User guide | Gateway 7001 Series Network Card User Manual

User Guide
Gateway 7001 Series Access Point
Contents
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Overview of the Gateway 7001 Series of self-managed APs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Features and benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Default settings and supported administrator/client platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Administrator’s computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Wireless client computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Understanding dynamic and static IP addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
How does the access point obtain an IP address at startup? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Dynamic IP addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Static IP addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Recovering an IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2 Quick Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Setting up the access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unpacking the access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the access point to network and power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up connections for a guest network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning on the access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running KickStart to find access points and assign IP addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logging on to the administration Web pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring basic settings and starting the wireless network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What’s next? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 Configuring Basic Network Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Navigating to basic settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reviewing and describing the access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Providing administrator password and wireless network name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting configuration policy for new access points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Updating basic settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding basic settings for a standalone access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding indicator icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4 Managing Access Points and Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigating to access points management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What is a cluster? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How many APs can a cluster support? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What kinds of APs can cluster together? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Which settings are shared in the cluster configuration and which are not? . . . . . . . .
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Cluster mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standalone mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cluster formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cluster size and membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intra-cluster security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auto-Synch of Cluster Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cluster recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding access point settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with access points in a cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying the location description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing an access point from the cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding an access point to a cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigating to information for a specific AP and managing standalone APs . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigating to an AP by using its IP address in a URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5 Managing User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigating to user management for clustered access points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing and changing user accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing user accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a user . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing a user account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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6 Session Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Navigating to session monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding session monitoring information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing session information for access points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sorting session information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refreshing session information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7 Advanced Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Configuring an Ethernet (wired) interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigating to Ethernet (wired) settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the DNS name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling or Disabling Guest Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a physical or virtual Guest network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Internal interface Ethernet settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Guest interface Ethernet settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring a wireless interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigating to wireless settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the radio interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring internal LAN wireless settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring guest network wireless settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling a network time protocol server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigating to time protocol settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Enabling or disabling a network time protocol (NTP) server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Configuring network security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Understanding security issues on wireless networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
How do I know which security mode to use? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Navigating to security settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Configuring security settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Setting up Guest Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Understanding the guest interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Configuring the guest interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Using the guest network as a client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Deployment example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Configuring radio settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Understanding radio settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Navigating to radio settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Configuring radio settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Controlling access by MAC address filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Navigating to MAC filtering settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Using MAC address filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Configuring a Wireless Distribution System (WDS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Understanding the WDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Navigating to WDS settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Configuring WDS settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Configuring security settings on wireless clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Network infrastructure and choosing between built-in or external authentication server 122
Setting the administrator password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Navigating to administrator password setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Setting the administrator password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
8 Maintenance and Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet (Wired) settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wireless settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmit/receive statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Associated wireless clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rebooting the access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting the configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading the firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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9 Troubleshooting and Getting Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Known problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Telephone numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
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A Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
B Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
C Safety, Regulatory, and Legal Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
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Chapter 1
Introduction
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Features and benefits
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Networking
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Maintainability
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Default settings and supported
administrator/client platforms
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Overview of the Gateway 7001 Series of
self-managed APs
The Gateway 7001 Series of self-managed APs (access points) provide continuous,
high-speed access between your wireless and Ethernet devices. They are advanced, turnkey
solutions for wireless networking in small and medium-sized businesses. The Gateway 7001
Series enables zero-administration wireless local area network (WLAN) deployment while
providing state-of-the-art wireless networking features.
The Gateway 7001 AP is available as a single band access point (Gateway 7001 802.11 G
Wireless Access Point) and a dual band access point (Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G Wireless
Access Point).
The single band access point can broadcast in either IEEE 802.11b or IEEE 802.11g mode.
The dual band access point is capable of broadcasting in two different IEEE 802.11 modes
simultaneously.
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Radio One can broadcast in IEEE 802.11b or IEEE 802.11g modes.
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Radio Two can broadcast in IEEE 802.11a or IEEE 802.11a Turbo modes.
The Gateway 7001 AP software solution emphasizes security, ease-of-administration and
industry standards—providing a standalone and fully secured wireless network without
the need for additional management applications such as legacy authentication server
software.
The following sections list features and benefits of the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed
APs, and tell you what’s next when you’re ready to get started.
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Features and benefits
IEEE standards support and Wi-Fi compliance
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Support for IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g wireless networking standards
(depending on model)
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Provides bandwidth of up to 54 Mbps for 802.11a or 802.11g (11 Mbps for 802.11b,
108 Mbps for 802.11a Turbo)
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Wi-Fi certified
Wireless features
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Auto channel selection at startup
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Transmit power adjustment
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Wireless Distribution System (WDS) for connecting multiple access points wirelessly.
Extends your network with less cabling and provides a seamless experience for roaming
clients.
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Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) support
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Under-the-hood support for multiple SSIDs (network names) and multiple BSSIDs (basic
service set IDs) on the same access point
Security features
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Inhibit SSID Broadcast
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Ignore SSID Broadcast
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Link integrity monitoring
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Link integrity checking
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Weak IV avoidance
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Wireless Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
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Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
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Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
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User-based access control with local authentication server
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Local user database and user lifecycle management
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MAC address filtering
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Out-of-the-Box guest interface
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Unique network name (SSID) for the Guest interface
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Captive portal to guide guests to customized, guest-only Web page
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VLAN and dual Ethernet options
Clustering and auto-management
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Automatic setup with Kickstart.
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Provisioning and plug-and-play through automatic clustering and cluster rendezvous.
The administrator can specify how new access points should be configured before they
are added to the network. When new access points are added, they can automatically
rendezvous with the cluster, and securely download the correct configuration. The
process does not require manual intervention, but is under the control of the
administrator.
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Single universal view of clustered access points and cluster configuration settings.
Configuration for all access points in a cluster can be managed from a single interface.
Changes to common parameters are automatically reflected in all members of the
cluster.
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Self-managed access points with automatic configuration synchronization.
The access points in a cluster periodically check that the cluster configuration is
consistent, and check for the presence and availability of the other members of the
cluster. The administrator can monitor this information through the user interface.
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Enhanced local authentication using 802.1x without additional IT setup.
A cluster can maintain a user authentication server and database stored on the access
points. This eliminates the need to install, configure, and maintain a RADIUS
infrastructure, and simplifies the administrative task of deploying a secure wireless
network.
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Hardware watchdog.
Networking
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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) support for dynamically assigning
network configuration information to systems on the LAN
Maintainability
4
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Status, monitoring, and tracking views of the network including session monitoring,
client associations, transmit/receive statistics, and event log
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Reset configuration option
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Firmware upgrade
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Default settings and supported
administrator/client platforms
Before you plug in and boot a new access point, review the following sections for a quick
check of required hardware components, software, client configurations, and compatibility
issues. Make sure you have everything you need ready to go for a successful launch and
test of your new (or extended) wireless network.
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Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP
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Administrator’s computer
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Wireless client computers
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Understanding of DHCP IP addressing for access points and wireless clients
Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP is a wireless communications hub for devices
on your network. It provides continuous, high-speed access between your wireless and
Ethernet devices in IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, or 802.11a Turbo modes (depending
on the model).
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP offers an out-of-the-box Guest Interface feature
that lets you configure access points for controlled guest access of the wireless network.
This can be accomplished either by using Virtual LANs or by creating physically separate
network connections on the same access point. To support physically separate network
connections, the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP ships with an extra network port
to be used for a dedicated guest network. (For more information on the guest interface,
see “Advanced Configuration” on page 67, and “Setting up connections for a guest
network” on page 19.)
Default settings for the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP
Option
Default Settings
Related Information
System Name
Gateway-AP
“Setting the DNS name”
on page 69
User Name
admin
The user name is read-only. It cannot be
modified.
www.gateway.com
5
Option
Default Settings
Related Information
Password
admin
“Providing administrator
password and wireless
network name” on
page 32
“Configuring security
settings on wireless
clients” on page 121
Network Name (SSID)
“Gateway 7001 AP Network” for the
Internal interface
“Gateway 7001 AP Guest Network” for the
Guest interface
“Reviewing and
describing the access
point” on page 31
“Configuring internal
LAN wireless settings”
on page 76
“Configuring guest
network wireless
settings” on page 76
Network Time Protocol
(NTP)
None
“Enabling a network
time protocol server” on
page 78
IP Address
192.168.1.1
“Understanding
dynamic and static IP
addressing” on page 12
The default IP address is used if you do not
use a Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP) server. You can assign a
new static IP address through the
Administration Web pages.
If you have a DHCP server on the network,
then an IP address will be dynamically
assigned by the server at AP startup.
Connection Type
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP)
If you do not have a DHCP server on the
Internal network and do not plan to use
one, the first thing you must do after
bringing up the access point is to change
the Connection Type from “DHCP” to
“Static IP”.
The Guest network must have a DHCP
server.
6
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Radio
On
“Understanding
dynamic and static IP
addressing” on page 12
For information on how
to re-configure the
Connection Type, see
“Configuring Internal
interface Ethernet
settings” on page 71.
“Configuring radio
settings” on page 104
www.gateway.com
Option
Default Settings
Related Information
IEEE 802.11 Mode
802.11g pr 802.11a+g
“Configuring radio
settings” on page 104
802.11g Channel
Auto
“Configuring radio
settings” on page 104
Beacon Interval
100
“Configuring radio
settings” on page 104
DTIM Period
2
“Configuring radio
settings” on page 104
Fragmentation
Threshold
2346
“Configuring radio
settings” on page 104
ATS Threshold
2347
“Configuring radio
settings” on page 104
MAX Stations
2007
“Configuring radio
settings” on page 104
Transmit Power
100 Percent (of certified level)
“Configuring radio
settings” on page 104
Rate Sets Supported
(Mbps)
IEEE 802.11a: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, 6
“Configuring radio
settings” on page 104
IEEE 802.11g: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, 6,
5.5, 2, 1
IEEE 802.11b: 11, 5.5, 2, 1
Atheros Turbo 5 GHz: 108, 96, 72, 48, 36,
24, 18, 12
Rate Sets
(Basic/Advertised)
IEEE 802.11a: 24, 12, 6
IEEE 802.11g: 11, 5.5, 2, 1
“Configuring radio
settings” on page 104
IEEE 802.11b: 2, 1
Atheros Turbo 5 GHz: 48, 24, 12
Broadcast SSID
Allow
“Broadcast SSID and
Security Mode” on
page 88
Security Mode
None (plain text)
“Broadcast SSID and
Security Mode” on
page 88
Authentication Type
None
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7
Option
Default Settings
Related Information
MAC Filtering
Allow any station unless in list
“Controlling access by
MAC address filtering”
on page 110
Guest Login
Disabled
“Advanced
Configuration” on
page 67
Guest Welcome Screen
Text
Thank you for using wireless Guest Access
as provided by this Gateway 7001 Series
wireless access point. When clicking
“Accept” below, you will gain access to a
wireless network which will allow you
complete access to the Internet but is
external to the corporate network. This
network is not configured to provide any
level of wireless security.
“Advanced
Configuration” on
page 67
WDS Settings
None
“Configuring a Wireless
Distribution System
(WDS)” on page 112
What the access point does not provide
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP is not designed to function as a gateway to the
Internet. To connect your LAN to other LANs or the Internet, you need a gateway device,
such as a router or a switch.
8
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Administrator’s computer
Configuration and administration of the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP is
accomplished with the KickStart utility (which you run from the CD) and through a
Web-based user interface (UI). The following table describes the minimum requirements
for the administrator’s computer.
Required Software or
Component
Description
Ethernet Connection to the
First Access Point
The computer used to configure the first access point with
KickStart must have an Ethernet network connection to the
access point.
Wireless Connection to the
Network
After initial configuration and launch of the first access points on
your new wireless network, you can make subsequent
configuration changes through the Administration Web pages
using a wireless connection to the “Internal” network. For wireless
connection to the access point, your administration device will
need Wi-Fi capability similar to that of any wireless client:
• Portable or built-in Wi-Fi client adapter that supports one or more
of the IEEE 802.11 modes in which you plan to run the access
point. (IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11a Turbo
modes are supported, depending on model.)
• Wireless client software such as Microsoft Windows XP or Funk
Odyssey wireless client configured to associate with the Gateway
7001 Series access point.
For more details on Wi-Fi client setup, see “Wireless client
computers” on page 11
Web Browser / Operating
System
Configuration and administration of the Gateway 7001 Series
self-managed AP is provided through a Web-based user interface
hosted on the access point. We recommend using one of the
following supported Web browsers to access the access point
Administration Web pages:
• Microsoft Internet Explorer version 5.5 or 6.x (with up-to-date
patch level for either major version) on Microsoft Windows XP or
Microsoft Windows 2000
• Netscape Mozilla on Redhat Linux version 2.4
The administration Web browser must have JavaScript enabled
to support the interactive features of the administration interface.
It must also support HTTP uploads to use the firmware upgrade
feature.
www.gateway.com
9
Required Software or
Component
Description
KickStart Wizard on
You can run the KickStart CD on any laptop or computer that is
connected to the access point (through Wired or Wireless
connection). It detects Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs
on the network. The wizard steps you through initial configuration
of new access points, and provides a link to the Administration
Web pages where you finish up the basic setup process in a
step-by-step mode and launch the network.
CD
For more about using KickStart, see “Running KickStart to find
access points and assign IP addresses” on page 20
10
CD Drive
The administrator’s computer must have a CD drive to run the
KickStart CD.
Security Settings
Make sure that security is disabled on the wireless client used to
initially configure the access point.
www.gateway.com
Wireless client computers
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP provides wireless access to any client with a
correctly configured Wi-Fi client adapter for the 802.11 mode in which the access point
is running.
Multiple client operating systems are supported. Clients can be laptops or desktops,
personal digital assistants (PDAs), or any other hand-held, portable or stationary device
equipped with a Wi-Fi adapter and supporting drivers.
In order to connect to the access point, wireless clients need the following software and
hardware.
Required Component
Description
Wi-Fi Client Adapter
Portable or built-in Wi-Fi client adapter that supports one or more
of the IEEE 802.11 modes in which you plan to run the access
point. (IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11a Turbo
modes are supported, depending on model.)
Wi-Fi client adapters vary considerably. The adapter can be a PC
card built in to the client device, a portable PCMCIA or PCI card
(types of NICs), or an external device such as a USB or Ethernet
adapter that you connect to the client by means of a cable.
The access point supports 802.11a/b/g modes (depending on
model), but you will probably make a decision during network
design phase as to which mode to use. The fundamental
requirement for clients is that they all have configured adapters
that match the 802.11 mode for which your access point(s) is
configured.
Wireless Client Software
Client software such as Microsoft Windows XP or Funk Odyssey
wireless client configured to associate with the Gateway 7001
Series access point.
Client Security Settings
Security should be disabled on the client used to do initial
configuration of the access point.
If the Security mode on the access point is set to anything other
than plain text, wireless clients will need to set a profile to the
authentication mode used by the access point and provide a valid
user name and password, certificate, or similar user identity proof.
Security modes are Static WEP, IEEE 802.1x, WPA with RADIUS
server, and WPA-PSK.
For information on configuring security on the access point, see
“Configuring network security” on page 80.
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11
Understanding dynamic and static IP
addressing
Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs are built to auto-configure, with very little setup
required for the first access point and no configuration required for additional access points
subsequently joining a preconfigured cluster.
How does the access point obtain an IP address at
startup?
When you deploy the access point, it looks for a network DHCP server and, if it finds
one, obtains an IP Address from the DHCP server. If no DHCP server is found on the
network, the AP will continue to use its default Static IP Address (192.168.1.1) until you
re-assign it a new static IP address (and specify a static IP addressing policy) or until a DHCP
server is brought online.
Important
If you configure both an Internal and Guest network and
plan to use a dynamic addressing policy for both, separate
DHCP servers must be running on each network.
A DHCP server is a requirement for the Guest network.
When you run KickStart, it discovers the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs on the
network and lists their IP addresses and MAC addresses. KickStart also provides a link to
the administration Web pages of each access point using the IP address in the URL. (For
more information about the KickStart utility, see “Running KickStart to find access points
and assign IP addresses” on page 20.)
Dynamic IP addressing
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP generally expects that a DHCP server is running
on the network where the AP is deployed. Most home and small business networks already
have DHCP service provided either through a gateway device or a centralized server.
However, if no DHCP server is present on the Internal network, the AP will use the default
Static IP Address for first time startup.
Similarly, wireless clients and other network devices (such as printers) will receive their
IP addresses from the DHCP server, if there is one. If no DHCP server is present on the
network, you must manually assign static IP addresses to your wireless clients and other
network devices.
The Guest network must have a DHCP server.
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Static IP addressing
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP ships with a default Static IP Address of
192.168.1.1. (See the default settings for the AP in “Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP”
on page 5.) If no DHCP server is found on the network, the AP retains this static IP address
at first-time startup.
After AP startup, you have the option of specifying a static IP addressing policy on Gateway
7001 Series self-managed APs and assigning static IP addresses to APs on the internal
network through the access point Administration Web pages. (See information about the
Connection Type box and related boxes in “Configuring Internal interface Ethernet
settings” on page 71.)
Important
If you do not have a DHCP server on the Internal network
and do not plan to use one, the first thing you must do after
adding the access point is change the Connection Type
from DHCP to Static IP. You can either assign a new Static
IP address to the AP or continue using the default address.
We recommend assigning a new Static IP address so that
if later you add another Gateway 7001 Series
self-managed AP on the same network, the IP address for
each AP will be unique.
Recovering an IP Address
If you experience trouble communicating with the access point, you can recover a static
IP address by resetting the AP configuration to the factory defaults (see “Resetting the
configuration” on page 166), or you can get a dynamically assigned address by connecting
the AP to a network that has DHCP.
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13
14
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Chapter 2
Quick Setup
■
Unpacking the access point
■
Connecting the access point to network
and power
■
Turning on the access point
■
Running KickStart to find access points
and assign IP addresses
■
Configuring basic settings and starting
the wireless network
15
Setting up the access point
Setting up and deploying one or more Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs is in effect
creating and launching a wireless network. The KickStart Wizard and corresponding Basic
Settings Administration Web page simplify this process. Here is a step-by-step guide to
setting up your Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs and the resulting wireless network.
Have the KickStart CD handy, and familiarize yourself with the “Default settings and
supported administrator/client platforms” on page 5 if you have not already.
Unpacking the access point
Unpack the Access Point (AP) and familiarize yourself with its hardware ports, associated
cables, and accessories.
Access point hardware and ports
The access point includes:
16
■
Ethernet ports for connection to the Local Area Network (LAN) through Ethernet
network cable
■
Power over Ethernet (POE) and power adapter
www.gateway.com
What’s inside the access point?
An access point is a single-purpose computer designed to function as a wireless hub. Inside
the access point is a Wi-Fi radio system, a microprocessor, and sometimes a mini-PC card.
The access point boots from FlashROM that contains firmware with the configurable,
runtime features summarized in “Overview of the Gateway 7001 Series of self-managed
APs” on page 2.
As new features and enhancements become available, you can upgrade the firmware to
add new functionality and performance improvements to the access points that make up
your wireless network. (See “Upgrading the firmware” on page 168.)
www.gateway.com
17
Connecting the access point to network and power
The next step is to set up the network and power connections.
To set up the network and power connections:
1
Connect one end of an Ethernet cable to the network port on the access point and
the other end to the same hub where your computer is connected.
Hub
Admin computer to hub
Hub to LAN
Administrator computer
AP to hub
LAN
Access point
OR Connect one end of an Ethernet cable to the network port on the access point and
the other end of the cable to the Ethernet port on your computer.
Access point
18
Administrator computer
(This computer must have an IP address on
the same subnet as the access point.)
www.gateway.com
Important
If you use a hub, the device you use must permit broadcast
signals from the access point to reach all other devices on
the network. A standard hub should work fine. Some
switches, however, do not allow directed or subnet
broadcasts through. You may have to configure the switch
to allow directed broadcasts.
If for initial configuration use a direct wired connection
(using an Ethernet cable) between the access point and
your computer, you will need to reconfigure the cabling for
subsequent startup and deployment of the access point so
that the access point is no longer connected directly to your
computer but instead is connected to the LAN (either using
a Hub or directly).
It is possible to detect access points on the network (using
Kickstart) with a wireless connection. However, we strongly
advise against using this method. In most environments
you may have no way of knowing whether you are actually
connecting to the intended AP and also because many of
the initial configuration changes required will cause you to
lose connectivity with the AP over a wireless connection.
2
Connect the power adapter to the power port on the back of the access point, then
plug the other end of the power cord into a power outlet (preferably, using a surge
protector).
Setting up connections for a guest network
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP offers an out-of-the-box Guest Interface that
lets you configure an access point for controlled guest access to the network. The same
access point can function as a bridge for two different wireless networks: A secure Internal
LAN and a public Guest network. This can be done in one of two ways:
■
Physically, by connecting the two LAN ports on the access point to different networks
with two different cables, one to the internal LAN and the other to the public Guest
network.
■
Virtually, by defining two different Virtual LANs through the Administration UI.
Hardware connections for a guest VLAN
If you plan to configure a guest network using VLANs, do the following:
■
Connect eth0 to a VLAN-capable switch
■
Define VLANs on that switch
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19
Hardware connections for a physically separate guest network
If you plan to configure a physically separate guest network, you need to set up your
network connections differently at this point. The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP
ships with an extra network port to support configuration of a physically separate guest
network. Use both network ports on the access point to create two physical connections
to different networks:
■
Create a wired (Ethernet) connection from one of the network ports on the access point
to your internal LAN.
■
Create a second wired (Ethernet) connection from the other network port on the access
point to a separate network.
After you have the required physical connections set up, the rest of the configuration
process is accomplished through the Administration UI. For information on configuring
guest interface settings on the Administration UI, see “Advanced Configuration” on
page 67.
Turning on the access point
Plug in the AC power adapter and plug the power adapter into the Gateway 7001 Series
self-managed AP, then wait for its initialization process to complete.
Running KickStart to find access points and assign IP
addresses
KickStart is an easy-to-use utility for discovering and identifying new Gateway access
points. KickStart scans the network looking for Gateway access points, and displays ID
details on those it finds.
20
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Important
Keep in mind that KickStart (and the other Gateway
administration tools) recognizes and configures only
Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs. KickStart will not
find or configure other kinds of access points or other
devices.
Run Kickstart only in the subnet of the “Internal” network
(SSID). Do not run Kickstart on the guest subnetwork.
Kickstart will find only those access points that have IP
addresses. IP addresses are dynamically assigned to APs
if you have a DHCP server running on the network. Keep
in mind that if you deploy the AP on a network with no
DHCP server, the default static IP address (192.168.1.1)
will be used.
Use caution with non-DHCP enabled networks: Do not
deploy more than one new AP on a non-DHCP network
unless you change the IP address list in the first DHCP
server, because they will use the same default static IP
addresses and conflict with each other. (For more
information, see “Understanding dynamic and static IP
addressing” on page 12 and “How does the access point
obtain an IP address at startup?” on page 12.)
Run the KickStart CD on a laptop or computer that is connected to the same network as
your access points and use it to step through the discovery process.
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21
To run KickStart:
1
22
Insert the KickStart Wizard CD into the CD drive on your computer. If the KickStart
window is not displayed automatically, navigate to the CD drive and double-click the
Kickstart executable file to activate the KickStart utility on the CD. The KickStart
Welcome screen is displayed.
www.gateway.com
2
Click Next to search for access points. Wait for the search to complete, or until KickStart
has found your new access points.
Important
3
If no access points are found, Kickstart indicates this and presents
some troubleshooting information about your LAN and power
connections. After you have checked hardware power and Ethernet
connections, you can click the Kickstart Back button to search again
for access points.
Review the list of access points found.
KickStart will detect the IP addresses of Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs. Access
points are listed with their locations, Media Access Control (MAC) addresses, and IP
Addresses. If you are installing the first access point on a single-access-point network,
only one entry will be displayed on this screen.
Verify the MAC addresses shown here against the hardware labels for each access point.
This will be especially helpful later in providing or modifying the descriptive location
name for each access point. Click Next to continue.
4
Go to the Access Point Administration Web pages by clicking the link provided on
the KickStart page (see “Logging on to the administration Web pages” on page 24).
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23
Important
KickStart provides a link to the Administration Web pages
through the IP address of the first access point. The
Administration Web pages are a centralized management
tool that you can access through the IP address for any
access point in a cluster. After your other access points
are configured, you can also link to the Administration Web
pages by using the IP address for any of the other Gateway
access points in a URL (http://IPAddressOfAccessPoint).
Logging on to the administration Web pages
When you follow the link from KickStart to the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP
administration Web pages, you are prompted for a user name and password.
The defaults for user name and password are as follows.
Field
Default Setting
User name
admin
Password
admin
The user name is read-only. It cannot be modified.
24
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Type the user name and password and click OK.
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25
Viewing basic settings for Gateway 7001 Series self-managed access points
When you log in, the Basic Settings page for Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP
administration is displayed. These are global settings for all access points that are members
of the cluster and, if automatic configuration is specified, for any new access points that
are added later.
26
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Configuring basic settings and starting the wireless
network
Provide a minimal set of configuration information by defining the basic settings for your
wireless network. These settings are all available on the Basic Settings page of the
Administration Web interface, and are categorized into steps 1-4 on the Web page.
To configure the basic settings:
1
Review the description of this access point and provide IP addressing information.
For more information, see “Reviewing and describing the access point” on page 31.
2
Provide a new administrator password for clustered access points. For more
information, see “Providing administrator password and wireless network name” on
page 32.
3
Set configuration policy for new access points.
Choose to configure new access points automatically (as new members of the cluster)
or ignore new access points.
If you set a configuration policy to configure new access points automatically, new
access points added to this network will join the cluster and be configured
automatically based on the settings you defined here. Updates to the network settings
on any cluster member will be shared with all other access points in the group.
If you chose to ignore new access points, then as you add new access points they will
run in standalone mode. In standalone mode, an access point does not share the
cluster configuration with other access points. Instead it must be configured manually.
You can always update the settings on a standalone access point to have it join the
cluster. You can also remove an access point from a cluster thereby switching it to
run in standalone mode.
For more information, see “Setting configuration policy for new access points” on
page 34.
4
Start wireless networking by clicking Update to activate the wireless network with these
new settings. For more information, see “Updating basic settings” on page 36.
Default configuration
If you follow the steps above and accept all the defaults, the access point will have the
default configuration described in “Default settings and supported administrator/client
platforms” on page 5.
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27
What’s next?
Make sure the access point is connected to the LAN and access some wireless clients. After
you have tested the basics of your wireless network, you can enable more security and
fine-tune by modifying advanced configuration features.
Make sure the access point is connected to the LAN
If you configured the access point and administrator computer by connecting both into
a network hub, then your access point is already connected to the LAN. The next step is
to test some wireless clients.
To test wireless clients:
1
If you configured the access point using a direct wired connection with an Ethernet
cable from your computer to the access point, disconnect the cable from your
computer and the access point.
2
3
Connect a regular Ethernet cable from the access point to the LAN.
Connect your computer to the LAN either through Ethernet cable or wireless client
card.
Test LAN connectivity with wireless clients
Test the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP by trying to detect it and associate with it
from some wireless client devices. (See “Wireless client computers” on page 11 in the
PreLaunch Checklist: Default Settings and Supported Administrator/Client Platforms for
information on requirements for these clients.)
Secure and fine-tune the access point using advanced features
After you have the wireless network up and running and have tested against the access
point with some wireless clients, you can add in more layers of security, add users, configure
a guest interface, and fine-tune performance settings.
28
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Chapter 3
Configuring Basic Network
Settings
■
Navigating to basic settings
■
Reviewing and describing the access
point
■
Setting configuration policy for new
access points
■
Understanding basic settings for a
standalone access point
■
Understanding indicator icons
29
Navigating to basic settings
To configure basic Network settings, click Network, then click Basic Settings.
If you use Kickstart to link to the Administration Web pages, the Basic Settings page is
displayed by default.
Fill in the boxes on the Basic Settings page as described in the following section.
30
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Reviewing and describing the access
point
Field
Action
IP Address
This box is not editable because the IP address is
already assigned (either through DHCP, or statically
through the Ethernet (Wired) settings as described in
“Configuring Guest interface Ethernet settings” on
page 73).
MAC Address
A MAC address is a permanent, unique hardware
address for any device that represents an interface to the
network. The MAC address is assigned by the
manufacturer.
You cannot change the MAC address. It is provided here
for informational purposes as a unique identifier for an
interface.
The address shown here is the MAC address for the
bridge (br0). This is the address by which the AP is
known externally to other networks.
To see MAC addresses for guest and internal interfaces
on the AP, see the Status > Interfaces tab.
Firmware
Version
Version information about the firmware currently installed
on the access point.
As new versions of the Gateway 7001 Series
self-managed AP firmware become available, you can
upgrade the firmware on your access points to take
advantages of new features and enhancements.
For instructions on how to upgrade the firmware, see
“Upgrading the firmware” on page 168.
Location
Specify a location description for this access point.
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31
Providing administrator password and
wireless network name
Caution
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP is not designed for
multiple, simultaneous configuration changes. If you have a network
that includes multiple access points, and more than one administrator
is logged on to the Administration Web pages and making changes
to the configuration, all access points in the cluster will stay in synch
but there is no guarantee that all configuration changes specified by
multiple users will be applied.
Field
Action
Administrator
Password
Type a new administrator password. The characters you
enter will be displayed as “*” characters to prevent others
from seeing your password as you type.
The Administrator password must be an alphanumeric
strings of up to 32 characters. Do not use special
characters.
Note: As an immediate first step in securing your
wireless network, we recommend that you change the
administrator password from the default.
Administrator
Password (again)
32
Re-type the new administrator password to confirm that
you typed it as intended.
www.gateway.com
Field
Action
Wireless
Network Name
(SSID)
Type a name for the wireless network as a character
string. This name will apply to all access points on this
network. As you add more access points, they will share
this SSID.
The Service Set Identifier (SSID) is an alphanumeric
string of up to 32 characters
Note: If you are connected as a wireless client to the
same AP that you are administering, resetting the SSID
will cause you to lose connectivity to the AP. You will need
to reconnect to the new SSID after you save this new
setting.
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33
Setting configuration policy for new
access points
34
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Field
Action
New Access
Points
Choose the policy you want to put in effect for adding
New Access Points to the network.
• If you choose are configured automatically, then
when a new access points is added to the network it
automatically joins the existing cluster. The cluster
configuration is copied to the new access point, and no
manual configuration is required to deploy it.
• If you choose are ignored, new access points will not
join the cluster, but will be considered standalone. You
need to configure standalone access points manually
through KickStart and the Administration Web pages
residing on the standalone access points. (To get to the
Web page for a standalone access point, use its IP
address in a URL as follows:
http://IPAddressOfAccessPoint.).
Note: If you change the policy so that new access points
are ignored, then any new access points you add to the
network will not join the cluster. Existing clustered access
points will not be aware of these standalone APs.
Therefore, if you are viewing the Administration Web
pages through the IP address of a clustered access
point, the new standalone APs will not show up in the
list of access points on the Cluster > Access Points tab.
The only way to see a standalone AP is to browse to it
directly by using its IP address in the URL.
If you later change the policy back to the default so that
new access points “are configured automatically,” all
subsequent new APs will automatically join the cluster.
Standalone APs, however, will stay in standalone mode
until you explicitly add them to the cluster.
For information on how to add standalone APs to the
cluster, see “Adding an access point to a cluster” on
page 52.
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35
Updating basic settings
When you have reviewed the new configuration, click Update to apply the settings and
deploy the access points as a wireless network.
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Understanding basic settings for a
standalone access point
The Basic Settings tab for a standalone access point indicates only that the current mode
is standalone and provides a button for adding the access point to a cluster (group). If
you click on any of the Cluster tabs on the Administration pages for an access point in
standalone mode, you will be re-directed to the Basic Settings page because Cluster settings
do not apply to standalone APs.
For more information, see “Standalone mode” on page 44 and “Adding an access point
to a cluster” on page 52.
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37
Understanding indicator icons
All the network settings tabs on the Administration Web pages include visual indicator
icons showing current network activity
Icon
Description
The clustering icon indicates whether the current access
point is “Clustered” or “Not Clustered” (that is,
standalone).
The number of access points available for service on this
network is indicated by the “Access Points” icon.
Then number of client user accounts created and
enabled on this network is indicated by the “User
Accounts” icon.
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Chapter 4
Managing Access Points and
Clusters
■
Navigating to access points management
■
Understanding clustering and access
points
■
Modifying the location description
■
Adding and removing an access point
■
Navigating to an AP by using its IP
address in a URL
39
Introduction
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs show current basic configuration settings for
clustered access points (location, IP address, MAC address, status, and availability) and
provide a way of navigating to the full configuration for specific APs if they are cluster
members.
Standalone access points (those which are not members of the cluster) do not show up
in this listing. To configure standalone access points, you must discover (through Kickstart)
or know the IP address of the access point and by using its IP address in a URL
(http://IPAddressOfAccessPoint).
Important
40
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs are not
designed for multiple, simultaneous configuration changes.
If you have a network that includes multiple access points,
and more than one administrator is logged on to the
Administration Web pages and making changes to the
configuration, all access points in the cluster will stay in
synch but there is no guarantee that all configuration
changes specified by multiple users will be applied.
www.gateway.com
Navigating to access points management
To view or edit information on access points in a cluster, click Cluster > Access Points on
the Administration Web page. The Manage access points in the cluster screen opens.
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41
Understanding clustering
A key feature of the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP is the ability to form a dynamic,
configuration-aware group (called a cluster) with other Gateway access points in a network
in the same subnet.
Access points can participate in a peer-to-peer cluster which makes it easier for you to
deploy, administer, and secure your wireless network. The cluster provides a single point
of administration and lets you view the deployment of access points as a single wireless
network rather than a series of separate wireless devices.
What is a cluster?
A cluster is a group of access points which are coordinated as a single group through
Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP administration. You cannot create multiple clusters
on a single wireless network (SSID).
Only one cluster per wireless network is supported.
How many APs can a cluster support?
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP can support up to eight access points in a cluster
at any one time. If a new AP is added to a network with a cluster that is already at full
capacity, the new AP is added in stand-alone mode. Note that when the cluster is full, extra
APs are added in stand-alone mode regardless of the configuration policy in effect for new
access points.
For related information, see “Cluster mode” on page 44, “Standalone mode” on page 44,
and “Setting configuration policy for new access points” on page 34.
What kinds of APs can cluster together?
A Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP can form a cluster with itself (a “cluster of one”)
and with other Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs that share some basic characteristics.
In order to be members of the same cluster, access points must be Gateway 7001 Series
self-managed APs:
■
Of the same radio configuration (all dual-band APs or all single-band APs)
■
On the same LAN
A dual-band and a single-band AP cannot be members of the same cluster. Therefore, a
Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G Wireless Access Point (dual-band) cannot cluster with a Gateway
7001 802.11 G Wireless Access Point (single-band). Also, Gateway 7001 Series self-managed
APs will not cluster with non Gateway APs.
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Having a mix of APs on the network does not adversely affect Gateway 7001 Series
self-managed AP clustering in any way, however it is helpful to understand the clustering
behavior for administration purposes:
■
Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs of the same model will form a cluster. The
dual-band APs will form one cluster and the single-band APs will form another cluster.
■
Non-Gateway APs will not join Gateway clusters. They should be administered as usual
through their associated Administration tools.
Which settings are shared in the cluster configuration
and which are not?
Most configuration settings defined through the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP
Administration Web pages will be propagated to cluster members as a part of the cluster
configuration.
Settings shared in the cluster configuration
The cluster configuration includes:
■
Network name (SSID)
■
Administrator password
■
Configuration policy
■
User accounts and authentication
■
Wireless interface settings
■
Radio settings
■
QoS queue parameters
■
MAC address filtering.
Settings not shared by the cluster
The few exceptions (settings not shared among clustered access points) are the following
most of which, by nature, must be unique:
■
IP addresses
■
MAC addresses
■
Location descriptions
■
WDS bridges
■
Security settings
■
Ethernet (Wired) Settings, including enabling or disabling Guest access
■
Guest interface configuration
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43
Settings that are not shared must be configured individually on the Administration pages
for each access point. To get to the Administration pages for an access point that is a
member of the current cluster, click on its IP Address link on the Cluster > Access Points
page of the current AP.
Cluster mode
When an access point is a cluster member, it is considered to be in cluster mode. You define
whether you want new access points to join the cluster or not through the configuration
policy you set in Basic Settings. (See “Setting configuration policy for new access points”
on page 34.) You can re-set an access point in cluster mode to standalone mode. (See
“Removing an access point from the cluster” on page 51.)
Important
When the cluster is full (eight APs is the limit), extra APs
are added in stand-alone mode regardless of the
configuration policy in effect for new access points. See
“How many APs can a cluster support?” on page 42.
Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs of different
models form separate clusters. See “What kinds of APs
can cluster together?” on page 42.
Standalone mode
Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs can be configured in standalone mode. In
standalone mode, an access point is not a member of the cluster and does not share the
cluster configuration, but rather requires manual configuration that is not shared with
other access points. (See “Setting configuration policy for new access points” on page 34
and “Removing an access point from the cluster” on page 51.)
Standalone access points are not listed on the Cluster > Access Points tab in the
Administration UI.
You need to know the IP address for a standalone access point in order to configure and
manage it directly. (See “Navigating to an AP by using its IP address in a URL” on page 53.)
The Basic Settings tab for a standalone access point indicates only that the current mode
is standalone and provides a button for adding the access point to a cluster (group). If
you click on any of the Cluster tabs on the Administration pages for an access point in
standalone mode, you will be redirected to the Basic Settings page because Cluster settings
do not apply to stand-alone APs.
Important
44
When the cluster is full (eight APs is the limit), extra APs
are added in stand-alone mode regardless of the
configuration policy in effect for new access points. See
“How many APs can a cluster support?” on page 42.
www.gateway.com
You can re-enable cluster mode on a standalone access point. (See “Adding an access point
to a cluster” on page 52.)
Cluster formation
A cluster is formed when the first Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP is configured. (See
“Quick Setup” on page 15 and “Configuring Basic Network Settings” on page 29.)
If a cluster configuration policy is in place when a new access point is deployed, it attempts
to rendezvous with an existing cluster.
If it is unable to locate a cluster, then it establishes a new cluster on its own.
If it locates a cluster but is rejected because the cluster is full, or the clustering policy is
to ignore new access points, then the access point will deploy in standalone mode.
Cluster size and membership
The upper limit of a cluster is eight access points. The Network Web administration page
provides a real-time, visual indicator of the number of access points in the current cluster
and warns when the cluster has reached capacity. (See “Configuring basic settings and
starting the wireless network” on page 27.)
If a cluster is present but is already full, new access points will deploy in standalone mode.
Intra-cluster security
To make sure that the security of the cluster as a whole is equivalent to the security of a
single access point, communication of certain data between access points in a cluster is
done using Secure Sockets Layer (typically referred to as SSL) with private key encryption.
Both the cluster configuration file and the user database are transmitted among access
points using SSL.
Auto-Synch of Cluster Configuration
If you are making changes to the AP configuration that require a relatively large amount
of processing (such as adding several new users), you may encounter a synchronization
progress bar after clicking Update on any of the Administration pages. The progress bar
indicates that the system is busy performing an auto-synch of the updated configuration
to all APs in the cluster. The Administration Web pages are not editable during the
auto-synch.
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45
Note that auto-synchronization always occurs during configuration updates that affect the
cluster, but the processing time is usually negligible. The auto-synch progress bar is
displayed only for longer-than-usual wait times.
Cluster recovery
In cases where the access points in a cluster become out of sync for any of the reasons
mentioned in “Known problems” on page 172, or an access point cannot join or be
removed from a cluster, the following methods for cluster recovery are recommended.
Reboot or reset access point
These recovery methods are given in the order you should try them. In all but the last
case (stop clustering), you only need to reset or reboot the particular access point whose
configuration is out of sync with other cluster members or cannot remove/join cluster.
■
Reboot the access point from its Administration UI. To do this, go to
http://IPAddressOfAccessPoint, navigate to Advanced > Reboot and click Reboot. (IP
addresses for APs are on the Cluster > Access Points page for cluster members.)
■
Physically reboot the access point by pressing the Power button on the device.
■
Reset the access point from its Administration UI. To do this, go to
http://IPAddressOfAccessPoint, navigate to Advanced > Reset Configuration, and click Reset.
(IP addresses for APs are on the Cluster > Access Points page for any cluster member.)
■
Physically reset the access point by pressing the Reset button on the device.
■
In some extreme cases, reboot or reset may not solve the problem. In these cases, follow
the procedure described the next section.
Stop clustering and reset each access point in the cluster
If the previous reboot or reset methods do not solve the problem, do the following to stop
clustering and reset all APs.
To stop clustering and reset each access point in the cluster:
1
Stop clustering on each access point in the cluster by entering the Stop Clustering
URL in the address bar of your Web browser as follows:
http://IPAddressOfAccessPoint/stop_clustering.cgi
Where IPAddres0sOfAccessPoint is the IP address of the access point you want to
stop clustering. You can find the IP addresses for the cluster members on the
Cluster > Access Points page for any of the clustered access points. We recommend
making a note of all IP addresses at this point.
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The Stop Clustering page for this access point opens.
2
3
Click the Stop Clustering button.
Repeat steps 1 and 2 for every access point in the cluster.
Caution
4
Do not proceed to the next step of resetting any access points until
you have stopped clustering on all of them. Make sure that you first
“Stop Clustering” on every access point on the subnet, and only then
perform the next part of the process of resetting each one to the
factory defaults.
Reset each access point by going to the Administration Web pages of the access point
you want to reset by entering its URL into the address bar of your Web browser:
http://IPAddressOfAccessPoint/
Where IPAddres0sOfAccessPoint is the IP address of the access point you want to
reset.
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5
On the Administration UI left-hand tabs, click Advanced > Reset Configuration to open
the Reset page. The Reset page opens.
6
Click Reset to restore the factory defaults on the access point. (This will clear all of
your previous settings, including updated passwords.)
7
Repeat steps 4 through 6 for every access point in the cluster.
Caution
48
Do not proceed to the next step until you have stopped clustering on
all of access points in the pre-existing cluster.
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8
Refresh the cluster view by clicking Cluster > Access Points on the Administration Web
pages for any one of the access points. The Access Points cluster management page opens.
9
Click Refresh.
At this point you should see all previous cluster members displayed in the list. Before
proceeding to the last step, verify that the cluster has reformed by making sure all
are access points are listed.
10
Review all configuration settings and make modifications as needed.
Pay special attention to the security settings because after a reset, access points run
without any security in place.
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Understanding access point settings
The Access Points tab on the Administration Web page provides information about all
access points on the wireless network.
From this tab, you can view location descriptions, IP addresses, enable (activate) or disable
(deactivate) clustered access points, and remove access points from the cluster. You can
also modify the location description for an access point.
The IP address links provide a way to navigate to configuration settings and data on an
access point.
Navigating to a specific access point can be particularly useful for access points running
in standalone mode.
The following table describes the access point settings and information display in detail.
Field
Description
Location
Description of where the access point is physically located.
MAC Address
Media Access Control (MAC) address of the access point.
A MAC address is a permanent, unique hardware address for any device
that represents an interface to the network. The MAC address is assigned
by the manufacturer. You cannot change the MAC address. It is provided
here for informational purposes as a unique identifier for the access point.
Even if an access point is configured for multiple BSSIDs and has multiple
MAC addresses, only one of its MAC addresses will be shown in this list.
IP Address
50
Specifies the IP address for the access point. Each IP address is a link to
the Administration Web pages for that access point. You can use the links
to navigate to the Administration Web pages for a specific access point.
This is useful for viewing data on a specific access point to make sure a
cluster member is picking up cluster configuration changes, to configure
advanced settings on a particular access point, or to switch a standalone
access point to cluster mode.
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Working with access points in a cluster
Modifying the location description
To make modifications to the location description:
1
2
Click Basic Settings on the Administration Web page.
3
Click Update to apply the changes.
Update the location description in section 1 under “Review Description of this Access
Point.”
Removing an access point from the cluster
To remove an access point from the cluster:
1
Click Cluster > Access Points on the Administration Web page. The Manage access points
in the cluster screen opens.
2
3
Click the box next to the access point you want to disable.
Click Remove from Cluster.
The change will be reflected under Status for that access point and it will now show
as standalone (instead of cluster).
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Adding an access point to a cluster
To add an access point that is currently in standalone mode back into a cluster:
1
Go to the Administration Web pages for the standalone access point. (See “Navigating
to an AP by using its IP address in a URL” on page 53.)
The Administration Web page for the standalone access point is displayed.
2
Click the Basic Settings tab in the Administration pages for the standalone access
point.
The Basic Settings tab for a standalone access point indicates that the current mode
is standalone and provides a button for adding the access point to a cluster (group).
Important
3
52
When the cluster is full (eight APs is the limit), extra APs
are added in stand-alone mode regardless of the
configuration policy in effect for new access points. See
“How many APs can a cluster support?” on page 42.
Click Join Cluster. The access point is now a cluster member. Its Status (Mode) on the
Cluster > Access Points tab now indicates cluster instead of standalone.
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Navigating to information for a specific
AP and managing standalone APs
In general, Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs are designed for central management
of clustered access points. For access points in a cluster, all access points in the cluster
reflect the same configuration. In this case, it does not matter which access point you
actually connect to for administration.
There may be situations, however, when you want to view or manage information on a
particular access point. For example, you might want to check status information such as
client associations or events for an access point. Or you might want to configure and
manage features on an access point that is running in standalone mode. In these cases,
you can navigate to the Administration Web interface for individual access points by
clicking the IP address links on the Access Points tab.
All clustered access points are shown on the Cluster > Access Points page. To navigate to
clustered access points, you click on the IP address for a specific cluster member shown
in the list.
Navigating to an AP by using its IP address in a URL
You can also link to the Administration Web pages of a specific access point, by typing
the IP address for that access point as a URL directly into a Web browser address bar in
the following form:
http://IPAddressOfAccessPoint
(where IPAddressOfAccessPoint is the address of the particular access point you want
to monitor or configure).
For standalone access points, this is the only way to navigate to their configuration
information. If you do not know the IP address for a standalone access point, use Kickstart
to find all APs on the network and you should be able to derive which ones are standalone
by comparing KickStart findings with access points listed on the Cluster > Access Points
tab. The APs that Kickstart finds that are not shown on the this tab are probably standalone
APs. (For more information on using Kickstart, see “Running KickStart to find access points
and assign IP addresses” on page 20.)
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Chapter 5
Managing User Accounts
■
Navigating to user management for
clustered access points
■
Viewing and changing user accounts
■
Adding a user
■
Editing a user accountt
■
Enabling and disabling user accounts
■
Removing a user
55
Introduction
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed APs include user management capabilities for
controlling client access to access points.
User management and authentication must always be used in conjunction with the
following two security modes, which require use of a RADIUS server for user authentication
and management.
■
IEEE 802.1x mode (see “IEEE 802.1x” on page 93 in Configuring network security)
■
WPA with RADIUS mode (see “WPA with RADIUS” on page 95 in Configuring network
security)
You have the option of using either the internal RADIUS server embedded in the Gateway
7001 Series self-managed AP or an external RADIUS server that you provide. If you use
the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP embedded RADIUS server, use this
Administration Web page on the access point to set up and manage user accounts. If you
are using an external RADIUS server, you need to set up and manage user accounts on
the Administrative interface for that server.
On the User Management page, you can create, edit, remove, and view client user accounts.
Each user account consists of a user name and password. The set of users specified here
represent approved clients that can log in and use one or more access points to access local
and possibly external networks via your wireless network.
Important
56
Users specified here are clients of the Gateway access
point(s) who use the APs as a connectivity hub, not
administrators of the wireless network. Only those with the
administrator user name and password and knowledge of
the administration URL can log in as an administrator and
view or modify configuration settings.
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Navigating to user management for
clustered access points
To set up or modify user accounts, click Cluster > User Management on the Administration
Web page. The Manage user accounts screen opens.
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Viewing and changing user accounts
Viewing user accounts
User accounts are shown at the top of the Manage user accounts screen under User Accounts.
User name, real name and status (enabled or disabled) are shown. You can make
modifications to an existing user account by first selecting the checkbox next to a user
name then choosing an action. (See “Editing a user account” on page 59)
Adding a user
To create a new user:
1
On the Manage user accounts screen, under Add a User, provide information in the
following boxes.
Field
Description
User name
Provide a user name.
User names are alphanumeric strings of up to 256
characters. Do not use special characters.
Real Name
For information purposes, provide the user’s full name.
There is a 256 character limit on real names.
Password
Specify a password for this user.
Passwords are alphanumeric strings of up to 256
characters. Do not use special characters.
2
When you have filled in the boxes, click Add Account to add the account.
The new user is then displayed in User Accounts. The user account is enabled by
default when you first create it.
Important
58
A limit of 100 user accounts per access point is imposed
by the Administration user interface. Network usage may
impose a more practical limit, depending on the demand
from each user.
www.gateway.com
Editing a user account
After you have created a user account, it is displayed under User Accounts at the top of
the User Management Web page. To make modifications to an existing user account, first
click the checkbox next to the user name so that a checkmark is displayed in the box.
Then, choose an action such as Edit, Enable, Disable, or Remove.
Enabling and disabling user accounts
A user account must be enabled for the user to log on as a client and use the access point.
You can enable or disable any user account. With this feature, you can maintain a set of
user accounts and authorize or prevent users from accessing the network without having
to remove or re-create accounts. This is convenient in situations where users have an
occasional need to access the network. For example, contractors who do work for your
company on an intermittent but regular basis might need network access for 3 months
at a time, then be off for 3 months, and back on for another assignment. You can enable
and disable these user accounts as needed, and control access as appropriate.
To enable a user account:
■
On the User Management Web page, under User Accounts, click the box next to the user
name, then click Enable.
A user with an account that is enabled can log on to the wireless access points in
your network as a client.
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59
To disable a user account:
■
On the User Management Web page, under User Accounts, click the box next to the user
name, then click Disable.
A user with an account that is disabled cannot log on to the wireless access points
in your network as a client. However, the user remains in the database and can be
enabled later as needed.
To remove a user account:
■
On the User Management Web page, under User Accounts, click the box next to the user
name, then click Remove.
If you think you might want to add this user back in at a later date, you might consider
disabling the user rather than removing the account altogether.
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Chapter 6
Session Monitoring
■
Navigating to session monitoring
■
Understanding session monitoring
information
■
Viewing session information for access
points
■
Sorting session information
■
Refreshing session information
61
Navigating to session monitoring
To view session monitoring information, click Cluster > Sessions on the Administration
Web page. The Monitor active client station sessions page opens.
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Understanding session monitoring
information
The Monitor active client station sessions page shows the stations associated with access points
in the cluster.
A session in this context is the period of time in which a user on a client device (station)
with a unique MAC address maintains a connection with the wireless network. The session
begins when the client logs on to the network, and the session ends when the client either
logs off intentionally or loses the connection for some other reason.
Important
A session is not the same as an association, which
describes a client connection to a particular access point.
A client network connection can shift from one clustered
AP to another within the context of the same session. A
client station can roam between APs and maintain the
session.
Details about the session information shown is described in the following table.
Field
Description
User Name
Indicates the client user name.
AP Location
Indicates the location of the access point.
This is derived from the location description specified on the Basic Settings
tab.
User MAC
Address
Indicates the MAC address of the user’s client device (station).
Idle Time
Indicates the amount of time this station has remained inactive.
A MAC address is a hardware address that uniquely identifies each node
of a network.
A station is considered to be “idle” when it is not receiving or transmitting
data.
Data Rate
The speed at which this access point is transferring data to the specified
client.
The data transmission rate is measured in megabits per second (Mbps).
This value should fall within the range of the advertised rate set for the
IEEE 802.1x mode in use on the access point. For example, 6 to 54Mbps
for 802.11a.
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Field
Description
Signal
Indicates the strength of the radio frequency (RF) signal the client receives
from the access point.
The measure used for this is an IEEE 802.1x value known as Received
Signal Strength Indication (RSSI), and will be a value between 0 and 100.
RSSI is determined by a an IEEE 802.1x mechanism implemented on the
network interface card (NIC) of the client station.
Utilization
Utilization rate for this station.
For example, if the station is “active” (transmitting and receiving data) 90%
of the time and inactive 10% of the time, its “utilization rate” is 90%.
64
RxAve
Indicates number of total packets received by the client during the current
session.
TxAve
Indicates number of total packets transmitted to the client during this
session.
Error Rate
Indicates the percentage of time frames are dropped during transmission
on this access point.
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Viewing session information for access
points
You can view session information for all access points on the network at the same time,
or set the display to show session information for a specified access point chosen from
the list at the top of the screen.
To view information on all access points, select the Show all access points option at the
top of the page.
To view session information on a particular access point, select the Show only this access
point option and choose the access point name from the list.
Sorting session information
To order (sort) the information shown in the tables by a particular indicator, click on the
column label by which you want to order things. For example, if you want to see the table
rows ordered by utilization rate, click Utilization. The entries will be sorted by utilization
rate.
Refreshing session information
You can set the time in seconds for this screen to automatically update with live
information. You can also force an update of the information displayed by clicking Refresh.
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Chapter 7
Advanced Configuration
■
Configuring an Ethernet (wired)
interface
■
Configuring a wireless interface
■
Configuring network security
■
Configuring radio settings
67
Configuring an Ethernet (wired) interface
Ethernet (Wired) Settings describe the configuration of your Ethernet local area network
(LAN)
Caution
68
The Ethernet Settings, including Guest Access, are not
shared across the cluster. These settings must be
configured individually on the Administration pages for
each access point. To get to the Administration pages for
an access point that is a member of the current cluster,
click on its IP Address link on the Cluster > Access Points
page of the current AP. For more information about which
settings are shared by the cluster and which are not, see
“Which settings are shared in the cluster configuration and
which are not?” on page 43.
www.gateway.com
Navigating to Ethernet (wired) settings
To set the wired address for an access point, Advanced > Ethernet (Wired) Settings on the
Administration Web page, and update the boxes as described in the following section.
Setting the DNS name
Field
Description
DNS Name
Type a DNS name for the access point in the text box.
This is the host name. It may be provided by your ISP or network
administrator, or you can provide your own.
The rules for system names are:
• This name can be up to 20 characters long.
• Only letters, numbers and dashes are allowed.
• The name must start with a letter and end with either a letter or a number.
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Enabling or Disabling Guest Access
You can provide controlled guest access over an isolated network and a secure internal
LAN on the same Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP.
Configuring an internal LAN and a guest network
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a communications network covering a limited area, for
example, one floor of a building. A LAN connects multiple computers and other network
devices like storage and printers.
Ethernet is the most common technology implementing a LAN. Wi-Fi (IEEE) is another
popular LAN technology.
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP lets you configure two different LANs on the
same access point: one for a secure internal LAN and another for a public guest network
with no security and little or no access to internal resources. To configure these networks,
you need to provide both Wireless and Ethernet (Wired) settings.
Information on how to configure the Ethernet (Wired) settings is provided in the next
sections.
(For information on how to configure the Wireless settings, see “Configuring a wireless
interface” on page 74. For an overview of how to set up the guest interface, see “Advanced
Configuration” on page 67.)
Enabling or Disabling Guest Access
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP ships with the Guest Access feature disabled by
default. If you want to provide guest access on your AP, enable Guest access on the Ethernet
(Wired) Settings tab.
Field
Guest Access
Description
By default, the Gateway® 7001 AP ships with Guest Access disabled.
• To enable Guest Access, click Enabled.
• To disable Guest Access, click Disabled.
Specifying a physical or virtual Guest network
If you enable Guest Access, you must choose a method of representing both an internal
and guest Network on this access point. There are two ways of doing this:
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■
Physically, by connecting the two LAN ports on the access point to different networks
with two different cables, one to the internal LAN and another to a guest network.
■
Virtually, by connecting the LAN port on the access point to a tagged port on a VLAN
capable switch then defining two different virtual LANs on this Administration page.
(For more information, see “Advanced Configuration” on page 67).
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Choose either physically separate or virtually separate internal and guest LANs as described
in the following section.
Field
Description
For Internal and
Guest access,
use two
Specify either a physically or virtually separate guest network on this access
point:
■
■
Caution
If you connected this access point to two separate networks for a “physically
secure” solution, then choose Ethernet Ports from the list. (Choosing
“Ethernet Ports” here will disable the “VLAN” settings.)
If the access point is using only one physical connection to your internal
LAN (extra port is not in use), then choose VLANs from the list. (This will
enable the “VLAN” settings.)
If you reconfigure the Guest and Internal interfaces to use
VLANs, you may lose connectivity to the access point.
First, be sure to verify that the switch and DHCP server
you are using can support VLANs per the IEEE 802.1Q
standard. After configuring the VLAN on the Advanced >
Ethernet (Wired) Settings page, physically reconnect the
Ethernet cable on the switch to the tagged packet (VLAN)
port. Then, re-connect through the Administration Web
pages to the new IP address. (If necessary, check with the
infrastructure support administrator regarding the VLAN
and DHCP configurations.)
Configuring Internal interface Ethernet settings
To configure Ethernet (Wired) settings for the internal LAN, fill in the boxes as described
in the following table.
Field
Description
MAC Address
Shows the MAC address for the internal interface for this access point. This
is a read only box that you cannot change.
VLAN ID
If you choose to configure internal and guest networks by “VLANs”, this box
will be enabled.
Provide a number between 1 and 4094 for the internal VLAN.
This will cause the access point to send DHCP requests with the VLAN tag.
The switch and the DHCP server must support VLAN IEEE 802.1Q frames.
The access point must be able to reach the DHCP server.
Check with the Administrator regarding the VLAN and DHCP configurations.
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Field
Connection Type
Description
You can select “DHCP Client” or “Static IP”.
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a protocol specifying
how a centralized server can provide network configuration information to
clients. A DHCP server “offers” a “lease” to the client system. The information
supplied includes the client's IP addresses and net mask plus the address
of its DNS servers and gateway.
Static IP indicates that all network settings are provided manually. You must
provide the IP address for the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed Access
Point, its subnet mask, the IP address of the default gateway, and the IP
address of at least one DNS nameserver.
If you select “DHCP Client”, the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP will
acquire its IP Address, subnet mask, and DNS and gateway information from
the DHCP Servers.
Otherwise, if you select “Static IP”, fill in the items described in “Static IP
Settings.”
IMPORTANT: If you do not have a DHCP server on the Internal network and
do not plan to use one, the first thing you must do after bringing up the AP
is change the Connection Type from DHCP to Static IP. When you change
the Connection Type to Static IP, you can either assign a new Static IP
Address to the AP or continue using the default address. We recommend
assigning a new address so that if later you bring up another Gateway 7001
Series self-managed AP on the same network, the IP addresses for the two
APs will be unique.
If you need to recover the default Static IP address, you can do so by resetting
the AP to the factory defaults as described in “Resetting the configuration”
on page 166.
Static IP Address
If you chose “Static IP” as the Connection Type, these boxes will be enabled.
Type the Static IP Address in the text boxes.
Subnet Mask
Type the Subnet Mask in the text boxes. You must obtain this information
from your ISP or network administrator.
Default Gateway
Type the Default Gateway in the text boxes.
DNS
Nameservers
The Domain Name Service (DNS) is a system that resolves the descriptive
name (domainname) of a network resource (for example,
www.gatewayap.com) to its numeric IP address (66.93.138.219). A DNS
server is called a Nameserver.
There are usually two Nameservers, a Primary and a Secondary.
You can choose Dynamic or Manual mode.
■
■
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If you choose Manual, you should assign static IP addresses manually.
If you choose Dynamic, the IP addresses for the DNS servers will be
assigned automatically through DHCP. (This option is only available if you
specified DHCP for the Connection Type.).
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Configuring Guest interface Ethernet settings
To configure Ethernet (Wired) settings for the “Guest” interface, fill in the boxes as
described in the following table.
Field
Description
MAC Address
Shows the MAC address for the guest interface for this access point. This
is a read-only box that you cannot change.
VLAN ID
If you choose to configure internal and guest networks by “VLANs”, this box
will be enabled.
Provide a number between 1 and 4094 for the guest VLAN.
Updating settings
To apply your changes, click Update.
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Configuring a wireless interface
Navigating to wireless settings
To set the wireless address for an access point, click Advanced > Wireless Settings on the
Administration Web page, and update the boxes as described in the following section.
Important
The following illustration shows the Wireless settings page
for the dual band AP (Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G Wireless
Access Point). The Administration Web page for the single
band AP (Gateway 7001 802.11 G Wireless Access Point)
will look slightly different.
Configuring the radio interface
The radio interface lets you set the radio Channel and 802.11 mode as described in the
following table.
Important
74
On the dual band AP (Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G Wireless
Access Point), you must configure these radio interface
settings for both Radio Interface One and Radio Interface
Two.
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Field
Description
MAC Addresses
(Shown on
dual-band AP
only)
Indicates the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses for the interface.
On the dual band AP only, the MAC addresses for Radio Interface One
(Internal/Guest) and Radio Interface Two (Internal/Guest) are shown.
A MAC address is a permanent, unique hardware address for any device
that represents an interface to the network. The MAC address is assigned
by the manufacturer.
You cannot change the MAC address. It is provided here for informational
purposes as a unique identifier for an interface.
Mode
The Mode defines the Physical Layer (PHY) standard being used by the
radio.
The Gateway 7001 AP is available in a dual band and single band version.
The configuration options for Mode differ depending on which product you
have.
Single-Band AP:
For the Single-Band AP, select one of these modes:
• IEEE 802.11b
• IEEE 802.11g
Dual-Band AP:
For the dual band access point, select a mode for each Radio Interface.
For Radio Interface One, select either of these modes:
• IEEE 802.11b
• IEEE 802.11g
For Radio Interface Two, select either of these modes:
• IEEE 802.11a
• Atheros Turbo 5 GHz (IEEE 802.11a Turbo)
Channel
Select the Channel. The range of channels and the default is determined
by the Mode of the radio interface.
The Channel defines the portion of the radio spectrum the radio uses for
transmitting and receiving. Each mode offers a number of channels,
dependent on how the spectrum is licensed by national and international
authorities such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or the
International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R).
The default is Auto, which picks the least busy channel at startup time, out
of the allowed channels.
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Configuring internal LAN wireless settings
The internal settings describe the MAC Address (read-only) and Network Name (also known
as the SSID) for the internal Wireless LAN (WLAN) as described in the following section.
Field
Description
MAC Address
Shows the MAC address for internal interface for this access point. This is
a read only box that you cannot change.
Although this access is point is physically a single device, it is represented
on the network as two nodes each with a unique MAC Address. This is
accomplished by using two different Basic Service Set Identifiers (BSSIDs)
for a single access point.
The MAC address shown for the internal access point is the BSSID for the
internal interface.
For the dual-band AP (Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G Wireless Access Point),
two MAC addresses are shown: one for each radio on the internal interface.
SSID
Type the SSID for the internal WLAN.
The Service Set Identifier (SSID) is an alphanumeric string of up to 32
characters that uniquely identifies a wireless local area network. It is also
referred to as the Network Name. There are no restrictions on the characters
that may be used in an SSID.
Configuring guest network wireless settings
The Guest Settings describe the MAC Address (read-only) and wireless network name (SSID)
for the guest network as described in the following section. Configuring an access point
with two different network names (SSIDs) lets you leverage the guest interface feature on
the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP. For more information, see “Advanced
Configuration” on page 67.
Field
Description
MAC Address
Shows the MAC address for guest interface for this access point. This is a
read only box that you cannot change.
Although this access is point is physically a single device, it is represented
on the network as two nodes each with a unique MAC Address. This is
accomplished by using two different Basic Service Set Identifiers (BSSIDs)
for a single access point.
The MAC address shown for the guest access point is the BSSID for the
guest interface.
For the dual-band AP (Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G Wireless Access Point),
two MAC addresses are shown: one for each Radio on the internal interface.
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Field
SSID
Description
Type the SSID for the internal WLAN.
The Service Set Identifier (SSID) is an alphanumeric string of up to 32
characters that uniquely identifies a wireless local area network. It is also
referred to as the Network Name. There are no restrictions on the characters
that may be used in an SSID.
For the guest network, provide an SSID that is different from the internal SSID
and easily identifiable as the guest network.
Updating settings
To apply your changes, click Update.
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Enabling a network time protocol server
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is an Internet standard protocol that synchronizes
computer clock times on your network. NTP servers transmit Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC, also known as Greenwich Mean Time) to their client systems. NTP sends periodic time
requests to servers, using the returned time stamp to adjust its clock.
The timestamp will be used to indicate the date and time of each event in log messages.
See http://www.ntp.org for more general information on NTP.
Navigating to time protocol settings
To enable an NTP server, click Advanced > Time Protocol on the Administration Web page.
The Modify how the access point discovers the time screen opens. Update the boxes as described
in the following section.
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Enabling or disabling a network time protocol (NTP)
server
To configure your access point to use a network time protocol (NTP) server, first enable
the use of NTP, then select the NTP server you want to use. (To shut down NTP service
on the network, disable NTP on the access point.)
Field
Description
Network Time
Protocol
NTP provides a way for the access point to obtain and maintain its time from
a server on the network. Using an NTP server gives your AP the ability to
provide the correct time of day in log messages and session information.
(See http://www.ntp.org for more general information on NTP.)
Choose to either enable or disable use of a network time protocol (NTP)
server:
• Enabled
• Disabled
NTP Server
If NTP is enabled, select the NTP server you want to use.
You can specify the NTP server by host name or IP address, although using
the IP address is not recommended as these can change more readily.
Updating settings
To apply your changes, click Update.
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Configuring network security
Understanding security issues on wireless networks
Wireless mediums are inherently less secure than wired mediums. For example, an Ethernet
NIC transmits its packets over a physical medium such as coaxial cable or twisted pair. A
wireless NIC broadcasts radio signals over the air allowing a wireless LAN to be easily tapped
without physical access or sophisticated equipment. A hacker equipped with a laptop, a
wireless NIC, and a bit of knowledge can easily attempt to compromise your wireless
network. One does not even need to be within normal range of the access point. By using
a sophisticated antenna on the client, a hacker may be able to connect to the network
from many miles away.
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP provides a number of authentication and
encryption schemes to make sure that your wireless infrastructure is accessed only by the
intended users. The details of each security mode are described in the following sections.
How do I know which security mode to use?
In general, we recommend that on your internal network you use the most robust security
mode that is feasible in your environment. When configuring security on the access point,
you first must choose the security mode, then in some modes an authentication algorithm,
and whether to allow clients not using the specified security mode to associate.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) with Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
using the CCMP (AES) encryption algorithm provides the best data protection available
and is clearly the best choice if all client stations are equipped with WPA supplicants.
However, backward compatibility or interoperability issues with clients or even with other
access points may require that you configure WPA with RADIUS with a different encryption
algorithm or choose one of the other security modes.
That said, however, security may not be as much of a priority on some types of networks.
If you are simply providing internet and printer access, as on a guest network, plain text
mode (no security) may be the appropriate choice. To prevent clients from accidentally
discovering and connecting to your network, you can disable the broadcast SSID so that
your network name is not advertised. If the network is sufficiently isolated from access to
sensitive information, this may offer enough protection in some situations. This level of
protection is the only one offered for guest networks, and also may be the right
convenience trade-off for other scenarios where the priority is making it as easy as possible
for clients to connect. (See “Does Prohibiting the Broadcast SSID Enhance Security?” on
page 86.)
Following is a brief discussion of what factors make one mode more secure than another,
a description of each mode offered, and when to use each mode.
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Comparison of security modes for key management, authentication, and
encryption algorithms
The three major factors that determine the effectiveness of a security protocol are:
■
How the protocol manages keys
■
Presence or absence of integrated user authentication in the protocol
■
Encryption algorithm or formula the protocol uses to encode/decode the data
Following is a list of the security modes available on the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed
AP along with a description of the key management, authentication, and encryption
algorithms used in each mode. We include some suggestions as to when one mode might
be more appropriate than another.
When to use plain text
Plain text mode by definition provides no security. In this mode, the data is not encrypted
but rather sent as plain text across the network. No key management, data encryption,
or user authentication is used.
Recommendations
Plain text mode is not recommended for regular use on the internal network because it
is not secure.
Plain text mode is the only mode in which you can run the guest network, which is by
definition an unsecure LAN always virtually or physically separated from any sensitive
information on the internal LAN.
Therefore, use plain text mode on the guest network, and on the internal network for initial
setup, testing, or problem solving only.
For information on how to configure plain text mode, see “Plain-text” on page 88.
When to use static WEP
Static Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a data encryption protocol for 802.11 wireless
networks. All wireless stations and access points on the network are configured with a static
64-bit (40-bit secret key + 24-bit initialization vector (IV)) or 128-bit (104-bit secret key +
24-bit IV) Shared Key for data encryption.
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Key Management
Encryption Algorithm
User Authentication
Static WEP uses a fixed key
that is provided by the
administrator. WEP keys are
indexed in different slots (up
to four on the Gateway 7001
Series self-managed AP).
An RC4 stream cipher is used
to encrypt the frame body and
cyclic redundancy checking
(CRC) of each 802.11 frame.
If you set the Authentication
Algorithm to Shared Key, this
protocol provides a
rudimentary form of user
authentication.
However, if the Authentication
Algorithm is set to “Open
System”, no authentication is
performed.
The client stations must have
the same key indexed in the
same slot to access data on
the access point.
If the algorithm is set to
“Both”, only WEP clients are
authenticated.
Recommendations
Static WEP was designed to provide security equivalent of sending unencrypted data
through an Ethernet connection, however it has major flaws and it does not provide even
this intended level of security.
Therefore, Static WEP is not recommended as a secure mode. The only time to use Static
WEP is when interoperability issues make it the only option available to you and you are
not concerned with the potential of exposing the data on your network.
For information on how to configure Static WEP security mode, see “Static WEP” on
page 89.
When to use IEEE 802.1x
IEEE 802.1x is the standard for passing the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) over
an 802.11 wireless network using a protocol called EAP Encapsulation Over LANs (EAPOL).
This is a newer, more secure standard than Static WEP.
While parts of 802.1x are indeed standard, it uses port control with dynamically varying
encryption keys that can be automatically updated over the network with the Extensible
Authentication Protocol (EAP) to enable user, not machine, authentication. To make all
this happen, 802.1x uses RADIUS servers.
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Key Management
Encryption Algorithm
User Authentication
IEEE 802.1x provides
dynamically generated keys
that are periodically
refreshed.
An RC4 stream cipher is used
to encrypt the frame body and
cyclic redundancy checking
(CRC) of each 802.11 frame.
There are different Unicast
keys for each station.
(This is the same encryption
algorithm as is used for Static
WEP.)
IEEE 802.1x mode supports a
variety of authentication
methods, like certificates,
Kerberos, and public key
authentication with a RADIUS
server.
You have a choice of using the
Gateway 7001 Series
self-managed AP embedded
RADIUS server or an external
RADIUS server. The
embedded RADIUS server
supports Protected EAP
(PEAP) and MSCHAP V2.
Recommendations
IEEE 802.1x mode is a better choice than Static WEP because keys are dynamically
generated and changed periodically. However, the encryption algorithm used is the same
as that of Static WEP and is therefore not as reliable as the more advanced encryption
methods such as TKIP and CCMP (AES) used in Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA).
Additionally, compatibility issues may be cumbersome because of the variety of
authentication methods supported and the lack of a standard implementation method.
For this reason, if you do use IEEE 802.1x, we suggest using it with the embedded RADIUS
server.
Therefore, IEEE 802.1x mode is not as secure a solution as Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA).
If you cannot use Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) because some of your client stations do
not have WPA, then a better solution than using IEEE 802.1x mode is to use WPA with
RADIUS mode instead and click Allow non-WPA IEEE 802.1x clients to allow non-WPA clients.
This way, you get the benefit of IEEE 802.1x key management for non-WPA clients along
with even better data protection of TKIP and CCMP (AES) key management and encryption
algorithms for your WPA clients.
For information on how to configure IEEE 802.1x security mode, see “IEEE 802.1x” on
page 93.
When to use WPA with RADIUS
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) with Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is a
Wi-Fi Alliance subset of IEEE 802.11i, which includes Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
(TKIP), Counter mode/ CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP) Advanced Encryption Standard (AES),
and 802.1x mechanisms. This mode requires the use of a RADIUS server to authenticate
users. WPA with RADIUS provides the best security available for wireless networks.
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Key Management
Encryption Algorithm
User Authentication
WPA with RADIUS provides
dynamically-generated keys
that are periodically
refreshed.
• Temporal Key Integrity
Protocol (TKIP)
Remote Authentication Dial-In
User Service (RADIUS)
• Counter mode/CBC-MAC
Protocol (CCMP) Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES)
You have a choice of using the
Gateway 7001 Series
self-managed AP embedded
RADIUS server or an external
RADIUS server. The
embedded RADIUS server
supports Protected EAP
(PEAP) and MSCHAP V2.
There are different Unicast
keys for each station.
Recommendations
WPA with RADIUS mode is the recommended mode. The CCMP (AES) and TKIP
encryption algorithms used with WPA modes are far superior to the RC4 algorithm used
for Static WEP or IEEE 802.1x modes. Therefore, CCMP (AES) or TKIP should be used
whenever possible. All WPA modes allow you to use these encryption schemes, so WPA
security modes are recommended above the others when using WPA is an option.
Additionally, this mode (WPA with RADIUS) incorporates a RADIUS server for user
authentication which gives it an edge over WPA-PSK.
Use the following guidelines for choosing options within the WPA with RADIUS security
mode:
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■
The best security you can have to date on a wireless network is WPA with RADIUS using
CCMP (AES) encryption algorithm. AES is a symmetric 128-bit block data encryption
technique that works on multiple layers of the network. It is the most effective
encryption system currently available for wireless networks. If all clients or other APs
on the network are WPA/CCMP compatible, use this encryption algorithm.
■
The second best choice is WPA with RADIUS with the encryption algorithm set to
“Both” (that is, both TKIP and CCMP). This lets WPA client stations without CCMP
associate, uses TKIP for encrypting Multicast and Broadcast frames, and lets you select
whether to use CCMP or TKIP for Unicast (AP-to-single-station) frames. This WPA
configuration allows more interoperability, at the expense of some security. Client
stations that support CCMP can use it for their Unicast frames. If you encounter
AP-to-station interoperability problems with the “Both” encryption algorithm setting,
then you will need to select TKIP instead.
■
The third best choice is WPA with RADIUS with the encryption algorithm set to TKIP.
Some clients have interoperability issues with CCMP and TKIP enabled at same time.
If you encounter this problem, then choose TKIP as the encryption algorithm. This is
the standard WPA mode, and most interoperable mode with client wireless software
security features. TKIP is the only encryption algorithm that is being tested in Wi-Fi
WPA certification.
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Important
If there are older client stations on your network that do
not support WPA, you can configure WPA with RADIUS
(with Both, CCMP, or TKIP) and check the Allow non-WPA
IEEE 802.1x clients checkbox to allow non-WPA clients.
This way, you get the benefit of IEEE 802.1x key
management for non-WPA clients along with even better
data protection of TKIP and CCMP (AES) key
management and encryption algorithms for your WPA
clients.
A typical scenario is that one is upgrading a current 802.1x
network to use WPA. You might have a mix of clients, in
which some new clients that support WPA and some older
ones that do not support WPA. You might even have other
access points on the network that support only 802.1x and
some that support WPA with RADIUS. For as long as this
mix persists, use the Allow non-WPA IEEE 802.1x clients
option When all the stations have been upgraded to use
WPA, you should disable the Allow non-WPA IEEE 802.1x
clients option.
For information on how to configure WPA with RADIUS security mode, see “WPA with
RADIUS” on page 95.
When to use WPA-PSK
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) with Pre-Shared Key (PSK) is a Wi-Fi Alliance subset of IEEE
802.11i, which includes Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) and 802.1x mechanisms.
This mode offers the same encryption algorithms as WPA with RADIUS but without the
ability to integrate a RADIUS server for user authentication.
Key Management
Encryption Algorithm
User Authentication
WPA-PSK provides
dynamically-generated keys
that are periodically
refreshed.
• Temporal Key Integrity
Protocol (TKIP)
The use of a Pre-Shared
(PSK) key provides user
authentication similar to that
of shared keys in WEP.
There are different Unicast
keys for each station.
• Counter mode/CBC-MAC
Protocol (CCMP) Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES)
Recommendations
WPA-PSK is not recommended for use with the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP when
WPA with RADIUS is an option.
We recommend that you use WPA with RADIUS mode instead, unless you have
interoperability issues that prevent you from using this mode.
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For example, some devices on your network may not support WPA with EAP talking to a
RADIUS server. Embedded printer servers or other small client devices with very limited
space for implementation may not support RADIUS. For such cases, we recommend that
you use WPA-PSK.
For information on how to configure WPA-PSK security mode, see “WPA-PSK” on page 97.
Does Prohibiting the Broadcast SSID Enhance Security?
You can suppress (prohibit) this broadcast to discourage stations from automatically
discovering your access point. When the AP’s broadcast SSID is suppressed, the network
name will not be displayed in the List of Available Networks on a client station. Instead,
the client must have the exact network name configured before it will be able to connect.
Disabling the broadcast SSID is sufficient to prevent clients from accidentally connecting
to your network, but it will not prevent even the simplest of attempts by a hacker to
connect, or monitor plain text traffic.
This offers a very minimal level of protection on an otherwise exposed network (such as
a guest network) where the priority is making it easy for clients to get a connection and
where no sensitive information is available.
(See also “Guest Network” on page 88.)
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Navigating to security settings
To set the security mode, click Advanced > Security on the Administration Web page. The
Modify security settings that apply to the internal network screen opens. Update the boxes as
described in the following section.
Configuring security settings
The following configuration information explains how to configure security modes on the
access point.
Keep in mind that each wireless client that wants to exchange data with the access point
must be configured with the same security mode and encryption key settings used on the
access point.
On a dual-band AP, these Security Settings apply to both radios.
Important
Security modes other than plain-text apply only to
configuration of the internal network. On the guest
network, you can use only plain-text mode. (For more
information about guest networks, see “Setting up Guest
Access” on page 99.)
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Broadcast SSID and Security Mode
To configure security on the access point, select a security mode and fill in the related
boxes as described in the following table. (Note you can also allow or prohibit the Broadcast
SSID as an extra precaution as mentioned in the following section.)
Field
Broadcast SSID
Description
Select the Broadcast SSID setting by clicking the Allow or Prohibit option.
By default, the access point broadcasts the Service Set Identifier (SSID) in
its beacon frames. Suppress this broadcast to discourage stations from
automatically discovering your access point.
You can suppress (prohibit) this broadcast to discourage stations from
automatically discovering your access point. When the AP’s broadcast SSID
is suppressed, the network name will not be displayed in the List of Available
Networks on a client station. Instead, the client must be configured with the
exact network before it will be able to connect.
Security Mode
Select the Security Mode. Select one of the following:
• Plain-text
• Static WEP
• IEEE 802.1x
• WPA with RADIUS
• WPA-PSK
Security modes other than plain-text apply only to configuration of the internal
network. On the guest network, you can use only plain-text mode. (For more
information, see “Setting up Guest Access” on page 99.)
Plain-text
Plain Text means any data transferred to and from the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed
AP is not encrypted.
There are no further options for plain-text mode.
Plain text mode can be useful during initial network configuration or for problem solving,
but it is not recommended for regular use on the internal network because it is not secure.
Guest Network
Plain text mode is the only mode in which you can run the guest network, which is by
definition an unsecure LAN always virtually or physically separated from any sensitive
information on the internal LAN.
The absence of security on the Guest AP is designed to make it as easy as possible for guests
to get a connection without having to program any security settings in their clients.
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For a minimum level of protection on a guest network, you can choose to suppress
(prohibit) the broadcast of the SSID (network name) to discourage client stations from
automatically discovering your access point. (See also “Does Prohibiting the Broadcast SSID
Enhance Security?” on page 86.)
(For more about the guest network, see “Setting up Guest Access” on page 99.)
Static WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a data encryption protocol for 802.11 wireless networks.
All wireless stations and access points on the network are configured with a static 64-bit
(40-bit secret key + 24-bit initialization vector (or IV)), or 128-bit (104-bit secret key + 24-bit
IV) Shared Key for data encryption.
You cannot mix 64-bit and 128-bit WEP keys between the access point and its client
stations.
Static WEP is not the most secure mode available, but it offers more protection than
plain-text mode as it does prevent an outsider from easily sniffing out unencrypted wireless
traffic. (For more secure modes, see “IEEE 802.1x” on page 93, “WPA with RADIUS” on
page 95, or “WPA-PSK” on page 97.) WEP encrypts data moving across the wireless network
based on a static key. (The encryption algorithm is a “stream” cipher called RC4.)
The access point uses a key to transmit data to the client stations. Each client station must
use that same key to decrypt data it receives from the access point.
Client stations can use different keys to transmit data to the access point. (Or they can
all use the same key, but this is less secure because it means one station can decrypt the
data being sent by another.) If you selected “Static WEP” security mode, provide the
following on the access point settings:
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Field
Description
Transfer Key
Index
Select a key index from the list. Key indexes 1 through 4 are available. The
default is 1.
The Transfer Key Index indicates which WEP key the access point will use
to encrypt the data it transmits.
Key Length
Specify the length of the key by clicking one of the options:
• 64 bits
• 128 bits
Key Type
Select the key type by clicking one of the options:
• ASCII
• Hex
Characters
Required
Indicates the number of characters required in the WEP key.
WEP Keys
You can specify up to four WEP keys. In each text box, type a string of
characters for each key.
The number of characters required updates automatically based on how you
set Key Length and Key Type.
If you selected ASCII, type any combination of numbers and letters 0-9, a-z,
and AZ.
If you selected HEX, type hexadecimal digits (any combination of 0-9 and
a-f or A-F).
Use the same number of characters for each key as specified in the
Characters Required box. These are the RC4 WEP keys shared with the
stations using the access point.
Each client station must be configured to use one of these same WEP keys
in the same slot as specified here on the AP. (See “Rules to Remember for
Static WEP” on page 91.)
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Field
Description
Authentication
Algorithm
The authentication algorithm defines the method used to determine whether
a client station is allowed to associate with an access point when static WEP
is the security mode.
Specify the authentication algorithm you want to use by choosing one of the
following from the list:
• Open System
• Shared Key
• Both
Open System authentication lets any client station associate with the access
point whether that client station has the correct WEP key or not. This
algorithm is also used in plain text, IEEE 802.1x, and WPA modes. When
the authentication algorithm is set to Open System, any client can associate
with the access point.
Note that just because a client station is allowed to associate does not ensure
it can exchange traffic with an access point. A station must have the correct
WEP key to be able to successfully access and decrypt data from an access
point, and to transmit readable data to the access point.
Shared Key authentication requires the client station to have the correct
WEP key in order to associate with the access point. When the authentication
algorithm is set to Shared Key, a station with an incorrect WEP key will not
be able to associate with the access point.
Both is the default. When the authentication algorithm is set to Both:
• Client stations configured to use WEP in shared key mode must have a
valid WEP key in order to associate with the access point.
• Client stations configured to use WEP as an open system (shared key mode
not enabled) will be able to associate with the access point even if they
do not have the correct WEP key.
Rules to Remember for Static WEP
■
All client stations must have the Wireless LAN (WLAN) security set to WEP and all
clients must have one of the WEP keys specified on the AP in order to de-crypt
AP-to-station data transmissions.
■
The AP must have all keys used by clients for station-to-AP transmit so that it can
de-crypt the station transmissions.
■
The same key most occupy the same slot on all nodes (AP and clients). For example if
the AP defines abc123 key as WEP key 3, then the client stations must define that same
string as WEP key 3.
■
On some wireless client software (like Funk Odyssey), you can configure multiple WEP
keys and define a client station transfer key index, then set the stations to encrypt the
data they transmit using different keys. This ensures that neighboring APs cannot
decrypt each other’s transmissions.
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Example of Using Static WEP
For a simple example, suppose you configure three WEP keys on the access point. In our
example, the Transfer Key Index for the AP is set to 3. This means that the WEP key in
slot 3 is the key the access point will use to encrypt the data it sends.
You must then set all client stations to use WEP and provide each client with one of the
slot/key combinations you defined on the AP.
For this example, we will set WEP Key index to 1 on a Windows client.
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If you have a second client station, that station also needs to have one of the WEP keys
defined on the AP. You could give it the same WEP key you gave to the first station. Or
for a more secure solution, you could give the second station a different WEP key (key 2,
for example) so that the two stations cannot decrypt each other’s transmissions.
Static WEP with Transfer Key Indexes on Client Stations
Some Wireless client software (like Funk Odyssey) lets you configure multiple WEP keys
and set a transfer index on the client station, then you can specify different keys to be
used for station-to-AP transmissions. (The standard Windows wireless client software does
not allow you to do this.)
To build on our example, using Funk Odyssey client software you could give each of the
clients WEP key 3 so that they can decode the AP transmissions with that key and also
give client 1 WEP key 1 and set this as its transfer key. You could then give client 2 WEP
key 2 and set this as its transfer key index.
The following figure illustrates the dynamics of the AP and two client stations using
multiple WEP keys and a transfer key index.
can decrypt WEP key 3
transmits in WEP key 1
WEP key 1
Client station 1
WEP key 3
can decrypt WEP key 3
transmits in WEP key 2
WEP key 3
Access point transmits to both stations with the same
WEP key (for example, WEP key 3)
Client station 2
IEEE 802.1x
IEEE 802.1x is a standard for network access control. It involves passing the Extensible
Authentication Protocol (EAP) over IEEE 802.11 LANs using a protocol called EAP
Encapsulation Over LANs (EAPOL).
This mode requires the use of a RADIUS server to authenticate users, and configuration
of user accounts through the Cluster > User Management tab.
The access point requires a RADIUS server capable of EAP, such as the Microsoft Internet
Authentication Server or the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP internal authentication
server. To work with Windows clients, the authentication server must support Protected
EAP (PEAP) and MSCHAP V2.
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When configuring IEEE 802.1x mode, you have a choice of whether to use the embedded
RADIUS server or an external RADIUS server that you provide. The Gateway 7001 Series
self-managed AP embedded RADIUS server supports Protected EAP (PEAP) and
MSCHAP V2.
If you use your own RADIUS server, you have the option of using any of a variety of
authentication methods that the IEEE 802.1x mode supports, including certificates,
Kerberos, and public key authentication. Keep in mind, however, that the client stations
must be configured to use the same authentication method being used by the access point.
If you selected “IEEE 802.1x” Security Mode, provide the following:
Field
Description
Authentication
Server
Select one of the following from the list:
■
■
Radius IP
Built-in - To use the authentication server provided with the Gateway 7001
Series self-managed AP. If you choose this option, you do not have to
provide the Radius IP and Radius Key (they are automatically provided).
External - To use an external authentication server. If you choose this
option you must supply the Radius IP and Radius Key of the server you
want to use.
Type the Radius IP in the text box.
The Radius IP is the IP address of the RADIUS server.
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP internal authentication server
is 127.0.0.1. This will be provided automatically if you selected the built-in
authentication server.
For more information, see “Managing User Accounts” on page 55.
Radius Key
Type the Radius Key in the text box.
The Radius Key is the shared secret key for the RADIUS server. The text
you type will be displayed as “*” characters to prevent others from seeing
the RADIUS key as you type.
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP internal authentication server
is “secret.” This will be provided automatically if you selected the built-in
authentication server.
This value is never sent over the network.
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Field
Description
Enable RADIUS
Accounting
Click Enable RADIUS Accounting if you want to track and measure the
resources a particular user has consumed such as system time, amount of
data transmitted and received, and so on.
WPA with RADIUS
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) with Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is a
Wi-Fi Alliance subset of IEEE 802.11i, which includes Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
(TKIP), Counter mode/ CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP) Advanced Encryption Standard (AES),
and 802.1x mechanisms. This mode requires the use of a RADIUS server to authenticate
users.
When configuring WPA with RADIUS mode, you have a choice of whether to use the
embedded RADIUS server or an external RADIUS server that you provide. The Gateway
7001 Series self-managed AP embedded RADIUS server supports Protected EAP (PEAP) and
MSCHAP V2.
If you selected WPA with RADIUS security mode, provide the following:
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Field
Description
Cipher Suites
Select the cipher you want to use from the list:
• TKIP
• CCMP (AES)
• Both
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is the default.
TKIP provides a more secure encryption solution than WEP keys. The TKIP
process more frequently changes the encryption key used and better
ensures that the same key will not be re-used to encrypt data (a weakness
of WEP). TKIP uses a 128-bit “temporal key” shared by clients and access
points. The temporal key is combined with the client's MAC address and a
16-octet initialization vector to produce the key that will encrypt the data. This
ensures that each client station uses a different key to encrypt data. TKIP
uses RC4 to perform the encryption, which is the same as WEP. But TKIP
changes temporal keys every 10,000 packets and distributes them, thereby
greatly improving the security of the network.
Counter mode/CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP) is an encryption method for
IEEE 802.11i that uses the Advanced Encryption Algorithm (AES). It uses
a CCM combined with Cipher Block Chaining Counter mode (CBC-CTR) and
Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code (CBC-MAC) for
encryption and message integrity.
When the authentication algorithm is set to Both, both TKIP and AES clients
can associate with the access point. Client stations configured to use WPA
with RADIUS must have one of the following to be able to associate with
the AP:
• A valid TKIP RADIUS IP address and valid shared Key
• A valid CCMP (AES) IP address and valid shared Key
Clients not configured to use WPA-PSK will not be able to associate with AP.
Both is the default. When the authentication algorithm is set to Both, client
stations configured to use WPA with RADIUS must have one of the following:
• A valid TKIP RADIUS IP address and RADIUS Key
• A valid CCMP (AES) IP address and RADIUS Key
Authentication
Server
Select one of the following from the list:
■
■
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Built-in - To use the authentication server provided with the Gateway 7001
Series self-managed AP. If you choose this option, you do not have to
provide the Radius IP and Radius Key (they are automatically provided).
External - To use an external authentication server. If you choose this
option you must supply a Radius IP and Radius Key of the server you want
to use.
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Field
Radius IP
Description
Type the Radius IP in the text box.
The Radius IP is the IP address of the RADIUS server.
The RADIUS IP address for the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP
internal authentication server is 127.0.0.1. This will be provided
automatically if you selected the built-in authentication server.
For information on setting up user accounts, see “Managing User Accounts”
on page 55.
Radius Key
Type the Radius Key in the text box.
The Radius Key is the shared secret key for the RADIUS server. The text
you type will be displayed as “*” characters to prevent others from seeing
the RADIUS key as you type.
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP internal authentication server
key is “secret.” This will be provided automatically if you selected the built-in
authentication server.
This value is never sent over the network.
Key Type
Select the key type by clicking one of the options:
• ASCII
• HEX
Enable RADIUS
Accounting
Click Enable RADIUS Accounting if you want to enforce authentication for
WPA client stations with user names and passwords for each station.
Allow non-WPA
Clients
Click Allow non-WPA clients if you want to let non-WPA (802.11),
unauthenticated client stations use this access point.
WPA-PSK
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) with Pre-Shared Key (PSK) is a Wi-Fi Alliance subset of
IEEE 802.11i, which includes Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), Advanced Encryption
Algorithm (AES), Counter mode/CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP) 802.1x mechanisms. PSK
employs a pre-shared key. This is used for an initial check of credentials only.
If you selected “WPA-PSK” Security Mode, provide the following:
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Field
Cipher Suites
Description
Select the cipher you want to use from the list:
• TKIP
• CCMP (AES)
• Both
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is the default.
TKIP provides a more secure encryption solution than WEP keys. The TKIP
process more frequently changes the encryption key used and better
ensures that the same key will not be re-used to encrypt data (a weakness
of WEP). TKIP uses a 128-bit “temporal key” shared by clients and access
points. The temporal key is combined with the client's MAC address and a
16-octet initialization vector to produce the key that will encrypt the data. This
ensures that each client station uses a different key to encrypt data. TKIP
uses RC4 to perform the encryption, which is the same as WEP. But TKIP
changes temporal keys every 10,000 packets and distributes them, thereby
greatly improving the security of the network.
Counter mode/CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP) is an encryption method for
IEEE 802.11i that uses the Advanced Encryption Algorithm (AES). It uses
a CCM combined with Cipher Block Chaining Counter mode (CBC-CTR) and
Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code (CBC-MAC) for
encryption and message integrity.
Both is where both TKIP and AES clients can associate with the access
point. WPA clients must have one of the following to be able to associate
with the AP:
• A valid TKIP key
• A valid CCMP (AES) key
Clients not configured to use WPA-PSK will not be able to associate with AP.
Key
The Pre-shared Key is the shared secret key for WPA-PSK. Type a string
of at least 8 characters to a maximum of 63 characters.
Updating settings
To apply your changes, click Update.
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Setting up Guest Access
Out-of-the-box guest interface features allow you to configure the Gateway 7001 Series
self-managed AP for controlled guest access to an isolated network. You can configure the
same access point to broadcast and function as two different wireless networks: a secure
Internal LAN and a public Guest network.
Guest clients can access the guest network without a user name or password. When guests
log in, they see a guest welcome screen (also known as a captive portal).
Understanding the guest interface
You can define unique parameters for guest connectivity and isolate guest clients from
other more sensitive areas of the network. No security is provided on the guest network
and only plain-text security mode is allowed.
Simultaneously, you can configure a secure internal network (using the same access point
as your guest interface) that provides full access to protected information behind a firewall
and requires secure logins or certificates for access.
You can configure a Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP for the guest interface in one
of two ways:
■
Connect the access point to a separate network using the extra, dedicated guest network
port on the AP. This provides a physically secure solution that does not require VLAN
support. (For details on how to set up this type of guest interface, see “Configuring a
physically separate guest network” on page 100.)
■
Configure the access point using a single network with VLANs by setting up the guest
interface configuration options on the Administration Web pages for the Gateway 7001
Series self-managed AP. (For details on how to set up this type of guest interface, see
“Configuring a guest network on a virtual LAN” on page 101.)
Important
Both methods leverage multiple BSSID and Virtual LAN
(VLAN) technologies that are built-in to the Gateway 7001
Series self-managed AP. The internal and guest networks
are implemented as multiple BSSIDs on the same access
point, each with different network names (SSIDs) on the
Wireless interface and different VLAN IDs on the Wired
interface.
On the dual-band radio (Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G
Wireless Access Point), the Guest Login settings apply to
both Radio One and Radio Two.
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Configuring the guest interface
To configure the Guest interface:
1
Do one of the following:
Configure the access point to represent two physically separate networks as described
in the following section, see “Configuring a physically separate guest network” on
page 100.
OR Configure the access point to represent two virtually separate networks as described
in the following section, see “Configuring a guest network on a virtual LAN” on
page 101.
2
Set up the guest welcome screen for the guest captive portal as described in the
following section, see “Configuring the guest welcome screen (captive portal)” on
page 101.
Important
Guest Interface settings are not shared among access
points across the cluster. These settings must be
configured individually on the Administration pages for
each access point.
To get to the Administration pages for an access point that
is a member of the current cluster, click on its IP Address
link on the Cluster > Access Points page of the current
AP.
For more information about which settings are shared by
the cluster and which are not, see “Which settings are
shared in the cluster configuration and which are not?” on
page 43.
Configuring a physically separate guest network
To configure a physically separate guest network:
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1
Make two wired connections from the network ports on the access point: one to your
secure, internal LAN and the other to a guest network. (See “Setting up connections
for a guest network” on page 19.)
2
Configure Ethernet (Wired) settings for physically separate internal and guest
networks on VLANs as described in the sections in “Configuring an Ethernet (wired)
interface” on page 68.
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(Start by choosing For Internal and Guest access, use two: Ethernet Ports as described in
“Specifying a physical or virtual Guest network” on page 70.)
3
Provide the radio interface settings and network names (SSIDs) for both internal and
guest networks as described in “Configuring a wireless interface” on page 74.
4
Configure other settings on the access point as needed (not necessarily specific to the
guest network) as described in this guide.
Configuring a guest network on a virtual LAN
Important
If you want to configure the Guest and Internal networks
on Virtual LAN (VLANs), the switch and DHCP server you
are using must support VLANs.
As a prerequisite step, configure a port on the switch for
handling VLAN tagged packets as described in the IEEE
802.1Q standard.
Guest Welcome Screen settings are shared among access
points across the cluster. When you update these settings
for one access point, the configuration will be shared with
the other access points in the cluster. For more information
about which settings are shared by the cluster and which
are not, see “Which settings are shared in the cluster
configuration and which are not?” on page 43.
To configure internal and guest networks on virtual LANs:
1
Configure Ethernet (Wired) settings for internal and guest networks on VLANs as
described in the sections in “Configuring an Ethernet (wired) interface” on page 68.
(Start by choosing For Internal and Guest access, use two: VLANs as described in
“Specifying a physical or virtual Guest network” on page 70.)
2
Provide the radio interface settings and network names (SSIDs) for both internal and
guest networks as described in “Configuring a wireless interface” on page 74.
3
Configure other settings on the access point as needed (not necessarily specific to the
guest network) as described in this Administration Guide.
Configuring the guest welcome screen (captive portal)
You can set up or modify the welcome screen guest clients see when they open a Web
browser or try to browse the Web.
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To set up the captive portal:
1
Click Advanced > Guest Login on the Administration Web page. The Modify guest welcome
screen settings screen opens.
2
3
Choose Enabled to activate the welcome screen.
4
In the Welcome Screen Text box, type the text message you would like guest clients
to see on the captive portal.
Click Update to apply the changes.
Using the guest network as a client
After the guest network is configured, a client can access the guest network.
To access the guest network:
1
2
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A guest client enters an area of coverage and scans for wireless networks.
The guest network advertises itself through a guest SSID or some similar name,
depending on how the guest SSID is specified in the administration Web pages for
the guest interface.
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3
The guest client chooses Guest SSID.
The guest client starts a Web browser and receives a Guest Welcome Screen.
The Guest Welcome Screen provides a button for the client to click to continue. The
guest client can now use the “guest” network.
Deployment example
In the figure, the dotted red lines indicate dedicated guest connections.
All access points and all connections (including guests) are administered from the same
Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP Administration Web pages.
Internet
DSL/T1
Firewall
Switch
Access point
Switch
Guest client station
Access point
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Configuring radio settings
Understanding radio settings
Radio settings directly control the behavior of the radio device in the access point and its
interaction with the physical medium, specifically how and what type of electromagnetic
waves the AP emits. You can specify whether the radio is on or off, radio frequency (RF)
broadcast channel, beacon interval (amount of time between AP beacon transmissions),
transmit power, IEEE 802.11 mode in which the radio operates, and so on.
The Gateway 7001 AP is available as a single-band access point (Gateway 7001 802.11G
Wireless Access Point), or a dual-band access point (Gateway 7001 802.11A+G Wireless
Access Point).
The single band access point can broadcast in either IEEE 802.11b or IEEE 802.11g mode.
The dual band access point is capable of broadcasting in two different IEEE 802.11 modes
simultaneously.
■
Radio One can broadcast in IEEE 802.11b or IEEE 802.11g mode.
■
Radio Two can broadcast in IEEE 802.11a or IEEE 802.11a Turbo mode.
The IEEE mode along with other radio settings are configured as described in “Navigating
to radio settings” on page 105 and “Configuring radio settings” on page 106.
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Navigating to radio settings
To specify radio settings, click Advanced > Radio on the Administration Web page. The
Modify radio settings screen opens. Update the boxes as described in the following section.
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Configuring radio settings
Field
Description
Radio
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP is available in a dual band and
single band version.
Single-Band AP:
If you have the single band version of the Gateway 7001 AP, this box is not
included on the Radio tab.
Dual-Band AP:
The dual band access point capable of broadcasting in two different IEEE
802.11 modes simultaneously.
• Radio One runs in IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g modes.
• Radio Two runs in IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11a Turbo modes.
Specify Radio One or Radio Two. For the dual band AP, the rest of the
settings on this tab apply to the radio selected in this box.
Status (On/Off)
Specify whether you want the radio on or off by clicking On or Off.
Mode
The Mode defines the Physical Layer (PHY) standard being used by the
radio.
Single-Band AP:
For the Single-Band AP, select one of these modes:
• IEEE 802.11b
• IEEE 802.11g
Dual-Band AP:
For the dual band access point, different modes are available depending on
whether you chose Radio One or Radio Two in the Radio box above.
For Radio One configuration, select either of these modes:
• IEEE 802.11b
• IEEE 802.11g
For Radio Two configuration, select either of these modes:
• IEEE 802.11a
• Atheros Turbo 5 GHz (IEEE 802.11a Turbo).
Channel
The Channel defines the portion of the radio spectrum that the radio uses
for transmitting and receiving. The range of channels and the default channel
are determined by the Mode of the radio interface. The Mode can only be
set to allow channels within those allowed by the regulatory agencies in the
regions for which this device was intended.
For most Modes, the default is “Auto”. Auto is the recommended mode
because it automatically detects the best channel choices based on signal
strength, traffic loads, and so on.
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Field
Description
Beacon Interval
Beacon frames are transmitted by an access point at regular intervals to
announce the existence of the wireless network. The default behavior is to
send a beacon frame once every 100 milliseconds (or 10 per second).
The Beacon Interval value is set in milliseconds. Type a value from 20 to
2000.
DTIM Period
The Delivery Traffic Information Map (DTIM) message is an element included
in some Beacon frames. It indicates which client stations, currently sleeping
in low-power mode, have data buffered on the access point awaiting pick-up.
The DTIM period you specify here indicates how often the clients served by
this access point should check for buffered data still on the AP awaiting
pickup.
The measurement is in beacons. For example, if you set this to “1” clients
will check for buffered data on the AP at every beacon. If you set this to “2”,
clients will check on every other beacon. If you set this to 10, clients will check
on every 10th beacon.
Fragmentation
Threshold
Specify a number between 256 and 2,346 to set the frame size threshold
in bytes.
The fragmentation threshold is a way of limiting the size of packets (frames)
transmitted over the network. If a packet exceeds the fragmentation threshold
set here, the fragmentation function will be activated and the packet will be
sent as multiple 802.11 frames.
If the packet being transmitted is equal to or less than the threshold,
fragmentation will not be used.
Setting the threshold to the largest value (2,346 bytes) effectively disables
fragmentation.
Fragmentation involves more overhead both because of the extra work of
dividing up and reassembling of frames it requires, and because it increases
message traffic on the network. However, fragmentation can help improve
network performance and reliability if correctly configured.
Sending smaller frames (by using lower fragmentation threshold) may help
with some interference problems, such as with microwave ovens.
By default, fragmentation is off. We recommend not using fragmentation
unless you suspect radio interference. The additional headers applied to
each fragment increase the overhead on the network and can greatly reduce
throughput.
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Field
RTS Threshold
Description
Specify an RTS Threshold value between 0 and 2347.
The RTS threshold specifies the packet size of a request to send (RTS)
transmission.
This helps control traffic flow through the access point, especially one with
a lot of clients.
If you specify a low threshold value, RTS packets will be sent more frequently.
This will consume more bandwidth and reduce the throughput of the packet.
On the other hand, sending more RTS packets can help the network recover
from interference or collisions which might occur on a busy network, or on
a network experiencing electromagnetic interference.
Maximum
Stations
Specify the maximum number of stations allowed to access this access point
at any one time.
You can type a value between 0 and 2007.
Transmit Power
Provide a percentage value to set the transmit power for this access point.
The default is to have the access point transmit using 100 percent of its
power. Power settings can only be varied within the settings allowed by the
regulatory certifications of the region for which this device was intended.
Recommendations:
• For most cases, we recommend keeping the default and having the transmit
power set to 100 percent. This is more cost-efficient as it gives the access
point a maximum broadcast range, and reduces the number of APs needed.
• To increase capacity of the network, place APs closer together and reduce
the value of the transmit power. This will help reduce overlap and interference
among APs. A lower transmit power setting can also keep your network more
secure because weaker wireless signals are less likely to propagate outside
of the physical location of your network.
Rate Sets
Check the transmission rate sets you want the access point to support and
the basic rate sets you want the access point to advertise.
Rates are expressed in megabits per second.
• Supported Rate Sets indicate rates that the access point supports. You can
check multiple rates (click a checkbox to select or de-select a rate). The AP
will automatically choose the most efficient rate based on factors like error
rates and distance of client stations from the AP.
• Basic Rate Sets indicate rates that the access point will advertise to the
network for the purposes of setting up communication with other APs and
client stations on the network. It is generally more efficient to have an AP
broadcast a subset of its supported rate sets.
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Updating settings
To apply your changes, click Update.
Important
If you are using the dual band version of the Gateway 7001
Series self-managed AP, keep in mind that both Radio One
and Radio Two are configured on this tab. The displayed
settings apply to either Radio One or Radio Two,
depending on which radio you choose in the Radio box (the
first box on the tab).
When you have configured settings for one of the radios,
click Update, then select and configure the other radio.
Make sure to click Update to apply the second set of
configuration settings for the other radio.
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Controlling access by MAC address
filtering
A Media Access Control (MAC) address is a hardware address that uniquely identifies each
node of a network. All IEEE 802 network devices share a common 48-bit MAC address
format, usually displayed as a string of 12 hexadecimal digits separated by colons, for
example FE:DC:BA:09:87:65.
Each wireless network interface card (NIC) used by a wireless client has a unique MAC
address.
You can control client access to your wireless network by switching on MAC filtering and
specifying a list of approved MAC addresses. When MAC filtering is on, only clients with
a listed MAC address can access the network.
Navigating to MAC filtering settings
To enable filtering by MAC address, click Advanced > MAC Filtering on the Administration
Web page. The Configure MAC filtering of client stations screen opens. Update the boxes as
described in the following section.
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Using MAC address filtering
This page lets you control access to Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP based on Media
Access Control (MAC) addresses. Based on how you set the filter, you can allow only client
stations with a listed MAC address or prevent access to the stations listed.
For the guest interface, MAC filtering settings apply to both BSSes.
Field
Filter
Description
To set the MAC Address Filter, click one of the following options:
• Allow only stations in the list
• Allow any station unless in list
Stations List
To add a MAC Address to Stations List, type its 48-bit MAC address into
the lower text boxes, then click Add.
The MAC Address is added to the Stations List.
To remove a MAC Address from the Stations List, select its 48-bit MAC
address, then click Remove.
The stations in the list will either be allowed or prevented from accessing
the AP based on how you set the filter.
Updating settings
To apply your changes, click Update.
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Configuring a Wireless Distribution
System (WDS)
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP lets you connect multiple access points using
a Wireless Distribution System (WDS). WDS lets access points communicate with one
another wirelessly in a standardized way. This capability is critical in providing a seamless
experience for roaming clients and for managing multiple wireless networks. It can also
simplify the network infrastructure by reducing the amount of cabling required.
Understanding the WDS
A Wireless Distribution System (WDS) is an 802.11f technology that wirelessly connects
access points, known as Basic Service Sets (BSS), to form what is known as an Extended
Service Set (ESS).
Important
A BSS generally equates to an access point (deployed as
a single-AP wireless “network”), except in cases where
multi-BSSID features make a single access point look like
two or more access points to the network. In such cases,
the access point has multiple unique BSSIDs.
Using WDS to bridge distant wired LANs
In an ESS, a network of multiple access points, each access point serves part of an area
which is too large for a single access point to cover. You can use WDS to bridge distant
Ethernets to create a single LAN. For example, suppose you have one access point which
is connected to the network by Ethernet and serving multiple client stations in the
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Conference Room (LAN 1), and another Ethernet-wired access point serving stations in
the West Wing offices (LAN 2). You can bridge the Conference Room and West Wing access
points with a WDS link to create a single network for clients in both areas.
Client station
Client station
WDS bridge
Client station
Client station
“Conference Room” AP
“West wing” AP
Wired (Ethernet)
connection
LAN segment 2
Wired (Ethernet)
connection
LAN segment 1
Using WDS to extend the network beyond the wired coverage area
An ESS can extend the reach the network into areas where cabling would be difficult, costly,
or inefficient.
For example, suppose you have an access point which is connected to the network by
Ethernet and serving multiple client stations in one area (“East Wing - LAN 1" in our
example) but cannot reach others which are out of range. Suppose also that it is too difficult
or too costly to wire the distant area with Ethernet cabling. You can solve this problem
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by placing a second access point closer to second group of stations (“Poolside” in our
example) and bridge the two APs with a WDS link. This extends your network wirelessly
by providing an extra hop to get to distant stations.
Client station
Client station
WDS bridge
Client station
Client station
“East wing” AP
“Poolside” AP
Wired (Ethernet)
connection
LAN
Backup links and unwanted loops in WDS bridges
Another use for WDS bridging, the creation of backup links, is not supported in this release
of the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP. The topic is included here to emphasize that
you should not try to use WDS in this way. Backup links will result in unwanted, endless
loops of data traffic
If an access point provides Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), WDS can be used to configure
backup paths between access points across the network. For example, between two access
points you could have both a primary path through Ethernet and a secondary (backup)
wireless path through a WDS link. If the Ethernet connection goes down, STP would
reconfigure its map of the network and effectively fix the down network segment by
activating the backup wireless path.
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP does not provide STP for this release. Without
STP, it is possible that both connections (paths) may be active at the same time, and result
in an endless loop of traffic on the LAN.
Therefore, be sure not create loops with either WDS bridges or combinations of Wired
(Ethernet) connections and WDS bridges.
For more information, see the “Do not create loops” note under “Configuring WDS
settings” on page 117.
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Security considerations related to WDS bridges
Static Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a data encryption protocol for 802.11 wireless
networks. Both access points in a given WDS link must be configured with the same
security settings. For static WEP, either a static 64-bit (40-bit secret key + 24-bit initialization
vector (IV)) or 128-bit (104-bit secret key + 24-bit IV) Shared Key is specified for data
encryption.
You can enable Static WEP on the WDS link (bridge). When WEP is enabled, all data
exchanged between the two access points in a WDS link is encrypted using a fixed WEP
key that you provide.
Static WEP is the only security mode available for the WDS link, and it does not provide
effective data protection to the level of other security modes available for service to client
stations. If you use WDS on a LAN intended for secure wireless traffic you are putting your
network at risk. Therefore, we recommend using WDS to bridge the guest network only
for this release. Do not use WDS to bridge access points on the internal network unless
you are not concerned about the security risk for data traffic on that network.
For more information about the effectiveness of different security modes, see “Configuring
network security” on page 80. This topic also covers use of plain text security mode for
AP-to-station traffic on the guest network, which is intended for less sensitive data traffic.
Navigating to WDS settings
To specify the details of traffic exchange from this access point to others, click Advanced
> Wireless Distribution System on the Administration Web page. The Configure WDS bridges
to other access points screen opens. Update the boxes as described in the following section.
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Important
116
The following figure shows the WDS settings page for the
dual band AP (Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G Wireless
Access Point). The Administration Web page for the single
band AP (Gateway 7001 802.11 G Wireless Access Point)
will look slightly different.
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Configuring WDS settings
The following notes summarize some critical guidelines regarding WDS configuration. Read
all the notes before proceeding with WDS configuration.
Important
• The only security mode available on the WDS link is
Static WEP, which is not particularly secure. Therefore, we
recommend using WDS to bridge the guest network only
for this release.
Do not use WDS to bridge access points on the internal
network unless you are not concerned about the security
risk for data traffic on that network.
• When using WDS, be sure to configure WDS settings on
both access points participating in the WDS link.
• You can have only one WDS link between any pair of
access points. That is, a remote MAC address may appear
only once on the WDS page for a particular access point.
• Both access points participating in a WDS link must be
on the same Radio channel and using the same IEEE
802.11 mode. (See “Configuring radio settings” on
page 104 for information on configuring the Radio mode
and channel.)
• Do not create loops with either WDS bridges or
combinations of Wired (Ethernet) connections and WDS
bridges. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), which manages
path redundancy and prevent unwanted loops, is not
enabled for this release. Keep these rules in mind when
working with WDS on this release of the Gateway 7001
Series self-managed AP:
Any two access points can be connected by only a single
path - either a WDS bridge (wireless) or an Ethernet
connection (wired), but not both.
Do not create “backup” links.
If you can trace more than one path between any pair of
APs going through any combination of Ethernet or WDS
links, you have a loop.
You can only extend or bridge either the internal or guest
network but not both.
To configure WDS on this access point, describe each AP intended to receive hand-offs
and send information to this AP. Each destination AP needs the following description.
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Field
Description
Radio
The Gateway 7001 AP is available in a dual band and single band version.
Single-Band AP:
On the single band version of the Gateway® 7001 AP, this box is not included
on the WDS tab.
Dual-Band AP:
For each WDS link on a dual-band AP, select Radio One or Radio Two. The
rest of the settings for the link apply to the radio selected in this box. The
read-only “Local Address” will change depending on which Radio you select
here.
Local Address
Indicates the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses for this access point.
A MAC address is a permanent, unique hardware address for any device
that represents an interface to the network. The MAC address is assigned
by the manufacturer.
You cannot change the MAC address. It is provided here for informational
purposes as a unique identifier for the access point or interface.
Single-Band AP:
On the single band version of the Gateway® 7001 AP, a single MAC address
is shown at the top of the WDS settings page. The address shown for the
single-band radio is the MAC address for the bridge (br0). This is the address
by which the AP is known externally to other networks.
Dual-Band AP:
For each WDS link on a dual-band AP, the Local Address reflects the MAC
address for the internal interface on the selected radio (Radio One on
WLAN0 or Radio Two WLAN1).
Remote Address
Specify the MAC address of the destination access point, that is, the access
point to which data will be sent or “handed-off” and from which data will be
received.
Bridge with
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP provides the capability of setting
up guest and internal networks on the same access point. (See “Setting up
Guest Access” on page 99.)
The guest network typically provides internet access but isolates guest
clients from more sensitive areas of your internal network. It is common to
have security disabled on the guest network to provide open access.
Alternatively, the internal network provides full access to protected
information behind a firewall and requires secure logins or certificates for
access.
When using WDS to link up one access point to another, you need to identify
within which of these networks you want the data exchange to occur.
Specify the network to which you want to bridge this access point:
• Internal Network
• Guest Network
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Field
Description
WEP
Specify whether you want Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encryption
enabled for the WDS link.
• Enabled
• Disabled
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a data encryption protocol for 802.11
wireless networks.
Both access points on the WDS link must be configured with the same
security settings. For static WEP, a static 64-bit (40-bit secret key + 24-bit
initialization vector (IV)) or 128-bit (104-bit secret key + 24-bit IV) Shared
Key for data encryption.
Key Length
If WEP is enabled, specify the length of the WEP key:
• 64 bits
• 128 bits
Key Type
If WEP is enabled, specify the WEP key type:
• ASCII
• Hex
Characters
Required
Indicates the number of characters required in the WEP key.
WEP Key
Type a string of characters. If you selected “ASCII”, type any combination
of 0-9. If you selected “HEX”, type hexadecimal digits (any combination of
0-9 and a-f or A-F). These are the RC4 encryption keys shared with the
stations using the access point.
The number of characters required updates automatically based on how you
set Key Length and Key Type.
Example of configuring a WDS link
When using WDS, be sure to configure WDS settings on both access points on the WDS
link.
To create a WDS link between a pair of access points:
1
Open the Administration Web pages for MyAP1 (for example), by typing the IP address
for MyAP1 as a URL in the Web browser address bar in the following form:
http://IPAddressOfAccessPoint
where IPAddressOfAccessPoint is the address of MyAP1.
2
Click WDS on MyAP1 Administration Web pages.
The MAC address for MyAP1 (the access point you are currently viewing) will show
as the “Local Address” at the top of the page.
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3
Configure a WDS interface for data exchange with MyAP2 (for example).
Start by typing the MAC address for MyAP2 as the “Remote Address” and fill in the
rest of the boxes to specify the network (guest or internal), security, and so on. Save
the settings (click Update).
4
Click Advanced—>Radio on the Administration Web page to verify or set the mode
and the radio channel on which you want MyAP1 to broadcast.
Remember that the two access points participating in the link, MyAP1 and MyAP2,
must be set to the same Mode and be transmitting on the same channel.
For our example, let us say we are using IEEE 802.11b Mode and broadcasting on
Channel 6. (We would choose Mode and Channel from the lists on the Radio screen.)
5
Now repeat the same steps for MyAP2:
• Open Administration Web pages for MyAP2 by using MyAP2’s IP address in a URL.
• Click WDS on the MyAP2 Administration Web page. (MyAP2’s MAC address will
show as the “Local Address”.)
• Configure a WDS interface for data exchange with MyAP1, starting with the MAC
address for MyAP1.
• Navigate to the radio settings for MyAP2 to verify that it is using the same mode
and broadcasting on the same channel as MyAP1. (For our example, the Mode is
802.11b and the channel is 6.)
• Be sure to save the settings by clicking Update.
Updating settings
To apply your changes, click Update.
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Configuring security settings on wireless
clients
Typically, users will configure security on their wireless clients for access to many different
networks (access points). The list of “Available Networks” will change depending on the
location of the client and which APs are online and detectable in that location. The
exception to this is if the access point is set to prohibit the broadcast of its network name.
In this case the SSID will not show up in the list of Available Networks on the client.
Instead, the client must have the exact network name configured in the network
connection properties before it will be able to connect.
Once an AP has been detected by the client and security is configured for it, it remains
in the client’s list of networks but shows as either reachable or unreachable depending on
the situation. For each network (AP) you want to connect to, configure security settings
on the client to match the security mode being used by that network.
We describe security setup on a client that uses Microsoft Windows client software for
wireless connectivity. The Windows client software is used as the example because of its
widespread availability on Windows computers and laptops. These procedures will vary
slightly if you use different software on the client (such as Funk Odyssey), but the
configuration information you need to provide is the same.
Important
The recommended sequence for security configuration is (1) set up
security on the access point, and (2) configure security on each of
the wireless clients.
We expect that initially, you will connect to an access point that has
no security set (plain text mode) from an unsecure wireless client.
With this initial connection, you can go to the access point
Administration Web pages and configure a security mode (Advanced
> Security).
When you re-configure the access point with a security setting and
click Update, your wireless client will be disassociated and you will
lose connectivity to the AP Administration Web pages. In some cases,
you may need to make additional changes to the AP security settings
before configuring the client. Therefore, you must have a backup
Ethernet (wired) connection.
The following sections describe how to set up each of the supported security modes on
wireless clients of a network served by the Gateway 7001 AP.
■
“Network infrastructure and choosing between built-in or external authentication
server” on page 122
■
“Make sure the wireless client software is up-to-date” on page 123
■
“Accessing the Microsoft Windows wireless client security settings” on page 123
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■
“Configuring a client to access an unsecure network (plain text mode)” on page 125
■
“Configuring static WEP security on a client” on page 126
■
“Configuring IEEE 802.1x security on a client” on page 129
■
“Configuring WPA with RADIUS security on a client” on page 137
■
“Configuring WPA-PSK security on a client” on page 144
■
“Configuring an external RADIUS server to recognize the Gateway 7001 AP” on
page 146
■
“Obtaining a TLS-EAP certificate for a client” on page 151
Network infrastructure and choosing between built-in
or external authentication server
Network security configurations including Public Key Infrastructures (PKI), Remote
Authentication Dial-in User Server (RADIUS) servers, and Certificate Authority (CA) can vary
a great deal from one organization to the next in terms of how they provide Authentication,
Authorization, and Accounting (AAA). Ultimately, the particulars of your infrastructure will
determine how clients should configure security to access the wireless network. Rather than
try to predict and address the details of every possible scenario, this document provides
general guidelines about each type of client configuration supported by the Gateway 7001
AP.
I want to use the built-in authentication server (EAP-PEAP)
If you do not have a RADIUS server or PKI infrastructure in place or if you are unfamiliar
with many of these concepts, we strongly recommend setting up the Gateway 7001 APs
with security that uses the built-in authentication server on the AP. This will mean setting
up the AP to use either IEEE 802.1x or WPA with RADIUS security mode. (The built-in
authentication server uses EAP-PEAP authentication protocol.)
■
If the Gateway 7001 AP is set up to use IEEE 802.1x mode and the Built-in
Authentication Server, then configure wireless clients as described in “IEEE 802.1x client
using EAP/PEAP” on page 129.
■
If the Gateway 7001 AP is configured to use WPA with RADIUS mode and the Built-in
Authentication Server, configure wireless clients as described in “WPA with RADIUS
client using EAP/PEAP” on page 137.
I want to use an external RADIUS server with EAP-TLS certificates or EAP-PEAP
We make the assumption that if you have an external RADIUS server and PKI/CA setup,
you will know how to configure client security options appropriate to your security
infrastructure beyond the fundamental suggestions given here. Topics covered here that
particularly relate to client security configuration in a RADIUS - PKI environment are:
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■
“IEEE 802.1x client using EAP-TLS certificate” on page 133
■
“WPA with RADIUS client using EAP-TLS certificate” on page 141
■
“Configuring an external RADIUS server to recognize the Gateway 7001 AP” on
page 146
■
“Obtaining a TLS-EAP certificate for a client” on page 151
Details on how to configure an EAP-PEAP client with an external RADIUS server are not
covered in this document.
Make sure the wireless client software is up-to-date
Before setting up the client systems, keep in mind that service packs, patches, and new
releases of drivers as well as other supporting technologies for wireless clients are being
generated at a fast pace. A common problem encountered in client security setup is that
the latest driver for the wireless interface or patches required for the operating system to
properly function with the security type being configured is not installed. For example,
if you are setting up WPA on the client, make sure you have a driver installed that supports
WPA as well as any operating system updates relating to WPA to support the relatively
new technology. Also keep in mind, many wireless client cards currently available do not
ship from the factory with the latest drivers.
Accessing the Microsoft Windows wireless client security settings
Generally, on Microsoft Windows XP there are two ways to get to the security properties
for a wireless client:
To access the security properties for a wireless client:
1
From the wireless connection icon on the Windows task bar:
a
Right-click the wireless connection icon in your Windows task bar and select View
available wireless networks.
b
Select the SSID of the network to which you want to connect and click Advanced
to open the Wireless Network Connection Properties dialog.
OR -
1
From the Windows Start menu at the left end of the task bar:
a
b
c
Choose Start > My Network Places to open the Network Connections window.
From the Network Tasks menu on the left, click View Network Connections to open
the Network Connections window.
Right-click the wireless network connection you want to configure, then choose
View available wireless networks.
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d
Select the SSID of the network to which you want to connect, then click Advanced.
The Wireless Network Connection Properties dialog box, which lists available networks
and preferred networks, opens.
The list of available networks will change
depending on client location. Each network
(or access point) that is detected by the
client shows up in this list. (“Refresh”
updates the list with current information.)
For each network you want to connect to,
configure security settings on the client to
match the security mode being used by that
network.
Note: If the AP is configured to prohibit
broadcast of its network name, the name will
not show on this list. In that case you would
need to type in the exact network name to
be able to connect to it.
2
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From the list of Available networks select the SSID of the network to which you want
to connect, then click Configure. The Wireless Network Connection Properties dialog box
opens (with the Association and Authentication tabs for the selected network).
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Use this dialog box for configuring all the different types of client security described
in the following sections. Make sure that the Wireless Network Properties dialog box
you are working in pertains to the Network Name (SSID) for the network you want
to reach on the wireless client you are configuring.
Configuring a client to access an unsecure network (plain text mode)
If the access point or wireless network to which you want to connect is configured as “Plain
Text” security mode (no security), you need to configure the client accordingly. A client
using no security to connect is configured with Network Authentication “Open” to that
network and Data Encryption “Disabled” as described below.
If you do have security configured on a client for properties of an unsecure network, the
security settings actually can prevent successful access to the network because of the
mismatch between client and access point security configurations.
To configure the client to not use any security, open the client Network Properties dialog
box and configure the following settings.
Set Network Authentication to “Open”
Set Data Encryption to “Disabled”
Association Tab
Network Authentication
Open
Data Encryption
Disabled
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Configuring static WEP security on a client
Static Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encrypts data moving across a wireless network based
on a static (non-changing) key. The encryption algorithm is a “stream” cipher called RC4.
The access point uses a key to transmit data to the client stations. Each client must use
that same key to decrypt data it receives from the access point. Different clients can use
different keys to transmit data to the access point. (Or they can all use the same key, but
this is less secure because it means one station can decrypt the data being sent by another.)
If you configured the Gateway 7001 AP to use Static WEP security mode, as shown in the
following illustration, you need to configure WEP security on each client.
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To configure WEP security on each client:
1
On the Network Properties dialog box, select the Association tab. The Association dialog
box opens.
2
Select Open or Shared in the Network Authentication list, then select WEP in the Data
encryption list.
3
Type a Network key in the box provided.
Make sure the network key matches the WEP key on the access point in the position
selected to the Key index (advanced).
Retype to confirm.
4
As an option you can select a different transfer key index (in the Key index list) to
send data from the client back to the access point.
5
6
Click to clear the The key is provided for me automatically check box.
Click OK to save your settings and close.
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Association Tab
Network Authentication
Open or Shared, depending on how you configured
this option on the access point.
Note: When the Authentication Algorithm on the
access point is set to Both, clients set to either
Shared or Open can associate with the AP. Clients
configured to use WEP in Shared mode must have
a valid WEP key in order to associate with the AP.
Clients configured to use WEP as an Open system
can associate with the AP even without a valid WEP
key (but a valid key will be required to actually view
and exchange data). For more information, see
Administrators Guide and Online Help on the
access point.
Data Encryption
WEP
Network Key
Provide the WEP key you entered on the access
point Security settings in the Transfer Key Index
position.
For example, if the Transfer Key Index on the access
point is set to 1, then for the client Network Key
specify the WEP Key you entered as WEP Key 1
on the access point.
Key Index
Set key index to indicate which of the WEP keys
specified on the access point Security page will be
used to transfer data from the client back to the
access point. For example, you can set this to 1, 2,
3, or 4 if you have all four WEP keys configured on
the access point.
The key is provided for
me automatically
Disable this option (click to clear the check box).
Enable IEEE 802.1x
authentication for this
network
Make sure that IEEE 802.1x authentication is
disabled (box should be unchecked).
(Setting the encryption mode to WEP should
automatically disable authentication.)
Connecting to the wireless network with a static WEP client
Static WEP clients should now be able to associate and authenticate with the access point.
As a client, you will not be prompted for a WEP key. The WEP key configured on the client
security settings is automatically used when you connect.
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Configuring IEEE 802.1x security on a client
IEEE 802.1x is the standard defining port-based authentication and infrastructure for doing
key management. Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) messages are sent over an IEEE
802.11 wireless network using a protocol called EAP Encapsulation Over LANs (EAPOL).
IEEE 802.1x provides dynamically-generated keys that are periodically refreshed. An RC4
stream cipher is used to encrypt the frame body and cyclic redundancy checking (CRC)
of each 802.11 frame.
IEEE 802.1x client using EAP/PEAP
The Built-In Authentication Server on the Gateway 7001 AP uses Protected Extensible
Authentication Protocol (EAP) referred to here as “EAP/PEAP”.
■
If you are using the Built-in Authentication server with “IEEE 802.1x” security mode
on the Gateway 7001 AP, then you will need to set up wireless clients to use PEAP.
■
Additionally, you may have an external RADIUS server that uses EAP/PEAP. If so, you
will need to (1) add the Gateway 7001 AP to the list of RADIUS server clients, and (2)
configure your IEEE 802.1x wireless clients to use PEAP.
Important
The following example assumes you are using the Built-in
Authentication server that comes with the Gateway® 7001 AP. If you
are setting up EAP/PEAP on a client of an AP that is using an external
RADIUS server, the client configuration process will differ somewhat
from this example especially with regard to certificate validation.
If you configured the Gateway 7001 AP to use IEEE 802.1x security mode, as shown in
the following illustration, you need to configure IEEE 802.1x security with PEAP
authentication on each client.
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To configure the clients with IEEE 802.1x security with PEAP authentication:
130
1
On the Network Properties dialog box, select the Association tab. The Association dialog
box opens.
2
Select Open in the Network Authentication list, select WEP in the Data Encryption
list, then click to select the The key is provided for me automatically check box.
3
Click the Authentication tab. The Authentication dialog box opens.
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4
Click to select the Enable IEEE 802.1x authentication for this network check box, select
Protected EAP (PEAP) from the EAP type list, then click Properties. The Protected EAP
Properties dialog box opens.
5
Click to clear the Validate server certificate check box, select Secured password
(EAP-MSCHAP v2) from the Select Authentication Method list, then click Configure. The
EAP MSCHAP v2 Properties dialog box opens.
6
Click to clear the Automatically use my Windows login name and password (and domain,
if any) check box, then click OK.
7
Click OK on each dialog box to close and save your changes.
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Association Tab
Network Authentication
Data Encryption
Open
WEP
Note: An RC4 stream cipher is used to encrypt the
frame body and cyclic redundancy checking (CRC)
of each IEEE 802.11 frame. This is the same
encryption algorithm as is used for Static WEP;
therefore, the data encryption method configured on
the client for this mode is WEP.
This key is provided for
me automatically
Enable (click to check) this option
Authentication Tab
EAP Type
Choose Protected EAP (PEAP)
Protected EAP
Properties dialog box
Validate Server
Certificate
Disable this option (click to clear the check box).
Select Authentication
Method
Choose Secured password (EAP-MSCHAP v2)
Note: This example assumes you are using the
Built-in Authentication server on the AP. If you are
setting up EAP/PEAP on a client of an AP that is
using an external RADIUS server, you might
certificate validation and choose a certificate,
depending on your infrastructure.
Logging on to the Wireless Network with an IEEE 802.1x PEAP Client
IEEE 802.1x PEAP clients should now be able to associate with the access point. Client
users will be prompted for a user name and password to authenticate with the network.
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IEEE 802.1x client using EAP-TLS certificate
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) Transport Layer Security (TLS), or EAP-TLS, is an
authentication protocol that supports the use of smart cards and certificates. You have the
option of using EAP-TLS with both WPA with RADIUS and IEEE 802.1x modes if you have
an external RADIUS server on the network to support it.
Important
If you want to use IEEE 802.1x mode with EAP-TLS certificates for
authentication and authorization of clients, you must have an external
RADIUS server and a Public Key Authority Infrastructure (PKI),
including a Certificate Authority (CA), server configured on your
network. It is beyond the scope of this document to describe the
configuration of the RADIUS server, PKI, and CA server. Consult the
documentation for those products.
Some good starting points available on the Web for the Microsoft
Windows PKI software are: “How to Install/Uninstall a Public Key
Certificate Authority for Windows 2000” at
http://sup-port.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;231881
and “How to Configure a Certificate Server” at
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;318710#3
To set up an IEEE 802.1x client using EAP-TLS Certificate security:
1
Add the Gateway 7001 AP to the list of RADIUS server clients. (See “Configuring an
external RADIUS server to recognize the Gateway 7001 AP” on page 146.)
2
Configure the Gateway 7001 AP to use your RADIUS server (by providing the RADIUS
server IP address as part of the “IEEE 802.1x” security mode settings).
3
Configure wireless clients to use IEEE 802.1x security and “Smart Card or other
Certificate” as described in this section.
4
Obtain a certificate for this client as described in “Obtaining a TLS-EAP certificate for
a client” on page 151.
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If you configured the Gateway 7001 AP to use IEEE 802.1x security mode with an external
RADIUS server, you need to configure IEEE 802.1x security with certificate authentication
on each client.
To configure each client for IEEE 802.1x security with certificate authentication:
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1
On the Network Properties dialog box, select the Association tab. The Association dialog
box opens.
2
Select Open in the Network Authentication list, select WEP in the Data Encryption
list, then click to select the The key is provided for me automatically check box.
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3
Click the Authentication tab. The Authentication dialog box opens.
4
Click to select the Enable IEEE 802.1x authentication for this network check box, select
Smart Card or other Certificate from the EAP type list, then click Properties. The Smart
Card or other Certificate Properties dialog box opens.
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5
Enable the Validate server certificate option, then select the name of the certificate you
downloaded for this client in step 4 of the previous procedure. For more information,
see “Obtaining a TLS-EAP certificate for a client” on page 151.
6
Click OK on each dialog box to close and save the settings.
Association Tab
Network Authentication
Data Encryption
Open
WEP
Note: An RC4 stream cipher is used to encrypt the
frame body and cyclic redundancy checking (CRC)
of each IEEE 802.11 frame. This is the same
encryption algorithm as is used for Static WEP;
therefore, the data encryption method configured on
the client for this mode is WEP.
Authentication Tab
Smart Card or other
Certificate Properties
dialog box
This key is provided for
me automatically
Enable (click to select) this option
Enable IEEE 802.1x
authentication for this
network
Enable (click to select) this option
EAP Type
Choose Smart Card or other Certificate
Validate Server
Certificate
Enable (click to select) this option.
Certificates
Select the certificate from the list.
Connecting to the wireless network with an IEEE 802.1x client using a certificate
IEEE 802.1x clients should now be able to connect to the access point using their TLS
certificates. The certificate you installed is used when you connect, so you will not be
prompted for login information. The certificate is automatically sent to the RADIUS server
for authentication and authorization.
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Configuring WPA with RADIUS security on a client
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) with Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
is a Wi-Fi Alliance subset of IEEE 802.11i, which includes Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
(TKIP), and Counter mode/CBC-MAC Protocol mechanisms. This mode requires the use
of a RADIUS server to authenticate users, and configuration of user accounts on the access
point.
When you configure WPA with RADIUS security mode on the access point, you have a
choice of whether to use the Built-in Authentication Server or an external RADIUS server
that you provide.
The Gateway 7001 AP Built-in Authentication Server supports Protected Extensible
Authentication Protocol (EAP) known as “EAP/PEAP” and Microsoft Challenge Handshake
Authentication Protocol Version 2 (MSCHAP V2), which provides authentication for
point-to-point (PPP) connections between a Windows-based computer and network
devices such as access points.
So, if you configure the network (access point) to use security mode and choose the Built-in
Authentication server, you must configure client stations to use WPA with RADIUS and
EAP/PEAP.
If you configure the network (access point) to use this security mode with an external
RADIUS server, you must configure the client stations to use WPA with RADIUS and
whichever security protocol your RADIUS server is configured to use.
WPA with RADIUS client using EAP/PEAP
The Built-In Authentication Server on the Gateway 7001 AP uses Protected Extensible
Authentication Protocol (EAP) known as “EAP/PEAP”.
■
If you are using the Built-in Authentication server with “WPA with RADIUS” security
mode on the Gateway 7001 AP, then you will need to set up wireless clients to use PEAP.
■
Additionally, you may have an external RADIUS server that uses EAP/PEAP. If so, you
will need to (1) configure the RADIUS server and set up user accounts on it, and (2)
configure your “WPA with RADIUS” wireless clients to use PEAP.
Important
The following example assumes you are using the Built-in
Authentication server that comes with the Gateway 7001 AP. If you
are setting up EAP/PEAP on a client of an AP that is using an external
RADIUS server, the client configuration process will differ somewhat
from this example, especially with regard to certificate validation.
If you configured the Gateway 7001 AP to use WPA with RADIUS security mode and to
use either the built-in authentication server or an external RADIUS server that uses
EAP/PEAP, you must first set up user accounts on the access point (Cluster > User
Management), then configure WPA security with PEAP authentication on each client.
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To set up user accounts on the access point:
1
Access the Administration Web page for the access point (“Navigating to basic
settings” on page 30), then click Cluster > User Management. The Manage user accounts
screen opens.
2
Set up user accounts as necessary.
To configure WPA security with PEAP authentication on each client:
1
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On the Network Properties dialog box, select the Association tab. The Association dialog
box opens.
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2
Select WPA in the Network Authentication list, and TKIP or AES in the Data Encryption
list, then click the Authentication tab. The Authentication dialog box opens.
3
Select Protected EAP (PEAP) from the EAP type list, then click Properties. The Protected
EAP Properties dialog box opens.
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4
Disable the Validate server certificate option, select Secured password (EAP-MSCHAP v2)
from the Select Authentication Method list, then click Configure. The EAP MSCHAP
v2 Properties dialog box opens.
5
Click (to uncheck) the Automatically use my Windows login name and password (and
domain, if any) box, then click OK.
6
Click OK on each dialog box to close and save your changes.
Association Tab
Network Authentication
WPA
Data Encryption
TKIP or AES, depending on how this option is
configured on the access point.
Note: When the Cipher Suite on the access point
is set to Both, then TKIP clients with a valid TKIP
key and AES clients with a valid CCMP (AES) key
can associate with the access point. For more
information, see Administrators Guide and Online
Help on the access point.
Authentication Tab
EAP Type
Choose Protected EAP (PEAP)
Protected EAP
Properties dialog box
Validate Server
Certificate
Disable this option (click to uncheck the box).
Selected Authentication
Method
Choose Secured Password (EAP-MSCHAP v2)
This example assumes you are using the Built-in
Authentication server on the AP. If you are setting
up EAP/PEAP on a client of an AP that is using an
external RADIUS server, you might select certificate
validation and choose a certificate, depending on
your infrastructure.
Logging on to the Wireless Network with a WPA PEAP Client
“WPA with RADIUS” PEAP clients should now be able to associate with the access point.
Client users will be prompted for a user name and password to authenticate with the
network.
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WPA with RADIUS client using EAP-TLS certificate
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) Transport Layer Security (TLS), or EAP-TLS, is an
authentication protocol that supports the use of smart cards and certificates. You have the
option of using EAP-TLS with both WPA with RADIUS and IEEE 802.1x modes if you have
an external RADIUS server on the network to support it.
Important
If you want to use IEEE 802.1x mode with EAP-TLS certificates for
authentication and authorization of clients, you must have an external
RADIUS server and a Public Key Authority Infrastructure (PKI),
including a Certificate Authority (CA), server configured on your
network. It is beyond the scope of this document to describe the
configuration of the RADIUS server, PKI, and CA server. Consult the
documentation for those products.Some good starting points
available on the Web for the Microsoft Windows PKI software are:
“How to Install/Uninstall a Public Key Certificate Authority for
Windows 2000" at
http://sup-port.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;231881
and “How to Configure a Certificate Server” at
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;318710#3.
To use this type of security:
1
Add the Gateway 7001 AP to the list of RADIUS server clients. (See “Configuring an
external RADIUS server to recognize the Gateway 7001 AP” on page 146.)
2
Configure the Gateway 7001 AP to use your RADIUS server (by providing the RADIUS
server IP address as part of the “WPA with RADIUS” security mode settings).
3
Configure wireless clients to use WPA security and “Smart Card or other Certificate”
as described in this section.
4
Obtain a certificate for this client as described in “Obtaining a TLS-EAP certificate for
a client” on page 151.
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If you configured the Gateway 7001 AP to use WPA with RADIUS security mode with an
external RADIUS server, you must configure WPA security with certificate authentication
on each client.
To configure WPA security with certificate authentication on each client:
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1
On the Network Properties dialog box, select the Association tab. The Association dialog
box opens.
2
Select WPA in the Network Authentication list, and TKIP or AES in the Data Encryption
list, then click the Authentication tab. The Authentication dialog box opens.
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3
Select Smart Card or other Certificate from the EAP Type list, click to select the
Authenticate as computer when computer information is available check box, then click
Properties. The Smart Card or other Certificate Properties dialog box opens.
4
Select the Validate server certificate option, then select the name of the certificate from
the Trusted Root Certification Authorities list. For more information on certificates,
see “Obtaining a TLS-EAP certificate for a client” on page 151.
5
Click OK on each dialog box to close and save the settings.
Association Tab
Network Authentication
WPA
Data Encryption
TKIP or AES, depending on how this option is
configured on the access point.
Note: When the Cipher Suite on the access point
is set to Both, then TKIP clients with a valid TKIP
key and AES clients with a valid CCMP (AES) key
can associate with the access point. For more
information, see Administrators Guide and Online
Help on the access point.
Authentication Tab
EAP Type
Choose Smart Card or other Certificate
Smart Card or other
Certificate
Validate Server
Certificate
Enable this option.
Certificates
In the certificate list shown, select the certificate for
this client.
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Logging on to the wireless network with a WPA client using a certificate
WPA clients should now be able to connect to the access point using their TLS certificates.
The certificate you installed is used when you connect, so you will not be prompted for
login information. The certificate is automatically sent to the RADIUS server for
authentication and authorization.
Configuring WPA-PSK security on a client
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) with Pre-Shared Key (PSK) is a Wi-Fi Alliance subset of IEEE
802.11i, which includes Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), Advanced Encryption
Algorithm (AES), and Counter mode/CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP) mechanisms. PSK
employs a pre-shared key for an initial check of client credentials.
If you configured the Gateway 7001 AP to use WPA-PSK security mode, you must configure
WPA-PSK security on each client.
To configure WPA-PSK security on each client:
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1
On the Network Properties dialog box, select the Association tab. The Association dialog
box opens.
2
Select WPA-PSK in the Network Authentication list, and TKIP or AES in the Data
Encryption list, then enter a network key that matches the one specified on the access
point (confirm by re-typing).
3
Click OK to close and save the settings.
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Association Tab
Network Authentication
WPA-PSK
Data Encryption
TKIP or AES, depending on how this option is
configured on the access point.
Note: When the Cipher Suite on the access point
is set to Both, then TKIP clients with a valid TKIP
key and AES clients with a valid CCMP (AES) key
can associate with the access point. For more
information, see Administrators Guide and Online
Help on the access point.
Network Key
Provide the key you entered on the access point
Security settings for the cipher suite you are using.
For example, if the key on the access point is set
to use a TKIP key of “12345678,” then a TKIP client
should specify this same string as the network key.
Authentication Tab
The key is provided for
me automatically
This box should be disabled automatically, based on
other settings.
Enable IEEE 802.1x
authentication for this
network
Make sure that IEEE 802.1x authentication is
disabled (unchecked).
(Setting the encryption mode to WEP should
automatically disable authentication.)
Connecting to the wireless network with a WPA-PSK client
WPA-PSK clients should now be able to associate and authenticate with the access point.
As a client, you will not be prompted for a key. The TKIP or AES key you configured on
the client security settings is automatically used when you connect.
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Configuring an external RADIUS server to recognize the Gateway 7001 AP
An external Remote Authentication Dial-in User Server (RADIUS) server running on the
network can support of EAP-TLS smart card/certificate distribution to clients in a Public
Key Infrastructure (PKI) as well as EAP-PEAP user account setup and authentication. By
external RADIUS server, we mean an authentication server external to the access point
itself. This is to distinguish between the scenario in which you use a network RADIUS server
versus one in which you use the Built-in Authentication Server on the Gateway 7001 AP.
This section provides an example of configuring an external RADIUS server for the purposes
of authenticating and authorizing TLS-EAP certificates from wireless clients of a particular
Gateway 7001 AP configured for either “WPA with RADIUS” or “IEEE 802.1x” security
modes. The intention of this section is to provide some idea of what this process will look
like. Procedures will vary depending on the RADIUS server you use and how you configure
it. For this example, we use the Internet Authentication Service that comes with Microsoft
Windows 2003 server.
Important
This document does not describe how to set up Administrative users
on the RADIUS server. In this example, we assume you already have
RADIUS server user accounts configured. You will need a RADIUS
server user name and password for both this procedure and the
following one that describes how to obtain and install a certificate on
the wireless client. Consult the documentation for your RADIUS
server for information on setting up user accounts.
The purpose of this procedure is to identify your Gateway 7001 AP as a “client” to the
RADIUS server. The RADIUS server can then handle authentication and authorization of
wireless clients for the AP. This procedure is required for each access point. If you have
more than one access point with which you plan to use an external RADIUS server, you
need to follow these steps for each of those APs.
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Keep in mind that the information you need to provide to the RADIUS server about the
access point corresponds to settings on the access point (Advanced > Security) and vice versa.
You should have already provided the RADIUS server IP Address to the AP. In the steps
that follow you will provide the access point IP address to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS
Key provided on the AP is the “shared secret” you will provide to the RADIUS server.
Important
The RADIUS server is identified by its IP address and UDP port
numbers for the different services it provides. On the current release
of the Gateway 7001 AP, the RADIUS server User Datagram Protocol
(UDP) ports used by the access point are not configurable. (The
Gateway 7001 AP is hard-coded to use RADIUS server UDP port
1812 for authentication and port 1813 for accounting.)
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To identify your Gateway 7001 AP as a client to the RADIUS server:
148
1
Log on to the system hosting your RADIUS server and open the Internet
Authentication Service.
2
In the left panel, right-click the RADIUS Clients node and choose New > Radius Client
from the menu.
3
On the initial screen of the New RADIUS Client wizard, provide information about
the Gateway 7001 AP to which you want your clients to connect:
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■
A logical (friendly) name for the access point. (You might want to use the DNS name
or location.)
■
IP address for the access point.
4
5
Click Next.
For the “Shared secret” enter the RADIUS Key you provided to the access point (on
the Advanced > Security page). Re-type the key to confirm.
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6
Click Finish.
The access point is now displayed as a client of the Authentication Server.
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Obtaining a TLS-EAP certificate for a client
Important
If you want to use IEEE 802.1x mode with EAP-TLS certificates for
authentication and authorization of clients, you must have an external
RADIUS server and a Public Key Authority Infrastructure (PKI),
including a Certificate Authority (CA), server configured on your
network. It is beyond the scope of this document to describe the
configuration of the RADIUS server, PKI, and CA server. Consult the
documentation for those products.
Some good starting points available on the Web for the Microsoft
Windows PKI software are: “How to Install/Uninstall a Public Key
Certificate Authority for Windows 2000" at
http://sup-port.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;231881
and “How to Configure a Certificate Server” at
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;318710#3.
Wireless clients configured to use either “WPA with RADIUS” or “IEEE 802.1x” security
modes with an external RADIUS server that supports TLS-EAP certificates must obtain a
TLS certificate from the RADIUS server. This is an initial one-time step that must be
completed on each client that uses either of these modes with certificates. In this
procedure, we use the Microsoft Certificate Server as an example.
To obtain a certificate for a client, follow these steps.
1
Go to the following URL in a Web browser:
https://IPAddressOfServer/certsrv/
Where IPAddressOfServer is the IP address of your external RADIUS server or of the
Certificate Authority (CA), depending on the configuration of your infrastructure.
A security alert opens.
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Click Yes to proceed to the secure Web page for the server. The Welcome screen
for the Certificate Server is displayed in the browser.
2
Click Request a certificate to get the login prompt for the RADIUS server.
3
Provide a valid user name and password to access the RADIUS server, then click OK.
Important
152
The user name and password you need to provide here is for access
to the RADIUS server, for which you will already have user accounts
configured at this point. This document does not describe how to set
up Administrative user accounts on the RADIUS server. Consult the
documentation for your RADIUS server for these procedures.
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The Request a Certificate dialog box opens.
4
Click User Certificate. A Security Warning opens.
5
Click Yes on the dialog box displayed to install the certificate. The User Certificate Identifying Information dialog box opens.
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6
Click Submit to complete. A Potential Security Violation dialog box opens.
7
Click Yes to confirm the submittal. The Certificate Issued dialog box opens.
8
Click Install this certificate to install the newly issued certificate on your client station,
Then click Yes on the popup windows that appear to confirm the install and to add
the certificate to the Root Store.
A success message is displayed indicating the certificate is now installed on the client.
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Setting the administrator password
The administrator password controls access to the Administration Web pages for the
Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP. This setting is also available on the Basic Settings
administration page. When you set the administrator password in either place and apply
the change, the new password is updated and shared by all access points in the cluster.
Navigating to administrator password setting
To set the administrator password, click Advanced > Password on the Administration Web
page. The Change the Administrator password screen opens. Update the boxes as described
in the following section.
Setting the administrator password
To set a new administrator password, fill in the password, then re-confirm. The password
setting requires that you know the existing password before you can change it. This is to
prevent an unauthorized person from changing the password in a case where you leave
an open browser unattended.
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Field
Description
Existing
Password
Type a new administrator password. The text you type will be displayed as
“*” characters to prevent others from seeing your password as you type.
New Password
Re-type the new administrator password to confirm that you typed it as
intended.
Updating settings
To apply your changes, click Update.
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Chapter 8
Maintenance and Monitoring
■
Interfaces
■
Event log
■
Transmit/receive statistics
■
Associated wireless clients
■
Rebooting the access point
■
Resetting the configuration
■
Upgrading the firmware
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Introduction
The maintenance and monitoring tasks described here all pertain to viewing and modifying
settings on specific access points, and not on a cluster configuration that is automatically
shared by multiple access points. Therefore, it is important to ensure that you are accessing
the Administration Web pages for the particular access point you want to configure. For
information on this, see “Navigating to information for a specific AP and managing
standalone APs” on page 53.
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Interfaces
To monitor wired LAN and wireless LAN (WLAN) settings, select the access point you want
to monitor on the Administration Web page, then click Status > Interfaces. The View settings
for network interfaces screen opens.
Important
The dual band AP (Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G Wireless
Access Point), shows current wireless settings for both
Radio One and Radio Two. The single band AP (Gateway
7001 802.11 G Wireless Access Point) shows settings for
one radio only.
The Interfaces page for the dual band AP is shown in the
following figure.
This page displays the current settings of the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP. It
displays the Ethernet (Wired) settings and the Wireless settings.
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Ethernet (Wired) settings
The internal interface includes the MAC Address, IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Associated
Network Wireless Name (SSID).
The guest interface includes the MAC Address, VLAN ID, and Associated Network Wireless
Name (SSID).
If you want to change any of these settings, click Configure.
Wireless settings
The Radio Interface settings include the MAC Address, radio Mode, and Channel. Also
shown here are MAC addresses (read-only) for internal and guest interfaces. (See
“Configuring a wireless interface” on page 74 and “Configuring radio settings” on page 104
for more information.)
If you want to change any of these settings, click Configure.
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Event log
To view transmit/receive statistics for a particular access point, select the access point you
want to monitor on the Administration Web page, then click Status > Events. The View events
generated by this access point screen opens.
This page lists the most recent events generated by this access point.
It displays the System Events Log, which shows stations associating, being authenticated,
and other occurrences.
It provides a Kernel Log, which lists error conditions, such as dropping frames, and so on.
Important
The Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP acquires its
date and time information using the network time protocol
(NTP). This data is reported in UTC format (also known
as Greenwich Mean Time). You need to convert the
reported time to your local time.
For information on setting the network time protocol, see
“Enabling a network time protocol server” on page 78.
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Transmit/receive statistics
To view transmit/receive statistics for a particular access point, select the access point you
want to monitor on the Administration Web page, then click Status > Transmit/Receive
Statistics. The View transmit and receive statistics for this access point screen opens.
Important
The following figure shows the Transmit / Receive page for
a dual band AP (Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G Wireless
Access Point). The Administration Web page for the single
band AP (Gateway 7001 802.11 G Wireless Access Point)
will look slightly different.
This screen provides some basic information about the current access point and a real-time
display of the transmit and receive statistics for this access point as described in the
following table. All transmit and receive statistics shown are totals since the access point
was last started. If the AP is rebooted, these figures indicate transmit/receive totals since
the re-boot.
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Field
Description
IP Address
IP Address for the access point.
MAC Address
Gateway 7001 AP Administrators Guide MAC Address Media Access
Control (MAC) address for the specified interface.
A MAC address is a permanent, unique hardware address for any
device that represents an interface to the network. The MAC address
is assigned by the manufacturer.
The Gateway 7001 AP has a unique MAC address for each interface.
The dual-band Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G Wireless Access Point has
a different MAC address for each interface on each of its two radios.
VLAN ID
Virtual LAN (VLAN) ID.
A VLAN is a software-based, logical grouping of devices on a network
that allow them to act as if they are connected to a single physical
network, even though they may not be.
VLANs can be used on the Gateway 7001 AP to establish internal and
guest networks on the same access point.
SSID
Wireless network name. Also known as the SSID, this alphanumeric
key uniquely identifies a wireless local area network.
The SSID is set on the Basic Settings tab. (See “Providing
administrator password and wireless network name” on page 32.)
Transmit and Receive Information
Total Packets
Indicates total packets sent (in Transmit table) or received (in Received
table) by this access point.
Total Bytes
Indicates total bytes sent (in Transmit table) or received (in Received
table) by this access point.
Errors
Indicates total errors related to sending and receiving data on this
access point.
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Associated wireless clients
To view the client stations associated with a particular access point, select the access point
you want to monitor on the Administration Web page, then click Status > Client Associations.
The View list of currently associated client stations screen opens.
The associated stations are displayed along with information about packet traffic
transmitted and received for each station.
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Rebooting the access point
For maintenance purposes or as a troubleshooting measure, you can reboot the Gateway
7001 AP as follows.
To reboot the access point:
1
From the Administration Web page, click Advanced > Reboot. The Reboot page opens.
2
Click Reboot. The AP reboots.
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Resetting the configuration
If you are experiencing extreme problems with the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP
and have tried all other troubleshooting measures, use the Reset Configuration function.
This will restore factory defaults and clear all settings, including settings such as a new
password or wireless settings.
As an alternative, you can also press the Reset button on the back of the AP for 15 seconds,
wait until the LAN1 LED goes out, then release the button. The AP will reboot with default
settings in place.
To reset the configuration:
1
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From the Administration Web page, click Advanced > Reset Configuration. The Reset the
access point back to factory settings screen opens.
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2
Click Reset. Factory defaults are restored.
Important
Keep in mind that if you do reset the configuration from
this page, you are doing so for this access point only, and
not for other access points in the cluster.
For information on the factory default settings, see “Default
settings and supported administrator/client platforms” on
page 5.
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Upgrading the firmware
As new versions of the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed AP firmware become available,
you can upgrade the firmware on your access points to take advantages of new features
and enhancements.
Important
You must do this for each access point. You cannot
upgrade firmware automatically across the cluster.
Keep in mind that a successful firmware upgrade restores
the access point configuration to the factory defaults. (See
“Default settings and supported administrator/client
platforms” on page 5.)
To upgrade the firmware on a particular access point:
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1
Select the access point to upgrade from the Administration Web page, then click
Advanced > Upgrade. The Upgrade firmware page for the chosen access point opens.
2
If you know the path to the new firmware image file, type it in the textbox. Otherwise,
click Browse and locate the firmware image file.
3
Click Update to apply the new firmware image.
www.gateway.com
When clicking Update for the firmware upgrade, a popup confirmation window is
displayed that describes the upgrade process.
Click OK to confirm the upgrade, and start the process
4
Repeat steps 1 to 3 for each access point you want to upgrade.
Important
To verify that the firmware upgrade completed
successfully, check the firmware version shown on the
Advanced > Upgrade tab (and also on the Basic
Settings tab).
If the upgrade was successful, the updated version name
or number will be indicated.
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Chapter 9
Troubleshooting and Getting
Help
■
Known problems
■
Technical support
171
Known problems
The following table summarizes problems that have been identified in the Gateway 7001
AP software.
Bug
Numbers
Description
Workaround
2690, 2703
IP address for access point may change
when Guest Access is enabled or when the
DNS name is changed.
Use Kickstart or check DHCP logs to
determine new IP address for access point.
2677, 2691,
2756
Some actions such as enabling guest access
or adding a large amount of MAC addresses
at once (15 or more) can corrupt the access
point configuration file and prevent access to
the Administration Web pages.
Physically reboot the access point by
pressing the Power button on the device.
Various events or actions such as shutdown
(power outage) or removal of an access point
may cause problems with joining or removing
an access point from the cluster, or with other
aspects of a configuration sharing.
Reset the access point.
2701, 2702,
2735, 2737,
2662, 2705
Some of these problems may be indicated by
a red status message at the bottom of the
Administration Web page. (For example,
activator timed out.)
(See “Cluster recovery” on page 46 for more
information.)
Navigate to Advanced > Reset
Con-figuration on the access point and click
the Reset button.
(See “Cluster recovery” on page 46 for more
information.)
2726, 2727
If you have more than one access point on
a Virtual LAN (VLAN) setup, the access
points cannot cluster.
Use access points in standalone mode or
reconfigure without VLAN.
2654
Guest Access is not a clustered feature.
However, enabling or disabling Guest
Access on any one access point in a cluster
configuration “partially” syncs to other cluster
members.
Either all access points in a cluster must
have Guest Access enabled, or all access
points in a cluster must have Guest Access
disabled.
If you enable or disable Guest Access on one
access point in a cluster without immediately
making the same configuration change to all
other cluster members, inconsistent behavior
can occur.
For example, this can result in a scenario
where all access points are beaconing for
Guest Access, but only the access point on
which the change was made bridges traffic.
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Whenever you change the Guest Access
status of one access point in a cluster,
immediately change the Guest Access
status in the same way on the other cluster
members to ensure consistent operation.
To enable or disable Guest Access, navigate
to the Administration Web pages for each
access point.
If you wish to use Guest Access on only
certain access points, place these access
points in standalone mode.
www.gateway.com
Technical Support
Gateway offers a wide range of customer service, technical support, and information
services.
Telephone numbers
You can access the following services through your telephone to get answers to your
questions:
Resource
Service description
How to reach
Gateway
Technical Support
Talk to a Gateway Technical Support
representative about a non-tutorial technical
support question.)
877-485-1464 (US)
800-846-3609 (Canada
and Puerto Rico
TDD Technical Support (for hearing impaired)
is available:
605-232-2191
(all other countries)
Weekdays 6:00 a.m. - 8:00 p.m. Central Time
800-846-1778 (TDD)
Weekends 6:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. Central Time
Sales,
accounting, and
warranty
Get information about available systems,
pricing, orders, billing statements, warranty
service, or other non-technical issues.
www.gateway.com
800-846-2000 (US)
888-888-2037 (Canada)
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Appendix A
Glossary
175
802
IEEE 802 (IEEE Std. 802-2001) is a family of standards for peer-to-peer communication over
a LAN. These technologies use a shared-medium, with information broadcast for all stations
to receive. The basic communications capabilities provided are packet-based. The basic unit
of transmission is a sequence of data octets (8-bits), which can be of any length within a
range that is dependent on the type of LAN.
Included in the 802 family of IEEE standards are definitions of bridging, management, and
security protocols.
802.1x
IEEE 802.1x (IEEE Std. 802.1x-2001) is a standard for passing EAP packets over an 802.11
wireless network using a protocol called EAP Encapsulation Over LANs (EAPOL). It
establishes a framework that supports multiple authentication methods.
IEEE 802.1x authenticates users not machines.
802.2
IEEE 802.2 (IEEE Std. 802.2.1998) defines the LLC layer for the 802 family of standards.
802.3
IEEE 802.3 (IEEE Std. 802.3-2002) defines the MAC layer for networks that use CSMA/CA.
Ethernet is an example of such a network.
802.11
IEEE 802.11 (IEEE Std. 802.11-1999) is a medium access control (MAC) and physical layer
(PHY) specification for wireless connectivity for fixed, portable, and moving stations within
a local area. It uses direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) in the 2.4 GHz ISM band and
supports raw data rates of 1 and 2 Mbps. It was formally adopted in 1997 but has been
mostly superseded by 802.11b.
IEEE 802.11 is also used generically to refer to the family of IEEE standards for wireless
local area networks.
802.11a
IEEE 802.11a (IEEE Std. 802.11a-1999) is a PHY standard that specifies operating in the 5
GHz U-NII band using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). It supports
data rates ranging from 6 to 54 Mbps.
802.11a Turbo
IEEE 802.11a Turbo is a proprietary variant of the 802.11a standard from Atheros
Communications. It supports accelerated data rates ranging from 6 to 108Mbps.
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802.11b
IEEE 802.11b (IEEE Std. 802.11b-1999) is an enhancement of the initial 802.11 PHY to
include 5.5 Mbps and 11 Mbps data rates. It uses direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS)
or frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) in the 2.4 GHz ISM band as well as
complementary code keying (CCK) to provide the higher data rates. It supports data rates
ranging from 1 to 11 Mbps.
802.11e
IEEE 802.11e is a developing IEEE standard for MAC enhancements to support QoS. It
provides a mechanism to prioritize traffic within 802.11. It defines allowed changes in the
Arbitration Interframe Space, a minimum and maximum Contention Window size, and
the maximum length (in kµsec) of a burst of data.
IEEE 802.11e is still a draft IEEE standard (most recent version is D5.0, July 2003). A
currently available subset of 802.11e is the Wireless Multimedia Enhancements (WME)
standard.
802.11f
IEEE 802.11f (IEEE Std. 802.11f-2003) is a standard that defines the inter access point
protocol (IAPP) for access points (wireless hubs) in an extended service set (ESS). The
standard defines how access points communicate the associations and reassociations of
their mobile stations.
802.11g
IEEE 802.11g (IEEE Std. 802.11g-2003) is a higher speed extension (up to 54 Mbps) to the
802.11b PHY, while operating in the 2.4 GHz band. It uses orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing (OFDM). It supports data rates ranging from 1 to 54 Mbps.
802.11i
IEEE 802.11i is a developing IEEE standard for security in a wireless local area network
(WLAN). It defines enhancements to the MAC Layer to counter the some of the weaknesses
of WEP. 802.11i will incorporate 802.1x and stronger encryption techniques, such as
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
IEEE 802.11i is still a draft IEEE standard (most recent version is D5.0, August 2003). A
currently available subset of 802.11i is the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) standard.
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802.1Q
IEEE 802.1Q is the IEEE standard for Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) specific to wireless
technologies.
(See http://www.ieee802.org/1/pages/802.1Q.html.) The standard addresses the problem of
how to break large networks into smaller parts to prevent broadcast and multicast data
traffic from consuming more bandwidth than is necessary. 802.11Q also provides for better
security between segments of internal networks. The 802.1Q specification provides a
standard method for inserting VLAN membership information into Ethernet frames.
Access Point
An access point is the communication hub for the devices on a WLAN, providing a
connection or bridge between wireless and wired network devices. It supports a Wireless
Networking Framework called Infrastructure Mode.
When one access point is connected to wired network and supports a set of wireless
stations, it is referred to as a basic service set (BSS). An extended service set (ESS) is created
by combining two or more BSSs.
Ad-hoc Mode
Ad-hoc mode is a Wireless Networking Framework in which stations communicate directly
with each other. It is useful for quickly establishing a network in situations where formal
infrastructure is not required.
Ad-hoc mode is also referred to as peer-to-peer mode or an independent basic service set
(IBSS).
AES
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric 128-bit block data encryption
technique developed to replace DES encryption. AES works at multiple network layers
simultaneously.
Further information is available on the NIST Web site.
Basic Rate Set
The basic rate set defines the transmission rates that are mandatory for any station wanting
to join this wireless network. All stations must be able to receive data at the rates listed
in this set.
Beacon
Beacon frames provide the “heartbeat” of a WLAN, announcing the existence of the
network, and enabling stations to establish and maintain communications in an orderly
fashion. It carries the following information (some of which is optional):
■
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The Timestamp is used by stations to update their local clock, enabling synchronization
among all associated stations.
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■
The Beacon interval defines the amount of time between transmitting beacon frames.
Before entering power save mode, a station needs the beacon interval to know when
to wake up to receive the beacon.
■
The Capability Information lists requirements of stations that want to join the WLAN.
For example, it indicates that all stations must use WEP.
■
The Service Set Identifier (SSID).
■
The Basic Rate Set is a bitmap that lists the rates that the WLAN supports.
■
The optional Parameter Sets indicates features of the specific signaling methods in use
(such as frequency hopping spread spectrum, direct sequence spread spectrum, etc.).
■
The optional Traffic Indication Map (TIM) identifies stations, using power saving mode,
that have data frames queued for them.
Bridge
A connection between two local area networks (LANs) using the same protocol, such as
Ethernet or IEEE 802.1x.
Broadcast
A Broadcast sends the same message at the same time to everyone. In wireless networks,
broadcast usually refers to an interaction in which the access point sends data traffic in
the form of IEEE 802.1x Frames to all client stations on the network.
Some wireless security modes distinguish between how unicast, multicast, and broadcast
frames are encrypted or whether they are encrypted.
See also Unicast and Multicast.
Broadcast Address
See IP Address.
BSS
A basic service set (BSS) is an Infrastructure Mode Wireless Networking Framework with a
single access point. Also see extended service set (ESS) and independent basic service set
(IBSS).
BSSID
In Infrastructure Mode, the Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) is the 48-bit MAC address of
the wireless interface of the Access Point.
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CCMP
Counter mode/CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP) is an encryption method for 802.11i that uses AES.
It employs a CCM mode of operation, combining the Cipher Block Chaining Counter mode
(CBC-CTR) and the Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code (CBC-MAC) for
encryption and message integrity.
AES-CCMP requires a hardware coprocessor to operate.
CGI
The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a standard for running external programs from an
HTTP server.
It specifies how to pass arguments to the executing program as part of the HTTP request.
It may also define a set of environment variables.
A CGI program is a common way for an HTTP server to interact dynamically with users.
For example, an HTML page containing a form can use a CGI program to process the form
data after it is submitted.
Channel
The Channel defines the portion of the radio spectrum the radio uses for transmitting and
receiving.
Each 802.11 standard offers a number of channels, dependent on how the spectrum is
licensed by national and transnational authorities such as the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC), the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), the
Korean Communications Commission, or the Telecom Engineering Center (TELEC).
CSMA/CA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is a low-level network
arbitration/ contention protocol. A station listens to the media and attempts to transmit
a packet when the channel is quiet. When it detects that the channel is idle, the station
transmits the packet. If it detects that the channel is busy, the station waits a random
amount of time, then attempts to access the media again.
CSMA/CA is the basis of the IEEE 802.11e Distributed Control Function (DCF).
The CSMA/CA protocol used by 802.11 networks is a variation on CSMA/CD (used by
Ethernet networks). In CSMA/CD the emphasis is on collision detection whereas with
CSMA/CA the emphasis is on collision avoidance.
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DCF
The Distribution Control Function is a component of the IEEE 802.11e Quality of Service
(QoS) technology standard. The DCF coordinates channel access among multiple stations
on a wireless network by controlling wait times for channel access. Wait times are
determined by a random backoff timer which is configurable by defining minimum and
maximum contention windows.
DHCP
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a protocol specifying how a central server
can dynamically provide network configuration information to clients. A DHCP server
“offers” a “lease” (for a pre-configured period of time—see Lease Time) to the client system.
The information supplied includes the client's IP addresses and net mask plus the address
of its DNS servers and Gateway.
DNS
The Domain Name Service (DNS) is a general-purpose query service used for translating
fully-qualified names into Internet addresses. A fully-qualified name consists of the
hostname of a system plus its domain name.
A domain name identifies one or more IP addresses. Conversely, an IP address may map
to more than one domain name.
A domain name has a suffix that indicates which top level domain (TLD) it belongs to.
Every country has its own top-level domain, for example .de for Germany, .fr for France,
.jp for Japan, .tw for Taiwan, .uk for the United Kingdom, .us for the U.S.A., and so on.
There are also .com for commercial bodies, .edu for educational institutions, .net for
network operators, and .org for other organizations as well as .gov for the U. S. government
and .mil for its armed services.
DOM
The Document Object Model (DOM) is an interface that lets programs and scripts dynamically
access and update the content, structure, and style of documents. The DOM lets you model
the objects in an HTML or XML document (text, links, images, tables), defining the
attributes of each object and how they can be manipulated.
Further details about the DOM can be found at the W3C.
DTIM
The Delivery Traffic Information Map (DTIM) message is an element included in some
Beacon frames. It indicates which stations, currently sleeping in low-power mode, have
data buffered on the Access Point awaiting pick-up. Part of the DTIM message indicates
how frequently stations must check for buffered data.
Dynamic IP Address
See IP Address.
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EAP
The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is an authentication protocol that supports
multiple methods, such as token cards, Kerberos, one-time passwords, certificates, public
key authentication, and smart cards.
Variations on EAP include EAP Cisco Wireless (LEAP), Protected EAP (PEAP), EAP-TLS, and
EAP Tunnelled TLS (EAP-TTLS).
ESS
An extended service set (ESS) is an Infrastructure Mode Wireless Networking Framework with
multiple access points, forming a single subnetwork that can support more clients than a
basic service set (BSS).
Each access point supports a number of wireless stations, providing broader wireless
coverage for a large space, for example, an office.
Ethernet
Ethernet is a local-area network (LAN) architecture supporting data transfer rates of 10 Mbps
to 1 Gbps.
The Ethernet specification is the basis for the IEEE 802.3 standard, which specifies the
physical and lower software layers. It uses the CSMA/CA access method to handle
simultaneous demands.
Ethernet supports data rates of 10 Mbps, Fast Ethernet supports 100 Mbps, and Gigabit
Ethernet supports 1 Gbps. Its cables are classified as “XbaseY”, where X is the data rate in
Mbps and Y is the category of cabling. The original cable was 10base5 (Thicknet or “Yellow
Cable”). Some others are 10base2 (Cheapernet), 10baseT (Twisted Pair), and 100baseT (Fast
Ethernet). The latter two are commonly supplied using CAT5 cabling with RJ-45
connectors. There is also 1000baseT (Gigabit Ethernet).
Frame
A Frame consists of a discrete portion of data along with some descriptive meta-information
packaged for transmission on a wireless network. Each frame includes a source and
destination MAC address, a control field with protocol version, frame type, frame sequence
number, frame body (with the actual information to be transmitted) and frame check
sequence for error detection. A Frame is similar in concept to a Packet, the difference being
that a packet operates on the Network layer (layer 3 in the OSI model) whereas a frame
operates on the Data-Link layer (layer 2 in the OSI model).
Gateway
A gateway is a network node that serves as an entrance to another network. A gateway
also often provides a proxy server and a firewall. It is associated with both a router, which
use headers and forwarding tables to determine where packets are sent, and a switch or
bridge, which provides the actual path for the packet in and out of the gateway.
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Before a host on a LAN can access the Internet, it needs to know the address of its default
gateway.
HTML
The Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) defines the structure of a document on the World
Wide Web. It uses tags and attributes to hint about a layout for the document.
An HTML document starts with an <html> tag and ends with a </html> tag. A correctly
formatted document also contains a <head> ... </head> section, which contains the
metadata to define the document, and a <body> ... </body> section, which contains its
content. Its markup is derived from the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML),
which is defined in ISO 8879:1986.
HTML documents are sent from server to browser through HTTP. Also see XML.
HTTP
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) defines how messages are formatted and transmitted
on the World Wide Web. An HTTP message consists of a URL and a command (GET, HEAD,
POST, and so on), a request followed by a response.
IAPP
The Inter Access Point Protocol (IAPP) is an IEEE standard (802.11f) that defines
communication between the access points in a “distribution system”. This includes the
exchange of information about mobile stations and the maintenance of bridge forwarding
tables, plus securing the communications between access points.
IBSS
An independent basic service set (IBSS) is an Ad-hoc Mode Wireless Networking Framework
in which stations communicate directly with each other.
IEEE
The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) is an international standards
body that develops and establishes industry standards for a broad range of technologies,
including the 802 family of networking and wireless standards. (See 802, 802.1x, 802.11,
802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11e, 802.11f, 802.11g, and 802.11i.)
For more information about IEEE task groups and standards, see http://standards.ieee.org/.
Infrastructure Mode
Infrastructure Mode is a Wireless Networking Framework in which wireless stations
communicate with each other by first going through an Access Point. In this mode, the
wireless stations can communicate with each other or can communicate with hosts on a
wired network. The access point is connected to a wired network and supports a set of
wireless stations.
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An infrastructure mode framework can be provided by a single access point (BSS) or a
number of access points (ESS).
Intrusion Detection
The Intrusion Detection System (IDS) inspects all inbound network activity and reports
suspicious patterns that may indicate a network or system attack from someone attempting
to break into the system. It reports access attempts using unsupported or known insecure
protocols.
IP
The Internet Protocol (IP) specifies the format of packets, also called datagrams, and the
addressing scheme. IP is a connectionless, best-effort packet switching protocol. It provides
packet routing, fragmentation and re-assembly. It is combined with higher-level protocols,
such as TCP or UDP, to establish the virtual connection between destination and source.
The current version of IP is IPv4. A new version, called IPv6 or IPng, is under development.
IPv6 is an attempt to solve the shortage of IP addresses.
IP Address
Systems are defined by their IP address, a four-byte (octet) number uniquely defining each
host on the Internet. It is usually shown in form 192.168.2.254. This is called
dotted-decimal notation.
An IP address is partitioned into two portions: the network prefix and a host number on
that network. A Subnet Mask is used to define the portions. There are two special host
numbers:
■
The Network Address consists of a host number that is all zeroes (for example,
192.168.2.0).
■
The Broadcast Address consists of a host number that is all ones (for example,
192.168.2.255).
There are a finite number of IP addresses that can exist. Therefore, a local area network
typically uses one of the IANA-designated address ranges for use in private networks. These
address ranges are:
10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255
A Dynamic IP Address is an IP address that is automatically assigned to a host by a DHCP
server or similar mechanism. It is called dynamic because you may be assigned a different
IP address each time you establish a connection.
A Static IP Address is an IP address that is hard-wired for a specific host. A static address
is usually required for any host that is running a server, for example, a Web server.
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IPSec
IP Security (IPSec) is a set of protocols to support the secure exchange of packets at the IP
layer. It uses shared public keys. There are two encryption modes: Transport and Tunnel.
■
Transport mode encrypts only the data portion (payload) of each packet, but leaves the
headers untouched.
■
The more secure Tunnel mode encrypts both the header and the payload.
ISP
An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company that provides access to the Internet to
individuals and companies. It may provide related services such as virtual hosting, network
consulting, Web design, etc.
Jitter
Jitter is the difference between the latency (or delay) in packet transmission from one node
to another across a network. If packets are not transmitted at a consistent rate (including
Latency), QoS for some types of data can be affected. For example, inconsistent
transmission rates can cause distortion in VoIP and streaming media. QoS is designed to
reduce jitter along with other factors that can impact network performance.
Latency
Latency, also known as delay, is the amount of time it takes to transmit a Packet from sender
to receiver.
Latency can occur when data is transmitted from the access point to a client and vice versa.
It can also occur when data is transmitted from access point to the Internet and vice versa.
Latency is caused by fixed network factors such as the time it takes to encode and decode
a packet, and also by variable network factors such as a busy or overloaded network. QoS
features are designed to minimize latency for high priority network traffic.
LAN
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a communications network covering a limited area, for
example, the computers in your home that you want to network together or a couple of
floors in a building. A LAN connects multiple computers and other network devices such
as storage and printers. Ethernet is the most common technology implementing a LAN.
Wireless Ethernet (802.11) is another very popular LAN technology (also see WLAN).
LDAP
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a protocol for accessing on-line directory
services. It is used to provide an authentication mechanism. It is based on the X.500
standard, but less complex.
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Lease Time
The Lease Time specifies the period of time the DHCP Server gives its clients an IP Address
and other required information. When the lease expires, the client must request a new
lease. If the lease is set to a short span, you can update your network information and
propagate the information provided to the clients in a timely manner.
LLC
The Logical Link Control (LLC) layer controls frame synchronization, flow control, and error
checking. It is a higher level protocol over the PHY layer, working in conjunction with
the MAC layer.
MAC
The Media Access Control (MAC) layer handles moving data packets between NICs across
a shared channel. It is a higher level protocol over the PHY layer. It provides an arbitration
mechanism in an attempt to prevent signals from colliding.
It uses a hardware address, known as the MAC address, that uniquely identifies each node
of a network.
IEEE 802 network devices share a common 48-bit MAC address format, displayed as a string
of twelve (12) hexadecimal digits separated by colons, for example FE:DC:BA:09:87:65.
MSCHAP V2
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol Version 2 (MSCHAP V2) provides
authentication for PPP connections between a Windows-based computer and an Access
Point or other network access device.
MTU
The Maximum Transmission Unit is the largest physical packet size, measured in bytes, that
a network can transmit. Any messages larger than the MTU are fragmented into smaller
packets before being sent.
Multicast
A Multicast sends the same message to a select group of recipients. Sending an e-mail
message to a mailing list is an example of multicasting. In wireless networks, multicast
usually refers to an interaction in which the access point sends data traffic in the form of
IEEE 802.1x Frames to a specified set of client stations (MAC addresses) on the network.
Some wireless security modes distinguish between how unicast, multicast, and broadcast
frames are encrypted or whether they are encrypted.
See also Unicast and Broadcast.
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NAT
Network Address Translation is an Internet standard that masks the internal IP addresses
being used in a LAN. A NAT server running on a gateway maintains a translation table
that maps all internal IP addresses in outbound requests to its own address and converts
all inbound requests to the correct internal host.
NAT serves three main purposes: it provides security by obscurity by hiding internal IP
addresses, enables the use of a wide range of internal IP addresses without fear of conflict
with the addresses used by other organizations, and it allows the use of a single Internet
connection.
Network Address
See IP Address.
NIC
A Network Interface Card is an adapter or expansion board inserted into a computer to
provide a physical connection to a network. Most NICs are designed for a particular type
of network, protocol, and media, for example, Ethernet or wireless.
NTP
The Network Time Protocol assures accurate synchronization of the system clocks in a
network of computers. NTP servers transmit Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, also known
as Greenwich Mean Time) to their client systems. An NTP client sends periodic time requests
to servers, using the returned time stamp to adjust its clock.
OSI
The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model is a framework for network design.
The OSI model consists of seven layers:
■
Layer 1, the Physical layer, identifies the physical medium used for communication
between nodes.
■
In the case of wireless networks, the physical medium is air, and radio frequency (RF)
waves are a components of the physical layer.
■
Layer 2, the Data-Link layer, defines how data for transmission will be structured and
formatted, along with low-level protocols for communication and addressing. For
example, protocols such as CSMA/CA and components like MAC addresses, and Frames
are all defined and dealt with as a part of the Data-Link layer.
■
Layer 3, the Network layer, defines the how to determine the best path for information
traversing the network. Packets and logical IP Addresses operate on the network layer.
■
Layer 4, the Transport layer, defines connection oriented protocols such as TCP and
UDP.
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■
Layer 5, the Session layer, defines protocols for initiating, maintaining, and ending
communication and transactions across the network. Some common examples of
protocols that operate on this layer are network file system (NFS) and structured query
language (SQL). Also part of this layer are communication flows like single mode (device
sends information bulk), half-duplex mode (devices take turns transmitting information
in bulk), and full-duplex mode (interactive, where devices transmit and receive
simultaneously).
■
Layer 6, the Presentation layer, defines how information is presented to the application.
It includes meta-information about how to encrypt/decrypt and compress/decompress
the data. JPEG and TIFF file formats are examples of protocols at this layer.
■
Layer 7, the Application layer, includes protocols like hypertext transfer protocol
(HTTP), simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP), and file transfer protocol (FTP).
Packet
Data and media are transmitted among nodes on a network in the form of packets. Data
and multimedia content is divided up and packaged into packets. A packet includes a small
chunk of the content to be sent along with its destination address and sender address.
Packets are pushed out onto the network and inspected by each node. The node to which
it is addressed is the ultimate recipient.
Packet Loss
Packet Loss describes the percentage of packets transmitted over the network that did not
reach their intended destination. A 0 percent package loss indicates no packets were lost
in transmission. QoS features are designed to minimize packet loss.
PHY
The Physical Layer (PHY) is the lowest layer in the network layer model (see OSI). The
Physical Layer conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- through
the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of
sending and receiving data on a medium, including defining cables, NICs, and physical
aspects.
Ethernet and the 802.11 family are protocols with physical layer components.
PID
The Process Identifier (PID) is an integer used by Linux to uniquely identify a process. A
PID is returned by the fork()system call. It can be used by wait() or kill() to perform actions
on the given process.
Port Forwarding
Port Forwarding creates a ‘tunnel’ through a firewall, allowing users on the Internet access
to a service running on one of the computers on your LAN, for example, a Web server,
an FTP or SSH server, or other services. From the outside user’s point of view, it looks like
the service is running on the firewall.
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PPP
The Point-to-Point Protocol is a standard for transmitting network layer datagrams (IP
packets) over serial point-to-point links. PPP is designed to operate both over asynchronous
connections and bit-oriented synchronous systems.
PPPoE
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a specification for connecting the users on a
LAN to the Internet through a common broadband medium, such as a single DSL or cable
modem line.
PPtP
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPtP) is a technology for creating a Virtual Private Network
(VPN) within the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). It is used to make sure that data transmitted
from one VPN node to another are secure.
Proxy
A proxy is server located between a client application and a real server. It intercepts requests,
attempting to fulfill them itself. If it cannot, it forwards them to the real server. Proxy
servers have two main purposes: improve performance by spreading requests over several
machines and filter requests to prevent access to specific servers or services.
PSK
Pre-Shared Key (PSK), see Shared Key.
Public Key
A public key is used in public key cryptography to encrypt a message which can only be
decrypted with the recipient's private or secret key. Public key encryption is also called
asymmetric encryption, because it uses two keys, or Diffie-Hellman encryption. Also see
Shared Key.
QoS
Quality of Service (QoS) defines the performance properties of a network service, including
guaranteed throughput, transit delay, and priority queues. QoS is designed to minimize
Latency, Jitter, Packet Loss, and network congestion, and provide a way of allocating
dedicated bandwidth for high priority network traffic.
The IEEE standard for implementing QoS on wireless networks is currently in-work by the
802.11e task group. A subset of 802.11e features is described in the WME specification.
RADIUS
The Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) provides an authentication and
accounting system. It is a popular authentication mechanism for many ISPs.
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RC4
A symmetric stream cipher provided by RSA Security. It is a variable key-size stream cipher
with byte oriented operations. It allows keys up to 2048 bits in length.
Router
A router is a network device which forwards packets between networks. It is connected to
at least two networks, commonly between two local area networks (LANs) or between a
LAN and a wide-area network (WAN), for example, the Internet. Routers are located at
gateways—places where two or more networks connect.
A router uses the content of headers and its tables to determine the best path for forwarding
a packet. It uses protocols such as the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), Routing
Information Protocol (RIP), and Internet Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) to communicate with
other routers to configure the best route between any two hosts. The router performs little
filtering of data it passes.
RSSI
The Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) an 802.1x value that calculates voltage relative
to the received signal strength. RSSI is one of several ways of measuring and indicating
radio frequency (RF) signal strength. Signal strength can also be measured in mW
(milliwatts), dBms (decibel milliwatts), and a percentage value.
RTS
A request to send (RTS) is a message sent by a client station to the access point, asking
permission to send a data packet.
RTS Threshold
The RTS threshold specifies the packet size of a request to send (RTS) transmission. This
helps control traffic flow through the access point, and is especially useful for performance
tuning on an access point with a many clients.
Shared Key
A shared key is used in conventional encryption where one key is used both for encryption
and decryption. It is also called secret-key or symmetric-key encryption.
Also see Public Key.
SNMP
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) was developed to manage and monitor
nodes on a network. It is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite.
SNMP consists of managed devices and their agents, and a management system. The agents
store data about their devices in Management Information Bases (MIBs) and return this data
to the SNMP management system when requested.
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SSID
The Service Set Identifier (SSID) is a thirty-two character alphanumeric key that uniquely
identifies a wireless local area network. It is also referred to as the Network Name. There
are no restrictions on the characters that may be used in an SSID.
Static IP Address
See IP Address.
STP
The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) an IEEE 802.1x standard protocol for MAC bridges that
manages path redundancy and prevents undesirable loops in the network created by
multiple active paths between client stations. Loops occur when there multiple routes
between access points. STP creates a tree that spans all of the switches in an extended
network, forcing redundant paths into a standby, or blocked, state. STP allows only one
active path at a time between any two network devices (this prevents the loops) but
establishes the redundant links as a backup if the initial link should fail. If STP costs change,
or if one network segment in the STP becomes unreachable, the spanning tree algorithm
reconfigures the spanning tree topology and reestablishes the link by activating the
standby path. Without spanning tree in place, it is possible that both connections may
be simultaneously live, which could result in an endless loop of traffic on the LAN
Subnet Mask
A Subnet Mask is a number that defines which part of an IP address is the network address
and which part is a host address on the network. It is shown in dotted-decimal notation
(for example, a 24-bit mask is shown as 255.255.255.0) or as a number appended to the
IP address (for example, 192.168.2.0/24).
The subnet mask lets a router quickly determine if an IP address is local or needs to be
forwarded by performing a bitwise AND operation on the mask and the IP address. For
example, if an IP address is 192.168.2.128 and the net mask is 255.255.255.0, the resulting
Network address is 192.168.2.0.
The bitwise AND operator compares two bits and assigns 1 to the result only if both bits
are 1. The following table shows the details of the net mask:
Supported Rate Set
The supported rate set defines the transmission rates that are available on this wireless
network. A station may be able to receive data at any of the rates listed in this set. All
stations must be able to receive data at the rates listed in the Basic Rate Set.
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TCP
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is built on top of Internet Protocol (IP). It adds
reliable communication (guarantees delivery of data), flow-control, multiplexing (more
than one simultaneous connection), and connection-oriented transmission (requires the
receiver of a packet to acknowledge receipt to the sender). It also guarantees that packets
will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent.
IP address
192.168.2.128
11000000 10101000 00000010 10000000
net mask
255.255.255.0
11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
Resulting network address
192.168.2.0
11000000 10101000 00000010 00000000
TCP/IP
The Internet and most local area networks are defined by a group of protocols. The most
important of these is the Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), the
de facto standard protocols. TCP/IP was originally developed by Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency (DARPA, also known as ARPA, an agency of the US Department
of Defense).
Although TCP and IP are two specific protocols, TCP/IP is often used to refer to the entire
protocol suite based on these, including ICMP, ARP, UDP, and others, as well as applications
that run on these protocols, such as telnet, FTP, etc.
TKIP
The Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) provides an extended 48-bit initialization vector,
per-packet key construction and distribution, a Message Integrity Code (MIC, sometimes
called “Michael”), and a re-keying mechanism. It uses a RC4 stream cipher to encrypt the
frame body and CRC of each 802.11 frame before transmission. It is an important
component of the WPA and 802.11i security mechanisms.
ToS
TCP/IP packet headers include a 3-to-5 bit Type of Service (ToS) box set by the application
developer that indicates the appropriate type of service for the data in the packet. The
way the bits are set determines whether the packet is queued for sending with minimum
delay, maximum throughput, low cost, or mid-way “best-effort” settings depending on the
requirements of the data. The ToS box is used by the Gateway 7001 Series self-managed
AP to provide configuration control over Quality of Service (QoS) queues for data transmitted
from the AP to client stations.
UDP
The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a transport layer protocol providing simple but
unreliable datagram services. It adds port address information and a checksum to an IP
packet.
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UDP neither guarantees delivery nor does it require a connection. It is lightweight and
efficient. All error processing and retransmission must be performed by the application
program.
Unicast
A Unicast sends a message to a single, specified receiver. In wireless networks, unicast
usually refers to an interaction in which the access point sends data traffic in the form of
IEEE 802.1x Frames directly to a single client station MAC address on the network.
Some wireless security modes distinguish between how unicast, multicast, and broadcast
frames are encrypted or whether they are encrypted.
See also Multicast and Broadcast.
URL
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a standard for specifying the location of objects on the
Internet, such as a file or a newsgroup. URLs are used extensively in HTML documents to
specify the target of a hyperlink which is often another HTML document (possibly stored
on another computer). The first part of the URL indicates what protocol to use and the
second part specifies the IP address or the domain name where that resource is located.
VLAN
A virtual LAN (VLAN) is a software-based, logical grouping of devices on a network that
allow them to act as if they are connected to a single physical network, even though they
may not be. The nodes in a VLAN share resources and bandwidth, and are isolated on
that network. The Gateway 7001 Series Self-Managed AP supports the configuration of a
wireless VLAN. This technology is leveraged on the access point for the “virtual” guest
network feature.
VPN
A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a network that uses the Internet to connect its nodes.
It uses encryption and other mechanisms to make sure that only authorized users can
access its nodes and that data cannot be intercepted.
WAN
A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a communications network that spans a relatively large
geographical area, extending over distances greater than one kilometer. A WAN is often
connected through public networks, such as the telephone system. It can also be connected
through leased lines or satellites.
The Internet is essentially a very large WAN.
WDS
A Wireless Distribution System (WDS) allows the creation of a completely wireless
infrastructure.
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193
Typically, an Access Point is connected to a wired LAN. WDS lets access points be connected
wirelessly. The access points can function as wireless repeaters or bridges.
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a data encryption protocol for 802.11 wireless networks.
All wireless stations and access points on the network are configured with a static 64-bit
(40-bit secret key + 24-bit initialization vector (IV)) or 128-bit (104-bit secret key + 24-bit
IV) Shared Key for data encryption. It uses a RC4 stream cipher to encrypt the frame body
and CRC of each 802.11 frame before transmission.
Wi-Fi
A test and certification of interoperability for WLAN products based on the IEEE 802.11
standard promoted by the Wi-Fi Alliance, a non-profit trade organization.
WINS
The Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is a server process for resolving Windows-based
computer names to IP addresses. It provides information that lets these systems browse
remote networks using the Network Neighborhood.
Wireless Networking Framework
There are two ways of organizing a wireless network:
■
Stations communicate directly with one another in an Ad-hoc Mode network, also
known as an independent basic service set (IBSS).
■
Stations communicate through an Access Point in an Infrastructure Mode network. A
single access point creates an infrastructure basic service set (BSS) whereas multiple
access points are organized in an extended service set (ESS).
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a LAN that uses high-frequency radio waves rather
than wires to communicate between its nodes.
WME
Wireless Multimedia Enhancements (WME) is a subset of the 802.11e draft specification. It
uses four priority queues between an Access Point and its clients. WME provides an interim,
standards-based QoS solution.
WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a Wi-Fi Alliance version of the draft IEEE 802.11i standard.
It provides more sophisticated data encryption than WEP and also provides user
authentication. WPA includes TKIP and 802.1x mechanisms.
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WRAP
Wireless Robust Authentication Protocol (WRAP) is an encryption method for 802.11i that
uses AES but another encryption mode (OCB) for encryption and integrity.
XML
The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a specification developed by the W3C. XML is a
simple, flexible text format derived from Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML),
which is defined in ISO8879:1986, designed especially for electronic publishing.
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Appendix B
Specifications
197
Gateway
Yes
Supports Infrastructure Mode
X
No
Supports Ad-Hoc Mode
X
Console Port
X
Comments
Access through Web-based connection only
Detachable Antenna(s)
X
802.11g/b radio has detachable antenna using
reverse SMA connector, for antenna replacements
provided by Gateway. 802.11a does not allow
detachable antennas.
Wi-Fi compliance
X
Certified March 2004
Repeater functionality
X
Bridge functionality
X
Internal Bridging functionality
X
Supports traffic between 802.11a/b/g clients
associated on same AP
Support for Power Over Ethernet
X
LAN 1 Port using Standard 802.11I Power Injector.
LEDs
X
Power, LAN, WLAN (80211a, 80211g)
DHCP Server
X
Client only
DHCP Client
X
Client only
Static IP addressing
X
Default Static IP 192.168.1.1
802.11g
X
802.11b
X
802.11a
X
802.3
X
Auto-sensing
802.3u
X
Auto-sensing
Security
X
802.1x, WPA, Wi-Fi Protected Access (64bit, 128bit
WEP w/TKIP, MIC, IV Extensions, Shared Key
Authentications. Supports Advanced Encryption
Standard (AES)
Wireless Operating Range
(indoor)
X
328 feet (100 meters)
Wireless Operating Range
(outdoor)
X
1312 feet (400 meters)
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Gateway
Yes
No
Comments
Wireless data rates with
Automatic Fallback
X
54 Mbps, 48 Mbps, 36 Mbps, 24 Mbps, 18 Mbps,
12 Mbps, 11 Mbps, 9 Mbps, 6 Mbps, 5.5 Mbps, 2
Mbps, 1 Mbps
External Antenna Type
X
Single Detachable Dipole
Wireless Frequency Range
X
802.11b&g LAN uses 2.4000-2.4825 GHz band,
802.11a LAN uses 5.150-5.350 & 5.725-5.825 GHz
bands
Modulation Technology
X
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
(OFDM), PBCC, Complementary Code Keying
(CCK)
Media Access Control
X
CSMA/CA with ACK
Wireless Transmit Power
X
15dBm (32mW) +/- 2dB
Power Adapter
X
Ext. Power Supply DC 5V, 3.0A @ 100-240V ~
50-60 Hz
Receiver Sensitivity
X
54Mbps OFDM, 10% PER, -73dBm
X
48Mbps OFDM, 10% PER, -76dBm
X
36Mbps OFDM, 10% PER, -82dBm
X
24Mbps OFDM, 10% PER, -85dBm
X
12Mbps OFDM, 10% PER, -88dBm
X
11Mbps CCK, 8% PER, -91dBm
X
9 Mbps OFDM, 10% PER, -90dBm
X
6 Mbps OFDM 10% PER, -91dBm
X
5.5 Mbps CCK, 8% PER, -92dBm
X
2 Mbps QPSK, 8% PER, -93dBm
X
1 Mbps BPSK, 8% PER, -94dBm
Adjustable Antenna Power
X
Full, 3/4, 1/2, 1/4 power adjustments (web based)
7x24 technical support
X
Online support
X
Safety and Emissions:
X
Easy Installation Wizard
X
SNMP
X
FCC, UL
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Gateway
Yes
TFTP capable
No
Comments
X
None
802.1q VLAN capable
X
Multiple SSID per radio
X
Supports different SSID for 802.11a & 802.11b/g
SSID Broadcast Enable/Disable
X
Per RF Radio
MAC Filtering
X
Support for Allow or Deny Listing.
Radio Enable/Disable
X
Per RF Radio
Turbo Mode
X
Increases data rates to 72Mbps (802.11A only)
Selectable/Changeable Options
X
Beacon Interval, DTIM Interval, Fragmentation
Length, RTS Length, Transmit Power, Channel
Selection
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Appendix C
Safety, Regulatory, and Legal
Information
201
Important safety information
Your Gateway access point is designed and tested to meet the latest standards for safety of information
technology equipment. However, to ensure safe use of this product, it is important that the safety instructions
marked on the product and in the documentation are followed.
Warning
Always follow these instructions to help
guard against personal injury and damage
to your Gateway access point.
Setting up your access point
202
■
Read and follow all instructions marked on the product and in the documentation before you operate your
access point. Retain all safety and operating instructions for future use.
■
Do not use this product near water or a heat source such as a radiator.
■
Install the access point on a stable work surface in an open area away from people.
■
The product should be operated only from the type of power source indicated on the rating label.
■
If your access point has a voltage selector switch, make sure that the switch is in the correct position for your
geographic area. The power supply should be set at the factory to the correct voltage, but check to avoid
possible damage.
■
Openings in the case are provided for ventilation. Do not block or cover these openings. Make sure you provide
adequate space, at least 6 inches (15 cm), around the AP for ventilation when you set it up. Never insert objects
of any kind into the ventilation openings.
■
Some products are equipped with a three-wire power cord to make sure that the product is correctly grounded
when in use. The plug on this cord will fit only into a grounding-type outlet. This is a safety feature. If you are
unable to insert the plug into an outlet, contact an electrician to install the appropriate outlet.
■
If you use an extension cord with this access point, make sure that the total ampere rating on the products
plugged into the extension cord does not exceed the extension cord ampere rating.
Warning
High voltages can enter your AP through both the power
cord and the cable connections going outside the building.
Protect your equipment by using a surge protector. During
an electrical storm, unplug the surge protector and any
cables going outside the building.
Important
A qualified electrician must perform all mains connections
to power and to safety grounds. All electrical wiring must
comply with applicable local or national codes and
practices.
Warning
Never defeat the ground conductor or operate the
equipment in the absence of a suitably installed ground
conductor. Contact the appropriate electrical inspection
authority or an electrician if you are uncertain that suitable
grounding is available.
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Preventing static electricity discharge
The components inside your AP are extremely sensitive to static electricity, also known as electrostatic discharge
(ESD).
Warning
To prevent risk of electric shock, do not insert any object
into the vent holes of the power supply.
Caution
ESD can permanently damage electrostatic discharge-sensitive
components in your AP.
Care during use
■
Do not walk on the power cord or allow anything to rest on it.
■
Do not spill anything on the access point. The best way to avoid spills is to avoid eating and drinking near your
access point.
■
Some products have a replaceable CMOS battery on the system board. There is a danger of explosion if the
CMOS battery is replaced incorrectly. Replace the battery with the same or equivalent type recommended by
the manufacturer. Dispose of batteries according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
■
When an AP is turned off, a small amount of electrical current still flows through it. To avoid electrical shock,
always unplug all cables from the device (power, modem and network cables are some examples), before
cleaning the access point.
■
Unplug the access point from the wall outlet and refer servicing to qualified personnel if:
■
The power cord or plug is damaged.
■
Liquid has been spilled into the access point
■
The access point does not operate correctly when the operating instructions are followed.
■
The access point was dropped or the case is damaged.
■
The access point operation changes.
Important
Do not use Gateway products in areas classified as
hazardous locations. Such areas include patient care
areas of medical and dental facilities, oxygen-laden
environments, or industrial facilities.
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Regulatory compliance statements
Wireless Guidance
The Gateway 7001 Series APs, (low power Radio Frequency, RF, transmitting device), operate in the 2400-2483.5
MHz band for 802.11B&G and 5 GHz bands for 802.11A. The following section is a general overview of
considerations while operating the wireless LAN.
Limitations, cautions, and concerns are listed below and in the specific country sections (or country group
sections). This wireless device is only qualified for use in the countries identified by the Radio Approval Marks on
the device rating label. If the country you will be using the wireless device in is not listed, please contact that
countries local Radio Approval agency for requirements prior to operation. Wireless devices are closely regulated
and use may not be allowed.
The power output of the device is well below the RF exposure limits as known at this time. Because this wireless
device emits less energy than is allowed in radio frequency safety standards and recommendations, Gateway
believes these devices are safe for use. Regardless of the power levels, care should be taken to minimize human
contact during normal operation.
Measurements have been performed to show that the RF exposure is below what is considered safe limits;
however care should be taken to make sure the user or bystanders keep the transmitter away from their body
when the wireless device is transmitting. The transmitting antenna should be installed and used in a manner to
maintain 20cm (8 inches) from user’s or bystander’s bodies.
This wireless device is intended to be used indoors. In some areas, use of this device outdoors is prohibited.
Some circumstances require restrictions on using wireless devices. Examples of common restrictions are listed
below:
204
Warning
In environments where the risk of interference to other devices or
services is harmful or perceived as harmful, the option to use a
wireless device may be restricted or eliminated. Airports, Hospitals,
and Oxygen or flammable gas laden atmospheres are limited
examples where use of wireless devices may be restricted or
eliminated. When in environments where you are uncertain of the
sanction to use wireless devices, ask the applicable authority for
authorization prior to use or turning on the wireless device.
Warning
Do not operate the wireless device unless all covers and shields are
in place and the system is fully assembled.
Warning
Wireless devices are not user serviceable. Do not modify them in any
way. Modification to a wireless device will void the authorization to
use it. Please contact Gateway for service.
Warning
Only use drivers or firmware approved for the country in which the
device will be used. See the Gateway System Restoration Kit, or
contact Gateway Technical Support for additional information.
www.gateway.com
United States of America
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Intentional emitter per FCC Part 15
The power output of the AP is well below the RF exposure limits as known at this time. Because this wireless
device emits less energy than is allowed in radio frequency safety standards and recommendations, Gateway
believes these devices are safe for use.
Regardless of the power levels, care should be taken to minimize human contact during normal operation.
Measurements have been performed to show that the RF exposure is below what is considered safe limits;
however care should be taken to make sure the user or bystanders keep the transmitter away from their body
when the wireless device is transmitting. The transmitting antenna should be installed and used in a manner to
maintain 20cm (8 inches) from user’s or bystander’s bodies.
This wireless device is intended to be used indoors. In some areas, use of this device outdoors is prohibited.
Operation of this device is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful
interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation of the device.
Warning
In order to comply with FCC requirements this transmitter must not
be operated (or co-located) in conjunction with any other transmitter
or antenna.
Warning
Wireless devices are not user serviceable. Do not modify them in any
way. Modification to a wireless device will void the authorization to
use it. Please contact Gateway for service.
Unintentional emitter per FCC Part 15
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15
of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a
residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not
installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio or television
reception. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this
equipment does cause interference to radio and television reception, which can be determined by turning the
equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following
measures:
■
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna
■
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver
■
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected
■
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Compliance Accessories: These accessories are required to be used in order to ensure compliance with FCC rules:
The AC Adapter supplied with the device.
Wireless Channels: Gateway declares that the Gateway 7001 802.11 A+G Wireless Access Point is limited to
channels 1 through 11, specified by firmware controlled in the USA.
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FCC declaration of conformity
Responsible party:
Gateway Companies, Inc.
610 Gateway Drive, North Sioux City, SD 57049
(605) 232-2000 Fax: (605) 232-2023
Products:
■
Gateway 7001 AP
For unique identification of the product configuration, please submit the 10-digit serial number found on the
product to the responsible party.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation of this product is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference
received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Caution
206
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by
Gateway could void the FCC compliance and negate your
authority to operate the product.
www.gateway.com
Notices
Copyright © 2004 Gateway, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
14303 Gateway Place
Poway, CA 92064 USA
All Rights Reserved
This publication is protected by copyright and all rights are reserved. No part of it may be reproduced or transmitted by any
means or in any form, without prior consent in writing from Gateway.
The information in this manual has been carefully checked and is believed to be accurate. However, changes are made
periodically. These changes are incorporated in newer publication editions. Gateway may improve and/or change products
described in this publication at any time. Due to continuing system improvements, Gateway is not responsible for inaccurate
information which may appear in this manual. For the latest product updates, consult the Gateway Web site at
www.gateway.com. In no event will Gateway be liable for direct, indirect, special, exemplary, incidental, or consequential
damages resulting from any defect or omission in this manual, even if advised of the possibility of such damages.
In the interest of continued product development, Gateway reserves the right to make improvements in this manual and the
products it describes at any time, without notices or obligation.
Trademark Acknowledgments
Gateway and the Black-and-White Spot Design are trademarks or registered trademarks of Gateway, Inc. in the U.S. and
other countries. SpotShop, Spotshop.com, and Your:)Ware are trademarks of Gateway, Inc. Intel, Intel Inside logo, and
Pentium are registered trademarks and MMX is a trademark of Intel Corporation. Microsoft, MS, MS-DOS, and Windows are
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Index
A
access point
adding to cluster 52
connecting to a network 18
definition 17
IP address 40
removing from cluster 51
setting up 16
turning on 20
unpacking 16
access point settings
understanding 50
access points
clustered 57
finding 20
access points management
navigating to 41
adding a user 58
adding an access point to a cluster 52
address
MAC 110
administration Web pages
logging on 24
administrator
user name 24
administrator password 24
providing 32
setting
setting
administrator password 155
administrator password setting
navigating to 155
administrators computer, requirements 9
associated wireless clients 164
Automated troubleshooting system 173
auto-synch of cluster configuration 45
B
backup links, WDS 113, 114
bandwidth, AP 3
basic settings
configuring 27, 30
navigating 30
viewing 26
before you start 5
bridging distant wired LANs 112
C
client computer, requirements 11
cluster
adding an access point 52
auto-synch 45
formation 45
kinds of APs 42
removing an access point 51
security 45
size 42
size and membership 45
cluster configuration settings 43
cluster membership 45
cluster mode 44
cluster size 45
clustered access points 57
clustering 42
settings not shared 43
shared settings 43
understanding 42
comparison of security modes 81
configuration
default 27
resetting 166
configuration policy
setting 34
configuring
guest network wireless settings 76
internal interface wired settings 71
internal LAN wireless settings 76
radio interface 74
configuring a guest network 70
configuring a guest network on a virtual LAN
101
configuring a guest welcome screen 101
configuring a physically separate guest
interface 100
configuring an internal LAN 70
configuring basic settings 27, 30
www.gateway.com
209
configuring guest interface wired settings 73
configuring security settings 87
configuring the guest interface 100
configuring WDS settings 117
connecting the access point 18
D
default configuration 27
default settings 5
definition of access point 17
DHCP, understanding 12
disabling user accounts 59
IEEE 802.1x security mode 82
information
session monitoring 63
interface 4
interfaces 159
internal interface 160
internal LAN
configuring 70
intra-cluster security 45
IP address of access point 40
K
E
editing a user account 59
electrostatic discharge (ESD) 203
enabling or disabling a network time protocol
server 79
enabling user accounts 59
event log 161
example of configuring WDS link 119
F
features 3
finding access points 20
firmware, upgrading 168
formation, cluster 45
G
guest
guest interface 4
guest interface
configuring 100
configuring physically separate 100
deployment example 103
understanding 99
guest network
configuring 70
configuring on a virtual LAN 101
physically separate 20
setting up connections 19
specifying physical or virtual 70
using as a client 102
guest welcome screen, configuring 101
210
I
kickstart
running 20
L
log, event 161
logging on to administration Web pages 24
M
MAC address 110
MAC filtering
navigating to 110
using 111
managing standalone APs 53
mode
cluster 44
standalone 44
monitoring LAN settings 159
N
navigating to a AP 53
navigating to access point management 41
navigating to administrator password setting
155
navigating to
navigating to
navigating to
navigating to
navigating to
navigating to
navigating to
navigating to
navigating to
network time
www.gateway.com
basic settings 30
configuration info 53
MAC filtering 110
security settings 87
session monitoring 62
time protocol settings 78
WDS settings 115
wired settings 69
wireless settings 74
protocol server, enabling or
disabling 79
network time protocol settings
navigating to 78
O
operating system 9
P
password
administrator 24
password, administrator 155
physically separate guest network 20
plain text security mode 81
progress bar for cluster auto-synch 45
providing a wireless network name 32
providing an administrator password 32
R
radio interface
configuring 74
radio interface settings 160
refreshing session information 65
removing an access point from a cluster 51
removing user accounts 60
requirements, administrators computer 9
requirements, client computer 11
resetting the configuration 166
running kickstart 20
S
safety
static electricity 203
security 3, 80
security considerations
WDS 115
security issues
understanding 80
security mode
comparison 81
IEEE 802.1x 82
plain text 81
WEP 81
which to use 80
security modes
WEP with RADIUS 83
WPA-PSK 85
security settings
configuring 87
navigating to 87
session information
refreshing 65
viewing 65
session monitoring
information 63
navigating to 62
setting configuration policy 34
setting the system name 69
setting up
safety precautions 202
setting up guest network 19
setting up the access point 16
settings
access point 50
settings not shared in clustering 43
settings, cluster configuration 43
settings, default 5
shared settings in clustering 43
sorting view session information 65
specifying a physical or virtual guest network
70
standalone mode 44
starting the wireless network 27
starting wireless networking 36
static electricity 203
static IP addressing, understanding 12
statistics, transmit/receive 162
synchronization of cluster 45
system name
setting 69
T
Telephone numbers 173
transmit/receive statistics 162
turning on the access point 20
U
understand security issues on wireless
networks 80
understanding clustering 42
understanding DHCP 12
understanding static IP addressing 12
understanding the guest interface 99
www.gateway.com
211
understanding the wireless distribution
system 112
unpacking the access point 16
unwanted loops, WDS 113, 114
upgrading the firmware 168
user
adding 58
user account
editing 59
user accounts
disabling 59
enabling 59
removing 60
viewing 58
viewing and changing 58
user name
administrator 24
using guest network as a client 102
using MAC filtering 111
using the WDS to extend the network 113
using the wireless distribution system 112
configuring guest interface 73
configuring internal interface 71
navigating to 69
wireless 3
wireless clients, associated 164
wireless distribution system
understanding 112
using 112
Wireless Distribution System (WDS) 112
wireless network
security issues 80
starting 27
wireless network name
providing 32
wireless networking
starting 36
wireless settings 160
configuring guest network 76
configuring internal LAN 76
navigating to 74
WPA-PSK security mode 85
V
view session information
sorting 65
viewing and changing user accounts 58
viewing basic settings 26
viewing session information 65
viewing user accounts 58
W
wait time for cluster auto-synch 45
WDS
backup links 113, 114
security considerations 115
unwanted loops 113, 114
WDS link, configuration example 119
WDS settings
configuring 117
navigating to 115
WDS, extending the network 113
Web browser 9
WEP security mode 81
WEP with RADIUS security mode 83
which security mode to use 80
wired settings 160
212
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A MAN 7001 SRS ACC PTS GDE R1 05/04
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