by

by

AL-ZAHRA MULTI-SERVICE NEIGHBORHOOD CENTER

A DESIGN CONCEPT FOR THE SAUDI ARABIAN

NEIGHBORHOOD by

Khalid Saad al-Nassar

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the

SCHOOL OF NATURAL RENEWABLE RESOURCES

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Degree of

MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA .

1 9 7 9

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This thesis has been submitted in partial ful­

fillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The

University of Arizona and is deposited in the University

Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of

the Library.

Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable

without special permission, provided that accurate

acknowledgment of source is m a d e . Requests for permis­

sion for extended quotation from or reproduction of this

manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head

of the major department or the Dean of the Graduate

College when in his judgment the proposed use of the

material is in the interests of scholarship.

In all

other instances, however, permission must be obtained

from the author.

SIGNED:

APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR

This thesis has been approved on the date shown below:

MICHAEL M. MCCARTHY

Assistant Professor of

Landscape Architecture

Dedicated to my parents.

ill

I

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The talents and efforts of many people have gone

into the planning and conduct of this thesis.

I should

like to acknowledge here'my great debt to these people.

Without their constant and unequivocal support and guid­

ance, it. is doubtful that the enterprise would even have

reached fruition.

The author wishes to express his gratitude and

appreciation to the major thesis advisor. Professor

McCarthy, Dr.. Robert Bechtel and Professor William Havens.

Sincere appreciation is given to the Saudi Arabian Edu­

cational Mission in Houston, Texas for their support and

letters of recommendation,

In.Saudi Arabia, special thanks should be extended

to the General Presidency of Youth Welfare, the Munici­

pality of the City of Riyadh, the General Department of

Statistics,, the Office of Town Planning in Riyadh and to

the Ministry of the Interior for their encouragement and

letters of recommendation.

Deep obligations are due to all the residents of

al-Zahra neighborhood who participated in the study and

who made this project possible.

'

IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page ix LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv

.

.

xv

CHAPTER

1.

2.

INTRODUCTION .

. . . . . . . . . . 1

9

Geo-historic a.nd Cultural Background of Saudi Arabia . . . . . . . . . .

Dominant Cultural Concerns ...........

Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Traditionalism ................

Youth Welfare

Social Activities .

Public Service and"Work Camps .

.

Support Programs

Summary

.

.

...........

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Geo-historic and Cultural Background of Riyadh

Population Growth of Riyadh . . . . . .

47

§9

9

13

13

Familialism t . . ...............

Sexual Modesty . . . . . . . . . .

Education . . . . . . . . . . . .

Area and Population of Saudi Arabia .

Major Population Centers ........

Nomadic Settlement and Migration .

Service and Recreational Programs and

Facilities at the National Level . .

Cultural Affairs . . . . . . . . .

Social Affairs . . . . . . . . . .

Medical Services . . . . . . .

16

16

17

19

21

22

25

28

29

29

30

Postal Services . . . . . . . . . 31

.

-• 32..

33

40:

4l

4g

44 v

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS— Continued

Spatial Arrangement of Riyadh . ‘. . =

Service and Recreational Programs and

Facilities at the City Level . . . .

Social Development .

Community S e r v i c e s .

Recreation and Green Space . . . .

The Concept of Public Space . . .

Land Acquisition . . . . . . . . .

Summary .

.

. .

3 . REVIEW OF LITERATURE . ................. 70 i

J O

Multi-Service Neighborhood Centers

(MSNC) . . . , . . . . .

.

.

Policy for the M S N C .............

Services for the MSNC . . . . . .

Recreation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Leisure ...........

Benefits and Contributions of

Recreation . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Recreation Activities . . . . . . . .

Children's Playgrounds . . . . . .

Philosophy and Trends . . . . . .

Folk Dancing . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hobbles . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Research in Recreation . . . . . . . . .

Traditional Approach ...........

The Innovative Approach .

An Experimental Planning Approach.

Classification . . . . . .

93

§4

96

96

102

D r a m a ........ .. ................. 10 4

Music ■ . .

. .

. . . .

105

Gardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 6

106

107

107

121

123-

128

Functions of Models . . . . . . .

129

133

133

74

75

76

78

86.

4. -THE RESEARCH PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . l4l

Physical and Social Setting of al-

Zahra Neighborhood . .

.

.

. .

l4l

144

Page

56

57

58

58

59

64

68

69

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS--Continued

Limitation of the Study . . . . . .

Research Questions . . . . . . . . . .

Research Design . . . . . . . . . . .

Questionnaire Development . .

.

.

Approaching the Residents with the

Concept of MSNC . . . . . . . . .

Pilot Study . . . . . . . . . . .

1

Ranking . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Translation .

. . . . . , . . .

Further Development of the Ques­ tionnaire in Saudi Arabia .

.

Letters of Recommendation . . . .

Selection of Sample .

Data Collection . . . . . . . . . , .

Treatment of Data . . . . . . . . . / .

Page

I k 5

146

147'

148

5. RESULTS AND FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . .

Population Characteristics ........... 158

Question 1, Need for MSNC . . . . 161'

Question 2, Leisure . .

162

Question Recreational Activities

168

Summary of Question 3 . . . . . 204

204

Question, .53 Administration . . . . . 206

Question .6, Separation of Sexes .

207

Question 7, Children's Playgrounds. 209

Question 8, Services .

.

210

Question, 91 Time of Operation

Summary of Findings

.

212

215

218

Conclusion . . . . .

. ... . .

. . 219

6. RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR

FURTHER RESEARCH . . . . . .

.

.

227

148

150

150

151

151

152

152

155

156

158

Recommendations . ................. 227

Planning Program .......... 229

Neighborhood .............

Need for Services and Recreational

229

Facilities .

. . . .

.

.

...

Survey of Existing Activities and

229

230

TABLE OF CONTENTS— -Continued

Page

List of Activities and Facilities.

Financial Support . . . . . . . .

Physical' Design . . . . . . . . . .

231

23^

234

Construction

Management . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.47

247

Evaluation .

. . . . . . 247

Suggestions for Future Research . . . 250

Concluding Statement . . . . 250.

APPENDIX A: SUMMARY OF THE SELF-EXPRESSION THEORY. 251

APPENDIX R: QUESTIONNAIRE . . . . .

. . . .

253

APPENDIX C: LETTERS OF RECOMMENDATION- . . . . . . . 267

REFERENCES .

.

.

274

LIST OF TABLES

Table .

1. Population of Saudi Arabia . .

'. . .

.

2. Population of Saudi Arabian cities . . . .

3. Estimated population of Riyadh . . . . . .

4. SCET international population estimate of

Riyadh 1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. Recent projections of informed sources until 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6. Distribution of respondents by character­ istics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7. How leisure time is spent according to total population of 203

8. Popular and less popular leisure time

.

Page

21

23

51

.52

53

159

163

164

9.

Leisure time spent playing with the

Children according' to respondents who have children under 12 years of age . . .

10. Respondents interested in practicing sports activities according to occupation.

11. Respondents interested in practicing

166

171

172

12.- Respondents interested in watching sports activities according to occupation . . . .

13. Respondents interested in watching sports activities according to sex . . . . . . .

14.

Popular and less popular sports among the

82.2 percent or 167 respondents who chose to practice sports activities ........ ix

173

174

176

X

•LIST OF TABLES— Continued

Table .

15 -

Activities popularity according to sex

from the total respondents who chose to

practice sports (82.2 percent or 167 re­ spondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

,

16. Respondents interested in reciting litera-

Page

177

178

17- Respondents interested in reciting literature according to sex . . . . . . . 179

18.

Respondents interested in listening to

lectures and participating in symposiums

according to occupation . . .

.

.

1 9 .

Respondents interested in listening to

lectures and participating in symposiums,

according to sex . . .

. . ... . .

I80 l8l

20. Respondents interested in writing literature according to occupation . . . . 183

2

\ .

Respondents interested in writing literature according to sex . . . . . . . . 184

■ Respondents interested in practicing art­

185

■ Respondents interested in practicing artwork according to sex . . . . . . . . . 186

1

24. Respondents interested in visiting.art

shows according to occupation .

. .

187;

25. Respondents interested in visiting art shows according to sex ... .

.

.

. . . . . 188

26. Popular and less popular fine art activi­

ties among respondents who- are interested

in practicing art work (53.7 percent or

189-

27. Art activities according to. sex among re­ spondents who are interested in practicing

189

;

LIST OF TABLES— Continued xi

Table '

28.

Respondents,interested In practicing

Page

191

29.

Respondents interested in practicing

theatrical arts according to s e x ........ 192

30. Respondents interested in watching theatrical arts to occupation .

31. Respondents interested in watching theatrical arts sex . . . . .

193

194

32. Theatrical arts among respon­

dents who are interested in practicing

theatrical art activities. (60.6 percent or 123 respondents from t o tal.population . .

33•

Popular and less popular theatrical arts

activities among respondents who are

interested in theatrical arts activities

( S O . 6

percent or 123 respondents from

total population) .

. . . . . . . . . . 195.

34. Respondents interested in watching movie shows according to o c c u p a t i o n .... 197

'35. Respondents interested in watching movie shows according to sex ........... .

I9 8 .

hobbies according to occupation .

... . 199

37.. Respondents interested in scientific hobbies according to sex . -... . .. .. » ... . 200

38 .

Respondents interested in fun and thinking

games according to occupation .. ... .

.

3 9 .

Respondents interested in fun and thinking

.

.

.

. .

•40. Fun and thinking games activities accord­

ing to sex among respondents who are

interested in fun and thinking games (72.9

percent or 148 respondents from total

■ .

.

. .

201

202

203

xii .

LIST OF TABLES— -Continued

Table ■

4 1 . Popular and less popular fun and think­ ing games among respondents who are

(72-9 percent or 1.48 respondents) .

42. Hierarchy of activities' according, to time:.

Page

203

205 population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44. Administration o.f the. center according to

.

.

45. Possibility of establishing one or

separate center(s ) for males and females

according to total, population .

. . . . .

46. Associating children's playgrounds with men and women according to total popula­ tion . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47.

Associating children's playgrounds with

men and women according to those who have ■

children under 12 years and those with

children over 12 years or no children at

48. Service facilities for the MSNC according to total population .

.

. . .

.49. Days of the week and time of day center would be used the most » .

. . .

50. Frequency of suggestions regarding recrea­

206

207

208

211

211

213

214-

220

51. Frequency of suggestions regarding com-, munity services . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52. Frequency of suggestions regarding forming

.

. .

53- Frequency of suggestions that do not fall under previous categories , .

.

222

224

225

xiii

LIST OF TABLES— Continued

Table .

5#.- Activities for al-Zahra MSNC according to sex and priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55 - dimensions of facilities .

Page

232

248

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page

1. Map of the city of Riyadh showing al~

Zahra n e i g h b o r h o o d ............. ~ . In Pocket

2. Map of Saudi Arabia . . . . . . . . . . . 20

50 3. Evolution .of Riyadh . . . . . . . . . . . .

4. Diagrammatic concept of a traditional

Arabian Suq ^ •

5. Leisure subsistence to post-industrial societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6. Hierarchy of planning models for Saudi

66

90

130

7 Relationships between planning models for

Saudi Arabia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8. Supply and demand for neighborhood facili­ ties in Saudi Arabia ...............

.9• Program for planning and designing a M S N C .

10. Two separate centers connected with a park system ........ .. .

11. Diagrammatic functional relationships .

12. Spatial relationships . . . . . . . . . . .

132

138

228

236

243

246 xiv

ABSTRACT

A .study was conducted in al-Zahra neighborhood3

termine the reaction of the residents towards a new

concept of establishing a multi-service neighborhood

center, utilizing the concept of advocacy planning.

The

study was meant to set precedent for establishing such

centers to serve the residents of all the neighborhoods

of the Saudi Arabian cities.

The residents of al-Zahra

neighborhood expressed the desire to establish two

one for women.

xv

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

.One- of the most significant events in Saudi

Arabia in the past three decades has been the discovery

of o i l .

Prior to this discovery, the country w a s , for

the most p a r t , a typical folk society with a minimal

division of labor and a sacred value orientation.

With

the discovery of oil, the country entered a new era o f

its economic and social development (El-Banyan 1974,

p. 1).

One of the most important characteristics of this

development has been the movement toward large-scale

urbanization in the form of expanding and modernizing

old cities and the establishment of new towns and urban

settlements in the. various regions of the country.

This urbanization process- is being accompanied by

the introduction of new values and modes of life and by

the arousal of. new needs.

These needs have to be met in.

order to make urban life a quality characteristic of any

healthy, vital and creative urban system that caters to

the well-being, inspiration and happiness of its citizens.

1

2

The trend of the Saudi Arabian government and the

Arabian people is towards achieving an urban system in

response to Arabian culture and Islamic tradition and

Including the inspiration that has come from other

societies.

In an effort to speed the pace of technological

modernizationj the Saudi Arabian government began to open

its doors to outside influences.

Most of the development

has occurred.in the technological fields because of the

increased demand for technical skills and knowledge.

The social; and cultural aspects of development still re­ main to be emphasized.

In a recent meeting called by the

Foreign Student Advisor at The University of Arizona

between faculty members who have participated in projects

for Saudi Arabia,, and the Saudi Arabian students on campus ,

Dr. Harry Snyder,, a long-time associate and advisor for

the Saudi Arabian government, pointed out that the educa­

tional trend in Saudi Arabia must lean towards the social

sciences to accompany their technological objectives in

light of. its historical and cultural values and tradi­ tions .

An understanding of the Saudi Arabian's cultural

values and religious traditions and beliefs is the measure

for the success of their material development.

3

The fast development of the urban centers of

Saudi Arabia has a great impact on the,quality of social,

life in cities and t o wns.

It has always been essential

for cities to be considered urban in character and quality

to include certain recreational and service facilities

that reflect the degree of interaction between the

society and the environment that contains it.-- Urbanism

at its present scale is a new phenomena in Saudi Arabia.

However, as urbanites, the Arabs have long established

great cities, such as Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, etc.,

with essential governmental, medical, recreational

institutes and facilities.

The cities of Saudi Arabia are just emerging into

the 20th century reality.

They are growing- rapidly, with

emphasis on utilities such as transportation, electricity

and w a t e r .

Medical, postal and governmental services are

centralized, while cities are expanding— t h u s , creating

insufficient services that are not easily reached.

Recreational facilities at community levels are prac­ tically non-existent.

The need for decentralized

recreational and service facilities is impressive as the

society transforms toward a different and new lifestyle.

The new lifestyle stems from the wealth of the country,

increase in population, and the effort by the government

for rapid mass education and the' awareness of the average

Saudi citizen of other societies.

In order for Saudi Arabia to avoid the urban plights that other 'societies have experienced, such as

pollution, congestion, crimes, and juvenile delinquency,

it is necessary to adopt wise and innovative planning

concepts and techniques to guide the citizens towards

establishing an urban environment that is healthy, safe,

beautiful and enjoyable.

It would be beneficial to develop a model for the cities of Saudi Arabia that would point out urban issues o f concern and how to deal with them.

Nevertheless, a

model of such great magnitude would be impractical if

each single situation is not dealt with separately in

greater detail.

Practically, in all of the Saudi Arabian neigh­

borhoods, there is a lack of recreational and service

facilities.

A concept of these facilities for present

hood, to serve as a model for other neighborhoods, each

according to their needs.

In the city of Riyadh, the neighborhood of al-

Zahra is the subject of this study.

The city is

sectioned into different neighborhoods, with varied

income levels, area coverage and density (see map.

Figure 1, in pocket). A concept of establishing a multi­

service center for the neighborhood, will be tested to

determine the recreation and service needs, involving

the residents in the decision-making process.

My objectives in this study is to provide an

example of arriving at a cohesive design that takes

advocacy planning as the starting point to involve people

in. designing their e n v i r o n m e n t a n d to show that this is

a feasible planning method in Saudi Arabian society.

The potential for advocacy planning in Saudi

Arabia is wide o p e n .

The Saudi citizens have been

accustomed to the government providing them with infra­

structure , however, provision of the social.overhead in

the forms of social services and recreational facilities

at the neighborhood level 'could not be achieved by

governmental assessments only.

The people for whom these

services and facilities to be provided should have the

first s a y .

There are many planning and design issues that

cannot be resolved by mere intuition, observation or the

whims of the designer's, fancy, such as mixing of the

sexes, or people's preferences and actual needs for

services and facilities.

The concept of advocacy planning

could resolve these issues with factual information from

the people themselves.

The outcome of this study showed that this con- -

eept is feasible for the segment of the society that

participated in the study and its. potential to involve

the rest of the Saudi society is encouraging, especially

that the governmental officials have welcomed the testing

of the concept, If testing of the concept utilizing a -

survey technique of questionnaires proved successful in

al-Zahra neighborhood, other techniques such as personal

interviews rtiight prove helpful in other neighborhoods of

less educated residents.

The concept of advocacy planning in this study has

led to diagrammatic design solutions for establishing a

multi-service neighborhood center that caters to the

needs of al-Zahra neighborhood.

However, the purpose of

this study is to provide a stepping stone towards

utilizing the concept in all of the Saudi Arabian neigh­ borhoods.

Since this study is the first of its kind in Saudi

Arabia-, the research dealt with the broader issues con­

cerning the Saudi Arabian society as a w h o l e , then it

discussed the city of Riyadh's growth and spatial arrange­

ment zeroing in on the neighborhood of al-Zahra as a case

study.

This method of research is essential for a better

understanding of the circumstances surrounding the Saudi

Arabian society, thus eliminating the misconception that

the multi-service neighborhood center is a western device

that is not fit for the Arabian Islamic culture.

Also

this method eliminates the misconception that present

governmental projects for social services and recrea- '

tional facilities are designed to reach all segments of

the society.

This study consists of six chapters.

In this

chapter, the reader is introduced to the study.

Chapter

2 serves as an introduction to the background of the study

at the national level and at the city of Riyadh level..

Those who are familiar with the Saudi Arabian society and

the governmental programs for social services and recre­

ational facilities could skip this chapter and proceed

with the following ones.

Chapter 3 is the review of

literature in recreation research which led to adopting

the approach for this study.

It is meant to familiarize

the Saudi readier with old and new research methods in the

recreation field.

The concept advocacy planning was

discussed here. This chapter also pointed out some im­

portant and potential social services and recreation

activities and facilities a multi-service neighborhood

center could provide.

Chapters 4 and 5 .are devoted entirely to the

methodology and gathering and analyzing of data concern­ ing the survey which was conducted in al-Zahra

neighborhood.

Chapter 6 concludes this study with recoin

mendations that led to a program for planning and dia­ grammatic design solutions for establishing a multi­ service neighborhood center.

Suggestions for further

CHAPTER 2

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This chapter points out growth, development and

new trends in Saudi Arabia and in the city of Riyadh as

they relate to social services and the provision of

recreational amenities.

This chapter is presented in

two sections: the first section deals with some important

aspects of the geo-historic and cultural background of

Saudi Arabia and the second section deals with the geo-

historic and cultural background of Riyadh.

Geo-historic and Cultural Background of

Saudi Arabia

The human being is a social animal.

As humanity

graduated from gathering foods and hunting to agriculture,

societies progressed from nomadism, to settlement.

In

early societies, these settlements were

.agrarian in

nature:

As settlements

grew in number, and due to the gradual increase in human

population and therefore interaction, settlements began

to take various forms, functions, and locations. Settle­ ments were built around military garrisons > along trade

9

10

routes, In fertile regions or around, sacred religious

shrines. '

A question poses itself on geographers, planners

and spatial historians : When and how did settlements

transform themselves to urban centers? Sjoberg (1973,

p. 25) stated that, "The first cities arose some.5,500

years ago- large-scale urbanization began only 100 years

ago.

The intervening steps in the evolution of cities

were nonetheless a prerequisite for modern urban socie­ ties."

According to Sjoberg, there has been three major

levels of human organization.. The "folk society" is pre-

urban and even pre-literate.

It consists of self-

sufficient homogeneous small numbers of people, with their

energies almost wholly absorbed by the quest for food.

The folk, society permits few distinctions of class or

specialization of labor.

Some folk societies still exist

today.

However, similar human groups began the slow

process of evolving into more complex societies milleniurns

ago through advances in technology and organizational

structure.

The second level of organization is the civilized

pre-industrial or "feudal", society.

Because of the

selective cultivation of grains and often the practice of

animal husbandry, there is a surplus of food.

The food

surplus provided time and energy for specialization of

11

labor and the kind of class structure necessary for

leadership and command over manpower to develop and main­

tain extensive irrigation systems as well as metallurgy

for tools.

Even though literacy is usually confined to

a leisured elite, writing, for keeping accounts, the

recording of historical accounts, law, literature and

religious beliefs were characteristics of this level of

organization.

Even though pre-industrial cities still

survive, the modern industrial city is categorized as

characterized by mass literacy, a fluid class system, and

most important, the technological breakthrough in ;

maintaining new sources of inanimate energy that produced

and still sustain the industrial revolution.

"Viewed

against the background of this three-tiered structure,

the first emergence of cities at the level of civilized"

pre-industrial society can be more easily understood"

(Sjoberg 19733 p. 26).

Since most Saudi Arabian cities are just emerging

to the 20th century civilization, they by and large fall ' under the category of the pre-industrial organization.

The traditional pre-industrial society required an

apparatus to organize the labor force needed for large-

scale construction, such as public buildings, city walls

and irrigation systems. A social organization of this

12

kind.requires’a variety of full-time specialists, directed

by a ruling elite.

The ruling elite, although few in

number, must command sufficient political power— reinforced by an ideology, usually religious in character.

Regardless of what level of organization a

society is experiencing, it is always defined by culture.

Culture never ceases to exist; it changes, develops and

grows.

Burch (1970, p. 6.1) describes culture in terms

that "Culture specifies for the members of a social group

what is, what ought to be, and how one gets there.

Each

culture is a distinctive language which shapes the per­ ceptions and behavior of its. members."

Within the larger culture exemplified by a : : society, the group structure persists.

The group is

self-centered.

It is inherently conservative and usually

quo.. Different groups have different goals which might

lead to conflict of purposes.

The results of not harmon^

izing diverse actions is a mixture of good and bad,

wisdom and foolishness, belief and incredulity, conserva­

tive and radical, social and antisocial, and progressive

and retrogressive.

Human beings are born into groups in the society,

whether it is familial, religious or political units from

town to nation.

They join a group or several groups

according to how they make a living, what they believe

in or enjoy.

They find advantage in this collectivism.

They comply for common purposes, and comply for common

13 benefits.

It is beyond the scope of this study to discuss

Arabian culture and value system; however, it is necessary

to point out some major cultural concerns and trends in

Saudi Arabia. The Arabian society with its rich back­

ground and heritage will contribute the basis for

providing cultural centers that reflects its past and

project its future goals of modernization and development.

Dominant Cultural, Concerns

Designing a multi-service neighborhood center in­

volves, before anything, the people for whom it is

designed.

It is important to understand the major aspects

of their culture in light of historic developments of

their beliefs and way of life.

The Arab world has had a

complement of dominant concerns, such as religion, tradi­ tionalism, familialism, and sexual modesty.

Religion

The word Islam has several different m eanings.

it connotes the one true divine religion, taught

to mankind by a series of prophets, each of whom

brought a revealed b o o k .

Such were the T o r a h ,

1M

the Psalms and the Gospels brought by the

Prophets Moses, David and J e s u s .

Muhammad

was the last and greatest of the prophets

;

and the book he brought, the Qur'an, com­

pletes and supersedes all previous revelations

(Lewis 19765 p. 25).

The word Islam is commonly understood to mean

surrender of the believer to God.

Islam centers itself

on the concept of the Oneness of God.

A true believer is

the one who gave himself entirely to God alone to the

exclusion of others, i.e., a monotheist as contrasted

with a polytheist.

In the first stages of Islam, the

Prophet appeared among many polytheistical A r a b s .

Islam

was perceived by the Prophet and his .followers as a con­ tinuation of the previous monotheistic religions.

In

its doctrine, Islam stems from, the culture that nurtured

it and its ethics.

Islam is also viewed, as a reform of

past Arabian, c u l t u r e i t prohibited many pre-Islamie

practices, but it strengthened and enhanced others.

Islam has come to be the center of the Arabian culture.

The normative function of religion is manifested

in the extent to which it regulates everyday

behavior positive and negative commandments,

all of which, ideally, must be observed (Patai

1973 3 P. 143).

In Saudi Arabia religion is not only one aspect

of life,.but the center from which all else radiates.

Nearly all custom and tradition is religious in nature.

Religious do's and don't's extend throughout all

15 activity, thought and feeling.

Religion was and 'still is

for the majority the central normative force in life.

The constitution of Saudi Arabia is based, on the

Holy Quran and the Sunna (tradition of the Prophet).

All

Saudi Arabian citizens are Muslims with the vast majority

belonging to the Sunni sect, and a minority of Shi'ite

Muslims along the east coast of Arabia.

Traditionalism

Arab culture and Middle Eastern culture in general

are part of eastern cultures, yet of all eastern

cultur'es they are the closest to the West both .

historically and geographically.

Several Arab

thinkers have in recent decades emphasized the

affinity of the Arab world with the West rather

than with the great Asiatic cultures that lies

to the east of Arabia.

Yet there can be' no doubt

that the two cultures, that of the West and that

of the Arab world, are characterized by widely

divergent positions.

A rab, and generally Middle

Eastern Muslims, culture is closely related to

■the East, to the cultures of South, Southeast,

and East Asia (Northrop 1974, p. 313) •

The slow change in the social and cultural life of the

Arab world is due- to the development of Arab tradi­ tionalism around the revealed religion.

In Arab culture

it is considered that the age in which the revelation

of Islam took place, in the seventh century A.D., was

the greatest and hoblest period in its history.

If -a society believes that its religion was re­

vealed by God at a certain time in the past to

its greatest religious leader, it cannot help

developing a.mentality which considers adherence

to religious tradition as a supreme value, and.

16

by extension* must come to regard all tradition

Influences from outside Arab traditionalism must

possess apparent advantages to be accepted with little

or no opposition.

A l s o 3 it must lie well outside the

mainstream of Arab culture.

Technological features which

do not threaten any of the traditionally embedded values

are the most readily accepted.

There is a widespread

appreciation and interest in Western technology, but not

culture.

Famllialism

Fatal (1973,. p • 282) defined famllialism as "the

centrality of the family in social organization* its

primacy in the loyalty scale, and its supremacy over

individual life."

He characterized the Arab family by

six features: it is extended, patriarchlal, patrilineal,

patrilocal, endogenous, and occasionally, polygymous

A family with such traits reign central in both social

and individual l i f e .

Sexual Modesty

There is a special kind o.f honor connected with

one's sexual conduct. The honor-shame syndrome is re­

flected in the language by the words "sharaf" and "ird."

Honor in its non-sexual, general connotation is termed

17

"sharaf„" Sharaf is something flexible; it can be acquired, diminished, augmented,, lost or regained, depending on one's behavior. Ird is a rigid concept; it is a specific kind of honor mainly connected with women, and depends on their proper conduct. "It has a sexual connotation. A sexual offense on her part causes her to lose her ird, which will bring shame.not only to her, but to her family as well.

The Arab sensitivity to the ird is so great that

an entire way of life has: been built around it,

aiming at the prevention of the occurrence of a

situation which might lead to a woman's loss of

her sexual virtue, or which might enable a man

Measures to protect the women's chastity take different

restrictive forms such as veiling and seclusion of women,

school segregation based on sex, and the recent partici­

pation of women in the work force in only the traditional

roles of teachers or nurses.

Education

Al-Khedalre (1978, p. 18) quotes Tibawi in stating

that education for both sexes was encouraged by Islam

as the prophet Mohammad says, "Quest for learning is a

duty incumbent upon every Moslem male and female."

Before the discovery of oil, there was neither

large-scale demand for general education nor the financial

means to provide it. Formal education in Saudi Arabia

was entirely according to the Islamic tradition of re-

ligious and classical learning and was available only to

a tiny segment of the country's y o u t h .

In 1926 the

government established a Directorate General of Education.'

At the present time, the amount of educated people in

Saudi Arabia is increasing steadily. In 1961-1962,

130,000 boys and 11,914 girls were enrolled in elementary

schools throughout the kingdom.

In 1974-1975, these

figures jumped to 411,194 for boys and 223,304 for girls.

At the intermediate level (junior high) of education in

1964-1965, the enrollment was 18,374 boys and 1,154

girls.

These figures jumped to 70,548 boys and 20,518

girls in 1972-1973 •

In 1964-1965 the enrollment in

secondary schools (high schools) was- 4,536 boys and 52

girls. This level of education was increased to 31,333 • boys and 10,206 girls in 1974-1975•

Higher education at

the university level was 6,508 males and 434 females in

1969- 1 9 7 0 .

These figures increased to 16,171 boys and

2,922 girls in.1974-1975.

Adult education and literacy

programs are increasing at a full scale.

Adult education is offered at the intermediate

and secondary levels.

In 1971-1972, the total number

of adult students was 6,588 and in 1975, this figure

jumped to 99>673 students with a projection of 520,000

pupils in 3> 327 schools in 1980 .

The Ministry of

19

Education utilized day school facilities and personnel

to offer night programs (Al-Khedaire 1978).

Increase in education Indicates that the trends

in Saudi Arabia today stress achievement rather than

ascription, the type of occupation has been by and large

determined by the level of education.

Also education

expands the individual's awareness to other aspects of

living beyond traditional roles . -

Area and Population of Saudi Arabia

The Arabian Peninsula is a large territory in

area exceeding one million square miles, roughly equiva­

lent to the United States east of the Mississippi (Figure

2).

Saudi Arabia occupies the bulk of the Arabian

Peninsula, about 873,000 square miles (The World Almanac

and Book of Facts 1977, p. 602).

Different sources have

given different population estimates for Saudi Arabia

(Table 1).

An estimate of about 7,012,000 is found in

the Statistical Indicator (Ministry of Finance and

National. Economy 1976, p. I l l ; hereinafter referred to

as M F N E ).

Saudi Arabia is divided into several geographical

regions.

First, the Nafud Desert, extends from the

JORDAN

J R A Q

Damm

Jjddah

Riyadh

SAUDI ARABIA

. IRAN

OMAN

YEMEN

Figure 2.

Map of Saudi Arabia. — Taken from al—

Khedaire (1978, p. 12).

20

21

Table 1. Population of Saudi Arabia.

Source

Year

1969

The World Almanac and Book of

Facts 1977, p. 602

Ministry of Finance and National

Economy (M F N E ) 1976, p. Ill

1974

Population

7,012,642

8,100,000

7,012,000

This desert is characterized by huge sand dunes as the

name Nafud (dune) implies.

Second, to the southeast, the

hostile Rub al-Khali (empty quarter) floats upon a sea of

oil.

Third, the eastern or coastal region is lowest in

elevation and has one of the largest oases in Arabia,

called al-Hasa.

al-Hasa is also known for its natural

mineral springs.

Fourth, Nejd is t h e .central plateau

region.

This area has a dry climate and contains several

oases.

Pith, al-Hejaz (barrier) mountains rise to create

a separate coastal region situated on the Red Sea.

Major Population Centers

HejaZj or the Western Province, mainly consists

(the city of Prophet Mohammed), and Jedda, which is the

22 major sea and air p o r t .

The rest of the population of

this region live in small villages and towns scattered

along the coast and in the m o u n t a i n s P o p u l a t i o n s of

major Saudi Arabian cities are listed in Table 2.

In the central region of Saudi Arabia (Nejd) is

located the capital, Riy a d h .

Riyadh is the spine of life

supporting numerous small towns and. villages around it.

several major cities: Dhaharan, Dammam, al-Khobar, and

the oasis of al-Qatif.

A l s o , several settlements around

the oil fields such as Abqaq and Ras Tanura which has

the largest oil refinery in Saudi Arabia.

The major

population center for the southern province of Saudi

Arabia is Abha.

The People

Through the ages many civilizations have four-

ished in the Arabian Peninsula.

Those empires conquered

the neighboring empires and in turn were conquered by

them--thus giving the peninsula a heterogeneous character.

As a basis for analyzing the subtle, but obvious, sub-

grouping of the Saudi Arabian society, the major factor

in creating this phenomena is Islam, and the second is

tradition, which extends its roots from the ancient Arab

tribes of the peninsula.

Table 2. Population of Saudi Arabian cities.

Source

Year

Mecca

Taif

Riyadh Dammam

CBS News Almanac

(1978, p. 482)

The World Almanac and

Book of Pacts (1977, p. 572)

1973 500,000 250,000 100,000 450,000 100,000

1973 500,000 ' 225,000

24

Islam Invited many non-Arab.as well as Arab Muslim

groups to concentrate in and around the sacred cities of

Mecca and Medina.

Establishment of groups and communities

from Turkey, India, Persia, Indonesia, Bokhara (in the

Soviet Union), Afghanistan and some parts of Africa as

well as from other Arab countries, gave the area a unique

character of Islamic unity and Arab brotherhood with the

natives of the region.

This acculturation process gained

its strongest momentum in the Western Province.

The Eastern Province has experienced an accultura­ tion process of its own unique character by being influ­

enced not only by Islam., but also by waves of ancient and

modern civilizations which established their trade posts

as connectors oh the trade route between the east and the

west along the calm shores of the Arabian Gulf.

The

island of Bahrain, approximately 20 miles off the shores

of Saudi Arabia, extends its history to time immemorial,

and has long established itself as one of the world's

oldest trade and cultural centers.

It was known to the

Greeks as Dilmun and is a dreamland for archaeologists.

The island of Faylakah off the shores of Kuwait is an

archaeological museum illustrating many episodes of the

story of the eastern coasts of Arabia,

The oases of a 1-Hasa and al-Qatif were famous

trade and agricultural centers since ancient t i mes.

25

Its. people belong to the Shl'lte sect of Islam.

The

Phoenicians sailed from the shores of Lebanon to build

the city of Jubail on the shores of the Arabian Gulf.

This trade post of the Phoenicians is becoming one of

Saudi Arabia's most prosperous industrial centers.

The central part of Saudi Arabia did not experi­

ence the acculturation process until recent times under

the Saudi r u l e , which established the throne of their ' kingdom in the city of Riyadh.

Through the ages this

area of Arabia remained the same with its tribal doctrines

and Islam as the orthodox constitution which governs their

lives.

Being surrounded by a sea of desert from the

north, east, and south and the Hejaz mountains to the west

made it possible for this area to remain homogeneous in

character, giving its people a hardy conservative outlook

on life which is starting to change with modern develop­ ment .

Nomadic Settlement and Migration.

Most of the nomadic population of Arabia is

scattered in the Nejd plateau and the northern fringes of

al-Nafud desert.

The government and the urbanites view

nomadism as a problem hindering the development of the

country towards modernization.

The main concern among

intellectuals and government officials lies in how to

26 program the transition from nomadism to settlement.

Vicker (1975, p . 7) reports that, tribesmen trekking the deserts of Saudi Arabia.

They often are bitterly poor, uneducated and so

lacking in medical care that until quite recently

about half of the Bedouin children died before

the age of five.

The government is spending $27 million in an ex­

perimental sheep farm to support a Bedouin settlement

project in the village of Harad some 180 miles inland

from the Arabian Gulf.

"To run the project the Saudis

have brought in 200 technicians, managers and teachers,

many of them from abroad" (Vicker 1975, p .

The

Bedouins are definitely finding it hard to adjust to a

way of life about which they know nothing.

They are

■being taught to grow alfalfa, barley, corn and oats as

fodder for the sheep and vegetables for their own use.

The issues of nomadic settlement and rural migra­

tion to the cities are discussed extensively in a doctoral

dissertation by Dr. S. A. Malik (1973) entitled, "Rural

Migration and Urban Growth in Riyadh,. Saudi Arabia."

Malik (1973, p. 1) states that.

At least thirty percent of the population of Saudi

Arabia were nomads or semi-nomads before the dis­ covery of oil and the subsequent economic develop­ ment in the 1940s,

At the present time, the three major cities of Saudi

Arabia— -Mecca, Riyadh, and Jedda— have populations between

150,000 and 300,000* There are.also 12 other cities with populations 20,000 and 100,000. The total population of the country Is roughly between seven and eight million.

Thus, It appears from these figures that Saudi

Arabia Is essentially rural.

More than eighty

percent of Its population lives In localities

of less than 20,000 Inhabitants (Malik 1973, p . 1).

In spite of the fact that Saudi Arabia is mainly

rural, its urban centers are increasing their populations

phenomenally.

The population is concentrated in the holy

cities of Mecca and Madina and the seaport of Jiddah, the

headquarters of the government in Riyadh, and in the

coastal oil industrial towns.

The influx from the desert and the rural areas to

Saudi Arabian cities is accelerating as job opportunities

rise.

Another reason for the large-scale migration is

the services and amenities the urban lifestyle could pro­

vide (see Population Growth of Riyadh in the latter

section of this chapter).

Migration to the cities of; Saudi Arabia has a

dynamic impact on changing the lifestyle of the country.

Malik’s (1973, pv- 53) viewpoint is "that if a migrant

achieves a higher level of education, it will help him

understand different ways of living, and this might free

him from the rigidity inherent in his former closed

society." The degree of integration to the city life

will vary among migrants according to their background.

for an illiterate Bedouin nomad it might take a genera­

28

tion before integration takes p l ace, while for an

educated person from another town the process will be

maintained with much e a s e .

Service and Recreational Programs and

Facilities at the National Level

One of the goals of the national Second Develop­ ment Plan of Saudi Arabia is t h a t ,

Social services will be developed to ensure

that every group and individual, however dis­

advantaged, enjoys adequate, dignified minimum

standard of living; levels above this minimum

will continue to be the reward of individual

effort and achievement (Ministry of Planning

1976, p. 5) .

In the following pages, highlights of the Second

Development Plan, will be presented.

These highlights

to be discussed are the social and cultural services,

infrastructure such as postal and medical services, and

the activities of the General Presidency of Youth Affairs

regarding recreation and youth development.

:In a growing

country such as Saudi Arabia, the exigency for service

and recreational facilities is creating a national prob­ lem of inefficient service facilities, and meager recrea­ tional opportunities.

The Saudi Second Development Plan

realizes this problem, and calls for the provision of

those facilities.

29

Cultural Affairs

Supporting the concept of continued education,

the Ministry of Education will broaden its programs for

the enrichment of the people of Saudi Arabia.

The new

programs will focus attention on the national library

system, the availability-of museums, the preservation of

national sites and archaeological explorations.

The

Ministry will establish a biography center, and will open

ten new general libraries, two per year, beginning in

1975-1976, to increase the number of public libraries• from 22 to 32.

During the period of 1976-1979, one large,

five medium, and ten small library buildings will be

constructed as replacement for existing facilities.

The

Ministry will also initiate the construction of a. nation­

al museum, six regional museums to be distributed

throughout the kingdom, and two Islamic museums in Jiddah

and Mecca.

Four specialized museums will be located at

such major archaeological sites as Madain Salih.

Social Affairs

Social affairs programs include social welfare,

rehabilitation, cooperatives and community development.

Twenty-four additional welfare institutions are planned,

among them.a home for handicapped children and five new

probation h o m e s .

The number of rehabilitation centers

will grow from one in Riyadh to 16 located across the

30 country„

Generous subsidies will encourage cooperative

developments; 90 new cooperatives are planned.

The

present number of community development centers will be

doubled and the number and scope of their projects ex­ panded considerably.

A major program of social research

will be undertaken through the ad-Diryah Center'and its

community development center training programs will be

expanded (Ministry of Planning 1976, p. 95)•

Medical Services

The Second Development Plan mentions that health

services will be developed to the population through a

hierarchy of strategically located health facilities in

each region of the country:

General hospitals of varying sizes, located in urban

communities and offering both preventive and cura­ tive health services. .

Specialized hospitals, located in the.major cities of

the kingdom..

Dispensaries, staffed by physicians and providing

both preventive and curative services, which service

communities of 10,000-15 > 000 (type "A") and 5,000-

10,000 (type "B"), and 40.,000 (district dispensaries).

Health centers providing, under the jurisdiction of

a dispensary, both preventive and curative services,

and serving the smallest communities-.

• 31

District dispensaries (polyclinics)., located In major

towns and each providing both preventive and curative

services to a population of 40,000.

Specialized facilities, providing services such as

bilharzia and malaria control, chest disease clinics,

and mother and child health centers.

Support services, including regional laboratories,

equipment and supply warehouses, and engineering

departments.

Health offices, responsible for organizing the collec­

tion of vital statistics and providing guidance on

preventive health services.

Mobile health services, to cover nomadic and other

persons scattered in small villages.

Health education, prepare,. through the Health Educa­

tion Department, literature and visual aids for

dissemination through all general health facilities,

including community development centers, and mother-

and child care clinics; such material will also be

made available for the use of other government

agencies and the private sector (1975-1980) .

Postal Services

Postal facilities recommended by the Second De­ velopment Plan are as follows.

Construct 'and equip major postal centers at Jiddah,

Riyadh, and Dammam, beginning in 1977-1978 and com­ pleting by 1979-1980.

32

Construct and equip 20 main exchange offices in the

larger cities (1976-1977 to 1979-1980).

Construct and equip branch exchange offices in

smaller cities that have villages nearby (such

cities as Munduk, Bishan, and Turabah).

Build smaller exchange offices and refurbish exist­

in Riyadh and Jiddah, and 60 offices in other cities

and villages (1975 to 1977).

Incorporate unique color and design features in the

facades of all new and existing postal facilities

to make them easily recognizable by the general

public

Municipal Policies

The two principle objectives in the Second De­ velopment Plan for municipal development a r e :

1. Making cities and villages healthier, more com­

fortable, more enj.oyable and less costly places

in which to live, work and travel.

2.

Improve the efficiency of cities3 towns and

villages as the locations for trade, industry

and services .

Concering recreation and service facilities, the

Second Development Plan calls for the designation and

development of public recreation areas in and around major

cities as follows:

Riyadh — 10 square kilometers

Jiddah — 12 square .kilometers

Mecca — 8 square'kilometers

M e d i n a — 4.5 square kilometers

O t h e r s — 34.5 square kilometers

The plan also calls for the construction of cul­ tural, recreational and civic activities in each munici­ pality.

Youth Welfare

The following summary of youth welfare history

and programs is adopted from the Saudi National Second

Development Plan (Ministry of Planning 197-6, pp. 414-421).

Present Conditions.

In 1973, the department

responsible for youth welfare became a directorate gener­ al within the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs..

In

1974, the General Presidency for Youth Welfare was

'

34

to carry out policy design, agency coordination, and

planning functions under the Supreme Council for Youth

Welfare.•

During the first plan period, ten youth centers

were to be established, one each in Riyadh, Jiddah,

Dammam, Mecca, Medina, Tayif, Qasim, Qatif, Agha, and ■ al-Hasa.

Parts of the. Riyadh and Dammam centers are

usable, and work has started on the Jiddah center.

In spite of the lack of youth centers, -serious

work has been started to coordinate and expand on a

national basis a wide variety of athletic activities.

Nine national societies have been officially

ball, volleyball, bicycling, handball, table tennis,

swimming, weaponry, and track and field.

Cultural activities within the kingdom include

acting, reading and painting competitions; 774 lectures

and 71 exhibitions have been held at the national, area,

or club level; and knowledge-exchange trips have been

organized for the youth of different are a s .

Youth are being encouraged to invest their energy

and talents in public service at the local*level— for

example, helping to eradicate illiteracy, repairing

mo s q ues,filling in swamps, and fencing land— and

35

voluntary labor camps at Abha were organized in both

1972-1973 and 1973-1 9 7 4 .

The importance of developing youth leaders has

been recognized in a specific item of the 1974-1975

budget which provides for an Institute for Preparation

of Youth Leaders, linked with the General Presidency in

Riyadh.

Objectives and. Policies. Eight general objec­ tives for youth welfare have been formulated.

In,

achieving these objectives, it will be the policy to

ensure that services are comprehensive, integrated, and

justly distributed, and that the. services are in harmony

both with the Islamic code for rearing youth and modern

knowledge of handling youth.

1.

Contribute to the bringing up of youth in a manner

that balances the moral, mental, physical, health,

psychological, and social aspects of their lives.

2.

Organize the energies and creative capabilities

of youth so that they will contribute positively

to the nation's socioeconomic development.

3.

Support the family structure and strengthen its

ties within the context of youth w elfare.

4.

Spread sporting and recreational activities to

enhance the enjoyment of living.

5.

Encourage young citizens to invest their free

time in activities that improve their physical

fitness, their skills and capabilities, and their

capacity to defend their country.

6.

Raise the standards of excellence in sports and

other activities to international levels.

7.

Develop the leadership needed to promote sports

and recreation activities:

8. Assist the private sector to bear its responsi­ bility for youth in that sector.

Programs and Projects.

Activities form the

"basic commodity" provided under the Supreme Council for

Youth Welfare via the Directorate General.

The major

activity programs in which children,and youth directly

participatej and the projects planned for 1975-1980, are

described below.

Subsequently, the research and other

support programs that are designed to expand and upgrade

the activity programs are described, followed by the

construction program.

Religion and Language:

Conduct lectures and forums, to expand youth's

general knowledge in these important fields.

One

seminar,will be held annually in each district, and

two at the national level.

37

Establish literary competition— -both open and

among the literature groups within clubs— to discover

and encourage early literary talents.

Competitions

will be held annually in each district and at the

national l e vel.

Hold Souk Ukaz (cultural fair) competitions be­

ginning in 1976-1977 and continuing on an annual

b a s i s .

Artistic Fie l d s :

Continue to encourage the artistic hobby groups

within clubs through competitions at the local level.

One contest will be held in each district annually.

Establish an Annual Festival of Acting, Music,

and Folk Arts at the national level to raise the

level of technical performance and encourage young

artists in these fields.

Scientific. Fields : .

For children age nine, and overy establish model

Science Clubs in 1976-1977 (provided that supervisory

leadership can be recruited and studies started

during the first year of the p l a n ) .

Hold competitions among the Science Clubs, and an

annual exhibition.commencing in 1976-1977•

To encourage all cultural activities among

talented youth, conduct "cultural weeks" in different

areas of the kingdom to be recorded and broadcast by the

mass m e d i a .

Eleven such events will be staged during the

plan period.

As a summit occasion, organize an Islamic World

fourth year of the plan; establish a festival committee,

in the first year:.and send out Invitations to other

Islamic nations in the second year.

Athletic Activities.

1.

Plan construction of club facilities for each of

the 53 existing registered athletic clubs and

construct where possible.

2. Establish and equip "children's gardens" in pub­ lic parks or other areas where children of pre-

Eleven such gardens will be built commencing in

1977-1978.

3 .

Organize seven exhibition tours of foreign- teams

to demonstrate hew games in different cities and

regions, commencing in 1975-1976.

4.

Televise athletic competitions among the clubs

and government and private sports groups in the

different regions3 to spread awareness of ath­ letic activities, commencing in 1975-1976.

5

. For youth age 12 to 18, develop tests of physical

fitness (1975-1976) and award badges for success­ fully passing the tests, commencing in 1976-1977•

6. Develop special programs in existing centers for

the training of

2,900

young persons in various

sports before the end of the plan.

The General

Presidency will also provide coaching for 240

elected teams covering

12

different sports and

will organize the appropriate area leagues and

contests; 152

area championships will be held in

the period 1975

-

1 9 8 0

.

7. Prepare national teams at the training centers,

with the assistance of advisors in athletic

medicine, physical therapy, and modern training

methods (1975-1980) .

8. Establish specific athletic curricula in certain

intermediate schools for selected students who

are. outstanding in their chosen athletic fields,

with a view to enrolling them in a specialized

institute to be established by the Ministry of

Education in 1976-1977•

Expand this school to

the second level in

1977

-

1 9 7 8

.

9.

Organize kingdom-wide contests (138 in tire period

1975-1980), with appropriate championship awards

in football, basketball, volleyball, handball,

table tennis, track and field, bicycling, and

short- and long-distance swimming.

10.

For youth under 18 in different types of schools

or employment, hold a Sporting Festival every two

years, beginning in 1977-1978.

11.

Continue or begin participation in international

contests, such as the Olympic Games, World Cup

Arabian Gulf states, and other selected countries.

The kingdom will participate in 98 such interna­ tional contests during 1975-1980.

Social Activities

1.

Organize area celebrations of national occasions,

in cooperation with religious and other scholars.

At least one such celebration will take place in

each area annually.

2.

Beginning in 1975-1976 hold at Riyadh an annual

ceremony to honor youth from all parts of the

kingdom who have excelled in sports and other

activities, and have shown leadership qualities.

This project should lead to an annual "Youth Day"

in the kingdom.

3. Organize camp outings of various .

one day to one week or more— for youth of various'

ages, for those who have excelled in particular

activities, for youth from other Islamic coun­

tries, and for the board members of the youth

clubs.

One hundred local camps and one for youth

from Islamic countries will be held during the

p l a n .

4. Organize trips-for Saudi youth to other parts of the kingdom and to other countries; develop

"youth embassy" exchange visits with friendly

countries. Forty-three domestic arid .14 inter­ national projects are planned.

Public Service and Work Camps

1.

Establish a public service campaign to involve

youth in programs of environmental clean-up,

hygiene, traffic control, alphabetization, and

First Aid/Red Crescent Society programs: 11

programs will be implemented.

2. Expand the program of volunteer labor camps in selected areas for persons age 15-30, to carry

out developmental and other socially useful local

projects; 13 such camps will be held,, beginning

in 1975-1976.

3. For trained youth 18 years and older with previ­

ous public' service experience, organize three

work camps designed to accomplish major public

service projects of benefit to the kingdom as a

whole (annually, commencing 1977-1978); in the

fourth year of the plan (1978-1979), organize a.

work camp for youth of the Islamic world.

Support Programs

Several projects within the' research and other

central services of the General Presidency for Youth Wel­

fare are planned for the 1975-1980 period, including the

following;

1. Research

A.

In 1976-1977, undertake a study of the use of

free time by Saudi youth.

B.

In 1975-1976, start a full-scale evaluation of

all the existing services that provide or _ support youth activity in the kingdom.

C.

In 1975-1976, start developing the tests and

evaluation scale for physical fitness, imple­ menting the study first among general educa­ tion students age 12 to 18.

2. Regulations '

A. Develop and issue regulations to govern the organization and work of clubs and other youth

Institutions, athletic training, committees

of the Supreme Council for Youth Welfare, and

relations among agencies concerned with youth

(1975-1977).

B.

Issue regulations relating to contests and to

the award of badges and citations for ath­ letic and other activities (1976-1978).

Training

A..

Athletic activities— 65 trainers and 1,4-00

referees will undergo training or upgrading

courses.

B .

Vocational and other activities--two-week

training courses will be held for 1,140

activity leaders.

Library and Documentation

A. In 1975-1976, establish a special youth wel­

fare library at the new GPYW premises in

Riyadh, to provide both general reference

books and special services to youth leaders

and organizations.

B.

As a part of the library, establish a center

for documentation concerning the SCYW and

the GPYW, research studies, and youth welfare

agencies in other,countries; in 1978-1979

make the documentation center a function in­ dependent of the youth welfare library..

5. Public Information and Conferences

A.

Issue a youth magazine, starting in 1975-1976

and a weekly review of youth activities.

B.

Hold press conferences as newsworthy events

occur, and as a means of distributing the

weekly reviews (1975-1980).

C.

Issue a*youth welfare guide as an easy-

reference to all the kingdom's relevant

agencies and organizations., and an annual

statistical report.

D. Obtain more films and slides for both par­

ticipants and leaders in athletic and other

activities.

E .

Hold annual conferences for youth leaders and

for the boards of directors of clubs and

athletic societies; hold a special conference,

annually for the purpose of evaluating

progress in implementing the youth welfare

plan.

Summary

In viewing the geo-historic and cultural back­

ground of Saudi Arabia, it is clear that Saudi Arabia

is in the process of emerging to the reality of the 20th

45

century5 rather abruptly forming large pre-industrial

cities that are rapidly longing to fall under the category

of industrial cities.

The increasing rural migration to the cities, the

establishment of new settlements, and the increase in the

number of educated citizens are obvious indications of

a trend towards a vital, modern approach to urban life,

which requires a whole new set of services and facilities

to accommodate the varied activities for a unique situa­ tion to a developing country.

The different regions of Arabia had experienced

different acculturation processes.

While the central

middle of Arabia (Nejd) remained isolated from the outside

world until recently, the western province (Hijaz) under­

went an acculturation of a religious nature where people

from different Islamic societies have immigrated to this

area for a long time and the eastern province (al^Hasa)

has gone through an acculturation process of commercial

and industrial nature.

To the south, the province of

Asir remained isolated except for some influence from

Yemen and Africa across the Red S e a .

The Saudi Arabian society at the present time

operates with some dominant cultural concerns as the back­ bone for its heritage. These cultural concerns evolve

46

around religion3 traditionalism, familialism, sexual

modesty and education.

Since modern urban life in its physical and

social presence is a concept that took its full develop­

ment in the industrial and post-industrial cities of

Western civilization, it is inevitable for the developing

countries to adopt Western techniques for planning.

Infrastructure or for that matter any physical structure

is readily accepted.

The conflict arises when Western

social organizations are adopted.

It is exigent to place

the cultural concerns of a society at the top priority

for planning native urban centers utilizing Western tools.

An awareness from the part of designers and

planners to understand the Arabian culture is exigent in

order to achieve congruent rather than conflicting design

solutions.

There are programs designed by the Saudi govern­ ment to change urban life.

In comparing the service and

recreational programs with the population of the cities

of the country, one deduces the following observations.

There is an awareness to provide sufficient

services such as medical and postal.

Cultural and social

programs are yet to be studied and distributed without

centralization to be reached by larger segments of the

society. As will be detailed in later chapters of this

study3 an idea such as establishing MSNC should act as

47

a spatial definer or an organizing authority bringing to

reality many governmental programs under one r o o f .

If

the trend in Arabia is towards integration, modernization

and the enjoyment of urban life, the idea of'MSNC's

might create a better- communication and accessibility to

the city amenities.

Geo-historic and Cultural Background of Riyadh •

Due to the slow growth of the city of Riyadh in

former t i m e s , t h e center of town has maintained a con­

tinuous pattern of linked expansions to serve the people

who settled in its periphery.

It was established as the

capital of the Saudi family in l8l8 before they became

the rulers of Arabia.

The Arab historian, al-Bustani,

described Riyadh in 1887 as a city of 40,000 inhabitants,

built in a fashion of a square, fenced and surrounded

with gates.

Around it one finds the palm groves and

sections separated by large streets.

In the northeastern

section of town, one notices the palaces of the nobles

and the villas of the notables of the elites and the

military.

The northwestern section was built in a modest

and conventional style and was inhabited by the general

populace. The southwest section was chosen by the re­ ligious authorities, "Wahabis," as their place for

48

residence and operations, for it is clean and not as

crowded as the other p a rts.

The southeast section became

the place for the low class 3 gangs and the undesired

(Kahhalah 1964, p. 100).

Kahhalah states that the above

description of Riyadh held true until 1940. Then Riyadh's

growth and development increased.

Al-Sharif (1975) described the development of

Riyadh in three stages according to the quantitative and

qualitative changes that the city was exposed to.

The

first stage extended from the mid-l8th century until the

beginning of the 20th century (150 years).

The second

stage occupied the first half of this century, and the

third stage is marked by the demolishing of the remnants

of its city walls in 1950.

The second stage, which was

a period of moderate growth, has flourished into an un­

controlled, sudden and phenomenal expansion after the

1950s.

Even before the mid-l8th century, Riyadh was the

center for its region, and the connecting point between

Eastern and Western Arabia, as well as a seat of govern­

ment for middle Arabia by the Caliphs in Damascus and

later Baghdad. Riyadh was known as "Hajr."

But its

population growth remained at a low level by one or two

tribes until their numbers increased as the village

gained importance and was protected by its walls.

The

location of Najr, the capital of Yammama province during

the eighth and ninth centuries corresponds to the present

location of the C B D .

The city grew around its center in

different forms (Figure 3)•

Population Growth of Riyadh

Riyadh has experienced a steady population growth in the During the first decade of the 20th century 14,000 people resided, in Riyad, and according to

Riyadh Action Master Plan (Ministry of Municipal and Rural

Affairs Report 2, 1977a; hereinafter referred to as MOMRA)

the projected population for 1980 is 1,0 30,0 30 (Tables

3 and 4).

As has always been expressed by researchers,

there still are not reliable population census in the

cities of Saudi Arabia that even statistical projections

of different sources are not in agreement.

Riyadh

Action Master Plan, realizes the importance of accurate

population forecasts .

The Master- Plan suggests that the

difficulties in obtaining population forecasts are caused

by the lack of adequate indicators and by quick changes

occurring in trends since 1973•

Riyadh Action Master Plan

socioeconomic survey of the central region of Arabia that

was conducted by SCET International in 1974, on the

basis of the master plan estimate, made the forecast in

Table 4.

1862

I960

1919 ^

19725= 1930 s

1940

Figure 3.

Evolution of Riyadh. — Taken from al-

Sharlf (1975, p. 458).

51

Table 3- Estimated population of Riyadh.*

Year

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

I960

1970

Population

L 14,000

19,000

27,000

46,000

82,000 ■ .

160,000

351,000

* Taken from al-Sharif (1975, p. 177).

Average Annual Rate

of Increase

;

3-51

4.5%

5.4%

5-9%

7.0%

Table 4.

SCET International population estimate of

Riyadh 1974.

•52

Year Population

1975

1980

1990 .

■ 546,000

800,000

1 ,300,000

53

Figures of Table 4 should be compared with those

of 1974 census and more recent projections of informed

sources until 1980 (Table 5)•

Table 5.

Recent projections

1980 of informed sources until

Year

1974

1975

1976

1977

1980 s Annual growth rate for this period is 7•5%.

Population

667,000

717,000

771,000

829,000

1 ,030,030

According to the Master Plan, the most recent

projections are almost 30 percent higher than the previ­ ous ones. This number may be reduced in the the following reasons.

1. Most of the difference is' foreign population, which should not continue to

grow at recent rates' since this is not compatible

with the social goals of the Saudi government.

Since the role of the foreign population will be.

to operate and maintain facilities built during

the initial development phase, the growth rate

of foreign population should therefore decrease

as the emerging Saudi labor force takes over.

2.

The immigration of rural population to Riyadh

seems to be declining.

This hypothesis can be

better evaluated when the results of the socio­ economic survey are published.

These first demographic projections will be re­ vised after the publication of the socioeconomic survey.

However, it is safe to take, the 1,300,000 population

forecasts for 1990 as a reasonable working hypothesis,

with a margin of plus 20 percent to account for the

ability of Saudis to replace foreigners, the population

of Riyadh could then be 1-3 to 1.5 million in 1990.

five percent is due to natural increase."

Table 5

indicates that the average annual rate of increase is

extremely high.

If the net rate of increase remains the

s a m e , the city of Riyadh will double its- population with­ in ten y e a r s .

Riyadh's population has increased ten-fold

during the last four decades.

55

Like many other developing countries 3 urban

growth has been attributed to the shift of residence from

rural areas to the cities.

The city, with its economic,

educational and cultural opportunities; and the village,

with its isolation, bad conditions and unemployment, have

contributed to the shift of residence, and unlike the

majority of the developing countries, Riyadh's population

has increased due to foreign labor and technocrat migra­ tion to the city.

Like any booming city in the Third W o rld, Riyadh's

urban growth is fast and hard to predict.

But

unlike Western cities, Riyadh, in its urban ex­ pansion, defies all available concepts and m o d e l s .

Riyadh manifests more alternative types of urban

settlement.

It differs from Western cities in

housing materials, architectures, mixed land-use

patterns, socioeconomic structure, and the inter­ personal. relationships among its peo p l e .

The

expansion of the city has not meant the decline

or weakening of communal ties or family relation­ ships (Malik 1973} p. 10).

Undoubtedly, the increase of population created

new demands of spatial and social nature.

Well-to-do

newcomers reside in new neighborhoods, thus giving them

a heterogeneous character,

Poor migrants and immigrants

reside in the older neighborhoods.

Another aspect of

Riyadh's growth is the ratio between females and m a l e s .

Studies oh selected development problems in various

Middle Eastern countries' (Abu-al-Ila 1972, p. 208) show

that the percentage of males to females, in Riyadh in

56

1971-1972 is 57 percent to 43 percent.

The- sex ratio

(number of men per 100 women) in Riyadh is 130 (Malik

1973, p .

The increase of male population is due to

young men coming to the city in search of jobs.

This

causes a social pressure in a conservative society in

which the interaction between men and women is considered

a taboo especially in public places.

This phenomenal

increase of population creates a great demand for social

and recreational facilities and thoughtfully planned open

spaces.

Spatial Arrangement of Riyadh

Malik (1973, p- 77) in his dissertation'described

spatial arrangements of Riyadh in terms of the concentfic-

zone theory, the sector theory and the multlple-nuclei

theory.

To sum up, the three theories on city growth

and structure .

.

should not be viewed separately.

Rather each theory should be considered a sequen­

tial development towards a holistic, theory of

growth and structure.

Most cities exhibit a

combination of these three theories of spatial

arrangement patterns.

For the purpose of this study, it is essential to view the spatial arrangement of Riyadh in terms of service and recreational needs of the city. The main focal point of Riyadh is still the central business district,

"Justice Plaza," for it contains the administrative and

57 commercial activities.

The acceleration of growth in

Riyadh has created new residential suburbs linked.to the

center of town by means of wide boulevards.

Along these

boulevards one notices the new commercial developments:

furniture display and storage buildings, machinery, and

auto display halls and new multi-story residential and

office buildings.

These new residential clusters, unlike

traditional Arab urban forms, do not evolve around the

mosque or local market place.

Rather these two features

are built as a result of the expansion of the residential

buildings in a district.

People rely on neighboring

markets or mosques until their own are provided. .

As the city expands it is physically impossible

for the population to rely on one single center (central

business district).

Therefore separate nuclei emerge.

"These separating factors are high rent, the size of the

population, and the necessary placement of large and

attractive recreational facilities in less crowded areas"

(Harris and Ullman 1951, p. 232).

Service and Recreational Programs a n d .

Facilities at the City Level

Riyadh Action Master Plans 1977 referred to pro­

jects that were mentioned in the Saudi Second.Development

Plan.: Most projects were discussed in general and at the

58 city level. There were no mentions of services or facili­ ties at the neighborhood or community level.

Social Development

Several social welfare institutions are planned

for Riyadh, including a home for handicapped children and

the expansion of the rehabilitation center. Health pro­

grams have encountered important delays because of the

difficulty of acquiring suitable land.

Recently a new

contract was awarded for the construction of 50 clinics

in prefabricated materials to be implemented throughout

the Riyadh a r e a .

'

The General Presidency of Youth Welfare programs

include the International Sport Stadium, the youth wel­

fare center, indoor swimming pools, gymnasia, permanent

camps, and youth hostels.

Major emphasis is placed on

the development of youth leaders and the provision of

equipment and facilities.

Community Services

Riyadh Action Master Plan describes the community

services as "social overhead" in opposition to infra­ structures, which are mainly underground.

These services

could be supplied by both public or private organizations.

The services in the plan are schools, hospitals and

59

dispensaries, post offices, mosques, public security

services and administrative services.

The plan suggests that the" responsibility of

supplying the "social overhead" lies upon the central

government through its technical agencies, but that its

location is the responsibility of the concerned community.

Here, the municipality of Riyadh is assisted by the

Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA).

Recreation and Green Space

The availability of recreational and green spaces

is important and necessary for the quality of urban life

in a large city like Riyadh located in a harsh climate

and environment.

The supply of green space is completely dependent

upon the availability of water for irrigation,

the

master plan of Riyadh views water as the scarcest economic

resource in Saudi Arabia and must be used to provide the

maximum economic return.

Water should also be viewed in

its social benefits in recreation, not in purely economic

values.

Naseer (1978, p. 58) states: "The Kingdom of

Saudi Arabia and Riyadh in particular is in a very urgent

need for additional recreational facilities.

Parks, golf

courses, lakes, etc., are non-existent." .

60

The present total area of developed, public spaces

is 8l hectares (1 hectare = 2.#71 acres), giving a ratio

2 of 0.7 m per inhabitant. The master plan standards used for neighborhood and district parks within residential

2

communities indicate 1.5 m per inhabitant for neighbor-

2

hood and district parks and 4 m for regional parks and

major open spaces.

The classification of green spaces

according to the master plan is as follows.

Private Gardens.

In the low density residential

d i s t r i c t s m a i n l y in the northern part of the city, indi­ vidual houses are usually surrounded by gardens.

Their

contribution to the landscape is only in the fact that

they could be seen from the streets above surrounding

walls.

No survey was available to estimate the area' and

water consumption; however, the plan estimate is 300

hectares consuming 6,000,000 m /year, which is about 20

percent of the present total water consumption of Riyadh.

Public Gardens, and Recreation Areas .

These

represent 67 hectares of al-Malaz Racetrack and recrea­ tional area and 126 hectares being acquired.

Street Plantings.

Approximately 500 km of streets

will.have plantings,

On the average, each street will

have a continuous two to three meters wide central strip..

and two non-eontinuous one meter wide lateral strips =

Water requirement will be approximately 3,000 ? 000

m / y ear.

61

Palm Groves.

They are located west and northwest

of Riyadh, constituting 2,000 hectares.

The irrigated

area' can be estimated' at 1,100 hectares, the remaining

'900 hectares are old neglected palm groves.

New Major Projects.

The new projects constitute

40 hectares for the government center, 120 hectares for

the new diplomatic quarters, 550 hectares for the sports

city of which 110 hectares devoted for green space.

Dirab Park project has been postponed.

According to the master plan, 2,400 hectares al­

ready exist and 800 hectares are being planned for green

space and recreational use in Saudi Arabia of which 1,000 hectares are planned for Riyadh. The spatial standard

2

for Riyadh recreational use is 30 m /inhabitant which is

acceptable. However, this spatial standard is not actu­

ally available for recreation or environmental improve-\

m e n t . Private gardens and palm groves amount to 70 per­ cent of this area.

Eight hundred fifty hectares of the

public green space cannot be used for recreation, since

350 hectares belong to walled public buildings, even

though a recent regulation imooses "transparent"

62

fences around public buildings so as to^make the garden

visible from the street.

Therefore, only approximately 500 hectares will

remain for beautification and recreation in Riyadh, sub­ divided as follows:

200 hectares for street planting.

110 hectares for green space for Sports City.

190 hectares for public gardens and recreation areas.

Riyadh Action Master Plan (MOMRA, Report 2, 1977a,

p. 45), suggests the following future policies to give the

city the required green space:

Preserving existing assets.

Creating new recreation areas.

Conserving w a t e r .

Preserving Existing Assets.

This includes the

protection of existing palm groves, from urbanization but

also reclaiming some palm groves which have been

neglected or abandoned.

Creating New Recreation Areas.

This can be done

not only by creating new parks but by using more effi­ ciently all available green spaces.

As seen before numerous projects include the pro­ minimum amount of limited access green space (prevent

63

the privatization of green areas in public projects).

Street plantings should be adapted to climatic conditions.

Linear plantings, especially in the street medians, are:

1. Inefficient, since irrigation losses by evapora­ tion are large (the planting of grass is particu­

larly wasteful because of evapo-transpiration

losses).

2. Dangerous, because many people use these spaces for resting after lunch or in the evening and interfere with the traffic.

Plantings should be located where their density is. suffi­

cient to create a micro-climate and reduce evaporation

losses (on large sidewalks in street corners, etc.).

This assumes changing the design of streets by

reducing the median and widening the sidewalks (Sitteen

Street).

Conservation of W a t e r .

Street plantings could waste less water and be of more use to people. Two other methods could provide water savings.•

Irrigation Techniques.

The present method of

irrigation by submersion wastes water and results

in saline soil..

Other techniques such as

sprinkling or localized irrigation would econo­

mize water and facilitate the recovery of some

neglected palm groves.

Use of City Water for Irrigation.

City water

is used to irrigate most private gardens.

This

water is mainly obtained from deep fossil

acquifers and submitted to complicated treatment.

Reverse osmosis will be used in the future to

reduce dissolved solids to less than 0.5 g / 1 ,

increasing the cost of water to more than 2 SR/m.

At present, users are not effectively charged

actual costs.

A day may come, however, when actual water costs

are charged.

This could reduce the irrigation of gardens.

This does not necessarily imply a reduction of the area

planted; a change in types of planting could suffice.

Open lawns requiring large amounts of water could be re­ duced and bushes and trees could be increased.

This trend could be accelerated by reduction of

subsidies for operating the water utility.

Similarly,

agencies responsible for public green spaces should be

charged actual production costs to induce water conserva­ tion.

In addition they could be directed to use surface

water for irrigation through, ponding.

The Concept of Public Space

The most important public space has always been

the marketplace. Villages, towns and cities have evolved

around the marketplace.

In reviewing the history of

Arabian urban centers at their flourishing period during

Medieval times, one discovers that the "suq" which means

"market," was not only a container of commercial activi­ ties -

It was always a generating source of social and

recreational activities.

This stems from the fact that

the suq was arranged so as to create open space in the

form of "maydan" or "public square" which is usually

associated with the Grand Mosque and the local government

building, as well as "funduqs" or "hotels" and coffee

shops (Figure 4).

It is evident in an Arab city like Riyadh, for

example, that these features still exist.

"Justice

Square" is the maydan of Riyadh.

It is the traditional

open space in the center of town.

It was the place for

processions of the ruler and military parades .

The maydan

had a carnival type atmosphere at night,, and it was the

scene for such public events as political gatherings,

public executions and funerals of distinguished persons,

becuase of its proximity to the Grand Mosque.

At the present time, the open space of the maydan

is used to accommodate parking for

an ever-increasing

traffic congestion,

Only for special occasions is it

cleared of the automobiles.

Riyadh Action Master Plan

describes the central area as commercially a c t i v e .. New :

66 i

OPEN

M ARKET

GOVERN­

MENT

SHOPS

FUNDUQ

\

MAYDAN

MOSQUE

SHOPS

HOUSES

S u q .

commercial projects include "the renovation of the com­

67

mercial sectors surrounding the central mosque, including,

in addition to various public buildings, two new commer­ cial centers.

It will have parking spaces for 3,000 cars,

which, however, should be doubled to meet the needs of

the complex" (MOMRA, Report 2, 1977a,P • 39).

Renovating the central district commercially alone

is not going to prove congruent with the government in­ tention of revitalizing this a rea.

Commercial activities

are moving out of the center along the axis radiating from

i t , thus following the consumers of the suburbs.

For the

government policy to work effectively, social services and

recreational facilities should be an. integral part of

designing the commercial center.

Another aspect of public space in the Arabian cul­ ture is the vastness of the desert.

As the city expands,

people drive farther into the desert for picnicking and

camping.

The satisfaction of this activity is diminishing

as the population of Riyadh increases and as large tracts

of public lands become private property.

The unavailability of public spaces warrants a

need for a serious approach to providing the necessary

spaces as the trend of urban projects emphasizes resi­ dential, industrial and commercial development.

A concept

of MSNC should provide an opportunity of public space in

a growing urban situation.

.

Land Acquisition

68

states that the public sector and the municipality in

particular own very little land that could be put on the

market for government projects or public services.

Within this general framework it appears that the

selection of a project site is mainly determined by

financial constraints.

1. Land cannot generally be secured for land acqui­ sition.

2.

The national budget allocates a certain amount

for land acquisition.

The Master Plan indicated that there is no real .

land development policy and that the government has ad­

justed passively to the whims of the land mar k e t ; even

traditional tools of a land policy have not been used,

such as :

1.

Creation of land reserves in areas planned for

urban extension in order to release these re­

serves on the land market when the need appears

and at a competitive p r i c e .

2.

Taxes on undeveloped land to prevent hoarding in

3.

Economic incentives when development is in the

public interest (bonus for providing public

69

The. land acquisition difficulties have prevented

and will prevent the optimum location of recreational and

service "social overhead" facilities.

These difficulties

stem from the .lack of publicly held land, financial con­

straints, high cost of land and the independent behavior

of public agencies.

There is a great need for a centralized land de­

velopment organization able to supply land to public

agencies preferably for large-scale projects at suitable

locations.

Summary

The phenomenal growth of the city of Riyadh and

the lack of public land to provide services such as the

"social overhead" and especially open space for recreation

might make urban life unbearable.

Special attention to

these issues and a firm policy for land acquisition are

urgent matters not to be delayed in Riyadh.

CHAPTER 3

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter is presented in two sections.

The

first section deals with trends in the design concept of

MSNCj the concepts of recreation and leisure time, and

facilities and services for recreation. The second sec­

old and new approaches, and finally, the approach utilized

in formulating, the research method for this study..

Trends in Design

The landscape architect as an urban designer is

concerned with the urban setting as a who l e

;

therefore,

he must be concerned with the design p rocess.

As Thiel

(quoted by Sommer 1969, p • 132) described it, "the process

of continuous environmental experience" is what he called

"envirotecture."

Architecture and landscape architecture have al­

ways emphasized the physical aspects of design, leaving

the sociocultural and visual aspects of design at an

intuitive level.

70

71

A note from an earlier period in this century3 as quoted by Wise (1970, p. 225), illustrates this attitude.

Throughout the book the committee has layed par­

ticular stress On the economic and engineering

side of city planning., because it believes that

that is fundamental to progress, and while, as

architects, the members of the committee are

necessarily strongly interested in the aesthetic

side of city planning, they are firmly convinced

that city planning in America has been retarded

because the first emphasis has been given to the

"city beautiful" instead of "city practical."

They insist with vigor that all city planning

should start on a foundation of economic practicable­

ness and good business; that it must be something

which will appeal to the businessman, and to the

manufacturer, as sane and reasonable.

The above statement was a summary of "City Planning Pro­ gress in 1917" of a report prepared by the Committee on .

Town Planning of the American Institute of Architects.

However, this important issue of sociocultural

and behavioral aspects of design has captured the imagina­ tion and interest of these professions.

As a result of .

the new trends of the late 1960s in the United States and

Britain, this emphasis has repeatedly appeared in

professional and academic periodicals in several fields

which deal with the study of and.design for human beings

(Sommer 1969, Deasy 197^, Spyer -1971, Gold 1973).

These studies are numerous and were done at

different scales, utilizing different techniques, such as

interviewing, questionnaires, observations, and in differ­ ent fields— ethology, anthropology, psychology, and

72 sociology 3 e t c .

Studies were done at a bathroom level

(Kira 1966) and at a neighborhood level (Saarinen 1976).

Van der Ryn (1968, p. 8), professor of architec­

ture at The University of California, Berkeley, stated his

experience with the center for environmental structure as

a way of "exposing what the social and behavioral context

of a problem is about."

This study of multi-service neighborhood centers

(MSNC) has been inspired by the idea .of designing com­

munity centers in the United States which will contain

shopping, governmental, recreational and medical services

to be an integral part of the community (Redstone 1975)•

El Con Shopping Center’s future plans, according to.Fred

Pesci (1 9 7 7 ) is an example of this trend.

If it is acceptable in the American culture to

associate some of the community recreational facilities

to determine such uses for the Arabian culture. Discus­

sions with some Saudi Arabian students at The University

of Arizona in Tucson indicate a mixed reaction towards

associating the MSNC with the existing neighborhood suq;

however, they welcomed the idea of establishing a MSNC

■in the area.

This could be due to the change of cultural

perception after they have been in the United States for

awhile. .

73

The idea of establishing a center that provides

recreational opportunities and service facilities is a

new one for Saudi Arabia.

The urgency.of services such

as postal and medical care are tangible to the policy

makers in Saudi Arabia.

It is their distribution among

the society which requires attention.

They could be

associated with community recreational facilities to in­ sure their accessibility by the public and to find a readily available method of distributing all kinds of

needed services to t h e .communities and neighborhoods of

cities according to needs and special characteristics, • thus utilizing one model for distributing, services.

The Saudi Arabian government has already launched

programs for social welfare, health and communication.

Recreation at the neighborhood level is not viewed as im­ portant by the General Presidency of Youth Welfare nor by

the city of Riyadh, probably for a lack of guidance,

citizen participation and methods and techniques' of

gathering and analyzing data.

The nature and importance of recreation doesn't

seem to be fully understood by the Saudi Arabian urban

planners and decision makers. The awareness of recrea­

tional needs are not fully recognized as a necessity, let

alone their allocation•and distribution.

Therefore, the

thrust of the following review of literature will .

<

.

.

concentrate on recreation.

The theme of this research evolves around recreation. .

74

Multi-Service Neighborhood Centers (MSNC)

In the United States, the functions of MSNCs

offer social, educational, health, recreational and cul­ tural services to residents.

Examples of these centers

are "A" Mountain Neighborhood Center and El Rio Center in

Tucson, Arizona.

It is a place where many people of all

ages can m e e t , exchange ideas, obtain needed services, and

get information about other services offered throughout the

city. Some residents, lacking social, economic and physi­ cal mobility, have special n e e d s .

The centers give

priority to serving these people as they express their

special needs and wishes.

If the emphasis in the United

States is to design centers that serve low and moderate

income communities, especially in the inner city and de­

lapidated areas, the emphasis in Saudi Arabia should be

on the establishment of centers for all levels of society.

As far as recreational facilities and other services are

concerned,, for the most part,, they don't exist in any

Saudi Arabian neighborhood.

For example, a center that

exists in a high-income neighborhood will differ in

function from one that provides services for. a low.income

neighborhood.' In some cases, social welfare and adult •

.

education are more important than recreation or health,

75 e t c .

Every neighborhood will have, special needs.

Policy for the MSNC

In p art, the following was adopted from Llewelyn-

Special priorities should be given not only to

low and moderate income residents, but^ rather, to

all the less mobile people of the city— the poor, the

elderly, and y o u t h .

Centers should offer different services, and,

therefore, attract a combination of special need resi­ dents and other residents.

Centers should provide comprehensive services

that deliberately reinforce desired effects (that is,

the center has a responsibility to see that a person

seeking one service knows about and can get other

services that further his or her desired benefit from

the sought-after service).

Service, areas are communities or neighborhoods

that are unified by common characteristics such as

physical boundaries, pattern and density of urban

development, economic level,, environmental condition

and social setting.

76

The center serves a primary impact area, and to

Services of the MSNC

The nature of services of a multi-service neigh­

borhood center are much different than those offered in

the American version.

The center in America concentrates

its services mainly on special need groups in disadvan­ taged areas of the urban environment.

The Arabian version is a new concept to serve all

segments of society with their varied economic, social

and educational levels. Determining programs and facili­ ties will vary accordingly.

Residents of any neighborhood

tend to have m a n y , rather than singular, needs and wants.

Llewelyn-Davis Associates (1975, p. 66) suggest a basic

service package.

This package consists of "comprehen­

sive services" that can be interpreted as a combination

of services that compliment each other and respond in de­ liberate fashion to the need of the resident.

They sug­

gest that each neighborhood center should contain two

comprehensive service programs.

One addresses the special

needs of less mobile residents; the other addresses needs

of all residents in the service area.

To generalize this concept for the Saudi Arabian

neighborhoods, a "basic package" could be divided into

77 two p a r t s .

Primary services for special needs not

according to mobility, but according to preference or the

arousal of special situations.

Secondary services, will

meet the needs of the remaining population.

The center's

strategy should be: a. To provide services that people need urgently.

b .

To make available the services that would comple­ ment the service of primary need.

c.

To open up the resident's perspective to the

opportunities and options that a complement of

services affords him or h e r .

A comprehensive package for all Saudi Arabian

neighborhoods should include some or all of the following

services.

1. Recreation (playgrounds, open space, sports).

2. Social (welfare,, counseling) .

3. Culture (events, celebrations).

4.

Communication (transportation, postal, telephone,

telegraph).

5. Information (bulletin boards, referral).

6. Education (libraries, adult education, classes in special interests).

7.. Health (child care, immunization, first aid) .

78

What is of primary importance to a neighborhood

may be of a secondary importance to another neighborhood,

and vice versa. •

Many of these services, such as adult education,,

health programs, social welfare are existent in central­ ized facilities...

What is needed is a decentralization

process by which services are reached by larger segments

of the society who need them.

Recreation and open space

in the forms of playgrounds, ballfields and neighborhood

parks are very essential, but virtually ignored in Saudi

Arabia.

After analyzing a primary impact area, one might

find, certain facilities are provided for, therefore,. the

MSMC will provide what is missing.

For al-Zahra neighborhood, a primary function of

a MSMC will be recreation.

There is a lack of indoor

and outdoor recreation spaces and facilities.. The im­

portance of recreation should be taken seriously by

government officials to be provided at the neighborhood level. A better understanding of recreation importance r and its value to the society is presented in the follow­ ing p a g e s .

Recreation

leisure-time activity which is pursued for its own.sake.

Dumazedier (quoted by Burton 1971, p. 19) views recreation

vides relaxation, it provides entertainment, and it

provides a means for personal and social development.

Butler (1976, p. 3) states that recreation has

been defined as a type of experience, an area of rich and

abundant living., a specific form of activity, an attitude

or spirit, "off-the-job" living, an expression of the

inner nature of man, a social system, a phase of educa­ tion, an outlet for the creative u r g e , a means for lift­ ing the wings of the spirit.

It has been described as fun, refreshment, and diversion, and as the most serious • and more passive type of playful activity. These defini­ tions, however,: are too general, and therefore inadequate.

Butler (1976, p. 10), however, suggests this

definition: Recreation is a feeling of well-being that

results from experiences in which the individual receives

a pleasurable and gratifying response to the use of his

physical, mental, or creative powers.

In short, recrea­

tion is the essence of any experience through which the

individual directly gains personal enjoyment and satis­ faction.

This concept emphasizes the personal nature of

recreation and explains why recreation activities are. as

diverse as the interests of m a n .

It is usually experi-

enced during an individual's leisure, but it can result

from participation in any form of activity at any' time.

80

Psychology and physiology deal with the observa­

tion, description and explanation of the play of animals,

children and grown-ups.

They try to determine the nature

and significance of play and to assign it its place in

the scheme of.life.

The high importance of this place

and the necessity, or at least the utility, of play as

a function are generally taken for granted and form the

starting point of all such scientific researches.

The

numerous attempts to define the biological function of

play show striking variation.

By some, the origin and

fundamentals of play have been described as a discharge

of superabundant vital energy, by others as the satis­

faction, of some "imitative instinct," or again as simply

a "need" for relaxation.

According to one theory, play

constitutes a training of the young creature for the

serious work that life will demand later on.

According

to another, it serves as an exercise in restraint needful

to the individual.

Some find the principle of play in

an innate urge to exercise a certain faculty, or in the

desire to dominate or compete,

let another regards it

as an "abrecation" an outlet for harmful impulses, as'

the necessary restorer of energy wasted by one-sided

to keep up the feeling of personal value, e t c .

(Huizinga 1970, pp. 1-2).

The theory of recreation as self-expression is

summarized by Butler (19763■see Appendix A).

Recreation agencies and professional leaders con­

sider the term "recreation" as it applies to those activi

ties that are socially acceptable and personally

beneficial.

It has been said that leisure activities

cannot be recreation unless they are morally sound,

mentally and physically upbuilding and respectful of the

rights of others.

It goes without saying that many values that

have been attributed to recreation apply only

to those forms that are beneficial to the indi­ vidual and to society.

Furthermore, these are

the only types of recreation that can,justifiably

be provided by public o r .community-supported

agencies (Butler 1976, p. 9)•

The importance of recreation as a fundamental

human need is recognized by psychologists, sociologists,

urban planners, community leaders and politicians.

Recre

ation undoubtedly contributes to human happiness.

Human

needs such as the pursuit of happiness, the love of

adventure, and the desire for achievement are motivating

forces which are realized most fully in recreation.

Because it makes such experiences possible for large

numbers of people, the recreation movement has been

called the nearest approach to a practical program for

carrying into effect and keeping alive a philosophy of

happiness.

In the United States, recent changes In life­ styles have their own influence on recreation: the growth of cities into crowded and unsafe streets, build­

ings with no open spaces between them, polluted streams

and lakes; the closing of large areas to public use due •

to industry and transportation and the dissolving of the

neighborliness' once known in villages and small t o wns.

The flight to the suburbs by most middle- and upper-

income groups has deprived city dwellers of recreation,

opportunities.

Man as an outdoor animal has compensated

for the loss of natural resources by the provision of

recreation spaces, facilities and leadership.

"Under

conditions of urban living, opportunities for such com­

panionship are found largely through organized recreation"

(Butler 1976, p. 16).

Changing in home conditions, where mechanical

devices have revolutionized housekeeping methods, is a

direct factor in the demand for spending gained time for

recreational purposes.

In tight urban developments where

the traditional town square or the home backyard is in­

creasingly eliminated, urban designers have provided

recreation spaces especially with the increase of the

number of multi-family dwellings, condominiums and apart­ ment developments.

83

The popularity of outdoor recreation, according to Clawson, is caused by the growth in population, leisure time, disposable income and transportation.

Davis (1970, p. 115) argues that this approach of viewing recreation is superficial for current and future planning needs.

It seems to me rather self-evident that Clawson's

original thoughts on this matter are correct--as

far as they go.

What I am suggesting here is

that there are other things changing in the

society that are more basic, that lie behind

these four variables, and it is these more

we as recreation planners should be analyzing.

the Western society.

1. A shifting philosophy in the cultural viewpoint .

valuable than play is slowly shifting.

2. There is an upward change in the man-hour pro­

duction capabilities in all major facets of the

economy. Automation and its offspring, cyber­ netics, are replacing the man on the job.

3. There are major changes in the nature of the _ individual's work. In the past, most jobs re­

quired a certain amount of mental ability, though,

obviously there was great variation from one job

to another.

Many occupations offered some degree

84 of personal challenge, of skills, coordination, '

strength, or judgment and even aesthetic choice.

As these qualities of work are lost, perhaps the

individual turns to some form of recreationto

seek his fulfillment.

This- argument by Davis

is not fully supported by historic analysis of

the nature of work, therefore it is debatable.

4.

The difficulty to change with change: as the

productive capacity of the society continues to

rise, more and more people will find that their

traditional work abilities are simply unneeded.

saying:

. . . it is reshaping and■restructing patterns

of social interdependence and every aspect of

our personal life. It is forcing us to re­

consider and reevaluate practically every thought,

ever action, and every institution formerly ' taken for granted.

Everything is changing, you,

your family, your neighborhood, your education,

your job, your government', your relation to

others. And they are changing dramatically .

.

. . Innumerable confusions and a profound ;

feeling of despair inevitably emerge in periods

of great technological and cultural transforma­ tion.

Our age- of anxiety is in great part, the

result of trying to do today's job with yesterday's

5. Urbanization: Davis (1970, p. 118) quotes

.

Perlof to illustrate this point./

Once we realize that by the year 2000 urban

environments will: have to be provided for as

many additional people as are now living in

85

our cities, the possibilities appear in their

true dimensions.

This argument applies to most Saudi Arabian cities. :

Most urbanization as a change of lifestyle from

rural to urban was experienced in the United States be­

fore the beginning of the second part of this century.

This phenomena was caused by the highly advanced techno­

logical achievements in agricultural production which

forced farm labor to seek the growing market for work in.

the cities. However, the American society is still con­ sidered a mobile society of urbanites.

The United States has a strikingly mobile popu­ lation.

It is estimated that more than one

family in five changes its p l a c e 'of residence

every year and that nearly one out of four

Such mobility removes people from their accus­

tomed environment, deprives them of the feeling

of belonging, and creates a sense of instability

that affects both children and.adults.

A well-

balanced recreation program helps families

become adjusted in their new community setting

.(Butler 1976, p . 19)• •

Migration from rural to urban areas, the settle­

ment of nomadic tribes and the immigration to Saudi

Arabia is still taking place, as was discussed in

•Chapter 2.

The establishing of multi-service centers

will prove to be a valid tool to help merging popula­ tions adjust.to a new lifestyle.

The changes of urban population from small

communities to large cities, and metropolis resulted in

:

86

the creation of crowded and congested neighborhoods in

which children had no plaae to play in safety, no place

for senior citizens to promenade and no place for adults

-to exercise.

The'most important factor that recreation evolves

around is leisure.time and its effective utilization.

The increase in leisure time in affluent societies can be

viewed on the one hand as a great boon to the individual

and society if planned for wisely.

On the other hand, it

may become.a liability or a menace if it is used for

unsocial ends'. Leisure time used unwisely.

in boredom, apathy, too much drinking, gambling, promis­ cuity , etc.

A general examination of leisure time is

noteworthy.

Leisure.

An understanding of leisure-time is essential to

a better understanding of recreation.

It is beyond the

scope of this research to delve into all aspects of

leisure time.

However, it is worthwhile to present a

few current thoughts on the subject.

This presentation

is generalized in order to relate it to the trends of

society in Saudi Arabia since there is no information

available at present regarding leisure t i m e :in that

87 upon the topic (see Research Question

2,

Chapter 5), but

only on a small scale. The findings concern how respon­

dents spend their leisure time rather than how much time

is considered leisure.

Gold (1973) divides the leisure philosophy into

two periods: the pre-industrial period and life pattern

associated with i t , and the post-industrial period and

•its evolving life patterns, which also include the

future.

It was only with the development of agricultural

surpluses and the urban society which made this possible

that those who held power were able to devote some of .

their time to leisure.

Most anthropologists associate

early concepts of leisure with r i t u a l p l a y and enforced

idleness because of weather, illness or age.

The division

of labor and consequent development of social classes

gave certain individuals control over their resources and

time.

A distinction between work and non-work for at

least the upper classes in the Egyptian, Grecian and

Roman civilizations and through the Renaissance to the

industrial revolution is evident.

Gold points out two

major themes that evolved during the pre-industrial

period.

Leisure as a way of life for the selected upper

classes, and leisure in limited amounts as a reward for

the lower or working classes.

Saudi Arabia being a pre-

industrial society emerging into the industrial era is

experiencing the transformation into more leisure t i m e .

88

Only in the past few years has the work week been re­

duced from six days to five days, and only recently, as

was discussed previously in Chapter 2, that provision

for leisure became a government concern.

The post-industrial concepts of leisure are a

result of the concentration of workers around their

instances, reduced the amount of available open space.

Reduction in work hours have increased leisure time and

created the need for institutionalized recreational oppor­ tunities. Rapoport and Rapoport (1975, p .

t h a t :

There has been an overall increase in time

available to spend as one .chooses and. in the

economic, technological and. organizational

wherewithal to make use of it.

The working

week has dropped from an estimated 70 hour,

six-day week in 1850 to the present, norm of

40 hour, five-day week with strong movement

in the direction o.f a 35 hour, four-day and

.other variants of a shorter working week.

The increase or decrease of the amount of leisure time throughout history and factors that caused it are not the pressing issue: it is the cultural view.of

leisure that concerns the recreation planner and designer.

Burch ('1970, p. 6 3 ) states:

Seldom do we recognize that mass leisure is

is new.

Our.real question is not "Why do we

have so much leisure," but rather "Why is our

leisure apparently problematic."

89

An attempt to display a thought pattern explaining

changes in time of human social organizations as they re­

late to. work hours and leisure time was illustrated by

ethnographic studies which roughly run the continuum from

tribal to post-industrial societies (see Figure 5)•

The

intention of this graph is not to indicate a hierarchy

of social progress .

It consists of handy empirical

points around which to. group our thinking.

In sum, our data indicate that subsistence man has

his leisure activity and time blocs shaped by the shift

of seasons rather than the ticking of a clock or the

rationality of the Gregorian calendar.• His time is

measured by seasons rather than seconds and minutes; the

passion for speed and efficiency are sporadic rather than

ever-present.

It makes a good deal of difference in

one's orientation.to life if one has a conception of

minute divisions ever dribbling a w a y , or whether one sees

life divided into the broad time span of seasons with

their attendant problems and ritualized celebrations.

One is concerned with the leavings of time, the other

with tasks to be done and the great value of time gaps

between the tasks.

Even though the graph was highly imaginative,

we should resist the charming tendency to draw noble

TRIBAL

(Tikopia-

Maori)

1400

AXIAL

(Urban Empire)

FEU D A L

(S uye Mura)

INDUSTRIAL

(G osforth)

POST - INDUSTRIAL

1900

2000

2500

2600

3100

3200

RURAL

\ URBAN

RURAL

3700

3800

4300

98 %

Percentage o f Labor Force in

80 % 30

%

Figure 5.

Leisure subsistence to post-industrial

societies. — Taken from Burch (1970,

p . 64 ) .

90

91

savage conclusions from our ethnographic data (Burch

1970, p. 6 8

).

The evidence of the evolution of.the society from

tribal and rural to urban is the witness of any observer

of present Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia entering the

industrial age will render parallel and not necessarily

similar causes and effects of industrialization experi^ : enced in the West.

Embree (1939) conducted a pre-war study of Suye

Mura. The study was concerned with a Japanese village surrounded by a society with a determined goal to move toward industrialism. The economy of the village was a mixed barter and moneyed with production* shifting from a major productive unit invested in the family to other broader associations. A study of Gosforth, an English v i l lage,was conducted by Williams (1956). His study .

represents a step closer to accepting the artifacts of industrialization and many of its thought patterns.

Burch (1970, p. 65) offers a n analytical summary of these two studies.

Both Suye.and Gosforth note a marked decline

in leisure time, and, more importantly, a

changed orientation to the social meaning of

time.

Though both societies have more leisure

than did 19th century industrial society, they

have considerably less leisure than Tikopia or

the "proles'' of Imperial. R o m e .

Burch briefly Identified some of the cumulative

human inventions whose convergence trains our peculiar

incapacity with leisure.

In the present Western society, leisure is dif­ ferently taken more seriously.

It is studied, analyzed,

and planned for.

It has direction,, a beginning and an

e n d .

It is equal to work in importance and w e i g h t .

hypothesis:

For the first time in human history leisure

rather than work has become the dominant human

factor which Integrates life . . . to accept

work shifts a whole emphasis.

.In the same source, Overstreet (cited by Gold 1973)

future we shall grow leisure-wise.

The latest thought came to altogether disassoci­ ate recreation from work.

Recreation should not be.

viewed only as a refreshment of o n e ’s strength and

spirits after work.

There a r e , however, retirees, senior citizens,

the ill and handicapped, and others in our

can no longer be considered solely as a comple- ■ ment to work, but must also be thought of as a ' way of life (Hormachea and Reynolds 1976p p. 4).

Saudi Arabian society has not yet grown work-wise

for it to grow leisure-wise. However, it.is not the

■; : : ; ;

93

matter whether the emphasis should be on work or leisure»

What should be the concern of planners in Saudi Arabia

is that leisure has always existed and its change of

nature in a developing nation will have a great impact

on the society.

They are at a stage where leisure should

be planned for seriously before the encroachment of

urbanization on the spaces and places of the soul.

Benefits and Contributions of Recreation

Recreation as a means of fulfilling leisure time has numerous benefits and contributions. It is widely recognized as an essential, factor in modern life.

Recreation is a means of counterbalancing, other aspects of livings and its. value to the individual and community .

is due in part to the contribution it makes to other human interests and forces. Recreation could not be viewed in a vacuum. It relates to all aspects of the.

complex unit called "human being.." Butler (19 76,. p .

quotes Gullok as saying:

Human life .is not in fact divided into neat

packages5 known as "work" and "play" or "eco-

is, in fact, for each of us, a seamless w e b .

The intent of public leisure services is to provide oppor^ tunities for satisfying leisure needs for all segments of the population. Although they.are often overlooked, this includes, the needs of special populations within'the

94

and mentally handicapped, the disabled, and the disad­

Claims have been made for recreation as a means

of bringing about many desirable, results to the community.

These results include the reducing of delinquency and

'crime, building and sustaining physical and mental health,

developing character, uplifting moral, and as a means for

education and a tool for bringing community solidarity.

Butler (1976, p. 21) points o u t :

The contributions of recreation to other community

forces, important as they a r e , should be con­ sidered as- secondary to the chief value of recrea­

tion, which lies in its power to enrich people's

lives.

Recreation Activities

Recreation activities are commonly grouped accord­

ing to types, such as games and sports, crafts or nature

activities.

These types are classified by age, sex, by

space requirements, skill, c ost, seasons, popularity,

number of people taking p a r t .

Indoor activities are

segregated from outdoor according to season and nature

of activity.

Recreation could be categorized as active,

semi-active and passive, or formal, semi-formal, and

I n formal.

Large numbers of people participate in recreation

to gain satisfactions such as fellowship,, the opportunity

95

to create3 adventures a sense of achievement, the.enjoy­

ment of one's physical, powerss the use of one's mental

powers 3 emotional stimulation, beauty and relaxation.

When a MS.NC develops a recreational program,

general guidelines, as adopted from Butler (1.976, p. 232)

and Gold (1973s p • 236) are of value.

1. Provide the widest possible range of activities

which appeal to the needs, values, and interests handicapped. •

2. Provide equal opportunities for both sexes and

all a g e s .

3. Offer activities affording varying and progres­ sive degrees of skill and ability.

4. Encourage individuals and groups to expand their

interests and provide their own activities.

5. Involve the active participation of individuals

and community groups in planning the program.

6. Utilize fully and wisely all available community

resources— human and physical.

7 . Participation in recreation activity should be -

free, or if it is necessary to charge fees, they

should be minimal.

Children, senior citizens,

the poor and handicapped should pay no charge for

any activity.

96

8.

Duplication of services that could be reached by

residents in or out of the neighborhood should

be avoided.

Following are suggestions for recreation activi­ ties for the Arabian neighborhood'.

Children’s Playgrounds

Special, emphasis in recreation facilities is put .

on children’s playgrounds.

The provision of children’s

playgrounds should be of first priority.

If an adult

has adjusted to his environment or if he could seek

recreational opportunities elsewhere outside the neigh­

borhood, a child cannot do that in congested urban

environment with no adequate open space.

Child’s play

is universal.

The experiences of other societies might

prove helpful to direct the thoughts of urban planners

and designers in Saudi Arabia as to designing and facili­ tating children’s playgrounds.

Philosophy and Trends

.

It is not restricted

Both ma n and.animal play is provoked by an instinct; they

do it naturally.

Many theories have attempted to explain

play. These explanations are:

1. To discharge excess amounts of energy *

2. T o

fulfill a "need" for relaxation.

3 - To satisfy the imitative instinct.

4. Used as an exercise in restraints.

5. As a training device for future, work.

97

7. Used as an outlet for harmful impulses.

8. As a form of wlsh-fulfillment.

9. As a form of self-expression.

10. As a' means for education.

The most important factor of play is that' it. is -

cannot be completely and precisely defined, but rather

termed as an idea or expression.

Play is based on the

manipulation of cert ain images, with a special imagina­ tion of reality.

One must look at the significance of

in play in order to understand play as a .cultural factor in life.

'

Play can be serious or non-serious.

It can be.

termed beautiful; for example, the rhythm of the human

body in motion.

All play is voluntary activity and can

be deferred or suspended at any time/ The need or desire

for play is only urgent to, the extent that the enjoyment ' or pleasure derived from it makes it a necessity. Play

98

is never imposed by physical necessity and is done at

leisure.

Some of the major characteristics of play are:

1. Play is free-form, it is freedom.

One can be

what or whomever one wis h e s .

2. It is not "ordinary" or "real."

Play is pretend

and the person doing the pretending is aware

that the play is pretend and not reality.

3. Play creates order.

Participants in the play

activity must follow certain rules or they will

spoil the game.

Play is pointless.on the surface,

but it is significant.

According to Huizinga (1970, p. 3), play is a

voluntary activity or occupation executed within certain

fixed limits of time and place, according to rules freely

accepted but absolutely binding, having its aim in itself

and accompanied by a feeling of tension, joy, and the

consciousness that it is different from ordinary life.

Play is the way in which intelligence develops.

.It is a child's way of learning and expanding his horizon

of awareness. The psychologist, Piaget (1962), in study­ ing intelligence, conceived of two complementary pro­ cesses :

Intelligence

is a special form of adaptation, which consists of ,

99

continuous creative Interaction between the organism and

the environment.

Assimilation is the mastery of familiar

or new skills by repetition .and practice.

It is the

complementary to assimilation.

In it the environment

acts upon the organism by evoking a change of response to

cope with the new situation.

Accommodation takes place

when a previously learned response fails to.work in a new

gradually develops his intelligence from the primarily

instinctual responses of infancy to the eventual achieve­ ment of adult logic and thinking.. Dattner (196 9 , •

pp. 24-30) described the stages of child's development

through age 12. Here is a summary of these stages.

Sensorimotor Phase— Birth to 18-24 months.

1. Instinctual— sucking, grabbing.

2. Learns crying will get response— food, consolation.

3. Learns about space.

4. Imitation.

5. Practice play.

6.

Expression.of pleasure- at causing an external

event— control of environment to certain extent,

7■ This phase ends with the beginnings of speech.

Preconceptual Phase— 18-24 months to 4 y e ars„

Language.

Symbols.

Symbols separate from immediate surrounds— imagination, make believe, pretending.

.' .

Imitation— plays at being adult.

Usually in own world, even though other childr socialization comes later.

Intuitive Phase— 4 years to 7-8 years .

Conceptualize, organize— stage of "questioning

Socialization.

Transition between fantasy and reality.

Solitary play moves towards cooperation and

mutual understanding.

Concrete Operations Phase— 7—8 years to 11-12

Interest in games with rul e s .

Group activities— -team efforts.

Interest in world of concrete objects.

Interest in how things work— -nature.

101

A child grows physically as well as mentally.

The need for discovery, mystery and adventure are all

part of a good rearing and early childhood.

The lack of

adventure around a child's home only suppresses a child's

mental growth.

Suppression of a child's mental growth

may become permanent, and in later years, cause learning

disabilities.

For this reason, it is important that a

child is exposed to a wide variety of activities and

interactions with peers and the world in general.

Children find a need to make order out of chaos,

just as grown-ups do.

They like to move things around

and place things where they want them.

Children take pride in overcoming risks.

Life

demands courage, endurance and strength. If only child­

ren would be allowed to test for themselves their own

abilities, then they would know their limits.

The lack of play areas in .the urban environment and not allowing children to play in the streets or other open spaces contribute to a child's resentment or apathy toward society, which could result in isolation from society and possibly juvenile delinquency or vandalism.

This phenomenon is felt in the United States.

Our current city and suburban environments

may carry the seeds of our own destruction":

102

resentful'kids take their places in adult

society their underlying hostility to the

city or town' which rejected them will cer­ tainly be f e l t .

The lack of good play conditions may be only one .

cause contributing to juvenile delinquency and other

problems such as immaturity of adults and lack of

creativity-.

But improving the. environment for child's

play is one method of changing the character of cities

and of society.

Sports

Sport was accepted if it served a rational pur­

pose, that of recreation necessary for physical efficiency.

But it should also be accepted as a means for spontaneous

expression of free body rhythms.

It should not always

have to be organized and competitive.

The widespread public interest in sports is not

a characteristic of society -in Saudi Arabia.

Male

children develop their sports skills on vacant lands that

are soon to be developed.

After the scale of environment

has become smaller, the lack of space for running, climb­

ing and jumping shifts the interest of the majority

toward other activities, except for the selected few who

join school sports programs or join the few private clubs

that could provide the space and expenses.

At the adult

stage, many more people drop completely from sports.

If the environment was sensitive enough, it would have provided open spaces closer to home and not bound by

103 rigid regulations of sports fields. Sports'should not.

stop at a certain age of human development.

The contribution of sports to the well-being of the human being Is' widely recognized, and its importance for young and old should be emphasized. The nature of sports will change as a person grows up. Young people are more active and energetic than older ones; however, sports such as volleyball, jogging, and long-distance walking are enjoyed by older people.

Wheelchair bowling and basketball have made

possible participation by the physically handi­

capped, and swimming is enjoyed by the mentally

retarded and the physically handicapped, in­ cluding the blind (Butler 1976, p. 325) •

..Sports activities that could be practiced at a

neighborhood level are listed below.

Asterisks indicate

those activities which are found only in.the American

culture, and not widely recognized by the Arabian cul­ ture .

.

Archery

♦Baseball

Basketball

^Bounce Ball

^Circle Games

*Frisbee

♦Golf

Handball

*Shuffleboard

♦Softball

Table Tennis

Tennis

*Tetherball

*Touch Football

Volleyball

Wrestling Classes

Fishing.

Gymnastics

Physical Fitness

104

Track facilities

Swimming Pools

Biking

*Wading, Pools

*Jogging

Drama

The plays of all primitive people arise out of

superabundance of the joy of life.

It is no more than

natural and inevitable development of a deeply rooted

instinct almost as old as man himself.

Drama, like

music and dancing, has always belonged to the people.

Hollington, (as quoted by Butler 1976, p-.: 338), a special­ ist in children's drama, says.

The dramatic instinct of the child is very

near the surface— is very f r e e .

To foster

this instinct, to provide the child with a

means for self-expression which will not stifle

spontaneity nor thwart personality but will

stimulate the imagination and develop inner

resources— this vital and far reaching.

Drama activities could be simple and spontaneous

or it could be of a more formal nature, including the

production before an audience.

Forms of drama, such as

play with dolls, dressing up-, playing store or house, or

acting out stories are a fundamental part of children's,

play which find expression on the playground.

The stage could consist merely of cretonne hung

on the playground fence to serve as a backdrop and with

portable screens:used for w i n g s .

Storytelling should be

a feature activity of the playground, and the story hour

furnishes the incentive for many drama activities .

Hand puppetry and the marionette theater have

105 become playground, features .

Stage,, puppets 5 and costumes

are made by the children who write the plays which ,are

presented and operate the theater.

Remarkable skill and

ingenuity have been developed in making and using

marionettes— activities which appeal especially to the

older boys and girls.

In some cities > marionette

theaters constructed and operated by playground groups

travel from playground to playground.

In this w a y , many

children have an opportunity to see the plays which have

been worked out on the different grounds and the troupes

gain added experience (Butler 1976, p.. 338) .

Music

Music lasts a lifetime, can take a multitude of

forms (unlike certain games and sports whose practices

are more or less prescribed), is highly adaptable and can

suit any a g e , sex, taste, ability, mood or circumstance.

It can be used with other activities including other per­

forming a rts, sports, celebrations , festivals and

pageants. It can be highly informal or organized.

In

other words, it. is very creative; it helps

to liberate

the power of expression of people and communities.

Gardening;

In cooperation with the municipality5 schools,

w o men’s clubs and other organizations, garden activities

could be constructed. Services could include the pro­ vision of land for children's and adult's gardens, leader­

ship for gardening programs, the promotion of home

gardens, indoor gardens and terrariums, flower arranging,

provision of knowledge of arid land plants, conservation

of water techniques and the furnishing of s e eds.

A fruit and spice park established by the Metro­ politan Dade County,. Florida, Park and Recreation Depart­

ment > serves as a demonstration area of tropical fruits,

nuts, and spice-producing plants

;

an information center

on tropical-plant culture is also maintained.

Special

gardens, some of them elevated and planted with flowers

and shrubs having a distinct odor, have been established

for the benefit of the' b l i n d .

A flower and vegetable .

garden in Pontiac, Michigan, has helped mentally disturbed

children at the state hospital "grow out of themselves."

In the same city, gardening is proving a rewarding thera­ peutic hobby for senior citizens (Butler 1976., p. 364).

Folk Dancing

Folk dancing contains the very essence of social

group p l a y .

Saudi Arabia has a rich Cultural background

107

of its own and of the other cultures represented by old

and new immigrants to the country -

Folk dancing displays

a colorful picture of the cultural background of the

society and creates a sense of unity and harmony.

Hobbies

Hobbies could be classified into three types:

those in which knowledge is acquired3 those in which

things are acquired, and thos in which things are created.

hobbies,

Wide range of activities could be listed under

. . . but some hold the opinion that a true

hobby is a personal, intimate matter, capable

of enjoyment by one's self, to be shared only

with kindred souls (Butler 1976, p. 380).

A neighborhood center fosters hobbies among adults pri­

marily by helping bring together persons with a common

interest and furnishing a place where they can m e e t ,

and where leadership, instruction and equipment are also

provided.

Research in Recreation

This section is concerned with the research back­

ground as viewed in the literature of recreation planning.

Various methodologies of research and standards in the

field of recreation planning are' mentioned. Special .

emphasis is placed on Gold's (1973) concept of "the

innovative 'approach" for its relevancy to the merit of -

108 this thesiss and concluding with the relationship be­

tween the formulation and methodology of the thesis

with the previously discussed literature.

An outline for an experiment to design a model

for the planning and provision of recreational programs

and facilities is suggested.

This model could include

the provision of services such as medical and postal.

This model suggests basic, planning units where citizens

participate in the planning p rocess.

The most important aspect of this research is the

introduction to the planners in Saudi Arabia the concept

of advocacy planning, which requires citizen participa­ tion in the planning process.

From the beginning of this century until the

1950s, in countries such as the United States and Britain

and some other European countries, the provision of recre­

ation in cities was very much a product of the industrial

urban environment.

The basis for research was not to

bring out social issues of concern but to provide supplies

according to demand according to numbers of people.

In the 1950s and 1970s, the social and behavioral

factors that make up and influence the environment became

the new criteria for planning and design.

Planning for recreation in Saudi Arabia is the

result of a sudden boom in the economy that transformed •

109

a basically rural society into an urban one with all the.

benefits and disadvantages associated with urban life.

Limited open space and social disorientation to act upon

issues of concern are primary reasons for the lack" of

recreation amenities.

Recreation research should be

introduced to the Saudi Arabian planner in a context that

fits that environment.

Burton (1971) in his book Experiments in Recrea­

tion Research presents a review of recreation research

and outlines a theory of supply and demand for recreation.

The review was not concerned with the nature of recreation

and its distinction from leisure t ime, nor was it con- -

earned with the cultural, social or behavioral aspects

of the needs for certain facilities.

His purpose was to

examine critically techniques of measuring demand for

recreation f a c i l i t i e s t o examine alternative methods of

forecasting recreation demands to be useful for planning,

and to* consider ways of compiling inventories of supplies.

for recreation planning.

Gold

(1973)

considers the

approach of supply and demand to recreation planning ■ the "traditional approach." He suggests a new alterna- ■

•hive-,, the "innovative approach," which will be discussed .

does not disqualify the supply and demand approach; it

110 merely considers it as a stage of providing supply, accord­

ing to demand— it is an end product of the planning

need as to what the innovative approach is all about.

Demand is essentially a technical economic term

referring to a relationship between quantities and prices.

for the product which is desired.

Consumption refers

to the quantity which is actually purchased or consumed

at any given p r i c e .

"Usually non-economists will use the

term demand to mean what is technically consumption"

(Burton 1-971* P* 23). Changes in consumption will re­ flect, primarily, changes in supply.

The number of people,

who visit a certain park provide the only measure of

demand for that park.

Changes in these numbers will

usually reflect changes in one or more elements of

supply, i.e., improved road access or weather conditions.

If the number of people visiting a park in Area A of a city is greater than the number of visitors to a park in Area B, this does not necessarily imply that the demand of parks is greater in the ..former area. It could equally indicate that the supply of parks is greater in : the former a r e a . -

In making a distinction between demand and con­ sumption in this way , we are not simply; being .

pedantic. The numbers of users of an urban park

V •

certainly reflect a demand for it = But they also reflect supply (Burton 1971, P- 25).

Burton considers demand for recreation in five

in

demand, diverted demand, and substitute demand.

Existing

demand, for example, is measured by the use which is made

of sports fields in a public park during a season, or by

the number of sports equipment sold in a particular area

throughout a season.

Latent demand is not visible or

apparent, but capable of developing.

It is a demand

which is invisible for such reasons as the non-existence

of facilities rather than the desire or potential for

such facilities to exist.

Induced demand is a demand

which is created as a result of providing a supply of

facilities".

A supply of new facilities will generate a

new demand in addition to any latent demand which was

previously unsatisfied.

Diverted demand occurs as a

result of the provision of new supply which is diverted

from one source of supply to another.

A provision of a

tennis court in a district which was previously without

one will cause some residents of that district to stop

using a tennis court in a nearby district and to use the

new one in their own district instead,. Substitute demand

is similar to diverted demand but refers to completely \

different recreation facilities. For example, the

112 provision of a new tennis court in a district can influ­

ence the residents to take up tennis in place of another

activity such as swimming, in which they previously took

p a r t .

Of the five demand.:, c a t e g o r i e s i n d u c e d , diverted and substitute demands are all supply related concepts.

Most recent studies of recreation demands have

been concerned with demand in the popular sense '

(that is consumption); and all have considered

to seek information about latent demands and

about the three categories of supply-related

demands.

Burton blames this on the major difficulties inherent in

finding a satisfactory method of assessing such demands.

Pointing out demands by asking people which

activities they would like to take up is insufficient in

situations where money and time are of limited resource. .

Most people might make statements which give no considera­

tion to the effect that this will have upon the amount

of money and time which they have available for recrea­ tion.

Burton cited from the literature two studies which

national recreation survey of 1967 in Britain attempted

to avoid some of the difficulties;.Inherent i n this

approach by asking respondents about both activities:

those which they would like, to take up and those which

113 they positively planned, to take up „ It wa.s felt that the latter question would- provide a much more reasonable .

all activities relating to the question about positive planning than for those which simply asked about likes and dislikes. The household activity system, a pilot investigation by The University of Carolina in 1966, developed a game approach. A time budget diary approach was utilized, thus classifying time according to use.

Each respondent was also asked how he or she would use an additional four hours of leisure time per week if this were available. The approach to respondents was an attempt to provide the investigator with strict time and thus reducing the degree of idealism which respondents could include in the statements about future activities.

Both of these studies were first attempts at

tackling a very complicated problem.

Neither

method has received sufficient testing and the

measurement of latent demand remains an open

field for research.

This is even more true of

induced, diverted and substitute demands

By definition, the nature of demand for recrea­

tional facilities in the Saudi Arabian neighborhoods is

a latent o n e .

Types of facilities and n o w many to be

provided should be the concern of governmental agencies

capable of supply.. The survey conducted for this thesis

114

approached the residents of al-Zahra neighborhood— which

doesn’t have any existing facilities— by asking re­

immediately "now" or in the "future," thus avoiding the

idealism of "as long as it could be provided, let's have

characteristic of the questionnaire was "double checking."

The questions were repeated in different forms as to give

answers to new questions, where, in fact, the answers were

used to double check the consciousness of the respondent

for being consistent in answering the questions with an

actual need in mind.

However, the reason for the survey

is not to measure supply and demand; it. is the step before

t hat.

The survey is concerned about pointing out that

there is a latent demand for facilities.

People are

aware of this fact and necessary measures should be con-

sidered to study the possible ways of providing for this

demand.

Recreation planning can be manifested, generally,

in two ways of thought.

On the one hand, planning could

be deterministic.

The policy makers' can determine and

provide recreation facilities of a kind which it thought

that the population' ought to have.- On the other hand,

it can be directed towards the provision of those facili­

115

both thoughts should be utilized in Saudi A r a b i a T h e r e

are basic needs that every neighborhood should have.

These needs should be expressed in. broader terms for each

neighborhood.

The unique demands of each neighborhood

could be deducted from various data and information ob­ tained not directly from the residents,, but by observa­

tion, utilization of data not intended for recreation such

as the socioeconomic surveys, and other data from the

department of statistics.

More detailed information about

the nature and layout of facilities could be obtained from

the residents.

Burton

(19.71 j pp. 34-62) categorized the methods

of collecting data for recreation into'six met h o d s :

interview surveys, self-administered, particularly postal

surveys; observations; documents which have been compiled

for purposes other than immediate ones for which it is

intended to use them; physical evidence; and mechanical

and electronic devices.

As yet, by and large, planners are not able to make informed judgments about what facilities to provide.

Virtually no recent studies have attempted to

formulate criteria based upon the finding of

research, which planners and.Others can utilize

in the formulation and implementation of plans

(Burton 1971,. p. 34). .

In reviewing recreation research, Burton found that too often the objectives of recreation studies .have been

expressed In very broad and general terms— such as to provide detailed information on the use of (demand for) recreation facilities which will serve as a basis for

116 planning. He suggests that perhaps there is a need to

I

devote less, attention to collection of data and more

attention to improvement in the use that can be made of

data in the formulation of policies and plans.

There is

an even greater need to systemize methods of collecting

theory for the provision of recreation facilities.

The

"theory" as called in the book by Burton (1971, pp..

317-354), is a series of models which are intended for

the use of local authorities and other bodies' wishing to

provide recreational facilities "as a basis for determin­

ing the optimum location of a proposed new facility of a

given kind.."

The unappropriateness of this "theory" to the

Arabian neighborhood is obvious.

Methods of collecting

data were designed for a lifestyle of urban Western

society— the. dependence on existing facilities as a

measure for use.

In Saudi Arabia, most facilities to be

introduced are totally new to the environment. .

fore, there is a need for measuring attitudes and future ■

trends before initiating the. supply of any facility

Some of Burton's models could be used in Saudi Arabia to

measure demand and provide supply at the few existing

117 large-scale recreational and service facilities, utiliz­

ing techniques of formulation questionnaires and

collecting data, congruent with the existing life pattern.

Burton's "theory" stops short of recognizing the cultural

aspects and trends of a given population.

His models

tell us the number of people using a certain facility

but it does not tell us what the rest of the population

does or whether they have in mind a totally different

demand.

Gold (1973) argues that the past and present planning efforts may be inadequate or ineffective in some respects, especially with the recreation problems of the inner city and other congested urban locations.

One relatively unexplored area is the residential

environment's potential for providing leisure

opportunities for its lack of sophistication or

study of urban recreation planning.

There is

evidence, to suggest that the residents of most

cities have not been able to communicate their

outdoor recreation preferences to the planner

and decision-maker.and when preferences have

been expressed, there is no sensitive technique

for translating them into opportunities (Gold

.

.

.

He argues that the "traditional eoncepts" in recreation ’ ment per a certain number of people have proven unsound and that an alternative is needed to detail a national

.perspective on .recreation planning. Urban recreation

118

"

should be looked at as a human experience, for the well­ being of the users. .

-

A national perspective is needed because there is

nothing in the literature or practice to indicate a sig­ nificant geographic difference in the definition of '

problems or techniques commonly associated with urban

recreation planning.

This argument could also apply to

regional and local areas where there is: no distinction

in the magnitude and approaches to the recreation problem.

Even though Gold (1973) is concerned with urban

America or the 24'3 metropolitan areas of 50,000 or more

population (primarily with the central and inner city),

the principles, methodology and approach he described can

also apply to suburban areas and small communities.

This study, is concerned with recreation in general

(indoor and outdoor); however. Gold's discussion of out­

door recreation should open new avenues to deal with

urban recreation planning in its general context.

Outdoor recreation as an activity focusing on

time, space and cultural aspects are described with

reference to the planning for and use of a neighborhood

park or playground.

The neighborhood park or playground

is analyzed from its traditional orientation toward

children to its.possible present and future role as a

social: and leisure focus. ■

11 9

In Gold's,(1973) book, the problem is presented

by the fundamental question: How can the planning process

be more responsive to the outdoor recreation objectives

from four planes: description, relevance, relationships

and research. -

A growing concern of recreation planning is the

p a s t , present and future role of recreation standards in

the planning process.

The traditional role of allocating

public land, facilities and progr ans is challenged in

light of new planning concepts, methodologies and tech­ niques. '

Planning and behavioral science fields have ex­

pressed concern over the use of arbitrary standards for

recreation.

Traditional recreation standards could be

utilized as guidelines,. not end products for planning.

The arbitrary practice of enumerating as many

facilities or areas per capita (i.e., 10 acres/

1,000 persons of open space) is a hazardous

planning technique, yet it persists for lack

of an alternative.

Mounting evidence indicates

that arbitrary recreation standards represent

inadequate indicators of demand or needs and

the capability of the public sector to produce

Standards expressed as so many acres per 1000

do not discriminate among communities in terms

of varying propensities for recreation consump­ tion. Differences among communities i n :terms .

of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics

produce quite different patterns of recreation

- demand.

'1/.

120

The traditional simplistic standards approach to

urban recreation planning has proved irrelevant because

of a growing failure, among single-function planners to

relate to the comprehensive planning process.

Especially

at the metropolitan level, where complexity of government

demands increased rationality for allocating scarce

resources to competing needs, recreation planners should

seek methods, to relate themselves to the comprehensive

planning process with a better awareness of government

objectives and resource restraints.-

Other arguments against the arbitrary use of

recreation standards, reflect a "requirement approach" to

resource allocation which is concerned with trade-offs

involved where an "optimum" output for outdoor recreation

may involve serious opportunity costs for other public

services such as education.

Any incremental expenditure

for. one denies that much for all others.

Arguments against the arbitrary standards approach

has been voiced by human ecologists, sociologists and

political scientists. The indictment seems c l ear.

None­

theless, alternatives have yet to be conceptualized and

tested.

Despite'these arguments, there is a new and more -

significant role which standards can assume in the

planning process. The growing trend toward quantification

121

of social values's a system approach to planning and the

"measurement explosion" generated by new techniques such

as planning programming-budgeting systems (PPBS), project

a revised and critical role for recreation-standards in

the planning process.

Gold (19733 pp. 186-227) presented the traditional

approach and the innovative approach to urban outdoor

recreation planning, then he provided a comparison of

approaches.

Traditional Approach

Prior to 1962, there had been no attempt to ques­

tion or challenge the traditional approach to urban

recreation planning.

Planning was characterized by an

arbitrary, intuitive and relatively absolute approach

which does little to acknowledge or be responsive to

community goals and objectives, user preference, citizen .

participation in the planning process or cha n g e .

A

.classification of areas projecting a range of facilities , oriented toward specific age groups, activities or geo­ graphic areas is m a d e .

The usual hierarchy ranges from

the neighborhood tot-lot to a.regional recreational a r e a .

Most classification tends to separate areas by form a n d .

function and isolate rather than integrate them with the

1 22

.

environment.

It also separates age groups 3 user groups

and activities by design3 program and scheduling.

After

classification, each type of area is subjected to a series

of standards, locational concepts and facility require^

m e n t s .

Once the amount of area needed and the location

are determined, a detailed site plan Is prepared to i n d i - '

cate placement of equipment or layout of areas, for various

activities. Clegg (cited by Gold

1973, p..

187),

described

the principles of these plans as:

1. To get the maximum use from the land available.

2. To produce an attractive playground viewed from within and without.

3.

To simplify the problems of supervision and

4.

To prevent accidents, by careful segregation of

activities.

5. To keep operating cost low.

6. To keep original construction cost low.

Gold (1973, pp. 190-191)- states that:

self-righteous approach to planning which usually

exhibits a conspicuous lack of citizen involve­

ment , knowledge of user behavior, community

goals or objectives and a narrow view of who is

to do the planning)

The post-ORRRC Report is characterized by a re­ liance on the previous concepts and techniques with -

123 several new additions.

Recreation is visualized as an

"experience" instead of an activity.

There was an

integration rather than a separation of form and.function

of recreation areas. Areas began to be viewed as com­ ponents of a "system."

The concept of government

responsibilities for different types of recreation became

evident.

A clear distinction was made between a "user"

and "resource" oriented type of area which was related

to administrative responsibility.

The Innovative Approach . . .

The emphasis for the innovative approach is. on experimentation, demonstration and citizen participation.

Its success or failure is still to-be proven by actual rather than hypothetical field studies. Gold (1973> p. 208) summarizes the concept as follows:

Outdoor recreation planning at the neighborhood

level is an incremental process for the defermen­

tation of opportunities based on the expressed

goals and objectives of residents.

The alloca­

tion of public resources for outdoor recreation

of resident values•

These values are expressed

in the opportunities, space standards and priori­

ties selected from alternatives by a representative

body of the residents or their advocate. .

Davidoff (cited by Gold 1973, P • 209)V -

Planners should be able to engage in the politi­

cal process as advocates of the interests both

of government and of such other groups, organiza­

tions, or individuals concerned with proposing

policies for the future development of the com­ munity .

124

The process of the .innovative approach is incre­

mental for planning and implementation with a normal time

horizon for no longer than two years from the beginning

to the end of one cycle.

Recreation planning should begin with human need,

which is determined by advocacy planning, instead of

starting with conventional facilities for the formulation

of goals and objectives.

Gold (1973s p . 211) quotes

Satterthwaite as saying, "The activity allocation should.

be the end product of the planning process."

The difference between the traditional, concept

and the innovative concept is in the emphasis in the new .

concept on alternatives, citizen participation and revi­ sion of values and needs. Also, the difference is i

apparent in the change between supplier and resident

standards where the traditional concept takes standards

as the criteria for supply rather than an end product.

The previous examples of research techniques as

attempted to be utilized in the United States and Britain

did not give us a concrete approach to solving the

recreational problems of Saudi Arabia.

Those techniques

were developed for Western socieities at an advanced

stage of.development comparing to Saudi Arabia that is

just beginning its urban development.

Even in Western

societies, those techniques are still to be tested.

Where does Saudi Arabia begin its planning and

programming for recreation?

Review in methodology of

research open the road for the beginning with broad and

necessary basic steps.

Even though we cannot adopt•the

Complete methodology of the innovative approach for

reasons cited, previously3 this approach is the closest

in providing the. desired guidelines for starting the

research.

Planning is viewed not as an end in itself.

It . *

is one positive force capable of helping to improve the

quality of life and environment in urban Saudi.Arabia.

The scale and character of this urbanization involves a

degree"of social interaction and technological complexity

never before experienced.

Any perspective of present

and future should acknowledge complexity and scarcity as

a realistic part of urban living in the 197.0s.

Critical

issues of who should make the value judgments to cope

with social and technological change, and how, when and

in conflict.

Conflicts generally associated with the

planning process stem from the different values and ob- .

j"ectives of Institutions in regard to the "public inter-

.est."

Although most will agree on such ends as "survival

and quality of the environment," each institution may • have different means of reaching those ends..

Planning is a continuous process of change,

challenge and response to m a n ’s goals, values and n e eds.

Gold (19735 pp. 119-120,) outlines the purpose and objec­ tives of planning as follows:

Purpose —

I f Meet events that man expects to happ e n .

2. Accomplish things that he wants to h a p p e n .

3. Avoid or prevent things that he does not want

to happen. .

Obj ectives —

1.

Improve the physical environment of the community

to make the community more functional, s a f e ,

interesting, exciting and efficient.

2. Promote the "public interest."

3. Inject long-range considerations into the de­ termination of ■short-range decisions.

4. Bring professional and technical knowledge to

bear on the political decisions concerning the

social, economic and physical development of the

community.

5• Prompt and facilitate'effective cooperation and .

Coordination between all concerned with community

development.

6

.

tive solutions.

127

7 ° Identify maj or. opportunities and potentials .

8.

Stimulate citizen participation in the planning

•process.

9. Develop and interpret social and economic indi­ cators which can help measure change.

10.

Help formulate alternative goals and objectives

which can become the basis of action-oriented

proposals

The aforementioned objectives provide guidelines

for the comprehensive plan to break down the centrality

of planning and implementation of plans into smaller

units of effective caliber.

As was previously, indicated,

planning authorities.emphasized community and citizen

participation in the planning process.

This could only

be achieved if the planning area was broken into smaller

and reachable population groups called a neighborhood

or community. ,

A planning approach for the Saudi Arabian neigh­ borhoods is .outlined as follows;

1. Alternative or policy types of plans.

2. A continuous planning and review process.

3. A decentralized planning function.

4.

Flexible planning units based on natural and

human resources•

128

5 o Quality over quantity„

6c

Social over physical and economic considerations.

.

Conservation over exploitation of human, and

A recreation movement is bound to happen in Saudi

Arabia.

Planning, policies are required at the national

level as well as the neighborhood level.

An experiment

is suggested to establish a model to draw policies and

provide facilities not only for the neighborhood or

communitys but also for the city, the region and the

nation.

An Experimental Planning Approach

In order to develop a model for the provision of

community recreation policies and facilities, extensive

research is required because there is no information

available and most data are scattered in separate govern­ mental agencies.

Following are guidelines for planning

in order to achieve the desired models.

Hierarchy.- '

The Community: The city to be divided into small

sented by subcommittees that have direct contact with

the population it served.

129

people to the larger governmental agencies, through

the•mother committee which represents the whole city.

cities in a regioncoordinate planning effort at the .

regional level through a supreme committee.

findings and recommendations to a central governmental

agency that coordinates studies and programs between

the various regions at a national level. , -

.

.

The subcommittee, committee, supreme commitee and

agency will develop a separate model.

These models are

interrelated and depend oh each other's findings.

Figure 6 illustrates this hierarchy.

For establishing the model, the agency encompasses

the supreme committee, the committee and the subcommittee.

The supreme committee encompasses the committee and

subcommittee.

The committeee encompasses the subcommittee

and the subcommittee encompasses the population of a

community.

Classification

In the cities of Saudi Arabia, socioeconomic .

surveys, comprehensive plans and observations, will pro­ vide data to break down the city into planning units.

S U B ­

C O M M IT T E E

C O M M IT T E E

SUPREME C O M M IT T E E

AGENCY

Figure 6.

Hierarchy of planning models for Saudi

Arabia.

130

13 1

The planning units will differ in their characteristics

demographically3 socially, economically and physically.

These factors should be arranged on a scale developed

by the combined efforts of statisticians, economists >

sociologists, architects, and landscape architects under

the direction of an urban p lanner.

The function of the

scale is to provide community types (planning units) in

a city (see Figure 7)•

Ideally, every planning unit should be researched,

but this is impracticable, especially for the purpose of

an experiment.

To simplify the effort, similar- units'

will be grouped together to provide "community types."

In reality, community types are not mutually exclusive

but will be considered so f o r :the purpose of a model.

Among similar planning units "community type," the most

representative one or two will be researched.

So, if the

scale provided three or four different "community types,"

each consisting of five to ten planning units, only two

or three planning- units according to resources will be

selected for the model at the city scale, thus providing us with a unified scheme for establishing general guide­ lines for a city model.

In a region, representative cities will-be selected.

Common characteristics of their individual models will be'

combined .to conceive a regional model. Common .

unit unit unit

TYPE 1 MODEL unit unit

TYPE 2 M O DEL

| unit | | unit | | unit

j

TY P E 3 M O DEL

Other c itv m odels

C IT Y

MODEL

REGIONAL

M O DEL

Other e itv m odels o th e r re g io n a l m odels

NATIONAL

MODEL o th e r re g io n a l m o d els

Figure 7.

Relationships between planning models for

Saudi Arabia.

132

133

characteristics„of required models will provide the basis

for a national m o d e l .

Objectives of Models

Community L e vel.

Draw and recommend a community

implementing the community policy and represent the

community at the community and city levels.

City L e vel.

Draw and recommend a city policy for

recreation planning.

Provide resources for implementing

the city policy.

Represent the community at the city and

regional levels.

Regional L e v e l .

To draw and recommend a regional

policy for recreation planning.

Provide resources for

implementing the regional policy. Represent the com­ munity at the regional and national levels.

National L e v e l .

To draw and recommend a national

policy for recreation planning.

Provide resources for

implementing the national policy.

REpresent the community

at the national government.

Functions of Models

1.

Coordination between public sector and govern-. /

m e n t .

2. Coordination between public sector and private

sector.

3"

Unifying goals that concern several governmental

agencies that work separately, i.e., land acquisi

tion for recreation facilities, or putting to-

that could be provided by different governmental

agencies.

4.

Providing a framework for a unified design scheme

thus eliminating scattered individual efforts

that might appear chaotic and out of context with

each other and the environment they serve.

5. Point out neighborhood, city, regional and

national trends, requirements and different needs

6. Relate these trends to the comprehensive plans.

7. Suggest and supervise studies to measure atti­ tudes, trends, supply and demand.

8. Allow a direct participation by the citizens in

the planning process.

.9. Present to a community experiences of other com­ munities .

10.' Introduce new ideas and concepts not known to the

community.

11.' Provide standards for design.

135

Research.

T h e .hierarchy of models necessitate

different techniques for collecting and analyzing data. -

Research to be conducted in three fashions are:, from

existing records, utilizing surveys 5 or setting up- an

experiment and observing it.

In establishing MSNC, most

of the responsibility of research falls under the city

government represented by the "committee model." Sub­

committees should not be burdened with the research

processs just the initiation of needs to be researched,

and to help gather data.

Researches at the community

level will, provide the city with recommendations and

standard at the city level. These researches will pro­

vide the "supreme committee" a basis for a regional

policy.

The "agency" needs this finding of the "supreme

committee" to formulate a national policy.

The city committee should include a recreational

planner3 an urban planner, a landscape architect, a

sociologist, a psychologist and an economist.

Collecting data and analysis techniques were ex­ tracted in part from Gold .(1973a P • 214).

1.

Statistical information from the Ministry- of

Social Affairs.

2. Statistical data from health agencies and hospi­ tals . ‘ -

3=

Statistical data from the General Presidency of

Youth Welfare. ,

4. Statistical data from the Office of Town Planning.

5• Surveys to determine why people are not using

existing parks, free clinics and social welfare

accommodations.

6. Surveys to study patterns of leisure time.

7. Photographic time-sequence analysis of both

public recreation areas and streets to record

u s e p r o b l e m s , and potentials.

8. Surveys .of children and teenagers to find out

their specific desires, values and perception of

things, activities and the environment.

9 > Designing survey forms which utilize graphic symbols instead of complicated words and instruc­ tions .

10. Closing of streets, detouring pedestrian or recreationuse and non-use.

11. Aerial photography to inventory land forms 5 vege­

tation, circulation.and recreational use patterns

of given areas or the entire planning u n i t .

12. Surveys of and by school, children to identify

recreational problems and potentials, preference

of non-users, parental goals., objectives and

values with regard to leisure5 recreation and other community needs and wants.

137

Selection of Alternatives-.

Once a neighborhood's

goals and objectives are expressed, formulated and accept­

ed by the majority of residents, alternative means of

reaching them becomes the next step. Gold (1973) sug­

gests three devices: (1) recreation opportunity index

or social indicator, (2) representative space standard,

and (3) recreation resource allocation.

Producing and evaluating a recreationand service

program are recommended by public opinion and preference.

The committee at city level should also evaluate pro­ grams .

Figure 8 illustrates a process by which supply

and demand for programs and facilities are m e t .

The subcommittee analyzes programs and facilities

and decides which ones could be provided by the community

itself and those to be presented to the committee at the

city level.

The committee will decide on two types of

provisions: those that could be supplied by city govern­

mental agencies such as the municipality or the office of

town planning, and those that should be obtained from

regional agencies.

Most facilities, will be provided by

agencies at the city .level.

-

138

city

% regional agency anency regional.

city.

G O V E R N M E N T

S U B C O M M I T T E E

5*."" ■-v

PRI VAT E

C O M M U N IT Y

D E M A N D

SUPPLY

Figure 8.

Supply and demand for neighborhood facilities

in Saudi Arabia.

139

Figure 8 is divided- into four u n i t s : community,

government, subcommittee and private business.. The

hatched line divides the chart into demand and supply

(mainly facilities). Weight of lines indicates impor­ tance .

Thick lines have more importance than thin lines.

The community demands much more than it supplies.

The

government supplies more than it demands.

Government

representatives are more responsible in supply at the

city level, followed respectively by regional and national

levels.

Private business should not demand, but it could

supply at a small scale.

From the suggested experiment, one notices the

special emphasis upon the city to conduct most of the

research and provide facilities and programs.

The pri­ mary concern of the committee at the city level is two­ fold.

First, a policy needed to be formulated that set

out the limits of what a multi-service neighborhood

center would and/or (by implication of omission) would not

do; moreover,,the<policy-can, specify whatever priorities

the city might wish to render to particular groups of

residents, particular programs, or particular areas of

the city. Finally, the policy needs to set out the ob­ jectives of the MSNC program.

The second step is to

translate the policy into guidelines for staff ..and ad­ ministrators to use in considering new. centers.

140

In the planning process 5 advocacy planning Is the

first step.

To test the concept of advocacy planning, a

planning unit was chosen in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from

the existing site plan of the city of Riyadh.

A study

was conducted to measure the reaction of the residents

toward establishing a multi-service neighborhood center.

The following three chapters illustrate this study.

CHAPTER 4

THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Utilizing the concept of advocacy planning, this

study was designed to measure the reaction of the resi­

dents of al-Zahra neighborhood, a suburb of- Riyadh, Saudi

Arabia, to the possibility of establishing a m u l t i - .

service neighborhood center (MSNC) and the choice of

facilities needed by the community.

This study also

recorded the frequency of choices towards facilities and

activities, the separation or grouping of facilities for

both sexes. Variables of the study were age, sex, mari­ tal status and number of children in a household.

Physical and Social Setting of

al-Zahra Neighborhood

The city of Riyadh is divided into 31 districts,

each called .

For the purpose of this study, these

districts are called neighborhoods or communities.

Al-Zahra neighborhood is a suburb located on the.north­ eastern fringe of the city.

Most of the population

belongs to the middle- to upper-middle and upper-income

brackets.

It is mainly a family community with one or

141

142 story single™ and multi-family dwellings.

Commercial

activities occur on the main thoroughfares surrounding

the neighborhood (see m a p 3 Figure 1 in pocket).

Within

the neighborhood there are a few commercial businesses

occupying buildings that were designed as villas or apart­ ment buildings, Apartment occupancy is not a character­ istic of Saudi Arabian lifestyle in Riyadh. There are .

three apartment buildings in the area studied which are

occupied mostly by non-Saudi or transient young Saudi

couples.

Unlike American lifestyle, Saudi young men and

women over 18 years of age do not live outside the family

h o m e .

Therefore, one could easily characterize the life­ style of most Arabian neighborhoods as family dominated,and consisting of extended families.

As will be mentioned in the Selection of Sample,

only approximately one-half of the neighborhood was sur­ neighborhood.

Services in the neithborhood consist of a.Mosque

located on Jareer Boulevard, a private hospital "al-

Watani," two hairstyle shops for women, a bookstore, a

bakery, and several convenience variety stores .

A fire

station, a post office and semi-rundown free clinic

as well as a suburban market that constitutes small

variety and service shops are located in the adjacent

neighborhood of al-Malaz.

The recreational facilities

in the neighborhood are non-existent save for a small

143 private "Karate" c l u b . No parks or open spaces are de­ signed for the residents.

Many houses have their little

private gardens that could not be seen from the streets

due to wall fences of about eight f e e t .

Visually, the

environment is stark.

Street furniture does not exist

except for street lights of scale fit for major thorough­ fares rather than a residential scale. Trees and tele-' , phone booths do not exist. A girl's high school and .

college are in the neighborhood.

Due to the educational

and commercial institutesj the parking problem is almost

insurmountable in some areas of the neighborhood.

1978 and .the. final Riyadh mashervplan are not available,

there are no population estimates at hand for Riyadh's

districts. The socioeconomic survey of 1977 grouped the .

population of Riyadh according to 20 sectors .

The 20

sectors were combined into six planning zones.

These

planning zones were relatively homogeneous from the

point of view of built-up area, population density of

residential areas, and continuity.

Al-Zahra neighborhood is located in Zone 5.. T h e ■

average density of Zone 5 is 75 inhabitant per hectare

(2.471 acre) (MOMRA Report 3, 19779,PP- 16-2.5). Taking

.144

the density figure as

a

basiss a population estimate at

the section of al-Zahra neighborhood surveyed,could be

interpolated.

The area surveyed is approximately 27 +

square hectares, therefore, the population is approxi­ mately 2000 +■.

The population is mostly literate except

for the elderly.

This neighborhood does not reflect an average

sample of the Saudi citizens, however, in an advancing

country towards education, ■•technology and urbanization.

This neighborhood might serve as a milieu for testing

new ideas before they are shaped to involve a large seg­ ment of the society with its diverse economic and educa­ tional levels and ' traditional backgrounds .

Significance of Study Proposal

The spatial community is not a product of mere

ideology or aesthetics; it is the physical expression

of ".basic social needs (Wingo 1970, pp. 70-71) ♦

planning the physical environment with the cultural

Values, and trends in mind.

The urban settlements of

Saudi,Arabia are growing rapidly due to the increase .

cation networks,. variety in consumer items, education and

145

the greater interaction with other societies have enabled

Saudi Arabia to become aware of the need for planning in

the urban setting.

These factors have brought new ideas

to the people and the changing lifestyle is apparent to

any observer of the Saudi Arabian society, thus necessi­

tating another look at the urban environment from both

the physical and the social aspects.

An understanding of

community needs and the form by which these needs are to

be met is an integral part of the planning process if the

planner is to achieve a successful design.

The planner

could commit gross errors by not examining the validity

of the concepts proposed to the community.

This study is an attempt to include the people as

participants in shaping their environment.

It is only a

start towards a new concept in design for the Saudi

Arabian neighborhood.

Limitation, of the Study i. In research such as this o n e , the personal inter­

view is probably the best technique, to obtain

fresh and comprehensive data; however, for cul­

tural r e a s o n , i t might be difficult in Saudi

Arabia for a man to interview women face to face

with whom he does not. have a family relationship.

The interviewing process could be done in.the

the case of women If their husband or head of the

household is present during the interview.

This

could be determined from the pilot s t u d y .

In

this particular case, distributing questionnaires

proved helpful.

2.

There exists a high degree of illiteracy among

the elderly in Saudi Arabia; therefore, these

people must be interviewed.

If .1 couldn't reach

them, a member of their family might assist them

in their answers to be recorded on the question­ naire sheet.

Research Questions

The following research questions which gave order

and direction to the study were examined. ■

1.

Is there a need for a multi-service neighborhood

center in al-Zahra neighborhood?

2. How do respondents spend their leisure time?

3 -

What is the hierarchy of recreational activities

that respondents chose,'"Were they to become

available?

a.

What is the hierarchy of sport activities

that respondents chose the most?

b.

What is the hierarchy of fine art activities

that respondents chose the most?

147 o. What is the hierarchy of performing art

activities that respondents choose'-the most?

d .

What is the hierarchy of thinking and fun

games that respondents choose the most?

4.. Where would the center be located in relation to

the neighborhood?

5 - Who would administer the center?

5,

Would males and females be grouped in one center

or would there be two separate centers?

7.

Would children's playgrounds' be attached to the

men's or women's facilities?

8.

What is the hierarchy of services (other than

recreational) to be included in the center?

9. What time would the center be most used?

a.

What days of the week the center would be

used the most?

b . What time of day is the center used the most?

Research Design

A research of this nature was unique to the Saudi

Arabian neighborhood.

There are no multi—service neigh­

borhood centers existent in the format suggested in this

research and there are no researches of this nature at a

city or neighborhood level to serve as a model .or as a

basis for this research.

Designing a model for the

research required the efforts of many individuals in

Tucson and in Saudi Arabia, as' well as consultation with

varied literature material pertaining to this subject

of designing questionnaires, collecting and analysing

d a t a .

In this chapter, an attempt is made to explain how

a •researcher could go about designing a questionnaire collecting data in a developing country for the purpose of involving a community in decision mak i n g .

Questionnaire Development

In collaboration with my graduate advisory com­

mittee, several approaches to the problem were discussed

including the idea of involving in the study married

Saudi Arabian students and their families in Tucson for

enlightenment and suggestions.

Since the concept of multi-service neighborhood

centers is new to Saudi Arabia, several approaches were

examined.

Approaching,the Residents with the

Concept of MSNC

As to the procedure by which to present the questions, there were three approaches.

neighborhood center is without mentioning specific

facilities, then ask what type of facilities and

services the respondent recommends if he/she

agrees on the concept.

If the person is not able

149 to think of a wide range of facilities or activi­

ties, then proceed to show them the listed

facilities and activities.

The advantage of this method is that the re­

spondents are not locked into a limited set of

proposed facilities

;

the disadvantage of this

method lies, with the fact that many of the faclli

ties which constitute the multi-service neighbor­

2.

Define a multi-service neighborhood center and

explain the facilities that could constitute its

components.

This would be like giving the respon

dents an inventory of facilities and allowing

them to choose from it and add to it.

After consulting with several Saudi Arabian

Students at The University of Arizona in Tucson

on how to proceed with presenting the multi-

service neighborhood concept, they indicated that

it would be better i.f the concept was explained

and presented to the people with possible

facilities:, then ask them about their preferences

and if they wanted to include any additional

activities.

3.

Observe what are the non-existing recreational

and service facilities, then present these

' ■ ; .

150

facilities in the questionnaire or interviewing■

procedure to determine which of these facilities

are needed in the neighborhood.

After this is

completed5 one could present the concept of the

multi-service neighborhood center and ask which

of the chosen facilities could be grouped

therein.

Then ask the respondents to rank the

facilities according to importance to the neigh­ borhood (see Questionnaire,. Appendix B) .

Pilot Study

After conducting a pilot study, a pre-test o'f

question techniques on 20-30 individuals provided a great

help in changing the nature of the questions.

Ideally,

the pre-test should be done under similar circumstances

as the original sample.

A. pre-test, on some married Saudi

Arabian students residing in Tucson has shed some light

in changing the nature of the questions.

Ranking spondents may have difficulty ranking.

The researcher

Which of these services is most important of all?

(Mark it

§ 1 . )

Which is next to most important?

(Mark

it

# 2 . )

To clear up ranking confusions, the facilities

were designated as to their importance in terms of time.

The question was asked whether the facility should be

151 established now or in the future.

Translation

Translating the questionnaire with adequate

definitions for the concept of multi-service neighborhood

centers and the type of facilities are not well under­ stood by. the Arabian culture.

Translation took place by the re-translation

process.

Once the questions have been constructed in

Arabic, they were translated back into English, improved

upon, and then re-translated into Arabic.

This version

was then submitted to several Arabian students here in

Tucson and to a pilot study group from al-Malaz to de­

termine whether the questions can be easily read and

understood.

A

final version was then written in Arabic

and later translated into English.

Further Development of the Questionnaire

in Saudi Arabia

One of the most responsive and receptive govern­

mental agencies contacted while in Riyadh was the General

Presidency of Youth Welfare under the Ministry of Labor

and Social Affairs.

They offered valuable help through

their Department of Statistics.

Suroor Moubarak of the

Department of Statistics and the researcher have reshaped

the questionnaire format through several sessions so it

'

152

can be easily understood by the average resident and, at

the same time, expanded the recreational activities

into many sports.

We also introduced the concept of how

leisure time was spent as a basis for measuring the

exigency of public recreation facilities.

Letters, of Recommendation

Letters of recommendation from the Saudi Arabian

Educational Mission and The University of Arizona,.ex­

plaining the legitimacy and nature of this study, helped

introduce the research to several governmental agencies

contacted by the researcher.

Letters from the Office

of City Planning, the City Municipality, and the General

Presidency of Youth Welfare helped to get recommendation

from the Ministry of the Interior, which referred the

researcher to the General Department of Statistics to

fully examine the contents of the questionnaire before

being released in the neighborhood. After minor sugges­ tions, the Department of Statistics approved the ques­ tionnaire (see Appendix C).

Selection of Sample

Since the theme of this study is advocacy planning

at a neighborhood level,,it was desirable to involve the

different age groups, setting the minimum age at 15,

where the person is able to read, comprehend and answer

153 the questionnaire.

The questionnaire was intended for

males and females and residents of different occupations.

There were no statistical information available

regarding this neighborhood.

Street layouts and'density

figures were also unavailable by either the municipality

or the Office of City Planning,

A map of the city of

Riyadh, showing the block land divisions, was found at a

later stage from a Swedish surveying firm.

The telephone directory was incomplete as a re­

liable source for determining the number of residences.

This area of. al-Zahra neighborhood, as designated by this

name, is actually constituted of two different sections

divided by a major thoroughfare of 60th Street.

The

section west of 60th Street is older and in some areas

further west, yielding to commercial establishments.

The

section east of 60th Street is new and mainly residential,

with a few exceptions of private business offices,. The •

section east of 60th Street is 11 blocks north-south and

A survey was conducted on foot to familiarize

the researcher with the neighborhood components.

This

area is divided into four sections, o r .quarters.

Each

section was taken block by block.

On each block, at

least two households were given the questionnaire.

The

researcher asked for the head of the household, introduced

154

himself and the nature of the research, then asked about

the number of people 15 years of age and over who live in

the house for distribution of the questionnaire if there

is a desire to participate in the study.

The researcher

proceeded to the next house, then the next b l o c k .

Apartment building residents and business estab­ lishments were excluded from the study.

Residents of

apartment buildings were usually transients in this

neighborhood.

The survey took place during the early part

of the evening to assure the presence of the head of the

household.

To increase the number of respondents with less

effort, members of the researcher’s family assisted in

distributing some of the questionnaires.

Since my sister

teaches at the elementary girls’ school in the neighbor­

hood, she distributed some questionnaires to the other

teachers who live in the neighborhood, provoding that I

h a d n ’t reached their family during the field survey to

avoid overlapping.

My other sister was attending the

•assisted in distributing some questionnaires to the women

who live in the neighborhood who, in turn, would distrib­ ute the questionnaires to their families. •

Data Collection

The instrument used to collect data is the

questionnaire developed by the author with the contribu­ tion of the Division of Statistics in the General Presi­

dency of Youth Welfare. The instrument was used to

collect data to answer the research questions (see Research

Questions). The instrument consists of three parts: •

1. Test of percentages.

2. Hierarchy of the needed activities or facilities.

3. Respondents1 suggestions.

The questionnaires were given in the Arabic lan­

guage with an introduction to the nature of the research.

For eliminating doubts and uneasiness on the part of the

respondents3 it was mentioned in the introductory pages

that this study is supported by Program in Landscape

Architecturej School of Renewable Natural Resources3 the

Saudi Arabian Educational Mission in the United States;

the Presidency of Youth Welfare, Office of City Planning, • the City Municipality, the General Department of Sta­

tistics, and the Ministry of the Interior in Saudi Arabia.

Letters of recommendation were available with the

researcher.

The procedure for distributing and collecting the

questionnaires was done in such a way as to give the re­ spondents time to think about the questions, answer them

156 or reject them If they so desired.

The researcher’s home

phone was provided which served two main purposes: it

helped those who had any further questions or clarifica­

tions and, on the other.hand, it helped save embarrassment

for those who did not want to participate but could not

understand the nature of the study and did not want to

express an open rejection to the study.

They could always

say: we will call you later to pick up the questionnaires.

The questionnaires were distributed with ease.

The residents showed great interest and response.. The

questionnaires were collected and the data were later key

punched at the University of Arizona Computer Center.

Treatment of Data

The purpose of this study was to use the concept

of advocacy planning to test the reaction of the resi­

dents of al-Zahra neighborhood, a suburb of the city of

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, towards establishing a multi-service

neighborhood center (MSNC) and to determine the recrea-

tiohal and service facilities needed by the community to-

be included in this center. Questionnaires were distrib­ uted and collected in al-Zahra neighborhood.

Data were

key punched and submitted to the University of Arizona Com-

.puter Center utilizing the Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences (SPSS) (Nie et al, 1975) for analysis. Data

157

were organized to provide percentages of each activity or

facility occurrences to determine its significance for

inclusion in the MSNC concept.

Activities.and facilities

were cross-tabulated with the demographic variables

according to sex, age, marital status, occupation, and

having children under 12 years of age.

The data from the test of percentages on the

number of agreements or choice on each activity or

' faciloty enabled the researcher to determine those activi­ ties needed by the community and their hierarchy of im­ portance.

In all cases, the chi-square with .05 level of

significance was set to m e a s u r e 'significant differences

in choices among respondents according to demographic

variables.

CHAPTER 5

RESULTS AND FINDINGS

The characteristics of the population which par-

ticioated in this study3 the research questions and the

collection.of data in support of the research questions • are presented in this chapter. Respondents' suggestions, •

conclusion, recommendations and suggestions for future,

research are also presented.

Population Characteristics

The characteristics of respondents are presented

in the following categories: Sex (male, female). Occupation

(students, employees, own business, or housewives), A g e ,

Marital Status and Having Children Under 12 Years of Age.

The characteristics distribution among the 203 respondents

is indicated in Table 6.

This table showed that a full

range of population has participated in the study, giving

it a factual representation of the opinions of the neigh­ borhood residents

In a country where open mixing of the sexes still

is socially unaccepted (see Chapter 2, Sexual Modesty), it

was a valuable opportunity to have had 49.3 percent of

158

159

Table 6... Distribution of respondents by characteristics.

Respondents

Number Percent Characteristics

S e x :

Male

Female

Occupation:•

Students

Employees

Own business .

Housewives

Total

103

203

100

63

18

22

203

50.7

49.3

100.0

49.3

31.0

8,9

10.8

100.0

37.9

29 . 6

10.8

11.3

10.3

100.0

57.1

40 .9

1.0

1.0

100.0

23.2

75.8

100.0

' respondents to be females.

This fact gave the study

160

findings equal weight among the sexes, thus making it

less speculative and more factual to draw conclusions'

and set forth recommendations regarding male and female

activities.

Two hundred thirty questionnaires were distributed

in the neighborhood; 208 residents responded to the

questionnaires. Five questionnaires were rejected be­ cause they were incomplete; therefore, the total popula­

tion included in this study who completed answering the

questionnaires was 203.

Another figure which gave leverage to the study

is the fact that of the 49.3 percent students that have

participated, 50 percent of them were female.

Thirty-one

percent of respondents were employees, mainly governmental,

while 8.9 percent were owners of private businesses.

These figures indicate the unique characteristics of

al-Zahra neighborhood.

Its population is educated (can

read and write) and it belongs to the middle, upper-

middle and high classes of the society as compared to

other neighborhoods in the city.

This economic bracket

classification is noticed by the.' type of houses prevail- ing throughout the neighborhood.

Ten and eight-tenths percent of respondents were

housewives.

The 57.1 percent being single as compared .to

161

40.9 percent married respondents is helpful data to ex­

amine difference's and similarities between the married

and single respondents.

One percent of respondents are

divorced and one percent are wodowed to require special

attention. -

Question 1, Need for MSNC

Is there a need for a multi-service neighborhood

center in al-Zahra neighborhood?

The physical and social setting of al-Zahra neigh­

borhood illustrated the lack of recreational and service

facilities in the neighborhood.

The incredible response

to the study and the inclusion of many services such as

mosque, clinic, post office to be grouped with recrea­

tional activities are sufficient indications of the

desire to establish a MSNC.

The recommendations of the

Riyadh Action Master Plan (see Chapter 2) are based on. a

strong commitment to provide community centers.

The

concept of MSNC does not mean that every single activity

has to exist under one roof physically.

It means that

these activities are under one administrative authority. .

In Saudi. Arabia (see Chapter 2), cultural and

recreational programs are lagging in being dealt with in

a centralized fashion to serve all parts of the urban ■ settlements around them. The success of bringing the

necessary services and programs to a community requires

accessibility to such services and programs by all members

of the community when needed.

Establishing nodes in the

city to provide services and programs for all the popu­

lation could only be achieved by establishing community

or neighborhood centers.

Neighborhood centers will act

as the unifying administrative authority to bring services

from different governmental agencies under one r o o f .

It

is possible to delineate programs that will meet the

specific needs of a neighborhood if it is represented by

al-Zahra neighborhood residents’ responses to the ques­ tionnaires .

Their comments and suggestions are clear

indications of the immediate needs of the neighborhood

for services and facilities in the proposed multi-service

neighborhood center.

Question 2, Leisure

How do respondents spend their leisure time?

It is very important to know what pe'ople do at the

present time to fulfill their recreational needs.

This

will provide a linkage between the present situation and

what could be done in the future in providing a program'

of recreational activities and facilities.

Tables 7 and

8 indicate some aspects of leisure time patterns.

Activity

• .

■ ' Total of

Never ^ Seldom Often Seldom and Often

Percent (N) Percent ( N ) Percent (N) Percent (N)

Watching TV of

listening to

radio

Reading

Entertaining

friends a t .home

2.5

11.3

19..7

Go to desert on

weekend

Playing with

children or tak­

ing them out for

entertainment 55:2

Promenade in the

Suq

In clubs (sports)

88.2

In coffee shops 91.6

.

5

23

47

137

179

186

32.5

28.1

47.8

54.2

112 28.6

25.6

7-9 '

7-9

66 65.0

57 •

60.6

97

110

58

52

16

16

32.5

22.7

16.3

6.9

3.9

.5

132

123

66

46

33

14

8

1

97-5

88.7

80.3

76.9

44.9

32.5

11.8

8.4

198

180

163

156

91

66

24

17

H

<T\

UO

164

Table 8. Popular and less popular leisure time activi­

activities chosen by 30 percent or more •'

respondents; less popular activities were those

activities chosen by less than 30 percent of

respondents.

Activity

Popular

Watching TV and listening to radio

Reading

Entertaining friends at home

Go to the desert on weekend

Playing with children \

Percent

88.7

80.3

76.9

44.9

(N)

198

180

163.

156

91

Less Popular

Prominade in the Suq

In clubs

In coffee shops

32.5

11.8

8.4

66

24

17

165

The most popular leisure time activities are those

that take place at h o m e , such as watching television

programsj listening to. radio programs, reading and enter­ taining friends.

The less popular activities are those

that take place outside the h o m e , such as promenading or

strolling in the S u q 5 visiting coffee shops, and spending

and educational3 such as women's organizations).

This

phenomenon, by and large, is due to the lack of various

recreational activities in the neighborhood and generally

this applies to the whole city.

The unpopularity of some activities does not re­

flect a lack of interest in them, as will be deducted from

the following research questions.

The study has shown

that 74.5 percent of married couples with children under

12 years of age spend time at home entertaining their

children.

At h o m e , however, most of. them have indicated as

a written response to the question that their opportunity

to entertain their children outside the home is' very

limited for the lack of children's playgrounds and parks

(see Table 9) •

Regarding the activity of promenading in the Suq,

it is common in middle eastern cities to take a walk or

stroll in the Suq- during the afternoon or evening h o u r s .

Table 9- Leisure time spent playing with the children according to respondents

■ who have chlldreh under 12 years of age.

Never

Percent

Seldom

(N) • (N)

Often

Percent

(N)

Total of

Seldom and Often

Percent (N)

Activity

Playing with

the children

25.5

12

31.9

15

42.6

20

74.5 35

167

•Visiting the Su-q is not necessarily to shop, but to meet

people and observe the different activities that might

take place in the colorful environment of the S u q .

Nonetheless, this phenomenon is changing for most of the

City population in Riyadh.

The main Suq at the Central

Business District (CBD) is getting farther and farther

from the existing and the developing residential areas

on the outskirts of town.

The Suq is no longer the

only means of congregating or recreation.

The modes of

communication, such as the automobile, radio and tele­

vision, and the media have contributed to. lessening the

importance of the Suq. as a cultural center.

The Suq is

congested with vehicular traffic and its character is

changing. Even though many neighborhoods have de­ veloped their own little shopping areas, they still did .

not and may never obtain the varied character of the

CBD Suq as social gathering pla c e s .

coffee shops.

Traditionally in the Arabian culture, the

coffee shop is only for men.

It is shameful for

adolescents to associate with coffee shops where only

adults are allowed to occupy.

It is considered a taboo

for women to congregate in coffee shops.

Coffee shops

are usually the gathering places for bachelor males, • especially out-of-towners, strangers and laborers who

168

have no other means .of congregating or Integrating with

the natives.

Going out to eat Is not one of the Arabian

family traits.

The solid family should eat together

and at home.

Only recently one might notice some young

Saudi Arabian families dining out at one of several new

restaurants established in the suburbs to serve foreign

technocrats and their families.

The unpopularity of sports and social clubs is

due to their non-existence at the neighborhood level

(refer to Youth Welfare, Chapter 2).

Question 3, Recreational Activities

What is the hierarchy of recreational activities

that respondents would choose were they to become avail­ able to them?

This research question encompasses numerous

activities. Thus it requires breaking down the analysis .

to take into account each activity separately, then

discuss all the activities in relation to each other.

Throughout this research question, the "yes"

answers were designated in two types: "yes-now" and "yes-

future."

The purpose behind this designation is to

provide an opportunity for the respondent to think of

future alternatives in choosing an activity, in case

he/she does not have the time or desire to be involved

169

with certain activity(les) at- the time period of conduct­ ing the survey.

"Now" corresponds to the Arabic word

"hallan" In the Arabic version of the questions.

It is

an adverb that means presently or right away which in

the questionnaire commonly understood to imply the .time

period within a year of asking the questions.

It also

indicates the urgency for providing the activity(ies).

"Yes-future" means that the activity(ies) is not impor­

tant to the respondent, presently, so he/she is not

willing to commit himself or herself to it-.

In the years

to come, however, the respondent would like to have the

activity(ies) available.

This designation of the '"yes" answers will prove

helpful to decide the hierarchy of activities in terms

of importance of availability when phasing the estab­ lishment and construction of activities and facilities.

"Total yes" include "yes-now" and "yes-future."

It will

constitute the figure that will determine the popularity

of the proposed activities to set them in an overall .;

hierarchy arrangement as will be shown in the preceding

tables.,. -

This research question is treated in

1 2

parts,

presented in the same order as they appear in the ques­ tionnaire: Question Number 7-

170

Sports.

Tables 10 and 11 show that even though

the highest number of respondents who expressed a desire

to practice sport activities were among students, 91

percent5 whole the lowest among housewives was 59.1

percent 3 these activities are popular among respondents

regardless of occupation.

Of the total populatoon, 82.2

percent would like to practice sport activities.

There

is no significant difference among the sexes in wanting

females.

Therefore, it is necessary to establish sports

activities and facilities at the neighborhood level for

all members of the population.

Tables 12 and 13 show

that only 56.6 percent of the total population are

interested in watching sports as compared to 82.2 percent

who are interested in practicing s p o r t s .

The percentages of employees and respondents, who

own their businesses, 66. 7 percent and 6-1.1 percent re­ percent and 36.4 percent, in wanting to watch sports.

This discrepancy is due to the fact that students in-?

elude the female members of the population.

Sports

activities to be watched.are male oriented.

The most

popular national game is soccer and it is. played in the .

only stadium in Riyadh which does not have accommoda­ tions for w o m e n .

Another source for watching sports

Table 10. Respondents Interested In practicing sports activities according to

... occupation.

Occupation

No

Percent

(N)

Yes-Now

Percent (N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent (N)

Students

Employees

Own Business

9.0

19.0

33.3

40,9

Housewives

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from '

Total Population

17.7

9

12

6

,9

36

79.0

73.0

50.0

45.5

70.9

70

46

9

10

144

12.0

16.7

13.6

11.3

12

3

23

5

3

91.0

80.9

66.7

59.1

82.2

91

.

5!

12

13

16?

Table 11.

Respondents Interested in

practicing sports activities-according to s e x .

Sex

Males.

Females

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

Total Population

No

Percent

13.6

22.0

17.7

(N)

Yes— Now

Percent (N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent

(N)

14

22

36

73.8

68.0

76

68

144

12.6

10.0

13

10

23

86.4

78.0

89

78

16?

11.3

82.2

Table 12.- Respondents Interested In watching sports activities according to occupation -

Occupation

Students

Employees

Own'Business

Housewives

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

Total Population

16.0

33.3

38.9

63.6

43.3

No

Percent

(N)

Yes-Now

Percent

(N)

Yesr-Future

Total Yes

Percent (N) Percent (N)

46

21

7

14

88

46.0

55.6

38.9

27.3

46

35

7

6

94

8.0

11.1

22.2

9.1

8 .

.

7

4

2

21

54.0 :

66.7

61.1

36.4

54

42

11

8

115

46.3

10.3

Table 13. Respondents interested in watching sports activities according to sex»

Sex

Males

Females

Total (N)

No

Percent

(N)

Yes-Now

Percent (N)

Yes-Future

Percent . (N)

Total Yes

Percent

'

32.0

55.0

33

55

88

54. M

38.0

56

38

94

13.6

7.0

14

7

21

45.0

, 70

45

115

. 1 7 5 is the national TV. But most spectator sports in tele­ vision are male rather than female oriented. While

68.0 percent males watch sports, 45.0 percent females do

the same.

Table 14 shows that the number of respondents $

82.2 percent or 167 who expressed the desire to practice

sports activities, were broken down to point out the

percentage of respondents who chose each particular

sports activity 3 thus providing the researcher with a

summary of activities according to their popularity.

Table 15 provides popularity of activities according to

sex.

At the top of the list of popular activities is

swimming, followed by ping pong, soccer, volleyball and

basketball.

The least popular activities are pool,

followed by biking, tennis, handball, gymnastics, foot­ ball and wrestling.

As far as the sexes are concerned,

one finds that among males the most popular activities

respectively are soccer and swimming, ping pong, volley­ ball, pool and basketball.

The popular activities among

females are swimming, volleyball, ping pong and biking.

Lectures and Symposiums.

Tables. 16 through 19

show that of the total population of the study, more

respondents are interested in listening to literature

(45.0 percent), rather than reciting literature (34.5

176'

Table l 4 . Popular and less popular sports among the

82.2 percent or 167 respondents who chose

activities were those activities chosen by

30 percent or more respondents; less popular -

activities w e r e .those activities chosen by

less than 30 percent of respondents.

Popular

Activity

Swimming

Ping Pong

Soccer

Volleyball

Basketball

%(N)

65.3(109)

45.5(76)

43.7(73)

38.3(64)

29.9(50)

Unpopular

Activity

Pool

Biking

Tennis

Handball

Gymnastics

Foosball

Wrestling

%

(N)

.

25.7(43)

24.6(41)

61.8(28)

1 3 .8 (23 )

12.0(20)

11.4(19)

3.6(6)

Activity

Soccer

Basketball

Volleyball'

Handball

Ping Pong

Tennis

Swimming

Gymnastics

Wrestling

Biking

Pool

Foosball

177

Table 15 -

Activities popularity according to sex from

sports (82.2 percent or 167 respondents).

M ale'

Percent IN)

65.2

32.6

41.6

7.9

55.1

20.2

65 .2

18.0

4.5

15.7

34.8

16.9

.58

16

4

14

49

18

58

29 ■

37

7

31 ■

Female

Percent (N)

19.2

26,9

34.6

20. 5

34.6

12.8

65.-4

5.1

2.6

34.6

15.4

27

10

51

4

2

15

21

27

16

27

12

4

Table 16. Respondents interested in reciting literature according to occupation.

Occupation

No

Percent (N)

Yes-Now

Percent

Yes-Future

(N) .

(N)

Total Yes

Percent (N)

Students

Employees

Own Business

Housewives

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

Total Population

60.0

77.8

90.9

65.5

60

39

U

20

133

15.0

15.9

'

ll.l

0.0

13.3

15

10

2

0

.

27

25.0

22.2

9.1

21.2

25

14

2

2

43

40.0

38.1

22.2

9.1

34.5

40

24

4

2

70

Table 17• Respondents Interested In reciting literature according to sex.

Sex

Males

Females

Total (N)'

No

Percent

71.0

(N)

Yes-Now

Percent

Yes-Future

(N).

Percent

(N)

Total Yes

Percent

(N)

62

7.1.

133

19.4

20

7

27

20 .4

22.0

21

22

43

39-8

29.0

41

29

70

Table 18. Respondents interested in listening to lectures and participating in

Occupation

Students mployees

Own Business

Housewives

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

52.0

46.0

68.2

54.2

No

Percent (N)

Yes-Now

Percent

(N)

Yes-Future

Percent .

(N)

Total Yes

Percent

(N)

52

29

14

15

110

24.0

42.9

22.2

18.2

24

27

4

4

59

24.0

11.1

0.0

13.6

24

7

0

3

34

48.0

54.0

22.2

31.8

29.1

16.7

45.8

48

34

4

7

93

Table 1 9 v Respondents interested in listening to lectures and participating in symposiums according to s e x .

Sex

Males

Females

Total (N)

No

Percent

(NO

Yes-Now

Percent

(N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent

(N)

H

9.5

59-0

51

59

110

31.1

27.0

32

27

59

19.-4

14.0

20

14

34

50.5

41.0

52

4l

93

percent) in lectures and symposiums -

These activities

182 are more popular among students and employees.

Even

though more males chose these activities, there is no

significant difference among males and females in wanting

or rejecting these activities.

Tables 20 and 21 show

that 29.6 percent of respondents would engage in writing

literature with no significant differences between males

and females. .For intellectual activities, such as litera­ ture, the above figures indicate an Intellectual aware­ ness among members of the neighborhood.

These activities

should be considered special activities to be included

in the -MSNC on a small scale.

Fine A r t s .

Tables 22 through 25 show that 53.7

percent of total respondents would want to practice art work as a hobby, with no significant difference between

„ •

males and females.

.

- v

'

Fifty-one and eight-tenths percent of

respondents expressed an interest in visiting art shows 3

thus, there is no significant difference between practic­ ing art work or visiting art.shows.

Table 26 shows that the popular activities are

drawing and calligraphy, and the less popular activities

are decorative design and sculpture.

As far as differ­

ences in preference among males and females. Table 27

shows that drawing and decorative design are more popular

Table 20.' Respondents Interested in writing literature according to occupation.

Occupation

Percent

Yes-NoW

(N).

Percent

Students

Employees

Own Business .

Housewives

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

Total Population

69,0

66.7

77.8

81.8

70.4 :

42

14

.18

143

15.0 .

19.0

5.6

4.5

14 .3

(N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent.

(N)

15

12

1

1

29

16.0

14,3

16.7

13.6

15-3

16

9

3:

3

31

31.0

33.3

22.3

18.1

31

21

4

4

60

Table 21., Respondents Interested in writing literature according to s e x .

Sex '

Males .

Females

Total (N)

Percent (N)

Yes-Now

Percent (N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent

(N)

72.8

68.0 .

75

68

143

10.7

18.0

11

18

29

16.5

14.0 .

17

14

31

27.2

32 .0

28

38

60

Table 22, Respondents interested in practicing artwork according'to occupation.

Occupation

No

Percent (N)

Yes-Now

Percent (N)

Yes-Future

Students

Employees

Own Business

Housewives

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

Total Population •

36.0

44.4

72.2

77.3

46.3

36

28

: 13

17

94

11.1

9.1

24.1

30

15

2

2

49

34.0

31.7

16.7

13.6

29.6

34

20

3

3

66

Total Yes

Percent (N)

68.0

55,5

27.8

22.7

53.7

68

35

5

5

109

H

CO v j r r

Table 23. Respondents interested in practicing artwork according to sex.

Sex

Males

Females

Total (N)

No

Percent

Yes-Now

(N).

Percent (N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent

(N)

50-5

#2.0

52

#2

9#

23-3

26.0

23

26

49

27-2

32.0

28

32

60

#9,5

58.0

51

59

109

Table,24. Respondents interested in visiting art shows according to occupation.

Occupation

No

Percent

(N)

Yes-Now

Percent

(N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent (N)

Students

Employees

Own Business

Housewives

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

Total Population

44.0

39.7

77.8 .

68.2

44

25

14

15

98

31.0

38.1

13.6

29.6

31

24

2

3

60

22.2

11.1

22.2

25

14

2

4

45

56.0

60,3

22.2

31.8

51.8

.

56

38

7

104

Table 25. Respondents interested in visiting art shows according to s e x .

Sex

Males'

Females'

Total (N)

No

Percent

53.4

43.0

(N)

Yes-Now _

Percent (N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent

(N)

55

43

98

24 .3

35,0

25

35

60

22.3

22.0

23

22

45

46.6

57.0

4 8

57

104

189

Table 26.

Popular and less popular fine art activities

among respondents who are interested in

practicing art work (53.7 percent or 109

respondents from total population).

Popular

Activity

Drawing

Calligraphy

Percent

34.9

32.1

Less Popular

Activity .

Decorative Design

Sculpture .

Percent

19.3

Table 27- Art activities according to sex among respondents who are interested in practicing

art work (53.7 percent

from total population) or 109 respondents

Drawing

Calligraphy

Decorative Design

Sculpture

Male

Percent

29.4

39.2 .

9.8

15.7

(N)

15

20

5

8

Female

Percent (N)

39.7

25.9

27 • 6

6,9

23

15

4

190

among females, while sculpture and calligraphy are popular

among m a l e s .

Theatrical A r t s .

Theatrical arts in the context

of this study include acting, music, dancing and singing.

It is perceived as a hobby at the family or neighborhood

level.

The term theatrical art is used for convenience

rather than to imply a formal stage performance.

Tables 28 through 31 show that more respondents",

76.4 percent, were Interested in watching theatrical arts

as opposed to 60.6 percent who expressed an interest in

practicing theatrical arts.

There is no significant

difference between males and females in wanting to prac­

tice or watch theatrical arts, even though, the number of

females is slightly higher than males in doing so.

Table 32 shows that females are more interested

in folk dancing and singing than males.

More males are

interested in music.

The interest in acting is mutual

among both.

Using the criteria of an activity popularity

to be an activity chosen by 30 percent of respondents or

more. Table 33 shows that all theatrical arts activities

are popular.'

Table .28. Respondents Interested In practicing theatrical arts according to occupation.

Occupation

No

Percent . (N)

Yes-Now

Percent (N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent (N)

Students

Employees

Own Business

Housewives

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

Total Population

33.0

34.9

50.0

72.7

39.4

33

22

9

■16

80

29.0

38.1

16.7

13-6

29.1

29

2.4

3

3

59

38.0

27.0

33.3

13.6

31.5

38

17

6

3

64

67.0

65.1

27.2

27.2

67

41

6

6

123

Table 29V Respondents Interested In practicing theatrical arts according to sex.

sex '

Males

Females

Total (N)

.

.

No '

Percent (N) Percent .

(N)

Yes-Future

Percent

(N)

Total Yes

Percent (N)

> 3 . 7

35.0

45

35

80

28.2

29

,

.28.2 ;

29

30

35.0

•35

59

64

56.4

65.0

58

65

123

Table 30. Respondents Interested In watching theatrical arts' according to occupation.

Occupation

Students .

Employees

Own Business

Housewives

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

Total Population

No

Percent

(N)

Yes-Now

Percent

(N)

Yes-Future

Percent

(N)

Total Yes

Percent

(N)

25.0

17-5

44.7

18.2

.

'25

11

8

4

48

67.0

69-8

44.4

72.7

67

44

8

16

135

8.0

12.7

11.1

9.1

2

2

8

8

20

75.0

82.5

55.5

81.8

75

52

10

18

155

23.6 . 6 6 . 5 9.9 76.

Table 31.

Respondents Interested in watching theatrical arts according to sex.

Sex

Males

Females

Total (N)

No

Percent

C N )

Yes-Now

Percent

(N)

Yes-Future

Percent . (N)

Total Yes

Percent

(N)

29.1

18.0

32

18

48

63.1

70.0

65

70

135

7.8

12 .0

8

12

20

70.9 • 73

82.0

82

155

H

VO

4

— '

195

Table 32.

Theatrical arts activities among respondents

who are interested in practicing theatrical

art activities (60.6 percent or 123 re­ spondents from total population).

Activity

Music

Singing

Folk Dancing

Acting

Male

Percent (N)

25.9

34.5

39.7

33

15

20

23

Female

Percent

(N)

49.2

36.9

6-9.2

40.0

-32

24

45

26

Table 33 - Popular and less popular theatrical arts activities among respondents who are inter­

ested in theatrical arts activities (60 .6

percent or 123 respondents from total

population)-.

Popular

Activity

Percent

Music

Folk Dancing

Acting

Singing

52.8

52.8

7 31.7

(N)

65

65

49

39

Activity Percent (N)

Movie S h ows.

This study showed that watching

movie shows is popular among all respondents -

Tables

34 and

3 5

show that 84.3 percent of the total population

expressed interest in watching movie shows.

Even though

there is no significance between males and females in

Choosing this activity5 the females 3 90 .0 percent, have

outnumbered the m a l e s , 78.7 percent3 of total respondents.

Scientific Hobbles.

Tables 36 and 37 show that

69.4 percent of the total population expressed an inter­

est in practicing scientific hobbies, with no significant

difference between males and females.

Fun and Thinking Games.

Fun and thinking games

From the total population, ,72.9 percent or 148 respondents

chose these activities.

They are. more popular among

as shown in Tables 38 and 39.

These activities are more

popular among students and employees, 79-0 percent and

73.1

percent respectively, as compared to respondents who

own their businesses and housewives, 61.1 percent and

5 4 .Q percent respectively.

Sex preferences and popularity

Table 3^• Respondents interested in watching movie shows according to occupation -

Occupation

No

Students

Employees

Own Business

Housewives ■

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

Total Population

16.0

14.3

33.3

4.5

15.8

(N)

Yes-Now

Percent

Yes-Future

(N) Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent (N)

16

75.0

9 '

79,4

6 55.6

1

32

90.9

75

50

10

20

155

9.0

6.3

11.1

4.5

9

4

2

1

16

85.7

66.7

95.4

84

54

12

21.

171

76.4

7.9

84 .3

Table 35•

Respondents Interested In watching movie shows according to sex.

Sex

Males

Females

Total (N)

No

Percent

21.4

(N)

Yes-NOw

Percent

(N) Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent

(N)

22

10

32

68.0

85.0

70

8.5

155

10.7

5

.

0

11

5

16

78.7

90

171

H

VO

CO

Table 36.

Respondents interested; in scientific hobbies according to occupation,

Occupation

No

Percent

Students

Employees

Own Business .

Housewives

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

Total Population

25.4

50.0

54 .5

30.5 .

(N)

Yes-Now .

Percent (N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent (N)

25

16

12

62

56,0

51.1

38.9

3.6.4

52.7

56

36

7

8

107

17.5

ll.l

9.1

16.7

19-

11

2

2

34

'75.0,

74.6

50.0

45.5

69.4

75

47

9

10

141

Table 37- Respondents Interested In scientific hobbies according to s e x .

Sex

Males

Females

Total (N)

No

Percent (N)

Yes-Now

Percent

(N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent

(N)

29.1

32.0

30

32

62

50.5

'55.0

52

55

107

13.0

21

13

34

70.9

68.0

73

68

i k l

Table

38

. Respondents interested in fun and thinking games according to o c c u pa ti on .

Occupation

Students

Employees

Own Business

Housewives

Total (N)

Percent of (N) from

Total Population

21,0

27.0

38,9

45.5

27,1

Mo

Percent

(N)

Yes-Now

Percent

(N)

Yes-Future

Percent (N)

Total Yes

Percent (M)

21

17

7

10

55

68.3

44.il

54.5

69

43

8

12 •

132

10.0

4 .8

16.7

0.0

10

3

3

0

16

79.0

73.1

61.1

5.4 .0'

79

46

11

12

148

65.0

77.9

72.9

Table' 39• Respondents Interested in fun and thinking games according to sex.

Sex -

Males

Females

Total (N)

No .

Percent

(N)

Yes-Now

Percent

(N)

Yes-Future

Percent

(N)

Total Yes

Percent (N)

17.5

37.0

18

37

55

73.8

56.0

76

55

132

8.7

7 .0

9

7

16

82.5

63.0

85

63

148

203

TabTe 40 =

Fun and thinking games activities according

to sex among respondents who. are interested .

in fun and thinking games (72.9 percent or

148 respondents from total population).

Activity

Cards

Dominoes

Backgammon

Chess

Kairum

Male

Percent (N)

62.4

22.4

16.5

55.3

38.8

53

19

14

-47

33

Female

Percent

61.9

19.0

14.3

36.5

51.1

.

(N)

12

9

28

36

Table 41.

Popular and less popular fun and thinking games

among respondents who are interested in fun and

thinking games (72.9 percent or 148 respon­ dents). — Popular activities were those activi­

ties chosen by 30 percent or more respondents;

less popular activities were those activities

chosen by less than 30 percent of respondents.

Popular

Activity

Cards

Chess

Kairum

Percent

62.2

47.3

46.6

(N)

92

70

69

Less Popular'

Activity Percent

.

(N)

Dominoes 2 0 .9

31

23

204

Summary of-QBes-tlon- 3 .

In order to sum up the hierarchy of activities,

Table 42 shows the percentages of respondents’ ences in choosing activities.

It also indicates the

urgency of having to provide all the popular activities

immediately.

Activities requested to be available in the

future are practicing art work and writing and reciting

literature.

Question 4,_ Location

Where would the M S N d be located in relation to

the neighborhood?

The location of the center will greatly depend on

the physical layout of the existing neighborhood; however

in some cases, if this cincept be established in other or

new neighborhoods, the location could be determined

according to the preference Of t h e ■citizens.

The question was asked with three choices offered

inside the neighborhood, in the periphery of the neigh­ borhood, and totally outside the neighborhood.

Table 4]

shows that the majority would want to establish the

center within the neighborhood.

Easy accessibility to

the facilities is very important.

Table 42. Hierarchy of activities according to time.

Activity

No

Yes-Now

jo

Watching movie, shows

Practicing sport activities

Watching theatrical arts

Fun and thinking games

Scientific hobbies

Watching sports

Visiting art shows

Practicing theatrical .arts

Listening to lectures and

participating in symposiums

Practicing art work

Writing literature

•Reciting literature

15.7

17-8

23-6

27-1

30-6

43-4

54.2 .

46.3

70.4

65-5

76-4

70-9

66.5

65-0

52-7

46-3

29-6

29-1

29.1

14.3

13-3

Yes-Future Total

7-9

11-3

9-9

7-9

16.7

10,3

22,2

31.5

16.7

29-6

15-3

21.2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

'206

Table 43.

Location of

population.

the MSNC according to total

Within

Neighbor­ hood

%

(N)

In the

Periphery

of Neigh­ borhood

%

(N)

Outside

Neighbor­ hood

%

(N)

%

(N)

Respondents 66.8 133

22.1 44

■ 22

100

199.

Question 5, Administration

Who would administer the center? •

For answering this q u e s t i o n t h r e e choices were

given: governmental3 commercial, or community administra­ tion.

Table 44 shows that the preferences of respondents

respectively are: community 45.6 percent, governmental

33,6 percent, and commercial 20.5 percent.

Since all

the facilities are going to be provided through govern­

mental programs, it is recommended that the center should

be administered by both the government and the community.

Table 44. Administration of the center according to total population.

207

Govern.

A d m i n .

%

(N)

Commerc.

A d m i n .

%

(N)

Commun.

A d m i n .

%

(N)

Total

%

(N)

Respondents 33-8 66

20.5 40

' 89

100 195

Question 6, Separation of Sexes

Would males and females be grouped in one center or would they be in two separate centers? •

The issue of mixing the sexes in one center is a

sensitive one for a conservative society as Saudi Arabia

(refer to Dominant Cultural Concerns, Chapter 2).

Not to

exclude all possibility, the question should have given

the possibility of establishing one center for both sexes.

Instead, for cultural reasons, the question was stated

giving three culturally accepted possibilities.

These

three possibilities are: one center that operates at

different times for each sex, thus avoiding .mixing the

sexes; one center divided into two sections, one for men

and the other for women but shares common grounds; or,

two totally separated centers at different locations in

the neighborhood. Table 45 shows that the majority of

208

Table 45«

Possibility of establishing one or separate

center(s) for males and females according to

total population.

One

Center:

One

Center: • Two

Separate

Times

%

(N)

Two

Sections

%

(N)

Separate

Centers.

%

(N)

%

Males 10.1. 10 25,3

Females 10.2

Total(N)

Percent of (N) : from

Total

Popula­ tion 10.2

10

20

.

15.3

20.3

(N)

25 64.6

15 74,5

40

64 50.3

73 49.7

137

99

98

197 '

67.5 100

respondents, 69,5 percent, chose the possibility of two

totally separate centers, while 20.3 percent chose.the

divided center and 10.2 percent chose the possibility of

one center that operates at different times.

There is no

significant difference in this issue between males and

females.

Question 7, Children's Playgrounds •

Would children's playgrounds tie attached to the

m e n ’s or w o m e n ’s facilities?

The mixing of the sexes in the Arabian society is

tolerated up until early childhood between the ages of

8 and 12 depending on how conservative the parents are'.

From observation, in urban communities the females re­ main unveiled up until puberty.

There is a dilemma in the case of children’s play­ grounds. If the men and women require two separate •

centers, is it logical to build two separate playgrounds,

one in each center, to allow either parent to take the

children with them to the center?

Or would it be feasible

to build a playground separate from either center? The

establishment of children's playgrounds must take differ­

ent levels of development in order, at least, to provide

t h e .minimum of play experiences, wherever there are going

to be children.

The issue of children's playgrounds

should be reexamined in depth because there are no public

children's playgrounds in Saudi Arabia.

The question as asked in this questionnaire has

omitted the possibility of mixing the children of both

sexes in a separate playground from either center be­

cause it is advisable if the playgrounds are supervised

by the adult members of the family.

The question as

stated explored three possibilities < These posslbl.il- ■

ties are: Children’s (of both sexes) playgrounds could be

Included In the men's center, to be Included In the

women's center, or to separate them; that is, male child­ ren with the men and female children with the women.

Table 46 shows that the majority of respondents, 62.9

percent, chose the separation idea, while 29.7 percent

chose to place the children's playgrounds with the w o m e n 's

while only 7.4 percent chose to place them with the men's.

Regarding this question, there was no significance between

were broken down to test the reaction of respondents who

have children under 12 and those who do not..

Respondents

with children chose the following possibilities: male

children with the men and female children with the women,

61.5 percent.; playgrounds in the women's center, 30.8

percent; in the men's center, 7-7 percent. Respondents ' woth no children gave the following responses:, separation,

63.2 percent; with the women, 29.4 percent; with the men,

7.4 percent (Table 47).

Question 8, Services

What is the hierarchy of services (other than

recreation) to be in eluded in the center?

211

Table 46.

Associating children's playgrounds with men

and women according to total population.

Boys with men; girls with women

Boys and girls with women

Boys and girls with men

Total of (N)

Percent of (N) from Total

Percent

62.9

29.7

7.4

100.0

(N)

110

52

13'

175

Table 47. Associating children's playgrounds with men

and women according to those who have children

under 12 years and.those with children over

12 years or no children at all.

Respondents with '

Respondents with No.

Children Under 12

Children Under 12

Percent (N) Percent'. (N)

Boys with men; girls with women

Boys and girls woth women

Boys and girls woth men

Total (N)

61.5

30.8

7.7 • .

24

12

3 .

39

.

63.2

29.4

7.4

86

40

10

136

Table 48 indicates that all service facilities

212 are needed by the neighborhood.

The hierarchy of facili­

ties to. be included in the center is as follows.: small

clinic 83.2 percent, child-care center, 71 percent, mosque

6603 percent, branch post office 56.9 percent, variety

store 55*5 percent, and banquet hall 54.5 percent.

The

hierarchy of facilities needed by the neighborhood but

outside the MSNC is as follows: public library 5 8 .9 per­

cent, gas station 58,9 percent and coffee shop 33*7

percent.

Question 9, Time of Operation

What time would the center be most used?

a.

What days of the week is-ihe center to be

used most?

b. What time of day is the center used most?

The Islamic week starts with Saturday as the first

day of the week, equivalent to Monday in the Christian

week * The work week starts Saturday and ends Wednesday.

The weekend is on Thursday and Friday for government

work and the school system.

Schools and government offices open daily at

seven o ’clock until three o ’clock. According to resi­ dents.' responses (Table 49), the center is going to be

Table 48. Service facilities for the MSNC according to total population.

No Need if -

Percent (N)

Y e s : Out of Center

Percent

(N)

Percent' (N) '

\

Mosque

Small Clinic

Child-care .

Center

Variety Store

Public Library

10 .4

6.9

15.5

25.2

21

14

.

' 34

31

51

Branch Post

Office

Banquet Hall

Coffee Shop

Gas Station

13.4 -

23.8

25.2

66.3

83.2

71.3

55.5

15.8

27

48

56.9

54.5

57.

38.1

51

15.8

134

168

144

111

32

23.3

9.9

11.9

29,0

58.9

47

24

58

119

.115

110

32

29.7

21.8 •

33-7

58.9

60

44

68

119

Total

Percent (N)

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

202

202

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

202

200

195

202

202

202

202

Table 49 = Days of the week and time of day the center would be used the most.

214

Yes

Percent ’ Percent IN)

Total

Percent (N)

Saturday-

Tuesday

8-12

10.4 .

1.2-5

5-10

62.7

33.2

Wednesday

8-12

12-5

5-10

11.9

56.3

43.1

Thursday

8-12

12-5

5-10

42.1

46.5

Friday

8-12

12-5

5-10

36.1

53.0

21

89.0

.

37.3

67

66.8

24

133

87

85

104

94

73

107

70

88.1

43.8

56.9

57.9

48.5

53.5

63 .9

47.0

65-0

.

180

135

100

75

.

100

178

88

115

117

98

100

100

100

100

100

108 :

129

100

100

130 .

202

202

202

292

20 2

202

201

201

202

202

201

202 open daily.

The most popular time of day for the center

to be operating every day is between 12 and 5 p.m.

The morning period between 8 and 12 is least

popular during work days between Saturday and Wednesday5

but more popular on Thursday and Friday.

The time period between 5 'and 10 p.m. is popular',

but more so on Wednesday and Thursday than F r i d a y .

Therefore, the center should be open Thursday and

Friday morning between 8 a.m. and 12 noon, every day

between 12 noon and 5 p.m., and 5 p.m. to 10 p.m.

Summary of Findings

The findings of this study were as follows:

1.

There is a pressing need for establishing a MSNC

in al-Zahra neighborhood.

2.

For the majority of respondents, leisure time at

present is spent in such passive activities as

watching TV or listening to music, entertaining

friends at h o m e , and reading.

3.

The majority of respondents* expressed a desire to

participate in the following activities if they

become available at the nejghborhood level:

sports, theatrical activities, art work, scien­ tific hobbies, and watching movie s h ows.

4 Recreational facilities as well as service facilities' such as mosque, small clinic, child­

care center, banquet h a l l , branch post office,

variety store, public library and coffee shop

should be included in the proposed MSNC.

5.

Most respondents would want to establish two

w o m e n .

216

'6.

Children’s playgrounds should be established in

both m e n ’s and women's centers.

7. The center should be managed sequentially accord­ ing to importance by (1) the community, (2) the government, and (3) the private sector.

8. The center should be located within the neighbor­ hood .

9. There is no significant difference between males and females in spending their leisure time, ex­ cept in three activities: watching TV or listen­

ing to the radio, in coffee shops, and in a sports

c lub.

Women watch TV and listen to radio more .

often than men and more men spend their leisure

time in coffee shops and at sports c l ubs.

rejecting activities between males and females in

participating in sports activities, listening

to lectures and symposiums, writing literature,

practicing art work, visiting art shows, partici­

pating or watching theatrical arts, watching movie

shows or scientific hobbies.

11'. There is a significant difference in wanting or .

rejecting activities between males and females in

such activities as fun games, reciting literature or watching sports.

12.

There is a significant' difference between males

and females in choosing these sports: soccer3 ■

foosba.llj p o o l 3 gymnastics and ping pong for m e n .

Handball and biking were chosen by more w o m e n .

13. There is no significant difference between males ■

and females- in choosing these sports r.basketball,

volleyball, tennis, swimming and wrestling.

14.

There is a significant difference between males

and females in choosing design activities,

More

women chose it.

15• There is no significant difference between males and females in choosing such activities as draw­ ing, sculpture and calligraphy.

16. There is a significant difference between men and women in choosing folk dancing activities. More women chose it.

17.

There is no significant difference bet ween men

and women in choosing such activities as music,

singing, and acting.

18.

There is a significant difference between males

and females in choosing chess activity.

More men

chose i t .

.' dominos, backgammon and kairum.

' . .

218

suggested it might be in order for it to gain popularity

by others who might be interested.

The setting for most

suggested facilities and activities is already provided

within the context of the proposed multi-service neigh­

borhood center; however, there are certain activities that

could not be included in the realm of MSNC such as

horseback riding or amusement parks, which belong to a

different setting and management.

Facilities such as a

children’s playground and a neighborhood park are inte­ gral to any neighborhood planning.

In the American

tradition, a movie theater does not necessarily fall under

the category of MSNC or community center facilities.

In

a country where movie theaters do not exist legally, it

might be a sound thought to introduce the movie theater

concept in a small and effective level with proper con­ trol at the community or neighborhood level.

In this

particular study, the number of people who would want to

watch movie shows were they available was 1-71 respondents,

or 84.3 percent of respondents.

As was mentioned earlier,

most of the- other suggested activities should be initiated

by interested individuals.

.

suggestions were classified under

219

Activities s Community Services 3 Groups and Organizations,

and Other Suggestions.

Suggestions are listed under each

sub-heading according to frequency (see Tables 50-53). ■

Conclusion'

The review .of literature in the area of providing

facilities and activities for MSNC took research in

recreation as the basis for the provision of facilities

and activities. The concept of advocacy planning as sug­ gested by Gold (1973) was a logical step toward estab­ lishing MSNC. Gold's concept evolves around the indi­ vidual user's participation in the planning process.

The

concept of advocacy planning is new for Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabian officials are aware of the lack of service

and recreational facilities for the population at large.

Provision of basic services at the neighborhood or com­ munity level is virtually non-existent at the present .

time, especially parks and recreation facilities.

The

concept of advocacy planning provides a linkage between

consumer and supplier; it points out demands..

A field

survey conducted by the author in al-Zahra neighborhood

has generated ah overwhelming response, thus indicated

the validity of advocacy planning and pointed Out resi­

dents' preference in choosing activities and facilities

to.be included in a MSNC. The data of this study could .

Table 50„ Frequency of suggestions regarding recrea­ tional facilities and activities.

220

Recreational Facilities and Activities

Children's playgrounds

Neighborhood park— -public garden

Neighborhood movie theater

Horseback riding -

Facilitating and organizing desert, camping trips

such as pinball, fljppers and other machine

games

Physical fitness program

Frequency

27

22

15

10

7

Oriental martial arts— karate, judo, e t c .

Music club— teaching music

Amusement park for children

Bowling alley

Small zoo— contains birds and fish

Neighborhood sports club

Folklore theater club

Ice skating rink

Jogging

Amusement park for women ,

Contests between families, fun games

Drag racing

3

3

4

3

3

2

1

1

2

2

1

7

6

6-

5

Table 50•--continued.

Recreational Facilities and Activities

Exchange art s h o w s 'between neighborhoods

Fencing

Golf

Revival of old folks games

Steambaths

Track-racing

Western dancing'— American/European ■

Total

221

Frequency

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

43

222

T§.ble 51 -

Frequency of suggestions regarding community

services.

Community Services

Parking accommodations

Resting hall and restrooms

Clean environment— awareness and enforcement

Public telephones

Public transportation for the center and this neighborhood

Bakery(s) in the neighborhood

Coffee shop and buffet

Beauty salon for women--coiffeuse

Driving school '

Branch police station

Driving school for women

Social worker or a counseling office

Bank branch

Co-op market

Animal clinic— veterinarian ;

Branch-office of the city municipality to meet neighborhood demands

Branch office to pay electric and telephone bills

Beauty salon for men.

Car wash facility

.

Frequency

22

14

10

10

1

1

1 -

1

3

3

4

4

7

6

4

3

2

2

1

223

Table 51»--■continued,

Community Services Frequency

Charity box to help the needy

Committee to follow up on what other centers are doing to exchange ideas and programs

Government representative to solve problems

and offer services without resorting to main

governmental agencies— security, passports, 'etc .

Handicapped and mentally retarded services

Home repair services

Library must be equipped with a variety of

visual and audio aids.

It should include

international cultural literature5 especially

in the field of women's studies.

Missing children's announcements; lost and found services

Modern laundry facilities

Pharmacy to supply the clinic

Proper lighting throughout neighborhood

Special section for children in library

Suggestion box

Taxi service station in the center

Vending machines '

Total

1

1

1

113

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 .. .

1

1

Table'-52.

Frequency of suggestions regarding forming

groups and organizations.

22-4

Groups and Organizations

Home economics club--sewing) embroidery,

cooking, e t c .

Environmental protection group

Modern languages club

Women's activities club— women awareness

Group "watch-dog" to supervise and regulate

prices in local market

Group hearings for neighborhood planning,

building permits, naming streets and

maintenance work

Group to plant street islands and other

public open spaces in the neighborhood

Interior design and decor appreciation group

Total

Frequency

28

6

5

2

1

1

1

55

Table 53.

Frequency o f 'suggestions that do not fall

under previous categories.

225

Other Suggestions

Children of both sexes should share.the

same playgrounds

One center for both sexes

Typing lessons

Areas for future expansion of center

Awards for literature and other activities

Exchange antiques

Fining people for law breaking— respect

neighborhood ethics

Printing facilities for typing information

pamphlets, e t c .

Special rates for low income people

and elderly

Total

Frequency.

28

15

5

2

1

1

1

also provide guidelines for programming the activities

according to sex and age.

226

CHAPTER 6

RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

Chapter 6 concludes this study with recommenda- •

tiotis to plan and design a.MSNC in al-Zahra neighborhood

which could be generalized for any Saudi Arabian neigh­

borhood for this whole study being the first of its kind

in Saudi Arabia was intended to provide an example that

could be utilized in any neighborhood.

At the end of the

chapter suggestions for further research are mentioned.

Recommendations

The response to the survey conducted by the author

showed the viability of the concept of advocacy planning

in determining facilities and activities for al-Zahra

neighborhood to be included in a M S N C .

A comprehensive planning program is suggested

for establishing MSNC for the Saudi: Arabian neighborhood.

Figure 9 illustrates the components of such a planning

program.

227

neighborhood

3

need for

facilities

Physical design

/ —

X — financial support

3

existing activities

& facilities

/ —

V -

list of act ivities

& facilities c o n s t r u c t i o n

1

management

3

evaluation

Figure 9• Program for planning and designing a

MSN C .

229 •

Planning Program

Neighborhood

The first, stage of planning is to define a

neighborhood.

A neighborhood is an area defined by the

city master p l a n .

In towns and villages where there are

no master plans, a neighborhood could be defined by

common characteristics such as physical boundary, exist­

ing services or focal points such as a mosque, a hospital,

a school or a suq.

In this study, al-Zahra neighborhood

was defined according to Riyadh master plan classifica­ tions .

'

Need for Services and Recreational Facilities

The second stage of planning is to determine

needed services and recreational facilities.

A govern­

ment body represented by the municipality or branch

municipality will determine cert ain services, and recrea­ tional facilities that a neighborhood needs.

These needs

could also be pointed out utilizing the concept of

advocacy planning to involve citizen participation for

they know best what they need.

Concerned citizens or

experts from the municipality, could assist in determin­ ing needs . . .

Private commercial firms could point out needs

that they could fulfill, but they should not take any

230

action without consultation with the municipality and the

residents of the neighborhood.

In alr-Zahra neighborhood, a survey was conducted

by the author as a concerned citizen to point out needs.

Survey of Existing Activities and Facilities

After pointing out needs by the community, the

third stage of planning begins with a preparation of

existing site and activity analysis.

It is possible

that some needs could be met with existing facilities

that are not used .effectively, such as schools, public

lands or private vacant land that could be acquired with

public money.

Also, the site analysis could provide

possible solutions for land by enclosing streets either

temporarily or permanently.

A study of leisure time patterns and acquiring

.services inside and outside a neighborhood will set the

basis for providing an effective program of facilities

and activities.

In al-Zahra neighborhood the existing two schools

are not used for community leisure time.

Leisure time

patterns' as indicated in the analysis of data. Chapter 5,

showed, the effect of lack of recreational facilities in

the neighborhood.

People either engage in passive home

activities or they seek recreation outside the neighbor­ hood .

231

and financial support 3 it is the duty of the municipality

under the direction of a landscape architect to conduct

such analysis.

List of Activities and Facilities

The fourth stage of planning is to list all : facilitiesa activities and services a neighborhood n e e d s .

This is based on the previous two stages.

high economic bracket:, did not need social services

characteristic of poor areas and inner city residents.

Facilities, activities and services will differ from one

neighborhood to another.

Activities chosen by the residents of al-Zahra

neighborhood are detailed in Research Question

3,

Chapter

5.

Table 54 shows activities as chosen' by males and

females.

An activity is -considered of first priority

to be established if 30 percent of respondents chose it.

If less than 30 percent, but more than ten percent chose

it, it is considered of second priority.

This kind of

priority designation will help to construct facilities'

according to two stages or phases.

In some instances,

three stages of implementation might be more practical.

Table 54. Activities for al-Zahra MSNC according to sex and priorities.

Activity

Males

1st Priority

Sports

Soccer

Swimming

Ping Pong

Volleyball

Pool

Basketball

Pone Arts

Calligraphy

Visiting Art

Shows

Theatrical Arts

Music

Filk Dancing

Acting

Watching Thea­ trical Art

Fun and Thinking Games

Cards

Chess

Kairum

2nd Priority

Tennis

Gymnastics

Foosball

Biking

Drawing

Sculpture

Singing

Dominoes

Backgammon •

Females

1st Priority

Swimming

Volleyball

Ping Pong

Biking

Drawing

Visiting Art

Shows

Music

Singing

Filk Dancing

•Acting

Watching Thea­ trical Art

Cards

Chess

Kairum

2nd Priority

Basketball

Handball

Decorative-

Design

Dominoes

Backgammon

Tab1e 54.-— continued.

Activity

Males

1st Priority

Literature

Writing

Lectures

Reciting

Others

Movie Shows

Scientific

Hobbies

Services

Mosque

Public Library

Glinic

Coffee Shop

Banquet Hall

2nd Priority

Females

1st Priority

Lectures

Movie Shows

Scientific

Hobbies

Mosque

Public Library

Clinic

Coffee Shop

Child Care Center

Banquet Hall

2nd Priority

Writing

Reciting

Financial Support

The main financial provider is the government

through the municipality.

The community could provide

234

for certain facilities through donations.. The private

sector could participate on a small scale to provide

minimal profit.

Financial sup- • secured before proceeding to the next stage.

Physical Design

The sixth stage of planning and the most prob­ design of a M S N C .

The physical

design should be presented in a master plan that takes

tween the sexes, location of facilities' and criteria for

designing facilities.

Separation. Between the S e x e s .

To offer equal

opportunities-for males and females, a designer must pro­ vide facilities for b o t h .

However, a designer must avoid

duplicating facilities especially expensive ones such as

a library or

a

clinic as much as possible.

Alternatives

to solve this problem take two approaches.

Since it is

established in this study that two centers should be pro­

vided, one approach would be to separate the. centers to

act as nodes for a park system that will include large

235

scale facilities such as sports fields, bike route, a

public library and possibly a movie theater and auditor­ ium for large gatherings.

The facilities within the park

system are those that could not be built twice (common

facilities) so they could be used by -both sexes at alter­ nate times (see Figure 10).

The park system approach might work successfully

in planning new neighborhoods or in neighborhoods where

continuous tracts of land including street enclosing are

available.

If a neighborhood is too congested and a park

system is not feasible, another approach would be to

acquire parcels of land in the neighborhood for the common

facilities.

In designing facilities for males and females, a

study such as this one provided preferences of activities

by either sex.

Therefore, each center will differ in its

facilities and physical layout and appearance.

Location.

Both males and females should be able

to walk to the facilities of a M S N C ; however, first

priority should be given to women since they are not

allowed to drive,, and 'to children, and older people. s.inCe

they cannot drive. A bus d'ystem could resolve this prob­ lem. .

.

' .

.. V : ,

In new neighborhoods, the park system approach

discussed previously will determine the location, of a

MEN

wMMmmMM

m —

WOMEN

Figure 10.

Two separate centers connected with a

park system.

236

237

MSNCo

In a built-up neighborhood5 the availability of

undeveloped land or land acquisition will determine the

location.

It is preferable to locate a MSNC to be associ­

ated with an existing public land such as a park or a

school in order to gain space.

Possibly men's centers

could be incorporated with boys' schools and women's

centers with g i rls'

In new master plans for

growing cities5 towns and villages concentration of

public facilities should take into consideration the

concept of MSNC.

If a center is to serve two neighborhoods, a first

priority should be given to the less advantaged o n e .

In

some instances, some facilities will serve one neighbor­

hood , while others will serve more than one neighborhood

and should be located on the shared boundaries between

neighborhoods•

In order to resolve the problem of locating MSNCs

in the city of Riyadh, a survey of public land such as

parks and schools is required to divide the city into

new neighborhoods called service areas for an even

distribution of facilities among the city population at

neighborhoods might create conflicts where some

neighborhoods have several schools and large tracts of

public lands while others do n o t .

Another example is

that some neighborhoods are divided by major thorough­

fares that make a neighborhood disunited and its divisions

associated with its adjacent neighborhood.

The section

surveyed of al-Zahra neighborhood is very much a part

of al-Malaz neighborhood, rather than the rest of the

neighborhood west of 60th Street. For lack of unde­

veloped public land, it is recommended that the proposed

MSNO be associated with a.public school or a public

park (see Figure 12.on page 246). In the sectioned sur­

vey of al-Zahra neighborhood, the women's MSNC could be

The men's MSNC could be associated with the boys'

schools either in the section of the neighborhood west

of 60th Street that was not surveyed or in the adjacent

neighborhood of al-Malaz.

Design Criteria.

In developing a general design

criteria for a MSNC in the Saudi Arabian neighborhood,

five major points are sought.

1. Spatial recommendations: a.

Utilize minimum space to provide maximum

facilities.

This could be achieved by.

designing multi-purpose facilities, such as

one court for tennis, volleyball and basket­ ball when possible. Also, this could be

achieved by using roofs of buildings for

some facilities such as roof gardens, park­

ing- or even some sports activities such as

tennis (in congested areas).

b. Extend the spaces of a MSNC by closing

streets,

c. Parking and transportation accommodations

must be adequate and efficient.

A taxi stop

and a bus stop and bicycle parkings must- be

provided.

d. Vehicular and pedestrian access to the MSNC

must be direct, clear and adequate.

e. Separate between traffic types: motor

vehicles, bikes and pedestrians.

f . Management of the MSNC must be located to be

able to supervise all facilities of the cen t e r .

g. Small children's"playspaces must be provided

with or adjacent to spaces for adults to

supervise them.

h. The swimming pool must be accompanied by

a shower and locker room.

where it is easily accessible to all

visitors of the MSNC.

J.

Utilize soft forms such as plants and mounts

to define spaces and create barriers.

k. Spaces must flow into each other3 thus

creating harmony, unity3 congruity and a sense

of direction.

1. The center should be a landmark in the neigh­ borhood.

It should have a. vertical element

that is visible from different viewpoints in

the neighborhood.

Activity and facility types: a.

Activities in the center could be divided

into two types: passiave such as reading or

watching movie shows 3 and active such as

swimming or biking3 e t c .

b.

Facilities in the center could be divided

into three types: indoors, outdoors, and

those containing activities.that could take

place both indoors and outdoors as follows:

Indoor

Coffee Shop

Auditorium

Variety Store

Managers Office

Restrooms

Game Room

Hobby Room

'

Banquet Hall

Library

Counseling Rooms

Post Office

Clinic

.Gymnasium

Art Studios

Indoor or Outdoor

Movie Shows

Art Studios

Fun & Thinking Games Ping Pong Table

Volleyball Basketball

Tennis Court

Meeting Rooms

Pool

Outdoor

Tea Garden

Ball Fields

Jogging:

Parking

Taxi Stop

Playgrounds

Biking

Amphitheater

Bus Stop

Environmental 'recommendations: a . Climatic conditions must be given careful

considerations, such as the usage of arid land

vegetation, usage of building materials to

insure maximum insulation, orientation of

buildings to maximize energy saving and

provide comfort, and utilization of solar

energy as an alternate source of heating and

cooling energy.

bo Conservation of water by using arid land vege­ tation, utilizing concepts of landscape de­

sign to minimize water consumption, and

utilizing sewage treatment.methods for

irrigation.

c. The human environment must be healthy and

• pleasing; therefore, the MSNC must be con­ structed to provide visual pleasure, as well

as being functional.

Its design must provide

a model for good taste in material selection

and design concepts that reflect the Arabian

culture.

d.

The environment of the MSNC should meet the

needs and appeal to all users including the

handicapped. To provide ease of accessi­

bility and enjoyment for the handicapped,

stairs must be replaced by r a m p s .

The tex­

ture of horizontal and vertical surfaces

must be fit for people in wheelchairs or the

blind.

Design of sports facilities such as

swimming pools and play equipment must take

the handicapped into consideration.

Functional and spatial relationships:

All components of the MSNC must have a logical

functional relationship to each other.

Figure 11

illustrates the functional relationshops between

the major components of a MSNC. Activities are •

grouped together according to associations of

functions..

The focal point of.the diagram is

the group containing access, information and

management,

These activities focus outward as

indicated by the arrows, in order to show their

responsibility of assuring access and providing

sto ra g e restrooms m ajn T'" t en a n ce g ym a rc h in g s o c c e r h an d ball clinic pos t offici social se rv ic e sto re v o lle y ­ ball _ play­ ground tennis

b a s k e t ^

ball ,

' " m a n ­ a ge m e nt a c c e s s mo vie m e e t in g

'^bf feeshoi arts d ra ma gam e s

Figure 11. Diagrammatic functional relationships.

t e a g a r d e n

'amphP'X C th eate r

)

244

information and management to all other components

of the M S N C .

Access to the center includes

pedestriansj bikers, private cars, taxis } buses3

service vehicles (garbage5 supplies and main­ tenance ), and emergency vehicles (fire and ambu­ lance) .

The group containing restrooms', mainten­

ance and storage is focusing inward to assure

the provision of these components to all other

components of the center. The other groups are .

related to each other to help associate them in

the design process .

Notice the inclusion in this

diagram of activities such as post office,

clinic, a social service, library and movie

theatre.

It was mentioned earlier that these

activities might be expensive to be duplicated

twice, once for men and another for women; there­

fore, they should be placed separately at a

location to serve b o t h .

This argument holds

true if these activities are to be provided on a

large scale; how e v e r , they could be provided in

library could be a reading room, the clinic a

first aid facility, the,social service a single

room with one counselor dealing with a problem

common to both men and women, and the movie

theatre could be incorporated with the banquet

245

hall where a projector and screen are the only

items necessary.

The next step beyond the functional diagram

of Figure 11 is the spatial relationships between

the components of the MSNC which are shown in

Figure 12.

What is meant by spatial relationships

is not areas and sizes of facilities; what is

meant is a preliminary design concept based on

circulation and association of functions when

for the next step which involves designing with

actual dimensions and details of design elements

that each component requires.

In reality and for

lack of land,- some activities are going to be

located on the second and possibly the third

floor such as management.

For example, hobbies

could be located over arts, counseling over

clinic, gymnasium over storage and restrooms, etc.

It is important to note that if the center is

associated with a school or park, the nature of

the diagrams will change.

Existing facilities ■ should be incorporated with the center.

246 s p o r t f i e l d s s e r v i c e gym st or e post clin-r social s e r v i c e b a n q u e t t e movi e m e e t i n g m u l t i ­ c ou r t m a n a g e r child play

JD

JC

pool t e a gar den

# r eading rest room wasn s t o r a g e info ped bike bus taxi p ar k i n g cars

Figure 12. Spatial relationships.

247

5. Dimensions of. facilities:

Following is a list of dimensions for some

facilities to be included in a MSNO which is

shown in Table 55 -

Dimensions indicated by

asterisks are approximately and they will change

at the actual design phase according to needs

as perceived by the designer.

Construction

The construction of a MSNC should take place in

two phases: Survey of people's preferences provides a

hierarchy of activities that are needed immediately and

those that are needed in the future.

The hierarchy could

also be based on popularity of activities, financial

constraints or availability of l a n d .

Management

The management of the MSNC should be the combined

efforts of the government represented by the municipality,

the community and the private sector as a hired help.

Evaluation

-

.The evaluation technique should serve as a feed­

back to correct any deficiency in the planning and design

process.

The course of action could be altered at cer­ tain points to better meet the requirements.

248

Table 55* Dimensions of facilities.

Facility

Tennis Court

Volleyball

Basketball

Handball

Archery (three targets)

Track

Soccer

Gymnasium .

Playground

Swimming Pool

Washroom and locker room

Store

Banquet room

Storage

Clinic

Post Office

Coffee Shop

Tea Garden

Social Services

Hobby Rooms

Art Studio

Dimensions i,n Feet

20 x 30

40 x 30*

100 x 50*

40 x 40*

20 x 20*

10 x 10*

30 x 40*

40 x 40*

20 x 20*

40 x 40*

40 x 40*

36 x 78

30 x 60

84 x 50

48 x 47

300 x

6o

333 x 208

330 x 18.0'

50 x 100*

100 x 50*

50 x 100*

249

Table 55 . — continued -

Facility

Drama Studio

Reading Room

Information Area

Management

* Approximate dimensions, subject to change.

Dimensions in Feet

40

X

40*

40

X

40*

10

X

10*

30.

X

40*

250

Suggestions for Future Research

Since the findings of this, st.udy determined that

a MSNC'is a necessity in al-Zahra neighborhood, and its

functions and activities were laid, out according to

citizens' participation, it is recommended that a large-

scale project be launched to take into account the city

as a whole and possibly the future of the whole country

in a study to develop a model for establishing MSNCs for

all Saudi Arabian neighborhoods, each according to its

sociological setting and economic needs.

Concluding Statement

This study has proven that the concept of advocacy

planning is a valid tool to involve the residents of

al-Zahra neighborhood in designing a MSNC.

To implement

this concept, a survey was conducted in the neighborhood

and its outcome has helped the researcher to come up with

a planning program for designing multi-service neighbor­ hood centers for the Saudi Arabian neighborhood.

APPENDIX A

SUMMARY OF THE SELF-EXPRESSION THEORY*

The theory of recreation as self-expression

recognizes the nature of man, his anatomical

structure, his psychological inclination, his

feeling of capacity, and his desire for self-

expression.

It accepts the point of view of

Hart that the motive of life is to function and

that "joy— real happiness, the thing people are

after in all experience— is to act, to do things,'

to function."

The theory takes into account the

fact that the forms of activity through which man

achieves this joy are conditioned by his mechani­ cal possibilities- of behavior, his physical condi- .

tion, and his attitudes and habits.

Thus play

activities are those for which his body structure is

well adapted, such as running, climbing, or singing.

M a n ’s inclination to activity and the satisfaction

he gains from it at a particular time are also

influenced by the abundance of his physical energy

or the nature of his desire for mental or emo­ tional gratification.

At one time he may desire

strenuous activity, at another relaxation.

Under

certain conditions he may seek adventure through

new experiences; under others he may crave the

satisfaction attained through old associations.

According to this theory, recreation is the con- ■

dition that results when an individual engages in

an activity which yields an experience character­ ized by a.sense of well-being and self-expression.

It may result from m a n ’s urge to be active and to

use his faculties and powers to the u t m o s t .

It

is through recreation that man finds the satisfac­

tion, of his desires to achieve, share, create, win

approval, and express his personality.

The great

variety of forms which provide recreation through

self-expression is explained by the complexity of

man's nature and of his environment.

* Taken from Butler (1976, -p. 6).

251

While the self-expression theory is somewhat

general3 it is in line with modern thinking.

It is true that man seeks to express himself

in work, in religious experience, and in study,

as well as in recreation.

However, in the first

three of these activities, he often seeks rewards

he seeks no outside reward.

Thus recreation is

activity, self-expression, carried on for its

own .sake.

APPENDIX B

QUESTIONNAIRE '

The questionnaire was prepared in both the

English and Arabic languages and was. distributed to resi­ dents in .the a l -Zahra.neighborhood.

This Appendix con­ tains both copies . ,

253

"

254

In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

Brothers and Sisters, thfe. residents of al-Zahra

neighborhood in the city of Riyadh:

I am pursuing my graduate research at The Uni­

versity of Arizona in the field of Landscape Architecture

(Urban Design). In order to achieve the practical .ex­

perience from the academic knowledge to benefit the Saudi

Arabian society, it has been decided to conduct a study

that will determine the needed recreational and service

facilities in al-Zahra neighborhood.

The study requires obtaining your opinions and

suggestions in the form of the attached Questionnaire.

This will lead to determining the actual needs (facili­

ties) in accordance with Islamic and Arabic traditions

(culture).

This study will also make planning and design

in the realm of recreational and service facilities

scientific and realistic.

This study is supported by the Ministry of Higher

Education, the Saudi Arabian Educational Mission in the

United States, The University of Arizona, the Municipality

of the city of Riyadh, the General Presidency of Youth

Welfare, the Ministry of the Interior, the General

Department of Statistics.and the Office of City Planning.

Would you please answer the questionnaire, noting

the following:

The aim of this study is an academic research;

the information will be confidential and there

is no need to give your name.

In the spaces provided for answers, use.this

sign: .

This resea-ch is designed for. both men and women,

so each should answer them independently; the

facilities will be established for each separately.

1 kindly hope that the literate will help the

illiterate to fill in the questionnaire.

This questionnaire is to be answered by anyone

15 years of age and over.

If you have any questions, you may reach me in the

al-Zahra neighborhood at 61966.

Your cooperation is appreciated. Thank you.

lo Age:'_____ years .

2. S e x : Male .

F emale______

3- Marital status: Single • Married____ ^

Divorced______ Widowed____

4. Occupation: Student._________

Own Business

Employee.

Laborer______

5 < children under 12 years of a g e :

.

no._____

6.

How do you spend your leisure time? .

Never Seldom Often

__ ■ A. Playing with the children?

Or taking them out?

B.

Watching television or

listening to radio or recordings? __________________

C. ; _____ __________ _

D .

Go to the Suqs for a walk? __________________-

E. Go to the desert on weekends? ____________

P. In coffee shops?

G. In a club (sports) to par­ ticipate in activities?

H . Reading books or magazines?

.

.

-

.

7.

Which of the following general activities would you

like to practice if it became available:

Do not

Want it Want it

Want it .

Future

A. Practice sports activi­ ties

B .

Watching sports

257

Want it

Future

Want it Now c .

Reciting literature and

participating in sym­ posiums

D.

Listening to and watching .

lectures and symposiums

E.

Writing articles, stories

or poems

F.

'Practicing fine arts

GT. ' Visiting art shows

H,

Participating in

theatrical arts

I.

Watching theatrical arts

J.

Watching movie shows

K.

Practicing scientific

hobbies

L.

Thinking games (cards,

dominoes, etc.)

From the previous general activities that you

have chosen, specify the type b e l o w .

A.

Sports Activities:

1. Soccer

2. Basketball

3. Volleyball

4. Handball

5. Ping Pong

6. Tennis .

7. Swimming .

8.

9•

10.

’Gymnastics

Wrestling

Biking

11.

Pool

12.

Foosball

13.

Kairum

B. Fine Art:

1. Drawing •

2. Sculpture.

.3 .

Photography_____

4. Design_

5• Caiigraphy_

258

Co Performing Arts:

1 . Music

3 • Folk dancing

4 = Acting_____

Do Thinking Games:

1. Cards _

2. Backgammon

3. Dominoes_____

4 o

5.

Chess_

Kairum

E.

Suggest activities you would like to participate

in and that were not mentioned above.

2.

If these activities were grouped in one center, what do

you think about this.center regarding t h e ■following:'

A. Location:

1. Inside the neighborhood

2. Neighborhood periphery_____

3. Outside the neighborhood

_

B. Administration:

1. Government_____

2. Private^_____

3 • Community .

C. F o r m : '

1.

One center for both men and women that operates

at different times’for each_____

2.

One center'with two sections, one for men and

one for women .

3.

Two separate centers, one for men and the

other for women

D. Playgrounds (for children under 12 years of age).:

2. Placed with the women's section

3* Girls with the women and beys with the men _

259

8-12 :00 12-5 :00 5-10 :-00 P .m. .

1. Sat-Tues_____ _______ ^

2. Wednesday ■ ________ _

3. Thursday_____ ___________________

4. Friday_______ _______________ ^_____ .

10.

Would you like to see the following services provided

in your neighborhood?

Yesj within Y e s , outside

No the center the center

A.

B.

C.

D .

E.

Mosque

Small clinic

Child Care Center

Banquet Hall

Small Post Office

.

, _______

.

'

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

' _______

F.

Variety store

(containing bakery,

grocery, and daily household needs)

G .

Public Library

H. Gas Station

,

.

_______

-

,

• Neighborhood

Coffee Shop ' .. ___________

J .

Suggest services you think are necessary to the

neighborhood and that were not mentioned above

(please list).

THE U N IV ER SITY OP ARIZONA

GRADUATE S TU D IES

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

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APPENDIX C

LETTERS' OF RECOMMENDATION

The following pages contain letters .of recommenda­ tion from:

1.

Saudi Arabian Educational Mission to the United

States and Canada.

2.

School of Renewable Natural Resources, The

University of Arizona.

3* General Presidency of Youth Welfare.

.4. Department of General Statistics.

5. Municipality of Riyadh.

6. Office of City Planning.

26?

1 T 1 Y / Y / 1

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268

*

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S au d i A r a b ia n E d uca tiona l M is s io n

to the U n ite d States and C a na da

2223 West Loop South—Suite 400

Houston. Texas 77027

(7131 4H-SI70

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269

T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F A R I Z O N A

T U C S O N , A R I Z O N A 8 5 7 2 1

C O L L E G E O F A G R I C U L T U R E

SCHOOL OF RENEW ABLE N A T U R A L RESOURCES

12 May 1977

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:

Khalid Saad Al-Nasaar is a graduate student in the Program in Landscape

Architecture, School of Renewable Natural Resources, College of A g r i ­ culture at the University of Arizona in Tucson.

In order to fulfill the requirements leading to the Masters Degree in

Landscape Architecture, Mr. Al-Nassar is conducting research to measure

the reaction of the residents of the neighborhood of Almalaz in Riyadh,

Saudi Arabia, towards the concept of a multi-service neighborhood center

and to study the predominant visual elements in the neighborhood.

The Graduate Committee in the Program of Landscape Architecture and the

Director of the School of Renewable Natural Resources approve this re­

search and support Mr. Al-Nassar in his endeavor. We hope that Mr. Al-

Nassar will have the help and cooperation of the city officials and

Almalaz residents. Thank you.

Sincerely

Robert Bechtel, Ph.D.

Professor of

Michael M. McCarthy, Ph

Assistant Professor of >

Landscape Architecture

Acting Director

School of Renewable Natural Resources

>^0,

W. H. Havens

Professor & Chairman

Robert M. Erickson

Graduate Advisor

Landscape Architecture Program

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LIST OF REFERENCES

Aaron, David

1965 Child's play; a creative approach to playscapes

for today's child. New Y o r k :

Abu al-Xla, Mahmud T.

1972 .Geography of Saudi Arabia, 2nd ed. Vol. 2, 532 p.

Cairo: Muasasat Sij1 ai-Arab.

al-Khedaire, Khedaire S.

1978

Cultural perception and attitudinal differences

among Saudi Arabian male college students in the

United States .

Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation,

The University of Arizona, Tucson.

al-Sharif, A. ■

1975 The city of Riyadh.

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Darat

al-malik Abdul-aziz.

Burch, William R.

1970 Recreation preferences as culturally determined

phenomena.

In Elements of outdoor recreation

planning:, B. L. Driver, ed., pp. 61-103- Uni­

versity Microfilms, School of Natural Resources,

University of Michigan, East Lansing.

Burton, Thomas L.

1971 Experiments in recreation research.

Totowa, New

Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield.

Butler, George D .

1976 Introduction to community recreation.

New York:.

McGraw-Hill Book Company.

CBS News Almanac.

1978 Martin A. Bacheller, e d .

Maplewood, New Jersey:

Hammond Almanac, Inc. •

Dattner, Richard

Davis, Hugh C, .

.

1970 Technological:, change and recreation planning.

In

Elements of Outdoor recreation, planning, B. L ...

Driver; ed., pp. 113-120. Univ. Of Mich. Press, -

275

D e a s y , C. M.

1974 Design for human a f f a i r s .

New Y o r k : John Wiley

and S o n s .

el-Banyan, Abdullah

1974

Cross-cultural education and attitude change: A

study of Saudi Arabian s t u d e n t s .

University

Microfilm International, Ann A r b o r , Michigan,

U.S.A,, London, England.

E m b r e e , John

1939 Suye. Mura, a Japanese village.

Chicago: University

of Chicago Press.

Fearn, Milton L ., Ira J. Hutchinson and David C . Park

1973 Recreation for everyone.

In Managing municipal

leisure s e r v i c e s .

S. Lutzin and E. S t o r e y , e d s .

pp. 138-152.

Washington, D.C.: International

City Management Association.

Gold, Seymour M.

1973

U r b a n r e c r e a t i o n planning.

P h i l a d elphia: Lea and

F e b i g e r .

1 9 5 1 .

In Reader in urban soci­ ology .

Paul K. Hatt and Albert Reiss, Jr., eds.,

Hormachea, Marlon and Jesse Reynolds

197-6 Public recreation a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

Res ton,

Virginia: Reston Publishing Company, Inc.

Huizinga, Johan

1970 Homo Luden— a study of the play element in cul­ ture. Boston: Beacon Press.

Kahhalah, Umar Rida

1964 Geography of the Arabian peninsula, 2nd e d .,

684 p. M e c c a :‘Maktabat al-Nahdah a l - H a d i t h a h .

K i r a , Alexander

1966 The b a t h r o o m : New Y o r k :

Bantam B o o k s .

276

Lewis 3 Bernard,

1976 Outline of Islamic history.

In Islam and the Arab

world. Bernard Lewis, e d ., pp. 25-56.

New York:

American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc.

Llewelyn-Davis Associates

1975 Multiservice neighborhood centers: A plan for

Tucson, Arizona.

Tucson, Arizona: Llewelyn-

Davis Associates.

Malik, Saleh A.

1973 Rural migration and urban growth in Riyadh', Saudi

Arabia.

Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Ministry of Finance and National Economy (MFNE)

1976 Statistical indicator.

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia:

Riyadh.

Ministry of Planning

1976 Second development plan 1975-1980.

Kingdom of

Saudi Arabia: Riyadh.

Ministry of Rural and Urban Affairs (MOMRA), Deputy

Ministry for Physical Planning

1977a-' Riyadh action master plans: Technical report 2. .

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Riyadh.

Ministry of Rural and Urban Affairs (MOMRA), Deputy

Ministry for Physical Planning "7;

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Riyadh.

Naseer, Samier A.

1978

Sewage effluent: A partial solution to Riyadh's

water problem.

Unpublished Masters Thesis, The

University of Arizona, Tucson.

Nie, N. H. , C. H. Hull, J. G... Jenkins, K. Steinbrenner and

1975 Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) .

New York: McGraw-Hill, I n c .

Northrup, F. S. C.

1974 The meeting of east and west.

New York: Macmillan

and C o .

• .

Patai, Raphael '

1973 The Arab mind. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

277

Pes'cij Fred.'

1977 Manager, El Con Shopping Center, Tucson, Arizona,-

personal communication.

Piaget, Jean

1962 Play, dreams and imitation in childhood.

New

York: ¥. ¥. Norton and Co.

Rapoport, Rhona and Robert Rapoport

1975- Leisure and the family life cycle.

London and

Boston:.Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Redstone, Louis G .-

1975 New dimensions in shopping centers and stores.

New York: McGraw-Hill.

Saarinen, Thomas F .

1976 Environmental planning--perception"and behavior.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Sjoberg, G.

1973 A scientific American book.

New York: W. H.

Freeman Co.

Spyer, Geoffrey

1971 Architecture and community: Environmental design

in an urban society. London: Peter Owen.

Sommer, Robert

1969 Personal space.

Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice

Hall, I n c .

van der Ryn, Sim

1968 Socio-physical technology.

Proceedings of the

Second Annual Workshop on Socio-physical Tech­ nology, AIA, Washington, D.C.

Vicker, Ray .

1975 You can put nomads in houses, but you can't make

'em stay. Wall Street Journal, Vol. CLXXXVI,

No. 28, August 8, p. 7 .

Whitaker's Almanac

1977 London: Whitaker and S o n s .

1956

Gosforth: The sociology of an English village.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press .

278

Wingo 5 Lowdon

1970

Cities and space: The future use of urban land.

Wise, Harold

1970 The state of the art of comprehensive planning.

In Elements of outdoor recreation planning.

B. L. Driver, e d ., pp. 225-234.

University

Microfilm, School of Natural Resources, University

of Michigan, Ann Ar b o r .

World Almanac and Book of Pacts 1978

1977 New Y o r k : Newspaper Enterprises Association, Inc.

38X8

0 F.

RIYADH 1977

1: 20 000 t PHILIP HOLZMANN ( F 7 )

% INTERNATIONAL (CONSULTANTS) F 7

J MANAGER FOR NORCONSULT

F 7

* NORCONSUL1 O F F IC E F 7

5 VBB GUEST-HOUSE

G 6

e

DOXIAOIS ASS (CONSULTANTS)

06

7 POLENSKI

I

ZOELLNER GUEST - HOUSE

H I

e

SAUDI CH EMICAL H6

6 VIAK G UE ST -H O US E

H6

10 NILS P LUND OF FICE

H6

It SAUDI ASFALT G U E S T - H O U S E

H I

12 ABV G U E S T - H O U S E

H6

13. VBB TENNIS COURT H 6

14 VBB HOUSES 4 NOS H I

15 ASEA OFFICE t GUEST-HOUSE H 6

16 ASEA RESIDENCE H 6

17 SAUDI ASFALT RE SI DE NC E H I

18 V IA K R E S ID E N C E HS

19 SWED1EL RESIDENCES 3 NOS H I

20 VI AK RESIDENCE J7

21 KOMMUNTJANST FLATS J t

22 BIOKAT O F F I C E HS

23 L U F T H A N S A OFFICE F 5

24 VBB OFFICE F S

26 SWEDTEL O FFI CE G4

27 JAPAN STEAKHOUSE

28 VI A K R E S I D E N C E F 6

F 4

29 OBEID HOSPITAL F 6

30 SHANGRI LA (CHINES REST 1 F S

31 CUSTOMS E 2

32 TE L E P H O N E CO F 5

33 FI RE STATION FS

34 ROUND B U IL D I N G F 8

35 NATIONAL HOSPITAL

FS

36. UN IV ER SI TY LIBRARY

F7

17.

38

ABV G UE ST -HO USE

39 NORCONSULT G UE S T- H O U S E F 4

40 GREEN VALLEY (REST I I SP IN NE Y'S SU PE RM

41 AR EE N TRAVEL E I

42 KANOO TRAVEL E 10

43 SA UD IA TRAVEL E 10

44 ATTAR TRAVEL E 10

46 RI YADH HOTEL F 9

46 SAUDIA HOTEL C l

47 AL SADHAN SUPERM F I

48 CANSULT O FFI CE

49 ELECTROLUX 0 4

0 4

50 BEIJER MIDDLY EAST AB

SI. VOLVO SERVICE

F 7

52 FISH MARKET

E 6

53. PEUGEOT

54 VOLVO E 9

E 9

55 PONTIAC E 10

KING FAISAL

HOSPITAL

ROYAL PALACE

INTERCONTINENTAL

HOTEL

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i

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Figure 1.

Map of the city of Riyadh showing al-Zahra

neighborhood. — Courtesy of VIAK Surveying

Company (1977) .

al-Nassar Thesis, Landscape

Architecture, 1979.

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