Garmin GPS16 GPS Receiver User Manual

GPS 16
GPS receiver/antenna
quick
start
guide
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© 2001 GARMIN Corporation
GARMIN International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Tel. 913/397.8200 or 800/800.1020
Fax 913/397.8282
GARMIN (Europe) Ltd.
Unit 5, The Quadrangle, Abbey Park Industrial Estate, Romsey, SO51 9AQ, U.K.
Tel. 44/1794.519944
Fax 44/1794.519222
GARMIN Corporation
No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Rd., Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
Tel. 886/02.2642.9199
Fax 886/02.2642.9099
All rights reserved. Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual
may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored in
any storage medium, for any purpose without prior written consent of GARMIN
Corporation. GARMIN Corporation hereby grants permission to download a single
copy of this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic storage medium to be
viewed for personal use, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this
manual contains the complete text of this copyright notice and provided further that
any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual is strictly prohibited.
Information in this manual is subject to change without notice. GARMIN
Corporation reserves the right to change or improve its products and to make
changes in the content without obligation to notify any person or organization of
such changes. Visit the GARMIN web site (www.garmin.com) for current updates
and supplemental information concerning the use and operation of this and other
GARMIN products.
GARMIN® and AutoLocate® are registered trademarks of GARMIN Corporation and
may not be used without the express permission of GARMIN Corporation.
October 2001
GPS16 Cover.indd
Part Number 190-00228-11 Rev. A
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Introduction
GARMIN Corporation warrants this product to be free
from defects in materials and workmanship for one year
from the date of purchase. GARMIN will, at its sole option,
repair or replace any components that fail in normal use.
Such repairs or replacement will be made at no charge to
the customer for parts or labor. The customer is, however,
responsible for any transportation costs. This warranty does
not cover failures due to abuse, misuse, accident or unauthorized alteration or repairs.
THE WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES CONTAINED
HEREIN ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES EXPRESS OR IMPLIED OR STATUTORY,
INCLUDING ANY LIABILITY ARISING UNDER ANY
WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE.
THIS WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS,
WHICH MAY VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL GARMIN BE LIABLE FOR ANY
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER RESULTING FROM THE
USE, MISUSE, OR INABILITY TO USE THIS PRODUCT
OR FROM DEFECTS IN THE PRODUCT. SOME STATES
DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF INCIDENTAL
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE
LIMITATIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
To obtain warranty service, contact your GARMIN
dealer or call the GARMIN Customer Service department
(913-397-8200) for a returned merchandise tracking
number. The unit should be securely packaged with the
tracking number clearly marked on the outside of the package and sent freight prepaid and insured to a GARMIN
warranty service station. A copy of the original sales receipt
is required as the proof of purchase for warranty repairs.
GARMIN retains the exclusive right to repair or replace the
unit or software or offer a full refund of the purchase price
at its sole discretion. SUCH REMEDY SHALL BE YOUR
SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR ANY BREACH OF
WARRANTY.
Limited Warranty
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Introduction
Cautions /
FCC Compliance
I
The GARMIN GPS 16 does
not contain any user-serviceable
parts. Repairs should only
be made by an authorized
GARMIN service center. Unauthorized repairs or modifications
could result in permanent
damage to the equipment, and
void your warranty and your
authority to operate this device
under Part 15 regulations.
The GPS system is operated by the government of the
United States which is solely responsible for their accuracy
and maintenance. The Global Positioning System and the
Differential Global Positioning System are under development and are subject to changes which could affect accuracy and performance of all GPS equipment. Although
a GPS system is a precision electronic NAVigation AID
(NAVAID), any NAVAID can be misused or misinterpreted,
and therefore become unsafe. Use the GPS system at your
own risk. To reduce this risk, carefully review and understand all aspects of this Quick Start Guide and carefully
compare indications from your output to all available
navigation sources including the information from other
NAVAIDs, visual sightings, charts, etc. For safety, always
resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation.
FCC Compliance
F
If this equipment does cause
harmful interference to radio or
television reception, which can be
determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the
following measures:
· Reorient or relocate the receiving
antenna.
· Increase the separation between
the equipment and receiver.
· Connect the equipment into an
outlet on a circuit different from
that to which the receiver is connected.
· Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for
help.
The GPS 16 complies with Part 15 of the FCC interference limits for Class B digital devices FOR HOME OR
OFFICE USE. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential
installation, and are more stringent than “outdoor” requirements.
Operation of this device is subject to the following
conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference
received, including interference that may cause undesired
operation.
This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio
frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
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Introduction
Introduction
Limited Warranty................................................1
Cautions ............................................................2
Table of Contents ...............................................3
Table of
Contents
Overview
Capabilities & Package Contents........................4
Specifications..................................................5
Installation
Mounting the GPS 16..............................6-7
Wiring the GPS 16......................................8-10
Operation
Using the GPS 16 ................................11-12
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Introduction
Capabilities
Capabilities &
Package Contents
Package Contents
Your GARMIN GPS 16
package includes:
• GPS 16 unit with 17 ft. (5 m)
Power/Data Cable
If any parts are missing
or damaged, please contact
your GARMIN dealer
immediately.
Technical Specifications for the
GPS 16 may be downloaded
from the GARMIN web site at
www.garmin.com/support
The GPS 16 offers a host of powerful capabilities for
enhanced performance and accuracy:
• Performance— WAAS enabled, 12-channel GPS
receiver tracks and uses up to 12 satellites for fast,
accurate positioning.
• Ease of Use— Once installed, unit will automatically transmit navigation data.
• Convenience— May be remotely mounted in an
out-of-the-way location. Receiver status information
can be displayed directly on a chartplotter or PC.
• GPS Accuracy
Position: < 15 meters, 95% (typical)*
Velocity: .1 knot RMS steady state
• DGPS (USCG) Accuracy
Position: 3-5 meters, 95% (typical)
Velocity: .1 knot RMS steady state
• DGPS (WAAS) Accuracy
Position: < 3 meters, 95% (typical)
Velocity: .1 knot RMS steady state
• Acquisition Times**
Reacquisition: Less than 2 seconds
Warm: Approximately 15 seconds
Cold: Approximately 45 seconds
AutoLocate: Approximately 5 minutes
Skysearch: Approximately 5 minutes
* Subject to accuracy degradation to 100m 2DRMS under the U.S.
Department of Defense imposed Selective Availability Program.
** Warm = all data known; Cold = position, time and almanac
known; AutoLocate = almanac known, position and time unknown;
Skysearch = no data known.
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Overview
Physical
Size:
3.58”D x 4.25”H
(86mm x 42mm)
Weight:
11.7 oz. (332 g) with cable
Operating Range:
-30°F to +176°F (-30°C to +80°C)
Waterproof:
-1 meter submersion for 30 minutes
Cable:
17 ft. (5 m) Foil-shielded 8 conductor
28 AWG; RJ-45 Connector
Dynamics:
999 knots, 6g’s
GPS 16
Specifications
IPX7 rating for IEC529
Power
Voltage:
GPS 16 LVx:
3.3 - 6 Vdc regulated to <100 mV ripple
GPS 16 HVx:
6 - 40 Vdc unregulated
Current Drain:
GPS 16 LVx:
80 mA (typical)
GPS 16 HVx:
100 mA @ 6 Vdc; 65 mA @ 12 Vdc; 28
mA @ 40 Vdc
Sensitivity:
Complete information concerning
NMEA & RTCM formats and sentences is available for purchase
at:
-165 dBW minimum
Interfaces
Serial Interface:
GPS 16 xVC:
CMOS (TTL) voltage levels,
RS-232 polarity
GPS 16 xVS:
True RS-232 levels
Serial Port 1:
F
Selectable between NMEA and GARMIN.
NMEA 0183 v2.0 (ASCII), GPALM,
GPGGA, GPGSA, GPGSV, GPRMC, GPVTG,
GPGLL, PGRME, PGRMF, PGRMT, PGRMV
and PGRMB output.
Serial Port 2:
RTCM Input Only. RTCM SC-104 differential input message types 1, 2, 3, 7 and 9
Baud Rates:
300 -19200
PPS Output:
1 Hz pulse, programmable width,
± 200 ns at 95% confidence accuracy
National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA)
PO Box 3435
New Bern, NC 28564-3435
USA
252-638-2626
252-638-4885 FAX.
www.nmea.org
Radio Technical Commission For
Maritime Services (RTCM)
1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 600
Alexandria, VA 22314-2480,
USA
703-684-4481 (Info Only)
703-836-4229 FAX
www.rtcm.org
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Installation
Mounting the Receiver
Mounting the
GPS 16
I
Note: As a general rule,
mount the receiver at least
three feet from all other
antennas and electrical
system components
(alternator/ignition system).
Please read through these instructions thoroughly before
attempting installation. Make sure you completely understand
these instructions before you begin. When in doubt, seek professional assistance.
The following additional items are needed or optional
to complete the installation of your GPS 16:
• Receiver mount— Since mounting
locations and methods vary, you may need
to obtain a mount to install the GPS 16.
The receiver base uses either our Magnetic
Mount or may be flush mounted.
• On/Off switch (optional)— Power to the
receiver may be controlled by an on/off switch,
such as an accessory switch on the control
console. Check with an electric supply retailer for
this item.
It is recommended that the system be temporarily
hooked up with the wiring and the unit placed at the
desired installation location. Then, check operation with
potential interfering equipment turned on and off. (For
example, other electronic equipment, fan motors, engine
ignition, alternators, generators, radars and VHF radio
transmissions can be sources of interference.)
Position the receiver so that the clearest possible view
of the sky and horizon in all directions is obtained. Avoid
mounting the receiver next to large areas of conductive
material (metal, aluminum, etc.) as this may cause poor
signal reception. The GPS 16 is supplied with a 17 foot
(5 meter) power/data cable. When routing the wiring to
the GPS 16, avoid routing the cable near an alternator
or ignition system components or parallel to other power
lines.
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Installation
Three common sources of interference for GPS units
are:
Mounting the
GPS 16
ABOVE- OK
Radar
3'
BELOW- OK
Radar
VHF Radio Antenna
SS JAYHAWK
EMI
EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) from engine components
If a problem is found, try altering the location of the
unit or wiring. Often moving the receiver a few feet away
from the source of interference will solve the problem.
When a suitable configuration is found, a permanent installation should be made. Select the mounting location according to your preferences. Keep in mind that from this mounting location cables will be routed to the NMEA 0183
listening device. Since mounting needs will vary, here are a
couple basic methods:
I
When routing the power/data
cable, try to avoid:
• Sharp edges which may cut the
cable.
• Routing the cable parallel to
other power lines.
• Excessively twisting, straining
or bending the cable.
Mounting the GPS 16 with magnetic mount:
1. Align the magnetic mount, with the protective coating
facing away from the unit base, with the 3 screw holes
on the bottom of the receiver.
2. Insert and tighten the 3 screws.
3. Place the receiver on a clean, metallic surface and
route cable accordingly.
Flush mounting the GPS 16:
1. With the receiver upside down, using a piece of paper,
punch holes at the 3 screw locations to create a
template.
2. Use the template to mark and drill holes large enough
for the screw to pass through at the marked location.
3. Align the receiver over the 3 holes and fasten the
screws. The M4 thread inserts for the GPS 16 are
8.10mm deep. Do not use screws that will thread
into the receiver any deeper, as this may damage the
receiver.
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Installation
Mounting the
GPS 16
Wiring the GPS 16
The final step in installing the GPS 16 is to
connect the receiver’s Port 1 DATA IN, DATA OUT,
REMOTE ON/OFF and GROUND (Return) lines to your
NMEA 0183 device or PC. Port 2 is used for RTCM
input only. The GPS 16 may be plugged directly into a
RJ-45 receptacle, which accepts NMEA 0183 data. It is
recommended that a 1-amp, slow blow fuse be installed
on the power (+) line of the receiving RJ-45 receptacle or
equivalent device. Color coding of the wires is the same
on all GPS 16 models (see wiring diagrams on following
pages). If necessary, the wire coloring on the GPS 16 may
be seen through the clear RJ-45 connector.
For reliable communication, it is essential that the
GPS 16 and the receiving device share the same ground.
This ground connection acts as the (signal) return line.
It is recommended to wire the unit to its own circuit to
avoid interference from other electronics.
Wire Coloring:
1. RED- Power (+)
2. BLACK- Ground (Power (-) and Data Signal Return)
3. YELLOW- Remote power On/Off (Pull low for ON)
4. BLUE- Port 1 NMEA 0183 or GRMN Data Input
5. WHITE- Port 1 NMEA 0183 or GRMN Data Output
6. GREEN- Port 2 RTCM SC-104 Differential Data Input
7. VIOLET- Port 2 Data Output (Reserved for Future Use)
8. GRAY- Pulse Per Second Output (See Tech Specifications)
GPS 16
RJ-45 Connector
(Cable View)
1 2 34 5 6 78
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Installation
Basic Wiring for the GPS 16 to a NMEA 0183
Device or PC Connector:
Wiring
the GPS 16
1. You may reference the following diagrams for the
wiring: Connect the WHITE (Port 1 Data Out) wire
from the GPS 16’s power/data cable to the DATA
INPUT line of the NMEA 0183 device or to pin 2 on
a DB9 (pin 3 on DB25). You may typically output
data to no more than three NMEA devices.
2. Connect the BLUE (Port 1 Data In) wire to the DATA
OUTPUT line of the NMEA 0183 device or pin 3 on
the DB9 (pin 2 on DB25).
3. Connect the BLACK (-) wire to the GROUND wire
of the NMEA device or pin 5 on the DB9 (pin 7
on DB25). If connecting to a PC, you must also run
a separate BLACK (-) wire to a power ground. If
the BLACK wire is connected to the same ground
terminal as the NMEA 0183 device, no additional
connection is required, unless a separate data return
line is required by the NMEA device).
4. Connect the RED (+) wire from the power/data
cable to a DC power source.
5. If a remote power switch is being installed, reference the following page for wiring a switch. This
will allow the GPS 16 to remain connected to a
power source, but manually powered on (pull down
to less than 0.5 volts) and off (open). Otherwise,
if the receiver is being wired to a circuit which is
already switched, (with the NMEA 0183 device for
example) connect the YELLOW wire to the same
place as the BLACK wire. When the BLACK and
YELLOW wires are combined, the GPS 16 will turn
on when power is applied to the RED (+) and
BLACK (-) wires.
(-)
(+)
Fuse
1A
Power Source
F
If the GPS 16 is being connected
to a PC, a DB9 or DB25 serial
connector (normally female) will
be needed. Check with a PC or
electronics supplier for this item.
5 4 3 2 1
9 8 7 6
DB9 Female Serial Connector
13
7
3 2 1
25
14
DB25 Female Serial Connector
I
Some non-GARMIN devices may
have a separate data line labeled
“RETURN”, “DATA GROUND”
or “DATA -”. If one of these lines
exist, connect the BLACK wire
from the power/data cable to it.
GPS 16
Power/Data Cable &
DB-9 Serial Connection
RED: POWER
PIN 5: GROUND
9
8
7
6
4
PIN 3: DATA OUT
PIN 2: DATA IN
1
BLUE: PORT 1 DATA IN
WHITE: PORT 1 DATA OUT
GPS 16
Power/Data Cable
GREEN: PORT 2 DATA IN (n/c)
DB-9
Serial Connector
GPS16 QSG.indd
BLACK: GROUND
YELLOW: REMOTE ON/OFF
VIOLET: PORT 2 DATA OUT (n/c)
GRAY: PPS OUTPUT
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Installation
Wiring
the GPS 16
(-)
(+)
Fuse
1A
Power Source
NMEA Device
GPS 16
Power/Data Cable &
NMEA Device Connection
RED: 6-40 VDC
POWER
GROUND
BLACK: GROUND
YELLOW: REMOTE ON/OFF
DATA OUT
BLUE: PORT 1 DATA IN
WHITE: PORT 1 DATA OUT
DATA IN
GPS 16
Power/Data Cable
GREEN: PORT 2 DATA IN (n/c)
VIOLET: PORT 2 DATA OUT (n/c)
GRAY: PPS
(-)
(+)
Fuse
1A
Power Source
RED: POWER
RED: 6-40 VDC
GARMIN DGPS
GBR 21/23
(Remote Power 23 Only)
GPS 16
Power/Data Cable &
NMEA Device Connection
BLACK: GROUND
BLACK: GROUND
WHITE: REMOTE ON/OFF
YELLOW: REMOTE ON/OFF
BROWN: DATA IN
BLUE: PORT 1 DATA IN (n/c)
BLUE: DATA OUT
WHITE: PORT 1 DATA OUT
GPS 16
Power/Data Cable
GREEN: PORT 2 DATA IN
VIOLET: PORT 2 DATA OUT (n/c)
GRAY: PPS OUTPUT
(-)
(+)
Power Source
GPS 16
Fuse
1A
Power/Data Cable
Remote Power Switch
(1) RED: POWER
(2) BLACK: GROUND
(5) YELLOW: REMOTE ON/OFF*
Closed- ON
Open- OFF
GPS 16
Power/Data Cable
Switch
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Operation
First Time Fix
The first time you power up your new GPS 16, the
receiver must be given an opportunity to collect satellite
data and establish its present position. To ensure proper
initialization, the GPS 16 is shipped from the factory in
AutoLocate mode, which will allow the receiver to “find
itself” anywhere in the world.
Once the GPS 16 is installed and powered on, it will
begin to search for satellites. The GPS 16 will output
navigation data once it has calculated an initial position
fix. By default, the following data will be output in
NMEA 0183, Version 2.0 format:
• Latitude/Longitude/Altitude (GPGGA, GPRMC,
GPGLL)
• Velocity (GPRMC)
• Date/Time (GPRMC)
• Error Estimates (PGRME)
• Satellite and Receiver Status (GPGSA, GPGSV,
PGRMB, PGRMT)
WAAS Capability
The GPS 16 is capable of receiving WAAS (Wide
Area Augmentation System) satellite signals. WAAS is an
FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) funded project to
improve the overall accuracy and integrity of the GPS
signal for aviation use, but land/sea based users may also
benefit from this system. At this time, the system is still in
the development stage and is not fully operational. There
are currently two WAAS satellites that can be received in
the U.S.A., one over the Atlantic Ocean and one over the
Pacific Ocean, in a geo-stationary orbit over the equator.
Effective use of the WAAS satellite signal may be limited
by your geographic location in relation to those satellites,
now in developmental service. WAAS satellite signal
reception requires an absolute clear view of the sky and
works best when there are no nearby obstructions such
as buildings, mountains, etc. WAAS satellites will be
numbered 33 or higher when viewing the sky view on
your NMEA device. First-time use of the WAAS feature
may take up to 15-20 minutes to obtain differential
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Using the
GPS 16
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Operation
Using the
GPS 16
positioning, then 1-2 minutes afterwards. When WAAS differential correction has been received for enough satellites,
the NMEA 0183 data will indicate the availability of a differential fix in the GPGGA sentence. To learn more about
the WAAS system, its satellite positions and current state of
development, visit the FAA web site (http://gps.faa.gov).
Interfaces
F
The following NMEA
transmitted sentences are
enabled at the factory:
GPGGA, GPGSA, GPGSV,
GPRMC, PGRMB,
PGRME, PGRMT and
PSLIB
The GPS 16 serial Port 1 interface protocol design
is based on the National Marine Electronics Association’s
(NMEA) 0183 ASCII interface specification, which is fully
defined in “NMEA 0183, Version 2.0” and the Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services “RTCM Recommended Standards For Differential Navstar GPS Service,
Version 2.1, RTCM Special Committee No. 104”. Contact
information to obtain copies of the NMEA and RTCM specifications may be found on page 5. The GPS 16 may also be
configured to output NMEA 0183, Version 3.0 data. See the
technical specifications for more information.
Port 2 is designated for RTCM data input only. Output
on Port 2 is reserved for future use.
The GPS 16 interface protocol also transmits additional
information using the convention of GARMIN proprietary
sentences ($PGRMx). Complete information on GPS 16
capabilities, data transfer, NMEA 0183 sentence formats
and descriptions can be found in the “GPS 16 Technical
Specifications” (190-00228-20). You may order a copy of
these specifications from GARMIN or your GARMIN dealer,
or you may also download a copy from the manuals section
of the GARMIN web site at www.garmin.com/support/
userManual.html.
The GPS 16 Port 1 is capable of transmitting the following NMEA 0183 data sentences:
GPALM, GPGGA, GPGSA, GPGSV, GPRMC, GPVTG,
GPGLL, PGRME, PGRMF, PGRMT, PGRMV and PGRMB
The GPS 16 Port 1 is capable of receiving the following
NMEA data sentences:
GPALM, PGRMI, PGRMC, PGRMC1, PGRMO and
PSLIB.
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For the latest free software updates throughout the life of your
GARMIN products, visit the GARMIN web site at www.garmin.com
© 2001 GARMIN Corporation
GARMIN International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
GARMIN (Europe) Ltd.
Unit 5, The Quadrangle, Abbey Park Industrial Estate, Romsey, SO51 9AQ, U.K.
GARMIN Corporation
No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road, Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
www.garmin.com
Part Number 190-00228-11 Rev. A
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