AVRDUDE

AVRDUDE
AVRDUDE
A program for download/uploading AVR microcontroller flash and eeprom.
For AVRDUDE, Version 6.2, 16 November 2015.
by Brian S. Dean
Send comments on AVRDUDE to [email protected]
Use http://savannah.nongnu.org/bugs/?group=avrdude to report bugs.
c 2003,2005 Brian S. Dean
Copyright c 2006 - 2013 Jörg Wunsch
Copyright Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the
copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.
Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed
under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.
Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice
may be stated in a translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.
i
Table of Contents
1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1
2
Command Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1
2.2
2.3
3
Option Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Programmers accepting extended parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Example Command Line Invocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Terminal Mode Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.1
3.2
4
History and Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Terminal Mode Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Terminal Mode Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1
4.2
4.3
AVRDUDE Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programmer Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Parent Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Instruction Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Other Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
25
25
26
27
28
28
Programmer Specific Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.1
5.2
Atmel STK600 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Atmel DFU bootloader using FLIP version 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Appendix A Platform Dependent Information
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
A.1 Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.1.1 Unix Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.1.1.1 FreeBSD Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.1.1.2 Linux Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.1.2 Unix Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.1.2.1 FreeBSD Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.1.2.2 Linux Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.1.3 Unix Port Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.1.4 Unix Documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2 Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.1 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.2 Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.2.1 Configuration file names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.2.2 How AVRDUDE finds the configuration files. . . . . . . . .
A.2.3 Port Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34
34
34
34
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
36
36
36
36
ii
A.2.3.1 Serial Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.3.2 Parallel Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.4 Using the parallel port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.4.1 Windows NT/2K/XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.4.2 Windows 95/98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.5 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.6 Credits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B
36
36
37
37
37
37
37
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Chapter 1: Introduction
1
1 Introduction
AVRDUDE - AVR Downloader Uploader - is a program for downloading and uploading
the on-chip memories of Atmel’s AVR microcontrollers. It can program the Flash and
EEPROM, and where supported by the serial programming protocol, it can program fuse
and lock bits. AVRDUDE also supplies a direct instruction mode allowing one to issue any
programming instruction to the AVR chip regardless of whether AVRDUDE implements
that specific feature of a particular chip.
AVRDUDE can be used effectively via the command line to read or write all chip memory
types (eeprom, flash, fuse bits, lock bits, signature bytes) or via an interactive (terminal)
mode. Using AVRDUDE from the command line works well for programming the entire
memory of the chip from the contents of a file, while interactive mode is useful for exploring
memory contents, modifying individual bytes of eeprom, programming fuse/lock bits, etc.
AVRDUDE supports the following basic programmer types: Atmel’s STK500, Atmel’s
AVRISP and AVRISP mkII devices, Atmel’s STK600, Atmel’s JTAG ICE (the original one,
mkII, and 3, the latter two also in ISP mode), appnote avr910, appnote avr109 (including
the AVR Butterfly), serial bit-bang adapters, and the PPI (parallel port interface). PPI
represents a class of simple programmers where the programming lines are directly connected to the PC parallel port. Several pin configurations exist for several variations of
the PPI programmers, and AVRDUDE can be be configured to work with them by either
specifying the appropriate programmer on the command line or by creating a new entry in
its configuration file. All that’s usually required for a new entry is to tell AVRDUDE which
pins to use for each programming function.
A number of equally simple bit-bang programming adapters that connect to a serial port
are supported as well, among them the popular Ponyprog serial adapter, and the DASA
and DASA3 adapters that used to be supported by uisp(1). Note that these adapters are
meant to be attached to a physical serial port. Connecting to a serial port emulated on top
of USB is likely to not work at all, or to work abysmally slow.
If you happen to have a Linux system with at least 4 hardware GPIOs available (like
almost all embedded Linux boards) you can do without any additional hardware - just
connect them to the MOSI, MISO, RESET and SCK pins on the AVR and use the linuxgpio
programmer type. It bitbangs the lines using the Linux sysfs GPIO interface. Of course,
care should be taken about voltage level compatibility. Also, although not strictrly required,
it is strongly advisable to protect the GPIO pins from overcurrent situations in some way.
The simplest would be to just put some resistors in series or better yet use a 3-state buffer
driver like the 74HC244. Have a look at http://kolev.info/avrdude-linuxgpio for a more
detailed tutorial about using this programmer type.
The STK500, JTAG ICE, avr910, and avr109/butterfly use the serial port to communicate with the PC. The STK600, JTAG ICE mkII/3, AVRISP mkII, USBasp, avrftdi (and
derivitives), and USBtinyISP programmers communicate through the USB, using libusb
as a platform abstraction layer. The avrftdi adds support for the FT2232C/D, FT2232H,
and FT4232H devices. These all use the MPSSE mode, which has a specific pin mapping.
Bit 1 (the lsb of the byte in the config file) is SCK. Bit 2 is MOSI, and Bit 3 is MISO. Bit
4 usually reset. The 2232C/D parts are only supported on interface A, but the H parts
can be either A or B (specified by the usbdev config parameter). The STK500, STK600,
JTAG ICE, and avr910 contain on-board logic to control the programming of the target
Chapter 1: Introduction
2
device. The avr109 bootloader implements a protocol similar to avr910, but is actually
implemented in the boot area of the target’s flash ROM, as opposed to being an external
device. The fundamental difference between the two types lies in the protocol used to control the programmer. The avr910 protocol is very simplistic and can easily be used as the
basis for a simple, home made programmer since the firmware is available online. On the
other hand, the STK500 protocol is more robust and complicated and the firmware is not
openly available. The JTAG ICE also uses a serial communication protocol which is similar
to the STK500 firmware version 2 one. However, as the JTAG ICE is intended to allow onchip debugging as well as memory programming, the protocol is more sophisticated. (The
JTAG ICE mkII protocol can also be run on top of USB.) Only the memory programming
functionality of the JTAG ICE is supported by AVRDUDE. For the JTAG ICE mkII/3,
JTAG, debugWire and ISP mode are supported, provided it has a firmware revision of at
least 4.14 (decimal). See below for the limitations of debugWire. For ATxmega devices, the
JTAG ICE mkII/3 is supported in PDI mode, provided it has a revision 1 hardware and
firmware version of at least 5.37 (decimal).
The Atmel-ICE (ARM/AVR) is supported (JTAG, PDI for Xmega, debugWIRE, ISP
modes).
Atmel’s XplainedPro boards, using EDBG protocol (CMSIS-DAP compliant), are supported by teh “jtag3” programmer type.
The AVR Dragon is supported in all modes (ISP, JTAG, PDI, HVSP, PP, debugWire).
When used in JTAG and debugWire mode, the AVR Dragon behaves similar to a JTAG
ICE mkII, so all device-specific comments for that device will apply as well. When used
in ISP and PDI mode, the AVR Dragon behaves similar to an AVRISP mkII (or JTAG
ICE mkII in ISP mode), so all device-specific comments will apply there. In particular, the
Dragon starts out with a rather fast ISP clock frequency, so the -B bitclock option might
be required to achieve a stable ISP communication. For ATxmega devices, the AVR Dragon
is supported in PDI mode, provided it has a firmware version of at least 6.11 (decimal).
Wiring boards are supported, utilizing STK500 V2.x protocol, but a simple DTR/RTS
toggle to set the boards into programming mode. The programmer type is “wiring”.
The Arduino (which is very similar to the STK500 1.x) is supported via its own programmer type specification “arduino”.
The BusPirate is a versatile tool that can also be used as an AVR programmer. A single
BusPirate can be connected to up to 3 independent AVRs. See the section on extended
parameters below for details.
The USBasp ISP and USBtinyISP adapters are also supported, provided AVRDUDE
has been compiled with libusb support. They both feature simple firmware-only USB
implementations, running on an ATmega8 (or ATmega88), or ATtiny2313, respectively.
The Atmel DFU bootloader is supported in both, FLIP protocol version 1 (AT90USB*
and ATmega*U* devices), as well as version 2 (Xmega devices). See below for some hints
about FLIP version 1 protocol behaviour.
1.1 History and Credits
AVRDUDE was written by Brian S. Dean under the name of AVRPROG to run on the
FreeBSD Operating System. Brian renamed the software to be called AVRDUDE when
Chapter 1: Introduction
3
interest grew in a Windows port of the software so that the name did not conflict with
AVRPROG.EXE which is the name of Atmel’s Windows programming software.
The AVRDUDE source now resides in the public CVS repository on savannah.gnu.org
(http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/avrdude/), where it continues to be enhanced
and ported to other systems. In addition to FreeBSD, AVRDUDE now runs on Linux
and Windows. The developers behind the porting effort primarily were Ted Roth, Eric
Weddington, and Joerg Wunsch.
And in the spirit of many open source projects, this manual also draws on the work
of others. The initial revision was composed of parts of the original Unix manual page
written by Joerg Wunsch, the original web site documentation by Brian Dean, and from
the comments describing the fields in the AVRDUDE configuration file by Brian Dean. The
texi formatting was modeled after that of the Simulavr documentation by Ted Roth.
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
4
2 Command Line Options
2.1 Option Descriptions
AVRDUDE is a command line tool, used as follows:
avrdude -p partno options ...
Command line options are used to control AVRDUDE’s behaviour. The following options
are recognized:
-p partno This is the only mandatory option and it tells AVRDUDE what type of part
(MCU) that is connected to the programmer. The partno parameter is the
part’s id listed in the configuration file. Specify -p ? to list all parts in the
configuration file. If a part is unknown to AVRDUDE, it means that there
is no config file entry for that part, but it can be added to the configuration
file if you have the Atmel datasheet so that you can enter the programming
specifications. Currently, the following MCU types are understood:
uc3a0512
c128
c32
c64
pwm2
pwm216
pwm2b
pwm3
pwm316
pwm3b
1200
2313
2333
2343
4414
4433
4434
8515
8535
usb1286
usb1287
usb162
usb646
usb647
usb82
m103
m128
m1280
m1281
m1284
AT32UC3A0512
AT90CAN128
AT90CAN32
AT90CAN64
AT90PWM2
AT90PWM216
AT90PWM2B
AT90PWM3
AT90PWM316
AT90PWM3B
AT90S1200 (****)
AT90S2313
AT90S2333
AT90S2343 (*)
AT90S4414
AT90S4433
AT90S4434
AT90S8515
AT90S8535
AT90USB1286
AT90USB1287
AT90USB162
AT90USB646
AT90USB647
AT90USB82
ATmega103
ATmega128
ATmega1280
ATmega1281
ATmega1284
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
m1284p
m1284rfr2
m128rfa1
m128rfr2
m16
m161
m162
m163
m164p
m168
m168p
m169
m16u2
m2560
m2561
m2564rfr2
m256rfr2
m32
m324p
m324pa
m325
m3250
m328
m328p
m329
m3290
m3290p
m329p
m32m1
m32u2
m32u4
m406
m48
m48p
m64
m640
m644
m644p
m644rfr2
m645
m6450
m649
m6490
m64rfr2
m8
m8515
m8535
ATmega1284P
ATmega1284RFR2
ATmega128RFA1
ATmega128RFR2
ATmega16
ATmega161
ATmega162
ATmega163
ATmega164P
ATmega168
ATmega168P
ATmega169
ATmega16U2
ATmega2560 (**)
ATmega2561 (**)
ATmega2564RFR2
ATmega256RFR2
ATmega32
ATmega324P
ATmega324PA
ATmega325
ATmega3250
ATmega328
ATmega328P
ATmega329
ATmega3290
ATmega3290P
ATmega329P
ATmega32M1
ATmega32U2
ATmega32U4
ATMEGA406
ATmega48
ATmega48P
ATmega64
ATmega640
ATmega644
ATmega644P
ATmega644RFR2
ATmega645
ATmega6450
ATmega649
ATmega6490
ATmega64RFR2
ATmega8
ATmega8515
ATmega8535
5
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
m88
m88p
m8u2
t10
t11
t12
t13
t15
t1634
t20
t2313
t24
t25
t26
t261
t4
t40
t4313
t43u
t44
t45
t461
t5
t84
t85
t861
t88
t9
x128a1
x128a1d
x128a1u
x128a3
x128a3u
x128a4
x128a4u
x128b1
x128b3
x128c3
x128d3
x128d4
x16a4
x16a4u
x16c4
x16d4
x16e5
x192a1
x192a3
ATmega88
ATmega88P
ATmega8U2
ATtiny10
ATtiny11
ATtiny12
ATtiny13
ATtiny15
ATtiny1634
ATtiny20
ATtiny2313
ATtiny24
ATtiny25
ATtiny26
ATtiny261
ATtiny4
ATtiny40
ATtiny4313
ATtiny43u
ATtiny44
ATtiny45
ATtiny461
ATtiny5
ATtiny84
ATtiny85
ATtiny861
ATtiny88
ATtiny9
ATxmega128A1
ATxmega128A1revD
ATxmega128A1U
ATxmega128A3
ATxmega128A3U
ATxmega128A4
ATxmega128A4U
ATxmega128B1
ATxmega128B3
ATxmega128C3
ATxmega128D3
ATxmega128D4
ATxmega16A4
ATxmega16A4U
ATxmega16C4
ATxmega16D4
ATxmega16E5
ATxmega192A1
ATxmega192A3
6
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
x192a3u
x192c3
x192d3
x256a1
x256a3
x256a3b
x256a3bu
x256a3u
x256c3
x256d3
x32a4
x32a4u
x32c4
x32d4
x32e5
x384c3
x384d3
x64a1
x64a1u
x64a3
x64a3u
x64a4
x64a4u
x64b1
x64b3
x64c3
x64d3
x64d4
x8e5
ucr2
7
ATxmega192A3U
ATxmega192C3
ATxmega192D3
ATxmega256A1
ATxmega256A3
ATxmega256A3B
ATxmega256A3BU
ATxmega256A3U
ATxmega256C3
ATxmega256D3
ATxmega32A4
ATxmega32A4U
ATxmega32C4
ATxmega32D4
ATxmega32E5
ATxmega384C3
ATxmega384D3
ATxmega64A1
ATxmega64A1U
ATxmega64A3
ATxmega64A3U
ATxmega64A4
ATxmega64A4U
ATxmega64B1
ATxmega64B3
ATxmega64C3
ATxmega64D3
ATxmega64D4
ATxmega8E5
deprecated,
(*) The AT90S2323 and ATtiny22 use the same algorithm.
(**) Flash addressing above 128 KB is not supported by all programming hardware. Known to work are jtag2, stk500v2, and bit-bang programmers.
(***) The ATtiny11 can only be programmed in high-voltage serial mode.
(****) The ISP programming protocol of the AT90S1200 differs in subtle ways
from that of other AVRs. Thus, not all programmers support this device.
Known to work are all direct bitbang programmers, and all programmers talking
the STK500v2 protocol.
-b baudrate
Override the RS-232 connection baud rate specified in the respective programmer’s entry of the configuration file.
-B bitclock
Specify the bit clock period for the JTAG interface or the ISP clock (JTAG ICE
only). The value is a floating-point number in microseconds. Alternatively, the
value might be suffixed with "Hz", "kHz", or "MHz", in order to specify the
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
8
bit clock frequency, rather than a period. The default value of the JTAG
ICE results in about 1 microsecond bit clock period, suitable for target MCUs
running at 4 MHz clock and above. Unlike certain parameters in the STK500,
the JTAG ICE resets all its parameters to default values when the programming
software signs off from the ICE, so for MCUs running at lower clock speeds,
this parameter must be specified on the command-line. It can also be set in the
configuration file by using the ’default bitclock’ keyword.
-c programmer-id
Specify the programmer to be used. AVRDUDE knows about several common
programmers. Use this option to specify which one to use. The programmer-id
parameter is the programmer’s id listed in the configuration file. Specify -c ? to
list all programmers in the configuration file. If you have a programmer that is
unknown to AVRDUDE, and the programmer is controlled via the PC parallel
port, there’s a good chance that it can be easily added to the configuration
file without any code changes to AVRDUDE. Simply copy an existing entry
and change the pin definitions to match that of the unknown programmer.
Currently, the following programmer ids are understood and supported:
-C config-file
Use the specified config file for configuration data. This file contains all programmer and part definitions that AVRDUDE knows about. If not specified, AVRDUDE reads the configuration file from /usr/local/etc/avrdude.conf
(FreeBSD and Linux). See Appendix A for the method of searching for the
configuration file for Windows.
If config-file is written as +filename then this file is read after the system wide
and user configuration files. This can be used to add entries to the configuration
without patching your system wide configuration file. It can be used several
times, the files are read in same order as given on the command line.
-D
Disable auto erase for flash. When the -U option with flash memory is specified, avrdude will perform a chip erase before starting any of the programming
operations, since it generally is a mistake to program the flash without performing an erase first. This option disables that. Auto erase is not used for
ATxmega devices as these devices can use page erase before writing each page
so no explicit chip erase is required. Note however that any page not affected
by the current operation will retain its previous contents.
-e
Causes a chip erase to be executed. This will reset the contents of the flash ROM
and EEPROM to the value ‘0xff’, and clear all lock bits. Except for ATxmega
devices which can use page erase, it is basically a prerequisite command before
the flash ROM can be reprogrammed again. The only exception would be if the
new contents would exclusively cause bits to be programmed from the value ‘1’
to ‘0’. Note that in order to reprogram EERPOM cells, no explicit prior chip
erase is required since the MCU provides an auto-erase cycle in that case before
programming the cell.
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
9
-E exitspec[,...]
By default, AVRDUDE leaves the parallel port in the same state at exit as it
has been found at startup. This option modifies the state of the ‘/RESET’
and ‘Vcc’ lines the parallel port is left at, according to the exitspec arguments
provided, as follows:
reset
The ‘/RESET’ signal will be left activated at program exit, that
is it will be held low, in order to keep the MCU in reset state
afterwards. Note in particular that the programming algorithm for
the AT90S1200 device mandates that the ‘/RESET’ signal is active
before powering up the MCU, so in case an external power supply
is used for this MCU type, a previous invocation of AVRDUDE
with this option specified is one of the possible ways to guarantee
this condition.
noreset
The ‘/RESET’ line will be deactivated at program exit, thus allowing the MCU target program to run while the programming
hardware remains connected.
vcc
This option will leave those parallel port pins active (i. e. high)
that can be used to supply ‘Vcc’ power to the MCU.
novcc
This option will pull the ‘Vcc’ pins of the parallel port down at
program exit.
d_high
This option will leave the 8 data pins on the parallel port active (i.
e. high).
d_low
This option will leave the 8 data pins on the parallel port inactive
(i. e. low).
Multiple exitspec arguments can be separated with commas.
-F
Normally, AVRDUDE tries to verify that the device signature read from the
part is reasonable before continuing. Since it can happen from time to time that
a device has a broken (erased or overwritten) device signature but is otherwise
operating normally, this options is provided to override the check. Also, for
programmers like the Atmel STK500 and STK600 which can adjust parameters
local to the programming tool (independent of an actual connection to a target
controller), this option can be used together with -t to continue in terminal
mode.
-i delay
For bitbang-type programmers, delay for approximately delay microseconds between each bit state change. If the host system is very fast, or the target runs off
a slow clock (like a 32 kHz crystal, or the 128 kHz internal RC oscillator), this
can become necessary to satisfy the requirement that the ISP clock frequency
must not be higher than 1/4 of the CPU clock frequency. This is implemented
as a spin-loop delay to allow even for very short delays. On Unix-style operating systems, the spin loop is initially calibrated against a system timer, so the
number of microseconds might be rather realistic, assuming a constant system
load while AVRDUDE is running. On Win32 operating systems, a preconfigured number of cycles per microsecond is assumed that might be off a bit for
very fast or very slow machines.
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
10
-l logfile
Use logfile rather than stderr for diagnostics output. Note that initial diagnostic
messages (during option parsing) are still written to stderr anyway.
-n
No-write - disables actually writing data to the MCU (useful for debugging
AVRDUDE).
-O
Perform a RC oscillator run-time calibration according to Atmel application
note AVR053. This is only supported on the STK500v2, AVRISP mkII, and
JTAG ICE mkII hardware. Note that the result will be stored in the EEPROM
cell at address 0.
-P port
Use port to identify the device to which the programmer is attached. Normally,
the default parallel port is used, but if the programmer type normally connects
to the serial port, the default serial port will be used. See Appendix A, Platform
Dependent Information, to find out the default port names for your platform.
If you need to use a different parallel or serial port, use this option to specify
the alternate port name.
On Win32 operating systems, the parallel ports are referred to as lpt1 through
lpt3, referring to the addresses 0x378, 0x278, and 0x3BC, respectively. If the
parallel port can be accessed through a different address, this address can be
specified directly, using the common C language notation (i. e., hexadecimal
values are prefixed by 0x).
For the JTAG ICE mkII, if AVRDUDE has been built with libusb support, port
may alternatively be specified as usb[:serialno]. In that case, the JTAG ICE
mkII will be looked up on USB. If serialno is also specified, it will be matched
against the serial number read from any JTAG ICE mkII found on USB. The
match is done after stripping any existing colons from the given serial number,
and right-to-left, so only the least significant bytes from the serial number
need to be given. For a trick how to find out the serial numbers of all JTAG
ICEs attached to USB, see Section 2.3 [Example Command Line Invocations],
page 17.
As the AVRISP mkII device can only be talked to over USB, the very same
method of specifying the port is required there.
For the USB programmer "AVR-Doper" running in HID mode, the port must be
specified as avrdoper. Libusb support is required on Unix but not on Windows.
For more information about AVR-Doper see http://www.obdev.at/avrusb/
avrdoper.html.
For the USBtinyISP, which is a simplicistic device not implementing serial numbers, multiple devices can be distinguished by their location in the USB hierarchy. See Appendix B [Troubleshooting], page 39, for examples.
For programmers that attach to a serial port using some kind of higher level
protocol (as opposed to bit-bang style programmers), port can be specified as
net:host:port. In this case, instead of trying to open a local device, a TCP
network connection to (TCP) port on host is established. The remote endpoint
is assumed to be a terminal or console server that connects the network stream
to a local serial port where the actual programmer has been attached to. The
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
11
port is assumed to be properly configured, for example using a transparent 8-bit
data connection without parity at 115200 Baud for a STK500.
-q
Disable (or quell) output of the progress bar while reading or writing to the
device. Specify it a second time for even quieter operation.
-u
Disables the default behaviour of reading out the fuses three times before programming, then verifying at the end of programming that the fuses have not
changed. If you want to change fuses you will need to specify this option, as
avrdude will see the fuses have changed (even though you wanted to) and will
change them back for your "safety". This option was designed to prevent cases
of fuse bits magically changing (usually called safemode).
If one of the configuration files contains a line
default_safemode = no;
safemode is disabled by default. The -u option’s effect is negated in that case,
i. e. it enables safemode.
Safemode is always disabled for AVR32, Xmega and TPI devices.
-s
Disable safemode prompting. When safemode discovers that one or more fuse
bits have unintentionally changed, it will prompt for confirmation regarding
whether or not it should attempt to recover the fuse bit(s). Specifying this
flag disables the prompt and assumes that the fuse bit(s) should be recovered
without asking for confirmation first.
-t
Tells AVRDUDE to enter the interactive “terminal” mode instead of up- or
downloading files. See below for a detailed description of the terminal mode.
-U memtype:op:filename[:format]
Perform a memory operation. Multiple -U options can be specified in order
to operate on multiple memories on the same command-line invocation. The
memtype field specifies the memory type to operate on. Use the -v option
on the command line or the part command from terminal mode to display
all the memory types supported by a particular device. Typically, a device’s
memory configuration at least contains the memory types flash and eeprom.
All memory types currently known are:
calibration
One or more bytes of RC oscillator calibration data.
eeprom
The EEPROM of the device.
efuse
The extended fuse byte.
flash
The flash ROM of the device.
fuse
The fuse byte in devices that have only a single fuse byte.
hfuse
The high fuse byte.
lfuse
The low fuse byte.
lock
The lock byte.
signature
The three device signature bytes (device ID).
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
fuseN
12
The fuse bytes of ATxmega devices, N is an integer number for
each fuse supported by the device.
application
The application flash area of ATxmega devices.
apptable
The application table flash area of ATxmega devices.
boot
The boot flash area of ATxmega devices.
prodsig
The production signature (calibration) area of ATxmega devices.
usersig
The user signature area of ATxmega devices.
The op field specifies what operation to perform:
r
read the specified device memory and write to the specified file
w
read the specified file and write it to the specified device memory
v
read the specified device memory and the specified file and perform
a verify operation
The filename field indicates the name of the file to read or write. The format
field is optional and contains the format of the file to read or write. Possible
values are:
i
Intel Hex
s
Motorola S-record
r
raw binary; little-endian byte order, in the case of the flash ROM
data
e
ELF (Executable and Linkable Format), the final output file from
the linker; currently only accepted as an input file
m
immediate mode; actual byte values specified on the command line,
separated by commas or spaces in place of the filename field of
the -U option. This is useful for programming fuse bytes without
having to create a single-byte file or enter terminal mode. If the
number specified begins with 0x, it is treated as a hex value. If
the number otherwise begins with a leading zero (0) it is treated as
octal. Otherwise, the value is treated as decimal.
a
auto detect; valid for input only, and only if the input is not provided at stdin.
d
decimal; this and the following formats are only valid on output.
They generate one line of output for the respective memory section,
forming a comma-separated list of the values. This can be particularly useful for subsequent processing, like for fuse bit settings.
h
hexadecimal; each value will get the string 0x prepended.
o
octal; each value will get a 0 prepended unless it is less than 8 in
which case it gets no prefix.
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
b
13
binary; each value will get the string 0b prepended.
The default is to use auto detection for input files, and raw binary format for
output files.
Note that if filename contains a colon, the format field is no longer optional
since the filename part following the colon would otherwise be misinterpreted
as format.
When reading any kind of flash memory area (including the various sub-areas
in Xmega devices), the resulting output file will be truncated to not contain
trailing 0xFF bytes which indicate unprogrammed (erased) memory. Thus, if
the entire memory is unprogrammed, this will result in an output file that has
no contents at all.
As an abbreviation, the form -U filename is equivalent to specifying -U
flash:w:filename:a. This will only work if filename does not have a colon in it.
-v
Enable verbose output. More -v options increase verbosity level.
-V
Disable automatic verify check when uploading data.
-x extended_param
Pass extended param to the chosen programmer implementation as an extended
parameter. The interpretation of the extended parameter depends on the programmer itself. See below for a list of programmers accepting extended parameters.
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
14
2.2 Programmers accepting extended parameters
JTAG ICE mkII/3
AVR Dragon
When using the JTAG ICE mkII/3 or AVR Dragon in JTAG mode, the following extended parameter is accepted:
‘jtagchain=UB,UA,BB,BA’
Setup the JTAG scan chain for UB units before, UA units after,
BB bits before, and BA bits after the target AVR, respectively.
Each AVR unit within the chain shifts by 4 bits. Other JTAG
units might require a different bit shift count.
AVR910
The AVR910 programmer type accepts the following extended parameter:
‘devcode=VALUE’
Override the device code selection by using VALUE as the device
code. The programmer is not queried for the list of supported
device codes, and the specified VALUE is not verified but used
directly within the T command sent to the programmer. VALUE
can be specified using the conventional number notation of the C
programming language.
‘no_blockmode’
Disables the default checking for block transfer capability. Use
‘no_blockmode’ only if your ‘AVR910’ programmer creates errors
during initial sequence.
BusPirate
The BusPirate programmer type accepts the following extended parameters:
‘reset=cs,aux,aux2’
The default setup assumes the BusPirate’s CS output pin connected
to the RESET pin on AVR side. It is however possible to have
multiple AVRs connected to the same BP with MISO, MOSI and
SCK lines common for all of them. In such a case one AVR should
have its RESET connected to BusPirate’s CS pin, second AVR’s
RESET connected to BusPirate’s AUX pin and if your BusPirate
has an AUX2 pin (only available on BusPirate version v1a with
firmware 3.0 or newer) use that to activate RESET on the third
AVR.
It may be a good idea to decouple the BusPirate and the AVR’s
SPI buses from each other using a 3-state bus buffer. For example
74HC125 or 74HC244 are some good candidates with the latches
driven by the appropriate reset pin (cs, aux or aux2). Otherwise
the SPI traffic in one active circuit may interfere with programming
the AVR in the other design.
‘spifreq=0..7’
0
30 kHz (default)
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
15
125 kHz
250 kHz
1 MHz
2 MHz
2.6 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
‘rawfreq=0..3’
Sets the SPI speed and uses the Bus Pirate’s binary “raw-wire”
mode instead of the default binary SPI mode:
0
1
2
3
5 kHz
50 kHz
100 kHz (Firmware v4.2+
only)
400 kHz (v4.2+)
The only advantage of the “raw-wire” mode is that different SPI
frequencies are available. Paged writing is not implemented in this
mode.
‘ascii’
Attempt to use ASCII mode even when the firmware supports BinMode (binary mode). BinMode is supported in firmware 2.7 and
newer, older FW’s either don’t have BinMode or their BinMode
is buggy. ASCII mode is slower and makes the above ‘reset=’,
‘spifreq=’ and ‘rawfreq=’ parameters unavailable. Be aware that
ASCII mode is not guaranteed to work with newer firmware versions, and is retained only to maintain compatibility with older
firmware versions.
‘nopagedwrite’
Firmware versions 5.10 and newer support a binary mode SPI command that enables whole pages to be written to AVR flash memory
at once, resulting in a significant write speed increase. If use of this
mode is not desirable for some reason, this option disables it.
‘nopagedread’
Newer firmware versions support in binary mode SPI command
some AVR Extended Commands. Using the “Bulk Memory Read
from Flash” results in a significant read speed increase. If use of
this mode is not desirable for some reason, this option disables it.
‘cpufreq=125..4000’
This sets the AUX pin to output a frequency of n kHz. Connecting
the AUX pin to the XTAL1 pin of your MCU, you can provide
it a clock, for example when it needs an external clock because of
wrong fuses settings. Make sure the CPU frequency is at least four
times the SPI frequency.
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
16
‘serial_recv_timeout=1...’
This sets the serial receive timeout to the given value. The timeout
happens every time avrdude waits for the BusPirate prompt. Especially in ascii mode this happens very often, so setting a smaller
value can speed up programming a lot. The default value is 100ms.
Using 10ms might work in most cases.
Wiring
When using the Wiring programmer type, the following optional extended parameter is accepted:
‘snooze=0..32767’
After performing the port open phase, AVRDUDE will
wait/snooze for snooze milliseconds before continuing to the
protocol sync phase. No toggling of DTR/RTS is performed if
snooze > 0.
PICkit2
Connection to the PICkit2 programmer:
(AVR) (PICkit2)
RST
VPP/MCLR (1)
VDD
VDD Target (2) -possibly optional if
AVR self powered
GND
GND (3)
MISO PGD (4)
SCLK PDC (5)
OSI
AUX (6)
Extended commandline parameters:
‘clockrate=rate’
Sets the SPI clocking rate in Hz (default is 100kHz). Alternately
the -B or -i options can be used to set the period.
‘timeout=usb-transaction-timeout’
Sets the timeout for USB reads and writes in milliseconds (default
is 1500 ms).
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
17
2.3 Example Command Line Invocations
Download the file diag.hex to the ATmega128 chip using the STK500 programmer connected to the default serial port:
% avrdude -p m128 -c stk500 -e -U flash:w:diag.hex
avrdude: AVR device initialized and ready to accept instructions
Reading | ################################################## | 100% 0.03s
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
Device signature = 0x1e9702
erasing chip
done.
performing op: 1, flash, 0, diag.hex
reading input file "diag.hex"
input file diag.hex auto detected as Intel Hex
writing flash (19278 bytes):
Writing | ################################################## | 100% 7.60s
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
19456 bytes of flash written
verifying flash memory against diag.hex:
load data flash data from input file diag.hex:
input file diag.hex auto detected as Intel Hex
input file diag.hex contains 19278 bytes
reading on-chip flash data:
Reading | ################################################## | 100% 6.83s
avrdude: verifying ...
avrdude: 19278 bytes of flash verified
avrdude: safemode: Fuses OK
avrdude done.
%
Thank you.
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
18
Upload the flash memory from the ATmega128 connected to the STK500 programmer and
save it in raw binary format in the file named c:/diag flash.bin:
% avrdude -p m128 -c stk500 -U flash:r:"c:/diag flash.bin":r
avrdude: AVR device initialized and ready to accept instructions
Reading | ################################################## | 100% 0.03s
avrdude: Device signature = 0x1e9702
avrdude: reading flash memory:
Reading | ################################################## | 100% 46.10s
avrdude: writing output file "c:/diag flash.bin"
avrdude: safemode: Fuses OK
avrdude done.
%
Thank you.
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
19
Using the default programmer, download the file diag.hex to flash, eeprom.hex to EEPROM, and set the Extended, High, and Low fuse bytes to 0xff, 0x89, and 0x2e respectively:
% avrdude -p m128 -u -U flash:w:diag.hex
>
-U eeprom:w:eeprom.hex
>
-U efuse:w:0xff:m
>
-U hfuse:w:0x89:m
>
-U lfuse:w:0x2e:m
\
\
\
\
avrdude: AVR device initialized and ready to accept instructions
Reading | ################################################## | 100% 0.03s
avrdude: Device signature = 0x1e9702
avrdude: NOTE: FLASH memory has been specified, an erase cycle will be performed
To disable this feature, specify the -D option.
avrdude: erasing chip
avrdude: reading input file "diag.hex"
avrdude: input file diag.hex auto detected as Intel Hex
avrdude: writing flash (19278 bytes):
Writing | ################################################## | 100% 7.60s
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
19456 bytes of flash written
verifying flash memory against diag.hex:
load data flash data from input file diag.hex:
input file diag.hex auto detected as Intel Hex
input file diag.hex contains 19278 bytes
reading on-chip flash data:
Reading | ################################################## | 100% 6.84s
avrdude: verifying ...
avrdude: 19278 bytes of flash verified
[ ... other memory status output skipped for brevity ... ]
avrdude done.
%
Thank you.
Chapter 2: Command Line Options
20
Connect to the JTAG ICE mkII which serial number ends up in 1C37 via USB, and enter
terminal mode:
% avrdude -c jtag2 -p m649 -P usb:1c:37 -t
avrdude: AVR device initialized and ready to accept instructions
Reading | ################################################## | 100% 0.03s
avrdude: Device signature = 0x1e9603
[ ... terminal mode output skipped for brevity ... ]
avrdude done.
Thank you.
List the serial numbers of all JTAG ICEs attached to USB. This is done by specifying an
invalid serial number, and increasing the verbosity level.
% avrdude -c jtag2 -p m128 -P usb:xx -v
[...]
Using Port
: usb:xxx
Using Programmer
: jtag2
avrdude: usbdev_open(): Found JTAG ICE, serno: 00A000001C6B
avrdude: usbdev_open(): Found JTAG ICE, serno: 00A000001C3A
avrdude: usbdev_open(): Found JTAG ICE, serno: 00A000001C30
avrdude: usbdev_open(): did not find any (matching) USB device "usb:xxx"
Chapter 3: Terminal Mode Operation
21
3 Terminal Mode Operation
AVRDUDE has an interactive mode called terminal mode that is enabled by the -t option.
This mode allows one to enter interactive commands to display and modify the various device memories, perform a chip erase, display the device signature bytes and part parameters,
and to send raw programming commands. Commands and parameters may be abbreviated
to their shortest unambiguous form. Terminal mode also supports a command history so
that previously entered commands can be recalled and edited.
3.1 Terminal Mode Commands
The following commands are implemented:
dump memtype addr nbytes
Read nbytes from the specified memory area, and display them in the usual
hexadecimal and ASCII form.
dump
Continue dumping the memory contents for another nbytes where the previous
dump command left off.
write memtype addr byte1 ... byteN
Manually program the respective memory cells, starting at address addr, using
the values byte1 through byteN. This feature is not implemented for bankaddressed memories such as the flash memory of ATMega devices.
erase
Perform a chip erase.
send b1 b2 b3 b4
Send raw instruction codes to the AVR device. If you need access to a feature
of an AVR part that is not directly supported by AVRDUDE, this command
allows you to use it, even though AVRDUDE does not implement the command.
When using direct SPI mode, up to 3 bytes can be omitted.
sig
Display the device signature bytes.
spi
Enter direct SPI mode. The pgmled pin acts as slave select. Only supported on
parallel bitbang programmers.
part
Display the current part settings and parameters. Includes chip specific information including all memory types supported by the device, read/write timing,
etc.
pgm
Return to programming mode (from direct SPI mode).
verbose [level]
Change (when level is provided), or display the verbosity level. The initial
verbosity level is controlled by the number of -v options given on the commandline.
?
help
Give a short on-line summary of the available commands.
quit
Leave terminal mode and thus AVRDUDE.
Chapter 3: Terminal Mode Operation
22
In addition, the following commands are supported on the STK500 and STK600 programmer:
vtarg voltage
Set the target’s supply voltage to voltage Volts.
varef [channel] voltage
Set the adjustable voltage source to voltage Volts. This voltage is normally
used to drive the target’s Aref input on the STK500 and STK600. The STK600
offers two reference voltages, which can be selected by the optional parameter
channel (either 0 or 1).
fosc freq[M|k]
Set the master oscillator to freq Hz. An optional trailing letter M multiplies by
1E6, a trailing letter k by 1E3.
fosc off
Turn the master oscillator off.
sck period
STK500 and STK600 only: Set the SCK clock period to period microseconds.
JTAG ICE only: Set the JTAG ICE bit clock period to period microseconds.
Note that unlike STK500 settings, this setting will be reverted to its default
value (approximately 1 microsecond) when the programming software signs off
from the JTAG ICE. This parameter can also be used on the JTAG ICE mkII/3
to specify the ISP clock period when operating the ICE in ISP mode.
parms
STK500 and STK600 only: Display the current voltage and master oscillator
parameters.
JTAG ICE only: Display the current target supply voltage and JTAG bit clock
rate/period.
3.2 Terminal Mode Examples
Display part parameters, modify eeprom cells, perform a chip erase:
Chapter 3: Terminal Mode Operation
23
% avrdude -p m128 -c stk500 -t
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude:
avrdude>
>>> part
AVR device initialized and ready to accept instructions
Device signature = 0x1e9702
current erase-rewrite cycle count is 52 (if being tracked)
part
AVR Part
Chip Erase delay
PAGEL
BS2
RESET disposition
RETRY pulse
serial program mode
parallel program mode
Memory Detail
Memory Type
----------eeprom
flash
lfuse
hfuse
efuse
lock
calibration
signature
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
ATMEGA128
9000 us
PD7
PA0
dedicated
SCK
yes
yes
Page
Paged Size
Size #Pages MinW
------ ------ ---- ------ ----no
4096
8
0 9000
yes
131072 256
512 4500
no
1
0
0
0
no
1
0
0
0
no
1
0
0
0
no
1
0
0
0
no
1
0
0
0
no
3
0
0
0
avrdude> dump eeprom 0 16
>>> dump eeprom 0 16
0000 ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
Polled
MaxW
ReadBack
----- --------9000 0xff 0xff
9000 0xff 0x00
0 0x00 0x00
0 0x00 0x00
0 0x00 0x00
0 0x00 0x00
0 0x00 0x00
0 0x00 0x00
ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
|................|
avrdude> write eeprom 0 1 2 3 4
>>> write eeprom 0 1 2 3 4
avrdude> dump eeprom 0 16
>>> dump eeprom 0 16
0000 01 02 03 04 ff ff ff ff
ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
|................|
avrdude> erase
>>> erase
avrdude: erasing chip
avrdude> dump eeprom 0 16
>>> dump eeprom 0 16
0000 ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
|................|
avrdude>
Program the fuse bits of an ATmega128 (disable M103 compatibility, enable high speed external crystal, enable brown-out detection, slowly rising power). Note since we are working
with fuse bits the -u (unsafe) option is specified, which allows you to modify the fuse bits.
First display the factory defaults, then reprogram:
Chapter 3: Terminal Mode Operation
24
% avrdude -p m128 -u -c stk500 -t
avrdude: AVR device initialized and ready to accept instructions
avrdude: Device signature = 0x1e9702
avrdude: current erase-rewrite cycle count is 52 (if being tracked)
avrdude> d efuse
>>> d efuse
0000 fd
|.
|
avrdude> d hfuse
>>> d hfuse
0000 99
|.
|
avrdude> d lfuse
>>> d lfuse
0000 e1
|.
|
avrdude> w efuse 0 0xff
>>> w efuse 0 0xff
avrdude> w hfuse 0 0x89
>>> w hfuse 0 0x89
avrdude> w lfuse 0 0x2f
>>> w lfuse 0 0x2f
avrdude>
Chapter 4: Configuration File
25
4 Configuration File
AVRDUDE reads a configuration file upon startup which describes all of the parts and
programmers that it knows about. The advantage of this is that if you have a chip that
is not currently supported by AVRDUDE, you can add it to the configuration file without
waiting for a new release of AVRDUDE. Likewise, if you have a parallel port programmer
that is not supported by AVRDUDE, chances are good that you can copy and existing
programmer definition, and with only a few changes, make your programmer work with
AVRDUDE.
AVRDUDE first looks for a system wide configuration file in a platform dependent
location. On Unix, this is usually /usr/local/etc/avrdude.conf, while on Windows it is
usally in the same location as the executable file. The name of this file can be changed using
the -C command line option. After the system wide configuration file is parsed, AVRDUDE
looks for a per-user configuration file to augment or override the system wide defaults. On
Unix, the per-user file is .avrduderc within the user’s home directory. On Windows, this
file is the avrdude.rc file located in the same directory as the executable.
4.1 AVRDUDE Defaults
default_parallel = "default-parallel-device";
Assign the default parallel port device. Can be overridden using the -P option.
default_serial = "default-serial-device";
Assign the default serial port device. Can be overridden using the -P option.
default_programmer = "default-programmer-id";
Assign the default programmer id. Can be overridden using the -c option.
default_bitclock = "default-bitclock";
Assign the default bitclock value. Can be overridden using the -B option.
4.2 Programmer Definitions
The format of the programmer definition is as follows:
programmer
parent <id>
id
= <id1> [, <id2> [, <id3>] ...] ;
desc
= <description> ;
type
= "par" | "stk500" | ... ;
baudrate = <num> ;
vcc
= <num1> [, <num2> ... ] ;
buff
= <num1> [, <num2> ... ] ;
reset
= <num> ;
sck
= <num> ;
mosi
= <num> ;
miso
= <num> ;
errled
= <num> ;
rdyled
= <num> ;
pgmled
= <num> ;
vfyled
= <num> ;
usbvid
= <hexnum>;
usbpid
= <hexnum> [, <hexnum> ...];
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
<id> is a quoted string
<idN> are quoted strings
quoted string
programmer type (see below for a list)
baudrate for serial ports
pin number(s)
pin number(s)
pin number
pin number
pin number
pin number
pin number
pin number
pin number
pin number
USB VID (Vendor ID)
USB PID (Product ID)
Chapter 4: Configuration File
usbdev
= <interface>;
usbvendor = <vendorname>;
usbproduct = <productname>;
usbsn
= <serialno>;
26
#
#
#
#
USB
USB
USB
USB
interface or other device info
Vendor Name
Product Name
Serial Number
;
If a parent is specified, all settings of it (except its ids) are used for the new programmer.
These values can be changed by new setting them for the new programmer.
To invert a bit in the pin definitions, use = ~ <num>.
Not all programmer types can handle a list of USB PIDs.
Following programmer types are currently implemented:
4.3 Part Definitions
part
id
= <id> ;
# quoted string
desc
= <description> ;
# quoted string
has_jtag
= <yes/no> ;
# part has JTAG i/f
has_debugwire
= <yes/no> ;
# part has debugWire i/f
has_pdi
= <yes/no> ;
# part has PDI i/f
has_tpi
= <yes/no> ;
# part has TPI i/f
devicecode
= <num> ;
# numeric
stk500_devcode
= <num> ;
# numeric
avr910_devcode
= <num> ;
# numeric
signature
= <num> <num> <num> ;
# signature bytes
usbpid
= <num> ;
# DFU USB PID
reset
= dedicated | io;
retry_pulse
= reset | sck;
pgm_enable
= <instruction format> ;
chip_erase
= <instruction format> ;
chip_erase_delay = <num> ;
# micro-seconds
# STK500 parameters (parallel programming IO lines)
pagel
= <num> ;
# pin name in hex, i.e., 0xD7
bs2
= <num> ;
# pin name in hex, i.e., 0xA0
serial
= <yes/no> ;
# can use serial downloading
parallel
= <yes/no/pseudo>;
# can use par. programming
# STK500v2 parameters, to be taken from Atmel’s XML files
timeout
= <num> ;
stabdelay
= <num> ;
cmdexedelay
= <num> ;
synchloops
= <num> ;
bytedelay
= <num> ;
pollvalue
= <num> ;
pollindex
= <num> ;
predelay
= <num> ;
postdelay
= <num> ;
pollmethod
= <num> ;
mode
= <num> ;
delay
= <num> ;
blocksize
= <num> ;
readsize
= <num> ;
hvspcmdexedelay = <num> ;
# STK500v2 HV programming parameters, from XML
pp_controlstack = <num>, <num>, ...;
# PP only
hvsp_controlstack = <num>, <num>, ...;
# HVSP only
Chapter 4: Configuration File
27
hventerstabdelay = <num>;
progmodedelay
= <num>;
# PP only
latchcycles
= <num>;
togglevtg
= <num>;
poweroffdelay
= <num>;
resetdelayms
= <num>;
resetdelayus
= <num>;
hvleavestabdelay = <num>;
resetdelay
= <num>;
synchcycles
= <num>;
# HVSP only
chiperasepulsewidth = <num>;
# PP only
chiperasepolltimeout = <num>;
chiperasetime
= <num>;
# HVSP only
programfusepulsewidth = <num>;
# PP only
programfusepolltimeout = <num>;
programlockpulsewidth = <num>;
# PP only
programlockpolltimeout = <num>;
# JTAG ICE mkII parameters, also from XML files
allowfullpagebitstream = <yes/no> ;
enablepageprogramming = <yes/no> ;
idr
= <num> ;
# IO addr of IDR (OCD) reg.
rampz
= <num> ;
# IO addr of RAMPZ reg.
spmcr
= <num> ;
# mem addr of SPMC[S]R reg.
eecr
= <num> ;
# mem addr of EECR reg.
# (only when != 0x3c)
is_at90s1200
= <yes/no> ;
# AT90S1200 part
is_avr32
= <yes/no> ;
# AVR32 part
memory <memtype>
paged
= <yes/no> ;
# yes / no
size
= <num> ;
# bytes
page_size
= <num> ;
# bytes
num_pages
= <num> ;
# numeric
min_write_delay = <num> ;
# micro-seconds
max_write_delay = <num> ;
# micro-seconds
readback_p1
= <num> ;
# byte value
readback_p2
= <num> ;
# byte value
pwroff_after_write = <yes/no> ;
# yes / no
read
= <instruction format> ;
write
= <instruction format> ;
read_lo
= <instruction format> ;
read_hi
= <instruction format> ;
write_lo
= <instruction format> ;
write_hi
= <instruction format> ;
loadpage_lo
= <instruction format> ;
loadpage_hi
= <instruction format> ;
writepage
= <instruction format> ;
;
;
4.3.1 Parent Part
Parts can also inherit parameters from previously defined parts using the following syntax.
In this case specified integer and string values override parameter values from the parent
part. New memory definitions are added to the definitions inherited from the parent.
part parent <id>
# quoted string
id
= <id> ;
# quoted string
<any set of other parameters from the list above>
Chapter 4: Configuration File
28
;
4.3.2 Instruction Format
Instruction formats are specified as a comma separated list of string values containing
information (bit specifiers) about each of the 32 bits of the instruction. Bit specifiers may
be one of the following formats:
1
The bit is always set on input as well as output
0
the bit is always clear on input as well as output
x
the bit is ignored on input and output
a
the bit is an address bit, the bit-number matches this bit specifier’s position
within the current instruction byte
aN
the bit is the N th address bit, bit-number = N, i.e., a12 is address bit 12 on
input, a0 is address bit 0.
i
the bit is an input data bit
o
the bit is an output data bit
Each instruction must be composed of 32 bit specifiers. The instruction specification
closely follows the instruction data provided in Atmel’s data sheets for their parts. For
example, the EEPROM read and write instruction for an AT90S2313 AVR part could be
encoded as:
read
= "1 0 1 0
"x a6 a5 a4
0 0 0 0
a3 a2 a1 a0
x x x x
o o o o
x x x x",
o o o o";
write = "1 1 0 0
"x a6 a5 a4
0 0 0 0
a3 a2 a1 a0
x x x x
i i i i
x x x x",
i i i i";
4.4 Other Notes
• The devicecode parameter is the device code used by the STK500 and is obtained
from the software section (avr061.zip) of Atmel’s AVR061 application note available
from http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc2525.pdf.
• Not all memory types will implement all instructions.
• AVR Fuse bits and Lock bits are implemented as a type of memory.
• Example memory types are: flash, eeprom, fuse, lfuse (low fuse), hfuse (high fuse),
efuse (extended fuse), signature, calibration, lock.
• The memory type specified on the AVRDUDE command line must match one of the
memory types defined for the specified chip.
• The pwroff_after_write flag causes AVRDUDE to attempt to power the device off
and back on after an unsuccessful write to the affected memory area if VCC programmer
pins are defined. If VCC pins are not defined for the programmer, a message indicating
that the device needs a power-cycle is printed out. This flag was added to work around
a problem with the at90s4433/2333’s; see the at90s4433 errata at:
http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc1280.pdf
Chapter 4: Configuration File
29
• The boot loader from application note AVR109 (and thus also the AVR Butterfly) does
not support writing of fuse bits. Writing lock bits is supported, but is restricted to
the boot lock bits (BLBxx). These are restrictions imposed by the underlying SPM
instruction that is used to program the device from inside the boot loader. Note that
programming the boot lock bits can result in a “shoot-into-your-foot” scenario as the
only way to unprogram these bits is a chip erase, which will also erase the boot loader
code.
The boot loader implements the “chip erase” function by erasing the flash pages of the
application section.
Reading fuse and lock bits is fully supported.
Note that due to the unability to write the fuse bits, the safemode functionality does
not make sense for these boot loaders.
Chapter 5: Programmer Specific Information
30
5 Programmer Specific Information
5.1 Atmel STK600
The following devices are supported by the respective STK600 routing and socket card:
Routing card
STK600-RC008T-2
STK600-RC008T-7
STK600-RC014T-42
STK600-RC020T-1
Socket card
STK600-ATTINY10
STK600-DIP
STK600-RC014T-12
STK600-DIP
STK600-SOIC
STK600-DIP
STK600-TinyX3U
STK600-DIP
STK600-RC020T-8
STK600-DIP
STK600-RC020T-43
STK600-SOIC
STK600-RC020T-23
STK600-RC028T-3
STK600-RC028M-6
STK600-SOIC
STK600-DIP
STK600-DIP
STK600-RC040M-4
STK600-RC044M-30
STK600-RC040M-5
QT600-ATTINY88QT8
STK600-DIP
STK600-TQFP44
STK600-DIP
STK600-RC044M-31
STK600-TQFP44
QT600-ATMEGA324QM64
Devices
ATtiny4 ATtiny5 ATtiny9 ATtiny10
ATtiny11 ATtiny12 ATtiny13 ATtiny13A
ATtiny25 ATtiny45 ATtiny85
ATtiny15
ATtiny20
ATtiny2313 ATtiny2313A ATtiny4313
ATtiny43U
ATtiny24 ATtiny44 ATtiny84 ATtiny24A
ATtiny44A
ATtiny26 ATtiny261 ATtiny261A ATtiny461 ATtiny861 ATtiny861A
ATtiny261 ATtiny261A ATtiny461 ATtiny461A ATtiny861 ATtiny861A
ATtiny87 ATtiny167
ATtiny28
ATtiny48 ATtiny88 ATmega8 ATmega8A
ATmega48 ATmega88 ATmega168 ATmega48P ATmega48PA ATmega88P ATmega88PA ATmega168P ATmega168PA
ATmega328P
ATtiny88
ATmega8515 ATmega162
ATmega8515 ATmega162
ATmega8535 ATmega16 ATmega16A ATmega32 ATmega32A ATmega164P ATmega164PA ATmega324P ATmega324PA
ATmega644 ATmega644P ATmega644PA
ATmega1284P
ATmega8535 ATmega16 ATmega16A ATmega32 ATmega32A ATmega164P ATmega164PA ATmega324P ATmega324PA
ATmega644 ATmega644P ATmega644PA
ATmega1284P
ATmega324PA
Chapter 5: Programmer Specific Information
STK600-RC032M-29
STK600-TQFP32
STK600-RC064M-9
STK600-TQFP64
STK600-RC064M-10
STK600-TQFP64
STK600-RC100M-11
STK600-RC100M-18
STK600-TQFP100
STK600ATMEGA2560
STK600-TQFP100
STK600-RC032U-20
STK600-TQFP32
STK600-RC044U-25
STK600-RC064U-17
STK600-TQFP44
STK600-TQFP64
STK600-RCPWM-22
STK600-TQFP32
STK600-RCPWM-19
STK600-SOIC
STK600-RCPWM-26
STK600-RC044M-24
STK600-RC100X-13
STK600-SOIC
STK600-TSSOP44
STK600-HVE2
STK600ATMEGA128RFA1
STK600-TQFP100
STK600-RC064X-14
STK600ATXMEGA1281A1
QT600ATXMEGA128A1QT16
STK600-TQFP64
STK600-RC064X-14
STK600-RC044X-15
STK600-MLF64
STK600-TQFP44
31
ATmega8
ATmega8A
ATmega48
ATmega88
ATmega168
ATmega48P
ATmega48PA ATmega88P ATmega88PA
ATmega168P ATmega168PA ATmega328P
ATmega64
ATmega64A
ATmega128
ATmega128A ATmega1281 ATmega2561
AT90CAN32 AT90CAN64 AT90CAN128
ATmega165 ATmega165P ATmega169 ATmega169P ATmega169PA ATmega325 ATmega325P ATmega329 ATmega329P ATmega645 ATmega649 ATmega649P
ATmega640 ATmega1280 ATmega2560
ATmega2560
ATmega3250 ATmega3250P ATmega3290
ATmega3290P ATmega6450 ATmega6490
AT90USB82 AT90USB162 ATmega8U2
ATmega16U2 ATmega32U2
ATmega16U4 ATmega32U4
ATmega32U6 AT90USB646 AT90USB1286
AT90USB647 AT90USB1287
ATmega32C1 ATmega64C1 ATmega16M1
ATmega32M1 ATmega64M1
AT90PWM2 AT90PWM3 AT90PWM2B
AT90PWM3B
AT90PWM216
AT90PWM316
AT90PWM81
ATmega16HVB ATmega32HVB
ATmega64HVE
ATmega128RFA1
ATxmega64A1
ATxmega128A1
ATxmega128A1 revD ATxmega128A1U
ATxmega128A1
ATxmega128A1
ATxmega64A3
ATxmega128A3
ATxmega256A3
ATxmega64D3
ATxmega128D3
ATxmega192D3
ATxmega256D3
ATxmega256A3B
ATxmega32A4
ATxmega16A4
ATxmega16D4 ATxmega32D4
Chapter 5: Programmer Specific Information
STK600-ATXMEGAT0
STK600-uC3-144
STK600-RCUC3A14433
STK600-RCuC3A10028
STK600-RCuC3B0-21
STK600-TQFP144
STK600-RCuC3B48-27
STK600-RCUC3A14432
STK600-TQFP48
STK600-TQFP144
STK600-RCUC3C0-36
STK600-TQFP144
STK600-RCUC3C1-38
STK600-TQFP100
STK600-RCUC3C2-40
STK600-TQFP64-2
STK600-RCUC3C0-37
STK600-TQFP144
STK600-RCUC3C1-39
STK600-TQFP100
STK600-RCUC3C2-41
STK600-TQFP64-2
STK600-RCUC3L0-34
STK600-TQFP48
STK600-TQFP100
STK600-TQFP64-2
QT600-AT32UC3LQM64
32
ATxmega32T0
AT32UC3A0512
AT32UC3A0256
AT32UC3A0128
AT32UC3A0512
AT32UC3A0256
AT32UC3A0128
AT32UC3A1512
AT32UC3A1256
AT32UC3A1128
AT32UC3B0256
AT32UC3B0512RevC
AT32UC3B0512
AT32UC3B0128
AT32UC3B064 AT32UC3D1128
AT32UC3B1256 AT32UC3B164
AT32UC3A3512
AT32UC3A3256
AT32UC3A3128
AT32UC3A364
AT32UC3A3256S
AT32UC3A3128S
AT32UC3A364S
AT32UC3C0512
AT32UC3C0256
AT32UC3C0128 AT32UC3C064
AT32UC3C1512
AT32UC3C1256
AT32UC3C1128 AT32UC3C164
AT32UC3C2512
AT32UC3C2256
AT32UC3C2128 AT32UC3C264
AT32UC3C0512
AT32UC3C0256
AT32UC3C0128 AT32UC3C064
AT32UC3C1512
AT32UC3C1256
AT32UC3C1128 AT32UC3C164
AT32UC3C2512
AT32UC3C2256
AT32UC3C2128 AT32UC3C264
AT32UC3L064
AT32UC3L032
AT32UC3L016
AT32UC3L064
Ensure the correct socket and routing card are mounted before powering on the STK600.
While the STK600 firmware ensures the socket and routing card mounted match each other
(using a table stored internally in nonvolatile memory), it cannot handle the case where
a wrong routing card is used, e. g. the routing card STK600-RC040M-5 (which is meant
for 40-pin DIP AVRs that have an ADC, with the power supply pins in the center of the
package) was used but an ATmega8515 inserted (which uses the “industry standard” pinout
with Vcc and GND at opposite corners).
Note that for devices that use the routing card STK600-RC008T-2, in order to use ISP
mode, the jumper for AREF0 must be removed as it would otherwise block one of the ISP
signals. High-voltage serial programming can be used even with that jumper installed.
The ISP system of the STK600 contains a detection against shortcuts and other wiring
errors. AVRDUDE initiates a connection check before trying to enter ISP programming
mode, and display the result if the target is not found ready to be ISP programmed.
Chapter 5: Programmer Specific Information
33
High-voltage programming requires the target voltage to be set to at least 4.5 V in order
to work. This can be done using Terminal Mode, see Chapter 3 [Terminal Mode Operation],
page 21.
5.2 Atmel DFU bootloader using FLIP version 1
Bootloaders using the FLIP protocol version 1 experience some very specific behaviour.
These bootloaders have no option to access memory areas other than Flash and EEPROM.
When the bootloader is started, it enters a security mode where the only acceptable
access is to query the device configuration parameters (which are used for the signature on
AVR devices). The only way to leave this mode is a chip erase. As a chip erase is normally
implied by the -U option when reprogramming the flash, this peculiarity might not be very
obvious immediately.
Sometimes, a bootloader with security mode already disabled seems to no longer respond
with sensible configuration data, but only 0xFF for all queries. As these queries are used
to obtain the equivalent of a signature, AVRDUDE can only continue in that situation by
forcing the signature check to be overridden with the -F option.
A chip erase might leave the EEPROM unerased, at least on some versions of the
bootloader.
Appendix A: Platform Dependent Information
34
Appendix A Platform Dependent Information
A.1 Unix
A.1.1 Unix Installation
To build and install from the source tarball on Unix like systems:
$
$
$
$
$
gunzip -c avrdude-6.2.tar.gz | tar xf cd avrdude-6.2
./configure
make
su root -c ’make install’
The default location of the install is into /usr/local so you will need to be sure that
/usr/local/bin is in your PATH environment variable.
If you do not have root access to your system, you can do the the following instead:
$
$
$
$
$
gunzip -c avrdude-6.2.tar.gz | tar xf cd avrdude-6.2
./configure --prefix=$HOME/local
make
make install
A.1.1.1 FreeBSD Installation
AVRDUDE is installed via the FreeBSD Ports Tree as follows:
% su - root
# cd /usr/ports/devel/avrdude
# make install
If you wish to install from a pre-built package instead of the source, you can use the
following instead:
% su - root
# pkg_add -r avrdude
Of course, you must be connected to the Internet for these methods to work, since that
is where the source as well as the pre-built package is obtained.
A.1.1.2 Linux Installation
On rpm based Linux systems (such as RedHat, SUSE, Mandrake, etc), you can build and
install the rpm binaries directly from the tarball:
$ su - root
# rpmbuild -tb avrdude-6.2.tar.gz
# rpm -Uvh /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/i386/avrdude-6.2-1.i386.rpm
Note that the path to the resulting rpm package, differs from system to system. The
above example is specific to RedHat.
Appendix A: Platform Dependent Information
35
A.1.2 Unix Configuration Files
When AVRDUDE is build using the default --prefix configure option, the default configuration file for a Unix system is located at /usr/local/etc/avrdude.conf. This can be
overridden by using the -C command line option. Additionally, the user’s home directory is
searched for a file named .avrduderc, and if found, is used to augment the system default
configuration file.
A.1.2.1 FreeBSD Configuration Files
When AVRDUDE is installed using the FreeBSD ports system, the system configuration
file is always /usr/local/etc/avrdude.conf.
A.1.2.2 Linux Configuration Files
When AVRDUDE is installed using from an rpm package, the system configuration file will
be always be /etc/avrdude.conf.
A.1.3 Unix Port Names
The parallel and serial port device file names are system specific. The following table lists
the default names for a given system.
System
Default Parallel Port
Default Serial Port
FreeBSD
/dev/ppi0
/dev/cuad0
Linux
/dev/parport0
/dev/ttyS0
Solaris
/dev/printers/0
/dev/term/a
On FreeBSD systems, AVRDUDE uses the ppi(4) interface for accessing the parallel
port and the sio(4) driver for serial port access.
On Linux systems, AVRDUDE uses the ppdev interface for accessing the parallel port
and the tty driver for serial port access.
On Solaris systems, AVRDUDE uses the ecpp(7D) driver for accessing the parallel port
and the asy(7D) driver for serial port access.
A.1.4 Unix Documentation
AVRDUDE installs a manual page as well as info, HTML and PDF documentation. The
manual page is installed in /usr/local/man/man1 area, while the HTML and PDF documentation is installed in /usr/local/share/doc/avrdude directory. The info manual is
installed in /usr/local/info/avrdude.info.
Note that these locations can be altered by various configure options such as --prefix.
A.2 Windows
A.2.1 Installation
A Windows executable of avrdude is included in WinAVR which can be found at http://
sourceforge.net/projects/winavr. WinAVR is a suite of executable, open source software development tools for the AVR for the Windows platform.
There are two options to build avrdude from source under Windows. The first one is to
use Cygwin (http://www.cygwin.com/).
To build and install from the source tarball for Windows (using Cygwin):
Appendix A: Platform Dependent Information
36
$ set PREFIX=<your install directory path>
$ export PREFIX
$ gunzip -c avrdude-6.2.tar.gz | tar xf $ cd avrdude-6.2
$ ./configure LDFLAGS="-static" --prefix=$PREFIX --datadir=$PREFIX
--sysconfdir=$PREFIX/bin --enable-versioned-doc=no
$ make
$ make install
Note that recent versions of Cygwin (starting with 1.7) removed the MinGW support
from the compiler that is needed in order to build a native Win32 API binary that does not
require to install the Cygwin library cygwin1.dll at run-time. Either try using an older
compiler version that still supports MinGW builds, or use MinGW (http://www.mingw.
org/) directly.
A.2.2 Configuration Files
A.2.2.1 Configuration file names
AVRDUDE on Windows looks for a system configuration file name of avrdude.conf and
looks for a user override configuration file of avrdude.rc.
A.2.2.2 How AVRDUDE finds the configuration files.
AVRDUDE on Windows has a different way of searching for the system and user configuration files. Below is the search method for locating the configuration files:
1. The directory from which the application loaded.
2. The current directory.
3. The Windows system directory. On Windows NT, the name of this directory is
SYSTEM32.
4. Windows NT: The 16-bit Windows system directory. The name of this directory is
SYSTEM.
5. The Windows directory.
6. The directories that are listed in the PATH environment variable.
A.2.3 Port Names
A.2.3.1 Serial Ports
When you select a serial port (i.e. when using an STK500) use the Windows serial port
device names such as: com1, com2, etc.
A.2.3.2 Parallel Ports
AVRDUDE will accept 3 Windows parallel port names: lpt1, lpt2, or lpt3. Each of these
names corresponds to a fixed parallel port base address:
lpt1
0x378
lpt2
0x278
lpt3
0x3BC
Appendix A: Platform Dependent Information
37
On your desktop PC, lpt1 will be the most common choice. If you are using a laptop,
you might have to use lpt3 instead of lpt1. Select the name of the port the corresponds to
the base address of the parallel port that you want.
If the parallel port can be accessed through a different address, this address can be
specified directly, using the common C language notation (i. e., hexadecimal values are
prefixed by 0x).
A.2.4 Using the parallel port
A.2.4.1 Windows NT/2K/XP
On Windows NT, 2000, and XP user applications cannot directly access the parallel port.
However, kernel mode drivers can access the parallel port. giveio.sys is a driver that can
allow user applications to set the state of the parallel port pins.
Before using AVRDUDE, the giveio.sys driver must be loaded. The accompanying
command-line program, loaddrv.exe, can do just that.
To make things even easier there are 3 batch files that are also included:
1. install giveio.bat Install and start the giveio driver.
2. status giveio.bat Check on the status of the giveio driver.
3. remove giveio.bat Stop and remove the giveio driver from memory.
These 3 batch files calls the loaddrv program with various options to install, start, stop,
and remove the driver.
When you first execute install giveio.bat, loaddrv.exe and giveio.sys must be in the
current directory. When install giveio.bat is executed it will copy giveio.sys from your
current directory to your Windows directory. It will then load the driver from the Windows
directory. This means that after the first time install giveio is executed, you should be able
to subsequently execute the batch file from any directory and have it successfully start the
driver.
Note that you must have administrator privilege to load the giveio driver.
A.2.4.2 Windows 95/98
On Windows 95 and 98 the giveio.sys driver is not needed.
A.2.5 Documentation
AVRDUDE installs a manual page as well as info, HTML and PDF documentation. The
manual page is installed in /usr/local/man/man1 area, while the HTML and PDF documentation is installed in /usr/local/share/doc/avrdude directory. The info manual is
installed in /usr/local/info/avrdude.info.
Note that these locations can be altered by various configure options such as --prefix
and --datadir.
A.2.6 Credits.
Thanks to:
• Dale Roberts for the giveio driver.
• Paula Tomlinson for the loaddrv sources.
Appendix A: Platform Dependent Information
38
• Chris Liechti <[email protected]> for modifying loaddrv to be command line driven and
for writing the batch files.
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
39
Appendix B Troubleshooting
In general, please report any bugs encountered via
http://savannah.nongnu.org/bugs/?group=avrdude.
• Problem: I’m using a serial programmer under Windows and get the following error:
avrdude: serial_open(): can’t set attributes for device "com1",
Solution: This problem seems to appear with certain versions of Cygwin. Specifying
"/dev/com1" instead of "com1" should help.
• Problem: I’m using Linux and my AVR910 programmer is really slow.
Solution (short): setserial port low_latency
Solution (long): There are two problems here. First, the system may wait some time
before it passes data from the serial port to the program. Under Linux the following
command works around this (you may need root privileges for this).
setserial port low_latency
Secondly, the serial interface chip may delay the interrupt for some time. This behaviour can be changed by setting the FIFO-threshold to one. Under Linux this can
only be done by changing the kernel source in drivers/char/serial.c. Search the file
for UART_FCR_TRIGGER_8 and replace it with UART_FCR_TRIGGER_1. Note that overall
performance might suffer if there is high throughput on serial lines. Also note that you
are modifying the kernel at your own risk.
• Problem: I’m not using Linux and my AVR910 programmer is really slow.
Solutions: The reasons for this are the same as above. If you know how to work around
this on your OS, please let us know.
• Problem: Updating the flash ROM from terminal mode does not work with the JTAG
ICEs.
Solution: None at this time. Currently, the JTAG ICE code cannot write to the flash
ROM one byte at a time.
• Problem: Page-mode programming the EEPROM (using the -U option) does not erase
EEPROM cells before writing, and thus cannot overwrite any previous value != 0xff.
Solution: None. This is an inherent feature of the way JTAG EEPROM programming works, and is documented that way in the Atmel AVR datasheets. In order to
successfully program the EEPROM that way, a prior chip erase (with the EESAVE
fuse unprogrammed) is required. This also applies to the STK500 and STK600 in
high-voltage programming mode.
• Problem: How do I turn off the DWEN fuse?
Solution: If the DWEN (debugWire enable) fuse is activated, the /RESET pin is not
functional anymore, so normal ISP communication cannot be established. There are
two options to deactivate that fuse again: high-voltage programming, or getting the
JTAG ICE mkII talk debugWire, and prepare the target AVR to accept normal ISP
communication again.
The first option requires a programmer that is capable of high-voltage programming
(either serial or parallel, depending on the AVR device), for example the STK500.
In high-voltage programming mode, the /RESET pin is activated initially using a
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
40
12 V pulse (thus the name high voltage), so the target AVR can subsequently be
reprogrammed, and the DWEN fuse can be cleared. Typically, this operation cannot
be performed while the AVR is located in the target circuit though.
The second option requires a JTAG ICE mkII that can talk the debugWire protocol.
The ICE needs to be connected to the target using the JTAG-to-ISP adapter, so the
JTAG ICE mkII can be used as a debugWire initiator as well as an ISP programmer.
AVRDUDE will then be activated using the jtag2isp programmer type. The initial ISP
communication attempt will fail, but AVRDUDE then tries to initiate a debugWire
reset. When successful, this will leave the target AVR in a state where it can accept
standard ISP communication. The ICE is then signed off (which will make it signing
off from the USB as well), so AVRDUDE has to be called again afterwards. This time,
standard ISP communication can work, so the DWEN fuse can be cleared.
The pin mapping for the JTAG-to-ISP adapter is:
JTAG pin
ISP pin
1
3
2
6
3
1
4
2
6
5
9
4
• Problem: Multiple USBasp or USBtinyISP programmers connected simultaneously are
not found.
Solution: The USBtinyISP code supports distinguishing multiple programmers based
on their bus:device connection tuple that describes their place in the USB hierarchy
on a specific host. This tuple can be added to the -P usb option, similar to adding a
serial number on other USB-based programmers.
The actual naming convention for the bus and device names is operating-system dependant; AVRDUDE will print out what it found on the bus when running it with (at
least) one -v option. By specifying a string that cannot match any existing device (for
example, -P usb:xxx), the scan will list all possible candidate devices found on the bus.
Examples:
avrdude -c usbtiny -p atmega8 -P usb:003:025 (Linux)
avrdude -c usbtiny -p atmega8 -P usb:/dev/usb:/dev/ugen1.3 (FreeBSD 8+)
avrdude -c usbtiny -p atmega8 \
-P usb:bus-0:\\.\libusb0-0001--0x1781-0x0c9f (Windows)
• Problem: I cannot do . . . when the target is in debugWire mode.
Solution: debugWire mode imposes several limitations.
The debugWire protocol is Atmel’s proprietary one-wire (plus ground) protocol to
allow an in-circuit emulation of the smaller AVR devices, using the /RESET line.
DebugWire mode is initiated by activating the DWEN fuse, and then power-cycling
the target. While this mode is mainly intended for debugging/emulation, it also offers
limited programming capabilities. Effectively, the only memory areas that can be read
or programmed in this mode are flash ROM and EEPROM. It is also possible to read
out the signature. All other memory areas cannot be accessed. There is no chip erase
functionality in debugWire mode; instead, while reprogramming the flash ROM, each
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
41
flash ROM page is erased right before updating it. This is done transparently by the
JTAG ICE mkII (or AVR Dragon). The only way back from debugWire mode is to
initiate a special sequence of commands to the JTAG ICE mkII (or AVR Dragon), so
the debugWire mode will be temporarily disabled, and the target can be accessed using
normal ISP programming. This sequence is automatically initiated by using the JTAG
ICE mkII or AVR Dragon in ISP mode, when they detect that ISP mode cannot be
entered.
• Problem: I want to use my JTAG ICE mkII to program an Xmega device through PDI.
The documentation tells me to use the XMEGA PDI adapter for JTAGICE mkII that
is supposed to ship with the kit, yet I don’t have it.
Solution: Use the following pin mapping:
JTAGICE
Target
Squid cabPDI
mkII probe
pins
le colors
header
1 (TCK)
Black
2 (GND)
GND
White
6
3 (TDO)
Grey
4 (VTref)
VTref
Purple
2
5 (TMS)
Blue
6 (nSRST)
PDI CLK
Green
5
7 (N.C.)
Yellow
8 (nTRST)
Orange
9 (TDI)
PDI DATA
Red
1
10 (GND)
Brown
• Problem: I want to use my AVR Dragon to program an Xmega device through PDI.
Solution: Use the 6 pin ISP header on the Dragon and the following pin mapping:
Dragon
Target
ISP Header
pins
1 (MISO)
PDI DATA
2 (VCC)
VCC
3 (SCK)
4 (MOSI)
5 (RESET)
PDI CLK
/
RST
6 (GND)
GND
• Problem: I want to use my AVRISP mkII to program an ATtiny4/5/9/10 device
through TPI. How to connect the pins?
Solution: Use the following pin mapping:
AVRISP
Target
ATtiny
connector
pins
pin #
1 (MISO)
TPIDATA
1
2 (VTref)
Vcc
5
3 (SCK)
TPICLK
3
4 (MOSI)
5 (RESET)
/RESET
6
6 (GND)
GND
2
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
42
• Problem: I want to program an ATtiny4/5/9/10 device using a serial/parallel bitbang
programmer. How to connect the pins?
Solution: Since TPI has only 1 pin for bi-directional data transfer, both MISO and
MOSI pins should be connected to the TPIDATA pin on the ATtiny device. However,
a 1K resistor should be placed between the MOSI and TPIDATA. The MISO pin
connects to TPIDATA directly. The SCK pin is connected to TPICLK.
In addition, the Vcc, /RESET and GND pins should be connected to their respective
ports on the ATtiny device.
• Problem: How can I use a FTDI FT232R USB-to-Serial device for bitbang programming?
Solution: When connecting the FT232 directly to the pins of the target Atmel device,
the polarity of the pins defined in the programmer definition should be inverted by prefixing a tilde. For example, the dasa programmer would look like this when connected
via a FT232R device (notice the tildes in front of pins 7, 4, 3 and 8):
programmer
id
= "dasa_ftdi";
desc = "serial port banging, reset=rts sck=dtr mosi=txd miso=cts";
type = serbb;
reset = ~7;
sck
= ~4;
mosi = ~3;
miso = ~8;
;
Note that this uses the FT232 device as a normal serial port, not using the FTDI
drivers in the special bitbang mode.
• Problem: My ATtiny4/5/9/10 reads out fine, but any attempt to program it (through
TPI) fails. Instead, the memory retains the old contents.
Solution: Mind the limited programming supply voltage range of these devices.
In-circuit programming through TPI is only guaranteed by the datasheet at Vcc = 5
V.
• Problem: My ATxmega. . . A1/A2/A3 cannot be programmed through PDI with my
AVR Dragon. Programming through a JTAG ICE mkII works though, as does programming through JTAG.
Solution: None by this time (2010 Q1).
It is said that the AVR Dragon can only program devices from the A4 Xmega subfamily.
• Problem: when programming with an AVRISPmkII or STK600, AVRDUDE hangs
when programming files of a certain size (e.g. 246 bytes). Other (larger or smaller)
sizes work though.
Solution: This is a bug caused by an incorrect handling of zero-length packets (ZLPs)
in some versions of the libusb 0.1 API wrapper that ships with libusb 1.x in certain
Linux distributions. All Linux systems with kernel versions < 2.6.31 and libusb >=
1.0.0 < 1.0.3 are reported to be affected by this.
See also: http://www.libusb.org/ticket/6
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
43
• Problem: after flashing a firmware that reduces the target’s clock speed (e.g. through
the CLKPR register), further ISP connection attempts fail.
Solution: Even though ISP starts with pulling /RESET low, the target continues to
run at the internal clock speed as defined by the firmware running before. Therefore,
the ISP clock speed must be reduced appropriately (to less than 1/4 of the internal
clock speed) using the -B option before the ISP initialization sequence will succeed.
As that slows down the entire subsequent ISP session, it might make sense to just issue
a chip erase using the slow ISP clock (option -e), and then start a new session at
higher speed. Option -D might be used there, to prevent another unneeded erase cycle.
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