Food Studies 10, 30 Curriculum Guidelines A Practical and Applied Art Saskatchewan Education

Food Studies 10, 30 Curriculum Guidelines A Practical and Applied Art Saskatchewan Education
Food Studies 10, 30
Curriculum Guidelines
A Practical and Applied Art
Saskatchewan Education
1999
ISBN: 1-894116-31-3
Acknowledgements
Saskatchewan Education acknowledges the contributions of the Practical and Applied Arts Reference
Committee formed in 1996. Current members are:
Jerry Cherneski, Instructor
SIAST Palliser Campus
Dr. Kevin Quinlan
Professor, Faculty of Education
University of Regina
Dean Lucyk, Teacher
Regina RCSSD #81
Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation (STF)
Saskatchewan Industrial Education Association
(SIEA)
Dave Spencer
Swift Current S.D. #94
League of Educators, Administrators, Directors and
Superintendents (LEADS)
Barbara McKinnon, Teacher
Moose Jaw S.D. #1
Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation
Saskatchewan Business Teachers’ Association
(SBTA)
Gayleen Turner, Teacher
Swift Current Comprehensive High School Board
Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation
Saskatchewan Home Economics Teachers’
Association (SHETA)
Lance Moen, Dean
Associated Studies
SIAST Kelsey Campus
Ron Wallace, Consultant
Saskatoon S.D. #13
Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation
Saskatchewan Career/Work Experience Association
(SCWEA)
Rose Olson, Trustee
Saskatchewan School Trustees Association (SSTA)
Dr. Len Proctor
Professor, College of Education
University of Saskatchewan
Ron Provali
Teacher/Principal
Potashville S.D. #80
Saskatchewan Teachers’ Federation
Saskatchewan Association of Computers in
Education (SACE)
Previous Members:
Susan Buck, SIAST
Laurent Fournier, SSTA
Morris Smith, LEADS
Debbie Ward, SSTA
Saskatchewan Education wishes to thank many others who contributed to the development of these
guidelines:
• Ruby Zimmer, seconded/contracted developer/writer, Regina S.D. #4
• the PAA Program Team
• field test/pilot teachers
• other field personnel.
This document was completed under the direction of the Science and Technology Unit, Curriculum and
Instruction Branch, Saskatchewan Education.
i
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements................................................................................................................................................ i
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................... 1
Philosophy and Rationale................................................................................................................................... 1
Aim, Goals, and Foundational Objectives....................................................................................................... 1
Course Components and Considerations ................................................................................................................ 3
Assessment and Evaluation..................................................................................................................................... 3
Module Overview ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
Suggested Course Configurations ........................................................................................................................... 6
Core and Optional Modules................................................................................................................................ 7
Module 1: Kitchen Basics (Core)............................................................................................................................. 7
Module 2: Kitchen and Food Safety (Core) .......................................................................................................... 11
Module 3: Baking Basics (Core)............................................................................................................................ 13
Module 4: Food and Health (Core) ....................................................................................................................... 16
Module 5: Grains (Core) ........................................................................................................................................ 20
Module 6: Vegetables and Fruits (Core) .............................................................................................................. 23
Module 7: Milk and Dairy Products (Core) .......................................................................................................... 25
Module 8: Eggs (Core) ........................................................................................................................................... 28
Module 9: Snacks (Core)........................................................................................................................................ 30
Module 10: Canada’s Food Guide and Beyond (Core) ......................................................................................... 32
Module 11: Food Through the Life Cycle (Optional) ........................................................................................... 37
Module 12: Cakes and Pastries (Optional) .......................................................................................................... 40
Module 13: Baking with Yeast (Optional)............................................................................................................ 44
Module 14: Keep It Cold (Core) ............................................................................................................................ 47
Module 15: Protein Foods: Meats, Poultry, Fish, Vegetarianism (Core) .......................................................... 52
Module 16: Make Mine Quick and Healthy (Optional) ....................................................................................... 62
Module 17: The Science of Nutrition (Core)......................................................................................................... 65
Module 18: The Canadian Food Mosaic (Core) .................................................................................................... 72
Module 19: International Cuisine (Optional) ...................................................................................................... 78
Module 20: The World of Soups (Optional) .......................................................................................................... 81
Module 21: Sauces (Optional) ............................................................................................................................... 85
Module 22: Creative Baking (Optional) ............................................................................................................... 88
Module 23: Entertaining with Food (Optional) ................................................................................................... 90
Module 24: Foods for Special Occasions (Optional)............................................................................................. 92
Module 25: Food Preservation (Optional) ............................................................................................................ 94
Module 26: Food Additives (Core) ........................................................................................................................ 99
ii
Module 27: Current Food Issues (Core) ............................................................................................................. 102
Module 28: Exploring Careers (Optional) .......................................................................................................... 106
Module 29: Work Study Preparation and Follow-up Activities (Optional)...................................................... 108
Module 30: Work Study (Optional)..................................................................................................................... 111
References .......................................................................................................................................................... 112
Appendix A: Recordkeeping Chart.............................................................................................................. 113
iii
Introduction
Within Core Curriculum, the Practical and Applied Arts (PAA) is a major area of study that incorporates five
traditional areas of Home Economics Education, Business Education, Work Experience Education/Career
Education, Computer Education, and Industrial Arts Education. Saskatchewan Education, its educational
partners, and other stakeholders have collaborated to complete the PAA curriculum renewal. Some PAA
curriculum guidelines have been updated; some components have been integrated, adapted, or deleted; some
Locally Developed Courses have been elevated to provincial status; and some new guidelines have been
developed.
A companion Practical and Applied Arts Handbook provides background on Core Curriculum philosophy,
perspectives, and initiatives. The Handbook provides a renewed set of goals for PAA. It presents additional
information about the PAA area of study, including guidelines about work study and related transition-towork dimensions. In addition, a PAA Information Bulletin provides direction for administrators and others
regarding the implementation of PAA courses. Lists of recommended resources for all guidelines will be
compiled into a PAA Bibliography with periodic updates.
Philosophy and Rationale
Food Studies is a curriculum designed to teach about foods and nutrition. The mission is both educational
and preventive. The skills and knowledge taught in this curriculum will increase resourcefulness of students
and help them to develop self-reliance and independence. The curriculum is also designed to provide
opportunity for achievement and success at projects and activities that in turn builds self-image and
increases self-confidence. The curriculum ideas and learning objectives develop skills necessary for life.
The Foods Studies curriculum combines academic and practical foods experiences and is an option for all
students. The study of foods is important because every person must eat to live. As well, the preparation of
food whether at school or at home can be a creative, interesting, enjoyable, and rewarding experience.
Many students are responsible for meal preparation at home. With the increasing number of single parent
families and working parents, meal preparation is often the responsibility of younger family members.
Knowledge and understanding of basic food preparation and nutrition is important in order to make healthy
food choices for individual and family well-being.
Knowledge about nutrition is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Food-related health problems
and eating disorders are major health concerns in Canada. The impact of eating highly refined, processed
foods is affecting our short and long term health. Damage caused by poor nutrition is cumulative and often
begins with poor food habits in childhood. A study of food can expose students to accurate information as
well as provide opportunities for students to gain competence in making informed, reasoned choices.
Traditional food preparation skills are being lost in today’s fast paced lifestyles. Much of the food consumed
is fast foods, partly prepared foods, or food eaten away from home. Time constraints and the effects of
advertising have dramatically changed the types of foods prepared and eaten. Contrary to advertising
claims, the preparation of nutritious foods does not have to be time consuming or difficult. Less preparation
at home means less transfer and reinforcement of food preparation skills. Students need the opportunity to
learn and practise preparation techniques in the classroom or in the workplace.
Aim, Goals, and Foundational Objectives
Aim
The Food Studies curriculum focuses on essential knowledge and understanding of food and nutrition. It
stresses the importance of making healthy food choices in order to promote the well-being of individuals and
1
families. It also aims to develop self-reliance, independence, and positive social skills as well as to teach
basic life skills and knowledge that all students need.
Goals
Consumer Knowledge: To develop knowledge that will enable students to make wise buying choices when
shopping for food.
Personal Skills: To allow students to cultivate practical skills that can be used daily in the preparation of
foods.
Technological Advances: To gain knowledge of the changes in the production of food and the many
conveniences that can be attributed to technological advances.
Careers and Employment: To create an awareness of the career opportunities in the fields of Food and
Nutrition.
Foundational Objectives
Foundational objectives are the major, general statements that guide what each student is expected to
achieve for the modules of the PAA curriculum guidelines. Foundational objectives indicate the most
important knowledge, skills, attitudes/values, and abilities for a student to learn in a subject. Both the
Foundational Objectives for Food Studies 10, 30 and the Common Essential Learnings (CELs) Foundational
Objectives to be emphasized are stated in this document. Some of these statements may be repeated or
enhanced in different modules for emphasis. The Foundational Objectives of the Core Modules of the Food
Studies 10, 30 curriculum include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
To appreciate the importance of Canada’s Food Guide for the development of an individual’s health and
wellness.
To understand the importance of the science of nutrition.
To understand and practise safety in the preparation and storage of food.
To apply independent learning skills in the preparation of nutritious foods.
To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
To understand better the social and cultural aspects of food for all people.
To be aware of and practise environmental protection through conservation and recycling.
To develop the desire and ability to access knowledge about issues and obtain factual information before
forming opinions about food-related issues.
To identify and evaluate personal qualities related to career choices.
To be aware of career and employment opportunities related to diet, food and food preparation.
All of the subject and CELs Foundational Objectives are stated explicitly at the beginning of each module.
Common Essential Learnings
The incorporation of the Common Essential Learnings (CELs) into the instruction and assessment of the
Practical and Applied Arts (PAA) curriculum offers many opportunities to develop students knowledge,
skills, and abilities. The purpose of the CELs is to assist students with learning concepts, skills, and
attitudes necessary to make transitions to career, work, and adult life.
The CELs establish a link between the Transition-to-Work dimensions and Practical and Applied Arts
curriculum content. The Transition-to-Work dimensions included in the PAA curricula are: apprenticeship,
career exploration/development, community project(s), employability skills, entrepreneurial skills,
occupational skilling, personal accountability, processing of information, teamwork, and work
study/experience. Throughout the PAA curricula, the CELs objectives are stated explicitly at the beginning
of each module and are coded in this document, as follows:
2
COM
NUM
CCT
TL
PSVS
IL
=
=
=
=
=
=
Communication
Numeracy
Critical and Creative Thinking
Technological Literacy
Personal and Social Values and Skills
Independent Learning
It is anticipated that teachers will find additional ways to incorporate the CELs into their classroom instruction.
Course Components and Considerations
The primary focus of Food Studies is to prepare students for everyday life in a global society. The Food
Studies curriculum provides a balance between academic and practical food preparation experiences.
Students are actively engaged in the learning process. The Food Studies courses are designed to be
comprehensive and as relevant as possible.
The Learning Objectives listed in each module are designed to help students build the competencies
identified in the Foundational Objectives and the Common Essential Learnings Objectives. The teacher
Notes suggest teaching approaches and define some of the criteria necessary for assessment. Suggested food
preparation experiences apply learning objectives, teach specific skills, and develop expertise in food
preparation. Practical lab experiences are an integral part of each module. Teachers should plan each
module to determine how the cooking experiences can best be incorporated into classroom activities.
There are many teacher/student activities included in the curriculum. Teachers are not expected to
complete them all but may choose from or adapt the suggestions. Teachers should choose or design
learning activities that meet the curriculum objectives and the needs of their students.
Consumer education and buymanship concepts are incorporated into many of the food modules. A separate
module was not developed. These concepts need to be emphasized in as many modules as possible.
Each of the two Food Studies courses requires one hundred hours of instruction. The Introductory Level
modules (Food Studies 10) help students build daily living skills and form the basis for further learning.
Introductory Level modules are developed for students who have no previous experience in food studies.
Certain modules will be recommended for use at the Middle Level.
The Advanced Level modules (Food Studies 30) help students build on competencies developed at the
Introductory Level and focus on further development. These modules demand a higher level of expertise and
student responsibility and can help prepare students for entry into the workplace.
There is a range of hours given for each of the modules to allow for flexibility and differences in
Saskatchewan programs.
The course is written using CELs as an integral part of the framework. Transition-to-work skills are also an
important part of the course content and suggested activities. Employability skills (academic, personal
management, and teamwork skills) are an integral part of the Food Studies curricula. There are many
career opportunities in the area of foods and some ideas have been included. School and community
situations will help determine the employment and work study opportunities for students.
Assessment and Evaluation
Student evaluation is an important part of teaching as it allows the teacher to report the progress and
successes of the student. Evaluation also provides valuable feedback about how a student learns best. It is
important that teachers use a variety of evaluation strategies to evaluate student progress. Additional
information on evaluation of student achievement can be found in “Evaluation in Education, Report of the
Minister’s Advisory Committee on Evaluation and Monitoring” January 1989.
3
It is important that the teacher discuss with students the evaluation strategies to be used in the course,
when the evaluation will occur, and the weighting of each evaluation. The weighting of the evaluation
should be determined in relation to the amount of time spent and emphasis placed on each area of the course
as suggested in the curriculum guidelines. The student evaluation for the course studied should reflect the
variety of teaching/learning strategies used throughout the course. An example of types of evaluation and
their weighting is included below.
Food Studies 30
Written Exams
Student Demonstrations
Practical Experiences (lab or work study)
Student Projects
Written Assignments
4
30%
10%
25%
20%
15%
Module Overview
Module Code
Module
FOOD01
FOOD02
FOOD03
FOOD04
FOOD05
FOOD06
FOOD07
FOOD08
FOOD09
FOOD10
FOOD11
FOOD12
FOOD13
FOOD14
FOOD15
FOOD16
FOOD17
FOOD18
FOOD19
FOOD20
FOOD21
FOOD22
FOOD23
FOOD24
FOOD25
FOOD26
FOOD27
FOOD28
FOOD29
Module 1: Kitchen Basics (Core)
Module 2: Kitchen and Food Safety (Core)
Module 3: Baking Basics (Core)
Module 4: Food and Health (Core)
Module 5: Grains (Core)
Module 6: Vegetables and Fruits (Core)
Module 7: Milk and Dairy Products (Core)
Module 8: Eggs (Core)
Module 9: Snacks (Core)
Module 10: Canada’s Food Guide and Beyond (Core)
Module 11: Food Through the Life Cycle (Optional)
Module 12: Cakes and Pastries (Optional)
Module 13: Baking with Yeast (Optional)
Module 14: Keep it Cold (Core)
Module 15: Protein Foods (Core)
Module 16: Make Mine Quick and Healthy (Optional)
Module 17: The Science of Nutrition (Core)
Module 18: The Canadian Food Mosaic (Core)
Module 19: International Cuisine (Optional)
Module 20: The World of Soups (Optional)
Module 21: Sauces (Optional)
Module 22: Creative Baking (Optional)
Module 23: Entertaining with Food (Optional)
Module 24: Foods for Special Occasions (Optional)
Module 25: Food Preservation (Optional)
Module 26: Food Additives (Core)
Module 27: Current Food Issues (Core)
Module 28: Exploring Careers (Optional)
Module 29: Work Study Preparation and Follow-up Activities
(Optional)
Module 30: Work Study (Optional)
FOOD30
Suggested
Time (hours)
8-10
8-10
10-15
10-15
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-10
6-8
5-6
5-8
5-8
5-10
10-15
6-8
12-15
5-10
5-10
5-6
5-6
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-8
4-5
5-8
5-6
5-10
25-50
5
Suggested Course Configurations
Module Code
Module
FOOD01
FOOD02
FOOD03
FOOD04
FOOD05
FOOD06
FOOD07
FOOD08
FOOD09
FOOD12
FOOD13
THER05*
Food Studies 10
Module 1: Kitchen Basics (Core)
Module 2: Kitchen and Food Safety (Core)
Module 3: Baking Basics (Core)
Module 4: Food and Health (Core)
Module 5: Grains (Core)
Module 6: Vegetables and Fruits (Core)
Module 7: Milk and Dairy Products (Core)
Module 8: Eggs (Core)
Module 9: Snacks (Core)
Module 12: Cakes and Pastries (Optional)
Module 13: Baking with Yeast (Optional)
Module 5: Food Safety and Sanitation (Optional)
FOOD10
FOOD11
FOOD14
FOOD15
FOOD16
FOOD17
FOOD18
FOOD19
FOOD20
FOOD21
FOOD22
FOOD23
FOOD24
FOOD25
FOOD26
FOOD27
FOOD28
FOOD29**
FOOD30**
Minimum
Food Studies 30
Module 10: Canada’s Food Guide and Beyond (Core)
Module 11: Food Through the Life Cycle (Optional)
Module 14: Keep it Cold (Core)
Module 15: Protein Foods (Core)
Module 16: Make Mine Quick and Healthy (Optional)
Module 17: The Science of Nutrition (Core)
Module 18: The Canadian Food Mosaic (Core)
Module 19: International Cuisine (Optional)
Module 20: The World of Soups (Optional)
Module 21: Sauces (Optional)
Module 22: Creative Baking (Optional)
Module 23: Entertaining with Food (Optional)
Module 24: Foods for Special Occasions (Optional)
Module 25: Food Preservation (Optional)
Module 26: Food Additives (Core)
Module 27: Current Food Issues (Core)
Module 28: Exploring Careers (Core)
Module 29: Work Study Preparation and Follow-up Activities
(Optional)
Module 30: Work Study (Optional)
Minimum
Suggested Time
(hours)
8-10
8-10
10-15
10-15
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-10
5-8
5-8
6-8
100 hours
6-8
5-6
5-10
10-15
6-8
12-15
5-10
5-10
5-6
5-6
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-8
4-5
5-8
5-6
5-10
25-50
100 hours
*See the Tourism, Hospitality, and Entrepreneurship A30, B30 Curriculum Guidelines online at
www.sasked.gov.sk.ca.
**Work Study Guidelines are found in the PAA Handbook.
6
Core and Optional Modules
Module 1: Kitchen Basics (Core)
Suggested time: 8-10 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To apply independent learning skills in the preparation of nutritious foods.
• To be aware of and practise environmental protection through conservation and recycling.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objective
• To practise cooperation and teamwork when working in groups. (PSVS)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application:
One suggestion for the lab to theory ratio is 2-3 hours of cooking to 3
hours of class theory. How time is used may depend on timetabling,
budgets, class size, equipment, etc.
Lab suggestions for the two introductory units (Modules 1 and 2)
include making: puffed wheat cake, bannock, pancakes/waffles,
muffins, apple/rhubarb crisp, cinnamon rolls, biscuits, cookies.
Assessment and evaluation criteria include some or all of the
following: interpreting and following recipes, correct use of
equipment and tools, accurate measurement, cooperation, sharing
tasks, responsible behaviour, proper cleanup. Teacher, group, and
self-evaluation may be used for evaluating cooking labs and other
class activities. Evaluate the nutritional values of the foods
prepared, including the food group(s).
One suggestion for varying cooking groups is to use pictures made
into jigsaw puzzles. Using one picture per group, cut each into as
many pieces as there will be students in that group. Distribute
puzzle pieces. Students will create their groups as they complete
their pictures.
It may be necessary to review Learning Objectives 1.1 and 1.2 at the
beginning of each class or module.
Throughout the semester, collect and use news clippings on current
food issues (e.g., nutrition, biotechnology, agriculture, etc.).
Students may assist with this.
7
Learning Objectives
1.1
To examine the steps involved
in food preparation and to
establish guidelines for
working together in class.
(COM, PSVS)
Notes
Prepare a list of steps that are part of preparing to cook. Include
washing hands, reading and understanding recipes, adjusting oven
racks, preheating ovens, preparing pans, assembling and measuring
ingredients, combining ingredients, cooking, cleaning up, and
evaluating.
As a class, identify the guidelines for working together as a team.
Include sharing of tasks as well as considerate and cooperative
behaviour. Design a schedule for working together.
Bulletin board idea: “Good Cooks Don’t Skip Steps!”
1.2
To develop guidelines for
serving and eating food in the
classroom.
Brainstorm a list of appropriate guidelines or behaviours for serving
and eating food.
Discuss the importance of table manners and which are appropriate
for the following: a family setting, a business setting, a meal with
friends, and a meal in the foods lab.
Outline a set of guidelines for table setting.
Draw diagrams and/or practise different table settings.
Design some cartoons of Do’s and Don’ts of table manners.
1.3
To understand and evaluate
the information provided in a
recipe. (CCT)
Examine the information given in a recipe. Look at the list of
ingredients, instructions, cooking information, yield, equipment
needed, skills necessary. Determine if the recipe suits your needs.
Bring a family recipe from home. Analyze to determine if all recipe
information is included.
8
Learning Objectives
1.4
To become familiar with the
tools of measurement and how
to measure accurately. (NUM)
Notes
Identify dry, liquid, and small measures and the sizes of each.
Demonstrate the proper techniques for measuring ingredients.
Discuss metric vs. imperial measures.
Examine the measurement units comparing weight, mass, volume,
temperature, and distance in the metric and imperial systems.
Determine why it is important to develop an understanding of both
the metric and the imperial systems of measurement.
Discuss the importance of accurate measurement in baking. Find
recipes where accuracy of measuring is important and where it is
not as important. Explain reasons for the choices.
Measure flour before and after sifting. Note any differences.
Measure solid fat using different methods. Measure liquid or dry
ingredients using both wet and dry measures for each.
Practise reducing and increasing the size of recipes.
1.5
To examine, identify and use
correctly a variety of kitchen
tools and equipment.
Make a list of common kitchen tools and equipment. Discuss factors
that determine whether tools are essential or nonessential.
Give examples of how to use kitchen equipment correctly. Role play
the correct use.
Equip a new kitchen with a limit of 30 pieces. Explain the choices.
Have students list the tools and equipment that are absolutely
essential, if they were living independently of their
parents/guardians.
1.6
To recognize quality features in This particular learning objective might be omitted if there is a
cookware and food preparation shortage of time and/or it is discussed in another class.
tools. (COM)
List and evaluate factors that should be considered when buying
equipment: brand, energy use (energy guides), uses, materials used,
construction, durability, care, storage, price, special features, cost,
and consumer testing.
Discuss consumer warranties and guarantees and UL and CSA
symbols.
Discuss the importance of operating and caring for equipment
properly.
Choose a piece of equipment to be purchased. Have students apply
their knowledge in making their decisions.
9
Learning Objectives
1.7
To create an awareness of the
issues involved in conserving
and recycling. (PSVS)
Notes
Discuss the issues involved in conserving and why it is important.
Discuss the amount of the world’s resources used by Canadians
today. Talk about garbage and waste disposal.
Recognize and draw the recycling symbol.
Identify the three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle). Have students list
some ways in which these can be done. Why is “reduce” first
priority? What are other “Rs” for conservation?
1.8
To recognize that it is
everyone’s responsibility to
adopt conservation as part of
his/her lifestyle.
List ways in which each individual can conserve energy and water
in the foods lab and at home.
Learn how to cut down on food waste.
Investigate the recycling programs that are part of your community.
Encourage recycling at home. Suggest ways to reduce the use of
disposable items and to reuse household items.
Create a 30 second radio commercial promoting any of the 3 main
Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle).
1.9
To apply knowledge. (IL)
Home cooking assignment: choose one of the foods made in the lab
or one similar to it and prepare it at home.
Make puffed wheat cake, muffins, or cinnamon rolls and sell them to
students in the school.
1.10 To evaluate for understanding
of knowledge/concepts in
“Kitchen Basics.”
Continuous assessments make use of assignments, lab work, and
the home cooking lab suggested in this module.
Design and administer an exam.
Students may assess their cooking group confidentially before or
during the final exam.
The sum of these assessments yields the student’s value/worth for
the module.
10
Module 2: Kitchen and Food Safety (Core)
Suggested time: 8-10 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To understand and practise safety in the preparation and storage of food.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To follow safe procedures when working with equipment and food in the kitchen. (CCT, PSVS)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
2.1
To understand food safety.
Notes
Explain what is meant by the terms food safety, food borne illness,
food poisoning, food infection, food intoxication, and pathogens.
Describe the symptoms of food poisoning. (COM)
Discuss food contamination, how it occurs, and how to tell if food is
spoiled.
2.2
To identify food-borne illnesses. List and explain some of the common bacteria that contaminate
food: Clostridium botulinum (botulism), Staphylococcus aureus
(staph), Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, E coli 015:H7,
Camplobacter, Listeria.
2.3
To examine the conditions
necessary for food-borne
illnesses to occur.
Factors include: temperature, time, acidity (pH), moisture, a food
source, poor personal hygiene, and poor sanitation.
Define what is known as the Danger Zone.
Explain the importance of proper food storage to prevent food
poisoning. Outline food storage principles and the different ways
that food can be stored (e.g., dried, frozen, refrigerated, closed
containers, etc.).
2.4
To learn how to prevent food
poisoning.
Discuss the importance of the following factors in any food
preparation area: sanitation, storage, proper cooking, thawing
foods, contamination (spreading germs and cross-contamination),
and personal hygiene. Assign a research project on one aspect of
food sanitation. (CCT)
Rule: “When in doubt, throw it out!”
Discuss the role of health inspectors. Make a list of items to look for
if you were a local health inspector.
Make a poster on “Prevention of Food Poisoning” showing some of
the ways to promote sanitation in the kitchen. Make a fridge poster
for food safety.
11
Learning Objectives
2.5
To identify and practise safe
work habits that may prevent
accidents in the kitchen.
(PSVS)
Notes
Identify safe work practices in the kitchen. Discuss ways to work
safely to prevent accidents. Topics to include are preventing cuts,
falls, burns, fires and poisoning, and using electricity wisely.
Develop a checklist for identifying kitchen hazards at school and at
home.
Examine the WHIMIS symbols on household products.
Write a public service announcement focusing on a specific safety
topic.
2.6
To develop first aid principles
for kitchen safety. (IL)
Identify the poison control centre in your community.
Learn some basic first-aid principles including how to deal with
burns and scalds, bleeding, poisoning, eye injuries, and choking.
Role play what to do for cuts, burns, choking, falls, etc.
12
Module 3: Baking Basics (Core)
Suggested time: 10-15 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To apply independent learning skills in the preparation of nutritious foods.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To understand and use the vocabulary related to diet, food, and food preparation. (COM)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application:
Choices for food labs will depend on what was done in Modules 1 and
2. Suggestions include making: muffins, biscuits, cheese biscuits,
cookies, carrot cake, quick bread loaves, upside down cake, fruit flan.
During the lab work, students and teacher will continue to evaluate
work based on the list of ideas outlined in Learning Objective 1.2.
Use jigsaw groups to teach any of the learning objectives in this
module. Students become experts on one topic and then return home
to their groups and teach the concept. Evaluate what students know
about their topics by using a jeopardy game format.
3.1
To identify the ingredients used
in flour mixtures and to analyze
their role in baked products.
(COM)
List the ingredients common in flour mixtures. Explain the function
of flour, fats, sugars, eggs, liquids, leavening agents, and flavouring
agents in baked products. It is important to understand the role of
ingredients for successful baking.
3.2
To analyze the different types
of flour available today.
Discuss the different types of flour (all purpose, whole wheat, bread,
cake and pastry, self-rising, stone-ground, etc.) available in the
supermarket. Evaluate each kind of flour in terms of nutrition,
price, and uses in food products.
Explore the factors involved in the selection of flour for baked
products.
3.3
To understand the role of
leavening agents in baked
products. (CCT)
Define leavening and leavening agents. List the types of leavening
agents (baking powder, baking soda, egg, yeast) and the gases that
they produce (air, steam, carbon dioxide). Explain the chemical
reaction that occurs causing products to rise. Give examples of uses
in baking.
Design an experiment to show the action of leavening agents. This
can be done using test tubes and balloons with different leavening
agents in each.
13
Learning Objectives
3.4
To explore the function of
gluten in baking. (COM)
Notes
Define gluten and discuss its importance in flour mixtures.
List the factors that affect the development of gluten (types of flours,
other ingredients). Determine when it is desirable to develop gluten
and when it is not.
Do a gluten ball experiment to show the effect of using different
types of flours.
Explain why hard spring wheat grown in Saskatchewan is an
excellent source of gluten desired by pasta manufacturers. Name
places in Saskatchewan where pasta is made. What is a gluten
allergy?
3.5
To examine the different types
of flour mixtures.
Make a chart that names the four types of flour mixtures (pour
batter, drop batter, soft dough, stiff dough), their proportion of flour
to liquid, examples of each, and mixing techniques that are common
to each.
3.6
To differentiate between quick
breads and yeast breads.
Discuss the difference between quick breads and yeast breads in
terms of mixing, leavening, and preparation time.
Name three nutrients that may be found in quick breads.
3.7
To recognize the terms used in
baking. (COM)
Identify mixing, cutting, and cooking terminology. List and explain
terms such as stir, cream, bake, beat, combine, whip, knead, cut-in
etc. Start with these basic terms and then add to the list as more
cooking is done.
Explain that it is important to understand; practise specific
techniques for successful baking.
Select and demonstrate different methods of combining ingredients
or preparation techniques. Follow various recipes to demonstrate.
3.8
To identify the basic methods of Explain the three basic methods of mixing quick breads: blending,
cutting, creaming. Give examples of where each is used (e.g.,
combining ingredients in
making muffins, biscuits, fruit loaves).
preparing flour mixtures.
3.9
To discuss and apply
techniques that will result in
successful baking.
Stress the importance of accurate measurement, testing for
doneness, and using correct mixing techniques, tools, pans, oven
temperature, and position in the oven.
Develop a scorecard for evaluating baked goods.
14
Learning Objectives
3.10 To identify the role of flour
mixtures in the Canadian diet.
Notes
Discuss the role of flour mixtures in the diet in terms of Canada’s
Food Guide. Explain the importance of making healthy choices.
List different kinds of ethnic breads/baking prepared in Canada by
different cultural groups.
3.11 To evaluate concepts/
knowledge in “Baking Basics.”
Use continuous assessment.
Give a home cooking assignment of a baked product or an acceptable
substitute related to the work in this module.
Plan a field trip to a local grocery store and have students list and
price basic ingredients used in baking (e.g., types of flours, leavening
agents).
Design and administer an exam.
3.12 To demonstrate understanding
of concepts and knowledge of
“Baking Basics.” (COM, CCT,
NUM)
Sell cookies at breaks to students in the school.
Become involved in organizing and preparing baked items/beverages
at a school events such as a school dance, fashion show, athletic
event, etc.
Find a recipe for each of the different methods of mixing and prepare
the items in the lab.
Using a chart, summarize the information on flour mixtures.
Include the four types of flour mixture, leavening agents used, the
three methods of mixing, types of flour, and uses.
15
Module 4: Food and Health (Core)
Suggested time: 10-15 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To understand the importance of the science of nutrition.
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
• To better understand the social and cultural aspects of food for all people.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To gain the knowledge and develop the skills required to make appropriate food choices and to become
discriminating consumers. (CCT)
• To explore the relationships between culture and the social and geographic influences on food customs.
(PSVS)
• To interpret data and tables for nutritional values of foods. (NUM)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Notes
Preamble.
Ideas for practical application. Lab suggestions for this module
include:
• breakfast foods
• pizza buns
• tuna burgers
• soups
• chicken fajitas
• pizza, tacos, burritos that include ingredients from the four food
groups
4.1
Survey students to determine their favourite foods and discuss
reasons for their choices. (PSVS)
To identify the factors that
influence food habits and the
reasons for eating. (CCT, COM)
Examine the factors that influence our food choices such as religion,
culture, history, region or geography, lifestyle, social needs, physical
needs, emotional needs, advertising, special occasions, nutrition,
trends, and technology.
Explain the reasons for differences in food customs among various
cultures of the world.
Interview a parent, relative, or friend to learn about her or his
cultural heritage and the role of traditional foods in regular meals
and on special occasions.
4.2
To be aware of the influences
that determine students’ food
habits.
Have students give personal examples for each of the factors listed
above and discuss how these factors influence the students’ food
choices.
Keep track of foods eaten for several days. Discuss types of foods
chosen, when they were eaten, and why they were chosen.
16
Learning Objectives
4.3
To understand and analyze
Canada’s Food Guide. (CCT)
Notes
Discuss the purpose of Canada’s Food Guide. Identify the four food
groups, the number of servings required daily, what constitutes a
serving, age specification for milk, and the “extra” category.
Explain why there is a range of servings for the food groups.
Stress variety and moderation and how all food customs can fit into
the four food groups.
Look at why the food guide is designed in a rainbow and why whole
grain cereals, lower fat choices, and dark coloured foods are
recommended.
Compare the American Food Guide Pyramid to Canada’s Food
Guide.
Make posters promoting Canada’s Food Guide, nutritious food
choices, or healthy lifestyles.
4.4
To understand the relationship
between nutrients and good
health.
Look at each food group and identify the nutrients that are key in
each.
List the 6 nutrient groups and identify major functions of each.
Discuss how all food groups are necessary for a healthy diet.
Define what is meant by nutrient density and give examples of high
nutrient density and low nutrient density foods.
Have a prepared student handout, classroom chart, poster, and/or
bulletin board display to illustrate nutrients found in the various
food groups. (NUM)
17
Learning Objectives
4.5
To analyze what is meant by
healthy eating. (COM, CCT)
Notes
Identify guidelines to use when evaluating personal eating habits.
Discuss the importance of Canada’s Food Guide requirements for
each food group and the recommended daily allowances (RDA) of
nutrients. RDA is American (recommended dietary allowance) and
appears on many of our food products. RDI is Canadian and stands
for the recommended daily intake. Examine the role of RDI and
RDA. Explain why moderate consumption of fat, sodium, sugar,
and carbohydrates is important.
Look at the choices of foods made at home and away from home and
evaluate in terms of nutrition. Identify four ways to make healthy
food choices when eating out and eating at home.
Explore guidelines for evaluating nutritional information and list
sources of reliable information.
Analyze and evaluate some of the foods available in the school
cafeteria, school lunches, fast food outlets, etc. Evaluate the
amount of fat, sugar and salt in each. Suggest some alternative
nutritional foods that could be offered that would be acceptable.
Food Diary: have students keep track of what they eat for three
days. Categorize into Canada’s Food Guide groups. Evaluate the
diets and list ways students’ diet may be improved. Evaluate each
other’s diet, family member’s diets, teacher’s diet, etc.
If a computer program is available, introduce this as a tool for
evaluating diets for nutritional value. (TL)
4.6
To examine the relationship
between wellness and food.
Explain how food affects physical health. Discuss why it is
important to eat right and make healthy lifestyle choices.
Make a small change in your diet for a few days (e.g., drinking more
water, decreasing junk food). Have students analyze how they feel.
Brainstorm and explain a list of factors that contribute to a healthy
lifestyle. Factors include nutrition, physical fitness, stress
management, avoiding harmful substances, proper rest, etc.
4.7
To understand the importance
of breakfast.
Do a breakfast survey in your school. Include reasons why
breakfast was/was not eaten. Evaluate and publish results.
List foods that could be part of a nutritious start to the day.
Discuss the importance of breakfast.
Plan some healthy breakfast meals and prepare some of the foods.
18
Learning Objectives
4.8
To incorporate knowledge of
nutrition to make healthy food
choices. (COM, CCT)
Notes
Have students work in pairs to plan a day’s meals for a teenager
with their lifestyle.
Examine differences in diets for any or all of the following: a young
woman active in gymnastics, a young man active in football, a
young woman who wishes to lose 15 pounds, etc.
Choose one way to improve one’s diet. Put it into practice for one
week. Evaluate the diet and the results at the end of the week.
Plan nutritious bag lunches for a younger brother or sister for three
days. For example, plan for a 12 year old brother who dislikes
vegetables and a six year old sister who is a picky eater but likes
finger foods.
4.9
To demonstrate understanding
of concepts/knowledge in this
module.
Use continuous assessment.
Collect 8-10 ads for a TV/Magazine Food Ad assignment.
Prepare a cookbook of cultural and favourite foods for the class.
Write an essay on why you need nutrients. How can a knowledge of
nutrition help you?
Identify and discuss careers that involve nutrition and health.
Questions to answer may include:
• what is the ad telling you?
• what food groups are being represented?
• is the food nutritious?
• would you buy it? why or why not?
19
Module 5: Grains (Core)
Suggested time: 5-10 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To appreciate the importance of Canada’s Food Guide for the development of an individual’s health and
wellness.
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To understand and use the vocabulary related to diet, food, and food preparation. (COM)
• To gain the knowledge and develop the skills required to make appropriate food choices and to become
discriminating consumers. (CCT, IL)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Three to four labs are suggested for preparing cereal grains and their
products. Ideas include stir fried rice, rice or pasta Primavera, pasta
parmesan, or a traditional or ethnic food. Prepare different types of
pasta with the same sauce. Assess using specified criteria.
5.1
To explore various kinds of
grains used for food. (COM)
Define the term grain and list different kinds of grains used for food.
Explain their importance as a major source of carbohydrates.
Display various grains.
Identify cereal crops and other grains grown in Saskatchewan.
Consult with the Biology 20 teacher.
5.2
To examine the importance of
grains in diets throughout the
world today and in the past.
Cereal grains or grasses are a major food. They can be processed into
many food products that play a major role in our diets. Cereal
grasses were harvested and eaten in prehistoric times. Which ones?
Explain why bread is called the “staff of life.”
Examine how nearly all cultures use cereals as a major part of their
diet. List examples.
Have students interview a person from another culture about the
grain products they use. Provide for class reporting.
List different kinds of ethnic breads and cereals.
Collect articles from magazines or newspapers discussing local,
national, and international cereal grains and products.
20
Learning Objectives
5.3
To recognize and examine the
foods that belong to the Bread
and Cereal group. (COM, CCT)
Notes
Students will list foods that are made from various grains. List
factors that determine their nutritional value. Identify the foods
eaten yesterday that are part of the Bread and Cereal group.
Discuss the requirements of Canada’s Food Guide for Bread and
Cereal and how a variety of cereal grains can become a part of the
diet.
Visit a store and ask students to list the varieties of grain products
that they find (e.g., different kinds or forms of pasta, rice, breakfast
cereals, flour, etc.).
Discuss the role of fiber and complex carbohydrates in the diet.
5.4
To analyze the three different
parts of a cereal grain.
Identify the bran, germ, endosperm of a grain and discuss the
nutrient value of each. Draw a diagram of a cereal grain or seed.
Explain why the germ is removed and sold separately (except for
stone-ground).
Examine a cereal grain under a microscope or hands lens and
identify the parts.
5.5
To understand the terminology
associated with grains. (COM)
Define and give examples for the following cereal grain terms:
refined, whole grain, enriched, fortified, baby cereals, ready-to-eat,
converted, instant.
Discuss why flour and flour products are enriched and why that
practice is compulsory in Canada. (CCT)
5.6
To develop guidelines for the
selection and storage of cereal
grain products.
Factors to consider when buying grain products are: quantity,
labels, nutrition, price, list of ingredients, enriched or fortified,
refined or whole grain, form (cooked or ready-to-eat).
Make a list of rules for storing cereal grains.
5.7
To examine information
available on cereal packages.
(COM, CCT)
Look at different kinds of breakfast cereals available and evaluate
the information on the labels. Calculate the cost per serving.
Explain how to tell if a cereal is whole grain or refined.
Examine what marketing tools are used to influence children’s
choices of cereals.
21
Learning Objectives
Notes
5.8
To identify guidelines for
preparing grain products.
List general guidelines for cooking grain products including rice and
pasta. Compare different types of rice and pasta products before and
after cooking.
5.9
To visualize new ideas for using Plan five school lunch menus that incorporate different types of
grains in the diet and plan for
grain products. Include foods from each food group.
the preparation of a new grain
recipe in class. (CCT, IL)
List ways to use a variety of grain products in daily meals.
Suggest creative ways to prepare cereal products.
22
Module 6: Vegetables and Fruits (Core)
Suggested time: 5-10 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To appreciate the importance of Canada’s Food Guide for the development of an individual’s health and
wellness.
• To understand the importance of the science of nutrition.
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To practise cooperation and teamwork when working in groups. (PSVS)
• To interpret data and tables for nutritional values of foods. (NUM)
• To understand how specific foods contribute to a healthy diet. (COM)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Lab ideas for preparing fruits and vegetables include a vegetable or
fruit buffet, vegetable stir fry, potato skins, perogies, fruits and/or
vegetables with various dips, fruit or vegetable salads, fruit or
vegetarian pizza.
6.1
To identify the foods that are
part of the Fruit and Vegetable
group. (COM)
Have the students identify the fruits and vegetables that they eat.
List common fruits and vegetables grown in Saskatchewan. List
examples of ethnic varieties available in the community and in
Saskatchewan.
6.2
To recognize the number and
sizes of daily servings required
in the diet.
Review Canada’s Food Guide requirements for this group.
To understand the importance
of the Vegetable and Fruit
group.
Fruits and vegetables are flavourful, colourful, nutritious, easy to
prepare, and often low in cost.
6.3
Discuss the required daily servings of fruits and vegetables and the
size or amount that makes up one serving. Explain why there is a
range of servings recommended and why certain colours and citrus
fruits are singled out as being important. (NUM)
Discuss new terminology such as functional foods, antioxidants,
nutraceuticals, and how the terms relate to vegetables and fruits.
Explain why fruits and vegetables are called “convenience foods.”
Identify the key nutrients found in this food group and the major
functions of the nutrients. Note that most of the foods from this
group are fat-free.
Examine the reasons for likes and dislikes of some vegetables. List
ways to make vegetables more appealing.
List ways a person can increase vegetables and fruits in his/her
diets.
23
Learning Objectives
6.4
To understand the
classifications used for
vegetables and fruits. (COM)
Notes
Make a list of fruit and vegetable classifications, examples for each,
and their nutrient contributions. Include wild fruits found in
Saskatchewan in these categories. Classifications of fruits include:
berries, citrus, tree, vine, and tropical. Classifications of vegetables
include: root, bulb, leaves, flower, seed, stem/stalk, and fruit.
Bring examples of fruits and vegetables to class and ask the
students to identify and classify them into groups. Students may
prepare a fruit salad and vegetables with dip to sample.
6.5
To consider criteria for
selecting and buying quality
fruits and vegetables. (CCT)
Discuss the forms in which fruits and vegetables can be purchased,
signs of quality to look for, grading, and packaging.
6.6
To consider terms associated
with storing fruits and
vegetables.
Discuss the following terms related to storage: cool, dry, unwashed,
airtight, packaged, crispers, cool temperatures.
6.7
To examine proper storage
methods for the different forms
and types of fruits and
vegetables.
List different varieties and forms of fruits and vegetables and
describe how each should be stored.
6.8
To compare different methods
of preparing fruits and
vegetables. (CCT)
List guidelines for preparing, cooking, and serving fruits and
vegetables. Examine whether to cook or not to cook and the effects
that peeling and cutting fruits and vegetables have on nutritional
value.
Evaluate the effects of different methods of cooking on colour,
texture, appearance, and nutrient retention of fruits and vegetables.
Suggest specific ways to serve fruits and vegetables.
6.9
24
To discover creative ways of
using and preparing fruits and
vegetables and to apply some of
these ideas in class/home.
(CCT, IL)
Find a recipe for preparing a favourite fruit or vegetable. Students
may prepare this at home. Collect all recipes from the class and
make a cookbook.
Develop an infomercial for nutritious ways to serve fruits and
vegetables.
Module 7: Milk and Dairy Products (Core)
Suggested time 5-10 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To understand the importance of the science of nutrition.
• To understand and practise safety in the preparation and storage of food.
• To apply independent learning skills in the preparation of nutritious foods.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To make necessary calculations when selecting, purchasing, preparing, and storing food. (NUM, IL)
• To understand how specific foods contribute to a healthy diet. (COM)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Lab ideas for applying knowledge and understanding of milk and
milk products include: white or cheese sauce with a vegetable (could
be combined with the fruit/vegetable lab), cream soup, puddings, dips
using various dairy products, macaroni and cheese.
Prepare dips made with sour cream (light and regular), fat-free sour
cream, yogurt and blended cottage cheese. Have a taste panel
compare and note differences.
Include milk in combination with other foods such as Orange Julius,
and other milk/fruit juice drinks, and French toast.
Taste test various types of cheeses. Compare low-fat varieties with
regular.
7.1
To identify the foods from the
Milk and Dairy food group.
(COM)
Brainstorm a list of foods that fit into this group. Explain why sour
cream, butter, margarine, and cream are not considered servings of
milk even though they are dairy products.
7.2
To discuss the requirements
for the Milk and Dairy food
group.
Explain the numbers of servings required for different age categories
and sizes of servings required for one serving for different dairy
foods.
7.3
To understand the
contributions of milk and milk
products to the diet.
Some people believe that adults do not require milk. This idea may
be discussed/researched.
Discuss the disease osteoporosis, its causes, and how individuals can
help prevent it.
Explain why milk is called the “almost perfect food.”
Identify the key nutrients in milk and milk products
especially calcium, Vitamins A, B, D, and complete protein.
25
Learning Objectives
Notes
7.4
To investigate milk allergies
and milk intolerance.
Explain the term lactose intolerance. Consider the milk substitutes
available and other sources of calcium.
7.5
To understand terminology
associated with milk and dairy
foods.
Define these terms: pasteurized, homogenized, fortified,
reconstituted, butterfat, frozen dairy products.
7.6
To recognize the various types Discuss the various types of milk products: 1%, 2%, skim, whole,
of milk and dairy products and buttermilk, evaporated, condensed, powder, UHT, fresh, sweet, sour.
to understand their nutritional
Examine the differences between milk and cheese.
differences. (COM, CCT)
List and explain the different types of creams and cheeses.
In chart form, list the forms of milk and milk products, descriptions
of them, and their nutritional differences. Pay particular attention
to fat content.
Plan a field trip to a local grocery store. Add the price per unit to the
chart in the activity above.
7.7
To examine guidelines for
heating milk.
Define curdling, scald, casein, boil-over, scorching.
List guidelines for cooking with milk.
7.8
To examine ways to use milk
products in food preparation.
Suggest ways of using fresh milk, dried skim milk, yogurt,
buttermilk, and fat-free sour cream in different recipes.
Discuss how to reduce fat levels in recipes by substituting milk
ingredients with a lower fat content.
7.9
To use the information on milk
product labels when selecting
and buying foods. (IL)
Explain how to use the information on a carton of milk and other
milk products. Look at the date, butterfat content, addition of
Vitamins A and D, etc.
Observe the different types of containers used for fluid milk.
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each. Are waxed
cartons the best containers for holding fresh milk?
26
Learning Objectives
7.10
To describe the proper storage
for milk and various dairy
products.
Notes
Milk is a perishable food and must be properly stored. List ways to
store milk.
State the effect sunlight has on riboflavin and the effect that
ultraviolet light has on Vitamin A.
7.11
Design a menu for a family for Calculate the cost of providing a variety of milk products for your
a week that includes a variety family for a week. (NUM)
of milk and dairy foods. (COM,
CCT)
27
Module 8: Eggs (Core)
Suggested time: 5-10 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To appreciate the importance of Canada’s Food Guide for the development of an individual’s health and
wellness.
• To understand and practise safety in the preparation and storage of food.
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To gain the knowledge and develop the skills required to make appropriate food choices and to become
discriminating consumers. (CCT, IL)
• To understand how specific foods contribute to a healthy diet. (COM)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Lab suggestions: omelets, deviled eggs, meringue type of cookie,
French toast, breakfast tortillas (scrambled eggs wrapped in a
tortilla), egg burgers, baked eggs, egg drop soup, egg noodles, and
other egg dishes.
8.1
To discuss the importance and
Give examples of different ways to prepare and serve eggs.
versatility of eggs in the diet and
their role as a traditional
Discuss personal preferences for various ways of egg preparation.
breakfast food. (COM)
Suggest ways eggs can be disguised for people who dislike them.
Discuss the role eggs play in breakfast menus.
List ways that eggs may be used in other simple meals.
8.2
To identify the role of eggs in the Explain why eggs are considered to be a meat alternative.
Canada Food Guide and the key
nutrients in eggs.
Identify the nutrients contained in eggs. Review the functions of
these nutrients.
8.3
To examine the role of
cholesterol in our diets and the
implications for good health.
Discuss the controversy regarding cholesterol and the role eggs play
in this debate. Consider the factors that determine cholesterol in
our bodies. (CCT)
Discuss cholesterol-free egg products.
28
Learning Objectives
8.4
To become familiar with the
structure of an egg and identify
each part.
Notes
Draw and label the egg including the shell. Indicate nutrients in
each part.
Break an egg onto a plate and examine its parts.
Immerse a whole egg in vinegar for several days. Record the
observations. Discuss.
8.5
To understand the grading of
eggs.
The inspection of eggs is monitored by Agriculture Canada. The
term “CANADA” indicates that foods have been inspected to make
sure they are safe and healthy for human consumption.
Describe the standards for grading eggs and the process of candling.
List the grades and sizes in which eggs can be purchased and look
at the factors that determine grades and sizes.
Analyze information that is on egg cartons. (CCT)
8.6
To understand the factors
involved in buying and storing
eggs.
Outline guidelines for purchasing and storing eggs.
Discuss salmonella and why cracked eggs should not be bought or
used. Explain why eggs should always be cooked before eating.
Explain why pasteurized egg products must be used for making
eggnog and other raw egg products.
Consider why people might choose to buy certain egg sizes and
grades.
8.7
To examine the role of eggs in
our foods. (COM)
List the effects eggs have on foods and state examples of
recipes/foods to illustrate each. Eggs are used for thickening,
leavening, emulsifying, binding, coating, clarifying, and
crystallizing foods.
8.8
To identify guidelines for cooking Identify the guidelines for successful egg cookery. Consider
eggs. (NUM, TL)
temperature, overcooking, microwaving, and coagulation of eggs.
List the various methods of egg preparation: poaching, frying,
boiling, etc.
29
Module 9: Snacks (Core)
Suggested time: 5-10 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To understand the importance of the science of nutrition.
• To apply independent learning skills in the preparation of nutritious foods.
• To develop the desire and ability to access knowledge about issues and obtain factual information before
forming opinions about food-related issues.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To understand how specific foods contribute to a healthy diet. (COM)
• To interpret data and tables for nutritional values of foods. (NUM)
• To gain the knowledge and develop the skills required to make appropriate food choices and to become
discriminating consumers. (CCT, PSVS)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Lab suggestions: nachos, pizza, quesadillas, snack mix, bean
spread, stuffed pitas, some simple appetizers. Choose two.
.
Choose a snack you can make, eat, and clean-up in class time.
Rank and compare each group’s snacks for nutritional value, Food
Group(s) used, low fat/salt content. Present an award for first,
second, and third placing etc. Compare homemade type appetizers
with purchased convenience types.
9.1
To understand what constitutes
a snack. (COM)
Brainstorm foods eaten as snacks. Categorize these into groups of
Canada’s Food Guide.
As a class, decide on a definition for the word “snack.” Consider
reasons why we snack and the types of foods that can be called
snack foods. Ask students to create a list of favourite snack foods.
9.2
To investigate the availability of
ready-to-eat snack foods.
List a variety of places where snack foods can be obtained.
List foods available in vending machines in school and evaluate
them for nutritional value. Make some generalizations about the
quality of these snack foods and the role they play in a diet.
9.3
30
To analyze snacking habits for a
select group. (CCT, NUM )
Keep track of snacks eaten for a specific time (e.g., 3-5 days) and
then evaluate the nutritional contribution of snack foods to the diet.
Considering an individual’s daily diet, calculate the percentage of
snack foods. Determine which snacks are of benefit to the body and
which are not. Decide how the process of choosing snacks may be
improved.
Learning Objectives
Notes
9.4
To examine the positive and
negative effects of snacks on
nutrition and wellness.
Examine how snacks fit into our daily eating plan.
Outline the benefits and dangers of snacking.
9.5
To discuss how choosing snacks
wisely may contribute to a
healthy eating plan.
Brainstorm some snacking strategy guidelines such as making
careful decisions when you buy, using information on food labels,
analyzing fat, sodium and sugar levels, considering food groups
involved, etc.
List four nutritious snacks for each of the food groups.
9.6
To develop a plan for healthy
snacking. (CCT, IL)
Have students work in pairs to list some foods that would fit the
definition of a snack and analyze them nutritionally by reading
labels and using nutrient tables or a computer program.
Eat healthy snacks for a week. Apply knowledge to ensure that
choices are appropriate. Evaluate the results.
List four seasonings you could use in making a vegetable dip, a fruit
dip, or on popcorn (other than salt or butter).
Do some sample comparisons; e.g, Allan is considering a package of
unsalted peanuts or a peanut chocolate candy bar. Analyze which is
the most healthful choice and explain why. Look at the choices of
foods available in the school canteen or in vending machines; choose
several to compare and evaluate.
9.7
To evaluate the understanding
of concepts/knowledge in the
Learning About Foods modules.
(COM, CCT)
Give quizzes at the end of each of Modules 5-9.
Use continuous assessment of class work and activities.
Teacher and student evaluations of all lab/cooking activities should
be done.
31
Module 10: Canada’s Food Guide and Beyond (Core)
Suggested time: 6-8 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To appreciate the importance of Canada’s Food Guide for the development of an individual’s health and
wellness.
• To develop the desire and ability to access knowledge about issues and obtain factual information before
forming opinions about food-related issues.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To apply knowledge and skills when making independent decisions regarding food choices and
preparation. (IL, CCT)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical applications for Modules 10 and 11.
Plan and prepare foods that are high or low in specific nutrients.
Examples are: high in iron, low in salt; lower in fat, high in fiber;
etc.
Modify recipes, prepare the foods, and evaluate to achieve reduced
fat and increased fibre.
Plan and prepare some nutritious snack/appetizer-type foods.
Plan healthy meals based on Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy
Eating (available through your local health district office). Plan,
prepare, and evaluate examples of some of the foods.
Research, select, plan, prepare, and evaluate foods for one of the
special dietary needs groups or for one of the life cycle groups.
Prepare some nutritious snacks for children or a simple nutritious
meal for a child you are babysitting.
Plan a party with activities and food for a 4 year old, a 6 year old,
etc.
Plan, prepare, compare, and analyze a variety of high quality
nutritional foods. Evaluate foods prepared comparing them to
established nutritional guidelines.
32
Learning Objectives
10.1
To focus on how foods affect
one’s performance now and
one’s health in the future.
(CCT)
Notes
Identify characteristics of healthy foods. List examples of healthy
single foods and healthy food combinations.
Discuss the relationship between diet and health. Discuss how
good eating habits may be a benefit in the future.
List examples of how food can aid in physical, emotional, and
social well-being.
Choose at least one food from each food group and one “extra”
food. Using food labels, calculate the percentage of total calories
from fat, carbohydrates, and protein.
Analyze personal eating habits for one week using Canada’s Food
Guide. Recognize positive eating patterns and identify possible
areas for improvement.
Examine the importance of high fibre and low fat diets. List ways
to lower fat intake and increase fibre in the diet.
10.2
To examine the long term
effects of diet practices on
health and wellness. (IL,
PSVS)
Brainstorm various health problems related to diet. Discuss
topics of current health concerns relating to diet: anemia, blood
pressure (high and low), diabetes (hyperglycemia), low blood
sugar (hypoglycemia), ketosis, cholesterol and cardiovascular
disease, osteoporosis, cancer, food allergies and intolerances,
compulsive eating, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. Each
student or small group may be assigned to research and report on
one of these food-related health topics. Create a brochure giving
information on the topic. Use the library, public health personnel,
and the Internet for information.
10.3
To relate energy value of
foods to the body’s
requirements. (NUM)
Compare energy amounts required for activities and energy
amounts supplied by foods. Have students list routine activities
for three days and calculate the energy required. Record food
eaten and calculate the energy from the food. Compare results
and draw conclusions.
List some popular snack foods. Calculate the number of calories
in each. List other flavourful snack foods that have fewer
calories. Choose an activity and estimate the length of time
necessary to burn these calories.
List general guidelines for weight control. Explain how to
maintain weight, lose weight, and gain weight while following
Canada’s Food Guide.
Identify three ways to lose one pound per week by changes in
eating habits or amount of exercise; do the same to gain one
pound.
33
Learning Objectives
10.4
To create an awareness of
current weight management
programs and to evaluate
them. (CCT, IL, PSVS)
Notes
Collect information about various diets. Some examples are high
carbohydrate, low carbohydrate, high protein, vegetarian, low
calorie, liquid diet, meal replacements. Analyze and evaluate
nutritional implications. Survey magazines, media
advertisements, telephone yellow pages, and books for ideas.
Have students share their experiences with dieting, as well as the
results and implications of their experiences.
Define see-saw (yo-yo) dieting and its consequences.
Identify and evaluate examples of weight management programs.
10.5
To determine sources of
Evaluate advertising of nutritional food products. Outline
reliable nutrition information. guidelines to determine if information is reliable. Guidelines
(CCT)
could include questions such as:
• Who is doing the advertising?
• Are any misleading techniques being used?
• Is the whole story being told?
• Is it only implied that food is nutritious?
Brainstorm sources of nutrition information. Evaluate the
accuracy of this information. Ask questions about the author,
recognized degree, business/professional associations, qualified
scientist/professional, the group sponsoring the speaker or author.
List sources of reliable nutrition information. Examples are
Community Health Agencies, hospital dieticians, Dietetics
Associations, etc. Invite a professional nutritionist to discuss how
to evaluate nutrition information for validity.
34
Learning Objectives
10.6
Notes
To develop an understanding
of the process of digestion.
(COM, CCT)
Discuss how the body processes food in the three distinct but
continuous stages of digestion, absorption, and metabolism. Define
these three terms.
Note: This learning objective
is optional as some students
may study it in Biology.
Explain basal metabolism and discuss how the basal metabolic rate
(BMR) determines weight. Discuss the influence of dieting and
exercise on the BMR.
Locate or draw a diagram showing the process of digestion and
absorption. Identify and label body parts involved in the digestive
process.
Distinguish between chemical and mechanical digestion.
Discuss changes in the structure of carbohydrates, fats, and
proteins.
Give examples of and discuss the role of enzymes in digestion.
Describe the storage of excess energy as fat in the body.
Examine the role of water in the body. For two or three days try to
consume the required 8 glasses of water. Keep a diary of how you
felt.
Examine the role of fibre in digestion and in helping to prevent
diseases.
Demonstrate the principle of osmosis by recrisping wilted celery.
10.7
To define meal management
and to identify factors
involved in planning meals.
(COM)
Define the term “meal management.” List and discuss factors
involved in planning meals:
• Canada’s Food Guide and nutrition
• variety in the menu
• variety in colour, flavour, texture, shape, and size
• resources
• customs and traditions
• diet and health needs
• budget
• number of people being served.
35
10.8
Learning Objectives
Notes
To demonstrate the
importance of consumer skills
in the planning and selection
of foods for meal
management. (IL)
Using weekly grocery flyers, have students plan menus for one
week for their family. Make a shopping list, indicating the foods on
sale and the price of groceries for the family for one week. Evaluate
menus to determine if they are well-balanced and meet Canada’s
Food Guide requirements.
Evaluate coupons offered to promote buying certain foods and other
grocery items.
List some shopping tips for becoming a knowledgeable and wise
consumer.
Evaluate a variety of menus and discuss how to improve each.
36
Module 11: Food Through the Life Cycle (Optional)
Suggested time: 5-6 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To appreciate the importance of Canada’s Food Guide for the development of an individual’s health and
wellness.
• To be aware of career and employment opportunities related to diet, food, and food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objective
• To develop the ability to deal with special circumstances and concerns related to diet, food, and food
preparation. (CCT, IL)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Notes
Preamble.
Ideas for practical application: See Module 10.
11.1
Define the term life cycle. Outline the different stages and consider
special dietary needs. Stages may reflect a person’s age: infant,
toddler, child, teenager, adult, middle-age, senior. Stages may also
reflect special circumstances: student sharing accommodation,
pregnancy and nursing, person living alone, special dietary needs
(permanent or temporary).
To identify food needs for
different stages of the life
cycle. (COM, CCT)
Create a flow chart to demonstrate the special dietary needs during
the different stages of the life cycle.
Using the RDI/RDA (see Learning Objective 4.5), compare
nutritional requirements for different ages and genders. Explain
the reasons for the differences.
11.2
To identify and understand
the nutritional requirements
for special dietary needs.
Assign a project in which the student researches nutritional/dietary
requirements for one stage of the life cycle and one of the special
health problem groups. Plan a one-day menu for each including
appropriate foods to achieve optimum nutrition.
37
Learning Objectives
11.3
Notes
To examine the role of food and Interview several athletes in the school who are involved in
nutrients in athletic
various sports about their diet and training. Document
performance. (IL, NUM)
similarities and differences.
Analyze an athlete and a non-athlete's body size and
composition, activity level, and energy requirements. Compare
an athlete and a non-athlete's nutritional needs. Consider
protein, water, calcium, potassium, iron, carbohydrates, and fats.
Discuss nutritional needs during training, pre-event, and during
the event.
Relate Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating to achievement of
optimal nutrition. Plan meals to meet the athlete's energy
requirements and motivational needs with an appropriate
balance of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Include a training
diet for three days, a pre-competition meal eaten at home, and a
pre-competition meal eaten "on the road."
Evaluate nutrition information and misinformation directed at
the athlete.
11.4
To apply knowledge of special
dietary needs. (CCT, PSVS)
Adapt a family meal to incorporate the preparation of baby food.
Identify food or food-related activity that may help develop a
toddler's intellectual or motor development.
Enhance calcium and folic acid intake for a pregnant or nursing
woman.
Students may know people with special dietary requirements.
Students may arrange to interview them and evaluate their
dietary habits. Suggest improvements if necessary.
Encourage a senior, or a person eating alone, to improve his/her
eating habits.
Investigate the advantages of breast-feeding a baby.
Discuss the practice of using food to reward or punish a child.
Outline ways to encourage healthy eating habits in young
children.
38
Learning Objectives
Notes
Outline ways to improve teenagers’ diets while including foods
they enjoy.
Plan and prepare nutritious snacks for a daycare menu.
Have students prepare a lesson plan on nutrition to give to a
primary class on an area of their choice. If possible, have the
students teach the lesson to the primary class. Plan an activity to
reinforce what was taught.
Compare the nutrient requirements of a performing athlete,
sedentary teenager, and an officer worker who jogs; a pregnant
woman, a female athlete, and a sedentary female.
Prepare a chart showing the processed foods to avoid if you are
allergic to one of the following: eggs, peanuts, fish, gluten, milk,
etc.
Research and report on the fast-growing area of the use of
medicinal foods for “healing naturally.”
11.5
To identify and evaluate
community food/nutrition
programs.
Find out what kinds of food assistance programs your community
has for the elderly, children, or the hungry. Investigate how to
become involved.
Investigate the use of food banks, Meals on Wheels, and
community kitchens and the services they provide. Participate in
a field trip. Volunteer to work a few hours.
11.6
To explore careers in
community health. (IL)
Investigate careers in community health that relate to nutrition.
This is a good module for career discussion. Examples: a dietitian,
a public health nutritionist.
Invite a dietician from your health district as a guest speaker.
39
Module 12: Cakes and Pastries (Optional)
Suggested time: 5-8 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To apply independent learning skills in the preparation of nutritious foods.
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To understand and use the vocabulary related to diet, food, and food preparation. (COM)
• To make necessary calculations when selecting, purchasing, preparing, and storing food. (NUM)
• To practise cooperation and teamwork when working in groups. (PSVS)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Students should have the opportunity to demonstrate skills and
techniques involved in the preparation of selected cakes and
pastries.
Select and prepare a minimum of three of the following products:
shortened cake with frosting, foam cake, short crust pastry product
and filling, choux pastry with low calorie filling/topping, sweet or
savoury item with varied ethnic origins (e.g., baklava). Examples of
some recipes are fruit flan, wacky cake, chocolate chiffon cake,
orange sponge cake, apple pie, lemon meringue pie, sour cream
apple pie, chocolate pie, banana cream pie.
Have students bring a baby/toddler picture of themselves with one
of their birthday cakes. Display on a bulletin board.
Have a competition for the most attractive pie or cake, most
nutritious, most creative, etc.
40
12.1
Learning Objectives
Notes
To discuss the role of cakes
and pastries in Canadian
cuisine, considering nutrition
as well as cultural and social
traditions. (COM, CCT)
Examine the role of the Other Foods category in the daily diet.
Focus on the fact that these foods are mostly fats and/or sugars but
can be enjoyed as part of a healthful eating plan when eaten in
moderation.
Discuss ways to improve the nutrition of desserts with the addition
or deletion of selected ingredients.
List a variety of cakes and pastries that are student favourites.
Examine the cultural, family, and social traditions of each.
Discuss the use of cakes and pastries for social occasions, for
traditional occasions such as birthdays, and/or for cultural events.
List cakes and pastries that are from specific countries or cultures.
Check specialty cookbooks for ideas.
Select ethnic meals that use pastry as the base for the main course.
Analyze the fat and calorie content of the dish. Identify foods that
could accompany the dish to balance it nutritionally.
Select a Canadian dessert that uses a form of sugar as the primary
ingredient.
Using a table of nutrient values or a computer program, compare
the nutritional value of a variety of cakes and pastries with other
foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables or other desserts. Observe
in particular the calories (energy), fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, and
minerals.
12.2
To understand the function of
ingredients in making cakes
and pastries.
Identify the type of flour mixture for cakes and pastries.
List the ingredients used in cakes and pastries and note the
function of each.
Discuss the role gluten development plays in each.
12.3
To identify different types of
pastries and cakes.
Distinguish between the three types of cakes: (1) butter or
shortened, (2) foam or sponge, and (3) chiffon.
Explain the different types of pastries: (1) short crust, (2) cream
puffs or choux pastry, and (3) puff pastry.
List various ways in which pastries and cakes may be used in daily
meals. Identify recipes that use a pastry crust for foods that are
eaten as a main dish or an appetizer.
41
Learning Objectives
12.4
To compare methods of
mixing cakes.
Notes
Discuss the quick-mix and conventional methods of making
shortened cakes.
Explain the techniques involved in preparing foam and chiffon
cakes. Include information on the handling of egg white foams.
12.5
To examine methods used in
the production of basic short
crust pastry.
Outline the procedure for making a basic pie crust. Include
techniques of cutting-in, mixing liquid, rolling out, transferring
to pie plate, decorating the edge and baking. Stress mixing
lightly to avoid developing the gluten and to ensure flakiness and
tenderness.
Discuss types of fillings that may be used.
12.6
To analyze the principles
involved in successful
preparation of cakes and
pastries. (COM, NUM)
Discuss and/or demonstrate important baking skills that are
required for successful cakes and pastries: accuracy in
measuring, correct mixing procedures, correct pan preparation,
baking and determining doneness, altering and varying basic
recipes, and compensating for failures.
The principles are concerned with the influence of ingredients on
gluten formation, methods of mixing or combining ingredients,
and baking.
Make a list of and define terminology involved in the preparation
of cakes and pastries: creaming, folding, beating, leavening,
meringue, quiche, cake flour, pie shell, soft peak, stiff peak, etc.
12.7
To identify different types of
frostings that may be used.
Explain that frostings are concentrated sugar mixtures, either
cooked or uncooked, and are used for decoration and to keep
cakes moist. Discuss briefly how to frost cakes. Examine
different recipes for frostings. Discuss their uses, ease of
preparation, and their keeping quality.
Evaluate purchased, ready-to-use frostings and homemade
frostings for taste, convenience, preparation time, and cost.
Discuss the art of cake decorating for special occasions.
Discuss toppings that could be used on cakes that would be more
nutritious and lower in calories than frostings.
42
Learning Objectives
Notes
12.8
Assess individual effort, interpersonal interaction, managing
To demonstrate safe,
hygienic work habits and the resources, and responsible behaviour during lab activities.
correct use of tools and
equipment. (TL, IL)
12.9
To evaluate cake and pastry
products according to
identified quality standards.
(CCT)
Outline standards for evaluating cake and pastry products and
compare foods prepared in class to these standards.
12.10
To assess convenience forms
of cakes and pastries.
Identify the various convenience cakes and pastries. Compare
cost, convenience, time, taste, and nutrition. Draw some
conclusions about the purchase and use of convenience products.
Prepare some different convenience type products and compare
to homemade.
12.11
To establish guidelines for
storing cakes and pastries.
Categorize the various types of cakes and pastries and clarify
guidelines for storage.
12.12
To demonstrate basic
knowledge and
understanding of cakes and
pastries. (COM, IL, PSVS)
Activity suggestions:
• Pretend you are a chef being interviewed for a television
cooking show. Your topic is, “Tips for preparing and baking
cakes or pastries.” Write what you would say.
• Prepare a question and answer article for a magazine or a
script for a talk show.
• Do a demonstration of one of the techniques learned in this
module.
• Have a pie sale in school at noon.
43
Module 13: Baking with Yeast (Optional)
Suggested time: 5-8 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To apply independent learning skills in the preparation of nutritious foods.
• To better understand the social and cultural aspects of food for all people.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To understand and use the vocabulary related to diet, food, and food preparation. (COM)
• To make necessary calculations when selecting, purchasing, preparing, and storing food. (NUM)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
There is a great variety of yeast breads that may be prepared to
develop and demonstrate skills and knowledge.
Prepare basic sweet dough or holiday yeast breads.
13.1
To explore the role of yeast
breads in our diet.
Explain why bread is referred to as the "staff of life."
List ways that yeast breads are used in meals.
List new breads that are currently popular (bagels, sourdough, pita,
ethnic breads with special dips, foccacia, etc.).
Calculate the cost of the wheat that is used as flour in one loaf of
bread. What return does the farmer get per loaf of bread? Who gets
the rest?
13.2
To define the term “yeast
breads.”
13.3
To understand the principles Explain that yeast is a fungus and describe the conditions that are
of yeast as a leavening agent necessary for yeast to grow and produce carbon dioxide.
and to experiment with the
fermentation process. (COM, List, explain, and examine the different types of yeast available.
CCT)
Experiment by mixing yeast and sugar with water at various
temperatures. Record observations.
44
Yeast breads are a special kind of flour mixture. Review briefly how
they differ from quick breads and the functions of the ingredients.
Learning Objectives
Notes
13.4
To explore gluten
development and carbon
dioxide formation in
successful bread making.
Explain the importance of gluten and carbon dioxide formation.
Gluten forms the framework of the dough and expands as carbon
dioxide is produced by the yeast. To develop gluten and a proper
framework for yeast bread requires thorough mixing and kneading.
13.5
To examine the different
methods used in making
yeast bread.
Describe the different methods of making yeast dough. These
include: straight dough, batter, sponge, refrigerator, freezer.
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each.
13.6
To demonstrate the basic
techniques in making yeast
breads.
Demonstrate important techniques necessary in making yeast bread.
Have a cinnamon roll sale at noon at school.
Assign a home lab of any yeast bread product.
13.7
To understand terminology
associated with making
yeast breads. (COM)
Explain terms related to yeast breads (e.g., kneading, fermentation,
proofing). Describe proper baking procedures and tests for doneness.
13.8
To evaluate the nutritional
value of yeast breads.
Identify the nutrients in bread. Decide how nutritional values can be
improved.
Examine the different types of flours that can be used in making
yeast bread. Evaluate the nutritional differences.
Discuss compulsory enriching of bread in Canada.
13.9
To identify appropriate
storage and handling of
baked yeast products.
Discuss proper storage of yeast breads. Discuss factors that
influence shelf life of various yeast breads.
Clarify safe hygienic work habits at home, in the foods lab, and in
industry. What does Saskatchewan Labour have to say about this?
Visit the department’s website.
13.10
To explore a variety of
specialty and holiday breads
that can be prepared. (IL,
PSVS)
Share examples of student's family/cultural/holiday breads.
List examples of specialty breads used at holiday time.
Search for examples of traditional breads from other countries. List
the country and variations of preparation methods. Share findings
with the class.
45
Learning Objectives
13.11
To compare homemade
breads and ready-to-eat
yeast breads.
Notes
List examples of different types of convenience yeast breads.
Investigate the differences in nutrition, cost, and uses of each.
Examine the information on bread labels.
Compare homemade bread with a ready-to-eat yeast bread product.
Consider the time involved, cost, taste, and nutritional value of each.
Participate in a field trip to a bakery or bagel shop.
13.12
To investigate the use of
bread machines in the home.
(TL, CCT)
Analyze information to support claims that the two current trends
for yeast breads are: (1) faster methods for home-baked products and
(2) more nutritious products.
Consider the convenience of owning a bread machine. Analyze
special features available, sizes, and prices of bread machines.
Examine a bread machine, if available, and make a yeast bread
product.
For Food Safety and Sanitation, see the Tourism, Hospitality, and
Entrepreneurship A30, B30 Curriculum Guidelines, Module 5 and/or
the ideas about safety in the Commercial Cooking 10, 20, 30
Curriculum Guidelines (Saskatchewan Education, 1999).
46
Module 14: Keep It Cold (Core)
Suggested time: 5-10 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To understand the importance of the science of nutrition.
• To understand and practise safety in the preparation and storage of food.
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To follow safe procedures when working with equipment and food in the kitchen. (CCT, TL)
• To practise cooperation and teamwork when working in groups. (PSVS, COM)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Salads and Salad Dressings
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Explain and/or show how a head of lettuce is cored, washed, and can
be dried.
Prepare a basic tossed salad and a homemade dressing. Make it
creative, interesting,and unique by providing a variety of different
ingredients. Have a competition for the most attractively arranged
salad.
Prepare a variety of different types of salads. Sample and evaluate
each.
Grow some alfalfa sprouts for salads and sandwiches. Demonstrate
how to grow sprouts at home and discuss the advantages of doing
so.
14.1
To develop and explain the
meaning of the module
entitled Keep It Cold. (COM)
Explain the importance of creativity and the application of nutrition
knowledge in the preparation of salads, salad dressings, and
sandwiches and the importance of keeping these foods chilled for
food safety.
List various ways to keep foods cold: using refrigeration, insulated
containers, freezer packs, and frozen food items.
Discuss safe and hygienic work habits for preparing these foods.
List foods that must be kept cold.
14.2
To explore the history of
salads.
Briefly explore the history of salads. The Romans are credited with
inventing the salad. German doctors in the mid-1700s prescribed
different salads for various ailments.
47
Learning Objectives
14.3
To understand the
nutritional importance of
salads in our diets. (COM,
NUM)
Notes
Name the major nutrients obtained from salads. Identify the food
groups involved.
Give examples of ways to add specific nutrients to salads (e.g., add
protein to a tossed salad).
List common ingredients used in salads and examine their nutrient
contributions.
14.4
To understand how salads
may be used in a meal or
menu.
List and give examples of the various ways in which salads may be
classified. Consider the ingredients used, ways they are used at a
meal, and the way they are arranged.
Compare the foods that are used in each of these categories and list
examples.
14.5
To identify the basic parts of Explain the three parts of a salad: the base, body, and dressing.
a salad and various salad
List examples of ingredients that may be used for each part.
ingredients that can be used.
List as many ingredients as possible that could be added to a tossed
salad.
Discuss the types of greens that may be used in salads. If possible,
have examples of different greens as well as some of the new types
of "leaves" being used in some restaurants and are available in
some grocery stores. Identify the new types of salad ingredients.
14.6
To discuss selecting, buying,
and storing salad
ingredients.
List guidelines for selecting and buying salad ingredients.
List the prices of different salad ingredients. Discuss the factors
that influence prices, quality, and availability of salad ingredients.
Discuss the relationship between colour and nutrition.
Describe the proper storage of different salad ingredients.
Demonstrate how to "crisp up" wilted produce.
48
Learning Objectives
14.7
To analyze the principles
involved in making salads.
(CCT)
Notes
Discuss guidelines for accomplishing and protecting: salad
freshness, salad nutrients, and salad attractiveness.
Describe the process in making a tossed green salad.
List various types of garnishes that may be used. Have students
practise and demonstrate the preparation of some.
Have a tossed salad competition. Judge the salad’s appearance,
arrangement, garnishings and the variety of ingredients used.
Provide an assortment of vegetables and other ingredients for the
creations.
14.8
To identify and explain the
three basic types of salad
dressings.
Name and explain the differences between the three types of
dressings (French, Mayonnaise, and Cooked Salad dressing).
Discuss when salad dressings are added to various salads.
Prepare one of the types of salad dressings and compare its texture,
flavour, colour, convenience, ingredients, and price to a purchased
dressing.
List ingredients that may be added to basic salad dressings to
change their flavour.
Compare the nutritive value of various types of salad dressings
considering, in particular, the fat and cholesterol content. Discuss
the amount of dressing added, especially to pasta/potato and Caesar
salads.
Evaluate the advertising and labeling used for salad dressings. Do
a blindfold taste test of regular vs. light mayonnaise.
14.9
To compare and evaluate
convenience types of salad
ingredients available. (CCT)
List examples of convenience types of salad ingredients, dressings
and mixes available. If possible, have some samples on hand and
analyze the list of ingredients, price, freshness, colour and flavour.
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of using convenience
salad foods.
49
Creative Sandwiches
Learning Objectives
Preamble
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Plan and prepare a variety of sandwiches using a variety of
ingredients.
Students may select, plan, and prepare interesting and creative
sandwiches. Include an assignment detailing cost, nutrition, time
required to plan and prepare, serving ideas, and taste-test.
14.10
To explore ideas related to
sandwiches. (COM)
List as many examples of food ideas as possible for the following:
types of breads, fillings, and other additions.
Look through cookbooks and/or food textbooks for ideas.
14.11
To discuss the importance of
safe food handling
procedures.
Outline ways to handle sandwich fillings safely. Include
discussions about cross-contamination, clean utensils and chopping
boards, good sanitation, proper refrigeration, etc.
Do a bacterial count of egg salad sandwiches, using one stored at a
cold temperature and one kept at room temperature.
14.12
To examine the nutritional
Using the list of sandwich ideas above, evaluate major nutrient
values of sandwiches. (NUM) values and food groups involved. Discuss the size of servings for
various situations.
14.13
To consider principles of
resource management in
sandwich production.
50
Do an assignment discussing how to accomplish the following
related to resource management:
• using leftover breads and fillings
• maintaining freshness
• using time and resources efficiently
• creating eye appeal
• appetizing colour
• flavour and texture combinations.
Learning Objectives
14.14
Notes
To create an awareness of
List places of employment in your community where knowledge of
careers and job opportunities food safety and the preparation of salads and sandwiches would be
related to this module.
beneficial.
Give examples of entrepreneurial opportunities possible in this
field.
Working with school cafeteria personnel, prepare sandwiches/salads
for students.
14.15
To demonstrate basic
knowledge and
understanding of the module
Keep It Cold. (CCT, PSVS,
IL, NUM)
Make a poster illustrating healthful salad choices, nutrition,
various types of salads and preparation guidelines.
Prepare several menus for a salad and sandwich luncheon.
Consider the serving sizes and requirements of Canada's Food
Guide. Analyze the nutritional contributions using a table of
nutrient values or a computer program.
Create a mini-salad bar for the home refrigerator. Identify foods to
include, how to select, prepare and store them, and the advantages
of having the salad bar.
Write an article detailing information about the preparing of salads
and sandwiches.
Investigate various new produce, like herbs and floral blossoms,
that may be used in food preparation.
A school project could include a sandwich and/or salad bar to be
served to parents, staff, or students for a reasonable price.
Coordinate this activity with the school cafeteria or canteen.
51
Module 15: Protein Foods: Meats, Poultry, Fish, Vegetarianism (Core)
Suggested time: 10-15 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To develop the desire and ability to access knowledge about issues and obtain factual information before
forming opinions about food-related issues.
• To better understand the social and cultural aspects of food for all people.
• To understand and practise safety in the preparation and storage of food.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To understand how specific foods contribute to a healthy diet. (COM)
• To gain the knowledge and develop the skills required to make appropriate food choices and to become
discriminating consumers. (CCT, IL)
• To explore the relationships between culture and the social and geographic influences on food customs.
(PSVS)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Meats
Preamble.
Ideas for practical applications.
Guide students to discover creative ways to prepare protein dishes in
the classroom and at home.
Prepare various cuts of meat as the budget allows, employing a
cross-section of moist and dry heat cooking methods. Evaluate how
tenderness is preserved or developed and how flavour and
palatability is achieved.
Select and prepare recipes for lunch/dinner that are low in fat,
relatively inexpensive, and can be prepared in class time.
Prepare ground beef in different, nutritious, and creative ways.
Find a poultry or fish recipe in which the product is oven baked and
provides a complete one-dish meal (poultry or fish, grain, and
vegetable).
Plan, prepare, and serve a chicken/turkey dinner. Include a report
that details the menu, food cost, time and organizational plan, table
setting, and evaluation of the meal. Students could become involved
in preparing and serving a fowl supper in a Saskatchewan
community.
Find a new way to prepare fish or chicken. Plan a lunch or dinner
menu to include this recipe. Prepare the food. Evaluate.
Prepare a chicken stir-fry, chicken burritos, chicken fajitas, or other
ethnic chicken dish.
List ways to use the microwave oven for cooking chicken and/or fish.
Prepare one of the dishes. Evaluate for eye appeal, taste, and
texture.
52
Learning Objectives
Notes
15.1
To recognize and examine
the foods that belong to the
Meats and Alternatives
group. (COM)
List and discuss each of the foods that belong to this group.
Examples include beef, veal, lamb, pork, chicken, turkey, goose,
duck, eggs, fish, shellfish, nuts, legumes, peas, beans, tofu, etc.
15.2
To identify the role of meat
in Canadian diets and
compare to those of other
nations. (CCT)
Compare Canadian meat eating habits to those in other areas of the
world. Compare the use of meats in different cultural groups.
To determine how meats
and alternatives fit into a
healthful eating plan.
Develop an understanding that meats are an important and costly
part of meals and it is important to select and prepare them wisely.
Discuss the number and sizes of servings of various meats and
alternatives.
15.3
Explore the religious significance and regulations regarding meat for
various major religions such as Christianity, Buddhism, Judaism,
Islam, Hinduism.
Prepare a chart to illustrate the nutritional value of the various
protein foods including an analysis of the type of protein and varying
levels of fat, cholesterol, iron, and Vitamin B12.
Discuss the health concerns regarding consumption of red meat,
myths about cholesterol, and the effect of the preparation method on
nutritional value.
Outline ways in which meats and alternatives can be part of a lowfat eating plan.
Make a list of lower quality protein foods that may be used as meat
extenders.
15.4
Explain the composition of meat: connective tissue, bone, fat, and
To develop an
understanding of the factors muscle.
that affect the tenderness of
Explain the difference between elastin and collagen.
meat.
Outline factors that determine tenderness in meats, especially beef
(age, exercise, area of cut, diet, amount of fat, etc.).
53
Learning Objectives
15.5
Notes
To identify the cuts of meat. Describe the wholesale cuts and retail cuts of the carcass. Identify
the degree of tenderness of each cut. Explain the use of the following
terms in regards to cuts of beef: tender, medium tender, and less
tender.
Explain the bone shapes that identify basic cuts and give examples.
Compare charts of wholesale and retail cuts of lamb, pork, veal, and
beef.
Use a jigsaw puzzle of half a beef carcass to help clarify various cuts.
Collect pictures of different kinds of meat. Prepare a bulletin board
display to illustrate the type of meat, type of cut, and suggested ways
to cook it.
15.6
To examine the various
methods for tenderizing
meats.
Analyze the various ways to tenderize meat: moist and dry cooking
methods, chemicals (marinating in acid, enzymatic tenderizers), and
mechanical methods (pounding, scoring, grinding). Give examples of
each.
15.7
To determine and evaluate
factors involved in selecting
and buying meats. (NUM,
CCT)
Name and briefly describe the grades of beef in Canada.
Explain that meat inspection is important for safety reasons.
Identify health inspection stamps and the use of the word CANADA.
Provide labels of various meats and examine the information
provided.
List characteristics to look for when buying fresh meat.
Brainstorm guidelines for making economical, nutritious choices
when shopping for meats.
Provide the servings per pound for various cuts and calculate the
cost per serving.
Discuss factors that determine the cost of meats.
Compare the varying levels of fat in ground beef. Compare prices.
15.8
To examine the convenience List various convenience products available and give advantages and
forms in which meat can be disadvantages for using them.
purchased. (TL)
Calculate the nutritional value of deli meats using nutritional tables
or a computer program.
Discuss the salt and nitrate content in deli, processed or canned
meats.
54
Learning Objectives
15.9
Notes
To establish proper storage Brainstorm a list of safe hygienic ways to handle, store, and prepare
methods for different meats. meats.
List ways to thaw meats safely.
Outline how to store raw and cooked meats safely in the refrigerator
and freezer (include length of time).
Discuss the bacteria eColi105:H7 as a health and safety concern.
15.10
To discuss the principles of
cooking meat.
Consider the reasons for cooking meat, such as killing harmful
bacteria that might cause food poisoning, making it more appetizing,
bringing out the colour and flavour, etc.
Name ways to tell when meat is done. Why is it important to cook
some meats to the correct internal temperature? Give examples of
the various temperatures used for the different types of "doneness."
Examine why ground meats must be cooked to the well-done stage
while steak may be eaten rare.
15.11
To compare moist and dry
cooking methods of
preparing meat. (CCT)
Categorize and discuss the various types of moist and dry heat
cooking methods used with meat. Give examples of each.
Select appropriate cooking methods for a variety of cuts of meat.
In pairs, students could select different cuts of meat and recommend
appetizing methods of preparation.
Select a less tender cut of meat. Find as many different methods of
cooking it as possible.
55
Poultry
Learning Objectives
15.12
To understand the grading
and inspection of poultry.
(COM)
Notes
Compare standards of grading and inspection of poultry to red
meats.
Name and briefly describe the grades of poultry.
Describe the factors used to determine the grades of poultry
(conformation, fleshing, and dressing).
15.13
To examine factors involved
in selecting and buying
poultry.
List the meats represented by the term poultry.
Identify and evaluate convenience poultry items used in students’
homes.
Outline guides to consider for buying poultry.
In pairs, have students research and report on the market
classifications of chicken and turkey (include characteristics and
recommended cooking methods), the different forms of poultry
products, and qualities to check for when buying fresh or frozen
poultry.
Collect poultry labels from a variety of products. Determine the
number of servings per pound and calculate price per serving.
Conclude which is most economical.
15.14
To discover how to handle
poultry safely.
Prepare a poster to illustrate how to handle, prepare, cook, and store
poultry safely.
List food safety guidelines for handling poultry.
Discuss the bacteria Salmonella.
Describe the proper storage of fresh, frozen, and left-over poultry.
Discuss how to handle poultry dressing/stuffing safely before and
after roasting poultry.
Describe methods for testing poultry for doneness.
56
Learning Objectives
15.15
To identify principles and
methods for preparing
poultry. (COM, IL)
Notes
Brainstorm and define terms relating to cooking poultry.
Demonstrate how to cut up a chicken. Compare prices of chicken
parts with whole broiler/fryer.
Demonstrate how to cut wings apart into drumettes and wing pieces.
Outline techniques involved in roasting whole poultry, preparing a
stuffing, and carving.
Explore methods of preparing poultry pieces.
Discuss what influences the tenderness of poultry and the
recommended cooking methods. Determine doneness in cooked
poultry.
Discuss similarities and differences between the cooking of poultry
and other meats.
List ways to prepare poultry for low-fat diets.
Fish
15.16
To consider important
commercial varieties and
basic market forms of fish
and seafood.
List types of fish and fish products eaten by students and their
families.
Identify the different kinds of fish and shellfish available in Canada.
Classify as freshwater or ocean.
List available fish and shellfish convenience products and list their
advantages and disadvantages. Evaluate their convenience, cost,
ingredients, and nutritional value.
Name and describe the common forms of fresh and frozen fish
available. Compare the number of servings from each.
Discuss fish farming in different parts of Canada and the world.
15.17
To develop guidelines for
buying and handling fish
and seafood.
List guidelines for buying fresh and frozen fish.
Compare prices of various fish products available. Discuss the
reasons for the range of prices for different kinds of fish.
Outline safe handling and storage for different types of fish. Discuss
proper storage in the home and food store.
57
Learning Objectives
15.18
Notes
Discuss the perishable nature of fish and how to thaw and prepare it
To identify methods of
preparing fish and shellfish. safely.
Examine how the composition and structure of fish and seafood
determines preparation and cooking methods. Note that one type of
fish can be substituted for another type if it is of similar colour,
flavour or fat content.
Describe the 10-minute rule for cooking fish. List characteristics
that indicate that the fish is thoroughly cooked.
Working in groups, list different ways fish may be prepared. Collect
recipes that utilize moist and dry heat cooking methods and that
reflect traditional dishes from around the world.
Describe filleting and portioning of fish.
Discuss sushi and sushimi, especially the variety that uses "flash
frozen" fish.
15.19
To demonstrate knowledge
and understanding of
meats, poultry, and fish.
(CCT, IL, NUM)
Create a word search or crossword with the terminology and
definitions in this module.
Using a cookbook or other resources find three recipes that use: a red
meat, fish, and poultry. Outline how to select, prepare, and present
the foods.
Compare and analyze prices of various meats, fish, and poultry
products.
Research how various meats are produced and marketed in
Saskatchewan.
On a large map of Canada place names of freshwater fish, saltwater
fish, and shellfish on appropriate lakes, rivers, and oceans.
Research information on the value of fish oil, in particular omega-3
and eicosopentanoic (EPA).
Research the issue of declining fish stocks in Canadian waters.
Discuss world international influences on Canadian fish supplies.
Discuss declining fish stocks on a global scale.
58
Learning Objectives
15.20
To discuss career choices in
the meat industry. (IL,
PSVS)
Notes
Visit a local fish market, butcher shop, or meat department of a
grocery store.
Examine the scope and importance of Saskatchewan's meat industry.
List careers available from beginning production to the preparation
stage in the home or restaurant.
Vegetarian Cuisine
Preamble.
Ideas for practical application.
Select, plan, prepare, and evaluate a variety of vegetarian foods
including complementary protein food combinations.
Develop a repertoire of vegetarian recipes that are student-friendly.
Have students select and prepare some of these recipes.
Prepare sample dishes that include tofu and pulses as well as dishes
that have complementary protein combinations.
Have students look through vegetarian cookbooks and choose some
recipes to prepare.
Have each student find and bring to class a vegetarian recipe.
Prepare a sample of some of them.
Try growing lentil sprouts.
Analyze a recipe to determine which type of vegetarian eating
pattern it represents and the cost of the ingredients.
Take a trip to a grocery store to observe and evaluate examples of
vegetarian food products. Consider both price and availability.
15.21
To analyze factors that
motivate individuals and
groups to follow vegetarian
eating patterns. (CCT)
Discuss the reasons people give for being/becoming a vegetarian.
Examples include ethical, moral, social considerations; body image;
religion; distaste for meat; health concerns; food costs; traditional
dietary patterns.
15.22
To understand various types
of vegetarian eating
patterns.
Explain the following types: vegan, ovo, lacto, ovo/lacto, and
incorporating vegetarian foods into conventional eating patterns.
59
Learning Objectives
15.23
To examine the nutritional
elements of wholesome
vegetarian diets. (CCT)
Notes
Develop an understanding that a healthy vegetarian diet requires
knowledge and careful planning.
Examine the provision of adequate proteins, Vitamin B12, iron,
calcium, zinc, copper, fat, fibre, and calories through vegetarian
eating.
Discuss protein complementarity and give examples of combinations
of foods that are necessary to provide complete protein.
15.24
To develop meal plans and
evaluate foods suitable for
vegetarian eating patterns.
(IL, PSVS)
Assess barriers to wholesome vegetarian eating patterns
considering: reliability of nutrition information, palatability,
conventional attitudes toward eating patterns, and time required for
preparation of some vegetarian foods.
Identify the essential foods in vegetarian diets. Evaluate nutritional
value, taste, cost, cooking, acceptability. Include different kinds of
legumes (pulses), grains, soybeans, and tofu. Have each student
choose one of the vegetarian protein foods (protein sources other
than meat) and prepare a small report to present to class. Include
examples of dishes that use a protein food.
Give examples of ethnic foods that apply protein complementarity
combinations.
Divide the class into five groups to represent each type of vegetarian
and develop and analyze three days of vegetarian diets. Share with
the class.
Adapt personal meal plans to incorporate vegetarian proteins.
Formulate strategies for increasing the acceptability of vegetarian
foods.
Describe briefly the preparation that must be given to legumes prior
to cooking.
Prepare a bulletin board display of various vegetarian foods.
15.25
To explore protein
substitutes.
Discuss tofu (textured vegetable protein) as a vegetarian food choice.
Consider source, nutritional value, palatability, availability, cultural
significance, and cost. Investigate traditional ethnic foods that use
tofu. List other foods made from soy beans such as soy milk.
Find recipes using legumes for main dishes, soups, and salads.
Visit a supermarket and list the textured soy meat-like products
available. Examine cost. If possible, sample some and evaluate
palatability.
60
Learning Objectives
15.26
To apply knowledge of
vegetarian foods. (IL, CCT)
Notes
Research the growing of pulses as part of diversified agriculture in
Saskatchewan. Check out pulses on the Internet under
Saskatchewan Pulse Growers.
Research the history and use of legumes throughout the world.
Outline how to select and store pulses. Do a cost comparison of
various kinds of legumes available in the community. Suggest one
method and/or recipe for preparing each one.
Write a news bulletin describing the benefits of eating legumes as
part of a healthful diet or the different ways to incorporate tofu in
recipes.
Your family has decided to incorporate some vegetarian foods into its
diet. Outline factors you need to consider in order to eat healthy and
provide foods that will fit into your lifestyle. Give some examples of
foods/recipes.
Prepare a complementary protein dish as a home lab.
61
Module 16: Make Mine Quick and Healthy (Optional)
Suggested time: 6-8 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To gain the knowledge and develop the skills required to make appropriate food choices and to become
discriminating consumers. (CCT)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical applications to enhance ease and speed of
preparation:
Make one-dish meals that incorporate the four food groups.
Use foods incorporating prepared and/or convenience foods.
Make foods using time-saving appliances or equipment.
Prepare foods demonstrating meal management (time and money).
Make 30 minute meals.
Compare convenience vs. homemade foods - rate time, cost, quality,
nutrition.
Use an existing recipe and create ways to make it cheaper, more
convenient, and less time consuming. Use a convenient food product
and make it more nutritious. Have a class contest using these two
ideas.
16.1
To analyze the effect of
lifestyle on the eating
patterns and the
nutritional status of
Canadians. (CCT, PSVS)
Discuss the factors that influence food choices of individuals and
families.
Survey the types and frequency of convenience foods used by the
students/families in the class.
Assess the impact of evolving eating trends on individuals, families,
and the community.
Analyze whether present eating patterns satisfy nutritional and
psychological needs.
Survey, compare, and evaluate the use of processed and/or convenience
foods of the present day with that of a past generation. Do a cost
analysis of foods prepared at home and those in various local
restaurants.
62
Learning Objectives
16.2
To practise problem
solving. (CCT, PSVS)
Notes
Describe as many ideas as possible for quick, healthy, simple meals
that could be made at home. Emphasize that nutritious, satisfying
meals do not need to be time consuming or expensive.
Consider the following alternatives and give examples of how they can
be incorporated into lifestyles: meal management (planning ahead,
planned leftovers), equipment (e.g., microwave, slow cookers, convection
ovens), prepared and convenience foods.
Compare alternatives to eating out, discussing the various aspects of
eating patterns and cost. Evaluate eating establishments available
locally and their menus. Rate the choices available by using panel
discussion, presentations, etc.
Working in groups, have students write a case study outlining
conditions such as limited budgets, little time, limited facilities (e.g., a
kitchen undergoing renovations for one to two weeks). Present to
another group for suggestions and menus. The activity may be adapted
to writing a letter to a time management expert or nutritionist
describing a situation and having another group make suggestions.
16.3
To evaluate prepared and
convenience foods.
List the information that must be present on labels of food products.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using prepared and
convenience foods.
List suggestions for choosing healthy prepared and convenience foods.
Compare a variety of prepared/convenience foods for availability, list of
ingredients, nutritional value, resource use (time, money, skill,
equipment), and palatability.
Choose examples of one-dish meals and evaluate the nutritional value.
Suggest ways to make them more nutritious.
Explore ways to enhance the palatability and aesthetic appeal of foods
through varied presentation techniques.
Discuss ways to improve nutrition of convenience foods by combining
with other nutritious foods.
16.4
To examine technologies
employed in the
processing of prepared
and convenience foods.
(TL)
Discuss and give examples of the technologies and processing necessary
to make the wide selection of prepared and convenience foods possible.
Discuss equipment necessary in the home to store and prepare these
types of foods.
63
Learning Objectives
16.5
To demonstrate basic
knowledge and
understanding of
preparing healthy, quick
meals. (IL, PSVS)
Notes
In small groups, plan three healthful, creative supper menus that
would be suitable for the student's living situation. Consider resources
needed (including cost, time available), nutrition, and ease of
preparation. Have the students prepare one of the meals at home.
Prepare a report on one-dish meals. Provide information about one of
the following: casseroles, pizzas, stews, skillet dishes, or stir-fry meals.
Outline suggestions for preparing packed lunches that will be
nutritious, safe, appealing, and inexpensive.
Plan three meals to demonstrate strategies for coping with different
limitations including: limited budget, limited time, staggered family
schedules, eating away from home, limited cooking facilities.
Plan a school campaign to improve the nutrition level of foods available
as choices in the school canteen.
Plan a school campaign to encourage students and parents, if
applicable, to prepare and eat more nutritious brown bag lunches.
64
Module 17: The Science of Nutrition (Core)
Suggested time: 12-15 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To understand the importance of the science of nutrition.
• To better understand the social and cultural aspects of food for all people.
• To develop the desire and ability to access knowledge about issues and obtain factual information before
forming opinions about food-related issues.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To understand and use the vocabulary related to diet, food, and food preparation. (COM)
• To interpret data and tables for nutritional values of foods. (NUM)
• To apply knowledge when making independent decisions regarding food choices and preparation. (CCT,
IL)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Applying information from this module, plan and prepare foods from
each of the six nutrient groups.
Plan and prepare a variety of plant protein foods.
Plan and prepare interesting, nutritious, low fat breakfast foods.
Select three foods designed to improve the intake of different
nutrients. Prepare one. (Coordinate with an activity in the mineral
section.)
Prepare a food that demonstrates an acceptable carbohydrate-fatprotein ratio.
Have each cooking group prepare a different food that is high in a
specific nutrient(s).
Reduce the fat in several high fat cookie recipes. Calculate the
reduced amounts and follow-up with a list of changes noted in the
baked products.
Do a nutritional analysis of various diets, personal or predetermined,
using computer software.
65
Learning Objectives
17.1
Notes
To recognize the relationship Determine a definition for science, nutrition, and health. Check in a
between science, food, and
biology, chemistry, or physics text and compare definitions. Analyze
health. (CCT)
how nutrition fits into the definition of a science. Where does health
fit?
Consider that science plays an important role in discovering how
nutrients work in the body. Research scientists continue to produce
new information about nutrition.
Define the term nutrients. Emphasize that nutrients are chemicals
that must be present in the body for proper body functioning.
17.2
To appreciate how
understanding nutrition can
benefit your body.
The human body needs nutrients to survive and to work properly.
Review the six categories of nutrients and their simplified functions
of providing energy, building and repairing body cells, and keeping
vital body processes working.
Using Canada's Food Guide, discuss how nutrition knowledge may
be used to evaluate daily eating patterns and food choices.
Recognize that nutrition research in the past dealt with the study of
deficiency diseases that are almost unknown in this country today.
List the more common ones and the nutrient involved. Today,
researchers emphasize health and prevention of disease. Today’s
health, however, is influenced by eating too much rich, processed
food. Give examples of these current health concerns.
Evaluate magazine articles and/or food ads for validity and
reliability of nutritional information presented.
17.3
To recognize that nutrients
work in combinations in the
body. (COM)
Examples are Vitamin D, calcium and phosphorous; chlorine,
potassium and sodium; iron and protein; zinc, carbohydrates,
proteins, and fats. Research information on the functions of the
different nutrients.
Examine the relationship among carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
used to provide energy for the body. Consider the body's health, the
cost, and the environmental implications.
66
Learning Objectives
17.4
To determine the adequate
requirements for nutrients.
(NUM)
Notes
Define RDA and RDI. RDA is an American term that outlines the
recommended dietary allowances; RDI is a Canadian term that
outlines the recommended daily intake. Look at charts of the two,
compare, and note any differences. Review Learning Objective 4.5.
Compare the units used for the different nutrients. For vitamins
and minerals the amounts are expressed as a percentage of the RDI.
Note how these charts are used for food analysis.
Discuss the use of supplements, check labels of supplements, the
amounts for each nutrient, and compare with RDI. Discuss what the
body does with excess amounts of nutrients.
Using RDI chart guidelines, analyze how and why nutrient
requirements differ for different groups of people.
17.5
To examine the functions of
the common nutrients and
identify sources.
Review the Introductory curriculum modules (optional). In a chart
form, list the nutrients, several functions for each, several major food
sources, and the daily recommended amount for your gender and
age. A suggested list is: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, the fatsoluble vitamins A, D, E and K, the water-soluble B complex
vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, folic acid, B12) and
Vitamin C, and the minerals, calcium, phosphorous, iron, copper,
iodine, zinc, fluorine, potassium, magnesium, and sodium.
17.6
To understanding what
carbohydrates are and to
distinguish between the
various types of
carbohydrates. (COM)
Define carbohydrates. Name the three types of carbohydrates:
sugars, starches, and fibre (cellulose).
Explain the differences between simple carbohydrates, complex
carbohydrates, monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides,
sugars, starches, fibre (cellulose), and processed carbohydrates. Give
examples for each.
List the different types of sugars: sucrose, fructose, dextrose, glucose,
lactose, and maltose. Give examples for each.
Draw the chemical structures of the various carbohydrate molecules.
Recognize that carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen.
Consult and collaborate with the Biology 12 teacher, especially in a
small school.
67
Learning Objectives
Notes
Discuss the importance of fibre in a diet for good health. Evaluate
various sources of fibre as well as information and claims
surrounding this nutrient. Stress the fact that fibre, although it is
sometimes listed separately as a seventh nutrient group because of
its importance, belongs to the carbohydrates nutrient group.
Check the labels of processed foods to identify the types of
carbohydrates that they contain. Discuss why many packaged foods
are calorie-rich and nutrient-poor.
Name sources of carbohydrates in the diet. Have students make a
list their 10 favorite carbohydrate foods and indicate whether they
are simple, complex, or processed.
Have the students list what they ate yesterday. Determine what
percentage of the students’ daily caloric intake is supplied by
carbohydrates (the requirement is at least 50%). Note that each
gram of carbohydrates gives the body 4 calories. Determine the
number of calories from the grams of carbohydrates consumed.
How many kilojoules are found in one calorie?
17.7
To understand fats and their
role in the diet. (COM)
Define the term fatty acids and discuss their importance for good
health. List some foods that are high in fat.
Distinguish between saturated, monounsaturated, and
polyunsaturated fats. Give characteristics and food sources for each.
Examine the current trend for low fat foods. Distinguish between
low fat, lite, light, and no fat foods and evaluate advertising claims
for each. A "light" product must provide a calorie reduction of 25%.
"Lite” may refer to a reduction in calories as in "light", or to that
product's colour, taste, texture, fat content, or just about anything.
Discuss the health risks of too much fat in the diet noting gender
differences in the storage of body fat.
Use tables of nutrient values to explore the saturated and
unsaturated fat content of selected foods.
Identify sources of visible and invisible or hidden fats in our foods.
To find out if foods contain fat, rub small quantities of several foods
on labeled squares of unglazed brown paper. Let dry, then hold
them up to a light. Fatty foods leave an oily stain on paper.
68
Learning Objectives
17.7
(Continued)
Notes
Record the fats you eat in one day. Create a chart using the
headings saturated or unsaturated. Include the approximate
measure and the calories (and/or kilojoules) for each. Note that each
gram of fat gives the body 9 calories.
Using nutrient tables or a computer program, have the students do a
diet analysis of the percentage of calories that come from fat.
Judge current popular breakfast choices for fat content, both
saturated and unsaturated.
Evaluate recent information, if available, on fat substitutes and their
hazards to health.
Have a display of fat jars that illustrate the grams of fat in common
fast foods and processed foods.
17.8
To examine and evaluate the Explain the term cholesterol and explore its role in the body's health.
role of cholesterol in the body List sources.
and its implications for good
Distinguish between and explain the terms LDL and HDL and
health.
discuss their roles in the risk of heart disease. (LDL is low-density
lipoproteins and is often referred to as "bad cholesterol." HDL is
high-density lipoproteins and is known as "good cholesterol.")
Research and report on articles about cholesterol and health.
Consider the health risks of too much cholesterol. Discuss factors
other than diet that affect cholesterol levels.
Explain the process of hydrogenation and evaluate saturated fats
with the trans fatty acids produced by hydrogenation.
Define and give examples of tropical fats (palm and coconut oils) and
explain their relationship to cholesterol. These plant sources are
high in cholesterol and are used in many prepared foods.
Create a list of tips for lowering fat intake.
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Learning Objectives
17.9
To examine the role of
protein in the body. (COM)
Notes
For information on protein, review Module 15. The depth of study
will be determined by what was dealt with there.
Explain the terms: amino acids, essential and non-essential amino
acids, complete, and incomplete protein. List examples for each.
Explain how different amino acids are combined in different ways to
make different proteins.
Discuss the use of amino acid supplements by athletes and body
builders.
List functions of protein in the body.
Review complementary protein (from the intermediate level).
Legumes + grains or seeds or nuts = complete protein.
Research and discuss protein consumption in different parts of the
world and the sources of the protein foods.
List some popular ethnic foods that combine incomplete protein
foods.
17.10
To explain the role and
identify sources of vitamins.
List the vitamins, their functions, and food sources for each.
Distinguish between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. Explain
the implications for daily intake and storage in the body, and for
handling, preparing, and cooking vitamin rich foods.
Define provitamin A.
Explain the relationship between vitamin content and the colour of
food.
Explain the relationship between Vitamin D and the sun. Note the
name "sunshine vitamin." Name places where inadequate sunshine
might cause Vitamin D deficiencies.
Discuss the current information regarding antioxidants and their
relationship to health.
Discuss the controversy surrounding megadoses of vitamins.
Have students list some favorite food sources that are high in each of
the vitamins.
Read labels of foods and supplements to determine what vitamins
are present and in what amount. Compare to RDI requirements.
Review the terms enrichment and fortification. Give examples of
each.
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Learning Objectives
17.11
To explain the role and
identify sources of minerals.
Notes
List the minerals needed by the body and their functions and food
sources.
Define the terms macronutrients, micronutrients/trace elements.
Explain the relationship between amount required and the amount
stored in the body.
Have students list favorite foods that are high in each of the
minerals.
Read labels of foods and supplements to determine what minerals
are present and in what amount. Compare to RDI requirements.
Use a jigsaw activity to research the minerals needed for good
health.
Discuss osteoporosis.
Plan daily meals that are high in specific minerals such as calcium
or iron.
Create ads for the different minerals.
17.12
To understand the
importance of water for good
health. (COM, CCT)
Have students calculate the average amount of water they drink
daily. Name the daily requirement. Have students evaluate their
water intake and suggest ways to improve daily intake of water in
their diets. Have students try to drink the required 6-8 glasses of
plain water for several days. Evaluate the results.
Discuss the importance of adequate amounts of water. List health
problems that may occur if there is insufficient water in the diet.
Discuss liquids that act as diuretics (e.g., coffee, coke), removing
liquid from the body, and why it is important to limit quantities in
the diet.
Discuss the issue of water quality in different parts of the world.
Have students try to increase the amount of water they drink daily.
Suggest ways to include drinking water in their foods classes.
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Module 18: The Canadian Food Mosaic (Core)
Suggested time: 5-10 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
• To understand better the social and cultural aspects of food for all people.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To develop various technological skills related to selecting, preparing, and storing foods. (TL)
• To explore the relationships between culture and the social and geographic influences on food customs.
(PSVS, CCT))
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical applications.
Prepare some typical traditional foods such as bannock, sourdough,
or a fruit crisp. Find recipes in Canadian cookbooks for regional
and/or traditional foods.
Prepare foods unique to your region. Examples are various fruits,
vegetables, venison, elk, moose, prairie chicken, wild goose, duck,
etc. Discuss reasons why this food is common in your area.
Prepare traditional dishes for students in the class. Have each
student do a report concerning typical cultural foods of his/her
background. Examples are perogies, cabbage rolls, samosas, spring
rolls, Jamaican pitas, phyllo savouries, bannock, and sweets.
Research Canadian food patterns and food customs representative of
one of the following: Canada's past, a Canadian geographical region,
or a defined cultural group in Canada. Have students do a report
and prepare a food. For the report, students should consider some of
the following: geography, climate, typical foods, recipes and their
significance, social structure, equipment used, typical ingredients
used, special preparation techniques, presentation, and style of
service. This food preparation and report could be used as a tool to
evaluate understanding of concepts in this module. Sources of
information may include the library, the Internet, the classroom, old
recipe books, community museums, local history books, novels about
early Canada, exchange students, and various cultural groups.
Evaluation of the food prepared should consider nutrition, cost,
management of preparation time, adaptations to recipes because of
equipment and ingredients, and acceptability of food products.
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Learning Objectives
18.1
Notes
To develop an understanding Food in Canada reflects this country's history, size, geography, and
its many ethnic groups. Create an awareness and appreciation for
of our Canadian food
our multicultural heritage.
heritage. (COM)
Experience new foods in personal lives by trying new foods in class.
Students could visit Wanuskewin if they live in or near Saskatoon.
18.2
To examine the food customs
and patterns in Canada's
past.
Analyze the social, cultural, historic, geographic and climatic
influences of Canadian foods. Discuss how weather and seasonal
changes, types of vegetation, fish and game affected the lives and
food choices of the different groups of First Nations people.
Assign students to research food habits and traditions of Aboriginal
(Inuit, Métis or First Nations) peoples across Canada. This may
include peoples from Eastern Woodlands, the Plains, the West Coast,
Northern Canada, or early Canadian settlers in various regions of
Canada.
Teachers of Social Studies 9 and 30 or Native Studies 10 may help to
identify resources for this assignment.
Identify traditional foods typical of the past. Examples include
bannock, tourtiere, sourdough, pemmican, blubber, etc.
Prepare a chart of early First Nations people to outline the part of
Canada in which they lived, their principal foods, and significant
features of their lifestyles.
18.3
To identify cultural
influences of food patterns
within the community.
Recognize the various cultures within specific communities, their
foods and cultural traditions. Survey cultural tradition of students
in the class, staff in the school, or people in the community.
Examine foods in Saskatchewan served by various cultural groups at
various holidays such as Easter and Christmas. Have guest
speakers from the community talk about or prepare some ethnic
foods.
Prepare a list of festival and cultural traditions in which members of
the class are involved.
18.4
To recognize the cultures
represented in Canada and
identify some foods for each.
(COM, CCT)
Create a checklist of terminology of ethnic foods. Explain the
meaning of food terms.
Examine the role of food in retaining cultural heritage and in
adapting to a new cultural environment.
Explore what can be learned about a culture from its foods and food
customs.
73
74
Learning Objectives
18.5
To identify typical foods of
Saskatchewan people and to
examine reasons for
regionalization. (COM, CCT,
IL)
Notes
List and describe foods typical of Saskatchewan. Include in this list
traditional historical foods of Aboriginal peoples and the early
settlers.
Research the Aboriginal people in Saskatchewan and/or any of the
different groups of early immigrants. Examine food patterns,
traditions, lifestyles, typical foods eaten, etc.
Work with the Social Studies teacher.
Study the geography and climate of Saskatchewan and describe how
this determines the various foods grown.
Check a Saskatchewan Food Industry Directory to compare various
foods grown and processed in Saskatchewan.
If time permits and depending upon class interests, individual
students could contact one of these food processors and prepare a
report about the business.
Design a menu of Saskatchewan foods to be served at a world
exposition restaurant.
Design a menu of Saskatchewan foods to be served at a national
convention.
Refer to Module 11 in Tourism, Hospitality, and Entrepreneurship
A30, B30 Curriculum Guidelines, Saskatchewan Education 1998.
18.6
To identify the foods typical
of the various regions in
Canada and to understand
reasons for regionalization.
Explore examples of how geography and climate of a region have
created Canadian regional foods. Name typical foods from each
region in Canada.
Plan dishes in which typical regional foods (e.g., apples, potatoes) are
the principal ingredient. Prepare one of the dishes.
Plan a day's menu for a family of four in one Canadian region using
that region's local foods.
Role play discussions between people from various parts of Canada.
Include and explain in the discussion the similarities and differences
in the foods eaten and the reasons.
Do a bulletin board display with a map of Canada and pictures of
food typical of each region.
18.7
To analyze how nutritional
needs are met through the
food patterns of a culture.
(TL, NUM)
Analyze a sampling of historical, ethnic, and regional foods identified
in this module to determine where they belong in Canada's Food
Guide and/or to determine nutrient values.
75
76
Learning Objectives
18.8
To demonstrate basic
competencies in managing
learning, using resources,
teamwork, leadership, and
developing personal
responsibility. (IL, PSVS)
Notes
These learning objectives will be applied throughout this module
through group activities, discussions, and food preparation.
Write an essay about one’s food culture analyzing reasons why these
foods are eaten. Evaluate how geography, climate, region, food
patterns, history, background, holiday foods, social circumstances,
and resources influence food habits.
Design a three generation questionnaire to compare and contrast
food patterns for three generations.
Compare and contrast one’s lifestyle now with that of a teen living
during early Canada. Discuss family patterns, food habits,
recreation, and home responsibilities.
18.9
To demonstrate safe hygienic During food preparation, safe work habits and correct use of
work habits and correct use
equipment should always be practised and observed.
of tools and equipment. (TL)
Discuss differences and similarities in food preparation techniques,
equipment, and storage of food from the past to present.
18.10
To explore occupational and
entrepreneurial
opportunities related to
ethnic and regional foods.
Develop a checklist of opportunities for careers in this area.
Examples may include heritage sites, restaurants, tourism, import
businesses, owning your own business, catering, etc.
Refer to Module 8 and 10 in Tourism, Hospitality, and
Entrepreneurship A30, B30 Curriculum Guidelines, Saskatchewan
Education 1998.
77
Module 19: International Cuisine (Optional)
Suggested time: 5-10 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To understand the importance of the science of nutrition.
• To understand better the social and cultural aspects of food for all people.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objective
• To explore the relationships between culture and the social and geographic influences on food customs.
(PSVS, CCT)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Note: Work with the Social Studies teacher. Middle level curriculum focuses on the countries of the Pacific
Rim, and Canada’s regional differences.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Recognize and prepare some typical foods served in different parts of
the world.
Prepare some ethnic foods common in your community. Examples
may include cabbage rolls, pyrohies (perogies), crepes, stirfries,
scones, nachos, quesadillas, apple pancakes, schnitzel, donairs, etc.
Do a smorgasbord of foods from a variety of countries.
Prepare a list of spices and herbs used in preparing foods that are
typical of different countries.
Research and describe basic characteristics of cooking in a variety of
countries.
19.1
To experience food customs
of other countries. (COM)
List as many different countries as possible and foods eaten in those
countries. Discuss foods eaten by individual students and the
prevalence of these foods in the Canadian mosaic.
Understand how these foods fit into Canada's Food Guide.
Plan a trip for two months to other parts of the world. Include at
least 6 countries. Make a list of the foods one might choose to eat in
each country.
Participate in a high tea or a Japanese tea ceremony.
List restaurants in the community that serve foods from different
cultures. Note the country represented most often.
78
Learning Objectives
19.2
Notes
To create an appreciation for Have groups of students brainstorm a list of international food terms
the international language of and define them. Have each group report its list and make a master
food.
list.
List different foods, preparation techniques, and equipment used
around the world. Have students identify the food terms and
country involved.
19.3
To understand how food
relates to the region where it
is produced. (CCT)
Foods commonly eaten in a region reflect what is grown or available
locally. This, in turn, is affected by geography, climate, processing,
and storage capabilities, availability of transportation as well as
historical events and social structure. Use examples to illustrate
these ideas.
Discuss how preparation techniques and equipment relate to the
concepts above.
List some staple foods from various countries and explain reasons
why they became traditional staple foods.
19.4
To compare and evaluate
staple foods of the world.
(PSVS)
Grains play an important role in the diet of every country. Give
examples of grains around the world to prove this. Give examples of
staple foods made from the grains.
Role play a discussion among students on the topic: "My country
makes the best grain products."
Explore the similarities of foods (e.g., cheese, rice, corn, wheat) from
various countries.
List the basic grains and find examples of different foods that are
made from them around the world.
Using Canada's Food Guide, choose 5 countries and find examples of
foods that fit into each of the four groups.
79
Learning Objectives
19.5
To understand the role food
plays in the social, cultural,
and psychological well-being
of people. (PSVS)
Notes
Give examples of how food affects the psychological well-being of
people.
Investigate factors that determine the availability of ingredients for
preparing ethnic foods in your community.
Investigate ethnic foods eaten by members of the class or by their
acquaintances. Analyze the role these cultural foods play in their
lives. Examine changes that have been made in the preparation of
these foods and the reasons for these changes.
Analyze the concept that many things in the lives of new immigrants
change but that food habits may be one of the last things to change.
Discuss why.
Interview someone from another country. Ask about foods that are
typical of his/her culture and what modifications or adaptations have
been made in the preparation of these foods.
Choose a country, research its traditional celebrations, and plan a
menu for an event.
19.6
To research the cuisine of
one country of choice.
Write a report on a country of choice researching food patterns and
customs. Consider history, geography, and culture of the country.
Identify indigenous foods. Select, plan, and prepare a food(s) typical
of the country chosen. During food preparation, safe work habits
and correct use of equipment should be practiced and observed.
Evaluate food prepared considering nutrition, cost, management of
preparation time, adaptations to recipes because of equipment and
ingredients, and acceptability of food products.
Compile a cookbook of recipes prepared in class. Include at least one
food from each student's cultural or family background.
80
Module 20: The World of Soups (Optional)
Suggested time: 5- 6 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To apply independent learning skills in the preparation of nutritious foods.
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To understand and use the vocabulary related to diet, food, and food preparation. (COM)
• To apply knowledge when making independent decisions regarding food choices and preparation. (IL,
CCT)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical applications.
Lab ideas: make a cream soup using a white sauce as a base or
prepare a vegetable soup from an assortment of ingredients
provided in the lab.
Students may prepare various soups demonstrating correct
preparation procedures. Have each group choose a different recipe.
Analyze the nutritional value, use of ingredients, seasonings, and
cost. In this module or any others, students may choose their own
recipes, do a time plan, make a grocery order, and evaluate the food
prepared.
Making soup is a good place to include using a pressure cooker, slow
cooker, and kitchen equipment such as stock pot, Dutch oven etc.
Do a comparison of the homemade and convenience soups available
in the marketplace.
20.1
To define the term soup and
evaluate its contribution to
meals. (COM)
Have the students define the term soup. Discuss the importance of
soups to meals.
20.2
To examine the different types
of soup.
Do a matching activity for definitions of the different soups.
Include such terms as: cold, hot, broth, chowder, stock, stew,
bouillon, cream, consommé.
List as many soups as possible and identify ways in which they can
be used in a meal.
81
Learning Objectives
20.3
To list the many different
ingredients in soups, including
those used for thickening and
flavouring.
Notes
Check recipe books for the variety of foods that can be part of a soup
(e.g., vegetables, fish, meat, poultry, fruit).
Based on student's past experiences, make a list of different soups
and the ingredients used.
Discuss the thickening agents used for soups: flour, cornstarch,
tapioca, potatoes, and grains such as barley. Analyze how they
function as thickeners. Give examples of ways they can be used.
Experiment with thickeners using various amounts of thickener
and liquid. Evaluate the results.
Discuss the importance of seasonings in soups.
20.4
To discover how soups fit into
meal planning and evaluate
their nutritional value.
Soups may be used as a snack, appetizer, dessert, main dish entrée,
and soup 'n' salad or soup 'n' sandwich meal combinations.
Evaluate the nutritional value of soups by analyzing the ingredients
used.
Describe the ways soup fit into a healthy eating plan. Refer to
Canada's Food Guide.
20.5
To define terminology
associated with soups.
Define terms such as: clarify, reduce, degrease, puree, curdle,
gelatin, roux.
20.6
To examine and evaluate
commercially prepared soup.
(COM, CCT)
Discuss some of the different types of convenience soups available.
Purchase some sample products. Ask the students what types of
products they have used. Look at the list of ingredients and
evaluate the nutritional value and price of each.
Compare homemade and convenience soups. Calculate the cost,
preparation time, nutritional value, flavour, ingredients, and
additives used for each. Make some generalizations regarding
lifestyles and choices made.
20.7
82
To describe the safe storage of
soups.
Discuss the importance of food safety and proper storage of soups.
Learning Objectives
20.8
To practise good management
skills when making soups.
(TL)
Notes
As a class, discuss ways to be good managers using resources
wisely. Some examples of a good management may include:
• using leftovers (cooked and uncooked) for making stock or as
ingredients
• making a large quantity of soup and freezing some for future
use
• using the oven, a slow cooker, a microwave for cooking or
reheating soups
• saving and freezing cooking water (stock) for later use in soups
• selecting and buying ingredients for use in soups and stocks.
Discuss the economical advantages of soups.
Review types of containers and special techniques to use in
microwave cooking.
20.9
To identify preparation and
cooking techniques involved in
making soups.
Discuss what to do if curdling occurs, ways to thicken, seasoning
and spices, ways to prevent lumping, floury flavour, skin on top,
cooked egg particles, etc.
20.10
To develop creativity in the
preparation and presentation
of soups. (CCT)
Plan some menus using soup as one of the courses. Consider how
soups can be used as different parts of the meal.
Develop a recipe booklet containing simple soup recipes.
Write some food tips suggesting ways to serve soups as quick,
nutritious, and economical menu ideas. Include a suggestion of
other foods that may be used with the soup to make the meal wellbalanced.
Make a list of garnishes that may be used on soups.
Suggest ways to make canned or dried soups a healthier choice.
Outline ways to adapt soup recipes to satisfy the health-conscious
individual.
Discuss the preparation of stock from leftover turkey or (roasting)
chicken bones. Include information for making a healthy
economical meal from this stock. If a chicken or turkey dinner is
made in class, prepare a soup as an additional lab.
83
Learning Objectives
Notes
20.11
To analyze the use of soup in
the food services industry.
(COM, PSVS)
Discuss the use of soup in restaurants in your locale. List some
examples of the soups used. Talk about the importance of these as
basic menu items. Find out how the soups are prepared in
restaurants and discuss the importance of soup on a menu.
20.12
To apply knowledge of soups
and their preparation. (IL)
To evaluate this module, a practical exam may require students to
prepare a soup.
84
Module 21: Sauces (Optional)
Suggested time: 5-6 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To apply independent learning skills in the preparation of nutritious foods.
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To understand and use the vocabulary related to diet, food, and food preparation. (COM)
• To gain the knowledge and develop the skills required to make appropriate food choices and to become
discriminating consumers. (CCT, IL)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical applications.
Lab ideas may include researching cookbooks for sauce recipes
and ideas and preparing some of them singly or in combination
with other foods.
Students should prepare various sauces to demonstrate correct
preparation procedures. Students may prepare a sauce they have
not tried.
21.1
To define the term sauce and
evaluate its contribution to
meals. (COM)
Have students define sauce and discuss the importance of this
food.
21.2
To list and compare different
types of sauces.
Do a matching activity for definitions of the different sauces.
Include such terms as: basic white, cheese, basic brown,
hollandaise, béchamel, veloute, bernaise, mornay, and different
kinds of dessert sauces (custard, hard, butterscotch, chocolate,
lemon, orange, etc.).
Explain the three types of white sauces and identify how they are
used.
Identify ways in which the different sauces may be used in meal
preparation.
Classify the sauces listed below as derivatives of basic sauces.
Examples are: Béchamel-Mornary, Beloute-curry, Brownmushroom, Tomato-Creole, White (Basic)-Cheese.
85
Learning Objectives
21.3
To list the different foods that
may be used as ingredients in
sauces, including those used
for thickening and flavouring.
Notes
Check recipe books for the variety of foods that may be part of
sauces.
Based on student's past experiences, list different sauces and the
ingredients used.
Discuss the thickening agents used for sauces. Analyze how they
function as thickeners. Give examples of ways they can be used.
Experiment with thickeners using various amounts of thickener
and liquid and then cooking the sauce. Evaluate the results.
Discuss the importance of seasoning in sauces.
21.4
To discover how sauces fit into
meal planning and to evaluate
their nutritional value.
Sauces give zest to bland foods, smoothness and coolness to spicy
foods, sweetness to desserts, and are a savoury accompaniment to
main dishes.
Evaluate the nutritional value of sauces by analyzing the
ingredients used.
Describe the ways sauces can fit into a healthy eating plan. Refer
to Canada's Food Guide.
21.5
To examine and evaluate
convenience sauces. (COM,
CCT)
Discuss some of the different types of convenience sauces available.
Purchase some sample products. Ask the students what types of
products they have used. Look at the list of ingredients and
evaluate the nutritional value, flavour, time required to prepare,
and price of each. Make some generalizations as to when the
different types might be chosen and used.
21.6
To describe the safe storage of
sauces.
Discuss the importance of food safety and proper storage of sauces.
Discuss which sauces need to be made as close to serving time as
possible and the reasons why.
21.7
To identify preparation and
cooking techniques involved in
making sauces.
Identify preparation techniques in making a white sauce or
different sauces of choice.
Discuss preparation techniques for emulsified sauces, namely
Hollandaise and Bernaise.
Discuss what to do if curdling occurs, ways to thicken, seasoning
and spices, ways to prevent lumping, floury flavour, skin on top,
cooked egg particles, etc.
86
Learning Objectives
21.8
Notes
To develop creativity in the
Plan some menus using sauces as part of various meals.
preparation and
presentation of sauces. (CCT, List foods that use a white sauce as a base and different ways to use
IL)
a white sauce.
Examine the role of sauces from other food cultures or in “fine
dining.” Example: European, especially French cuisine.
Discuss how to make quick sauces using convenience products such
as canned soups or yogurt as a base.
Make a list of garnishes that may be used on sauces.
Outline ways to adapt sauces to satisfy the health-conscious
individual.
21.9
To analyze the use of sauces
in the food services industry.
Discuss the use of sauces in restaurants in your locale. List some
examples of sauces used. Talk about the importance of these as
menu items. Find out how sauces are prepared in restaurants, to
demonstrate, and discuss their importance in menus.
21.10
To apply knowledge of
sauces and their
preparation. (CCT, IL)
A practical evaluation may include having the students prepare a
sauce. A written evaluation may include having students define
terms.
87
Module 22: Creative Baking (Optional)
Suggested time: 5-8 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
• To be aware of career and employment opportunities related to diet, food, and food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To follow safe procedures when working with equipment and food in the kitchen. (CCT, PSVS)
• To develop an awareness of career and employment opportunities related to food and food preparation. (IL, TL)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical applications.
Choosing from specialty cakes, pastries, desserts, or advanced yeast
breads, have students prepare two or three foods.
Make a gingerbread house and sell raffle tickets.
Have students choose recipes for creative baking that they have
never tried.
Develop scorecards for different products and have taste tests.
22.1
To refine baking skills and
knowledge. (COM, IL, TL)
Students will choose a topic (specialty cakes, pastries, desserts,
advanced yeast breads), research information, and write a report to
include some or all of the following: basics of preparation (handling,
stages in production, shaping, preparation techniques, standards
for evaluation), varieties, storage, uses in meal planning, and
nutritional analysis. A time plan and a grocery list will be
completed in preparation for the task chosen.
As an appendix to the report, list some baker's tips as well as some
ways to improve the nutritional value of the product.
As an alternative students may write a magazine article with
picture layouts or do a multimedia presentation.
22.2
88
To develop creativity in the Have students consider how the prepared food should be presented.
Discuss how food is presented in a restaurant, deli, and magazine.
presentation of the
Talk about garnishes, serving dishes, use of colour, etc.
specialty baked product.
(CCT)
When the food item is prepared it should be attractively presented.
Pictures could be taken for a portfolio.
Learning Objectives
Notes
22.3
To analyze the cost of the
Calculate the cost of supplies needed, tools, equipment, and labour
specialty baked food. (NUM) to prepare the baked food product. Students may pay themselves
the minimum wage for labour cost calculations. Compare with the
cost of a prepared product. Summarize the conclusions in the
report.
22.4
To demonstrate basic
competencies of individual
effort and interpersonal
interaction.
For assessment and evaluation purposes, the teacher may consider
criteria such as independent learning, innovation, use of resources,
teamwork and leadership, responsibility, safety and sanitation,
correct use of tools and equipment, and the completion of
assignments.
22.5
To research careers that
relate to creative baking.
(COM, IL)
Compile a portfolio of pictures of the finished baked products
prepared by the students.
List careers or employment opportunities that relate to this area of
study. Using the newspaper or the employment centre, students
may research job opportunities in this field. They should compile a
list of requirements, academic and personal, that would be
necessary for employment opportunities related to baking.
Depending on the situation and community, a field trip or a job
shadow in a bakery or dessert place may be arranged.
There is potential here for a work study in a local bakery.
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Module 23: Entertaining with Food (Optional)
Suggested time: 5-8 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To be creative when applying knowledge about nutrition to food preparation.
• To understand better the social and cultural aspects of food for all people.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To practise cooperation and teamwork when working in groups. (PSVS)
• To make necessary calculations when selecting, purchasing, preparing, and storing food. (NUM, IL)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Notes
Ideas for practical applications.
Preamble.
Two to four hours may be spent in the preparation of foods.
Students may choose what foods they wish to prepare.
23.1
To examine how
entertaining with food is
related to one's lifestyle.
Review the meaning of lifestyle.
Sharing food with friends is a time-honoured event. For some
people, it has religious or spiritual significance.
Food and friends make an excellent combination for entertaining.
Parties may be held for special occasions or they can be casual gettogethers. For more elaborate parties, planning and organizing are
necessary.
The students may select the type of entertainment events that they
wish to plan and give reasons for their choices. They will plan the
events to suit their lifestyles.
23.2
To plan, organize, and
evaluate an entertainment
event. (IL, PSVS)
Discuss what factors must be considered when planning and
organizing an event. The students should consider the following in
their plans: type of event, budget, menu, management plan, cleanup plan, and an evaluation. Students may also consider food safety
concerns that may arise during handling, preparing, or presenting
the food.
Discuss etiquette that is necessary for the special event. Have
students list ten good table manners. Have then demonstrate how to
set an attractive table and how to serve food properly.
Evaluate the importance of an R.S.V.P.
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Learning Objectives
Notes
23.3
To develop creativity in the Consider how the prepared food should be presented. Discuss how
food is presented in a restaurant, a food deli, and a magazine. Talk
presentation of the food.
about garnishes, serving dishes, use of colour, etc. When the
(CCT)
preparation of the food item is completed, it should be attractively
presented. Pictures may be taken for a portfolio.
23.4
To demonstrate basic
competencies of individual
effort and interpersonal
interaction.
For student assessment and evaluation, consider the following
criteria: independent learning, innovation, use of resources,
teamwork and leadership, responsibility, safety and sanitation,
correct use of tools and equipment, and completion of a report.
23.5
To analyze factors that
influence the nature and
success of an
entertainment event.
(COM, CCT, IL)
Discuss factors that influence the type of entertaining to be selected:
occasion, lifestyle, culture, family traditions, available resources
(money, skills, experience, time), number and ages of guests, and
level of formality. Give examples for each factor.
Different styles of service (buffet, family style, plate, modified
English, formal, etc.) may be outlined and discussed, if time permits.
List some examples of more nutritious foods that may be served at
entertainment events. Consider foods with less fat and fewer
calories.
Outline some of the important entertainment events in your
community and what factors might influence the outcome of each
event.
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Module 24: Foods for Special Occasions (Optional)
Suggested time: 5-8 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To apply independent learning skills in the preparation of nutritious foods.
• To understand better the social and cultural aspects of food for all people.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To practise cooperation and teamwork when working in groups. (COM, PSVS)
• To explore the relationships between culture and the social influences on food customs. (PSVS, CCT)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical applications.
Have students choose two or three foods that their families
traditionally serve and prepare them in class. Calculate the cost of
the foods, do a nutritional analysis, and explain the significance of
foods to the family.
Prepare a class feast, having each class member contribute one dish
that has special meaning to his/her family or culture.
Plan and prepare a Christmas dinner for staff, students, or
community.
24.1
Compile a list of festive occasions throughout the year and name some
To create an awareness of
the various festive occasions foods or beverages traditionally served. Mark with an asterisk the
and the foods that are part of foods that are eaten in students’ homes.
these occasions.
Discuss the importance of holiday times and festive foods.
Check the Internet for examples of festive foods and recipes.
24.2
To examine factors that
influence the selection of
food for special occasions.
(IL, PSVS)
Have the students discuss and give examples of the factors that
influence traditions and how they are celebrated. Factors include
religion, culture, family traditions, lifestyle, financial resources.
List some special occasions and the foods that are served for each.
Have students list various questions that may be used as a guide to
interview three generations (grandparents, parents, and siblings)
regarding food traditions and celebrations.
Interview a parent, relative or friend to learn about his or her cultural
heritage and the role that food plays on special occasions.
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Learning Objectives
Notes
24.3
To identify and analyze the Define the term symbolism. Discuss with students the food or food
traditions associated with prestige, status, affection, friendship,
social situations that are
hospitality, neighbourliness, comfort, and sympathy.
associated with food.
(COM, CCT)
24.4
To plan, organize, and
evaluate a holiday feast.
List the steps that would be necessary to prepare a feast to celebrate
a special occasion or a special holiday. Name two special holidays or
occasions and plan two menus for each. Choose one of the occasions
and include recipes, a time plan, and a grocery list. Consider the
foods that can be made ahead of time as part of the time plan.
Evaluate the time management and the sequence of tasks in the
plan.
24.5
To demonstrate basic
competencies of individual
effort and interpersonal
interaction. (COM, IL)
For assessment and evaluation purposes, the teacher may consider
criteria such as: independent learning, innovation, use of resources,
teamwork and leadership, responsibility, safety and sanitation,
correct use of tools and equipment, and the completion of assigned
work.
24.6
If time permits, a class Christmas (or another holiday time) meal
To apply knowledge in
planning and preparing for may be planned and prepared. Design invitations and invite guests.
Tickets may be sold to cover the cost of the food. This could be a
special events.
major project.
Holiday baking may be prepared and sold to students in the school.
Special holiday baking could be done in class and then shared with
everyone.
If a special event is happening in the school, students could become
involved in the food preparation.
Work study placements may be possible with a local caterer.
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Module 25: Food Preservation (Optional)
Suggested time: 5-8 hours
Foundational Objective
• To understand and practise safety in the preparation and storage of food.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objective
• To develop various skills related to selecting, preparing and storing foods. (TL, IL)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Using fruit that is in season or fruit concentrates, prepare a jam or
jelly. It may be helpful to have students bring containers from home.
If time permits and there is good quality food available for "canning,"
one of the home canning methods could be experienced in class. For
ideas, consult recipes for pickled beets, pickled carrots, zucchini
salsa, freezer tomato sauce, vegetable relishes, etc.
Make use of produce that is available locally (possibly free of charge)
to preserve and to take samples home.
Have students prepare at home and share recipes for preserving
produce.
25.1
To define the term food
preservation and to examine
the reasons for preserving
food. (COM)
Ask students to list ways to prevent food spoilage. Define food
preservation.
List reasons for preserving food at home in the summer and early
fall. Explain the reasons for preserving food commercially.
Explain that almost all the food we buy is preserved in some way.
Consider all the items in a food store.
Identify ways food is preserved in the students' homes today. List
the reasons why many people in our society today do not do much
food preservation.
Evaluate the trend of farmers' markets and specialty shops selling
"home preserves."
Give some examples of foods that could easily be preserved at home.
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Learning Objectives
25.2
To understand the factors that
cause food spoilage.
Notes
Discuss microorganisms (moulds, yeast, bacteria), enzymes within
living cells, and the oxidation of food.
Identify the conditions that are necessary for the microorganisms,
enzymes, and oxidation spoilage agents to work and how they can be
controlled.
Describe the fermentation process. Give examples of foods where it
is desirable to have fermentation and foods where it is undesirable.
Give examples where mould growth is desired.
Discuss the danger of bacteria growth, especially botulism, and how
to prevent botulism poisoning. Include a description of spores and
how they survive.
Examine different foods that have spoiled and state reasons why
spoilage has occurred. Examples that may be used: mould on bread
or cheese, souring of milk, overripe fruit, soft vegetables, and brown
lettuce.
Leave different cut fruits and vegetables in open air for several days.
Record the changes that occur and evaluate the results. Review
guidelines to prevent the growth of pathogens in food.
Note: Some of the experiment ideas may be divided among
the students. Students should report results to other class
members.
Consult with the Biology teacher.
25.3
To identify the basic food
preservation techniques. (TL)
Make a list of ways to preserve foods. These methods include the use
of temperature control (high or low temperature), exclusion of air,
removal of moisture, irradiation, and addition of preservatives.
Discuss these methods, giving examples of foods preserved by each
method. Outline advantages and disadvantages of each food
preservation method. Determine why freezing is the most common
method used at home. Analyze why certain methods are used for
specific foods. Discuss examples of foods that are preserved by
industry as well as at home.
List types of preservatives that are used in processed foods.
Discuss the process of irradiation. Look at the issues involved. Give
examples of irradiated foods in Canada and in other countries.
Make a bulletin board with a title “Make It Last A Little Longer”
and large letters for the word “Safely.” Find or draw pictures of a
refrigerator, freezer, pressure cooker, vinegar, salt, sugar, sun,
packaging materials, etc.
95
Learning Objectives
25.4
To explore food preservation
methods in the past. (COM,
IL)
Notes
List the methods used in the past to preserve foods such as salting,
pickling, drying, and smoking.
Discuss food preservation methods of Aboriginal peoples and early
Canadian settlers.
Research the history of one method of preserving foods. Ask
students to bring old recipe books and examine them.
25.5
To recognize the terminology
of food preservation.
Define some of the terms involved in the home canning of foods.
Examples include: preserve, jam, jelly, conserve, butter, marmalade,
freezer burn, blanching, hot pack, raw (cold) pack, high-acid, lowacid, boiling water bath, brine, and vacuum packed.
Explain the reasons for sterilizing jars and using rubber rings or
paraffin wax. Describe full rolling boil and the sheeting test.
25.6
To discuss techniques
involved in successful and
safe food preservation. (TL)
Design a list of techniques that are necessary for preserving food
safely:
•
•
•
•
•
•
follow tested recipes exactly
be informed; use up-to-date information
choose high quality food
use proper containers and equipment
practise cleanliness
package, label, and store properly.
Determine sources of reliable information for preserving foods such
as the pectin companies and cookbooks. Information from the
Internet may require evaluation.
Demonstrate the proper way to use a pressure cooker or pressure
canner. Explain how a pressure canner works. Discuss the
importance of pressure on boiling point. Discuss the importance of
the high temperature used to kill botulism spores.
25.7
To understand the chemistry
involved in making jam and
jelly.
This may be a good time to illustrate the partnership between
cooking and chemistry. Jelly is an example of a gel. Explain what
this means and the role of and relationship among pectin, acid, and
sugar. Discuss why it is important to get the right balance.
Explain that making jams and jellies requires the use of a
preservative, namely sugar.
Do the pectin experiment with some different samples of fruit juices.
List fruits that are high in pectin and those low in pectin.
Compare and evaluate the different types of pectin in the retail
market.
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Learning Objectives
25.8
To examine the proper
techniques involved in
freezing foods.
Notes
List information necessary for successful and safe freezing of foods.
Include information on:
• types of containers
• double-wrapping
• length of storage time
• temperature of freezer
• proper labeling
• first in first out rule
• blanching
• use of ascorbic acid
• freezing quickly, etc.
Explain why some foods can be frozen successfully while some foods
cannot.
List foods that cannot be frozen successfully.
List foods that can be frozen successfully and have students describe
how to freeze them indicating the length of storage time.
25.9
To examine the proper
techniques involved in home
canning.
Discuss the different processing methods that are used for home
canning: pickling, the pressure canner, boiling water bath, steamer,
hot pack, and raw pack.
Identify guidelines that are important for successful home canning.
Factors include using proper temperatures, sterilizing equipment,
using proper containers, and sealing jars.
Provide a list of different foods that can be preserved. Have the
students, in pairs, explain how each example may be preserved.
Students may give reasons for their decisions.
25.10
To discuss the dehydration of Dehydration of food is a popular food trend.
foods and the equipment
necessary to do it in the
Make a list of examples of dried foods that we buy.
home. (TL)
Examine the way in which drying preserves food, the advantages of
dried food, and what types of foods can be dried.
Explain the different methods for drying food. Suggest foods that
can easily be dried at home. Try drying some foods at home or in the
lab (e.g., microwave fruit leather).
Invite a retailer who sells food dehydrators to explain how a food
dehydrator works.
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Learning Objectives
25.11
To identify the proper
storage conditions that are
necessary for preserved
foods. (TL)
Notes
This is a good time to review storage conditions for the many
different kinds of food products. Make some generalizations about
the safe storage of dried, frozen, canned, and perishable foods
(conditions necessary and storage time).
Visit a grocery store to chart how, where, and why milk, fresh fruits,
vegetables, and meat are stored.
Identify the signs of food spoilage to look for when shopping for foods
and at home.
Discuss the danger in tasting home canned low-acid type foods and
what to do to make them safe.
Create some problem scenarios.
• Explain what to do with your freezer if the electrical power goes
off.
• A neighbour gives you a gift of home canned fish or beans.
• What do you do if you buy canned food with bulging ends?
Have the students come up with some problems of their own.
25.12
To explore ways for using
home preserved foods in
meal planning.
List some home preserved foods and commercially preserved foods.
Design menus using these preserved foods. Stress originality.
25.13
To create an awareness of
the Saskatchewan Food
Industry and its involvement
specifically in the area of
preserving Saskatchewan's
regional foods. (COM, TL)
Research what types of foods are grown and preserved here in
Saskatchewan. Find out about Saskatchewan's food industry and
where information about it can be found. One source is the
Saskatchewan Food Growers’ Association. Invite a guest speaker
from the Saskatchewan Food Growers' Association.
Is there an opportunity here for a work study?
25.14
98
To demonstrate knowledge of The teacher may give students an exam and evaluate their labs and
classroom activities.
food preservation.
Module 26: Food Additives (Core)
Suggested time: 4-5 hours
Foundational Objective
• To understand and practise safety in the selection, preparation, and storage of food.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objective
• To gain the knowledge and develop the skills required to make appropriate food choices and to become
discriminating consumers. (CCT, IL)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
26.1
To develop and explain the
meaning of the term food
additive.
Notes
Do a Label Game Activity. Students will write out the list of
ingredients from ten food packages found at home. Other students in
the class will try to identify the food from the list of ingredients.
Analyze the information that must be on food labels.
Define additive as a “substance added to a food product for a specific
purpose.”
26.2
To recognize that the use of
additives in foods has a long
history.
Explain that certain substances have been used in foods to keep food
longer or to improve the flavour. Using salt and spices to make the
flavour more appealing and to hide the flavour of overripe or spoiled
foods is a long-time practice. Expand on preservation methods used
by early settlers and Aboriginal peoples mentioned in the previous
module.
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Learning Objectives
26.3
To understand the role of
food additives in
commercial foods. (COM,
CCT)
Notes
According to regulation, food additives are used for one or more of
these functions:
• maintaining nutritional quality of food
• improving storage quality
• making the food more attractive, but not in a deceptive manner
• aiding in food processing.
Give examples of food additives used for each of the functions and cite
examples of foods that contain them.
Design a crossword puzzle using various food additives and/or their
functions.
List some of the more commonly used food additives and have
students identify their functions.
Discuss shelf or storage life and how improved transportation has
given us a wider variety of foods. Make a list of foods we have
available because of food additives. Evaluate the importance of these
in the daily diet.
Discuss whether vending machines could operate without the use of
food additives.
Evaluate the foods in vending machines by looking at the food
additives in the list of ingredients. Identify functions.
Using three or four convenience foods, explain the use of each of the
ingredients. A Dictionary of Food Additives may be helpful or use
information from Health Canada.
Make a display or poster showing a food product that contains five or
more food additives. Indicate the purpose of each additive and the
source of the additive, where possible.
26.4
To create an awareness of
the role of the Health and
Protection Branch of Health
and Welfare Canada.
Examine the role of the Health Canada and the Health Protection
Branch in monitoring, regulating, controlling, and protecting the
safety of our foods and drugs. Point out that it makes decisions about
food additives.
Collect newspaper articles of current food-related issues and examine
the involvement of the Health Protection Branch.
Check the Internet for information.
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Learning Objectives
26.5
To create an awareness of
the debate regarding the
use of food additives. (CCT)
Notes
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using food additives.
Consider why some people perceive them as being harmful.
Explain the difference between organic, inorganic, and natural foods.
The Organic Food Growers’ Association in Saskatchewan is a possible
resource. Invite an organic grower to discuss regulations and
benefits.
Identify where people can find accurate information on controversial
food issues. Discuss how, as individuals, we can control the food
additives we consume. Make a list of foods that do not contain food
additives.
26.6
To examine the food
List the food additives that can cause allergic reactions. Examples
additives that cause allergic include sulfites and monosodium glutamate (MSG). Examine the
reactions for some people.
symptoms of an allergic reaction and what to do if an individual has
an allergic reaction. Discuss why these particular additives are used
and identify foods that contain them. Determine what people need to
do to protect their health and safety.
Resources: journals such as Nutrition Today, Allergy Foundation of
Canada, Allergy Information Association.
26.7
To explain the meaning of
the acronym GRAS and to
examine the additives that
are part of this list.
Understand that GRAS is an acronym for Generally Recognized as
Safe and includes such substances as salt, sugar, and spices. Explain
that additives on the GRAS list may be used by a manufacturer
without special permission. All other additives are known as
regulated food additives and permission for use must be obtained
from the Health Protection Branch of Health Canada.
26.8
To find information about
the additives used as sugar
or fat substitutes. (COM)
Locate articles from the Internet or the periodical index in a library to
gather information about sugar or fat substitutes. Summarize
findings. Express opinions about the particular product.
Make a list of foods where sugar or fat substitutes are used. Suggest
possible consumers for these products.
26.9
To be a knowledgeable and
critical consumer. (IL, CCT)
Write a one page essay expressing a viewpoint on the use of food
additives.
Discuss the statement: Many food products exist because of food
additives.
Research a topic related to food additives. Examples: safety of
irradiated foods, use of antibiotics in food animals, hyperactivity in
children and food additives, the history of artificial sweeteners,
Olestra, Ginseng or another popular health promoting products.
Express opinions regarding the research information.
101
Module 27: Current Food Issues (Core)
Suggested time: 5-8 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To develop the desire and ability to access knowledge about issues and obtain factual information before
forming opinions about food-related issues.
• To be aware of and practise environmental protection through conservation and recycling.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To explore present technology and its relationship to the world’s food supply. (TL)
• To explore the relationships between culture and the social and geographic influences on food customs.
(PSVS)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
Preamble.
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
Prepare foods with lentils, legumes, rice, or grains. Identify
countries where these foods are grown and processed.
Prepare foods of choice and use foods from a variety of countries.
Check labels to discover where the food was packaged.
Have students, working in groups, plan and prepare a meal
representing a specific country.
Plan ways to make staple foods more nutritious. Have students
research and present information about each of the topics in this
module.
27.1
To develop a global
perspective regarding food
production and consumption.
(IL)
Define the term global perspective. Discuss where the food we eat
comes from, who produces it, and how is it produced. List some
foods commonly eaten and the countries that produce them.
Keep track of foods eaten in one day. Discover where the foods are
produced/grown.
Discuss how interrelated the world is in terms of food production.
Discuss what individual responsibilities we have when making
food choices.
Have students discuss their feelings and ideas about why they
choose to eat the foods they do. Consider if foods are chosen for
flavour, variety, health, nutrition, etc.
102
Learning Objectives
27.3
To understand that diet
depends, in part, on where a
person lives. (COM)
Notes
Compare nutritional adequacy of diets in specific countries around
the world. In particular, note amount of protein, vitamins, minerals
and fat consumed.
Discuss sources of protein in some of the developing nations.
Find a typical diet from a developing country and analyze it in terms
of Canada's Food Guide.
Using a world map and pictures of available food, identify basic foods
from different countries.
Most hunger deaths are due to nutrition-related sickness and disease.
Identify deficiency illness common in developing countries.
27.4
To examine some myths
regarding world hunger.
(CCT)
There is enough food in the world to meet universal nutritional needs.
Determine what some of the complicating factors are. One factor is
that food resources are not evenly distributed. About 25% of the
people consume 70% of the food. Who owns the land is another issue.
Observe World Food Day in October.
27.5
To understand the meaning
of food security.
Food security has always been an issue for many people in the world.
It is a relatively new concept discussed in Canada. "Everyone has a
right to food security...everyone having access to enough safe,
nutritious and affordable food at all times for an active, healthy
lifestyle regardless of income." Discuss the implications of this
statement for Canadians in general and for people in your
community.
Look at poverty and hunger in Saskatchewan communities. Invite
resource people from the community to talk about the issues.
27.6
To understand the links
between agriculture and the
consumer. (TL)
Discuss agriculture in Saskatchewan and its links with the consumer.
List foods and food products that originate in Saskatchewan. Discuss
the importance of these foods in your daily diet. Decide if these foods
can be identified as staple foods. List the foods that are exported.
Discuss how agricultural issues in Saskatchewan or Canada affect
everyone. Using current issues of The Western Producer, GrainNews,
and the Country Guide have students scan headlines and editorials to
identify some issues facing agriculture. Review “Agriculture and
You” published by the Canadian Western Agribition.
Recognize how world farming issues are Canadian farming issues.
Invite guest speakers or take an Agribition tour, if in or near Regina.
Consult the Agriculture Studies 30 Curriculum Guidelines and/or
teacher.
103
104
27.7
Learning Objectives
Notes
To understand the
relationship between
biotechnology in
agriculture and your food.
(CCT, TL)
Define the term biotechnology. Be aware of how often it is discussed
today.
Discuss the issues and benefits of biotechnology in agriculture and
for the food you eat.
Check the Internet for agri-food information regarding
biotechnology. There is a lot of information available and
considerable controversy regarding this current agriculture issue.
27.8
To demonstrate how the
five Rs may be applied to
daily lives. (PSVS)
Identify the 5 Rs. The 5 Rs are reduce, reuse, recycle, revalue, and
refuse. Discuss ways in which individuals may act locally for each of
the Rs.
Prepare a bulletin board with ideas for the 5 Rs.
Prepare environmentally friendly cleaning products for use at home
and in the classroom.
Put the 5 Rs into action in the classroom.
27.9
To provide opportunities
for taking action to be
responsible world citizens.
(PSVS, IL)
Understand that taking action to express and uphold values is
important. Research the issues well first to get the facts so that all
consequences for people involved are considered. Keep in mind that
some actions may have harmful consequences and that some
solutions may not solve the problem for the people involved.
Invite guest speakers who are involved in national and international
issues. Guests may include people working for NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), SCIC, CUSO, CIDA, government
agencies, or a food company. Ask about their work, research,
organizational policies, etc.
Discuss and explore ways to become involved locally for global
results.
27.10
Refer to news clippings on current food issues, nutrition,
To demonstrate
understanding of concepts biotechnology, agriculture, etc. Present the summary of one or two
discussed in this module. of them in class.
Include summaries of current food issues in school newsletters.
Research and report on a current global issue. Examples are:
agribusiness in developing countries, the use of chemicals and
fertilizers in farming practices, the role of women and children in
subsistence farming, ways to reduce waste in consumer goods, issues
of biotechnology, or any of the issues surrounding the terminology at
the beginning of the module. Deal with the issues through role play,
debate, panel discussion, etc.
105
Module 28: Exploring Careers (Optional)
Suggested time: 5-6 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To identify and evaluate personal qualities related to career choices.
To be aware of career and employment opportunities related to diet, food, and food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To develop various technological skills related to accessing information. (TL, IL)
To develop an awareness of career and employment opportunities related to diet, food, and food preparation. (PSVS)
Note: Other CELs may be emphasized.
Learning Objectives
28.1
To examine how to prepare now
for a successful career. (CCT)
Notes
Ideas for practical application.
As a class list basic skills that are necessary now for success in any
field of employment. Some ideas are: be responsible, be willing to
learn, have basic computer and math skills, practice teamwork,
communicate effectively, etc.
Have students discuss how these skills and qualities may be
developed and applied in their daily lives.
28.2
To discover what personal
skills, abilities, and interests
can be applied to careers in food
and nutrition. (PSVS)
List all personal attributes that would be useful and/or necessary if
considering a career in this area. Ideas include: working well with
people, having an interest in food, being creative, working well with
your hands, being a leader, etc.
28.3
To explore careers in food and
nutrition.
Brainstorm a list of careers in the area of food and nutrition: food
production and marketing, food technology, food service, nutrition,
research, etc. Give as many examples for each as possible.
Students may also consider working for government departments or
being an entrepreneur.
Define entry level and list requirements for each.
If the textbook Food for Life is available, the following are some
suggested activities:
• Review some of the career sketches. Students may select those
that interest them.
• Make a list of all career sketches and categorize into the areas
listed.
• Divide the class into groups to examine the career sketches from
various chapters. Report back to the class.
Do a bulletin board of career ideas. Have students help with ideas,
pictures, and drawings.
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Learning Objectives
28.4
To identify how to choose a
career.
Notes
List some careers to explore in the food industry. Pick a career of
interest and research it. Draw up a list of areas to examine such as
education required, working conditions, advantages and
disadvantages, availability of employment, wages, personal
qualifications.
Develop a list of questions to ask about the career or job. Interview
an employer in that job/career. Report back to class.
Participate in a job shadow.
Invite guest speakers.
Access the Saskatchewan Education website and visit “Careers
called Success.”
Check with the guidance counselor in your school, scan postsecondary calendars, and search the Internet for information
regarding continuing education and careers.
28.5
To demonstrate understanding
of concepts and information.
(COM, CCT, IL)
Evaluation should include that of completed class assignments and
classroom activities.
107
Module 29: Work Study Preparation and Follow-up Activities (Optional)
Note: Module 29 Work Study Preparation and Follow-up Activities is 5-10 hours. If students have
participated in a work study module in a previous Practical and Applied Arts course, a review of this module
is still required but less time is needed.
Note: look for opportunities to introduce and reinforce ideas about Labour Standards, Occupational Health
and Safety, and Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS). Use the Work Experience
Education Guidelines (Saskatchewan Education 1989), the Saskatchewan Labour website, and other
recommended resources.
Suggested time: 5-10 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To identify and evaluate personal qualities related to career choices.
To be aware of career and employment opportunities related to diet, food, and food preparation.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To practise cooperation and teamwork when working in groups. (PSVS, IL)
Learning Objectives
29.1 To create an awareness of the
expectations of each of the
partners in the work study
component.
Notes
In order to establish a successful working relationship with all of
the partners involved in the workplace, it is important to define the
expectations of each partner.
Refer to the Guidelines for Work Study, a component of the
Practical and Applied Arts Handbook for expectations of business,
the student, the teacher monitor/supervisor, and the school.
29.2 To determine factors that would
affect the student contribution in
the workplace. (CCT)
The students may list what they can bring to the workplace and
how each may impact on their job:
• school subjects
• past experiences
• self-concept and personality
• needs, interests, and values
• knowledge, skills, and attitudes
• career goals and plan
Ask students to do a self-assessment of skills using the items in the
above list as a guide. They are to explain how these attributes and
experiences would be valuable to the food service industry. Try to
incorporate the value of communication and teamwork in the
discussion.
108
Learning Objectives
29.4 To develop a résumé and cover
letter that can be forwarded to a
potential employer. (CCT, COM)
Notes
The student will develop a résumé and cover letter using the
correct format. The résumé and cover letter may be used as an
introduction of the student to the employer in a workplace site prior
to an interview with the student.
The résumé: It is suggested that teachers work with other staff
members to ensure résumé and cover letter preparation is taught.
The résumé and cover letter is currently included in English
Language Arts 20 and 30A, Information Processing, and Work
Experience Education 20 courses.
Students should develop the résumé on a computer disk and update
the résumé during the course, as references are accumulated.
If students have already completed the résumé and cover letter in
another course, the teacher may do a review and encourage
students to update their résumés. Students shall submit résumés
for teacher approval prior to going to the workplace.
29.5 To determine student guidelines
in preparation for an interview.
Using class or group discussions, students may list guidelines for
an interview. The instructor may add missing items to the list.
Outline and describe the three stages of an interview. Point out to
the students in what stage each of their guidelines, previously
discussed, will be used.
The greeting involves an introduction between the student and
employer. Discuss or demonstrate how this should be done.
The exchange is where the employer asks a series of questions and
engages in a conversation with the student about information on
the résumé and other matters relating to the job placement.
The parting brings the interview to a close. It can be just as
important as the greeting. Explain how this can be done.
Provide the students with a list of questions frequently asked by
employers or ask students to list and role play the stages of the
interview.
29.6 To discuss the post interview.
(COM, PSVS, IL, CCT)
After the student has completed the interview with the employer,
do a follow-up activity. Review the interview with the student
using the three stages as points for discussion.
If more than one placement has been made in the course, follow-up
activities must be completed after each placement.
109
Learning Objectives
Notes
29.7 To develop procedural guidelines
for the worksite. (COM)
Discuss the following prior to placement:
a)
transportation
b)
absence and tardiness
c)
problems arising on the worksite
d)
teacher-student-supervisor relationships
e)
evaluation criteria
f)
expected hours of work.
29.8 To analyze feedback from the
work placement. (CCT)
Discuss with the students how the above issues were handled
during placement.
Ask students to respond to the points listed below (in an
assignment or in a verbal interview):
a) expected hours of work
b) dress code
c) job description
d) school expectations
e) employer expectations
f) role of the supervisor
g) goal definition.
Students’ feedback about work placement should include: where
they were placed, type of business, duties, most rewarding
experience, most difficult situation, and how it was handled. It is
recommended that each student send a thank you note or card to
the employer upon the completion of each work placement.
Using case studies, have students role play problems that arise in a
workplace setting. Discuss possible solutions.
29.9
110
To relate feedback from the
work placement. (CCT)
Students provide feedback about work placement including: where
they were placed, type of business, duties, most rewarding
experience, most difficult situation and how you handled it. It is
recommended that each student send a thank you note or card to
the employer upon the completion of each work placement.
Module 30: Work Study (Optional)
Suggested time: 25-50 hours
Foundational Objectives
• To be aware of the careers and opportunities in the field of food studies that exist in Saskatchewan and
other provinces.
• To integrate classroom learning with work-related learning.
• To increase awareness of employability skills as they relate to the work environment.
Common Essential Learnings Foundational Objectives
• To engage in a work study experience and develop entry level workplace skills that may lead to
sustainable employment. (PSVS)
• To expand career research beyond the classroom setting. (IL)
For more information about implementing work study in schools see the Work Study Guidelines for the
Practical and Applied Arts included in the Practical and Applied Arts Handbook (Draft Saskatchewan
Education 1999). Teachers need to use or design appropriate learning objectives for this module; for
instance, to demonstrate ability to follow a “Training Plan”. The training plan for the student should be
designed to relate to the objectives of the course modules, in cooperation with the workplace mentor.
111
References
Alberta Education. 1996. Food studies. Career and technology studies. Edmonton, AB: Author.
Kowtaluk, H. 1997. Discovering food and nutrition. 5th ed. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.
Kowtaluk, H. and Kopan, A. O. 1997. Food for today. 6th ed. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.
Misener J. and Kearns, S. 1993. Expanding your horizons: A career guide. Toronto, ON: McGraw-Hill
Ryerson Limited.
Saskatchewan Education. 1977. Home economics. Food for living. Regina, SK: Author.
Saskatchewan Education. 1983. Home economics 30. Food and its preparation. Regina, SK: Author.
Saskatchewan Education. 1983. Home economics 30. Food and nutrition. Regina, SK: Author.
Saskatchewan Education. 1988. Understanding the common essential learnings: A handbook for teachers.
Regina, SK: Author.
Saskatchewan Education. 1989. Evaluation in education: Report of the Minister’s Advisory Committee on
Evaluation and Monitoring. Regina, SK: Author.
Saskatchewan Education. 1989. Work experience education guidelines. Regina, SK: Author.
Saskatchewan Education. 1991. Student evaluation: A teacher handbook. Regina, SK: Author.
Saskatchewan Education. 1991. Instructional approaches: A framework for professional practice. Regina,
SK: Author.
Saskatchewan Education. 1998. Tourism, hospitality, and entrepreneurship A30, B30. Curriculum
guidelines. A practical and applied art. Regina, SK: Author.
Saskatchewan Education. 1999. Practical and applied arts handbook (Draft). Regina, SK: Author.
Siebert, M. and Kerr, E. 1994. Food for life. Toronto, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited.
112
Appendix A: Recordkeeping Chart
Food Studies 10
Student Name_______________________________________________
Student Number______________________
Module Code
Module
FOOD01
FOOD02
FOOD03
FOOD04
FOOD05
FOOD06
FOOD07
FOOD08
FOOD09
FOOD12
FOOD13
THER05
Module 1: Kitchen Basics C
Module 2: Kitchen and Food Safety C
Module 3: Baking Basics C
Module 4: Food and Health C
Module 5: Grains C
Module 6: Vegetables and Fruits C
Module 7: Milk and Dairy Products C
Module 8: Eggs C
Module 9: Snacks C
Module 12: Cakes and Pastries O
Module 13: Baking with Yeast O
Module 5: Food Safety and Sanitation O
(from Tourism, Hospitality, and Entrepreneurship A30,
B30 Curriculum Guidelines)
Date
Teacher Initial
C = core module
O = optional module
* = refers to modules required for post secondary articulation/recognition
It is recommended that this document be printed on school letterhead.
113
Food Studies 30
Student Name_______________________________________________
Student Number______________________
Module Code
Module
FOOD10
FOOD11
FOOD14
FOOD15
FOOD16
FOOD17
FOOD18
FOOD19
FOOD20
FOOD21
FOOD22
FOOD23
FOOD24
FOOD25
FOOD26
FOOD27
FOOD28
FOOD29
FOOD30
Module 10:
Module 11:
Module 14:
Module 15:
Module 16:
Module 17:
Module 18:
Module 19:
Module 20:
Module 21:
Module 22:
Module 23:
Module 24:
Module 25:
Module 26:
Module 27:
Module 28:
Module 29:
Module 30:
Date
Canada’s Food Guide and Beyond C
Food Through the Life Cycle O
Keep it Cold C
Protein Foods C
Make Mine Quick and Healthy O
The Science of Nutrition C
The Canadian Food Mosaic C
International Cuisine O
The World of Soups O
Sauces O
Creative Baking O
Entertaining with Food O
Foods for Special Occasions O
Food Preservation O
Food Additives C
Current Food Issues C
Exploring Careers C
Work Study Preparation and Follow-up Activities O
Work Study O
C = core module
O = optional module
* = refers to modules required for post secondary articulation/recognition
It is recommended that this document be printed on school letterhead.
114
Teacher
Initial
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