Peavey 600 Mixer Music Mixer User Manual

Peavey 600 Mixer Music Mixer User Manual
600 Mixer
600 Mixer
INPUT CIRCUITRY - It is absolutely
necessary for a mixer to be compatable in most ap-
plications and to have the capability of being able
to control the sensitivity of the input circuitry of
each channel. This requires an input attenuator,
(1} sometimes referred to as an input pad. Some
mics and signal sources can be at such a level as to
overdrive or clip the input circuitry of a mixer.
An input attenuator allows the operator to reduce
the input gain when input clipping occurs. Some
manufacturers put attenuators in their snake or
stage box to be able to control the sensitivity of
the mic or signal source. This is not the best ap-
proach ¡f you are sending your signals through ca-
ble runs of any length. The more signal being car-
ried by the mic cable the less susceptible is the sig-
nal to picking up hum or noise which allows for an
improved signal to noise ratio. Many times it
would be impossible to make an adjustment on
one of the attenuators if necessary during the per-
formance, You shouldn't have to run up to the
stage and pick up the drummer's leg so you can ad-
just a mic input!
In use, the operator must adjust the input
attenuator in such a manner that input clipping is
avoided. This can easily be done by setting up the
channel with the highest expected input signal
level and adjusting the input attenuator so that no
clipping or distortion is heard from the speaker
system. After the mixer has been used several
times, the operator will have a very good idea
of the signal levels encountered and will be able to
set up the attenuators accordingly. The different
types of microphones will have different output
levels and different performers will get widely
varying levels from mics depending on the strength
of their voices and/or their basic “mic techniques’.
The input attenuator should be operated
in the position yeilding the least attenuation re-
quired to avoid clipping. Operation in this mode
allows maximum gain to be utilized In the input
preamp where it is most efficiently obtained. Ex-
cessive input padding sometimes makes necessary
higher settings of the channel gain controls and/or
master contro! thus yeilding a less than optimum
signal-to-noise ratio for any given situation.
It is important to realize that not all
"breakup” is caused by the mic signal overloading
the input stage of the mixer. If the performer's
mic technique includes very close and/or very loud
situations, the internal elements of the mic can
“bottom out” or distort just as a loudspeaker can
when it is overdriven. Quite a few of the mics now
used by performers lack the dynamic range re-
quired to adequately handle the tremendous sound
pressure levels encountered in a very loud rock and
roll concert situation, It is vital for the profes-
sional soundman and the musicians to be aware of
the limitations of the various links in the audio sys-
tem in order to correctly diagnose and solve the
various problems encountered in a sound rein-
forcement situation.
Overall, the input attenuator is the first
control in the circuit and must be set up properly
in order for the remaining circuits to function pro-
perly. “Common sense” and experience operating
the 600 Mixer an several jobs will allow the opera-
tor to achieve superb results in virtually any mixing
situation, Qur variable input attenuator allows for
much more flexibility than some other manu-
facturer's mixers that only have switchable fixed
attenuation of maybe 10 to 20 dB, where some-
times 10 dB may not be enough and 20 dB may be
too much attenuation. The 600 Mixers input
attenuator is continuously variable from 0 dB to
-40 dB.
the channel mixing element for determining the all-
important monitor mix, The signal for the moni-
tor send is obtained right after the input preamp
and before the channel EQ. This is referred to as
a Monitor Pre-send Control, i.e., it is before or pre
to the channel equalization and slider level control.
This makes it independent of these controls, mean-
ing that any changes made to the EQ or channel le-
vel will not affect the monitor system. Having the
monitor send with the pre capability is absolutely
VITAL to avoid feedback of the monitor system
when EQ and normal incremental output varia-
tions are made in the channel fader during the
course of the performance.
EQUALIZATION - The equalization cir-
cuitry of the 600 Mixer is the latest active type,
utilizing negative feedback technology. We select-
ed circuitry that produces a "shelving” type of
action because the conventional type circuitry used
by some manufacturers tends to create erratic, or
sometimes harsh sounding results when in the near-
maximum boost positions. These two equaliza-
tion controls will produce extremely smooth ac-
tion as well as giving effective tone control, Ex-
perience will show their utility in achieving pro-
fessional channel equalization on the job.
It should be remembered that these active
equalization circuits are a form of “electronic
crossover” in which the equalization controls are
similar to level controls for their respective fre-
quency bands.
Generally, it is poor operating practice to
use both equalizer controls in the deep cut
(counter-clockwise) positions since this results in
substantially lower gain from the channel. It
should be remembered that the balance of highs
and lows is a relative situation, and cutting over-
all channel gain should properly be done by the
output slide attenuator or input attenuator.
is capable of better than 15 dB boost or cut @ 100
Hz with a sloping characteristic exhibited up to the
crossover point. The shelving action of this control
has proven to yeild a much more satisfying and ef-
fective equalization characteristic than some of the
“wide open" equalization circuits claiming 20 - 25
dB boost and cut. The action of this equalization
control is conventional and should present no pro-
blem in operation. Boost is obtained in the right-
hand (clockwise) position while cut is obtained in
the lefthand (counter-clockwise) position. The ver-
tical (12 o'clock) position vields a flat (no boost or
cut) response and is the position from which all
tonal balancing should be started.
is capable of 15 dB boost or cut @ 5 KHz with a
shelving characteristic sloping down to the cross-
over point. The boost or cut action of this control
is very similar to that of the low equalizer with the
exception of its high frequency effect. Boost is ob-
tained to the right of center position while cut is
obtained to the left of the center position, Flat
response is obtained in the center (12 o'clock) po-
Caution should be exercised in using ex-
treme low-frequency boost to avoid emphasing
objectionable wind noises or rumble from the mi-
crophone as well as any hum that might enter the
mixer from external sources. Excessive treble
boost should be avoided to keep residual noise
from the amplification circuitry to reasonable le-
vel as well as to avoid a strident or screeching
tonality in the output program material.
In sound reinforcement, there is nothing
holy about an entirely flat equalization setting. If
it is necessary to use moderate amounts of equal-
ization, then you should be willing to do so, con-
sidering that the “ideal” flat settings are almost
never used, even in the recording studio, and even
less often in most sound reinforcement applica-
channel level for determining the amount of signal
from each respective channel to be sent to the ef-
fects output or to be mixed into the reverb sum-
ming buss. The effects send circuit has been de-
signed to provide multiple functions which will be
explained further in the master control section.
(6) is the output level control that determines the
mix into the main summing buss. |ts calibration is
in decibels of attenuation and this is why the num-
bering sequence goes from off (infinity = CC ), or
maximum attenuation to zero (0), or no attenua-
tion. Remember that attenuation is the cutting or
reduction of the signal level i.e., the more attenua-
tion, the more you have cut down the signal level.
The output fader is calibrated in accordance with
standard practice for professional audio equip-
Proper setting of the input attenuator (pad)
should produce adequate gain within the input pre-
amp to allow slider settings approximately in the
center (approximately -40 to -20 dB). You should
remember that the input attenuator is a kind of
pre gain control and its settings will most definite-
ly influence the settings for the output slider with
any given input signal. The input attenuator
should be adjusted for the maximum gain that will
allow distortion free performance, then the output
slider level should be adjusted for proper mix.
It is very poor operating practice to use the
input pads in the extreme cut positions and then
have to set the output sliders in their close to max-
imum positions to obtain adequate channel output.
This type of operation results in less than optimum
signal-to-noise ratios as well as contributing to
headroom problems. As with any system, "com-
mon sense” must be combined with operating
knowledge to produce satisfactory results. Over-
all, the channel controls should be set to provide
a reasonable amount of “adjustment” i.e., none of
the gain controlling elements (input attenua-
tor/output slider) should be operated near their ex-
treme up or down positions. After several hours
usage, the operator will have acquired a good
“feel” for the characteristics of the controls and
should be able to suitably handle any mixdown
situation encountered in the field with satisfactory
MASTER AREA - The master area of the
600 Mixer contains all the master or final output
controls for the mixing busses. The main mixing
buss equalization features shelving type high (9),
and low (10) EQ. The Effects level (12) is the mas:
ter control for the effects mixing buss. :
The master level controls (7) (14) of the 600
Mixer should be set in such a manner that they are
close to the center of their travel to take advantage
of maximum control action. It is poor practice to
run the channel faders up near maximum and then
run the main faders near the low end to achieve the
desired output levels. Operation in this manner
will cause the operator to loose his “range” in con-
trol action with all the gain located in one element
while the other is near its stop position, Best prac-
tice calls for most controls to be operated in their
middle or slightly higher positions to allow max
mum mixing control margins (travel). Remember,
when mixing, you MUST allow yourself adequate
margins within which to operate and by using any
of the faders in their extreme (close to the stop)
positions, you have effectively reduced your range
of control. This manner of operation also tends to
create “headroom” problems.
These master controls allow the operator
complete flexibility for functions and should allow
almost any mixing situation to be handled by the
600. As with any reasonably complex system, ex-
perience and operator knowledge of the equipment
are essential for satisfactory performance. The
mixer, like the musician's instrument, should be
practiced on and learned. To properly operate a
mixer during a performance requires thorough
knowledge and trained reflexes to allow proper res-
ponses under the stress of demanding and some-
times sudden situations. The musician should
know his mixer almost as well as he knows his
instrument, so that his reactions will be both
smooth and proper to correct whatever problem
or requirement that should arise during a per-
formance. . . a professional must work at it!
the control that determines the main output level
for the output connectors located on the rear pa-
nel. The main summing amp, as well as the other
two summing busses, are of the very latest “zero
null” type using negative feedback to achieve maxi-
mum dynamic range, lowest noise, and crosstalk.
The master fader should be operated in accord
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LLV 111111
with the proper operating practices as outlined a-
bove. Experimentation and experience on several
jobs will allow the operator to achieve a “feel”
for the right settings for his requirements.
IZER (10) is capable of 15d8 boost or cut € 50
Hz. This equalizer is similar to those used in
the individual channels and are designed to ex-
hibit a “shelving” characteristic which has proven
to yeild the best results in this type application.
The controls are “flat” with no boost or cut in the
straight up (12 o'clock) position with boost being
obtained in the righthand (clockwise) position.
Care should be taken NOT to over-boost with the
master EQ controls. Since each channel is equip-
ped with equalization, it is poor practice to use too
much additional boost in this master section.
Over-boosting on low frequencies will impart a
boomy and muffled tonality to the program ma-
terial and will substantially decrease the intelli-
gibility of voices being mixed through the console.
IZER (9) is capable of 15 dB boost or cut @ 10
KHz and is designed to exhibit a “shelving” charac-
teristic. The operation of this EQ control is simi-
lar to the low EQ with the exception of the fact
that it controls the high frequency portion of
the audio spectrum. Care should be taken not to
over-boost the high frequencies to avoid undue
amplification of residual system noise (hiss) as
well as creating a “strident” or screechy sounding
system. High frequency over-boost also tends to
create undue acoustic feedback. When balancing
ANY of the equalizers for proper tonality, you al-
ways start with ALL equalizers in their flat (12
o'clock) positions and work from there. After you
have spent several hours working with any parti-
cular setup of mics, performers, etc., you will ac-
quire a good working egualization setup and be
able to achieve the desired tonality.
The important thing to keep in mind about
the equalization on the 600 Mixer is that each
channel is provided with its own set of EQ con-
trols to correct problems in that particular chan-
nel, while Master EQ is provided to allow for over-
all tonal balance and feedback control. We have
not included this equalization system to allow
tremendous boost or cut but rather to allow in-
cremental EQ where it is needed. You must use
common sense in the use of these controls in order
to achieve satisfactory tonal balance and intelli-
The EFFECTS LEVEL (12) is the control
that determines the overall signal output level for
the effects send buss. This effects buss has two
output connectors associated with it, one is a high
level output that can be used to drive a power amp-
lifier for an additional monitor system and the
other is a low level output designed to drive the in-
put of an effects device such as an echo unit,
phasor, digital delay line, etc. In addition to
driving the high and low level effects outputs, the
effects level control also determines the drive to
the internal reverb delay lines. This effects level
control must be adjusted so that the output level
from the jack on the rear panel does not overload
the input circuitry of the effects unit you are
driving, thus causing clipping or other forms of
distortion. This is especially critical on some of
the special effects units that are designed to work
with guitars or other instruments with relatively
low output levels.
The REVERB RETURN (13) is the gain
control element for the reverb system. The signal
coming from the reverb delay lines is amplified and
the gain or amount of signal sent to the main sum-
ming buss is controlled by the reverb return.
The REVERB CONTOUR (11) is the con-
trol used to vary the tonality of the reverb signal
and is à low cut type equalizer. This contour con-
trol is very useful in tailoring the reverb sound and
in controlling reverb induced feedback. Balancing
these reverb controls will yeild many combinations
of reverb delay, tonality, and sustain.
Is provided for varying the input levels mixed into
the main mixing buss from the main auxiliary
input jack provided on the rear panel. The auxi-
liary input jack allows signals from other mixers
or effects units to be patched directly into the
main mixing buss, This control may be considered
a separate channel whose output is blended into
the main mix just as the individual channels are.
the output level control for the main monitor sys
tem. The same operating practices should be ob-
served when using this control as when using the
main channel controls. The individual channel
monitor send controls should be set in such a man-
ner that will allow the monitor master slider (fa-
der) to be operated somewhere in the middle of its
travel to allow yourself adequate control margins,
up or down, as might be required on the job. The
monitor output signal is flat, that is, we did not
include equalization for the monitor in the 600
Mixer since this equalization is usually external
to the mixer and is best performed on the stage
itself, which is generally at some considerable
distance from the mixer. It is because the mixer
is usually located remotely from the performing
area that it is sometimes difficult for the monitor
equalization to be performed at the mixer.
The METER SET CONTROL enables the
VU meter to be adjusted for proper indication with
any power amplifier, tape recorder, or other equip-
ment driven by the mixer. If your power amp,
tape recorder, etc... has VU meters, the level set
control can be adjusted to track the 600's VU
meter with a constant input signal, i.e., set the
600's meter to read “0” VU at the same level as
the external equipment's VU does, With equip-
ment that has LED overload indicators, the 600's
meter should be set to zero VU at the point where
the LED peak indicator initially lights up.
If the equipment being fed by the 600 has
no maximum level indicator you should refer any
adjustment of VU meters to a properly equipped
sound technician to avoid problems in matching
e readings with maximum output and/or modu-
You should be aware that ve have designed
the 600 Mixer to be able to drive power amplifiers
with VERY low input sensitivities of 2 volts or
higher. Because of the high output capability of
the 600, it may appear that the 600 is excessively
noisy when plugged into power amplifiers with
high input sensitivity such as the Peavey 260 or
800 Boosters which require only ¥ volt for FULL
output. The extra gain designed into the 600 to
allow use with the less sensitive power amps should
NOT be interpreted as poor design but as addition-
al gain capability. It is possible to use “high gain”
power amps with very good results by generally
using less channel and master gain, or by decreasing
the power amps sensitivity by turning down the
power amps level control.
REAR PANEL - The 600 Mixer rear panel
features a complete patching panel for various out-
put and input functions, as well as the microphone
input connectors for each channel.
Each channel's input connectors are labeled
with its identification number, as well as an indica-
tion of whether the input is for high (16) or low
(17) impedance. The high impedance connectors
are standard phone jacks. The low impedance con-
nectors are of the cannon type, three conductor
connector to be used for low impedance micro-
phones only, and will accept 150 to 600 ohm
auxiliary inputs on the 600 Mixer.
input to the main mixing buss of the 600 Mixer.
The amount of signal to reach the main mixing
buss 15 controlled by the auxiliary input level con-
trol. This is the input jack used as the effects
return when using an external effects device with
the 600 Mixer. The main auxiliary input can also
be thought af as an additional channel and can
even be used with a high impedance microphone as
a signal source.
There are three
is the input to the monitor mixing buss of the 600
Mixer. This input mixes a signal with the monitor
buss at the same point as the individual channels
and 1s to be used when patching two mixers to-
gether or any time access is needed to the monitor
buss in order to place a particular signal in the
monitor system,
the input to the effects mixing buss of the 600.
This input mixes a signal with the effects buss at
the same point as the individual channels and is to
be used when patching two mixers together or any
time access is needed to the effects mixing buss.
The MAIN OUTPUTS (21) are located on
the rear panel and are standard % phone jacks. The
outputs are unbalanced and are capable of Svolts
RMS into TOK ohms load impedance. These levels
are capable of driving most commercial power
amplifiers or other auxiliary eguipment to full
performance by a wide margin and should allow
a more than adequate amount of headroom in
nearly any application.
The MONITOR OUTPUT (22) is un-
balanced and is capable of 5volts RMS into 10K
ohms load impedance.
capable of ? volts RMS into 10K ohms load and
can be used to drive an additional power amplifier
and speaker system from the effects buss to obtain
an additional monitor.
lower level signal than the effects high and is in-
tended to drive the input of an effects device such
as an echo unit, phasor, etc. 11 is capable of 0.4
volts RMS into TOK ohms.
Both the effects high and effects low out-
puts are controlled by the effects level control and
both jacks can be used simultaneously.
is used with an auxiliary footswitch to enable the
operator to defeat the reverb function of the mixer
The POWER SWITCH (26) is the type that
enables the operator to easily reverse the polarity
of the line (mains) cable, thus yeilding the abili-
ty to minimize hum by proper polarization of the
power supply (mains) connection, One of the ON
positions will result in the lowest hum level and/or
the least noise when unbalanced high impedance
microphones are used, and this position should be
You must polarize the power (mains)
supply to achieve maximum performance in each
location the mixer is used in.
SPECIAL NOTE. .. Some export versions
of the 600 Mixer do not have the two-way switch,
and this information should be disregarded for
those models.
BLE (27) is provided for durability under road
conditions. This is a three wire approved cord, and
it is NOT advisable to remove the ground pin under
ANY circumstances. If you should find it neces
sary to operate the system where the proper three
wire receptacles are NOT available, you should use
a three-to-two wire adapter. These adapters are
widely available and should be used instead of de-
stroying the elaborate grounding facilities made
possible by the three wire line (mains) cable.
Frinted m USA
Frequency Response:
20 Hz - 20 kHz + 2 dB @ 2v rms output (+8 dBm)
Total Harmonic Distortion:
0.1% THD 20 Hz - 10 kHz @ 2v rms output (+8 dBm)
Equivalent Input Noise:
High Z input, —123 dBv € 150 ohms (0.7 mV)
Low Z input, —80 dB below 2v rms @ 20 dB gain
Low impedance unbalanced microphone 600 chm (cannon plug)
High impedance unbalanced line 50 K ohm (phono plug)
Input Attenuator:
Continuously variable from 0 dB to —40 dB operational on mic or line inputs
Total gain of mixer @ 0 dB attenuation =60 dB
Main & Monitor
Unbalanced, 5v rms into 10 K ohms,
Effects High:
2v rms into 600 ohms (+8 dBm)
Unbalanced, 2v rms into 10 K ohms
Effects Low:
Unbalanced, 0.4v rms into 10 K ohms
Infinitely variable boost & cut, +15 dB @ 100 Hz & 5 kHz ea channel
+15 dB @ 50 Hz & 10 kHz Master
Built-in reverb unit with contour control, effects out & return capability
for external effects units
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