Synchronous Motors
Motores Síncronos
OPERATION CHARACTERISTICS...........................................6
EXCITATION TYPES...............................................................8
CONSTRUCTIVE COMPONENTS.............................................9
CONSTRUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS...................................12
INSULATION SYSTEM..........................................................13
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR SELECTION...................................14
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR SPECIFICATION......................................16
Synchronous Motors
The word “SYNCHRONOUS” is originated from Greek. The prefix
“SYN” means “with” and “CHRONOS” means “time”.
A synchronous motor literally operates “in time with” or “in
synchronism with” the power supply system.
Due to the fact the synchronous motors are fitted with special
operating characteristics, industries are more and more using
such motors.
Included in the main reasons for the industries to specify
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS to drive a wide range of applications
are the high efficiency and the fact they are suitable to operate
as synchronous compensating machines for power supply
factor correction.
In addition to that, these motors also feature high torque, constant
speed under load variation, along with low maintenance cost
allowing major economical and operational advantages to end
On point (1), figure 2 shows that field H1 is on maximum
stage and that fields H2 and H3 are negative and with same
value which is equal to half of H1.
The 3 fields represented on figure 3 (upper part) take into
consideration that the negative field is represented by an arrow
pointed to the opposite direction in comparison to what would
be normal. The resulting field (graphic sum) is shown on the
bottom part of figure 3, position (1), having the same direction
of phase 1 winding.
Repeating the construction for points 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of figure
1, the resulting H field presents “constant” intensity. However,
its direction will “rotate” until completing a turn at the end of
the cycle.
Operation Principle
Stator and stator winding (armature) of Weg synchronous
motors are identical to components of three phase induction
Identical to induction motors, the current that goes through
the stator winding generates a rotating magnetic flow that
circulates around the air gap.
Figure 1
Stator rotating field - When the current goes through the
coil, a magnetic field is generated which is based on coil axis
and is proportional to the current value.
Figure 1 shows a waveform of a balanced three phase system
consisting of 3 sets of coils placed symmetrically on the area
resulting in a 120º angle.
Figure 2
Figure 2 represents a three phase motor winding. If the
winding is powered by a three-phase system, currents I1, I2
and I3 will create at the same time their own magnetic fields
H1, H2 e H3. These fields are spaced between them by a 120º
angle as well.
Besides that, as they are proportional to the respective currents,
they will be de-phased in time, also between them by a 120º
The resulting H field, at each point, will be equal to the graphic
sum of the 3 magnetic fields H1, H2 e H3 on that point.
Figure 3 shows this graphic sum for 6 successive points.
Figure 3
Synchronous Motors
Synchronous Speed - The motor synchronous speed (rpm)
is defined by the rotating field speed that depends on the
motor pair of poles (p) and on the power supply frequency (f).
The stator winding can consist of one or more pairs of poles
that are distributed alternatively (one “north” and another
“south”) along the magnetic core outer side.
The rotating field goes through a pair of poles (p) at each
cycle. Considering the winding has poles or pair of poles, the
field speed will then be:
60 . f
The synchronous motor rotor is built with a number of poles
corresponding to the stator winding number of poles.
Under normal operation, there is no relative movement between
rotor poles and stator magnetic flow, that is, they are in perfect
synchronism. As a result, there is no induction of electric voltage
into the rotor by the mutual flow and then there is no excitation
originated from the AC power supply.
Depending on the type of rotor used (cylindrical or salient
pole), the pole coils can be built with insulated copper wire
turns or with copper bars.
The field excitation is done through a DC system. When going
through the field winding, the poles are polarized magnetically
becoming alternatively north pole and then south pole.
The DC excitation can be applied to the field through the brushholders and slip rings, or through a brushless system and
through electronic control (brushless).
Synchronous Motors
Due to their special operating characteristics, synchronous
motor applications usually result in economical and operational
advantages to end users.
Included in the economical advantages of using synchronous
motors are:
- High efficiency
- Power factor correction
In addition to that, there are other specific operational
advantages of using synchronous motors as follows:
- Special starting characteristics
- Constant speed under load variation
- Reduced maintenance cost
High Efficiency
Associated to the initial purchasing cost of a synchronous motor,
further gains resulting from low operational cost should be
also considered.
On those cases, where just the efficiency aspect is taken into
account when specifying a motor, a synchronous motor with
PF=1.0 is usually the solution.
When the reactive power (kVAr) is not required and only the
actual power (kW) is applicable, the current is minimized
resulting in lower stator winding loss I²R.
Once the required field current is the minimum applicable, there
will be lower field winding loss I²R. Except for those cases where
high torque is required, the low stator winding losses allow a
synchronous motor with PF=1.0 to be designed in lower size if
compared to a synchronous motor with PF=0.8 of equal power
Hence, synchronous motor efficiencies with PF=1.0 are normally
higher than induction motor efficiencies of equal power rating.
Power Factor Correction
Electric power systems are based not only on the generated
active power supply in kW, but also on the power factor on
which it is generated
Whenever the load power factor is below the specified values,
the consumer may be subject to penalties.
These penalties (fines) occur due to the fact that the low power
factor results in increase of required reactive power (kVAr)
and, as a consequence, an increase of the power supply
transmission and generation equipment capacity.
On industries, inductive reactive load are predominant. These
are usually low size or low speed induction motors. Such loads
require considerable portion of reactive power(kVAr) as
magnetization current.
Other than applying bank of capacitors to supply the power
supply with reactive power, synchronous motors are normally
used for such purpose.
Power factor of synchronous motors can be easily controlled
as they are fitted with an independent excitation source. This
way, power factor can be increased without generating reactive
power (motor with PF=1.0) or generate required reactive power
(motor with PF=0.0).
So depending on the application, a synchronous motor can
supply the required power with substantial power reduction on
the whole system.
Efficiency (%)
Comparison between efficiency levels of synchronous motors
with PF= 0.8, PF=1.0 and induction motors.
Induction Motor
Power Rating (kW)
Synchronous Motors
Special Starting Characteristics
Constant Speed
Large ball mills for iron mines, cement plants and compressors
are few examples of applications that required high starting
torque (150 to 200 % of the rated torque).
Due to power supply system limitations, low starting currents
(locked rotor) are usually required.
A combination of high torque with low starting current can be
better achieved with the application of synchronous motors
without affecting operating characteristics.
Starting current reduction can be usually achieved with a special
design of stator and amortisseur winding.
Starting the motor with reduced voltage is also an alternative
applied so as to have the current reduced, although, with torque
Independently of load variations and as long as the load is
maintained within the motor pull-out torque limitation, the
synchronous motor average speed is kept constant.
This occurs due to the fact that the rotor poles remain locked
in relation to the rotating magnetic field that is generated by
the stator winding.
Then, synchronous motor speed is kept constant either on
overload variations or on voltage drop cases, in addition to
following pull-out torque limitations.
On certain applications such as on pulp and paper mills, the
constant speed results in superior uniformity and quality of
the supplied product.
Reduce Maintenance Cost
Since they do not require slip electric contacts for their operation, BRUSHLESS synchronous motors are not manufactured with
brushes nor with slip rings. Hence, maintenance, inspection and cleaning on these components are not required.
A synchronous motor must be always designed taking into account
driven load characteristics, in addition to torque’s and inertia.
a) Starting torque
It is the torque that the motor must supply to drive the standstill
load resistant torque, that is, it is the load starting torque.
b) Pull-in Torque
It is the torque that the motor must supply to reach the correct
speed, where the excitation field application will take the motor
to the synchronism (pull-in torque).
When driving high inertia loads, synchronous motors are
designed in larger frame sizes so as to meet acceleration
The time period the motor takes to accelerate causes amortisseur
winding overheating. Therefore, this motor must be designed in
such a way to meet the starting conditions.
The correct load inertia definition, associated with
motor and load torque analysis are quite important
allowing this motor to meet starting and acceleration
c) Pull-out Torque
It is the torque that the motor must supply to keep the motor
under synchronism in case of momentary overloads with reted
The amortisseur winding, that operates as a squirrel cage of an
induction motor, is intended to guarantee synchronous motor
starting and acceleration. This way, starting and pull-in
torque’s vary with the square of the applied voltage,
and the starting current is proportional to the applied
voltage, exactly as on induction motors.
Synchronous Motors
Starting characteristic curve of a
synchronous motor at full voltage
A synchronous motor starts exactly like an induction motor and
then it accelerates the load up to the point where the motor
torque becomes the same as the load resistant torque. Usually
this point occurs with 95% of the synchronous speed or above
that, and on this condition, the excitation voltage is applied to
the motor, and the rotor synchronizes, that is, it will accelerate
the combined rotor and motor inertia plus the load inertia up to
precise synchronous speed.
Driven load characteristics will determine acceleration and
synchronism conditions.
On high resistant torque loads, the amortisseur winding must
make the motor and load torque accelerate at a time period
higher than that for a shorter resistant torque.
The proper amortisseur winding design requires precise
knowledge of the load resistant torque.
Based on the synchronous motor starting characteristic curve,
starting torque decreases as it gets close to the synchronous
On load applications with resistant torque parabolic curve and
considering that at 98% of the synchronous speed, the value
of such torque is equal to the load rated torque, the motor is
required to supply a torque equal or higher than the load torque
on this point.
If the specified motor torque, at 95% of the synchronous speed
is equal to the load pull-out torque, this motor can not supply
this torque at 98% of the synchronous speed and then such
motor will not synchronize.
This way, to ensure motor starting and synchronism, careful
analysis of the starting torque curve along with load resistant
torque curve must be carried out.
Asynchronous Starting
The main starting method applied on synchronous motor
starting is the asynchronous starting through a squirrel cage
with the short-circuited winding rotor or connected to a
resistance, usually called starting resistance or discharge
Through asynchronous starting, the rotor accelerates at a speed
very close to the synchronous speed, with a slight slip in
reference to the rotating field. On this point, a direct current is
applied to the rotor winding and then taking the motor to
On brush-supplied machines, a field application relay is used,
while on brushless motors a electronic control circuit is applied,
which is installed attached to a rotating rectifier disc. This
electronic circuit and the field application relay are intended to
manage the synchronous motor starting sequence, since the rotor
short circuits up to the field current application.
Synchronous Motors
Starting Current
On Brushless synchronous motor starting, the
field winding is short-circuited through the
elechome circuit.
While motor remains on standstill, the field
current frequency is initially equal to power
supply frequency (60Hz for power supply of
60Hz) and reduces as the motor speed
When the excitation is switched-on, motor
speed must be close to synchronism speed
(around 95% of the synchronism speed), and
the field current frequency will remain around
The stator current also varies on the starting
and then it becomes stable after motor
Stator current (Is) and rotor current (Ie) performance on
asynchronous starting
2) Rotor frequency decreases as
1) Starting point
the speed increases
Stator Current
3) Point when the field is switched-
4) Rotor and stator current stability
on and the motor synchronizes
Stator Current
Stator Current
Synchronous motors require a DC power supply to
power the field winding (rotor winding), which is
usually done through slip rings and brushes (static
exciter) or through a brushless rotating exciter.
1. Static exciter (with brushes)
Synchronous motors
supplied with static
exciter are fitted with slip
rings and brushes that
allow current powering of
the rotor poles through
slip contacts.
The DC power supply for
the poles must come
from an AC/DC converter
and static controller.
2. Brushless exciter
Synchronous motors with brushless excitation system are fitted
with a rotating exciter, normally installed on the non-drive end
of the motor.
The exciter operates as an AC generator with the rotor attached
to the motor shaft. The rotor is fitted with a three phase winding
and the stator consists of alternating poles (north and south)
and powered by an independent DC source.
This three phase winding is connected to rectifier bridge. The
current generated on the rotor is rectified and intended to power
the motor field winding. The amplitude of such field current can
be controlled through the
rectifiers that power the
exciter stator field.
Synchronous motors with
brushless excitation require
low maintenance cost once
they are not fitted with
Since they are not built
with slip electric contacts,
synchronous brushless
excitation motors are
recommended for explosive atmosphere applications.
Synchronous Motors
Lamination core - Consisting of silicon steel lamination of
low losses, pressed, and the set is fastened through metallic
bars or a bar-designed system.
It is intended to supply magnetizing current to the motor field
winding. The brushless exciter consists of rotor, stator, rectifer
bridge and discharge circuit. Tthe static exciter consists of slip
ring and brushes and depends on an external source to power
the motor field.
Frame - It is mainly intended to support and protect the
lamination core and stator winding.
The frame can be constructed in horizontal or vertical mounting
configurations and with degree of protection that meets application
It is manufactured with steel plates and welded with MIG
welding resulting in a solid and rugged structural construction.
The whole frame construction is duly treated for stress release
caused by welding process.
This construction results in an excellent structural piece so as
to withstand mechanical strengths originated from eventual
short-circuits and vibrations, and then making the motor
suitable for the most severe applications.
The frame inner part consists of bars for lamination core fastening
to the winding.
Usually the frame is based on a metallic rigid base (steel plate)
and this part, in its turn, is based on a concrete foundation.
The metallic base is fastened to the concrete base through
Wound stator Consisting of static
magnetic parts, the
wound stator includes
the silicon lamination
core and the stator
winding. The last one
operates as AC power
supply to generate the
rotating magnetic field.
Depending on motor constructive characteristics and on the
application, rotor can be built with cylindrical or salient poles.
The rotating active parts include rotor ring, field winding and
amortisseur winding.
The field poles are magnetized through the exciter direct current
or directly through slip rings and brushes; they gear themselves
magnetically by the air gap and rotate in synchronism with the
stator rotating field.
The synchronous
motor rotor fitted with
salient poles consists
of shaft, polar ring and
The poles are built
with laminated steel
plates that are fixed
with steel bar and
Salient pole rotor
welded on the ends.
The field coils are constructed with enameled copper wires or
flat copper bars.
Synchronous Motors
Once they have been wound and impregnated, poles are fixed
to the shaft or to the polar ring with the application of bolts
from top or bottom part of the pole, or connected through dov
The amortisseur winding is fitted in the poles and, depending
on the motor design, it is built with copper bars or other material.
After final assembly and impregnation, the complete rotor is
balanced dynamically at 2 planes.
The synchronous motor rotor of cylindrical poles consists of
shaft, lamination core and pole winding.
The winding is installed in the rotor slots forming the poles.
Cylindrical pole rotor
Based on the application, synchronous motors can be supplied
with grease-lubricated ball or roller bearings or oil lubricated
sleeve bearings.
Sleeve bearings can be naturally lubricated (self lubricated) or
with a forced lubrication system (independent lubrication
Ball or roller bearings Depending on the speed
and thrusts they are
submitted to, these grease
lubricated bearings can be
supplied either with ball or
cylindrical rollers. On
bearings can be also
The amortisseur winding operates on synchronous motor
starting, along with ensuring speed stability under
sudden load variations.
Naturally lubricated sleeve bearings - When the rotor turns,
the lubricating oil is spread out by the internal oil ring and
transferred directly to
the shaft surface
creating a layer of oil
between the shaft and
the bearing liner
The friction heating is
dissipated just by
convection. However,
temperature must be informed when specifying a motor so as to
ensure natural cooling.
Forced Lubrication - The lubricating oil circulates around the
bearing through an independent oil circulation system and, if
required, it is cooled down through an independent hydraulic
This system is
required when the
natural bearing
lubrication coming
from the internal oil
ring is not enough
due to the specific
speed required or
due to high friction
Shaft - The shafts are constructed of forged or laminated-steel
and machined exactly as per specifications. The shaft end is
usually cylindrical or flanged.
Amortisseur winding - This is fitted in the slots placed at the
polar shoes of the salient pole rotor or an external surface of the
cylindrical pole rotor. Consisting of bars that go through the slots
and are short-circuited at the ends and then forming a squirrel
Synchronous Motors
Weg synchronous motors are supplied with standard accessories
required for correct operation and monitoring of the main
When specifying a motor, the end user must inform the required
accessories that should be included in the design and motor
Accessories (supplied as standard)
- Stator winding temperature detectors PT-100
- Bearing temperature detectors
- Space heaters
Bearing PT - 100
Special Accessories
- Brake disc
- Brake
- Vibration detectors
- Encoder
- Frame lifting device
Optional Accessories
- Temperature detectors for air inlet and outlet
- Water flow valve
- Water flowmeter
- Oil flowmeter
- Oil flow sight
- Water flow sight
- Hydraulic unit for bearing lubrication
- Oil injecting system under pressure for motor starting and
stop(Hydrostatic Jacking)
- Oil thermometer (bearings)
- Water thermometer (heat exchanger)
- Air thermometer (Cooling)
- Anchorage plate
Synchronous Motors
Synchronous motor
Mounting configuration: B3
Enshield bearings
Weg synchronous motors are manufactured in B3, D5 or D6
mounting configurations and with grease lubricated ball or roller
bearings or oil lubricated sleeve bearings.
Sleeve bearings can be mounted on pedestals attached to the
endshields which make part of the motor.
High speed motors are usually built with relatively long core
length if compared to its diameter.
While low speed motors are usually built with relatively short
rotor core if compared to its diameter.
The cooling systems most commonly used are:
- Open self-ventilated motors, Degree of Protection IP23;
- Enclosed motors with air-air heat exchanger, Degree of
Protection IP54 to IPW65;
- Enclosed motors with air-water heat exchanger, Degree of
Protection IP54 to IPW65.
Synchronous motor
Mounting configuration: D6
Pedestal bearings
Besides the cooling methods mentioned above, motors can be
supplied with forced ventilation, air inlet and outlet by ducts,
and other cooling methods, always meeting installation
environment and application characteristics.
Open motors
Enclosed motors
Mounting Configuration: D6
Mounting Configuration: D6
Mounting configuration: B3
Mounting configuration: B3
Synchronous Motors
On High Voltage Motors - Coils are pre-fabricated with
rectangular shape copper
wire, coated with mica tape
and epoxy resin impregnated.
They are then heated up and
cured resulting in high
winding mechanical strength.
This process is called
polymerization and provides
motor extended life time.
Coils are fitted in the stator slots, insulated from the stator
lamination core with class “F” (155°C) insulating material and
fastened by fiber glass or magnetic wedges.
The copper wires that form the coils are insulated with
appropriate class “H” (180°C)
Impregnation - Once coils have been inserted, slots closed,
connections and coil heads tied, the wound stator is vacuum
and pressure impregnated by applying class H solvent-free epoxy
resin, ensuring excellent electric, mechanical properties to Weg
insulation system, in addition to providing weathering resistance.
Epoxy resins are ideal for impregnation once they offer, upon
cure, superior resistance to weathering which is typical for
environments where electric rotating machines operate.
Considering they are 100% solid resins, that means, solvent free
composition, they can ensure major homogeneity and prevent
from occurring insulation bobbles after polymerization and final
The stator is then submitted to
hi-pot test and short-circuit
between turns:
- Surge Test before and after
the impregnation.
Weg synchronous motors are tested
in accordance with IEC34 Standard
in its modern testing laboratory for
low, medium and high voltage
motors in output ratings up to
10,000kVA and voltage range up to
15,000V, with full computerized and
high precision monitoring.
Tests are grouped in three
categories: routine, type and special
Routine tests are performed on all
motors produced. Besides routine
tests, type tests are normally
performed randomly or under
customer request.
Special tests are performed only
upon customer request.
Routine Tests
Visual inspection test
Air gap checking and bearing tolerances
Winding Ohmic resistance
Insulation resistance.
Temperature and space heater inspection
Bearing and rotation direction marking
Vibration checking
No load test
Short-circuit curve
Hi-pot test
Excitation system test
Special tests
Noise level test
Instantaneous short-circuit
Shaft voltage check
Starting current
Type tests
Temperature rise test
No load curve (V curve)
Loss and efficiency test
Waveform measurement
Polarization index
Synchronous motor starting
Synchronous Motors
Synchronous motors must be specified based on their
application, that is, based on their service duty, resistant
torque curve and inertia curve. The last two aspects are
essential items for motor starting analysis, while service
duty is important for correct thermal design.
Power factor and excitation type are also important aspects
to take into account for motor specification. Environment
type defines the motor degree of protection.
In reference to this aspect, load inertia will have a great
influence on starting time and on the heat to be dissipated by
the bars.
Theoretically, it is not correct to say that a synchronous
Resistant torque and load inertia
motor used on certain application (ex. pump), can be used
on another different application (ex. exhauster).
When specifying synchronous motors it is quite relevant to
know driven load data.
Resistant torque curve and load inertia have direct influence
on motor starting characteristics.
To drive high inertia loads, synchronous motors are built in
larger frame sizes so as to meet acceleration conditions.
Considering that a synchronous motor starts through its
squirrel cage (same as on induction motors) and with rotor
winding short-circuited (or closed in a resistance), the
correct material used on dump bar (usually built with copper
or copper alloys) and their geometry are essential to define
motor starting characteristic curve. This curve must be always
defined based on load resistant torque curve.
Besides ensuring the starting through the squirrel cage
generated torque, the dump bars must be also designed in
such a way to allow heat dissipation generated during motor
Service Duty
The correct specification of a synchronous motor rated
power must consider the motor service duty with overload
frequency existing on such duty.
Power factor
Whenever power factor correction is required on a
synchronous motor application, this required power factor
must be specified previously. This means that a motor
designed to operate with unit power factor can not supply
the same rated output power under lower power factor.
Environment characteristics
The environment where the motor will be installed must
be analyzed before specifying such motor. Environment type
defines the Degree of Protection and motor cooling method.
Explosive atmosphere application motors require brushless
Ambient temperature and altitude considered when
specifying a motor are 40ºC and 1000m above sea level.
If motor operation environment presents values above those
mentioned above, it is important to reconsider new data
when specifying this motor.
Synchronous Motors
Weg synchronous motors are manufactured specifically
to meet every application requirements.
They are used on all types of industry including:
Mining (crushers, mills, conveyor belts and others)
Steel plants (laminating machines, fans, pumps,
Pulp and paper (extruders, chippers, debarkers,
compressors, grinders)
Variable speed
Synchronous motors with variable speed are recommended
for applications with high torque, low speed and wide speed
adjusting range.
Depending on load and environment characteristics, motor
construction for such applications can be supplied with or
without brushes,.
Due to their higher efficiency level, reduced size and higher
output rating capacity, synchronous motors can replace DC
motors on high performance applications.
Sewage systems (pumps)
Chemical and Petrochemical (compressors, fans,
Cement (Crushers, mills, conveyor belts)
Rubber (extruders, mills, mixers)
Fixed speed
Synchronous motor applications with fixed speed are
recommended due to low operational cost once they
offer high efficiency and can be used as synchronous
compensating machines for power factor correction.
Recommended motors for this application are those
with brushless excitation.
On several cases, a motor with lower torque values compared
to standard values can be actually applied. This brings positive
reduction on motor starting current, resulting in less electric
system troubles on starting, along with reduction on mechanical
thrusts resulting from motor winding.
For a correct design and application of Weg synchronous
motors, we recommend to supply complete application data.
Synchronous Motors
Quantity:__________ Application (driven machine):_________________________
Output rating (kW):_________ Voltage (V):________
Speed (rpm)__________
Frequency (Hz):______[60]
Altitude (m):_______[1000]
Amb. Temp. (ºC)_______[40]
Power factor:_____[0.8 or 1.0]
Service factor: _____[1.0]
Installation: __________[inside or outside]
Excitation:__________[brushless or with brushes]
Excitation voltage (V)_____
Starting: Full voltage [ ]
Reduced voltage [ ] ______ %
Operating conditions:
[ ] Continuous frequency and voltage
[ ] Drive - from _______ to ______Hz
Bearings:_____________[pedestal or on the endshield]
Continuous or momentary thrust on bearings:___________
Degree of Protection:__________
[Open - IP23S or enclosed - IP55]
Cooling:______________ [air-air heat exchanger, air-water heat exchanger ...]
Starting:___________[1 hot/2 cold]
Starting torque:_______[40%] Synchronization torque (pull-in)____[30%]
Synchronization pull-out torque (Pull out):_________[150%]
Load inertia J (kgm2): __________ (Supply torque curve x load speed)
Rotation direction:_______________[CW, CCW or both]
Coupling (type):_______________
WEG supply [ ] Yes [ ] No
Main motor dimensions
Shaft height .. H:_______
Total height: HD: _____________
Distance between feet holes(longitudinal) .. B:______
Distance between feet holes (transversal) .. A:_______
Distance between feet hole and shaft shoulder .. C:____
Shaft - Diameter .. ØD:_____ length .. E: ______
Key diameter ..GA: ________
Key width ..F: _________
Main terminal box
Lead inlet: _________ [bottom]
Cable gland _________________ [yes no]
Number of terminals___________ [3 or 6]
Accessory terminal box:___________ [ Yes or no ]
Accessories -
[ ] Space heater
Voltage (V) ____________
[ ] Winding temperature detectors [PT100 with 3 wires - 1 per phase]
[ ] Bearing temperature detectors [PT100 with 3 wires - 1 per bearing
Av. Pref. Waldemar Grubba,3000 - 89256-9000 - Jaraguá do Sul - SC
Phone: (47) 372-4000 - Fax: (47) 372-4030
São Paulo - SP - Phone.: (11) 5053-2300 - Fax: (11) 5052-4202
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF