Garmin GPS45 GPS Receiver User Manual

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Owner’s
Manual
&
Reference
GOTO
PAGE
MARK
QUIT
G
ENTER
P
S
4
5
GPS45
Personal
Navigator
TM
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Page i
GPS 45
Personal NavigatorTM
OWNER’S MANUAL
Introduction
Foreword
Software Version 2.20 or above
© 1994 GARMIN INTERNATIONAL
9875 Widmer Road, Lenexa, KS 66215, USA
All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic or manual, including photocopying
and recording, for any purpose without the express written permission of
GARMIN.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice. GARMIN
reserves the right to change or improve their products and to make changes in
the content without obligation to notify any person or organization of such
changes or improvements.
April 1994
Part #190-00070-00 Rev. B
Printed in Taiwan.
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Page ii
Introduction
Cautions
CAUTION
The GPS system is operated by the government of the United States, which
is solely responsible for its accuracy and maintenance. The system is under
development and is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Although the GPS 45 is a precision electronic NAVigation AID (NAVAID), any NAVAID can be misused or misinterpreted, and therefore become unsafe.
Use the GPS 45 at your own risk. To reduce the risk of unsafe operation,
carefully review and understand all aspects of this Owner’s Manual and thoroughly practice operation using the simulator mode prior to actual use. When
in actual use, carefully compare indications from the GPS 45 to all available
navigation sources including the information from other NAVAIDs, visual
sightings, charts, etc. For safety, always resolve any discrepancies before continuing navigation.
NOTE: This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is
subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received,
including interference that may cause undesired operation.
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Introduction
Preface
Preface
Welcome to the smallest, easiest-to-use GPS navigator on the water! The
GPS 45 represents GARMIN’s continuing commitment to provide mariners
with quality navigation information in a versatile, accurate and user-friendly
design you’ll enjoy for years to come.
To get the most of your new GPS unit, it is important that you take the time
to read through this owner’s manual to understand the operating features of
the GPS 45. The manual is organized into two sections for your convenience:
Section One introduces you to the basic features of the unit and provides a
quick-start orientation to the GPS 45. It has been designed to acquaint you
with the unit and provide a basic working knowledge necessary to use the unit
in typical conditions.
Section Two provides a detailed reference to the advanced features and
operations of the GPS 45 in a topical format. This allows you to concentrate
on a specific topic quickly, without reading through entire sections of text that
you may not need.
Thanks for choosing the GARMIN GPS 45. If you have any questions or
comments regarding the use of the GPS 45, our Product Support staff is
available to serve you at 1-800-800-1020 or 913-599-1515. You can also
reach our Product Support staff by FAX at 913-599-2103.
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Introduction
Capabilities
GPS 45 Capabilities
Designed for easy operation, the GARMIN GPS 45 offers powerful features
that make marine navigation come alive in the palm of your hand:
Precision Performance
• MultiTrac8TM receiver tracks and uses up to 8 satellites simultaneously
for fast, accurate positioning
• Differential-Ready— just add the optional GBR 21 beacon receiver for
under 10 meter accuracy
• Waterproof, dry nitrogen-filled case for all-weather use
• Up to 20 hours of battery life on 4 AA alkaline cells in battery saver mode
Advanced Navigating and Plotting
• 250 alphanumeric waypoints
• List of 9 nearest waypoints
• 20 reversible routes
• MOB mode with bearing and distance to mark
• Moving Map Plotting with scales to 1/5th statute mile
• Graphic pages for Satellite Status, Position, Plotting and CDI Navigation
• Active graphic display of cardinal heading
Simple, One-Handed Operation
• Efficient 2-speed thumbkey control
• Weighs just 10 ounces with batteries
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Introduction
Packing List
Before getting started with your new GPS receiver, check to see that your
GARMIN GPS 45 package includes the following items. If you are missing any
parts, please see your dealer immediately.
Standard Package:
• GPS 45 Receiver with Removable Antenna
• Carrying Case
• GPS 45 Owner’s Manual
• 4 AA Batteries
• Quick Reference Card
• Warranty Registration Card
Optional Accessories:
• Swivel Mounting Bracket
• Power/Data Cable
• Remote Mount Marine Antenna
• Low-Profile Automobile Antenna
• Cigarette Lighter Adapter
• PC Kit
See your local GARMIN dealer for optional accessories.
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Page 1
Table of Contents
SECTION ONE
Table
of
Contents
Getting Started
GPS Overview .............................................................................................................2
Basic Definitions..........................................................................................................3
Power On/Status and Position ..................................................................................4-5
Marking a Position ......................................................................................................6
Moving Map Basics......................................................................................................7
GOTO and Steering Guidance..................................................................................8-9
Pages and Menus.......................................................................................................10
Time Offset and Power Off........................................................................................11
Keypad Usage/Operation Flowcharts....................................................................12-14
SECTION TWO
Reference
Satellite Status Page..............................................................................................15-16
Position Page Options ...............................................................................................17
Creating and Using Waypoints.............................................................................18-24
GOTOs and MOB Mode.......................................................................................25-26
Creating and Using Routes ...................................................................................27-32
Moving Map Plotting............................................................................................33-36
Menu Page and Auxiliary Functions .....................................................................37-46
Battery and Antenna Installation................................................................................47
Appendix A—Glossary ..............................................................................................48
Appendix B—Messages ........................................................................................49-50
Appendix C—Time Offset .........................................................................................51
Appendix D—Map Datums..................................................................................52-53
Appendix E—Maintenance and Specifications...........................................................54
Appendix F—Electrical Wiring and Installation ........................................................55
Appendix G—Mounting Bracket Installation........................................................56-57
Appendix H—Index.............................................................................................59-60
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Page 2
Introduction
GPS Overview
What is GPS?
GPS (Global Positioning System) is a satellite-based navigation system developed
by the U. S. Department of Defense to provide a consistent, accurate method of
simplifying navigation. Originally designed for military applications, it also provides commercial and recreational users with 24-hour, worldwide navigation coverage with accuracy to 15 meters (49 feet).
How Does GPS Work?
GPS navigation uses satellite ranging to determine your position in relation to a
set of satellites orbiting the earth. The GPS constellation is made up of 24 satellites,
which continuously send radio signals containing precise position and time information for each satellite back to earth.
By knowing the position of any 3 or 4 of these satellites and calculating various
time differences between the transmitted signals, your GPS receiver can determine
its present position anywhere on earth. And once you’re under way, your GPS continuously updates your position and provides speed and track information.
What are the Advantages of GPS Navigation?
For centuries, mariners have been searching for an accurate method of travelling
the world’s waterways. From celestial navigating to loran and SatNav, each system
has had its problems with weather, range and reliability.
GPS takes navigation to a higher level by providing accurate position and course
information, anywhere in the world, regardless of the weather or your proximity to
land. The accuracy and coverage of GPS navigation can help make your boating
safer, smarter and more efficient wherever you may travel.
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Page 3
Getting
Started
Basic
Definitions
The GPS 45 is a powerful navigation tool that can guide you anywhere in
the world. To better understand its operation and capabilities, it may be helpful to review the basic terms and concepts briefly explained below.
Navigation is the process of traveling from one place to another and knowing
where you are in relation to your desired course.
Position is an exact, unique location based on a geographic coordinate system.
Marine navigation is based on the latitude/longitude coordinate system.
Meridians of longitude are a set of imaginary circles around the earth that pass
through the north and south poles. Longitude describes position in terms of how
many degrees it is east or west of the Prime Meridian (0º longitude).
Parallels of latitude are another set of imaginary circles that are perpendicular
to the earth’s polar axis. Latitude describes position in terms of how many
degrees it is north or south of the equator (0º latitude).
A waypoint marks an exact position fix so it can be recalled for future use. The
GPS 45 lets you mark waypoints electronically, without physical landmarks.
Bearing is a compass direction to a particular destination (waypoint) from your
present position.
Track is a compass direction representing your course over ground.
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Page 4
Getting
Started
The first time you power up your new GPS 45 is
an important step in getting the best possible GPS
performance. The receiver must be given an opportunity to collect satellite almanac data and establish
its present position. This process can take 7 1/2-15
minutes, and is only necessary for first time operation or after memory loss.
Power On
Take the GPS 45 outside and find a large, open
area (try a nearby park) that has a clear view of the
sky from horizon to horizon.
⌃
Hold the receiver at a
comfortable height, at
arm’s length from your
body. If you prefer, find
a steady surface to set
the unit on while it
acquires satellites.
Do your best to stay away from buildings or other
structures that could block the path of signals to
the receiver. Although GPS signals will travel
through glass and canvas biminis, they do not
travel through buildings, metal surfaces or other
significant structures.
You’re now ready to power up and discover the
world of GARMIN GPS navigation.
1. Rotate the antenna so it’s pointing up,
perpendicular to the ground.
2. Press the B key firmly
to turn the unit on.
The Welcome Page will be displayed while the
unit conducts a self test. Once testing is complete,
the Welcome Page will be replaced by the Status
Page and the unit will begin acquiring satellite data.
While the GPS 45 is acquiring satellite data, relax
and browse through the rest of the Getting Started
section of the manual. If you’re new to GPS navigation, be sure to review the GPS Overview and Basic
Navigation Terms on pages 2 and 3.
Welcome Page
4
⌃
To prevent accidental battery power loss, the
GPS 45 will automatically shut off 15 minutes after
the last keystroke if the unit is not tracking at least
one satellite and has never acquired a position fix.
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Page 5
Getting
Started
The GPS 45’s Status Page provides a visual reference of satellite acquisition and position. As the
receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar
will appear for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite number (1-32) underneath each bar.
Status &
Position
Horizontal
Accuracy
Status
Battery
Indicator
Satellite Sky
View
Satellite
Number
Signal Strength
Indicators
The satellite sky view shows a bird’s eye view of
the position of each satellite relative to the unit’s last
known position. The outer circle represents the
horizon (north up); the inner circle 45º above the
horizon; and the center point directly overhead.
Once sufficient signals have been acquired, the
Status Page will be replaced with the Position Page.
The sky view will help you
determine if a satellite signal is being blocked by
buildings, mountains or
other obstructions. As
satellites are locked onto,
the sky view indicators
will change from a
reverse-video highlight
to a standard display.
If you encounter difficulty
acquiring satellite signals,
try facing another direction or walk towards a
clearer view of the horizon.
The Position Page shows you where you are, what
direction you’re heading and how fast you are
going. The graphic display at the top of the page
indicates your cardinal heading (only while you’re
moving) with the track and speed indicated below.
⌃
The graphic compass display is designed to show
your current track and does not serve as a true
magnetic compass while you’re standing still.
The rest of the page shows your current position
in three dimensions: latitude, longitude and altitude. The GPS 45 uses this basic information to
mark exact positions as waypoints, which help
guide you from one place to another.
Position Page
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Page 6
Getting
Started
Marking a
Position
Getting to know your new GPS is as easy as taking a quick stroll around an open outdoor area. To
get the most out of this tutorial, make sure to walk
for at least the time noted for each step. This way,
you’ll reduce the chances of staying within the
receiver’s margin of error. You’ll also get a much
better indication of the unit’s visual guidance and
mapping capabilities.
Once you’ve acquired a position, mark it as a
waypoint for future reference.
1. Press the M key to capture and hold your
present position.
The Mark Position Page appears, showing the
captured position and a default 3-digit waypoint
name. Let’s change the default name to something
that’s a little more meaningful.
1. Press theU key twice to move the field highlight from the ‘save’ field to the name field.
2. Press the E key to begin entry of your waypoint name.
3. Press and hold theU key to scroll through the
alphabet until the letter ‘H’ appears.
4. Press the R key once to move the character
highlight to the next character space.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until the word ‘HOME’
is displayed.
6. Press E to complete entry of the name.
7. Press theD key once to return the field highlight to the ‘save’ field.
8. Press the E key to confirm that you want to
save the position as a waypoint named ‘HOME’.
The Mark Position Page will be replaced by the
page displayed prior to pressing the M key.
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Page 7
Getting
Started
Now that you’ve marked a position, it’s time to
take off on a brisk walk and put your GPS 45
through its paces.
Moving Map
Basics
1. Walk in a straight line for 2-3 minutes at a fast
pace and watch the Position Page. You can time
your distance with the on-screen clock.
Heading
Display
Current
Track
Time of
Day
Speed
over
Ground
Position
Coordinates
Altitude
Map Page
The direction you are moving (your track) and
your speed are displayed on the upper part of the
screen, just below the graphic compass display. The
latitude, longitude and approximate altitude of
your position are continuously displayed in the
center of the screen, with the time of day (in UTC
time, computed from the satellites) displayed below.
Now let’s change the display to the Moving Map
Page and watch the track of our trip:
1. Press the P key to change from the Position
Page to the Map Page.
Your current position is shown as the diamond in
the middle of the screen. The dark circle below the
diamond represents the position you created, with
the line between the two showing your track.
1. Now turn 90º to your right and walk at a fast pace
for another 2-3 minutes.
Notice how the display changes, always keeping
the direction you are moving at the top.
The Moving Map’s
default setting is track
up orientation. It can
also be set for north up
or desired track up orientation through the
map setup page.
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Page 8
Getting
Started
Going to a
Waypoint
Now let’s navigate back to our starting position,
the HOME waypoint.
1. Press the G key.
2. The Navigation Page will appear with the waypoint field highlighted.
3. Press the U or D keys to scroll through
the available waypoints until ‘HOME’ is
displayed.
4. Press the E key to confirm that you want to
navigate to the displayed waypoint.
The GPS 45 will now guide you ‘HOME’.
As you begin walking again, the Navigation Page
will display nav data and graphic steering guidance. The bearing and distance to waypoint, with
your current track and speed are displayed at the
top of the screen, with your estimated time enroute
(ETE) and velocity made good (VMG, or the rate you
are closing in on your destination) at the bottom.
Bearing to
Waypoint
Present
Track
The moving highway
provides a visual perspective of the distance
and direction to waypoint. The highway will
always move to ‘point’
in the general direction
of your destination, with
the relative distance
indicated by the angle
of the outside lines of
the highway.
8
Course
Deviation
Scale
Estimated
Time
Enroute
Distance to
Waypoint
Speed
Over
Ground
Graphic
Highway
Velocity
Made Good
As you head towards your destination, the middle section of the screen provides visual guidance
to your waypoint on a moving graphic ‘highway’.
The moving arrow just below the course deviation
scale always points to your selected waypoint
(HOME) relative to the direction you are moving.
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Page 9
Getting
Started
Your present position is represented by the diamond in the center of the course deviation scale.
Destination
Waypoint
Steering
Guidance
Desired
Track Line
Position
Indicator
Horizontal
Finish Line
Pointer to Waypoint
The line down the middle of the highway represents your desired track. As you navigate toward a
waypoint, the highway will actually move, indicating the direction you’re off course, relative to the
position diamond on the CDI scale. To keep your
vessel on the desired course, simply steer toward
the center of the highway.
In this example, you are
off the desired course to
the right by 0.19 n.m.
To get back on course.
steer left to center the
position diamond on
the highway.
If you do get off the desired course by more
than 1/5th of the selected CDI range, the exact distance you are off course will be displayed where
the CDI scale setting normally appears (see the
example at right). As you approach a waypoint, a
horizontal ‘finish line’ will move toward the bottom of the highway. When the finish line reaches
the CDI scale, you’ve arrived at your destination.
Whenever the GPS 45 has something it needs to
tell you, a message indicator box will flash on
screen. When you are less than one minute from
reaching your HOME waypoint, the message box
will begin flashing.
1. To view a message, press the P key when
the message indicator appears.
2. Press P to return to the previous page.
This example shows
you are off the desired
course to the left by 0.08
n.m. To get back on
course. steer right to
center the position diamond on the highway.
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Page 10
Getting
Started
Page Sequence
and Menus
Now that you’ve arrived ‘HOME’, scroll
through the main pages of the GPS 45.
1. Press the P key to scroll through the five
main pages in sequence.
2. Press the Q key to scroll through pages in
the opposite direction.
Use the Page and Quit keys to continuously scroll through the main pages in either direction.
The Menu Page allows you to view waypoint or
route information and customize various functions
of the GPS 45. To get a feel of how the Menu Page
works, let’s set the time of day for your location.
1. Press the P or Q key until the Position
Page appears. Note the longitude of your current position (the bottom position value).
2. Press the P or Q key until the Menu Page
is displayed.
3. Press the U or D key until ‘operation setup’
is highlighted.
4. Press the E key.
5 Press the D key until ‘offset’ is highlighted.
6. Press the E key.
Refer to the appendix C for the appropriate
UTC offset for your longitude. Remember to add
1 hour if you are in Daylight Savings Time.
Once you’ve found the appropriate time offset,
enter it in the offset field.
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Page 11
Getting
Started
To enter the time offset:
1. If you are entering a negative offset, press
the L key to move the character highlight to the
+/- field. Press U to select a negative offset.
Time Offset
and Power Off
2. Press the R key to move to each character position, and use the U or D keys to enter an offset value in each position.
3. Press the E key to confirm your time offset.
4. Press the P key to return to the Menu Page.
⌃
Because time zone boundaries do not follow exact
meridians of longitude, there may be some
instances where the offset indicated does not
result in the correct time for your position. Simply
add or subtract the difference from the offset for
the correct time.
You’ve now gone through the basic operation
of your new GPS and probably know a little more
than you think about how it works. We encourage
you to experiment with the GPS 45 until it
becomes an extension of your own marine
navigation skills.
If you encounter any problems using the unit or
want to take advantage of the GPS 45’s advanced
features, refer to the operation flowcharts and the
reference section of this manual.
To turn the GPS 45 off:
1. Press and hold the B key for 3 seconds.
Thank you for choosing the GARMIN GPS 45.
We hope that it will be a valuable navigation tool
for you, wherever your course may take you.
The power off countdown appears right on
screen while you hold
the power button. This
countdown helps prevent accidental shutoff
and loss of data.
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Page 12
Getting
Started
Keypad Usage
The GPS 45’s two-speed thumbkey allows convenient, one-handed entry of
information. Press on a particular arrow key once to scroll through data
options slowly, press and hold an arrow key for faster scrolling.
Use the up and down arrow keys to select alphanumerical characters and
UD • menu
choices and to move the field highlight from field to field.
LR
• Use the left and right arrow keys to move the selected character field and
to move the field highlight from field to field.
GOTO key changes the display to the Navigation Page with the wayG The
point field highlighted. Pressing GOTO twice activates the MOB mode.
B
The POWER key turns the unit on and off and activates screen backlighting.
To turn the unit off, press and hold the POWER key for 3 seconds.
QUIT key returns you to a previous page, or clears data entry, restoring
Q The
a data field’s previous value.
The PAGE key scrolls through main data pages in sequence and returns the
P display
from a submenu page to the previous page viewed. It also displays
the message screen when a message alert appears.
M
The MARK key captures a position and displays the Mark Position Page.
ENTER key confirms data entry and on-screen responses. The ENTER
E The
key also activates highlighted fields to allow data entry.
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Page 13
Getting
Started
POWER ON
POWER OFF
Operation
Flowchart
B
B
Hold key for
3 seconds
MAIN PAGE SEQUENCE
Press the PAGE key to scroll through pages in sequence.
Press the QUIT key to scroll through pages in reverse order.
MARK POSITION
M
VIEW MESSAGES
P
P
GO TO WAYPOINT
G
To activate
the MOB
function, press GOTO twice.
REVIEW WAYPOINT DEFINITION PAGE
E
E
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Page 14
Getting
Started
SELECTING SUBMENUS FROM MENU PAGE
Operation
Flowchart
E
P
WAYPOINT LIST SUBMENU
WAYPOINT PAGE SUBMENU
E
You can delete all stored waypoints only
from the waypoint list submenu page.
The waypoint page lets you review, rename and delete any stored waypoint. Press ENTER to confirm the highlighted prompt field.
SUN CALCULATION
ROUTE PAGES
E
E
Once a route is activated, the Active Route
Page will appear in the main page sequence.
Clearing the contents of the Active Route
Page cancels the active route.
SETUP SUBMENU PAGES
To return from a setup page to the Main Menu Page, press the PAGE key.
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Page 15
Reference
Status
Horizontal
Accuracy
Battery
Indicator
Satellite
Status Page
Satellite Sky
View
Signal
Strength
Indicators
Satellite Not
Currently
Tracked
Satellite Numbers (1-32)
The GPS 45 Status Page displays the status of
various receiver functions. The status information
will help you understand what the GPS is doing at
any given time.
The sky view and signal strength bars give you
an indication of what satellites are visible to the
receiver, whether or not they are being tracked,
and the signal quality. When a satellite is visible
but not being tracked, the signal strength bar will
remain blank and the sky view indicator will
remain highlighted in reverse video.
⌃
If you are losing coverage or having trouble
acquiring a position, use the sky view and signal
strength bars to guide you towards a better location for GPS reception. If you have lost coverage
and the unit has trouble reacquiring satellites, try
shutting the unit off momentarily to reset the unit.
Receiver status is indicated at the top left of
the screen, with the current horizontal accuracy
(in feet or meters) at the top right. The status will
show one of the following conditions:
The satellite sky view
shows a bird’s eye view
of the position of each
satellite relative to the
receiver’s last known
position.
The outer circle represents the horizon (north
up); the inner circle 45º
above the horizon; and
the center point a position directly over your
head. Use the sky view
to help determine if
there are obstructions
shading your reception
of satellite signals.
Acquiring Satellites is the first status you’ll see
in normal operation. The GPS 45 is looking for
satellites to track based on its last known position.
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Page 16
Reference
Satellite
Status Page
2D Navigation status indicates that at least
three satellites with good geometry have been
locked onto and a 2 dimensional position fix
(latitude and longitude) is being calculated. ‘2D
Diff’ will appear when you are receiving DGPS
corrections in 2D mode.
3D Navigation indicates that at least four satellites with good geometry have been locked onto
and your position is now being calculated in latitude, longitude and altitude. ‘3D Diff’ will appear
when you are receiving DGPS corrections in 3D
mode.
Searching the Sky indicates that the GPS 45 is
collecting new almanac data or AutoLocateTM
mode has been selected (see page 38). This
process can take 7.5 to 15 minutes.
Poor GPS Coverage indicates that the receiver
is no longer tracking enough satellites to provide
a 2D or 3D position fix.
Simulating Navigation indicates that the
receiver is in simulator mode.
Below the receiver status field and to the left of
the satellite sky view is the battery level indicator.
⌃
The battery level indicator is calibrated for alkaline batteries. Ni-Cad and lithium batteries will not
show the battery level at full scale due to voltage
differences. No other receiver functions are
affected by using Ni-Cad or lithium batteries.
On the right side of the screen, just below the
horizontal accuracy field is the screen backlight
indicator. When backlighting is on, a bulb icon
will appear. To turn the screen backlighting on
or off:
1. Press the B key.
2. To adjust the duration of screen backlighting,
refer to the operation setup section (page 39).
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Page 17
Reference
The GPS 45 Position Page displays your current
position’s latitude, longitude, altitude and time
numerically. It also displays your track (compass
direction) and speed whenever you’re moving.
The Position Page also lets you enter a position’s
latitude and longitude manually. During satellite
acquisition, the position displayed is the last computed position stored in memory. If the receiver’s
position has moved several hundred miles with the
power off or memory has been lost due to battery
failure, the unit may take 7 1/2 to 15 minutes to
acquire satellite data.
Position Page
Options
To speed up the acquisition process, you can enter
a more accurate initial position. Most maps and charts
show the latitude and longitude of major cities.
1. Press the D key until the position field is
highlighted.
2. Press E to begin entry of your position.
3 Use the L and R arrow keys to select the
character position you want to edit.
4. Use the U and D arrow keys to select the
value for each field. All fields must have a value.
5. Press the E key to confirm your changes.
The unit of measure for
speed, position and altitude are all user-selectable. To change the
default settings for these
fields, refer to the navigation setup instructions on
page 41.
When the GPS 45 is acquiring satellites or navigating in the 2D mode, the last known altitude
will be used to compute your position. If the altitude shown is off by several hundred feet, enter a
corrected altitude manually for greater accuracy.
1. Press the D key until the altitude field is
highlighted.
2. Press E to begin entry of your altitude.
3. Use the U and D keys to enter a value in
each character field, using the L and R keys
to move to the next character position.
4. Press the E key to confirm the altitude.
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Marking
and Naming
Waypoints
Knowing your present position is only part of
any navigation equation. You also need to keep
track of where you’ve been and where you are
going. Waypoints serve as electronic markers that
let you keep track of starting points, destinations,
navaids and any other important position.
The GPS 45 allows you to mark, store and use
up to 250 waypoints. A waypoint position can be
entered by taking an instant electronic fix or by
manually entering a coordinate or range and bearing in reference to an existing waypoint. To mark
your present position (make sure you have
acquired a satellite position) as a waypoint:
1. Press the M key to capture your position.
The Mark Position Page appears, showing the
captured position and a default 3-digit waypoint
name. To change the default position name :
1. Press the U key twice to move the field highlight from the ‘save’ field to the name field.
2. Press the E key to begin entry of your waypoint name.
3. Use the U and D keys to enter a value in the
appropriate character field, using the L and R
keys to move to each character position.
4. Press E to confirm the waypoint name. The
field highlight will move to the ‘route’ field.
If you’d like to add this waypoint to a route:
1. Press the E key.
2. Use the U or D keys to enter a route number.
3. Press the E key to confirm the route number.
4. Press the E key again to save the waypoint.
If you do not want to add this waypoint to a route:
1. Move the field highlight to the ‘save’ field and
press the E key.
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The GPS 45 has three waypoint submenu pages
that let you manage a large number of waypoints
quickly and efficiently. The nearest waypoints, waypoint list and waypoint definition pages are
accessed through the Menu Page. To select a
waypoint submenu page:
Nearest
Waypoints
1. Press the P or Q key until the
Menu Page appears.
2. Use the U and D keys to highlight the waypoint submenu page you want to use.
3. Press E to display the submenu page.
4. To return to the Menu Page, press the P key.
The nearest waypoints page shows the nine nearest waypoints that are within 100 nautical miles of
your present position, with the bearing and range
noted for each waypoint. During an emergency or
foul weather, the nearest waypoints page can give
you a quick reference to the closest points of safety
in your area.
The nearest waypoints page will also let you
GO TO a selected waypoint or retrieve a waypoint
definition page right from the list:
1. Use the U and D keys to highlight a listed
waypoint.
2. To select a highlighted nearest waypoint as a
destination, press the G key.
3. Once the Navigation Page appears, press the
E key to confirm the selected waypoint as
your destination.
To review the waypoint definition page of a
selected waypoint from the list:
1. Press the E key.
To return to the nearest waypoint page (when
the ‘done’ field is highlighted):
1. Press the E key.
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Waypoint List
The waypoint list page provides you with a
complete list of all waypoints currently stored in
the GPS 45. The total number of used and free
waypoints is indicated above the waypoint list.
From the waypoint list page, you can GOTO a
selected waypoint, retrieve a waypoint definition
page or delete all user-defined waypoints.
1. Use the U and D keys to scroll through the
list and select a waypoint.
2. To select a highlighted waypoint as a destination, press the G key.
3. Once the Navigation Page appears, press the
E key to confirm the selected waypoint as
your destination.
To review the waypoint definition page of a
selected waypoint from the list:
1. Press the E key.
To return to the waypoint list page (when the
‘done’ field highlighted):
1. Press the E key.
To delete all user defined waypoints:
1. Use the U or D keys to move the cursor highlight to the ‘delete all waypoints’ field.
2. Press the E key.
A warning page will appear, asking if you are
sure you want to delete all user-defined waypoints
and routes. If you want to continue and delete:
1. Press the L key to highlight the ‘Yes’ field.
2. Press the E key.
3. Press the Q key to return to the Menu Page.
If you do not want to delete all waypoints:
20
1. Press E with the ‘no’ field highlighted.
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The last of the three waypoint management
pages is the waypoint definition page. This page
lets you create new waypoints manually, as well as
review and edit existing waypoints.
Waypoint
Name
Comment
Field
Rename
and
Delete
Fields
Waypoint
Definition
Position
Coordinates
Reference
Waypoint
Done Prompt
returns the
display to
previous page
To create a new waypoint manually, you’ll need
to know its position coordinates or its distance and
bearing from an existing waypoint. If you know
the position coordinates for your new waypoint:
1. Press the D key to highlight the name field.
2. Press E to begin entry of the waypoint name.
3. Use the U and D keys to enter your waypoint
name, using the L and R keys to move to the
next character position.
4. Press E to confirm the waypoint name. The
position field will now become highlighted, with
the receiver’s last known position shown.
5. Press E to begin entry of the position.
6. Use the U and D keys to enter your position,
using the L and R keys to move to each
character field.
7. Press the E key to confirm and save your
coordinates. The default waypoint comment
(UTC date and time of creation) will appear and
the highlight will move to the ‘done field.
8. Press the E key to return to the Menu Page.
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Reference
Waypoints
To create a new waypoint manually without
knowing its position coordinates, you’ll need to
enter its bearing and distance from an existing waypoint. The GPS 45 will then calculate the position
coordinates for you.
Waypoint
Name
Reference
Waypoint
Position
Coordinates
are calculated
after entering
reference data
Bearing
from
Reference
Waypoint
Distance
from
Reference
Waypoint
1. Press D until the name field is highlighted.
2. Press E to begin entry of the waypoint name.
3. Enter the name of your new waypoint.
4. Press the E key to confirm the waypoint name.
The position field will now become highlighted,
with the receiver’s last known position shown.
5. Press the D key to move the cursor highlight to
the reference field.
6. Press E to begin entry of reference waypoint.
7. Use the U and D keys to enter the name of
your reference waypoint, using the L and R keys
to move to each character field.
8. Press the E key to confirm your entry.
9. Enter the bearing and distance of your new waypoint from the reference waypoint. Remember to
use the E key to begin entry and confirm each
field. The coordinates will be calculated and saved
for your new waypoint.
22
10. Press the E key (when the ‘done’ field is highlighted) to return to the Menu Page.
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Reference
From the waypoint definition page, you can also
review and change any stored waypoint’s name,
position coordinates, comment field or reference
waypoint at any time. The waypoint definition
page is also used to delete individual waypoints.
To change a waypoint’s position coordinates or
reference waypoint:
Editing and
Renaming
Waypoints
1. Use the U and D keys to highlight the field
you want to edit.
2. Press E to begin entry in the selected field.
3. Enter your new data.
4. Press the E key to confirm your changes.
Each waypoint stored in the GPS 45 has a userdefined 16 character comment field. The default
comment is the UTC date and time of the waypoint’s creation. To change or add a comment:
1. Use the U and D keys to highlight the
comment field.
2. Press E to begin entry of your comment.
3. Enter your new comment.
4. Press the E key to confirm your changes.
The rename and delete function fields are located
at the bottom of the screen, to the left of the ‘DONE’
prompt. To select one of these functions, you need
to use the L key to move the cursor highlight out
of its main scrolling sequence. To rename a stored
waypoint:
1. Use the L and R keys to highlight the
‘rename’ field.
2. Press the E key to activate the rename page.
3. Enter the new waypoint name and press E.
4. Press the E key to confirm your changes.
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Deleting
Waypoints
To delete a stored waypoint:
1. Use the L key to move the cursor highlight from
the ‘DONE’ prompt to the ‘delete’ field.
2. Press the E key to activate the delete page.
3. A warning message will appear, asking you to
confirm your deletion.
4. Press the L key to select the ‘YES’ prompt.
5. Press the E key to delete the waypoint and
return to the waypoint page.
⌃
24
Waypoints that are part of an active or stored
route cannot be deleted. You must first go to the
route page and remove the waypoint from all
routes. See pages 31 and 32 for complete
instructions on editing routes.
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Reference
The GPS 45’s GOTO function lets you choose any
stored waypoint as a destination and quickly set a
course from your present position. Once the GOTO
function has been activated, the Navigation Page
will provide you with graphic steering guidance to
your destination. To activate the GOTO function:
GOTO
Function
1. Press the G key.
2 The Navigation Page will appear with the waypoint field ready to accept changes.
3. Enter your destination waypoint.
4. Press the E key to confirm that you want to
navigate to the displayed waypoint.
You can also quickly activate the GOTO function
from any other page by simply highlighting a waypoint and pressing the G key.
Another time-saving function of the GPS 45 that
you may have noticed when entering waypoint
names is the waypoint scanning feature. As you
enter waypoint characters, the screen will automatically display the first numerical or alphabetical
match of the character you have entered. This will
save you from always entering an entire waypoint
name. To use the scan feature when the waypoint
field is highlighted:
1. Press the L key to clear the name field.
2. Use the U and D keys to scroll through your
waypoints.
3. If you have more than one waypoint that begins
with the same letter or number, you must use the
R key to move to the next character positions as
needed. Only the first character match is listed
for each character set.
4. Once you’ve found the desired waypoint,
press E.
To cancel an active
GOTO from any page,
press the GOTO key.
Next, press the left
arrow key, and confirm
your cancellation by
pressing the enter key.
This will stop continued
steering guidance along
the original GOTO
desired track.
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MOB Function
The GPS 45’s man overboard function (MOB)
lets you simultaneously mark and set a course to a
position for quick response in emergency situations. To activate the MOB mode:
1. Press the G key twice.
2. The Navigation Page will appear with the default
GOTO waypoint ‘MOB’ as the destination.
3. Press the E key to confirm the MOB entry.
The Navigation Page will now guide you to the
MOB waypoint position.
Bearing to
MOB
Distance to
MOB
Present
Track
Speed
Over
Ground
Marking an MOB
Estimated
Time of
Arrival
Velocity
Made
Good
The graphic ‘highway’ provides visual steering
guidance to the MOB waypoint. The moving arrow
just below the course deviation scale always points
to your selected waypoint relative to the direction
you are moving.
As you approach a waypoint, a horizontal ‘finish
line’ will move toward the
bottom of the highway.
When the finish line
reaches the course deviation scale, you’ve arrived
at your destination.
26
Your present position is represented by the diamond in the center of the course deviation scale.
The line down the middle of the highway is your
desired track. As you head toward a waypoint, the
highway will move indicating the direction and
distance you are off course, relative to the position
diamond on the CDI scale. To keep your vessel on
course, steer toward the center of the highway.
If you want to save the MOB waypoint, be sure
to rename it, as it will be overwritten the next time
a MOB is executed.
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Routes
The GPS 45’s route navigation feature lets
you plan and navigate a course from one place
to another using a set of pre-defined waypoints.
Routes are often used when it’s not practical, safe
or possible to navigate a direct course to a particular destination.
Routes are broken down and navigated in
smaller segments called ‘legs’. The waypoint you
are going to in a leg is called the ‘active to’ waypoint, and the waypoint immediately behind
you is called the ‘active from’ waypoint. The line
between the ‘active to’ and the ‘active from’ waypoint is called the ‘active leg’.
‘Active Leg’
Waypoint 2
(‘active to’ waypoint)
Waypoint 1
(‘active from’ waypoint)
Anchor
Fish
When you activate a route with the GPS 45, it
will automatically select the route leg closest to
your position as the active leg. As you pass a waypoint in your route, the unit will select the next
waypoint as the ‘active to’ waypoint.
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Route Page
The GPS 45 lets you create and store up to 20
routes of 30 waypoints each. Routes are created,
copied and edited through the route definition
page, which is accessed through the Menu Page.
To select the route definition page:
1. Press P until the Menu Page appears.
2. Use the U and D keys to highlight the
‘routes’ submenu page.
3. Press the E key to display the routes page.
4. To return to the Menu Page, press P.
Comment
Field
If you’re heading out on
the water without a
planned route to navigate, the GPS 45 route
feature can still provide
a helping hand back
home.
Create a series of waypoints with the mark key
and save them to an
open route from the
Mark Position Page.
When you are ready to
head back to port, simply activate the route
you created in inverted
order (see page 30).
This method is especially
useful when you’re in
unfamiliar waters or you
are simply running out
of daylight.
28
Route
Waypoint
Sequence
Route Action
Fields
Route
Number
Route Leg
Distance
Desired Track
of Leg
The route number field is displayed at the top of
the page, with a 16 character user comment below.
If no user comment is entered, the field will display the first and last waypoint in the route. The
waypoint list in the middle of the page accepts up
to 30 waypoints for each route, with fields for
desired track and distance between legs.
Below the waypoint list are the route page function fields which let you copy, clear, invert or activate the displayed route. Routes 1-19 are used as
storage routes, with route 0 always serving as the
active route you are navigating. If you want to save
a route currently in route 0, be sure to copy it to
another open route, as it will be overwritten by the
next route activation.
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To create a route in the GPS 45:
1. Press E to begin route number selection.
Creating
and Copying
Routes
2. Use the U or D key to enter a route number.
3. Press the E key to confirm the route number.
4. Press E to begin entry of a route comment.
(Note that the default (first and last waypoint)
comment will only appear if the comment field
is blank).
5. Enter your comment and press the E key.
6. Highlight the No. 1 waypoint field and press E.
7. Enter the name of the first waypoint of your route
and press E .
8. Continue entering the rest of your waypoints in
order, using the E key to start and confirm
each field entry. The list will automatically scroll
down as needed to enter up to 30 waypoints.
9. After you have finished entering all your waypoints, press P to return to the Menu Page.
The route definition page is also used to copy a
route to another route number. This feature is useful when you make changes to the active route and
want to save the new route and the original route.
To copy a route:
1. Press E to begin route number selection.
2. Enter the route number to be copied and
press E.
3. Move the field highlight to the ‘copy’ field and
press E.
4. Scroll through the available routes and select a
destination route number. Only open routes will
be available as choices. Press the E key to
copy the route.
5. Press the P key to return to the Menu Page.
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Clearing and
Activating
Routes
To clear a route from memory:
1. Press E to begin entry of the route number.
2. Enter the route number and press E .
3. Select the ‘clear’ field and press E.
The clear route warning will appear, asking you
to confirm that you want to remove all waypoints
from the route.
1. Highlight the ‘yes’ field with the L key.
2. Press E to confirm your action.
3. Press P to return to the Menu Page.
After a route has been entered in the GPS 45, it
can be activated in its defined sequence or inverted from the route definition page. The process of
activating or inverting a stored route takes a storage route (routes 1-19) and copies it into the active
route (route 0) for navigation. The storage route is
now no longer needed and will be retained in its
original format under its existing route number.
This system allows you to have an active route
that you may edit during navigation and save as an
entirely new route from the original. You will have
to copy the active route to an unused storage route
to save it, since new route activation overwrites
route 0. To activate a route:
1. Select the route definition page and press the
E key to activate the route number field.
2. Enter the route number to be activated and
press the E key.
3. Move the field highlight to the ‘act’ field and
press E.
Inverting a route allows you to navigate route
legs in reverse order, without editing the original
route. To activate a route in inverted order:
1. Follow the same steps as above, but select the
‘inv’ command field and press the E key.
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Once a route has been activated, the Active Route
Page will appear, displaying the waypoint sequence
of your route with the estimated time enroute (ETE)
at your present speed and distance to each waypoint. As long as you are navigating an active route,
the Active Route Page will become part of the main
page sequence of the unit.
Active
Route Page
The Active Route Page will also allow you to
change the ETE field to display desired track (DTK)
or estimated time of arrival (ETA) for each leg. You
can also clear or invert the active route. To display
DTK or ETA for each leg:
1. Highlight the estimated time enroute (ETE) field
and press the E key.
2. Use the U or D keys to select ‘DTK’ or ‘ETA’
and press the E key.
To invert a route from the Active Route Page:
1. Press the U key once to move the field highlight
to the ‘invert’ field.
2. Press the E key to invert the route.
To clear the active route from the Active Route
Page and stop route navigation:
1. Use the U and L keys to select the ‘clear’ field.
2. Press the E key to clear the active route.
Once a route has been created and stored in the
GPS 45, it can be edited at any time, even if it is the
active route. To edit a route from the Active Route
Page or the route submenu page:
1. Use the U and D keys to select the waypoint
you want to edit and press E.
An on-screen menu of editing choices will
appear, with options for reviewing, inserting, deleting or changing the waypoint field highlighted. Use
the U and D arrow keys to select among the
editing choices.
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Editing Routes
and On-Route
GOTOs
Once you’ve selected a waypoint from the route
list, choose a menu function:
1. To review the definition page for the waypoint,
highlight the ‘review’ field and press E.
2. To add a new waypoint that precedes the
selected waypoint, highlight the ‘insert’ field
and press the E key.
3. To remove the selected waypoint, highlight the
‘remove’ field and press the E key.
4. To replace the selected waypoint with a new
waypoint, highlight the ‘change’ field and press
the E key.
Use the waypoint editing instructions described
earlier (see page 29) for creating a route to complete your changes. If you are editing the active
route (route 0), copy your new route version to an
empty route to save it, as the active route will be
overwritten by a new route activation.
If you add, delete or change the first or last waypoint of a route, the default comment (first and
last waypoint) will automatically be updated after
your changes.
At the beginning of the route section, we mentioned that the GPS 45 will automatically select the
route leg closest to your position as the active leg.
This will give you steering guidance to the desired
track of the active leg. If you would prefer to steer
directly towards a route waypoint, you can perform an ‘on-route GOTO’ right from the active
route page.
1. Use the U and D keys to highlight the
desired route waypoint and press the G key.
2. Once the Navigation Page appears, press E
to confirm the on-route GOTO waypoint..
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The GPS 45 features a powerful moving map
display that can do much more than just plot your
course and route. The Map Page also provides you
with a moving map cursor that will let you pan
ahead to nearby waypoints, determine the distance
and bearing to any map position and mark new
waypoints while you navigate.
Zoom
Control
Field
8 x 10
Grid Scale
(10 vertical)
Bearing
and
Distance
Fields
Moving Map
Page
Panning
Control Field
Present
Position
Indicator
Track
and Speed
Fields
The Map Page can be broken down into three
main sections:
The zoom function and panning control fields
are located at the top of the screen. There are 12
selectable zoom ranges from 0.2 to 320 miles or
0.5 to 600 km, measured vertically.
The map portion of the page is bordered by an
8 x 10 grid to help you estimate distances based
on the map scale you are using. Your present position is indicated by a position diamond, with your
track and/or route displayed as a solid line. Nearby
waypoints are represented as squares, with the
waypoint name also listed. You may select which
of these features are shown through the map setup
submenu page (see page 43 for more information).
The last fields directly below the map show your
bearing and distance to one of three selectable destinations: an active destination waypoint; a highlighted on-screen waypoint; or to the panning target crosshair. Your current track and speed are displayed just below the bearing and distance fields.
The GPS 45 has onscreen range rings to
help you estimate distances relative to your
present position. The
value of each ring is
determined by the current zoom scale.
The distance value of
each ring is equal to
1/5th of the current
zoom range, with the
interval of each ring
noted below the first
range ring.
To turn the range ring
display on or off (the
default setting is off),
see the map setup
instructions on
page 43.
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Moving Map:
Zooming and
Panning
There are three main functions you can perform
from the Map Page— zooming, pointing and panning. Each of these functions has its own ‘field’,
which may be selected and activated for use.
Whenever the Map Page first appears, the zoom
field (at the top left) is always selected. The Map
Page has 12 map scales which are selected through
the zoom function field. To select a zoom scale:
1. Press L or R to highlight the zoom field.
2. Press the E key to begin range selection.
3. Use the U or D keys to scroll through and
find the desired range scale.
4. Press E to confirm your selection.
The second function field on the Map Page is
the pan field, located at the top right of the screen.
The pan function allows you to move the map
with the four arrow keys to view areas outside the
current map. To activate the pan function:
1. From the zoom field, use the R key to highlight
the pan field.
2. Press the E key to activate the pan function.
3. Use the arrow keys to move the map in any
direction. .
As you begin to move the map, a crosshair will
appear. This crosshair will now serve as a target
marker for the moving map. The distance and
bearing to destination will now be replaced by
the distance and bearing from your present
position to the target crosshair.
As you pan around the moving map display,
you’ll notice that the target crosshair will ‘snap’ to
on-screen waypoints and highlight the waypoint
name. Once a waypoint name is highlighted, you
can review its waypoint definition page or execute
a GOTO function right from the Map Page.
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To review the definition page for a waypoint
highlighted in the map field:
Moving Map:
On-Screen
Waypoints
1. Press the E key.
2. To return to the Map Page, press E.
To GOTO a waypoint highlighted in the map
field:
1. Press the G key.
2. Press the E key to confirm the destination.
3. To return to the Map Page, press the Q key.
To stop the panning function and return to your
present position:
1. Press the Q key.
The last field on the Map Page is the map itself.
From the zoom or pan fields, the cursor highlight
may be moved into the map display by pressing the
down arrow key. The arrow keys will now move the
highlight through the map and ‘point’ at on-screen
waypoints. To point at a displayed waypoint:
1. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor highlight
from the zoom field into the map field.
2. Once you are in the map field, use the four arrow
keys to scroll through on-screen waypoints. The
arrow key you use will determine the direction of
your scroll. Once you have scrolled through all
the waypoints, the cursor will move back to the
zoom or pan function field.
Once a waypoint has been selected in the map
field, its distance and bearing from your present
position will be displayed in the destination field.
You can also review its waypoint definition page or
select it as a GOTO destination by following the
same steps outlined above for waypoints highlighted on the map field.
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Map Page:
Advanced
Zooming
and Panning
One of the benefits of a moving map display is
being able to pan to different map areas and see
what’s out there. To get the most out of panning,
you’ll need to be able to zoom in and out while
you’re panning. This lets you move the map at a
faster speed and zoom in for waypoint details.
Once the pan function is activated, the cursor
highlight moves back to the zoom field. To adjust
the zoom range while panning:
1. Press the E key to begin range selection.
2. Use the U and D keys to select the desired
zoom range.
3. Press E to return to normal panning mode.
During panning, the crosshair represents a target
position right on the moving map, with the range
and bearing to the target displayed at the bottom
of the screen. You can also use the target crosshair
to mark a new waypoint position or as a GOTO
destination right from the map field. To mark the
target crosshair position as a new waypoint:
1. Press the M key to capture the position.
2. Enter a new name and route number if you wish.
3. Press the E key to return to the Map Page.
You can also use the target crosshair as an
instant GOTO destination. Similar to the MOB
mode, this function will mark and instantly set a
course for a new waypoint called ‘MAP’. To GOTO
the target crosshair:
1. Press the G key to capture the position.
2. Press the E key to confirm the MAP GOTO.
3. Press Q to return to the Map Page.
If you want to save the MAP waypoint, be sure
to rename it, as it will be overwritten the next time
a map GOTO is executed.
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The GPS 45 Menu Page provides access to submenu pages that are used to select and customize
operation and navigation setup. The 11 submenus
are divided into categories by function. The waypoint and route management submenus are discussed in their own respective sections. We’ll now
address the rest of the submenus in the order they
appear on the Menu Page. To select a submenu
page from the Menu Page:
Sun Calculation
and Messages
1. Highlight the submenu page you want to view.
2. Press the E key to display the submenu page.
3. To return to the Menu Page, press the P key.
The distance and sun calculation page will give
you the distance and bearing between any two waypoints and calculate the sunrise and sunset (in local
time) at a destination waypoint for a particular date.
To perform a distance and sun calculation:
1. Highlight the ‘from’ field and enter the desired
waypoint. Press E to move to the next field.
2. Highlight the ‘to’ field and enter the destination
waypoint. Press the E key to calculate the
range and bearing to the destination waypoint.
3. Highlight the ‘date’ field and enter the date for
your destination. Press the E key to display
the sun information.
The messages page displays all current messages
in the GPS 45. There are two types of messages:
temporary alerts (eg. approaching a waypoint) and
condition alerts (eg. battery power is low). All messages are initially indicated by a flashing on-screen
indicator. After a temporary alert has been viewed,
it is cleared from the message page. Condition alerts
are displayed on the messages page until the condition has been resolved. To view the messages page:
1. Move the field highlight to the ‘messages’ field
and press P.
See appendix B for a complete list of messages.
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Operation
Setup
The remaining submenu selections on the Menu
Page are grouped together as setup pages. The first
setup page is the operation setup page, which is
used to select the operating mode, time offset and
screen and tone preferences.
The GPS 45 has four available operating modes:
Normal Mode operates the unit at maximum performance, and should provide a battery life of 10 hours on alkaline batteries.
Battery Saver Mode is suitable for most
applications, and extends battery life to up
to 20 hours on alkaline batteries.
Simulator Mode allows you to operate the
unit without acquiring satellites, and is ideal
for practicing or entering waypoints and
routes while at home.
AutoLocateTM Mode forces the receiver to
search for a new set of satellites in situations
where you have moved more than 300 miles
from the unit’s last known position.
To select an operating mode:
1. Move the field highlight to the ‘mode’ field and
press the E key.
2. Use the U and D keys to choose the desired
mode and press E.
The date and time field is located directly below
the mode field. The date and time are calculated
from satellites and cannot be edited. Because the
time shown is UTC time, you will need to enter a
time offset to display the correct local time for
your area. To determine the time offset for your
area, note your current position and refer to the
chart on appendix C. To enter the time offset:
1. Move the field highlight to the ‘offset’ field and
press the E key.
2. Enter the time offset for your longitude and press
E. Remember to select a positive or negative
indicator for your offset.
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The GPS 45 features adjustable screen contrast
for optimum viewing in any condition. The screen
contrast is set by using an on-screen bar scale. To
set the screen contrast:
Screen Display
& Tone
Preferences
1. Move the field highlight to the ‘contrast’ field
and press the E key.
2. Use the L and R keys to adjust the bar scale for
the desired contrast and press the E key.
The screen backlight timer is adjustable for
0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 seconds. The ‘0’ setting
will keep the screen backlighting on as long as the
unit is on. Whenever screen backlighting is on, a
light bulb icon will appear on the Status Page. To
set the backlight timer:
1. Move the field highlight to the ‘backlight time’
field and press the E key.
2. Use the U and D keys to toggle through and
select the desired setting. Confirm the setting by
pressing the E key.
3. To turn backlighting on and off, press B.
The last available field on the operation setup
page is the tone field. This field lets you specify an
audible tone for message alerts and keystroke confirmation. The tone may be set to sound for messages only, messages and keystrokes or no sound at
all. To select a tone setting:
1. Move the field highlight to the ‘tone’ field and
press the E key.
2. Use the U and D keys to toggle through and
select the desired setting. Confirm the setting by
pressing the E key.
We’ve now gone through the operation setup
submenu and its various settings. To return to the
Menu Page:
1. Press the P key.
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Navigation
Setup
The navigation setup page is used to select units
of measurement for position format, map datum,
CDI scale, and distance, speed and heading information.
The default position setting for the GPS 45 is
latitude and longitude in degrees and minutes
(hdddºmm.mmm’). You may also select degrees,
minutes and seconds (hdddºmm’ss.s’’); degrees
only (hddd.dddddº); UTM coordinates; or British,
Irish or Swiss Grid formats. To select a format:
1. Move the field highlight to the ‘position format’
field and press the E key.
2. Use the U and D keys to select the desired
setting. Confirm the setting by pressing E.
The GPS 45 comes with
the latitude and longitude position format and
WGS 84 map datum as
the default settings.
The WGS 84 map
datum is a worldwide
datum that’s suitable for
use with most government charts. Only
change the map datum if
the charts you are using
specify a different map
datum in the legend.
WARNING!
Using the wrong datum
can seriously effect the
accuracy of your GPS.
Always set the GPS to
the same datum indicated on the charts you
are currently using.
40
Map Datum
The map datum field is located just below the
position format field, and comes with a WGS 84
default setting. Although 102 total map datums are
available for use (see the map datum listing in
appendix D), you should only change the datum if
you are using charts that specify a different datum
than WGS 84. To enter a different map datum:
1. Move the field highlight to the ‘datum’ field and
press the E key.
2. Use the U and D keys to toggle through and
select the desired setting. Confirm the setting by
pressing the E key.
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Reference
The course deviation indicator (CDI) scale definition field lets you select the +/- range of the CDI
bar scale. Three scales are available: +/- 0.25, 1.25
and 5.0 miles or kilometers, with 0.25 being the
default setting. To enter a CDI scale setting:
CDI, Speed &
Heading Setup
1. Highlight the ‘CDI scale’ field and press E.
2. Use the U and D keys to select the desired
CDI scale setting.
3. Press the E key to confirm the selection.
The GPS 45 lets you select nautical (default),
statute or metric units of measure for all speed and
distance fields. To change the unit of measure:
1. Highlight the ‘units’ field and press the E key.
2. Use the U and D keys to select the desired
unit of measure.
3. Press the E key to confirm the selection.
The GPS 45’s heading information can be displayed referencing magnetic north (automatic or
user-defined), true north or calculated grid headings. The default setting is automatic magnetic
north, which is suitable for most applications. To
select a reference:
1. Highlight the heading field and press E.
2. Use the U and D keys to select the desired
heading preference.
3. Press the E key to confirm the selection.
To enter a magnetic heading:
.
1. Select the ‘user mag’ heading and press E.
2. Use the U and D keys to enter the degrees
of magnetic variation.
3. Press the E key to confirm the magnetic
variation value.
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Reference
Track Log and
Map Setup
The track log setup page lets you manage the
GPS 45’s tracking data. From this page, you can
select whether or not to record a track and define
how it is recorded. To turn the track log on or off:
1. Highlight the ‘record track’ field and press E.
2. Select ‘yes’ or ‘no’ and press E.
The stored track criteria determines how often
positions are stored in the track log. The default
setting is automatic, which stores track based on
resolution. This setting gives you the most efficient
use of track memory. To change the criteria to
record points based upon a specific time interval:
1. Highlight the ‘criteria’ field and press E.
2. Use the U or D key to select ‘time interval’
and press E.
3. Press E to begin entry of the interval.
4. Enter a value in hours, minutes and seconds in
the field and press the E key.
The rest of the track log setup page displays the
percentage of available memory currently used to
store track log data and a function field to clear the
track log memory. To clear the track log:
1. Highlight ‘clear track log?’ and press E.
2. A warning page will appear, asking you to confirm your actions. Use the L key to move the
field highlight to the ‘yes’ field and press E.
The map setup page lets you select map orientation and specify what items are displayed. The
map may be oriented to north up, the direction of
current travel (track up) or the direction of an
active route leg (desired track up). The default setting is track up. To change the map orientation:
1. Highlight the ‘orientation’ field and press E.
2. Use the U and D keys to toggle through and
select the desired setting and press E.
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The rest of the map setup page lets you specify
what items are displayed or plotted on the Map
Page. The first 4 plot items may be turned on or off
by selecting ‘yes’ or ‘no’ in the appropriate field:
• The ‘rings’ selection will display the 3
present position range rings on the map.
• The ‘route’ selection will plot the straight leg
lines between waypoints of an active route
and display all route waypoint names.
• The ‘nearest’ selection will display the nine
nearest waypoints to your present position
(not to the target cursor on the map).
• The ‘names’ selection will display the waypoint name for the nine nearest waypoints.
To turn a plotted item on or off:
Map and
I/O Setup
1. Highlight the confirmation (yes or no) field for the
plotted item and press E.
2. Use the U and D keys to select ‘yes’ or ‘no’
and press the E key.
The track log sets the number of points the unit
will attempt to plot. The maximum setting is 768
points. Once you’ve reached the maximum number
of track points, the older points will be lost as new
points are added. To enter a log setting:
1. Highlight to the ‘track log’ field and press E.
2. Enter a value in the 3-digit field and press E. If
you do not want to display a track, enter ‘000’.
The last GPS 45 setup page is the I/O setup page.
This page lets you specify the interfacing formats
for connecting external devices. There are five I/O
options available: GRMN/GRMN, None/None,
None/NMEA, RTCM/None, and RTCM/NMEA.
Each designation lists the input format first, followed by the output format. To select I/O format:
1. Highlight the I/O field and press E.
2. Use the U and D keys to toggle through and
select the desired setting and press E.
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I/O and DGPS
Setup
The GRMN/GRMN setting is a proprietary format that lets you exchange information such as
waypoints, routes and track logs between two GPS
45s or a PC with an optional GARMIN PC kit.
During data transfer, the number of packets being
exchanged will be displayed on screen. To select a
transfer option:
1. Highlight the ‘host’ field and press E.
2. Use the U and D keys to select the desired
setting and press E.
To disable all GPS 45 interfacing capabilities,
select the None/None setting. If you want to output NMEA data to compatible external devices
without any differential input capability, select
the None/NMEA setting.
Once a NMEA output setting has been selected
(with or without RTCM input), the NMEA field
will become highlighted. To choose an NMEA
format (0180, 0182 or 0183 version 1.5 or 2.0):
1. Press E to begin a NMEA selection.
2. Use the U and D keys to select the desired
setting and press E.
3. The baud rate will be selected automatically.
The last two format settings allow the GPS 45
to accept RTCM DGPS corrections in RTCM 104
version 2.0 format. The RTCM/NONE format will
allow connection to any manually tuned beacon
receiver with the proper output interface, with the
baud rate selectable from the GPS 45.
The RTCM/NMEA selection controls the
GARMIN GBR-21 beacon receiver. Once a RTCM
setting has been selected, the GPS 45 will automatically try to tune the last frequency and bit rate
you selected or will switch to the default frequency
of 304.0 kHz with a bit rate of 100 bps if no previous beacon has been tuned. You may also enter
your own frequency and bit rate if desired.
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Reference
To enter a DGPS beacon frequency:
Beacon
Receiver Data
1. Highlight the ‘freq’ field and press E.
2. Enter the desired frequency and press E.
3. Highlight the ‘rate’ field and press E.
4. Use the U and D keys to select the desired
transmission rate.
5. Press the E key to confirm your entry.
When the GPS 45 is receiving DGPS corrections
from the GBR-21, the ‘beacon receiver’ section of the
I/O setup page will display the beacon frequency and
signal strength, as well as the distance from the transmitter to the beacon receiver.
At the bottom of the beacon receiver field, a status message will constantly keep you informed of
DGPS activity:
• A ‘tuning’ message will be displayed while a
beacon signal is being tuned.
• Once the beacon signal has been tuned, the
status message will display a ‘receiving’
message.
• If a beacon signal is tuned and no corrections
are being received, a ‘no data’ message will
be displayed.
• If a beacon signal cannot be tuned, a ‘no
status’ message will be displayed.
The GPS 45 will also display alert messages concerning DGPS operation through the message page.
Three DGPS messages may appear:
No DGPS Position indicates that not
enough data is available to compute DGPS
position.
No RTCM Input indicates that the beacon
receiver is not properly connected or the
baud rates do not match.
RTCM Input Failed indicates that DGPS
data was being received but has been lost.
Beacon Receiver Status
The GARMIN GBR 21
is the recommended
beacon receiver for use
with the GPS 45.
Other RTCM 104 v. 2.0
receivers are compatible
with the GPS 45, but
may not provide complete on-screen status
or tuning control.
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Reference
Simulator
Mode
The GPS 45’s simulator mode lets you practice
all aspects of its operation without active satellite
acquisition. You can also plan and practice trips,
enter new waypoints and routes and save them for
use during normal operation.
The simulator mode is activated from the Menu
Page, with vessel speed and heading controlled
from the Position or Navigation Pages. To activate
the simulator mode:
1. From the Menu Page, highlight the ‘mode’ field
and press the E key.
2. Use the U or D keys to scroll through and
select the simulator mode.
3. Press the E key to confirm simulator mode.
4. Press P to return to the Menu Page.
Once the simulator mode has been activated,
use the Position or Navigation Page to set your
speed and track. You may also enter a new position if you desire (only from the Position Page). To
enter track, speed and position:
1. Highlight the ‘track’ field and press the E key.
2. Enter a track heading and press E.
1. Highlight the ‘speed’ field and press E.
2. Enter a speed and press E.
1. Highlight the ‘position’ field and press E.
2. Enter a position and press the E key.
⌃
46
The GPS 45 does not track satellites in simulator
mode. Although you can create and save waypoints and routes while using the simulator mode,
never attempt to use the simulator mode for
actual navigation. The GPS 45 will always power
up in the last selected satellite mode.
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Reference
The GPS 45 provides 10 hours of operation in
normal mode and up to 20 hours of operation in
battery saver mode on 4 AA alkaline batteries.
Rechargeable Ni-Cad or lithium batteries may also
be used. Note that the battery level indicator is calibrated for alkaline batteries, and Ni-Cad and lithium batteries will only show battery life at partial
scale. No other functions will be affected.
Battery Installation
To install batteries:
1. Remove the battery cover by turning the thumb
loop 1/4 turn counter-clockwise.
Battery and
Antenna
Installation
Antenna Installation
The GPS 45’s antenna
may be removed to
attach an optional
external marine or
automobile antenna.
To remove the antenna:
2. Insert batteries into position. The battery pole
you can still see should match the symbol
marked on the case
• Rotate the knurled
knob (located at the bottom left of the antenna)
toward the front of the
unit one-quarter turn.
3. Replace the battery cover by turning the thumb
loop 1/4 turn clockwise.
• Pull the antenna gently away from the unit.
⌃
Never store your GPS 45 without batteries. A builtin capacitor will save almanac and waypoint data
while you are changing the batteries, but will only
save data for a period of time (a few hours). If
you’re storing the unit for the season, put in a
fresh set of alkaline batteries to help prevent
loss of stored data.
• To install the antenna
or an external antenna
lead, mate the BNC connector notches with the
mounting posts and turn
the knurled knob onequarter turn toward the
back of the unit.
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Appendix A
Glossary
Almanac Data—Satellite constellation information (including location and health of
satellites) that is transmitted to your receiver from every GPS satellite.
Almanac data must be acquired before GPS navigation can begin.
Bearing—The compass direction from your position to a destination.
Course Made Good (CMG)—The bearing from the ‘active from’ position (your starting
point) to your present position.
Crosstrack Error (XTE)—The distance you are off a desired course in either direction.
Desired Track (DTK)—The compass course between the ‘from’ and ‘to’ waypoints.
Differential GPS (DGPS)—An extension of the GPS system that uses land-based
radio beacons to transmit position corrections to GPS receivers.
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)—The time of day of your arrival at a destination.
Estimated Time Enroute (ETE)—The time left to your destination at your present speed.
Grid—A coordinate system that projects the earth on a flat surface, using square zones for
position measurements.
Ground Speed—The velocity you are travelling relative to a ground position.
Latitude—A north/south measurement of position perpendicular to the earth’s polar axis.
Longitude—An east/west measurement of position in relation to the Prime Meridian, an
imaginary circle that passes through the north and south poles.
Position—An exact, unique location based on a geographic coordinate system.
Track (TRK)—The direction of movement relative to a ground position.
Universal Transverse Mercator- (UTM)— A grid coordinate system that projects
global sections onto a flat surface to measure position in specific zones.
48
Velocity Made Good (VMG)—The speed you are closing in on a destination along a
desired course.
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Appendix B
Messages
The GPS 45 uses a flashing on-screen message to alert you to important information.
Whenever the message indicator appears, press the P key to view the message page.
There are two types of messages: temporary alerts and condition alerts. Temporary alerts
are cleared from the message page after viewing, while condition alerts remain on the
message page until the condition has been resolved. Pay careful attention to all messages
for your own safety.
Accuracy has been Degraded—The accuracy of the GPS 45 has been degraded beyond
500 meters due to poor satellite geometry or data quality. You should check
other navigational sources to verify the position indicated.
Already Exists—The waypoint name you are entering already exists in the GPS 45’s
memory.
Approaching—You are less than one minute away from reaching a destination waypoint.
Battery Power is Low—The AA batteries are low and should be replaced.
Can’t change Active WPT—You have attempted to change the ‘active to’ or ‘active from’
waypoint. Clear the active route or GOTO before making your changes.
No DGPS Position—Not enough data is being received to compute a DGPS position.
No RTCM Input—Beacon receiver is not properly connected or baud rates do not match.
Poor GPS Coverage—The GPS 45 cannot acquire the necessary number of satellites to
compute a position.
Power Down and Re-init—The GPS 45 is not able to calculate a position due to abnormal
satellite conditions. Turn the unit off and verify the last position shown by
other means.
Read Only Mem has Failed—The permanent memory has failed and the unit is not
operable. Take your unit to an authorized GARMIN dealer for repairs.
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Appendix B
Messages
Received an Invalid WPT—A waypoint was received during upload transfer that has an
invalid identifier.
Receiver has Failed—A failure in receiver hardware has been detected. If this message
persists, do not use the unit and take it to an authorized dealer for repair.
Route is Full—You have attempted to add more than 30 waypoints to a route.
Route is not Empty—You have attempted to copy into a route already in use.
Route Waypoint Can’t be Deleted—The waypoint you are trying to delete is part of a
route. You must first delete the waypoint from the route before striking it
from memory.
Route Waypoint was Deleted—A route waypoint entered does not exist in the database
and has been deleted from the route.
RTCM Input has Failed—DGPS data being received has been lost. You are no longer
receiving the beacon signal.
Searching the Sky—The GPS 45 is in searching the sky for almanac data or the unit is in
AutoLocateTM mode.
Stored Data was Lost—All waypoints, routes and almanac data has been lost due to
battery failure.
Transfer has been Completed—The receiver is finished uploading or downloading
information to the connected device.
WPT Memory is Full—You have used all 250 waypoints in the GPS 45. Delete unwanted
waypoints to make room for new entries.
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Appendix C
Time Offset
The chart below gives the UTC time offset for the various longitudinal zones. If you
are in daylight savings time, add one hour to the offset.
Longitudinal Zone
Offset
W180.0º to W172.5º
W172.5º to W157.5º
W157.5º to W142.5º
W142.5º to W127.5º
W127.5º to W112.5º
W112.5º to W097.5º
W097.5º to W082.5º
W082.5º to W067.5º
W067.5º to W052.5º
W052.5º to W037.5º
W037.5º to W022.5º
W022.5º to W007.5º
W007.5º to E007.5º
E007.5º to E022.5º
E022.5º to E037.5º
E037.5º to E052.5º
E052.5º to E067.5º
E067.5º to E082.5º
E082.5º to E097.5º
E097.5º to E112.5º
E112.5º to E127.5º
E127.5º to E142.5º
E142.5º to E157.5º
E157.5º to E172.5º
E172.5º to E180.0º
-12
-11
-10
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
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Appendix D
Map Datums
The following list shows the 102 map
datums available for the GPS 45. Menu Page
abbreviations are listed first, followed by the
corresponding map datum name and area.
Adindan
Afgooye
AIN EL ABD ‘70
Anna 1 Ast ‘65
ARC 1950
ARC 1960
Ascnsn Isld ‘58
Astro B4 Sorol
Astro Bcn “E”
Astro Dos 71/4
Astr Stn ‘52
Astrln Geod ‘66
Astrln Geod ‘84
Bellevue (IGN)
Bermuda 1957
Bogata Observ
Campo Inchspe
Canton Ast ‘66
Cape
Cape Canavrl
Carthage
CH-1903
Chatham 1971
Chua Astro
Corrego Alegr
Djakarta
52
Adindan- Ethiopia, Mali,
Senegal, Sudan
Afgooye- Somalia
AIN EL ANBD 1970- Bahrain
Island, Saudi Arabia
Anna 1 Astro ‘65- Cocos Isl.
ARC 1950- Botswana,
Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
ARC 1960- Kenya, Tanzania
Ascension Island ‘58Ascension Island
Astro B4 Sorol Atoll- Tern
Island
Astro Beacon “E”- Iwo Jima
Astro Dos 71/4- St. Helena
Astronomic Stn ‘52- Marcus
Island
Australian Geod ‘66Australia, Tasmania Island
Australian Geod ‘84Australia, Tasmania Island
Efate and Erromango Islands
Bermuda 1957- Bermuda
Islands
Bogata Obsrvatry- Colombia
Campo Inchauspe- Argentina
Canton Astro 1966- Phoenix
Islands
Cape- South Africa
Cape Canaveral- Florida,
Bahama Islands
Carthage- Tunisia
CH 1903- Switzerland
Chatham 1971- Chatham
Island (New Zealand)
Chua Astro- Paraguay
Corrego Alegre- Brazil
Djakarta (Batavia)- Sumatra
Island (Indonesia)
Dos 1968
Easter Isld 67
European 1950
European 1979
Finland Hayfrd
Gandajika Base
Geod Datm ‘49
Guam 1963
Gux 1 Astro
Hjorsey 1955
Hong Kong ‘63
Indian Bngldsh
Indian Thailand
Ireland 1965
ISTS 073 Astro
Johnston Island
Kerguelen Islnd
Kertau 1948
L. C. 5 Astro
Liberia 1964
Luzon Mindanao
Luzon Philippine
Dos 1968- Gizo Island
(New Georgia Islands)
Easter Island 1967
European 1950- Austria,
Belgium, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Gibraltar,
Greece, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland
European 1979- Austria,
Finland, Netherlands,
Norway, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland
Finland Hayford- Finland
Gandajika Base- Republic of
Maldives
Geodetic Datum ‘49New Zealand
Guam 1963- Guam Island
Gux 1 Astro- Guadalcanal
Island
Hjorsey 1955- Iceland
Hong Kong ‘63- Hong Kong
Indian- Bangladesh, India,
Nepal
Indian- Thailand, Vietnam
Ireland 1965- Ireland
ISTS 073 ASTRO ‘69Diego Garcia
Johnston Island Kandawala
Kandawala- Sri Lanka
Kerguelen Island
Kertau 1948- West Malaysia,
Singapore
Cayman Brac Island
Liberia 1964- Liberia
Luzon- Mindanao Island
Luzon- Philippines
(excluding Mindanao Island)
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Appendix D
Mahe 1971
Marco Astro
Massawa
Merchich
Midway Ast ‘61
Minna
NAD27 Alaska
NAD27 Bahamas
NAD27 Canada
NAD27 Canal Zone
NAD27 Caribbn
NAD27 Central
NAD27 CONUS
NAD27 Cuba
NAD27 Grnland
NAD27 Mexico
NAD27 San Sal
NAD83
Nhrwn Masirah
Nhrwn Saudi A
Nhrwn United A
Naparima BWI
Obsrvtorio ‘66
Old Egyptian
Old Hawaiian
Oman
Ord Srvy GB
Pico De Las Nv
Ptcairn Ast ‘67
Prov S Am ‘56
Mahe 1971- Mahe Island
Marco Astro- Salvage Island
Massawa- Eritrea (Ethiopia)
Merchich- Morocco
Midway Astro ‘61- Midway
Minna- Nigeria
North American 1927- Alaska
North American 1927Bahamas (excluding San
Salvador Island)
North American 1927- Canada
and Newfoundland
North Am. 1927- Canal Zone
North American 1927Caribbean (Barbados, Caicos
Islands, Cuba, Dom. Rep.,
Grand Cayman, Jamaica,
Leeward and Turks Islands)
North American 1927- Central
America (Belize, Costa Rica,
El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Nicaragua)
North Am. 1927- Mean Value
(CONUS)
North American 1927- Cuba
North American 1927Greenland (Hayes Peninsula)
N. American 1927- Mexico
North American 1927- San
Salvador Island
North American 1983- Alaska,
Canada, Central America,
CONUS, Mexico
Nahrwn- Masirah Island
(Oman)
Nahrwn- Saudi Arabia
Nahrwn- United Arab Emirates
Naparima BWI- Trinidad and
Tobago
Observatorio 1966- Corvo
and Flores Islands (Azores)
Old Egyptian- Egypt
Old Hawaiian- Mean Value
Oman- Oman
Old Survey Grt Britn- England,
Isle of Man, Scotland, Shetland
Isl., Wales
Canary Islands
Pitcairn Astro ‘67- Pitcairn Isl.
Prov So Amricn ‘56- Bolivia,
Chile,Colombia, Ecuador,
Guyana, Peru, Venezuela
Map Datums
Prov S Chln ‘63
Puerto Rico
Qatar National
Qornoq
Reunion
Rome 1940
RT 90
Santo (Dos)
Sao Braz
Sapper Hill ‘43
Schwarzeck
Sth Amrcn ‘69
South Asia
SE Base
SW Base
Timbalai 1948
Tokyo
Tristan Ast ‘68
Viti Levu 1916
Wake-Eniwetok
WGS 72
WGS 84
Zanderij
Prov So Chilean ‘63- S. Chile
Puerto Rico & Virgin Islands
Qatar National- Qatar
Qornoq- South Greenland
Reunion- Mascarene Island
Rome 1940- Sardinia Island
Sweden
Santo (Dos)- Espirito Santo
Island
Sao Braz- Sao Miguel, Santa
Maria Islands (Azores)
Sapper Hill 1943- East
Falkland Island
Schwarzeck- Namibia
South American ‘69Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,
Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Guyana, Paraguay, Peru,
Venezuela, Trinidad and
Tobago
South Asia- Singapore
Southeast Base- Porto Santo
and Madiera Islands
Southwest Base- Faial,
Graciosa, Pico, Sao Jorge and
Terceira Islands (Azores)
Timbalai 1948- Brunei and E.
Malaysia (Sarawak and Sabah)
Tokyo- Japan, Korea, Okinawa
Tristan Astro 1968- Tristan da
Cunha
Viti Levu 1916- Viti Levu/ Fiji
Islands
Wake-Eniwetok- Marshall Isl.
World Geodetic System 1972
World Geodetic System 1984
Zanderij- Surinam
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Appendix E
Maintenance
&
Specifications
The GPS 45 is constructed of high quality materials
and should not require user maintenance. Should your
unit ever need repair, please take it to an authorized
GARMIN service center. The GPS 45 has no user-serviceable parts. Never attempt any repairs yourself.
To protect your GPS, keep it in its carrying case when
not in use, and never allow gasoline or other solvents to
come into contact with the case. Clean the case and lens
with a soft cloth and a household window cleaner.
PHYSICAL
Case:
Size:
Weight:
Temperature Range:
Waterproof, dry nitrogen-filled
6.15”H x 2”W x 1.23”D
(15.6 x 5.1 x 1.23 cm)
10 ounces (284g) w/ batteries
5º to 158ºF (-15º to 70ºC)
PERFORMANCE
Receiver:
Acquisition Time:
Update Rate:
Position Accuracy:
Velocity Accuracy:
Dynamics:
Differential-ready MultiTrac8TM
Approx. 20 seconds (warm)
Approx. 2 minutes (cold)
Approx. 7.5 minutes (AutoLocateTM)
1/second, continuous
5-10 meters (16-33 ft.) with DGPS corrections*
15 meters (49 ft.) RMS**
0.1 knot RMS steady state
Performs to specification to 3g’s
POWER
Input:
Usage:
Battery Life:
(w/ alk. batt.)
4 AA batteries or 5-40vDC
.75 watts
10 hours (normal mode)
Up to 20 hours (battery saver mode)
Specifications subject to change without notice.
* With optional GARMIN GBR 21 Beacon Receiver Input.
** Subject to accuracy degradation to 100m 2DRMS under the US DOD-imposed Selective Availability Program.
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Appendix F
(CABLE VIEW)
Electrical
Wiring &
Interfaces
The optional GPS 45 Power/Data Cable allows you to connect
to on-board 5-40 volts DC power and connect to external electronic devices.
To connect the power/data cable:
1. Connect the red harness lead to the positive side of a 5-40 volt DC power source.
2. Connect the black harness lead to the negative side of the power source.
3. Connect the white harness lead to the output port of a connected device.
4. Connect the brown harness lead to the input port of a connected device.
The following interface formats are supported by the GPS 45 for driving three
NMEA devices:
NMEA 0180
NMEA 0182
NMEA 0183 version 1.5
Approved sentences:
GPBWC, GPGLL, GPRMB, GPRMC, GPXTE, GPVTG, GPWPL
Proprietary sentences:
PGRMM (map datum), PGRMZ (altitude), PSLIB (beacon rec. control)
NMEA 0183 version 2.0
Approved sentences:
GPGGA, GPGLL, GPGSA, GPGSV, GPRMB, GPRMC, GPRTE, GPWPL
Proprietary sentences:
PGRME (estimated error), PGRMM (map datum), PGRMZ (altitude),
PSLIB (beacon receiver control)
Complete information concerning NMEA formats and sentences is available from
the NMEA at P. O. Box 50040, Mobile, AL 36605; 205-473-1793, 205-473-1669 FAX.
Cost of the NMEA materials is $35 U. S. dollars, plus shipping and handling.
DGPS corrections are accepted on RTCM-104 v. 2.0 format. The GARMIN GBR 21 is
the recommended beacon receiver for use with the GPS 45. Other receivers with the
correct RTCM format may be used, but may not correctly display status or allow tuning
control from the GPS 45.
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Appendix G
Installation
The GPS 45’s optional mounting bracket allows fixed
installation on any flat surface or bulkhead, and permits easy removal for portable use. The mounting kit
can be installed with or without the swivel base.
To install the bracket on a flat surface or on a
bulkhead without the swivel base, mount the L-bracket
directly to the surface desired with three #8 flathead
screws (not included). Once the L-bracket is installed,
the viewing angle may be adjusted by loosening the
knob at the bottom right of the bracket.
For swivel base installation, mount the swivel base directly to a flat surface with
three #8 flathead screws. Install the L-bracket onto the swivel base using the knob
provided (see diagram below). The swivel angle may also be adjusted by loosening
the knob.
Swivel Adjustment Knob
L-Bracket
Angle Adjustment Knob
Swivel Base
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Appendix G
Installation
Using the mounting bracket without the swivel base.
The GPS 45 power/data cable can be connected to
the mounting bracket for hard-wired fixed-mount use.
To attach the power/data cable, slide the cable connector into the mounting slot on the bracket (see below).
To insert the GPS 45 into the bracket, snap the unit
into place from the front of the bracket and press firmly.
If you are using the power/data cable, make sure you
install the power/data connector in the mounting bracket
before inserting the unit in the bracket.
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Appendix H
A
Active Waypoints ..............................................27
Active Route .....................................................28
Active Route Page ..............................................30
Altitude Entry....................................................17
Antenna Installation ..........................................47
Audio Setup.......................................................39
AutoLocateTM Mode..........................................38
Auxiliary Functions ......................................37-46
B
Backlighting On/Off...........................................39
Backlight Timer .................................................39
Battery Installation.............................................47
Battery Saver Mode............................................38
Beacon Receiver Setup..................................44-45
Bearing ..............................................................48
C
Capabilities .........................................................iv
CDI Scale Setup.................................................41
Contrast Setting.................................................39
Course Made Good (CMG)................................48
Cross Track Error.............................................8-9
D
Definitions......................................................3,48
Desired Track (DTK) ...........................................9
DGPS Setup..................................................44-45
Distance and Sun Calculation ............................37
E
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)........................31
Estimated Time Enroute (ETE) .......................9,31
G
Glossary.............................................................48
GOTO Function ................................................25
GPS Overview .....................................................2
Ground Speed ...................................................48
H
Heading Selection..............................................41
I
Installation (wiring) ...........................................55
Installation (bracket) ....................................56-57
Interface Formats...............................................55
I/O Page .......................................................43-45
Interval, track storage ........................................42
Index
K
Keypad Usage ....................................................12
Keypad Tone .....................................................39
L
Local Time Offset .........................................38,51
Losing Satellite Coverage ...................................15
M
Magnetic Variation.............................................41
Maintenance ......................................................54
MOB Function...................................................26
Map Datum List ...........................................52-53
Map Datum Selection ........................................40
Map Orientation ................................................42
Map Page...........................................................33
Map Functions ..............................................34
Map Panning and GOTOs.............................35
Map Zooming and Scales ..............................36
Menu Page.........................................................37
Messages............................................................37
Message Page .....................................................37
Message Descriptions ...................................49-50
N
Navigation......................................................3,48
Navigation Page...........................................8,9,25
Navigation Setup ..........................................40,41
Navigation Units................................................41
Nearest Waypoint Page......................................19
NMEA Selection ...........................................43,44
NMEA Output Formats .....................................55
Normal Mode ....................................................38
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Appendix H
Index
Setup Pages ..................................................38-45
Simulator Mode.................................................46
Sky View Display............................................5,15
Steering Guidance .......................................8,9,25
Sun and Distance Calculation ............................37
T
Time Setup ...................................................38,51
Tone Setup ........................................................39
Track.................................................................48
Track Log Setup ................................................48
Track Recording ................................................42
U
Units of Measure................................................41
UTC time......................................................38,51
UTM Coordinates .........................................40,48
O
Offset, local time ..........................................38,51
Operating Mode Setup..................................37,38
Operation Setup ...........................................38,39
Output Setup ...............................................43-45
P
Packing List .........................................................v
Page Sequence ...................................................10
Page Flowcharts ...........................................13-14
Panning ........................................................35,36
Position Entry....................................................17
Position Page .....................................................17
Power Off ..........................................................11
Power On ............................................................4
R
Range Rings..................................................33,43
Reference Waypoints .........................................22
Relative Bearing Pointer....................................8,9
Resolution, track storing....................................42
Routes ...............................................................27
Active Route Page..........................................31
Creating and Copying ...................................29
Clearing and Activating.................................30
Inverting Routes............................................30
Editing Routes...............................................32
On-Route GOTOs.........................................32
S
Satellite Status ..............................................15,16
Satellite Status Page ......................................15,16
Searching the Sky ..............................................16
60
V
Velocity Made Good (VMG) ..............................48
W
Waypoints .........................................................18
Waypoint Definition Page .............................21
Waypoint List Page .......................................20
Nearest Waypoint Page .................................19
Marking Waypoints ......................................18
Creating Waypoints ......................................21
Naming Waypoints .......................................18
Deleting Waypoints.......................................24
Editing Waypoints ........................................23
Renaming Waypoints....................................23
Welcome Page .....................................................4
Wiring Installation.............................................55
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© 1994 GARMIN INTERNATIONAL
9875 Widmer Road, Lenexa, KS 66215, USA
Part Number 190-00070-00 Rev. B