UNIVERSITY OF MALTA THE MATRICULATION CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION ADVANCED LEVEL

UNIVERSITY OF MALTA THE MATRICULATION CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION ADVANCED LEVEL
UNIVERSITY OF MALTA
THE MATRICULATION CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
ADVANCED LEVEL
CHEMISTRY
May 2011
MARKING SCHEME
MATRICULATION AND SECONDARY EDUCATION
CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONS BOARD
Marking scheme
PAPER 1
Required Data: Relative atomic masses: C = 12; O = 16; Na = 23. One mole of any gas
or vapour occupies 22.4 dm3 at STP and the molar gas constant is 8.31 J K-1 mol-1.
Answer all questions
1. (a) (i) Define the term first ionisation energy.
Energy required to remove the first electron from a mol of atoms (0.5)
in the gaseous state (0.5)
(1 mark)
(ii) Sketch a graph showing the variation in first ionisation energy for the elements
Li to Ne and explain the trend in the graph.
First
ionization
energy
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F Ne
Element
Award 2 marks for the correct sketch graph showing a general increase
for Li – Ne with dips for B and for O. Across the period, nuclear charge
increases but not the shielding effect hence IE’s tend to increase (1).
The lowering in IE for B reflects the 2s-2p energy gap (0.5) and that
for O the fact that the electron is being removed from a doubly
occupied orbital (hence easier to remove due to electronic repulsion
2
(0.5). Accept also the explanation based on a higher IE for Be and
N due to the extra stability of half and full outer orbitals. (4 marks)
(iii) Explain the relative values of ionisation energy of Li and Na.
Li has a higher IE (0.5) due to the fact that the effective nuclear charge
is greater for Li as the distance of the electron from the nucleus is smaller
and there is lower screening effect from inner electrons (0.5)
(1 mark)
(b) The species F–, O2- and Na+ all have the same number of electrons.
(i) Write down the electronic configuration in terms of orbitals for these species.
1s2 2s2 2p6
(1 mark)
(ii) Place the species in order of their radius and explain the trend.
O2- > F- > Na+ (1)
In O2-, the dinegative overall charge of the
ion weakens the nuclear attraction for electrons so that the ionic radius
increases and is larger than the singly negatively charged radius of F-;
conversely, for Na+, the positive charge increases the nuclear attraction and
produces a much reduced ionic radius. (1,1)
(3 marks)
(Total: 10 marks)
2. (a) The standard enthalpy of combustion of graphite is –393 kJ mol–1. The bond
enthalpy terms for O=O and C=O are respectively 497 kJ mol–1 and 803 kJ mol–1.
Estimate the standard enthalpy change of atomization for graphite:
C (graphite)
C (g)
Using the following Hess cycle, where a, b and c represent the
respective enthalpy changes for the reactions shown:
3
a
g
O
2
()
)
(
+
g
C
e
t
i
h
p
a
r
g
C
+
2
g
O
()
()
b
c
2
O
C
(1)
We write: a = b + c
and substituting values, where x = atomization
energy for graphite, and E’s the bond enthalpy terms, we get:
a = x + E(O=O) = (-393) + 2 E(C=O)
x = -393 + 2(803) – 497 = +716 kJ mol-1 (2)
Accept correct alternative approaches.
(3 marks)
(b) The C=O bonds in carbon dioxide are said to be polarised yet the carbon dioxide
molecule is not polar. Explain this statement as fully as possible.
The electronegativity of O being much higher than that of C produces a
polar (δ+)C-O(δ-) bond (1); however, since the molecule is linear, the dipole
moment vectors on each C-O bond neutralize each other to give zero net
dipole moment and a non-polar molecule (1)
(2 marks)
(c) Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to produce carbonate, CO32–, as one of the ions
in solution.
(i) Write chemical equations to represent how this ion forms in solution.
CO2 (g) +
H2O (l)
= H2CO3 (aq)
(0.5)
H2CO3 (aq) + H2O (l)
= H3O+ + HCO3-(aq) (0.5)
HCO3-(aq) + H2O (l)
= H3O+ + CO32-(aq)
4
(1)
If carbonic acid is shown as ionizing in a SINGLE step to produce
carbonate (and two protons), award only 0.5 mark.
(2 marks)
(ii) Explain why all bond angles in the carbonate ion are equal.
Explanation in terms of delocalized electrons (or resonance hybrid) to
produce three equal bonds, repulsion between electron density of which is
equal thus generating a species with bond angle of 120o.
(2 marks)
(d) Excess hydrochloric acid was poured on 0.2 g sodium carbonate and the gas
was collected at 298 K. Calculate the volume in cm3 if the gas was measured at a
pressure of 105 N m–2.
From the chemical equation: Na2CO3 + 2 H+ = 2 Na+ + CO2 + H2O
1 mol CO2 forms 1 mol Na2CO3 (0.5)
Hence mol CO2 formed = mol Na2CO3 = 0.2/(23X2 + 12 + 16X3)
= 0.2/106 = 0.00189
(0.5)
Volume V = nRT/P (0.5) = 0.00189 X 8.31 X 298/105 = 4.68 X 10-5 m3 (1)
Hence volume in cm3 = 4.68 X 10-5 m3 X 106 cm3/m3 = 46.8 cm3 (0.5) (3 marks)
(Total: 12 marks)
3. The following equilibrium is established at 2000 K.
CO (g)
+
H2O (g)
CO2 (g)
+
H2 (g)
The equilibrium constant, Kp, for the reaction at 2000 K is 0.2; however, the value at
1150 K is 0.9.
(a) State, with reasons,
(i) whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic
5
The reaction is exothermic (0.5) since the equilibrium constant and hence
yield from the (forward) reaction decreases at higher temperature (0.5) (1
mark)
(ii) how changes in pressure affect, if at all, the position of equilibrium.
No effect on position of equilibrium with change in pressure (0.5) since the
molar amounts do not change with the extent of reaction (0.5)
(1 mark)
(b) Carbon monoxide and water vapour, each at 0.5 atm, were introduced into a reaction
vessel and allowed to reach equilibrium at 2000 K. Calculate
(i) the partial pressure of each gas in the vessel at equilibrium
If the partial pressure of CO2 at equilibrium = x atm, then p. press. of H2 = x
atm and that of CO and H2O are each equal to (0.5 – x). (1)
Kp = P(CO2)P(H2)/P(CO)P(H2O) (0.5) and substituting and solving for x:
x2 /(0.5-x)2 = 0.2
or
x/(0.5 – x) = 0.20.5 = 0.447
x = 0.154 atm (1)
Partial pressure of CO2 = partial pressure of H2 = 0.154 atm
Partial pressure of CO = partial pressure of H2O = 0.346 atm (0.5)
(3 marks)
(ii) the mole fraction of hydrogen in the final mixture.
Mol fraction of H2 = no. of mol H2/total no. of mol of gases
(0.5)
= partial pressure of H2/ total pressure (Dalton’s law)
= 0.154/1 = 0.154 (0.5)
(1 mark)
6
(c) For the reaction of carbon monoxide with steam, sketch and label on the same set of
axes graphs to show changes in (i) concentration of reactants and (ii) concentration of
products with time. Indicate clearly the point at which equilibrium is reached.
Equilibrium (time when concentrations
remain invariant)
Reactants
conc
Products
(2 marks)
Time
Award 1 mark for correct representation of reactants and products
showing products starting from zero concn and remaining below
concentration of reactants and 1 mark for correct point when equilibrium is
reached. Deduct 1 mark if equilibrium concentrations are shown as being
equal.
(d) The reaction above is involved in the industrial preparation of hydrogen starting
from natural gas. Explain the principle of the process giving relevant chemical
equations.
Natural gas, CH4, (0.5) is oxidized to CO using steam at 700 – 1100oC
to form CO and H2 according to equation CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2. (1)
More steam is passed thru’ the gas mixture (synthesis gas) in the
presence of iron oxide catalyst to convert carbon monoxide into more
hydrogen: CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 (1) and the carbon dioxide is removed
by dissolving in water under pressure. (0.5) Accept partial oxidation
of methane to CO and H2 by combustion in air followed by steps
to remove the CO.
(3 marks)
(Total: 11 marks)
4. Consider the following hydrides:
NaH
HCl
H2S
NH3
CH4
(a) Explain which of the hydrides dissolves in water to produce a solution with a pH
that is different from that of pure water and explain how this happens.
7
NaH dissolves in water and decomposes it and also raises considerably the
H- + HOH = H2 + OH- (1)
pH of the solution due to reaction:
HCl dissolves and ionizes almost completely to form H+(aq) and thus lowers
the pH considerably. (0.5) H2S ionizes slightly in water to form mainly
H+(aq) and HS-(aq) thus lowering somewhat the pH. (1) Ammonia ionizes
slightly to form NH4+ and OH- thus raising the pH somewhat (1). Methane
has no reaction with water and does not dissolve. (0.5)
(4 marks)
(b) Explain why a solution of HCl in water conducts electricity but a solution of the
compound in hexane does not.
In water, HCl reacts to form ions {H+(aq) = H3O+(aq)} and Cl- and these are
responsible for the conductivity of the solution. (1) In hexane, since the
solvent cannot accept protons (no lone pairs), (0.5) the HCl molecule remains
un-ionized and the solution is therefore non-conducting. (0.5)
(2 marks)
(c) (i) Describe how hydrogen sulfide can be prepared in the laboratory.
Add dilute acid to iron(II) sulfide and collect by displacement of water. (1)
Accept any other reasonable answer (e.g. hydrolysis of aluminium sulfide).
(Since direct union of hydrogen and sulfur gives poor yields award only 0.5
mark.)
(1 mark)
(ii) Explain why hydrogen sulfide is a gas at room temperature yet water is a liquid.
Explanation in terms of H-bonding in water due to polar O-H bond resulting
from differing electronegativity values for H and O but for HSH, only van
der Waals forces hold the molecules together. (2 marks)
8
(iii) Would methane be expected to have a higher, lower or similar boiling point to that
of hydrogen sulfide? Explain your answer.
Both methane and H2S lack H bonding. (0.5) But with a higher molecular
size/mass, hydrogen sulfide is expected to have greater van der Waals
forces and hence a higher bp than methane. (1.5) Accept also answer
stating that H2S has a net weak dipole moment (0.5) while methane has
none and hence the sulfide hase stronger intermolecular forces (1)
(2 marks)
(Total:11 marks)
5. This question is about the chemistry of nitrogen and its compounds.
(a) Explain why nitrogen is an unreactive element.
Due to strong N to N triple bond which needs to be broken for nitrogen to
react.
(1 mark)
(b) Complete the following table by stating the observations and writing chemical
equations to describe the reactions involving the following nitrogen compounds.
Nitrogen compound
Heating crystalline lead(II)
nitrate in a test tube.
Observations
Salt gives off small
explosions (decrepitates)
and releases brown gas
turning into a yellow coloured
solid.
Chemical equation
Pb(NO3)2 = PbO +
2 NO2 + 0.5 O2
(1)
(1)
Heating liquid dinitrogen
tetraoxide in a beaker.
The pale yellow (or
colourless) liquid evaporates
forming copious dark brown
fumes
(0.5)
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N2O4 = 2 NO2
(1)
Adding to about 2 mL of
aqueous lead(II) nitrate in a
small test tube several drops of
aqueous iron(II) sulfate
followed by about 1 mL of
concentrated sulfuric acid
which is allowed to form a
separate bottom layer.
A white precipitate forms
and a brown ring at the
interface of the two layers
Passing ammonia gas over
heated copper(II) oxide.
The black oxide turns into a
reddish brown solid and
water condenses away from
the hot zone of reaction.
(0.5, 0.5)
The precipate forms
thus
Pb2+ + SO42- = PbSO4
(0.5)
The brown ring is due
to the formation of
[Fe(NO)(H2O)5]2+; the
NO being a reduction
product from NO3thus:
3Fe2+ + NO3-+ 4H+ = 3
Fe3+ + NO + 2 H2O
(1)
2 NH3 + 3 CuO = 3 Cu +
3 H2O + N2
(1)
(1)
(8 marks)
(c) The explosive ammonium nitrate(V) is an unstable substance because the cation can
be readily oxidised by the anion in the salt. Identify the products of decomposition and
describe the oxidation number changes for N which occur. Compare these changes
with those occurring when ammonium nitrate(III) is heated.
In ammonium nitrate(V): NH4+ [N(-3)] becomes N2O [N (+1)] = oxidation;
NO3- [N (+5)] becomes N2O = reduction. (0.5, 0.5)
In ammonium nitrate(III): NH4+ [N(-3)] becomes N2 [N (0)] = oxidation;
NO2- [N (+3)] becomes N2 = reduction. (0.5, 0.5)
(2 marks)
(Total: 11 marks)
6. A nucleophilic substitution reaction occurs when 2-bromo-2-methylpropane is
warmed with aqueous sodium hydroxide.
When the reaction was investigated the following kinetic data were obtained.
10
Experiment number
1
2
3
Initial [(CH3)3CBr]
/mol dm–3
0.010
0.020
0.020
Initial [OH–]
/mol dm–3
0.010
0.010
0.020
Initial rate of reaction
/mol dm–3 min–1
2.0 × 10–3
4.0 × 10–3
4.0 × 10–3
(a) Write an equation for the reaction and explain what is meant by ‘nucleophilic
substitution’.
(CH3)3 CBr(l)
+
NaOH(aq)
=
(CH3)3 COH(l)
+
NaBr(aq) (0.5)
Nucleophilic substitution involves attack by a nucleophile being a species
that is attracted to a positively charged site since it has a lone pair which
can be used to form a covalent bond and in the process another bond is
broken so that a substitution reaction takes place [can be explained by
reference to the HO-C bond being made and the C-Br bond being broken in
the given reaction (even if not in that order in this case!)]. (1.5)
(2 marks)
(b) (i) Deduce the order of the reaction with respect to each of the reactants explaining
your answer.
From expt 1 and 2, doubling the [RX] doubles the rate; hence order with
respect to RX is 1.
From expt 2 and 3, the rate is independent of [OH-], hence order with
respect to OH- is 0.
(1, 1)
(2 marks)
(ii) Calculate the rate constant at the temperature at which the data were obtained.
11
Since rate equation is Rate = k [RX]; k = Rate/[RX]. Using data from say
expt 1, we get k = 2 X 10-3 mol dm-3 min-1/0.01 mol dm-3 = 0.2 min-1 (2)
Deduct 0.5 mark if units are omitted.
(2 marks)
(iii) Suggest a value for the rate constant measured at a temperature 10 K higher than
that at which the data were obtained and account for it in terms of the collision
theory.
The rate approximately doubles for every 10 K rise in temperature (0.5);
i.e. the rate constant at the higher temperature is about 0.4 min-1 (0.5).
Molecular speeds increase with temperature and collisions become more
energetic allowing the activation energy barrier to reaction to be overcome
and molecular collisions to become more fruitful.
(1)
(2 marks)
(c) Write equations to represent the mechanism of the reaction and suggest which step is
the rate determining step.
The slow rate determining step involves only the halogenoalkane which
ionizes to form carbocation Me3C+ and Br- thus:
Me3C-Br
Me3C+
=
+
Br- (1)
The activation energy for this reaction is presumably overcome by energy
acquired through molecular collisions. (1)
The carbocation can rapidly react by nucleophilic attack by OH- to form the
alcohol thus:
Me3C+
+
OH-
=
Me3C-OH (1)
(3 marks)
(Total: 11 marks)
7. (a) Explain, giving chemical equations, how copper(II) sulfate can be converted into
the following species:
12
(i) CuO;
(iii) [Cu(NH3)2]+ (aq).
(ii) CuI;
(i) Add aqueous NaOH to aqueous copper sulfate and filter the precipitated
Cu(OH)2 (0.5); CuSO4(aq) + NaOH(aq) = Cu(OH)2(s) + Na2SO4(aq) (0.5);
heat the hydroxide (0.5) : Cu(OH)2 = CuO + H2O
(0.5) accept correct
alternatives.
(ii) Add aqueous KI to aqueous copper sulfate and filter off the precipitate
and wash off soluble side products: (1)
2 KI(aq)
+ CuSO4(aq)
= CuI(s)
+ 0.5 I2(aq) + K2SO4(aq) (1)
(iii) Add aqueous ammonia to CuI formed as previously (1)
CuI(s) + 2 NH3
=
Cu(NH3)2
+
+
I(6 marks)
(b) (i) A galvanic cell can be constructed from the following two electrodes having the
standard electrode potentials shown:
Cu2+(aq), Cu(s) Eo = +0.34 V
Fe2+(aq), Fe(s) Eo = – 0.44 V
Represent the cell by a cell diagram, deduce its emf and polarity, and write a redox
equation for the cell reaction.
Cell diagram: Cu(s)/Cu2+ (aq) // Fe2+(aq)/Fe(s)
(1) [accept if written
with iron electrode on the LHS].
Emf of cell = Ecell = Eo(Right electrode) – Eo(Left electrode)
= (-0.44) - (+0.34) = - 0.78V
13
(0.5)
Polarity of cell: Right hand electrode (iron) is negative (0.5) : hence
electron flow towards the positive pole, ie. from the iron to the copper
electrode. The associated cell reaction is :
Cu2+ + Fe = Cu + Fe2+ (1)
(3 marks)
(ii) State and explain what is expected to happen to the emf of the cell when excess
aqueous ammonia is added to the solution in the copper electrode.
The [Cu2+] is reduced as tetraamminecopper(II) ions form. By Le
Chatelier’s principle, equilibrium shifts to the left to produce more
copper(II) and less iron(II) and this causes electron flow in the redox
reaction and hence the emf of the cell to be reduced (less than 0.78 V).
Accept explanation in terms of reference to Nernst’s equation for the
copper electrode.
(2 marks)
(Total: 11 marks)
8. Give the structural formula of ONE appropriate organic substance which fits each of
the following statements. Each section carries equal marks.
(a) the product of reaction of a primary alcohol containing four carbon atoms and excess
hot sulfuric acid;
an alkene, e.g. CH2=CHCH2CH3
(2)
(b) a precipitate which forms when an aliphatic aldehyde reacts with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine;
2
O
N
2
O
N
H
N
N
H
C
3
H
C
e.g.
(2)
(c) the product of reaction of a salt of 4-methylbenzoic acid with hot soda lime;
3
H
C
(2)
(d) the product of Hofmann degradation of 2-phenylethanamide;
14
2
H
N
H2
C
(2)
(e) a substance which reacts with benzene in the presence of anhydrous aluminium
e.g.
(
O2
O
C
H2
C
H3
C
l
C
O
C2
H
C
H3
C
chloride to produce a ketone which gives a negative result in the iodoform test;
or
)
etc. (2)
(f) a substance which is easily oxidized and which reacts with sodium hydroxide solution
to produce the salt of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol.
O
H
C
e.g.
or HCHO etc (any aldehyde not having an α-hydrogen (2)
(Total: 12 marks)
9. Consider the organic liquid substance having the following structural formula:
H
H C H
O
H C H
O
C
H C
H C
H
α
β
γ
(a) State the values of the bond angles indicated by α, β and γ.
α = 120o ,
β = 109.5o
γ = 120o (0.5, 1, 0.5)
(2 marks)
(b) The infra red spectrum of the compound has absorption bands corresponding to
the energy required to stretch the C-H, C=C and C=O bonds. Given that the bond
energies are in the order C-H > C=O > C=C, assign the wave number values below
to the respective bonds in the molecule.
1750 cm–1 2900 cm–1
2900 cm-1 : C-H
1650 cm–1
1750 cm-1: C = O
1650 cm-1 C = C
(2 marks)
(c) Underline the correct systematic name of the compound.
(i) ethyl propenoate;
(ii) ethyl propanoate
15
(iii) ethenyl propanoate
(1 mark)
(d) Write down the structural formula/e of the organic product/s of reaction of the ester
with
3
H
C2
H
C
O
C O
r
B
H
C
r
B
H2
C
(2)
(i) bromine
H
O
H2
C
H3
C
+
H
O
O
C
H
C
H2
C
(2)
(ii) hot aqueous sulfuric acid
3
2
H
C
2
H
C
O
O
C
H
C
2
H
3
H C
C
2 H
H
C
C
O
2
H
O
C
C
H
C
H
C
(iii) a source of free radicals as catalyst
3
H
C
2
H
C
O
O
C
(2)
(6 marks)
(Total: 11 marks)
16
PAPER 2
1. Phenol, C6H5OH, has an acid dissociation constant of 1.05 × 10–10 mol2 dm–6. Consider
an aqueous solution of phenol having concentration 0.010 mol dm–3.
(a) Calculate the following properties of the solution:
(i) the pH;
(ii) the concentration of hydroxide ion.
(6 marks)
(b) (i) Calculate the pH of a solution made up by mixing 100 mL of the phenol
solution and 50 mL of 0.005 mol dm–3 solution of sodium hydroxide.
(ii) Explain why methyl orange would not be suitable as an indicator for the
titration between phenol and sodium hydroxide.
(8 marks)
(c) (i) The acid dissociation constant of phenylmethanol is 3.98 × 10–16 mol2 dm–6.
Suggest why there is such a difference in the acid dissociation constants of phenol
and phenylmethanol.
(ii) A sample of phenol is contaminated with phenylmethanol. In view of the information in
(c) (i), explain how one may be able to obtain a pure sample of phenol from the
contaminated form, giving the essential experimental details.
(6 marks)
PhOH + H2O = H3O+
(a)(i) The equilibrium is
Initial concentrations:
Equilibrium concs:
0.01
-
0.01 – x
x
+ PhO-
(0.5)
x
/ mol dm-3
(0.5)
Hence Ka = 1.05 X 10-10
= x2/0.01-x ≈ x2 /0.01 since x << 0.01 in
view of size of Ka. (1)
Solving for x:
x2 = 1.05 X 10-10 X 0.01
x
= 1.02 X 10-6 mol dm-3 (1)
Hence pH = - log [H3O+] = - log (1.02 X 10-6) = 5.99 (1)
(ii) For water, self ionization constant Kw =
[H3O+][OH-] = 10-14 Hence
[OH-] = Kw/[H3O+] = 10-14/(1.02 X 10-6) = 9.8 X 10-9 mol dm-3 (2)
17
(b) (i) Adding NaOH to the phenol brings about a conversion of PhOH into
PhO- ions. (0.5)
50 mL of 0.005 M NaOH contain 50/1000 X 0.005 = 2.5 X 10-4 mol OH- and
these react with phenol to produce the same number of PhO- ions. (1) The
number of mol of PhOH molecules left unreacted =
[100/1000 X .01] - 2.5 X 10-4 = 7.5 X 10-4 mol. (1)
Hence, in the 150 mL solution of mixture, the ratio [PhOH]/[PhO-]
= 7.5 X 10-4/2.5 X 10-4 = 3
For the equilibrium
PhOH + H2O = H3O+
(0.5)
+ PhO-
Ka = [H3O+][PhO-]/[PhOH]
So that [H3O+] = Ka [PhOH]/[PhO-] = 1.05 X 10-10 X 3 = 3.15 X 10-10 (1)
Hence pH = - log 3.15 X 10-10 = 9.50
(1)
(ii) At the midpoint of the titration, ie when [PhOH] = [PhO-],
[H3O+] = Ka X 1 and pH = - log 1.05 X 10-10 = 9.97
This means that during the titration as alkali is added the pH changes
from about 6 to above 10. (1) Methyl orange changes colour over the range
of about 3 to 4 as its structure changes from the form HInd at the lower
pH to the differently coloured deprotonated form Ind- at the higher pH.
(1) Hence in the given titration, the methyl orange would not change colour
because even at the ‘acid’ pH for phenol, it is already in the Ind- form. (1)
(c) (i) In phenylmethanol, the charge of the phenylmethoxide ion cannot
delocalize on to the benzene ring and hence is not stabilized as happens for
18
the negative charge on the phenoxide ion formed when phenol deprotonates.
Hence the alcohol is a much weaker acid (proton donor)1. (2)
(ii) The mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide solution and the mixture
shaken with an organic solvent, e.g. ether in a separatory funnel. The unionized phenylmethanol partitions into the ether layer while the phenoxide
ion remains in the aqueous layer. The two layers are separated and the
aqueous layer is treated with, e.g. dilute HCl in order to convert the
phenoxide ion back into phenol since the hydroxonium ions in HCl are much
stronger as acids than phenol. (2) A second solvent extraction of this
solution causes the phenol molecules to migrate into the organic solvent; the
organic layer is washed with distilled water to remove traces of acid and salt
(NaCl), dried over a drying agent (e.g. magnesium sulfate or calcium chloride)
and phenol may be isolated by evaporation of the ether (1.5) and further
purified by distillation. (0.5)
1
Do not penalize student if words shown in brackets in this marking scheme are not mentioned
in the answer.
19
2. (a) Both oxygen and sulfur can be found in two allotropic forms. Describe the different allotropes of
these elements and explain how and why the allotropes of oxygen can be distinguished by chemical means
whilst this cannot be done for sulfur.
(5 marks)
(b) Explain how the least common of the two oxygen allotropes can be both harmful
and useful in the environment.
(4 marks)
(c) The compound Na2O2 contains the peroxide ion, explain the structure of the ion and describe how the
compound reacts with water.
(3 marks)
(d) Complete and balance the following redox reaction between sulfur and
concentrated nitric(V) acid:
S(s) + HNO3(l)
SO2(g) +
NO(g)
(2 marks)
(e) A mixture of equal volumes of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen(II) oxide is tested as follows:
(i) 50 mL of mixture held in a gas syringe is transferred into another gas syringe
containing 25 mL oxygen at room temperature;
(ii) 50 mL of mixture is passed through a U-tube containing excess aqueous sodium
hydroxide and the gas which issues collected in a gas syringe.
State what one would expect to observe and explain the observations, including volume as read from a
calibrated gas syringe.
(6 marks)
(a) Allotropes of Oxygen being dioxygen O2, described as discrete diatomic doubly
bonded molecules and trioxygen (ozone), described as discrete triatomic molecules
O
O
O
with a delocalized structure:
(2)
The allotropes of Sulfur, rhombic and monoclinic, both consist of discrete
octaatomic cyclic molecules S8 and the difference between the allotropes is in the
packing of these molecules in space (crystal lattice). Indeed, rhombic changes into
monoclinic above a transition temperature (96OC) and the transition is reversible.
Most chemical properties of the two allotropes are identical. (2) For oxygen, O3 is
a much stronger oxidizing agent than O2 and this property can be used to
distinguish between them, e.g. iodide is rapidly oxidized by ozone to iodine or Hg
forms HgO with ozone in the cold but not with oxygen. (1)
(b) Ozone is the least common allotrope. It is present naturally in the stratosphere
where it serves a useful function because it absorbs solar high energy UV radiation
which would otherwise be harmful to biological life on earth. (2)
20
Ozone formed as an air pollutant in the lower atmosphere from motor traffic
exhaust (1) is damaging to health because it is itself toxic and because it reacts
with nitrogen oxides and pollutant organic molecules in the air to form toxic organic
products (peroxides) which harm the respiratory system.
O
O
(c) Structure of the peroxide ion =
(1)
two of the electrons are ‘imported’
from a metal atom forming the cations and the oxygen-oxygen bond is a (weak)
single bond. (1)
Reaction with cold water: Na2O2 + 2 H2O
= 2 NaOH + H2O2 (2)
Accept statement that hydrogen peroxide so formed decomposes to water and
oxygen because of the heat of the reaction (even though this can be easily
prevented in practice).
(d) (Relevant half equations: S + 2 H2O
= SO2 + 4 H+ + 4 e
HNO3 + 3 H+ + 3 e = NO + 2 H2O
Combining half equations: 3 S + 6 H2O + 4 HNO3 + 12 H+ = 3SO2 + 12 H+ + 4 NO + 8 H2O)
Which reduces to:
3 S(s) + 4 HNO3(l) = 3 SO2 (g) + 4 NO(g) + 2H2O (l)
(give full credit if only the correct redox equation is presented.) (2)
(e) (i) Under these conditions, only the NO will react with the oxygen to form
gaseous nitrogen dioxide according to the equation:
NO + 0.5 O2
= NO2
(1)
Thus 25 mL of NO will combine with 12.5 mL O2 to form 25 mL NO2. Hence the final
volume of gas will reduce from the original 75 mL to {25 mL (SO2) + 25 mL (NO2) +
12.5 mL(excess O2)} = 62.5 mL (1) and it will be dark brown in colour, not colourless
as originally. (1)
(ii) Under these conditions only the SO2 will react with the alkali to form a soluble
sulfite:
2 NaOH(aq) + SO2(g) = Na2SO3 (aq) + H2O (l)
(1.5)
So that the volume of the issuing gas is 25 mL corresponding to the unreacted NO
(1) and it is colourless. (0.5)
21
3. Account as fully as possible for each of the following observations. Give relevant
chemical equations for any reactions mentioned. Each section carries equal marks.
(a) Ethene reacts with alkaline potassium permanganate to produce a viscous liquid which can be
converted into two possible products using ethanoyl chloride depending on the amount of reagent
used. One of these products is much more soluble in water than the other.
(b) On heating methylbenzene with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids to about
40oC , the organic layer turns yellow in colour. Three isomeric substances can be isolated from
this layer, two of which in comparable proportions and a third in minor quantity.
(c) On adding a mixture of ice-cold sodium nitrite to a cold solution of hydrochloric acid
followed by phenylamine and the mixture is treated with 4-methylphenol, an intensely coloured
precipitate forms. However, if the mixture obtained after adding phenylamine is heated to near
boiling, no coloured precipitate forms on addition of the phenol.
(d) Four isomers of formula C7H7Cl exist which convert on treatment with a reducing agent into
methylbenzene. Only one of the isomers reacts readily with aqueous sodium hydroxide to
produce an organic liquid which reacts with ethanoic anhydride to form a product with molecular
formula C9H10O2.
(20 marks)
(a) Ethene oxidizes with alkaline permanganate to form ethane-1,2-diol:
-
H
O
2
H
C
.
H
O2
H
C
4
H
O
/
-
O
n
M
2
H
C
2
H
C
(1)
The diol is viscous because of extensive H-bonding with two OH groups per
molecule. (1)
The OH groups can be ethanoylated by reaction with one mol CH3COCl per
mol of diol or with two to form respectively the mono or di ester:
3
H
C
O
C H2
O C
2
H
C
H
O
2
H
C
2
H
C
3
H
C
O
C
O
3
H
C
O
C
O
(2)
The mono-ester is much more soluble in water (0.5) since it retains an OH
group in its structure which can hydrogen-bond with water molecules and
hence increase its aqueous solubility. (0.5)
22
(b) The organic layer turns yellow as the methylbenzene is nitrated by the
mixture of acids which contains the nitrating agent, namely the nitronium
(nitryl) cation NO2+ formed thus:
HNO3
+
H2SO4
=
NO2+
+ H2O +
HSO4- (1)
The isomers are the following:
H
C
3
2
O
N
3
3
H
C
H
C
2
O
N
2
O
N
o
r
t
i
n
3
o
r
t
i
n
4
o
r
t
i
n
2
(1.5)
and the minor product is 3-nitromethylbenzene (1) since the Me group in
methylbenzene is ortho- and para- directing thus favouring formation of the
2- and 4- substituted isomers on reaction with electrophiles such as NO2+
(1.5)
(c) Nitrous acid, HNO2, forms in the cold on adding hydrochloric acid to a
nitrite. This acid reacts with the aromatic amine in the presence of HCl to
form a diazonium chloride thus
PhNH2 + HONO + HCl = PhN2+Cl- + 2 HOH
(1)
The thermally unstable diazonium compound reacts with the phenol to form
an azo dye thus:
H
O
N
N
H3
C
(2)
23
But if the diazonium compound is heated it decomposes by reaction with
the water to form nitrogen gas and phenol which has does not react on
addition of 4-methylphenol:
PhN2+ Cl-
+ HOH
=
PhOH + HCl +
N2 (2)
(d) Since the reduction product is methylbenzene, it shows that all isomers
are aromatic and hence the possibilities are as follows:
3
l
C
H2
C
H
C
3
H3
C
H
C
l
C
l
C
l
C
(2)
Only in chloromethylbenzene is the chlorine reactive to substitution by OHto form the alcohol phenylmethanol (benzyl alcohol) (1) since in the other
three isomers, the C-Cl bond has partial double bond character as a result of
delocalization of the electron pair on Cl onto the ring: this strengthens the
bond and renders the Cl atom rather inert to substitution. (1).
Phenylmethanol reacts with ethanoic anhydride to form the ester with the
given molecular formula and the following structure:
3
H
C
O
C
O
H2
C
(1)
24
4.
The calcium content of a limestone-bearing rock can be determined as follows.
The limestone is dissolved by reaction with hot hydrochloric acid and the solution
so obtained is separated from insoluble minerals and its pH is adjusted to near
neutral. The solution is then treated with sodium ethanedioate to form insoluble
calcium ethanedioate, CaC2O4. This precipitate is filtered and treated on the filter
paper with dilute hydrochloric acid when it readily dissolves and passes as filtrate. The
volume of the filtrate is adjusted to 100.0 mL and 25.00 mL aliquots are titrated with
0.0400 M potassium permanganate.
The mean titre value obtained when 4.00 g of rock is so treated is 35.50 cm3.
(a) Write a procedure including essential practical details required to guide a student through
this experiment paying particular attention to the following points: (i) how to ensure that all the
limestone in the rock has reacted; (ii) how to check the pH before adding the sodium
ethanedioate; (iii) how to transfer the calcium-containing solution to suitable apparatus in
preparation for the titration; (iv) which solution is placed in the burette and how the endpoint is
determined.
(10 marks)
(b) Calcium ethanedioate is very insoluble in water. Using the concept of solubility product and
Le Chatelier’s principle, explain why calcium ethanedioate dissolves readily in the presence of
dilute sulfuric acid.
(2 marks)
(c) Write the redox equation between CaC2O4 and acidified MnO4– to show that the ratio
mol C2O42- : mol MnO4– is 2.5:1.
(2 marks)
(d) Calculate the percentage by mass of calcium in the rock.
(6 marks)
(a) The procedure could be as follows
1. Crush the limestone-bearing rock to a powder and weigh a sample
(about 5 g) in a weighing boat.
2. Transfer the weighed amount quantitatively to beaker containing an
excess of hydrochloric acid and heat with stirring but without boiling
until the solution is not releasing carbon dioxide gas. Cool and test a
drop of solution with pH paper (or use a pH meter) to check that the
pH is close to 7 adding aqueous ammonia (or aq NaOH) if not.
3. Filter the mixture into a clean conical flask and wash the insoluble
residue on filter paper with distilled water collecting the washings
together with the filtrate.
4. Add excess sodium ethanedioate solution to the filtrate and heat to
ensure precipitation reaction goes to completion; cool and allow the
25
copious white precipitate to settle. Filter on a fine pore filter paper
and ensure that the filtrate is clear (no loss of calcium ethanedioate
occurs)
5. To the precipitate on the filter paper, add dilute hydrochloric acid,
stirring with a glass rod to ensure that all precipitate dissolves and
passes as clear filtrate directly into 100 mL volumetric flask.
6. Wash filter paper with distilled water to ensure quantitative transfer
of the solution and collect the washing into the volumetric flask and
add sufficient distilled water to bring the volume of liquid to the
mark.
7. Using a pipette, transfer 25.00 mL of ethanedioate solution into a
conical flask, place the flask on a gauze over a tripod stand and heat
with a Bunsen burner.
8. Raise the temperature of the solution in the conical flask to about
60oC using a thermometer to check, remove from heat, withdraw the
thermometer after it has been rinsed with distilled water collecting
the rinse liquid in the flask and titrate with standard KMnO4 which
solution is placed in the burette.
9. The endpoint is obtained when the clear solution assumes a permanent
faint pink colour due to unreacted permanganate ion.
10. Repeat steps 7-8 for concordant results.
(1X10 = 10)
(especially important points are shown in italics)
(b) The solubility equilibrium is Ca C2O4(s)
Ca2+ (aq) + C2O42- (aq)
On adding hydroxonium ions (as sulfuric acid), ethanedioic acid forms
since it is a weak acid, thus lowering the ethanedioate concentration in
equilibrium with the solid salt and by le Chatelier’s principle driving the salt
to dissolve further to restore the ethanedioate concentration. In the
presence of sufficient strong acid, all the salt dissolves. (2)
(c) The half equations are
CaC2O4 = Ca2+ + 2 CO2 + 2e
MnO4- + 8 H+ + 5 e = Mn2+ + 4 H2O
Hence the combined redox equation is:
5 CaC2O4 + 2 MnO4- + 16 H+ = 5 Ca2+ + 10 CO2 + 5 Mn2+ + 20 H2O
So C2O42- : MnO4 = 5 : 2 = 2.5 : 1
(2)
26
(d) Number of mol of MnO4- ions used in titration =
35.5/1000 X 0.04 = 1.42 X 10-3
(1)
Number of mol CaC2O4 in 25.00 mL solution =
2.5 X 1.42 X 10-3 = 3.55 X 10-3
(1)
Hence total Ca2+ in 100 mL solution = 3.55 X 10-3 X 4 = 0.0142
Mass of Ca in 4 g rock = 0.0142 X 40 = 0.568 g
(2)
(1)
% Ca in rock = 0.568/4 X 100 = 14.2 %
(1)
27
5. (a) Use a T-X diagram to explain the principle of fractional distillation and explain
why this procedure cannot be used to separate completely a mixture of
trichloromethane and propanone .
(8 marks)
(b) Explain the principle of separation of compounds by steam distillation and account for the
composition of the distillate. (4 marks)
(c) (i) What is the molecular mass of a solute if the osmotic pressure of an aqueous
solution containing 10.0 g dm-3 is 1.3 kN m–2 at 298 K?
(4 marks)
(ii) Describe the principle of reverse osmosis and explain why this technology is
essential for Malta.
(4 marks)
(a) Answer to show a properly labeled TX diagram and use of tie lines to
explain principle of fractional distillation of two liquids which boil at
different temperatures:
vapour
Temp
BP of A
Liquid
BP of
B
0 for A
1 for B
1 for A
0 for B
Composition as
mol fraction
Award 3 marks for properly labeled diagram showing respective
boiling points (BP) and a set of tie lines and 2 marks for correct and clear
explanation.
Trichloromethane and propanone exhibit a TX diagram with an
azeotropic composition due to the fact that the two liquids form strong
intermolecular forces of the dipole- dipole type between them thus:
Cl3C-H (δ+)….(δ-) O=C(CH3)2 . (1) This results in a TX diagram with a
composition having a maximum boiling point: (1)
28
T
Azeotropic
composition
composition
Fractional distillation will not separate the two liquids completely since the
azeotrope will always be one of the products (depending on the composition
of the original mixture). (1)
An answer may show only one TX diagram in which all proper
explanations are given in which case award marks as appropriate.
(b) In steam distillation, two immiscible liquids are present together and
contribute to the saturation vapour pressure (SVP) above the mixture. (1)
Since the mixture will boil at a point where the total SVP equals the external
atmospheric pressure, the mixture will boil at a temperature that is below
the temperature of either liquids. (2)
The vapour will consist of a mixture of steam and the other liquid in the
molar proportions of the vapour pressures of the two substances at that
boiling temperature, i.e.
N(water)/N(X) = SVP(water)/SVP(X)
where N = number of mol in the vapour phase. (1)
(c) (i) The equation for the osmotic pressure, π, is given by:
πV = nRT
(1)
Hence n = π V/RT = m/M where M is the molar mass and m the mass in g
dissolved in V m3 of solution.
Therefore, M = mRT / π V (1)
29
Substituting values:
M = (10) X (8.31) X (298)/ (1.3 X 103) X (10-3) = 19049 g mol-1 (2)
(ii) Reverse osmosis occurs when the pressure applied to a solution separated
from solvent or more dilute solution by a semi-permeable membrane is higher
than the osmotic pressure so that solvent flows from the high concentration
to the lower concentration side. (2)
For Malta, ground water is insufficient to cope with the national demand for
water, and the shortfall is met by desalinating abundant sea water using RO
(1). The technology affords water of good quality (low salinity) but is
expensive energetically and financially. (1)
30
6. (a) Define a transition element and discuss FOUR chemical properties which
characterize these elements, giving one specific example to illustrate each property.
(10 marks)
(b) The following changes involve transition elements or their compounds: identify
the elements and write chemical equations to represent the changes described.
(i) On heating, an orange crystalline substance A evolves a colourless gas and
converts into a green solid B.
(ii) A dark coloured solid C reacts with concentrated hydrochloric acid to generate a
green gas and produces a solution which after neutralization with ammonia
solution forms a dark pink coloured precipitate D on further treatment with
ammonium sulfide.
(iii) Granules of a shiny solid E dissolve in excess sulfuric acid evolving a gas and
producing a green coloured solution which discharges the orange colour of sodium
dichromate and gives a reaction product which produces an intense red colour on
treatment with aqueous potassium thiocyanate.
(10 marks)
(a) Transition element = one which has atom or ion which possesses an
incompletely filled d orbital (2)
Main chemical properties characteristic of transition elements:
1) All are metals and form alloys with each other
2) Form compounds in different oxidation states due to involvement of
one or more of the d orbital electrons together with the s electrons.
3) Act as catalysts: their variable oxidation states often being involved
in this function.
4) Form complex ions which are often coloured and in which different
oxidation states are involved.
Award (1+1 = 2) X4 = 8 marks if each property is illustrated by any
suitable specific example of student’s choice. Accept as correct ‘form
coloured compounds’ and ‘form complex ions’ as two separate
properties if properly discussed and supported by examples. Accept
other mentioned properties if applicable.
31
(b) (i) A = ammonium dichromate, (NH4)2Cr2O7, (0.5) decomposing on heating
to produce nitrogen and steam (0.5, 0.5) , seen as a colourless gas, and
converting into green solid B which is chromium(III) oxide (0.5) :
(NH4)2Cr2O7 = N2 + 4 H2O + Cr2O3 (1)
(ii) C is dark brown manganese(IV) oxide, MnO2, (0.5) which generates
chlorine, the green gas, (0.5) with conc HCl and leaves a solution containing
MnCl2(aq) which, after neutralization of the excess acid, can form a
precipitate of dark pink (salmon) coloured MnS (0.5):
MnO2 + 4 HCl = MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2 H2O ; (1)
= MnS + 2 NH4Cl (1)
MnCl2(aq) + (NH4)2 S
(iii) E is metallic iron, Fe, (0.5) dissolving in sulfuric acid to give hydrogen
gas (0.5) and aqueous Fe2+ in solution:
Fe
+
2 H+ (aq)
=
Fe2+
+ H2
(0.5)
Dichromate, in the presence of excess sulfuric acid, oxidizes Fe(II) to
Fe(III) which produces red coloured complex ion with thiocyanate
6 Fe2+ + Cr2O72- + 14 H+ = 6 Fe3+
Fe3+(aq) + SCN-
+ 2 Cr3+ +
= Fe(SCN)(aq)2+ (1)
32
7 H2O (1)
7. Consider the following reaction scheme involving the synthesis of substance G once
widely used as a medicinal.
H3
C
H2
C
O
H
O
SSSS
2
O
N9
H8
C
H3
C
O
C
H
N GGGG
FFFF
DDDD
O
N7
EEEE
H6
C
3
O
N5
H6
C
RRRR
QQQQ
PPPP
(a) Assuming that P is a nitrating agent, identify the intermediates D, E and F by name or
structural formula and state the reagents and essential experimental conditions required in
steps Q, R and S.
(16 marks)
(b) Using a hot mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid in step P as
nitrating agent would have likely produced a different product from D. Explain why this is
so and suggest the structural formula of the product.
(4 marks)
(a) In view of the structure of G, D is 4-nitrophenol (3) obtained in a
mixture with the 2-nitro isomer on treatment with a nitrating agent which
mixture would require some physical separation (1)
H
N
2
H
O
O
N
2
H
O
E is an amine, the reduction product of D,
EEEE
DDDD
(3)
And Q, the reducing system, is possibly Sn/conc HCl which requires alkaline
work-up to release the amine from the salt (or LiAlH4) (2)
33
F is the ethanoylated form of E obtained by treating E with either ethanoyl
chloride or ethanoic anhydride = R (2)
H3
C
O
C
H
N
O
H
F =
(3)
G is then obtained by treating F with alkali followed by a haloethane, e.g.
bromoethane = reagent system S (2): this is Williamson’s synthesis of
ethers.
(b) The OH group in phenol activates the ring towards (electrophilic)
substitution reactions because its lone pair delocalizes over the benzene ring
thus enhancing the electron density there (1); and indeed polysubstitution
frequently occurs in both ortho and the para positions (e.g. in bromination
with aq bromine). (1) The likely product with concentrated acids is the 2,4,6trinitrophenol. (2) Accept also the dinitro product.
34
8. Discuss each of the following statements. Each section carries equal marks.
(a) The boiling points of water, ethanol and ethoxyethane are in the reverse order of their relative
molecular masses.
(b) Phosphorus pentachloride can be used to distinguish between alcohols and carbonyl
compounds while Tollen’s reagent can be used to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones.
(c) The strength of methylamine, dimethylamine and phenylamine as Lowry-Bronsted bases
varies but the variation can be explained on the basis of the structure of these amines.
(d) Benzene tends to undergo a substitution reaction with chlorine rather than addition although
both types of reaction can occur under suitable conditions.
(e) The product of reaction of propanamide with phosphorus(V) oxide is a polar organic liquid
which can also be obtained from bromoethane by a substitution reaction.
(20 marks)
(a) The stronger the intermolecular forces, the higher the boiling point of
discrete molecular substances (1). Although the van der Waals forces are
strongest in the ether in view of the larger molecular size, (1) in both water
and ethanol stronger H-bonds operate by virtue of the presence of the polar
OH group. (1) In water, the H-bonding is stronger because two protons per
molecule are involved not one as in the alcohol. (1)
(b) PCl5 reacts with ROH to produce visible fumes of HCl; the reaction
products with carbonyl compounds do not include gaseous HCl: hence the
distinction (0.5)
ROH + PCl5 = RCl + POCl3 + HCl
RCHO + PCl5 = RCHCl2 + POCl3
(1, 1)
+
Tollen’s reagent, Ag(NH3)2 forms a silver mirror as reduction product with
aldehydes but not with ketones since aldehydes are much more easily
oxidized than ketones (0.5):
RCHO + H2O = RCOOH + 2H+ + 2e [accept RCHO + ‘O’ = RCOOH]
Ag(NH3)2+ + e = Ag + 2 NH3 (1)
(c) The basic strength varies as follows: dimethylamine > methylamine >
phenylamine. (1) The lone pair in phenylamine is delocalized and hence the
35
N atom cannot function properly as a lone pair donor (1). In dimethylamine,
the positive inductive effect of two Me groups localize the electron density
on the N atom thus increasing the donor capacity of the N (1); in
methylamine the inductive effect is also operative but to a lesser extent. (1)
(d) When benzene undergoes substitution reactions with the halogens, which
occur when anhydrous AlCl3 is present as catalyst to promote formation of
an ionic mechanism thru’ reaction Cl2 + AlCl3 = Cl+ + AlCl4- the product is
a substituted benzene (1); here the aromatic ring is left intact and still
stabilized by delocalized electrons. (1) However, in the presence of sunlight,
which conditions of reaction promote formation of free radicals thru’
photolysis: Cl2 = 2 Cl., (1) the aromatic molecule undergoes addition
reaction with formation of non-aromatic products, e.g.
hexachlorocyclohexane. (1)
(e) Phosphorus oxide dehydrates the amide to form the CH3CH2CN (1).
CH3CH2CONH2
= CH3CH2CN + H2O (forms products with
phosphorus oxide of undefined structure possibly P4O9(OH)2: knowledge of
this idealized formula is not required ) (1)
Nitriles are very polar liquids due to the polarized cyano group which carry
δ+ and δ- charges on the C and N respectively (1)
Propanenitrile can also form as follows:
C2H5Br + KCN (alcohol) = C2H5CN + KBr (1)
36
PAPER 3
1. Determination of the molar concentration of potassium hydrogen ethanedioate in
solution Cn
(b)
25.00 mL Cn (potassium hydrogen oxalate) reacts with 15.15 cm3 A (NaOH) odd
16.45 cm3 A even
Award for true value ± 0.10 mL = 20 marks
± 0.15 mL = 12 marks
± 0.20 mL = 7 marks
The ‘true value’ should correspond with two or more actual experimental titre
values shown in the table to be concordant. If the student takes the average of
all titre values, including overshot (rough) titres, and obtains a bad average
titre value as a result, deduct 5 marks from the score as merited according to
the above scheme. Conversely, if the average value is indeed equal to the true
value but no two experimental titre values agree to ± 0.1 with the true value,
then award ONLY 5 marks.
(d) Calculation (for the molar concentration of potassium hydrogen ethanedioate in Cn):
5 marks
Determination of concentration of potassium permanganate in B
25.00 mL Cn (potassium hydrogen oxalate) reacts with 25.30 cm3 B (KMnO4 ) for Codd
27.46 cm3 B for Ceven
Award for true value ± 0.15 mL = 20 marks
± 0.20 mL = 12 marks
± 0.25 mL = 7 marks
The ‘true value’ should correspond with two or more actual experimental titre
values shown in the table to be concordant. If the student takes the average of
all titre values, including overshot (rough) titres, and obtains a bad average
titre value as a result, deduct 5 marks from the score as merited according to
the above scheme. Conversely, if the average value is indeed equal to the true
value but no two experimental titre values agree to ± 0.1 with the true value,
then award ONLY 5 marks.
(e) Calculation for the molar concentration of KMnO4 in B (5 marks)
37
2. You are provided with an inorganic salt labelled X. Carry out the following tests on
the salt and record your observations and inferences in the spaces provided.
(a) Dissolve about 0.5 g of X in about 10 cm3 distilled water in a small beaker and
carry out the following tests on 1 cm3 samples of solution.
(i) Test the pH of the solution with litmus paper.
Observation
Litmus paper turns red (1)
Inference
Acid solution: either an acid salt or
possible salt hydrolysis of aquacation
e.g. Al(III), Cr(III) etc. (1, 1)
(ii) Add aqueous sodium hydroxide dropwise until in excess and then warm the
mixture and test for any gases evolved.
Observation
Inference
A rust brown ppt forms that is
Fe(III) indicated by formation of
insoluble in excess (1). Ammonia gas
Fe(OH)3; (1); Also NH4+ ion present
(odour; litmus paper blue) released
which gives off ammonia with alkali
on heating. (1, 1)
(1).
(iii) Add aqueous sodium hydrogencarbonate.
Observation
Inference
Effervescence and a light brown
Fe(III) forms iron(III) hydroxide
precipitate forms; the gas which was
with hydrogencarbonate and releases
given off turns lime water milky (1, 1)
carbon dioxide in view of the acidity
38
of the aquairon(III) cation:
Fe(H2O)63+ + 3 HCO3- = Fe(OH)3 +
3 CO2 + 3 H2O (1, 1)
(iv) Add drops of aqueous barium chloride followed by dilute hydrochloric acid.
Observation
Inference
Thick white ppt insoluble in excess
Sulfate indicated:
HCl but a colour change from light
Ba2+ + SO42- = BaSO4
brown to canary yellow (2)
Colour change probably due to change
(1)
from aquo complex to
chloroferrate(III).
(v) Add drops of aqueous potassium hexacyanoferrate(II).
Observation
A deep blue ppt/colour develops. (2)
Inference
Confirms Fe(III): Prussian Blue
formation, e.g. KFe(III)Fe(CN)6 (2)
(b) Place about 0.1 g of X in a DRY test tube and heat gently over a flame and then
more strongly. Test for any gases evolved.
Observation
Inference
Solid decomposes to form light
Decomposition first to release water
brown deposit giving off vapours
of crystallization; solid which forms
which partly condense to a colourless
is first dehydrated ammonium
liquid; on strong heating, ppt turns
iron(III) sulfate which decomposes
dark brown and dense white fumes
to iron(III) oxide, SO3 and NH3:
given off which turn blue litmus red.
since sulfuric is a strong acid, it
39
(2)
predominates over the presence of
ammonia and explains the litmus acid
colour. (2)
Conclusion:
X is probably the salt: iron(III) ammonium sulfate . water of crystallization
(1)
3. You are provided with an organic solid substance Y.
Perform the following tests
on Y and record your observations and inferences in the spaces provided.
(a) Place about 0.1 g of Y in a test tube, add about 10 cm3 dilute sodium hydroxide
and allow to stand for a short time and observe what happens. Keep the mixture
for test (b).
Observation
Inference
Solid does not dissolve and nothing
Not an ammonium salt which would
is observed. (2)
have dissolved since such salts are
generally soluble and react in the
cold to release ammonia. (2)
(b) Transfer the reaction mixture obtained in (a) to a 100 cm3 beaker and heat to
boiling gently for about 1 minute. Test for any gases using litmus paper. Cool the
mixture, wash down any deposits from the inner sides of the beaker with a
minimal amount of distilled water and, if necessary, filter off any solids which
may remain undissolved. Keep the clear solution for test (c).
Observation
Inference
The solid slowly dissolves and a gas
Gas is probably NH3 (1) and an amide
which smells of ammonia and turns
is indicated: -CONH2 + OH- = -COO-
40
litmus blue is released. (2)
+ NH3 + H2O (1)
(Any white solid left could be unreacted amide which is insoluble in
water.)
(c) To about 1 cm3 of the filtrate from test (b) add dilute hydrochloric acid dropwise
until solution is almost neutral to litmus. Then add a few drops of neutral iron(III)
chloride.
Observation
A buff coloured ppt forms. (2)
Inference
Confirms presence of benzoate ion in
the solution due to formation of
iron(III) complex with the anion. (2)
(d) Place the rest of the filtrate from (b) in an ice-bath, allow to stand for a few minutes
and then slowly add 50% sulfuric acid (CARE! Corrosive) until the acid is just in
excess. Observe what happens. Keep the product for test (e).
Observation
Inference
A thick white ppt forms once enough
The sodium salt formed in test (b) is
acid is added. (2)
protonated to form an insoluble
carboxylic acid (1) Confirms acid as
benzoic acid. (1)
(e) Pass the product in test (d) through a filter paper and transfer the residue to a clean
dry test tube. Add 20 drops of ethanol to the residue in the test tube and one drop of
concentrated sulfuric acid (CARE! CORROSIVE) and heat in a boiling water bath for
a few minutes. Cool and add about 3 cm3 aqueous sodium hydrogencarbonate to the
test tube and carefully smell the contents.
41
Observation
Inference
On adding the bicarbonate,
Formation of ethyl benzoate from
effervescence occurs and a fruity
reaction of ethanol with benzoic acid.
smell was detected. (2)
(2)
(f) To about 4 cm3 dilute hydrochloric acid in a test tube immersed in an ice-bath add
about 0.1 g Y and follow by a solution of ice-cold sodium nitrite prepared in another
test tube from about 0.2 g crystals of the salt dissolved in about 2 cm3 distilled water
cooled in an ice-bath. Observe and record any changes and test for any gas evolved.
Observation
Inference
On mixing solutions with the solid, a
The amide reacts to convert into the
colourless odourless gas is formed,
parent acid, both acid and amide
probably nitrogen and a white solid
being insoluble in water:
remains in suspension (some brown
fumes due to nitrogen dioxide
PhCONH2 + HONO = PhCOOH + N2 +
formation from the nitrous acid
HOH . (2)
decomposition if not properly
cooled.) (2)
Conclusion:
Substance Y is probably: benzamide (or similar aromatic acid amide) (1)
(25 marks)
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