The Free High School Science Texts: Textbooks for High School Students Chemistry

The Free High School Science Texts: Textbooks for High School Students Chemistry
FHSST Authors
The Free High School Science Texts:
Textbooks for High School Students
Studying the Sciences
Chemistry
Grades 10 - 12
Version 0
November 9, 2008
ii
Copyright 2007 “Free High School Science Texts”
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FHSST Core Team
Mark Horner ; Samuel Halliday ; Sarah Blyth ; Rory Adams ; Spencer Wheaton
FHSST Editors
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Whitfield
FHSST Contributors
Rory Adams ; Prashant Arora ; Richard Baxter ; Dr. Sarah Blyth ; Sebastian Bodenstein ;
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Daniels ; Sean Dobbs ; Fernando Durrell ; Dr. Dan Dwyer ; Frans van Eeden ; Giovanni
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Andrew Kubik ; Dr. Marco van Leeuwen ; Dr. Anton Machacek ; Dr. Komal Maheshwari ;
Kosma von Maltitz ; Nicole Masureik ; John Mathew ; JoEllen McBride ; Nikolai Meures ;
Riana Meyer ; Jenny Miller ; Abdul Mirza ; Asogan Moodaly ; Jothi Moodley ; Nolene Naidu ;
Tyrone Negus ; Thomas O’Donnell ; Dr. Markus Oldenburg ; Dr. Jaynie Padayachee ;
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iii
iv
Contents
I
II
Introduction
1
Matter and Materials
3
1 Classification of Matter - Grade 10
1.1
1.2
5
Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.1.1
Heterogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1.1.2
Homogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1.1.3
Separating mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1.2.1
Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1.2.2
Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1.3
Giving names and formulae to substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4
Metals, Semi-metals and Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4.1
Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4.2
Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4.3
Semi-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.5
Electrical conductors, semi-conductors and insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.6
Thermal Conductors and Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.7
Magnetic and Non-magnetic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.8
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2 What are the objects around us made of? - Grade 10
21
2.1
Introduction: The atom as the building block of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2
Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2.1
Representing molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.3
Intramolecular and intermolecular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4
The Kinetic Theory of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.5
The Properties of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.6
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3 The Atom - Grade 10
3.1
35
Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.1.1
The Plum Pudding Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.1.2
Rutherford’s model of the atom
v
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
CONTENTS
3.1.3
3.2
3.3
CONTENTS
The Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.2.1
How heavy is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.2.2
How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Atomic structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.3.1
The Electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.3.2
The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.4
Atomic number and atomic mass number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.5
Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.5.1
What is an isotope? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.5.2
Relative atomic mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Energy quantisation and electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.6.1
The energy of electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.6.2
Energy quantisation and line emission spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.6.3
Electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.6.4
Core and valence electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.6.5
The importance of understanding electron configuration . . . . . . . . . 51
Ionisation Energy and the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.7.1
Ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.7.2
Ionisation Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
The Arrangement of Atoms in the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.8.1
Groups in the periodic table
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.8.2
Periods in the periodic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4 Atomic Combinations - Grade 11
63
4.1
Why do atoms bond? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.2
Energy and bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.3
What happens when atoms bond? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.4
Covalent Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.4.1
The nature of the covalent bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.5
Lewis notation and molecular structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4.6
Electronegativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.7
4.8
4.6.1
Non-polar and polar covalent bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.6.2
Polar molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Ionic Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.7.1
The nature of the ionic bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.7.2
The crystal lattice structure of ionic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.7.3
Properties of Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Metallic bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.8.1
The nature of the metallic bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.8.2
The properties of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
vi
CONTENTS
4.9
CONTENTS
Writing chemical formulae
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.9.1
The formulae of covalent compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.9.2
The formulae of ionic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.10 The Shape of Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.10.1 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.10.2 Determining the shape of a molecule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.11 Oxidation numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5 Intermolecular Forces - Grade 11
91
5.1
Types of Intermolecular Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.2
Understanding intermolecular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5.3
Intermolecular forces in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
5.4
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6 Solutions and solubility - Grade 11
101
6.1
Types of solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
6.2
Forces and solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6.3
Solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
6.4
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
7 Atomic Nuclei - Grade 11
107
7.1
Nuclear structure and stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
7.2
The Discovery of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
7.3
Radioactivity and Types of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.4
7.3.1
Alpha (α) particles and alpha decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
7.3.2
Beta (β) particles and beta decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
7.3.3
Gamma (γ) rays and gamma decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Sources of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
7.4.1
Natural background radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
7.4.2
Man-made sources of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
7.5
The ’half-life’ of an element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
7.6
The Dangers of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7.7
The Uses of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
7.8
Nuclear Fission
7.9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
7.8.1
The Atomic bomb - an abuse of nuclear fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
7.8.2
Nuclear power - harnessing energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
7.10 Nucleosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
7.10.1 Age of Nucleosynthesis (225 s - 103 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
7.10.2 Age of Ions (103 s - 1013 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
7.10.3 Age of Atoms (1013 s - 1015 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
7.10.4 Age of Stars and Galaxies (the universe today) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
7.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
vii
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
8 Thermal Properties and Ideal Gases - Grade 11
125
8.1
A review of the kinetic theory of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
8.2
Boyle’s Law: Pressure and volume of an enclosed gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
8.3
Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature of an enclosed gas . . . . . . . . . . . 132
8.4
The relationship between temperature and pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.5
The general gas equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
8.6
The ideal gas equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
8.7
Molar volume of gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
8.8
Ideal gases and non-ideal gas behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
8.9
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
9 Organic Molecules - Grade 12
151
9.1
What is organic chemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
9.2
Sources of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
9.3
Unique properties of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
9.4
Representing organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
9.4.1
Molecular formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
9.4.2
Structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
9.4.3
Condensed structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
9.5
Isomerism in organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
9.6
Functional groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
9.7
The Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
9.7.1
The Alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
9.7.2
Naming the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
9.7.3
Properties of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
9.7.4
Reactions of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
9.7.5
The alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
9.7.6
Naming the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
9.7.7
The properties of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
9.7.8
Reactions of the alkenes
9.7.9
The Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
9.7.10 Naming the alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
9.8
9.9
The Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
9.8.1
Naming the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
9.8.2
Physical and chemical properties of the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Carboxylic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
9.9.1
Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
9.9.2
Derivatives of carboxylic acids: The esters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
9.10 The Amino Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
9.11 The Carbonyl Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
9.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
viii
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
10 Organic Macromolecules - Grade 12
185
10.1 Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
10.2 How do polymers form? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
10.2.1 Addition polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
10.2.2 Condensation polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
10.3 The chemical properties of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
10.4 Types of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
10.5 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
10.5.1 The uses of plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
10.5.2 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
10.5.3 Plastics and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
10.6 Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
10.6.1 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
10.6.2 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
10.6.3 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
10.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
III
Chemical Change
209
11 Physical and Chemical Change - Grade 10
211
11.1 Physical changes in matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
11.2 Chemical Changes in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
11.2.1 Decomposition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
11.2.2 Synthesis reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
11.3 Energy changes in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
11.4 Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
11.5 Law of constant composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
11.6 Volume relationships in gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
11.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
12 Representing Chemical Change - Grade 10
223
12.1 Chemical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
12.2 Writing chemical formulae
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
12.3 Balancing chemical equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
12.3.1 The law of conservation of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
12.3.2 Steps to balance a chemical equation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
12.4 State symbols and other information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
12.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
13 Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Change - Grade 11
233
13.1 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
13.2 Molar Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
13.3 An equation to calculate moles and mass in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . 237
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13.4 Molecules and compounds
CONTENTS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
13.5 The Composition of Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
13.6 Molar Volumes of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
13.7 Molar concentrations in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
13.8 Stoichiometric calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
13.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
14 Energy Changes In Chemical Reactions - Grade 11
255
14.1 What causes the energy changes in chemical reactions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
14.2 Exothermic and endothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
14.3 The heat of reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
14.4 Examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
14.5 Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
14.6 Activation energy and the activated complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
14.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
15 Types of Reactions - Grade 11
267
15.1 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
15.1.1 What are acids and bases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
15.1.2 Defining acids and bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
15.1.3 Conjugate acid-base pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
15.1.4 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
15.1.5 Acid-carbonate reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
15.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
15.2.1 Oxidation and reduction
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
15.2.2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
15.3 Addition, substitution and elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
15.3.1 Addition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
15.3.2 Elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
15.3.3 Substitution reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
15.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
16 Reaction Rates - Grade 12
287
16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
16.2 Factors affecting reaction rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
16.3 Reaction rates and collision theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
16.4 Measuring Rates of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
16.5 Mechanism of reaction and catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
16.6 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
16.6.1 Open and closed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
16.6.2 Reversible reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
16.6.3 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
16.7 The equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
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16.7.1 Calculating the equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
16.7.2 The meaning of kc values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
16.8 Le Chatelier’s principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
16.8.1 The effect of concentration on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
16.8.2 The effect of temperature on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
16.8.3 The effect of pressure on equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
16.9 Industrial applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
16.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
17 Electrochemical Reactions - Grade 12
319
17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
17.2 The Galvanic Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
17.2.1 Half-cell reactions in the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
17.2.2 Components of the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
17.2.3 The Galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
17.2.4 Uses and applications of the galvanic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
17.3 The Electrolytic cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
17.3.1 The electrolysis of copper sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
17.3.2 The electrolysis of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
17.3.3 A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
17.4 Standard Electrode Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
17.4.1 The different reactivities of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
17.4.2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
17.4.3 Measuring electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
17.4.4 The standard hydrogen electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
17.4.5 Standard electrode potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
17.4.6 Combining half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
17.4.7 Uses of standard electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
17.5 Balancing redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
17.6 Applications of electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
17.6.1 Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
17.6.2 The production of chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
17.6.3 Extraction of aluminium
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
17.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
IV
Chemical Systems
353
18 The Water Cycle - Grade 10
355
18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
18.2 The importance of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
18.3 The movement of water through the water cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
18.4 The microscopic structure of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
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18.4.1 The polar nature of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
18.4.2 Hydrogen bonding in water molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
18.5 The unique properties of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
18.6 Water conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
18.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
19 Global Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle - Grade 10
369
19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
19.2 Nitrogen fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
19.3 Nitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
19.4 Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
19.5 Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
19.6 The industrial fixation of nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
19.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
20 The Hydrosphere - Grade 10
377
20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
20.2 Interactions of the hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
20.3 Exploring the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
20.4 The Importance of the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
20.5 Ions in aqueous solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
20.5.1 Dissociation in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
20.5.2 Ions and water hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
20.5.3 The pH scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
20.5.4 Acid rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
20.6 Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
20.6.1 Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
20.6.2 Non-electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
20.6.3 Factors that affect the conductivity of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
20.7 Precipitation reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
20.8 Testing for common anions in solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
20.8.1 Test for a chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
20.8.2 Test for a sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
20.8.3 Test for a carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
20.8.4 Test for bromides and iodides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
20.9 Threats to the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
20.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
21 The Lithosphere - Grade 11
397
21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
21.2 The chemistry of the earth’s crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
21.3 A brief history of mineral use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
21.4 Energy resources and their uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
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21.5 Mining and Mineral Processing: Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
21.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
21.5.2 Mining the Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
21.5.3 Processing the gold ore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
21.5.4 Characteristics and uses of gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
21.5.5 Environmental impacts of gold mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
21.6 Mining and mineral processing: Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
21.6.1 Iron mining and iron ore processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
21.6.2 Types of iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
21.6.3 Iron in South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
21.7 Mining and mineral processing: Phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
21.7.1 Mining phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
21.7.2 Uses of phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
21.8 Energy resources and their uses: Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
21.8.1 The formation of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
21.8.2 How coal is removed from the ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
21.8.3 The uses of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
21.8.4 Coal and the South African economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
21.8.5 The environmental impacts of coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
21.9 Energy resources and their uses: Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
21.9.1 How oil is formed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
21.9.2 Extracting oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
21.9.3 Other oil products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
21.9.4 The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use . . . . . . . . . . . 415
21.10Alternative energy resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
21.11Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
22 The Atmosphere - Grade 11
421
22.1 The composition of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
22.2 The structure of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
22.2.1 The troposphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
22.2.2 The stratosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
22.2.3 The mesosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
22.2.4 The thermosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
22.3 Greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
22.3.1 The heating of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
22.3.2 The greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
22.3.3 The consequences of global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
22.3.4 Taking action to combat global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
22.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
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23 The Chemical Industry - Grade 12
435
23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
23.2 Sasol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
23.2.1 Sasol today: Technology and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
23.2.2 Sasol and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
23.3 The Chloralkali Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
23.3.1 The Industrial Production of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . 442
23.3.2 Soaps and Detergents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
23.4 The Fertiliser Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
23.4.1 The value of nutrients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
23.4.2 The Role of fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
23.4.3 The Industrial Production of Fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
23.4.4 Fertilisers and the Environment: Eutrophication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
23.5 Electrochemistry and batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
23.5.1 How batteries work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
23.5.2 Battery capacity and energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
23.5.3 Lead-acid batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
23.5.4 The zinc-carbon dry cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
23.5.5 Environmental considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
23.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
A GNU Free Documentation License
467
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Chapter 4
Atomic Combinations - Grade 11
When you look at the matter around you, you will realise that atoms seldom exist on their own.
More often, the things around us are made up of different atoms that have been joined together.
This is called chemical bonding. Chemical bonding is one of the most important processes in
chemistry because it allows all sorts of different molecules and combinations of atoms to form,
which then make up the objects in the complex world around us. There are, however, some
atoms that do exist on their own, and which do not bond with others. The noble gases in
Group 8 of the Periodic Table, behave in this way. They include elements like neon (Ne), helium
(He) and argon (Ar). The important question then is, why do some atoms bond but others do
not?
4.1
Why do atoms bond?
As we begin this section, it’s important to remember that what we will go on to discuss is a model
of bonding, that is based on a particular model of the atom. You will remember from section
3.1 that a model is a representation of what is happening in reality. In the model of the atom
that has been used so far, the atom is made up of a central nucleus, surrounded by electrons
that are arranged in fixed energy levels (also sometimes called shells). Within each energy level,
electrons move in orbitals of different shapes. The electrons in the outermost energy level of an
atom are called the valence electrons. This model of the atom is useful in trying to understand
how different types of bonding take place between atoms.
You will remember from these earlier discussions of electrons and energy levels in the atom,
that electrons always try to occupy the lowest possible energy level. In the same way, an atom
also prefers to exist at the lowest possible energy state so that it is most stable. An atom is
most stable when all its valence electron orbitals are full. In other words, the outer energy level
of the atom contains the maximum number of electrons that it can. A stable atom is also an
unreactive one, and is unlikely to bond with other atoms. This explains why the noble gases
are unreactive and why they exist as atoms, rather than as molecules. Look for example at the
electron configuration of neon (1s2 2s2 3p6 ). Neon has eight valence electrons in its valence
energy shell. This is the maximum that it can hold and so neon is very stable and unreactive,
and will not form new bonds. Other atoms, whose valence energy levels are not full, are more
likely to bond in order to become more stable. We are going to look a bit more closely at some
of the energy changes that take place when atoms bond.
4.2
Energy and bonding
Let’s start by imagining that there are two hydrogen atoms approaching one another. As they
move closer together, there are three forces that act on the atoms at the same time. These
forces are shown in figure 4.1 and are described below:
63
4.2
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
(1)
(2)
+
(3)
+
Figure 4.1: Forces acting on two approaching atoms: (1) repulsion between electrons, (2)
attraction between protons and electrons and (3) repulsion between protons.
1. repulsive force between the electrons of the atoms, since like charges repel
2. attractive force between the nucleus of one atom and the electrons of another
3. repulsive force between the two positively-charged nuclei
Now look at figure 4.2 to understand the energy changes that take place when the two atoms
move towards each other.
+
Distance between atomic nuclei
Energy
P
A
0
Q
-
X
Figure 4.2: Graph showing the change in energy that takes place as atoms move closer together
In the example of the two hydrogen atoms, where the resultant force between them is attraction,
the energy of the system is zero when the atoms are far apart (point A), because there is no
interaction between the atoms. When the atoms are closer together, attractive forces dominate
and the atoms are pulled towards each other. As this happens, the potential energy of the
system decreases because energy would now need to be supplied to the system in order to move
the atoms apart. However, as the atoms move closer together (i.e. left along the horizontal
axis of the graph), repulsive forces start to dominate and this causes the potential energy of the
system to rise again. At some point, the attractive and repulsive effects are balanced, and the
energy of the system is at its minimum (point X). It is at this point, when the energy is at a
minimum, that bonding takes place.
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
4.3
The distance marked ’P’ is the bond length, i.e. the distance between the nuclei of the atoms
when they bond. ’Q’ represents the bond energy i.e. the amount of energy that must be added
to the system to break the bonds that have formed. Bond strength means how strongly one
atom attracts and is held to another. The strength of a bond is related to the bond length, the
size of the bonded atoms and the number of bonds between the atoms. In general, the shorter
the bond length, the stronger the bond between the atoms, and the smaller the atoms involved,
the stronger the bond. The greater the number of bonds between atoms, the greater will be the
bond strength.
4.3
What happens when atoms bond?
A chemical bond is formed when atoms are held together by attractive forces. This attraction
occurs when electrons are shared between atoms, or when electrons are exchanged between the
atoms that are involved in the bond. The sharing or exchange of electrons takes place so that the
outer energy levels of the atoms involved are filled and the atoms are more stable. If an electron
is shared, it means that it will spend its time moving in the electron orbitals around both atoms.
If an electron is exchanged it means that it is transferred from one atom to another, in other
words one atom gains an electron while the other loses an electron.
Definition: Chemical bond
A chemical bond is the physical process that causes atoms and molecules to be attracted
to each other, and held together in more stable chemical compounds.
The type of bond that is formed depends on the elements that are involved. In this section, we
will be looking at three types of chemical bonding: covalent, ionic and metallic bonding.
You need to remember that it is the valence electrons that are involved in bonding and that
atoms will try to fill their outer energy levels so that they are more stable.
4.4
4.4.1
Covalent Bonding
The nature of the covalent bond
Covalent bonding occurs between the atoms of non-metals. The outermost orbitals of the atoms
overlap so that unpaired electrons in each of the bonding atoms can be shared. By overlapping
orbitals, the outer energy shells of all the bonding atoms are filled. The shared electrons move in
the orbitals around both atoms. As they move, there is an attraction between these negatively
charged electrons and the positively charged nuclei, and this force holds the atoms together in a
covalent bond.
Definition: Covalent bond
Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding where pairs of electrons are shared between
atoms.
Below are a few examples. Remember that it is only the valence electrons that are involved in
bonding, and so when diagrams are drawn to show what is happening during bonding, it is only
these electrons that are shown. Circles and crosses represent electrons in different atoms.
Worked Example 5: Covalent bonding
65
4.4
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
Question: How do hydrogen and chlorine atoms bond covalently in a molecule of
hydrogen chloride?
Answer
Step 1 : Determine the electron configuration of each of the bonding atoms.
A chlorine atom has 17 electrons, and an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
3p5 . A hydrogen atom has only 1 electron, and an electron configuration of 1s1 .
Step 2 : Determine the number of valence electrons for each atom, and how
many of the electrons are paired or unpaired.
Chlorine has 7 valence electrons. One of these electrons is unpaired. Hydrogen has
1 valence electron and it is unpaired.
Step 3 : Look to see how the electrons can be shared between the atoms so
that the outermost energy levels of both atoms are full.
The hydrogen atom needs one more electron to complete its valence shell. The
chlorine atom also needs one more electron to complete its shell. Therefore one pair
of electrons must be shared between the two atoms. In other words, one electron
from the chlorine atom will spend some of its time orbiting the hydrogen atom so
that hydrogen’s valence shell is full. The hydrogen electron will spend some of its
time orbiting the chlorine atom so that chlorine’s valence shell is also full. A molecule
of hydrogen chloride is formed (figure 4.3). Notice the shared electron pair in the
overlapping orbitals.
paired electrons in valence energy level
xx
H
+
x
Cl
xx
unpaired electrons
xx
x
x
H
x
Cl
x
x
xx
overlap of electron orbitals and
sharing of electron pair
Figure 4.3: Covalent bonding in a molecule of hydrogen chloride
Worked Example 6: Covalent bonding involving multiple bonds
Question: How do nitrogen and hydrogen atoms bond to form a molecule of ammonia (NH3 )?
Answer
Step 1 : Determine the electron configuration of each of the bonding atoms.
A nitrogen atom has 7 electrons, and an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p3 . A
hydrogen atom has only 1 electron, and an electron configuration of 1s1 .
Step 2 : Determine the number of valence electrons for each atom, and how
many of the electrons are paired or unpaired.
Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons meaning that 3 electrons are unpaired. Hydrogen
has 1 valence electron and it is unpaired.
Step 3 : Look to see how the electrons can be shared between the atoms so
that the outer energy shells of all atoms are full.
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
4.4
Each hydrogen atom needs one more electron to complete its valence energy shell.
The nitrogen atom needs three more electrons to complete its valence energy shell.
Therefore three pairs of electrons must be shared between the four atoms involved.
The nitrogen atom will share three of its electrons so that each of the hydrogen
atoms now has a complete valence shell. Each of the hydrogen atoms will share its
electron with the nitrogen atom to complete its valence shell (figure 4.4).
xx
3
H
+
x
N
x
xx
x
H
x
N
x
H
x
H
Figure 4.4: Covalent bonding in a molecule of ammonia
The above examples all show single covalent bonds, where only one pair of electrons is shared
between the same two atoms. If two pairs of electrons are shared between the same two atoms,
this is called a double bond. A triple bond is formed if three pairs of electrons are shared.
Worked Example 7: Covalent bonding involving a double bond
Question: How do oxygen atoms bond covalently to form an oxygen molecule?
Answer
Step 1 : Determine the electron configuration of the bonding atoms.
Each oxygen atom has 8 electrons, and their electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4 .
Step 2 : Determine the number of valence electrons for each atom and how
many of these electrons are paired and unpaired.
Each oxygen atom has 6 valence electrons, meaning that each atom has 2 unpaired
electrons.
Step 3 : Look to see how the electrons can be shared between atoms so that
the outer energy shells of all the atoms are full.
Each oxygen atom needs two more electrons to complete its valence energy shell.
Therefore two pairs of electrons must be shared between the two oxygen atoms so
that both valence shells are full. Notice that the two electron pairs are being shared
between the same two atoms, and so we call this a double bond (figure 4.5).
You will have noticed in the above examples that the number of electrons that are involved in
bonding varies between atoms. We say that the valency of the atoms is different.
Definition: Valency
The number of electrons in an atom which are used to form a bond.
67
4.4
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
xx
x
x
O
xx
x+
x
x
O
O
x
x
O
x
Figure 4.5: A double covalent bond in an oxygen molecule
In the first example, the valency of both hydrogen and chlorine is one, therefore there is a single
covalent bond between these two atoms. In the second example, nitrogen has a valency of three
and hydrogen has a valency of one. This means that three hydrogen atoms will need to bond
with a single nitrogen atom. There are three single covalent bonds in a molecule of ammonia.
In the third example, the valency of oxygen is two. This means that each oxygen atom will form
two bonds with another atom. Since there is only one other atom in a molecule of O2 , a double
covalent bond is formed between these two atoms.
Important: There is a relationship between the valency of an element and its position on
the Periodic Table. For the elements in groups 1 to 4, the valency is the same as the group
number. For elements in groups 5 to 7, the valency is calculated by subtracting the group
number from 8. For example, the valency of fluorine (group 7) is 8-7=1, while the valency
of calcium (group 2) is 2. Some elements have more than one possible valency, so you
always need to be careful when you are writing a chemical formula. Often, the valency will
be written in a bracket after the element symbol e.g. carbon (iv) oxide, means that in this
molecule carbon has a valency of 4.
Exercise: Covalent bonding and valency
1. Explain the difference between the valence electrons and the valency of an
element.
2. Complete the table below by filling in the number of valence electrons and the
valency for each of the elements shown:
Element
No. of valence
electrons
No.
of electrons needed to
fill outer shell
Valency
Mg
K
F
Ar
C
N
O
3. Draw simple diagrams to show how electrons are arranged in the following
covalent molecules:
(a) Calcium oxide (CaO)
(b) Water (H2 O)
(c) Chlorine (Cl2 )
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
4.5
4.5
Lewis notation and molecular structure
Although we have used diagrams to show the structure of molecules, there are other forms of
notation that can be used, such as Lewis notation and Couper notation. Lewis notation uses
dots and crosses to represent the valence electrons on different atoms. The chemical symbol
of the element is used to represent the nucleus and the core electrons of the atom.
So, for example, a hydrogen atom would be represented like this:
H
•
A chlorine atom would look like this:
××
××
×
Cl
××
A molecule of hydrogen chloride would be shown like this:
Cl
××
××
ו
H
××
The dot and cross inbetween the two atoms, represent the pair of electrons that are shared in
the covalent bond.
Worked Example 8: Lewis notation: Simple molecules
Question: Represent the molecule H2 O using Lewis notation
Answer
Step 1 : For each atom, determine the number of valence electrons in the
atom, and represent these using dots and crosses.
The electron configuration of hydrogen is 1s1 and the electron configuration for
oxygen is 1s2 2s2 2p4 . Each hydrogen atom has one valence electron, which is
unpaired, and the oxygen atom has six valence electrons with two unpaired.
O
×
××
××
×
2H•
Step 2 : Arrange the electrons so that the outermost energy level of each
atom is full.
The water molecule is represented below.
××
××
ו
H O
ו
H
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4.5
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
Worked Example 9: Lewis notation: Molecules with multiple bonds
Question: Represent the molecule HCN using Lewis notation
Answer
Step 1 : For each atom, determine the number of valence electrons that the
atom has from its electron configuration.
The electron configuration of hydrogen is 1s1 , the electron configuration of nitrogen
is 1s2 2s2 2p3 and for carbon is 1s2 2s2 2p2 . This means that hydrogen has one
valence electron which is unpaired, carbon has four valence electrons, all of which
are unpaired, and nitrogen has five valence electrons, three of which are unpaired.
•
N
×
×
••
C
•
×
H•
•
×
N
••
C
•••
ו
H
×××
Step 2 : Arrange the electrons in the HCN molecule so that the outermost
energy level in each atom is full.
The HCN molecule is represented below. Notice the three electron pairs between
the nitrogen and carbon atom. Because these three covalent bonds are between the
same two atoms, this is a triple bond.
Worked Example 10: Lewis notation: Atoms with variable valencies
Question: Represent the molecule H2 S using Lewis notation
Answer
Step 1 : Determine the number of valence electrons for each atom.
Hydrogen has an electron configuration of 1s1 and sulfur has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 . Each hydrogen atom has one valence electron which is
unpaired, and sulfur has six valence electrons. Although sulfur has a variable valency,
we know that the sulfur will be able to form 2 bonds with the hydrogen atoms. In
this case, the valency of sulfur must be two.
S
×
××
××
×
2H•
Step 2 : Arrange the atoms in the molecule so that the outermost energy
level in each atom is full.
The H2 S molecule is represented below.
S
××
××
ו
H
ו
H
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
4.5
Another way of representing molecules is using Couper notation. In this case, only the electrons
that are involved in the bond between the atoms are shown. A line is used for each covalent
bond. Using Couper notation, a molecule of water and a molecule of HCN would be represented
as shown in figures 4.6 and 4.7 below.
H O
H
Figure 4.6: A water molecule represented using Couper notation
H
C
N
Figure 4.7: A molecule of HCN represented using Couper notation
Extension: Dative covalent bonds
A dative covalent bond (also known as a coordinate covalent bond) is a description of covalent bonding between two atoms in which both electrons shared in
the bond come from the same atom. This happens when a Lewis base (an electron
donor) donates a pair of electrons to a Lewis acid (an electron acceptor). Lewis
acids and bases will be discussed in section 15.1 in chapter 15.
One example of a molecule that contains a dative covalent bond is the ammonium
+
ion (NH+
4 ) shown in the figure below. The hydrogen ion H does not contain any
electrons, and therefore the electrons that are in the bond that forms between this
ion and the nitrogen atom, come only from the nitrogen.
H
××
××
××
H
××
ו
ו
ו
H N H + [H]+
H N H
ו
H
Exercise: Atomic bonding and Lewis notation
1. Represent each of the following atoms using Lewis notation:
(a) beryllium
(b) calcium
(c) lithium
2. Represent each of the following molecules using Lewis notation:
(a) bromine gas (Br2 )
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4.6
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
(b) calcium chloride (CaCl2 )
(c) carbon dioxide (CO2 )
3. Which of the three molecules listed above contains a double bond?
4. Two chemical reactions are described below.
• nitrogen and hydrogen react to form ammonia
• carbon and hydrogen bond to form a molecule of methane (CH4 )
For each reaction, give:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
the
the
the
the
valency of each of the atoms involved in the reaction
Lewis structure of the product that is formed
chemical formula of the product
name of the product
5. A chemical compound has the following Lewis notation:
Y
××
××
ו
X
ו
H
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
4.6
How many valence electrons does element Y have?
What is the valency of element Y?
What is the valency of element X?
How many covalent bonds are in the molecule?
Suggest a name for the elements X and Y.
Electronegativity
Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly an atom pulls a shared electron pair towards it.
The table below shows the electronegativities of a number of elements:
Table 4.1: Table of electronegativities for selected elements
Element
Electronegativity
Hydrogen (H)
2.1
Sodium (Na)
0.9
Magnesium (Mg)
1.2
Calcium (Ca)
1.0
Chlorine (Cl)
3.0
Bromine (Br)
2.8
Definition: Electronegativity
Electronegativity is a chemical property which describes the power of an atom to attract
electrons towards itself.
The greater the electronegativity of an element, the stronger its attractive pull on electrons.
For example, in a molecule of hydrogen bromide (HBr), the electronegativity of bromine (2.8)
is higher than that of hydrogen (2.1), and so the shared electrons will spend more of their time
closer to the bromine atom. Bromine will have a slightly negative charge, and hydrogen will have
a slightly positive charge. In a molecule like hydrogen (H2 ) where the electronegativities of the
atoms in the molecule are the same, both atoms have a neutral charge.
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
4.6
teresting The concept of electronegativity was introduced by Linus Pauling in 1932,
Interesting
Fact
Fact
and this became very useful in predicting the nature of bonds between atoms
in molecules. In 1939, he published a book called ’The Nature of the Chemical
Bond’, which became one of the most influential chemistry books ever published.
For this work, Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954. He
also received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 for his campaign against aboveground nuclear testing.
4.6.1
Non-polar and polar covalent bonds
Electronegativity can be used to explain the difference between two types of covalent bonds.
Non-polar covalent bonds occur between two identical non-metal atoms, e.g. H2 , Cl2 and O2 .
Because the two atoms have the same electronegativity, the electron pair in the covalent bond is
shared equally between them. However, if two different non-metal atoms bond then the shared
electron pair will be pulled more strongly by the atom with the highest electronegativity. As a
result, a polar covalent bond is formed where one atom will have a slightly negative charge and
the other a slightly positive charge. This is represented using the symbols δ + (slightly positive)
+
and δ − (slightly negative). So, in a molecule such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen is H δ
−
and chlorine is Clδ .
4.6.2
Polar molecules
Some molecules with polar covalent bonds are polar molecules, e.g. H2 O. But not all molecules
with polar covalent bonds are polar. An example is CO2 . Although CO2 has two polar covalent
bonds (between C+ atom and the two O− atoms), the molecule itself is not polar. The reason
is that CO2 is a linear molecule and is therefore symmetrical. So there is no difference in charge
between the two ends of the molecule. The polarity of molecules affects properties such as
solubility, melting points and boiling points.
Definition: Polar and non-polar molecules
A polar molecule is one that has one end with a slightly positive charge, and one end with
a slightly negative charge. A non-polar molecule is one where the charge is equally spread
across the molecule.
Exercise: Electronegativity
1. In a molecule of hydrogen chloride (HCl),
(a) What is the electronegativity of hydrogen
(b) What is the electronegativity of chlorine?
(c) Which atom will have a slightly positive charge and which will have a
slightly negative charge in the molecule?
(d) Is the bond a non-polar or polar covalent bond?
(e) Is the molecule polar or non-polar?
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4.7
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
2. Complete the table below:
Molecule Difference
in
electronegativity
between atoms
H2 O
HBr
NO2
F2
CH4
4.7
4.7.1
Non-polar/polar
covalent bond
Polar/non-polar
molecule
Ionic Bonding
The nature of the ionic bond
You will remember that when atoms bond, electrons are either shared or they are transferred
between the atoms that are bonding. In covalent bonding, electrons are shared between the
atoms. There is another type of bonding, where electrons are transferred from one atom to
another. This is called ionic bonding.
Ionic bonding takes place when the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms is more
than 1.7. This usually happens when a metal atom bonds with a non-metal atom. When the
difference in electronegativity is large, one atom will attract the shared electron pair much more
strongly than the other, causing electrons to be transferred from one atom to the other.
Definition: Ionic bond
An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond based on the electrostatic forces between two
oppositely-charged ions. When ionic bonds form, a metal donates an electron, due to a
low electronegativity, to form a positive ion or cation. The non-metal atom has a high
electronegativity, and therefore readily gains electrons to form negative ions or anions. The
two or more ions are then attracted to each other by electrostatic forces.
Example 1:
In the case of NaCl, the difference in electronegativity is 2.1. Sodium has only one valence
electron, while chlorine has seven. Because the electronegativity of chlorine is higher than the
electronegativity of sodium, chlorine will attract the valence electron in the sodium atom very
strongly. This electron from sodium is transferred to chlorine. Sodium has lost an electron and
forms a N a+ ion. Chlorine gains an electron and forms a Cl− ion. The attractive force between
the positive and negative ion is what holds the molecule together.
The balanced equation for the reaction is:
N a + Cl → N aCl
This can be represented using Lewis notation:
Example 2:
Another example of ionic bonding takes place between magnesium (Mg) and oxygen (O) to
form magnesium oxide (MgO). Magnesium has two valence electrons and an electronegativity
of 1.2, while oxygen has six valence electrons and an electronegativity of 3.5. Since oxygen has
74
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
Na
• +×
××
Cl
××
4.7
+
××
[Na] [ Cl ××]−
×
×
×
•
electron transer from
sodium to chlorine
××
Figure 4.8: Ionic bonding in sodium chloride
a higher electronegativity, it attracts the two valence electrons from the magnesium atom and
these electrons are transferred from the magnesium atom to the oxygen atom. Magnesium loses
two electrons to form M g 2+ , and oxygen gains two electrons to form O2− . The attractive force
between the oppositely charged ions is what holds the molecule together.
The balanced equation for the reaction is:
2M g + O2 → 2M gO
Because oxygen is a diatomic molecule, two magnesium atoms will be needed to combine with
two oxygen atoms to produce two molecules of magnesium oxide (MgO).
•
Mg •
×
××
O×
2+
[Mg]
×
×
two electrons transferred
from Mg to O
××
[ O ×× ]2−
×
•
• ×
Figure 4.9: Ionic bonding in magnesium oxide
Important: Notice that the number of electrons that is either lost or gained by an atom
during ionic bonding, is the same as the valency of that element
Exercise: Ionic compounds
1. Explain the difference between a covalent and an ionic bond.
2. Magnesium and chlorine react to form magnesium chloride.
(a) What is the difference in electronegativity between these two elements?
(b) Give the chemical formula for:
• a magnesium ion
• a choride ion
• the ionic compound that is produced during this reaction
(c) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction that takes place.
3. Draw Lewis diagrams to represent the following ionic compounds:
(a) sodium iodide (NaI)
(b) calcium bromide (CaBr2 )
(c) potassium chloride (KCl)
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
4.7.2
The crystal lattice structure of ionic compounds
Ionic substances are actually a combination of lots of ions bonded together into a giant molecule.
The arrangement of ions in a regular, geometric structure is called a crystal lattice. So in fact
NaCl does not contain one Na and one Cl ion, but rather a lot of these two ions arranged in a
crystal lattice where the ratio of Na to Cl ions is 1:1. The structure of a crystal lattice is shown
in figure 4.10.
b
c
b
b
c
b
b
c
b
b
c
b
b
bc
b
bc
b
bc
b
bc
b
bc
b
bc
b
bc
b
bc
b
atom of element 1 (e.g. Na)
bc
atom of element 2 (e.g. Cl)
b
ionic bonds hold atoms together
in the lattice structure
Figure 4.10: The crystal lattice arrangement in an ionic compound (e.g. NaCl)
4.7.3
Properties of Ionic Compounds
Ionic compounds have a number of properties:
• Ions are arranged in a lattice structure
• Ionic solids are crystalline at room temperature
• The ionic bond is a strong electrical attraction. This means that ionic compounds are
often hard and have high melting and boiling points
• Ionic compounds are brittle, and bonds are broken along planes when the compound is
stressed
• Solid crystals don’t conduct electricity, but ionic solutions do
4.8
4.8.1
Metallic bonds
The nature of the metallic bond
The structure of a metallic bond is quite different from covalent and ionic bonds. In a metal
bond, the valence electrons are delocalised, meaning that an atom’s electrons do not stay around
that one nucleus. In a metallic bond, the positive atomic nuclei (sometimes called the ’atomic
kernels’) are surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons which are attracted to the nuclei (figure
4.11).
Definition: Metallic bond
Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged atomic nuclei
of metal atoms and the delocalised electrons in the metal.
76
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
bc
bc
bc
b
bc
+
b
+
b
c
+b
b
+
+
b
bc
+
bc
+
b
c
b
b
bc
+
b
bc
+
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
+
b
b
c
+b
c
+b
b
b
c
+b
c
+b
b
bc
+
bc
4.8
+
b
b
bc
b
bc
+
b
b
b
b
b
bc
b
c
+b
b
+
b
+
b
b
c
b
c
b
b
bc
c
b
+
+
b
+
b
c
b
+
c
b
c
b
+
+
+
Figure 4.11: Positive atomic nuclei (+) surrounded by delocalised electrons (•)
4.8.2
The properties of metals
Metals have several unique properties as a result of this arrangement:
• Thermal conductors
Metals are good conductors of heat and are therefore used in cooking utensils such as
pots and pans. Because the electrons are loosely bound and are able to move, they can
transport heat energy from one part of the material to another.
• Electrical conductors
Metals are good conductors of electricity, and are therefore used in electrical conducting
wires. The loosely bound electrons are able to move easily and to transfer charge from
one part of the material to another.
• Shiny metallic lustre
Metals have a characteristic shiny appearance and are often used to make jewellery. The
loosely bound electrons are able to absorb and reflect light at all frequencies, making metals
look polished and shiny.
• Malleable and ductile
This means that they can be bent into shape without breaking (malleable) and can be
stretched into thin wires (ductile) such as copper, which can then be used to conduct
electricity. Because the bonds are not fixed in a particular direction, atoms can slide easily
over one another, making metals easy to shape, mould or draw into threads.
• Melting point
Metals usually have a high melting point and can therefore be used to make cooking pots
and other equipment that needs to become very hot, without being damaged. The high
melting point is due to the high strength of metallic bonds.
• Density
Metals have a high density because their atoms are packed closely together.
Exercise: Chemical bonding
1. Give two examples of everyday objects that contain..
(a) covalent bonds
(b) ionic bonds
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4.9
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
(c) metallic bonds
2. Complete the table which compares the different types of bonding:
Covalent
Ionic
Metallic
Types of atoms involved
Nature of bond between atoms
Melting Point (high/low)
Conducts electricity? (yes/no)
Other properties
3. Complete the table below by identifying the type of bond (covalent, ionic or
metallic) in each of the compounds:
Molecular formula
H2 SO4
FeS
NaI
MgCl2
Zn
Type of bond
4. Which of these substances will conduct electricity most effectively? Give a
reason for your answer.
5. Use your knowledge of the different types of bonding to explain the following
statements:
(a) Swimming during an electric thunderstorm (i.e. where there is lightning)
can be very dangerous.
(b) Most jewellery items are made from metals.
(c) Plastics are good insulators.
4.9
Writing chemical formulae
4.9.1
The formulae of covalent compounds
To work out the formulae of covalent compounds, we need to use the valency of the atoms in the
compound. This is because the valency tells us how many bonds each atom can form. This in
turn can help to work out how many atoms of each element are in the compound, and therefore
what its formula is. The following are some examples where this information is used to write the
chemical formula of a compound.
Worked Example 11: Formulae of covalent compounds
Question: Write the chemical formula for water
Answer
Step 1 : Write down the elements that make up the compound.
A molecule of water contains the elements hydrogen and oxygen.
Step 2 : Determine the valency of each element
The valency of hydrogen is 1 and the valency of oxygen is 2. This means that oxygen
can form two bonds with other elements and each of the hydrogen atoms can form
one.
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
Step 3 : Write the chemical formula
Using the valencies of hydrogen and oxygen, we know that in a single water molecule,
two hydrogen atoms will combine with one oxygen atom. The chemical formula for
water is therefore:
H2 O.
Worked Example 12: Formulae of covalent compounds
Question: Write the chemical formula for magnesium oxide
Answer
Step 1 : Write down the elements that make up the compound.
A molecule of magnesium oxide contains the elements magnesium and oxygen.
Step 2 : Determine the valency of each element
The valency of magnesium is 2, while the valency of oxygen is also 2. In a molecule
of magnesium oxide, one atom of magnesium will combine with one atom of oxygen.
Step 3 : Write the chemical formula
The chemical formula for magnesium oxide is therefore:
MgO
Worked Example 13: Formulae of covalent compounds
Question: Write the chemical formula for copper (II) chloride.
Answer
Step 1 : Write down the elements that make up the compound.
A molecule of copper (II) chloride contains the elements copper and chlorine.
Step 2 : Determine the valency of each element
The valency of copper is 2, while the valency of chlorine is 1. In a molecule of copper
(II) chloride, two atoms of chlorine will combine with one atom of copper.
Step 3 : Write the chemical formula
The chemical formula for copper (II) chloride is therefore:
CuCl2
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4.9
4.9
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
4.9.2
The formulae of ionic compounds
The overall charge of an ionic compound will always be zero and so the negative and positive
charge must be the same size. We can use this information to work out what the chemical
formula of an ionic compound is if we know the charge on the individual ions. In the case of
NaCl for example, the charge on the sodium is +1 and the charge on the chlorine is -1. The
charges balance (+1-1=0) and therefore the ionic compound is neutral. In MgO, magnesium has
a charge of +2 and oxygen has a charge of -2. Again, the charges balance and the compound is
neutral. Positive ions are called cations and negative ions are called anions.
Some ions are made up of groups of atoms, and these are called compound ions. It is a good
idea to learn the compound ions that are shown in table 4.2
Table 4.2: Table showing common compound ions and their formulae
Name of compound ion
Carbonate
sulphate
Hydroxide
Ammonium
Nitrate
Hydrogen carbonate
Phosphate
Chlorate
Cyanide
Chromate
Permanganate
formula
CO3 2−
SO4 2−
OH−
NH4 +
NO3 −
HCO3 −
PO4 3−
ClO3 −
CN−
CrO4 2−
MnO4 −
In the case of ionic compounds, the valency of an ion is the same as its charge (Note: valency
is always expressed as a positive number e.g. valency of the chloride ion is 1 and not -1). Since
an ionic compound is always neutral, the positive charges in the compound must balance out
the negative. The following are some examples:
Worked Example 14: Formulae of ionic compounds
Question: Write the chemical formula for potassium iodide.
Answer
Step 1 : Write down the ions that make up the compound.
Potassium iodide contains potassium and iodide ions.
Step 2 : Determine the valency and charge of each ion.
Potassium iodide contains the ions K+ (valency = 1; charge = +1) and I− (valency
= 1; charge = -1). In order to balance the charge in a single molecule, one atom of
potassium will be needed for every one atom of iodine.
Step 3 : Write the chemical formula
The chemical formula for potassium iodide is therefore:
KI
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
4.9
Worked Example 15: Formulae of ionic compounds
Question: Write the chemical formula for sodium sulphate.
Answer
Step 1 : Write down the ions that make up the compound.
Sodium sulphate contains sodium ions and sulphate ions.
Step 2 : Determine the valency and charge of each ion.
Na+ (valency = 1; charge = +1) and SO4 2− (valency = 2; charge = -2).
Step 3 : Write the chemical formula.
Two sodium ions will be needed to balance the charge of the sulphate ion. The
chemical formula for sodium sulphate is therefore:
Na2 SO4 2−
Worked Example 16: Formulae of ionic compounds
Question: Write the chemical formula for calcium hydroxide.
Answer
Step 1 : Write down the ions that make up the compound.
Calcium hydroxide contains calcium ions and hydroxide ions.
Step 2 : Determine the valency and charge of each ion.
Calcium hydroxide contains the ions Ca2+ (charge = +2) and OH− (charge = -1).
In order to balance the charge in a single molecule, two hydroxide ions will be needed
for every ion of calcium.
Step 3 : Write the chemical formula.
The chemical formula for calcium hydroxide is therefore:
Ca(OH)2
Exercise: Chemical formulae
1. Copy and complete the table below:
Compound
Cation
Na+
potassium bromide
NH+
4
Anion
Cl−
Br−
Cl−
Formula
potassium chromate
PbI
potassium permanganate
calcium phosphate
81
4.10
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
2. Write the chemical formula for each of the following compounds:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
hydrogen cyanide
carbon dioxide
sodium carbonate
ammonium hydroxide
barium sulphate
potassium permanganate
4.10
The Shape of Molecules
4.10.1
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory
The shape of a covalent molecule can be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory. This is a model in chemistry that tries to predict the shapes of molecules.
Very simply, VSEPR theory says that the electron pairs in a molecule will arrange themselves
around the central atom of the molecule so that the repulsion between their negative charges is
as small as possible. In other words, the electron pairs arrange themselves so that they are as far
apart as they can be. Depending on the number of electron pairs in the molecule, it will have a
different shape.
Definition: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR) is a model in chemistry, which is used
to predict the shape of individual molecules, based upon the extent of their electron-pair
repulsion.
VSEPR theory is based on the idea that the geometry of a molecule is mostly determined by
repulsion among the pairs of electrons around a central atom. The pairs of electrons may
be bonding or non-bonding (also called lone pairs). Only valence electrons of the central
atom influence the molecular shape in a meaningful way.
4.10.2
Determining the shape of a molecule
To predict the shape of a covalent molecule, follow these steps:
Step 1:
Draw the molecule using Lewis notation. Make sure that you draw all the electrons around the
molecule’s central atom.
Step 2:
Count the number of electron pairs around the central atom.
Step 3:
Determine the basic geometry of the molecule using the table below. For example, a molecule
with two electron pairs around the central atom has a linear shape, and one with four electron
pairs around the central atom would have a tetrahedral shape. The situation is actually more
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
4.10
Table 4.3: The effect of electron pairs in determining the shape of molecules
Number of electron pairs Geometry
2
linear
3
trigonal planar
4
tetrahedral
5
trigonal bipyramidal
6
octahedral
complicated than this, but this will be discussed later in this section.
Figure 4.12 shows each of these shapes. Remember that the shapes are 3-dimensional, and so
you need to try to imagine them in this way. In the diagrams, the shaded part represents those
parts of the molecule that are ’in front’, while the dashed lines represent those parts that are ’at
the back’ of the molecule.
180◦
120◦
109◦
linear
trigonal planar
tetrahedral
90◦
90◦
octahedral
trigonal hipyramidal
Figure 4.12: Some common molecular shapes
Worked Example 17: The shapes of molecules
Question: Determine the shape of a molecule of O2
Answer
Step 1 : Draw the molecule using Lewis notation
O
••
××
O
••
••
××
××
Step 2 : Count the number of electron pairs around the central atom
There are two electron pairs.
Step 3 : Determine the basic geometry of the molecule
Since there are two electron pairs, the molecule must be linear.
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
Worked Example 18: The shapes of molecules
Question: Determine the shape of a molecule of BF3
Answer
Step 1 : Draw the molecule using Lewis notation
••
••
B
••
ו
F
F
•×
ו
••
••
••
••
••
F
••
Step 2 : Count the number of electron pairs around the central atom
There are three electron pairs.
Step 3 : Determine the basic geometry of the molecule
Since there are three electron pairs, the molecule must be trigonal planar.
Extension: More about molecular shapes
Determining the shape of a molecule can be a bit more complicated. In the
examples we have used above, we looked only at the number of bonding electron
pairs when we were trying to decide on the molecules’ shape. But there are also
other electron pairs in the molecules. These electrons, which are not involved in
bonding but which are also around the central atom, are called lone pairs. The
worked example below will give you an indea of how these lone pairs can affect the
shape of the molecule.
Worked Example 19: Advanced
Question: Determine the shape of a molecule of N H3
Answer
Step 1 : Draw the molecule using Lewis notation
lone pair of electrons
ו
××
ו
4.10
H N H
ו
H
Step 2 : Count the number of electron pairs around the central atom
There are four electron pairs.
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
4.11
Step 3 : Determine the basic geometry of the molecule
Since there are four electron pairs, the molecule must be tetrahedral.
Step 4 : Determine how many lone pairs are around the central atom
There is one lone pair of electrons and this will affect the shape of the molecule.
Step 5 : Determine the final shape of the molecule
The lone pair needs more space than the bonding pairs, and therefore pushes the
three hydrogen atoms together a little more. The bond angles between the hydrogen
and nitrogen atoms in the molecule become 106 degrees, rather than the usual 109
degrees of a tetrahedral molecule. The shape of the molecule is trigonal pyramidal.
Activity :: Group work : Building molecular models
In groups, you are going to build a number of molecules using marshmallows to
represent the atoms in the molecule, and toothpicks to represent the bonds between
the atoms. In other words, the toothpicks will hold the atoms (marshmallows) in the
molecule together. Try to use different coloured marshmallows to represent different
elements.
You will build models of the following molecules:
HCl, CH4 , H2 O, HBr and NH3
For each molecule, you need to:
• Determine the basic geometry of the molecule
• Build your model so that the atoms are as far apart from each other as possible
(remember that the electrons around the central atom will try to avoid the
repulsions between them).
• Decide whether this shape is accurate for that molecule or whether there are
any lone pairs that may influence it.
• Adjust the position of the atoms so that the bonding pairs are further away
from the lone pairs.
• How has the shape of the molecule changed?
• Draw a simple diagram to show the shape of the molecule. It doesn’t matter
if it is not 100% accurate. This exercise is only to help you to visualise the
3-dimensional shapes of molecules.
Do the models help you to have a clearer picture of what the molecules look like?
Try to build some more models for other molecules you can think of.
4.11
Oxidation numbers
When reactions occur, an exchange of electrons takes place. Oxidation is the loss of electrons
from an atom, while reduction is the gain of electrons by an atom. By giving elements an
oxidation number, it is possible to keep track of whether that element is losing or gaining
electrons during a chemical reaction. The loss of electrons in one part of the reaction, must be
balanced by a gain of electrons in another part of the reaction.
Definition: Oxidation number
A simplified way of understanding an oxidation number is to say that it is the charge an
atom would have if it was in a compound composed of ions.
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4.11
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
There are a number of rules that you need to know about oxidation numbers, and these are listed
below. These will probably not make much sense at first, but once you have worked through
some examples, you will soon start to understand!
1. Rule 1: An element always has an oxidation number of zero, since it is neutral.
In the reaction H2 + Br2 → 2HBr, the oxidation numbers of hydrogen and bromine
on the left hand side of the equation are both zero.
2. Rule 2: In most cases, an atom that is part of a molecule will have an oxidation number
that has the same numerical value as its valency.
3. Rule 3: Monatomic ions have an oxidation number that is equal to the charge on the ion.
The chloride ion Cl− has an oxidation number of -1, and the magnesium ion M g 2+ has
an oxidation number of +2.
4. Rule 4: In a molecule, the oxidation number for the whole molecule will be zero, unless
the molecule has a charge, in which case the oxidation number is equal to the charge.
5. Rule 5: Use a table of electronegativities to determine whether an atom has a positive or
a negative oxidation number. For example, in a molecule of water, oxygen has a higher
electronegativity so it must be negative because it attracts electrons more strongly. It will
have a negative oxidation number (-2). Hydrogen will have a positive oxidation number
(+1).
6. Rule 6: An oxygen atom usually has an oxidation number of -2, although there are some
cases where its oxidation number is -1.
7. Rule 7: The oxidation number of hydrogen is usually +1. There are some exceptions
where its oxidation number is -1.
8. Rule 8: In most compounds, the oxidation number of the halogens is -1.
Important: You will notice that the oxidation number of an atom is the same as its valency.
Whether an oxidation number os positive or negative, is determined by the electronegativities
of the atoms involved.
Worked Example 20: Oxidation numbers
Question: Give the oxidation numbers for all the atoms in the reaction between
sodium and chlorine to form sodium chloride.
N a + Cl → N aCl
Answer
Step 1 : Determine which atom will have a positive or negative oxidation
number
Sodium will have a positive oxidation number and chlorine will have a negative oxidation number.
Step 2 : Determine the oxidation number for each atom
Sodium (group 1) will have an oxidation number of +1. Chlorine (group 7) will have
an oxidation number of -1.
Step 3 : Check whether the oxidation numbers add up to the charge on the
molecule
In the equation N a + Cl → N aCl, the overall charge on the NaCl molecule is
+1-1=0. This is correct since NaCl is neutral. This means that, in a molecule
of NaCl, sodium has an oxidation number of +1 and chlorine has an oxidation
number of -1.
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
Worked Example 21: Oxidation numbers
Question: Give the oxidation numbers for all the atoms in the reaction between
hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. The unbalanced equation is shown below:
H2 + O2 → H2 O
Answer
Step 1 : Determine which atom will have a positive or negative oxidation
number
Hydrogen will have a positive oxidation number and oxygen will have a negative
oxidation number.
Step 2 : Determine the oxidation number for each atom
Hydrogen (group 1) will have an oxidation number of +1. Oxygen (group 6) will
have an oxidation number of -2.
Step 3 : Check whether the oxidation numbers add up to the charge on the
molecule
In the reaction H2 + O2 → H2 O, the oxidation numbers for hydrogen and oxygen
(on the left hand side of the equation) are zero since these are elements. In the
water molecule, the sum of the oxidation numbers is 2(+1)-2=0. This is correct
since the oxidation number of water is zero. Therefore, in water, hydrogen has
an oxidation number of +1 and oxygen has an oxidation number of -2.
Worked Example 22: Oxidation numbers
Question: Give the oxidation number of sulfur in a sulphate (SO42− ) ion
Answer
Step 1 : Determine which atom will have a positive or negative oxidation
number
Sulfur has a positive oxidation number and oxygen will have a negative oxidation
number.
Step 2 : Determine the oxidation number for each atom
Oxygen (group 6) will have an oxidation number of -2. The oxidation number of
sulfur at this stage is uncertain.
Step 3 : Determine the oxidation number of sulfur by using the fact that the
oxidation numbers of the atoms must add up to the charge on the molecule
In the polyatomic SO42− ion, the sum of the oxidation numbers must be -2. Since
there are four oxygen atoms in the ion, the total charge of the oxygen is -8. If the
overall charge of the ion is -2, then the oxidation number of sulfur must be +6.
87
4.11
4.12
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
Exercise: Oxidation numbers
1. Give the oxidation numbers for each element in the following chemical compounds:
(a) NO2
(b) BaCl2
(c) H2 SO4
2. Give the oxidation numbers for the reactants and products in each of the following reactions:
(a) C + O2 → CO2
(b) N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3
(c) Magnesium metal burns in oxygen
4.12
Summary
• A chemical bond is the physical process that causes atoms and molecules to be attracted
together and to be bound in new compounds.
• Atoms are more reactive, and therefore more likely to bond, when their outer electron
orbitals are not full. Atoms are less reactive when these outer orbitals contain the maximum
number of electrons. This explains why the noble gases do not combine to form molecules.
• There are a number of forces that act between atoms: attractive forces between the
positive nucleus of one atom and the negative electrons of another; repulsive forces between
like-charged electrons, and repulsion between like-charged nuclei.
• Chemical bonding occurs when the energy of the system is at its lowest.
• Bond length is the distance between the nuclei of the atoms when they bond.
• Bond energy is the energy that must be added to the system for the bonds to break.
• When atoms bond, electrons are either shared or exchanged.
• Covalent bonding occurs between the atoms of non-metals and involves a sharing of
electrons so that the orbitals of the outermost energy levels in the atoms are filled.
• The valency of an atom is the number of bonds that it can form with other atoms.
• A double or triple bond occurs if there are two or three electron pairs that are shared
between the same two atoms.
• A dative covalent bond is a bond between two atoms in which both the electrons that
are shared in the bond come from the same atom.
• Lewis and Couper notation are two ways of representing molecular structure. In Lewis
notation, dots and crosses are used to represent the valence electrons around the central
atom. In Couper notation, lines are used to represent the bonds between atoms.
• Electronegativity measures how strongly an atom draws electrons to it.
• Electronegativity can be used to explain the difference between two types of covalent
bonds: polar covalent bonds (between non-identical atoms) and non-polar covalent
bonds (between identical atoms).
• An ionic bond occurs between atoms where the difference in electronegativity is greater
than 2.1. An exchange of electrons takes place and the atoms are held together by the
electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely-charged ions.
• Ionic solids are arranged in a crystal lattice structure.
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CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
4.12
• Ionic compounds have a number of specific properties, including their high melting and
boiling points, brittle nature, the arrangement of solids in a lattice structure and the ability
of ionic solutions to conduct electricity.
• A metallic bond is the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged nuclei of
metal atoms and the delocalised electrons in the metal.
• Metals also have a number of properties, including their ability to conduct heat and electricity, their metallic lustre, the fact that they are both malleable and ductile, and their
high melting point and density.
• The valency of atoms, and the way they bond, can be used to determine the chemical
formulae of compounds.
• The shape of molecules can be predicted using the VSEPR theory, which uses the arrangement of electrons around the central atom to determine the most likely shape of the
molecule.
• Oxidation numbers are used to determine whether an atom has gained or lost electrons
during a chemical reaction.
Exercise: Summary exercise
1. Give one word/term for each of the following descriptions.
(a) The distance between two atoms in a molecule
(b) A type of chemical bond that involves the transfer of electrons from one
atom to another.
(c) A measure of an atom’s ability to attract electrons to it.
2. Which ONE of the following best describes the bond formed between an H+
ion and the NH3 molecule?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Covalent bond
Dative covalent (coordinate covalent) bond
Ionic Bond
Hydrogen Bond
3. Explain the meaning of each of the following terms:
(a) valency
(b) bond energy
(c) covalent bond
4. Which of the following reactions will not take place? Explain your answer.
(a) H + H → H2
(b) Ne + Ne → Ne2
(c) I + I → I2
5. Draw the Lewis structure for each of the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
calcium
iodine
hydrogen bromide (HBr)
nitrogen dioxide (NO2 )
6. Given the following Lewis structure, where X and Y each represent a different
element...
X
Y
ו
ו
××
ו
X
(a) What is the valency of X?
89
X
4.12
CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11
(b) What is the valency of Y?
(c) Which elements could X and Y represent?
7. A molecule of ethane has the formula C2 H6 . Which of the following diagrams
(Couper notation) accurately represents this molecule?
(a)
H
H
H
C
C
H
H
(c)
H
(b)
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
H
8. Potassium dichromate is dissolved in water.
(a) Give the name and chemical formula for each of the ions in solution.
(b) What is the chemical formula for potassium dichromate?
(c) Give the oxidation number for each element in potassium dichromate.
90
Chapter 5
Intermolecular Forces - Grade 11
In the previous chapter, we discussed the different forces that exist between atoms (intramolecular
forces). When atoms are joined to one another they form molecules, and these molecules in turn
have forces that bind them together. These forces are known as intermolecular forces, and we
are going to look at them in more detail in this next section.
Definition: Intermolecular forces
Intermolecular forces are forces that act between stable molecules.
You will also remember from the previous chapter, that we can describe molecules as being either
polar or non-polar. A polar molecule is one in which there is a difference in electronegativity
between the atoms in the molecule, such that the shared electron pair spends more time close
to the atom that attracts it more strongly. The result is that one end of the molecule will have
a slightly positive charge (δ + ), and the other end will have a slightly negative charge (δ + ). The
molecule is said to be a dipole. However, it is important to remember that just because the
bonds within a molecule are polar, the molecule itself may not necessarily be polar. The shape
of the molecule may also affect its polarity. A few examples are shown in table 5.1 to refresh
your memory!
5.1
Types of Intermolecular Forces
It is important to be able to recognise whether the molecules in a substance are polar or nonpolar because this will determine what type of inermolecular forces there are. This is important
in explaining the properties of the substance.
1. Van der Waals forces
These intermolecular forces are named after a Dutch physicist called Johannes van der
Waals (1837 -1923), who recognised that there were weak attractive and repulsive forces
between the molecules of a gas, and that these forces caused gases to deviate from ’ideal
gas’ behaviour. Van der Waals forces are weak intermolecular forces, and can be divided
into three types:
(a) Dipole-dipole forces
Figure 5.1 shows a simplified dipole molecule, with one end slightly positive and the
other slightly negative.
When one dipole molecule comes into contact with another dipole molecule, the
positive pole of the one molecule will be attracted to the negative pole of the other,
and the molecules will be held together in this way (figure 5.2). Examples of molecules
that are held together by dipole-dipole forces are HCl, FeS, KBr, SO2 and NO2 .
(b) Ion-dipole forces
As the name suggests, this type of intermolecular force exists between an ion and
a dipole molecule. You will remember that an ion is a charged atom, and this will
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5.1
CHAPTER 5. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES - GRADE 11
Table 5.1: Polarity in molecules with different atomic bonds and molecular shapes
Molecule
Chemical
formula
Hydrogen
H2
Hydrogen
ride
chlo-
Carbon tetrafluoromethane
HCl
CF4
Bond
between
atoms
Covalent
Shape of molecule
Polar covalent
Linear molecule
H
H
Non-polar
Linear molecule
Polar
Hδ
Polar covalent
Polarity of
molecule
+
Clδ
−
Non-polar
Tetrahedral molecule
Fδ
δ+
−
Fδ
−
Cδ
+
Fδ
−
Fδ
−
δ−
Figure 5.1: A simplified diagram of a dipole molecule
δ+
δ−
δ+
δ−
Figure 5.2: Two dipole molecules are held together by the attractive force between their oppositely charged poles
be attracted to one of the charged ends of the polar molecule. A positive ion will
be attracted to the negative pole of the polar molecule, while a negative ion will be
attracted to the positive pole of the polar molecule. This can be seen when sodium
chloride (NaCl) dissolves in water. The positive sodium ion (Na+ ) will be attracted to
the slightly negative oxygen atoms in the water molecule, while the negative chloride
ion (Cl− ) is attracted to the slightly positive hydrogen atom. These intermolecular
forces weaken the ionic bonds between the sodium and chloride ions so that the
sodium chloride dissolves in the water (figure 5.3).
(c) London forces
These intermolecular forces are also sometimes called ’dipole- induced dipole’ or
’momentary dipole’ forces. Not all molecules are polar, and yet we know that there
are also intermolecular forces between non-polar molecules such as carbon dioxide. In
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CHAPTER 5. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES - GRADE 11
5.1
Cl−
δ+
H2 O
δ−
Cl− δ + H2 O δ − N a+ δ − H2 O δ + Cl−
δ−
H2 O
δ+
Cl−
Figure 5.3: Ion-dipole forces in a sodium chloride solution
non-polar molecules the electronic charge is evenly distributed but it is possible that
at a particular moment in time, the electrons might not be evenly distributed. The
molecule will have a temporary dipole. In other words, each end of the molecules has
a slight charge, either positive or negative. When this happens, molecules that are
next to each other attract each other very weakly. These London forces are found
in the halogens (e.g. F2 and I2 ), the noble gases (e.g. Ne and Ar) and in other
non-polar molecules such as carbon dioxide and methane.
2. Hydrogen bonds
As the name implies, this type of intermolecular bond involves a hydrogen atom. The
hydrogen must be attached to another atom that is strongly electronegative, such as
oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine. Water molecules for example, are held together by hydrogen
bonds between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and the oxygen atom of another (figure
5.4). Hydrogen bonds are stronger than van der Waals forces. It is important to note
however, that both van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds are weaker than the covalent
and ionic bonds that exist between atoms.
hydrogen bonds
atomic bonds
H
O
O
H
O
O
H
O
O
Figure 5.4: Two representations showing the hydrogen bonds between water molecules: spacefilling model and structural formula.
93
5.2
CHAPTER 5. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES - GRADE 11
Exercise: Types of intermolecular forces
1. Complete the following table by placing a tick to show which type of intermolecular force occurs in each substance:
Formula DipoleMomentary Ion-dipole
hydrogen
dipole
dipole
bond
HCl
CO2
I2
H2 O
KI(aq)
NH3
2. In which of the substances above are the intermolecular forces...
(a) strongest
(b) weakest
5.2
Understanding intermolecular forces
The types of intermolecular forces that occur in a substance will affect its properties, such as
its phase, melting point and boiling point. You should remember, if you think back to the
kinetic theory of matter, that the phase of a substance is determined by how strong the forces
are between its particles. The weaker the forces, the more likely the substance is to exist as
a gas because the particles are far apart. If the forces are very strong, the particles are held
closely together in a solid structure. Remember also that the temperature of a material affects
the energy of its particles. The more energy the particles have, the more likely they are to be
able to overcome the forces that are holding them together. This can cause a change in phase.
Definition: Boiling point
The temperature at which a material will change from being a liquid to being a gas.
Definition: Melting point
The temperature at which a material will change from being a solid to being a liquid.
Now look at the data in table 5.2.
Formula
He
Ne
Ar
F2
Cl2
Br2
NH3
H2 O
HF
Formula mass
4
20
40
38
71
160
17
18
20
Melting point (0 C)
-270
-249
-189
-220
-101
-7
-78
0
-83
Boiling point (0 C) at 1 atm
-269
-246
-186
-188
-35
58
-33
100
20
Table 5.2: Melting point and boiling point of a number of chemical substances
The melting point and boiling point of a substance, give us information about the phase of the
substance at room temperature, and the strength of the intermolecular forces. The examples
below will help to explain this.
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CHAPTER 5. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES - GRADE 11
5.2
Example 1: Fluorine (F2 )
Phase at room temperature
Fluorine (F2 ) has a melting point of -2200 C and a boiling point of -1880C. This means that
for any temperature that is greater than -1880C, fluorine will be a gas. At temperatures below
-2200C, fluorine would be a solid, and at any temperature inbetween these two, fluorine will be
a liquid. So, at room temperature, fluorine exists as a gas.
Strength of intermolecular forces
What does this information tell us about the intermolecular forces in fluorine? In fluorine, these
forces must be very weak for it to exist as a gas at room temperature. Only at temperatures
below -1880 C will the molecules have a low enough energy that they will come close enough to
each other for forces of attraction to act between the molecules. The intermolecular forces in
fluorine are very weak van der Waals forces because the molecules are non-polar.
Example 2: Hydrogen fluoride (HF)
Phase at room temperature
For temperatures below -830 C, hydrogen fluoride is a solid. Between -830 C and 200 C, it exists
as a liquid, and if the temperature is increased above 200 C, it will become a gas.
Strength of intermolecular forces
What does this tell us about the intermolecular forces in hydrogen fluoride? The forces are
stronger than those in fluorine, because more energy is needed for fluorine to change into the
gaseous phase. In other words, more energy is needed for the intermolecular forces to be overcome so that the molecules can move further apart. Intermolecular forces will exist between the
hydrogen atom of one molecule and the fluorine atom of another. These are hydrogen bonds,
which are stronger than van der Waals forces.
What do you notice about water? Luckily for us, water behaves quite differently from the rest
of the halides. Imagine if water were like ammonia (NH3 ), which is a gas above a temperature
of -330 C! There would be no liquid water on the planet, and that would mean that no life would
be able to survive here. The hydrogen bonds in water are particularly strong and this gives water
unique qualities when compared to other molecules with hydrogen bonds. This will be discussed
more in chapter ?? deals with this in more detail. You should also note that the strength of
the intermolecular forces increases with an increase in formula mass. This can be seen by the
increasing melting and boiling points of substances as formula mass increases.
Exercise: Applying your knowledge of intermolecular forces
Refer to the data in table 5.2 and then use your knowledge of different types of
intermolecular forces to explain the following statements:
•
•
•
•
The boiling point of F2 is much lower than the boiling point of NH3
At room temperature, many elements exist naturally as gases
The boiling point of HF is higher than the boiling point of Cl2
The boiling point of water is much higher than HF, even though they both
contain hydrogen bonds
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5.3
CHAPTER 5. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES - GRADE 11
5.3
Intermolecular forces in liquids
Intermolecular forces affect a number of properties in liquids:
• Surface tension
You may have noticed how some insects are able to walk across a water surface, and how
leaves float in water. This is because of surface tension. In water, each molecule is held to
the surrounding molecules by strong hydrogen bonds. Molecules in the centre of the liquid
are completely surrounded by other molecules, so these forces are exerted in all directions.
However, molecules at the surface do not have any water molecules above them to pull
them upwards. Because they are only pulled sideways and downwards, the water molecules
at the surface are held more closely together. This is called surface tension.
For molecules at the
surface there are no
upward forces, so
the molecules are
closer together.
For molecules in the
centre of the liquid, the intermolecular forces act in all
directions.
Figure 5.5: Surface tension in a liquid
• Capillarity
Activity :: Investigation : Capillarity
Half fill a beaker with water and hold a hollow glass tube in the centre as
shown below. Mark the level of the water in the glass tube, and look carefully
at the shape of the air-water interface in the tube. What do you notice?
meniscus
water
At the air-water interface, you will notice a meniscus, where the water
appears to dip in the centre. In the glass tube, the attractive forces between
the glass and the water are stronger than the intermolecular forces between the
water molecules. This causes the water to be held more closely to the glass,
and a meniscus forms. The forces between the glass and the water also mean
that the water can be ’pulled up’ higher when it is in the tube than when it is
in teh beaker. Capillarity is the surface tension that occurs in liquids that are
inside tubes.
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CHAPTER 5. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES - GRADE 11
5.4
• Evaporation
In a liquid, each particle has kinetic energy, but some particles will have more energy than
others. We therefore refer to the average kinetic energy of the molecules when we describe
the liquid. When the liquid is heated, those particles which have the highest energy will
be able to overcome the intermolecular forces holding them in the liquid phase, and will
become a gas. This is called evaporation. Evaporation occurs when a liquid changes to a
gas. The stronger the intermolecular forces in a liquid, the higher the temperature of the
molecules will have to be for it to become a gas. You should note that a liquid doesn’t
necessarily have to reach boiling point before evaporation can occur. Evaporation takes
place all the time. You will see this if you leave a glass of water outside in the sun. Slowly
the water level will drop over a period of time.
What happens then to the molecules of water that remain in the liquid? Remember that it
was the molecules with the highest energy that left the liquid. This means that the average
kinetic energy of the remaining molecules will decrease, and so will the temperature of the
liquid.
A similar process takes place when a person sweats during exercise. When you exercise,
your body temperature increases and you begin to release moisture (sweat) through the
pores in your skin. The sweat quickly evaporates and causes the temperature of your skin
to drop. This helps to keep your body temperature at a level that is suitable forit to
function properly.
teresting Transpiration in plants - Did you know that plants also ’sweat’ ? In plants,
Interesting
Fact
Fact
this is called transpiration, and a plant will lose water through spaces in the leaf
surface called stomata. Although this water loss is important in the survival of a
plant, if a plant loses too much water, it will die. Plants that live in very hot, dry
places such as deserts, must be specially adapted to reduce the amount of water
that transpires (evaporates) from their leaf surface. Desert plants have some
amazing adaptations to deal with this problem! Some have hairs on their leaves,
which reflect sunlight so that the temperature is not as high as it would be,
while others have a thin waxy layer covering their leaves, which reduces water
loss. Some plants are even able to close their stomata during the day when
temperatures (and therefore transpiration) are highest.
Important: In the same way that intermolecular forces affect the properties of liquids, they
also affect the properties of solids. For example, the stronger the intermolecular forces
between the particles that make up the solid, the harder the solid is likely to be, and the
higher its melting point is likely to be.
5.4
Summary
• Intermolecular forces are the forces that act between stable molecules.
• The type of intermolecular force in a substance, will depend on the nature of the
molecules.
• Polar molecules have an unequal distribution of charge, meaning that one part of the
molecule is slightly positive and the other part is slightly negative. Non-polar molecules
have an equal distribution of charge.
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5.4
CHAPTER 5. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES - GRADE 11
• There are three types of Van der Waal’s forces. These are dipole-dipole, ion-dipole and
London forces (momentary dipole).
• Dipole-dipole forces exist between two polar molecules, for example between two molecules
of hydrogen chloride.
• Ion-dipole forces exist between ions and dipole molecules. The ion is attracted to the
part of the molecule that has an opposite charge to its own. An example of this is when
an ionic solid such as sodium chloride dissolves in water.
• Momentary dipole forces occur between two non-polar molecules, where at some point
there is an uequal distribution of charge in the molecule. For example, there are London
forces between two molecules of carbon dioxide.
• Hydrogen bonds occur between hydrogen atoms and other atoms that have a high
electronegativity such as oxygen, nitrogen and fluorine. The hydrogen atom in one
molecule will be attracted to the nitrogen atom in another molecule, for example. There
are hydrogen bonds between water molecules and between ammonia molecules.
• Intermolecular forces affect the properties of substances. For example, the stronger the
intermolecular forces, the higher the melting point of that substance, and the more likely
that substance is to exist as a solid or liquid. Its boiling point will also be higher.
• In liquids, properties such as surface tension, capillarity and evaporation are the result
of intermolecular forces.
Exercise: Summary Exercise
1. Give one word or term for each of the following descriptions:
(a) The tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract bonding electrons.
(b) A molecule that has an unequal distribution of charge.
(c) A charged atom.
2. For each of the following questions, choose the one correct answer from the
list provided.
(a) The following table gives the melting points of various hydrides:
Hydride Melting point (0 C)
HI
-50
NH3
-78
H2 S
-83
CH4
-184
In which of these hydrides does hydrogen bonding occur?
i. HI only
ii. NH3 only
iii. HI and NH3 only
iv. HI, NH3 and H2 S
(IEB Paper 2, 2003)
(b) Refer to the list of substances below:
HCl, Cl2 , H2 O, NH3 , N2 , HF
Select the true statement from the list below:
i. NH3 is a non-polar molecule
ii. The melting point of NH3 will be higher than for Cl2
iii. Ion-dipole forces exist between molecules of HF
iv. At room temperature N2 is usually a liquid
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CHAPTER 5. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES - GRADE 11
3. The respective boiling points for four chemical substances are given below:
Hydrogen sulphide -600 C
Ammonia -330 C
Hydrogen fluoride 200 C
Water 1000 C
(a) Which one of the substances exhibits the strongest forces of attraction
between its molecules in the liquid state?
(b) Give the name of the force responsible for the relatively high boiling points
of ammonia and water and explain how this force originates.
(c) The shapes of the molecules of hydrogen sulphide and water are similar,
yet their boiling points differ. Explain.
(IEB Paper 2, 2002)
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5.4
5.4
CHAPTER 5. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES - GRADE 11
100
Chapter 6
Solutions and solubility - Grade 11
We are surrounded by different types of solutions in our daily lives. Any solution is made up of
a solute and a solvent. A solute is a substance that dissolves in a solvent. In the case of a salt
(NaCl) solution, the salt crystals are the solute. A solvent is the substance in which the solute
dissolves. In the case of the NaCl solution, the solvent would be the water. In most cases, there
is always more of the solvent than there is of the solute in a solution.
Definition: Solutes and solvents
A solute is a substance that is dissolved in another substance. A solute can be a solid,
liquid or gas. A solvent is the liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute.
6.1
Types of solutions
When a solute is mixed with a solvent, a mixture is formed, and this may be either heterogeneous or homogeneous. If you mix sand and water for example, the sand does not dissolve in the
water. This is a heterogeneous mixture. When you mix salt and water, the resulting mixture
is homogeneous because the solute has dissolved in the solvent.
Definition: Solution
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture that consists of a solute that has been
dissolved in a solvent.
A solution then is a homogeneous mixture of a solute and a solvent. Examples of solutions are:
• A solid solute dissolved in a liquid solvent e.g. sodium chloride dissolved in water.
• A gas solute dissolved in a liquid solvent e.g. carbon dioxide dissolved in water (fizzy
drinks) or oxygen dissolved in water (aquatic ecosystems).
• A liquid solute dissolved in a liquid solvent e.g. ethanol in water.
• A solid solute in a solid solvent e.g. metal alloys.
• A gas solute in a gas solvent e.g. the homogeneous mixture of gases in the air that we
breathe.
While there are many different types of solutions, most of those we will be discussing are liquids.
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6.2
CHAPTER 6. SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY - GRADE 11
6.2
Forces and solutions
An important question to ask is why some solutes dissolve in certain solvents and not in others.
The answer lies in understanding the interaction between the intramolecular and intermolecular
forces between the solute and solvent particles.
Activity :: Experiment : Solubility
Aim:
To investigate the solubility of solutes in different solvents.
Apparatus:
Salt, vinegar, iodine, ethanol
Method:
1. Mix half a teaspoon of salt in 100cm3 of water
2. Mix half a teaspoon of vinegar (acetic acid) in 100cm3 of water
3. Mix a few grains of iodine in ethanol
4. Mix a few grains of iodine in 100cm3 of water
Results:
Record your observations in the table below:
Solute
Iodine
Iodine
Vinegar
Salt
Polar, non-polar or
ionic solute
Solvent
Polar, non-polar or
ionic solvent
Does solute dissolve?
Ethanol
Water
Water
Water
You should have noticed that in some cases, the solute dissolves in the solvent,
while in other cases it does not.
Conclusions:
In general, polar and ionic solutes dissolve well in polar solvents, while non-polar
solutes dissolve well in non-polar solvents. An easy way to remember this is that ’like
dissolves like’, in other words, if the solute and the solvent have similar intermolecular
forces, there is a high possibility that dissolution will occur. This will be explained
in more detail below.
• Non-polar solutes and non-polar solvents (e.g. iodine and ether)
Iodine molecules are non-polar, and the forces between the molecules are weak van der
Waals forces. There are also weak van der Waals forces between ether molecules. Because the intermolecular forces in both the solute and the solvent are similar, it is easy for
these to be broken in the solute, allowing the solute to move into the spaces between the
molecules of the solvent. The solute dissolves in the solvent.
• Polar solutes and polar solvents (e.g. salt and water)
There are strong electrostatic forces between the ions of a salt such as sodium chloride.
There are also strong hydrogen bonds between water molecules. Because the strength of
the intermolecular forces in the solute and solvent are similar, the solute will dissolve in
the solvent.
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CHAPTER 6. SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY - GRADE 11
6.3
6.3
Solubility
You may have noticed sometimes that, if you try to dissolve salt (or some other solute) in a
small amount of water, it will initially dissolve, but then appears not to be able to dissolve any
further when you keep adding more solute to the solvent. This is called the solubility of the
solution. Solubility refers to the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a solvent under
certain conditions.
Definition: Solubility
Solubility is the ability of a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. If a substance
has a high solubility, it means that lots of the solute is able to dissolve in the solvent.
So what factors affect solubility? Below are some of the factors that affect solubility:
• the quantity of solute and solvent in the solution
• the temperature of the solution
• other compounds in the solvent affect solubility because they take up some of the spaces
between molecules of the solvent, that could otherwise be taken by the solute itself
• the strength of the forces between particles of the solute, and the strength of forces between
particles of the solvent
Activity :: Experiment : Factors affecting solubility
Aim:
To determine the effect of temperature on solubility
Method:
1. Measure 100cm3 of water into a beaker
2. Measure 100 g of salt and place into another beaker
3. Slowly pour the salt into the beaker with the water, stirring it as you add. Keep
adding salt until you notice that the salt is not dissolving anymore.
4. Record the amount of salt that has been added to the water and the temperature of the solution.
5. Now increase the temperature of the water by heating it over a bunsen burner.
6. Repeat the steps above so that you obtain the solubility limit of salt at this
higher temperature. You will need to start again with new salt and water!
7. Continue to increase the temperature as many times as possible and record
your results.
Results:
Record your results in the table below:
Temp (0 C)
Amount of solute that dissolves
in 100 cm3 of water (g)
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6.3
CHAPTER 6. SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY - GRADE 11
As you increase the temperature of the water, are you able to dissolve more or
less salt?
Conclusions:
As the temperature of the solution increases, so does the amount of salt that will
dissolve. The solubility of sodium chloride increases as the temperature increases.
Exercise: Investigating the solubility of salts
The data table below gives the solubility (measured in grams of salt per 100 g
water) of a number of different salts at various temperatures. Look at the data and
then answer the questions that follow.
Temp (0 C)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
KNO3
13.9
21.2
31.6
45.3
61.4
83.5
106.0
Solubility (g salt per 100 g H2 O)
K2 SO4
NaCl
7.4
35.7
9.3
35.8
11.1
36.0
13.0
36.2
14.8
36.5
16.5
36.8
18.2
37.3
1. On the same set of axes, draw line graphs to show how the solubility of the
three salts changes with an increase in temperature.
2. Describe what happens to salt solubility as temperature increases. Suggest a
reason why this happens.
3. Write an equation to show how each of the following salts ionises in water:
(a) KNO3
(b) K2 SO4
4. You are given three beakers, each containing the same amount of water. 5 g
KNO3 is added to beaker 1, 5 g K2 SO4 is added to beaker 2 and 5 g NaCl
is added to beaker 3. The beakers are heated over a bunsen burner until the
temperature of their solutions is 600 C.
(a) Which salt solution will have the highest conductivity under these conditions?
(b) Explain your answer.
Exercise: Experiments and solubility
Two grade 10 learners, Siphiwe and Ann, wish to separately investigate the solubility of potassium chloride at room temperature. They follow the list of instructions
shown below, using the apparatus that has been given to them:
Method:
1. Determine the mass of an empty, dry evaporating basin using an electronic
balance and record the mass.
2. Pour 50 ml water into a 250 ml beaker.
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CHAPTER 6. SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY - GRADE 11
6.3
3. Add potassium chloride crystals to the water in the beaker in small portions.
4. Stir the solution until the salt dissolves.
5. Repeat the addition of potassium chloride (steps a and b) until no more salt
dissolves and some salt remains undissolved.
6. Record the temperature of the potassium chloride solution.
7. Filter the solution into the evaporating basin.
8. Determine the mass of the evaporating basin containing the solution that has
passed through the filter (the filtrate) on the electronic balance and record the
mass.
9. Ignite the Bunsen burner.
10. Carefully heat the filtrate in the evaporating basin until the salt is dry.
11. Place the evaporating basin in the desiccator (a large glass container in which
there is a dehydrating agent like calcium sulphate that absorbs water) until it
reaches room temperature.
12. Determine the mass of the evaporating basin containing the dry cool salt on
the electronic balance and record the mass.
On completion of the experiment, their results were as follows:
Siphiwe’s
results
Temperature (0 C)
15
Mass of evaporating basin (g)
65.32
Mass of evaporating basin + salt solution (g) 125.32
Mass of evaporating basin + salt (g)
81.32
Ann’s
results
26
67.55
137.55
85.75
1. Calculate the solubility of potassium chloride, using the data recorded by
(a) Siphiwe
(b) Ann
A reference book lists the solubility of potassium chloride as 35.0 g per
100 ml of water at 250 C.
(c) Give a reason why you think each obtained results different from each other
and the value in the reference book.
2. Siphiwe and Ann now expand their investigation and work together. They
investigate the solubility of potassium chloride at different temperatures but
also the solubility of copper (II) sulphate at these same temperatures. They
collect and write up their results as follows:
In each experiment we used 50 ml of water in the beaker. We found the
following masses of substance dissolved in the 50 ml of water. At 00 C, mass
of potassium chloride is 14.0 g and copper sulphate is 14.3 g. At 100 C, 15.6
g and 17.4 g respectively. At 200 C, 17.3 g and 20.7 g respectively. At 400 C,
potassium chloride mass is 20.2 g and copper sulphate is 28.5 g, at 600 C, 23.1
g and 40.0 g and lastly at 800 C, the masses were 26.4 g and 55.0 g respectively.
(a) From the record of data provided above, draw up a neat table to record
Siphiwe and Ann’s results.
(b) Identify the dependent and independent variables in their investigation.
(c) Choose an appropriate scale and plot a graph of these results.
(d) From the graph, determine:
i. the temperature at which the solubility of copper sulphate is 50 g per
50 ml of water.
ii. the maximum number of grams of potassium chloride which will dissolve in 100 ml of water at 700 C.
(IEB Exemplar Paper 2, 2006)
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6.4
CHAPTER 6. SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY - GRADE 11
6.4
Summary
• In chemistry, a solution is a homogenous mixture of a solute in a solvent.
• A solute is a substance that dissolves in a solute. A solute can be a solid, liquid or gas.
• A solvent is a substance in which a solute dissolves. A solvent can also be a solid, liquid
or gas.
• Examples of solutions include salt solutions, metal alloys, the air we breathe and gases
such as oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in water.
• Not all solutes will dissolve in all solvents. A general rule is the like dissolves like. Solutes
and solvents that have similar intermolecular forces are more likely to dissolve.
• Polar and ionic solutes will be more likely to dissolve in polar solvents, while non-polar
solutes will be more likely to dissolve in polar solvents.
• Solubility is the extent to which a solute is able to dissolve in a solvent under certain
conditions.
• Factors that affect solubility are the quantity of solute and solvent, temperature, the
intermolecular forces in the solute and solvent and other substances that may be in
the solvent.
Exercise: Summary Exercise
1. Give one word or term for each of the following descriptions:
(a) A type of mixture where the solute has completely dissolved in the solvent.
(b) A measure of how much solute is dissolved in a solution.
(c) Forces between the molecules in a substance.
2. For each of the following questions, choose the one correct answer from the
list provided.
A Which one of the following will readily dissolve in water?
i. I2 (s)
ii. NaI(s)
iii. CCl4 (l)
iv. BaSO4 (s)
(IEB Paper 2, 2005)
b In which of the following pairs of substances will the dissolving process
happen most readily?
Solute Solvent
A
S8
H2 O
B
KCl
CCl4
C KNO3
H2 O
D NH4 Cl
CCl4
(IEB Paper 2, 2004)
3. Which one of the following three substances is the most soluble in pure water
at room temperature?
Hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and hydrogen fluoride
4. Briefly explain in terms of intermolecular forces why solid iodine does not dissolve in pure water, yet it dissolves in xylene, an organic liquid at room temperature.
(IEB Paper 2, 2002)
106
Chapter 7
Atomic Nuclei - Grade 11
Nuclear physics is the branch of physics which deals with the nucleus of the atom. Within
this field, some scientists focus their attention on looking at the particles inside the nucleus
and understanding how they interact, while others classify and interpret the properties of nuclei.
This detailed knowledge of the nucleus makes it possible for technological advances to be made.
In this next chapter, we are going to touch on each of these different areas within the field of
nuclear physics.
7.1
Nuclear structure and stability
You will remember from an earlier chapter that an atom is made up of different types of particles:
protons (positive charge) neutrons (neutral) and electrons (negative charge). The nucleus is the
part of the atom that contains the protons and the neutrons, while the electrons are found in
energy orbitals around the nucleus. The protons and neutrons together are called nucleons. It
is the nucleus that makes up most of an atom’s atomic mass, because an electron has a very
small mass when compared with a proton or a neutron.
Within the nucleus, there are different forces which act between the particles. The strong
nuclear force is the force between two or more nucleons, and this force binds protons and
neutrons together inside the nucleus. This force is most powerful when the nucleus is small,
and the nucleons are close together. The electromagnetic force causes the repulsion between
like-charged (positive) protons. In a way then, these forces are trying to produce opposite effects
in the nucleus. The strong nuclear force acts to hold all the protons and neutrons close together,
while the electromagnetic force acts to push protons further apart. In atoms where the nuclei are
small, the strong nuclear force overpowers the electromagnetic force. However, as the nucleus
gets bigger (in elements with a higher number of nucleons), the electromagnetic force becomes
greater than the strong nuclear force. In these nuclei, it becomes possible for particles and energy
to be ejected from the nucleus. These nuclei are called unstable. The particles and energy that
a nucleus releases are referred to as radiation, and the atom is said to be radioactive. We are
going to look at these concepts in more detail in the next few sections.
7.2
The Discovery of Radiation
Radioactivity was first discovered in 1896 by a French scientist called Henri Becquerel while he
was working on phosphorescent materials. He happened to place some uranium crystals on black
paper that he had used to cover a piece of film. When he looked more carefully, he noticed that
the film had lots of patches on it, and that this did not happen when other elements were placed
on the paper. He eventually concluded that some rays must be coming out of the uranium
crystals to produce this effect.
His observations were taken further by the Polish scientist Marie Curie and her husband Pierre,
who increased our knowledge of radioactive elements. In 1903, Henri, Marie and Pierre were
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7.3
CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11
awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on radioactive elements. This award made
Marie the first woman ever to receive a Nobel Prize. Marie Curie and her husband went on to
discover two new elements, which they named polonium (Po) after Marie’s home country, and
radium (Ra) after its highly radioactive characteristics. For these dicoveries, Marie was awarded a
Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911, making her one of very few people to receive two Nobel Prizes.
teresting Marie Curie died in 1934 from aplastic anemia, which was almost certainly partly
Interesting
Fact
Fact
due to her massive exposure to radiation during her lifetime. Most of her work
was carried out in a shed without safety measures, and she was known to carry
test tubes full of radioactive isotopes in her pockets and to store them in her
desk drawers. By the end of her life, not only was she very ill, but her hands
had become badly deformed due to their constant exposure to radiation. Unfortunately it was only later in her life that the full dangers of radiation were
realised.
7.3
Radioactivity and Types of Radiation
In section 7.1, we discussed that when a nucleus is unstable it can emit particles and energy.
This is called radioactive decay.
Definition: Radioactive decay
Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting
particles or electromagnetic waves. Radiation is the name for the emitted particles or
electromagnetic waves.
When a nucleus undergoes radioactive decay, it emits radiation and the nucleus is called radioactive. We are exposed to small amounts of radiation all the time. Even the rocks around us emit
radiation! However some elements are far more radioactive than others. Isotopes tend to be
less stable because they contain a larger number of nucleons than ’non-isotopes’ of the same
element. These radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes.
Radiation can be emitted in different forms. There are three main types of radiation: alpha,
beta and gamma radiation. These are shown in figure 7.1, and are described below.
alpha (α)
beta (β)
gamma (γ)
paper
aluminium
Figure 7.1: Types of radiation
108
lead
CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11
7.3.1
7.3
Alpha (α) particles and alpha decay
An alpha particle is made up of two protons and two neutrons bound together. This type of
radiation has a positive charge. An alpha particle is sometimes represented using the chemical
symbol He2+ , because it has the same structure as a Helium atom (two neutrons and two
protons) which is missing its two electrons, hence the overall charge of +2. Alpha particles
have very low penetration power. Penetration power describes how easily the particles can pass
through another material. Because alpha particles have a low penetration power, it means that
even something as thin as a piece of paper or the outside layer of the human skin, will absorb
these particles so that they can’t go any further.
Alpha decay occurs because the nucleus has too many protons, and this causes a lot of repulsion
between these like charges. To try to reduce this repulsion, the nucleus emits an α particle. This
can be seen in the decay of Americium (Am) to Neptunium (Np).
Example:
241
95 Am
→237
93 Np + αparticle
Let’s take a closer look at what has happened during this reaction. Americium (Z = 95; A =
241) undergoes α decay and releases one alpha particle (i.e. 2 protons and 2 neutrons). The
atom now has only 93 protons (Z = 93). On the periodic table, the element which has 93 protons
(Z = 93) is called Neptunium. Therefore, the Americium atom has become a Neptunium atom.
The atomic mass of the neptunium atom is 237 (A = 237) because 4 nucleons (2 protons and
2 neutrons) were emitted from the atom of Americium.
7.3.2
Beta (β) particles and beta decay
In certain types of radioactive nuclei that have too many neutrons, a neutron may be converted
into a proton, an electron and another particle (called a neutrino). The high energy electrons
that are released in this way are called beta particles. Beta particles have a higher penetration
power than alpha particles and are able to pass through thicker materials such as paper.
The diagram below shows what happens during β decay:
electron (β particle)
One of the neutrons from H-3
is converted to
a proton
Atomic nucleus
neutrino (ν̄)
Hydrogen-3
= one proton
Helium-3
An electron and a
neutrino are released
= one neutron
Figure 7.2: β decay in a hydrogen atom
During beta decay, the number of neutrons in the atom decreases by one, and the number of
protons increases by one. Since the number of protons before and after the decay is different,
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the atom has changed into a different element. In figure 7.2, Hydrogen has become Helium.
The beta decay of the Hydrogen-3 atom can be represented as follows:
3
1H
→32 He + βparticle + ν̄
teresting When scientists added up all the energy from the neutrons, protons and electrons
Interesting
Fact
Fact
involved in β-decays, they noticed that there was always some energy missing.
We know that energy is always conserved, which led Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to
come up with the idea that another particle, which was not detected yet, also
had to be involved in the decay. He called this particle the neutrino (Italian
for ”little neutral one”), because he knew it had to be neutral, have little or no
mass, and interact only very weakly, making it very hard to find experimentally!
The neutrino was finally identified experimentally about 25 years after Pauli first
thought of it.
Due to the radioactive processes inside the sun, each 1 cm2 patch of the earth
receives 70 billion (70×109) neutrinos each second! Luckily neutrinos only interact very weakly so they do not harm our bodies when billions of them pass
through us every second.
7.3.3
Gamma (γ) rays and gamma decay
When particles inside the nucleus collide during radioactive decay, energy is released. This energy can leave the nucleus in the form of waves of electromagnetic energy called gamma rays.
Gamma radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, just like visible light. However, unlike
visible light, humans cannot see gamma rays because they are at a higher frequency and a higher
energy. Gamma radiation has no mass or charge. This type of radiation is able to penetrate
most common substances, including metals. The only substances that can absorb this radiation
are thick lead and concrete.
Gamma decay occurs if the nucleus is at too high an energy level. Since gamma rays are part
of the electromagnetic spectrum, they can be thought of as waves or particles. Therefore in
gamma decay, we can think of a ray or a particle (called a photon) being released. The atomic
number and atomic mass remain unchanged.
Table 7.1 summarises and compares the three types of radioactive decay that have been discussed.
Table 7.1: A comparison of alpha, beta and gamma decay
Type of decay Particle/ray released
Change in
element
Alpha (α)
α particle (2 protons and 2 neutrons) Yes
Beta (β)
β particle (electron)
Yes
Gamma (γ)
γ ray (electromagnetic energy)
No
Penetration
power
Low
Medium
High
Worked Example 23: Radioactive decay
Question: The isotope
particles.
241
95 Pb
undergoes radioactive decay and loses two alpha
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CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11
7.3
photon (γ particle)
Helium-3
Helium-3
Figure 7.3: γ decay in a helium atom
1. Write the chemical formula of the element that is produced as a result of the
decay.
2. Write an equation for this decay process.
Answer
Step 1 : Work out the number of protons and/or neutrons that the radioisotope loses during radioactive decay
One α particle consists of two protons and two neutrons. Since two α particles are
released, the total number of protons lost is four and the total number of neutrons
lost is also four.
Step 2 : Calculate the atomic number (Z) and atomic mass number (A) of
the element that is formed.
Z = 95 − 4 = 91
A = 241 − 4 = 237
Step 3 : Refer to the periodic table to see which element has the atomic
number that you have calculated.
The element that has Z = 91 is Protactinium (Pa).
Step 4 : Write the symbol for the element that has formed as a result of
radioactive decay.
237
91 Pa
Step 5 : Write an equation for the decay process.
241
95 P b
→237
91 P a + 2 protons + 2 neutrons
Activity :: Discussion : Radiation
In groups of 3-4, discuss the following questions:
• Which of the three types of radiation is most dangerous to living creatures
(including humans!)
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• What can happen to people if they are exposed to high levels of radiation?
• What can be done to protect yourself from radiation (Hint: Think of what the
radiologist does when you go for an X-ray)?
Exercise: Radiation and radioactive elements
1. There are two main forces inside an atomic nucleus:
(a) Name these two forces.
(b) Explain why atoms that contain a greater number of nucleons are more
likely to be radioactive.
2. The isotope 241
95 Pb undergoes radioactive decay and loses three alpha particles.
(a) Write the chemical formula of the element that is produced as a result of
the decay.
(b) How many nucleons does this element contain?
3. Complete the following equation:
210
82 Am
→ (alpha decay)
4. Radium-228 decays by emitting a beta particle. Write an equation for this
decay process.
5. Describe how gamma decay differs from alpha and beta decay.
7.4
Sources of radiation
The sources of radiation can be either natural or man-made.
7.4.1
Natural background radiation
• Cosmic radiation
The Earth, and all living things on it, are constantly bombarded by radiation from space.
Charged particles from the sun and stars interact with the Earth’s atmosphere and magnetic
field to produce a shower of radiation, mostly beta and gamma radiation. The amount of
cosmic radiation varies in different parts of the world because of differences in elevation
and also the effects of the Earth’s magnetic field.
• Terrestrial Radiation
Radioactive material is found throughout nature. It occurs naturally in the soil, water, and
vegetation. The major isotopes that are of concern are uranium and the decay products of
uranium, such as thorium, radium, and radon. Low levels of uranium, thorium, and their
decay products are found everywhere. Some of these materials are ingested (taken in)
with food and water, while others are breathed in. The dose of radiation from terrestrial
sources varies in different parts of the world.
teresting Cosmic and terrestrial radiation are not the only natural sources. All people
Interesting
Fact
Fact
have radioactive potassium-40, carbon-14, lead-210 and other isotopes inside
their bodies from birth.
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7.4.2
7.5
Man-made sources of radiation
Although all living things are exposed to natural background radiation, there are other sources
of radiation. Some of these will affect most members of the public, while others will only affect
those people who are exposed to radiation through their work.
• Members of the Public
Man-made radiation sources that affect members of the public include televisions, tobacco (polonium-210), combustible fuels, smoke detectors (americium), luminous watches
(tritium) and building materials. By far, the most significant source of man-made radiation exposure to the public is from medical procedures, such as diagnostic x-rays, nuclear
medicine, and radiation therapy. Some of the major isotopes involved are I-131, Tc-99m,
Co-60, Ir-192, and Cs-137. The production of nuclear fuel using uranium is also a source
of radiation for the public, as is fallout from nuclear weapons testing or use.
• Individuals who are exposed through their work
Any people who work in the following environments are exposed to radiation at some time:
radiology (X-ray) departments, nuclear power plants, nuclear medicine departments and
radiation oncology (the study of cancer) departments. Some of the isotopes that are of
concern are cobalt-60, cesium-137, americium-241, and others.
teresting Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) uses ionising radiation as part of cancer
Interesting
Fact
Fact
treatment to control malignant cells. In cancer, a malignant cell is one that
divides very rapidly to produce many more cells. These groups of dividing cells
can form a growth or tumour. The malignant cells in the tumour can take
nutrition away from other healthy body cells, causing them to die, or can increase the pressure in parts of the body because of the space that they take up.
Radiation therapy uses radiation to try to target these malignant cells and kill
them. However, the radiation can also damage other, healthy cells in the body.
To stop this from happening, shaped radiation beams are aimed from several
angles to intersect at the tumour, so that the radiation dose here is much higher
than in the surrounding, healthy tissue. But even doing this doesn’t protect all
the healthy cells, and that is why people have side-effects to this treatment.
Note that radiation therapy is different from chemotherapy, which uses chemicals,
rather than radiation, to destroy malignant cells. Generally, the side effects of
chemotherapy are greater because the treatment is not as localised as it is with
radiation therapy. The chemicals travel throughout the body, affecting many
healthy cells.
7.5
The ’half-life’ of an element
Definition: Half-life
The half-life of an element is the time it takes for half the atoms of a radioisotope to decay
into other atoms.
Table 7.2 gives some examples of the half-lives of different elements.
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Table 7.2: Table showing the half-life of
Radioisotope Chemical symbol
Polonium-212 Po-212
Sodium-24
Na-24
Strontium-90
Sr-90
Cobalt-60
Co-60
Caesium-137
Cs-137
Carbon-14
C-14
Calcium
Ca
Beryllium
Be
Uranium-235
U-235
a number of elements
Half-life
0.16 seconds
15 hours
28 days
5.3 years
30 years
5 760 years
100 000 years
2 700 000 years
7.1 billion years
So, in the case of Sr-90, it will take 28 days for half of the atoms to decay into other atoms. It
will take another 28 days for half of the remaining atoms to decay. Let’s assume that we have
a sample of strontium that weighs 8g. After the first 28 days there will be:
1/2 x 8 = 4 g Sr-90 left
After 56 days, there will be:
1/2 x 4 g = 2 g Sr-90 left
After 84 days, there will be:
1/2 x 2 g = 1 g Sr-90 left
If we convert these amounts to a fraction of the original sample, then after 28 days 1/2 of the
sample remains undecayed. After 56 days 1/4 is undecayed and after 84 days, 1/8 and so on.
Activity :: Group work : Understanding half-life
Work in groups of 4-5
You will need:
16 sheets of A4 paper per group, scissors, 2 boxes per group, a marking pen and
timer/stopwatch.
What to do:
• Your group should have two boxes. Label one ’decayed’ and the other ’radioactive’.
• Take the A4 pages and cut each into 4 pieces of the same size. You should now
have 64 pieces of paper. Stack these neatly and place them in the ’radioactive’
box. The paper is going to represent some radioactive material.
• Set the timer for one minute. After one minute, remove half the sheets of
paper from the radioactive box and put them in the ’decayed’ box.
• Set the timer for another minute and repeat the previous step, again removing
half the pieces of paper that are left in the radioactive box and putting them
in the decayed box.
• Repeat this process until 8 minutes have passed. You may need to start cutting
your pieces of paper into even smaller pieces as you progress.
Questions:
1. How many pages were left in the radioactive box after...
(a) 1 minute
(b) 3 minutes
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CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11
(c) 5 minutes
2. What percentage (%) of the pages were left in the radioactive box after...
(a) 2 minutes
(b) 4 minutes
3. After how many minutes is there 1/128 of radioactive material remaining?
4. What is the half-life of the ’radioactive’ material in this exercise?
Worked Example 24: Half-life 1
Question: A 100 g sample of Cs-137 is allowed to decay. Calculate the mass of
Cs-137 that will be left after 90 years
Answer
Step 1 : You need to know the half-life of Cs-137
The half-life of Cs-137 is 30 years.
Step 2 : Determine how many times the quantity of sample will be halved in
90 years.
If the half-life of Cs-137 is 30 years, and the sample is left to decay for 90 years,
then the number of times the quantity of sample will be halved is 90/30 = 3.
Step 3 : Calculate the quantity that will be left by halving the mass of Cs-137
three times
1. After 30 years, the mass left is 100 g × 1/2 = 50 g
2. After 60 years, the mass left is 50 g × 1/2 = 25 g
3. After 90 years, the mass left is 25 g × 1/2 = 12.5 g
Note that a quicker way to do this calculation is as follows:
Mass left after 90 years = (1/2)3 × 100 g = 12.5 g (The exponent is the number
of times the quantity is halved)
Worked Example 25: Half-life 2
Question: An 80 g sample of Po-212 decays until only 10 g is left. How long did it
take for this decay to take place?
Answer
Step 1 : Calculate the fraction of the original sample that is left after decay
Fraction remaining = 10 g/80 g = 1/8
Step 2 : Calculate how many half-life periods of decay (x) must have taken
place for 1/8 of the original sample to be left
1
1
( )x =
2
8
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7.5
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CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11
Therefore, x = 3
Step 3 : Use the half-life of Po-212 to calculate how long the sample was
left to decay
The half-life of Po-212 is 0.16 seconds. Therefore if there were three periods of
decay, then the total time is 0.16 × 3. The time that the sample was left to decay
is 0.48 seconds.
Exercise: Looking at half life
1. Imagine that you have 100 g of Na-24.
(a) What is the half life of Na-24?
(b) How much of this isotope will be left after 45 hours?
(c) What percentage of the original sample will be left after 60 hours?
2. A sample of Sr-90 is allowed to decay. After 84 days, 10 g of the sample
remains.
(a) What is the half life of Sr-90?
(b) How much Sr-90 was in the original sample?
(c) How much Sr-90 will be left after 112 days?
7.6
The Dangers of Radiation
Natural radiation comes from a variety of sources such as the rocks, sun and from space. However, when we are exposed to large amounts of radiation, this can cause damage to cells. γ
radiation is particularly dangerous because it is able to penetrate the body, unlike α and β
particles whose penetration power is less. Some of the dangers of radiation are listed below:
• Damage to cells
Radiation is able to penetrate the body, and also to penetrate the membranes of the
cells within our bodies, causing massive damage. Radiation poisoning occurs when a
person is exposed to large amounts of this type of radiation. Radiation poisoning damages
tissues within the body, causing symptoms such as diarrhoea, vomiting, loss of hair and
convulsions.
• Genetic abnormalities
When radiation penetrates cell membranes, it can damage chromosomes within the nucleus
of the cell. The chromosomes contain all the genetic information for that person. If the
chromosomes are changed, this may lead to genetic abnormalities in any children that are
born to the person who has been exposed to radiation. Long after the nuclear disaster
of Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, babies were born with defects such as missing limbs and
abnormal growths.
• Cancer
Small amounts of radiation can cause cancers such as leukemia (cancer of the blood)
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7.7
7.7
The Uses of Radiation
However, despite the many dangers of radiation, it does have many powerful uses, some of which
are listed below:
• Medical Field
Radioactive chemical tracers emitting γ rays can give information about a person’s internal
anatomy and the functioning of specific organs. The radioactive material may be injected
into the patient, from where it will target specific areas such as bones or tumours. As
the material decays and releases radiation, this can be seen using a special type of camera
or other instrument. The radioactive material that is used for this purpose must have a
short half-life so that the radiation can be detected quickly and also so that the material
is quickly removed from the patient’s body. Using radioactive materials for this purpose
can mean that a tumour or cancer may be diagnosed long before these would have been
detected using other methods such as X-rays.
Radiation may also be used to sterilise medical equipment.
Activity :: Research Project : The medical uses of radioisotopes
Carry out your own research to find out more about the radioisotopes that
are used to diagnose diseases in the following parts of the body:
– thyroid gland
– kidneys
– brain
In each case, try to find out...
1. which radioisotope is used
2. what the sources of this radioisotope are
3. how the radioisotope enters the patient’s body and how it is monitored
• Biochemistry and Genetics
Radioisotopes may be used as tracers to label molecules so that chemical processes such
as DNA replication or amino acid transport can be traced.
• Food preservation
Irradiation of food can stop vegetables or plants from sprouting after they have been
harvested. It also kills bacteria and parasites, and controls the ripening of fruits.
• Environment
Radioisotopes can be used to trace and analyse pollutants.
• Archaeology and Carbon dating
Natural radioisotopes such as C-14 can be used to determine the age of organic remains.
All living organisms (e.g. trees, humans) contain carbon. Carbon is taken in by plants
and trees through the process of photosynthesis in the form of carbon dioxide and is then
converted into organic molecules. When animals feed on plants, they also obtain carbon
through these organic compounds. Some of the carbon in carbon dioxide is the radioactive
C-14, while the rest is a non-radioactive form of carbon. When an organism dies, no more
carbon is taken in and there is a limited amount of C-14 in the body. From this point
onwards, C-14 begins its radioactive decay. When scientists uncover remains, they are able
to estimate the age of the remains by seeing how much C-14 is left in the body relative
to the amount of non-radioactive carbon. The less C-14 there is, the older the remains
because radioactive decay must have been taking place for a long time. Because scientists
know the exact rate of decay of C-14, they can calculate a very accurate estimate of the
age of the remains. Carbon dating has been a very important tool in building up accurate
historical records.
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CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11
Activity :: Case Study : Using radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dating has played an important role in uncovering many aspects of South Africa’s history. Read the following extract from an article that
appeared in Afrol news on 10th February 2007 and then answer the questions
that follow.
The world famous rock art in South Africa’s uKhahlamba-Drakensberg,
a World Heritage Site, is three times older than previously thought, archaeologists conclude in a new study. The more than 40,000 paintings
were made by the San people some 3000 years ago, a new analysis had
shown.
Previous work on the age of the rock art in uKhahlamba-Drakensberg
concluded it is less than 1,000 years old. But the new study - headed
by a South African archaeologist leading a team from the University
of Newcastle upon Tyne (UK) and Australian National University in
Canberra - estimates the panels were created up to 3,000 years ago.
They used the latest radio-carbon dating technology.
The findings, published in the current edition of the academic journal
’South African Humanities’, have ”major implications for our understanding of how the rock artists lived and the social changes that were
taking place over the last three millennia,” according to a press release
from the British university.
Questions:
1. What is the half-life of carbon-14?
2. In the news article, what role did radiocarbon dating play in increasing our
knowledge of South Africa’s history?
3. Radiocarbon dating can also be used to analyse the remains of once-living
organisms. Imagine that a set of bones are found between layers of sediment
and rock in a remote area. A group of archaeologists carries out a series
of tests to try to estimate the age of the bones. They calculate that the
bones are approximately 23 040 years old.
What percentage of the original carbon-14 must have been left in the bones
for them to arrive at this estimate?
7.8
Nuclear Fission
Nuclear fission is a process where the nucleus of an atom is split into two or more smaller
nuclei, known as fission products. The fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction and
huge amounts of energy are released in the process. This energy can be used to produce nuclear
power or to make nuclear weapons, both of which we will discuss a little later.
Definition: Nuclear fission
The splitting of an atomic nucleus
Below is a diagram showing the nuclear fission of Uranium-235. An atom of Uranium-235 is
bombarded with a neutron to initiate the fission process. This neutron is absorbed by Uranium235, to become Uranium-236. Uranium-236 is highly unstable and breaks down into a number
of lighter elements, releasing energy in the process. Free neutrons are also produced during this
process, and these are then available to bombard other fissionable elements. This process is
known as a fission chain reaction, and occurs when one nuclear reaction starts off another,
which then also starts off another one so that there is a rapid increase in the number of nuclear
reactions that are taking place.
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CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11
7.8
Massive release of energy during nuclear
fission
Neutron is absorbed
by the nucleus of the
U-235 atom to form
U-236
U-235
U-236
b
neutron
The elements and
number of neutrons
produced
in
the
process, is random.
U-236
splits
into
lighter elements called
fission products and
free neutrons
7.8.1
The Atomic bomb - an abuse of nuclear fission
A nuclear chain reaction can happen very quickly, releasing vast amounts of energy in the process.
In 1939, it was discovered that Uranium could undergo nuclear fission. In fact, it was uranium
that was used in the first atomic bomb. The bomb contained huge amounts of Uranium-235,
enough to start a runaway nuclear fission chain reaction. Because the process was uncontrolled,
the energy from the fission reactions was released in a matter of seconds, resulting in the massive
explosion of that first bomb. Since then, more atomic bombs have been dropped, causing massive
destruction and loss of life.
Activity :: Discussion : Nuclear weapons testing - an ongoing issue
Read the article below which has been adapted from one that appeared in ’The
Globe’ in Washington on 10th October 2006, and then answer the questions that
follow.
US officials and arms control specialists warned yesterday that North Korea’s test of a small nuclear device could start an arms race in the region
and threaten the landmark global treaty designed nearly four decades ago
to halt the spread of nuclear weapons. US officials expressed concern
that North Korea’s neighbors, including Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea,
could eventually decide to develop weapons of their own. They also fear
that North Korea’s moves could embolden Iran, and that this in turn could
encourage Saudi Arabia or other neighbours in the volatile Middle East to
one day seek nuclear deterrents, analysts say.
North Korea is the first country to conduct a nuclear test after pulling
out of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The treaty, which was created
in 1968, now includes 185 nations (nearly every country in the world).
Under the treaty, the five declared nuclear powers at the time (United
States, the Soviet Union, France, China, and Great Britain) agreed to
reduce their supplies of nuclear weapons. The treaty has also helped to
limit the number of new nuclear weapons nations.
But there have also been serious setbacks. India and Pakistan, which
never signed the treaty, became new nuclear powers, shocking the world
with test explosions in 1998. The current issue of nuclear weapons testing
in North Korea, is another such setback and a blow to the treaty.
Group discussion questions:
1. Discuss what is meant by an ’arms race’ and a ’treaty’.
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CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11
2. Do you think it is important to have such treaties in place to control the testing
and use of nuclear weapons? Explain your answer.
3. Discuss some of the reasons why countries might not agree to be part of a
nuclear weapons treaty.
4. How would you feel if South Africa decided to develop its own nuclear weapons?
7.8.2
Nuclear power - harnessing energy
However, nuclear fission can also be carried out in a controlled way in a nuclear reactor. A nuclear
reactor is a piece of equpiment where nuclear chain reactions can be started in a controlled and
sustained way. This is different from a nuclear explosion where the chain reaction occurs in
seconds. The most important use of nuclear reactors at the moment is to produce electrical
power, and most of these nuclear reactors use nuclear fission. A nuclear fuel is a chemical
isotope that can keep a fission chain reaction going. The most common isotopes that are used
are Uranium-235 and Plutonium-239. The amount of free energy that is in nuclear fuels is far
greater than the energy in a similar amount of other fuels such as gasoline. In many countries,
nuclear power is seen as a relatively environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels, which
release large amounts of greenhouse gases, and are also non-renewable resources. However,
one of the concerns around the use of nuclear power, is the production of nuclear waste which
contains radioactive chemical elements.
Activity :: Debate : Nuclear Power
The use of nuclear power as a source of energy has been a subject of much
debate. There are many advantages of nuclear power over other energy sources.
These include the large amount of energy that can be produced at a small plant,
little atmospheric pollution and the small quantity of waste. However there are also
disadvantages. These include the expense of maintaining nuclear power stations, the
huge impact that an accident could have as well as the disposal of dangerous nuclear
waste.
Use these ideas as a starting point for a class debate.
Nuclear power - An energy alternative or environmental hazard?
Your teacher will divide the class into teams. Some of the teams will be ’pro’
nuclear power while the others will be ’anti’ nuclear power.
7.9
Nuclear Fusion
Nuclear fusion is the joining together of the nuclei of two atoms to form a heavier nucleus.
If the atoms involved are small, this process is accompanied by the release of energy. It is the
nuclear fusion of elements that causes stars to shine and hydrogen bombs to explode. As with
nuclear fission then, there are both positive and negative uses of nuclear fusion.
Definition: Nuclear fusion
The joining together of the nuclei of two atoms.
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7.10
You will remember that nuclei naturally repel one another because of the electrostatic force between their positively charged protons. So, in order to bring two nuclei together, a lot of energy
must be supplied if fusion is to take place. If two nuclei can be brought close enough together
however, the electrostatic force is overwhelmed by the more powerful strong nuclear force which
only operates over short distances. If this happens, nuclear fusion can take place. Inside the
cores of stars, the temperature is high enough for hydrogen fusion to take place but scientists
have so far been unsuccessful in making it work in the laboratory. One of the huge advantages
of nuclear fusion, if it could be made to happen, is that it is a relatively environmentally friendly
source of energy. The helium that is produced is not radioactive or poisonous and does not carry
the dangers of nuclear fission.
7.10
Nucleosynthesis
An astronomer named Edwin Hubble discovered in the 1920’s that the universe is expanding. He
measured that far-away galaxies are moving away from the earth at great speed, and the further
away they are, the faster they are moving.
Extension: What are galaxies?
Galaxies are huge clusters of stars and matter in the universe. The earth is part
of the Milky Way galaxy which is shaped like a very large spiral. Astronomers can
measure the light coming from distant galaxies using telescopes. Edwin Hubble was
also able to measure the velocities of galaxies.
These observations led people to see that the universe is expanding. It also led to the Big Bang
hypothesis. The ’Big Bang’ hypothesis is an idea about how the universe may have started.
According to this theory, the universe started off at the beginning of time as a point which then
exploded and expanded into the universe we live in today. This happened between 10 and 14
billion years ago.
Just after the Big Bang, when the universe was only 10−43 s old, it was very hot and was
made up of quarks and leptons (an example of a lepton is the electron). As the universe
expanded, (∼ 10−2 s) and cooled, the quarks started binding together to form protons and
neutrons (together called nucleons).
7.10.1
Age of Nucleosynthesis (225 s - 103 s)
About 225 s after the Big Bang, the protons and neutrons started binding together to form simple
nuclei. The process of forming nuclei is called nucleosynthesis. When a proton and a neutron
bind together, they form the deuteron. The deuteron is like a hydrogen nucleus (which is just a
proton) with a neutron added to it so it can be written as 2 H. Using protons and neutrons as
building blocks, more nuclei can be formed as shown below. For example, the Helium-4 nucleus
(also called an alpha particle) can be formed in the following ways:
2
H + n → 3H
deuteron + neutron → triton
then:
3
H+p →
4
He
triton + proton → Helium4 (alpha particle)
or
121
7.11
CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11
2
H+p →
3
He
deuteron + proton → Helium3
then:
3
He + n →
4
He
Helium3 + neutron → Helium4 (alpha particle)
Some 7 Li nuclei could also have been formed by the fusion of 4 He and 3 H.
7.10.2
Age of Ions (103 s - 1013 s)
However, at this time the universe was still very hot and the electrons still had too much energy
to become bound to the alpha particles to form helium atoms. Also, the nuclei with mass
numbers greater than 4 (i.e. greater than 4 He) are very short-lived and would have decayed
almost immediately after being formed. Therefore, the universe moved through a stage called
the Age of Ions when it consisted of free positively charged H+ ions and 4 He ions, and negatively
charged electrons not yet bound into atoms.
7.10.3
Age of Atoms (1013 s - 1015 s)
As the universe expanded further, it cooled down until the electrons were able to bind to the
hydrogen and helium nuclei to form hydrogen and helium atoms. Earlier, during the Age of Ions,
both the hydrogen and helium ions were positively charged which meant that they repelled each
other (electrostatically). During the Age of Atoms, the hydrogen and helium along with the
electrons, were in the form of atoms which are electrically neutral and so they no longer repelled
each other and instead pulled together under gravity to form clouds of gas, which evetually
formed stars.
7.10.4
Age of Stars and Galaxies (the universe today)
Inside the core of stars, the densities and temperatures are high enough for fusion reactions to
occur. Most of the heavier nuclei that exist today were formed inside stars from thermonuclear reactions! (It’s interesting to think that the atoms that we are made of were actually
manufactured inside stars!). Since stars are mostly composed of hydrogen, the first stage of
thermonuclear reactions inside stars involves hydrogen and is called hydrogen burning. The
process has three steps and results in four hydrogen atoms being formed into a helium atom
with (among other things) two photons (light!) being released.
The next stage is helium burning which results in the formation of carbon. All these reactions
release a large amount of energy and heat the star which causes heavier and heavier nuclei to
fuse into nuclei with higher and higher atomic numbers. The process stops with the formation
of 56 Fe, which is the most strongly bound nucleus. To make heavier nuclei, even higher energies
are needed than is possible inside normal stars. These nuclei are most likely formed when huge
amounts of energy are released, for example when stars explode (an exploding star is called a
supernova). This is also how all the nuclei formed inside stars get ”recycled” in the universe to
become part of new stars and planets.
7.11
Summary
• Nuclear physics is the branch of physics that deals with the nucleus of an atom.
122
CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11
7.11
• There are two forces between the particles of the nucleus. The strong nuclear force is
an attractive force between the neutrons and the electromagnetic force is the repulsive
force between like-charged protons.
• In atoms with large nuclei, the electromagnetic force becomes greater than the strong
nuclear force and particles or energy may be released from the nucleus.
• Radioactive decay occurs when an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting
particles or electromagnetic waves.
• The particles and energy released are called radiation and the atom is said to be radioactive.
• Radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes.
• Radioactivity was first discovered by Marie Curie and her husband Pierre.
• There are three types of radiation from radioactive decay: alpha (α), beta (β) and
gamma (γ) radiation.
• During alpha decay, an alpha particle is released. An alpha particle consists of two protons
and two neutrons bound together. Alpha radiation has low penetration power.
• During beta decay, a beta particle is released. During beta decay, a neutron is converted
to a proton, an electron and a neutrino. A beta particle is the electron that is released.
Beta radiation has greater penetration power than alpha radiation.
• During gamma decay, electromagnetic energy is released as gamma rays. Gamma radiation has the highest penetration power of the three radiation types.
• There are many sources of radiation. Some of natural and others are man-made.
• Natural sources of radiation include cosmic and terrestrial radiation.
• Man-made sources of radiation include televisions, smoke detectors, X-rays and radiation
therapy.
• The half-life of an element is the time it takes for half the atoms of a radioisotope to
decay into other atoms.
• Radiation can be very damaging. Some of the negative impacts of radiation exposure
include damage to cells, genetic abnormalities and cancer.
• However, radiation can also have many positive uses. These include use in the medical
field (e.g. chemical tracers), biochemistry and genetics, use in food preservation, the
environment and in archaeology.
• Nuclear fission is the splitting of an atomic nucleus into smaller fission products. Nuclear
fission produces large amounts of energy, which can be used to produce nuclear power,
and to make nuclear weapons.
• Nuclear fusion is the joining together of the nuclei of two atoms to form a heavier nucleus.
In stars, fusion reactions involve the joining of hydrogen atoms to form helium atoms.
• Nucleosynthesis is the process of forming nuclei. This was very important in helping to
form the universe as we know it.
Exercise: Summary exercise
1. Explain each of the following terms:
(a) electromagnetic force
(b) radioactive decay
(c) radiocarbon dating
123
7.11
CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11
2. For each of the following questions, choose the one correct answer:
(a) The part of the atom that undergoes radioactive decay is the...
i. neutrons
ii. nucleus
iii. electrons
iv. entire atom
(b) The radio-isotope Po-212 undergoes alpha decay. Which of the following
statements is true?
i. The number of protons in the element remains unchanged.
ii. The number of nucleons after decay is 212.
iii. The number of protons in the element after decay is 82.
iv. The end product after decay is Po-208.
3. 20 g of sodium-24 undergoes radoactive decay. Calculate the percentage of the
original sample that remains after 60 hours.
4. Nuclear physics can be controversial. Many people argue that studying the
nucleus has led to devastation and huge loss of life. Others would argue that
the benefits of nuclear physics far outweigh the negative things that have come
from it.
(a) Outline some of the ways in which nuclear physics has been used in negative
ways.
(b) Outline some of the benefits that have come from nuclear physics.
124
Chapter 8
Thermal Properties and Ideal
Gases - Grade 11
We are surrounded by gases in our atmosphere which support and protect life on this planet.
In this chapter, we are going to try to understand more about gases, and learn how to predict
how they will behave under different conditions. The kinetic theory of matter was discussed in
chapter 2. This theory is very important in understanding how gases behave.
8.1
A review of the kinetic theory of matter
The main assumptions of the kinetic theory of matter are as follows:
• Matter is made up of particles (e.g. atoms or molecules)
• These particles are constantly moving because they have kinetic energy. The space in
which the particles move is the volume of the gas.
• There are spaces between the particles
• There are attractive forces between particles and these become stronger as the particles
move closer together.
• All particles have energy. The temperature of a substance is a measure of the average
kinetic energy of the particles.
• A change in phase may occur when the energy of the particles is changed.
The kinetic theory applies to all matter, including gases. In a gas, the particles are far apart and
have a high kinetic energy. They move around freely, colliding with each other or with the sides
of the container if the gas is enclosed. The pressure of a gas is a measure of the frequency
of collisions of the gas particles with each other and with the sides of the container that they
are in. If the gas is heated, the average kinetic energy of the gas particles will increase and
if the temperature is decreased, so does their energy. If the energy of the particles decreases
significantly, the gas liquifies. An ideal gas is one that obeys all the assumptions of the kinetic
theory of matter. A real gas behaves like an ideal gas, except at high pressures and low
temperatures. This will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter.
Definition: Ideal gas
An ideal gas or perfect gas is a hypothetical gas that obeys all the assumptions of the kinetic
theory of matter. In other words, an ideal gas would have identical particles of zero volume,
with no intermolecular forces between them. The atoms or molecules in an ideal gas would
also undergo elastic collisions with the walls of their container.
125
8.2
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
Definition: Real gas
Real gases behave more or less like ideal gases except under certain conditions e.g. high
pressures and low temperatures.
There are a number of laws that describe how gases behave. It will be easy to make sense of
these laws if you understand the kinetic theory of gases that was discussed above.
8.2
Boyle’s Law: Pressure and volume of an enclosed gas
Activity :: Demonstration : Boyle’s Law
If you have ever tried to force in the plunger of a syringe or a bicycle pump while
sealing the opening with a finger, you will have seen Boyle’s Law in action! This will
now be demonstrated using a 10 ml syringe.
Aim:
To demonstrate Boyle’s law.
Apparatus:
You will only need a syringe for this demonstration.
5
10
mℓ
Method:
1. Hold the syringe in one hand, and with the other pull the plunger out towards
you so that the syringe is now full of air.
2. Seal the opening of the syringe with your finger so that no air can escape the
syringe.
3. Slowly push the plunger in, and notice whether it becomes more or less difficult
to push the plunger in.
Results:
What did you notice when you pushed the plunger in? What happens to the
volume of air inside the syringe? Did it become more or less difficult to push the
plunger in as the volume of the air in the syringe decreased? In other words, did
you have to apply more or less pressure to the plunger as the volume of air in the
syringe decreased?
As the volume of air in the syringe decreases, you have to apply more pressure
to the plunger to keep forcing it down. The pressure of the gas inside the syringe
pushing back on the plunger is greater. Another way of saying this is that as the
volume of the gas in the syringe decreases, the pressure of that gas increases.
Conclusion:
If the volume of the gas decreases, the pressure of the gas increases. If the
volume of the gas increases, the pressure decreases. These results support Boyle’s
law.
In the previous demonstration, the volume of the gas decreased when the pressure increased,
and the volume increased when the pressure decreased. This is called an inverse relationship.
The inverse relationship between pressure and volume is shown in figure 8.1.
126
8.2
Pressure
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
Volume
Figure 8.1: Graph showing the inverse relationship between pressure and volume
Can you use the kinetic theory of gases to explain this inverse relationship between the pressure
and volume of a gas? Let’s think about it. If you decrease the volume of a gas, this means that
the same number of gas particles are now going to come into contact with each other and with
the sides of the container much more often. You may remember from earlier that we said that
pressure is a measure of the frequency of collisions of gas particles with each other and with
the sides of the container they are in. So, if the volume decreases, the pressure will naturally
increase. The opposite is true if the volume of the gas is increased. Now, the gas particles collide
less frequently and the pressure will decrease.
Pressure
It was an Englishman named Robert Boyle who was able to take very accurate measurements of
gas pressures and volumes using excellent vacuum pumps. He discovered the startlingly simple
fact that the pressure and volume of a gas are not just vaguely inversely related, but are exactly
inversely proportional. This can be seen when a graph of pressure against the inverse of volume
is plotted. When the values are plotted, the graph is a straight line. This relationship is shown
in figure 8.2.
1/Volume
Figure 8.2: The graph of pressure plotted against the inverse of volume, produces a straight line.
This shows that pressure and volume are exactly inversely proportional.
Definition: Boyle’s Law
The pressure of a fixed quantity of gas is inversely proportional to the volume it occupies
so long as the temperature remains constant.
127
8.2
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
Important: Proportionality
During this chapter, the terms directly proportional and inversely proportional will be
used a lot, and it is important that you understand their meaning. Two quantities are
said to be proportional if they vary in such a way that one of the quantities is a constant
multiple of the other, or if they have a constant ratio. We will look at two examples to
show the difference between directly proportional and inversely proportional.
1. Directly proportional
A car travels at a constant speed of 120 km/h. The time and the distance covered
are shown in the table below.
Time (mins)
10
20
30
40
Distance (km)
20
40
60
80
What you will notice is that the two quantities shown are constant multiples of each
other. If you divide each distance value by the time the car has been driving, you
will always get 2. This shows that the values are proportional to each other. They
are directly proportional because both values are increasing. In other words, as
the driving time increases, so does the distance covered. The same is true if the
values decrease. The shorter the driving time, the smaller the distance covered. This
relationship can be described mathematically as:
y = kx
where y is distance, x is time and k is the proportionality constant, which in this case
is 2. Note that this is the equation for a straight line graph! The symbol ∝ is also
used to show a directly proportional relationship.
2. Inversely proportional
Two variables are inversely proportional if one of the variables is directly proportional
to the multiplicative inverse of the other. In other words,
y∝
1
x
y=
k
x
or
This means that as one value gets bigger, the other value will get smaller. For example,
the time taken for a journey is inversely proportional to the speed of travel. Look at
the table below to check this for yourself. For this example, assume that the distance
of the journey is 100 km.
Speed (km/h)
100
80
60
40
Time (mins)
60
75
100
150
According to our definition, the two variables are inversely proportional is one variable
is directly proportional to the inverse of the other. In other words, if we divide one
of the variables by the inverse of the other, we should always get the same number.
For example,
100
= 6000
1/60
128you will find that the answer is always 6000.
If you repeat this using the other values,
The variables are inversely proportional to each other.
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
8.2
We know now that the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas,
provided the temperature stays the same. We can write this relationship symbolically as
p∝
1
V
This equation can also be written as follows:
p=
k
V
where k is a proportionality constant. If we rearrange this equation, we can say that:
pV = k
This equation means that, assuming the temperature is constant, multiplying any pressure and
volume values for a fixed amount of gas will always give the same value. So, for example, p1 V1
= k and p2 V2 = k, where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to two pairs of pressure and volume
readings for the same mass of gas at the same temperature.
From this, we can then say that:
p1 V1 = p2 V2
Important: Remember that Boyle’s Law requires two conditions. First, the amount of
gas must stay constant. Clearly, if you let a little of the air escape from the container
in which it is enclosed, the pressure of the gas will decrease along with the volume, and
the inverse proportion relationship is broken. Second, the temperature must stay constant.
Cooling or heating matter generally causes it to contract or expand. In our original syringe
demonstration, if you were to heat up the gas in the syringe, it would expand and force you
to apply a greater force to keep the plunger at a given position. Again, the proportionality
would be broken.
Activity :: Investigation : Boyle’s Law
Here are some of Boyle’s original data. Note that pressure would originally have
been measured using a mercury manometer and the units for pressure would have
been millimetres mercury or mm Hg. However, to make things a bit easier for you,
the pressure data have been converted to a unit that is more familiar. Note that the
volume is given in terms of arbitrary marks (evenly made).
Volume
(graduation
mark)
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
Pressure
(kPa)
398
340
298
264
239
217
199
184
Volume
(graduation
mark)
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
Pressure
(kPa)
170
159
150
141
133
125
120
1. Plot a graph of pressure (p) against volume (V). Volume will be on the x-axis
and pressure on the y-axis. Describe the relationship that you see.
129
In the gas
equations, k
is a ”variable
constant”.
This means
that k is
constant in a
particular set
of situations,
but in two
different sets
of situations
it has different constant
values.
8.2
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
2. Plot a graph of p against 1/V . Describe the relationship that you see.
3. Do your results support Boyle’s Law? Explain your answer.
teresting Did you know that the mechanisms involved in breathing also relate to Boyle’s
Interesting
Fact
Fact
Law? Just below the lungs is a muscle called the diaphragm. When a person
breathes in, the diaphragm moves down and becomes more ’flattened’ so that the
volume of the lungs can increase. When the lung volume increases, the pressure
in the lungs decreases (Boyle’s law). Since air always moves from areas of high
pressure to areas of lower pressure, air will now be drawn into the lungs because
the air pressure outside the body is higher than the pressure in the lungs. The
opposite process happens when a person breathes out. Now, the diaphragm
moves upwards and causes the volume of the lungs to decrease. The pressure
in the lungs will increase, and the air that was in the lungs will be forced out
towards the lower air pressure outside the body.
Worked Example 26: Boyle’s Law 1
Question: A sample of helium occupies a volume of 160 cm3 at 100 kPa and 25 ◦ C.
What volume will it occupy if the pressure is adjusted to 80 kPa and if the temperature remains unchanged?
Answer
Step 4 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.
V1 = 160 cm3 and V2 = ?
p1 = 100 kPa and p2 = 80 kPa
Step 1 : Use an appropriate gas law equation to calculate the unknown
variable.
Because the temperature of the gas stays the same, the following equation can be
used:
p1 V1 = p2 V2
If the equation is rearranged, then
V2 =
p1 V1
p2
Step 2 : Substitute the known values into the equation, making sure that
the units for each variable are the same. Calculate the unknown variable.
V2 =
100 × 160
= 200cm3
80
The volume occupied by the gas at a pressure of 80kPa, is 200 cm3
130
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
8.2
Worked Example 27: Boyle’s Law 2
Question: The pressure on a 2.5 l volume of gas is increased from 695 Pa to 755 Pa
while a constant temperature is maintained. What is the volume of the gas under
these pressure conditions?
Answer
Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.
V1 = 2.5 l and V2 = ?
p1 = 695 Pa and p2 = 755 Pa
Step 2 : Choose a relevant gas law equation to calculate the unknown variable.
At constant temperature,
p1 V1 = p2 V2
Therefore,
V2 =
p1 V1
p2
Step 3 : Substitute the known values into the equation, making sure that
the units for each variable are the same. Calculate the unknown variable.
V2 =
695 × 2.5
= 2.3l
755
Important:
It is not necessary to convert to Standard International (SI) units in the examples we have
used above. Changing pressure and volume into different units involves multiplication. If
you were to change the units in the above equation, this would involve multiplication on
both sides of the equation, and so the conversions cancel each other out. However, although
SI units don’t have to be used, you must make sure that for each variable you use the same
units throughout the equation. This is not true for some of the calculations we will do at a
later stage, where SI units must be used.
Exercise: Boyle’s Law
1. An unknown gas has an initial pressure of 150 kPa and a volume of 1 L. If the
volume is increased to 1.5 L, what will the pressure now be?
2. A bicycle pump contains 250 cm3 of air at a pressure of 90 kPa. If the air is
compressed, the volume is reduced to 200 cm3 . What is the pressure of the air
inside the pump?
3. The air inside a syringe occupies a volume of 10 cm3 and exerts a pressure of
100 kPa. If the end of the syringe is sealed and the plunger is pushed down, the
pressure increases to 120 kPa. What is the volume of the air in the syringe?
4. During an investigation to find the relationship between the pressure and volume
of an enclosed gas at constant temperature, the following results were obtained.
131
8.3
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
Volume (cm3 )
40
30
25
Pressure (kPa)
125.0
166.7
200.0
(a) For the results given in the above table, plot a graph of pressure (y-axis)
against the inverse of volume (x-axis).
(b) From the graph, deduce the relationship between the pressure and volume
of an enclosed gas at constant temperature.
(c) Use the graph to predict what the volume of the gas would be at a pressure
of 40 kPa. Show on your graph how you arrived at your answer.
(IEB 2004 Paper 2 )
8.3
Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature of an enclosed
gas
Charles’s law describes the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas. The
law was first published by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac in 1802, but he referenced unpublished work
by Jacques Charles from around 1787. This law states that at constant pressure, the volume of
a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature (in
kelvin) increases or decreases. Another way of saying this is that temperature and volume are
directly proportional (figure ??).
Definition: Charles’s Law
The volume of an enclosed sample of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature
provided the pressure is kept constant.
teresting Charles’s Law is also known as Gay-Lussac’s Law. This is because Charles
Interesting
Fact
Fact
did not publish his discovery, and it was rediscovered independently by another
French Chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac some years later.
Activity :: Demonstration : Charles’s Law
Aim:
To demonstrate Charles’s Law using simple materials.
Apparatus:
glass bottle (e.g. empty glass coke bottle), balloon, bunsen burner, retort stand
Method:
1. Place the balloon over the opening of the empty bottle.
2. Place the bottle on the retort stand over the bunsen burner and allow it to
heat up. Observe what happens to the balloon. WARNING: Be careful when
handling the heated bottle. You may need to wear gloves for protection.
132
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
8.3
Results:
You should see that the balloon starts to expand. As the air inside the bottle
is heated, the pressure also increases, causing the volume to increase. Since the
volume of the glass bottle can’t increase, the air moves into the balloon, causing it
to expand.
Conclusion:
The temperature and volume of the gas are directly related to each other. As
one increases, so does the other.
Mathematically, the relationship between temperature and pressure can be represented as follows:
V ∝T
or
V = kT
If the equation is rearranged, then...
V
=k
T
and, following the same logic that was used for Boyle’s law:
V2
V1
=
T1
T2
Volume
The equation relating volume and temperature produces a straight line graph (refer back to the
notes on proportionality if this is unclear). This relationship is shown in figure 8.3.
0
Temperature (K)
Figure 8.3: The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature, provided the pressure
of the gas is constant.
However, if this graph is plotted on a celsius temperature scale, the zero point of temperature
doesn’t correspond to the zero point of volume. When the volume is zero, the temperature is
actually -273.150C (figure 8.4.
A new temperature scale, the Kelvin scale must be used instead. Since zero on the Celsius
scale corresponds with a Kelvin temperature of -273.150C, it can be said that:
Kelvin temperature (T) = Celsius temperature (t) + 273.15
133
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
Volume (kPa)
8.3
-273◦ C
0K
0◦ C
273 K
Temperature
Figure 8.4: The relationship between volume and temperature, shown on a Celsius temperature
scale.
At school level, you can simplify this slightly and convert between the two temperature scales as
follows:
T = t + 273
or
t = T - 273
Can you explain Charles’s law in terms of the kinetic theory of gases? When the temperature
of a gas increases, so does the average speed of its molecules. The molecules collide with the
walls of the container more often and with greater impact. These collisions will push back the
walls, so that the gas occupies a greater volume than it did at the start. We saw this in the
first demonstration. Because the glass bottle couldn’t expand, the gas pushed out the balloon
instead.
Exercise: Charles’s law
The table below gives the temperature (in 0 C) of a number of gases under
different volumes at a constant pressure.
Volume (l)
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1.0
1.5
2
2.5
3.0
3.5
He
-272.4
-245.5
-218.6
-191.8
-164.9
-111.1
-57.4
-3.6
50.2
103.9
H2
-271.8
-192.4
-113.1
-33.7
45.7
204.4
363.1
521.8
680.6
839.3
N2 O
-275.0
-123.5
28.1
179.6
331.1
634.1
937.2
1240.2
1543.2
1846.2
1. On the same set of axes, draw graphs to show the relationship between temperature and volume for each of the gases.
2. Describe the relationship you observe.
3. If you extrapolate the graphs (in other words, extend the graph line even though
you may not have the exact data points), at what temperature do they intersect?
4. What is significant about this temperature?
134
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
8.3
Worked Example 28: Charles’s Law 1
Question: Ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide are allowed to react. The
ammonia that is released in the reaction is collected in a gas syringe and sealed in.
This gas is allowed to come to room temperature which is 32◦ C. The volume of the
ammonia is found to be 122 ml. It is now placed in a water bath set at 7◦ C. What
will be the volume reading after the syringe has been left in the bath for a good
while (assume the plunger moves completely freely)?
Answer
Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.
V1 = 122 ml and V2 = ?
T1 = 320 C and T2 = 70 C
Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.
Here, temperature must be converted into Kelvin, therefore:
T1 = 32 + 273 = 305 K
T2 = 7 + 273 = 280 K
Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate
the unknown variable.
V2
V1
=
T1
T2
Therefore,
V2 =
V1 × T2
T1
Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation.
unknown variable.
V2 =
Calculate the
122 × 280
= 112ml
305
Important:
Note that here the temperature must be converted to Kelvin (SI) since the change from
degrees Celcius involves addition, not multiplication by a fixed conversion ratio (as is the
case with pressure and volume.)
Worked Example 29: Charles’s Law 2
Question: At a temperature of 298 K, a certain amount of CO2 gas occupies a
volume of 6 l. What volume will the gas occupy if its temperature is reduced to 273
K?
Answer
135
8.4
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.
V1 = 6 l and V2 = ?
T1 = 298 K and T2 = 273 K
Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.
Temperature data is already in Kelvin, and so no conversions are necessary.
Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate
the unknown variable.
V2
V1
=
T1
T2
Therefore,
V2 =
V1 × T2
T1
Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation.
unknown variable.
V2 =
8.4
Calculate the
6 × 273
= 5.5l
298
The relationship between temperature and pressure
Pressure
The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature, if the volume is kept constant
(figure 8.5). When the temperature of a gas increases, so does the energy of the particles.
This causes them to move more rapidly and to collide with each other and with the side of the
container more often. Since pressure is a measure of these collisions, the pressure of the gas
increases with an increase in temperature. The pressure of the gas will decrease if its temperature
decreases.
0
Temperature (K)
Figure 8.5: The relationship between the temperature and pressure of a gas
In the same way that we have done for the other gas laws, we can describe the relationship
between temperature and pressure using symbols, as follows:
T ∝ p, therefore p = kT
We can also say that:
p
=k
T
136
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
8.5
and that, provided the amount of gas stays the same...
p1
p2
=
T1
T2
Exercise: More gas laws
1. A gas of unknown volume has a temperature of 14◦ C. When the temperature
of the gas is increased to 100◦ C, the volume is found to be 5.5 L. What was
the initial volume of the gas?
2. A gas has an initial volume of 2600 mL and a temperature of 350 K.
(a) If the volume is reduced to 1500 mL, what will the temperature of the gas
be in Kelvin?
(b) Has the temperature increased or decreased?
(c) Explain this change, using the kinetic theory of matter.
3. A cylinder of propane gas at a temperature of 20◦ C exerts a pressure of 8 atm.
When a cylinder has been placed in sunlight, its temperature increases to 25◦ C.
What is the pressure of the gas inside the cylinder at this temperature?
8.5
The general gas equation
All the gas laws we have described so far rely on the fact that at least one variable (T, p or V)
remains constant. Since this is unlikely to be the case most times, it is useful to combine the
relationships into one equation. These relationships are as follows:
Boyle’s law: p ∝
1
V
(constant T)
Relationship between p and T: p ∝ T (constant V)
If we combine these relationships, we get p ∝
T
V
If we introduce the proportionality constant k, we get p = k VT
or, rearranging the equation...
pV = kT
We can also rewrite this relationship as follows:
pV
=k
T
Provided the mass of the gas stays the same, we can also say that:
p2 V2
p1 V1
=
T1
T2
In the above equation, the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to two pressure and volume readings for
the same mass of gas under different conditions. This is known as the general gas equation.
137
8.5
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
Temperature is always in kelvin and the units used for pressure and volume must be the same
on both sides of the equation.
Important:
Remember that the general gas equation only applies if the mass of the gas is fixed.
Worked Example 30: General Gas Equation 1
Question: At the beginning of a journey, a truck tyre has a volume of 30 dm3 and
an internal pressure of 170 kPa. The temperature of the tyre is 160 C. By the end
of the trip, the volume of the tyre has increased to 32 dm3 and the temperature
of the air inside the tyre is 350 C. What is the tyre pressure at the end of the journey?
Answer
Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.
p1 = 170 kPa and p2 = ?
V1 = 30 dm3 and V2 = 32 dm3
T1 = 160 C and T2 = 400 C
Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.
Here, temperature must be converted into Kelvin, therefore:
T1 = 16 + 273 = 289 K
T2 = 40 + 273 = 313 K
Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate
the unknown variable.
Use the general gas equation to solve this problem:
p1 × V1
p2 × V2
=
T1
T2
Therefore,
p2 =
p1 × V1 × T2
T1 × V2
Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation.
unknown variable.
Calculate the
170 × 30 × 313
= 173kP a
289 × 32
The pressure of the tyre at the end of the journey is 173 kPa.
p2 =
Worked Example 31: General Gas Equation 2
Question: A cylinder that contains methane gas is kept at a temperature of 150 C
and exerts a pressure of 7 atm. If the temperature of the cylinder increases to 250 C,
what pressure does the gas now exert? (Refer to table 8.1 to see what an ’atm’ is.
Answer
Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.
p1 = 7 atm and p2 = ?
138
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
T1 = 150 C and T2 = 250 C
Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.
Here, temperature must be converted into Kelvin, therefore:
T1 = 15 + 273 = 288 K
T2 = 25 + 273 = 298 K
Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate
the unknown variable.
Since the volume of the cylinder is constant, we can write:
p1
p2
=
T1
T2
Therefore,
p2 =
p1 × T 2
T1
Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation.
unknown variable.
Calculate the
7 × 298
= 7.24atm
288
The pressure of the gas is 7.24 atm.
p2 =
Worked Example 32: General Gas Equation 3
Question: A gas container can withstand a pressure of 130 kPa before it will start
to leak. Assuming that the volume of the gas in the container stays the same, at
what temperature will the container start to leak if the gas exerts a pressure of 100
kPa at 150 C?
Answer
Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.
p1 = 100 kPa and p2 = 130 kPa
T1 = 150 C and T2 = ?
Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.
Here, temperature must be converted into Kelvin, therefore:
T1 = 15 + 273 = 288 K
Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate
the unknown variable.
Since the volume of the container is constant, we can write:
p1
p2
=
T1
T2
Therefore,
Therefore,
p1
1
=
T2
T 1 × p2
T2 =
T 1 × p2
p1
139
8.5
8.6
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation.
unknown variable.
T2 =
Calculate the
288 × 130
= 374.4K = 101.40 C
100
Exercise: The general gas equation
1. A closed gas system initially has a volume of 8 L and a temperature of 100◦ C.
The pressure of the gas is unknown. If the temperature of the gas decreases to
50◦ C, the gas occupies a volume of 5 L. If the pressure of the gas under these
conditions is 1.2 atm, what was the initial pressure of the gas?
2. A balloon is filled with helium gas at 27◦ C and a pressure of 1.0 atm. As the
balloon rises, the volume of the balloon increases by a factor of 1.6 and the
temperature decreases to 15◦ C. What is the final pressure of the gas (assuming
none has escaped)?
3. 25 cm3 of gas at 1 atm has a temperature of 20◦ C. When the gas is compressed
to 20 cm3 , the temperature of the gas increases to 28◦ C. Calculate the final
pressure of the gas.
8.6
The ideal gas equation
In the early 1800’s, Amedeo Avogadro hypothesised that if you have samples of different gases,
of the same volume, at a fixed temperature and pressure, then the samples must contain the
same number of freely moving particles (i.e. atoms or molecules).
Definition: Avogadro’s Law
Equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number
of molecules.
You will remember from an earlier section, that we combined different gas law equations to get
one that included temperature, volume and pressure. In this equation, pV = kT, the value of k
is different for different masses of gas. If we were to measure the amount of gas in moles, then
k = nR, where n is the number of moles of gas and R is the universal gas constant. The value
of R is 8.3143 J.K−1 , or for most calculations, 8.3 J.K−1 . So, if we replace k in the general gas
equation, we get the following ideal gas equation.
pV = nRT
Important:
1. The value of R is the same for all gases
2. All quantities in the equation pV = nRT must be in the same units as the value of
R. In other words, SI units must be used throughout the equation.
The following table may help you when you convert to SI units.
140
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
8.6
Table 8.1: Conversion table showing different units of measurement for volume, pressure and
temperature.
Variable
Pressure (p)
Volume (V)
moles (n)
SI unit
Other units
and conversions
Pascals (Pa)
760 mm Hg
= 1 atm =
101325 Pa =
101.325 kPa
m3
1
m3
=
1000000 cm3
= 1000 dm3
= 1000 litres
mol
universal gas
constant (R)
J.mol.K−1
temperature
(K)
kelvin (K)
K = 0C +
273
Worked Example 33: Ideal gas equation 1
Question: Two moles of oxygen (O2 ) gas occupy a volume of 25 dm3 at a temperature of 400 C. Calculate the pressure of the gas under these conditions.
Answer
Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.
p=?
V = 25 dm3
n=2
T = 400 C
Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.
V =
25
= 0.025m3
1000
T = 40 + 273 = 313K
Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate
the unknown variable.
pV = nRT
Therefore,
p=
nRT
V
Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation.
unknown variable.
Calculate the
p = 2 × 8.3 × 3130.025 = 207832P a = 207.8kP a
Worked Example 34: Ideal gas equation 2
Question: Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas is produced as a result of the reaction between
calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The gas that is produced is collected in
a 20 dm3 container. The pressure of the gas is 105 kPa at a temperature of 200 C.
141
8.6
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
What mass of carbon dioxide was produced?
Answer
Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.
p = 105 kPa
V = 20 dm3
T = 200 C
Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.
p = 105 × 1000 = 105000P a
T = 20 + 273 = 293K
V =
20
= 0.02m3
1000
Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate
the unknown variable.
pV = nRT
Therefore,
n=
pV
RT
Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation.
unknown variable.
n=
Calculate the
105000 × 0.02
= 0.86moles
8.3 × 293
Step 5 : Calculate mass from moles
n=
m
M
Therefore,
m=n×M
The molar mass of CO2 is calculated as follows:
M = 12 + (2 × 16) = 44g.mol−1
Therefore,
m = 0.86 × 44 = 37.84g
Worked Example 35: Ideal gas equation 3
Question: 1 mole of nitrogen (N2 ) reacts with hydrogen (H2 ) according to the
following equation:
N2 + 3H2 → 2N H3
142
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
The ammonia (NH3 ) gas is collected in a separate gas cylinder which has a volume
of 25 dm3 . The temperature of the gas is 220 C. Calculate the pressure of the gas
inside the cylinder.
Answer
Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.
V = 25 dm3
n = 2 (Calculate this by looking at the mole ratio of nitrogen to ammonia, which is
1:2)
T = 220 C
Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.
V =
25
= 0.025m3
1000
T = 22 + 273 = 295K
Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate
the unknown variable.
pV = nRT
Therefore,
p=
nRT
V
Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation.
unknown variable.
p=
Calculate the
2 × 8.3 × 295
= 195880P a = 195.89kP a
0.025
Worked Example 36: Ideal gas equation 4
Question: Calculate the number of air particles in a 10 m by 7 m by 2 m classroom
on a day when the temperature is 23◦ C and the air pressure is 98 kPa.
Answer
Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.
V = 10 m × 7 m × 2m = 140 m3
p = 98 kPa
T = 230 C
Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.
p = 98 × 1000 = 98000P a
T = 23 + 273 = 296K
Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate
the unknown variable.
pV = nRT
143
8.6
8.6
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
Therefore,
n=
pV
RT
Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation.
unknown variable.
n=
Calculate the
98000 × 140
= 5584.5mol
8.3 × 296
Worked Example 37: Applying the gas laws
Question: Most modern cars are equipped with airbags for both the driver and the
passenger. An airbag will completely inflate in 0,05 s. This is important because a
typical car collision lasts about 0,125 s. The following reaction of sodium azide (a
compound found in airbags) is activated by an electrical signal:
2N aN3 (s) → 2N a(s) + 3N2 (g)
1. Calculate the mass of N2 (g) needed to inflate a sample airbag to a volume of
65 dm3 at 25 ◦ C and 99,3 kPa. Assume the gas temperature remains constant
during the reaction.
2. In reality the above reaction is exothermic. Describe, in terms of the kinetic
molecular theory, how the pressure in the sample airbag will change, if at all,
as the gas temperature returns to 25 ◦ C.
Answer
Step 1 : Look at the information you have been given, and the information
you still need.
Here you are given the volume, temperature and pressure. You are required to work
out the mass of N2 .
Step 2 : Check that all the units are S.I. units
Pressure: 93,3 × 103 Pa
Volume: 65 × 10−3 m3
Temperature: (273 + 25) K
Gas Constant: 8,31
Step 3 : Write out the Ideal Gas formula
pV = nRT
Step 4 : Solve for the required quantity using symbols
n=
pV
RT
Step 5 : Solve by substituting numbers into the equation to solve for ’n’.
n=
99,3 × 103 × 65 × 10−3
8,31 × (273 + 25)
Step 6 : Convert the number of moles to number of grams
144
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
m
=
m
m
=
=
8.7
n×M
2,61 × 28
73,0g
Step 7 : Theory Question
When the temperature decreases the intensity of collisions with the walls of the
airbag and between particles decreases. Therefore pressure decreases.
Exercise: The ideal gas equation
1. An unknown gas has pressure, volume and temperature of 0.9 atm, 8 L and
120◦ C respectively. How many moles of gas are present?
2. 6 g of chlorine (Cl2 ) occupies a volume of 0.002 m3 at a temperature of 26◦ C.
What is the pressure of the gas under these conditions?
3. An average pair of human lungs contains about 3.5 L of air after inhalation
and about 3.0 L after exhalation. Assuming that air in your lungs is at 37◦ C
and 1.0 atm, determine the number of moles of air in a typical breath.
4. A learner is asked to calculate the answer to the problem below:
Calculate the pressure exerted by 1.5 moles of nitrogen gas in a container with
a volume of 20 dm3 at a temperature of 37◦ C.
The learner writes the solution as follows:
V = 20 dm3
n = 1.5 mol
R = 8.3 J.K−1 .mol−1
T = 37 + 273 = 310 K
p = nRT, therefore
p=
=
nRV
T
1.5 × 8.3 × 20
310
= 0.8 kPa
(a) Identify 2 mistakes the learner has made in the calculation.
(b) Are the units of the final answer correct?
(c) Rewrite the solution, correcting the mistakes to arrive at the right answer.
8.7
Molar volume of gases
It is possible to calculate the volume of a mole of gas at STP using what we now know about
gases.
1. Write down the ideal gas equation
145
8.8
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
pV = nRT, therefore V =
nRT
p
2. Record the values that you know, making sure that they are in SI units
You know that the gas is under STP conditions. These are as follows:
p = 101.3 kPa = 101300 Pa
n = 1 mole
R = 8.3 J.K−1 .mol−1
T = 273 K
3. Substitute these values into the original equation.
V =
V =
nRT
p
1mol × 8.3J.K −1 .mol−1 × 273K
101300P a
4. Calculate the volume of 1 mole of gas under these conditions
The volume of 1 mole of gas at STP is 22.4 × 10−3 m3 = 22.4 dm3 .
8.8
Ideal gases and non-ideal gas behaviour
In looking at the behaviour of gases to arrive at the Ideal Gas Law, we have limited our examination to a small range of temperature and pressure. Most gases do obey these laws most
of the time, and are called ideal gases, but there are deviations at high pressures and low
temperatures. So what is happening at these two extremes?
Earlier when we discussed the kinetic theory of gases, we made a number of assumptions about
the behaviour of gases. We now need to look at two of these again because they affect how
gases behave either when pressures are high or when temperatures are low.
1. Molecules do occupy volume
Volume
This means that when pressures are very high and the molecules are compressed, their volume becomes significant. This means that the total volume available for the gas molecules
to move is reduced and collisions become more frequent. This causes the pressure of the
gas to be higher than what would normally have been predicted by Boyle’s law (figure
8.6).
rea
i de
al
ga
lg
as
s
Pressure
Figure 8.6: Gases deviate from ideal gas behaviour at high pressure.
146
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
8.9
2. Forces of attraction do exist between molecules
as
lg
lg
as
ea
id
re
a
Pressure
At low temperatures, when the speed of the molecules decreases and they move closer
together, the intermolecular forces become more apparent. As the attraction between
molecules increases, their movement decreases and there are fewer collisions between them.
The pressure of the gas at low temperatures is therefore lower than what would have been
expected for an ideal gas (figure 8.7. If the temperature is low enough or the pressure high
enough, a real gas will liquify.
Temperature
Figure 8.7: Gases deviate from ideal gas behaviour at low temperatures
8.9
Summary
• The kinetic theory of matter helps to explain the behaviour of gases under different
conditions.
• An ideal gas is one that obeys all the assumptions of the kinetic theory.
• A real gas behaves like an ideal gas, except at high pressures and low temperatures. Under
these conditions, the forces between molecules become significant and the gas will liquify.
• Boyle’s law states that the pressure of a fixed quantity of gas is inversely proportional to
its volume, as long as the temperature stays the same. In other words, pV = k or
p1 V1 = p2 V2 .
• Charles’s law states that the volume of an enclosed sample of gas is directly proportional
to its temperature, as long as the pressure stays the same. In other words,
V1
V2
=
T1
T2
• The temperature of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its pressure, if the
volume is constant. In other words,
p1
p2
=
T1
T2
• In the above equations, temperature must be written in Kelvin. Temperature in degrees
Celsius (temperature = t) can be converted to temperature in Kelvin (temperature = T)
using the following equation:
T = t + 273
147
8.9
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
• Combining Boyle’s law and the relationship between the temperature and pressure of a
gas, gives the general gas equation, which applies as long as the amount of gas remains
constant. The general gas equation is pV = kT, or
p1 V1
p2 V2
=
T1
T2
• Because the mass of gas is not always constant, another equation is needed for these
situations. The ideal gas equation can be written as
pV = nRT
where n is the number of moles of gas and R is the universal gas constant, which is 8.3
J.K−1 .mol−1 . In this equation, SI units must be used. Volume (m3 ), pressure (Pa) and
temperature (K).
• The volume of one mole of gas under STP is 22.4 dm3 . This is called the molar gas
volume.
s
Exercise: Summary exercise
1. For each of the following, say whether the statement is true or false. If the
statement is false, rewrite the statement correctly.
(a) Real gases behave like ideal gases, except at low pressures and low temperatures.
(b) The volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure
it exerts.
(c) The temperature of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its pressure, regardless of the volume of the gas.
2. For each of the following multiple choice questions, choose the one correct
answer.
(a) Which one of the following properties of a fixed quantity of a gas must be
kept constant during a Boyle’s law investigation?
i. density
ii. pressure
iii. temperature
iv. volume
(IEB 2003 Paper 2 )
(b) Three containers of EQUAL VOLUME are filled with EQUAL MASSES
of helium, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas respectively. The gases in the
three containers are all at the same TEMPERATURE. Which one of the
following statements is correct regarding the pressure of the gases?
i. All three gases will be at the same pressure
ii. The helium will be at the greatest pressure
iii. The nitrogen will be at the greatest pressure
iv. The carbon dioxide will be at the greatest pressure
(IEB 2004 Paper 2 )
(c) One mole of an ideal gas is stored at a temperature T (in Kelvin) in a rigid
gas tank. If the average speed of the gas particles is doubled, what is the
new Kelvin temperature of the gas?
i. 4T
ii. 2T
√
iii. 2T
148
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
iv. 0.5 T
(IEB 2002 Paper 2 )
(d) The ideal gas equation is given by pV = nRT. Which one of the following
conditions is true according to Avogadro’s hypothesis?
a p ∝ 1/V
(T = constant)
b
V∝T
(p = constant)
c
V∝n
(p, T = constant)
d
p∝T
(n = constant)
(DoE Exemplar paper 2, 2007 )
3. Use your knowledge of the gas laws to explain the following statements.
(a) It is dangerous to put an aerosol can near heat.
(b) A pressure vessel that is poorly designed and made can be a serious safety
hazard (a pressure vessel is a closed, rigi container that is used to hold
gases at a pressure that is higher than the normal air pressure).
(c) The volume of a car tyre increases after a trip on a hot road.
4. Copy the following set of labelled axes and answer the questions that follow:
Volume (m3 )
0
Temperature (K)
(a) On the axes, using a solid line, draw the graph that would be obtained
for a fixed mass of an ideal gas if the pressure is kept constant.
(b) If the gradient of the above graph is measured to be 0.008 m3 .K−1 , calculate the pressure that 0.3 mol of this gas would exert.
(IEB 2002 Paper 2)
5. Two gas cylinders, A and B, have a volume of 0.15 m3 and 0.20 m3 respectively.
Cylinder A contains 1.25 mol He gas at pressure p and cylinder B contains 2.45
mol He gas at standard pressure. The ratio of the Kelvin temperatures A:B is
1.80:1.00. Calculate the pressure of the gas (in kPa) in cylinder A.
(IEB 2002 Paper 2 )
6. A learner investigates the relationship between the Celsius temperature and the
pressure of a fixed amount of helium gas in a 500 cm3 closed container. From
the results of the investigation, she draws the graph below:
pressure
(kPa)
300
10
20 temperature (0 C)
(a) Under the conditions of this investigation, helium gas behaves like an ideal
gas. Explain briefly why this is so.
149
8.9
8.9
CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES - GRADE 11
(b) From the shape of the graph, the learner concludes that the pressure of
the helium gas is directly proportional to the Celcius temperature. Is her
conclusion correct? Briefly explain your answer.
(c) Calculate the pressure of the helium gas at 0 ◦ C.
(d) Calculate the mass of helium gas in the container.
(IEB 2003 Paper 2 )
7. One of the cylinders of a motor car engine, before compression contains 450
cm3 of a mixture of air and petrol in the gaseous phase, at a temperature of
30◦ C and a pressure of 100 kPa. If the volume of the cylinder after compression
decreases to one tenth of the original volume, and the temperature of the gas
mixture rises to 140◦C, calculate the pressure now exerted by the gas mixture.
8. In an experiment to determine the relationship between pressure and temperature of a fixed mass of gas, a group of learners obtained the following results:
Pressure (kPa)
Temperature (0 C)
Total gas volume (cm3 )
101
0
250
120
50
250
130.5
80
250
138
100
250
(a) Draw a straight-line graph of pressure (on the dependent, y-axis) versus
temperature (on the independent, x-axis) on a piece of graph paper. Plot
the points. Give your graph a suitable heading.
A straight-line graph passing through the origin is essential to obtain a
mathematical relationship between pressure and temperature.
(b) Extrapolate (extend) your graph and determine the temperature (in 0 C)
at which the graph will pass through the temperature axis.
(c) Write down, in words, the relationship between pressure and Kelvin temperature.
(d) From your graph, determine the pressure (in kPa) at 173 K. Indicate on
your graph how you obtained this value.
(e) How would the gradient of the graph be affected (if at all) if a larger mass
of the gas is used? Write down ONLY increases, decreases or stays the
same.
(DoE Exemplar Paper 2, 2007 )
150
Chapter 13
Quantitative Aspects of Chemical
Change - Grade 11
An equation for a chemical reaction can provide us with a lot of useful information. It tells us
what the reactants and the products are in the reaction, and it also tells us the ratio in which
the reactants combine to form products. Look at the equation below:
F e + S → F eS
In this reaction, every atom of iron (Fe) will react with a single atom of sulfur (S) to form one
molecule of iron sulfide (FeS). However, what the equation doesn’t tell us, is the quantities or
the amount of each substance that is involved. You may for example be given a small sample
of iron for the reaction. How will you know how many atoms of iron are in this sample? And
how many atoms of sulfur will you need for the reaction to use up all the iron you have? Is
there a way of knowing what mass of iron sulfide will be produced at the end of the reaction?
These are all very important questions, especially when the reaction is an industrial one, where
it is important to know the quantities of reactants that are needed, and the quantity of product
that will be formed. This chapter will look at how to quantify the changes that take place in
chemical reactions.
13.1
The Mole
Sometimes it is important to know exactly how many particles (e.g. atoms or molecules) are in
a sample of a substance, or what quantity of a substance is needed for a chemical reaction to
take place.
You will remember from chapter 3 that the relative atomic mass of an element, describes the
mass of an atom of that element relative to the mass of an atom of carbon-12. So the mass of
an atom of carbon (relative atomic mass is 12 u) for example, is twelve times greater than the
mass of an atom of hydrogen, which has a relative atomic mass of 1 u. How can this information
be used to help us to know what mass of each element will be needed if we want to end up with
the same number of atoms of carbon and hydrogen?
Let’s say for example, that we have a sample of 12g carbon. What mass of hydrogen will contain
the same number of atoms as 12 g carbon? We know that each atom of carbon weighs twelve
times more than an atom of hydrogen. Surely then, we will only need 1g of hydrogen for the
number of atoms in the two samples to be the same? You will notice that the number of particles
(in this case, atoms) in the two substances is the same when the ratio of their sample masses
(12g carbon: 1g hydrogen = 12:1) is the same as the ratio of their relative atomic masses (12
u: 1 u = 12:1).
233
13.1
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
To take this a step further, if you were to weigh out samples of a number of elements so that the
mass of the sample was the same as the relative atomic mass of that element, you would find
that the number of particles in each sample is 6.023 x 1023 . These results are shown in table
13.1 below for a number of different elements. So, 24.31 g of magnesium (relative atomic mass
= 24.31 u) for example, has the same number of atoms as 40.08 g of calcium (relative atomic
mass = 40.08 u).
Table 13.1: Table showing the relationship between the sample mass, the relative atomic mass
and the number of atoms in a sample, for a number of elements.
Element
Relative atomic mass (u) Sample mass (g) Atoms in sample
Hydrogen (H)
1.01
1.01
6.023 x 1023
Carbon (C)
12.01
12.01
6.023 x 1023
Magnesium (Mg)
24.31
24.31
6.023 x 1023
Sulfur (S)
32.07
32.07
6.023 x 1023
Calcium (Ca)
40.08
40.08
6.023 x 1023
This result is so important that scientists decided to use a special unit of measurement to define
this quantity: the mole or ’mol’. A mole is defined as being an amount of a substance which
contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon. In the examples
that were used earlier, 24.31 g magnesium is one mole of magnesium, while 40.08 g of calcium
is one mole of calcium. A mole of any substance always contains the same number of particles.
Definition: Mole
The mole (abbreviation ’n’) is the SI (Standard International) unit for ’amount of substance’.
It is defined as an amount of substance that contains the same number of particles (atoms,
molecules or other particle units) as there are atoms in 12 g carbon.
In one mole of any substance, there are 6.023 x 1023 particles. This is known as Avogadro’s
number.
Definition: Avogadro constant
The number of particles in a mole, equal to 6.023 x 1023 . It is also sometimes referred to
as the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12.
teresting The original hypothesis that was proposed by Amadeo Avogadro was that ’equal
Interesting
Fact
Fact
volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number
of molecules’. His ideas were not accepted by the scientific community and it
was only four years after his death, that his original hypothesis was accepted
and that it became known as ’Avogadro’s Law’. In honour of his contribution
to science, the number of particles in one mole was named Avogadro’s number.
Exercise: Moles and mass
1. Complete the following table:
234
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
Element
Hydrogen
Magnesium
Carbon
Chlorine
Nitrogen
Relative
atomic mass
(u)
1.01
24.31
12.01
35.45
Sample mass
(g)
13.2
Number
of
moles in the
sample
1.01
24.31
24.02
70.9
42.08
2. How many atoms are there in...
(a) 1 mole of a substance
(b) 2 moles of calcium
(c) 5 moles of phosphorus
(d) 24.31 g of magnesium
(e) 24.02 g of carbon
13.2
Molar Mass
Definition: Molar mass
Molar mass (M) is the mass of 1 mole of a chemical substance. The unit for molar mass is
grams per mole or g.mol−1 .
Refer to table 13.1. You will remember that when the mass, in grams, of an element is equal to
its relative atomic mass, the sample contains one mole of that element. This mass is called the
molar mass of that element.
It is worth remembering the following: On the Periodic Table, the relative atomic mass that is
shown can be interpreted in two ways.
1. The mass of a single, average atom of that element relative to the mass of an atom of
carbon.
2. The mass of one mole of the element. This second use is the molar mass of the element.
Table 13.2: The relationship between relative atomic mass, molar mass and the mass of one
mole for a number of elements.
Element
Magnesium
Lithium
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Iron
Relative
atomic mass
(u)
24.31
6.94
16
14.01
55.85
Molar mass
(g.mol−1 )
24.31
6.94
16
14.01
55.85
235
Mass of one
mole of the
element (g)
24.31
6.94
16
14.01
55.85
13.2
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
Worked Example 55: Calculating the number of moles from mass
Question: Calculate the number of moles of iron (Fe) in a 111.7 g sample.
Answer
Step 1 : Find the molar mass of iron
If we look at the periodic table, we see that the molar mass of iron is 55.85 g.mol−1 .
This means that 1 mole of iron will have a mass of 55.85 g.
Step 2 : Use the molar mass and sample mass to calculate the number of
moles of iron
If 1 mole of iron has a mass of 55.85 g, then: the number of moles of iron in 111.7
g must be:
111.7g
= 2mol
55.85g.mol−1
There are 2 moles of iron in the sample.
Worked Example 56: Calculating mass from moles
Question: You have a sample that contains 5 moles of zinc.
1. What is the mass of the zinc in the sample?
2. How many atoms of zinc are in the sample?
Answer
Step 1 : Find the molar mass of zinc
Molar mass of zinc is 65.38 g.mol−1 , meaning that 1 mole of zinc has a mass of
65.38 g.
Step 2 : Calculate the mass of zinc, using moles and molar mass.
If 1 mole of zinc has a mass of 65.38 g, then 5 moles of zinc has a mass of:
65.38 g x 5 mol = 326.9 g (answer to a)
Step 3 : Use the number of moles of zinc and Avogadro’s number to calculate
the number of zinc atoms in the sample.
5 × 6.023 × 1023 = 30.115 × 1023
Exercise: Moles and molar mass
1. Give the molar mass of each of the following elements:
(a) hydrogen
(b) nitrogen
(c) bromine
2. Calculate the number of moles in each of the following samples:
(a) 21.62 g of boron (B)
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CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
13.3
(b) 54.94 g of manganese (Mn)
(c) 100.3 g of mercury (Hg)
(d) 50 g of barium (Ba)
(e) 40 g of lead (Pb)
13.3
An equation to calculate moles and mass in chemical
reactions
The calculations that have been used so far, can be made much simpler by using the following
equation:
n (number of moles) =
m (mass of substance in g)
M (molar mass of substance in g · mol−1 )
Important: Remember that when you use the equation n = m/M, the mass is always in
grams (g) and molar mass is in grams per mol (g.mol−1 ).
The equation can also be used to calculate mass and molar mass, using the following equations:
m=n×M
and
M=
m
n
The following diagram may help to remember the relationship between these three variables.
You need to imagine that the horizontal line is like a ’division’ sign and that the vertical line is
like a ’multiplication’ sign. So, for example, if you want to calculate ’M’, then the remaining two
letters in the triangle are ’m’ and ’n’ and ’m’ is above ’n’ with a division sign between them. In
your calculation then, ’m’ will be the numerator and ’n’ will be the denominator.
m
n
M
237
13.3
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
Worked Example 57: Calculating moles from mass
Question: Calculate the number of moles of copper there are in a sample that
weighs 127 g.
Answer
Step 1 : Write the equation to calculate the number of moles
n=
m
M
Step 2 : Substitute numbers into the equation
127
=2
63.55
There are 2 moles of copper in the sample.
n=
Worked Example 58: Calculating mass from moles
Question: You are given a 5 mol sample of sodium. What mass of sodium is in the
sample?
Answer
Step 1 : Write the equation to calculate the sample mass.
m=n×M
Step 2 : Substitute values into the equation.
MN a = 22.99 g.mol−1
Therefore,
m = 5 × 22.99 = 114.95g
The sample of sodium has a mass of 114.95 g.
Worked Example 59: Calculating atoms from mass
Question: Calculate the number of atoms there are in a sample of aluminium that
weighs 80.94 g.
Answer
Step 1 : Calculate the number of moles of aluminium in the sample.
n=
m
80.94
=
= 3moles
M
26.98
Step 2 : Use Avogadro’s number to calculate the number of atoms in the
sample.
Number of atoms in 3 mol aluminium = 3 × 6.023 × 1023
There are 18.069 × 1023 aluminium atoms in a sample of 80.94 g.
238
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
13.4
Exercise: Some simple calculations
1. Calculate the number of moles in each of the following samples:
(a) 5.6 g of calcium
(b) 0.02 g of manganese
(c) 40 g of aluminium
2. A lead sinker has a mass of 5 g.
(a) Calculate the number of moles of lead the sinker contains.
(b) How many lead atoms are in the sinker?
3. Calculate the mass of each of the following samples:
(a) 2.5 mol magnesium
(b) 12 g lithium
(c) 4.5 × 1025 atoms of silica
13.4
Molecules and compounds
So far, we have only discussed moles, mass and molar mass in relation to elements. But what
happens if we are dealing with a molecule or some other chemical compound? Do the same
concepts and rules apply? The answer is ’yes’. However, you need to remember that all your calculations will apply to the whole molecule. So, when you calculate the molar mass of a molecule,
you will need to add the molar mass of each atom in that compound. Also, the number of moles
will also apply to the whole molecule. For example, if you have one mole of nitric acid (HNO3 ),
it means you have 6.023 x 1023 molecules of nitric acid in the sample. This also means that
there are 6.023 × 1023 atoms of hydrogen, 6.023 × 1023 atoms of nitrogen and (3 × 6.023 ×
1023 ) atoms of oxygen in the sample.
In a balanced chemical equation, the number that is written in front of the element or compound,
shows the mole ratio in which the reactants combine to form a product. If there are no numbers
in front of the element symbol, this means the number is ’1’.
e.g. N2 + 3H2 → 2N H3
In this reaction, 1 mole of nitrogen reacts with 3 moles of hydrogen to produce 2 moles of
ammonia.
Worked Example 60: Calculating molar mass
Question: Calculate the molar mass of H2 SO4 .
Answer
Step 1 : Use the periodic table to find the molar mass for each element in
the molecule.
Hydrogen = 1.008 g.mol−1 ; Sulfur = 32.07 g.mol−1 ; Oxygen = 16 g.mol−1
239
13.4
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
Step 2 : Add the molar masses of each atom in the molecule
M(H2 SO4 ) = (2 × 1.008) + (32.07) + (4 × 16) = 98.09g.mol−1
Worked Example 61: Calculating moles from mass
Question: Calculate the number of moles there are in 1kg of MgCl2 .
Answer
Step 1 : Write the equation for calculating the number of moles in the
sample.
n=
m
M
Step 2 : Calculate the values that you will need, to substitute into the
equation
1. Convert mass into grams
m = 1kg × 1000 = 1000g
2. Calculate the molar mass of MgCl2 .
M(MgCl2 ) = 24.31 + (2 × 35.45) = 95.21g.mol−1
Step 3 : Substitute values into the equation
1000
= 10.5mol
95.21
There are 10.5 moles of magnesium chloride in a 1 kg sample.
n=
Worked Example 62: Calculating the mass of reactants and products
Question: Barium chloride and sulfuric acid react according to the following equation to produce barium sulphate and hydrochloric acid.
BaCl2 + H2 SO4 → BaSO4 + 2HCl
If you have 2 g of BaCl2 ...
1. What quantity (in g) of H2 SO4 will you need for the reaction so that all the
barium chloride is used up?
2. What mass of HCl is produced during the reaction?
Answer
Step 1 : Calculate the number of moles of BaCl2 that react.
n=
2
m
=
= 0.0096mol
M
208.24
240
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
Step 2 : Determine how many moles of H2 SO4 are needed for the reaction
According to the balanced equation, 1 mole of BaCl2 will react with 1 mole of
H2 SO4 . Therefore, if 0.0096 moles of BaCl2 react, then there must be the same
number of moles of H2 SO4 that react because their mole ratio is 1:1.
Step 3 : Calculate the mass of H2 SO4 that is needed.
m = n × M = 0.0096 × 98.086 = 0.94g
(answer to 1)
Step 4 : Determine the number of moles of HCl produced.
According to the balanced equation, 2 moles of HCl are produced for every 1 mole of
the two reactants. Therefore the number of moles of HCl produced is (2 × 0.0096),
which equals 0.0192 moles.
Step 5 : Calculate the mass of HCl.
m = n × M = 0.0192 × 35.73 = 0.69g
(answer to 2)
Activity :: Group work : Understanding moles, molecules and Avogadro’s
number
Divide into groups of three and spend about 20 minutes answering the following
questions together:
1. What are the units of the mole? Hint: Check the definition of the mole.
2. You have a 56 g sample of iron sulfide (FeS)
(a) How many moles of FeS are there in the sample?
(b) How many molecules of FeS are there in the sample?
(c) What is the difference between a mole and a molecule?
3. The exact size of Avogadro’s number is sometimes difficult to imagine.
(a) Write down Avogadro’s number without using scientific notation.
(b) How long would it take to count to Avogadro’s number? You can assume
that you can count two numbers in each second.
Exercise: More advanced calculations
1. Calculate the molar mass of the following chemical compounds:
(a) KOH
(b) FeCl3
(c) Mg(OH)2
2. How many moles are present in:
(a) 10 g of Na2 SO4
(b) 34 g of Ca(OH)2
(c) 2.45 x 1023 molecules of CH4 ?
241
13.4
13.5
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
3. For a sample of 0.2 moles of potassium bromide (KBr), calculate...
(a) the number of moles of K+ ions
(b) the number of moles of Br− ions
4. You have a sample containing 3 moles of calcium chloride.
(a) What is the chemical formula of calcium chloride?
(b) How many calcium atoms are in the sample?
5. Calculate the mass of:
(a) 3 moles of NH4 OH
(b) 4.2 moles of Ca(NO3 )2
6. 96.2 g sulfur reacts with an unknown quantity of zinc according to the following
equation:
Zn + S → ZnS
(a) What mass of zinc will you need for the reaction, if all the sulfur is to be
used up?
(b) What mass of zinc sulfide will this reaction produce?
7. Calcium chloride reacts with carbonic acid to produce calcium carbonate and
hydrochloric acid according to the following equation:
CaCl2 + H2 CO3 → CaCO3 + 2HCl
If you want to produce 10 g of calcium carbonate through this chemical reaction,
what quantity (in g) of calcium chloride will you need at the start of the
reaction?
13.5
The Composition of Substances
The empirical formula of a chemical compound is a simple expression of the relative number
of each type of atom in it. In contrast, the molecular formula of a chemical compound gives
the actual number of atoms of each element found in a molecule of that compound.
Definition: Empirical formula
The empirical formula of a chemical compound gives the relative number of each type of
atom in it.
Definition: Molecular formula
The molecular formula of a chemical compound gives the exact number of atoms of each
element in one molecule of that compound.
The compound ethanoic acid for example, has the molecular formula CH3 COOH or simply
C2 H4 O2 . In one molecule of this acid, there are two carbon atoms, four hydrogen atoms and
two oxygen atoms. The ratio of atoms in the compound is 2:4:2, which can be simplified to 1:2:1.
Therefore, the empirical formula for this compound is CH2 O. The empirical formula contains the
smallest whole number ratio of the elements that make up a compound.
Knowing either the empirical or molecular formula of a compound, can help to determine its
composition in more detail. The opposite is also true. Knowing the composition of a substance
can help you to determine its formula. There are three different types of composition problems
that you might come across:
242
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
13.5
1. Problems where you will be given the formula of the substance and asked to calculate the
percentage by mass of each element in the substance.
2. Problems where you will be given the percentage composition and asked to calculate the
formula.
3. Problems where you will be given the products of a chemical reaction and asked to calculate
the formula of one of the reactants. These are usually referred to as combustion analysis
problems.
Worked Example 63: Calculating the percentage by mass of elements in a
compound
Question: Calculate the percentage that each element contributes to the overall
mass of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ).
Answer
Step 1 : Write down the relative atomic mass of each element in the compound.
Hydrogen = 1.008 × 2 = 2.016 u
Sulfur = 32.07 u
Oxygen = 4 × 16 = 64 u
Step 2 : Calculate the molecular mass of sulfuric acid.
Use the calculations in the previous step to calculate the molecular mass of sulfuric
acid.
M ass = 2.016 + 32.07 + 64 = 98.09u
Step 3 : Convert the mass of each element to a percentage of the total mass
of the compound
Use the equation:
Percentage by mass = atomic mass / molecular mass of H2 SO4 × 100%
Hydrogen
2.016
× 100% = 2.06%
98.09
Sulfur
32.07
× 100% = 32.69%
98.09
Oxygen
64
× 100% = 65.25%
98.09
(You should check at the end that these percentages add up to 100%!)
In other words, in one molecule of sulfuric acid, hydrogen makes up 2.06% of the
mass of the compound, sulfur makes up 32.69% and oxygen makes up 65.25%.
243
13.5
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
Worked Example 64: Determining the empirical formula of a compound
Question: A compound contains 52.2% carbon (C), 13.0% hydrogen (H) and
34.8% oxygen (O). Determine its empirical formula.
Answer
Step 1 : If we assume that we have 100 g of this substance, then we can
convert each element percentage into a mass in grams.
Carbon = 52.2 g, hydrogen = 13 g and oxygen = 34.8 g
Step 2 : Convert the mass of each element into number of moles
n=
m
M
Therefore,
52.2
= 4.35mol
12.01
n(carbon) =
n(hydrogen) =
13
= 12.90mol
1.008
34.8
= 2.18mol
16
Step 3 : Convert these numbers to the simplest mole ratio by dividing by the
smallest number of moles
In this case, the smallest number of moles is 2.18. Therefore...
Carbon
n(oxygen) =
4.35
=2
2.18
Hydrogen
12.90
=6
2.18
Oxygen
2.18
=1
2.18
Therefore the empirical formula of this substance is: C2 H6 O. Do you recognise this
compound?
Worked Example 65: Determining the formula of a compound
Question: 207 g of lead combines with oxygen to form 239 g of a lead oxide. Use
this information to work out the formula of the lead oxide (Relative atomic masses:
Pb = 207 u and O = 16 u).
Answer
Step 1 : Calculate the mass of oxygen in the reactants
239 − 207 = 32g
244
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of lead and oxygen in the reactants.
n=
m
M
Lead
207
= 1mol
207
Oxygen
32
= 2mol
16
Step 3 : Deduce the formula of the compound
The mole ratio of Pb:O in the product is 1:2, which means that for every atom of
lead, there will be two atoms of oxygen. The formula of the compound is PbO2 .
Worked Example 66: Empirical and molecular formula
Question: Vinegar, which is used in our homes, is a dilute form of acetic acid. A
sample of acetic acid has the following percentage composition: 39.9% carbon, 6.7%
hyrogen and 53.4% oxygen.
1. Determine the empirical formula of acetic acid.
2. Determine the molecular formula of acetic acid if the molar mass of acetic acid
is 60g/mol.
Answer
Step 1 : Calculate the mass of each element in 100 g of acetic acid.
In 100g of acetic acid, there is 39.9 g C, 6.7 g H and 53.4 g O
Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of each element in 100 g of acetic
acid.
m
n= M
nC
=
nH
=
nO
=
39.9
= 3.33 mol
12
6.7
= 6.7 mol
1
53.4
= 3.34 mol
16
Step 3 : Divide the number of moles of each element by the lowest number
to get the simplest mole ratio of the elements (i.e. the empirical formula) in
acetic acid.
Empirical formula is CH2 O
Step 4 : Calculate the molecular formula, using the molar mass of acetic
acid.
The molar mass of acetic acid using the empirical formula is 30 g/mol. Therefore the
actual number of moles of each element must be double what it is in the emprical
formula.
The molecular formula is therefore C2 H4 O2 or CH3 COOH
245
13.5
13.6
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
Exercise: Moles and empirical formulae
1. Calcium chloride is produced as the product of a chemical reaction.
(a) What is the formula of calcium chloride?
(b) What percentage does each of the elements contribute to the mass of a
molecule of calcium chloride?
(c) If the sample contains 5 g of calcium chloride, what is the mass of calcium
in the sample?
(d) How many moles of calcium chloride are in the sample?
2. 13g of zinc combines with 6.4g of sulfur.What is the empirical formula of zinc
sulfide?
(a) What mass of zinc sulfide will be produced?
(b) What percentage does each of the elements in zinc sulfide contribute to
its mass?
(c) Determine the formula of zinc sulfide.
3. A calcium mineral consisted of 29.4% calcium, 23.5% sulphur and 47.1% oxygen
by mass. Calculate the empirical formula of the mineral.
4. A chlorinated hydrocarbon compound when analysed, consisted of 24.24% carbon, 4.04% hydrogen, 71.72% chlorine. The molecular mass was found to be
99 from another experiment. Deduce the empirical and molecular formula.
13.6
Molar Volumes of Gases
It is possible to calculate the volume of a mole of gas at STP using what we now know about
gases.
1. Write down the ideal gas equation
pV = nRT, therefore V =
nRT
p
2. Record the values that you know, making sure that they are in SI units
You know that the gas is under STP conditions. These are as follows:
p = 101.3 kPa = 101300 Pa
n = 1 mole
R = 8.3 J.K−1 .mol−1
T = 273 K
3. Substitute these values into the original equation.
V =
V =
nRT
p
1mol × 8.3J.K −1 .mol−1 × 273K
101300P a
4. Calculate the volume of 1 mole of gas under these conditions
The volume of 1 mole of gas at STP is 22.4 × 10−3 m3 = 22.4 dm3 .
246
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
13.7
Important: The standard units used for this equation are P in Pa, V in m3 and T in K.
Remember also that 1000cm3 = 1dm3 and 1000dm3 = 1m3 .
Worked Example 67: Ideal Gas
Question: A sample of gas occupies a volume of 20 dm3 , has a temperature of
280 K and has a pressure of 105 Pa. Calculate the number of moles of gas that are
present in the sample.
Answer
Step 1 : Convert all values into SI units
The only value that is not in SI units is volume. V = 0.02 m3 .
Step 2 : Write the equation for calculating the number of moles in a gas.
We know that pV = nRT
Therefore,
n=
pV
RT
Step 3 : Substitute values into the equation to calculate the number of moles
of the gas.
n=
105 × 0.02
2.1
=
= 0.0009moles
8.31 × 280
2326.8
Exercise: Using the combined gas law
1. An enclosed gas has a volume of 300 cm3 and a temperature of 300 K. The
pressure of the gas is 50 kPa. Calculate the number of moles of gas that are
present in the container.
2. What pressure will 3 mol gaseous nitrogen exert if it is pumped into a container
that has a volume of 25 dm3 at a temperature of 29 0 C?
3. The volume of air inside a tyre is 19 litres and the temperature is 290 K. You
check the pressure of your tyres and find that the pressure is 190 kPa. How
many moles of air are present in the tyre?
4. Compressed carbon dioxide is contained within a gas cylinder at a pressure of
700 kPa. The temperature of the gas in the cylinder is 310 K and the number
of moles of gas is 13 moles carbon dioxide. What is the volume of the gas
inside?
13.7
Molar concentrations in liquids
A typical solution is made by dissolving some solid substance in a liquid. The amount of substance
that is dissolved in a given volume of liquid is known as the concentration of the liquid.
Mathematically, concentration (C) is defined as moles of solute (n) per unit volume (V) of
solution.
247
13.7
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
C=
n
V
For this equation, the units for volume are dm3 . Therefore, the unit of concentration is mol.dm−3 .
When concentration is expressed in mol.dm−3 it is known as the molarity (M) of the solution.
Molarity is the most common expression for concentration.
Definition: Concentration
Concentration is a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given volume of
liquid. It is measured in mol.dm−3 . Another term that is used for concentration is molarity
(M)
Worked Example 68: Concentration Calculations 1
Question: If 3.5 g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is dissolved in 2.5 dm3 of water,
what is the concentration of the solution in mol.dm−3 ?
Answer
Step 1 : Convert the mass of NaOH into moles
m
3.5
=
= 0.0875mol
M
40
Step 2 : Calculate the concentration of the solution.
n=
C=
n
0.0875
=
= 0.035
V
2.5
The concentration of the solution is 0.035 mol.dm−3 or 0.035 M
Worked Example 69: Concentration Calculations 2
Question: You have a 1 dm3 container in which to prepare a solution of potassium
permanganate (KMnO4 ). What mass of KMnO4 is needed to make a solution with
a concentration of 0.2 M?
Answer
Step 1 : Calculate the number of moles of KMnO4 needed.
C=
n
V
therefore
n = C × V = 0.2 × 1 = 0.2mol
Step 2 : Convert the number of moles of KMnO4 to mass.
m = n × M = 0.2 × 158.04 = 31.61g
The mass of KMnO4 that is needed is 31.61 g.
248
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
13.8
Worked Example 70: Concentration Calculations 3
Question: How much sodium chloride (in g) will one need to prepare 500 cm3 of
solution with a concentration of 0.01 M?
Answer
Step 1 : Convert all quantities into the correct units for this equation.
V =
500
= 0.5dm3
1000
Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of sodium chloride needed.
n = C × V = 0.01 × 0.5 = 0.005mol
Step 3 : Convert moles of KMnO4 to mass.
m = n × M = 0.005 × 58.45 = 0.29g
The mass of sodium chloride needed is 0.29 g
Exercise: Molarity and the concentration of solutions
1. 5.95g of potassium bromide was dissolved in 400cm3 of water. Calculate its
molarity.
2. 100 g of sodium chloride (NaCl) is dissolved in 450 cm3 of water.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
How many moles of NaCl are present in solution?
What is the volume of water (in dm3 )?
Calculate the concentration of the solution.
What mass of sodium chloride would need to be added for the concentration to become 5.7 mol.dm−3 ?
3. What is the molarity of the solution formed by dissolving 80 g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in 500 cm3 of water?
4. What mass (g) of hydrogen chloride (HCl) is needed to make up 1000 cm3 of
a solution of concentration 1 mol.dm−3 ?
5. How many moles of H2 SO4 are there in 250 cm3 of a 0.8M sulphuric acid
solution? What mass of acid is in this solution?
13.8
Stoichiometric calculations
Stoichiometry is the study and calculation of relationships between reactants and products of
chemical reactions. Chapter 12 showed how to write balanced chemical equations. By knowing
the ratios of substances in a reaction, it is possible to use stoichiometry to calculate the amount
of reactants and products that are involved in the reaction. Some examples are shown below.
249
13.8
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
Worked Example 71: Stoichiometric calculation 1
Question: What volume of oxygen at S.T.P. is needed for the complete combustion
of 2dm3 of propane (C3 H8 )? (Hint: CO2 and H2 O are the products in this reaction)
Answer
Step 1 : Write a balanced equation for the reaction.
C3 H8 (g) + 5O2 (g) → 3CO2 (g) + 4H2 O(g)
Step 2 : Determine the ratio of oxygen to propane that is needed for the
reaction.
From the balanced equation, the ratio of oxygen to propane in the reactants is 5:1.
Step 3 : Determine the volume of oxygen needed for the reaction.
1 volume of propane needs 5 volumes of oxygen, therefore 2 dm3 of propane will
need 10 dm3 of oxygen for the reaction to proceed to completion.
Worked Example 72: Stoichiometric calculation 2
Question: What mass of iron (II) sulphide is formed when 5.6 g of iron is completely
reacted with sulfur?
Answer
Step 1 : Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
F e(s) + S(s) → F eS(s)
Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of iron that react.
n=
5.6
m
=
= 0.1mol
M
55.85
Step 3 : Determine the number of moles of FeS produced.
From the equation 1 mole of Fe gives 1 mole of FeS. Therefore, 0.1 moles of iron in
the reactants will give 0.1 moles of iron sulfide in the product.
Step 4 : Calculate the mass of iron sulfide formed
m = n × M = 0.1 × 87.911 = 8.79g
The mass of iron (II) sulfide that is produced during this reaction is 8.79 g.
Important:
A closer look at the previous worked example shows that 5.6 g of iron is needed to produce
8.79 g of iron (II) sulphide. The amount of sulfur that is needed in the reactants is 3.2
g. What would happen if the amount of sulfur in the reactants was increased to 6.4 g but
the amount of iron was still 5.6 g? Would more FeS be produced? In fact, the amount
of iron(II) sulfide produced remains the same. No matter how much sulfur is added to the
system, the amount of iron (II) sulfide will not increase because there is not enough iron
to react with the additional sulfur in the reactants to produce more FeS. When all the iron
is used up the reaction stops. In this example, the iron is called the limiting reagent.
Because there is more sulfur than can be used up in the reaction, it is called the excess
reagent.
250
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
Worked Example 73: Industrial reaction to produce fertiliser
Question: Sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ) reacts with ammonia (NH3 ) to produce the fertiliser ammonium sulphate ((NH4 )2 SO4 ) according to the following equation:
H2 SO4 (aq) + 2N H3 (g) → (N H4 )2 SO4 (aq)
What is the maximum mass of ammonium sulphate that can be obtained from 2.0
kg of sulfuric acid and 1.0 kg of ammonia?
Answer
Step 1 : Convert the mass of sulfuric acid and ammonia into moles
n(H2 SO4 ) =
2000g
m
=
= 20.39mol
M
98.078g/mol
n(N H3 ) =
1000g
= 58.72mol
17.03g/mol
Step 2 : Use the balanced equation to determine which of the reactants is
limiting.
From the balanced chemical equation, 1 mole of H2 SO4 reacts with 2 moles of NH3
to give 1 mole of (NH4 )2 SO4 . Therefore 20.39 moles of H2 SO4 need to react with
40.78 moles of NH3 . In this example, NH3 is in excess and H2 SO4 is the limiting
reagent.
Step 3 : Calculate the maximum amount of ammonium sulphate that can be
produced
Again from the equation, the mole ratio of H2 SO4 in the reactants to (NH4 )2 SO4
in the product is 1:1. Therefore, 20.39 moles of H2 SO4 will produce 20.39 moles of
(NH4 )2 SO4 .
The maximum mass of ammonium sulphate that can be produced is calculated as
follows:
m = n × M = 20.41mol × 132g/mol = 2694g
The maximum amount of ammonium sulphate that can be produced is 2.694 kg.
Exercise: Stoichiometry
1. Diborane, B2 H6 , was once considered for use as a rocket fuel. The combustion
reaction for diborane is:
B2 H6 (g) + 3O2 (l) → 2HBO2 (g) + 2H2 O(l)
If we react 2.37 grams of diborane, how many grams of water would we expect
to produce?
2. Sodium azide is a commonly used compound in airbags. When triggered, it
has the following reaction:
2N aN3 (s) → 2N a(s) + 3N2 (g)
If 23.4 grams of sodium azide are reacted, how many moles of nitrogen gas
would we expect to produce?
251
13.8
13.9
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
3. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that is vital to the existence of life on
Earth. During photosynthesis, plants and bacteria convert carbon dioxide gas,
liquid water, and light into glucose (C6 H12 O6 ) and oxygen gas.
(a) Write down the equation for the photosynthesis reaction.
(b) Balance the equation.
(c) If 3 moles of carbon dioxide are used up in the photosynthesis reaction,
what mass of glucose will be produced?
13.9
Summary
• It is important to be able to quantify the changes that take place during a chemical
reaction.
• The mole (n) is a SI unit that is used to describe an amount of substance that contains
the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon.
• The number of particles in a mole is called the Avogadro constant and its value is 6.023
× 1023 . These particles could be atoms, molecules or other particle units, depending on
the substance.
• The molar mass (M) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is measured in grams
per mole or g.mol−1 . The numerical value of an element’s molar mass is the same as its
relative atomic mass. For a compound, the molar mass has the same numerical value as
the molecular mass of that compound.
• The relationship between moles (n), mass in grams (m) and molar mass (M) is defined by
the following equation:
m
n=
M
• In a balanced chemical equation, the number in front of the chemical symbols describes
the mole ratio of the reactants and products.
• The empirical formula of a compound is an expression of the relative number of each
type of atom in the compound.
• The molecular formula of a compound describes the actual number of atoms of each
element in a molecule of the compound.
• The formula of a substance can be used to calculate the percentage by mass that each
element contributes to the compound.
• The percentage composition of a substance can be used to deduce its chemical formula.
• One mole of gas occupies a volume of 22.4 dm3 .
• The concentration of a solution can be calculated using the following equation,
C=
n
V
where C is the concentration (in mol.dm−3 ), n is the number of moles of solute dissolved
in the solution and V is the volume of the solution (in dm3 ).
• Molarity is a measure of the concentration of a solution, and its units are mol.dm−3 .
• Stoichiometry, the study of the relationships between reactants and products, can be
used to determine the quantities of reactants and products that are involved in chemical
reactions.
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CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
13.9
• A limiting reagent is the chemical that is used up first in a reaction, and which therefore
determines how far the reaction will go before it has to stop.
• An excess reagent is a chemical that is in greater quantity than the limiting reagent in
the reaction. Once the reaction is complete, there will still be some of this chemical that
has not been used up.
Exercise: Summary Exercise
1. Write only the word/term for each of the following descriptions:
(a) the mass of one mole of a substance
(b) the number of particles in one mole of a substance
2. Multiple choice: Choose the one correct answer from those given.
A 5 g of magnesium chloride is formed as the product of a chemical reaction.
Select the true statement from the answers below:
i. 0.08 moles of magnesium chloride are formed in the reaction
ii. the number of atoms of Cl in the product is approximately 0.6023 ×
1023
iii. the number of atoms of Mg is 0.05
iv. the atomic ratio of Mg atoms to Cl atoms in the product is 1:1
B 2 moles of oxygen gas react with hydrogen. What is the mass of oxygen
in the reactants?
i. 32 g
ii. 0.125 g
iii. 64 g
iv. 0.063 g
C In the compound potassium sulphate (K2 SO4 ), oxygen makes up x% of
the mass of the compound. x = ...
i. 36.8
ii. 9.2
iii. 4
iv. 18.3
D The molarity of a 150 cm3 solution, containing 5 g of NaCl is...
i. 0.09 M
ii. 5.7 × 10−4 M
iii. 0.57 M
iv. 0.03 M
3. 300 cm3 of a 0.1 mol.dm−3 solution of sulfuric acid is added to 200 cm3 of a
0.5 mol.dm−3 solution of sodium hydroxide.
a Write down a balanced equation for the reaction which takes place when
these two solutions are mixed.
b Calculate the number of moles of sulfuric acid which were added to the
sodium hydroxide solution.
c Is the number of moles of sulfuric acid enough to fully neutralise the sodium
hydroxide solution? Support your answer by showing all relevant calculations.
(IEB Paper 2 2004)
4. Ozone (O3 ) reacts with nitrogen monoxide gas (NO) to produce NO2 gas. The
NO gas forms largely as a result of emissions from the exhausts of motor vehicles
and from certain jet planes. The NO2 gas also causes the brown smog (smoke
and fog), which is seen over most urban areas. This gas is also harmful to
humans, as it causes breathing (respiratory) problems. The following equation
indicates the reaction between ozone and nitrogen monoxide:
253
13.9
CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 11
O3 (g) + N O(g) → O2 (g) + N O2 (g)
In one such reaction 0.74 g of O3 reacts with 0.67 g NO.
a Calculate the number of moles of O3 and of NO present at the start of the
reaction.
b Identify the limiting reagent in the reaction and justify your answer.
c Calculate the mass of NO2 produced from the reaction.
(DoE Exemplar Paper 2, 2007)
5. A learner is asked to make 200 cm3 of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution of
concentration 0.5 mol.dm−3 .
a Determine the mass of sodium hydroxide pellets he needs to use to do this.
b Using an accurate balance the learner accurately measures the correct mass
of the NaOH pellets. To the pellets he now adds exactly 200 cm3 of pure
water. Will his solution have the correct concentration? Explain your
answer.
300 cm3 of a 0.1 mol.dm−3 solution of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ) is added to
200 cm3 of a 0.5 mol.dm−3 solution of NaOH at 250 C.
c Write down a balanced equation for the reaction which takes place when
these two solutions are mixed.
d Calculate the number of moles of H2 SO4 which were added to the NaOH
solution.
e Is the number of moles of H2 SO4 calculated in the previous question
enough to fully neutralise the NaOH solution? Support your answer by
showing all the relevant calculations.
(IEB Paper 2, 2004)
254
Chapter 14
Energy Changes In Chemical
Reactions - Grade 11
All chemical reactions involve energy changes. In some reactions, we are able to see these energy
changes by either an increase or a decrease in the overall energy of the system.
14.1
What causes the energy changes in chemical reactions?
When a chemical reaction occurs, bonds in the reactants break, while new bonds form in the
product. The following example may help to explain this.
Hydrogen reacts with oxygen to form water, according to the following equation:
2H2 + O2 → 2H2 O
In this reaction, the bond between the two hydrogen atoms in the H2 molecule will break, as will
the bond between the oxygen atoms in the O2 molecule. New bonds will form between the two
hydrogen atoms and the single oxygen atom in the water molecule that is formed as the product.
For bonds to break, energy must be absorbed. When new bonds form, energy is released. The
energy that is needed to break a bond is called the bond energy or bond dissociation energy.
Bond energies are measured in units of kJ.mol−1 .
Definition: Bond energy
Bond energy is a measure of bond strength in a chemical bond. It is the amount of energy
(in kJ.mol−1 ) that is needed to break the chemical bond between two atoms.
14.2
Exothermic and endothermic reactions
In some reactions, the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants, is less
than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. This means that in the overall
reaction, energy is released as either heat or light. This type of reaction is called an exothermic
reaction. Another way of describing an exothermic reaction is that it is one in which the energy
of the product is less than the energy of the reactants, because energy has been released during
the reaction. We can represent this using the following general formula:
Reactants → Product + Energy
255
14.2
CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS - GRADE 11
Definition: Exothermic reaction
An exothermic reaction is one that releases energy in the form of heat or light.
In other reactions,the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants, is more
than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. This means that in the overall
reaction, energy must be absorbed from the surroundings. This type of reaction is known as an
endothermic reaction. Another way of describing an endothermic reaction is that it is one in
which the energy of the product is greater than the energy of the reactants, because energy has
been absorbed during the reaction. This can be represented by the following formula:
Reactants + Energy → Product
Definition: Endothermic reaction
An endothermic reaction is one that absorbs energy in the form of heat.
The difference in energy (E) between the reactants and the products is known as the heat of
the reaction. It is also sometimes referred to as the enthalpy change of the system.
Activity :: Demonstration : Endothermic and exothermic reactions 1
Apparatus and materials:
You will need citric acid, sodium bicarbonate, a glass beaker, the lid of an icecream container, thermometer, glass stirring rod and a pair of scissors. Note that
citric acid is found in citrus fruits such as lemons. Sodium bicarbonate is actually
bicarbonate of soda (baking soda), the baking ingredient that helps cakes to rise.
Method:
1. Cut a piece of plastic from the ice-cream container lid that will be big enough
to cover the top of the beaker. Cut a small hole in the centre of this piece of
plastic and place the thermometer through it.
2. Pour some citric acid (H3 C6 H5 O7 ) into the glass beaker, cover the beaker with
its ’lid’ and record the temperature of the solution.
3. Stir in the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ), then cover the beaker again.
4. Immediately record the temperature, and then take a temperature reading every
two minutes after that. Record your results in a table like the one below.
Time (mins)
Temperature (0 C)
0
2
4
6
The equation for the reaction that takes place is:
H3 C6 H5 O7 (aq) + 3N aHCO3 (s) → 3CO2 (g) + 3H2 O(l) + N aC6 H5 O7 (aq)
Results:
• Plot your temperature results on a graph of temperature against time. What
happens to the temperature during this reaction?
• Is this an exothermic or an endothermic reaction?
• Why was it important to keep the beaker covered with a lid?
• Do you think a glass beaker is the best thing to use for this experiment? Explain
your answer.
• Suggest another container that could have been used and give reasons for your
choice. It might help you to look back to chapter ?? for some ideas!
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CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS - GRADE 11
14.3
Activity :: Demonstration : Endothermic and exothermic reactions 2
Apparatus and materials:
Vinegar, steel wool, thermometer, glass beaker and plastic lid (from previous
demonstration).
Method:
1. Put the thermometer through the plastic lid, cover the beaker and record the
temperature in the empty beaker. You will need to leave the thermometer in
the beaker for about 5 minutes in order to get an accurate reading.
2. Take the thermometer out of the jar.
3. Soak a piece of steel wool in vinegar for about a minute. The vinegar removes
the protective coating from the steel wool so that the metal is exposed to
oxygen.
4. After the steel wool has been in the vinegar, remove it and squeeze out any
vinegar that is still on the wool. Wrap the steel wool around the thermometer
and place it (still wrapped round the thermometer) back into the jar. The jar
is automatically sealed when you do this because the thermometer is through
the top of the lid.
5. Leave the steel wool in the beaker for about 5 minutes and then record the
temperature. Record your observations.
Results:
You should notice that the temperature increases when the steel wool is wrapped
around the thermometer.
Conclusion:
The reaction between oxygen and the exposed metal in the steel wool, is exothermic, which means that energy is released and the temperature increases.
14.3
The heat of reaction
The heat of the reaction is represented by the symbol ∆H, where:
∆H = Eprod − Ereact
• In an exothermic reaction, ∆H is less than zero because the energy of the reactants is
greater than the energy of the product. For example,
H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl ∆H = -183 kJ
• In an endothermic reaction, ∆H is greater than zero because the energy of the reactants
is less than the energy of the product. For example,
C + H2 O → CO + H2 ∆H = +131 kJ
Some of the information relating to exothermic and endothermic reactions is summarised in table
14.1.
257
14.3
CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS - GRADE 11
Table 14.1: A comparison of exothermic and endothermic reactions
Type of reaction
Exothermic
Endothermic
Energy absorbed or re- Released
Absorbed
leased
Relative energy of reac- Energy of reactants greater Energy of reactants less
tants and products
than energy of product
than energy of product
Sign of ∆H
Negative
Positive
Definition: Enthalpy
Enthalpy is the heat content of a chemical system, and is given the symbol ’H’.
Important: Writing equations using ∆H
There are two ways to write the heat of the reaction in an equation
For the exothermic reaction C(s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g), we can write:
C(s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) ∆H = -393 kJ.mol−1 or
C(s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + 393 kJ.mol−1
For the endothermic reaction, C(s) + H2 O(g) → H2 (g) + CO(g), we can write:
C(s) + H2 O(g) → H2 (g) + CO(g) ∆H = +131 kJ.mol−1 or
C(s) + H2 O(g) + 131 kJ.mol−1 → CO + H2
The units for ∆H are kJ.mol−1 . In other words, the ∆H value gives the amount of
energy that is absorbed or released per mole of product that is formed. Units can
also be written as kJ, which then gives the total amount of energy that is released or
absorbed when the product forms.
Activity :: Investigation : Endothermic and exothermic reactions
Apparatus and materials:
Approximately 2 g each of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ), sodium hydroxide (NaOH),
potassium nitrate (KNO3 ) and barium chloride (BaCl2 ); concentrated sulfuric acid
(H2 SO4 ); 5 test tubes; thermometer.
Method:
1. Dissolve about 1 g of each of the following substances in 5-10 cm3 of water in
a test tube: CaCl2 , NaOH, KNO3 and BaCl2 .
2. Observe whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic, either by feeling
whether the side of the test tube gets hot or cold, or using a thermometer.
3. Dilute 3 cm3 of concentrated H2 SO4 in 10 cm3 of water in the fifth test tube
and observe whether the temperature changes.
4. Wait a few minutes and then add NaOH to the H2 SO4 . Observe any energy
changes.
5. Record which of the above reactions are endothermic and which are exothermic.
Results:
• When BaCl2 and KNO3 dissolve in water, they take in heat from the surroundings. The dissolution of these salts is endothermic.
• When CaCl2 and NaOH dissolve in water, heat is released. The process is
exothermic.
258
CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS - GRADE 11
14.4
• The reaction of H2 SO4 and NaOH is also exothermic.
14.4
Examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions
There are many examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions that occur around us all the
time. The following are just a few examples.
1. Endothermic reactions
• Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is the chemical reaction that takes place in plants, which uses energy
from the sun to change carbon dioxide and water into food that the plant needs to
survive, and which other organisms (such as humans and other animals) can eat so
that they too can survive. The equation for this reaction is:
6CO2 + 12H2 O + energy → C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 + 6H2 O
Photosynthesis is an endothermic reaction because it will not happen without an external source of energy, which in this case is sunlight.
• The thermal decomposition of limestone
In industry, the breakdown of limestone into quicklime and carbon dioxide is very
important. Quicklime can be used to make steel from iron and also to neutralise soils
that are too acid. However, the limestone must be heated in a kiln at a temperature
of over 9000 C before the decomposition reaction will take place. The equation for
the reaction is shown below:
CaCO3 → CaO + CO2
2. Exothermic reactions
• Combustion reactions - The burning of fuel is an example of a combustion reaction, and we as humans rely heavily on this process for our energy requirements.
The following equations describe the combustion of a hydrocarbon such as methane
(CH4 ):
Fuel + Oxygen → Heat + Water + CarbonDioxide
CH4 + 2O2 → Heat + H2 O + CO2
This is why we burn fuels for energy, because the chemical changes that take place
during the reaction release huge amounts of energy, which we then use for things like
power and electricity. You should also note that carbon dioxide is produced during
this reaction. Later we will discuss some of the negative impacts of CO2 on the
environment. The chemical reaction that takes place when fuels burn therefore has
both positive and negative consequences.
• Respiration
Respiration is the chemical reaction that happens in our bodies to produce energy for
our cells. The equation below describes what happens during this reaction:
C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2 O + energy
In the reaction above, glucose (a type of carbohydrate in the food we eat) reacts with
oxygen from the air that we breathe in, to form carbon dioxide (which we breathe
out), water and energy. The energy that is produced allows the cell to carry out its
functions efficiently. Can you see now why you are always told that you must eat
food to get energy? It is not the food itself that provides you with energy, but the
exothermic reaction that takes place when compounds within the food react with the
oxygen you have breathed in!
259
14.5
CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS - GRADE 11
teresting Lightsticks or glowsticks are used by divers, campers, and for decoration and
Interesting
Fact
Fact
fun. A lightstick is a plastic tube with a glass vial inside it. To activate a
lightstick, you bend the plastic stick, which breaks the glass vial. This allows
the chemicals that are inside the glass to mix with the chemicals in the plastic
tube. These two chemicals react and release energy. Another part of a lightstick
is a fluorescent dye which changes this energy into light, causing the lightstick
to glow!
Exercise: Endothermic and exothermic reactions
1. In each of the following reactions, say whether the reaction is endothermic or
exothermic, and give a reason for your answer.
(a) H2 + I2 → 2HI + 21kJ
(b) CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2 O ∆ H = -802 kJ
(c) The following reaction takes place in a flask:
Ba(OH)2 .8H2 O + 2N H4 N O3 → Ba(N O3 )2 + 2N H3 + 10H2 O
Within a few minutes, the temperature of the flask drops by approximately 20C.
(d) N a + Cl2 → 2N aCl ∆H = -411 kJ
(e) C + O2 → CO2
2. For each of the following descriptions, say whether the process is endothermic
or exothermic and give a reason for your answer.
(a) evaporation
(b) the combustion reaction in a car engine
(c) bomb explosions
(d) melting ice
(e) digestion of food
(f) condensation
14.5
Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions
Activity :: Demonstration : Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions
Apparatus and materials:
A length of magnesium ribbon, thick copper wire and a bunsen burner
260
CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS - GRADE 11
14.6
magnesium
ribbon
Method:
1. Scrape the length of magnesium ribbon and copper wire clean.
2. Heat each piece of metal over the bunsen burner, in a non-luminous flame.
Observe whether any chemical reaction takes place.
3. Remove the metals from the flame and observe whether the reaction stops. If
the reaction stops, return the metal to the bunsen flame and continue to heat
it.
Results:
• Did any reaction take place before the metals were heated?
• Did either of the reactions continue after they were removed from the flame?
• Write a balanced equation for each of the chemical reactions that takes place.
In the demonstration above, the reaction between magnesium and oxygen, and the reaction
between copper and oxygen are both non-spontaneous. Before the metals were held over the
bunsen burner, no reaction was observed. They need energy to initiate the reaction. After
the reaction has started, it may then carry on spontaneously. This is what happened when the
magnesium reacted with oxygen. Even after the magnesium was removed from the flame, the
reaction continued. Other reactions will not carry on unless there is a constant addition of energy. This was the case when copper reacted with oxygen. As soon as the copper was removed
from the flame, the reaction stopped.
Now try adding a solution of dilute sulfuric acid with a solution of sodium hydroxide. What do
you observe? This is an example of a spontaneous reaction because the reaction takes place
without any energy being added.
Definition: Spontaneous reaction
A spontaneous reaction is a physical or chemical change that occurs without the addition
of energy.
14.6
Activation energy and the activated complex
From the demonstrations of spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions, it should be clear that
most reactions will not take place until the system has some minimum amount of energy added
261
14.6
CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS - GRADE 11
to it. This energy is called the activation energy. Activation energy is the ’threshold energy’
or the energy that must be overcome in order for a chemical reaction to occur.
Definition: Activation energy
Activation energy or ’threshold energy’ is the energy that must be overcome in order for a
chemical reaction to occur.
It is possible to draw an energy diagram to show the energy changes that take place during a
particular reaction. Let’s consider an example:
H2 (g) + F2 (g) → 2HF (g)
[H2 F2 ] (activated complex)
Potential energy
activation
energy
H2 + F2
reactants
∆H = −268
k.J.mol−1
2HF
products
Time
Figure 14.1: The energy changes that take place during an exothermic reaction
The reaction between H2 (g) and F2 (g) (figure 14.1) needs energy in order to proceed, and this is
the activation energy. Once the reaction has started, an in-between, temporary state is reached
where the two reactants combine to give H2 F2 . This state is sometimes called a transition
state and the energy that is needed to reach this state is equal to the activation energy for the
reaction. The compound that is formed in this transition state is called the activated complex.
The transition state lasts for only a very short time, after which either the original bonds reform,
or the bonds are broken and a new product forms. In this example, the final product is HF and
it has a lower energy than the reactants. The reaction is exothermic and ∆H is negative.
Definition: Activated complex
The activated complex is a transitional structure in a chemical reaction that results from the
effective collisions between reactant molecules, and which remains while old bonds break
and new bonds form.
In endothermic reactions, the final products have a higher energy than the reactants. An energy
diagram is shown below (figure 14.2) for the endothermic reaction XY + Z → X + Y Z. In this
example, the activated complex has the formula XYZ. Notice that the activation energy for the
endothermic reaction is much greater than for the exothermic reaction.
teresting The reaction between H and F was considered by NASA (National Aeronautics
Interesting
Fact
Fact
and Space Administration) as a fuel system for rocket boosters because of the
energy that is released during this exothermic reaction.
262
CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS - GRADE 11
14.6
Potential energy
[XYZ]
activation
energy
X + YZ
products
∆H > 0
XY + Z
reactants
Time
Figure 14.2: The energy changes that take place during an endothermic reaction
Important: Enzymes and activation energy
An enzyme is a catalyst that helps to speed up the rate of a reaction by lowering the
activation energy of a reaction. There are many enzymes in the human body, without which
lots of important reactions would never take place. Cellular respiration is one example of a
reaction that is catalysed by enzymes. You will learn more about catalysts in chapter ??.
Exercise: Energy and reactions
1. Carbon reacts with water according to the following equation:
C + H2 O ⇔ CO + H2 ∆H > 0
(a) Is this reaction endothermic or exothermic?
(b) Give a reason for your answer.
2. Refer to the graph below and then answer the questions that follow:
Potential energy (kJ)
25
0
-15
Time
263
14.7
CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS - GRADE 11
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
14.7
What is the energy of the reactants?
What is the energy of the products?
Calculate ∆H.
What is the activation energy for this reaction?
Summary
• When a reaction occurs, some bonds break and new bonds form. These changes involve
energy.
• When bonds break, energy is absorbed and when new bonds form, energy is released.
• The bond energy is the amount of energy that is needed to break the chemical bond
between two atoms.
• If the energy that is needed to break the bonds is greater than the energy that is released
when new bonds form, then the reaction is endothermic. The energy of the product is
greater than the energy of the reactants.
• If the energy that is needed to break the bonds is less than the energy that is released
when new bonds form, then the reaction is exothermic. The energy of the product is less
than the energy of the reactants.
• An endothermic reaction is one that absorbs energy in the form of heat, while an exothermic reaction is one that releases energy in the form of heat and light.
• The difference in energy between the reactants and the product is called the heat of
reaction and has the symbol ∆H.
• In an endothermic reaction, ∆H is a positive number, and in an exothermic reaction, ∆H
will be negative.
• Photosynthesis, evaporation and the thermal decomposition of limestone, are all examples
of endothermic reactions.
• Combustion reactions and respiration are both examples of exothermic reactions.
• A reaction which proceeds without additional energy being added, is called a spontaneous
reaction.
• Reactions where energy must be supplied for the activation energy to be overcome, are
called non-spontaneous reactions.
• In any reaction, some minimum energy must be overcome before the reaction will proceed.
This is called the activation energy of the reaction.
• The activated complex is the transitional product that is formed during a chemical
reaction while old bonds break and new bonds form.
Exercise: Summary Exercise
1. For each of the following, say whether the statement is true or false. If it is
false, give a reason for your answer.
(a) Energy is released in all chemical reactions.
(b) The condensation of water vapour is an example of an endothermic reaction.
264
CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS - GRADE 11
14.7
(c)
(d)
2. For
(a)
In an exothermic reaction ∆H is less than zero.
All non-spontaneous reactions are endothermic.
each of the following, choose the one correct answer.
For the following reaction:
A + B ⇔ AB ∆H = -129 kJ.mol−1
i. The energy of the reactants is less than the energy of the product.
ii. The energy of the product is less than the energy of the reactants.
iii. The reaction is non-spontaneous.
iv. The overall energy of the system increases during the reaction.
(b) Consider the following chemical equilibrium:
2NO2 ⇔ N2 O4
Which one of the following graphs best represents the changes in potential
energy that take place during the production of N2 O4 ?
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
3. The cellular respiration reaction is catalysed by enzymes. The equation for the
reaction is:
C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2 O
The change in potential energy during this reaction is shown below:
Potential energy
activation
energy
C6 H12 O6 + 6O2
∆H
6CO2 + 6H2 O
Time
(a) Will the value of ∆H be positive or negative? Give a reason for your
answer.
(b) Explain what is meant by ’activation energy’.
(c) What role do enzymes play in this reaction?
(d) Glucose is one of the reactants in cellular respiration. What important
chemical reaction produces glucose?
(e) Is the reaction in your answer above an endothermic or an exothermic one?
Explain your answer.
(f) Explain why proper nutrition and regular exercise are important in maintaining a healthy body.
265
(iv)
14.7
CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS - GRADE 11
266
Chapter 15
Types of Reactions - Grade 11
There are many different types of chemical reactions that can take place. In this chapter, we will
be looking at a few of the more common reaction types: acid-base and acid-carbonate reactions,
redox reactions and addition, elimination and substitution reactions.
15.1
Acid-base reactions
15.1.1
What are acids and bases?
In our daily lives, we encounter many examples of acids and bases. In the home, vinegar (acetic
acid), lemon juice (citric acid) and tartaric acid (the main acid found in wine) are common, while
hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and nitric acid are examples of acids that are more likely to be
found in laboratories and industry. Hydrochloric acid is also found in the gastric juices in the
stomach. Even fizzy drinks contain acid (carbonic acid), as do tea and wine (tannic acid)! Bases
that you may have heard of include sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), ammonium hydroxide and
ammonia. Some of these are found in household cleaning products. Acids and bases are also
important commercial products in the fertiliser, plastics and petroleum refining industries. Some
common acids and bases, and their chemical formulae, are shown in table 15.1.
Table 15.1: Some common acids and
Acid
Formula
Hydrochoric acid
HCl
Sulfuric acid
H2 SO4
Nitric acid
HNO3
Acetic (ethanoic) acid CH3 COOH
Carbonic acid
H2 CO3
Sulfurous acid
H2 SO3
Phosphoric acid
H3 PO4
bases and their chemical
Base
Sodium hydroxide
Potassium hydroxide
Sodium carbonate
Calcium hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide
Ammonia
Sodium bicarbonate
formulae
Formula
NaOH
KOH
Na2 CO3
Ca(OH)2
Mg(OH)2
NH3
NaHCO3
Most acids share certain characteristics, and most bases also share similar characteristics. It
is important to be able to have a definition for acids and bases so that they can be correctly
identified in reactions.
15.1.2
Defining acids and bases
A number of definitions for acids and bases have developed over the years. One of the earliest
was the Arrhenius definition. Arrhenius (1887) noticed that water dissociates (splits up) into
hydronium (H3 O+ ) and hydroxide (OH− ) ions according to the following equation:
H2 O ⇔ H3 O+ + OH−
267
15.1
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
Arrhenius described an acid as a compound that increases the concentration of H3 O+ ions
in solution, and a base as a compound that increases the concentration of OH− ions in a
solution. Look at the following examples showing the dissociation of hydrochloric acid and
sodium hydroxide (a base) respectively:
1. HCl + H2 O → H3 O+ + Cl−
Hydrochloric acid in water increases the concentration of H3 O+ ions and is therefore an
acid.
2. NaOH + H2 O → Na+ + OH−
Sodium hydroxide in water increases the concentration of OH− ions and is therefore a
base.
However, this definition could only be used for acids and bases in water. It was important to
come up with a much broader definition for acids and bases.
It was Lowry and Bronsted (1923) who took the work of Arrhenius further to develop a broader
definition for acids and bases. The Bronsted-Lowry model defines acids and bases in terms of
their ability to donate or accept protons.
Definition: Acids and bases
According to the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases, an acid is a substance that
gives away protons (H+ ), and is therefore called a proton donor. A base is a substance
that takes up protons, and is therefore called a proton acceptor.
Below are some examples:
1. HCl(g) + NH3 (g) → NH4+ + Cl−
In order to decide which substance is a proton donor and which is a proton acceptor, we
need to look at what happens to each reactant. The reaction can be broken down as
follows:
HCl → Cl− + H+ and
NH3 + H+ → NH+
4
From these reactions, it is clear that HCl is a proton donor and is therefore an acid, and
that NH3 is a proton acceptor and is therefore a base.
2. CH3 COOH + H2 O → H3 O+ + CH3 COO−
The reaction can be broken down as follows:
CH3 COOH → CH3 COO− + H+ and
H2 O + H+ → H3 O+
In this reaction, CH3 COOH (acetic acid) is a proton donor and is therefore the acid. In
this case, water acts as a base because it accepts a proton to form H3 O+ .
−
3. NH3 + H2 O → NH+
4 + OH
The reaction can be broken down as follows:
268
For
more
information
on dissociation, refer to
chapter 20.
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
15.1
H2 O → OH− + H+ and
NH3 + H+ → NH+
4
In this reaction, water donates a proton and is therefore an acid in this reaction. Ammonia
accepts the proton and is therefore the base. Notice that in the previous equation, water
acted as a base and that in this equation it acts as an acid. Water can act as both an
acid and a base depending on the reaction. This is also true of other substances. These
substances are called ampholytes and are said to be amphoteric.
Definition: Amphoteric
An amphoteric substance is one that can react as either an acid or base. Examples of
amphoteric substances include water, zinc oxide and beryllium hydroxide.
15.1.3
Conjugate acid-base pairs
Look at the reaction between hydrochloric acid and ammonia to form ammonium and chloride
ions:
−
HCl + NH3 ⇔ NH+
4 + Cl
Looking firstly at the forward reaction (i.e. the reaction that proceeds from left to right), the
changes that take place can be shown as follows:
HCl → Cl− + H+ and
NH3 + H+ → NH+
4
Looking at the reverse reaction (i.e. the reaction that proceeds from right to left), the changes
that take place are as follows:
+
NH+
4 → NH3 + H and
Cl− + H+ → HCl
In the forward reaction, HCl is a proton donor (acid) and NH3 is a proton acceptor (base).
In the reverse reaction, the chloride ion is the proton acceptor (base) and NH+
4 is the proton
donor (acid). A conjugate acid-base pair is two compounds in a reaction that change into
each other through the loss or gain of a proton. The conjugate acid-base pairs for the above
reaction are shown below.
conjugate pair
HCl + NH3
acid1 base2
−
NH+
4 + Cl
acid2 base1
conjugate pair
The reaction between ammonia and water can also be used as an example:
269
15.1
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
conjugate pair
−
NH+
4 + OH
acid2 base1
H2 O + NH3
acid1 base2
conjugate pair
Definition: Conjugate acid-base pair
The term refers to two compounds that transform into each other by the gain or loss of a
proton.
Exercise: Acids and bases
1. In the following reactions, identify (1) the acid and the base in the reactants
and (2) the salt in the product.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
H2 SO4 + Ca(OH)2 → CaSO4 + 2H2 O
CuO + H2 SO4 → CuSO4 + H2 O
H2 O + C6 H5 OH → H3 O+ + C6 H5 O−
HBr + C5 H5 N → (C5 H5 NH+ )Br−
2. In each of the following reactions, label the conjugate acid-base pairs.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
15.1.4
H2 SO4 + H2 O ⇔ H3 O+ + HSO−
4
−
NH+
+
F
⇔
HF
+
NH
3
4
H2 O + CH3 COO− ⇔ CH3 COOH + OH−
H2 SO4 + Cl− ⇔ HCl + HSO−
4
Acid-base reactions
When an acid and a base react, they neutralise each other to form a salt. If the base contains
hydroxide (OH− ) ions, then water will also be formed. The word salt is a general term which
applies to the products of all acid-base reactions. A salt is a product that is made up of the
cation from a base and the anion from an acid. When an acid reacts with a base, they neutralise
each other. In other words, the acid becomes less acidic and the base becomes less basic. Look
at the following examples:
1. Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium chloride (the salt) and
water. Sodium chloride is made up of Na+ cations from the base (NaOH) and Cl− anions
from the acid (HCl).
HCl + NaOH → H2 O + NaCl
2. Hydrogen bromide reacts with potassium hydroxide to form potassium bromide (the salt)
and water. Potassium bromide is made up of K+ cations from the base (KOH) and Br−
anions from the acid (HBr).
HBr + KOH → H2 O + KBr
270
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
15.1
3. Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydrocarbonate to form sodium chloride (the salt)
and hydrogen carbonate. Sodium chloride is made up of Na+ cations from the base
(NaHCO3 ) and Cl− anions from the acid (HCl).
HCl + NaHCO3 → H2 CO3 + NaCl
You should notice that in the first two examples, the base contained OH− ions, and therefore the
products were a salt and water. NaCl (table salt) and KBr are both salts. In the third example,
NaHCO3 also acts as a base, despite not having OH− ions. A salt is still formed as one of the
products, but no water is produced.
It is important to realise how important these neutralisation reactions are. Below are some
examples:
• Domestic uses
Calcium oxide (CaO) is put on soil that is too acid. Powdered limestone (CaCO3 ) can
also be used but its action is much slower and less effective. These substances can also
be used on a larger scale in farming and also in rivers.
• Biological uses
Acids in the stomach (e.g. hydrochloric acid) play an important role in helping to digest
food. However, when a person has a stomach ulcer, or when there is too much acid in the
stomach, these acids can cause a lot of pain. Antacids are taken to neutralise the acids so
that they don’t burn as much. Antacids are bases which neutralise the acid. Examples of
antacids are aluminium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide (’milk of magnesia’) and sodium
bicarbonate (’bicarbonate of soda’). Antacids can also be used to relieve heartburn.
• Industrial uses
Alkaline calcium hydroxide (limewater) can be used to absorb harmful SO2 gas that is
released from power stations and from the burning of fossil fuels.
teresting Bee stings are acidic and have a pH between 5 and 5.5. They can be soothed
Interesting
Fact
Fact
by using substances such as calomine lotion, which is a mild alkali based on zinc
oxide. Bicarbonate of soda can also be used. Both alkalis help to neutralise the
acidic bee sting and relieve some of the itchiness!
271
15.1
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
Important: Acid-base titrations
The neutralisation reaction between an acid and a base can be very useful. If an acidic
solution of known concentration (a standard solution) is added to an alkaline solution until
the solution is exactly neutralised (i.e. it has neither acidic nor basic properties), it is
possible to calculate the exact concentration of the unknown solution. It is possible to do
this because, at the exact point where the solution is neutralised, chemically equivalent
amounts of acid and base have reacted with each other. This type of calculation is called
volumetric analysis. The process where an acid solution and a basic solution are added
to each other for this purpose, is called a titration, and the point of neutralisation is called
the end point of the reaction. So how exactly can a titration be carried out to determine
an unknown concentration? Look at the following steps to help you to understand the
process.
Step 1:
A measured volume of the solution with unknown concentration is put into a flask.
Step 2:
A suitable indicator is added to this solution (bromothymol blue and phenolpthalein are
common indicators).
Step 3:
A volume of the standard solution is put into a burette and is slowly added to the solution
in the flask, drop by drop.
Step 4:
At some point, adding one more drop will change the colour of the unknown solution.
For example, if the solution is basic and bromothymol blue is being used as the indicator in the titration, the bromothymol blue would originally have coloured the solution
blue. At the end point of the reaction, adding one more drop of acid will change the
colour of the basic solution from blue to yellow. Yellow shows that the solution is now acidic.
Step 5:
Record the volume of standard solution that has been added up to this point.
Step 6:
Use the information you have gathered to calculate the exact concentration of the unknown
solution. A worked example is shown below.
Important: Titration calculations
When you are busy with these calculations, you will need to remember the following:
1dm3 = 1 litre = 1000ml = 1000cm3, therefore dividing cm3 by 1000 will give you an answer in
dm3 .
Some other terms and equations which will be useful to remember are shown below:
• Molarity is a term used to describe the concentration of a solution, and is measured in
mol.dm−3 . The symbol for molarity is M. Refer to chapter 13 for more information on
molarity.
• Moles = molarity (mol.dm−3 ) x volume (dm3 )
• Molarity (mol.dm−3 ) = mol / volume
272
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
Worked Example 74: Titration calculation
Question: Given the equation:
NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2 O
25cm3 of a sodium hydroxide solution was pipetted into a conical flask and titrated
with 0.2M hydrochloric acid. Using a suitable indicator, it was found that 15cm3
of acid was needed to neutralise the alkali. Calculate the molarity of the sodium
hydroxide.
Answer
Step 1 : Write down all the information you know about the reaction, and
make sure that the equation is balanced.
NaOH: V = 25 cm3
HCl: V = 15 cm3 ; C = 0.2 M
The equation is already balanced.
Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of HCl that react according to this
equation.
n
V
Therefore, n(HCl) = M × V (make sure that all the units are correct!)
M=
M = 0.2mol.dm−3
V = 15cm3 = 0.015dm3
Therefore
n(HCl) = 0.2 × 0.015 = 0.003
There are 0.003 moles of HCl that react
Step 3 : Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide in the reaction
Look at the equation for the reaction. For every mole of HCl there is one mole
of NaOH that is involved in the reaction. Therefore, if 0.003 moles of HCl react,
we can conclude that the same quantity of NaOH is needed for the reaction. The
number of moles of NaOH in the reaction is 0.003.
Step 4 : Calculate the molarity of the sodium hydroxide
First convert the volume into dm3 . V = 0.025 dm3 . Then continue with the
calculation.
M=
0.003
n
=
= 0.12
V
0.025
The molarity of the NaOH solution is 0.12 mol.dm3 or 0.12 M
Worked Example 75: Titration calculation
Question: 4.9 g of sulfuric acid is dissolved in water and the final solution has a
volume of 220 cm3 . Using titration, it was found that 20 cm3 of this solution was
273
15.1
15.1
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
able to completely neutralise 10 cm3 of a sodium hydroxide solution. Calculate the
concentration of the sodium hydroxide in mol.dm−3 .
Answer
Step 1 : Write a balanced equation for the titration reaction.
H2 SO4 + 2NaOH → Na2 SO4 + 2H2 O
Step 2 : Calculate the molarity of the sulfuric acid solution.
M = n/V
V = 220 cm3 = 0.22 dm3
n=
4.9g
m
= 0.05mols
=
M
98g.mol−1
Therefore,
M=
0.05
= 0.23mol.dm−3
0.22
Step 3 : Calculate the moles of sulfuric acid that were used in the neutralisation reaction.
Remember that only 20 cm3 of the sulfuric acid solution is used.
M = n/V, therefore n = M × V
n = 0.23 × 0.02 = 0.0046mol
Step 4 : Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide that were
neutralised.
According to the balanced chemical equation, the mole ratio of H2 SO4 to NaOH is
1:2. Therefore, the number of moles of NaOH that are neutralised is 0.0046 × 2 =
0.0092 mols.
Step 5 : Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution.
M=
15.1.5
0.0092
n
=
= 0.92M
V
0.01
Acid-carbonate reactions
Activity :: Demonstration : The reaction of acids with carbonates
Apparatus and materials:
Small amounts of sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate (both in powder
form); hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid; retort stand; two test tubes; two rubber
stoppers for the test tubes; a delivery tube; lime water. The demonstration should
be set up as shown below.
274
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
15.1
delivery tube
rubber stopper
rubber stopper
[glassType=tube,bouchon=true,niveauLiquide1=30]
[glassType=tube,bouchon=true,niveauLiquide1=60]
sodium carbonate &
hydrochloric acid
limewater
Method:
1. Pour limewater into one of the test tubes and seal with a rubber stopper.
2. Pour a small amount of hydrochloric acid into the remaining test tube.
3. Add a small amount of sodium carbonate to the acid and seal the test tube
with the rubber stopper.
4. Connect the two test tubes with a delivery tube.
5. Observe what happens to the colour of the limewater.
6. Repeat the above steps, this time using sulfuric acid and calcium carbonate.
Observations:
The clear lime water turns milky meaning that carbon dioxide has been produced.
When an acid reacts with a carbonate a salt, carbon dioxide and water are formed. Look at the
following examples:
• Nitric acid reacts with sodium carbonate to form sodium nitrate, carbon dioxide and water.
2HNO3 + Na2 CO3 → 2NaNO3 + CO2 + H2 O
• Sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate to form calcium sulphate, carbon dioxide and
water.
H2 SO4 + CaCO3 → CaSO4 + CO2 + H2 O
• Hydrochloric acid reacts with calcium carbonate to form calcium chloride, carbon dioxide
and water.
2HCl + CaCO3 → CaCl2 + CO2 + H2 O
Exercise: Acids and bases
1. The compound NaHCO3 is commonly known as baking soda. A recipe requires
1.6 g of baking soda, mixed with other ingredients, to bake a cake.
275
15.2
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
(a) Calculate the number of moles of NaHCO3 used to bake the cake.
(b) How many atoms of oxygen are there in the 1.6 g of baking soda?
During the baking process, baking soda reacts with an acid to produce
carbon dioxide and water, as shown by the reaction equation below:
+
HCO−
3 (aq) + H (aq) → CO2 (g) + H2 O(l)
(c) Identify the reactant which acts as the Bronsted-Lowry base in this reaction. Give a reason for your answer.
(d) Use the above equation to explain why the cake rises during this baking
process.
(DoE Grade 11 Paper 2, 2007)
2. Label the acid-base conjugate pairs in the following equation:
2−
+
HCO−
3 + H2 O ⇔ CO3 + H3 O
3. A certain antacid tablet contains 22.0 g of baking soda (NaHCO3 ). It is used to
neutralise the excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The balanced equation
for the reaction is:
NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2 O + CO2
The hydrochloric acid in the stomach has a concentration of 1.0 mol.dm−3 .
Calculate the volume of the hydrochloric acid that can be neutralised by the
antacid tablet.
(DoE Grade 11 Paper 2, 2007)
4. A learner is asked to prepare a standard solution of the weak acid, oxalic acid
(COOH)2 2H2 O for use in a titration. The volume of the solution must be 500
cm3 and the concentration 0.2 mol.dm−3 .
(a) Calculate the mass of oxalic acid which the learner has to dissolve to make
up the required standard solution. The leaner titrates this 0.2 mol.dm−3
oxalic acid solution against a solution of sodium hydroxide. He finds that
40 cm3 of the oxalic acid solution exactlt neutralises 35 cm3 of the sodium
hydroxide solution.
(b) Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution.
5. A learner finds some sulfuric acid solution in a bottle labelled ’dilute sulfuric
acid’. He wants to determine the concentration of the sulphuric acid solution.
To do this, he decides to titrate the sulphuric acid against a standard potassium
hydroxide (KOH) solution.
(a) What is a standard solution?
(b) Calculate the mass of KOH which he must use to make 300 cm3 of a 0.2
mol.dm−3 KOH solution.
(c) Calculate the pH of the 0.2 mol.dm−3 KOH solution (assume standard
temperature).
(d) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between H2 SO4 and
KOH.
(e) During the titration he finds that 15 cm3 of the KOH solution neutralises
20 cm3 of the H2 SO4 solution. Calculate the concentration of the H2 SO4
solution.
(IEB Paper 2, 2003)
15.2
Redox reactions
A second type of reaction is the redox reaction, in which both oxidation and reduction take
place.
276
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
15.2.1
15.2
Oxidation and reduction
If you look back to chapter 4, you will remember that we discussed how, during a chemical
reaction, an exchange of electrons takes place between the elements that are involved. Using
oxidation numbers is one way of tracking what is happening to these electrons in a reaction.
Refer back to section 4.11 if you can’t remember the rules that are used to give an oxidation
number to an element. Below are some examples to refresh your memory before we carry on
with this section!
Examples:
1. CO2
Each oxygen atom has an oxidation number of -2. This means that the charge on two
oxygen atoms is -4. We know that the molecule of CO2 is neutral, therefore the carbon
atom must have an oxidation number of +4.
2. KMnO4
Overall, this molecule has a neutral charge, meaning that the sum of the oxidation numbers of the elements in the molecule must equal zero. Potassium (K) has an oxidation
number of +1, while oxygen (O) has an oxidation number of -2. If we exclude the atom
of manganese (Mn), then the sum of the oxidation numbers equals +1+(-2x4)= -7. The
atom of manganese must therefore have an oxidation number of +7 in order to make the
molecule neutral.
By looking at how the oxidation number of an element changes during a reaction, we can easily
see whether that element is being oxidised or reduced.
Definition: Oxidation and reduction
Oxidation is the loses of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion. Reduction is the gain of
an electron by a molecule, atom or ion.
Example:
Mg + Cl2 → MgCl2
As a reactant, magnesium has an oxidation number of zero, but as part of the product magnesium
chloride, the element has an oxidation number of +2. Magnesium has lost two electrons and
has therefore been oxidised. This can be written as a half-reaction. The half-reaction for this
change is:
Mg → Mg2+ + 2e−
As a reactant, chlorine has an oxidation number of zero, but as part of the product magnesium
chloride, the element has an oxidation number of -1. Each chlorine atom has gained an electron
and the element has therefore been reduced. The half-reaction for this change is:
Cl2 + 2e− → 2Cl−
Definition: Half-reaction
A half reaction is either the oxidation or reduction reaction part of a redox reaction. A
half reaction is obtained by considering the change in oxidation states of the individual
substances that are involved in the redox reaction.
277
15.2
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
Important: Oxidation and reduction made easy!
An easy way to think about oxidation and reduction is to remember:
’OILRIG’ - Oxidation Is Loss of electrons, Reduction Is Gain of electrons.
An element that is oxidised is called a reducing agent, while an element that is reduced is
called an oxidising agent.
15.2.2
Redox reactions
Definition: Redox reaction
A redox reaction is one involving oxidation and reduction, where there is always a change
in the oxidation numbers of the elements involved.
Activity :: Demonstration : Redox reactions
Materials:
A few granules of zinc; 15 ml copper (II) sulphate solution (blue colour), glass
beaker.
zinc granules
copper sulphate
solution
Method:
Add the zinc granules to the copper sulphate solution and observe what happens.
What happens to the zinc granules? What happens to the colour of the solution?
Results:
• Zinc becomes covered in a layer that looks like copper.
• The blue copper sulphate solution becomes clearer.
Cu2+ ions from the CuSO4 solution are reduced to form copper metal. This is
what you saw on the zinc crystals. The reduction of the copper ions (in other words,
their removal from the copper sulphate solution), also explains the change in colour
of the solution. The equation for this reaction is:
Cu2+ + 2e− → Cu
Zinc is oxidised to form Zn2+ ions which are clear in the solution. The equation
for this reaction is:
Zn → Zn2+ + 2e−
The overall reaction is:
Cu2+ (aq) + Zn(s) → Cu(s) + Zn2+ (aq)
Conclusion:
A redox reaction has taken place. Cu2+ ions are reduced and the zinc is oxidised.
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CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
15.2
Below are some further examples of redox reactions:
• H2 + F2 → 2HF can be re-written as two half-reactions:
H2 → 2H+ + 2e− (oxidation) and
F2 + 2e− → 2F− (reduction)
• Cl2 + 2KI → 2KCl + I2 or Cl2 + 2I− → 2Cl− + I2 , can be written as two half-reactions:
Cl2 + 2e− → 2Cl− (reduction) and
2I− → I2 + 2e− (oxidation)
In Grade 12, you will go on to look at electrochemical reactions, and the role that electron
transfer plays in this type of reaction.
Exercise: Redox Reactions
1. Look at the following reaction:
2H2 O2 (l) → 2H2 O(l) + O2 (g)
(a) What is the oxidation number of the oxygen atom in each of the following
compounds?
i. H2 O2
ii. H2 O
iii. O2
(b) Does the hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) act as an oxidising agent or a reducing
agent or both, in the above reaction? Give a reason for your answer.
2. Consider the following chemical equations:
1. Fe(s) → Fe2+ (aq) + 2e−
2. 4H+ (aq) + O2 (g) + 4e− → 2H2 O(l)
Which one of the following statements is correct?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Fe
Fe
Fe
Fe
is
is
is
is
oxidised and H+ is reduced
reduced and O2 is oxidised
oxidised and O2 is reduced
reduced and H+ is oxidised
(DoE Grade 11 Paper 2, 2007)
3. Which one of the following reactions is a redox reaction?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2 O
AgNO3 + NaI → AgI + NaNO3
2FeCl3 + 2H2 O + SO2 → H2 SO4 + 2HCl + 2FeCl2
BaCl2 + MgSO4 → MgCl2 + BaSO4
279
15.3
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
15.3
Addition, substitution and elimination reactions
15.3.1
Addition reactions
An addition reaction occurs when two or more reactants combine to form a final product. This
product will contain all the atoms that were present in the reactants. The following is a general
equation for this type of reaction:
A+B → C
Notice that C is the final product with no A or B remaining as a residue.
The following are some examples.
1. The reaction between ethene and bromine to form 1,2-dibromoethane (figure 15.1).
C2 H4 + Br2 → C2 H4 Br2
H
H
C
H
+
C
Br
Br
H
H
H
H
C
C
Br
Br
H
Figure 15.1: The reaction between ethene and bromine is an example of an addition reaction
2. Polymerisation reactions
In industry, making polymers is very important. A polymer is made up of lots of smaller
units called monomers. When these monomers are added together, they form a polymer. Examples of polymers are polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polystyrene. PVC is often
used to make piping, while polystyrene is an important packaging and insulating material.
Polystyrene is made up of lots of styrene monomers which are joined through addition
reactions (figure 15.2). ’Polymerisation’ refers to the addition reactions that eventually
help to form the polystyrene polymer.
CH2
CH
CH2
CH
CH2
CH
CH2
CH
polymerisation
etc
Figure 15.2: The polymerisation of a styrene monomer to form a polystyrene polymer
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CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
15.3
3. The hydrogenation of vegetable oils to form margarine is another example of an addition
reaction. Hydrogenation involves adding hydrogen (H2 ) to an alkene. An alkene is an
organic compound composed of carbon and hydrogen. It contains a double bond between
two of the carbon atoms. If this bond is broken, it means that more hydrogen atoms can
attach themselves to the carbon atoms. During hydrogenation, this double bond is broken,
and more hydrogen atoms are added to the molecule. The reaction that takes place is
shown below. Note that the ’R’ represents any side-chain. A side-chain is simply any
combination of atoms that are attached to the central part of the molecule.
RCHCH2 + H2 → RCH2 CH3
4. The production of the alcohol ethanol from ethene. Ethanol (CH3 CH2 OH) can be made
from alkenes such as ethene (C2 H4 ), through a hydration reaction like the one below. A
hydration reaction is one where water is added to the reactants.
C2 H4 + H2 O → CH3 CH2 OH
A catalyst is needed for this reaction to take place. The catalyst that is most commonly
used is phosphoric acid.
15.3.2
Elimination reactions
An elimination reaction occurs when a reactant is broken up into two products. The general
form of the equation is as follows:
A→B+C
The examples below will help to explain this:
1. The dehydration of an alcohol is one example. Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen
atom are eliminated and a molecule of water is formed as a second product in the reaction,
along with an alkene.
CH3 CH2 OH → CH2 CH2 + H2 O
H
H
H
C
C
H
OH
H
H
H
C
+
C
H
H
H
H
2. The elimination of potassium bromide from a bromoalkane.
CH3 CH2 Br + KOH → CH2 CH2 + KBr + H2 O
H
H
Br
C
C
H
H
H + KOH
281
H
H
C
C + KBr
H
H
O
+ H2 O
H
15.3
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
3. Ethane cracking is an important industrial process used by SASOL and other petrochemical
industries. Hydrogen is eliminated from ethane (C2 H6 ) to produce an alkene called ethene
(C2 H4 ). Ethene is then used to produce other products such as polyethylene. You will
learn more about these compounds in chapter 23. The equation for the cracking of ethane
looks like this:
C2 H6 → C2 H4 + H2
15.3.3
Substitution reactions
A substitution reaction occurs when an exchange of reactants takes place. The initial reactants
are transformed or ’swopped around’ to give a final product. A simple example of a reaction like
this is shown below:
AB + CD → AC + BD
Some simple examples of substitution reactions are shown below:
CH4 + Cl2 → CH3 Cl + HCl
In this example, a chorine atom and a hydrogen atom are exchanged to create a new product.
2−
−
Cu(H2 O)2+
4 + 4Cl ⇔ Cu(Cl)4 + 4H2 O
Exercise: Addition, substitution and elimination reactions
1. Refer to the diagram below and then answer the questions that follow:
H
Cl
H
C
C
(i)
H
H
H + KOH
H
H
C
C + KCl
H
H
+ H2 O
(a) Is this reaction an example of substitution, elimination or addition?
(b) Give a reason for your answer above.
(c) What type of compound is the reactant marked (i)?
2. The following diagram shows the reactants in an addition reaction.
H
H
C
C + HCl
H
H
(a) Draw the final product in this reaction.
(b) What is the chemical formula of the product?
3. The following reaction takes place:
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CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
H
H
OH
C
C
H
H
H
H2 SO4
H
H
C
C + H2 O
H
H
15.4
Is this reaction a substitution, addition or dehydration reaction? Give a reason
for your answer.
4. Consider the following reaction:
Ca(OH)2 (s) + 2NH4 Cl(s) → CaCl2 (s) + 2NH3 (g) + 2H2 O(g)
Which one of the following best describes the type of reaction which takes
place?
(a) Redox reaction
(b) Acid-base reaction
(c) Dehydration reaction
15.4
Summary
• There are many different types of reactions that can take place. These include acid-base,
acid-carbonate, redox, addition, substitution and elimination reactions.
• The Arrhenius definition of acids and bases defines an acid as a substance that increases
the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+ or H3 O+ ) in a solution. A base is a substance that
increases the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH− ) in a solution. However this definition
only applies to substances that are in water.
• The Bronsted-Lowry definition is a much broader one. An acid is a substance that
donates protons and a base is a substance that accepts protons.
• In different reactions, certain substances can act as both an acid and a base. These
substances are called ampholytes and are said to be amphoteric. Water is an example
of an amphoteric substance.
• A conjugate acid-base pair refers to two compounds in a reaction that change into other
through the loss or gain of a proton.
• When an acid and a base react, they form a salt and water. The salt is made up of a cation
from the base and an anion from the acid. An example of a salt is sodium chloride (NaCl),
which is the product of the reaction between sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric
acid (HCl).
• The reaction between an acid and a base is a neutralisation reaction.
• Titrations are reactions between an acid and a base that are used to calculate the concentration of one of the reacting substances. The concentration of the other reacting
substance must be known.
• In an acid-carbonate reaction, an acid and a carbonate react to form a salt, carbon
dioxide and water.
• A redox reaction is one where there is always a change in the oxidation numbers of the
elements that are involved in the reaction.
• Oxidation is the loss of electrons and reduction is the gain of electrons.
283
15.4
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
• When two or more reactants combine to form a product that contains all the atoms
that were in the reactants, then this is an addition reaction. Examples of addition
reactions include the reaction between ethene and bromine, polymerisation reactions and
hydrogenation reactions.
• A reaction where the reactant is broken down into one or more product, is called an elimination reaction. Alcohol dehydration and ethane cracking are examples of elimination
reactions.
• A substitution reaction is one where the reactants are transformed or swopped around
to form the final product.
Exercise: Summary Exercise
1. Give one word/term for each of the following descriptions:
(a) A chemical reaction during which electrons are transferred
(b) The addition of hydrogen across a double bond
(c) The removal of hydrogen and halogen atoms from an alkane to form an
elkene
2. For each of the following, say whether the statement is true or false. If the
statement is false, re-write the statement correctly.
(a) The conjugate base of NH+
4 is NH3 .
(b) The reactions C + O2 → CO2 and 2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2 are examples
of redox reactions.
3. For each of the following questions, choose the one correct statement from the
list provided.
A The following chemical equation represents the formation of the hydronium
ion:
H+ (aq) + H2 O(l) → H3 O+ (aq)
In this reaction, water acts as a Lewis base because it...
i. accepts protons
ii. donates protons
iii. accepts electrons
iv. donates electrons
B What is the concentration (in mol.dm−3 ) of H3 O+ ions in a NaOH solution
which has a pH of 12 at 250 C?
i. 1 × 1012
ii. 1 × 102
iii. 1 × 10−2
iv. 1 × 10−12
(IEB Paper 2, 2005)
C When chlorine water is added to a solution of potassium bromide, bromine
is produced. Which one of the following statements concerning this reaction is correct?
i. Br− is oxidised
ii. Cl2 is oxidised
iii. Br− is the oxidising agent
iv. Cl− is the oxidising agent
(IEB Paper 2, 2005)
4. The stomach secretes gastric juice, which contains hydrochloric acid. The
gastric juice helps with digestion. Sometimes there is an overproduction of
acid, leading to heartburn or indigestion. Antacids, such as milk of magnesia,
can be taken to neutralise the excess acid. Milk of magnesia is only slightly
soluble in water and has the chemical formula Mg(OH)2 .
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CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
a Write a balanced chemical equation to show how the antacid reacts with
the acid.
b The directions on the bottle recommend that children under the age of 12
years take one teaspoon of milk of magnesia, whereas adults can take two
teaspoons of the antacid. Briefly explain why the dosages are different.
c Why is it not advisable to take an overdose of the antacid in the stomach?
Refer to the hydrochloric acid concentration in the stomach in your answer.
In an experiment, 25.0 cm3 of a standard solution of sodium carbonate of
concentration 0.1 mol.dm−3 was used to neutralise 35.0 cm3 of a solution
of hydrochloric acid.
d Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
e Calculate the concentration of the acid.
(DoE Grade 11 Exemplar, 2007)
285
15.4
15.4
CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS - GRADE 11
286
Chapter 21
The Lithosphere - Grade 11
(NOTE TO SELF: Need map showing major mining areas in SA)
21.1
Introduction
If we were to cut the Earth in half we would see that our planet is made up of a number of layers,
namely the core at the centre, the mantle and the outer crust (figure 21.1). The core is made
up mostly of iron. The mantle, which lies between the core and the crust, consists of molten
rock, called magma which moves continuously because of convection currents. The crust is
the thin, hard outer layer that ’floats’ on the magma of the mantle. It is the upper part of the
mantle and the crust that make up the lithosphere (’lith’ means ’types of stone’ and ’sphere’
refers to the round shape of the earth). Together, the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere
make up the world as we know it.
Atmosphere
Crust
Upper Mantle
Mantle
Outer Core
Inner Core
Figure 21.1: A cross-section through the earth to show its different layers
Definition: Lithosphere
The lithosphere is the solid outermost shell of our planet. The lithosphere includes the crust
and the upper part of the mantle, and is made up of material from both the continents and
the oceans on the Earth’s surface.
397
21.2
CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
Earlier chapters have focused on the hydrosphere (chapter 20) and the atmosphere (chapter 22).
The lithosphere is also very important, not only because it is the surface on which we live, but
also because humans gain many valuable resources from this part of the planet.
21.2
The chemistry of the earth’s crust
The crust is made up of about 80 elements, which occur in over 2000 different compounds
and minerals. However, most of the mass of crustal material is made up of only 8 of these
elements. These are oxygen (O), silica (Si), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), sodium
(Na), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg). These metal elements are seldom found in their
pure form, but are usually part of other more complex minerals. A mineral is a compound that
is formed through geological processes, which give it a particular structure. A mineral could
be a pure element, but more often minerals are made up of many different elements combined.
Quartz is just one example. It is a mineral that is made up of silica and oxygen. Some more
examples are shown in table 21.1.
Definition: Mineral
Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. The term ’mineral’
includes both the material’s chemical composition and its structure. Minerals range in
composition from pure elements to complex compounds.
Table 21.1: Table showing examples of minerals and their chemistry
Chemistry
Comments
SiO2 (silicon dioxide)
Quartz is used for glass, in electrical components, optical lenses and in building
stone
Gold
Au (pure element) or Gold is often found in a group of minerAuTe2 (Calaverite, a gold als called the tellurides. Calaverite is a
mineral)
mineral that belongs to this group, and is
the most common gold-bearing mineral.
Gold has an affinity for tellurium (Te).
Hematite
Fe2 O3 (iron oxide)
Iron usually occurs in iron oxide minerals
or as an alloy of iron and nickel.
Orthoclase KAlSi3 O8 (potassium alu- Orthoclase belongs to the feldspar group
minium silicate)
of minerals.
Copper
Cu (pure element) or copper can be mined as a pure element
Cu2 (CO3 )(OH)2
(mala- or as a mineral such as malachite.
chite or copper carbonate
hydroxide)
Mineral
Quartz
A rock is a combination of one or more minerals. Granite for example, is a rock that is made up
of minerals such as SiO2 , Al2 O3 , CaO, K2 O, Na2 O and others. There are three different types
of rocks, igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rocks (e.g. granite, basalt) are
formed when magma is brought to the earth’s surface as lava, and then solidifies. Sedimentary
rocks (e.g. sandstone, limestone) form when rock fragments, organic matter or other sediment
particles are deposited and then compacted over time until they solidify. Metamorphic rock is
formed when any other rock types are subjected to intense heat and pressure over a period of
time. Examples include slate and marble.
Many of the elements that are of interest to us (e.g. gold, iron, copper), are unevenly distributed
in the lithosphere. In places where these elements are abundant, it is profitable to extract them
(e.g. through mining) for economic purposes. If their concentration is very low, then the cost
of extraction becomes more than the money that would be made if they were sold. Rocks that
contain valuable minerals are called ores. As humans, we are particularly interested in the ores
that contain metal elements, and also in those minerals that can be used to produce energy.
398
CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
21.3
Definition: Ore
An ore is a volume of rock that contains minerals which make it valuable for mining.
teresting A gemstone (also sometimes called a gem or semi-precious stone), is a
Interesting
Fact
Fact
highly attractive and valuable piece of mineral which, when cut and polished,
is used in jewelry and other adornments. Examples of gemstones are amethyst,
diamond, cat’s eye and sapphire.
Exercise: Rocks and minerals
1. Where are most of the earth’s minerals concentrated?
2. Explain the difference between a mineral, a rock and an ore.
3. Carry out your own research to find out which elements are found in the following minerals:
(a) gypsum
(b) calcite
(c) topaz
4. Which minerals are found in the following rocks?
(a) basalt
(b) sandstone
(c) marble
21.3
A brief history of mineral use
Many of the minerals that are important to humans are metals such as gold, aluminium, copper
and iron. Throughout history, metals have played a very important role in making jewelery, tools,
weapons and later machinery and other forms of technology. We have become so used to having
metals around us that we seldom stop to think what life might have been like before metals
were discovered. During the Stone Age for example, stones were used to make tools. Slivers
of stone were cut from a rock and then sharpened. In Africa, some of the stone tools that have
been found date back to 2.5 million years ago!
It was the discovery of metals that led to some huge advances in agriculture, warfare, transport
and even cookery. One of the first metals to be discovered was gold, probably because of its
beautiful shiny appearance. Gold was used mostly to make jewelery because it was too soft to
make harder tools. Later, copper became an important metal because it could be hammered
into shape, and it also lasted a lot longer than the stone that had previously been used in knives,
cooking utensils and weapons. Copper can also be melted and then put into a mould to re-shape
it. This is known as casting.
At about the time that copper was in widespread use, it was discovered that if certain kinds of
stones are heated to high enough temperatures, liquid metals flow from them. These rocks are
399
21.4
CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
ores, and contain the metal minerals inside them. The process of heating mineral ores in this
way is called smelting. It was also found that ores do not only occur at the earth’s surface, but
also deep below it. This discovery led to the beginning of mining.
But humans’ explorations into the world of metals did not end here! In some areas, the ores of
iron and tin were found close together. The cast alloy of these two metals is bronze. Bronze is a
very useful metal because it produces a sharper edge than copper. Another important discovery
was that of iron. Iron is the most abundant metal at the earth’s surface but it is more difficult
to work with than copper or tin. It is very difficult to extract iron from its ore because it has
an extremely high melting point, and only specially designed furnaces are able to produce the
temperatures that are needed. An important discovery was that if iron is heated in a furnace
with charcoal, some of the carbon in the charcoal is transferred to the iron, making the metal
even harder. If this hot metal has its temperature reduced very suddenly, it becomes even harder
and produces steel. Today, steel is a very important part of industry and construction.
teresting Originally it was believed that much of Africa’s knowledge of metals and their
Interesting
Fact
Fact
uses was from the Middle East. But this may not be the case. More recent studies
have shown that iron was used far earlier than it would have been if knowledge
of this metal had started in the Middle East. Many metal technologies may
in fact have developed independently in Africa and in many African countries,
metals have an extremely important place in society. In Nigeria’s Yoruba country
for example, iron has divine status because it is used to make instruments for
survival. ’Ogun’, the God of Iron, is seen as the protector of the kingdom.
21.4
Energy resources and their uses
Apart from minerals and ores, the products of the lithosphere are also important in meeting our
energy needs.
Coal is one of the most important fuels that is used in the production of electricity. Coal is formed
from organic material when plants and animals decompose, leaving behind organic remains that
accumulate and become compacted over millions of years under sedimentary rock. The layers of
compact organic material that can be found between sedimentary layers, are coal. When coal is
burned, a large amount of heat energy is released, which is used to produce electricity. South
Africa is the world’s sixth largest coal producer, with Mpumalanga contributing about 83
Another element that is found in the crust, and which helps to meet our energy needs, is uranium. Uranium produces energy through the process of nuclear fission. Neutrons are aimed
at the nucleii of the uranium atoms in order to split them. When the nucleus of a uranium
atom is split, a large amount of energy is released as heat. This heat is used to produce steam,
which turns turbines to generate electricity. Uranium is produced as a by-product of gold in
some mines in the Witwatersrand, and as a by-product in some copper mines, for example in
Phalaborwa. This type of nuclear power is relatively environmentally friendly since it produces
low gas emissions. However, the process does produce small amounts of radioactive wastes ,
which must be carefully disposed of in order to prevent contamination.
Oil is another product of the lithosphere which is critical in meeting our fuel needs. While most
of South Africa’s oil is imported and then processed at a refinery in either Durban, Cape Town
or Sasolburg, some is extracted from coal. The technology behind this type of extraction has
largely been developed by SASOL (South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corporation). Oil, like coal,
400
CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
21.5
is organic in origin and normally forms from organic deposits on the ocean floor. Oil requires
unique geological and geochemical conditions in order to be produced. Part of this process
involves the burial of organic-rich sediments under extremely high temperatures and pressures.
The oil that is produced is then pushed out into nearby sedimentary layers. Oil will then move
upwards until it is trapped by an impermeable rock layer. It accumulates here, and can then be
accessed by oil rigs and other advanced equipment.
21.5
Mining and Mineral Processing: Gold
21.5.1
Introduction
Gold was discovered in South Africa in the late 1800’s and since then has played a very important
role in South Africa’s history and economy. Its discovery brought many foreigners into South
Africa, who were lured by the promises of wealth. They set up small mining villages, which later
grew into larger settlements, towns and cities. One of the first of these settlements was the
beginning of present-day Johannesburg, also known as ’Egoli’ or ’Place of Gold’.
Most of South Africa’s gold is concentrated in the ’Golden Arc’, which stretches from Johannesburg to Welkom. Geologists believe that, millions of years ago, this area was a massive inland
lake. Rivers feeding into this lake brought sand, silt, pebbles and fine particles of gold and
deposited them over a long period of time. Eventually these deposits accumulated and became
compacted to form gold-bearing sedimentary rock or gold reefs. It is because of this complex,
but unique, set of circumstances that South Africa’s gold deposits are so concentrated in that
area. In other countries like Zimbabwe, gold occurs in smaller ’pockets’, which are scattered
over a much greater area.
21.5.2
Mining the Gold
A number of different techniques can be used to mine gold. The three most common methods
in South Africa are panning, open cast and shaft mining.
1. Panning
Panning for gold is a manual technique that is used to sort gold from other sediments.
Wide, shallow pans are filled with sand and gravel (often from river beds) that may contain
gold. Water is added and the pans are shaken so that the gold is sorted from the rock and
other materials. Because gold is much more dense, it settles to the bottom of the pan.
Pilgrim’s Rest in Mpumalanga, was the first site for gold panning in South Africa.
2. Open cast mining
This is a form of surface mining. Surface layers of rock and sediments are removed so that
the deeper gold rich layers can be reached. This type of mining is not suitable if the gold
is buried very deep below the surface.
3. Shaft mining
South Africa’s thin but extensive gold reefs slope at an angle underneath the ground, and
this means that some deposits are very deep and often difficult to reach. Shaft mining is
needed to reach the gold ore. After the initial drilling, blasting and equipping of a mine
shaft, tunnels are built leading outwards from the main shaft so that the gold reef can
be reached. Shaft mining is a dangerous operation, and roof supports are needed so that
the rock does not collapse. There are also problems of the intense heat and high pressure
below the surface which make shaft mining very complex, dangerous and expensive. A
diagram illustrating open cast and shaft mining is shown in figure 21.2.
21.5.3
Processing the gold ore
For every ton of ore that is mined, only a very small amount of gold is extracted. A number
of different methods can be used to separate gold from its ore, but one of the more common
401
21.5
CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
b b bb bbb
b b bb
b bb b b
b bb b b
1
Gold deposits
Gold seam close to surface
Open cast mining at shallow gold seam
2
Sloping gold seams
3
Main underground shaft
4
Tunnel from main shaft to access gold
5
1
b b bb b b b
b
b bb bb bb b b bb b bbbbbbb b b b
b bb b b
b
b b b b b
2
b
b bb b b b b b b b
b b bb bb bbb bbbb b b bb bb bb bb b bb bbbb bb b b bb
b b
b bb
b b b b b b b bb
3
b bb b bb bb b bb b b bb b b b b
b b b b bb
b
b b b bbb b bbb b b b b b b b bb b b b b b
b b b b b b b bb b b b b bb bb b b b b b b b b b
b b b b b b b b b bb b b
bb b b
b b bb b b b
b b bb b
b
b b bb bbb bb b b bbb b b
b b b b b b bb
5
4
Figure 21.2: Diagram showing open cast and shaft mining
methods is called gold cyanidation.
In the process of gold cyanidation, the ore is crushed and then cyanide solution is added so
that the gold particles are chemically dissolved from the ore. In this step of the process, gold is
oxidised. Zinc dust is then added to the cyanide solution. The zinc takes the place of the gold,
so that the gold is precipitated out of the solution. This process is shown in figure 21.3.
teresting Another method that is used to process gold is called the ’carbon-in-pulp’ (CIP)
Interesting
Fact
Fact
method. This method makes use of the high affinity that activated carbon has
for gold, and there are three stages to the process. The first stage involves the
absorption of gold in the cyanide solution to carbon. In the elution stage, gold
is removed from the carbon into an alkaline cyanide solution. In the final stage,
electro-winning is used to remove gold from the solution through a process of
electrolysis. Gold that has been removed is deposited on steel wool electrodes.
Both the carbon and the acid are then treated so that they can be re-used.
21.5.4
Characteristics and uses of gold
Gold has a number of uses because of its varied and unique characteristics. Below is a list of
some of these characteristics that have made gold such a valuable metal:
• Shiny
Gold’s beautiful appearance has made it one of the favourite metals for use in jewelery.
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21.5
STEP 1 - The ore is crushed until it is in fine pieces
STEP 2 - A sodium cyanide (NaCN) solution is mixed with the finely ground rock
4Au + 8N aCN + O2 + 2H2 O → 4N aAu(CN )2 + 4N aOH
Gold is oxidised.
STEP 3 - The gold-bearing solution can then be separated from the
remaining solid ore through filtration
STEP 4 - Zinc is added. Zinc replaces the gold in the gold-cyanide solution.
The gold is precipitated from the solution.
This is the reduction part of the reaction.
Figure 21.3: Flow diagram showing how gold is processed
• Durable
Gold does not tarnish or corrode easily, and therefore does not deteriorate in quality. It is
sometimes used in dentistry to make the crowns for teeth.
• Malleable and ductile
Since gold can be bent and twisted into shape, as well as being flattened into very thin
sheets, it is very useful in fine wires and to produce sheets of gold.
• Good conductor
Gold is a good conductor of electricity and is therefore used in transistors, computer circuits
and telephone exchanges.
• Heat ray reflector
Because gold reflects heat very effectively, it is used in space suits and in vehicles. It is
also used in the protective outer coating of artificial satellites. One of the more unusual
applications of gold is its use in firefighting, where a thin layer of gold is placed in the
masks of the firefighters to protect them from the heat.
Activity :: Case Study : Dropping like a gold balloon
Read the article below, which has been adapted from one that appeared in the
Financial Mail on 15th April 2005 and then answer the questions that follow.
As recently as 1980, South Africa accounted for over 70% of world gold
production. In 2004, that figure was a dismal 14%. Chamber of Mines
figures showed that SA’s annual gold production last year slipped to its
lowest level since 1931.
Chamber economist Roger Baxter says the ’precipitous’ fall in production
was caused by the dual impact of the fall in the rand gold price due to the
strong rand, and the continued upward rise in costs. Many of these costs,
laments Baxter, are ’costs we do not have control over’. These include
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water, transport, steel and labour costs, which rose by 13% on average in
2004.
He provides a breakdown of the cost components faced by mines:
• Water prices have risen by 10% per year for the past 3 years
• Steel prices have increased by double-digit rates for each of the past
3 years
• Spoornet’s tariffs rose 35% in 2003 and 16.5% in 2004
• Labour costs, which make up 50% of production costs, rose above
inflation in 2003 and 2004
At these costs, and at current rand gold prices, about 10 mines, employing
90 000 people, are marginal or loss-making, says Baxter.
1. Refer to the table below showing SA’s gold production in tons between 1980
and 2004.
Year
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2004
Production
(t)
675
660
600
525
425
340
Draw a line graph to illustrate these statistics.
2. What percentage did South Africa’s gold production contribute towards global
production in:
(a) 1980
(b) 2004
3. Outline two reasons for this drop in gold production.
4. Briefly explain how the increased cost of resources such as water contributes
towards declining profitability in gold mines.
5. Suggest a reason why the cost of steel might affect gold production.
6. Suggest what impact a decrease in gold production is likely to have on...
(a) South Africa’s economy
(b) mine employees
7. Find out what the current price of gold is. Discuss why you think gold is so
expensive.
21.5.5
Environmental impacts of gold mining
However, despite the incredible value of gold and its usefulness in a variety of applications, all
mining has an environmental cost. The following are just a few of the environmental impacts of
gold mining:
• Resource consumption
Gold mining needs large amounts of electricity and water.
• Poisoned water
Acid from gold processing can leach into nearby water systems such as rivers, causing
damage to animals and plants, as well as humans that may rely on that water for drinking.
The disposal of other toxic waste (e.g. cyanide) can also have a devastating effect on
biodiversity.
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21.5
• Solid waste
This applies particularly to open pit mines, where large amounts of soil and rock must be
displaced in order to access the gold reserves. Processing the gold ore also leaves solid
waste behind.
• Air pollution
Dust from open pit mines, as well as harmful gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen
dioxide which are released from the furnaces, contribute to air pollution.
• Threaten natural areas
Mining activities often encroach on protected areas and threaten biodiversity in their operation areas.
Activity :: Discussion : Mine rehabilitation
There is a growing emphasis on the need to rehabilitate old mine sites that are
no longer in use. If it is too difficult to restore the site to what it was before, then
a new type of land use might be decided for that area. Any mine rehabilitation
programme should aim to achieve the following:
• ensure that the site is safe and stable
• remove pollutants that are contaminating the site
• restore the biodiversity that was there before mining started
• restore waterways to what they were before mining
There are different ways to achieve these goals. Plants for example, can be used
to remove metals from polluted soils and water, and can also help to stabilise the
soil so that other vegetation can grow. Land contouring can help to restore drainage
in the area.
Discussion:
In groups of 3-4, discuss the following questions:
1. What are the main benefits of mine rehabilitation?
2. What are some of the difficulties that may be experienced in trying to rehabilitate a mine site?
3. Suggest some creative ideas that could be used to encourage mining companies
to rehabilitate old sites.
4. One rehabilitation project that has received a lot of publicity is the rehabilitation
of dunes that were mined for titanium by Richards Bay Minerals (RBM). As a
group, carry out your own research to try to find out more about this project.
• What actions did RBM take to rehabilitate the dunes?
• Was the project successful?
• What were some of the challenges faced?
Exercise: Gold mining
Mapungubwe in the Limpopo Province is evidence of gold mining in South Africa
as early as 1200. Today, South Africa is a world leader in the technology of gold
mining. The following flow diagram illustrates some of the most important steps in
the recovery of gold from its ore.
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21.6
CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
Gold
bearing ore
A
NaAu(CN)2
B
Gold
precipitate
C
Pure gold
1. Name the process indicated by A.
2. During process A, gold is extracted from the ore. Is gold oxidised or reduced
during this process?
3. Use oxidation numbers to explain your answer to the question above.
4. Name the chemical substance that is used in process B.
5. During smelting (illustrated by C in the diagram), gold is sent into a calcining
furnace. Briefly explain the importance of this process taking place in the
furnace.
6. The recovery of gold can have a negative impact on water in our country, if
not managed properly. State at least one negative influence that the recovery
of gold can have on water resources and how it will impact on humans and the
environment.
21.6
Mining and mineral processing: Iron
Iron is one of the most abundant metals on Earth. Its concentration is highest in the core, and
lower in the crust. It is extracted from iron ore and is almost never found in its elemental form.
Iron ores are usually rich in iron oxide minerals and may vary in colour from dark grey to rusty
red. Iron is usually found in minerals such as magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) and hematite (Fe2 O3 ). Iron
ore also contains other elements, which have to be removed in various ways. These include silica
(Si), phosphorus (P), aluminium (Al) and sulfur (S).
21.6.1
Iron mining and iron ore processing
One of the more common methods of mining for iron ore is open cast mining. Open cast
mining is used when the iron ore is found near the surface. Once the ore has been removed, it
needs to be crushed into fine particles before it can be processed further.
As mentioned earlier, iron is commonly found in the form of iron oxides. To create pure iron,
the ore must be smelted to remove the oxygen.
Definition: Smelting
Smelting is a method used to extract a metal from its ore and then purify it.
Smelting usually involves heating the ore and also adding a reducing agent (e.g. carbon) so that
the metal can be freed from its ore. The bonds between iron and oxygen are very strong, and
therefore it is important to use an element that will form stronger bonds with oxygen that the
iron. This is why carbon is used. In fact, carbon monoxide is the main ingredient that is needed
to strip oxygen from iron. These reactions take place in a blast furnace.
A blast furnace is a huge steel container many metres high and lined with heat-resistant material.
In the furnace the solid raw materials, i.e. iron ore, carbon (in the form of ’coke’, a type of coal)
and a flux (e.g. limestone) are fed into the top of the furnace and a blast of heated air is forced
◦
into the furnace from the bottom. Temperatures in a blast furnace can reach 2000 C. A simple
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21.6
diagram of a blast furnace is shown in figure 21.4. The equations for the reactions that take
place are shown in the flow diagram below.
STEP 1: Production of carbon monoxide
C + O2 → CO2
CO2 + C → 2CO
STEP 2: Reduction of iron oxides takes place in a number of stages to produce iron.
3F e2 O3 + CO → 2F e3 O4 + CO2
F e3 O4 + CO → 3F eO + CO2
F eO + CO → F e + CO2
STEP 3: Fluxing
The flux is used to melt impurities in the ore. A common flux is limestone (CaCO3 ). Common
impurities are silica, phosphorus (makes steel brittle), aluminium and sulfur (produces SO2
gases during smelting and interferes with the smellting process).
CaCO3 → CaO + CO2
CaO + SiO2 → CaSiO3
In step 3, the calcium carbonate breaks down into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. The calcium
oxide then reacts with silicon dioxide (the impurity) to form a slag. In this case the slag is the
CaSiO3 . The slag melts in the furnace, whereas the silicon dioxide would not have, and floats
on the more dense iron. This can then be separated and removed.
iron
oxide
(haematite)
limestone
coke
waste
gases
Step 2
waste
gases
carbon
monoxide
+
iron oxide
dioxide
+
iron
dioxide
+
carbon
carbon
monoxide
carbon
+
oxygen
carbon
dioxide
carbon
Step 1
carbon
air
blast
molten
slag
iron
forms
carbon
monoxide forms
carbon dioxide
forms
air
blast
molten
iron
Figure 21.4: A blast furnace, showing the reactions that take place to produce iron
21.6.2
Types of iron
Iron is the most used of all the metals. Its combination of low cost and high strength make it
very important in applications such as industry, automobiles, the hulls of large ships and in the
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structural components of buildings. Some of the different forms that iron can take include:
• Pig iron is raw iron and is the direct product when iron ore and coke are smelted. It has
between 4% and 5% carbon and contains varying amounts of contaminants such as sulfur,
silicon and phosphorus. Pig iron is an intermediate step between iron ore, cast iron and
steel.
• Wrought iron is commercially pure iron and contains less than 0.2% carbon. It is tough,
malleable and ductile. Wrought iron does not rust quickly when it is used outdoors. It has
mostly been replaced by mild steel for ’wrought iron’ gates and blacksmithing. Mild steel
does not have the same corrosion resistance as true wrought iron, but is cheaper and more
widely available.
• Steel is an alloy made mostly of iron, but also containing a small amount of carbon.
Elements other than carbon can also be used to make alloy steels. These include manganese
and tungsten. By varying the amounts of the alloy elements in the steel, the following
characteristics can be altered: hardness, elasticity, ductility and tensile strength.
• Corrugated iron is actually sheets of galvanised steel that have been rolled to give them
a corrugated pattern. Corrugated iron is a common building material.
One problem with iron and steel is that pure iron and most of its alloys rust. These products therefore need to be protected from water and oxygen, and this is done through painting,
galvanisation and plastic coating.
teresting Iron is also a very important element in all living organisms. One important
Interesting
Fact
Fact
role that iron plays is that it is a component of the protein haemoglobin which
is the protein in blood. It is the iron in the haemoglobin that helps to attract
and hold oxygen so that this important gas can be transported around the body
in the blood, to where it is needed.
21.6.3
Iron in South Africa
The primary steel industry is an important part of the South African economy and it generates
a great deal of foreign exchange.
• About 40 million tons of iron ore is mined annually in South Africa. Approximately 15
million tons are consumed locally, and the remaining 25 million tons are exported.
• South Africa is ranked about 20th in the world in terms of its crude steel production.
• South Africa is the largest steel producer in Africa.
• South Africa exports crude steel and finished steel products, and a lot is also used locally.
• Some of the products that are manufactured in South Africa include reinforcing bars,
railway track material, wire rod, plates and steel coils and sheets.
Exercise: Iron
Iron is usually extracted from heamatite (iron(III)oxide). Iron ore is mixed with
limestone and coke in a blast furnace to produce the metal. The following incomplete
word equations describe the extraction process:
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CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
21.7
A coke + oxygen → gasX
B gasX + coke → gasY
C iron(III)oxide + gasY → iron + gasX
1. Name the gases X and Y.
2. Write a balanced chemical equation for reaction C.
3. What is the function of gas Y in reaction C?
4. Why is limestone added to the reaction mixture?
5. Briefly describe the impact that the mining of iron has on the economy and
the environment in our country.
(DoE Exemplar Paper, Grade 11, 2007)
21.7
Mining and mineral processing: Phosphates
A phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid (H3 PO4 ). Phosphates are the naturally occurring
form of the element phosphorus. Phosphorus is seldom found in its pure elemental form, and
phosphate therefore refers to a rock or ore that contains phosphate ions. The chemical formula
for the phosphate ion is PO3−
4 .
21.7.1
Mining phosphates
Phosphate is found in beds in sedimentary rock, and has to be quarried to access the ore. A
quarry is a type of open pit mine that is used to extract ore. In South Africa, the main phosphate
producer is at the Palaborwa alkaline igneous complex, which produces about 3 million tons of
ore per year. The ore is crushed into a powder and is then treated with sulfuric acid to form
a superphosphate (Ca(H2 PO4 )2 ), which is then used as a fertilizer. In the equation below, the
phosphate mineral is calcium phosphate (Ca3 (PO4 )2 .
Ca3 (P O4 )2 + 2H2 SO4 → Ca(H2 P O4 )2 + 2CaSO4
Alternatively, the ore can be treated with concentrated phosphoric acid, in which case the reaction
looks like this:
3Ca3 (P O4 )2 .CaF2 + 4H3 P O4 + 9H2 O → 9Ca(H2 P O4 )2 + CaF2
21.7.2
Uses of phosphates
Phosphates are mostly used in agriculture. Phosphates are one of the three main nutrients
needed by plants, and they are therefore an important component of fertilisers to stimulate
plant growth.
teresting Exploring the lithosphere for minerals is not a random process! Geologists
Interesting
Fact
Fact
help to piece together a picture of what past environments might have been
like, so that predictions can be made about where minerals might have a high
concentration. Geophysicists measure gravity, magnetics and the electrical
properties of rocks to try to make similar predictions, while geochemists sample
the soils at the earth’s surface to get an idea of what lies beneath them. You
can see now what an important role scientists play in mineral exploration!
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CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
Exercise: Phosphates
Rock phosphate [Ca10 (PO4 )6 F2 ], mined from open pit mines at Phalaborwa, is
an important raw material in the production of fertilisers. The following two reactions
are used to transform rock phosphate into water soluble phosphates:
A: Ca10 (PO4 )6 F2 + 7X + 3H2 O → 3Ca(H2 PO4 )2 H2 O + 2HF + 7CaSO4
B: Ca10 (PO4 )6 F2 + 14Y + 10H2 O → 10Ca(H2 PO4 )2 H2 O + 2HF
1. Identify the acids represented by X and Y.
2. Despite similar molecular formulae, the products Ca(H2 PO4 )2 formed in the
two reactions have different common names. Write down the names for each
of these products in reactions A and B.
3. Refer to the products in reactions A and B and write down TWO advantages
of reaction B over reaction A.
4. Why is rock phosphate unsuitable as fertiliser?
5. State ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of phosphate mining.
(DoE Exemplar Paper, Grade 11, 2007)
Activity :: Case Study : Controversy on the Wild Coast - Titanium mining
Read the extract below, which has been adapted from an article that appeared in
the Mail and Guardian on 4th May 2007, and then answer the questions that follow.
A potentially violent backlash looms in Pondoland over efforts by an Australian company to persuade villagers to back controversial plans to mine
an environmentally sensitive strip of the Wild Coast. The mining will
take place in the Xolobeni dunes, south of Port Edward. The application
has outraged environmental groups, largely because the proposed mining
areas form part of the Pondoland centre of endemism, which has more
species than the United Kingdom, some of which are endemic and facing
extinction.
Exploratory drilling revealed Xolobeni has the world’s 10th largest titanium
deposit, worth about R11 billion. The amount of money that will be
spent over the mine’s 22 years, including a smelter, is estimated at R1.4
billion. The Australian mining company predicts that 570 direct jobs will
be created.
But at least two communities fiercely oppose the mining plans. Some
opponents are former miners who fear Gauteng’s mine dumps and compounds will be replicated on the Wild Coast. Others are employees of failed
ecotourism ventures, who blame the mining company for their situation.
Many are suspicious of outsiders. The villagers have also complained
that some of the structures within the mining company are controlled
by business leaders with political connections, who are in it for their own
gain. Intimidation of people who oppose the mining has also been alleged.
Headman Mandoda Ndovela was shot dead after his outspoken criticism
of the mining.
Mzamo Dlamini, a youth living in one of the villages that will be affected
by the mining, said 10% of the Amadiba ’who were promised riches by
the mining company’ support mining. ’The rest say if people bring those
machines, we will fight.’
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CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
21.8
1. Explain what the following words means:
(a) endemic
(b) smelter
(c) ecotourism
2. What kinds of ’riches’ do you think the Amadiba people have been promised
by the mining company?
3. In two columns, list the potential advantages and disadvantages of mining
in this area.
4. Imagine that you were one of the villagers in this area. Write down three
questions that you would want the mining company to answer before you made
a decision about whether to oppose the mining or not. Share your ideas with
the rest of the class.
5. Imagine that you are an environmentalist. What would your main concerns be
about the proposed mining project? Again share your answers with the rest of
the class.
21.8
Energy resources and their uses: Coal
The products of the lithosphere are also important in meeting our energy needs. Coal is one
product that is used to produce energy. In South Africa, coal is particularly important because
most of our electricity is generated using coal as a fuel. South Africa is the world’s sixth largest
coal producer, with Mpumalanga contributing about 83% of our total production. Other areas
in which coal is produced, include the Free State, Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal. One of the
problems with coal however, is that it is a non-renewable resource, meaning that once all resources have been used up, it cannot simply be produced again. Burning coal also produces large
quantities of greenhouse gases, which may play a role in global warming. At present, ESKOM,
the South African government’s electric power producer, is the coal industry’s main customer.
21.8.1
The formation of coal
Coal is what is known as a fossil fuel. A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon that has been formed
from organic material such as the remains of plants and animals. When plants and animals
decompose, they leave behind organic remains that accumulate and become compacted over
millions of years under sedimentary rock. Over time, the heat and pressure in these parts of the
earth’s crust also increases, and coal is formed. When coal is burned, a large amount of heat
energy is released, which is used to produce electricity. Oil is also a fossil fuel and is formed in
a similar way.
Definition: Fossil Fuel
A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon that is formed from the fossilised remains of dead plants and
animals that have been under conditions of intense heat and pressure for millions of years.
21.8.2
How coal is removed from the ground
Coal can be removed from the crust in a number of different ways. The most common methods
used are strip mining, open cast mining and underground mining.
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21.8
CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
1. Strip mining
Strip mining is a form of surface mining that is used when the coal reserves are very
shallow. The overburden (overlying sediment) is removed so that the coal seams can be
reached. These sediments are replaced once the mining is finished, and in many cases,
attempts are made to rehabilitate the area.
2. Open cast mining
Open cast mining is also a form of surface mining, but here the coal deposits are too deep
to be reached using strip mining. One of the environmental impacts of open cast mining
is that the overburden is dumped somewhere else away from the mine, and this leaves a
huge pit in the ground.
3. Underground mining
Undergound mining is normally used when the coal seams are amuch deeper, usually at a
depth greater than 40 m. As with shaft mining for gold, the problem with underground
mining is that it is very dangerous, and there is a very real chance that the ground could
collapse during the mining if it is not supported. One way to limit the danger is to use
pillar support methods, where some of the ground is left unmined so that it forms pillars to
support the roof. All the other surfaces underground will be mined. Using another method
called longwalling, the roof is allowed to collapse as the mined-out area moves along. In
South Africa, only a small percentage of coal is mined in this way.
21.8.3
The uses of coal
Although in South Africa, the main use of coal is to produce electricity, it can also be used for
other purposes.
1. Electricity
In order to generate electricity, solid coal must be crushed and then burned in a furnace
with a boiler. A lot of steam is produced and this is used to spin turbines which then
generate electricity.
2. Gasification
If coal is broken down and subjected to very high temperatures and pressures, it forms a
synthesis gas, which is a mix of carbon dioxide and hydrogen gases. This is very important
in the chemical industry (refer to chapter 23).
3. Liquid fuels
Coal can also be changed into liquid fuels like petrol and diesel using the Fischer-Tropsch
process. In fact, South Africa is one of the leaders in this technology (refer to chapter 23).
The only problem is that producing liquid fuels from coal, rather than refining petroleum
that has been drilled, releases much greater amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere,
and this contributes further towards global warming.
21.8.4
Coal and the South African economy
In South Africa, the coal industry is second only to the gold industry. More than this, South
Africa is one of the world’s top coal exporters, and also one of the top producers. Of the coal
that is produced, most is used locally to produce electricity and the rest is used in industry and
domestically.
The problem with coal however, is that it is a non-renewable resource which means that once
all the coal deposits have been mined, there will be none left. Coal takes such a long time to
form, and requires such specific environmental conditions, that it would be impossible for coal to
re-form at a rate that would keep up with humankind’s current consumption. It is therefore very
important that South Africa, and other countries that rely on coal, start to look for alternative
energy resources.
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CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
21.8.5
21.8
The environmental impacts of coal mining
There are a number of environmental impacts associated with coal mining.
• Visual impact and landscape scars
Coal mining leaves some very visible scars on the landscape, and destroys biodiversity
(e.g. plants, animals). During strip mining and open cast mining, the visual impact is
particularly bad, although this is partly reduced by rehabilitation in some cases.
• Spontaneous combustion and atmospheric pollution
Coal that is left in mine dumps may spontaneously combust, producing large amounts of
sulfurous smoke which contributes towards atmospheric pollution.
• Acid formation
Waste products from coal mining have a high concentration of sulfur compounds. When
these compounds are exposed to water and oxygen, sulfuric acid is formed. If this acid
washes into nearby water systems, it can cause a lot of damage to the ecosystem. Acid
can also leach into soils and alter its acidity. This in turn affects what will be able to grow
there.
• Global warming
As was discussed earlier, burning coal to generate electricity produces carbon dioxide and
nitrogen oxides which contribute towards global warming (refer to chapter 22). Another
gas that causes problems is methane. All coal contains methane, and deeper coal contains
the most methane. As a greenhouse gas, methane is about twenty times more potent than
carbon dioxide.
teresting It is easy to see how mining, and many other activities including industry and veInteresting
Fact
Fact
hicle transport, contribute towards Global Warming. It was for this reason that
South Africa joined the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF).
The forum is an international climate change initiative that focuses on developing cost effective technologies to separate and capture carbon dioxide from the
atmosphere so that it can be stored in some way. The CSLF also aims to make
these technologies as widely available as possible.
Exercise: Coal in South Africa
The following advertisement appeared in a local paper:
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21.9
CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
ENERGY STARTS WITH SOUTH AFRICAN COAL
bbb
b
bbb
bbb
bbb
bbb
bb
bbb
bb
es
itiv ves
addervati uring
o
N p r e s c o lo
0
No tificial re 230
r
o
a
f
e
N o e st b
B
b
b
b
b
Coal is as old as the hills and
just as natural.
It’s like juice from real fruit.
Coal SOUTH AFRICA
1. ”Coal is as old as the hills, and just as natural.” Is this statement TRUE?
Motivate your answer by referring to how coal is formed.
2. Coal is a non-renewable energy source. Quote a statement from the advertisement that gives an indication that coal is non-renewable. Give a reason for
your choice.
3. Is coal actually a healthy source of energy? Motivate your answer by referring to all influences that coal and coal mining have on both humans and the
environment.
4. Why is coal used as a primary energy source in South Africa?
(DoE Exemplar Paper 2, Grade 11, 2007)
21.9
Energy resources and their uses: Oil
Oil is another product of the lithosphere which is very important in meeting our fuel needs.
21.9.1
How oil is formed
Oil is formed in a very similar way to coal, except that the organic material is laid down in
oceans. Organisms such as zooplankton and algae settle to the ocean floor and become buried
under layers of mud. Over time, as these layers of sediment accumulate and the heat and pressure
also increase, the organic material changes to a waxy material called kerogen. Eventually, with
continuing heat and pressure, liquid and gas hydrocarbons are formed. These hydrocarbons
are lighter than rock and therefore move upwards through the rock layers before being trapped
by an impermeable layer. Here the oil will slowly accumulate until there is enough that it can
be accessed by oil rigs and other equipment. Crude oil or petroleum, is actually a mixture of
hydrocarbons (mostly alkanes) of different lengths, ranging from 5 carbons to 18 carbons in the
hydrocarbon chain. If the mixture contains mostly short hydrocarbons, then it is a gas called
natural gas. As the hydrocarbon chains in the mixture become longer, the product becomes
more and more solid. Coal is made up of the longest hydrocarbons. For more information on
hydrocarbons, refer to chapter 9.
21.9.2
Extracting oil
When enough oil has accumulated in a well, it becomes economically viable to try to extract it
either through drilling or pumping. If the pressure in the oil reservoir is high, the oil is forced
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CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
21.10
naturally to the surface. This is known as primary recovery of oil. If the pressure is low, then
pumps must be used to extract it. This is known as secondary recovery. When the oil is very
difficult to extract, steam injection into the reservoir can be used to heat the oil, reduce its
viscosity and make it easier to extract.
While most of South Africa’s oil is imported and then processed at a refinery in either Durban,
Cape Town or Sasolburg, some is extracted from coal, as discussed in section 21.8.
21.9.3
Other oil products
Oil can also be used to make a variety of different products. You will find more information on
this in chapter 23.
• Fractional distillation
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into the parts that make it up. In
oil refineries, crude oil is separated into useful products such as asphalt, diesel, fuel oil,
gasoline, kerosine, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and tar, to name just a few.
• Cracking
There are two types of cracking, steam cracking and hydrocracking. Cracking is used
to change heavy hydrocarbons such as petroleum into lighter hydrocarbons such as fuels
(LPG and gasoline), plastics (ethylene) and other products that are needed to make fuel
gas (propylene).
21.9.4
The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use
Some of the key environmental impacts associated with the extraction and use of oil are as
follows:
• Pollution
Exploring the oceans for oil, and the actual drilling process, can result in major pollution.
• Ecosystem impacts
Dredging the ocean floors for oil can disrupt seabed ecosystems.
• Global warming
Burning oil as a fuel source produces carbon dioxide, which contributes towards global
warming.
21.10
Alternative energy resources
As the world’s population increases, so does the demand for energy. As we have already mentioned, many of our energy resources are non-renewable and will soon run out. In addition,
many of the fuels that we use produce large amounts of greenhouse gases, which can contribute
towards global warming. If we are to maintain the quality and health of our planet, and also
meet our growing need for energy, we will need to investigate alternative energy resources. In
this next section, we are going to take a closer look at some of these possible alternatives. Many
of these options are very controversial, and may have both pros and cons.
• Nuclear power
Another element that is found in the crust, and which helps to meet our energy needs, is
uranium. Uranium produces energy through the process of nuclear fission (chapter ??).
Neutrons are aimed at the nucleii of the uranium atoms in order to split them. When the
nucleus of a uranium atom is split, a large amount of energy is released as heat. This
heat is used to produce steam, which turns turbines to generate electricity. Uranium is
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produced as a by-product of gold in some mines in the Witwatersrand, and as a by-product
in some copper mines, for example in Palaborwa. Many people regard this type of nuclear
power as relatively environmentally friendly because it doesn’t produce a lot of greenhouse
gases. However, generating nuclear power does produce radioactive wastes, which must
be carefully disposed of in order to prevent contamination. There are also concerns around
leaking of nuclear materials.
• Natural gas
Natural gas is formed in a similar way to oil and is often located above oil deposits in the
earth’s crust. ’Natural gas’ refers to a hydrocarbon gas, composed mostly of methane. It
is highly combustible and produces low emissions.
In June 2002, construction began on a pipeline that would stretch for 865 km between
Mozambique and South Africa. Mozambique has large sources of under-utilised natural gas
and so an agreement was reached between SASOL and the South African and Mozambican
governments to build the pipeline, which would transport natural gas from Mozambique to
South Africa. The benefits of natural gas include the fact that it is a clean-burning fossil
fuel and few by-products are emitted as pollutants. It is also an economical and efficient
energy source as the gas can easily be piped directly to a customer’s facility.
• Biofuels
In many parts of the world, ethanol is currently being used as a substitute for crude
petroleum. Ethanol can be produced through the fermentation of sugar-containing products such as sugar cane. One of the problems with this however, is the vast areas of land
that are needed to cultivate the necessary crops. Crops such as maize can also be used in
the process. In South Africa, a company called ’Ethanol Africa’ has been set up by commercial farmers to convert their surplus maize into environmentally-friendly biofuel, and
plans are underway to establish ethanol plants in some of the maize-producing provinces.
• Hydropower
Hydropower produces energy from the action of falling water. As water falls from a height,
the energy is used to turn turbines which produce electricity. However, for hydropower to
be effective, a large dam is needed to store water. The building of a dam comes with
its own set of problems such as the expense of construction, as well as the social and
environmental impacts of relocating people (if the area is populated),and disrupting a
natural river course.
• Solar energy
Solar energy is energy from the sun. The sun’s radiation is trapped in solar panels and
is then converted into electricity. While this process is environmentally friendly, and solar
energy is a renewable resource, the supply of radiation is not constant (think for example
of cloudy days, and nights), and the production of electricity is not efficient. Solar energy
can however meet small energy needs such as the direct heating of homes.
• Geothermal energy
This type of energy comes from the natural heat below the Earth’s surface. If hot underground steam can be tapped and brought to the surface, it has the potential to produce
electricity.
Activity :: Discussion : Using energy wisely
The massive power cuts or ’load shedding’ that South Africans began to experience at the beginning of 2008, were a dramatic wake-up call to the growing energy
crisis that the country faces.
There are alternative energy sources available, but they will take years to become
functional, and many of them have their own problems. Another way to look at the
problem, is to put the focus on reducing how much energy is used rather than
focusing only on ways to meet the growing demand.
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21.11
1. In your groups, discuss ways that each of the following groups of people could
save energy.
(a) industries
(b) domestic users
(c) farmers
2. Discuss creative incentives that could be used to encourage each of these groups
to reduce their energy consumption.
21.11
Summary
• The lithosphere is the solid, outermost part of our planet and contains many important
metal elements such as gold and iron, as well as products that are needed to produce
energy.
• These elements are seldom found in their pure form, but rather as minerals in rocks.
• A mineral is formed through geological processes. It can either be a pure element (e.g.
gold) or may consist of a number of different elements e.g. the gold-bearing mineral
calaverite (AuTe2 ).
• A rock is an aggregate of a number of different minerals.
• An ore is rock that contains minerals which make it valuable for mining.
• Minerals have been used throughout history. As new metals and minerals were discovered,
important growth took place in industry, agriculture and technology.
• Gold is one of the most important metals in the history of South Africa. It was the discovery
of gold that led to an influx of fortune-seeking foreigners, and a growth in mining villages
and towns.
• Most of South Africa’s gold is concentrated in the ’Golden Arc’ in the area between
Johannesburg and Welkom.
• Three methods are used to obtain gold from the lithosphere: panning, open cast mining
and shaft mining.
• Gold ore must be processed so that the metal can be removed. One way to process the
ore after it has been crushed is a method called gold cyanidation. A cyanide solution is
added to the crushed ore so that a gold-cyanide solution is formed. Zinc is then added to
this solution so that the gold is precipitated out.
• Gold has a number of important characteristics which make it a useful metal for jewelery
and other applications. The metal is shiny, durable, malleable, ductile, is a good conductor
of electricity and is also a good heat reflector.
• Gold mining has a number of environmental impacts, which include resource consumption, air pollution, poisoned water, solid waste and the destruction of biodiversity in natural
areas.
• Mine rehabilitation is one way of restoring old mine sites to what they were like before.
• Iron is another important metal and is used in industry, furniture and building materials.
• Iron is usually found in minerals such as iron oxides. These minerals must be processed
to remove the metal.
• When iron ore is processed, a blast furnace is used. The iron ore, carbon and a flux are
added to the top of the furnace and hot air is blasted into the bottom of the furnace.
A number of reactions occur in the furnace to finally remove the iron from its ore. Iron
oxides are reduced by carbon monoxide to produce iron.
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• Iron can occur in a number of forms, depending on its level of purity and carbon content.
It can also occur in an alloy e.g. steel.
• Phosphates are found in sedimentary rock, which must be quarried to access the ore.
• Phosphates react with phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid to produce a superphosphate
(Ca(H2 PO4 )2 ), which is an important component in fertilisers.
• The products of the lithosphere are also important in meeting energy needs. Coal and
oil can be extracted from the lithosphere for this purpose.
• Coal and oil are both fossil fuels. A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon that has been formed
from the fossilsed remains of plants and animals that have been under conditions of high
heat and pressure over a long period of time.
• Coal and oil are non-renewable resources, meaning that once they have been used up,
no more can be produced.
• Coal can be removed from the ground using strip mining, open cast mining or underground mining.
• Coal is burned to produce energy, which can be used to generate electricity. Coal can
also be used to produce liquid fuels or a syngas which can be converted into other useful
products for the chemical industry.
• Some of the environmental impacts associated with coal mining include landscape scars,
spontaneous combustion, acid formation and global warming.
• Oil is also a fossil fuel but it forms in the oceans. It can extracted using either pumping
or drilling, depending on the pressure of the oil.
• Fractional distillation of oil can be used to make products such as diesel, gasoline and
liquid petroleum gas.
• Cracking can be used to convert heavy hydrocarbons to light hydrocarbons.
• The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use are similar to those for coal.
• In view of the number of environmental impacts associated with the extraction and use
of coal and oil, other alternative energy sources should be considered. These include
nuclear power, biofuels, hydropower and a number of others. All of these alternatives have
their own advantages and disadvantages.
Exercise: Summary Exercise
1. Give one word to describe each of the following phrases:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
earth’s crust together with the upper layer of the mantle
a mineral containing silica and oxygen
an alloy of iron and tin
a manual technique used to sort gold from other sediments
2. For each of the following questions, choose the one correct answer from the
list provided.
(a) One of the main reasons that South Africa’s gold industry has been so
economically viable is that...
i. gold panning can be used as an additional method to extract gold
ii. open cast mining can be used to extract gold reserves
iii. South Africa’s geological history is such that its gold reserves are concentrated in large reefs
iv. South Africa has large amounts of water to use in mining
(b) The complete list of reactants in an iron blast furnace is...
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CHAPTER 21. THE LITHOSPHERE - GRADE 11
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
3.
carbon and oxygen
coal, oxygen, iron ore and limestone
carbon, oxygen and iron ore
coal, air, iron ore and slag
More profits, more poisons
In the last three decades, gold miners have made use of cyanidation to
recover gold from the ore. Over 99% of gold from ore can be extracted
in this way. It allows miners to obtain gold flakes - too small for the
eye to see. Gold can also be extracted from the waste of old operations
which sometimes leave as much as a third of the gold behind.
The left-over cyanide can be re-used, but is more often stored in a
pond behind a dam or even dumped directly into a local river. A
teaspoonful of 2% solution of cyanide can kill a human adult.
Mining companies insist that cyanide breaks down when exposed to
sunlight and oxygen which render it harmless. They also point to
scientific studies that show that cyanide swallowed by fish will not
’bio-accumulate’, which means it does not pose a risk to anyone who
eats the fish. In practice, cyanide solution that seeps into the ground
will not break down because of the absence of sunlight. If the cyanide
solution is very acidic, it could turn into cyanide gas, which is toxic
to fish. On the other hand, if the solution is alkaline the cyanide does
not break down.
There are no reported cases of human death from cyanide spills. If
you don’t see corpses, everything is okay.
(a) What is cyanidation?
(b) What type of chemical reaction takes place during this process: precipitation, acid-base or redox?
(c) Is the pH of the solution after cyanidation greater than, less than or equal
to 7?
(d) How is solid gold recovered from this solution?
(e) Refer to cyanidation and discuss the meaning of the heading of this extract:
More profits, more poisons.
(DoE Grade 11 Paper 2, 2007)
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21.11
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420
Chapter 22
The Atmosphere - Grade 11
Our earth is truly an amazing planet! Not only is it exactly the right distance from the sun to
have temperatures that will support life, but it is also one of the only planets to have liquid water
on its surface. In addition, our earth has an atmosphere that has just the right composition to
allow life to exist. The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the earth. We may not
always be aware of them, but without these gases, life on earth would definitely not be possible.
The atmosphere provides the gases that animals and plants need for respiration (breathing) and
photosynthesis (the production of food), it helps to keep temperatures on earth constant and
also protects us from the sun’s harmful radiation.
In this chapter, we are going to take a closer look at the chemistry of the earth’s atmosphere
and at some of the human activities that threaten the delicate balance that exists in this part of
our planet.
22.1
The composition of the atmosphere
Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of gases. Two important gases are nitrogen and oxygen, which
make up about 78.1% and 20.9% of the atmosphere respectively. A third gas, Argon, contributes
about 0.9%, and a number of other gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour, helium
and ozone make up the remaining 0.1%. In an earlier chapter, we discussed the importance of
nitrogen as a component of proteins, the building blocks of life. Similarly, oxygen is essential for
life because it is the gas we need for respiration. We will discuss the importance of some of the
other gases later in this chapter.
teresting
Interesting
Fact
Fact
The earth’s early atmosphere was very different from what it is today. When the earth
formed around 4.5 billion years ago, there was probably no atmosphere. Some scientists
believe that the earliest atmosphere contained gases such as water vapour, carbon dioxide,
nitrogen and sulfur which were released from inside the planet as a result of volcanic activity.
Many scientists also believe that the first stage in the evolution of life, around 4 billion
years ago, needed an oxygen-free environment. At a later stage, these primitive forms of
plant life began to release small amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere as a product of
photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, plants use carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to
produce simple sugars. Oxygen is also released in the process.
6CO2 + 6H2 O + sunlight → C6 H12 O6 + 6O2
This build-up of oxygen in the atmosphere eventually led to the formation of the ozone layer,
which helped to filter the sun’s harmful UV radiation so that plants were able to flourish
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in different environments. As plants became more widespread and photosythesis increased,
so did the production of oxygen. The increase in the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere
would have allowed more forms of life to exist.
If you have ever had to climb to a very high altitude (altitude means the ’height’ in the atmosphere), you will have noticed that it becomes very difficult to breathe, and many climbers suffer
from ’altitude sickness’ before they reach their destination. This is because the density of gases
becomes less as you move higher in the atmosphere. It is gravity that holds the atmosphere
close to the earth. As you move higher, this force weakens slightly and so the gas particles
become more spread out. In effect, when you are at a high altitude, the gases in the atmosphere
haven’t changed, but there are fewer oxygen molecules in the same amount of air that you are
able to breathe.
Definition: Earth’s atmosphere
The Earth’s atmosphere is a layer of gases that surround the planet, and which are held there
by the Earth’s gravity. The atmosphere contains roughly 78.1% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen,
0.9% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide, trace amounts of other gases, and a variable amount of
water vapour. This mixture of gases is commonly known as air. The atmosphere protects
life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation and reducing temperature extremes
between day and night.
22.2
The structure of the atmosphere
The earth’s atmosphere is divided into different layers, each with its own particular characteristics
(figure 22.1).
22.2.1
The troposphere
The troposphere is the lowest level in the atmosphere, and it is the part in which we live. The
troposphere varies in thickness, and extends from the ground to a height of about 7km at the
poles and about 18km at the equator. An important characteristic of the troposphere is that its
temperature decreases with an increase in altitude. In other words, as you climb higher, it will
get colder. You will have noticed this if you have climbed a mountain, or if you have moved
from a city at a high altitude to one which is lower; the average temperature is often lower where
the altitude is higher. This is because the troposphere is heated from the ’bottom up’. In other
words, places that are closer to the Earth’s surface will be warmer than those at higher altitudes.
The heating of the atmosphere will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter.
The word troposphere comes from the Greek tropos, meaning turning or mixing. The troposphere is the most turbulent part of the atmosphere and is the part where our weather takes
place. Weather is the state of the air at a particular place and time e.g. if it is warm or cold,
wet or dry, and how cloudy or windy it is. Generally, jet aircraft fly just above the troposphere
to avoid all this turbulence.
22.2.2
The stratosphere
Above the troposphere is another layer called the stratosphere, where most long distance aircraft fly. The stratosphere extends from altitudes of 10 to 50km. If you have ever been in an
aeroplane and have looked out the window once you are well into the flight, you will have noticed
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CHAPTER 22. THE ATMOSPHERE - GRADE 11
22.2
120
110
Thermosphere
100
90
80
70
Mesosphere
Height (km)
60
50
40
Stratosphere
30
20
Troposphere
10
0
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
Temperature (◦ C)
-10
0
10
20
Figure 22.1: A generalised diagram showing the structure of the atmosphere to a height of 110
km
that you are actually flying above the level of the clouds. As we have already mentioned, clouds
and weather occur in the troposphere, whereas the stratosphere has very stable atmospheric
conditions and very little turbulence. It is easy to understand why aircraft choose to fly here!
The stratosphere is different from the troposphere because its temperature increases as altitude
increases. This is because the stratosphere absorbs solar radiation directly, meaning that the
upper layers closer to the sun will be warmer. The upper layers of the stratosphere are also
warmer because of the presence of the ozone layer. Ozone (O3 ) is formed when solar radiation
splits an oxygen molecule (O2 ) into two atoms of oxygen. Each individual atom is then able to
combine with an oxygen molecule to form ozone. The two reactions are shown below:
O2 → O + O
O + O2 → O3
The change from one type of molecule to another produces energy, and this contributes to higher
temperatures in the upper part of the stratosphere. An important function of the ozone layer
is to absorb UV radiation and reduce the amount of harmful radiation that reaches the Earth’s
surface.
Extension: CFCs and the ozone layer
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CHAPTER 22. THE ATMOSPHERE - GRADE 11
You may have heard people talking about ’the hole in the ozone layer’. What do
they mean by this and do we need to be worried about it?
Most of the earth’s ozone is found in the stratosphere and this limits the amount
of UV radiation that reaches the earth. However, human activities have once again
disrupted the chemistry of the atmosphere. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) are compounds found in aerosol cans, fridges and airconditioners. In aerosol cans, it is the
CFC’s that cause the substance to be sprayed outwards. The bad side of CFC’s is
that, when they are released into the atmosphere, they break down ozone molecules
so that the ozone is no longer able to protect us as much from UV rays. The ’ozone
hole’ is actually a thinning of the ozone layer approximately above Antarctica. Let’s
take a closer look at the chemical reactions that are involved in breaking down ozone:
1. When CFC’s react with UV radiation, a carbon-chlorine bond in the chlorofluorocarbon breaks and a new compound is formed, with a chlorine atom.
CF Cl3 + U V → CF Cl2 + Cl
2. The single chlorine atom reacts with ozone to form a molecule of chlorine
monoxide and oxygen gas. In the process, ozone is destroyed.
Cl + O3 → ClO + O2
3. The chlorine monoxide then reacts with a free oxygen atom (UV radiation
breaks O2 down into single oxygen atoms) to form oxygen gas and a single
chlorine atom.
ClO + O → Cl + O2
4. The chlorine atom is then free to attack more ozone molecules, and the process
continues. A single CFC molecule can destroy 100 000 ozone molecules.
One possible consequence of ozone depletion is an increase in the incidence
of skin cancer because there is more UV radiation reaching earth’s surface. CFC
replacements are now being used to reduce emissions, and scientists are trying to
find ways to restore ozone levels in the atmosphere.
22.2.3
The mesosphere
The mesosphere is located about 50-80/85km above Earth’s surface. Within this layer, temperature decreases with increasing altitude. Temperatures in the upper mesosphere can fall as
low as -100◦C in some areas. Millions of meteors burn up daily in the mesosphere because of
collisions with the gas particles that are present in this layer. This leads to a high concentration
of iron and other metal atoms.
22.2.4
The thermosphere
The thermosphere exists at altitudes above 80 km. In this part of the atmosphere, ultraviolet
(UV) and shorter X-Ray radiation from the sun cause neutral gas atoms to be ionised. At these
radiation frequencies, photons from the solar radiation are able to dislodge electrons from neutral atoms and molecules during a collision. A plasma is formed, which consists of negative free
electrons and positive ions. This part of the atmosphere is called the ionosphere. At the same
time that ionisation takes place however, an opposing process called recombination also begins.
Some of the free electrons are drawn to the positive ions, and combine again with them if they
are in close enough contact. Since the gas density increases at lower altitudes, the recombination process occurs more often here because the gas molecules and ions are closer together. The
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CHAPTER 22. THE ATMOSPHERE - GRADE 11
22.2
ionisation process produces energy which means that the upper parts of the thermosphere, which
are dominated by ionisation, have a higher temperature than the lower layers where recombination takes place. Overall, temperature in the thermosphere increases with an increase in altitude.
Extension: The ionosphere and radio waves
The ionosphere is of practical importance because it allows radio waves to be transmitted. A radio wave is a type of electromagnetic radiation that humans use to
transmit information without wires. When using high-frequency bands, the ionosphere is used to reflect the transmitted radio beam. When a radio wave reaches
the ionosphere, the electric field in the wave forces the electrons in the ionosphere
into oscillation at the same frequency as the radio wave. Some of the radio wave
energy is given up to this mechanical oscillation. The oscillating electron will then
either recombine with a positive ion, or will re-radiate the original wave energy back
downward again. The beam returns to the Earth’s surface, and may then be reflected
back into the ionosphere for a second bounce.
teresting
Interesting
Fact
Fact
The ionosphere is also home to the auroras. Auroras are caused by the collision of charged
particles (e.g. electrons) with atoms in the earth’s upper atmosphere. Charged particles are
energised and so, when they collide with atoms, the atoms also become energised. Shortly
afterwards, the atoms emit the energy they have gained, as light. Often these emissions
are from oxygen atoms, resulting in a greenish glow (wavelength 557.7 nm) and, at lower
energy levels or higher altitudes, a dark red glow (wavelength 630 nm). Many other colours
can also be observed. For example, emissions from atomic nitrogen are blue, and emissions
from molecular nitrogen are purple. Auroras emit visible light (as described above), and
also infra-red, ultraviolet and x-rays, which can be observed from space.
Exercise: The composition of the atmosphere
1. Complete the following summary table by providing the missing information for
each layer in the atmosphere.
Atmospheric
Height (km)
Gas composition General characlayer
teristics
Troposphere
0-18
Turbulent; part
of
atmosphere
where weather
occurs
Ozone reduces
harmful radiation
reaching Earth
Mesosphere
High
concentration of metal
atoms
more than 80
km
2. Use your knowledge of the atmosphere to explain the following statements:
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(a) Athletes who live in coastal areas need to acclimatise if they are competing
at high altitudes.
(b) Higher incidences of skin cancer have been recorded in areas where the
ozone layer in the atmosphere is thin.
(c) During a flight, turbulence generally decreases above a certain altitude.
22.3
Greenhouse gases and global warming
22.3.1
The heating of the atmosphere
As we mentioned earlier, the distance of the earth from the sun is not the only reason that
temperatures on earth are within a range that is suitable to support life. The composition of the
atmosphere is also critically important.
The earth receives electromagnetic energy from the sun in the visible spectrum. There are also
small amounts of infrared and ultraviolet radiation in this incoming solar energy. Most of the
radiation is shortwave radiation, and it passes easily through the atmosphere towards the earth’s
surface, with some being reflected before reaching the surface. At the surface, some of the energy is absorbed, and this heats up the earth’s surface. But the situation is a little more complex
than this.
A large amount of the sun’s energy is re-radiated from the surface back into the atmosphere as
infrared radiation, which is invisible. As this radiation passes through the atmosphere, some of
it is absorbed by greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapour and methane. These
gases are very important because they re-emit the energy back towards the surface. By doing
this, they help to warm the lower layers of the atmosphere even further. It is this ’re-emission’ of
heat by greenhouse gases, combined with surface heating and other processes (e.g. conduction
and advection) that maintain temperatures at exactly the right level to support life. Without
the presence of greenhouse gases, most of the sun’s energy would be lost and the Earth would
be a lot colder than it is! A simplified diagram of the heating of the atmosphere is shown in
figure 22.2.
22.3.2
The greenhouse gases and global warming
Many of the greenhouse gases occur naturally in small quantities in the atmosphere. However,
human activities have greatly increased their concentration, and this has led to a lot of concern
about the impact that this could have in increasing global temperatures. This phenomenon is
known as global warming. Because the natural concentrations of these gases are low, even a
small increase in their concentration as a result of human emissions, could have a big effect on
temperature. But before we go on, let’s look at where some of these human gas emissions come
from.
• Carbon dioxide (CO2 )
Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas,
and coal), solid waste, trees and wood products, and also as a result of other chemical
reactions (e.g. the manufacture of cement). Carbon dioxide can also be removed from
the atmosphere when it is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis.
• Methane (CH4 )
Methane is emitted when coal, natural gas and oil are produced and transported. Methane
emissions can also come from livestock and other agricultural practices and from the decay
of organic waste.
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22.3
sun
Outgoing long-wave
infrared radiation
Incoming
short-wave
solar radiation
atmosphere
infrared radiation
is absorbed and
re-emitted by
greenhouse gases
in the atmosphere
earth’s surface
Figure 22.2: The heating of the Earth’s atmosphere
• Nitrous oxide (N2 O)
Nitrous oxide is emitted by agriculture and industry, and when fossil fuels and solid waste
are burned.
• Fluorinated gases (e.g. hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride)
These gases are all synthetic, in other words they are man-made. They are emitted from a
variety of industrial processes. Fluorinated gases are sometimes used in the place of other
ozone-depleting substances (e.g. CFC’s). These are very powerful greenhouse gases, and
are sometimes referred to as High Global Warming Potential gases (’High GWP gases’).
Overpopulation is a major problem in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and in slowing down
global warming. As populations grow, their demands on resources (e.g. energy) increase, and
so does their production of greenhouse gases.
Extension: Ice core drilling - Taking a look at earth’s past climate
Global warming is a very controversial issue. While many people are convinced
that the increase in average global temperatures is directly related to the increase in
atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, others argue that the climatic changes
we are seeing are part of a natural pattern. One way in which scientists are able to
understand what is happening at present, is to understand the earth’s past atmosphere, and the factors that affected its temperature.
So how, you may be asking, do we know what the earth’s past climate was like?
One method that is used is ice core drilling. Antarctica is the coldest continent
on earth, and because of this there is very little melting that takes place. Over
thousands of years, ice has accumulated in layers and has become more and more
compacted as new ice is added. This is partly why Antarctica is also on average one
of the highest continents! On average, the ice sheet that covers Antarctica is 2500
m thick, and at its deepest location, is 4700 m thick.
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As the snow is deposited on top of the ice sheet each year, it traps different
chemicals and impurities which are dissolved in the ice. The ice and impurities hold
information about the Earth’s environment and climate at the time that the ice was
deposited. Drilling an ice core from the surface down, is like taking a journey back
in time. The deeper into the ice you venture, the older the layer of ice. By analysing
the gases and oxygen isotopes that are present (along with many other techniques)
in the ice at various points in the earth’s history, scientists can start to piece together
a picture of what the earth’s climate must have been like.
Top layers are the most
recently deposited
Increasing age
Bottom layers are
the oldest
One of the most well known ice cores was the one drilled at a Russian station
called Vostok in central Antarctica. So far, data has been gathered for dates as far
back as 160 000 years!
Activity :: Case Study : Looking at past climatic trends
Make sure that you have read the ’Information box’ on ice core drilling before
you try this activity.
The values in the table below were extrapolated from data obtained by scientists
studying the Vostok ice core. ’Local temperature change’ means by how much the
temperature at that time was different from what it is today. For example, if the
local temperature change 160 000 years ago was -9◦ C, this means that atmospheric
temperatures at that time were 9◦ C lower than what they are today. ’ppm’ means
’parts per million’ and is a unit of measurement for gas concentrations.
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CHAPTER 22. THE ATMOSPHERE - GRADE 11
Years before present
(x 1000)
Local temperature
change (◦ C)
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 (1850)
Present
-9
-10
-10
-3
+1
-4
-8
-5
-6
-8
-9
-7
-8
-7
-9
-2
-0.5
22.3
Carbon
dioxide
(ppm)
190
205
240
280
278
240
225
230
220
250
190
220
180
225
200
260
280
371
Questions
1. On the same set of axes, draw graphs to show how temperature and carbon
dioxide concentrations have changed over the last 160 000 years. Hint: ’Years
before present’ will go on the x-axis, and should be given negative values.
2. Compare the graphs that you have drawn. What do you notice?
3. Is there a relationship between temperature and the atmospheric concentration
of carbon dioxide?
4. Do these graphs prove that temperature changes are determined by the concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? Explain your
answer.
5. What other factors might you need to consider when analysing climatic trends?
22.3.3
The consequences of global warming
Activity :: Group Discussion : The impacts of global warming
In groups of 3-4, read the following extracts and then answer the questions that
follow.
By 2050 Warming to Doom Million Species, Study Says
By 2050, rising temperatures exacerbated by human-induced belches of
carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases could send more than a million
of Earth’s land-dwelling plants and animals down the road to extinction,
according to a recent study. ”Climate change now represents at least
as great a threat to the number of species surviving on Earth as habitatdestruction and modification,” said Chris Thomas, a conservation biologist
at the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom.
The researchers worked independently in six biodiversity-rich regions around
the world, from Australia to South Africa, plugging field data on species
distribution and regional climate into computer models that simulated the
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22.3
CHAPTER 22. THE ATMOSPHERE - GRADE 11
ways species’ ranges are expected to move in response to temperature and
climate changes. According to the researchers’ collective results, the predicted range of climate change by 2050 will place 15 to 35 percent of the
1 103 species studied at risk of extinction.
National Geographic News, 12 July 2004
Global Warming May Dry Up Africa’s Rivers, Study Suggests
Many climate scientists already predict that less rain will fall annually in
parts of Africa within 50 years due to global warming. Now new research
suggests that even a small decrease in rainfall on the continent could
cause a drastic reduction in river water, the lifeblood for rural populations
in Africa.
A decrease in water availability could occur across about 25 percent of
the continent, according to the new study. Hardest hit would be areas in
northwestern and southern Africa, with some of the most serious effects
striking large areas of Botswana and South Africa.
To predict future rainfall, the scientists compared 21 of what they consider
to be the best climate change models developed by research teams around
the world. On average, the models forecast a 10 to 20% drop in rainfall
in northwestern and southern Africa by 2070. With a 20% decrease, Cape
Town would be left with just 42% of its river water, and ”Botswana would
completely dry up,” de Wit said. In parts of northern Africa, river water
levels would drop below 50%.
Less river water would have serious implications not just for people but
for the many animal species whose habitats rely on regular water supplies.
National Geographic News, 3 March 2006
Discussion questions
1. What is meant by ’biodiversity’ ?
2. Explain why global warming is likely to cause a loss of biodiversity.
3. Why do you think a loss of biodiversity is of such concern to conservationists?
4. Suggest some plant or animal species in South Africa that you think might be
particularly vulnerable to extinction if temperatures were to rise significantly.
Explain why you chose these species.
5. In what way do people, animals and plants rely on river water?
6. What effect do you think a 50% drop in river water level in some parts of Africa
would have on the people living in these countries?
7. Discuss some of the other likely impacts of global warming that we can expect
(e.g. sea level rise, melting of polar ice caps, changes in ocean currents).
22.3.4
Taking action to combat global warming
Global warming is a major concern at present. A number of organisations, panels and research
bodies have been working to gather accurate and relevant information so that a true picture of
our current situation can be painted. One important orgaisation that you may have heard of
is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC was established in
1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and
the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change
brought on by humans. You may also have heard of the Kyoto Protocol, which will be discussed
a little later.
430
CHAPTER 22. THE ATMOSPHERE - GRADE 11
22.4
Activity :: Group Discussion : World carbon dioxide emissions
The data in the table below shows carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption
of fossil fuels (in million metric tons of carbon dioxide).
Region or Country
United States
Brazil
France
UK
Saudi Arabia
Botswana
South Africa
India
World Total
1980
4754
186
487
608
175
1.26
234
299
18333
1985
4585
187
394
588
179
1.45
298
439
19412
1990
5013
222
368
598
207
2.68
295
588
21426
1995
5292
288
372
555
233
3.44
344
867
22033
2000
5815
345
399
551
288
4.16
378
1000
23851
2004
5912
336
405
579
365
3.83
429
1112
27043
Questions
1. Using a coloured pen, highlight those countries that are ’developed’ and those
that are ’developing’.
2. Explain why CO2 emissions are so much higher in developed countries than in
developing countries.
3. How does South Africa compare to the other developing countries, and also to
the developed countries?
Carbon dioxide emissions are a major problem worldwide. The Kyoto Protocol
was signed in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997. Its main objective was to reduce
global greenhouse gas emissions by encouraging countries to become signatories to
the guidelines that had been laid out in the protocol. These guidelines set targets for
the world’s major producers to reduce their emissions within a certain time. However,
some of the worst contributors to greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. USA) were not
prepared to sign the protocol, partly because of the potential effect this would have on
the country’s economy, which relies on industry and other ’high emission’ activities.
Panel discussion
Form groups with 5 people in each. Each person in the group must adopt one
of the following roles during the discussion:
• the owner of a large industry
• an environmental scientist
• an economist
• a politician
• a chairperson for the discussion
In your group, you are going to discuss some of the economic and environmental
implications for a country that decides to sign the Kyoto Protocol. Each person will
have the opportunity to express the view of the character they have adopted. You
may ask questions of the other people, or challenge their ideas, provided that you
ask permission from the chairperson first.
22.4
Summary
• The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds Earth. These gases are important in
sustaining life, regulating temperature and protecting Earth from harmful radiation.
• The gases that make up the atmosphere are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and others
e.g. water vapour, methane.
• There are four layer in the atmosphere, each with their own characteristics.
431
22.4
CHAPTER 22. THE ATMOSPHERE - GRADE 11
• The troposphere is the lowest layer and here, temperature decreases with an increase in
altitude. The troposphere is where weather occurs.
• The next layer is the stratosphere where temperature increases with an increase in altitude
because of the presence of ozone in this layer, and the direct heating from the sun.
• The depletion of the ozone layer is largely because of CFC’s, which break down ozone
through a series of chemical reactions.
• The mesosphere is characterised by very cold temperatures and meteor collisions. The
mesosphere contains high concentrations of metal atoms.
• In the thermosphere, neutral atoms are ionised by UV and X-ray radiation from the sun.
Temperature increases with an increase in altitude because of the energy that is released
during this ionisation process, which occurs mostly in the upper thermosphere.
• The thermosphere is also known as the ionosphere, and is the part of the atmosphere
where radio waves can be transmitted.
• The auroras are bright coloured skies that occur when charged particles collide with atoms
in the upper atmosphere. Depending on the type of atom, energy is released as light at
different wavelengths.
• The Earth is heated by radiation from the sun. Incoming radiation has a short wavelength
and some is absorbed directly by the Earth’s surface. However, a large amount of energy
is re-radiated as longwave infrared radiation.
• Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapour and methane absorb infrared
radiation and re-emit it back towards the Earth’s surface. In this way, the bottom layers
of the atmsophere are kept much warmer than they would be if all the infrared radiation
was lost.
• Human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and may contribute towards global warming.
• Some of the impacts of global warming include changing climate patterns, rising sea levels and a loss of biodiversity, to name a few. Interventions are needed to reduce this
phenomenon.
Exercise: Summary Exercise
1. The atmosphere is a relatively thin layer of gases which support life and provide protection to living organisms. The force of gravity holds the atmosphere
against the earth. The diagram below shows the temperatures associated with
the various layers that make up the atmosphere and the altitude (height) from
the earth’s surface.
432
CHAPTER 22. THE ATMOSPHERE - GRADE 11
22.4
120
E
110
100
D
90
80
70
C
Height (km) 60
50
40
B
30
20
10
0
-100
-90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10
Temperature (◦ C)
A
0
10 20
(a) Write down the names of the layers A, B and D of the atmosphere.
(b) In which one of the layers of the atmosphere is ozone found?
(c) Give an explanation for the decrease in temperature as altitude increases
in layer A.
(d) In layer B, there is a steady increase in temperature as the altitude increases. Write down an explanation for this trend.
2.
Planet Earth in Danger
It is now accepted that greenhouse gases are to blame for planet earth
getting warmer. The increase in the number of sudden floods in Asia
and droughts in Africa; the rising sea level and increasing average temperatures are global concerns. Without natural greenhouse gases,like
carbon dioxide and water vapour,life on earth is not possible. However, the increase in levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since
the Industrial Revolution is of great concern. Greater disasters are to
come, which will create millions of climate refugees. It is our duty to
take action for the sake of future generations who will pay dearly for
the wait-and-see attitude of the current generation. Urgent action to
reduce waste is needed. Global warming is a global challenge and calls
for a global response now, not later.
(Adapted from a speech by the French President, Jacques Chirac)
(a) How do greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, heat up the earth’s
surface?
(b) Draw a Lewis structure for the carbon dioxide molecule
(c) The chemical bonds within the carbon dioxide molecule are polar. Support
this statement by performing a calculation using the table of electronegativities.
(d) Classify the carbon dioxide molecule as polar or non-polar. Give a reason
for your answer.
(e) Suggest ONE way in which YOU can help to reduce the emissions of
greenhouse gases.
3. Plants need carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to manufacture food. However, the engines of motor vehicles cause too much carbon dioxide to be released into the
atmosphere.
(a) State the possible consequence of having too much carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere.
433
22.4
CHAPTER 22. THE ATMOSPHERE - GRADE 11
(b) Explain two possible effects on humans if the amount of carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere becomes too low.
(DoE Exemplar Paper Grade 11, 2007)
434
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