MK Sound MX-150THX, V-125THX Speaker User Manual

MK Sound MX-150THX, V-125THX Speaker User Manual
®
THX powered subwoofers
operation
manual
MX-SERIES:
MX-150THX
V-SERIES:
V-125THX
Miller & Kreisel Sound Corporation
10391 Jefferson Boulevard
Culver City, CA 90232 USA
(310) 204-2854 FAX (310) 202-8782
© 1995 MILLER & KREISEL SOUND CORP.
Manufactured under license from Lucasfilm Ltd.
Lucasfilm and THX are registered trademarks of
Lucasfilm Ltd.
THX subwoofers
page 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS ................................................................................................ 3
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 4
WHERE TO PLACE YOUR SUBWOOFER ..................................................................... 4
OPERATION WITH THX COMPONENTS........................................................................ 4
CONNECTING THE SUBWOOFER TO A THX CONTROLLER ........................................................... 4
TESTING THE SUBWOOFER (THX) .......................................................................................................... 6
CALIBRATING THE SUBWOOFER (THX) ...................................................................... 6
OPERATION OF THE "LOW PASS FILTER" AND "BASS LEVEL" SWITCHES ....................................... 6
SETTING SUBWOOFER LEVEL (THX) ...................................................................................................... 7
USING TWO SUBWOOFERS (THX) .......................................................................................................... 7
OPERATION WITH A NON-THX CONTROLLER ........................................................... 7
OPERATION OF THE "LOW PASS FILTER" SWITCH ............................................................................. 7
OPERATION OF THE THE "BASS LEVEL" SWITCH................................................................................. 8
WIRING WITH A NON-THX CONTROLLER ............................................................................................... 8
USING THE SUBWOOFER WITH THE M&K LP-1S, HP-80 OR VF-80 HIGH-PASS FILTERS ............. 10
TESTING THE SUBWOOFER (NON-THX) .............................................................................................. 10
SETTING SUBWOOFER LEVEL (NON-THX).......................................................................................... 11
USING TWO SUBWOOFERS (NON-THX) .............................................................................................. 11
SATELLITE/SUBWOOFER PHASING TEST ................................................................ 11
FINE-TUNING THE PLACEMENT OF YOUR SUBWOOFER ....................................... 12
SPECIAL METHOD FOR PLACING THE SUBWOOFER ........................................................................ 13
USE OF SPIKED FEET WITH "MX" SUBWOOFERS ................................................... 14
TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................... 14
IF YOU NEED TO REPLACE THE EXTERNAL FUSE ............................................................................ 15
IF YOU NEED SERVICE ................................................................................................ 16
SPECIFICATIONS .......................................................................................................... 16
CABINET MAINTENANCE ............................................................................................ 16
WIRING DIAGRAMS
FIGURE 1
FIGURE 2
FIGURE 3
FIGURE 4
FIGURE 5
FIGURE 6
ONE SUBWOOFER TO A THX CONTROLLER.................................................... 5
TWO SUBWOOFERS TO A THX CONTROLLER................................................. 5
ONE SUBWOOFER TO A SURROUND CONTROLLER (NON-THX) .................. 8
TWO SUBWOOFERS TO A SURROUND CONTROLLER (NON-THX) ............... 8
ONE SUBWOOFER TO AN AMP OR PREAMP (NON-THX) ................................ 9
TWO SUBWOOFERS TO AN AMP OR PREAMP (NON-THX) ............................. 9
THX subwoofers
page 3
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
The lightning flash with arrowhead,
within an equilateral triangle, is intended to alert the user of the presence of uninsulated "dangerous voltage" within the product's enclosure
that may be of sufficient magnitude to
constitute a risk of electric shock to
persons.
CAUTION:
TO PREVENT THE RISK OF ELECTRIC
SHOCK, DO NOT REMOVE COVER (OR
BACK). NO USER-SERVICEABLE
PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO
QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL.
The exclamation point within an equilateral triangle is intended to alert the
user of the presence of important operating and maintenance (servicing)
instructions in the literature accompanying the appliance.
1. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
1.
2.
READ INSTRUCTIONS - All safety and operating instructions should be read before this product is operated.
1
RETAIN INSTRUCTIONS - The safety and operating instructions should be retained for future reference.
3.
HEED WARNINGS - All warnings on this product and in the operating instructions should be adhered to.
4.
FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS - All operating and use instructions should be followed.
5.
ATTACHMENTS - Do not use attachments not recommended by the product manufacturer as they may cause hazards.
6.
WATER AND MOISTURE - Do not use this product near water - for example, near a bath tub, wash bowl, kitchen sink,
or laundry tub; in a wet basement; or near a swimming pool; and the like.
7.
ACCESSORIES - Do not place this product on an unstable cart, stand, tripod, bracket, or table. The product may fall,
causing serious injury to a child or adult, and serious damage to the product. Use only with accessories recommended
by the manufacturer, or sold with the product. Any mounting of the product should follow the manufacturer's instructions
and should use a mounting accessory recommended by the manufacturer.
8.
POWER SOURCE - This product should be operated only from the type of power source indicated on the marking label.
If you are unsure of the type of power supply to your home, consult your product dealer or local power company.
9.
OVERLOADING - Do not overload wall outlets or extension cords as this can result in a risk of fire or electric shock.
10.
LIQUID ENTRY - Never spill any liquid of any kind on the product.
11.
SERVICING - Do not attempt to service this product yourself. Opening or removing covers, including any over bottom or
side speaker drivers, may expose you to dangerous voltage or other hazards. Refer all service to qualified service personnel.
12.
DAMAGE REQUIRING SERVICE - Unplug this product from the wall outlet and refer servicing to qualified personnel
under the following conditions:
a.
When the power-supply cord or plug is damaged.
b.
If liquid has been spilled, or objects have fallen into this product.
c.
If the product does not operate normally by following the operating instructions. Adjust only controls that are
covered by the operating instructions as an improper adjustment of other controls may result in damage and
will often require extensive work by a qualified technician to restore the product to its normal operation.
d.
If the product has been dropped or damaged in any way.
e.
When the product exhibits a distinct change in performance - this indicates a need for service.
13.
REPLACEMENT PARTS - When replacement parts are required, be sure the service technician has used replacement
parts specified by the manufacturer or have the same characteristics as the original part. Unauthorized substitutions
may result in risk of fire, electric shock, or other hazard.
14.
SAFETY CHECK - Upon completion of any service or repairs to this product, ask the service technician to perform
safety checks to determine that the product is in proper operating condition.
15.
HEAT - This product should be situated away from heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other
products (including amplifiers) that produce heat.
THX subwoofers
page 4
2. INTRODUCTION
Congratulations! Your new M&K THX® subwoofer truly represents the state-of-the-art in subwoofer
performance. The new dimension of deep and powerful bass it provides will both thrill and excite you.
We strongly encourage you to read this owner's manual, as there is a great deal of information
provided here to help you get the best possible performance.
If you have any questions about your subwoofer, please contact your M&K Home THX Audio dealer,
or call the M&K factory directly at (310) 204-2854, from 8:30 AM to 5:00 PM Pacific Time. We will be
more than happy to help you with any question, no matter how simple or complex it may be.
For more details on the installation and calibration of your Home THX Audio system, please refer
to the THX Installation & Operation Manual.
THIS OWNER'S MANUAL HAS TWO SETS OF SET-UP INSTRUCTIONS.
ONE SET IS FOR USING THE SUBWOOFER WITH A THX CONTROLLER.
THE OTHER SET IS FOR USE WITH NON-THX PROCESSORS.
To operate it with a THX controller, see Section 4 below.
To use it with a non-THX controller, see Section 6 (page 7).
3. WHERE TO PLACE YOUR SUBWOOFER
Your subwoofer will deliver excellent performance located virtually anywhere in your room. Unless
you are next to the subwoofer, you will not hear it as a separate source of sound. In fact, its deep bass
will appear to come from your other speakers. Therefore, there is no need to place your subwoofer
either between your Satellite or L/C/R speakers or in any specific location in the room.
You can significantly improve and fine-tune your subwoofer's performance by experimenting with
its placement in the room. For more detailed placement information, please see Section 8 (page 12).
Your subwoofer is magnetically shielded, so you can locate it close to a television without picture
distortion occurring from magnetic deflection of the TV's electron beam.
Wherever you put the subwoofer, you must allow room for ventilation of its heatsink and backplate.
The subwoofer's power amplifier is mounted on the backplate, and it generates heat. Therefore:
1. Do not place the subwoofer against a wall. Leave at least 3 inches clearance for the heatsink.
2. Do not place the subwoofer close to baseboard heaters or forced air heating outlets.
DO NOT PLUG THE SUBWOOFER INTO AN AC OUTLET
UNTIL ALL SYSTEM WIRING IS COMPLETE
4. OPERATION WITH THX COMPONENTS
CONNECTING THE SUBWOOFER TO A THX CONTROLLER
The "INPUT" RCA terminals on the subwoofer connect it to the outputs of your THX controller. All
of the input connections and controls for the subwoofer are located on its large metal backplate, which
can be found on the back panel of the subwoofer cabinet.
To connect the subwoofer, run a shielded RCA - RCA interconnect cable from the SUBWOOFER
THX subwoofers
page 5
OUTPUT jack on your THX controller to the "LEFT/MONO" "INPUT" jack on the subwoofer's
backplate. See Figure 1 below.
Some THX controllers have a pair of stereo subwoofer outputs, while others have a single mono
output. Your subwoofer is compatible with both types. If your THX controller has stereo subwoofer
outputs, use a stereo shielded cable, connecting it to the LEFT and RIGHT "INPUT" terminals on the
subwoofer. If your THX controller has only a single mono subwoofer output, use a mono cable and
connect it to the subwoofer's "LEFT/MONO" "INPUT" jack. See Figure 1 below.
Do not use a Y-connector to connect the signal to both the LEFT and RIGHT inputs of the
subwoofer. These inputs are summed to mono in the amplifier input stage, and if they are combined,
the result will be too much gain and bass level.
FIGURE 1- WIRING ONE SUBWOOFER WITH A THX CONTROLLER
BASS LEVEL
REFERENCE
+3 dB
VARIABLE
LEFT/MONO
RIGHT
LOW PASS
FILTER
+
80 Hz
24 dB/OCTAVE
+6 dB
SUBWOOFER OUT
INPUT
THX
THX
CONTROLLER
–
PHASE
THX
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC
ELECTRIQUE. NE PAS OUVRIR.
Manufactured under license
from Lucasfilm Ltd.
Lucasfilm and THX are
registered trademarks
of Lucasfilm Ltd.
CAUTION:
DISCONNECT SUPPLY CORD
BEFORE CHANGING FUSE.
REPLACE FUSE ONLY
WITH SAME TYPE.
ATTENTION:
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE
REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE.
UTILIZER UN FUSIBLE
DE RECHANGE
DE MEME TYPE.
Made in U.S.A.
120 VAC 50/60 Hz
MILLER & KREISEL SOUND CORPORATION
10391 Jefferson Blvd, Culver City, CA 90232 310/204-2854
T 4 AMP
SLOW-BLOW
FIGURE 2 - WIRING TWO SUBWOOFERS WITH A THX CONTROLLER
use a Y-connector if
your controller has
only one subwoofer
output jack
THX CONTROLLER
SUBWOOFER OUT
BASS LEVEL
REFERENCE
+3 dB
VARIABLE
LEFT/MONO
RIGHT
LOW PASS
FILTER
+
80 Hz
24 dB/OCTAVE
+6 dB
THX
INPUT
–
PHASE
BASS LEVEL
REFERENCE
+3 dB
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC
ELECTRIQUE. NE PAS OUVRIR.
Manufactured under license
from Lucasfilm Ltd.
Lucasfilm and THX are
registered trademarks
of Lucasfilm Ltd.
Manufactured under license
from Lucasfilm Ltd.
Lucasfilm and THX are
registered trademarks
of Lucasfilm Ltd.
LOW PASS
FILTER
+
80 Hz
24 dB/OCTAVE
INPUT
–
PHASE
THX
CAUTION:
CAUTION:
DISCONNECT SUPPLY CORD
BEFORE CHANGING FUSE.
REPLACE FUSE ONLY
WITH SAME TYPE.
DISCONNECT SUPPLY CORD
BEFORE CHANGING FUSE.
REPLACE FUSE ONLY
WITH SAME TYPE.
ATTENTION:
ATTENTION:
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE
REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE.
UTILIZER UN FUSIBLE
DE RECHANGE
DE MEME TYPE.
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE
REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE.
UTILIZER UN FUSIBLE
DE RECHANGE
DE MEME TYPE.
Made in U.S.A.
Made in U.S.A.
MILLER & KREISEL SOUND CORPORATION
RIGHT
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC
ELECTRIQUE. NE PAS OUVRIR.
10391 Jefferson Blvd, Culver City, CA 90232 310/204-2854
LEFT/MONO
THX
THX
CAUTION
VARIABLE
+6 dB
120 VAC 50/60 Hz
T 4 AMP
SLOW-BLOW
MILLER & KREISEL SOUND CORPORATION
10391 Jefferson Blvd, Culver City, CA 90232 310/204-2854
120 VAC 50/60 Hz
T 4 AMP
SLOW-BLOW
If you have two subwoofers, do not use a Y - connector to feed both inputs on each subwoofer.
Connect the interconnect cable to the LEFT/MONO "INPUT" only. Run the Left interconnect cable
to the Left subwoofer and the Right cable to the Right subwoofer. See Figure 2 above.
THX subwoofers
page 6
TESTING THE SUBWOOFER (THX MODE)
Once all of the interconnect cables are in place, you are just about ready to plug in the subwoofer.
Set the "LOW PASS FILTER" toggle switch to the "THX" position and the "BASS LEVEL" toggle switch
to the "THX" position.
Set the "SUBWOOFER PHASE" switch to the "+" position. If your THX controller has a
SUBWOOFER (OFF/ON) switch on its front panel, rear panel, or remote control, set it to ON. (See
the controller's manual for details).
Plug the subwoofer's AC cord in. The red LED on the back panel should illuminate.
Play some program material that has good bass content through your system. Carefully advance
the system volume control. You should hear the subwoofer operate. If you think the subwoofer isn't
working, walk up to the speaker and listen to it from a distance of a foot or less.
If you confirm that it is not working, unplug the subwoofer and check all of your connections before
trying it again. If you have a problem that you cannot solve, contact your dealer or the M&K factory.
When your system wiring is complete and the subwoofer is plugged into the wall, leave it plugged
in, even when the system is turned off. The normal mode of operation for the subwoofer is to remain
plugged in 24 hours a day. Among other things, this means that you don't have to walk over to the
subwoofer to turn it on every time you want to use the system.
DO NOT PLUG THE SUBWOOFER INTO A SWITCHED OUTLET ON ANOTHER COMPONENT. IT CAN DRAW UP
TO 400 WATTS FROM THE AC LINE. IT MUST BE PLUGGED INTO A SOLID AC LINE.
5. CALIBRATING THE SUBWOOFER (THX)
On the back panel of the subwoofer, three toggle switches allow you to select various modes of
operation. Two are described here. A description of the function of the third toggle switch can be
found in section 7, SATELLITE & SUBWOOFER PHASING TEST (page 11).
OPERATION OF THE "LOW PASS FILTER" SWITCH (THX)
When using the subwoofer with a THX controller, this switch should be set to the "THX" position.
When using the subwoofer with a standard stereo system or a surround sound processor that is not
THX-certified, this switch should be set to the "80 Hz 24 dB/OCTAVE" position.
The THX mode bypasses the internal crossover of the subwoofer and fixes its gain to a standard
setting. The THX controller contains the crossover and sets the rolloff point of the signal fed to the
subwoofer to 80 Hz (with a Linkwitz-Riley characteristic).
OPERATION OF THE "BASS LEVEL" SWITCH (THX)
When using the subwoofer with a THX controller, this switch should be set to the "THX" position. The
controller sets the output level of the subwoofer, so this switch disables the subwoofer's level control.
For the MX-150THX, this position provides the proper sensitivity for when one subwoofer is used in the
system. For the V-125THX, this position is proper when two subwoofers are used in the system.
The "CALIBRATED" level control mark is referenced to the level set by the "THX" switch. On the
MX-150 THX, both levels are identical. If you set the MX-150THX switch to "VARIABLE" and the level
control to "CALIBRATED," its output level is the same as when you set the switch to "THX."
THX subwoofers
page 7
For the V-125 THX, the "CALIBRATED" level is 4 dB lower than the "THX" level (switch set to "THX").
Set the control to this mark if you have only one subwoofer in the system (such as in a very small room).
On both the MX-150 THX and V-125THX, the +2 and +4 marks indicate the points where your
subwoofer is producing 2 dB and 4 dB more output than the "CALIBRATED" level.
SETTING SUBWOOFER LEVEL (THX)
The proper method of setting the level of the subwoofer in THX mode is to use the low frequency
pink noise test signal generator built into the THX controller and a sound level meter (available from
Radio Shack). First set the master volume of the THX controller to the "0" or "REF" position. Then
set the Subwoofer Output control on the THX controller so that the output of the subwoofer causes
the sound level meter to read 75 dB (C scale, slow mode) when that test signal is playing. All channels
of the THX system should be calibrated to this 75 dB level when using the unit's internal test signal.
Special Note: When calibrating the subwoofer level (and only the subwoofer level), you will find
that the needle on your sound level meter will bounce plus or minus a couple of decibels when
measuring the test signal. To set subwoofer level, read the AVERAGE meter level, not the peak level.
Move around the room as you measure levels, so that your measurements account for the room
reinforcements and cancellations found at various room locations.
For details on setting levels with your THX controller, see the instructions provided with that unit.
USING TWO SUBWOOFERS (THX)
SPECIAL NOTE: If you have the V-125THX subwoofer, you must use two in your system to meet THX
requirements. If you have the MX-150THX, only one is required to meet THX specifications.
Using two subwoofers in your THX system will give you the ultimate in bass performance. It will give
you improved bass impact and definition, as well as greater output and dynamic range. If you locate
the subwoofers in different parts of the room, you will get a better overall frequency response,
because the room modes excited by one woofer are complemented by the presence of the other
subwoofer. Alternately, if you stack two subwoofers, one on top of the other, their outputs will couple
and give you an additional total of up to 6 dB of output.
Wiring with two subwoofers is simple. Instead of running two interconnect cables to one subwoofer,
run one interconnect to each subwoofer, using each LEFT/MONO input jack. See Figure 2 (page 5).
6. OPERATION WITH A NON-THX PROCESSOR
OPERATION OF THE "LOW PASS FILTER" SWITCH
With a non-THX controller, preamp, etc., this switch should be set to the "80 Hz 24 dB/OCTAVE"
position. Do not operate this switch unless the "BASS LEVEL" control is set to "MIN."
For use with non-THX systems, your subwoofer has been optimized for an 80 Hz crossover with
a 24 dB/octave slope. This low pass filter makes a rapid transition to 36 dB/octave above 125 Hz,
which provides the extremely sharp attenuation needed to make the subwoofer's sound nondirectional.
For optimal performance, we strongly recommend that you use an M&K HP-80 High-Pass
Filter. Your subwoofer with this filter and M&K Satellites forms a 4th order Linkwitz-Riley crossover
between satellite and subwoofer. The linear phase of this crossover means uncompromised
performance with great flexibility in system setup without elaborate calibrations or adjustments.
THX subwoofers
page 8
OPERATION OF THE "BASS LEVEL" SWITCH
When using the subwoofer with a non-THX processor, preamp, etc., this switch should be set to
the "VARIABLE" position. The subwoofer level can then be set independently to match your
speakers. The "CALIBRATED" mark is a reference relative to THX levels. For a discussion of this
"CALIBRATED" mark, please see "Operation of the Bass Level Switch" on page 7.
WIRING WITH A NON-THX PROCESSOR OR PREAMP
The "FROM PREAMP" RCA terminals on the subwoofer allow you to connect the subwoofer to
preamp-level components other than THX controllers, such as preamplifiers, integrated amps and
receivers with preamp outputs, high-pass filters, crossovers, standard surround sound processors,
etc. All of the input connections and controls for the subwoofer are located on its large metal
backplate, which can be found on the back panel of the subwoofer cabinet.
FIGURE 3 - WIRING ONE SUBWOOFER TO AN AMP OR PROCESSOR
WITH A SUBWOOFER OUTPUT JACK (NON-THX)
BASS LEVEL
REFERENCE
+3 dB
VARIABLE
LEFT/MONO
RIGHT
LOW PASS
FILTER
+
80 Hz
24 dB/OCTAVE
+6 dB
SUBWOOFER (or MONO) OUT
INPUT
THX
SURROUND
PROCESSOR
–
PHASE
THX
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC
ELECTRIQUE. NE PAS OUVRIR.
Manufactured under license
from Lucasfilm Ltd.
Lucasfilm and THX are
registered trademarks
of Lucasfilm Ltd.
CAUTION:
DISCONNECT SUPPLY CORD
BEFORE CHANGING FUSE.
REPLACE FUSE ONLY
WITH SAME TYPE.
ATTENTION:
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE
REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE.
UTILIZER UN FUSIBLE
DE RECHANGE
DE MEME TYPE.
Made in U.S.A.
120 VAC 50/60 Hz
MILLER & KREISEL SOUND CORPORATION
10391 Jefferson Blvd, Culver City, CA 90232 310/204-2854
T 4 AMP
SLOW-BLOW
FIGURE 4 -WIRING TWO SUBWOOFERS TO AN AMP OR PROCESSOR
WITH A SUBWOOFER OUTPUT JACK (NON-THX)
SUBWOOFER (or MONO) OUT
SURROUND
PROCESSOR
BASS LEVEL
REFERENCE
+3 dB
VARIABLE
LEFT/MONO
RIGHT
LOW PASS
FILTER
+
80 Hz
24 dB/OCTAVE
+6 dB
THX
INPUT
–
PHASE
use a Y-connector
to connect to
two subwoofers
BASS LEVEL
REFERENCE
+3 dB
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC
ELECTRIQUE. NE PAS OUVRIR.
ELECTRIQUE. NE PAS OUVRIR.
Manufactured under license
from Lucasfilm Ltd.
Lucasfilm and THX are
registered trademarks
of Lucasfilm Ltd.
Manufactured under license
from Lucasfilm Ltd.
Lucasfilm and THX are
registered trademarks
of Lucasfilm Ltd.
LOW PASS
FILTER
+
80 Hz
24 dB/OCTAVE
INPUT
–
PHASE
THX
CAUTION:
CAUTION:
DISCONNECT SUPPLY CORD
BEFORE CHANGING FUSE.
REPLACE FUSE ONLY
WITH SAME TYPE.
DISCONNECT SUPPLY CORD
BEFORE CHANGING FUSE.
REPLACE FUSE ONLY
WITH SAME TYPE.
ATTENTION:
ATTENTION:
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE
REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE.
UTILIZER UN FUSIBLE
DE RECHANGE
DE MEME TYPE.
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE
REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE.
UTILIZER UN FUSIBLE
DE RECHANGE
DE MEME TYPE.
Made in U.S.A.
MILLER & KREISEL SOUND CORPORATION
RIGHT
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
10391 Jefferson Blvd, Culver City, CA 90232 310/204-2854
LEFT/MONO
THX
THX
CAUTION
VARIABLE
+6 dB
Made in U.S.A.
120 VAC 50/60 Hz
T 4 AMP
SLOW-BLOW
MILLER & KREISEL SOUND CORPORATION
10391 Jefferson Blvd, Culver City, CA 90232 310/204-2854
120 VAC 50/60 Hz
T 4 AMP
SLOW-BLOW
THX subwoofers
page 9
FIGURE 5 - WIRING ONE SUBWOOFER TO AN AMP
OR PREAMP WITH ONE SET OF PREAMP OUTPUTS
POWER AMP
MAIN IN
LEFT
BASS LEVEL
RIGHT
REFERENCE
+3 dB
VARIABLE
LEFT/MONO
RIGHT
LOW PASS
FILTER
+
80 Hz
24 dB/OCTAVE
+6 dB
INPUT
THX
LEFT
PREAMP
–
PHASE
THX
RIGHT
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC
ELECTRIQUE. NE PAS OUVRIR.
use one Y-connector for
each channel to split the
output of the preamp
Manufactured under license
from Lucasfilm Ltd.
Lucasfilm and THX are
registered trademarks
of Lucasfilm Ltd.
CAUTION:
DISCONNECT SUPPLY CORD
BEFORE CHANGING FUSE.
REPLACE FUSE ONLY
WITH SAME TYPE.
ATTENTION:
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE
REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE.
UTILIZER UN FUSIBLE
DE RECHANGE
DE MEME TYPE.
Made in U.S.A.
120 VAC 50/60 Hz
MILLER & KREISEL SOUND CORPORATION
10391 Jefferson Blvd, Culver City, CA 90232 310/204-2854
T 4 AMP
SLOW-BLOW
FIGURE 6 - WIRING TWO SUBWOOFERS TO AN AMP
OR PREAMP WITH ONE SET OF PREAMP OUTPUTS
POWER AMP
MAIN IN
RIGHT
LEFT
MAIN OUT
PREAMP
BASS LEVEL
REFERENCE
+3 dB
VARIABLE
LEFT/MONO
RIGHT
LOW PASS
FILTER
+
80 Hz
24 dB/OCTAVE
+6 dB
THX
INPUT
–
PHASE
BASS LEVEL
REFERENCE
+3 dB
RIGHT
LOW PASS
FILTER
+
80 Hz
24 dB/OCTAVE
INPUT
–
PHASE
THX
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC
ELECTRIQUE. NE PAS OUVRIR.
ELECTRIQUE. NE PAS OUVRIR.
Manufactured under license
from Lucasfilm Ltd.
Lucasfilm and THX are
registered trademarks
of Lucasfilm Ltd.
Manufactured under license
from Lucasfilm Ltd.
Lucasfilm and THX are
registered trademarks
of Lucasfilm Ltd.
CAUTION:
CAUTION:
DISCONNECT SUPPLY CORD
BEFORE CHANGING FUSE.
REPLACE FUSE ONLY
WITH SAME TYPE.
DISCONNECT SUPPLY CORD
BEFORE CHANGING FUSE.
REPLACE FUSE ONLY
WITH SAME TYPE.
ATTENTION:
ATTENTION:
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE
REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE.
UTILIZER UN FUSIBLE
DE RECHANGE
DE MEME TYPE.
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE
REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE.
UTILIZER UN FUSIBLE
DE RECHANGE
DE MEME TYPE.
Made in U.S.A.
Made in U.S.A.
MILLER & KREISEL SOUND CORPORATION
LEFT/MONO
THX
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
10391 Jefferson Blvd, Culver City, CA 90232 310/204-2854
VARIABLE
+6 dB
THX
CAUTION
use one Y-connector
for each channel
to split the output
of the preamp
RIGHT
LEFT
120 VAC 50/60 Hz
T 4 AMP
SLOW-BLOW
MILLER & KREISEL SOUND CORPORATION
10391 Jefferson Blvd, Culver City, CA 90232 310/204-2854
120 VAC 50/60 Hz
T 4 AMP
SLOW-BLOW
If your surround processor has only one PREAMP OUTPUT (and no SUBWOOFER OUT), and you
do not have an M&K High-Pass Filter or crossover, you must use a Y-connector to feed the amplifier
and subwoofer. See Figure 5 above. If you have a surround sound processor with a SUBWOOFER
OUTPUT jack, use it to feed the subwoofer. See Figure 3 on page 8.
Some surround processors/receivers/amps have very low output levels from their SUBWOOFER
OUTPUT jacks. If you do not get enough bass when using the SUBWOOFER OUTPUT jacks on a
non-THX processor, use that processor's PREAMP OUTPUT jacks instead. See Figure 5 above.
THX subwoofers
page 10
To connect the subwoofer, run shielded RCA - RCA interconnect cables from the outputs on your
component to the "INPUT" jacks found on the subwoofer's backplate. See Figure 5 on page 9.
If your processor has a single subwoofer output, do not use a Y-connector to connect it to both the
Left and Right input terminals of the subwoofer. The subwoofer combines both channels to mono in
its amplifier input stage.
If you are using two subwoofers, it is not necessary to use both inputs on each subwoofer. Simply
connect the interconnect cable to one "FROM PREAMP jack only. Run the Left channel interconnect
cable to the Left subwoofer and the Right interconnect cable to the Right subwoofer. See Figure 4.
WIRING WITH THE M&K LP-1S, HP-80, OR VF-80 HIGH-PASS FILTERS (NON-THX)
The M&K LP-1S, HP-80, and VF-80 High-Pass Filters can improve any system that allows its
preamp and power amp stages to be separated, by filtering the bass fed to the main amp and Satellite
speakers.
These filters will give your system greater dynamic range, lower distortion, and an increased
maximum output. To use these filters with an integrated amp or receiver, the amp or receiver MUST
have back panel RCA jacks labelled PREAMP/MAIN OUTPUT and POWER AMP/MAIN INPUT.
There may be a switch or jumper connections between them, which you will have to remove. If you
have any questions about your components, contact your dealer or M&K.
For non-THX systems, your subwoofer is optimized for use with the HP-80 High-Pass Filter.
We strongly recommend that you use this filter with any component system that allows for its use.
When you use this subwoofer with an HP-80 and M&K Satellites, the combination forms a 4th order
Linkwitz-Riley crossover between satellite and subwoofer. The linear phase of this crossover means
uncompromised performance with great flexibility in system setup, without requiring elaborate
calibrations or adjustments.
Do not use either of these filters with a THX controller. The THX controller has the appropriate filters
in its built-in crossover circuitry. Also, do not use a SUBWOOFER OUTPUT jack on your amp or
processor to feed any of these filters.
To connect one of these filters, run one set of shielded RCA - RCA interconnect cables from the
receiver, amp or preamp's MAIN OUTPUT to the input jacks on the LP-1S the HP/VF-80. Run another
set of interconnects from the high frequency output jacks on the filter to receiver or amp's POWER
AMP inputs. Last, run interconnects from the subwoofer output jacks to the subwoofer's "FROM
PREAMP" jacks. See the instructions enclosed with your filter for wiring diagrams.
To use these filters, make certain that the "BASS LEVEL" switch is set to "VARIABLE" and that the
"LOW PASS FILTER" switch is set to "24 dB/OCTAVE"
TESTING THE SUBWOOFER (NON-THX)
Once all of the interconnect cables are in place, you are ready to plug in your subwoofer. Make
sure the "LOW PASS FILTER" switch is set to the "24 dB/OCTAVE" position and the "BASS LEVEL"
control to set to "VARIABLE". Make sure the "SUBWOOFER PHASE" switch is set to the "+" position.
Then plug the AC cord in. You should see the red LED on the back panel of the subwoofer illuminate.
When your system wiring is complete and the subwoofer is plugged into the wall, leave it plugged
in, even when the system is turned off. The normal mode of operation for the subwoofer is to remain
plugged in 24 hours a day. Among other things, this means that you don't have to walk over to the
subwoofer to turn it on every time you want to use the system.
THX subwoofers
page 11
DO NOT PLUG THE SUBWOOFER INTO A SWITCHED OUTLET ON ANOTHER
COMPONENT. THE SUBWOOFER CAN DRAW UP TO 400 WATTS FROM THE
AC LINE. IT MUST BE PLUGGED INTO A SOLID AC LINE.
Now, play some music through your system to make sure that the Satellite speakers are working
properly. If they are, carefully advance the "BASS LEVEL" control. The subwoofer should begin to
play. Set the "BASS LEVEL" control where the subwoofer sounds in balance with the Satellite
speakers. If the system is not working properly, unplug the subwoofer and check all of your
connections. Call your dealer or the factory if you cannot solve any problem.
SETTING THE SUBWOOFER LEVEL (NON-THX)
Here are two ways to set the subwoofer level. First, if you can obtain a spectrum analyzer, you can
accurately match the subwoofer to the main speakers. First feed a wideband pink noise signal into
the full system (both the satellites and the subwoofer). Then set up the analyzer at the main listening
position. Adjust the "BASS LEVEL" control until the analyzer display shows the flattest response
through the 70 - 125 Hz midbass region.
If you don't have access to an analyzer, the best way to match the level of the subwoofer to your
system is to do it by ear, listening over several hours to familiar recordings. Make adjustments to the
level in small increments, depending on whether the bass level sounds too high or too low.
There is a possibility that your surround sound processor has a built in test generator for the
subwoofer level, but the virtually all non-THX processors do not. If you do have such a surround sound
processor, see SETTING SUBWOOFER LEVEL (THX), on page 7.
In any case, remember that you can always deliberately set the level higher if you want more bass
or lower if you don't want to disturb your neighbors.
USING TWO SUBWOOFERS (NON-THX)
Using two subwoofers in your audio/video system will give you the ultimate in bass performance.
It will give you improved impact and definition, as well as greater output and dynamic range. If you
locate the subwoofers in different parts of the room, you will hear a better overall frequency response,
as the room modes excited by one woofer are complemented by the presence of the other.
Alternately, if you stack two subwoofers, one on top of the other, their outputs will couple and give you
an additional total of 6 dB of output.
Wiring with two subwoofers is simple. Instead of running two interconnect cables to one
subwoofer, just run one interconnect to each subwoofer, using the LEFT/MONO input on each
subwoofer. You don't need to use a Y-connector. See Figure 4 (page 8), or Figure 6 (page 9).
7. SATELLITE/SUBWOOFER PHASING TEST
(WITH BOTH THX AND NON-THX COMPONENTS)
Before you can sit down to enjoy your new subwoofer, you need to perform one simple Phasing
Test. This test insures optimum sound in the critical bass frequencies where your subwoofer and
Satellite or L/C/R speakers overlap.
When using the subwoofer with a THX controller and THX L/C/R speakers, the crossover slopes
are linear phase. When the subwoofer is placed along the same axis as the front speakers, the system
will tolerate a plus or minus 28 inch offset before significant losses at the crossover point are seen.
THX subwoofers
page 12
Here are two methods of setting the correct phase with your subwoofer.
PHASING TEST METHOD ONE
Set the switch labelled "SUBWOOFER PHASE" to the "+" position. Then, play a familiar CD, LP,
laserdisc or tape with steady, consistent bass content. Listen carefully to the "mid-bass" region of
70 - 125 Hz. This is the part of the spectrum where electric or string basses and drums predominate.
Then, reverse the position of the "SUBWOOFER PHASE" switch. If it is set to the "+" position,
set it to the "-" position. If it was set to the "-" position, set it to the "+" position. The best way is
to have a partner work the switch while you sit in the main listening position and listen.
Now listen to the same music, concentrating on the mid-bass. If you hear less bass, set the
"SUBWOOFER PHASE" switch to the opposite position. If you hear more bass, leave the switch
where it is; the new position is correct.
PHASING TEST METHOD TWO
First, set the toggle switch labelled "SUBWOOFER PHASE" to the "+" position. Then, feed
wideband pink noise (found on test CDs, the "Wow" disc, or a pink noise generator) through your
front channel speakers and your subwoofer. You can do this test by listening, but it is best to use
a spectrum analyzer and look at its display in the "mid-bass" region of 70 - 125 Hz.
Then, reverse the position of the "SUBWOOFER PHASE" switch. If it is set to the "+" position,
set it to the "-" position. If it was set to the "-" position, set it to the "+" position. The best way is
to have a partner work the switch while you sit in the main listening position and listen.
Now, listen to the same wideband pink noise or look at the spectrum analyzer output in the midbass region. If you hear/measure less bass, set the "SUBWOOFER PHASE" switch to the
opposite position. If you hear/measure more bass, leave the switch alone; the new position is
correct.
This test is necessary because the different distances from each speaker to your ears mean that
it is possible that the Subwoofer's output may arrive at your ears out of phase with the Satellites'
output. When this happens, the midbass is cancelled. Re-do this test any time you move any of
your speakers or the listening position.
If you want to experiment, move the main speakers or subwoofer towards or away from your
listening position, in small increments. When you hear the best combination of stereo image
localization and focus with solid midbass impact and output, you have the ideal location.
If you have two subwoofers, perform one test for each subwoofer. When you perform each test,
make sure the other subwoofer is not operating by either unplugging its input cable or its power
cord.
8. FINE-TUNING THE PLACEMENT OF YOUR SUBWOOFER
Experimenting with the placement of the subwoofer can significantly improve its sound. Once
the subwoofer is hooked up, listen to it with a familiar CD, Laserdisc, LP, etc. with good bass
content. As you move the subwoofer, listen carefully for changes in the amount and quality of the
system's bass reproduction.
THX subwoofers
page 13
The amount and quality of bass you hear is dependent on the room itself. Low frequencies are
affected by a room's size and type of construction. Rooms differ when it comes to reproducing bass,
and in every room, bass quality changes when the subwoofer is moved from one location to another.
A simple rule to remember is that you get more bass when you move the subwoofer towards any
wall or corner. Moving it away from a wall or corner gives you less bass. Remember that the floor
also loads the subwoofer, and that maximum bass is found with the woofer on the floor in a corner.
We recommend starting with the woofer in a corner (or very close to one), and proceeding from
there. A corner location gives you maximum bass output and sonic excitement, as well as a standard
to compare with as you move the subwoofer around.
In some rooms, corner locations excite resonance modes, producing a "muddy" or "boomy" sound.
In these rooms, a location along a wall, away from the corner, may give the best results. Find a spot
where no single bass note overpowers the others and the overall sound is powerful and clean. You
want to achieve a smooth sound quality, with the entire bass spectrum equally prominent. Usually,
this will be along one wall, probably close to or directly in a corner, not in the center of the room.
SPECIAL METHOD FOR PLACING THE SUBWOOFER
If you are interested in getting the best possible sound from your subwoofer, this technique is often
successful. It does require, though, that you be willing to move some furniture around.
Place the subwoofer where your main listening position will be, and connect it to your system. Play
some music through the system, and then walk around the room, listening to how the sound quality
changes from location to location.
As you listen, concentrate on the quality of the bass in the parts of the room where you could place
the subwoofer. The location where you hear the best combination of a smooth response, exciting
deep bass, impact and sock, with the least boominess should be the best place to locate the
subwoofer.
Move the subwoofer to that location, and continue your listening tests, now from the main listening
position. If the sound quality is good, leave the subwoofer where it is. If it is not, continue
experimenting as above. Good luck!
The subwoofer generates tremendous energy, so it may vibrate objects close to it. If you hear
buzzing or vibrating objects, try moving the subwoofer and/or damping the vibration of those objects.
The THX "Wow" disc (Chapter 16, Side 2) contains test signals useful for locating buzzes and rattles.
Buzzes and rattles can be cured or improved by applying glue, tape, or pads in the area where the
objects are vibrating against each other. Try felt pads between objects that cannot be taped or glued
together (such as picture frames buzzing against walls).
One subwoofer is sufficient in a stereo system because the human ear-brain hearing system cannot
locate the direction of bass sounds below 150 Hz. We perceive the direction of low frequency sounds
by the higher frequency overtones reproduced by the Satellite or L/C/R speakers. All M&K Powered
Subwoofers have exceptionally sharp (36 dB/octave) low-pass filters to remove these unwanted
midbass and midrange frequencies, making your M&K subwoofer truly non-directional.
We realize that you are probably won't design your room around the subwoofer. These suggestions
are helpful guidelines, but remember that the subwoofer will work well just about anywhere in the room.
These suggestions are intended to help you find a good balance between sound quality and aesthetics.
THX subwoofers
page 14
9. USE OF SPIKED FEET WITH "MX" SUBWOOFERS
If your M&K THX subwoofer is an "MX" push-pull dual driver subwoofer, we have enclosed a
hardware kit consisting of four black metal spikes, threaded at one end and tapering to a sharp point
at the other. Depending on their orientation, they can be used either as carpet spikes or rubber feet.
To avoid damage to the floor, do not use the spiked end on hardwood or tile floors.
By mounting these spikes into the threaded inserts mounted in the bottom of the subwoofer, you
can elevate the subwoofer, and on carpet couple it more tightly to the floor.
The threaded inserts are found in the four corners of the cabinet's bottom. The inserts are 1/4 20, that is, 1/4 inch in diameter and 20 threads per inch. This is compatible with the majority of
alternative spikes, "cones," "tip-toes," etc. offered by other manufacturers.
To properly secure the feet to the cabinet, you must use the provided washer and jamb nut on the
threaded portion of the foot. The washer goes first, with the nut over it, holding the washer securely
in place. This prevents damage to the spike and insert in case something pushes the cabinet laterally.
10. TROUBLESHOOTING
Your subwoofer amplifier circuit provides high reliability, and, if necessary, easy modular parts
replacement. This guide will help solve or diagnose most problems that may occur. Remember, if
a fuse blows, you must replace it with the correct value to avoid fire hazards and to maintain the
warranty.
1. If your subwoofer has no output:
a.
Make sure that the subwoofer is plugged into an AC outlet.
b. If the "BASS LEVEL" switch is set to "VARIABLE", make sure that the "BASS LEVEL" control
is set above the "MIN" position. Rotate it clockwise if it is set to the "MIN" position. Make sure that
the SUBWOOFER OUTPUT level control on your processor or amp is set above the "MIN" position.
c. If the "BASS LEVEL" control is set to "THX", make sure that any SUBWOOFER OFF/ON switch
(found on the controller front or rear panel or remote control) is set to ON. Make sure that the
SUBWOOFER OUTPUT level control on your THX controller is set above the "MIN" position.
d. Check the red LED on the subwoofer's back panel. If the LED is not lit, check the AC fuse next
to the LED. Unplug the subwoofer before changing the fuse. See instructions on Page 15. If
the element inside the fuse is broken, replace the fuse. If the fuse blows again, contact your dealer
or M&K.
e. If the red LED is still lit, set the "BASS LEVEL" switch to the "VARIABLE" position. Turn the
"BASS LEVEL" control to "MIN". Plug a standard RCA cable into the "LEFT/MONO" "FROM
PREAMP" jacks. Lightly touch the plug at the free end of the cable. Then turn the "BASS LEVEL"
control clockwise. If you hear a buzz or hum from the subwoofer when you touch the cable, the
subwoofer is working. Look elsewhere in your system for the problem. If you hear no output, contact
your dealer or M&K for service.
f.
Make sure your cables are OK. Double check all connections and replace any defective
cables.
THX subwoofers
2.
page 15
If the midbass range (the area of transition between Subwoofer and Satellite or L/C/R
speakers) sounds weak:
See Section 7, PHASING TEST, on page 11. Reverse the position of the "SUBWOOFER PHASE"
switch on the back panel of the subwoofer. The switch position that gives the most bass is correct.
3.
If you hear a thump through the subwoofer every time you turn the rest of your audio
system on (and your subwoofer is plugged in all the time):
Either the preamp, amp, receiver, or surround sound processor is generating the thump, and the
subwoofer is reproducing it. Contact your dealer or the manufacturer of the other component.
4.
If you hear a persistent hum or buzz through the subwoofer:
Because the subwoofer easily reproduces 60 Hz signals (the frequency of hum), it is often blamed
for causing hum that originates elsewhere in the system. Always avoid running all speaker wires and
RCA interconnect cables near to AC cords and component power supplies. Placing wires and cables
close to AC lines often results in hum. If necessary, reroute your cables.
To identify the source of hum, remove all input cables to the subwoofer, but leave it plugged into
the AC outlet. Set the "BASS LEVEL" switch to the "VARIABLE" position. Carefully turn the "BASS
LEVEL" control up towards the "MAX" position. If you hear hum from the subwoofer, it is the source
of the hum. If you hear no hum or much less hum, the problem is in another component or a ground
loop.
For ground loop problems, when the subwoofer is plugged into a separate AC outlet, try plugging
it into the same outlet as your amplifier or receiver. If that doesn't work, reverse the polarity of its AC
plug. If you cannot solve the problem, call M&K or your dealer.
5.
If you hear an unusual sound from the subwoofer when no signal or music is playing:
Try removing the input cables as described in Step 4 above. If the noise disappears, it is coming
from another component. If it does not go away, contact your M&K dealer or the factory.
6.
If the subwoofer will not play loud enough, AND it is connected to the SUBWOOFER
OUTPUT jack on a non-THX surround sound processor:
Make sure that the "BASS LEVEL" toggle switch is set to "VARIABLE." Set the "BASS LEVEL"
control to the "MAX" position. If you get bass output, but it is not enough, then the processor's output
level is too low.
Some surround processors/receivers/amps have very low output levels from their SUBWOOFER
OUTPUT jacks. If you do not have enough gain when using the SUBWOOFER OUTPUT jacks on a
non-THX processor, use the processor's PREAMP OUTPUT jacks. See Figures 5 and 6 (page 9).
IF YOU NEED TO REPLACE THE EXTERNAL FUSE:
First, unplug the subwoofer from the wall AC socket. Remove the fuse cap. Look carefully at
the fuse's wire filament inside the glass. If it is broken, replace the fuse ONLY with one identical in
size and value. Using a larger fuse will void your warranty AND MAY CREATE A FIRE HAZARD. Plug
the subwoofer back in. If it does not work, unplug it immediately, and contact M&K or your dealer for
service.
THX subwoofers
page 16
REPLACEMENT FUSE VALUES
110 VOLT
MX-150THX
V-125 THX
220 VOLT
220 VOLT
(3 AG 1/4" x 1 1/4" slow blow)
(5 X 20 mm IEC-127/III)
4 amp
2 amp
T 1.6 A (time-lag)
T 800 mA (time-lag)
2 amp
1 amp
11. IF YOU NEED SERVICE
Contact your dealer or M&K with a complete description of the problem. Please have the unit's
model and serial numbers (found on the back of the cabinet), date of purchase, and your dealer's
name. You can call M&K between 8:30 AM and 5:00 PM Pacific Time, Monday through Friday, at
(310) 204-2854. If you call outside these hours, leave a message, and we will return your call.
DO NOT RETURN YOUR SPEAKERS TO THE FACTORY FOR
SERVICE WITHOUT OBTAINING PRIOR AUTHORIZATION.
All M&K subwoofers carry a three year limited parts and labor warranty. This warranty is
transferable to new owners up to three years from the date of original purchase. It does not cover
abuse, misuse, repairs by unauthorized service stations, speakers without serial numbers, and
damage in shipping or by accident. If you have questions about the warranty, please contact M&K
or your dealer.
SAVE ALL OF YOUR SUBWOOFER PACKING MATERIAL.
YOU MUST USE IT ANY TIME YOU SHIP YOUR UNIT.
12. SPECIFICATIONS
POWER OUTPUT:
AMPLIFIER DISTORTION:
INPUT IMPEDANCE:
V-125THX
150 watts RMS
125 watts RMS
Less than 0.03% from 20 to 125 Hz at full output
into subwoofer drivers (all models)
15 Kohms
NOISE:
15 Kohms
better than -90 dB relative to full output (all models)
TYPICAL ROOM RESPONSE:
DIMENSIONS (H x W x D):
WEIGHT:
MX-150 THX
20 - 125 Hz ± 3 dB
20 - 125 Hz ± 3 db
23" x 15 1/4" x 19 5/8" 18 1/2" x 15 3/8" x 20 1/4"
74 lbs.
54 lbs.
13. CABINET MAINTENANCE
The painted black cabinet of your subwoofer has a furniture-grade finish that will maintain its
attractive appearance with proper care. Treat this cabinet as you would any piece of fine furniture.
Regular cleaning is all that is required. Matching black paint can be used if necessary to repair any
surface damage.
0797MX150THX &V125THX.PM6
THX subwoofers
page 17
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement