Mathematics The Ontario Curriculum Grades 9 and 10 2 0 0 5

Mathematics The Ontario Curriculum Grades 9 and 10 2 0 0 5
ISBN 0-7794-7940-8
Ministry of Education
04-165
© Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2005
The Ontario Curriculum
Grades 9 and 10
REVISED
Mathematics
Printed on recycled paper
2005
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
The Place of Mathematics in the Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Roles and Responsibilities in Mathematics Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
The Program in Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
Curriculum Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
The Mathematical Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
Reasoning and Proving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
Reflecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
Selecting Tools and Computational Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
Connecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
Representing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
Communicating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
Assessment and Evaluation of Student Achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
Basic Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
The Achievement Chart for Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
Evaluation and Reporting of Student Achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
Some Considerations for Program Planning in Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
Teaching Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
Planning Mathematics Programs for Exceptional Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
English As a Second Language and English Literacy Development (ESL/ELD) . . . . . . . .
25
Antidiscrimination Education in Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
Une publication équivalente est disponible en français sous le
titre suivant : Le curriculum de l’Ontario, 9 e et 10 e année –
Mathématiques, 2005.
This publication is available on the Ministry of Education’s
website, at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca.
Every effort has been made in this publication to identify mathematics resources and tools (e.g., manipulatives) in generic terms. In cases where a
particular product is used by teachers in schools across Ontario, that product is identified by its trade name, in the interests of clarity.
2
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Literacy and Inquiry/Research Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
The Role of Technology in Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
Career Education in Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
Health and Safety in Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
Courses
Principles of Mathematics, Grade 9, Academic (MPM1D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 9, Applied (MFM1P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
Principles of Mathematics, Grade 10, Academic (MPM2D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 10, Applied (MFM2P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
3
Introduction
This document replaces The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10: Mathematics, 1999.
Beginning in September 2005, all Grade 9 and 10 mathematics courses will be based on the
expectations outlined in this document.
The Place of Mathematics in the Curriculum
The unprecedented changes that are taking place in today’s world will profoundly affect the
future of today’s students. To meet the demands of the world in which they will live, students
will need to adapt to changing conditions and to learn independently. They will require the
ability to use technology effectively and the skills for processing large amounts of quantitative
information. Today’s mathematics curriculum must prepare students for their future roles in
society. It must equip them with essential mathematical knowledge and skills; with skills of
reasoning, problem solving, and communication; and, most importantly, with the ability and
the incentive to continue learning on their own. This curriculum provides a framework for
accomplishing these goals.
The choice of specific concepts and skills to be taught must take into consideration new applications and new ways of doing mathematics. The development of sophisticated yet easy-to-use
calculators and computers is changing the role of procedure and technique in mathematics.
Operations that were an essential part of a procedures-focused curriculum for decades can
now be accomplished quickly and effectively using technology, so that students can now solve
problems that were previously too time-consuming to attempt, and can focus on underlying
concepts. “In an effective mathematics program, students learn in the presence of technology.
Technology should influence the mathematics content taught and how it is taught. Powerful
assistive and enabling computer and handheld technologies should be used seamlessly in teaching, learning, and assessment.”1 This curriculum integrates appropriate technologies into the
learning and doing of mathematics, while recognizing the continuing importance of students’
mastering essential numeric and algebraic skills.
Mathematical knowledge becomes meaningful and powerful in application. This curriculum
embeds the learning of mathematics in the solving of problems based on real-life situations.
Other disciplines are a ready source of effective contexts for the study of mathematics. Rich
problem-solving situations can be drawn from closely related disciplines, such as computer
science, business, recreation, tourism, biology, physics, or technology, as well as from subjects
historically thought of as distant from mathematics, such as geography or art. It is important
that these links between disciplines be carefully explored, analysed, and discussed to emphasize
for students the pervasiveness of mathematical knowledge and mathematical thinking in all
subject areas.
1. Expert Panel on Student Success in Ontario, Leading Math Success: Mathematical Literacy, Grades 7–12 – The Report of
the Expert Panel on Student Success in Ontario, 2004 (Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Education, 2004), p. 47. (Referred to
hereafter as Leading Math Success.)
4
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
The development of mathematical knowledge is a gradual process. A coherent and continuous
program is necessary to help students see the “big pictures”, or underlying principles, of mathematics. The fundamentals of important skills, concepts, processes, and attitudes are initiated in
the primary grades and fostered through elementary school. The links between Grade 8 and
Grade 9 and the transition from elementary school mathematics to secondary school mathematics are very important in the student’s development of confidence and competence.
The Grade 9 courses in this curriculum build on the knowledge of concepts and skills that
students are expected to have by the end of Grade 8. The strands used are similar to those of
the elementary program, with adjustments made to reflect the new directions mathematics
takes in secondary school. The Grade 9 courses are based on principles that are consistent with
those that underpin the elementary program, facilitating the transition from elementary
school. These courses reflect the belief that students learn mathematics effectively when they
are initially given opportunities to investigate ideas and concepts and are then guided carefully
into an understanding of the abstract mathematics involved. Skill acquisition is an important
part of the program; skills are embedded in the contexts offered by various topics in the mathematics program and should be introduced as they are needed.
The Grade 9 and 10 mathematics curriculum is designed to foster the development of the
knowledge and skills students need to succeed in their subsequent mathematics courses, which
will prepare them for the postsecondary destinations of their choosing.
Roles and Responsibilities in Mathematics Programs
Students. Students have many responsibilities with regard to their learning in school. Students
who make the effort required and who apply themselves will soon discover that there is a
direct relationship between this effort and their achievement, and will therefore be more motivated to work. There will be some students, however, who will find it more difficult to take
responsibility for their learning because of special challenges they face. For these students, the
attention, patience, and encouragement of teachers and family can be extremely important
factors for success. However, taking responsibility for one’s progress and learning is an important part of education for all students, regardless of their circumstances.
Successful mastery of concepts and skills in mathematics requires a sincere commitment to
work and study. Students are expected to develop strategies and processes that facilitate learning and understanding in mathematics. Students should also be encouraged to actively pursue
opportunities to apply their problem-solving skills outside the classroom and to extend and
enrich their understanding of mathematics.
Parents. Parents have an important role to play in supporting student learning. Studies show
that students perform better in school if their parents or guardians are involved in their education. By becoming familiar with the curriculum, parents can find out what is being taught in
the courses their children are taking and what their children are expected to learn. This awareness will enhance parents’ ability to discuss their children’s work with them, to communicate
with teachers, and to ask relevant questions about their children’s progress. Knowledge of the
expectations in the various courses also helps parents to interpret teachers’ comments on student progress and to work with them to improve student learning.
5
INTRODUCTION
The mathematics curriculum promotes lifelong learning not only for students but also for
their parents and all those with an interest in education. In addition to supporting regular
school activities, parents can encourage their sons and daughters to apply their problemsolving skills to other disciplines or to real-world situations. Attending parent-teacher interviews,
participating in parent workshops, becoming involved in school council activities (including
becoming a school council member), and encouraging students to complete their assignments
at home are just a few examples of effective ways to support student learning.
Teachers. Teachers and students have complementary responsibilities. Teachers are responsible
for developing appropriate instructional strategies to help students achieve the curriculum
expectations for their courses, as well as for developing appropriate methods for assessing and
evaluating student learning. Teachers also support students in developing the reading, writing,
and oral communication skills needed for success in their mathematics courses. Teachers bring
enthusiasm and varied teaching and assessment approaches to the classroom, addressing different student needs and ensuring sound learning opportunities for every student.
Recognizing that students need a solid conceptual foundation in mathematics in order to further develop and apply their knowledge effectively, teachers endeavour to create a classroom
environment that engages students’ interest and helps them arrive at the understanding of
mathematics that is critical to further learning.
Using a variety of instructional, assessment, and evaluation strategies, teachers provide numerous opportunities for students to develop skills of inquiry, problem solving, and communication as they investigate and learn fundamental concepts. The activities offered should enable
students not only to make connections among these concepts throughout the course but also
to relate and apply them to relevant societal, environmental, and economic contexts. Opportunities to relate knowledge and skills to these wider contexts – to the goals and concerns
of the world in which they live – will motivate students to learn and to become lifelong
learners.
Principals. The principal works in partnership with teachers and parents to ensure that each
student has access to the best possible educational experience. To support student learning,
principals ensure that the Ontario curriculum is being properly implemented in all classrooms
using a variety of instructional approaches. They also ensure that appropriate resources are
made available for teachers and students. To enhance teaching and learning in all subjects,
including mathematics, principals promote learning teams and work with teachers to facilitate
participation in professional development. Principals are also responsible for ensuring that
every student who has in Individual Education Plan (IEP) is receiving the modifications
and/or accommodations described in his or her plan – in other words, for ensuring that the
IEP is properly developed, implemented, and monitored.
6
The Program in Mathematics
Overview
The Grade 9 and 10 mathematics program builds on the elementary program, relying on the
same fundamental principles on which that program was based. Both are founded on the
premise that students learn mathematics most effectively when they have a thorough understanding of mathematical concepts and procedures, and when they build that understanding
through an investigative approach, as reflected in the inquiry model of learning. This curriculum is designed to help students build a solid conceptual foundation in mathematics that will
enable them to apply their knowledge and skills and further their learning successfully.
Like the elementary curriculum, the secondary curriculum adopts a strong focus on the
processes that best enable students to understand mathematical concepts and learn related
skills. Attention to the mathematical processes is considered to be essential to a balanced mathematics program. The seven mathematical processes identified in this curriculum are problem
solving, reasoning and proving, reflecting, selecting tools and computational strategies, connecting, representing, and communicating. Each of the Grade 9 and 10 mathematics courses includes a set of
expectations – referred to in this document as the “mathematical process expectations” – that
outline the knowledge and skills involved in these essential processes. The mathematical
processes apply to student learning in all areas of a mathematics course.
A balanced mathematics program at the secondary level includes the development of algebraic
skills. This curriculum has been designed to equip students with the algebraic skills they need
to understand other aspects of mathematics that they are learning, to solve meaningful problems, and to continue to meet with success as they study mathematics in the future. The algebraic skills required in each course have been carefully chosen to support the other topics
included in the course. Calculators and other appropriate technology will be used when the
primary purpose of a given activity is the development of concepts or the solving of problems,
or when situations arise in which computation or symbolic manipulation is of secondary
importance.
Courses in Grades 9 and 10. The mathematics courses in the Grade 9 and 10 curriculum
are offered in two types, academic and applied, which are defined as follows:
Academic courses develop students’ knowledge and skills through the study of theory and abstract
problems. These courses focus on the essential concepts of a subject and explore related concepts as well.
They incorporate practical applications as appropriate.
Applied courses focus on the essential concepts of a subject, and develop students’ knowledge and skills
through practical applications and concrete examples. Familiar situations are used to illustrate ideas, and
students are given more opportunities to experience hands-on applications of the concepts and theories
they study.
Students who successfully complete the Grade 9 academic course may proceed to either the
Grade 10 academic or the Grade 10 applied course. Those who successfully complete the
Grade 9 applied course may proceed to the Grade 10 applied course, but must successfully
complete a transfer course if they wish to proceed to the Grade 10 academic course. The
7
THE PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS
Grade 10 academic and applied courses prepare students for particular destination-related
courses in Grade 11. The Grade 11 and 12 mathematics curriculum offers university preparation, university/college preparation, college preparation, and workplace preparation courses.
When choosing courses in Grades 9 and 10, students, parents, and educators should carefully
consider students’ strengths, interests, and needs, as well as their postsecondary goals and the
course pathways that will enable them to reach those goals.
School boards may develop locally and offer two mathematics courses – a Grade 9 course
and a Grade 10 course – that can be counted as two of the three compulsory credits in mathematics that a student is required to earn in order to obtain the Ontario Secondary School
Diploma (see Program/Policy Memorandum No. 134, which outlines a revision to section
7.1.2,“Locally Developed Courses”, of Ontario Secondary Schools, Grades 9 to 12: Program and
Diploma Requirements, 1999 [OSS]). The locally developed Grade 10 course may be designed
to prepare students for success in the Grade 11 workplace preparation course. Ministry
approval of the locally developed Grade 10 course would authorize the school board to use
it as the prerequisite for that course.
Courses in Mathematics, Grades 9 and 10*
Course Name
Course
Type
Course
Code
9
Principles of Mathematics
Academic
MPM1D
1
9
Foundations of Mathematics
Applied
MFM1P
1
10
Principles of Mathematics
Academic
MPM2D
1
Grade 9 Mathematics,
Academic
10
Foundations of Mathematics
Applied
MFM2P
1
Grade 9 Mathematics,
Academic or Applied
Grade
Credit
Value
Prerequisite**
* See preceding text for information about locally developed Grade 9 and 10 mathematics courses.
** Prerequisites are required only for Grade 10, 11, and 12 courses.
Half-Credit Courses. The courses outlined in this document are designed to be offered as
full-credit courses. However, they may also be delivered as half-credit courses.
Half-credit courses, which require a minimum of fifty-five hours of scheduled instructional
time, must adhere to the following conditions:
• The two half-credit courses created from a full course must together contain all of the
expectations of the full course. The expectations for each half-credit course must be divided
in a manner that best enables students to achieve the required knowledge and skills in the
allotted time.
• A course that is a prerequisite for another course in the secondary curriculum may be
offered as two half-credit courses, but students must successfully complete both parts of the
course to fulfil the prerequisite. (Students are not required to complete both parts unless the
course is a prerequisite for another course they wish to take.)
• The title of each half-credit course must include the designation Part 1 or Part 2. A half
credit (0.5) will be recorded in the credit-value column of both the report card and the
Ontario Student Transcript.
Boards will ensure that all half-credit courses comply with the conditions described above, and
will report all half-credit courses to the ministry annually in the School October Report.
8
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Curriculum Expectations
The expectations identified for each course describe the knowledge and skills that students are
expected to acquire, demonstrate, and apply in their class work, on tests, and in various other
activities on which their achievement is assessed and evaluated.
Two sets of expectations are listed for each strand, or broad curriculum area, of each course.
• The overall expectations describe in general terms the knowledge and skills that students are
expected to demonstrate by the end of each course.
• The specific expectations describe the expected knowledge and skills in greater detail. The
specific expectations are arranged under subheadings that reflect particular aspects of the
required knowledge and skills and that may serve as a guide for teachers as they plan learning activities for their students. The organization of expectations in subgroupings is not
meant to imply that the expectations in any subgroup are achieved independently of the
expectations in the other subgroups. The subheadings are used merely to help teachers focus
on particular aspects of knowledge and skills as they develop and present various lessons and
learning activities for their students.
In addition to the expectations outlined within each strand, a list of seven “mathematical
process expectations” precedes the strands in all mathematics courses. These specific expectations describe the knowledge and skills that constitute processes essential to the effective study
of mathematics. These processes apply to all areas of course content, and students’ proficiency
in applying them must be developed in all strands of a mathematics course. Teachers should
ensure that students develop their ability to apply these processes in appropriate ways as they
work towards meeting the expectations outlined in the strands.
When developing detailed courses of study from this document, teachers are expected to
weave together related expectations from different strands, as well as the relevant process
expectations, in order to create an overall program that integrates and balances concept development, skill acquisition, the use of processes, and applications.
Many of the expectations are accompanied by examples and/or sample problems, given in
parentheses. These examples and sample problems are meant to illustrate the kind of skill, the
specific area of learning, the depth of learning, and/or the level of complexity that the expectation entails. They are intended as a guide for teachers rather than as an exhaustive or mandatory list. Teachers do not have to address the full list of examples or use the sample problems
supplied. They might select two or three areas of focus suggested by the examples in the list or
they might choose areas of focus that are not represented in the list at all. Similarly, they may
incorporate the sample problems into their lessons, or they may use other problems that are
relevant to the expectation.
9
THE PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS
Strands
Grade 9 Courses
Strands and Subgroups in the Grade 9 Courses
Principles of Mathematics
(Academic)
Foundations of Mathematics
(Applied)
Number Sense and Algebra
• Operating with Exponents
• Manipulating Expressions and Solving Equations
Linear Relations
• Using Data Management to Investigate
Relationships
• Understanding Characteristics of Linear
Relations
• Connecting Various Representations of Linear
Relations
Analytic Geometry
• Investigating the Relationship Between the
Equation of a Relation and the Shape of Its
Graph
• Investigating the Properties of Slope
• Using the Properties of Linear Relations to Solve
Problems
Measurement and Geometry
• Investigating the Optimal Values of
Measurements
• Solving Problems Involving Perimeter, Area,
Surface Area, and Volume
• Investigating and Applying Geometric
Relationships
Number Sense and Algebra
• Solving Problems Involving Proportional
Reasoning
• Simplifying Expressions and Solving Equations
Linear Relations
• Using Data Management to Investigate
Relationships
• Determining Characteristics of Linear Relations
• Investigating Constant Rate of Change
• Connecting Various Representations of Linear
Relations and Solving Problems Using the
Representations
Measurement and Geometry
• Investigating the Optimal Values of
Measurements of Rectangles
• Solving Problems Involving Perimeter, Area, and
Volume
• Investigating and Applying Geometric
Relationships
The strands in the Grade 9 courses are designed to build on those in Grade 8, while at the
same time providing for growth in new directions in high school.
The strand Number Sense and Algebra builds on the Grade 8 Number Sense and Numeration
strand and parts of the Patterning and Algebra strand. It includes expectations describing
numeric skills that students are expected to consolidate and apply, along with estimation and
mental computation skills, as they solve problems and learn new material throughout the
course. The strand includes the algebraic knowledge and skills necessary for the study and
application of relations. In the Principles course, the strand covers the basic exponent rules,
manipulation of polynomials with up to two variables, and the solving of first-degree equations. In the Foundations course, it covers operations with polynomials involving one variable
and the solving of first-degree equations with non-fractional coefficients. The strand in the
Foundations course also includes expectations that follow from the Grade 8 Proportional
Reasoning strand, providing an opportunity for students to deepen their understanding of
proportional reasoning through investigation of a variety of topics, and providing them with
skills that will help them meet the expectations in the Linear Relations strand.
10
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
The focus of study in the Grade 9 courses is linear relations, with some attention given to the
study of non-linear relations. In the Linear Relations strand, students develop initial understandings of the properties of linear relations as they collect, organize, and interpret data drawn
from a variety of real-life situations (applying knowledge gained in the Data Management
strand of the elementary school program) and create models for the data. Students then
develop, make connections among, and apply various representations of linear relations and
solve related problems. In the Analytic Geometry strand of the Principles course, students will
extend the initial experiences of linear relations into the abstract realm of equations in the
form y = mx + b, formulas, and problems.
The strand Measurement and Geometry extends students’ understandings from Grade 8 to
include the measurement of composite two-dimensional shapes and the development of formulas for, and applications of, additional three-dimensional figures. Furthermore, in measurement, students investigate the effect of varying dimensions (length and width) on a measure
such as area. Students in the Principles course conduct similar investigations in connection
with volume and surface area. Examination of such relationships leads students to make conclusions about the optimal size of shapes (in the Foundations course) or of shapes and figures
(in the Principles course). In geometry, the knowledge students acquired in Grade 8 about the
properties of two-dimensional shapes is extended through investigations that broaden their
understanding of the relationships among the properties.
Grade 10 Courses
Strands and Subgroups in the Grade 10 Courses
Principles of Mathematics
(Academic)
Foundations of Mathematics
(Applied)
Quadratic Relations of the Form y = ax 2 + bx + c
• Investigating the Basic Properties of Quadratic
Relations
• Relating the Graph of y = x 2 and Its
Transformations
• Solving Quadratic Equations
• Solving Problems Involving Quadratic Relations
Analytic Geometry
• Using Linear Systems to Solve Problems
• Solving Problems Involving Properties of Line
Segments
• Using Analytic Geometry to Verify Geometric
Properties
Trigonometry
• Investigating Similarity and Solving Problems
Involving Similar Triangles
• Solving Problems Involving the Trigonometry of
Right Triangles
• Solving Problems Involving the Trigonometry of
Acute Triangles
Measurement and Trigonometry
• Solving Problems Involving Similar Triangles
• Solving Problems Involving the Trigonometry of
Right Triangles
• Solving Problems Involving Surface Area and
Volume, Using Imperial and Metric Systems of
Measurement
Modelling Linear Relations
• Manipulating and Solving Algebraic Equations
• Graphing and Writing Equations of Lines
• Solving and Interpreting Systems of Linear
Equations
Quadratic Relations of the Form y = ax 2 + bx + c
• Manipulating Quadratic Expressions
• Identifying Characteristics of Quadratic Relations
• Solving Problems by Interpreting Graphs of
Quadratic Relations
THE PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS
11
The strands in the two Grade 10 courses have similarities, but there are significant differences
between them in terms of level of abstraction and degree of complexity. Both courses contain
the strand Quadratic Relations in the Form y = ax2 + bx + c. The difference between the
strand in the Principles course and its counterpart in the Foundations course lies in the greater
degree of algebraic treatment required in the Principles course. Both strands involve concrete
experiences upon which students build their understanding of the abstract treatment of quadratic relations. In the Foundations course, problem solving relates to the interpretation of
graphs that are supplied to students or generated by them using technology. In the Principles
course, problem solving involves algebraic manipulation as well as the interpretation of supplied or technologically generated graphs, and students also learn the techniques involved in
sketching and graphing quadratics effectively using pencil and paper.
Both Grade 10 courses extend students’ understanding of linear relations through applications
(in the Analytic Geometry strand of the Principles course and in the Modelling Linear
Relations strand of the Foundations course). Students in the Foundations course begin by
extending their knowledge into the abstract realm of equations in the form y = mx + b, formulas, and problems. While students in both courses study and apply linear systems, students
in the Principles course solve multi-step problems involving the verification of properties of
two-dimensional shapes on the xy-plane. The topic of circles on the xy-plane is introduced in
the Principles course as an application of the formula for the length of a line segment.
In both the Trigonometry strand of the Principles course and the Measurement and
Trigonometry strand of the Foundations course, students apply trigonometry and the properties of similar triangles to solve problems involving right triangles. Students in the Principles
course also solve problems involving acute triangles. Students in the Foundations course begin
to study the imperial system of measurement, and apply units of measurement appropriately to
problems involving the surface area and volume of three-dimensional figures.
12
The Mathematical Processes
Presented at the start of every course in this curriculum document is a set of seven expectations that describe the mathematical processes students need to learn and apply as they work
to achieve the expectations outlined within the strands of the course. In the 1999 mathematics
curriculum, expectations relating to the mathematical processes were embedded within individual strands. The need to highlight these process expectations arose from the recognition
that students should be actively engaged in applying these processes throughout the course,
rather than in connection with particular strands.
The mathematical processes that support effective learning in mathematics are as follows:
• problem solving
• reasoning and proving
• reflecting
• selecting tools and computational strategies
• connecting
• representing
• communicating
The mathematical processes are interconnected. Problem solving and communicating have
strong links to all the other processes. A problem-solving approach encourages students to
reason their way to a solution or a new understanding. As students engage in reasoning, teachers
further encourage them to make conjectures and justify solutions, orally and in writing. The
communication and reflection that occur during and after the process of problem solving help
students not only to articulate and refine their thinking but also to see the problem they are
solving from different perspectives. This opens the door to recognizing the range of strategies
that can be used to arrive at a solution. By seeing how others solve a problem, students can
begin to think about their own thinking (metacognition) and the thinking of others, and to
consciously adjust their own strategies in order to make their solutions as efficient and accurate as possible.
The mathematical processes cannot be separated from the knowledge and skills that students
acquire throughout the course. Students must problem solve, communicate, reason, reflect, and
so on, as they develop the knowledge, the understanding of concepts, and the skills required in
the course.
Problem Solving
Problem solving is central to learning mathematics. It forms the basis of effective mathematics
programs and should be the mainstay of mathematical instruction. It is considered an essential
process through which students are able to achieve the expectations in mathematics, and is an
THE MATHEMATICAL PROCESSES
13
integral part of the mathematics curriculum in Ontario, for the following reasons. Problem
solving:
• is the primary focus and goal of mathematics in the real world;
• helps students become more confident mathematicians;
• allows students to use the knowledge they bring to school and helps them connect mathematics with situations outside the classroom;
• helps students develop mathematical understanding and gives meaning to skills and concepts
in all strands;
• allows students to reason, communicate ideas, make connections, and apply knowledge and
skills;
• offers excellent opportunities for assessing students’ understanding of concepts, ability to
solve problems, ability to apply concepts and procedures, and ability to communicate ideas;
• promotes the collaborative sharing of ideas and strategies, and promotes talking about mathematics;
• helps students find enjoyment in mathematics;
• increases opportunities for the use of critical-thinking skills (e.g., estimating, classifying,
assuming, recognizing relationships, hypothesizing, offering opinions with reasons, evaluating
results, and making judgements).
Not all mathematics instruction, however, can take place in a problem-solving context.
Certain aspects of mathematics must be explicitly taught. Conventions, including the use of
mathematical symbols and terms, are one such aspect, and they should be introduced to students as needed, to enable them to use the symbolic language of mathematics.
Selecting Problem-Solving Strategies. Problem-solving strategies are methods that can be
used successfully to solve problems of various types. Teachers who use relevant and meaningful
problem-solving experiences as the focus of their mathematics class help students to develop
and extend a repertoire of strategies and methods that they can apply when solving various
kinds of problems – instructional problems, routine problems, and non-routine problems.
Students develop this repertoire over time, as they become more mature in their problemsolving skills. By secondary school, students will have learned many problem-solving strategies
that they can flexibly use and integrate when faced with new problem-solving situations, or to
learn or reinforce mathematical concepts. Common problem-solving strategies include the
following: making a model, picture, or diagram; looking for a pattern; guessing and checking;
making assumptions; making an organized list; making a table or chart; making a simpler
problem; working backwards; using logical reasoning.
Reasoning and Proving
An emphasis on reasoning helps students make sense of mathematics. Classroom instruction in
mathematics should always foster critical thinking – that is, an organized, analytical, wellreasoned approach to learning mathematical concepts and processes and to solving problems.
As students investigate and make conjectures about mathematical concepts and relationships,
they learn to employ inductive reasoning, making generalizations based on specific findings from
their investigations. Students also learn to use counter-examples to disprove conjectures.
Students can use deductive reasoning to assess the validity of conjectures and to formulate proofs.
14
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Reflecting
Good problem solvers regularly and consciously reflect on and monitor their own thought
processes. By doing so, they are able to recognize when the technique they are using is not
fruitful, and to make a conscious decision to switch to a different strategy, rethink the problem,
search for related content knowledge that may be helpful, and so forth. Students’ problemsolving skills are enhanced when they reflect on alternative ways to perform a task even if they
have successfully completed it. Reflecting on the reasonableness of an answer by considering
the original question or problem is another way in which students can improve their ability to
make sense of problems.
Selecting Tools and Computational Strategies
Students need to develop the ability to select the appropriate electronic tools, manipulatives,
and computational strategies to perform particular mathematical tasks, to investigate mathematical ideas, and to solve problems.
Calculators, Computers, Communications Technology. Various types of technology are useful
in learning and doing mathematics. Students can use calculators and computers to extend
their capacity to investigate and analyse mathematical concepts and to reduce the time they
might otherwise spend on purely mechanical activities.
Students can use calculators and computers to perform operations, make graphs, manipulate
algebraic expressions, and organize and display data that are lengthier or more complex than
those addressed in curriculum expectations suited to a paper-and-pencil approach. Students
can also use calculators and computers in various ways to investigate number and graphing
patterns, geometric relationships, and different representations; to simulate situations; and to
extend problem solving. When students use calculators and computers in mathematics, they
need to know when it is appropriate to apply their mental computation, reasoning, and estimation skills to predict results and check answers.
The computer and the calculator must be seen as important problem-solving tools to be used
for many purposes. Computers and calculators are tools of mathematicians, and students
should be given opportunities to select and use the particular applications that may be helpful
to them as they search for their own solutions to problems.
Students may not be familiar with the use of some of the technologies suggested in the curriculum. When this is the case, it is important that teachers introduce their use in ways that
build students’ confidence and contribute to their understanding of the concepts being investigated. Students also need to understand the situations in which the new technology would be
an appropriate choice of tool. Students’ use of the tools should not be laborious or restricted
to inputting and learning algorithmic steps. For example, when using spreadsheets and statistical software (e.g., Fathom), teachers could supply students with prepared data sets, and when
using dynamic geometry software (e.g.,The Geometer’s Sketchpad), they could use pre-made
sketches so that students’ work with the software would be focused on manipulation of the
data or the sketch, not on the inputting of data or the designing of the sketch.
Computer programs can help students to collect, organize, and sort the data they gather, and to
write, edit, and present reports on their findings. Whenever appropriate, students should be
encouraged to select and use the communications technology that would best support and
communicate their learning. Students, working individually or in groups, can use computers,
THE MATHEMATICAL PROCESSES
15
CD-ROM technology, and/or Internet websites to gain access to Statistics Canada, mathematics organizations, and other valuable sources of mathematical information around the world.
Manipulatives.2 Students should be encouraged to select and use concrete learning tools to
make models of mathematical ideas. Students need to understand that making their own models is a powerful means of building understanding and explaining their thinking to others.
Using manipulatives to construct representations helps students to:
• see patterns and relationships;
• make connections between the concrete and the abstract;
• test, revise, and confirm their reasoning;
• remember how they solved a problem;
• communicate their reasoning to others.
Computational Strategies. Problem solving often requires students to select an appropriate
computational strategy. They may need to apply the standard algorithm or to use technology
for computation. They may also need to select strategies related to mental computation and
estimation. Developing the ability to perform mental computation and to estimate is consequently an important aspect of student learning in mathematics.
Mental computation involves calculations done in the mind, with little or no use of paper and
pencil. Students who have developed the ability to calculate mentally can select from and use
a variety of procedures that take advantage of their knowledge and understanding of numbers,
the operations, and their properties. Using their knowledge of the distributive property, for
example, students can mentally compute 70% of 22 by first considering 70% of 20 and then
adding 70% of 2. Used effectively, mental computation can encourage students to think more
deeply about numbers and number relationships.
Knowing how to estimate, and knowing when it is useful to estimate and when it is necessary
to have an exact answer, are important mathematical skills. Estimation is a useful tool for judging the reasonableness of a solution and for guiding students in their use of calculators. The
ability to estimate depends on a well-developed sense of number and an understanding of
place value. It can be a complex skill that requires decomposing numbers, compensating for
errors, and perhaps even restructuring the problem. Estimation should not be taught as an isolated skill or a set of isolated rules and techniques. Knowing about calculations that are easy to
perform and developing fluency in performing basic operations contribute to successful
estimation.
Connecting
Experiences that allow students to make connections – to see, for example, how concepts and
skills from one strand of mathematics are related to those from another – will help them to
grasp general mathematical principles. As they continue to make such connections, students
begin to see that mathematics is more than a series of isolated skills and concepts and that they
can use their learning in one area of mathematics to understand another. Seeing the relationships among procedures and concepts also helps deepen students’ mathematical understanding.
2. See the Teaching Approaches section, on page 23 of this document, for additional information about the use of
manipulatives in mathematics instruction.
16
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
In addition, making connections between the mathematics they study and its applications in
their everyday lives helps students see the usefulness and relevance of mathematics beyond the
classroom.
Representing
In secondary school mathematics, representing mathematical ideas and modelling situations
generally takes the form of numeric, geometric, graphical, algebraic, pictorial, and concrete
representation, as well as representation using dynamic software. Students should be able to go
from one representation to another, recognize the connections between representations, and
use the different representations appropriately and as needed to solve problems. Learning the
various forms of representation helps students to understand mathematical concepts and relationships; communicate their thinking, arguments, and understandings; recognize connections
among related mathematical concepts; and use mathematics to model and interpret mathematical, physical, and social phenomena. When students are able to represent concepts in various
ways, they develop flexibility in their thinking about those concepts. They are not inclined to
perceive any single representation as “the math”; rather, they understand that it is just one of
many representations that help them understand a concept.
Communicating
Communication is the process of expressing mathematical ideas and understandings orally,
visually, and in writing, using numbers, symbols, pictures, graphs, diagrams, and words.
Students communicate for various purposes and for different audiences, such as the teacher, a
peer, a group of students, or the whole class. Communication is an essential process in learning
mathematics. Through communication, students are able to reflect upon and to clarify ideas,
relationships, and mathematical arguments.
The development of mathematical language and symbolism fosters students’ communication
skills. Teachers need to be aware of the various opportunities that exist in the classroom for
helping students to communicate. For example, teachers can:
• model proper use of symbols, vocabulary, and notations in oral and written form;
• expect correct use of mathematical symbols and conventions in student work;
• ensure that students are exposed to and use new mathematical vocabulary as it is introduced
(e.g., by means of a word wall; by providing opportunities to read, question, and discuss);
• provide feedback to students on their use of terminology and conventions;
• ask clarifying and extending questions and encourage students to ask themselves similar
kinds of questions;
• ask students open-ended questions relating to specific topics or information;
• model ways in which various kinds of questions can be answered.
Effective classroom communication requires a supportive and respectful environment that
makes all members of the class comfortable when they speak and when they question, react to,
and elaborate on the statements of their classmates and the teacher.
The ability to provide effective explanations, and the understanding and application of correct
mathematical notation in the development and presentation of mathematical ideas and solutions, are key aspects of effective communication in mathematics.
17
Assessment and Evaluation of Student
Achievement
Basic Considerations
The primary purpose of assessment and evaluation is to improve student learning. Information
gathered through assessment helps teachers to determine students’ strengths and weaknesses in
their achievement of the curriculum expectations in each course. This information also serves
to guide teachers in adapting curriculum and instructional approaches to students’ needs and
in assessing the overall effectiveness of programs and classroom practices.
Assessment is the process of gathering information from a variety of sources (including assignments, demonstrations, projects, performances, and tests) that accurately reflects how well a
student is achieving the curriculum expectations in a course. As part of assessment, teachers
provide students with descriptive feedback that guides their efforts towards improvement.
Evaluation refers to the process of judging the quality of student work on the basis of established criteria, and assigning a value to represent that quality.
Assessment and evaluation will be based on the provincial curriculum expectations and the
achievement levels outlined in this document.
In order to ensure that assessment and evaluation are valid and reliable, and that they lead to the
improvement of student learning, teachers must use assessment and evaluation strategies that:
• address both what students learn and how well they learn;
• are based both on the categories of knowledge and skills and on the achievement level
descriptions given in the achievement chart on pages 20–21;
• are varied in nature, administered over a period of time, and designed to provide opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning;
• are appropriate for the learning activities used, the purposes of instruction, and the needs
and experiences of the students;
• are fair to all students;
• accommodate the needs of exceptional students, consistent with the strategies outlined in
their Individual Education Plan;
• accommodate the needs of students who are learning the language of instruction (English
or French);
• ensure that each student is given clear directions for improvement;
• promote students’ ability to assess their own learning and to set specific goals;
• include the use of samples of students’ work that provide evidence of their achievement;
• are communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning of the school year or
semester and at other appropriate points throughout the year.
All curriculum expectations must be accounted for in instruction, but evaluation focuses on
students’ achievement of the overall expectations. A student’s achievement of the overall
expectations is evaluated on the basis of his or her achievement of related specific expectations
(including the process expectations). The overall expectations are broad in nature, and the
18
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
specific expectations define the particular content or scope of the knowledge and skills
referred to in the overall expectations. Teachers will use their professional judgement to determine which specific expectations should be used to evaluate achievement of the overall expectations, and which ones will be covered in instruction and assessment (e.g., through direct
observation) but not necessarily evaluated.
The characteristics given in the achievement chart (pages 20–21) for level 3 represent the
“provincial standard” for achievement of the expectations in a course. A complete picture of
overall achievement at level 3 in a course in mathematics can be constructed by reading from
top to bottom in the shaded column of the achievement chart, headed “70–79% (Level 3)”.
Parents of students achieving at level 3 can be confident that their children will be prepared
for work in subsequent courses.
Level 1 identifies achievement that falls much below the provincial standard, while still reflecting a passing grade. Level 2 identifies achievement that approaches the standard. Level 4 identifies achievement that surpasses the standard. It should be noted that achievement at level 4
does not mean that the student has achieved expectations beyond those specified for a particular course. It indicates that the student has achieved all or almost all of the expectations for
that course, and that he or she demonstrates the ability to use the specified knowledge and
skills in more sophisticated ways than a student achieving at level 3.
The Ministry of Education provides teachers with materials that will assist them in improving
their assessment methods and strategies and, hence, their assessment of student achievement.
These materials include samples of student work (exemplars) that illustrate achievement at
each of the four levels.
The Achievement Chart for Mathematics
The achievement chart that follows identifies four categories of knowledge and skills in mathematics. The achievement chart is a standard province-wide guide to be used by teachers. It
enables teachers to make judgements about student work that are based on clear performance
standards and on a body of evidence collected over time.
The purpose of the achievement chart is to:
• provide a common framework that encompasses the curriculum expectations for all courses
outlined in this document;
• guide the development of quality assessment tasks and tools (including rubrics);
• help teachers to plan instruction for learning;
• assist teachers in providing meaningful feedback to students;
• provide various categories and criteria with which to assess and evaluate student learning.
Categories of knowledge and skills. The categories, defined by clear criteria, represent four
broad areas of knowledge and skills within which the expectations for any given mathematics
course are organized. The four categories should be considered as interrelated, reflecting the
wholeness and interconnectedness of learning.
The categories of knowledge and skills are described as follows:
Knowledge and Understanding. Subject-specific content acquired in each course (knowledge),
and the comprehension of its meaning and significance (understanding).
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
19
Thinking. The use of critical and creative thinking skills and/or processes,3 as follows:
• planning skills (e.g., understanding the problem, making a plan for solving the problem)
• processing skills (e.g., carrying out a plan, looking back at the solution)
• critical/creative thinking processes (e.g., inquiry, problem solving)
Communication. The conveying of meaning through various oral, written, and visual forms
(e.g., providing explanations of reasoning or justification of results orally or in writing; communicating mathematical ideas and solutions in writing, using numbers and algebraic symbols,
and visually, using pictures, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs, and concrete materials).
Application. The use of knowledge and skills to make connections within and between various
contexts.
Teachers will ensure that student work is assessed and/or evaluated in a balanced manner with
respect to the four categories, and that achievement of particular expectations is considered
within the appropriate categories.
Criteria. Within each category in the achievement chart, criteria are provided, which are
subsets of the knowledge and skills that define each category. For example, in Knowledge and
Understanding, the criteria are “knowledge of content (e.g., facts, terms, procedural skills, use of
tools)” and “understanding of mathematical concepts”. The criteria identify the aspects of student performance that are assessed and/or evaluated, and serve as guides to what to look for.
Descriptors. A “descriptor” indicates the characteristic of the student’s performance, with
respect to a particular criterion, on which assessment or evaluation is focused. In the achievement chart, effectiveness is the descriptor used for each criterion in the Thinking, Communication, and Application categories. What constitutes effectiveness in any given performance task
will vary with the particular criterion being considered. Assessment of effectiveness may therefore focus on a quality such as appropriateness, clarity, accuracy, precision, logic, relevance,
significance, fluency, flexibility, depth, or breadth, as appropriate for the particular criterion.
For example, in the Thinking category, assessment of effectiveness might focus on the degree
of relevance or depth apparent in an analysis; in the Communication category, on clarity of
expression or logical organization of information and ideas; or in the Application category, on
appropriateness or breadth in the making of connections. Similarly, in the Knowledge and
Understanding category, assessment of knowledge might focus on accuracy, and assessment of
understanding might focus on the depth of an explanation. Descriptors help teachers to focus
their assessment and evaluation on specific knowledge and skills for each category and criterion,
and help students to better understand exactly what is being assessed and evaluated.
Qualifiers. A specific “qualifier” is used to define each of the four levels of achievement – that
is, limited for level 1, some for level 2, considerable for level 3, and a high degree or thorough for
level 4. A qualifier is used along with a descriptor to produce a description of performance at a
particular level. For example, the description of a student’s performance at level 3 with respect
to the first criterion in the Thinking category would be: “the student uses planning skills with
considerable effectiveness”.
The descriptions of the levels of achievement given in the chart should be used to identify the
level at which the student has achieved the expectations. In all of their courses, students should
be provided with numerous and varied opportunities to demonstrate the full extent of their
achievement of the curriculum expectations, across all four categories of knowledge and skills.
3. See the footnote on page 20, pertaining to the mathematical processes.
20
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Achievement Chart – Mathematics, Grades 9–12
Categories
50–59%
(Level 1)
60–69%
(Level 2)
70–79%
(Level 3)
80–100%
(Level 4)
Knowledge and Understanding Subject-specific content acquired in each course (knowledge), and the comprehension of its meaning and significance (understanding)
The student:
Knowledge of content
(e.g., facts, terms,
procedural skills, use
of tools)
– demonstrates limited
knowledge of content
– demonstrates some
knowledge of content
– demonstrates
considerable knowledge of content
– demonstrates
thorough knowledge
of content
Understanding of
mathematical concepts
– demonstrates limited
understanding of
concepts
– demonstrates some
understanding of
concepts
– demonstrates
considerable understanding of concepts
– demonstrates
thorough understanding of concepts
Thinking The use of critical and creative thinking skills and/or processes*
The student:
Use of planning skills
– understanding the
problem (e.g., formulating and interpreting
the problem, making
conjectures)
– making a plan for solving the problem
– uses planning
skills with limited
effectiveness
– uses planning
skills with some
effectiveness
– uses planning skills
with considerable
effectiveness
– uses planning skills
with a high degree
of effectiveness
Use of processing skills
– carrying out a plan
(e.g., collecting data,
questioning, testing,
revising, modelling,
solving, inferring, forming conclusions)
– looking back at the
solution (e.g., evaluating reasonableness,
making convincing
arguments, reasoning,
justifying, proving,
reflecting)
– uses processing
skills with limited effectiveness
– uses processing
skills with some
effectiveness
– uses processing skills
with considerable
effectiveness
– uses processing skills
with a high degree
of effectiveness
Use of critical/creative
thinking processes (e.g.,
problem solving, inquiry)
– uses critical/creative
thinking processes
with limited
effectiveness
– uses critical/
creative thinking
processes with
some effectiveness
– uses critical/creative
thinking processes
with considerable
effectiveness
– uses critical/creative
thinking processes
with a high degree
of effectiveness
*
The processing skills and critical/creative thinking processes in the Thinking category include some but not all aspects of the mathematical processes
described on pages 12–16 of this document. Some aspects of the mathematical processes relate to the other categories of the achievement chart.
21
THE ACHIEVEMENT CHART FOR MATHEMATICS
50–59%
(Level 1)
Categories
60–69%
(Level 2)
70–79%
(Level 3)
80–100%
(Level 4)
Communication The conveying of meaning through various forms
The student:
Expression and organization of ideas and mathematical thinking (e.g.,
clarity of expression, logical organization), using
oral, visual, and written
forms (e.g., pictorial,
graphic, dynamic,
numeric, algebraic
forms; concrete
materials)
– expresses and organizes mathematical
thinking with limited
effectiveness
– expresses and organizes mathematical
thinking with some
effectiveness
– expresses and organizes mathematical
thinking with considerable effectiveness
– expresses and organizes mathematical
thinking with a high
degree of effectiveness
Communication for different audiences (e.g.,
peers, teachers) and purposes (e.g., to present
data, justify a solution,
express a mathematical
argument) in oral, visual,
and written forms
– communicates for
different audiences and
purposes with
limited effectiveness
– communicates for
different audiences and
purposes with some
effectiveness
– communicates for
different audiences and
purposes with
considerable
effectiveness
– communicates for
different audiences and
purposes with a high
degree of effectiveness
Use of conventions,
vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline (e.g.,
terms, symbols) in oral,
visual, and written forms
– uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of the
discipline with limited
effectiveness
– uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of the
discipline with some
effectiveness
– uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of the
discipline with
considerable
effectiveness
– uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of the
discipline with a high
degree of effectiveness
Application The use of knowledge and skills to make connections within and between various contexts
The student:
– applies knowledge
and skills in familiar
contexts with limited
effectiveness
– applies knowledge
and skills in familiar
contexts with some
effectiveness
– applies knowledge
and skills in familiar
contexts with
considerable
effectiveness
– applies knowledge
and skills in familiar
contexts with a high
degree of effectiveness
Transfer of knowledge and – transfers knowledge
and skills to new
skills to new contexts
contexts with limited
effectiveness
– transfers knowledge
and skills to new
contexts with some
effectiveness
– transfers knowledge
and skills to new
contexts with
considerable
effectiveness
– transfers knowledge
and skills to new
contexts with a high
degree of effectiveness
Making connections within –
and between various contexts (e.g., connections
between concepts, representations, and forms
within mathematics; connections involving use of
prior knowledge and experience; connections between
mathematics, other disciplines, and the real world)
– makes connections
within and between
various contexts with
some effectiveness
– makes connections
within and between
various contexts
with considerable
effectiveness
– makes connections
within and between
various contexts
with a high degree
of effectiveness
Application of knowledge
and skills in familiar
contexts
makes connections
within and between
various contexts with
limited effectiveness
Note: A student whose achievement is below 50% at the end of a course will not obtain a credit for the course.
22
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Evaluation and Reporting of Student Achievement
Student achievement must be communicated formally to students and parents by means of the
Provincial Report Card, Grades 9–12. The report card provides a record of the student’s
achievement of the curriculum expectations in every course, at particular points in the school
year or semester, in the form of a percentage grade. The percentage grade represents the quality of the student’s overall achievement of the expectations for the course and reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline.
A final grade is recorded for every course, and a credit is granted and recorded for every
course in which the student’s grade is 50% or higher. The final grade for each course in
Grades 9–12 will be determined as follows:
• Seventy per cent of the grade will be based on evaluations conducted throughout the
course. This portion of the grade should reflect the student’s most consistent level of
achievement throughout the course, although special consideration should be given to more
recent evidence of achievement.
• Thirty per cent of the grade will be based on a final evaluation in the form of an examination, performance, essay, and/or other method of evaluation suitable to the course content
and administered towards the end of the course.
23
Some Considerations for Program Planning
in Mathematics
Teachers who are planning a program in mathematics must take into account considerations in
a number of important areas, including those discussed below.
Teaching Approaches
To make new learning more accessible to students, teachers draw upon the knowledge and
skills students have acquired in previous years – in other words, they help activate prior
knowledge. It is important to assess where students are in their mathematical growth and to
bring them forward in their learning.
In order to apply their knowledge effectively and to continue to learn, students must have a
solid conceptual foundation in mathematics. Successful classroom practices involve students in
activities that require higher-order thinking, with an emphasis on problem solving. Students
who have completed the elementary program should have a good grounding in the investigative approach to learning new concepts, including the inquiry model of problem solving,4 and
this approach is still fundamental in the Grade 9 and 10 program.
Students in a mathematics class typically demonstrate diversity in the ways they learn best. It is
important, therefore, that students have opportunities to learn in a variety of ways – individually, cooperatively, independently, with teacher direction, through hands-on experience,
through examples followed by practice. In mathematics, students are required to learn concepts, procedures, and processes and to acquire skills, and they become competent in these various areas with the aid of the instructional and learning strategies best suited to the particular
type of learning. The approaches and strategies used in the classroom to help students meet
the expectations of this curriculum will vary according to the object of the learning and the
needs of the students.
Even at the secondary level, manipulatives are necessary tools for supporting the effective
learning of mathematics. These concrete learning tools invite students to explore and represent
abstract mathematical ideas in varied, concrete, tactile, and visually rich ways. Manipulatives are
also a valuable aid to teachers. By analysing students’ concrete representations of mathematical
concepts and listening carefully to their reasoning, teachers can gain useful insights into students’ thinking and provide supports to help enhance their thinking.5
All learning, especially new learning, should be embedded in well-chosen contexts for learning – that is, contexts that are broad enough to allow students to investigate initial understandings, identify and develop relevant supporting skills, and gain experience with varied and
interesting applications of the new knowledge. Such rich contexts for learning open the door
for students to see the “big ideas” of mathematics – that is, the major underlying principles,
such as pattern or relationship. This understanding of key principles will enable and encourage
students to use mathematical reasoning throughout their lives.
4. See the resource document Targeted Implementation & Planning Supports (TIPS): Grade 7, 8, and 9 Applied Mathematics
(Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2003) for helpful information about the inquiry method of problem solving.
5. A list of manipulatives appropriate for use in intermediate and senior mathematics classrooms is provided in Leading
Math Success, pages 48–49.
24
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Promoting Attitudes Conducive to Learning Mathematics. Students’ attitudes have a significant effect on how they approach problem solving and how well they succeed in mathematics.
Teachers can help students develop the confidence they need by demonstrating a positive disposition towards mathematics.6 Students need to understand that, for some mathematics problems, there may be several ways to arrive at the correct answer. They also need to believe that
they are capable of finding solutions. It is common for people to think that if they cannot
solve problems quickly and easily, they must be inadequate. Teachers can help students understand that problem solving of almost any kind often requires a considerable expenditure of
time and energy and a good deal of perseverance. Once students have this understanding,
teachers can encourage them to develop the willingness to persist, to investigate, to reason and
explore alternative solutions, and to take the risks necessary to become successful problem
solvers.
Collaborative learning enhances students’ understanding of mathematics. Working cooperatively in groups reduces isolation and provides students with opportunities to share ideas and
communicate their thinking in a supportive environment as they work together towards a
common goal. Communication and the connections among ideas that emerge as students
interact with one another enhance the quality of student learning.7
Planning Mathematics Programs for Exceptional Students
In planning mathematics courses for exceptional students, teachers should begin by examining
both the curriculum expectations for the course and the needs of the individual student to
determine which of the following options is appropriate for the student:
• no accommodations8 or modifications; or
• accommodations only; or
• modified expectations, with the possibility of accommodations.
If the student requires either accommodations or modified expectations, or both, the relevant
information, as described in the following paragraphs, must be recorded in his or her Individual
Education Plan (IEP). For a detailed discussion of the ministry’s requirements for IEPs, see
Individual Education Plans: Standards for Development, Program Planning, and Implementation, 2000
(referred to hereafter as IEP Standards, 2000). More detailed information about planning programs for exceptional students can be found in the Individual Education Plan (IEP): A Resource
Guide, 2004. (Both documents are available at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca.)
Students Requiring Accommodations Only. With the aid of accommodations alone, some
exceptional students are able to participate in the regular course curriculum and to demonstrate learning independently. (Accommodations do not alter the provincial curriculum
expectations for the course.) The accommodations required to facilitate the student’s learning
must be identified in his or her IEP (see IEP Standards, 2000, page 11). A student’s IEP is
likely to reflect the same accommodations for many, or all, courses.
There are three types of accommodations. Instructional accommodations are changes in teaching
strategies, including styles of presentation, methods of organization, or use of technology and
multimedia. Environmental accommodations are changes that the student may require in the
6. Leading Math Success, p. 42.
7. Leading Math Success, p. 42.
8. “Accommodations” refers to individualized teaching and assessment strategies, human supports, and/or individualized
equipment.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN MATHEMATICS
25
classroom and/or school environment, such as preferential seating or special lighting.
Assessment accommodations are changes in assessment procedures that enable the student to
demonstrate his or her learning, such as allowing additional time to complete tests or assignments or permitting oral responses to test questions (see page14 of IEP Standards, 2000, for
more examples).
If a student requires “accommodations only” in mathematics courses, assessment and evaluation of his or her achievement will be based on the appropriate course curriculum expectations and the achievement levels outlined in this document.
Students Requiring Modified Expectations. Some exceptional students will require modified
expectations, which differ from the regular course expectations. For most of these students,
modified expectations will be based on the regular course curriculum, with changes in the
number and/or complexity of the expectations. It is important to monitor, and to reflect
clearly in the student’s IEP, the extent to which expectations have been modified. As noted in
Section 7.12 of the ministry’s policy document Ontario Secondary Schools, Grades 9 to 12:
Program and Diploma Requirements, 1999, the principal will determine whether achievement of
the modified expectations constitutes successful completion of the course, and will decide
whether the student is eligible to receive a credit for the course. This decision must be communicated to the parents and the student.
When a student is expected to achieve most of the curriculum expectations for the course, the
modified expectations should identify how they differ from the course expectations. When
modifications are so extensive that achievement of the learning expectations is not likely to
result in a credit, the expectations should specify the precise requirements or tasks on which
the student’s performance will be evaluated and which will be used to generate the course
mark recorded on the Provincial Report Card. Modified expectations indicate the knowledge
and/or skills the student is expected to demonstrate and have assessed in each reporting period
(IEP Standards, 2000, pages 10 and 11). Modified expectations represent specific, realistic,
observable, and measurable achievements and describe specific knowledge and/or skills that the
student can demonstrate independently, given the appropriate assessment accommodations. The
student’s learning expectations must be reviewed in relation to the student’s progress at least
once every reporting period, and must be updated as necessary (IEP Standards, 2000, page 11).
If a student requires modified expectations in mathematics courses, assessment and evaluation
of his or her achievement will be based on the learning expectations identified in the IEP and
on the achievement levels outlined in this document. If some of the student’s learning expectations for a course are modified but the student is working towards a credit for the course, it
is sufficient simply to check the IEP box. If, however, the student’s learning expectations are
modified to such an extent that the principal deems that a credit will not be granted for the
course, the IEP box must be checked and the appropriate statement from Guide to the
Provincial Report Card, Grades 9–12, 1999 (page 8) must be inserted. The teacher’s comments
should include relevant information on the student’s demonstrated learning of the modified
expectations, as well as next steps for the student’s learning in the course.
English As a Second Language and English Literacy Development (ESL/ELD)
Young people whose first language is not English enter Ontario secondary schools with
diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Some may have experience of highly sophisticated
educational systems while others may have had limited formal schooling. All of these students
26
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
bring a rich array of background knowledge and experience to the classroom, and all teachers
must share in the responsibility for their English-language development.
Teachers of mathematics must incorporate appropriate strategies for instruction and assessment
to facilitate the success of the ESL and ELD students in their classrooms. These strategies
include:
• modification of some or all of the course expectations, based on the student’s level of
English proficiency;
• use of a variety of instructional strategies (e.g., extensive use of visual cues, manipulatives,
pictures, diagrams, graphic organizers; attention to clarity of instructions; modelling of
preferred ways of working in mathematics; previewing of textbooks; pre-teaching of key
specialized vocabulary; encouragement of peer tutoring and class discussion; strategic use
of students’ first languages);
• use of a variety of learning resources (e.g., visual material, simplified text, bilingual dictionaries, culturally diverse materials);
• use of assessment accommodations (e.g., granting of extra time; use of alternative forms of
assessment, such as oral interviews, learning logs, or portfolios; simplification of language
used in problems and instructions).
Students who are no longer taking ESL or ELD courses may still need program adaptations to
be successful. If a student requires modified expectations or accommodations in a mathematics
course, a checkmark must be placed in the ESL/ELD box on the student’s report card (see
Guide to the Provincial Report Card, Grades 9–12, 1999).
For further information on supporting ESL/ELD students, refer to The Ontario Curriculum,
Grades 9 to 12: English As a Second Language and English Literacy Development, 1999.
Antidiscrimination Education in Mathematics
To ensure that all students in the province have an equal opportunity to achieve their full
potential, the curriculum must be free from bias and all students must be provided with a safe
and secure environment, characterized by respect for others, that allows them to participate
fully and responsibly in the educational experience.
Learning activities and resources used to implement the curriculum should be inclusive in
nature, reflecting the range of experiences of students with varying backgrounds, abilities,
interests, and learning styles. They should enable students to become more sensitive to the
diverse cultures and perceptions of others, including Aboriginal peoples. For example, activities
can be designed to relate concepts in geometry or patterning to the arches and tile work often
found in Asian architecture or to the patterns used in Aboriginal basketry design. By discussing
aspects of the history of mathematics, teachers can help make students aware of the various cultural groups that have contributed to the evolution of mathematics over the centuries. Finally,
students need to recognize that ordinary people use mathematics in a variety of everyday contexts, both at work and in their daily lives.
Connecting mathematical ideas to real-world situations through learning activities can
enhance students’ appreciation of the role of mathematics in human affairs, in areas including
health, science, and the environment. Students can be made aware of the use of mathematics
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN MATHEMATICS
27
in contexts such as sampling and surveying and the use of statistics to analyse trends. Recognizing the importance of mathematics in such areas helps motivate students to learn and also
provides a foundation for informed, responsible citizenship.
Teachers should have high expectations for all students. To achieve their mathematical potential, however, different students may need different kinds of support. Some boys, for example,
may need additional support in developing their literacy skills in order to complete mathematical tasks effectively. For some girls, additional encouragement to envision themselves in
careers involving mathematics may be beneficial. For example, teachers might consider providing strong role models in the form of female guest speakers who are mathematicians or
who use mathematics in their careers.
Literacy and Inquiry/Research Skills
Literacy skills can play an important role in student success in mathematics courses. Many of
the activities and tasks students undertake in math courses involve the use of written, oral, and
visual communication skills. For example, students use language to record their observations,
to explain their reasoning when solving problems, to describe their inquiries in both informal
and formal contexts, and to justify their results in small-group conversations, oral presentations,
and written reports. The language of mathematics includes special terminology. The study of
mathematics consequently encourages students to use language with greater care and precision
and enhances their ability to communicate effectively. The Ministry of Education has facilitated the development of materials to support literacy instruction across the curriculum.
Helpful advice for integrating literacy instruction in mathematics courses may be found in the
following resource documents:
• Think Literacy: Cross-Curricular Approaches, Grades 7–12, 2003
• Think Literacy: Cross-Curricular Approaches, Grades 7–12 – Mathematics: Subject-Specific
Examples, Grades 7–9, 2004
In all courses in mathematics, students will develop their ability to ask questions and to plan
investigations to answer those questions and to solve related problems. Students need to learn
a variety of research methods and inquiry approaches in order to carry out these investigations
and to solve problems, and they need to be able to select the methods that are most appropriate for a particular inquiry. Students learn how to locate relevant information from a variety of
sources, such as statistical databases, newspapers, and reports. As they advance through the grades,
students will be expected to use such sources with increasing sophistication. They will also be
expected to distinguish between primary and secondary sources, to determine their validity
and relevance, and to use them in appropriate ways.
The Role of Technology in Mathematics
Information and communication technology (ICT) provides a range of tools that can significantly extend and enrich teachers’ instructional strategies and support students’ learning in
mathematics. Teachers can use ICT tools and resources both for whole-class instruction and to
design programs that meet diverse student needs. Technology can help to reduce the time spent
on routine mathematical tasks and to allow students to devote more of their efforts to thinking
and concept development. Useful ICT tools include simulations, multimedia resources, databases, sites that gave access to large amounts of statistical data, and computer-assisted learning
modules.
28
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Applications such as databases, spreadsheets, dynamic geometry software, dynamic statistical
software, graphing software, computer algebra systems (CAS), word-processing software, and
presentation software can be used to support various methods of inquiry in mathematics. The
technology also makes possible simulations of complex systems that can be useful for problemsolving purposes or when field studies on a particular topic are not feasible.
Information and communications technology can also be used in the classroom to connect
students to other schools, at home and abroad, and to bring the global community into the
local classroom.
Career Education in Mathematics
Teachers can promote students’ awareness of careers involving mathematics by exploring applications of concepts and providing opportunities for career-related project work. Such activities
allow students the opportunity to investigate mathematics-related careers compatible with
their interests, aspirations, and abilities.
Students should be made aware that mathematical literacy and problem solving are valuable
assets in an ever-widening range of jobs and careers in today’s society. The knowledge and
skills students acquire in mathematics courses are useful in fields such as science, business,
engineering, and computer studies; in the hospitality, recreation, and tourism industries; and
in the technical trades.
Health and Safety in Mathematics
Although health and safety issues are not normally associated with mathematics, they may be
important when the learning involves fieldwork or investigations based on experimentation.
Out-of-school fieldwork can provide an exciting and authentic dimension to students’ learning
experiences. It also takes the teacher and students out of the predictable classroom environment
and into unfamiliar settings. Teachers must preview and plan activities and expeditions carefully
to protect students’ health and safety.
29
Principles of Mathematics, Grade 9, Academic
(MPM1D)
This course enables students to develop an understanding of mathematical concepts related to
algebra, analytic geometry, and measurement and geometry through investigation, the effective
use of technology, and abstract reasoning. Students will investigate relationships, which they
will then generalize as equations of lines, and will determine the connections between different
representations of a linear relation. They will also explore relationships that emerge from the
measurement of three-dimensional figures and two-dimensional shapes. Students will reason
mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.
Mathematical process expectations. The mathematical processes are to be integrated into
student learning in all areas of this course.
PROBLEM SOLVING
Throughout this course, students will:
• develop, select, apply, and compare a variety of problem-solving strategies as they pose and
solve problems and conduct investigations, to help deepen their mathematical understanding;
REASONING AND
PROVING
• develop and apply reasoning skills (e.g., recognition of relationships, generalization
through inductive reasoning, use of counter-examples) to make mathematical conjectures,
assess conjectures, and justify conclusions, and plan and construct organized mathematical
arguments;
REFLECTING
• demonstrate that they are reflecting on and monitoring their thinking to help clarify their
understanding as they complete an investigation or solve a problem (e.g., by assessing the
effectiveness of strategies and processes used, by proposing alternative approaches, by
judging the reasonableness of results, by verifying solutions);
SELECTING TOOLS AND
• select and use a variety of concrete, visual, and electronic learning tools and appropriate
COMPUTATIONAL
STRATEGIES
computational strategies to investigate mathematical ideas and to solve problems;
CONNECTING
• make connections among mathematical concepts and procedures, and relate mathematical
ideas to situations or phenomena drawn from other contexts (e.g., other curriculum areas,
daily life, current events, art and culture, sports);
REPRESENTING
• create a variety of representations of mathematical ideas (e.g., numeric, geometric, algebraic, graphical, pictorial representations; onscreen dynamic representations), connect and
compare them, and select and apply the appropriate representations to solve problems;
COMMUNICATING
• communicate mathematical thinking orally, visually, and in writing, using mathematical
vocabulary and a variety of appropriate representations, and observing mathematical
conventions.
30
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Number Sense and Algebra
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• demonstrate an understanding of the exponent rules of multiplication and division, and
apply them to simplify expressions;
• manipulate numerical and polynomial expressions, and solve first-degree equations.
Specific Expectations
Operating with Exponents
By the end of this course, students will:
– substitute into and evaluate algebraic expressions involving exponents (i.e., evaluate
expressions involving natural-number
exponents with rational-number bases
3 3
[e.g., evaluate by hand and 9.83 by
2
using a calculator]) (Sample problem: A
movie theatre wants to compare the
volumes of popcorn in two containers, a
cube with edge length 8.1 cm and a cylinder with radius 4.5 cm and height 8.0 cm.
Which container holds more popcorn?);
– describe the relationship between the
algebraic and geometric representations of
a single-variable term up to degree three
[i.e., length, which is one dimensional, can
be represented by x; area, which is two
dimensional, can be represented by (x)(x)
or x2; volume, which is three dimensional,
can be represented by (x)(x)(x), (x 2)(x),
or x3];
– derive, through the investigation and examination of patterns, the exponent rules for
multiplying and dividing monomials, and
apply these rules in expressions involving
one and two variables with positive
exponents;
– extend the multiplication rule to derive and
understand the power of a power rule, and
apply it to simplify expressions involving
one and two variables with positive
exponents.
Manipulating Expressions and Solving
Equations
By the end of this course, students will:
– simplify numerical expressions involving
integers and rational numbers, with and
without the use of technology;*
– solve problems requiring the manipulation
of expressions arising from applications of
percent, ratio, rate, and proportion;*
– relate their understanding of inverse
operations to squaring and taking the
square root, and apply inverse operations
to simplify expressions and solve
equations;
– add and subtract polynomials with up to
two variables [e.g., (2x – 5) + (3x + 1),
(3x2y + 2xy2) + (4x2y – 6xy2)], using a
variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil);
– multiply a polynomial by a monomial
involving the same variable [e.g., 2x(x + 4),
2x2(3x2 – 2x + 1)], using a variety of tools
(e.g., algebra tiles, diagrams, computer
algebra systems, paper and pencil);
– expand and simplify polynomial
expressions involving one variable
[e.g., 2x(4x + 1) – 3x(x + 2)], using a
variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles,
computer algebra systems, paper and
pencil);
*The knowledge and skills described in this expectation
are to be introduced as needed and applied and consolidated throughout the course.
PRINCIPLES OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 9, ACADEMIC (MPM1D)
– solve first-degree equations, including
equations with fractional coefficients,
using a variety of tools (e.g., computer
algebra systems, paper and pencil) and
strategies (e.g., the balance analogy,
algebraic strategies);
– rearrange formulas involving variables in
the first degree, with and without substitution (e.g., in analytic geometry, in measurement) (Sample problem: A circular
garden has a circumference of 30 m. What
is the length of a straight path that goes
through the centre of this garden?);
– solve problems that can be modelled with
first-degree equations, and compare algebraic methods to other solution methods
(Sample problem: Solve the following
problem in more than one way: Jonah is
involved in a walkathon. His goal is to
walk 25 km. He begins at 9:00 a.m. and
walks at a steady rate of 4 km/h. How
many kilometres does he still have left to
walk at 1:15 p.m. if he is to achieve his
goal?).
31
32
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Linear Relations
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• apply data-management techniques to investigate relationships between two variables;
• demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of a linear relation;
• connect various representations of a linear relation.
Specific Expectations
Using Data Management to Investigate
Relationships
By the end of this course, students will:
– interpret the meanings of points on scatter
plots or graphs that represent linear relations, including scatter plots or graphs in
more than one quadrant [e.g., on a scatter
plot of height versus age, interpret the
point (13, 150) as representing a student
who is 13 years old and 150 cm tall; identify points on the graph that represent students who are taller and younger than this
student] (Sample problem: Given a graph
that represents the relationship of the
Celsius scale and the Fahrenheit scale,
determine the Celsius equivalent of –5°F.);
– pose problems, identify variables, and
formulate hypotheses associated with relationships between two variables (Sample
problem: Does the rebound height of a
ball depend on the height from which it
was dropped?);
– design and carry out an investigation or
experiment involving relationships
between two variables, including the
collection and organization of data, using
appropriate methods, equipment, and/or
technology (e.g., surveying; using measuring tools, scientific probes, the Internet)
and techniques (e.g., making tables, drawing graphs) (Sample problem: Design and
perform an experiment to measure and
record the temperature of ice water in a
plastic cup and ice water in a thermal mug
over a 30 min period, for the purpose of
comparison. What factors might affect the
outcome of this experiment? How could
you design the experiment to account for
them?);
– describe trends and relationships observed
in data, make inferences from data, compare the inferences with hypotheses about
the data, and explain any differences
between the inferences and the hypotheses
(e.g., describe the trend observed in the
data. Does a relationship seem to exist? Of
what sort? Is the outcome consistent with
your hypothesis? Identify and explain any
outlying pieces of data. Suggest a formula
that relates the variables. How might you
vary this experiment to examine other
relationships?) (Sample problem: Hypothesize the effect of the length of a
pendulum on the time required for the
pendulum to make five full swings. Use
data to make an inference. Compare the
inference with the hypothesis. Are there
other relationships you might investigate
involving pendulums?).
Understanding Characteristics of Linear
Relations
By the end of this course, students will:
– construct tables of values, graphs, and
equations, using a variety of tools (e.g.,
graphing calculators, spreadsheets, graphing
software, paper and pencil), to represent
linear relations derived from descriptions
of realistic situations (Sample problem:
Construct a table of values, a graph, and
33
PRINCIPLES OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 9, ACADEMIC (MPM1D)
an equation to represent a monthly
cellphone plan that costs $25, plus $0.10
per minute of airtime.);
– construct tables of values, scatter plots, and
lines or curves of best fit as appropriate,
using a variety of tools (e.g., spreadsheets,
graphing software, graphing calculators,
paper and pencil), for linearly related and
non-linearly related data collected from a
variety of sources (e.g., experiments, electronic secondary sources, patterning with
concrete materials) (Sample problem:
Collect data, using concrete materials or
dynamic geometry software, and construct
a table of values, a scatter plot, and a line
or curve of best fit to represent the following relationships: the volume and the
height for a square-based prism with a
fixed base; the volume and the side length
of the base for a square-based prism with a
fixed height.);
– identify, through investigation, some properties of linear relations (i.e., numerically,
the first difference is a constant, which represents a constant rate of change; graphically, a straight line represents the relation),
and apply these properties to determine
whether a relation is linear or non-linear;
– compare the properties of direct variation
and partial variation in applications, and
identify the initial value (e.g., for a relation
described in words, or represented as a
graph or an equation) (Sample problem:
Yoga costs $20 for registration, plus $8 per
class. Tai chi costs $12 per class. Which
situation represents a direct variation, and
which represents a partial variation? For
each relation, what is the initial value?
Explain your answers.);
– determine the equation of a line of best fit
for a scatter plot, using an informal process
(e.g., using a movable line in dynamic
statistical software; using a process of trial
and error on a graphing calculator; deter-
mining the equation of the line joining
two carefully chosen points on the scatter
plot).
Connecting Various Representations of
Linear Relations
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine values of a linear relation by
using a table of values, by using the equation of the relation, and by interpolating
or extrapolating from the graph of the
relation (Sample problem: The equation
H = 300 – 60t represents the height of a
hot air balloon that is initially at 300 m
and is descending at a constant rate of
60 m/min. Determine algebraically and
graphically how long the balloon will take
to reach a height of 160 m.);
– describe a situation that would explain the
events illustrated by a given graph of a
relationship between two variables
(Sample problem: The walk of an individual is illustrated in the given graph, produced by a motion detector and a graphing calculator. Describe the walk [e.g., the
initial distance from the motion detector,
the rate of walk].);
– determine other representations of a linear
relation, given one representation (e.g.,
given a numeric model, determine a graphical model and an algebraic model; given a
graph, determine some points on the graph
and determine an algebraic model);
– describe the effects on a linear graph and
make the corresponding changes to the
linear equation when the conditions of
the situation they represent are varied
(e.g., given a partial variation graph and
an equation representing the cost of producing a yearbook, describe how the
graph changes if the cost per book is
altered, describe how the graph changes if
the fixed costs are altered, and make the
corresponding changes to the equation).
34
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Analytic Geometry
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• determine the relationship between the form of an equation and the shape of its graph with
respect to linearity and non-linearity;
• determine, through investigation, the properties of the slope and y-intercept of a linear
relation;
• solve problems involving linear relations.
Specific Expectations
Investigating the Relationship
Between the Equation of a Relation
and the Shape of Its Graph
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine, through investigation, the characteristics that distinguish the equation of a
straight line from the equations of nonlinear relations (e.g., use a graphing calculator or graphing software to graph a variety of linear and non-linear relations from
their equations; classify the relations
according to the shapes of their graphs;
connect an equation of degree one to a
linear relation);
– identify, through investigation, the equation of a line in any of the forms
y = mx + b, Ax + By + C = 0,
x = a, y = b;
– express the equation of a line in the form
y = mx + b, given the form
Ax + By + C = 0.
Investigating the Properties of Slope
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine, through investigation, various
formulas for the slope of a line segment or
rise
the change in y
or
,m=
a line (e.g., m =
run
m=
m = ∆y
∆x ,
y2 – y1
x2 – x1
the change in x
), and use the formulas
to determine the slope of a line segment
or a line;
– identify, through investigation with technology, the geometric significance of m
and b in the equation y = mx + b;
– determine, through investigation, connections among the representations of a constant rate of change of a linear relation
(e.g., the cost of producing a book of photographs is $50, plus $5 per book, so an
equation is C = 50 + 5p; a table of values
provides the first difference of 5; the rate
of change has a value of 5, which is also
the slope of the corresponding line; and
5 is the coefficient of the independent
variable, p, in this equation);
– identify, through investigation, properties
of the slopes of lines and line segments
(e.g., direction, positive or negative rate of
change, steepness, parallelism, perpendicularity), using graphing technology to facilitate investigations, where appropriate.
Using the Properties of Linear Relations
to Solve Problems
By the end of this course, students will:
– graph lines by hand, using a variety
of techniques (e.g., graph y = 2 x – 4
3
using the y-intercept and slope; graph
2x + 3y = 6 using the x- and
y-intercepts);
– determine the equation of a line from
information about the line (e.g., the slope
and y-intercept; the slope and a point; two
PRINCIPLES OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 9, ACADEMIC (MPM1D)
points) (Sample problem: Compare the
equations of the lines parallel to and perpendicular to y = 2x – 4, and with the
same x-intercept as 3x – 4y = 12. Verify
using dynamic geometry software.);
– describe the meaning of the slope and
y-intercept for a linear relation arising
from a realistic situation (e.g., the cost to
rent the community gym is $40 per
evening, plus $2 per person for equipment
rental; the vertical intercept, 40, represents
the $40 cost of renting the gym; the value
of the rate of change, 2, represents the $2
cost per person), and describe a situation
that could be modelled by a given linear
equation (e.g., the linear equation
M = 50 + 6d could model the mass of a
shipping package, including 50 g for the
packaging material, plus 6 g per flyer
added to the package);
35
– identify and explain any restrictions on
the variables in a linear relation arising
from a realistic situation (e.g., in the relation C = 50 + 25n, C is the cost of holding a party in a hall and n is the number
of guests; n is restricted to whole numbers
of 100 or less, because of the size of the
hall, and C is consequently restricted to
$50 to $2550);
– determine graphically the point of intersection of two linear relations, and interpret the intersection point in the context
of an application (Sample problem: A
video rental company has two monthly
plans. Plan A charges a flat fee of $30 for
unlimited rentals; Plan B charges $9, plus
$3 per video. Use a graphical model to
determine the conditions under which
you should choose Plan A or Plan B.).
36
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Measurement and Geometry
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• determine, through investigation, the optimal values of various measurements;
• solve problems involving the measurements of two-dimensional shapes and the surface areas
and volumes of three-dimensional figures;
• verify, through investigation facilitated by dynamic geometry software, geometric properties
and relationships involving two-dimensional shapes, and apply the results to solving
problems.
Specific Expectations
Investigating the Optimal Values
of Measurements
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine the maximum area of a rectangle with a given perimeter by constructing
a variety of rectangles, using a variety of
tools (e.g., geoboards, graph paper, toothpicks, a pre-made dynamic geometry
sketch), and by examining various values
of the area as the side lengths change and
the perimeter remains constant;
– determine the minimum perimeter of a
rectangle with a given area by constructing
a variety of rectangles, using a variety of
tools (e.g., geoboards, graph paper, a premade dynamic geometry sketch), and by
examining various values of the side lengths
and the perimeter as the area stays constant;
– identify, through investigation with a variety of tools (e.g. concrete materials, computer software), the effect of varying the
dimensions on the surface area [or volume]
of square-based prisms and cylinders, given
a fixed volume [or surface area];
– explain the significance of optimal area,
surface area, or volume in various applications (e.g., the minimum amount of packaging material; the relationship between
surface area and heat loss);
– pose and solve problems involving maximization and minimization of measurements of geometric shapes and figures
(e.g., determine the dimensions of the
rectangular field with the maximum area
that can be enclosed by a fixed amount of
fencing, if the fencing is required on only
three sides) (Sample problem: Determine
the dimensions of a square-based, opentopped prism with a volume of 24 cm3
and with the minimum surface area.).
Solving Problems Involving Perimeter, Area,
Surface Area, and Volume
By the end of this course, students will:
– relate the geometric representation of the
Pythagorean theorem and the algebraic
representation a2 + b2 = c 2;
– solve problems using the Pythagorean
theorem, as required in applications (e.g.,
calculate the height of a cone, given the
radius and the slant height, in order to
determine the volume of the cone);
– solve problems involving the areas and
perimeters of composite two-dimensional
shapes (i.e., combinations of rectangles,
triangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and
circles) (Sample problem: A new park is in
the shape of an isosceles trapezoid with a
square attached to the shortest side. The
side lengths of the trapezoidal section are
200 m, 500 m, 500 m, and 800 m, and the
side length of the square section is 200 m.
If the park is to be fully fenced and sodded,
how much fencing and sod are required?);
PRINCIPLES OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 9, ACADEMIC (MPM1D)
– develop, through investigation (e.g., using
concrete materials), the formulas for the
volume of a pyramid, a cone, and a sphere
(e.g., use three-dimensional figures to
show that the volume of a pyramid
[or cone] is 1 the volume of a prism
3
[or cylinder] with the same base and
height, and therefore that
Vpyramid = Vprism or
3
(area of base)(height)
Vpyramid =
);
3
– determine, through investigation, the
relationship for calculating the surface area
of a pyramid (e.g., use the net of a squarebased pyramid to determine that the
surface area is the area of the square base
plus the areas of the four congruent
triangles);
– solve problems involving the surface areas
and volumes of prisms, pyramids, cylinders,
cones, and spheres, including composite
figures (Sample problem: Break-bit Cereal
is sold in a single-serving size, in a box in
the shape of a rectangular prism of dimensions 5 cm by 4 cm by 10 cm. The manufacturer also sells the cereal in a larger size,
in a box with dimensions double those of
the smaller box. Compare the surface
areas and the volumes of the two boxes,
and explain the implications of your
answers.).
Investigating and Applying Geometric
Relationships
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine, through investigation using a
variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry
software, concrete materials), and describe
the properties and relationships of the
interior and exterior angles of triangles,
quadrilaterals, and other polygons, and
37
apply the results to problems involving the
angles of polygons (Sample problem: With
the assistance of dynamic geometry software, determine the relationship between
the sum of the interior angles of a polygon and the number of sides. Use your
conclusion to determine the sum of the
interior angles of a 20-sided polygon.);
– determine, through investigation using a
variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry
software, paper folding), and describe
some properties of polygons (e.g., the figure that results from joining the midpoints
of the sides of a quadrilateral is a parallelogram; the diagonals of a rectangle bisect
each other; the line segment joining the
midpoints of two sides of a triangle is half
the length of the third side), and apply the
results in problem solving (e.g., given the
width of the base of an A-frame tree
house, determine the length of a horizontal support beam that is attached half way
up the sloping sides);
– pose questions about geometric relationships, investigate them, and present their
findings, using a variety of mathematical
forms (e.g., written explanations, diagrams, dynamic sketches, formulas, tables)
(Sample problem: How many diagonals
can be drawn from one vertex of a
20-sided polygon? How can I find out
without counting them?);
– illustrate a statement about a geometric
property by demonstrating the statement
with multiple examples, or deny the statement on the basis of a counter-example,
with or without the use of dynamic
geometry software (Sample problem:
Confirm or deny the following statement:
If a quadrilateral has perpendicular diagonals, then it is a square.).
38
Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 9, Applied
(MFM1P)
This course enables students to develop an understanding of mathematical concepts related to
introductory algebra, proportional reasoning, and measurement and geometry through investigation, the effective use of technology, and hands-on activities. Students will investigate
real-life examples to develop various representations of linear relations, and will determine
the connections between the representations. They will also explore certain relationships that
emerge from the measurement of three-dimensional figures and two-dimensional shapes.
Students will consolidate their mathematical skills as they solve problems and communicate
their thinking.
Mathematical process expectations. The mathematical processes are to be integrated into
student learning in all areas of this course.
PROBLEM SOLVING
Throughout this course, students will:
• develop, select, apply, and compare a variety of problem-solving strategies as they pose and
solve problems and conduct investigations, to help deepen their mathematical understanding;
REASONING AND
PROVING
• develop and apply reasoning skills (e.g., recognition of relationships, generalization
through inductive reasoning, use of counter-examples) to make mathematical conjectures,
assess conjectures, and justify conclusions, and plan and construct organized mathematical
arguments;
REFLECTING
• demonstrate that they are reflecting on and monitoring their thinking to help clarify their
understanding as they complete an investigation or solve a problem (e.g., by assessing the
effectiveness of strategies and processes used, by proposing alternative approaches, by
judging the reasonableness of results, by verifying solutions);
SELECTING TOOLS AND
• select and use a variety of concrete, visual, and electronic learning tools and appropriate
COMPUTATIONAL
STRATEGIES
computational strategies to investigate mathematical ideas and to solve problems;
CONNECTING
• make connections among mathematical concepts and procedures, and relate mathematical
ideas to situations or phenomena drawn from other contexts (e.g., other curriculum areas,
daily life, current events, art and culture, sports);
REPRESENTING
• create a variety of representations of mathematical ideas (e.g., numeric, geometric, algebraic, graphical, pictorial representations; onscreen dynamic representations), connect and
compare them, and select and apply the appropriate representations to solve problems;
COMMUNICATING
• communicate mathematical thinking orally, visually, and in writing, using mathematical
vocabulary and a variety of appropriate representations, and observing mathematical
conventions.
39
FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 9, APPLIED (MFM1P)
Number Sense and Algebra
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• solve problems involving proportional reasoning;
• simplify numerical and polynomial expressions in one variable, and solve simple first-degree
equations.
Specific Expectations
Solving Problems Involving Proportional
Reasoning
By the end of this course, students will:
– illustrate equivalent ratios, using a variety
of tools (e.g., concrete materials, diagrams,
dynamic geometry software) (e.g., show
that 4:6 represents the same ratio as 2:3 by
showing that a ramp with a height of 4 m
and a base of 6 m and a ramp with a
height of 2 m and a base of 3 m are
equally steep);
– represent, using equivalent ratios and proportions, directly proportional relationships
arising from realistic situations (Sample
problem: You are building a skateboard
ramp whose ratio of height to base must
be 2:3. Write a proportion that could be
used to determine the base if the height is
4.5 m.);
– solve for the unknown value in a proportion, using a variety of methods (e.g., concrete materials, algebraic reasoning, equivalent ratios, constant of proportionality)
x 15
(Sample problem: Solve =
.);
4 20
– make comparisons using unit rates (e.g., if
500 mL of juice costs $2.29, the unit rate
is 0.458¢/mL; this unit rate is less than for
750 mL of juice at $3.59, which has a unit
rate of 0.479¢/mL);
– solve problems involving ratios, rates, and
directly proportional relationships in various contexts (e.g., currency conversions,
scale drawings, measurement), using a
variety of methods (e.g., using algebraic
reasoning, equivalent ratios, a constant of
proportionality; using dynamic geometry
software to construct and measure scale
drawings) (Sample problem: Simple interest is directly proportional to the amount
invested. If Luis invests $84 for one year
and earns $1.26 in interest, how much
would he earn in interest if he invested
$235 for one year?);
– solve problems requiring the expression of
percents, fractions, and decimals in their
equivalent forms (e.g., calculating simple
interest and sales tax; analysing data)
(Sample problem: Of the 29 students in a
Grade 9 math class, 13 are taking science
this semester. If this class is representative
of all the Grade 9 students in the school,
estimate and calculate the percent of the
236 Grade 9 students who are taking science this semester. Estimate and calculate
the number of Grade 9 students this percent represents.).
Simplifying Expressions and Solving Equations
By the end of this course, students will:
– simplify numerical expressions involving
integers and rational numbers, with and
without the use of technology;*
– relate their understanding of inverse
operations to squaring and taking the
square root, and apply inverse operations
to simplify expressions and solve
equations;
*The knowledge and skills described in this expectation
are to be introduced as needed and applied and consolidated throughout the course.
40
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
– describe the relationship between the
algebraic and geometric representations of
a single-variable term up to degree three
[i.e., length, which is one dimensional, can
be represented by x; area, which is two
dimensional, can be represented by (x)(x)
or x2; volume, which is three dimensional,
can be represented by (x)(x)(x), (x 2)(x),
or x3];
– substitute into and evaluate algebraic expressions involving exponents (i.e., evaluate
expressions involving natural-number
exponents with rational-number bases)
3 3
[e.g., evaluate by hand and 9.83 by
2
using a calculator]) (Sample problem: A
movie theatre wants to compare the
volumes of popcorn in two containers, a
cube with edge length 8.1 cm and a cylinder with radius 4.5 cm and height 8.0 cm.
Which container holds more popcorn?);*
– add and subtract polynomials involving
the same variable up to degree three [e.g.,
(2x + 1) + (x2 – 3x + 4)], using a variety
of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, computer
algebra systems, paper and pencil);
*The knowledge and skills described in this expectation
are to be introduced as needed and applied and consolidated throughout the course.
– multiply a polynomial by a monomial involving the same variable to give results up
to degree three [e.g., (2x)(3x), 2x(x + 3)],
using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles,
drawings, computer algebra systems, paper
and pencil);
– solve first-degree equations with nonfractional coefficients, using a variety of
tools (e.g., computer algebra systems,
paper and pencil) and strategies (e.g.,
the balance analogy, algebraic strategies)
(Sample problem: Solve 2x + 7 = 6x – 1
using the balance analogy.);
– substitute into algebraic equations and
solve for one variable in the first degree
(e.g., in relationships, in measurement)
(Sample problem: The perimeter of a rectangle can be represented as P = 2l + 2w.
If the perimeter of a rectangle is 59 cm
and the width is 12 cm, determine the
length.).
41
FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 9, APPLIED (MFM1P)
Linear Relations
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• apply data-management techniques to investigate relationships between two variables;
• determine the characteristics of linear relations;
• demonstrate an understanding of constant rate of change and its connection to linear
relations;
• connect various representations of a linear relation, and solve problems using the
representations.
Specific Expectations
Using Data Management to Investigate
Relationships
By the end of this course, students will:
– interpret the meanings of points on scatter
plots or graphs that represent linear relations, including scatter plots or graphs in
more than one quadrant [e.g., on a scatter
plot of height versus age, interpret the
point (13, 150) as representing a student
who is 13 years old and 150 cm tall; identify points on the graph that represent
students who are taller and younger than
this student] (Sample problem: Given a
graph that represents the relationship of
the Celsius scale and the Fahrenheit scale,
determine the Celsius equivalent of –5°F.);
– pose problems, identify variables, and formulate hypotheses associated with relationships between two variables (Sample
problem: Does the rebound height of a ball
depend on the height from which it was
dropped?);
– carry out an investigation or experiment
involving relationships between two
variables, including the collection and
organization of data, using appropriate
methods, equipment, and/or technology
(e.g., surveying; using measuring tools,
scientific probes, the Internet) and techniques (e.g., making tables, drawing
graphs) (Sample problem: Perform an
experiment to measure and record the
temperature of ice water in a plastic cup
and ice water in a thermal mug over a
30 min period, for the purpose of comparison. What factors might affect the
outcome of this experiment? How could
you change the experiment to account for
them?);
– describe trends and relationships observed
in data, make inferences from data, compare the inferences with hypotheses about
the data, and explain any differences
between the inferences and the hypotheses
(e.g., describe the trend observed in the
data. Does a relationship seem to exist? Of
what sort? Is the outcome consistent with
your hypothesis? Identify and explain any
outlying pieces of data. Suggest a formula
that relates the variables. How might you
vary this experiment to examine other
relationships?) (Sample problem: Hypothesize the effect of the length of a
pendulum on the time required for the
pendulum to make five full swings. Use
data to make an inference. Compare the
inference with the hypothesis. Are there
other relationships you might investigate
involving pendulums?).
42
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Determining Characteristics of Linear
Relations
By the end of this course, students will:
– construct tables of values and graphs, using
a variety of tools (e.g., graphing calculators,
spreadsheets, graphing software, paper and
pencil), to represent linear relations
derived from descriptions of realistic situations (Sample problem: Construct a table
of values and a graph to represent a
monthly cellphone plan that costs $25,
plus $0.10 per minute of airtime.);
– construct tables of values, scatter plots, and
lines or curves of best fit as appropriate,
using a variety of tools (e.g., spreadsheets,
graphing software, graphing calculators,
paper and pencil), for linearly related and
non-linearly related data collected from a
variety of sources (e.g., experiments, electronic secondary sources, patterning with
concrete materials) (Sample problem:
Collect data, using concrete materials or
dynamic geometry software, and construct
a table of values, a scatter plot, and a line
or curve of best fit to represent the following relationships: the volume and the
height for a square-based prism with a
fixed base; the volume and the side length
of the base for a square-based prism with
a fixed height.);
– identify, through investigation, some properties of linear relations (i.e., numerically,
the first difference is a constant, which
represents a constant rate of change;
graphically, a straight line represents the
relation), and apply these properties to
determine whether a relation is linear or
non-linear.
Investigating Constant Rate of Change
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine, through investigation, that the
rate of change of a linear relation can be
found by choosing any two points on the
line that represents the relation, finding
the vertical change between the points
(i.e., the rise) and the horizontal change
between the points (i.e., the run), and
rise
writing the ratio run
rise
(i.e., rate of change = run );
– determine, through investigation, connections among the representations of a constant rate of change of a linear relation
(e.g., the cost of producing a book of
photographs is $50, plus $5 per book, so
an equation is C = 50 + 5p; a table of values provides the first difference of 5; the
rate of change has a value of 5; and 5 is
the coefficient of the independent variable, p, in this equation);
– compare the properties of direct variation
and partial variation in applications, and
identify the initial value (e.g., for a relation
described in words, or represented as a
graph or an equation) (Sample problem:
Yoga costs $20 for registration, plus $8 per
class. Tai chi costs $12 per class. Which
situation represents a direct variation, and
which represents a partial variation? For
each relation, what is the initial value?
Explain your answers.);
– express a linear relation as an equation in
two variables, using the rate of change and
the initial value (e.g., Mei is raising funds
in a charity walkathon; the course measures 25 km, and Mei walks at a steady
pace of 4 km/h; the distance she has left
to walk can be expressed as d = 25 – 4t,
where t is the number of hours since she
started the walk);
– describe the meaning of the rate of
change and the initial value for a linear
relation arising from a realistic situation
(e.g., the cost to rent the community gym
43
FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 9, APPLIED (MFM1P)
is $40 per evening, plus $2 per person for
equipment rental; the vertical intercept,
40, represents the $40 cost of renting the
gym; the value of the rate of change, 2,
represents the $2 cost per person), and
describe a situation that could be modelled by a given linear equation (e.g., the
linear equation M = 50 + 6d could model
the mass of a shipping package, including
50 g for the packaging material, plus 6 g
per flyer added to the package).
Connecting Various Representations of Linear
Relations and Solving Problems Using the
Representations
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine values of a linear relation by
using a table of values, by using the equation of the relation, and by interpolating
or extrapolating from the graph of the
relation (Sample problem: The equation
H = 300 – 60t represents the height of a
hot air balloon that is initially at 300 m
and is descending at a constant rate of
60 m/min. Determine algebraically and
graphically its height after 3.5 min.);
– describe a situation that would explain
the events illustrated by a given graph
of a relationship between two variables
(Sample problem: The walk of an individual is illustrated in the given graph,
produced by a motion detector and a
graphing calculator. Describe the walk
[e.g., the initial distance from the motion
detector, the rate of walk].);
– determine other representations of a linear
relation arising from a realistic situation,
given one representation (e.g., given a
numeric model, determine a graphical
model and an algebraic model; given a
graph, determine some points on the
graph and determine an algebraic model);
– solve problems that can be modelled with
first-degree equations, and compare the
algebraic method to other solution methods
(e.g., graphing) (Sample problem: Bill
noticed it snowing and measured that
5 cm of snow had already fallen. During
the next hour, an additional 1.5 cm of
snow fell. If it continues to snow at this
rate, how many more hours will it take
until a total of 12.5 cm of snow has
accumulated?);
– describe the effects on a linear graph and
make the corresponding changes to the
linear equation when the conditions of
the situation they represent are varied
(e.g., given a partial variation graph and
an equation representing the cost of
producing a yearbook, describe how the
graph changes if the cost per book is
altered, describe how the graph changes if
the fixed costs are altered, and make the
corresponding changes to the equation);
– determine graphically the point of
intersection of two linear relations, and
interpret the intersection point in the
context of an application (Sample problem:
A video rental company has two monthly
plans. Plan A charges a flat fee of $30 for
unlimited rentals; Plan B charges $9, plus
$3 per video. Use a graphical model to
determine the conditions under which
you should choose Plan A or Plan B.);
– select a topic involving a two-variable
relationship (e.g., the amount of your pay
cheque and the number of hours you
work; trends in sports salaries over time;
the time required to cool a cup of coffee),
pose a question on the topic, collect data
to answer the question, and present its
solution using appropriate representations
of the data (Sample problem: Individually
or in a small group, collect data on the cost
compared to the capacity of computer
hard drives. Present the data numerically,
graphically, and [if linear] algebraically.
Describe the results and any trends orally
or by making a poster display or by using
presentation software.).
44
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Measurement and Geometry
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• determine, through investigation, the optimal values of various measurements of rectangles;
• solve problems involving the measurements of two-dimensional shapes and the volumes of
three-dimensional figures;
• determine, through investigation facilitated by dynamic geometry software, geometric
properties and relationships involving two-dimensional shapes, and apply the results to
solving problems.
Specific Expectations
Investigating the Optimal Values of
Measurements of Rectangles
By the end of this course, students will:
Solving Problems Involving Perimeter, Area,
and Volume
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine the maximum area of a rectangle with a given perimeter by constructing
a variety of rectangles, using a variety of
tools (e.g., geoboards, graph paper, toothpicks, a pre-made dynamic geometry
sketch), and by examining various values
of the area as the side lengths change and
the perimeter remains constant;
– relate the geometric representation of
the Pythagorean theorem to the algebraic
representation a2 + b2 = c 2;
– determine the minimum perimeter of a
rectangle with a given area by constructing
a variety of rectangles, using a variety of
tools (e.g., geoboards, graph paper, a premade dynamic geometry sketch), and by
examining various values of the side
lengths and the perimeter as the area stays
constant;
– solve problems involving the areas and
perimeters of composite two-dimensional
shapes (i.e., combinations of rectangles,
triangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and
circles) (Sample problem: A new park is in
the shape of an isosceles trapezoid with a
square attached to the shortest side. The
side lengths of the trapezoidal section are
200 m, 500 m, 500 m, and 800 m, and the
side length of the square section is 200 m.
If the park is to be fully fenced and
sodded, how much fencing and sod are
required?);
– solve problems that require maximizing the
area of a rectangle for a fixed perimeter or
minimizing the perimeter of a rectangle
for a fixed area (Sample problem: You have
100 m of fence to enclose a rectangular
area to be used for a snow sculpture competition. One side of the area is bounded
by the school, so the fence is required for
only three sides of the rectangle. Determine the dimensions of the maximum area
that can be enclosed.).
– solve problems using the Pythagorean
theorem, as required in applications (e.g.,
calculate the height of a cone, given the
radius and the slant height, in order to
determine the volume of the cone);
– develop, through investigation (e.g., using
concrete materials), the formulas for the
volume of a pyramid, a cone, and a sphere
(e.g., use three-dimensional figures to
FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 9, APPLIED (MFM1P)
show that the volume of a pyramid
[or cone] is 1 the volume of a prism
3
[or cylinder] with the same base and
height, and therefore that
Vpyramid = Vprism or
3
Vpyramid = (area of base)(height) );
3
– solve problems involving the volumes of
prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and
spheres (Sample problem: Break-bit Cereal
is sold in a single-serving size, in a box in
the shape of a rectangular prism of dimensions 5 cm by 4 cm by 10 cm. The manufacturer also sells the cereal in a larger size,
in a box with dimensions double those of
the smaller box. Make a hypothesis about
the effect on the volume of doubling the
dimensions. Test your hypothesis using
the volumes of the two boxes, and discuss
the result.).
Investigating and Applying Geometric
Relationships
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine, through investigation using a
variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry
software, concrete materials), and describe
the properties and relationships of the
interior and exterior angles of triangles,
quadrilaterals, and other polygons, and
apply the results to problems involving the
angles of polygons (Sample problem: With
the assistance of dynamic geometry software, determine the relationship between
the sum of the interior angles of a polygon and the number of sides. Use your
conclusion to determine the sum of the
interior angles of a 20-sided polygon.);
45
– determine, through investigation using a
variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry
software, concrete materials), and describe
the properties and relationships of the
angles formed by parallel lines cut by a
transversal, and apply the results to problems involving parallel lines (e.g., given
a diagram of a rectangular gate with a
supporting diagonal beam, and given the
measure of one angle in the diagram, use
the angle properties of triangles and parallel lines to determine the measures of the
other angles in the diagram);
– create an original dynamic sketch, paperfolding design, or other illustration that
incorporates some of the geometric
properties from this section, or find and
report on some real-life application(s)
(e.g., in carpentry, sports, architecture)
of the geometric properties.
46
Principles of Mathematics, Grade 10, Academic
(MPM2D)
This course enables students to broaden their understanding of relationships and extend their
problem-solving and algebraic skills through investigation, the effective use of technology, and
abstract reasoning. Students will explore quadratic relations and their applications; solve and
apply linear systems; verify properties of geometric figures using analytic geometry; and investigate the trigonometry of right and acute triangles. Students will reason mathematically and
communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.
Mathematical process expectations. The mathematical processes are to be integrated into
student learning in all areas of this course.
PROBLEM SOLVING
Throughout this course, students will:
• develop, select, apply, and compare a variety of problem-solving strategies as they pose and
solve problems and conduct investigations, to help deepen their mathematical understanding;
REASONING AND
PROVING
• develop and apply reasoning skills (e.g., recognition of relationships, generalization
through inductive reasoning, use of counter-examples) to make mathematical conjectures,
assess conjectures, and justify conclusions, and plan and construct organized mathematical
arguments;
REFLECTING
• demonstrate that they are reflecting on and monitoring their thinking to help clarify their
understanding as they complete an investigation or solve a problem (e.g., by assessing the
effectiveness of strategies and processes used, by proposing alternative approaches, by
judging the reasonableness of results, by verifying solutions);
SELECTING TOOLS AND
• select and use a variety of concrete, visual, and electronic learning tools and appropriate
COMPUTATIONAL
STRATEGIES
computational strategies to investigate mathematical ideas and to solve problems;
CONNECTING
• make connections among mathematical concepts and procedures, and relate mathematical
ideas to situations or phenomena drawn from other contexts (e.g., other curriculum areas,
daily life, current events, art and culture, sports);
REPRESENTING
• create a variety of representations of mathematical ideas (e.g., numeric, geometric, algebraic, graphical, pictorial representations; onscreen dynamic representations), connect and
compare them, and select and apply the appropriate representations to solve problems;
COMMUNICATING
• communicate mathematical thinking orally, visually, and in writing, using mathematical
vocabulary and a variety of appropriate representations, and observing mathematical
conventions.
47
PRINCIPLES OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 10, ACADEMIC (MPM2D)
Quadratic Relations of the Form y = ax 2 + bx + c
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• determine the basic properties of quadratic relations;
• relate transformations of the graph of y = x2 to the algebraic representation
y = a(x – h)2 + k;
• solve quadratic equations and interpret the solutions with respect to the corresponding
relations;
• solve problems involving quadratic relations.
Specific Expectations
Investigating the Basic Properties of
Quadratic Relations
By the end of this course, students will:
– collect data that can be represented as a
quadratic relation, from experiments using
appropriate equipment and technology
(e.g., concrete materials, scientific probes,
graphing calculators), or from secondary
sources (e.g., the Internet, Statistics
Canada); graph the data and draw a curve
of best fit, if appropriate, with or without
the use of technology (Sample problem:
Make a 1 m ramp that makes a 15° angle
with the floor. Place a can 30 cm up the
ramp. Record the time it takes for the can
to roll to the bottom. Repeat by placing
the can 40 cm, 50 cm, and 60 cm up the
ramp, and so on. Graph the data and draw
the curve of best fit.);
– determine, through investigation with
and without the use of technology, that a
quadratic relation of the form
y = ax2 + bx + c (a ≠ 0) can be graphically
represented as a parabola, and that the table
of values yields a constant second difference
(Sample problem: Graph the relation
y = x 2 – 4x by developing a table of
values and plotting points. Observe the
shape of the graph. Calculate first and
second differences. Repeat for different
quadratic relations. Describe your observations and make conclusions, using the
appropriate terminology.);
– identify the key features of a graph of a
parabola (i.e., the equation of the axis of
symmetry, the coordinates of the vertex,
the y-intercept, the zeros, and the maximum or minimum value), and use the
appropriate terminology to describe them;
– compare, through investigation using technology, the features of the graph of y = x2
and the graph of y = 2x, and determine
the meaning of a negative exponent and
of zero as an exponent (e.g., by examining
patterns in a table of values for y = 2x; by
applying the exponent rules for multiplication and division).
Relating the Graph of y = x 2 and Its
Transformations
By the end of this course, students will:
– identify, through investigation using technology, the effect on the graph of y = x 2
of transformations (i.e., translations, reflections in the x-axis, vertical stretches or
compressions) by considering separately
each parameter a, h, and k [i.e., investigate
the effect on the graph of y = x 2 of a, h,
and k in y = x 2 + k, y = (x – h)2, and
y = ax 2];
– explain the roles of a, h, and k in
y = a(x – h )2 + k, using the appropriate
terminology to describe the transformations, and identify the vertex and the equation of the axis of symmetry;
48
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
– sketch, by hand, the graph of
y = a(x – h )2 + k by applying transformations to the graph of y = x 2 [Sample
problem: Sketch the graph of
y = – 1 (x – 3)2 + 4, and verify
2
using technology.];
– determine the equation, in the form
y = a(x – h)2 + k, of a given graph of a
parabola.
Solving Quadratic Equations
By the end of this course, students will:
– expand and simplify second-degree polynomial expressions [e.g., (2x + 5)2,
(2x – y)(x + 3y)], using a variety of tools
(e.g., algebra tiles, diagrams, computer
algebra systems, paper and pencil) and
strategies (e.g., patterning);
– factor polynomial expressions involving
common factors, trinomials, and differences of squares [e.g., 2x2 + 4x,
2x – 2y + ax – ay, x2 – x – 6,
2a2 + 11a + 5, 4x2 – 25], using a variety
of tools (e.g., concrete materials, computer
algebra systems, paper and pencil) and
strategies (e.g., patterning);
– determine, through investigation, and
describe the connection between the
factors of a quadratic expression and the
x-intercepts (i.e., the zeros) of the graph
of the corresponding quadratic relation,
expressed in the form y = a(x – r)(x – s);
– interpret real and non-real roots of quadratic equations, through investigation
using graphing technology, and relate the
roots to the x-intercepts of the corresponding relations;
– express y = ax2 + bx + c in the form
y = a(x – h)2 + k by completing the
square in situations involving no fractions,
using a variety of tools (e.g. concrete
materials, diagrams, paper and pencil);
– sketch or graph a quadratic relation whose
equation is given in the form
y = ax2 + bx + c, using a variety of
methods (e.g., sketching y = x2 – 2x – 8
using intercepts and symmetry; sketching
y = 3x2 – 12x + 1 by completing the
square and applying transformations;
graphing h = –4.9t 2 + 50t + 1.5 using
technology);
– explore the algebraic development of the
quadratic formula (e.g., given the algebraic
development, connect the steps to a
numerical example; follow a demonstration of the algebraic development [student
reproduction of the development of the
general case is not required]);
– solve quadratic equations that have real
roots, using a variety of methods (i.e.,
factoring, using the quadratic formula,
graphing) (Sample problem: Solve
x2 + 10x + 16 = 0 by factoring, and
verify algebraically. Solve x2 + x – 4 = 0
using the quadratic formula, and verify
graphically using technology. Solve
–4.9t 2 + 50t + 1.5 = 0 by graphing
h = –4.9t 2 + 50t + 1.5 using technology.).
Solving Problems Involving
Quadratic Relations
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine the zeros and the maximum or
minimum value of a quadratic relation
from its graph (i.e., using graphing calculators or graphing software) or from its
defining equation (i.e., by applying algebraic techniques);
– solve problems arising from a realistic situation represented by a graph or an equation of a quadratic relation, with and
without the use of technology (e.g., given
the graph or the equation of a quadratic
relation representing the height of a ball
over elapsed time, answer questions such
as the following: What is the maximum
height of the ball? After what length of
time will the ball hit the ground? Over
what time interval is the height of the ball
greater than 3 m?).
49
PRINCIPLES OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 10, ACADEMIC (MPM2D)
Analytic Geometry
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• model and solve problems involving the intersection of two straight lines;
• solve problems using analytic geometry involving properties of lines and line segments;
• verify geometric properties of triangles and quadrilaterals, using analytic geometry.
Specific Expectations
Using Linear Systems to Solve Problems
By the end of this course, students will:
– solve systems of two linear equations
involving two variables, using the algebraic
method of substitution or elimination
(Sample problem: Solve y = 1 x – 5,
2
3x + 2y = –2 for x and y algebraically, and
verify algebraically and graphically);
– solve problems that arise from realistic situations described in words or represented
by linear systems of two equations involving two variables, by choosing an appropriate algebraic or graphical method
(Sample problem: The Robotics Club
raised $5000 to build a robot for a future
competition. The club invested part of the
money in an account that paid 4% annual
interest, and the rest in a government bond
that paid 3.5% simple interest per year.
After one year, the club earned a total of
$190 in interest. How much was invested
at each rate? Verify your result.).
Solving Problems Involving
Properties of Line Segments
By the end of this course, students will:
– develop the formula for the midpoint of a
line segment, and use this formula to solve
problems (e.g., determine the coordinates
of the midpoints of the sides of a triangle,
given the coordinates of the vertices, and
verify concretely or by using dynamic
geometry software);
– develop the formula for the length of a
line segment, and use this formula to solve
problems (e.g., determine the lengths of
the line segments joining the midpoints of
the sides of a triangle, given the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle, and
verify using dynamic geometry software);
– develop the equation for a circle with
centre (0, 0) and radius r, by applying the
formula for the length of a line segment;
– determine the radius of a circle with centre (0, 0), given its equation; write the
equation of a circle with centre (0, 0),
given the radius; and sketch the circle,
given the equation in the form
x 2 + y 2 = r 2;
– solve problems involving the slope, length,
and midpoint of a line segment (e.g.,
determine the equation of the right bisector of a line segment, given the coordinates
of the endpoints; determine the distance
from a given point to a line whose equation is given, and verify using dynamic
geometry software).
Using Analytic Geometry to
Verify Geometric Properties
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine, through investigation (e.g.,
using dynamic geometry software, by
paper folding), some characteristics and
properties of geometric figures (e.g.,
medians in a triangle, similar figures constructed on the sides of a right triangle);
50
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
– verify, using algebraic techniques and
analytic geometry, some characteristics of
geometric figures (e.g., verify that two
lines are perpendicular, given the coordinates of two points on each line; verify, by
determining side length, that a triangle is
equilateral, given the coordinates of the
vertices);
– plan and implement a multi-step strategy
that uses analytic geometry and algebraic
techniques to verify a geometric property
(e.g., given the coordinates of the vertices
of a triangle, verify that the line segment
joining the midpoints of two sides of the
triangle is parallel to the third side and half
its length, and check using dynamic
geometry software; given the coordinates
of the vertices of a rectangle, verify that
the diagonals of the rectangle bisect each
other).
51
PRINCIPLES OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 10, ACADEMIC (MPM2D)
Trigonometry
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• use their knowledge of ratio and proportion to investigate similar triangles and solve
problems related to similarity;
• solve problems involving right triangles, using the primary trigonometric ratios and the
Pythagorean theorem;
• solve problems involving acute triangles, using the sine law and the cosine law.
Specific Expectations
Investigating Similarity and Solving Problems
Involving Similar Triangles
By the end of this course, students will:
– verify, through investigation (e.g., using
dynamic geometry software, concrete
materials), the properties of similar triangles (e.g., given similar triangles, verify the
equality of corresponding angles and the
proportionality of corresponding sides);
– describe and compare the concepts of
similarity and congruence;
– solve problems involving similar triangles
in realistic situations (e.g., shadows, reflections, scale models, surveying) (Sample
problem: Use a metre stick to determine
the height of a tree, by means of the similar triangles formed by the tree, the metre
stick, and their shadows.).
Solving Problems Involving the Trigonometry
of Right Triangles
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine, through investigation (e.g.,
using dynamic geometry software, concrete materials), the relationship between
the ratio of two sides in a right triangle
and the ratio of the two corresponding
sides in a similar right triangle, and define
the sine, cosine, and tangent ratios (e.g.,
sin A = opposite );
hypotenuse
– determine the measures of the sides and
angles in right triangles, using the primary
trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean
theorem;
– solve problems involving the measures of
sides and angles in right triangles in reallife applications (e.g., in surveying, in navigating, in determining the height of an
inaccessible object around the school),
using the primary trigonometric ratios
and the Pythagorean theorem.
Solving Problems Involving the
Trigonometry of Acute Triangles
By the end of this course, students will:
– explore the development of the sine law
within acute triangles (e.g., use dynamic
geometry software to determine that the
ratio of the side lengths equals the ratio of
the sines of the opposite angles; follow the
algebraic development of the sine law and
identify the application of solving systems
of equations [student reproduction of the
development of the formula is not
required]);
– explore the development of the cosine law
within acute triangles (e.g., use dynamic
geometry software to verify the cosine
law; follow the algebraic development of
the cosine law and identify its relationship
to the Pythagorean theorem and the
52
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
cosine ratio [student reproduction of the
development of the formula is not
required]);
– determine the measures of sides and angles
in acute triangles, using the sine law and
the cosine law (Sample problem: In triangle ABC, A = 35°, B = 65°, and
AC = 18 cm. Determine BC. Check your
result using dynamic geometry software.);
– solve problems involving the measures of
sides and angles in acute triangles.
53
Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 10, Applied
(MFM2P)
This course enables students to consolidate their understanding of linear relations and extend
their problem-solving and algebraic skills through investigation, the effective use of technology, and hands-on activities. Students will develop and graph equations in analytic geometry;
solve and apply linear systems, using real-life examples; and explore and interpret graphs of
quadratic relations. Students will investigate similar triangles, the trigonometry of right
triangles, and the measurement of three-dimensional figures. Students will consolidate their
mathematical skills as they solve problems and communicate their thinking.
Mathematical process expectations. The mathematical processes are to be integrated into
student learning in all areas of this course.
PROBLEM SOLVING
Throughout this course, students will:
• develop, select, apply, and compare a variety of problem-solving strategies as they pose and
solve problems and conduct investigations, to help deepen their mathematical understanding;
REASONING AND
PROVING
• develop and apply reasoning skills (e.g., recognition of relationships, generalization
through inductive reasoning, use of counter-examples) to make mathematical conjectures,
assess conjectures, and justify conclusions, and plan and construct organized mathematical
arguments;
REFLECTING
• demonstrate that they are reflecting on and monitoring their thinking to help clarify their
understanding as they complete an investigation or solve a problem (e.g., by assessing the
effectiveness of strategies and processes used, by proposing alternative approaches, by
judging the reasonableness of results, by verifying solutions);
SELECTING TOOLS AND
• select and use a variety of concrete, visual, and electronic learning tools and appropriate
COMPUTATIONAL
STRATEGIES
computational strategies to investigate mathematical ideas and to solve problems;
CONNECTING
• make connections among mathematical concepts and procedures, and relate mathematical
ideas to situations or phenomena drawn from other contexts (e.g., other curriculum areas,
daily life, current events, art and culture, sports);
REPRESENTING
• create a variety of representations of mathematical ideas (e.g., numeric, geometric, algebraic, graphical, pictorial representations; onscreen dynamic representations), connect and
compare them, and select and apply the appropriate representations to solve problems;
COMMUNICATING
• communicate mathematical thinking orally, visually, and in writing, using mathematical
vocabulary and a variety of appropriate representations, and observing mathematical
conventions.
54
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Measurement and Trigonometry
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• use their knowledge of ratio and proportion to investigate similar triangles and solve
problems related to similarity;
• solve problems involving right triangles, using the primary trigonometric ratios and the
Pythagorean theorem;
• solve problems involving the surface areas and volumes of three-dimensional figures, and
use the imperial and metric systems of measurement.
Specific Expectations
Solving Problems Involving Similar Triangles
By the end of this course, students will:
trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean
theorem;
– verify, through investigation (e.g., using
dynamic geometry software, concrete
materials), properties of similar triangles
(e.g., given similar triangles, verify the
equality of corresponding angles and the
proportionality of corresponding sides);
– solve problems involving the measures of
sides and angles in right triangles in reallife applications (e.g., in surveying, in
navigation, in determining the height of
an inaccessible object around the school),
using the primary trigonometric ratios
and the Pythagorean theorem (Sample
problem: Build a kite, using imperial
measurements, create a clinometer to
determine the angle of elevation when the
kite is flown, and use the tangent ratio to
calculate the height attained.);
– determine the lengths of sides of similar
triangles, using proportional reasoning;
– solve problems involving similar triangles
in realistic situations (e.g., shadows, reflections, scale models, surveying) (Sample
problem: Use a metre stick to determine
the height of a tree, by means of the similar triangles formed by the tree, the metre
stick, and their shadows.).
Solving Problems Involving the Trigonometry
of Right Triangles
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine, through investigation (e.g.,
using dynamic geometry software, concrete materials), the relationship between
the ratio of two sides in a right triangle
and the ratio of the two corresponding
sides in a similar right triangle, and define
the sine, cosine, and tangent ratios (e.g.,
sin A = opposite );
hypotenuse
– determine the measures of the sides and
angles in right triangles, using the primary
– describe, through participation in an
activity, the application of trigonometry
in an occupation (e.g., research and
report on how trigonometry is applied in
astronomy; attend a career fair that
includes a surveyor, and describe how a
surveyor applies trigonometry to calculate
distances; job shadow a carpenter for a
few hours, and describe how a carpenter
uses trigonometry).
Solving Problems Involving Surface Area and
Volume, Using the Imperial and Metric
Systems of Measurement
By the end of this course, students will:
– use the imperial system when solving
measurement problems (e.g., problems
involving dimensions of lumber, areas of
carpets, and volumes of soil or concrete);
FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 10, APPLIED (MFM2P)
– perform everyday conversions between
the imperial system and the metric system
(e.g., millilitres to cups, centimetres to
inches) and within these systems (e.g.,
cubic metres to cubic centimetres, square
feet to square yards), as necessary to solve
problems involving measurement (Sample
problem: A vertical post is to be supported
by a wooden pole, secured on the ground
at an angle of elevation of 60°, and reaching 3 m up the post from its base. If wood
is sold by the foot, how many feet of
wood are needed to make the pole?);
– determine, through investigation, the relationship for calculating the surface area of
a pyramid (e.g., use the net of a squarebased pyramid to determine that the surface area is the area of the square base plus
the areas of the four congruent triangles);
55
– solve problems involving the surface areas
of prisms, pyramids, and cylinders, and the
volumes of prisms, pyramids, cylinders,
cones, and spheres, including problems
involving combinations of these figures,
using the metric system or the imperial
system, as appropriate (Sample problem:
How many cubic yards of concrete are
required to pour a concrete pad measuring 10 feet by 10 feet by 1 foot? If poured
concrete costs $110 per cubic yard, how
much does it cost to pour a concrete
driveway requiring 6 pads?).
56
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Modelling Linear Relations
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• manipulate and solve algebraic equations, as needed to solve problems;
• graph a line and write the equation of a line from given information;
• solve systems of two linear equations, and solve related problems that arise from realistic
situations.
Specific Expectations
Manipulating and Solving Algebraic Equations
By the end of this course, students will:
– solve first-degree equations involving one
variable, including equations with fractional coefficients (e.g. using the balance
analogy, computer algebra systems, paper
and pencil) (Sample problem: Solve
x
+ 4 = 3x – 1 and verify.);
2
– determine the value of a variable in the
first degree, using a formula (i.e., by
isolating the variable and then substituting
known values; by substituting known
values and then solving for the variable)
(e.g., in analytic geometry, in measurement)
(Sample problem: A cone has a volume of
100 cm3. The radius of the base is 3 cm.
What is the height of the cone?);
– express the equation of a line in the form
y = mx + b, given the form
Ax + By + C = 0.
Graphing and Writing Equations of Lines
By the end of this course, students will:
– connect the rate of change of a linear relation to the slope of the line, and define
rise
the slope as the ratio m = run ;
– identify, through investigation, y = mx + b
as a common form for the equation of a
straight line, and identify the special cases
x = a, y = b;
– identify, through investigation with technology, the geometric significance of m
and b in the equation y = mx + b;
– identify, through investigation, properties
of the slopes of lines and line segments
(e.g., direction, positive or negative rate of
change, steepness, parallelism), using
graphing technology to facilitate investigations, where appropriate;
– graph lines by hand, using a variety of
techniques (e.g., graph y = 2 x – 4
3
using the y-intercept and slope; graph
2x + 3y = 6 using the x- and
y-intercepts);
– determine the equation of a line, given its
graph, the slope and y-intercept, the slope
and a point on the line, or two points on
the line.
Solving and Interpreting Systems of Linear
Equations
By the end of this course, students will:
– determine graphically the point of intersection of two linear relations (e.g., using
graph paper, using technology) (Sample
problem: Determine the point of intersection of y + 2x = –5 and y = 2 x + 3,
3
using an appropriate graphing technique,
and verify.);
FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 10, APPLIED (MFM2P)
– solve systems of two linear equations
involving two variables with integral
coefficients, using the algebraic method
of substitution or elimination (Sample
problem: Solve y = 2x + 1, 3x + 2y = 16
for x and y algebraically, and verify algebraically and graphically.);
– solve problems that arise from realistic situations described in words or represented
by given linear systems of two equations
involving two variables, by choosing an
appropriate algebraic or graphical method
(Sample problem: Maria has been hired by
Company A with an annual salary,
S dollars, given by S = 32 500 + 500a,
where a represents the number of years
she has been employed by this company.
Ruth has been hired by Company B with
an annual salary, S dollars, given by
S = 28 000 + 1000a, where a represents
the number of years she has been
employed by that company. Describe what
the solution of this system would represent in terms of Maria’s salary and Ruth’s
salary. After how many years will their
salaries be the same? What will their
salaries be at that time?).
57
58
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
Quadratic Relations of the Form y = ax 2 + bx + c
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:
• manipulate algebraic expressions, as needed to understand quadratic relations;
• identify characteristics of quadratic relations;
• solve problems by interpreting graphs of quadratic relations.
Specific Expectations
Manipulating Quadratic Expressions
By the end of this course, students will:
– expand and simplify second-degree polynomial expressions involving one variable that
consist of the product of two binomials
[e.g., (2x + 3)(x + 4)] or the square of a
binomial [e.g., (x + 3)2], using a variety of
tools (e.g., algebra tiles, diagrams, computer
algebra systems, paper and pencil) and
strategies (e.g. patterning);
(e.g., 4x2
– factor binomials
+ 8x) and trino2
mials (e.g., 3x + 9x – 15) involving one
variable up to degree two, by determining a
common factor using a variety of tools
(e.g., algebra tiles, computer algebra systems,
paper and pencil) and strategies (e.g.,
patterning);
– factor simple trinomials of the form
x2 + bx + c (e.g., x2 + 7x + 10,
x2 + 2x – 8), using a variety of tools (e.g.,
algebra tiles, computer algebra systems,
paper and pencil) and strategies (e.g.,
patterning);
– factor the difference of squares of the form
x2 – a2 (e.g., x2 – 16).
Identifying Characteristics of Quadratic
Relations
By the end of this course, students will:
– collect data that can be represented as a
quadratic relation, from experiments using
appropriate equipment and technology
(e.g., concrete materials, scientific probes,
graphing calculators), or from secondary
sources (e.g., the Internet, Statistics Canada);
graph the data and draw a curve of best fit,
if appropriate, with or without the use of
technology (Sample problem: Make a 1 m
ramp that makes a 15° angle with the floor.
Place a can 30 cm up the ramp. Record the
time it takes for the can to roll to the bottom. Repeat by placing the can 40 cm,
50 cm, and 60 cm up the ramp, and so on.
Graph the data and draw the curve of best
fit.);
– determine, through investigation using
technology, that a quadratic relation of the
form y = ax2 + bx + c (a ≠ 0) can be graphically represented as a parabola, and determine that the table of values yields a constant second difference (Sample problem:
Graph the quadratic relation y = x2 – 4,
using technology. Observe the shape of the
graph. Consider the corresponding table of
values, and calculate the first and second
differences. Repeat for a different quadratic
relation. Describe your observations and
make conclusions.);
– identify the key features of a graph of a
parabola (i.e., the equation of the axis of
symmetry, the coordinates of the vertex, the
y-intercept, the zeros, and the maximum or
minimum value), using a given graph or a
graph generated with technology from its
equation, and use the appropriate terminology to describe the features;
– compare, through investigation using technology, the graphical representations of a
quadratic relation in the form
y = x2 + bx + c and the same relation in
the factored form y = (x – r)(x – s) (i.e., the
graphs are the same), and describe the
FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS, GRADE 10, APPLIED (MFM2P)
connections between each algebraic
representation and the graph [e.g., the
y-intercept is c in the form y = x2 + bx + c;
the x-intercepts are r and s in the form
y = (x – r)(x – s)] (Sample problem: Use a
graphing calculator to compare the graphs
of y = x2 + 2x – 8 and y = (x + 4)(x – 2).
In what way(s) are the equations related?
What information about the graph can you
identify by looking at each equation? Make
some conclusions from your observations,
and check your conclusions with a different
quadratic equation.).
Solving Problems by Interpreting Graphs of
Quadratic Relations
By the end of this course, students will:
– solve problems involving a quadratic relation by interpreting a given graph or a
graph generated with technology from its
equation (e.g., given an equation representing the height of a ball over elapsed time,
use a graphing calculator or graphing software to graph the relation, and answer
questions such as the following: What is the
maximum height of the ball? After what
length of time will the ball hit the ground?
Over what time interval is the height of
the ball greater than 3 m?);
59
– solve problems by interpreting the significance of the key features of graphs
obtained by collecting experimental data
involving quadratic relations (Sample
problem: Roll a can up a ramp. Using a
motion detector and a graphing calculator,
record the motion of the can until it
returns to its starting position, graph the
distance from the starting position versus
time, and draw the curve of best fit.
Interpret the meanings of the vertex and
the intercepts in terms of the experiment.
Predict how the graph would change if
you gave the can a harder push. Test your
prediction.).
60
Glossary
The following definitions of terms are
intended to help teachers and parents/
guardians use this document. It should be
noted that, where examples are provided,
they are suggestions and are not meant to be
exhaustive.
acute triangle. A triangle in which each of
the three interior angles measures less than 90º.
algebra tiles. Manipulatives that can be used
to model operations involving integers, polynomials, and equations. Each tile represents a
particular monomial, such as 1, x, or x2.
algebraic expression. A collection of
symbols, including one or more variables and
possibly numbers and operation symbols. For
example, 3x + 6, x, 5x, and 21 – 2w are all
algebraic expressions.
algebraic modelling. The process of representing a relationship by an equation or a formula, or representing a pattern of numbers by
an algebraic expression.
algorithm. A specific set of instructions for
carrying out a procedure.
altitude. A line segment giving the height of
a geometric figure. In a triangle, an altitude is
found by drawing the perpendicular from a
vertex to the side opposite. For example:
altitude
90º
analytic geometry. A geometry that uses the
xy-plane to determine equations that represent
lines and curves.
application. The use of mathematical concepts and skills to solve problems drawn from
a variety of areas.
binomial. An algebraic expression containing
two terms; for example, 3x + 2.
chord. A line segment joining two points on
a curve.
coefficient. The factor by which a variable is
multiplied. For example, in the term 5x, the
coefficient is 5; in the term ax, the coefficient
is a.
computer algebra system (CAS). A software program that manipulates and displays
mathematical expressions (and equations)
symbolically.
congruence. The property of being congruent. Two geometric figures are congruent if
they are equal in all respects.
conjecture. A guess or prediction based on
limited evidence.
constant rate of change. A relationship
between two variables illustrates a constant
rate of change when equal intervals of the first
variable are associated with equal intervals of
the second variable. For example, if a car
travels at 100 km/h, in the first hour it travels
100 km, in the second hour it travels 100 km,
and so on.
cosine law. The relationship, for any triangle,
involving the cosine of one of the angles and
the lengths of the three sides; used to determine unknown sides and angles in triangles. If
a triangle has sides a, b, and c, and if the angle
A is opposite side a, then:
a2 = b2 + c 2 – 2bc cos A.
angle bisector. A line that divides an angle
into two equal parts.
angle of elevation. The angle formed by the
horizontal and the line of sight (to an object
above the horizontal).
B
c
a
A
C
b
61
GLOSSARY
cosine ratio. For either of the two acute
angles in a right triangle, the ratio of the
length of the adjacent side to the length of the
hypotenuse.
counter-example. An example that proves
that a hypothesis or conjecture is false.
curve of best fit. The curve that best
describes the distribution of points in a scatter
plot.
deductive reasoning. The process of reaching a conclusion by applying arguments that
have already been proved and using evidence
that is known to be true.
diagonal. In a polygon, a line segment joining two vertices that are not next to each
other (i.e., not joined by one side).
difference of squares. An expression of the
form a 2 – b 2, which involves the subtraction of
two squares.
direct variation. A relationship between two
variables in which one variable is a constant
multiple of the other.
factor. To express a number as the product
of two or more numbers, or an algebraic
expression as the product of two or more
other algebraic expressions. Also, the individual numbers or algebraic expressions in such
a product.
finite differences. Given a table of values in
which the x-coordinates are evenly spaced, the
first differences are calculated by subtracting
consecutive y-coordinates. The second differences are calculated by subtracting consecutive
first differences, and so on. In a linear relation,
the first differences are constant; in a quadratic
relation of the form y = ax2 + bx + c (a ≠ 0),
the second differences are constant. For
example:
x
y
1
1
2
4
First
Difference
Second
Difference
4–1=3
5–3=2
9–4=5
3
9
7–5=2
16 – 9 = 7
4
16
9–7=2
25 – 16 = 9
5
25
dynamic geometry software. Computer
software that allows the user to plot points and
create graphs on a coordinate system, measure
line segments and angles, construct twodimensional shapes, create two-dimensional
representations of three-dimensional objects,
and transform constructed figures by moving
parts of them.
first-degree polynomial. A polynomial in
which the variable has the exponent 1; for
example, 4x + 20.
evaluate. To determine a value for.
first differences. See finite differences.
exponent. A special use of a superscript in
mathematics. For example, in 32, the exponent
is 2. An exponent is used to denote repeated
multiplication. For example, 54 means
5 x 5 x 5 x 5.
generalize. To determine a general rule or
make a conclusion from examples. Specifically,
to determine a general rule to represent a pattern or relationship between variables.
extrapolate. To estimate values lying outside
the range of given data. For example, to
extrapolate from a graph means to estimate
coordinates of points beyond those that are
plotted.
first-degree equation. An equation in
which the variable has the exponent 1; for
example, 5(3x – 1) + 6 = –20 + 7x + 5.
graphing calculator. A hand-held device
capable of a wide range of mathematical operations, including graphing from an equation,
constructing a scatter plot, determining the
equation of a curve of best fit for a scatter
plot, making statistical calculations, performing
symbolic manipulation. Many graphing calculators will attach to scientific probes that can
be used to gather data involving physical measurements (e.g., position, temperature, force).
62
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
graphing software. Computer software that
provides features similar to those of a graphing
calculator.
mathematical modelling. The process of
describing a situation in a mathematical form.
See also mathematical model.
hypothesis. A proposed explanation or position that has yet to be tested.
median. Geometry. The line drawn from a
vertex of a triangle to the midpoint of the
opposite side. Statistics. The middle number in
a set, such that half the numbers in the set are
less and half are greater when the numbers are
arranged in order.
imperial system. A system of weights and
measures built on the basic units of measure of
the yard (length), the pound (mass), the gallon
(capacity), and the second (time). Also called
the British system.
inductive reasoning. The process of reaching a conclusion or making a generalization
on the basis of specific cases or examples.
inference. A conclusion based on a relationship identified between variables in a set of
data.
integer. Any one of the numbers ..., –4, –3,
–2, –1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4,... .
intercept. See x-intercept, y-intercept.
interpolate. To estimate values lying between
elements of given data. For example, to interpolate from a graph means to estimate coordinates of points between those that are plotted.
inverse operations. Two operations that
“undo” or “reverse” each other. For example,
addition and subtraction are inverse operations, since a + b = c means that c – a = b.
“Squaring” and “taking the square root” are
inverse operations, since, for example, 52 = 25
and the (principal) square root of 25 is 5.
linear relation. A relation between two variables that appears as a straight line when
graphed on a coordinate system. May also be
referred to as a linear function.
line of best fit. The straight line that best
describes the distribution of points in a scatter
plot.
manipulate. To apply operations, such as
addition, multiplication, or factoring, on algebraic expressions.
mathematical model. A mathematical
description (e.g., a diagram, a graph, a table of
values, an equation, a formula, a physical
model, a computer model) of a situation.
method of elimination. In solving systems
of linear equations, a method in which the
coefficients of one variable are matched
through multiplication and then the equations
are added or subtracted to eliminate that
variable.
method of substitution. In solving systems
of linear equations, a method in which one
equation is rearranged and substituted into the
other.
model. See mathematical model.
monomial. An algebraic expression with one
term; for example, 5x 2.
motion detector. A hand-held device that
uses ultrasound to measure distance. The data
from motion detectors can be transmitted to
graphing calculators.
multiple trials. A technique used in experimentation in which the same experiment is
done several times and the results are combined through a measure such as averaging.
The use of multiple trials “smooths out”
some of the random occurrences that can
affect the outcome of an individual trial of an
experiment.
non-linear relation. A relationship between
two variables that does not fit a straight line
when graphed.
non-real root of an equation. A solution
to an equation that is not an element of the set
of real numbers (e.g., √–16). See real root of
an equation.
optimal value. The maximum or minimum
value of a variable.
63
GLOSSARY
parabola. The graph of a quadratic relation of
the form y = ax2 + bx + c (a ≠ 0). The graph,
which resembles the letter “U”, is symmetrical.
partial variation. A relationship between
two variables in which one variable is a multiple of the other, plus some constant number.
For example, the cost of a taxi fare has two
components, a flat fee and a fee per kilometre
driven. A formula representing the situation of
a flat fee of $2.00 and a fee rate of $0.50/km
would be F = 0.50d + 2.00, where F is the
total fare and d is the number of kilometres
driven.
polygon. A closed figure formed by three
or more line segments. Examples of polygons
are triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, and
octagons.
quadratic formula. A formula for determining the roots of a quadratic equation of the
form ax 2 + bx + c = 0. The formula is phrased
in terms of the coefficients of the quadratic
equation:
– b √b 2 – 4ac .
x=
2a
quadratic relation. A relation whose equation is in quadratic form; for example,
y = x 2 + 7x + 10.
quadrilateral. A polygon with four sides.
rate of change. The change in one variable
relative to the change in another. The slope of
a line represents rate of change.
polynomial. See polynomial expression.
rational number. A number that can be
expressed as the quotient of two integers
where the divisor is not 0.
polynomial expression. An algebraic
expression taking the form
a + bx + cx 2 + . . . , where a, b, and c are
numbers.
realistic situation. A description of an event
or events drawn from real life or from an
experiment that provides experience with
such an event.
population. Statistics. The total number of
individuals or items under consideration in a
surveying or sampling activity.
real root of an equation. A solution to an
equation that is an element of the set of real
numbers. The set of real numbers includes all
numbers commonly used in daily life: all
fractions, all decimals, all negative and positive
numbers.
primary trigonometric ratios. The basic
ratios of trigonometry (i.e., sine, cosine, and
tangent).
prism. A three-dimensional figure with two
parallel, congruent polygonal bases. A prism is
named by the shape of its bases; for example,
rectangular prism, triangular prism.
proportional reasoning. Reasoning or
problem solving based on the examination of
equal ratios.
Pythagorean theorem. The conclusion that,
in a right triangle, the square of the length of
the longest side is equal to the sum of the
squares of the lengths of the other two sides.
quadratic equation. An equation that contains at least one term whose exponent is 2,
and no term with an exponent greater than 2;
for example, x 2 + 7x + 10 = 0.
regression. A method for determining the
equation of a curve (not necessarily a straight
line) that fits the distribution of points on a
scatter plot.
relation. An identified relationship between
variables that may be expressed as a table of
values, a graph, or an equation.
representivity. A principle of data analysis
that involves selecting a sample that is typical
of the characteristics of the population from
which it is drawn.
right bisector. The line that is perpendicular
to a given line segment and that passes
through its midpoint.
right triangle. A triangle containing one 90º
angle.
64
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 AND 10: MATHEMATICS
sample. A small group chosen from a population and examined in order to make predictions about the population.
sampling technique. A process for collecting a sample of data.
scatter plot. A graph that attempts to show a
relationship between two variables by means
of points plotted on a coordinate grid. Also
called scatter diagram.
scientific probe. A device that may be
attached to a graphing calculator or to a computer in order to gather data involving measurement (e.g., position, temperature, force).
second-degree polynomial. A polynomial
in which the variable in at least one term has
an exponent 2, and no variable has an exponent greater than 2; for example,
4x 2 + 20 or x 2 + 7x + 10.
second differences. See finite differences.
similar triangles. Triangles in which corresponding sides are proportional.
simulation. A probability experiment to estimate the likelihood of an event. For example,
tossing a coin is a simulation of whether the
next person you meet will be male or female.
sine law. The relationships, for any triangle,
involving the sines of two of the angles and
the lengths of the opposite sides; used to
determine unknown sides and angles in triangles. If a triangle has sides a, b, and c, and if the
angles opposite each side are A, B, and C,
respectively, then:
B
a
A
spreadsheet. Computer software that allows
the entry of formulas for repeated calculation.
stretch factor. A coefficient in an equation
of a relation that causes stretching of the corresponding graph. For example, the graph of
y = 3x 2 appears to be narrower than the graph
of y = x 2 because its y-coordinates are three
times as great for the same x-coordinate.
(In this example, the coefficient 3 causes the
graph to stretch vertically, and is referred to
as a vertical stretch factor.)
substitution. The process of replacing a variable by a value. See also method of
substitution.
system of linear equations. Two or more
linear equations involving two or more
variables. The solution to a system of linear
equations involving two variables is the point
of intersection of two straight lines.
table of values. A table used to record the
coordinates of points in a relation. For
example:
x
y = 3x – 1
–1
–4
0
–1
1
2
2
5
tangent ratio. For either of the two acute
angles in a right triangle, the ratio of the
length of the opposite side to the length of the
adjacent side.
a
b
c
=
=
sin A
sin B
sin C
c
slope. A measure of the steepness of a line,
calculated as the ratio of the rise (vertical
change between two points) to the run (horizontal change between the same two points).
C
b
sine ratio. For either of the two acute angles
in a right triangle, the ratio of the length of
the opposite side to the length of the
hypotenuse.
transformation. A change in a figure that
results in a different position, orientation, or
size. The transformations include translation,
reflection, rotation, compression, and stretch.
trapezoid. A quadrilateral with one pair of
parallel sides.
65
GLOSSARY
variable. A symbol used to represent an
unspecified number. For example, x and y are
variables in the expression x + 2y.
vertex. The point at which two sides of a
polygon meet.
x-intercept. The x-coordinate of a point at
which a line or curve intersects the x-axis.
xy-plane. A coordinate system based on the
intersection of two straight lines called axes,
which are usually perpendicular. The horizontal axis is the x-axis, and the vertical axis is the
y-axis. The point of intersection of the axes is
called the origin.
y-intercept. The y-coordinate of a point at
which a line or curve intersects the y-axis.
zeros of a relation. The values of x for
which a relation has a value of zero. The zeros
of a relation correspond to the x-intercepts of
its graph. See also x-intercept.
The Ministry of Education wishes to acknowledge
the contribution of the many individuals, groups, and
organizations that participated in the development and
refinement of this curriculum policy document.
ISBN 0-7794-7940-8
Ministry of Education
04-165
© Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2005
The Ontario Curriculum
Grades 9 and 10
REVISED
Mathematics
Printed on recycled paper
2005
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement