Garmin GPS 48 GPS Receiver User Manual

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GPS
48
Personal
NavigatorTM
Owner’s
Manual
& Reference
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Software Version 4.55 or above
© 1998-1999 GARMIN Corporation
1200 E. 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062 USA
Tel: 913-397-8200
Fax: 913-397-8282
GARMIN (Europe) Ltd.
Unit 5, The Quadrangle, Abbey Park, Romsey, Hampshire SO51 9AQ UK
Tel: 011-44-1794-519944
Fax: 011-44-1794-519222
GARMIN (Asia) Corp.
No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Rd., Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
Tel: 011-886-2-2642-9199
Fax: 011-886-2-2642-9099
Web Site Address: www.garmin.com
All rights reserved. Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual
may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored in any
storage medium, for any purpose without prior written consent of GARMIN
Corporation.
GARMIN Corporation hereby grants permission to download a single copy of this
manual onto a hard drive or other eletronic storage medium to be viewed for personal
use, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual contains the complete text of this copyright notice and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual is strictly prohibited.
Information in this manual is subject to change without notice. GARMIN
Corporation reserves the right to change or improve its products and to make changes
in the content without obligation to notify any person or organization of such
changes. Visit the GARMIN website (www.garmin.com) for current updates and supplemental information concerning the use and operation of this and other GARMIN
products.
GARMIN, Personal Navigator, AutoLocate, TracBack, and PhaseTrac12 are all
trademarks of GARMIN Corporation and may not be used without the express permission of GARMIN Corporation.
December 1999 - Part Number 190-00141-00 Rev. B - Printed in Taiwan
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INTRODUCTION
GPS 48
Packing List
Owner’s
Manual
Thank you for choosing the GARMIN GPS 48 —the smallest, easiestto-use GPS navigator for outdoor use! The GPS 48 represents GARMIN’s
continuing commitment to provide quality navigation information in a
versatile and user-friendly flexible design you’ll enjoy for years. To get the
most from your new GPS, take the time to read through the owner’s manual in order to understand the operating features of the GPS 48. This
manual is organized into four sections for your convenience:
Introduction gives a quick overview of the manual and contains the
table of contents and the glossary of navigational terms.
Getting Started introduces you to the basic features of the unit and
provides a quick-start orientation to the GPS 48.
Reference provides details about the advanced features and operations of the GPS 48 by topic.
The Appendix section contains initialization instructions and items
with multiple listings, such as map datums, time offsets, and the
index.
Before getting started with your GPS, check to see that your GARMIN
GPS 48 package includes the following items. If you are missing any
parts, please contact your dealer immediately.
Standard Package:
• GPS 48 Unit
• Owner’s Manual
• Wrist Strap
• Quick Reference Guide
• Carrying Case
• 4 AA Batteries
See your GARMIN dealer for accessories including our PC kit, swivel
mounts, external antennas, and power/data cables.
We hope the GPS 48 will meet all of your navigation needs and know
it will become a valuable part of your outdoor gear.
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INTRODUCTION
Caution
The GPS system is operated by the government of the United States,
which is solely responsible for its accuracy and maintenance. The system is
subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and performance of all
GPS equipment. Although the GPS 48 is a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID), any NAVAID can be misused or misinterpreted and, therefore,
become unsafe.
Use the GPS 48 at your own risk. To reduce the risk of unsafe operation, carefully review and understand all aspects of this Operator’s Manual
and thoroughly practice operation using the simulator mode prior to actual
use. When in actual use, carefully compare indications from the GPS 48 to all
available navigation sources including the information from other NAVAIDs,
visual sightings, maps, etc. For safety, always resolve any discrepancies before
continuing navigation.
NOTE: This device meets requirements for Part 15 of the FCC limits for
Class B digital devices for home or office use. It has been tested for compliance with all necessary FCC standards. This equipment generates, uses, and
can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to
other equipment, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and
on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by relocating the
equipment or connecting the equipment to a different circuit than the affected
equipment. Consult an authorized dealer or other qualified service technician
for additional help if these remedies do not correct the problem. Operation is
subject to the following conditions: (1) This device cannot cause harmful
interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received,
including interference that may cause undesired operation. The GPS 48 does
not contain any user-serviceable parts. Repairs should only be made by an
authorized service center. Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void
your warranty and your authority to operate this device under Part 15
regulations.
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Page 1
INTRODUCTION
Table of
Contents
SECTION ONE Introduction
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
Navigation Basics & Key Pad Usage & Data Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-5
SECTION TWO Getting Started
Initializing for First Time Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-7
Primary Page Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-9
Power On & Marking a Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Position Page, Map Basics, & Going To A Waypoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Compass Page & Cancelling A GOTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Clearing the Map Display, Screen Contrast, & Power Off . . . . . . . . . . .13
SECTION THREE Reference
Satellite Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-15
Battery Level Indicator, Backlighting, and Emergency Erase . . . . . . . . .16
Position Page & User Selectable Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-18
Map Page & Marine Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19-21
Map Page, Zooming, Panning & Configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22-23
Map Page, Track Log, City, & Navaid Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24-27
Using the Highway & Compass Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28-31
Marking a Position & Position Averaging Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Waypoint Pages & Managing Waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33-37
Selecting a GOTO Destination & Man Overboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
TrackBack Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39-40
Creating & Using Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41-45
Menu Page & Distance/Sun Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
System Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46-48
Navigation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-51
Interface Setup & DGPS Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52-53
Alarms Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Find City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Navigation Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
SECTION FOUR Appendices
Appendix A––Specifications & Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57-60
Appendix B—Messages and Time Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61-62
Appendix C—Map Datums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63-64
Appendix D—Navaid Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Appendix E—Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66-68
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INTRODUCTION
Glossary
The GPS 48 is a powerful navigation tool that can guide you anywhere in
the world. To better understand its operation and capabilities, it may be helpful
to review the basic terms and concepts briefly explained below.
Other navigation and GPS definitions used in the manual are defined in the
appropriate reference sections of the manual.
Almanac Data
Satellite constellation information (including location and health of satellites) that is transmitted to your receiver from every GPS satellite. Almanac data
must be acquired before GPS navigation can begin.
Bearing
The compass direction from your position to a destination.
Course Made Good (CMG)
The bearing from the “active from” position (your starting point) to your
present position.
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
The sca;e on the highway page indicating amount of off corse deviation.
Course To Steer (CTS)
The bearing giving the most efficient direction to your destination.
Crosstrack Error (XTK)
The distance you are off a desired course in either direction.
Desired Track (DTK)
The compass course between the “from” and “to” waypoints.
Differential GPS (DGPS)
An extension of the GPS system that uses land-based radio beacons to
transmit position corrections to GPS receivers.
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
The time of day of your arrival at a destination.
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INTRODUCTION
Glossary
Estimated Time Enroute (ETE)
The time left to your destination at your present speed.
Grid
Coordinate system that projects the earth on a flat surface, using square
zones for position measurements. UTM/UPS and Maidenhead formats are grid
systems.
Ground Speed (SPD)
The velocity you are traveling relative to a ground position.
Latitude
The north/south measurement of position perpendicular to the earth’s
polar axis.
Longitude
An east/west measurement of position in relation to the Prime Meridian,
an imaginary circle that passes through the north and south poles.
Navigation
The process of traveling from one place to another and knowing where
you are in relation to your desired course.
Position
An exact, unique location based on a geographic coordinate system.
Track (TRK)
The direction of movement relative to a ground position.
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
A grid coordinate system that projects global sections onto a flat surface to
measure position in specific zones.
Velocity Made Good (VMG)
The speed you are traveling in the direction of the destination.
Waypoint
A specific location saved in the receiver’s memory.
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INTRODUCTION
Navigation
Basics
The GPS 48 provides steering guidance and navigation
information using degrees, a measurement measured in a
clockwise direction from a north reference. North is described
as 000º, east as 090º, south as 180º, and west as 270º. The
diagram and compass rose below provide a graphic illustration
of the navigation terms used by the GPS 48. More information
on basic navigation and GPS are available at your local library
or bookstore.
NORTH
“A
CT
IV
EL
NORTH
DIST
EG
”
ANC
E
“ACTIVE TO”
WAYPOINT
CK
RA
ST
OS
R
4
RO
“ACTIVE FROM”
WAYPOINT
ER
DTK
GR
CR
TRK
OU
ND
SP
EE
D
BRG
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INTRODUCTION
Keypad Usage &
Data Entry
B
Turns the unit on and off and
activates screen backlighting.
P
Scrolls through the main data
pages in sequence and returns
display from a submenu page
to a primary page.
M
Captures a position and displays the mark position page.
G
Displays GOTO page with
the waypoint highlighted for
GOTO operation. Pressing
GOTO twice activates MOB.
E
Confirms data entry and
activates highlighted fields
to allow data entry.
Q
Returns display to a previous
page, or restores a data field’s
previous value.
UD
Selects alphanumerical
characters and menu choices
and moves the field highlight
from field to field.
L R
Moves the selected character
field and moves the field
highlight from field to field.
DATA ENTRY
The arrow keypad is
used for all data entry.
Use the U and D
keys to select letters,
numbers, and menu
options; use the L and
R keys to move the cursor forward or backward along the line.
Press E to begin
entering data, and to
confirm your entry.
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GETTING
STARTED
Initializing the
Receiver
Hold the receiver parallel to
the ground and rotate the
antenna perpendicular to
the receiver.
Welcome Page
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Page 6
Initializing Your GPS 48 for First-Time Use
The GPS 48 does not require initialization under
normal day-to-day use. However, initialization may
reduce the time it takes to compute a position fix after
one of the following events:
• After memory loss
• When the receiver has been moved more than
500 miles with the power off.
Additionally, it may be necessary to initialize the
unit the first time you use it, if it does not acquire a fix
in a few minutes.
The receiver is shipped from the factory in
AutoLocate™ mode, which enables the GPS 48 to
determine its location anywhere in the world. Another
method is the graphic initialization described below,
which usually provides a fix in a few minutes.
To turn the GPS 48 on:
1. Press and hold B until the receiver turns on.
The welcome page is displayed while the unit conducts a self test, followed by a warning page.
Once testing is complete, the warning page is
replaced by the Satellite Page, with the EZinit prompt
ready for you to select one of two initialization
methods:
•Select Country––allows you to initialize the
receiver by selecting your present position from a
list of countries in the GPS 48’s internal database.
This method usually provides a position fix in a
few minutes.
•AutolocateTM ––allows the GPS 48 to initialize
itself and calculate a position fix without knowing
your present position. This usually provides a position fix in 3-5 minutes.
The EZinit prompt can be activated from the satellite page by pressing the E key if the unit has not
acquired satellites.
Note: If the EZinit prompt appears after you have
initialized the receiver (due to the antenna’s view of
satellites being obstructed), highlight the ‘NO RE-INIT’
selection with the arrow keypad and press E.
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To initialize the receiver:
1. If the ‘COUNTRY’ option is not highlighted, press the
D key repeatedly to move the field highlight to the
‘COUNTRY’ option.
2. Press the E key.
GETTING
STARTED
Initializing the
Receiver
3. Use the D key to scroll through the list options until
the country of your present location appears. If the
country you’re in is not listed, select another country
within 500 miles of your present
position.
4. Use theU key to highlight the country/state/region
you’re in.
5. Press E to finish.
The GPS 48 now begins searching for the appropriate satellites for your location and should acquire a
position within 3-5 minutes. You can verify that you
have acquired a position by watching the Satellite Page
transition to the Position Page (provided you haven’t
pressed any other buttons) or by looking for a ‘2D
NAV’ or ‘3D NAV’ status at the top-left corner of the
Satellite Page.
Initialization Troubleshooting
The EZinit prompt will
automatically appear if the
receiver needs to be initialized. The prompt may also
appear during normal use if
the antenna is shaded or the
unit is indoors.
If you have trouble initializing the receiver or
acquiring a position, check the following:
• Does the unit have a clear view of the sky?
If there are large buildings or mountains nearby, or
if there is heavy tree cover, the receiver may not be
receiving enough satellite signals to calculate a
position.
• Have you selected the right country/state/region
from the EZinit list?
Check for the correct approximate lat/lon on the
Position Page, or reselect the appropriate country
from the list to restart the initialization.
• Have you moved more than 500 miles from the
last calculated position with the receiver off?
Reinitialize the receiver, selecting the country/state/
region of your new location from the EZinit list.
Your unit should now be initialized.
Use the arrow keypad to
highlight the country and
region or state (if necessary) of your present position from the list and press
ENTER. If the country is
not listed, select the closest
country instead.
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GETTING
STARTED
Primary Pages
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Page 8
Primary Pages
Before we start the tour, let’s briefly look at the five
primary information pages used for the GPS 48. Switch
between pages by pressing either the Q or J keys.
J
Q
Satellite Page
Satellite Page
The Satellite Page will
allow you to monitor
satellite signal reception
and strength.
The Satellite Page shows satellite positions and
signal strength. Satellite positions are displayed using
two circles and a center point. The outer circle shows
satellites on level with the horizon; the inner circle is
45º above the horizon; and the center point represents
satellites directly overhead. Knowing satellite positions
will show you the direction of any blocked signals.
The bottom of the page contains a row of signal
strength bars corresponding to each satellite being
used.
Position Page
The Position Page shows you where you are, what
direction you’re heading and how fast you’re going.
The top of the page contains a compass tape which
is a graphic representation of your heading. Your track
and speed are indicated immediately below.
#
!
Position Page
8
The graphic compass tape reflects your heading only while you are moving.
The rest of the page shows your current position in
three dimensions: latitude, longitude, and altitude. A
trip odometer and 12/24-hour clock are also provided.
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Map Page
The Map Page acts as a window. It allows you to
view your position, the “path” you have traveled over,
and nearby navaids, cities and waypoints.
GETTING
STARTED
Primary Pages
A diamond icon in the center of the screen represents your current position. As you move, you will see
a thin line - called a track log - appear along the path
you have just covered.
The GPS 48 contains a built–in marine database
that displays city locations and nautical navaids on the
moving map. The database is covered on pages 21-22.
The bottom corners of the map will always display
your current track and speed. When going to a waypoint, highlighting an on-screen waypoint, or using the
panning target crosshair, the corresponding distance
and bearing are shown at the top corners of the map.
The top of the screen contains the zoom, pan, and configuration fields.
Navigation Page
A navigation page gives you steering guidance
when going to a waypoint. The GPS 48 has two navigation page choices: the Compass Page and the
Highway Page. The Compass Page is the default and
briefly explained here. The Highway Page is covered on
pages 28 and 31.
The Compass Page shows the destination waypoint at the top of the page with the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DST) to the waypoint shown below. The center of the page contains a compass ring and arrow to
show you the direction of the waypoint from the direction you are moving. The bottom of the page gives
your track (TRK), speed (SPD), and a selectable field
for estimated time to arrival (ETA), estimated time
enroute (ETE), course to steer (CTS), crosstrack error,
(XTK), velocity made good (VMG), or turn bearing
(TRN).
Menu Page
The last primary page is the Menu Page. The
Menu Page gives you access to the GPS 48’s waypoint
management, route, track log, and setup features
through a list of submenus.
The Map Page shows your
progress on a moving map
plotter and gives a
bird’s–eye–view of surrounding naviads, cities
and waypoints.
The Compass Page is the
default navigation page
and will show you the
way to the waypoint from
the direction you are
moving.
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GETTING
STARTED
Power On &
Marking a
Position
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Page 10
Getting Started Tour
Now that you’ve seen the primary pages, let’s get
started by taking a simple tour to show you the basics
about using your GPS 48. The tour assumes that your
unit has been turned on, initialized, and that none of
the factory settings (units of measure, selectable fields,
etc.) have been changed. If these settings have been
changed, the pictures and descriptions you see in this
manual may not match what you see on your screen.
Turning the GPS 48 On
1. Press B until the receiver turns on.
The Welcome Page will be
shown while the unit conducts a self test.
The welcome page will appear while the unit conducts a self test. Once testing is complete, the Satellite
Page will appear. When sufficient satellite signals have
been acquired, the Satellite Page will be replaced by the
Position Page. If your unit acquires a position rapidly it
will skip the Satellite Page.
Marking a Position
GPS is really about marking and going to places
called waypoints. Before we can use our GPS 48 to
guide us somewhere, we have to mark a position as a
waypoint. (Your GPS 48 can hold up to 500 waypoints.)
To mark your present position:
1. Press the M key. The mark position page will
appear, with a default three-digit name for the new
waypoint in the upper-left portion of the page.
To rename the waypoint:
1. Highlight the name field, and press E.
2. Enter the waypoint name ‘HOME’, and press E.
(See pg. 9 for data entry.) The waypoint symbol field
will become highlighted.
Press the UP arrow to
move forward through the
alphabet or numbers and
the DOWN arrow to
move backward.
Each waypoint may also be assigned a custom waypoint symbol for easy waypoint recognition on the map.
To change the waypoint symbol:
1. Highlight the waypoint symbol field, and press E.
2. Select the house symbol, and press E.
3. Move the cursor to the ‘DONE?’ prompt, and press
E.
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Using the Position Page
Walk at a brisk pace for 3-4 minutes and watch the
Position Page. The direction you are moving (track),
your speed, trip distance, and altitude are shown on the
upper half of the screen. The latitude and longitude of
your position are displayed in the middle of the page,
with the time of day shown below.
GETTING
STARTED
Map Page &
Going to a
Waypoint
Let’s continue by moving to the next page:
1. Press P.
Map Page
The next page is the Map Page. To ensure we can
see our entire trip on the map, lets change the map
scale from .2nm (default) to 1.2nm.
1. Use the arrow keys to highlight the ‘ZM’ field at the
top left of the Map Page and press E.
2. Press the U arrow until ‘1nm’ is shown and press
E.
The Map Page shows your present position as a diamond icon in the center of the map. The house symbol
labeled ‘HOME’ is the waypoint you created and the
line connecting the two is your track log.
The Map Page displays
your present position as a
diamond icon and provides a real time graphic
“breadcrumb” display of
your track right on the
screen.
1. Now turn approximately 90º to your right and continue
walking for another 2-3 minutes. Notice how the display changes, always keeping the direction you are
moving at the top of the map .
Going to a Waypoint
Once you’ve stored a waypoint in memory, you may
return to it by performing a GOTO. A GOTO is a
straight-line course from your present position to the
destination you’ve selected. Let’s navigate back to our
starting position, the HOME waypoint.
To select a GOTO destination:
1. Press G.
2. Highlight the ‘HOME’ waypoint, and press E.
You’ll notice that you’ll automatically return to the
Map Page, and a straight line will connect your current
position to the position of the GOTO waypoint.
The GOTO waypoint
page allows you to select
a destination from a list
of all available waypoints
in the GPS 48’s memory.
Let’s continue by moving to the next page:
1. Press P.
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STARTED
Highway Page &
Cancelling a
GOTO
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Page 12
Highway Page
Bearing to
Waypoint
Distance to
Waypoint
Track Over
Ground
Speed Over
Ground
Destination
Waypoint
CDI Scale
Graphic
Highway
The GPS48 will also provide
steering guidance with a
Graphic Compass display.
User Selectable
Field
The GPS 48’s Highway Page provides graphic steering
guidance to a destination waypoint, with emphasis on
the straight-line desired course, the distance and direction you are off course.
As you head toward your destination, the middle of
the screen provides visual guidance to your waypoint on
a moving graphic “highway.”
Your present position is represented by the diamond
in the center of the CDI scale. The line down the middle
of the highway represents your desired track. As you
navigate toward a waypoint, the highway will actually
move—indicating the direction you’re off course—relative to the position diamond on the CDI scale. To stay on
course, simply steer in toward the center of the highway.
To select the Compass Page
1. From the Highway Page, press E twice.
Once a GOTO is activated, the GPS 48 provides
steering guidance until the
GOTO is canceled. To
cancel a GOTO, highlight
the cancel prompt at the
bottom of the page and
press ENTER.
12
The Compass Page will now become the displayed
navigation page. This page provides a directional pointer
to your destination, by using a rotating compass display
to show direction of travel. It provides better steering
guidance at slower speeds with many directional
changes.
Cancelling a GOTO
If you decide to stop navigating to the active waypoint, all you have to do is cancel the GOTO.
To cancel an active GOTO:
1. Press the G key.
2. Use the arrow keypad to move the field highlight to the
‘CANCEL GOTO’ prompt at the bottom of the page and
press E.
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Clearing a Cluttered Map Display
After you’ve used the GPS 48 for a few trips, you may
find that your map display has become a bit messy from
keeping track of your every move. For practice, let’s clean
up the screen by clearing the track log (the plot points left
on the Map Page) we’ve just created during the Getting
Started tour.
GETTING
STARTED
Clearing the
Map, Contrast,
& Power Off
1. Press P or Q until the Map Page appears.
2. Highlight the ‘CFG’ field and press E.
3. Highlight ‘Track Setup’ and press E.
4. Highlight the ‘CLEAR LOG?’ option and press E. The
clear log confirmation page will appear.
5. Use the L key to highlight the ‘Yes’ prompt.
6. Press E to finish.
Adjusting Screen Contrast
You can access the GPS 48’s contrast feature from the
Satellite Page.
To adjust the screen contrast:
Highlight the ‘CLEAR
LOG?’ prompt and press
ENTER to clear the track
log.
1. Press P or Q until the Satellite Page appears.
2. Press Lor Rto adjust the level of contrast, and press
E.
Screen Backlighting
Three levels of screen backlighting are available for
nighttime use. Activate backlighting by pressing the B
key briefly. To change the level of backlighting, press the
B key repeatatly until the desired level is of backlight is
selected. Backlighting will remain on for the time specified on the system setup page (See page 48) or until
turned off.
Turning the Receiver Off
You’ve now gone through the basic operation of your
new GPS receiver and probably know a little more than
you think about how it works. We encourage you to
experiment with the GPS 48 until it becomes an extension
of your own navigation skills. If you encounter any problems using the unit or want to take advantage of the GPS
48’s more advanced features, turn to the reference section.
Pressing the LEFT or
RIGHT arrows from the
Satellite Page will automatically activate the
screen contrast bar.
To turn the GPS 48 off:
1. Press and hold the B key for 3 seconds.
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Page 14
Satellite Page
Satellite Page
Status
Field
Battery
Indicator
Estimated
Position Error
Skyview
Display
Signal Strength
Indicators
The GPS 48 Satellite
Page will help you determine which satellites are
in view, and whether or
not any satellites are
being “shaded” or blocked
from receiving satellite
signals (See satellite 02
above).
By periodically monitoring the signal strength
bars at the bottom of the
page and the north up
sky view, you will be able
to see how moving to
another area with a
clearer view of the sky
will improve satellite
reception and speed up
signal acquisition.
14
The GPS 48’s Satellite Page displays the status of various receiver functions. The status information will help
you understand what the GPS 48 is doing at any given
time, and will tell you whether or not the receiver has
calculated a position fix.
Sky View and Signal Strength Bars
The sky view and signal strength bars give you an
indication of what satellites are visible to the receiver,
whether or not they are being used to calculate a position fix, and the signal quality. The satellite sky view
shows a bird’s-eye-view of the position of each available
satellite relative to the unit’s last known position. The
outer circle represents the horizon (north up); the inner
circle is 45º above the horizon; and the center point is
directly overhead. You can use the sky view to help
determine if any satellites are being blocked, and
whether you have a current position fix (indicated by a
‘2D NAV’ or ‘3D NAV’ in the status field). You can also
set the sky view to a track up configuration by changing
the ‘orientation’ option on the Map Page. (See pg. 24 for
setup instructions.)
While the receiver is looking for satellites the satellite
number will be highlighted in the sky view. When the
receiver locates and begins satellite reception, the satellite
number will no longer be highlighted and a hollow
strength indicator will be displayed at the bottom of the
page. After the receiver has gathered the satellite information and can use the satellite for navigation the
strength indicator bar will become solid. As soon as the
GPS 48 has gathered enough satellites to calculate a position the status field will indicate a 2D or 3D fix.
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Receiver Status
Receiver status is indicated at the top left of the
page, with the current horizontal accuracy (estimated
position error, in feet or meters) at the top right. The
status will be shown as one of the following conditions:
Searching— the GPS 48 is looking for any available satellites in view.
AutoLocate— the GPS 48 is initializing and collecting new almanac data. This process can take 5
minutes, depending on the satellites currently in
view.
Acquiring— the receiver is collecting data from
available satellites, but has not collected enough
data to calculate a 2D fix.
2D Nav (2D Navigation)— at least three satellites with good geometry have been acquired and a
2-dimensional position fix (latitude and longitude)
is being calculated. ‘2D Diff’ will appear when you
are receiving DGPS corrections in 2D mode.
3D Nav (3D Navigation)— at least four satellites with good geometry have been acquired, and
your position is now being calculated in latitude,
longitude and altitude. ‘3D Diff’ will appear when
you are receiving DGPS corrections in 3D mode.
Poor Cvg (Poor GPS Coverage)— the receiver
isn’t tracking enough satellites for a 2D or 3D fix
due to bad satellite geometry.
Not Usable— the receiver is unusable, possibly
due to incorrect initialization or abnormal satellite
conditions. Turn the unit off and back on to reset,
and reinitialize the receiver if necessary.
Simulator— the receiver is in simulator mode.
REFERENCE
Receiver Status
& EZinit
The signal strength bars at
the bottom of the page will
not appear until the GPS
48 has found the satellites
indicated at the bottom of
the screen.
EZinit Option Prompt
The Satellite Page also provides access to the EZinit
prompt whenever a position fix has not been calculated. (The unit must be in searching, AutoLocate,
acquiring, simulator, or poor coverage mode.) This
allows you to reinitialize the unit, and is useful if you
have traveled over 500 miles with the receiver off.
(The EZinit prompt will automatically appear if the
receiver needs to be initialized. The prompt may also
appear during normal use if the antenna is shaded or
the unit is indoors.)
If you travel over 500
miles with the receiver
off, you may reinitialize
the unit to your new position by using the EZinit
feature. To access EZinit
press ENTER from the
Satellite Status Page
before any satellites are
acquired.
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Battery Level,
Backlighting &
Emergency Erase
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Page 16
Battery Level Indicator
The Satellite Page also features a battery level indicator, located to the left of the sky view, which displays the
strength of the unit’s batteries. The battery indicator will
not appear if the receiver is using external power.
#
!
The battery level indicator is calibrated for alkaline batteries. Voltage differences will display
Ni-Cad and lithium batteries differently. No
other receiver functions are affected.
The GPS 48 features an internal lithium battery that
will maintain the unit’s memory when the receiver is not
running off batteries or external power.
Backlighting Bulb Icon
When backlighting is on, a
bulb icon will appear on
the Satellite Page.
Use the icon to determine
if backlighting is turned
on during daylight hours.
The GPS 48 features full-screen backlighting with
three selectable levels of brightness. To activate the
backlight, press the B key briefly. To increase the
brightness, repeatedly press the B key. The backlight
will remain on until cycled off or the backlight timeout
setting has been reached (see page 48).
Note: A bulb icon will appear on the Satellite Page
when backlighting is turned on.
Emergency Erase Function
You may erase the GPS 48’s memory in four quick
steps. This will cause all stored data to be deleted,
including: routes, waypoints, and the track log.
To erase all stored data:
1. Ensure that the GPS 48 is turned off.
Upon activating the
Emergency
Erase
Function, you will be
asked to confirm your
decision.
16
2. While holding down the Mkey, hold down the B
key to turn the unit on. A warning message will appear
with “Yes?” highlighted, and ask you to confirm your
selection.
3. If you do not wish to erase all stored data, select ‘No?’
by pressing R and E to cancel the emergency
erase.
4. If you do wish to complete the emergency erase, press
E to confirm.
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Position Page
The second page in the GPS 48’s primary page
sequence is the Position Page. This page shows you
where you are, what direction you’re heading, and how
fast you’re going, and it’s most useful when you are traveling without an active destination waypoint. The graphic
heading display at the top of the page indicates the direction you’re heading (while you’re moving).
Directly below this display are the track, speed, and
trip odometer and altitude fields (default). Track is the
compass direction representing your course over the
ground, and speed is how fast you’re moving. The center
of the page shows your current latitude and longitude in
degrees and minutes. The GPS 48 uses this basic information to mark exact positions as waypoints, which help
guide you from one place to another. The lower center of
the page is a 12- or 24-hour clock.
Both the trip odometer and the altitude fields are user
selectable. Both fields offer a trip odometer, trip timer,
and elapsed time. The left field offers additional selections for average speed and maximum speed, the right
field for altitude.
The following user-selectable options are available on
the Position Page:
Trip Odometer (TRIP)— total distance
traveled since last reset.
Trip Timer (TTIME)— total (cumulative)
time in which a ground speed has been maintained since last reset.
Elapsed Time (ELPSD)— hours and minutes since last reset.
Average Speed (AVSPD)— average speed
traveled.
Maximum Speed (MXSPD)— maximum
speed traveled since last reset.
Altitude (ALT)— vertical distance above sea
level.
To change a user–selectable field:
1. Highlight the desired field, and press E.
REFERENCE
Position Page
The speed and track displayed on the Position
Page may fluctuate at
slow speeds (or when
you’re standing still)
because of position errors
caused by Selective
Availability.
The user selectable fields
on the Position Page give
you a variety of information to choose from.
2. Select the new field and press E to confirm.
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REFERENCE
Maximum Speed
& Altitude
Fields
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Page 18
Position Page (cont)
To reset timer, speed measurement, or odometer:
1. Highlight the user-selectable field, and press E.
2. Press E to confirm or Q to exit.
The trip odometer, trip timer, and average speed
fields are linked. Resetting one of these options in a
user-selectable field will automatically reset the corresponding data in the other. This ensures that information shown in these fields reflects your current trip.
Maximum Speed Field
To obtain the most accurate reading of average
speed, keep in mind that due to the sensitivity of the
GPS 48’s antenna, your maximum speed value may
include the effects of rapid movement, such as swinging
your arm while holding the unit.
To reset the maximum speed field:
The user selectable fields
on the Position Page give
you a variety of information
to
choose
from.Resetting the trip
odometer will erase the
previous mileage and set
the odometer to 0.
1. Highlight the ‘MXSPD’ field, and press E.
2. Press E to confirm the ‘RESET?’ prompt .
Altitude Field
When the GPS 48 is acquiring satellites or navigating in the 2D mode, the last known altitude is used to
compute your position. In cases where the GPS 48 has
2D coverage, entering your exact altitude will enable the
receiver to determine a more accurate fix.
Note: Altitude can only be entered when the receiver is in the 2D mode.
To enter an altitude:
1. Highlight the ‘ALT’ field, and press E.
2. Enter a value, and press E.
You may enter your exact
altitude to assist the GPS
48 in establishing a more
accurate fix when operating in 2D mode.
18
Note: Use caution when entering a 2D altitude,
entering an incorrect altitude may significantly degrade
position accuracy.
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REFERENCE
Map Page
Zoom Scale
Bearing to
Waypoint
Pan & Configure
Fields
Map Page
Distance to
Waypoint
Present
Position
Track Over
Ground
Speed Over
Ground
The Map Page shows your position and surroundings,
and provides you with a target cursor that lets you pan
ahead to determine the distance and bearing to a map
position, mark new waypoints and goto waypoints while
you navigate. The Map Page is broken down into two
sections: control fields and map section.
The zoom function, panning control, and configuration fields are located at the top of the screen. The zoom
function uses 12 selectable zoom ranges from 0.2 to 320
miles or 0.5 to 600 km. (Using the zoom, panning, and
configure fields will be addressed in the next section.)
The map portion of the page displays your present
position as a diamond icon, your track and/or route as a
solid line, marine database points (see page 20), and
waypoints by squares or the selected symbol, the waypoint name or comment may also be displayed. Range
Rings may be displayed to help estimate distances. You
may select which of these features are shown through the
map setup submenu page (see pg. 24 for more information).
The four corners of the Map Page are used to display
various navigation data, including the bearing and distance to a destination waypoint and your current track
and speed over the ground. The two fields at the top
corners of the map show your bearing and distance to
one of three selectable destinations: an active destination
waypoint, a highlighted on-screen waypoint, or the panning target crosshair. If you are not navigating to a waypoint or using the panning function, the top data fields
will not be displayed. Your current track and speed are
shown at the bottom corners of the display.
Note: A map scale represents the distance shown
from the bottom to the top
of the Map Page. For
example, when viewing
the 10 mile scale, the distance represented between
the top of the screen and
bottom is 10 miles.
The four corners of the
Map Page are used to
show your course, speed,
and distance to either a
cursor or to a destination
waypoint.
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REFERENCE
Marine
Database
Navaid labels contain
abbreviated descriptions
of the navaids. To view the
label, highlight the navaid
or zoom in until the
navaid label is visible.
3:12 PM
Page 20
Marine Database
The GPS 48 contains an updateable, marine database
that displays city locations and nautical navaids on the
moving map. Check the Garmin website for possible
nautical navaid updates.
City locations are depicted by a small square icon,
cities are displayed at the zoom scale specified on the city
setup menu (see page 26).
The nautical navaids contained in the GPS 48 marine
database include racons, radio beacons, fog horns, daybeacons (red triangles, green squares and white diamonds), lit and unlit navaids. Each navaid is represented
by a symbol on the map that will help quickly identify the
type of navaid. There are 10 symbols representing the
different types of navaids
Foghorn
Racon
Radio Beacon
Daybeacon (red triangle)
Daybeacon (green square)
Daybeacon (white diamond)
Lit Navaid (color indicated in symbol)
City locations are displayed on the map. To
configure the city locations, highlight OPT, press
ENTER and select ‘CITY
SETUP’.
Lit Navaid (multicolor)
Unlit Navaid (color indicated in symbol)
Unlit Navaid (multicolor)
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Marine Database (cont)
Lit and unlit navaids are designated by the primary
color. The navaid symbol will have the first letter in
the primary color displayed in the symbol.
Information about the navaid is contained in the
navaid label. The navaid label can be activated two
ways, either by reaching the label zoom scale set in
navaid setup (see page 27) or by panning the map cursor to the navaid (see page 22). The navaid label contains an abbreviated description of the navaid.
Lit Navaids have a description string with two
required parts, type of light(s), color of light(s) and an
optional third, period of light(s). There are many different light types; fixed, flashing, occulating and directional are just a few of these many types. There are 7
primary light colors portrayed in the unit; White, Red,
Green, Orange, Yellow or Amber, Violet and Blue.
Unlit Navaids can either have a normal worded
description such as “TR ON PILE”, or a special designation code for the shape and color within the description string.
Fog Signal labels include type of sound, whistle,
bell, horn, siren or diaphone and the sound characteristic, normally blasts per time. There may be an
optional field showing the duration of the blast.
Radio Beacons act as short range electronic
navaids. The label includes their operating frequency
and possibly the Morse Code characteristics assigned to
that radio beacon by the Coast Guard.
Racon is an acronym for RAdar beaCON. The
label identifies the racon station by a series of dashes
and dots. When triggered by a radar signal the racon
transmits this coded reply which will appear on the
radar display.
REFERENCE
Marine
Database
Lit and unlit navaids are
designated by their primary color. The beginning
letter of the primary color
will be displayed in the
symbol.
W = White
R = Red
G =Green
Y = Yellow or Amber
O = Orange
B = Blue or Black
V = Violet
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Zooming
Panning &
Configuring
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Page 22
Zooming, Panning, and Configuring
There are three main functions you can perform
from the Map Page— zooming, panning, and configuring (changing the map and track setup). Each of these
functions has its own “field”, which may be selected and
activated for use. Whenever the Map Page first appears,
the zoom field (at the top left) is always highlighted.
The map has 12 map scales which are selected through
the zoom function field.
To select a zoom scale:
1. Use the arrow keypad to highlight the zoom field.
2. Press the E key to begin range selection.
3. Select a range scale and press E.
A crosshair will appear
when you activate the pan
function. The distance and
direction of the crosshair
from your current position
will be shown in the upper
corners of the Map Page.
On-Screen Pointing
The crosshair will “snap”
to displayed waypoints,
which allows you to quickly review or go to the
selected waypoint right
from the Map Page.
22
The second function field on the Map Page is the
pan field, located at the top middle of the screen. The
pan function allows you to move the map with the four
arrow keys to view areas outside the current map.
To activate the pan function:
1. Highlight the pan field.
2. Press the E key to activate the pan function.
3. Use the arrow keys to move the map in any direction.
As you begin to move the map, a crosshair (plus
sign) will appear. This crosshair will now serve as a target marker for the moving map. The distance and bearing to your destination will now be replaced by the distance and bearing from your present position to the target crosshair.
When you pan around the map, you’ll notice the
target crosshair will “snap” to on-screen waypoints or
navaids and highlight the waypoint name or navaid.
Once a waypoint name is highlighted, you can either
review its waypoint definition page or waypoint display
options, or execute a GOTO function right from the
Map Page.
To exit the pan function:
1. Press the Q key.
To review the waypoint definition page for a highlighted waypoint:
1. Press E while the waypoint is highlighted.
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Zooming, Panning, and Configuring (cont.)
From the waypoint definition page, you can also
define how each individual waypoint is displayed on the
map. The GPS 48 displays waypoints as a name with a
corresponding symbol (e.g., “nearest fuel” and a gas
pump symbol), a symbol only (e.g., a fish symbol), or a
16-character comment and corresponding symbol (e.g.,
“great view” and the camp site symbol). The waypoint
name has a six character limit while the “comment” field
has a 16-character limit, and there are 16 individual
waypoint symbols available.
REFERENCE
Zooming
Panning &
Configuring
To select a waypoint display option:
1. Highlight the “symbol” field (to the right of the name
field), and press E.
2. Move the cursor to the ‘DISPLAY’ field, and press
E.
3. Select a display option, and press E to select one
of the following display options: ‘NAME WITH SYMBOL,’ ‘SYMBOL ONLY,’ or ‘COMMENT WITH SYMBOL.’
4. Press E to confirm the ‘DONE?’ prompt.
5. Press E again (on the waypoint definition page) to
return to the Map Page.
You may custom tailor the
Map Page to show waypoints by any of three
options.
Using the Cursor to Mark and Go to Waypoints
During panning, the crosshair represents a target
position right on the Map Page, with the range and bearing to the target displayed at the top corners of the
screen. You can use the target crosshair to mark a new
MAP waypoint, to activate a direct map GOTO, or to
GOTO a user waypoint or navaid right from the map.
To mark the target crosshair as a new waypoint:
1. Press M.
2. Enter a name and/or route number, and press E.
You can also use the target crosshair as an instant
GOTO destination. This feature is similar to the MOB
mode, and will allow you to mark and instantly set a
course for a new waypoint called ‘MAP’.
To go to the target crosshair:
Marking a Cursor
Position
To mark a new waypoint
with the crosshair, simply
pan to the desired position
and press the MARK key.
1. Press G, and press E.
To save the MAP waypoint, be sure to rename it
because it will be overwritten with the next MAP GOTO.
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REFERENCE
Setup Windows
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Page 24
Using the Cursor to Mark and Go to (cont.)
You can activate a direct GOTO to any user waypoint
or navaid displayed on the map.
To GOTO a user waypoint or navaid:
1. Highlight the user waypoint or navaid by panning the
map cursor to the point and press E.
2. Press Gthen Eto begin navigation.
To stop the panning function:
1. Press Q.
Accessing Setup Windows
You can access five additional pages—the map setup,
track setup, find city, city steup and the navaid steup
pages—by highlighting the ‘OPT’ field at the top right of
the Map Page, and pressing E. A menu will appear
allowing you to select one of the features.
The ‘OPT’ field gives
access to the map setup
pages, right from the Map
Page.
To select a setup window:
1. Highlight the desired option, and press E.
Map Setup Page and Orientation
The map setup page lets you select the Map Page and
satellite sky view (see pg. 14) orientation, as well as specify what items are displayed. The Map and Satellite Pages
may be oriented to ‘NORTH UP,’ ‘TRACK UP’ (the direction of current travel), or ‘DTK UP’ (desired track up, or
the direction of travel to stay on course). The default setting is track up.
To change the map orientation:
1. Highlight the ‘map’ field, and press E.
The Map Page’s default
screen orientation is track
up. “Track Up” means
that your current direction
of travel is always up (or
towards the top of) the
screen. It can also be set
for north up or desired
track up orientation.
2. Select the desired orientation, and press E.
Note: Selecting the ‘DTK UP’ option will set the satellite sky view to track up orientation.
The rest of the map setup page lets you specify what
items are displayed or plotted on the Map Page by selecting ‘YES’ or ‘NO’ in the appropriate field.
• ’Rings’— displays the three present position range rings
on the map.
• ’Route’— plots the straight-leg lines between waypoints
of an active route and displays all route waypoint names.
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Map Setup Page and Orientation (cont.)
• ’Nearest’— shows the nine nearest user waypoints to
your position (black diamond) on the map.
• ’Names’— displays the waypoint name for the nine
nearest waypoints.
REFERENCE
Map & Track
Setup Pages
• ’Track Log’— displays and plots track points on the
map.
To turn a map item on or off:
1. Highlight ‘YES’ or ‘NO’ for the specific map item, and
press E.
Track Setup Page
The track setup page lets you manage the GPS 48’s
track log data. You can also select whether to record a
track log and define how it is recorded.
To turn the track log on or off:
1. Highlight the ‘RECORD’ field, and press E.
2. Select ‘OFF, FILL, or WRAP’, and press E. (Note:
Turning the track recording off will prevent using
TracBack).
Use the track setup page
to control the way the GPS
48 manages your track
log.
Selecting the track method.:
The stored track method determines how often
positions are stored in the track log. The default setting is automatic, which will store a track based on resolution. This setting gives the most efficient use of
track memory and provides the best TracBack route.
To change the method to record points based on
a specific time interval:
1. Highlight the ‘METHOD’ field, and press E.
2. Select ‘TIME INTERVAL’, and press E twice.
3. Enter hours, minutes, and seconds, and press E.
Entering a time interval in
to the track recording criteria will plot your position points further apart
than they would be in the
‘Automatic’ setting. This
will increase the distance
you can travel without
using up your track log,
but will greatly reduce the
effectiveness of TracBack.
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Page 26
REFERENCE
Managing and Clearing the Track Log
Clearing the
Track Log
The rest of the track setup window displays the percentage of available memory currently used to store
track log data, and a function fields to clear the track
log memory.
Note: Clearing the track log will not erase waypoints.
To clear the track log:
1. Highlight ‘CLEAR LOG?’, and press E.
2. Highlight ‘Yes?’, and press E.
Note: It’s a good idea to clear the track log at the
beginning of your trip, etc., in order to make the best
use of the TracBack feature.
Find City Function
Clear the track log any
time your screen gets cluttered or to make more
room to store points to be
used for a TracBack.
The Find City function lets you search the internal
marine database for a city, by spelling the city name.
For a detailed description of the find city function
see page 55.
City Setup Page
The city setup page lets you select the zoom range
where city locations become visible on the map. The
cities are divided into three categories; small, medium
and large.
To set the visible range:
1. Highlight ‘CITY SETUP’, and press E.
2. Select the city size, and press E.
3. Change to the desired range and press E.
Note: Small cities may not be visible on the map at
high zoom settings.
You can configure when
the city locations display
on the map in the City
Setup Page. Small cities
will not display at high
zoom scale settings to
avoid screen clutter.
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Page 27
Navaid Setup Page
The navaid setup page lets you select the zoom scale
where navaids become visible on the map. The setup
page is divided into two columns, range and zoom, with
label setup at the bottom of the page. The ‘RANGE’ field
represents the visible range of the navaid, the ‘ZOOM’
field is user–selectable and determines when the navaid
becomes visible on the map.
Navaids become visible on the map at or below the
selected zoom setting.
To change the zoom setting:
REFERENCE
Navaid Setup
The Nautical Navaids
can be configured to display at a user -selected
zoom range by selecting
‘NAVAID SETUP’ on the
map configuration menu.
1. Highlight ‘NAVAID SETUP’, and press E.
2. Select the ‘ZOOM’ field that corresponds with the
navaid visible range, and press E.
3. Change to the desired zoom scale and press E.
Below the range and zoom fields is label setup. Labels
contain the navaid descriptions and can be set to display
on the map at or below a user–selected zoom scale.
To set the label zoom scale:
1. Highlight ‘NAVAID SETUP’, and press E
2. Highlight ‘LABEL SETUP’ and press E
3. Change to the desired zoom scale and press E.
Labels contain information about the navaid.
Labels can be activated
by panning the map cursor to the navaid or by
reaching the selected map
zoom scale
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REFERENCE
User Defined
Navigation Page
3:12 PM
Page 28
Selecting a User Defined Navigation Page
Once you have selected a GOTO, Tracback, MOB or
route the GPS 48 will provide navigation using one of
two user defined navigation pages.
Compass Page
To switch the navigation
page to the Compass
Page, press ENTER twice.
Highway Page
•The Compass Page (default) provides a directional pointer to the destination, with a rotating
compass display to show your direction of travel.
The Compass Page provides better steering guidance when straight line navigation is not possible.
•The Highway Page provides a graphic highway
that shows your movement relative to the desired
course, with an emphasis on your crosstrack error
(the distance and direction you are off course).
This page also features a course deviation indicator
(CDI) (see pg. 50). The Highway Page is well suited for water or off road recreation where
straight–line navigation is possible.
Both pages provide a digital display of the bearing
and distance to the destination, and your current speed
and track over the ground. You can switch to either
Navigation Page at anytime.
To select either Navigation Page:
To switch the navigation
page to the Highway Page,
press ENTER twice.
28
1. Press E from the existing Navigation Page, and
E again to change the page.
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Selecting a User Defined Navigation Page (cont)
Distance to
Waypoint
Graphic
Compass
REFERENCE
Navigation
Pages
Track Over
Ground
User-Selectable Field
The ‘ETE’ field, located in the middle-bottom of
both pages, is a user-selectable field that allows you to
display a variety of navigation values for your trip.
To access the user-selectable field:
1. Highlight ‘ETE’, and press E.
2. Use the keypad to scroll through the possible options.
Use the user selectable
field to customize the navigation pages.
The following data options are available for the
Navigation Pages:
Estimated Time Enroute (ETE)— the time left
to your destination based on your present speed
and track.
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)— the time of
day of your arrival at a destination, based on current ground speed and track.
Course to Steer (CTS)— the bearing which will
give you the most efficient way to stay on course to
your destination.
Crosstrack Error (XTK)— the distance you are
off the desired course in either direction. This field
will give you a digital representation of the CDI
scale.
Velocity Made Good (VMG)— the speed you
are traveling toward the destination.
Turn (TRN)— the amount of correction in
degrees needed to travel directly to the destination.
The turn option will show
you the number of degrees
you need to turn to head
directly to your destination.
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REFERENCE
Compass Page
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Page 30
Using the Compass Page
Bearing to
Waypoint
Destination
Waypoint
Pointer to
Waypoint
Speed Over
Ground
In this example, the
Compass Page indicates that
you are traveling in a south
westerly (210 degrees)
direction and the destination
waypoint is north east (69
degrees) of your current
direction of travel.
In this example, the
Compass Page indicates
that you are traveling in an
easterly (91 degrees) direction and the destination
waypoint is south (177
degrees) of your current
direction of travel.
30
The Compass Page provides better steering guidance
than the Highway Page for travel at slower speeds (ex.
walking) and for travel with many directional changes.
The bearing (BRG) and distance (DST) to the waypoint are displayed at the top of the page, below the
destination waypoint name. The distance displayed is
the straight-line distance from your present position to
the destination waypoint. The bearing indicates the
exact compass heading from you to the destination.
The middle of the page features a rotating “compass
ring” that shows your course over ground while you are
moving (track up orientation), with a pointer arrow to
the destination displayed in the center. The arrow
shows the direction of your destination from the direction you are moving. For instance, if the arrow points
up, you are going directly to the waypoint. If the arrow
points any direction (left, right, down, etc.), turn
toward the arrow until it points up. Then continue in
that direction.
The bottom of the page shows your track (TRK),
speed (SPD), and a user-selectable field for ETE, ETA,
CTS, XTK, VMG, or TRN.
When you are one minute away from your destination (based on your current speed and track over
ground), the GPS 48 will alert you with a flashing onscreen message box.
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REFERENCE
Using the Highway Page
Bearing to
Waypoint
Distance to
Waypoint
Track Over
Ground
Speed Over
Ground
Destination
Waypoint
CDI Scale
Graphic
Highway
Highway Page
User Selectable
Field
The GPS 48’s Highway Page provides graphic steering guidance to a destination waypoint, with a greater
emphasis on the straight-line desired course and the
distance and direction you are off course. The bearing
and distance to a waypoint - along with your current
track and speed - are displayed at the top of the screen.
As you head toward your destination, the middle of
the screen provides visual guidance to your waypoint
on a moving graphic “highway.” Your present position
is represented by the diamond in the center of the
course deviation scale. The line down the middle of
the highway represents your desired track. As you navigate toward a waypoint, the highway will actually
move—indicating the direction you’re off course—relative to the position diamond on the CDI scale. When
the highway is pointing straight up the screen, the waypoint is directly ahead. If the destination waypoint is
to the left, the top of the highway will lead to the left,
and vice versa. To stay on course, simply steer in the
direction the highway leads (left or right) until the
highway leads straight up the page.
If you do get off the desired course by more than
1/5th of the selected CDI range, the exact distance you
are off course will be displayed where the CDI scale
setting normally appears. If you get too far off course
(the highway has disappeared), a message box will
appear to indicate what course to steer to get back on
course. (For information on how to set this scale, see
pg. 44.) As you approach a waypoint, a horizontal
“finish line” will move toward the bottom of the highway. When the finish line reaches the CDI scale, you’ve
arrived at your destination.
In this example, the
Highway Page indicates
that you are off course to
the right. Steer left to get
back on course. Notice the
highway always shows the
direction to turn. If the
highway leads straight up
the page, you should continue in your current
direction.
If you get too far off
course, a message box will
appear to indicate what
course to steer to get back
on course most efficiently.
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REFERENCE
Marking a
Position
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Page 32
Marking a Position
The GPS 48 allows you to mark and store up to 500
position as waypoints. A waypoint can be entered by
taking an instant electronic fix, by manually entering
coordinates (pg. 35), or by using the bearing and distance to a known position (pg. 35).
To mark your present position:
1. Press M. The mark position page will appear,
showing the captured position and a default threedigit name.
2. To save a default name and symbol, press E to
confirm the ‘SAVE?’ prompt.
Position Averaging Function
The GPS 48 positioning averaging function will help
reduce the effects of selective availability upon position
error when marking a waypoint.
After initiating the position averaging function, a
Figure of Merit value will
be displayed, and the
‘SAVE?’ field will automatically be highlighted.
1. After you have pressed the M key, highlight the
‘AVERAGE?’ field and press E. The Figure of Merit
(FOM) field will display the value reflecting estimated
accuracy of the averaged position. Note: As the GPS
48 calculates the FOM, it will rapidly change before it
stabilizes on one number.
2. The unit will continue averaging until you have highlighted ‘SAVE?’ and pressed E.
To enter a different waypoint name:
1. Highlight the waypoint name field, and press E.
2. Make the appropriate changes, and press E.
3. Highlight ‘SAVE?’, and press E.
Note: To enter a different waypoint symbol or comment, see pg. 23.
To add this waypoint to a route:
The GPS 48 will save new
waypoints with a default
three-digit name. To add
the waypoint to a route,
enter the desired route
number, highlight ‘SAVE?’
and press ENTER.
32
1. Highlight the ‘Add to route number’ field, and press
E.
2. Enter a route number, press E to confirm the route
number, and E again to save the waypoint.
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Waypoint Pages
The GPS 48 has three waypoint pages that let you
quickly manage up to 500 waypoints. These pages—
nearest waypoints, waypoint list, and waypoint definition—can be accessed through the Menu Page.
REFERENCE
Waypoint Pages
To select a waypoint page:
1. Access the Menu Page, and highlight a waypoint
page option.
2. Press E.
Nearest Waypoints Page
The nearest waypoints page shows the nine nearest
user waypoints that are within 100 miles of your present position, with the bearing and distance noted for
each waypoint. This page will also let you retrieve a
waypoint definition page or GOTO a selected waypoint
right from the list.
To review the waypoint definition page of a
selected waypoint:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint.
To select a waypoint submenu, highlight the
desired option and press
ENTER.
2. Press E.
To return to the nearest waypoint page:
1. Highlight ‘DONE?’.
2. Press E.
To go to a highlighted list waypoint:
1. Highlight the desired waypoint, and press G.
2. Press E.
Waypoint List Page
The waypoint list page provides a complete list of
all waypoints currently stored in the GPS 48 and their
respective waypoint symbols. The total number of
empty and used waypoints is also indicated. From the
waypoint list page, you can retrieve a waypoint definition page, delete all user-defined waypoints, delete
waypoints by symbol, or review and perform a GOTO
to a selected waypoint.
To delete all user-defined waypoints:
Nearest Waypoints
Page
The compass heading
(BRG) and distance
(DST) to the nine nearest
waypoints are updated
continuously.
1. Highlight ‘DELETE WPTS?’, and press E.
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REFERENCE
Proximity
Waypoints
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Page 34
Waypoint List Page (continued)
An options page will appear, asking if you want to
delete all user-defined waypoints or if you want to
delete waypoints by symbol type.
1. Highlight either ‘ALL’ or ‘SYMBOL’, and press E.
If you highlight ‘SYMBOL,’ you’ll be asked to
select a symbol.
1. Select the symbol to be deleted, and press E.
2. Press E to confirm the ‘DONE’ prompt, highlight
the ‘YES?’ prompt, and press E.
Note: This feature is handy for deleting temporary
waypoints created by the TracBack function.
Proximity Waypoints
Deleting waypoints by
symbol enables you to
delete a specific group of
waypoints without losing
all other waypoints.
The GPS 48’s proximity waypoint function warns
you when you are getting too close to hazardous waypoints. This function allows you to create up to nine
proximity waypoints and designate an alarm circle for
each waypoint. If you enter this circle, a warning message will alert you.
To enter a proximity waypoint from the Menu
Page:
1. Highlight ‘PROXIMITY WPTS’ and press E.
2. Highlight the first empty waypoint field and press
E.
3. Use the U or D key to scroll through stored waypoints until the desired waypoint appears.
4. Press E. The distance (DST) field will be automatically highlighted. Enter the desired distance.
5. Press the E key.
Quickly edit proximity
waypoints by highlighting
the waypoint name and
pressing ENTER.
To review or remove a proximity waypoint:
1. Use U and D to select a proximity waypoint and
press E.
2. Highlight ‘REVIEW?’ or ‘REMOVE?’ and press E.
If ‘REVIEW?’ is chosen, the waypoint page will
appear, and you may make any changes to the selected
waypoint. If ‘REMOVE?’ is chosen, the proximity waypoint page will reappear with the waypoint removed.
Press Q or P to return to the Menu Page.
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REFERENCE
Waypoint Definition Page
Waypoint
Name
Position
Coordinates
Reference
Waypoint
Waypoint Comment
Bearing from
Reference
Waypoint
Distance from
Reference
Waypoint
Waypoint
Definition Page
Function Prompts
The waypoint definition page lets you create new
waypoints manually or review and edit an existing
waypoint’s coordinates, symbols, and comments. It is
also used to delete an individual waypoint from memory (see pg. 37). To create a new waypoint manually,
you’ll need to know its position coordinates or its
approximate distance and bearing from an existing
waypoint.
To create a waypoint by entering coordinates:
1. From the waypoint definition page, highlight ‘NEW?’,
and press E.
2. Enter a waypoint name, and press E.
3. Press E to select a waypoint symbol, make your
selection, and press E.
4. Highlight the ‘DONE?’ prompt, and press E to
return to the waypoint page.
5. Highlight the “position” field, enter your position, and
press E.
6. Press E to confirm the ‘DONE?’ prompt.
Reference Waypoints
To create a new waypoint manually without knowing its position coordinates, you’ll need to enter its
bearing and distance from an existing waypoint or your
present position.
To create a new waypoint by referencing a stored
waypoint:
The GPS 48’s advanced
waypoint planning features allow you to create
new waypoints and practice navigation without
ever setting foot outside.
If you create a new waypoint by entering coordinates from a map, you
may want to re-mark the
waypoint’s exact position
once you get there.
To re-define an existing
waypoint’s position coordinates from the waypoint
definition page, simply
highlight the DST field
and press ENTER. Use the
LEFT arrow key to set the
distance to 0.00, and press
ENTER to confirm.
The old coordinates will
be replaced by the coordinates of your present position (you must have a
valid 2D or 3D position
fix).
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REFERENCE
Waypoint
Symbols &
Comments
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Page 36
Reference Waypoints (cont.)
1. From the waypoint definition page, highlight ‘NEW?’, and
press E.
2. Enter a waypoint name, and press E.
3. Highlight the ‘REF’ field, and press E.
4. Enter a reference waypoint name (or leave the field
blank to use your present position), and press E.
5. Enter the bearing and distance of your new waypoint
from the reference waypoint.
6. Press E to confirm the ‘DONE?’ prompt.
Waypoint Symbols
The GPS 48 allows you to select one of 16 symbols
for each waypoint for easy recognition on the map display. From the symbol page, you may also select how the
waypoint appears on the map.
Waypoint symbols enable
you to instantly get more
information about a waypoint than just its name.
To select a waypoint symbol:
1. Highlight the symbol field, and press E.
2. Use the arrow keypad to select the desired symbol, and
press E.
3. The cursor will move to the display field, where you can
select which waypoint information is displayed on the
map.
4. Press E, and select one of the following display
options: ‘NAME WITH SYMBOL’, ‘SYMBOL ONLY,’ or
‘COMMENT WITH SYMBOL’.
5. Press E to confirm your selection, and E again
to confirm the ‘DONE?’ prompt.
Waypoint Comments
The waypoint comment
field will automatically
assign the date and time of
creation to the waypoint
comment field. You may
enter a 16-character user
comment at any time.
36
Each waypoint stored in the GPS 48 has a userdefined 16-character comment field. The default comment is the UTC (or Greenwich mean time) date and
time of the waypoint’s creation.
To change or add a comment:
1. Highlight the comment field.
2. Press E.
Note: You can clear the comment field by pressing
the left side of the rocker keypad.
3. Enter the desired comment.
4. Press E.
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Renaming and Deleting Waypoints
The rename and delete function fields are located
along the bottom side of the waypoint definition page.
To rename a stored waypoint:
1. Highlight ‘RENAME?’, and press E.
REFERENCE
Renaming &
Deleting
Waypoints
2. Enter the new waypoint name, and press E.
3. Press E to confirm the ‘Yes?’ prompt.
To delete a stored waypoint:
1. Highlight ‘DELETE?’, and press E.
2. Highlight the ‘Yes?’ prompt, and press E.
Note: To delete a waypoint that’s part of a route,
first remove the waypoint from the route (see pg. 45),
and then delete it. If you attempt to delete a waypoint
that’s part of a route, you’ll be given a “Route Waypoint
Can’t be Deleted” message.
Scanning Waypoints
As you manually enter a waypoint’s name, the GPS
48’s waypoint scanning feature will automatically display the first numerical or alphabetical match of the
character you have entered to that point. This helps
eliminate the need to always enter a waypoint’s complete name.
You may wish to quickly
save waypoints by pressing MARK and then
ENTER, thus assigning a
default name. You may
then rename the waypoint
at a later date. Any waypoint may be renamed at
any time.
To scan waypoints from a waypoint field:
1. Highlight the waypoint name field, and press E.
2. Press the left side of the keypad to clear the name
field.
3. Scroll through the waypoints.
Note: The GPS 48’s waypoint scanning feature will
offer the first waypoint that matches the character or
characters you have entered up to that point. If you
have more than one waypoint that begins with the
same letter or number, move to the next character position as needed.
4. When you find the desired waypoint, press E.
Scanning waypoints from
the waypoint definition
page gives you instant
access to a specific waypoint’s information.
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REFERENCE
GOTO
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Page 38
Selecting a GOTO Destination
The GPS 48 provides four ways to navigate to a destination: GOTO, MOB, TracBack, and route navigation.
The most basic method of selecting a destination is the
GOTO function, which lets you choose any stored waypoint as the destination and quickly sets a direct course
from your present position.
To activate the GOTO function:
1. Press G.
2. Select the waypoint you want to navigate to, and press
E.
Once a GOTO waypoint has been activated, the
Compass Page or Highway Page will provide steering
guidance to the destination until either the GOTO is
cancelled or the unit has resumed navigating the active
route (see pg 30).
Select a destination waypoint from the GOTO
waypoint list.
To cancel an active GOTO:
1. Press the G key.
2. Highlight ‘CANCEL GOTO?’, and press E.
Man Overboard Function
The GPS 48’s man overboard function (MOB) lets
you simultaneously mark and set a course to a position
for quick response to passing positions.
To activate the MOB mode:
1. Press G twice. The GOTO waypoint page will
appear with ‘MOB’ selected.
2 Press E to begin MOB navigation.
Once the MOB mode has
been activated, steering
guidance will be provided
by the Compass or
Highway Page. Activating
another MOB will overwrite the previous MOB
waypoint.
38
The GPS 48 will now guide you to the MOB waypoint until the MOB GOTO is cancelled. If you want to
save the MOB waypoint, be sure to rename it because it
will be overwritten the next time a MOB is activated.
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TracBack Navigation
GARMIN’s patented TracBack feature allows you to
quickly retrace your path using the track log automatically stored in the receiver. This feature eliminates the
need to mark waypoints along the way and manually
create and activate a route back to where you began
your trip. Three track recording options are available:
Off—no plot will be recorded.
Fill—a track plot will be recorded until track memory is full.
Wrap—a track plot will be continuously recorded,
wrapping through the available memory (replacing
the oldest data with new data).
REFERENCE
TracBack
Navigation
To select a track log option:
1. Highlight the ‘RECORD’ field, press E, select an
option, and press E.
Once a TracBack route is activated, it will lead you
back to the oldest track log point stored in memory, so
it’s usually a good idea to clear the existing track log at
the start of each trip.
To clear the track log and define a starting point
for a TracBack route:
WARNING:
Setting the track recording to OFF will disable
the TracBack function.
1. From the Map Page, press E, highlight the ‘TRACK
SETUP’ option, and press E.
2. Highlight ‘CLEAR LOG?’, press E, highlight ‘Yes?’,
and press E.
To activate a TracBack route:
1. Press G, highlight ‘TRACBACK?’, and press E.
Once the TracBack function has been activated, the
GPS 48 will take the track log currently stored in memory and divide it into segments called legs. Up to 30
temporary waypoints will be created to mark the most
significant features of the track log in order to duplicate
your exact path as closely as possible. These points will
be indicated by a ‘T001’ number on the waypoint list,
and by a ‘T’ symbol on the Map Page.
The active route page will appear, showing a route
from your present position to the oldest track log point
in memory. Steering guidance to each waypoint will be
provided back to the starting point of your track log. Note:
You may delete a TracBack waypoint from a route, but
only if the route is not active.
To begin navigation of a
TracBack route, highlight
the ‘TracBack?’ prompt
and press enter.
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REFERENCE
Tips on
TrackBack
Navigation
The track log will be
divided into segments with
temporary waypoints to
create a route back to the
beginning of the track log.
The TracBack function
allows you to navigate
your track log back to the
oldest track point in
memory.
40
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Page 40
Tips On the TracBack Feature
• Always clear your track log at the exact point that
you want to go back to (trail head, truck, etc.).
• The ‘RECORD’ option on the track log setup page
can be set to either the ‘WRAP’ or ‘FILL’ positions.
• There must be at least two track log points stored
in memory to create a TracBack route.
• If there are not enough available waypoints in
memory to create a TracBack route, you will be
alerted with a ‘waypoint memory full’ message, and
the receiver will use any available waypoints to create a TracBack route with an emphasis on the track
log closest to the destination (the oldest track log
point in memory).
• If the ‘METHOD’ option on the track log setup
page is set to a time interval, the TracBack route
may not follow your exact path. (Keeping the
criteria set to automatic will always provide the
most detailed TracBack route.)
• If the receiver is turned off or you lose satellite coverage during your trip, the TracBack route will simply draw a straight line between any point where
coverage was lost and where it resumed.
• If the changes in direction and distance of your
track log are complex, 30 waypoints may not be
enough to accurately mark your exact path. The
receiver will then assign the 30 waypoints to the
most significant points of your track, and simplify
segments with fewer changes in direction.
• To save a TracBack route, copy route 0 to an open
storage route before activating another TracBack.
Activating another TracBack or storage route will
overwrite the existing TracBack route.
• Whenever a TracBack route is activated, the receiver will automatically erase any temporary waypoints that are not contained in routes 1-19. If
there are temporary waypoints stored in routes 119, the receiver will create any new temporary waypoints using the first three-digit number available.
(You can also quickly delete all temporary TracBack
waypoints in memory by using the ‘DELETE BY
SYMBOL’ method described on pg. 19.)
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REFERENCE
Route Navigation
The last form of navigating to a destination with
the GPS 48 is by creating a user-defined route. The
route navigation feature lets you plan and navigate a
course from one place to another using a set of predefined waypoints. Routes are often used when it’s not
practical, safe, or possible to navigate a direct course to
a particular destination (e.g., through a body of water
or impassable terrain).
Routes
ä
Waypoint 2
“Active Leg”
(“active to” waypoint)
ä
ä
}
ä
Waypoint 1
(“active from” waypoint)
Routes are broken down and navigated in smaller
segments called “legs”. The waypoint you are going to
in a leg is called the “active to” waypoint and the waypoint immediately behind you is called the “active
from” waypoint. The line between the “active to” and
the “active from” waypoint is called the “active leg”.
Whenever you activate a route with the GPS 48, it
will automatically select the route leg closest to your
position as the active leg. As you pass each waypoint in
the route, the receiver will automatically sequence and
select the next waypoint as the “active to” waypoint.
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Route Definition
Page
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Page 42
Route Definition Page
Route
Number
Comment
Field
Leg Distance
Desired
Track of Leg
Total
Distance
Copy Field
Function Prompts
Routes enable you to store
and use groups of frequently used waypoints
together.
The GPS 48 lets you create and store up to 20
routes of 30 waypoints each.
The bottom of the route definition page features
several ‘function’ fields which let you copy, clear, invert,
or activate the displayed route. Routes 1-19 are used as
storage routes, with route 0 always serving as the active
route you are navigating. If you want to save a route
that’s currently in route 0, be sure to copy it to another
open route, as it will be overwritten by the next route
activation.
Routes can be copied, cleared, inverted, and activated through the route definition page.
To select the route definition page:
1. Highlight ‘ROUTES’ from the Menu Page, and press
E.
Enter each waypoint in
the order you would like to
navigate them. If you
enter a waypoint not
stored in memory, you’ll
need to define the position
on the waypoint definition
page.
42
The ‘route number’ field is displayed at the top of
the page, with a 16-character ‘user comment’ field to
the right. If no user comment is entered, the field displays the first and last waypoint in the route. The waypoint list on the left side of the page accepts up to 30
waypoints for each route, with fields for desired track
and distance between legs. The total route distance is
indicated below the waypoint list.
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Creating and Navigating Routes
REFERENCE
To create a route from the route definition page:
1. Highlight the ‘ROUTE:’ field, and press E.
2. Enter a route number, and press E. (Only open
routes will be available.)
Creating &
Navigating
Routes
3. Press E to begin entry of a route comment.
4. Enter your comment, and press the E key.
5. Enter the first waypoint of your route, and press
E. As you continue entering the rest of your
waypoints, the list will automatically scroll down.
Whenever you activate a route, it will automatically
select the route leg closest to your position as the active
leg. As you pass each waypoint in the route, the
receiver will automatically sequence and select the next
waypoint as the active to waypoint.
Activating and Inverting Routes
After a route has been entered, it can be either activated in sequence or inverted from the route definition
page. The process of activating or inverting a stored
route takes a storage route (routes 1-19) and copies it
into the active route (route 0) for navigation. The storage route is now no longer needed and will be retained
in its original format under its existing route number.
This system allows you to have an active route that
you may edit during navigation and save as an entirely
new route from the original. You will have to copy the
active route to an unused storage route to save it, since
new route or TracBack activation overwrites route 0.
You may use up to 16
characters to custom
name a route. The default
name will be the first and
last waypoint in the route.
To activate a route:
1. From the route definition page, highlight the ‘ROUTE:’
field.
2. Enter the route number to be activated, and press
E.
To activate a route, highlight the ‘ACT?’ prompt
and press ENTER.
3. Highlight ‘ACT?’, and press E.
To activate a route in inverted order:
1. Follow the steps above, but select ‘INV?’, and press
E.
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Active Route
Page
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Page 44
Active Route Page
Once a route has been activated, the active route
page will display the waypoint sequence of your route
with the estimated time enroute (ETE) at your present
speed and the distance to each waypoint. As long as you
are navigating an active route, the active route page will
become part of the main page sequence of the unit. The
active route page will also allow you to change the ‘ETE’
field to display desired track (DTK) or estimated time of
arrival (ETA) for each leg. You can also clear or invert
the active route.
To display DTK or ETA for each leg:
1. Highlight ‘ETE’, and press E.
2. Select ‘DTK’ or ‘ETA’, and press E.
The active route page also allows you to clear (stop
navigating) or invert the active route without using the
route definition page.
Active Route Page
Whenever you have an
active route, the active
route page will appear in
the
primary
page
sequence after the
Compass/Highway Page.
To invert a route from the active route page:
1. Highlight ‘INV?’, and press E.
To stop route navigation:
1. Select ‘CLR?’, and press E.
Copying and Clearing Routes
The route definition page is also used to copy a route
to another route number. This feature is useful when you
make changes to the active (or TracBack) route and want
to save the route in its modified form for future use.
To copy a route:
1. Highlight the ‘route number’ field, and press E.
2. Select the route number to be copied, and press E.
3. Highlight the ‘COPY TO’ field, and press E.
To copy a route, select an
open storage route and
press the ENTER key. If
you select a route that is
already used, you’ll be
alerted with a ‘Route Full’
message.
44
4. Scroll through the available routes and select a destination route number. (Only open routes will be available.)
Press E to copy the route.
To clear a route from memory:
1. Highlight the ‘ROUTE:’ field, and press E.
2. Enter the route number, and press E.
3. Select ‘CLR?’, and press E.
4. Highlight ‘Yes?’, and press E.
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Editing Routes
REFERENCE
A route can be edited any time after its creation.
To edit a route from the active route page or
the route definition page:
1. Select the waypoint you want to edit, and press E.
An on-screen menu of editing choices will appear,
with options for reviewing, inserting, deleting, or
changing the waypoint field highlighted. This field contains the following options:
• Review?— reviews the waypoint’s definition
page.
• Insert?— adds a new waypoint that precedes the
selected waypoint.
• Remove?— deletes a selected waypoint.
• Change?— replaces the selected waypoint with a
new waypoint.
You may delete a waypoint from a route, but only if
the route is not active. Note: Editing the original storage
route will not affect route 0. If you want to save an edited version of route 0, save it to an open storage route.
Editing Routes
& On Route
GOTO
Use the on-screen menu to
select the desired editing
function.
On-Route GOTOs
At the beginning of this section, we mentioned that
the GPS 48 will automatically select the route leg closest
to your position as the active leg. This will give you
steering guidance to the desired track of the active leg.
Note that the first waypoint selected as the destination
waypoint will be the route leg closest to your present
position. This may mean you’re not navigating to the
first waypoint in the active route—you may be navigating to the last. If you prefer to navigate a route out of
sequence, you can perform an “on-route GOTO” from
the active route page.
To perform an “on-route GOTO” from the active
route page:
1. Highlight the desired route waypoint, and press G.
2. Once the GOTO waypoint page appears with the waypoint highlighted, press E.
Note that after you reach the on-route GOTO waypoint, the GPS 48 will automatically resume navigating
the rest of the route in sequence using the page you
were on before performing a GOTO.
To edit or review a route
waypoint from the active
route page, highlight the
desired waypoint and
press ENTER.
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REFERENCE
Menu Page
Menu Page
&
System Setup
The GPS 48’s Menu Page provides access to additional pages (submenus) that are used to select and customize operation and navigation setup. These eight
pages are divided into categories by function. We’ve
already gone over the waypoint and route management
pages in their respective sections. Let’s review the rest
of these pages in the order they appear on the Menu
Page.
To select a submenu page from the Menu Page:
1. Highlight the page, and press E.
2. To return to the Menu Page, press Q.
Distance and Sun Calculations
The Menu Page allows the
user quick access to the
units setup pages.
The distance and sun calculation page will give you
the distance and bearing between any two waypoints or
between your present position and a waypoint. It will
also calculate the sunrise and sunset (in local time) for a
particular date at either your present position or any
stored waypoint.
To perform a distance and sun calculation:
1. Highlight the ‘FROM’ field, enter the desired waypoint,
and press E.
2. Highlight the ‘TO’ field, enter the destination waypoint,
and press E.
3. The ‘DATE’ field will become highlighted. Enter the
date you’ll arrive at your destination, and press E.
If you haven’t marked your present position as a
waypoint or you leave the ‘TO’ field blank, the sunrise
and sunset at your present position will be shown.
Setup Menu
The setup menu allows the user to access the units
system, navigation, interface and alarms setup pages.
The GPS 48 will calculate
the sunrise and sunset
times of any stored waypoint or your present position. To calculate, enter
the date and year and
press ENTER.
46
System Setup
The system setup page is used to select the operating mode, time offset, and screen preferences. The GPS
48 has two operating modes:
• Normal Mode operates the unit at maximum
performance, and provides battery life of up to 12
hours on alkaline batteries.
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System Setup (cont)
• Simulator Mode allows you to operate the unit
without acquiring satellites, and is ideal for practicing or entering waypoints and routes while at
home.
REFERENCE
Date and Time
Setup
To select an operating mode:
1. Highlight the ‘MODE’ field, and press E.
2. Select a mode, and press E.
Date and Time Setup
The date and time is located directly below the
mode field. Note: Date and time information is derived
from the GPS satellites and cannot be changed by the
user. Because the time shown is UTC (Greenwich
mean time) time, you will need to enter a time offset to
display the correct local time for your area. To determine the time offset for your area, note your position
and refer to the chart in Appendix C.
To enter the time offset:
1. Highlight the ‘OFFSET’ field, and press E.
2. Enter the time offset, and press E.
The GPS 48’s two operating modes are accessed
through the system setup
submenu.
Note: Move the cursor to the left to change the plus
or minus sign.
Time Format
The time display shown on the system setup and
Position Pages may be set to display the time in a 12or 24-hour format.
To select the time format:
1. Highlight the ‘HOURS’ field, and press E.
2. Select 12- or 24-hour display, and press E.
To display the correct
local time, you must enter
the appropriate offset
from the chart at the end
of Appendix B.
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REFERENCE
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Page 48
Screen Contrast
Screen Contrast,
Backlight Timer,
Tone
The GPS 48 has adjustable screen contrast controlled by an on-screen bar scale.
To set the screen contrast:
1. Highlight the ‘CONTRAST’ field, and press E.
The “Stay On” setting will
keep your backlighting on
continuously. However,
this will significantly
reduce your battery life.
2. Adjust the bar scale to the desired contrast, and press
E.
Note: The screen contrast can also be adjusted by
pressing the rocker keypad while on the Satellite Page
(see pg. 11).
Backlighting Timer
The screen backlight timer is adjustable for 15, 30,
60, 120, or 240 seconds. The timer also may be set to
the ‘Stay On’ setting for continuous use. Whenever
backlighting is on, a bulb icon will appear on the
Satellite Page.
To set the backlight timer:
1. Highlight the ‘light timeout’ field, and press E.
2. Select the desired setting, and press E.
3. To turn lighting on and off, press the B briefly.
The tone setting has three
options to customize it to
your preference.
Tone Setting
The GPS 48 allows you to choose a tone for messages only, messages and keystrokes, or no tone setting
at all.
To set the tone:
1. Highlight the ‘TONE’ field and press the E key.
48
2. Select the desired setting and press E.
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Navigation Setup
The navigation setup submenu page is used to
select units of measurement for position formats, map
datums, CDI scale, units, and heading, and speed filter
information.
Position Formats
REFERENCE
Navigation
Setup &
User Grid
The default position format for the GPS 48 is latitude and longitude in degrees and minutes
(hdddºmm.mmm’). You may also select degrees, minutes and seconds (hdddºmm’ss.s’’); degrees only
(hddd.dddddº); UTM/UPS coordinates; or British,
German, Irish, Maidenhead, Swedish, Swiss, or Taiwan,
or User grid formats.
To select a position format:
1. Highlight the ‘POSITION FRMT’ field, and press E.
Select the desired setting, and press E.
User Grid Position Format
The user grid option lets you create a user defined
position format by establishing factors such as longitude of origin, scale, and false Easting or Northing.
To define a user grid:
The position format may
be set to display your
choice of many formats.
Note: degree and minutes
is the default setting.
1. Select ‘User Grid’, and press E. Enter values for
longitude origin, scale, and false Easting and
Northing, and press E. Highlight ‘SAVE?’, and
press E.
Map Datums
The ‘MAP DATUM’ field comes with a WGS 84
default setting. Although 106 total map datums are
available for use (see Appendix D for map datums),
you should only change the datum if you are using
maps or charts that specify a different datum than
WGS 84.
The default map datum
covers world-wide navigation. However, if you are
using a paper map or
chart which uses a different map datum than WGS
84, then you may wish to
switch to that datum.
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REFERENCE
Map Datums,
CDI, Units &
Heading
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Page 50
Map Datums (continued)
To select a map datum:
1. Highlight the ‘MAP DATUM’ field, and press E.
2. Select the desired setting, and press E.
To define a user datum:
1. Highlight the ‘MAP DATUM’ field, and press E.
2. Scroll through the map datum options until ‘User’
appears, and press E.
3. Enter values for ‘DX’, ‘DY’, ‘DZ’, ‘DA’, and ‘DF’ using the
rocker keypad, and press E.
4. Highlight ‘SAVE?’, and press E. The setup menu
will reappear.
CDI Scale Settings
The user datum feature
allows you to define the
earth model used to calculate position coordinates.
WARNING: Incorrect
entries may result in substantial position errors.
The course deviation indicator (CDI) field lets you
select the +/- range of the CDI bar scale on the Highway
Page. Three scales are available: +/- 0.25 (default),
1.25, and 5.0 miles or kilometers. Note: This CDI value
represents the full deflection of scale to either side.
To enter a CDI scale setting:
1. Highlight the ‘CDI SCALE’ field, and press E.
2. Select the desired setting, and press E.
Units of Measure
The GPS 48 lets you select statute (default), nautical, or metric units of measure for all “speed” and “distance” fields.
To change the unit of measure:
1. Highlight the ‘UNITS’ field, and press E.
2. Select the desired unit of measure, and press E.
Magnetic Heading Reference
Three different units of
measure allow you to
select the correct unit for
your area or use.
50
The GPS 48’s heading information can be displayed
referencing magnetic north (automatic or user-defined),
true north, or calculated grid headings. The default setting is automatic magnetic north, which is suitable for
most applications. The heading units can be configured
to display in degrees or mils.
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Magnetic Heading Reference (cont)
To select a heading reference:
1. Highlight the ‘HEADING’ field, and press E.
REFERENCE
Speed Filter
2. Select the desired heading preference, and press
E.
To enter a user-defined magnetic heading:
.
1. Select ‘User Mag’ and press E.
2. Enter the degrees and direction of magnetic variation,
and press E.
To select heading units for display:
.
1. Highlight the present unit selection and press E.
2.Select the desired units and press E.
Speed Filter
The speed filter allows you to determine how the
GPS48 responds to changes in track or ground speed.
Three settings are available: automatic, on, or off. The
‘Auto’ setting is the default and will monitor changes in
your current track and speed and adjust the receiver’s
response time up to 255 seconds. Selecting a higher
setting may be desirable in slow–speed applications
with frequent changes in track.
To enter a user-defined
magnetic variation, select
the ‘User Mag’ option and
enter the desired direction
and value.
To enter a value for the speed filter:
1. Highlight the ‘SPEED FILTER” field and press E.
2. Select the ‘ON’ option and press E.
3. Highlight the “speed value” field and press E.
4. Press the E key to confirm the selection.
The speed filter smooths
the speed reading in rough
waters or any environment where there are
rapid speed fluctuations.
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REFERENCE
Interface Setup
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Interface Setup
The GPS 48’s interface page lets you specify the formats for connecting external devices. There are six
options: GRMN/GRMN, None/None, RTCM/None,
RTCM/NMEA, NMEA/NMEA, and None/NMEA. Each
option lists the input format first, followed by the output
format.
To select I/O format:
1. Highlight the I/O field, and press E.
2. Select the desired setting, and press E.
The GRMN/GRMN setting is a proprietary format
that lets you exchange information such as waypoints,
routes, and track logs between two GARMIN GPS units
or a GARMIN GPS and a PC. There are eight data transfer options: send alm, send wpt, send trk, send rte,
request alm, request wpt, request trk, request rte.
To select a transfer option:
Choose an interface
option based upon what
equipment you are using
to transfer information.
1. Highlight ‘HOST’, and press E.
2. Select a desired setting, and press E.
To disable all interfacing capabilities, select the
None/None setting. If you want to output NMEA data
without any differential input capability, select
‘None/NMEA. Once a NMEA output setting has been
selected, the NMEA field will become highlighted. NMEA
formats 0180, 0183 or 0183 (1.5 or 2.0) are available.
The data transfer rate can be set to 130, 300, 600, 1200,
2400, 4800 or 9600 baud.
DGPS Interface
Once the RTCM option is
selected the GPS 48 will
automatically tune itself
or display a default frequency.
52
The last two format settings allow the differentialready GPS 48 to accept RTCM DGPS corrections in
RTCM 104 version 2.0 format. Using DGPS corrections
will improve receiver accuracy to 1-5 meters, regardless
of errors induced by the government’s Selective
Availability (SA) program. Two RTCM options are available: RTCM/NONE, which allows connection to a beacon
receiver with no output capability; and RTCM/NMEA,
which allows DGPS input and NMEA output.
Once a RTCM setting has been selected, the GPS 48
will either automatically try to tune the last frequency
and bit rate you selected or will switch to the default frequency of 304.0 kHz with a bit rate of 100 bps if no previous beacon has been tuned. You may also enter your
own frequency and bit rate if desired.
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DGPS Interface (cont)
To enter a DGPS beacon frequency:
1. Highlight the ‘FREQ’ field, and press E.
2. Enter the desired frequency, and press E.
REFERENCE
DGPS Interface
3. Highlight the ‘RATE’ field, and press E.
4. Select the desired transmission rate, and press
E.
When the GPS 48 is receiving DGPS corrections
from the GBR 21, the ‘BEACON RECVR’ section of the
I/O setup page will display the beacon frequency and
signal strength, as well as the distance from the transmitter to the beacon receiver. At the bottom of the
beacon receiver field, a status message will keep you
informed of DGPS activity:
• A ‘Tuning’ message will be displayed while a beacon signal is being tuned.
• Once the beacon signal has been tuned, a
‘Receiving’ message will be displayed.
• If a beacon signal is tuned and no corrections are
being received, a ‘No Data’ message will be displayed.
• If a beacon signal cannot be tuned, a ‘No Status’
message will be displayed.
The message page will alert you to any problems
relating to DGPS operation. You may also monitor the
DGPS status from the status field on the interface page.
The GPS 48 will display one of three alert messages
concerning DGPS operation:
No DGPS Position— there is not enough data
available to compute a DGPS position.
No RTCM Input— the beacon receiver is not
properly connected or the baud rates do not
match.
RTCM Input Failed— DGPS data was being
received but has been lost.
The selectable baud rate is
available for all RTCM
interface options.
Alert messages will signal
any problems with DGPS
operation.
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Alarms Setup
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Alarms Setup
The alarms setup page is used to set the three alarms
available on the GPS 48: the anchor drag alarm, arrival
alarm, and CDI alarm.
The anchor drag alarm will alert you if your boat has
moved outside a range measured from a central point
(your position). The arrival alarm will alert you when you
are approaching a waypoint and have reached the user
defined distance. The CDI alarm will alert you when your
track varies from the shortest distance to a waypoint by
the defined range.
Setting the alarm to off, on or auto:
1.Move the highlight to “ALARMS SETUP’ and press E.
2. Highlight the off/on/auto field for the desired alarm and
press E.
3. Change to the desired setting and press E.
To activate an alarm select
‘ON’ in the setup menu.
Off – No alarm will occur.
On – The alarm will occur at the distance specified
Auto The alarm will occur automatically at a distance determined by the GPS.
To set the alarms:
1.Move the highlight to “ALARMS SETUP’ and press E.
2. Select the desired alarm distance field and press E.
3. Enter the distance for the alarm and press E.
Note: The arrival and CDI alarms may be set from 0.0
to 9.9 units. The anchor drag alarm may be set up to
9.99 distance units.
The anchor drag alarm
will sound if you drift more
than the specified distance
setting.
54
#
!
When setting the anchor alarm, remember that
Selective Availability can degrade your GPS position by as much as 100 meters and may cause
false anchor drag alerts
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Language Setup
The GPS 48 offers nine different language selections:
English, Danish, French, German, Italian, Spanish,
Swedish, Portuguese and Norwegian.
To select a language:
REFERENCE
Find City
Function
1. From the Setup menu highlight ‘LANGUAGE’ and press
E.
2. Highlight the desired language and press E.
Using the Find City Function
The Find City function lets you search the city database for a city, by spelling the city name.
To search for a city by name:
1. Highlight the ‘CITY NAME’ field and press E.
2. Input the city name to search and press E.
If the city name includes a space, it is necessary to
select a blank in the appropriate places while spelling the
city name.
The latitude and longitude of the city location will be
displayed along with a bearing and distance from either
the current GPS position or a reference waypoint.
To view the city location on the map:
1. Highlight ‘SHOW MAP’ and press E.
After the search is complete the map will display the
city you selected at the crosshair on the the map.
Note: The city location may not be visible if the map
is zoomed to a large scale. To view the city location
lower the map zoom scale.
Garmin’s exclusive Find
City function allows the
user to search for a city by
spelling the city name.
To quickly scroll through
duplicate city locations
continue pressing the up
or down arrow for the
next city/state/region.
To return the map to the current GPS location:
1. Press the Q key.
To GOTO the city location from the map:
1. Press the G key.
2. Press the E key to activate the GOTO.
.To GOTO the city location from the find city page:
1. Highlight ‘GOTO’ at the bottom of the find city page and
press E.
2. Press
Eto confirm the GOTO.
If you GOTO a city location from the map or find
city page, a user waypoint will be created and added to
the user waypoint list using an abbreviated spelling of
the city name.
To GOTO a city
location highlight
GOTO at the bottom of the find city
page and press
ENTER.
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Navigation
Simulator
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Navigation Simulator
The GPS 48’s simulator mode lets you practice all
aspects of its operation without active satellite acquisition. You can plan and practice trips, enter new waypoints and routes, and save them for use during normal
operation.
To activate the simulator:
1. From the Menu Page, highlight ‘SYSTEM SETUP’, and
press E.
2. Highlight the ‘MODE’ field, and press E.
3. Select ‘Simulator?’, and press E.
Once the simulator mode has been activated, use
the Position, Compass, or Highway Page to set your
speed and track by highlighting the appropriate field,
entering the desired value, and pressing E. You
may also enter a new position if you desire (from the
Position Page).
Select the simulator mode
from the operation mode
choices and press ENTER.
You may return to normal
operation by changing the
operation mode or by
turning the unit off.
56
Note: You must enter a speed for all fields in the
GPS 48 to function.
The GPS 48 does not track satellites in simulator mode. Although you can create and save
waypoints and routes while using the simulator
mode, never attempt to use the simulator mode
for actual navigation.
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Appendix A
Never attempt any repairs yourself. To protect your GPS 48,
keep it in its carrying case when not in use, and never allow
gasoline or other solvents to come into contact with the case.
Clean the case and lens with a soft cloth and a household window cleaner.
Specifications &
Wiring
PHYSICAL
Case:
Water proof rated to IEC 529 IPX4 standards.
Size:
6.15”H x 2”W x 1.23” D (15.6 x 5.1 x 1.23 cm)
Weight:
Approx 9.5 ounces (269g) w/ batteries
Temperature Range:
5º to 158ºF (-15º to 70ºC)
PERFORMANCE
Receiver:
12 parallel channel, differential-ready
Acquisition Time:
Approx. 15 seconds (warm start)
Approx. 45 seconds (cold start)
Approx. 5 minutes (AutoLocateTM)
Update Rate:
Position Accuracy:
1/second, continuous
1-5 meters (3-17 ft.) with DGPS corrections*
15 meters (49 ft.) RMS**
Velocity Accuracy:
0.1 knot RMS steady state
Dynamics:
6g
POWER
Input:
Four 1.5 volt AA batteries or 10-32 vDC
Power Consumption: 1 watt
Battery Life:
Up to 24 hours (with 4 AA batteries)
Internal Backup:
lithium battery
NOTE: Alkaline batteries lose a significant amount of their capacity as temperature decreases. If you’re using the GPS 48 in below freezing temperatures, use lithium batteries
for longer battery life. Extensive use of screen backlighting will significantly reduce
battery life.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
*With optional DGPS Input.
** Subject to accuracy degradation to 100m 2DRMS under the US DOD-imposed Selective
Availability Program.
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APPENDIX A
unit view
Specifications &
Wiring
DATA IN
(WHITE)
POWER
(RED)
GROUND
(BLACK)
DATA OUT
(BROWN)
Three optional cables are available to connect the GPS 48 to an external power
source or interface with another unit or PC:
• Cigarette Lighter Adapter— Allows connection to a 12-volt DC cigarette
lighter plug. Part No. 010-10085-00.
• Data Transfer Cable— Allows data transfer between GARMIN GPS units. The
GPS 48 is compatible with the following units: GPS 12/12XL/ 38/40/45/45XL,
GPS II/II plus and the GPS III. Information that can be transferred includes
the almanac, waypoints, routes, and tracklog. However, waypoint symbols are
only transferrable from or to units that support waypoint symbols.
• PC Kit Interface Cable— PC interface cable with 9-pin ‘D’ serial data connector. Part No. 010-10141-00.
The following interface formats are supported by the GPS 48 for driving three
NMEA devices:
NMEA 0180
NMEA 0182
Approved sentences:
NMEA 0183 version 1.5
GPGGA, GPGSA, GPGSV,
GPRMB, GPRMC, GPRTE,
GPWPL
Proprietary sentences:
Approved sentences:
GPRMB, GPRMC, GPWPL
Proprietary sentences:
PGRMM (map datum),
PGRMZ (altitude)
PSLIB (beacon rec. control)
58
NMEA 0183 version 2.0
PGRME (estimated error),
PGRMM (map datum), PSLIB
(beacon receiver control)
DGPS corrections are accepted on
RTCM-104 v. 2.1 format.
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Appendix A
Battery Installation
The GPS 48 operates on 4 AA alkaline batteries (included), which are installed in the base of the unit. These batBattery
teries provide up to 24 hours of continuous use.
Rechargeable NiCad or lithium batteries may also be used.
Installation
Battery life will vary due to a variety of factors, including
temperatue and use of screen bacdklighting. Lithium batteries will provide longer life in colder conditions. The GPS 48 also features an
internal 10-year lithium battery which retains your data while changing the AA
batteries or when stored with nearly depleted AA batteries
#
!
Note: The on-screen battery level indicator is calibrated for alkaline batteries, and will not be accurate when using NiCad or
lithium batteries.
To install the batteries:
1. Flip up the metal D-ring at
the base of the unit, and
turn the ring 1/4 turn
counterclockwise. Open
the comparment door to
access the batteries.
2. Install the batteries and close the comparment door. When replacing the
GPS 48 batteries, observe the polarity markings engraved in the plastic
case. (The indicated polarity represents which end of the battery should
be viewable when the compartment door is opened.)
3. Lock the comparment door in the closed position by turning the D-ring 1/4
turn clockwise.
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Appendix A
When creating new waypoints using Loran TD coordinates you
muset set the correct loran chain number and secondary stations in the Setup TD field before storing the waypoint. After
the waypoint is stored in unit memory, it will always reference
Loran TD
the loran chain number and secondary stations currently
Position Format selected in the Setup TD field. If you enter a different loran
chain number or change the secondary stations in the Setup
TD field, the active waypoint information will frflect those
changes. Since the GPS 48 does not rely on the loran signal for navigation, it can reference a different GRI chain and/or secondary stations and still navigate to the location
stored in memory.
To change the Setup TD settings:
1. Highlight the ‘Position Frmt’ field on the navigation setup menu, and press
E. Select LORAN TD, and press E.
2. Select the field to change, and press E.
3. Highlight the new setting, and press E.
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The GPS 48 uses a flashing on-screen message indicator to alert you to important information. Whenever the
message indicator appears, press PAGE to view the message page. There are two types of messages: temporary
alerts and condition alerts. Temporary alerts are cleared
from the message page after viewing, while condition
alerts remain until the condition has been resolved. Pay
careful attention to all messages for your own safety.
APPENDIX B
Messages &
Time Offsets
Active WPT Can’t be Deleted—You have attempted to change the “active to” or “active from”
waypoint. Clear the active route or GOTO before making your changes.
Accuracy has been Degraded—The accuracy of the GPS 48 has been degraded beyond 500
meters due to poor satellite geometry or data quality. You should check other navigational
sources to verify the position indicated.
Already Exists—The name you are entering already exists in the GPS 48’s memory.
Approaching—You are one minute away from reaching a destination waypoint.
Battery Power is Low—The batteries are low and should be replaced.
No DGPS Position—Not enough data is available to compute a DGPS position.
No RTCM Input—Beacon receiver is improperly connected or baud rates do not match.
Poor GPS Coverage—The GPS 48 cannot acquire the necessary number of satellites to compute a position. Try another location with a clearer view of the sky.
Power Down and Re-init—The GPS 48 is not able to calculate a position due to abnormal
satellite conditions. Turn the unit off and verify the last position shown by other means. Try the
unit again later, possibly in a different location.
PROX Alarm—You have entered the alarm circle for a specific proximity waypoint.
Proximity Overlapped—The alarm circles of two proximity waypoints overlap which could
cause difficulty in monitoring distances to each waypoint.
Proximity Wpt can’t be Deleted—The waypoint you are trying to delete is listed as a proximity waypoint and must be removed from the list before it can be deleted.
Read Only Mem has Failed—The permanent memory has failed and the unit is not operable.
Received an Invalid WPT—A waypoint was received during upload transfer that has an
invalid identifier.
Receiver has Failed—A failure in receiver hardware has been detected. If this message persists,
do not use the unit and take it to an authorized dealer for repair.
Route is Full—You have attempted to add more than 30 waypoints to a route.
Route is not Empty—You have attempted to copy into a route already in use.
Route Waypoint Can’t be Deleted—The waypoint you are trying to delete is part of a route.
Delete the waypoint from the route before removing it from memory.
Route Waypoint was Deleted—A route waypoint entered does not exist in the database and
has been deleted from the route
61
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APPENDIX B
Messages &
Time Offsets
RTCM Input has Failed—DGPS data being received has been lost. You are no longer receiving the beacon signal.
Searching the Sky—The GPS 48 is in searching the sky for almanac data or the unit is in
AutoLocateTM mode.
Stored Data was Lost—All waypoints, routes, time and almanac data has been lost due to
battery failure or clearing the receiver’s memory.
Track Memory is Full—All track log points in memory have been used. You must either
delete the current tracklog or switch the record option to ‘WRAP’ which will begin erasing the
oldest tracklog points as new ones are added.
Transfer has been Completed—The receiver is finished uploading or downloading information to the connected device.
WPT Memory is Full—You have used all 500 waypoints in the GPS 48. Delete unwanted
waypoints to make room for new entries.
Time Offset Chart
The table below gives approximate UTC time offset for various longitudinal
zones. If you are in daylight savings time, add one hour to the offset.
62
Longitudinal Zone
Offset
Longitudinal Zone
Offset
W180.0º to W172.5º
-12
E007.5º to E022.5º
+1
W172.5º to W157.5º
-11
E022.5º to E037.5º
+2
W157.5º to W142.5º
-10
E037.5º to E052.5º
+3
W142.5º to W127.5º
-9
E052.5º to E067.5º
+4
W127.5º to W112.5º
-8
E067.5º to E082.5º
+5
W112.5º to W097.5º
-7
E082.5º to E097.5º
+6
W097.5º to W082.5º
-6
E097.5º to E112.5º
+7
W082.5º to W067.5º
-5
E112.5º to E127.5º
+8
W067.5º to W052.5º
-4
E127.5º to E142.5º
+9
W052.5º to W037.5º
-3
E142.5º to E157.5º
+10
W037.5º to W022.5º
-2
E157.5º to E172.5º
+11
W022.5º to W007.5º
-1
E172.5º to E180.0º
+12
W007.5º to E007.5º
0
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APPENDIX C
The following list shows the map datums available for
the GPS 48. Menu abbreviations are listed first, followed
by the corresponding map datum name and area. The
default map datum for the GPS 48 is WGS 84.
Adindan
Afgooye
AIN EL ABD ‘70
Anna 1 Ast ‘65
ARC 1950
ARC 1960
Ascnsn Isld ‘58
Astro B4 Sorol
Astro Bcn “E”
Astro Dos 71/4
Astr Stn ‘52
Astrln Geod ‘66
Astrln Geod ‘84
Austria
Bellevue (IGN)
Bermuda 1957
Bogata Observ
Campo Inchspe
Canton Ast ‘66
Cape
Cape Canavrl
Carthage
CH-1903
Chatham 1971
Chua Astro
Corrego Alegr
Djakarta
Dos 1968
Adindan- Ethiopia, Mali,
Senegal, Sudan
Afgooye- Somalia
AIN EL ANBD 1970- Bahrain
Island, Saudi Arabia
Anna 1 Astro ‘65- Cocos Isl.
ARC 1950- Botswana,
Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
ARC 1960- Kenya, Tanzania
Ascension Island ‘58Ascension Island
Astro B4 Sorol Atoll- Tern
Island
Astro Beacon “E”- Iwo Jima
Astro Dos 71/4- St. Helena
Astronomic Stn ‘52- Marcus
Island
Australian Geod ‘66Australia, Tasmania Island
Australian Geod ‘84Australia, Tasmania Island
Austria
Efate and Erromango Islands
Bermuda 1957- Bermuda
Islands
Bogata Obsrvatry- Colombia
Campo Inchauspe- Argentina
Canton Astro 1966- Phoenix
Islands
Cape- South Africa
Cape Canaveral- Florida,
Bahama Islands
Carthage- Tunisia
CH 1903- Switzerland
Chatham 1971- Chatham
Island (New Zealand)
Chua Astro- Paraguay
Corrego Alegre- Brazil
Djakarta (Batavia)- Sumatra
Island (Indonesia)
Dos 1968- Gizo Island
Easter Isld 67
European 1950
European 1979
Finland Hayfrd
Gandajika Base
Geod Datm ‘49
Guam 1963
Gux 1 Astro
Hjorsey 1955
Hong Kong ‘63
Hu-Tzu-Shan
Indian Bngldsh
Indian Thailand
Indonesia ‘74
Ireland 1965
ISTS 073 Astro
Johnston Island
Kerguelen Islnd
Kertau 1948
L. C. 5 Astro
Liberia 1964
Luzon Mindanao
Luzon Philippine
Map Datums
(New Georgia Islands)
Easter Island 1967
European 1950- Austria,
Belgium, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Gibraltar,
Greece, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland
European 1979- Austria,
Finland, Netherlands,
Norway, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland
Finland Hayford- Finland
Gandajika Base- Republic of
Maldives
Geodetic Datum ‘49New Zealand
Guam 1963- Guam Island
Gux 1 Astro- Guadalcanal
Island
Hjorsey 1955- Iceland
Hong Kong ‘63- Hong Kong
Taiwan
Indian- Bangladesh, India,
Nepal
Indian- Thailand, Vietnam
Indonesia 1974- Indonesia
Ireland 1965- Ireland
ISTS 073 ASTRO ‘69Diego Garcia
Johnston Island Kandawala
Kandawala- Sri Lanka
Kerguelen Island, Kandawala,
Sri Lanka
Kertau 1948- West Malaysia,
Singapore
Cayman Brac Island
Liberia 1964- Liberia
Luzon- Mindanao Island
Luzon- Philippines
(excluding Mindanao Island)
63
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APPENDIX C
Old Hawaiian
Oman
Ord Srvy GB
Map Datums
Mahe 1971
Marco Astro
Massawa
Merchich
Midway Ast ‘61
Minna
NAD27 Alaska
NAD27 Bahamas
Mahe 1971- Mahe Island
Marco Astro- Salvage Island
Massawa- Eritrea (Ethiopia)
Merchich- Morocco
Midway Astro ‘61- Midway
Minna- Nigeria
North American 1927- Alaska
North American 1927Bahamas (excluding San
Salvador Island)
NAD27 Canada
North American 1927Canada and Newfoundland
NAD27 Canal Zone North Am. 1927- Canal Zone
NAD27 Caribbn
North American 1927Caribbean (Barbados, Caicos
Islands, Cuba, Dom. Rep.,
Grand Cayman, Jamaica,
Leeward and Turks Islands)
NAD27 Central
North American 1927Central America (Belize, Costa
Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Nicaragua)
NAD27 CONUS
North Am. 1927- Mean Value
NAD27 Cuba
North American 1927- Cuba
NAD27 Grnland
North American 1927Greenland (Hayes Peninsula)
NAD27 Mexico
N. American 1927- Mexico
NAD27 San Sal
North American 1927- San
Salvador Island
NAD83
North American 1983Alaska, Canada, Central
America, CONUS, Mexico
Nhrwn Masirah
Nahrwn- Masirah Island
(Oman)
Nhrwn Saudi A
Nahrwn- Saudi Arabia
Nhrwn United A
Nahrwn- United Arab
Emirates
Naparima BWI
Naparima BWI- Trinidad and
Tobago
Obsrvtorio ‘66
Observatorio 1966- Corvo
and Flores Islands (Azores)
Old Egyptian
Old Egyptian- Egypt
64
Pico De Las Nv
Potsdam
Ptcairn Ast ‘67
Prov S Am ‘56
Prov S Chln ‘63
Puerto Rico
Qatar National
Qornoq
Reunion
Rome 1940
RT 90
Santo (Dos)
Sao Braz
Sapper Hill ‘43
Schwarzeck
Sth Amrcn ‘69
South Asia
SE Base
SW Base
Timbalai 1948
Tokyo
Tristan Ast ‘68
Viti Levu 1916
Wake-Eniwetok
WGS 72
WGS 84
Zanderij
Old Hawaiian- Mean Value
Oman- Oman
Old Survey Grt BritnEngland, Isle of Man,
Scotland, Shetland Isl., Wales
Canary Islands
Potsdam-Germany
Pitcairn Astro ‘67- Pitcairn Is
Prov So Amricn ‘56- Bolivia,
Chile,Colombia, Ecuador,
Guyana, Peru, Venezuela
Prov So Chilean ‘63- S. Chile
Puerto Rico & Virgin Islands
Qatar National- Qatar
Qornoq- South Greenland
Reunion- Mascarene Island
Rome 1940- Sardinia Island
Sweden
Santo (Dos)- Espirito Santo
Island
Sao Braz- Sao Miguel, Santa
Maria Islands (Azores)
Sapper Hill 1943- East
Falkland Island
Schwarzeck- Namibia
South American ‘69Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,
Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Guyana, Paraguay, Peru,
Venezuela, Trinidad and
Tobago
South Asia- Singapore
Southeast Base- Porto Santo
and Madiera Islands
Southwest Base- Faial,
Graciosa, Pico, Sao Jorge and
Terceira Islands (Azores)
Timbalai 1948- Brunei and E.
Malaysia (Sarawak and Sabah)
Tokyo- Japan, Korea,
Okinawa
Tristan Astro 1968- Tristan da
Cunha
Viti Levu 1916- Viti Levu/ Fiji
Islands
Wake-Eniwetok- Marshall Isl.
World Geodetic System 1972
World Geodetic System 1984
Zanderij- Surinam
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APPENDIX D
The following list shows the abbreviations for lit and
unlit navaid labels followed by a brief description of the
abbreviation.
Navaid
Abbreviations
Lit Navaid Abbreviations
F
Fixed – continuous and steady light
FL
Single Flashing – flash repeated on given time period, not to exceed 30 per minute
FL(2)
Group Flashing – group of regularly repeating flashes
FL(2+1) Composite Group Flashing – a complex light
FFL
Fixed and Flashing – fixed light combined with a flashing light of higher intensity
Q
Quick Flashing – light flashes at a rate of 60 flashes per minute
VQ
Very Quick – light flashes at a rate greater than 60 flashes per minute
OC
Occulating – alternating light and dark with duration of light longer than dark
ISO
Isophase – alternating light and dark with duration of light and dark equal.
MO(A)
Morse Code – different flash durations used to represent morse code characters
AL
Alternating – different colors flashing alternately
DIR
Directional – prefix indicates the light is directional
Lit Navaid Primary Colors
W = White
R = Red
G = Green
Vi = Violet
Or = Orange
Bu = Blue
Y = Yellow
Am = Amber
Unlit Navaid Abbreviations
S = Square
J = Junction
T = Triangle
K = Range
M = Safe Water
C = Crossing
N = Special Purpose
Unlit Navaid Key Colors
G = Green
R = Red
W = White
Y = Yellow
B = Black
65
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APPENDIX E
Index
A
D
Acquisition Time . . . . . . .57
Activating a Route . . . . . .43
Active Route Page . . . . . .44
Acquiring a position . . . . . .6
Alarm Setup . . . . . . . . . .54
Alkaline batteries . . . . . . .57
Altitude (ALT) . . . . . . . . .18
AutoLocate™ . . . . . . . . . .6
Average Speed (AVSPD) . .17
DGPS Interface . . . . . . . .52
Date and Time . . . . . . . . .47
Deleting Waypoints . . . . .37
Distance/Sun Calculations 46
B
Backlighting Timer . . . . . .48
Battery Level . . . . . . . . . .16
Battery Life . . . . . . . . . . .58
Battery Installation . . . . . .59
E
EZinit . . . . . . . . . . . . .7, 15
Editing Routes . . . . . . . . .45
Elapsed Time (ELPSD) . . .17
Emergency Erase . . . . . . .16
Est. Time Enroute (ETE) .17
Est. Time of Arrival (ETA) 17
F
Find City . . . . . . . . . .26, 55
G
C
CDI . . . . . . . . . . .12, 31, 50
Cancelling a GOTO . . . . .12
Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii
Cigarette Lighter Adapter .58
City Setup . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Clearing Routes . . . . . . . .44
Clearing the Track Log 13, 26
Compass Page .9, 12, 28, 30
Configuring the Map Page 22
Copying Routes . . . . . . . .44
Course deviation indicator 50
Course to Steer (CTS) . . .29
Creating Routes . . . . . . . .43
Creating Waypoints . . . . .35
Crosstrack Error (XTK) . .29
66
GOTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Getting Started Tour . . . . . .6
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Going To a Waypoint . . . .11
Graphic steering . . . . . . .28
H
Highway Page . . . . . .28, 31
I
I/O format . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Initializing . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Interface Setup . . . . . . . . .52
Inverting a Route . . . . . . .43
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APPENDIX E
Index
L
Language Setup . . . . . . . .55
Loran TD Positiion Format 60
M
Mag. Heading Reference . .50
Man Overboard Function .38
Map Cursor . . . . . . . . . . .23
Map Datums . . . . . . .49, 63
Map Orientation . . . . . . .24
Map Page . . . . . . . . . .11, 18
Map Setup . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Marine Database . . . . . . .21
Marking a Position . . . . . .32
Maximum Speed . . . . . . .18
Maximum Speed (MXSPD) 17
Menu Page . . . . . . . . . .9, 46
Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
N
NMEA Formats . . . . . . . . 58
Navaid Setup . . . . . . . . . .27
Navigating Routes . . . . . .41
Navigation Page . . . . . .9, 28
Navigation Setup . . . . . . .49
Nearest Waypoints . . . . . .33
P
PC Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . .i, 58
Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Position Accuracy . . . . . .57
Position Averaging . . . . . .32
Position Formats . . . . . . .49
Position Page . . . . . . . .8, 17
Power and Data Cables . . .57
Primary Pages . . . . . . . . . .8
Proximity Waypoints . . . .34
R
Receiver Status . . . . . . . . .15
Reference Waypoints . . . .35
Renaming Waypoints . . . .37
Repairs . . . . . . . . . . .57, 69
Routes
Clearing . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Copying . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Creating . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Inverting . . . . . . . . . . .43
Navigating Routes . . . . .41
On-Route GOTO’s . . . .45
Route Definition Page . .42
User-defined route . . . .42
O
On-Route GOTOs . . . . . .45
Operating modes . . . . . . .47
67
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APPENDIX E
Index
S
V
Satellite Page . . . . . . . .8, 14
Scanning Waypoints . . . . .37
Screen Backlighting . .13, 48
Screen Contrast . . . . .13, 48
Signal Strength Bars . . . . .14
Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Sky View . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Specifications . . . . . . . . . .56
Speed Filter . . . . . . . . . . .51
System Setup . . . . . . . . . .46
Velocity Made Good (VMG)29
T
Time Format . . . . . . . . . .47
Time Offset . . . . . . . . . . .59
Tone Setting . . . . . . . . . . .48
TracBack Navigation . . . . .39
TracBack Tips . . . . . . . . .40
Track Log Display . . .25, 40
Track Method . . . . . . . . .40
Track Setup . . . . . . . . . . .25
Trip Timer (TTIME) . . . . .17
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . .7
Turn (TRN) . . . . . . . . . . .17
Trip odometer . . . . . . . . .17
U
Units of Measure . . . . . . .50
User-defined route . . . . . .42
User Grid . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Using the Keypad . . . . . . .5
Using the Position Page . .11
68
W
Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Waypoints
Comments . . . . . . . . . .36
Definition Page . . . . . . .35
Deleting . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Going to a Waypoint . . .11
Nearest Waypoints . . . .33
Proximity Waypoints . . .34
Reference Waypoints . . .35
Renaming . . . . . . . . . . .37
Waypoint List . . . . . . . 33
Waypoint Pages . . . . . .33
Waypoint Symbols .23, 35
Z
Zooming . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
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LIMITED WARRANTY
GARMIN Corporation warrants this product to be free from defects in
materials and manufacture for one year from the date of purchase.
GARMIN will, at its sole option, repair or replace any components that
fail in normal use. Such repairs or replacement will be made at no
charge to the customer for parts or labor. The customer is, however,
responsible for any transportation costs. This warranty does not cover
failures due to abuse, misuse, accident or unauthorized alteration or
repairs.
THE WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES CONTAINED HEREIN ARE
EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING ANY LIABILITY ARISING UNDER ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE,
STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE. THIS WARRANTY GIVES YOU
SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, WHICH MAY VARY FROM STATE TO
STATE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL GARMIN BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES,
WHETHER RESULTING FROM THE USE, MISUSE, OR INABILITY TO USE THIS PRODUCT OR FROM DEFECTS IN THE PRODUCT. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF
INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE
ABOVE LIMITATIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
To obtain warranty service, call the GARMIN Customer Service
department (913-397-8200) for a returned merchandise tracking number. The unit should be securely packaged with the tracking number
clearly marked on the outside of the package and sent freight prepaid
and insured to a GARMIN warranty service station. A copy of the
original sales receipt is required as the proof of purchase
for warranty repairs. GARMIN retains the exclusive right
to repair or replace the unit or software or offer a full
refund of the purchase price at its sole discretion. SUCH REMEDY SHALL BE YOUR SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR
ANY BREACH OF WARRANTY.
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Page 70
®
© 1999 GARMIN Corporation
1200 E. 151st Street, Olathe, KS 66062 USA
GARMIN (Europe) Ltd. - Unit 5, The Quadrangle,
Abbey Park, Romsey, UK SO51 9AQ UK
GARMIN (Asia) Corp., No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Rd.,
Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Part Number 190-00141-00 Rev B - Printed in Taiwan