will be displayed as the next approach waypoint when the pilot
performs a direct-to AFTER crossing the MAP, which the pilot may activate when
authorized. All published missed approach procedures must be flown before activating navigation to the holding point. To begin the missed approach procedure prior to
the MAP, the GPS APR switch must be released from the ‘ARM’ position to disarm the
approach and begin transition of the CDI to the 1.0 nm scale.
To activate navigation to the first missed approach waypoint after crossing the
MAP, press D, then E. The GPS 155XL will provide direct navigation to the
holding point. If you do not have direct clearance to the holding point, set the GPS
SEQ switch to the HOLD position until you have intercepted the inbound course to
the holding point. See page 83 for more information on missed approaches.
How do I re-select the same approach or activate a new approach after a
missed approach?
After flying all missed approach procedures, you may reactivate the same
approach for another attempt from the active route page. Once you have been given
clearance for another attempt, select the starting waypoint from the active route list
by highlighting the waypoint identifier and pressing D, followed by E. The GPS
155XL will provide direct navigation to the selected waypoint and rejoin the
approach in sequence from that point on. If you have disarmed the previous
approach, remember to set the GPS APR switch to the ‘ARM’ position.
To activate a new approach, you must select the new procedure from the
approach select page. To view the approach select page, press R and rotate O
until the approach select page appears. Press C and rotate O to highlight the new
approach you want to fly. To activate the new approach, press E and select the IAF,
if necessary. See page 84 for more information on reactivating an approach.
TROUBLESHOOTING
Q&A
APPENDIX
G
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APPENDIX
H
INDEX
Page 130
Appendix H
Index
A
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118-120
Accessory list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Activating a route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Activating a route in reverse . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Active to & from waypoints . . . . . . . . 58, 70
Active route page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Adding waypoints to a route . . . . . . . 63, 71
Airport comments page. . . . . . . . . 33-36, 50
Airport communications page . . . . 35-36, 39
Airport runway page . . . . . . . . . . . 35-36, 40
Airport position page . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-37
Airport identification page . . . . . . . . . 35-36
Airport information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Altitude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Altitude buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Approach procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-38
Approach select page . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61, 85
Approach timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74-91, 124-129
Arrival alarm setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Automatic zoom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
AutoStore™ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
B
Backlighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101, 103
Battery saver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
130
C
Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
CDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5, 11, 99
CDI sensitivity setting . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 99
Channel 2 I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Checking GPS coverage. . . . . . . . . 19-21, 29
Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-27
Clear key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Clock function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Closest point of approach (CPA). . . . . . . . 65
Communications page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Communication frequencies . . . . . . 3, 16, 39
Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Controlled airspace . . . . . . . . 37, 54-57, 105
Course select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 60
Copying routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Creating user waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . 44-47
Cursor key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
D
Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 32-33
Data fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 11-13
Date & time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Deleting user waypoints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Deleting routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Deleting waypoints from routes . . . . . 63, 72
Density altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Direct-to, cancelling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Direct-to key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii, 4, 59
Direct-to navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58-60
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Display contrast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Display mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Displaying airports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Displaying identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Displaying airspace boundaries. . . . . . . . . 99
DOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Downloading data to another GPS155XL 108
Duplicate waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
E
Editing routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 71
Editing user waypoints . . . . . . . . . 44-46, 49
ENT key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Entering waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 44-46
EPE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
ETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
F
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Frequency restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 39
Fuel planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-24
G
Going to a nearest airport . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
GPS APR switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
GPS planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
GPS SEQ switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Ground speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Ground track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
H
‘Hold’ on a waypoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 76
I
Inner knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Installation of the GPS 150 XL . . . . . . . . 110
Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 43
I/O Outputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107, 121
APPENDIX
INDEX
H
K
Key functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii, viii
Knob functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii, viii
L
Locked waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
M
Magnetic variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Map datums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106, 122-123
Map display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6, 14
Map orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 97
Map page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7, 10, 14-15
Map scales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 15
Map setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97-99
Measurement units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Messages . . . . . . . 2, 26, 30, 52, 54, 113-117
Missed approaches . . . . . 78, 80, 83-84, 129
MSG key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii, 96
N
NAV/GPS switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
NAV Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii, 3, 10
NAV menu 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 22-27
NAV menu 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 27-31
NAV summary page . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5, 10-13
NAVCOM page . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 7, 10, 16-17
131
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H
INDEX
Page 132
NavData cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 108-109
Navigation terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
NDBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 42
NRST key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii, 8, 53
Nearest airport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 53, 100
Nearest SUA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-57
Nearest waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 53
O
Offset navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Outer knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
P
Packing list. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Parallel track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 66
Position page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 10, 17-18
Power/intensity knob . . . . . . . . . . . . vii, 103
Power on (normal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Power off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Procedure turns . . . . . . . . . . 76, 79, 82, 126
Procedures page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-38
Proximity Waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 48
132
R
RAIM prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
RAIM protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Radar information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Receiver status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-20
Reference waypoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Removal of the GPS 155XL . . . . . . . . . . 110
Renaming user waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Restoring user data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Reversing a route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Route catalog page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Route comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Route key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Route navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58, 70
Route RAIM prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . 67-68
Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58-73
Runway page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Runway surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 100
S
Satellite acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Satellite data page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Satellite information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-21
Satellite status page . . . . . . . . . . 2, 10, 19-21
Scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Search-and-rescue operations . . . . . . . . . . 66
Settings submenus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
SIDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-38, 61-62, 92-93
Simulator mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Special Use Airspace (SUA) . . . . . . . . . 54-57
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
STARs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-38, 61-62, 94-95
Storing user data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
SUA alert messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54, 57
SUA alert page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
SUA altitude fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
SUA settings page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 98
Sunrise/sunset planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
T
Table of contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v-vi
Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
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Trip planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Trip timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28, 103
Trip timer settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
True air speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Turn anticipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Z
Zoom in/out keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii, 7, 15
APPENDIX
INDEX
H
U
Unit settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96-107
Units of measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
User data cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
User waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 44-47, 49
V
Vertical navigation (VNAV) . . . . . . . . . 25-26
VORs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 41
W
Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
Waypoint categories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Waypoint comment list . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 50
Waypoint comments page . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Waypoint confirmation page . . . . . . . . . . 51
Waypoint entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Waypoint holding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Waypoint identification page . . . . . . . . . . 34
Waypoint information. . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-52
Waypoint key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii, 32
Waypoint list. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Waypoint menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-33
Waypoint scanning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Waypoint sequencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72-73
Waypoints with comments. . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Winds aloft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
133
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© 1999 GARMIN Corporation
GARMIN International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street Olathe, KS 66062
GARMIN (Europe) LTD
Unit 5, The Quadrangle, Abbey Park Industrial Estate, Romsey, SO51 9AQ, UK
GARMIN (Asia) Corp.
3rd Fl., No. 1, Lane 45, Pao-Hsing Road, Hsin Tien, Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C.
Web Site Address: www.garmin.com
Part No. 190-00067-20 Rev. B