HYDROLOGY SOUTHWEST RESOURCES ARIZO \A

HYDROLOGY SOUTHWEST RESOURCES ARIZO \A
VOLUME 18
HYDROLOGY
and WATER
RESOURCES
in
ARIZO \A
and the
SOUTHWEST
Proceedings of the 1988 Meetings
of the
Arizona Section
American Water Resources Association
and the
Hydrology Section
Arizona- Nevada Academy of Science
April 16, 1988, University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona
Vo I une 18
Hydrology and Water Resources In Arizona and the Southwest
Proceedings of the 1988 Meetings
of the
Arizona Section -American Water Resources Association
and the
Hydrology Section -Arizona- Nevada Academy of Science
April 16, 1988
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
v
introduction
Ordering Information for AWRA Publications
vii
A Model of Snowpack Dynamics in Forest Openings
Peter F. Ffolliott, D. Phillip Guertin and O. Rasmussen
1
Factors Affecting Seasonal and Annual Precipitation in Arizona
Arnon Karniell and Herbert B. Osborn
7
Mapping the Areal Precipitation over Arizona Using Kriging Technique
Arnon Karniell
19
Initial Survival and Growth of Tree Seedlings in a Water Harvesting
Agrlsystem
Peter F. Ffolliott
43
Mapping and Characterization of the Solis on the University of
Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center
Donald F. Post, Chris Mack, Philip D. Camp and Ahmed S. Suliman.
49
Relationship Between Soll Spectral Properties and Sand, Silt, and
Clay Content of the Soils on the University of Arizona Maricopa
Agricultural Center
Ahmed S. Suliman and Donald F. Post
61
Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Urban
Preliminary Results
Lakes:
Frederick A. Amalfi and Milton R. Sommerfeld
67
Occurrence of Enteric Viruses and Parasites in Reclaimed Wastewater
Used for irrigation in Arizona
Ricardo DeLeon, Jaime E. Naranjo, Joan B. Rose and Charles P.
Gerba
79
Water Contamination Sites In the Southwest: Compiling a Data Base
Donald T. Rivard, Martin M. Karpiscak, K. James DeCook, Glenn W.
France and Donald E. Osborn
89
The Qanats of Yazd
Jeffrey Zauderer
97
The Second Management Plan:
Katharine L. Jacobs
A Management Strategy for the 1990s
111
The Phoenix Water Resource Plan - 1987
Phil Regli
117
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Water Resources Research Center Serves the Arizona Water Community
Joe Gelt and Mary Waterstone
127
Current Residential Water Conservation Practices and Behaviors:
Comparing Two Populations
Glen France
133
Iv
INTRODUCTION
The Arizona Section of the American Water Resources Association and
the Hydrology Section of the Arizona- Nevada Academy of Science met at the
The annual meeting provides a
University of Arizona on April 16, 1988.
forum to discuss water issues and present current research results.
This
document is made up of the proceedings of that meeting.
Papers presented at the meeting were submitted camera -ready by their
authors for this publication.
These proceedings were produced by the editorial and graphics section
of the Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona.
v
ORDERING INFORMATION FOR AWRA PUBLICATIONS
Copies of the following documents can be ordered from Arizona Section,
American Water Resources Association, 845 North Park Avenue, Tucson, Arizona
85719, c/o Dale Wright.
Volumes 7
Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest.
through 10 (proceedings of the 1977 -1980 meetings) $12 per copy. Volumes
11 through 18 (proceedings of the 1981 -1988 meetings) $14 per copy.
Urban Water Management:
symposium) $10 per copy.
Augmentation and Conservation (October 21, 1983,
Water Quality and Environmental Health (November 9, 1984, symposium) $10
per copy.
Conjunctive Management of Water Resources (October
18,
1985, symposium)
$10 per copy.
Arizona Issues and Challenges (November 7,
Water Markets and Transfers:
1986, symposium) $12 per copy.
Instream Flow:
per copy.
Rights and Priorities (October 30,
Adjudication of Water Rights:
1988, symposium) $12 per copy.
1987, symposium) $12
Gila River Watershed, Arizona (October 28,
vil
A MODEL OF SNOWPACK DYNAMICS IN FOREST OPENINGS
Peter F. Ffolliott, D. Phillip Guertin, and William O. Rasmussen
School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721
Introduction
To assist watershed management specialists and land use planners in
estimating the impacts of alternative forest management practices on snowpack
accumulation and melt patterns, a computer simulation model, called SNOW, has
been developed to analyze snowpack dynamics in forested conditions.
In
structuring SNOW, three simulation options have been defined. The first
option is the simulation of snowpack water equivalent (WE) before a change in
forest management. The second and third simulation options are estimates of
snowpack WE following either (a) reduction in forest densities through a
thinning practice or (b) creation of forest openings by a clearing practice.
By comparing snowpack WE prior to a forest management change with that
predicted following the implementation of the change, the impact of the forest
management practice on snowpack WE can be estimated.
The general formulation and application of the simulation option that
estimates the impacts of creating forest openings on snowpack WE are described
Importantly, a prerequisite to the applications of this option
in this paper.
of SNOW is that the winter snowpack accumulation period has begun, that is, a
snowpack already has accumulated on the ground.
Formulation of Model
Forest openings have been shown to affect snowfall distribution patterns
However, it
(Hoover and Leaf, 1967; Ffolliott and Thorud, 1974; Gary 1974).
is not always known whether a resultant change in snowpack WE has taken place.
To help in this determination, SNOW includes a simulation option to assess the
spatial and temporal effects of forest openings on a snowpack.
In essence, the effect of forest openings on snowpack WE at a point in
time is dependent upon input variables that change in time and space.
Variables that change in time include temperature, precipitation, and snowpacv
albedo; variables that change in space are forest structure, slope -aspect
relationships, and dimensions of the forest openings. After a screening of
possible input variables, a set of input variables was identified to simulate
the effect of a forest opening on snowpack WE. Importantly, all of the
selected input variables in SNOW are readily available.
1
Net Effect of Forest Openings
Earlier studies have reported that the effect of forest openings is
insignificant at a distance of 2 to 3H (H = average height of surrounding
trees) into the adjacent forest (Anderson, 1963; Hansen and Ffolliott, 1968;
Ffolliott, 1983).
Measurements of snowpack WE taken beyond 3H generally
represent undisturbed forested conditions, that is, conditions before the
creation of the forest openings.
Therefore, in structuring SNOW, the net
effect of forest openings has been defined and calculated as the difference
between the mean snowpack WE across the openings and extending 3H, and the
mean snowpack WE beyond 3H. Positive differences represent a net increase,
while negative differences are a net decrease.
Time- Dependent Variables
Of the variables analyzed that change with time, only the amount of
precipitation that accumulated over the interval of time between the
initialization of the model and the simulation period was related to the
measurement of the net effect of forest openings. Therefore, the use of this
variable requires a user to initialize conditions, with precipitation
accumulated from that point to the time of simulation.
Space- Dependent Variables
In terms of variables that change in space, forest density, average
height of surrounding trees, potential direct -beam solar radiation, and the
dimensions of the forest openings are required in the operation of SNOW.
An input of forest density is necessary to index the processes of
interception of precipitation, obstruction of short -wave radiation, and reSquare feet of
radiation of long -wave radiation from trees onto a snowpack.
basal area per acre was selected as the expression of forest density because
it is easily determined in the field, readily converted to other expressions
of forest density, and numerous multi- resource forest relations have been
developed with basal area as the indpendent variable.
To meet specific hydrologic objectives in terms of snowpack profiles in
and adjacent to forest openings, the prescribed width of the openings commonly
However, to convert this
is defined in terms of H (Ffolliott, 1983).
measurement to equivalent feet, knowledge of the average tree height is
required.
Therefore, if a forest opening is 2H in width and the surrounding
trees are 65 feet in height, the opening is 130 feet wide.
Values of average potential direct -beam solar radiation (in langleys)
received daily throughout a snowpack accumulation and melt season are used to
Once calculated, this variable
index the slope- aspect combinations at a site.
Considering a solar day as the basic time unit at
does not change with time.
a site, potential direct-beam solar radiation can be obtained from tables with
slope and aspect measurements (Frank and Lee, 1966).
2
The dimensions of the forest openings, both widths and lengths, are
necessary to provide a spatial measure of the effects of the openings on
snowpack dynamics.
Flowchart
The flow of activities that are followed in operating SNOW to simulate
the effects of forest openings on snowpack WE is outlined in figure 1.
Through inputs of precipitation, forest density, height of surrounding trees,
potential direct beam solar radiation, and the dimensions of the forest
openings, the net effect of creating the forest openings is estimated in terms
of snowpack WE gained or lost.
Application of Model
To employ SNOW to predict the effects of forest openings on snowpack WE,
a user responds to interactive statements and questions that structure the
simulation exercise and provide the required inputs.
These statements and
questions are offered to the user after the forest type has been specified, a
positive response has been made to a question asking whether a forest
management change is being proposed, and an appropriate response has been made
to the simulation option.
For purposes of illustration, the effects of forest openings 1 -1/2H wide
and 300 feet long, oriented with their long axis up- and -down slope, will be
simulated in terms of increasing or decreasing the snowpack WE at peak
seasonal accumulation, prior to the start of runoff. Such an estimate often
is one of the better estimators of potential water yields from a melting
snowpack in Arizona (Ffolliott and Thorud, 1972).
A ratio of openings to forested areas of 1:3 is prescribed for the
hypothetical 2,500 -acre watershed. The amount of precipitation accumulated in
the interval between the initialization of the model, a time in the winter
snowpack accumulation period, and peak seasonal accumulation is 2.4 inches.
Forest density, representing the conditions prior to the forest management
The average height of the
change, is 100 square feet of basal area.
Average potential direct beam solar radiation
surrounding trees is 65 feet.
received daily in the snowpack accumulation and melt season, based on an
average slope of 10 percent, southeast aspect, and latitude of 34 degrees
north, is 748 langleys.
In comparison to the snowpack WE simulated to represent undisturbed
forested conditions, estimated to be 8.6 inches, the simulated net effect of
creating the forest openings is to reduce the snowpack WE on the watershed at
peak seasonal accumulation, prior to the start of runoff, by 0.08 inch. In
other words, the average snowpack WE on the 2,500 -acre watershed after
implementation of the clearing practice to create the forest openings is
It appears that creating forest openings on the
estimated to be 8.52 inches.
relatively "warm aspect" that characterized the hypothetical watershed will
accelerate snow melt during the early winter snowpack accumulation period,
with less snowpack WE in and adjacent to the openings at peak seasonal
3
FOREST TYPE
PRECIPITATION
i
FOREST DENSITY
I
i
TREE HEIGHT
i
SOLAR RADIATION
i
/
/
OPENING DIMENSIONS
SNOWPACK WE
Yes
Yes
Figure 1. - Flow of activities in SNOW to estimate the effects
of forest openings on snowpack WE
4
accumulation, prior to runoff.
Factors not considered in SNOW must be evaluated by watershed management
specialists and land use planners before the implementation of any forest
However, based on the illustrative example presented
management practice.
herein, and assuming that an increase in snowpack WE at peak seasonal
accumulation is a planning objective, implementation of an alternative forest
management practice appears to be feasible.
Future Developments
To a large extent, SNOW is considered to be a "prototypical" computer
simulation model. Developed from source data sets representative of selected
southwestern ponderosa pine forests, further testing of the model will be
undertaken to determine its applicability to a wide range of conditions
encountered in these forests.
Once testing in the ponderosa pine forests has been completed, it is
anticipated that the structure of SNOW will be extrapolated to the higher
elevation mixed conifer forests, in which the potentials for snowpack
management are likely to be greater.
References Cited
Anderson, H. W.
1963.
Managing California's snow zone lands for water.
Forest Service, Research Paper PSW -6, 28 p.
USDA
Time -space effects of openings in Arizona forests on
Ffolliott, P. F.
1983.
snowpacks.
Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest
13:17 -20.
Ffolliott, P. F., and D. B. Thorud.
1972.
Use of forest attributes in
snowpack inventory -prediction relationships for Arizona ponderosa pine.
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 27:109 -111.
Ffolliott, P. F., and D. B. Thorud.
1974.
A technique to evaluate snowpack
Hydrology and Water
profiles in and adjacent to forest openings.
Resources in Arizona and the Southwest 4 :10 -17.
1966.
Potential solar beam irradiation on slopes.
Frank, E. C., and R. Lee.
USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM -18, 116 p.
Gary, H. L.
1974.
Snow accumulation and melt as influenced by a small
clearing in lodgepole pine. Water Resources Research 10:345 -353.
Hansen, E. A., and P. F. Ffolliott.
1968.
Observations of snow accumulation
and melting in demonstration cuttings of ponderosa pine in central
Arizona.
USDA Forest Service, Research Note RM -111, 12 p.
5
Process and significance of
1967.
Hoover, M. D., and C. F. Leaf.
International Symposium on
interception in Colorado subalpine forests.
Forest Hydrology, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 213 -224.
6
FACTORS AFFECTING SEASONAL AND ANNUAL
PRECIPITATION IN ARIZONA
Arnon Karnieli and Herbert B. Osborn
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, Arizona 85719
Abstract
Seasonal and annual precipitation vary considerably in Arizona,
primarily because of topographic influences. Precipitation data have
been analyzed by several investigators over the years. Arizona has been
subdivided into precipitation zones, and seasonal and annual precipitaBecause of a
tion isohyetal maps are available from several sources.
paucity of raingages in the more mountainous regions, however, isohyetal
lines in these regions have been largely estimated based on the
assumptions of topographic influences.
Now, with 158 raingages with 30
or more years of record, topographic factors can be combined with
greater knowledge of the sources and paths of moisture into the state to
Elevation
better define annual and seasonal precipitation variability.
and aspect appear to be the principal parameters for analyzing
precipitation within the state, with the Mogollon Rim exerting the
greatest influence on winter precipitation. Higher than anticipated
summer rainfall in southeastern Arizona (based on elevation and aspect)
suggest that sources and availability of atmospheric moisture may be a
strong parameter in analyzing summer rainfall.
Introduction
The range of elevation (40 to 4200 m) in Arizona leads to a wide
Much of the state
The region of highreceives less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
est precipitation crosses the central part of the state from southeast
In Arizona, precipitation is bito northwest along the Mogollon Rim.
modal, with slow moving cold fronts providing lift for winter precipitation, and convective heating of moist tropical air producing summer
rainfall. Both the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico are now recognized as sources of moisture for precipitation in Arizona (Osborn and
Davis, 1977). Winter snow and rain are generally low intensity events
associated with slow moving cold fronts, although occasionally surges of
range of climatic conditions (Sellers, 1960).
7
warm moist air can push into Arizona in the winter and produce convecOrographic lifting along
tive activity within a general storm system.
the Mogollon Rim in central Arizona (Fig. 1) dominates winter precipitaSummer rains are primarily high intensity thunderstorms of short
tion.
duration and limited areal extent, with the influence of elevation and
aspect less apparent.
Previous Studies
The climate of Arizona with particular emphasis on precipitation
and temperature was categorized by Sellers (1960) and Green (1964).
Their publications included the prevalent facts and theories on the
reasons for the extreme variability in annual and seasonal precipitation
across Arizona. At that time, the Gulf of Mexico was considered the
prime source of moisture for summer rain in Arizona. Hales (1973) first
suggested that "surges" of moisture from the Pacific Ocean south of Baja
California moving into Arizona from the south were important sources of
summer thunderstorm rainfall. Osborn and Davis (1977) concluded that
both the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico could be important sources
of moisture for summer rains in Arizona. Also, several investigators,
including Sellers (1960) and Osborn (1985), have reported on the importance of tropical storms in pushing moist tropical air into Arizona.
Analysis
An isohyetal map of average annual precipitation for Arizona appeared in the 1941 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Yearbook, Climate & Man (Fig. 2). The map, which was developed from relatively few available precipitation records and from topographic con-
siderations, is an excellent starting point for analysis of Arizona
precipitation.
Precipitation records from 158 raingages operated more than 30
years (Fig. 3) have been adapted from Sellers et al. (1985) (Appendix
The data were used to develop a similar isohyetal map of annual
A).
precipitation for Arizona (not shown). Although the recent map showed
Both showed
greater detail than the 1941 map, they were very similar.
the strong influence of the Mogollon Rim in increasing precipitation in
central Arizona (relative to elevation) and in decreasing precipitation
in northeastern Arizona. Both maps showed higher precipitation amounts
in the mountainous areas of south -eastern Arizona, although the differences, relative to elevation, were not as extreme as in central Arizona.
Osborn (1984) attempted to separate both seasonal and annual pre-
cipitation amounts for Arizona, based on available rainfall records,
into zones which were well above (excess) or well below (deficit)
average precipitation amounts (as defined by French, 1983) based strictly on elevation.
In this paper, we have attempted to redefine the zones
8
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9
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Figure.2.
300
250
200
Average annual precipitation for Arizona(mm) reproduced from USDA
1941 Yearbook, CLIMATE AND MAN.
10
STATE OF ARIZONA: LOCATION OF RAINGAGES
112.00
113.00
114.00
115 00
110.00
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7
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Raingages used in analysis. Excess stations (
deficit stations (x), and transition stations
11
109.00
110.00
+),
( *).
of above (excess) and below (deficit) average rainfall as plotted against elevation for winter, annual and summer periods (Figs. 4, 5, 6 and
Appendix A).
The excess zone for winter precipitation is clearly defined (Fig.
4).
All winter excess stations are located on the south slopes of the
Mogollon Rim and other central Arizona ranges.
Deficit stations are
located north and northeast of the Mogollon Rim. Deficit and excess
stations as defined by winter precipitation, are shown on all three
maps.
The excess and deficit stations also stand out on the isohyetal map
of annual precipitation, but not as clearly as for the winter precipita-
tion (Fig. 5).
The ranges in amounts between deficit and excess
stations for the same elevations are considerably reduced for annual
precipitation, suggesting less variation in summer than in winter
precipitation. Also, for annual precipitation, quite a few transition
stations could be considered excess stations.
Therefore, as expected, there is considerable overlapping of excess
and transition stations in the plot of summer rainfall versus elevation
(Fig. 6).
About 10 transition stations plot above the best fit line for
excess stations.
Interestingly, all of these clearly excess stations
are located in southeastern Arizona and have a southerly aspect.
Discussion
The relatively higher amounts of summer rainfall as opposed to
winter precipitation in southeastern Arizona may be explained by the
paths, quantity, and persistence of flows of moist air into Arizona
Low -level moisture can flow into Arizona from the southwest
(Fig. 1).
at any time, depending on the relative position of a low pressure area
or trough over California, and a corresponding high pressure ridge east
of Arizona. In the winter, such conditions are not as common as in the
summer and change more rapidly than in the summer.
The exception is
when a tropical storm is caught up in the counter clockwise flow around
a California low.
In these cases, there may be a strong flow of very
moist tropical air into Arizona, and heavy rains can occur. However,
even when the flow of moist air in the winter is persistent, the upper
The upper level winter
levels usually are relatively cold and dry.
winds from the west tend to be cold and dry throughout the winter.
In the summer, persistent flows of moist low level air from the
Pacific and moist high level air from the Gulf of Mexico can combine to
provide Arizona with an excellent supply of moisture for rainfall.
Higher afternoon air temperatures near the ground along with the broken
topography add to the probability of significant thunderstorm rainfall.
Southeastern Arizona may be best located for realizing the optimum
summer rainfall conditions, and this may account for the increased
amounts of summer rainfall respective to Central Arizona and the
Mogollon Rim.
12
500.0
WINTER
400.0
EXCESS ZONE ( +)
r =0.95
Y =1 12.43+0.20X
E
E
`/ 300.0
TRANSITION ZONE ()
r =0.74
Y =66.46 +0.10X
ALL STATIONS
Z
(DASHED UNE)
O_
0.
Y =100.26 +0.07X
F-
a-- 200.0
U
100.0
CL
DEFICIT ZONE (x)
r =0.75
Y =- 89.72 +0.13X
0.0
0.0
500.0
1000.0
,l
1
2500.0 3000.0
ELEVATION (m)
Figure 4.
i
1
1500.0 2000.0
Arizona winter precipitation.
800.0 -
ANNUAL
600.0 E
Z
TRANSITION ZONE ()
R =0.90
Y =109.45 +0.22X
EXCESS ZONE ( +)
R =0.98
Y =179.73 +0.31 X
.
ALL STATIONS
(DASHED LINE)
R =0.65
Y =168.01 +0.15X
:
400.0 -
Q
:
F-
.
CL
W 200.0
EL
.. :
DEFICIT ZONE (x)
R =0.83
Y =- 179.33 +0.27X
0.0
0.0
1
500.0
I
r
1000.0
I
n
ELEVATION (m)
Figure 5.
1
2500.0 3000.0
Arizona annual precipitation.
13
400.0
SUMMER TRANSITION ZONE (.)
R =0.86
Y=43.98 +0.12X
300.0
R=0.70
Y= 67.75 +0.08X
E
Z
0 200.0
EXCESS ZONE (+).
R=0.97
Y=67.30+0.1 1 X
'
' :. .
..
HE-5
ALL STATIONS
(DASHED LINE)
100.0
DEFICIT ZONE (x)
R =0.82
Ç.
IZ
Y=.--86.61+0.13X
t
0.0
0.0
500.0
1000.0
150Ó.0 200Ó.0 2500.0 30010.0
ELEVATION (m)
Figure 6. Arizona summer precipitation.
Conclusion
There are a wide range of precipitation amounts for the same
The Mogollon Rim and
elevations for both winter and summer rainfall.
other central Arizona mountain ranges appear to be the dominant factor
in establishing both excess and deficit zones for the winter months.
Excess stations appear to be the result of aspect (southerly exposure)
and orographic lifting, whereas the deficit stations are largely north
of the Mogollon Rim in a rain shadow.
A combination of increased high level moist summer air and the
relative proximity to both the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico may
explain why summer rainfall at many stations in southeastern Arizona for
the same elevation exceeds summer rainfall along the Mogollon Rim.
References Cited
Precipitation in Southern Nevada. ASCE Journal
1983.
Hydraulics Div. 109(HY10):1023 -1036.
Seasonal precipitation and temperature data for
1964.
Green, C. R.
selected Arizona stations. Technical Report No. 12, University of
Arizona, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Tucson, AZ
Southwestern United States summer monsoon source- Hales, J. E.
1973.
Gulf of Mexico or Pacific. Technical Memo. NW- SWR -84, Department
French, R. H.
of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National
Weather Service, Washington, D.C.
Estimating precipitation in mountainous regions.
Osborn, H. B.
1984.
ASCE, Journal Hydraulics Division, 110(12):1859 -63.
Influence of tropical storms on runoff -producing
Osborn, H. B. 1985.
Proceedings of
In:
rainfall in the southwestern United States.
Symposium on Tropical
the American Water Resources Association
Hydrology, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 5 -8, 1985, p. 83 -86.
Simulation of summer rainfall
1977.
Osborn, H. B., and D. R. Davis.
occurrence in Arizona and New Mexico. Hydrology and Water
Resources in Arizona and the Southwest, Office of Arid Land
Studies, Univ. of Arizona, 7:153 -162.
The Univ. of Arizona Press,
Arizona Climate.
Sellers, W. D.
1960.
Tucson AZ.
Arizona Climate
1985.
Sellers, W. D., R. H. Hill and M. Sanderson -Rae.
The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
- The First Hundred Years.
Climate & Man. United States Department of Agriculture
USDA.
1941.
Yearbook, p. 202.
15
Appendix A: Location and data of Ciiiat:logical stations In Artcona with it least thirty `ears
of recur° 1900 -1982.
No.
Station
Perin of
Naie
Record
longitude
Lat : -
E evat-,Averaae 2'e_ :oltat.0n
tuile
ion (ai
Annual
3uiaer
.
t 13i
ainter
Aguila
05/24 -12122
110.737
23.95
561.
:22.76
31.7?
140.97
2
Ajo
05/14 -11152
110.953
22.27
537.
224. :3
111.00
113. :3
3
Aldine
10/04-12/92
114.797
33.35
2444.
5:3.49
2311.67
242.32
4
Anvil Rancn
07/48 -12/82
112.537
:1.98
8S.
287.27
169.93
117.35
3
Apache Powder Caocany
07123-12!92
113.653
31.70
1125.
326.39
219.44
107.95
6
Ash Fork
04/02 -09/75
111.437
745.22
1567.
2:3.34
159.26
164.09
7
3agaaa
05/25 -08/72
110.127
34.53
1142.
J48.74
122.60
215.14
3
Bartlett Saa
09!39 -12!92
112.237
33.32
303.
::22.59
112.32
210.06
9
Benson
01/00 -05/75
1155.620
31.97
1090.
289.56
185.17
104.29
10
Betatakin
07/48-12/82
113.3ô7
36.58
2221.
292.61
123.44
169.16
11
Bisbee
01/00 -12132
114.003
31.45
1653.
468.29
291.34
177.04
12
Black River Puios
07/48-12/92
114.153
:2.48
1841.
457.96
225.31
231.35
13
Blue
11/03 -12/82
114.820
23.62
1756.
506.22
273.30
232.92
14
Bouse
01/52 -12182
109.903
33.95
283.
137.92
58.67
79.25
15
Bowie
01/00 -12/82
114.437
32.33
1145.
258.57
142.49
116.08
16
Buckeye
01/00 -12/82
111.337
33.37
265.
188.72
71.63
117.09
17
Canelo 1 NW
01 /10 -12/82
113.387
31.15
1519.
452.63
281.59
170.94
18
Casa brande
01 /00 -12/82
112.170
22.38
428.
212.24
92.46
119.89
19
Casa Brande Ruins NM
03/06 -1 2/82
112.337
33.00
433.
223.27
86.11
137.16
20
Cedar Slade
02/15-01/54
111.537
34.97
1417.
348.49
153.67
194.82
21
Chand1er'Heights
07/48 -12/82
112.237
33.22
434.
212.09
75.69
136.40
22
Childs
09/15-12/32
112.220
34.35
808.
453.64
177.80
275.34
23
Chinle
12/08 -11/70
114.387
36.15
1588.
233.17
122.17
111.00
24
Chino Valley
07/48 -12/82
111.470
34.75
1448.
308.10
154.94
153.16
25
Chiricanua NM
01/09-12/82
114.570
32.00
1615.
460.50
277.37
183.13
26
Cibecue
06/27 -01/79
113.470
34.05
1615.
475.49
210.82
264.67
27
Clifton
01/00 -12/82
114.637
33.05
1056.
320.30
170.94
149.36
29
Cochise Power House
01/00 -12154
114.020
32.07
1274.
277.11
165.35
111.76
29
Cordes
07/42-12/82
111.753
34.30
1149.
363.73
154.43
209.30
30
Crown King
12/14 -12/82
111.587
34.20
1829.
711.71
278.64
433.07
31
Deer Valley
01/50 -12/92
111.837
33.58
383.
204.22
71.63
132.59
32
Douglas FAA Airport
07/48 -12/82
114.220
31.45
1249.
310.64
210.06
100 .58
33
Douglas Swelter
12/03-03/73
114.337
31.25
1211.
311.15
208.28
102.87
34
Duncan
05/01 -12/82
114.320
32.73
1109.
251.97
136.14
115.32
Eagle Creek
01128 -07/73
114.437
33.40
1554.
406.91
225.04
181.26
36
Elgin 5 N
10/12 -01 /70
113.387
31.73
1494.
321.25
248.92
132.33
37
Fairbank
07/09-03/73
113.737
31.72
1177.
299.72
209.55
90.17
38
Flagstaff $80 Airport
01/50-12/32
112.253
35.20
2104.
535.18
200.66
234.52
39
Florence-
09!08 -12182
112.537
33.03
459.
252.:2
97.79
154.43
40
Fort Grant
01 /00 -09/74
114.070
32.52
1486.
2:6.64
179.07
147.57
41
Fort Huachuca
02/00-12181
113.587
31.57
1422.
:90.91
249.43
141.48
42
Fort Valley
01 /09 -12/82
112.137
á5.Z7
2239.
570.74
241.05
329.69
43
Ganado
07/48 -12182
114.353
35.72
1932.
275.61
131.06
145.54
44
Gila Bend
01/00 -12182
111.203
:2.95
225.
148.34
59.17
45
Gisela
01/16-12182
112.627
774.12
384.
451.26
178.56
46
Gide
01/31 -12/52
113.137
32.23
1092.
409.13
125.773
47
2ould's Ranch
01í15 -09/50
111.53
.2.23
251.
194.32
75.69
119.12
48
,irano Canyon riDQRE
09/02-02/57
111.205
:6.05
:1_..
276.75
172.72
224.05
49
uranie Reei Jai
01í00-09i79
:12. 223
:3.5:
404.
.7.46
112.90
117.v2
1
35
'
1
S
-
16
90.17
i
272.20
222.2'
Greer
07/48-12/82
114.452
34.02
2538.
598.42
293.70
Griggs 3 W
01/50-12/82
111.437
33.50
354.
19:.30
69.09
124.71
Heoer Ranger Station
08/50-12/82
113.370
34.40
2009.
456.13
216.92
239.27
Helvetia Santa Rita Es
06/16-04/50
113.070
31.77
1311.
496.57
283.46
213.11
Holbrook
01/00-12/82
113.753
34.90
1545.
211.33
114.81
96.52
Horseshoe Dam
07/48-12/82
112.203
33.98
616.
372.11
136.91
235.20
Intake
07/06-04/52
112.987
33.62
677.
340.87
145.54
195.33
lrvi. ^.g
01/51-12/82
112.303
34.40
1147.
515.11
192.28
:22.23
Jerome
01/00-12/82
111.803
34.75
1599.
479.04
206.76
272.29
Junipine
07/48-06/82
112.170
34.97
1562.
704.34
224.54
479.31
Kayenta
06/15-03/78
113.653
36.73
1727.
195.63
102.36
93.47
Keaas Canyon
08/48-12/82
113.720
35.82
1894.
2ó7.72
113.03
154.69
Kelvin
07/4E-12/82
112.953
33.10
564.
360.93
133.36
227.08
Kingman
05/01-07/67
109.870
35.18
1017.
263.14
94.74
168.40
Laveen 3 SSE
07/48-12/82
111.770
33.33
340.
195.07
82.80
112.27
Lees Ferry
04/16-12/82
112.337
36.87
957.
150.88
70.87
80.01
Leslie Canyon
05/16-01/60
114.353
31.58
1360.
318.77
205.23
113.54
Leupp
07/48-04/81
112.953
35.28
1433.
164.59
89.92
74.68
Litchfield Park
08/17-12/82
111.553
33.50
314.
197.10
71.37
125.73
Maricopa 8 SSE
01/00-12/58
111.820
32.92
427.
189.74
86.87
102.87
Marinette
07/13-09/64
111.620
33.63
349.
200.41
70.10
130.30
McNary
08/33-12/82
114.070
34.07
2231.
670.81
273.56
397.26
Mesa Experisent Fars
01/00-12/82
112.053
33.42
373.
206.50
77.72
128.78
Miami
02/14-12/82
113.037
33.40
1098.
484.38
196.09
288.29
Mohawk
07/00-05/51
110.387
32.80
138.
105.41
42.16
63.25
Montezusa Castle NM
10/38-12/82
112.087
34.62
969.
303.53
127.76
175.77
Mormon Flat
08/23-11/82
112.470
33.55
523.
342.65
128.78
213.87
Mount Trumbull
10/19-12/77
110.587
36.42
1695.
296.93
145.54
151.38
Natural Bridge
01/00-11/72
112.470
34.32
1404.
626.62
238.25
388.37
N Lazy H Ranch
07/48-12/82
113.237
32.12
930.
319.53
166.12
153.42
Nogales-Post June '48
07/48-12/82
113.003
31.35
1158.
417.32
265.18
152.15
Nogales -Thru June '48
01/00-06/48
112.970
31.33
1189.
402.34
262.64
139.70
Nogales 6 N
10/52-12/82
112.987
31.35
1145.
427.99
275.08
152.91
Oracle
01/00-03/49
113.203
32.57
1356.
508.00
212.09
295.91
Oracle 2 SE
02/50-12/82
113.187
32.60
1384.
534.16
230.89
303.28
Organ Pipe Cactus NM
07/48-12/82
111.137
31.93
511.
224.03
103.12
120.90
Paradise
01/06-08/37
114.703
31.93
1654.
485.14
276.61
208.53
Parker
02/00-12/82
109.637
34.17
130.
119.89
38.35
81.53
Patagonia
07/21-12/77
113.170
31.55
1233.
449.58
286.00
163.58
Payson RS
03/09-02/74
112.597
34.23
1478.
523.24
217.42
305.82
Payson
11/40-12/82
112.587
34.23
1497.
544.32
219.20
325.12
Peach Springs
07/46-11/82
110.520
35.55
1515.
282.96
132.08
150.68
Pearce
03/50-09/80
114.103
31.90
1347.
300.23
200.91
99.31
Petrified Forest NP
07/48-12/82
114.053
34.E0
1658.
221.74
120.40
101.35
Phoenix NSFO Airport
07/48-I2/82
111.903
33.43
340.
178.05
66.55
111.51
Phoenix City
07/48-12/82
111.853
33.45
330.
190.50
69.09
121.41
Pinal Ranch
01/00-05/73
112.937
33.35
1378.
629.92
220.98
408.94
Pinedale
06/12-12/68
113.670
34.30
1981.
467.36
216.92
250.44
Pinetoo Fish Hatchery
07/48-12/82
114.003
34.12
2195.
596.90
257.05
339.85
Portal
01/14-03/55
114.753
31.90
1524.
446.53
260.10
166.44
Prescott
01/00-12/82
:11.470
34.55
1649.
495.31
222.76
273.05
160.53
i
295.7
Redinaton
07/48-12/32
+13.437
32.60
874.
332.99
172.41
Red Rock 6 SSA
07/02-10/73
112.553
,.2.50
567.
246.89
116.59
130.30
;en: Ranter ..tat_.,.
I1115-04/77
112.603
:3.27
7166.
469.39
169.67
299.72
.7,:5-12/22
112.770
.,3.67
6672.
359.30
1só.40
_63.40
Sccsevel t
I
WNW
17
105
Ruby Star Ranch
02/50-12/82
112.612
31.92
1109.
349.74
204.99
142.76
106
Rucker Canyon
05/17-12/82
114.503
31.75
1637.
493.36
283.46
199.90
107
Saoino Canyon
07/45-09/82
112.103
32.30
805.
224,01
163.32
170.69
108
Sacaton
04/08-10/82
112.170
33.07
392.
97.28
124.97
109
Safford
01/00-06/73
114.203
32.93
884.
224.03
122.17
101.95
110
Safford Ezp Farm
08/48-12/82
114.237
32.82
900.
215.90
116.08
99.92
111
Saint Johns
08/01-12/82
114.553
34.50
1747.
288.80
166.12
122.68
112
Salome 6 SE
01/09-04/57
110.320
33.79
576.
200.41
92.30
118.11
113
San Carlos Reservoir
07/48-12/82
112.403
32.17
772.
366.27
141.99
224.28
114
San Rafael Rancis
07/2.-.3/69
113.303
31.35
1445.
440.69
299.04
152.65
115
San Simon
01/00-07/62
114.670
32.27
1193.
234.70
126.52
106.17
116
Santa Margarita
06/17-11/50
112.337
31.68
1196.
410.72
255.02
155.70
117
Santa Rita Ezo Range
05/50-1112
113.070
31.77
1311.
534.02
302.01
232.92
118
Sasabe 7 NW
12/50-12/82
112.320
31.58
1166.
464.57
256.03
208.53
119
Sedona RS
07/48-12/82
112.153
34.87
1317.
450.60
166.12
284.48
120
Seligman
12/04-12/82
111.037
35.32
1591.
282.96
141.48
141.48
121
Sierra Ancha
11/13-09/79
112.953
33.80
1554.
675.64
242.32
433.32
122
Silver Bell
02/06-04/74
112.420
32.38
835.
322.58
167.89
154.69
123
Snowflake
01/00-12/82
113.837
34.50
1720.
311.40
178.05
133.35
124
Springerville
04/11-12/82
114.637
34.13
2123.
305.56
208.53
97.03
125
Stephens Ranch
12/28-03/82
114.720
31.40
1219.
339.85
205.23
134.62
126
Stewart Mountain
07/48-12/82
112.387
33.57
433.
302.26
104.65
197.61
127
Superior
07/20-12/82
112.820
33.30
913.
455.93
167.39
288.54
128
Sycamore RS
07/19-12/59
111.970
34.35
1231.
435.61
187.45
248.16
129
Tempe Veg Res Fara
01/26-12/82
111.987
33.38
360.
201.93
75.95
125.98
130
Tempe
01/05-06/52
111.987
33.43
351.
217.93
87.63
130.30
131
Tombstone
07/00-12/82
113.853
31.72
1384.
351.79
232.41
119.38
132
Trurton Canyon
07/48-03/80
110.253
35.38
1164.
277.11
121.67
155.45
133
Tuba City
01/00-12/75
112.670
36.13
1504.
166.88
73.41
93.47
134
Tucson Campbell Farm
02/49-12/82
112.970
32.28
710.
289.56
145.54
144.02
135
Tucson Magnetic Obey
07/48-12/92
113.067
32.25
770.
301.75
148.34
153.42
136
Tucson Univ of Ariz
01/00-12/82
112.970
32.25
741.
262.70
147.57
135.13
137
Tucson WSO Airport
07/48-12/82
112.987
32.12
788.
291.69
160.02
121.67
138
Tumacacori NM
07/48-12/82
112.870
31.57
996.
373.13
232.92
140.21
139
Tuweep
07/48-12/82
I10.853
36.28
1455.
310.39
130.81
179.58
140
Wallace RS
05/16-04/59
113.003
34.53
2135.
468.12
233.68
234.44
141
Walnut Canyon NM
10/50-12/82
112.403
35.17
2033.
448.06
183.64
264.41
142
Walnut Creek
12/15-12/82
111.103
34.93
1551.
417.07
195.33
221.74
143
Walnut Grove
01/00-12/82
111.370
34.30
1147.
444.25
182.63
261.62
144
Wellton
03/22-12/80
109.787
32.67
79.
105.66
42.93
62.74
145
Whiteriver
02/00-12/82
113.953
33.83
1609.
467.87
225.81
242.06
146
Wickenburg
03/08-12/82
111.187
33.97
639.
283.21
118.11
165.10
147
Willcox
01/00-12/82
114.070
32.30
1277,
302.01
173.74
129.27
148
Williams
07/02-12/82
111.737
35.25
2057.
549.40
229.36
320.04
149
Window Rock 4 SW
03/37-12/92
114.870
35.69
2057.
305.31
159.51
145.80
150
Winslow WSO Airport
01/00-12/82
113.187
35.02
1492.
204.98
113.54
91.44
151
Wittman
12/23-11/66
111.387
32.55
518.
230.38
93.22
137.16
152
Wupatki NM
07/48-12/82
112.553
35.52
1496.
204.47
119.38
85.09
153
Y Lightning Ranch
01/39-12/82
113.720
31.45
1387.
329.93
213.87
115.06
154
Young
07/03-09/64
112.-87
34.10
1539.
540.26
237.49
302.77
155
Yuma Citrus Stager
09/2-12/82
109.270
32.62
58.
93.82
30.23
52.59
156
Yuma Valley
11/30-12/82
109.203
32.72
37.
71.37
22.37
48.01
151
Yuma WS0
.9/49-12i82
I09.220
22.67
59.
65.79
21.34
44.45
158
Yuca
1;9.303
22.13
,,,.
67.,:
22.26
54.86
18
I
MAPPING THE AREAL PRECIPITATION OVER ARIZONA USING KRIGING TECHNIQUE
Arnon Karnieli
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
2000 East Allen Road, Tucson, Arizona 85719
and
University of Arizona, Water Resources Research Center
Abstract
The classical methods for interpolating and spatial averaging of
precipitation fields fail to quantify the accuracy of the estimate. On
the other hand, kriging is an interpolation method for predicting values
of regionalized variables at points (punctual kriging) or average values
over an area (block kriging).
This paper demonstrates the use of the kriging method for mapping
Using 158
and evaluating precipitation data for the state of Arizona.
rain gage stations with 30 years or more of record, the precipitation
over the state has been modeled as a realization of a two dimensional
random field taking into consideration the spatial variability
conditions.
.
Three data sets have been used: (1) the mean annual precipitation
over the state; (2) the mean summer rainy season; and (3) the mean
winter rainy season. Validation of the empirical semi -variogram for a
constant drift case indicated that the exponential model was appropriate
In addition to a global kriging analysis, the
for all the data sets.
data have been examined under an anisotropic assumption which reflects
the topographic structure of the state.
Introduction
Several interpolation techniques such as arithmetic mean, linear
interpolation or the nearest neighbor (Thiessen Weight) method, have
been widely used for areal mapping of precipitation fields (Hall and
Other techniques have been reviewed by Creutin and
Barclay, 1975).
Obled (1982). A relatively new technique is presented and evaluated in
This technique
this paper referred to as kriging (after D. G. Krige).
It has been
was originally developed for geoscience applications.
19
applied recently in a few cases to the mapping of precipitation fields
(Delfiner and Delhomme, 1975; Montmollin et al., 1980; Chua and Bras,
1982; Bastin et al., 1984; Obley and Creutin, 1986).
Matheron (1971) coined the term "regionalized variable" to describe
variables which can be characterized from a certain number of
The optimal estimator
measurements which identify spatial structure.
(in the current case for the average areal precipitation) is a linear
minimum variance unbiased estimator which requires knowledge of the
variogram of the random variable (precipitation) as a function of space.
Therefore a theoretical variogram model must be chosen and its
parameters have to be estimated prior to the interpolation.
The kriging technique, which was adapted from various resources
(Delfiner and Delhomme, 1975; Journel and Huijbregts, 1978; Delhomme,
1978), is briefly introduced below.
Theoretical Background
Let x7, x2,...,xn be the sample locations with given precipitation
values of Z-(xt), Z(x2),...,Z(xn) and x0 is the unsampled location. Then
the value of precipitation in the unsampled location, Z(x0), is
estimated as a linear weighted combination of n known surrounding data,
depending on distance from the unsampled location:
N
Z* (x01 J
J
l
i - 1...n
Al Z (xi)l
(1)
ll
i= 1
J
where the weights A. are determined such that Z *(x0) is an unbiased estimate of Z(x0):
E
Z* (x0)
-
= 0
Z(x0)
(2)
and the estimation variance is minimum:
2
E
Z* (x0)
minimum
- Z(x0)
(3)
Substituting equation (1) into equations
where E[.] is the expectation.
(2) and (3) yields:
N
A. Z(xi1
E
i--.
l
J
-
Z(x0 1
1
ll
20
- 0
(4)
N
gx01
Z Ai Z(xi
E
!
ll
minimum
(5)
J1
i -
which leads to the following system:
N
C(x0,
C(xi,
Xi
xJ)
+ p i
L, A. - 1
i - 1
xJ)
1
(6)
where C(xi), Z(x.) - E[Z(xi, x.)] is the covariance and p is a Lagrange
multiplier which3was employed io obtain the weights.
In the kriging system the estimation variance is written in terms
The minimization yields
of differences between two sample locations.
the replacement of C(xi, xJ) by v(xi, xi):
N
Vj
((
`i vlxi' xJ) + p a v(x0' xJ)
(7a)
i s 1
A.
-1
i
(7b)
1
which yields the semi -variogram equations:
v(h) a
2
E
I
Z (x + h)
Z(x)
-
(8a)
J
or:
v(h) = 2 var IZ (x + h)
-
(8b)
Z(x))
where v(h) is the semi -variogram function, h is the distance between
The
sample locations (also called the lag) and var(.) is the variance.
v(h)
is
a
graph
which
relates
the
differences
or
incresemi -variogram
ments of the regionalized variable Z to the distance h between the data
When there is a trend or drift in the data set, the residuals,
points.
R(x), are used in Eq. 8 instead of the realizations, Z(x), to estimate
can be calculated
An empirical semi- variogram, v
the semi- variogram.
from the given set of observations by using the following numerical
,
approximation:
N
(xi + hl
ve - 1/ r2N(hell
L
l
JJ
i
1 CZ
l
-
ZIxiJJ
Z(
xi))
(9)
JJ
where N(he) is the number of pairs of points a distance he apart (Olea,
1975).
21
In order to solve Eq. 7, one of several common theoretical forms of
Eq. 8 must be used in order to visually fit y to v (Delhomme, 1979).
Once the theoretical semi -variogram has been chosen, four criteria can
be used to determine the correctness of the model and to adjust its
parameters:
(1) mean kriged estimation error:
[zj
1/n
-
1/n
Z*(
Z* xi)]
xil
(10)
where Ei is the difference between the kriged and the known point value
(this term should approach 0).
(2) mean standardized squared estimation error:
2
n
^
1/n
{z(xjJ
-
Z *(x
/i
n
- 1/n
LL
Ei/si12 = 1
iLL
(11)
L
where si is the estimation standard deviation (this term should approach
1).
(3) sample correlation coefficient between the* estimation values, Z
and the standardized estimation values, (Z - Z )/s
*
,
.
This term should approach O.
*
(4) sample correlation coefficient between the estimation values, Z
and the known values, Z (this term should approach 1).
,
Data Collection
Annual average, summer and winter averages of rainfall depth over
the state of Arizona has been adapted from Sellers et al. (1985).
The
summer rainy season includes the months of May to September and the
winter rainy season includes the months of October to April.
Each of the three data sets are based on 158 rain gage stations
having more than 30 years of record. This reduces the time variability
of the precipitation record which is assumed to be very large in
Arizona.
Figure 1 illustrates the location and the spatial distribution of
the 158 raingage stations over the state.
22
STATE OF ARIZONA: LOCATION OF RAINGAGES
115 00
114.00
111.00
112.00
113.00
110.00
109.00
37.00
37.00
77
X
13s
X
133
46
X
X
36.00
36.00
n
X
th
152
*
1
X
120
I
X
#
# 1' 11
X
1s0
'*
35.00
17
'X
7
24
M
*
*
10*0
*
t1f*
X
»
1X
41
12s
'* # *
X
#
.21f
ir
112
*
151".
*
* *
44
33.00
*
*
**#'i
*
121
*
#
13
+
122*
*
1
110
11s1
*
134-
*
1,:/53
*
135
*
*
*
is
*
147
*
*
*
*
37.131
M j 41 * #
* *
1*
*183
*
11
*
115
*
»#
,19
33.00
34
»
200
100
0*
#
*
32.00
*
tosllo
101
102
0
*
*
113
*
50
34.00
X
127"}*
21
2
100
'x
X
12
*
144
s5
/**
*
+
'#¡#
M
~
25
10. #
20.7,0
31
X
17
184
,aa
111
X
X
+s
'#
'*'
X
123
M
30
34.00
35.00
>rs
32.00
,a *1'
M
32 *
336..
124
*
KM
31.00
115.00
I
1
114.00
113.00
112.00
111.00
Figure 1: The State of Arizona - location of raingages.
23
110.00
I
109.00
31.00
Methods
All the variogram and kriging calculations under were computed by
using the BLUEPACK -3D software package implemented on a VAX 11/780 at
the University of Arizona Computer Center. The BLUEPACK -3D is an
integrated geostatistic program, written in FORTRAN, which was developed
jointly by the Center de Geostatistique - Fontainebleau, France and the
BRGM (French Geological Survey).
The variograms were fitted and plotted using VPLOT - a graphic
package developed for the IBM -PC by D. E. Myers and G. J. Jalkanen, the
University of Arizona, Tucson. The kriging maps have been produced by
SURFER - a graphic computer package for two or three dimensional
plotting.
Structural Analysis and Results
The first step in the kriging analysis was to establish the semi The empirical variograms for all three cases (annual,
variograms.
summer and winter) are shown in Figure 2.
Each plot includes the
variogram for the four principal directions of the grid (North- South;
East -West; NE -SW; and NW -SE) and the Onmi direction which is the average
For an isotropic phenomenon it is assumed that the
of the former four.
varigram is not a function of the angle of the direction between the
As a result, the theoretical semi -variogram, assuming
data points.
isotropy, is calculated only on the Onmi direction. From these plots
All four
the absence of detectable nugget variance can be recognized.
semi -variograms start from the origin.
Eq. 9 was used to calculate the isotropic empirical semi -variogram
Few theoretical models (Delhomme, 1978) have
for a constant drift case.
been examined. The final model was chosen as a result of the cross
validation procedure. The exponential and the spherical models produce
All three empirical variograms were fitted with
about the same results.
an exponential model of the form:
v(h) - CO + C1
[1
-
exp (-1h1/a)]
(12)
is the nugget variance and CO +
The fitted exponential models are illustrated in
where a is the range, h is the lag, C
C1 equals the sill.
Figure 3 and the value of the parameters together with the cross
validation results are presented in Table 1.
In the next step the kriging interpolation for the maps was
performed.
Figures 4, 5 and 6 show the final product of the analysis as
One can find these maps very similar to other average
isohyetal maps.
precipitation maps of Arizona (e.g. the map in Sellers et al., 1985).
However, the advantage of the proposed kriging technique is in its by
product.
24
I
I
)1(
, HI,
0
0
* EAST - WEST
//
\
,-
i c a l
K
0.50
r
-i
/ \,
/
/
/
/
/
/
,>a( .yc
\\
\\
/ `+\ \ _
\m
//
I
1.00
..../
,.
/
/
fr\
.
1
1.25
-
1
1.50
/44(7
/\
I
1.75
/ S8
-
,\
f
/
/
*
the average precipitation depth for the four principle
h
iA -At
Lag distance -
0.75
r
I
annual.
semi -var i uti;ram of
0.25
T
/A.
/ W/
,x...--
,/
7F-"*/
/
/
/
,/
!
ti
A
'
'
.
,'
,
c'
,
j ï3
/ k
directions and global -
2A: by i
0.00
/
i/
/,._
-
//
GLOBAL
m NORTHWEST - SOUTHEAST
O NORTH - SOUTH
+ NORTHEAST - SOUTHWEST
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - ANNUAL
7
i
2.00
\\
`\
-#`\\
\
a`
N.)
0
CD
EAST - WEST
NORTH - SOUTH
0.00
GLO8AL
0.25
/
45
0.50
' ,.,
zh NORTHWEST - SOUTHEAST
i
1.00
0.75
Lag distance - h
h(í
/ tj
/
*
1.25
\
1.50
*/
J
i
/
`
+
1.75
1irfe inno and 01 tal - siimmP
Figure 2b: Empirical semi-varigram of the average precipitation depth for the four principle
ó
o0
o
0
.-- (O --,
(NJ
)1(
+ NORTHEAST - SOUTHWEST
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - SUMMER
2.00
V
CM
//'
0.00
-
i
\
/
---
I
0.25
I
.2
x-
,f-- -
/i/ X.
//
/
#
N
0.50
i
¡
-m
l\
cr-
\/
/ l'
\
`
¡
¡
I
¡
?
I
1.00
\
/
\
in,-
*I'
A
I
\
..
'
1.25
,
/ \
\
I
4?
/
1
1.50
I
¡
v
A
0\+
directions and global - winter.
\
á -2
\
1.75
I
*--\ +/ /--- As
b
\
_
4/
/
,
//,
_'/ xr
,
0_
\
,e
\
Lag distance - h
0.75
1
/
4i
/
/ '%e'\
/A
i
' //
/
4/
//
/.4,0(
-P\\ /\
`\/
/
±--
¡
/
/
¡
4?
/
Figure 2c: Empirical semi-variogram of the average precipitation depth for the four principle
ó.
o
có
oo
óCn-
0
0
)2( GLOBAL
0 NORTHWEST - SOUTHEAST
EAST - WEST
+ NORTHEAST - SOUTHWEST
O NORTH - SOUTH
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - WINTER
2.00
0
0
ó
0.00
0.25
I
0.50
1
1
h,;,1 i,,l
1.25
1
1.50
I
1.75
1
nuIf'I f average precipitation depth - annual.
1.00
0.75
Lag distance - h
I
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - ANNUAL
2.00
0.25
0.50
1
1.00
0.75
Lag distance - h
1
1.25
i
1.50
Figure 3h: Semi -variogram with exponential model of average precipitation depth - summer.
0.00
X GLOBAL
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - SUMMER
1
1.75
2.00
o
w
O
O
C
0.00
0.25
I
0.50
I
I
1.00
0.75
Lag distance - h
I
1.25
I
I
1.50
Figure 3e: Semi- variogram with exponential model of average precipitation depth - winter.
O
Od
E
E
t
-
O
O
NO O
O-
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - WINTER
I
1.75
2.00
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - ANNUAL
115.00
114.00
113.00
111.00
112.00
110.00
109.00
37.00
-
37.00
36.00
-
- 36.00
35.00
-
-- 35.00
34.00
-
- 34.00
33.00
-
- 33.00
- 32.00
f-----a
31.00
115.00
KM
114.00
113.00
112.00
111.00
110.00
109.00
Figure 4: Isohyetal map of the annual average precipitation depth of Arizona
produced by kriging. technique.
31
31.00
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - SUMMER
115 00
114.00
113.00
112.00
111.00
110.00
109.00
37.00
36.00
35.00
34.00
33.00
32.00
31.00
Figure 5: Isohyetal map of the summer average precipitation depth of Arizona
produced by kriging technique.
32
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - WINTER
115.00
114.00
113.00
111.00
112.00
110.00
109.00
- 32.00
KM
112.00
31.00
t
111.00
110.00
109.00
Figure 6: Isohyetal map of the winter average precipitation depth of Arizona
produced by kriging technique.
33
TABLE 1: Parameters and cross validation results for exponential model
semi- variogram fitting.
NUGGET
CROSS VALIDATION RESULTS
MODEL PARAMETERS
SILL
RANGE
LAG
1
2
4
3
ANNUAL
0.0
0.8
0.18E5
0.1
0.02
0.61
0.03
0.84
SUMMER
0.0
1.0
0.50E4
0.1
0.01
0.76
0.08
0.91
WINTER
0.0
0.7
0.90E4
0.1
0.02
0.47
0.05
0.81
- mean kriged estimation error.
- mean standarized squared estimation error.
3 - correlation coefficient between the estimation values and the
standarized estimation values.
4 - correlation coefficient between the estimation values and the known
values.
1
2
Figure 7 presents the associated kriging errors map in terms of
The kriging errors are a function of the sample site
density and depend only on the geometrical location of the measured
kriging variance.
points.
Errors are common when using an irregular grid such as rainfall
gage stations and are a good measure of the precision of the
In this study the kriging variance is
generally greater than 50 and less than 125. It can be seen that the
interpolation (Delhomme, 1978).
kriged map is relatively precise in the middle of the state, however the
errors become greater towards the edges of the map specially towards the
north -west corner of the state as a result of fewer data points close to
the state borders (refer to Figure 1).
Bastin et al., (1984) suggested to look on the variance as
depending exclusively on the location of the rain gages.
Thus, it is
possible to compute the error variance associated with any set of
hypothetical data points without getting actual data at these points.
The above authors demonstrate the use of the kriging variance as an
efficient tool for solving rain gage allocation problems.
So far discussed, it was assumed that the variation of the
precipitation over the state was much the same in all directions.
However, one of the features of the experimental semi -variograms
presented in Figure 2, is evident anisotropy because of the semi In all cases, annual, summer and winter, the sill
variograms sill.
differs appreciably within the four principal directions. When the
variability is not the same in every direction and there is a greater
spatial dependence in one direction the phenomenon is said to be
directional (or zonal) anisotropic (Journel and Huijbregts, 1978).
Table 2 summarized the structural analyses of the anisotropic
Only those pairs of points lying within a particular interval
cases.
34
KRIGING VARIANCE
115.00
114.00
113.00
112.00
111.00
110.00
109.00
Figure 7: Error map in kriging variance of the average precipitation depth of
Arizona.
35
are used in Eq. 9 to calculate empirical semi -variogram for that
A separate theoretical semi As
can
be recognized from Table
variogram is fitted for each direction.
2, the semi -variograms can be grouped into two; the N -S and the NE -SW
corresponding angle -of- direction interval.
semi-variograms indicate lower sill, and the E -W and the
variograms are characterized by higher sill.
NW -SE semi -
Note that in all the three
cases the exponential model has been used and that all the other
variogram parameters:
TABLE 2:
the range, nugget and lag remain unchanged.
Parameters of anisotropic semi -variograms.
NUGGET
DIRECTION
MODEL PARAMETERS
SILL
RANGE
LAG
ANNUAL
EAST - WEST
NORTHEAST - SOUTHWEST
NORTH - SOUTH
NORTHWEST - SOUTHEAST
GLOBAL
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.18E5
0.22E5
0.25E5
0.18E5
0.21E5
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
EAST - WEST
NORTHEAST - SOUTHWEST
NORTH - SOUTH
NORTHWEST - SOUTHEAST
GLOBAL
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.40E4
0.60E4
0.60E4
0.50E4
0.50E4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
EAST - WEST
NORTHEAST - SOUTHWEST
NORTH - SOUTH
NORTHWEST - SOUTHEAST
GLOBAL
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.07E4
0.10E4
0.12E4
0.07E4
0.09E4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
SUMMER
WINTER
Figure 8 presents the theoretical semi -variogram for both the N -S
and E -W directions.
The unisotropic phenomenon of the precipitation
fields in Arizona can be explained by the topographic structure of the
state disregarding the storms origin and direction (for more detailed
discussion see Karnieli and Osborn in this issue). This can be
concluded also by the similar unisotropic structure for the annual,
summer and the winter cases. The Mogollon Rim which stretches in the
middle of the state, oriented from NW to SE provides a significant
orographic effect on the precipitation.
Consequently, the variation of
the precipitation is greater in the N -S and NE -SW directions
(perpendicular to the Mogollon Rim) than in the E -W and NW -SE
directions.
36
0.25
0.50
1.00
0.75
Lag distance - h
1.25
1.50
1.75
Figure 8a: Zonal (directional) anisotropie of the average precipitation in Arizona - annual.
0.00
O NORTH - SOUTH
* EAST - WEST
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - ANNUAL
2.00
NE EAST - WEST
0.25
O NORTH - SOUTH
1
0.50
!
O
1.00
1.25
O
1.75
th(. .rv(,rage precipitation in Arizona - summer.
Lag distance - h
0.75
O
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - SUMMER
O
2.00
0.00
0.25
0.50
I
I
0.75
1.00
Lag distance - h
I
1.25
t
O
I
1.50
I
1.75
Figure 8c: Zonal (directional) anisotropic of the average precipitation in Arizona - winter.
O
O
ERST - WEST
O NORTH - SOUTH
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION - WINTER
O
2.00
On the other hand, the presented zonal unisotropic can be
interpreted as a spatial drift which have not been observed by the
In this case a polynomial drift should be
current computer package.
Chua and
fitted in order to be eliminated from the kriging algorithm.
Bras (1982) and Neuman and Jacobson (1984) describe various of methods
for dealing with this problem.
Conclusions
Kriging is an advanced interpolation technique in which the
This paper has
estimator is a linear minimum variance unbias estimator.
proposed the application of kriging method for contour mapping as well
as for estimating the average areal rainfall over large regions such as
the State of Arizona with irregular rain gage network.
The kriging variance contour map (Figure 7) indicates that the
predicted spatial structure agrees fairly well with the actual spatial
structure.
However, for better results stations surrounding the state
Furthermore, the error
borders, have to be taken into consideration.
map can help the National Weather Service in selecting the optimal
location of additional rain gages in order to increase the network
accuracy.
References Cited
Optimal
1984.
Bastin, G., B. Lorent, C. Duque, and M. Gevers.
estimation of the average areal rainfall and optimal selection of
Water Resources Research.
rainfall gauge location.
20(4):463 -470.
Optimal estimator of mean areal
1982.
L. Bras.
Journal of
precipitation in regions of orographic influence.
Chua, S. C. and R.
Hydrology.
57:23 -48.
Objective analysis and mapping
1982.
D. and Ch. Obley.
techniques for rainfall fields: An objective comparison. Water
Creutin, J.
Resources Research.
18(2):413 -431.
Optimum interpolation by
1975.
Delfine, P. and J. P. Delhomme.
kriging, in Display and Analysis of Spatial Data. J. C. Davis and
M. J. McCullagh (Ed.).
Delhome, J.
P.
Resources.
1978.
New York:
John Wiley.
96
Kriging in the hydroscience.
-
114.
Advances in Water
1(5):251 -266.
De Montmollin, F. A., R. J. Olivier, R. G. Simard, and F. Zwahlen.
Evaluation of a precipitation map using a smoothed elevation 1980.
Nordic
precipitation relationship and optimal estimates (kriging).
11:113 -120.
Hydrology.
40
1975.
Methods of determining areal
Prediction
in Catchment Hydrology.
rainfall from observed data. In:
Australia:
X. Griffin.
X. Chapman and X. Dunin (Ed.).
Hall, A. J. and P. A. Barcylay.
Journel, A. G. and C. J. Huijbregts.
Academic Press.
York:
1978.
Mining Geostatistics. New
1977.
Rainfall network systems
analyses: the optimal estimation of total areal storm depth. Water
13(5):825 -836.
Resources Research.
Lenton, R. L. and I. Rodgiguez -Iturbe.
The theory of regionalized variables and its
1971.
Matheron, G.
application.
Cha. Cen. Morphol. Math., 5. Ecol Mines,
Fontainebleau, 211 p.
Analysis of nonintrinsic
Neuman, S. P. and E. A. Jacobson.
1984.
spatial variability by residual kriging with application to regional
16(5):499 -521.
groundwater levels. Mathematical Geology.
Obled, Ch. and J. D. Creutin.
1986.
Some developments in the use of
empirical orthogonal functions for mapping meteorological fields.
Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology.
25(9):1189 -1204.
Olea, R. A.
Optimum Mapping Techniques Using Regionalized
1975.
Variable Theory. Kansas Geological Survey, 137 p.
Sellers, W. D., R. H. Hill and M. Sanderson -Rae.
1985.
Arizona Climate
- The First Hundred Years. Tucson: University of Arizona.
41
INITIAL SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF TREE SEEDLINGS IN A WATER HARVESTING AGRISYSTEM
Peter F. Ffolliott
School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721
Introduction
Water harvesting is a technique for developing surface water resources
that subsequently can be utilized to provide water for livestock and domestic
use, and small -scale subsistence agriculture and forestry practices.
Water
harvesting systems are artificial methods that collect and store precipitation
until it can be utilized beneficially. These systems include a catchment
area, usually treated to improve surface runoff efficiency, and a storage
facility for the harvested water, unless the water is to be applied
immediately for the growing of drought -hardy plants (Frasier and Myers, 1983).
For systems established for irrigation purposes, a water distribution scheme
also is required.
The purpose of water harvesting is to either augment the existing water
supplies, or to provide water where other sources are not available or too
A principal aim is to furnish water in sufficient quantity
costly to develop.
The technology of water
and of suitable quality for the intended use.
harvesting can be applied in almost any arid region of the world.
In this paper, the initial survival and growth of tree seedlings planted
in two catchments of a water harvesting system, located in Avra Valley, 40
This water harvesting
kilometers west of Tucson, Arizona, is reviewed.
system,. developed by the University of Arizona in cooperation with the City of
Tucson, was established to demonstrate a potential use for retired farmland,
with rainfall as the only source of water for irrigation.
Study Area
The water harvesting system, consisting of a gravity -fed sump, a storage
reservoir, sixteen catchments, and an irrigation system, occupies nearly 2
hectares in Avra Valley. Elevation of the system is about 600 meters, the
Annual
terrain is relatively level, and the soil is sandy clay loam.
precipitation is 300 millimeters, occurring in a bimodal summer -winter
distribution pattern. Summer temperatures reach 45 degrees Celsius, with
winter temperatures rarely below 0 degrees Celsius.
As mentioned above, the study area originally was farmland. However, the
City of Tucson began to purchase and retire farmland in the vicinity,
including the study area, in 1975, utilizing the groundwater to augment its
43
water needs. The native vegetation was disturbed by the earlier farming
activities, with the area currently occupied by invading "weed" species.
The Water Harvesting System
The combined design capacity of the gravity -fed sump and the storage
reservoir is approximately 2,400 cubic meters of water (Karpiscak et al.,
The sump and the storage reservoir were treated with NaC1 to decrease
1984).
infiltration, and the main reservoir is covered with 250,000 empty plastic
film cans to decrease evaporation.
Sixteen catchments, also treated with NaC1 to decrease infiltration, are
used to concentrate rainfall runoff around planted agricultural crops and tree
species in untreated planting areas at the base of the catchments (Karpiscak
et al., 1984). Excessive runoff flows directly into a collecting channel and
then into the sump. Each catchment, about 1.6 hectares in size, is
approximately 90 meters in length, varies from 6 to 18 meters in width, and
slopes about 0.5 percent.
The irrigation system consists of a 6,000 Watt centrifugal pump, an 8centimeter pipeline connecting the sump and the storage reservoir to the pump,
two 5- centimeter PVC pipelines connecting the pump to the field plots, and 2centimeter polyethylene driplines equipped with 0.01 -cubic meter per hour drip
emitters ( Karpiscak et al., 1984). The valving system permits the movement of
water from the sump to the storage reservoir, from the storage reservoir to
the sump, and from either the sump or the storage reservoir to the field. A
water meter records the amount of water applied to the plants.
Description of the Study
On July 28, 1984, 103 tree seedling of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) and
Brutia pine (Pinus brutia), grown in containers for 8 months in a greenhouse,
were hand -planted in two of the 16 catchments in the water harvesting system.
Fifty -two tree seedlings were planted in Catchment No. 8, and 51 tree
seedlings were planted in Catchment No. 10. Spacing between the tree
seedlings was approximately 2 meters along the planting lines. Measurements
of survival and growth of the tree seedlings, made annually in an initial
three -year evaluation period, form the basis for this paper.
The two tree species selected for this study commonly are found in arid
Aleppo pine is a common tree species throughout
environments in the world.
It occurs in the eastern Mediterranean region
southern Europe to Asia Minor.
in mixed stands, with several species of oak; it also grows mixed with several
Aleppo pine
broad -leaved shrubs to form the upper -story of these stands.
It is reported that the tree
typically is found on shallow sedimentary soils.
species is resistant to soil salinity, drought, and a limited amount of frost
Because of its ability to endure severe climatic and edaphic
(Abido, 1986).
conditions, Aleppo pine has been utilized in reclaiming poor soils and for
afforestation purposes in many Mediterranean countries. The tree species alsc
has been introduced into many arid regions of the world.
44
Brutia pine, once recognized as a variety of Aleppo pine, currently is
considered a separate tree species (Abido 1986). Unlike Aleppo pine, the
natural range of Brutia pine is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean
It is found from Greece to Iraq, concentrated principally in Turkey
regions.
The tree species, typically a fast -grower in its early stages, is
and Cyprus.
found on most soil types.
It has been reported by many investigators that Aleppo pine and Brutia
pine are the most important tree species in afforestation, control of erosion,
and sand dune fixation in the arid regions of the world (Abido, 1986).
However, defining the minimal rainfall regimes required for initial survival
is a frequent problem when attempting to introduce these two tree species.
Results and Discussion
Approximately six weeks after the planting, on September 8, 1984, the
first measurement of tree seedling survival was made, the results of which are
summarized below:
Catchment No. 8
Total
Live
Brutia pine
26
22
4
84.6
Aleppo pine
26
21
5
80.1
Total
52
43
9
82.7
Species
Catchment No.
Dead
Percent Survival
10
Percent Survival
Total
Live
Brutia pine
26
17
9
65.4
Aleppo pine
25
14
11
56.0
Total
51
31
20
60.8
Species
Dead
A second measurement of tree seedling survival was made on October 13,
1984, with the results presented below:
Catchment No. 8
Species
Percent Survival
Total
Live
Brutia pine
26
17
9
65.4
Aleppo pine
26
17
9
65.4
Total
52
34
18
65.4
Dead
45
Catchment No. 10
Total
Live
Dead
Percent Survival
Brutia pins
26
13
13
50.0
Aleppo pine
25
9
16
36.0
Total
51
22
29
43.0
Species
On October 13, 1984, a replacement planting of tree seedlings also was
Brutia pine seedlings, the same age as those in the original planting,
were planted for every dead tree seedling recorded on this date, regardless of
the tree species originally planted.
made.
Two years after the original planting, on July 26, 1986, a third
measurement of tree seedling survival was made. The results of this survey
are summarized below:
Catchment No. 8
Percent Survival
Total
Live
Brutia pine
17
15
2
88.2
Aleppo pine
35
28
7
80.0
Total
52
43
9
82.7
Total
Live
Species
Dead
Catchment 10
Species
Dead
Percent Survival
Brutia pine
13
7
6
53.8
Aleppo pine
38
21
17
55.3
Total
51
28
23
54.9
A fourth measurement of tree seedling survival was made on August 8,
These measurements indicated
1987, three years after the original planting.
the following:
Catchment No. 8
Species
Dead
Percent Survival
Total
Live
Brutia pine
17
15
2
88.2
Aleppo pine
35
27
8
77.1
Total
52
42
10
80.7
46
Catchment No.
Species
10
Total
Dead
Live
Percent Survival
Brutia pine
13
6
7
46.2
Aleppo pine
38
19
19
50.0
Total
51
25
26
49.0
Throughout the three -year evaluation period, survival within a catchment
has been essentially the same for the two tree species.
However, overall
survival of the tree seedlings consistently has been higher in Catchment No. 8
than in Catchment No. 10 throughout the evaluation period.
At the present
time, the reason for this difference in survival rates is unknown.
Initial growth of the tree seedlings, regardless of the species, has been
relatively slow. At the end of the three -year evaluation period, the average
height of the surviving tree seedlings was 12.5 centimeters, ranging from less
than 10 to over 16 centimeters. Diameter growth of the tree seedlings has
been insignificant. Once established, it is presumed that the growth rate of
the tree seedlings will increase.
Conclusions
Initial survival and growth of the tree seedlings, over a three -year
evaluation period, suggest that Aleppo pine and Brutia pine can be planted
with relative success in a water harvesting system, such as the one utilized
Although growth has been relatively slow, survival after three
in this study.
Long -term survival and growth
years has ranged from nearly 50 to 80 percent.
of these tree seedlings will continue to be monitored, with the results
utilized in determining the feasibility of planting Aleppo pine and Brutia
pine in the arid environments of southeastern Arizona.
References Cited
Morpho- physiological evaluations of Aleppo and Brutia
Abido, M. S.
1986.
PhD Dissertation,
pine seedlings under two different moisture regimes.
University of Arizona, Tucson, 116 p.
Handbook of water harvesting.
Frasier, G. W., and L. E. Myers.
1983.
Agricultural Research Service, Agriculture Handbook 600, 45 p.
USDA
Karpiscak, M. M., K. E. Foster, R. L. Rawles, N. G. Wright, and P. Hataway.
Water harvesting agrisystem: An alternative to ground water use in
1984.
the Avra Valley Area, Arizona. Office of Arid Lands Studies, College of
Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson, 68 p.
47
Mapping and Characterization of the Soils on the
University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center
Donald F. Post, Chris Mack, Philip D. Camp, and Ahmed S. Suliman
University of Arizona and USDA Soil Conservation Service
Department of Soil and Water Science
Room 429 Shantz Building
Tucson, AZ 85721
INTRODUCTION
The Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC)
is
a University of
Arizona research and demonstration farm located three miles east of
Maricopa and three miles north of the Casa Grande -Maricopa Highway in
The farm is 770 hectares (2100 acres) in
Pinal County, Arizona.
Figure 1 is a
size, and the elevation is 358 meters (1175 feet).
field map of MAC Farm which lists the legal description for the land
and gives the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid notations for
the section corners (half -section corners for part of the farm).
This map also shows field numbers and field boundaries.
Data collected on MAC farm should be spatially referenced to the
The numbers reported in this paper are averages of
UTM coordinates.
UTM
several measurements made by us to identify farm boundaries.
coordinate numbers are expressed in meters north and east
of
reference points noted on U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Maps.
It is difficult to absolutely identify coordinates to the nearest
All soils data
meter; however we believe these are accurate.
collected by these authors are referenced to the coordinates listed
in Figure 1.
The response of crops grown on this farm are greatly affected by
the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soils.
Therefore, it is essential that the nature, properties, and
This paper presents soil
distribution of the soils be known.
characterization data about MAC Farm soils that should be very useful
in helping researchers understand plant responses on the farm.
49
The MAC Farm was acquired in January, 1983 and field studies and
collection of soil samples to map and characterize the soils began in
We initially sampled
May, 1984 and continued until January, 1987.
and described five (5) soil profiles on the research part of farm
(Section 20), and they were sent to the National Soil Survey
In January of 1987
Laboratory in Lincoln, NE for detailed analyses.
six (6) additional soil profiles were described and sampled on the
demonstration part of the farm (Sections 17, 18, and 19), and
selected analyses were completed on these pedons.
The lab procedures
Survey
used to characterize these soils are described in Soil
Investigation Report 11.
Many soil
borings to depths of 1.0 -1.5 meters were made
throughout the farm and appropriate notes and observations recorded.
Over 800 Ap surface horizon samples (0 to 30cm depth) were collected
on a grid system, and selected analyses were completed on these
The soil map of the farm and a display of soil properties,
samples.
notably the texture of the surface soil horizon, is presented in this
The methodology and terminology used to prepare the soil map
paper.
follows the National Cooperative Soil Survey guidelines as presented
in the National Soils Handbook, the Soil Survey Manual, and Soil
Taxonomy.
The Soil Map of MAC
Three soil series, Casa Grande, Trix, and Shontik have been
Table 1 lists the soil map unit name and the
mapped on the farms.
Two of the mapping
taxonomic classification for each soil series.
units are identified as an association of two soil series, which
means the soils are geographically associated but we were not able to
map them separately at the mapping detail used to complete the map
presented in this paper.
Table 1.
List of soil
mapping unit names and the taxonomic
classification of the soil series.
Classification of the Soil Series
Map Unit Symbol and Name
CG
Casa Grande soils, reclaimed
Casa Grande - fine -loamy, mixed,
hyperthermic Typic Natrargids
SH-CG
Shontik -Casa Grande
association, reclaimed
Shontik - fine- loamy, mixed,
hyperthermic Natric Camborthids
TR
Trix soils, reclaimed
Trix - fine -loamy, mixed
(calcareous), hyperthermic Typic
Torrifluvents
TR-CG
Trix -Casa Grande association,
reclaimed
50
Many factors affect soil formation and ultimately the physical,
Two factors in
chemical, and biological properties of a soil.
particular have greatly affected the properties of the MAC farm
soils:
1- the geologic history of these soils and 2- the
agricultural development, especially land -leveling and soil
reclamation activities.
Soils of the MAC Farm have formed on a relict basin floor of
Pleistocene age, which has been partly affected by Holocene age
(recent) alluvium deposited adjacent to the Santa Cruz Wash.
Water
movement through this area in the recent past was very slow and of
low energy, resulting in a depositional rather than erosional
environment near the Santa Cruz channel.
Fine textured recent
alluvium makes up the upper horizons of the Trix soil, which has been
deposited on older soil material. The Casa Grande soil has not been
affected by the deposition of recent alluvium,
characteristics are different from the Trix.
and it's
The historic shallow,
braided channels of the Santa Cruz Wash have subsequently been
channelized into one large channel, and it now serves as a drain for
irrigation tail waters as well as carrying overland flood waters.
All soils on the farm were strongly saline and sodic prior to
Evidence of this chemical toxicity can be
agricultural development.
found adjacent to the farm in native areas where the sodium
absorption ratios range from 20 to 40, and the electrical
conductivity of the saturation extract range from 15 to 40
deciSiemens per meter.
Salinization of this area probably occurred
during early or mid -Holocene, and it appears to be a function of a
fluctuating water table present in these soils during that time
period.
Although these soils have been successfully reclaimed, they
retain some residual characteristics that require continuous
monitoring.
For this reason the taxonomic classification reflects
this situation, but our soil map unit names does indicate that they
have been reclaimed.
We identified four mapping units on the farm (Figure 2),
this map may suggest that the soils are uniform in properties.
and
This
is somewhat misleading because the soils have been significantly
altered from their original conditions through extensive land
The
leveling operations and various soil reclamation treatments.
Casa Grande (CG) and Trix (TR) mapping units are the most uniform;
however the other two units are an association of two major soils.
Additional field work would be required to determine which soil is
present at a given location in these two mapping units. We estimate
that the composition of the Trix -Casa Grande (TR -CG) association,
reclaimed mapping unit is about 65% Trix soil, 25% Casa Grande soil,
The Shontik -Casa
and 10% inclusions of other similar soil series.
Grande (SH -CG) association, reclaimed mapping unit is 70% Shontik
soils, 15% Casa Grande soils, and 15% inclusions of other similar
51
soil series.
The Casa Grande soils, reclaimed and the Trix soils,
reclaimed are comprised 85 to 90% of these soils, with minor
inclusions of other similar soil series.
The texture of the surface Ap horizons on MAC farm
depth) are sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam.
(0 -30 cm
Figure 3 shows
The linear
the distribution of these three classes on the farm.
boundaries are related to existing field boundaries, and abrupt
changes in surface textures have been created through the land leveling process. The Trix soil has either a clay loam or sandy clay
loam surface,and it is higher in organic matter and therefore darker
in color than the other two soils.
The Casa Grande surface is
usually a sandy loam or sandy clay loam texture, whereas the Shontik
soil
has a sandy loam surface.
The Shontik soil surface is more
sandy than the Casa Grande, usually having from 65 -75% (or more) sand
Figures 4 and 5 are maps showing the absolute percentages
content.
of sand and clay in the surface horizon (0 -30 cm) for the entire
farm.
Description of the Soil Series
A soil map does not preclude the need for site- specific
evaluations of the soil which are commonly needed on research study
However, it is useful to have some general descriptive
plots.
information about the three soils mapped on the farm.
Presented below are some descriptive information about each
soil, and Table 2 summarizes selected soil characterization data for
Future papers will include more detailed information on
each soil.
these soils, but these numbers can be helpful, if used judiciously.
We have .included data for the major horizons and ranges are given
If a single number is required, an
rather than specific numbers.
average of the two values would be an appropriate number to use.
The Casa Grande soil is a deep, well drained slowly permeable
soil formed in old alluvium. On the MAC Farm this soil typically has
a brown to reddish brown sandy loam or sandy clay loam surface
horizon from 0 -30 cm deep. The subsoil horizon from 30 to 60 cm is
usually a reddish brown sandy clay loam, which increases in calcium
carbonate content with depth. Below this horizon at a depth of 60 to
100 cm is a horizon enriched with calcium carbonate (calcic horizon),
which also has a sandy clay loam texture. The depth to the calcic
horizon varies from 25 to 100 cm in depth, but commonly occurs
between 50 and 80 cm in depth.
The Trix soil is a deep, well drained very slowly permeable soil
whose upper horizons are formed in fine textured recently deposited
alluvium, which in turn overlies Casa Grande soil material.
52
Typically this soil has a dark brown clay loam or sandy clay loam
The upper subsurface horizon ranges
surface horizon 0 -30 cm deep.
from 30 to 100 cm deep, and it typically averages about 75 cm deep.
It has similar characteristics as the surface horizon (Table 2).
Underlying this horizon is Casa Grande soil material, and it has
properties similar to that described for the subsurface horizons of
the Casa Grande soils.
The Shontik soil is a deep, well drained moderately to
moderately rapid permeable soil found in sandy alluvium.
It has a
brown sandy loam surface horizon 0 -30 cm deep, and is usually higher
The subsoil
in sand content than the Casa Grande surface horizon.
horizons extend from 30 to 100 cm or more, and are very similar to
the surface horizons, also having a sandy loam texture (Table 2).
There are no enrichments of calcium carbonate in this soil above 100
cm; however it is present at deeper depths.
SUMMARY
This paper has presented a soil map and described the
characteristics of the MAC Farm soils. Because characteristics of a
soil are strongly related to soil texture, we have summarized the MAC
Farm data in relationship to soil horizon textural properties. Table
2 gives the numerical ranges of selected soil properties for the
major soil horizons, and it does this by soil series and by soil
depth. Therefore, if one knows the textural properties of the study
site and the soil depth, it is possible to get reasonable numerical
values for the bulk density and soil porosity, water holding
capacity, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and calcium
We have not included data on pH, soluble salt
carbonate content.
content, and the sodicity condition of MAC soils. These parameters
are highly variable from year to year and even within a growing
season, so site -specific analyses must be made if these parameters
are needed. Future papers will further describe and characterize MAC
soils, as there is much yet to be learned.
L ITERA1URE CITED
Procedures for
1984.
United States Department of Agriculture,
samples
and
methods
of
analysis
for
soil survey.
collecting soil
Soil Surv. Invest. Rep. 1, 68 pp., illus.
United States Department of Agriculture.
Handbook.
Soil Conservation Service.
53
1983.
National
Soils
Soil survey manual.
1951.
United States Department of Agriculture.
(Supplements
replacing
U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 18, 503 pp., illus.
pp. 173 -188 issued May 1962.)
A
Soil taxonomy:
1975.
United States Department of Agriculture.
basic system of soil classification or making and interpreting soil
Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 436, 754 pp.,
surveys.
illus.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
A special thanks is expressed to Philip Stice, Maricopa
Agricultural Center Assistant Farm Manager, John Regan, Computer
Applications Specialist for the Cooperative Extension Service, and
Scott Hutchinson, Programmer /Analyst with the State Lands Department
for assisting us with the preparation of this paper.
54
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18
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Sections 17, 18, 19 and 20
Township 4 South
Range 4 East
J
Figure 1.
X-410,281
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Field map of the Naricopa Agricultural Center.
56
1
11
11
11
SH-*CG
.....
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reclaimed
TR
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reclaimed
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reclaimed
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- 41
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Figure 2.
iF
Soil map of the Maricopa Agricultural Center.
57
SL - Sandy Loam
SCL - Sandy Clay Loam
CL - Clay Loam
Figure 3.
Surface textural map of the Maricopa Agricultural
Center.
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Relationship Between Soil Spectral Properties and Sand, Silt
and Clay Content of the Soils on the University of Arizona
Maricopa Agricultural Center
Ahmed S. Suliman and Donald F. Post
University of Arizona
Department of Soil and Water Science
Room 429 Shantz Building
Tucson, AZ 85721
INiRODU(.TION
The spectral reflectance properties of 552 Ap surface horizon
soil samples collected from the MAC farm were measured using a Barnes
All samples were passed through a 2mm
Modular -Multiband Radiometer.
The
sieve, mixed, and uniformly placed in 50 x 50 cm black trays.
data were collected on cloudless days, the sun Zenith angle was
between 29 and 43 degrees, and ten readings per sample were taken and
Reflectances were made with both dry and wet soil
averaged.
conditions.
RESULTS
Table 1 presents the % reflectance mean and standard deviation
for all samples in each band, and correlates it to the sand, silt,
The correlation coefficients were negatively
and clay percentages.
correlated to silt and clay and positively correlated to sand, with
the highest correlations being between the .63 - .69 (red) and .76.90 (near infrared) bands.
Step -wise multiple linear regression equations were computed
(95% C.I.) relating the three soil separates to % reflectance in each
Three of the seven bands
band, and they are presented in Table 2.
were significant for dry conditions (.76 -.90, .45 -.52, and 1.15 -1.30)
and two bands for wet conditions; however, the two significant bands
were different for the sand, silt, and clay separates. The following
sand .63 -.69 and .52 -.60; silt - .45 -.52 and .76were significant:
61
A correlation matrix to show the
.90, and clay - .52 -.60 and .63 -.69.
co-variance among the seven bands is presented in Table 3.
The sand, silt, and clay content of MAC Farm soils are related
to soil reflectance; however, reflectance may also be related to
Other researchers have shown organic
other soil characteristics.
matter, iron, calcium carbonate content, and soil color to be
correlated to reflectance. Additional research is being completed to
investigate these relationships, and results of these studies will be
presented in future papers.
62
12.9(3.5)
25.3(3.4)
31.0(3.9)
38.5(4.1)
39.8(4.3)
36.2(4.1)
.69 (red)
.90 (NIR)
.63 -
.76 -
1.15 - 1.30 (NIR)
1.55 - 1.75 (MIR)
2.08 - 2.35 (MIR)
15.1(3.4)
21.7(4.6)
22.9(5.0)
17.4(4.4)
8.2(2.2)
18.0(2.5)
.60 (green)
.52 -
5.0(1.2).
12.7(1.8)
.52 (blue)
tilt
QrX
% Reflectance
.45 -
Band (um)
.43
.43
.41
.46
.45
.31
.16
.58
.62
.66
.69
.69
.67
.63
MC VIDI
737
737
736
740
738
725
711
Dix
754
759
763
765
765
762
758
tat
745
744
743
748
747
T34
720
756
760
764
767
767
:65
762
Mr_ Vat
Linear Correlation (r)
C].Ay
5.04
ant
Table 1. Percent reflectance mean and standard deviation and its linear relationship to sand, silt,
and clay.
Table 2.
Multiple linear regression equations relating sand, silt,
and clay to % reflectance in the various band
wavelengths.
Dry Conditions:
% Sand = 12.98 + 675.31 (% Refl .76 -.90) - 731.92 (% Refl .45 -.52)
- 206.91 (% Refl 1.15 -1.30)
r2 = .46
F = 155
% Silt = 40.73 - 295.79 (% Refi. .76 -.90) + 368.16 (% Refi .45 -.52)
+ 74.48 (% Refl 1.15 -1.30)
r2 = .40
F = 124
% Clay = 46.29 - 379.52 (% Refl .76 -.90) + 363.76 (% Refl .45 -.52)
+ 132.44 (% Refi 1.15 -1.30)
r2=.45
F = 147
Wet Conditions:
% Sand = 8.33 + 1081.29 (% Refl .63 -.69) - 1209.40 (% Refl .521.60)
r2= .50
F =270
% Silt = 48.30 + 421.53 (% Refl .45 -.52) - 256.38 (% Refl .76 -.90
r2= .44 F = 215
% Clay = 48.46 + 574.22 (% Refl .52 -.60 - 536.12 (% Refl. 63 -.69)
r2= .47
64
F =242
2.08 -2.35
1.55 -1.75
1.15 -1.30
.76 -.90
.63 -.69
.52 -.60
.45 -.52
WET
1.00
1.00
.45 -.52
DRY
soils.
.96
.87
.97
WET
.97
1.00
.99
1.00
1.00
1.00
.91
.99
.97
.99
1.00
1.00
.82
.97
.88
.97
.81
.95
.88
.96
.96
.96
.80
.92
.86
.93
.95
.95
.98
.76
.83
.82
.85
.92
.87
1.00 1.00
WET
WET
.97
.99
1.00 1.00
2.08 -2.35
DRY
1.55 -1.75
DRY
1.15 -1.30
DRY
WET
bands of MAC Farm
.99
.96
.97
1.00 1.00
.99
.89
.99
.97
.99
WET
WET
DRY
.76 -.90
DRY
.63 -.69
DRY
,52 -.60
Table 3. Correlation matrix to show the relationship among the seven spectral
ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS
IN URBAN LAKES:
PRELIMINARY RESULTS
Frederick A. Amalfi and Milton R. Sommerfeld
Department of Botany
Arizona State University
Tempe, Arizona 85287 -1601
ABSTRACT
A preliminary survey of several urban lakes in the
Phoenix metropolitan area was undertaken to assess the
degree of accumulation of priority pollutant metals and
petroleum -based hydrocarbons in these impoundments.
Three
sediment samples were collected from each lake along a
transect (from a probable point of stormwater addition to
the opposite shore), and were composited on an equal weight
basis prior to analysis.
Total petroleum hydrocarbon
concentrations ranged from 30 to 8000 mg /kg dry weight.
The concentration ranges (mg /kg dry weight) of total metals
were:
5 -40,
arsenic 7 -26, copper 25 -2800, chromium 14 -55, nickel
lead < 1 -138, selenium < 0.5 -1.1, and zinc 33 -239.
Silver
and
cadmium
were undetectable
(< 5.0
and
Factors that may be associated
with the magnitude of accumulation in urban lakes include
lake age,
primary source of influent,
reception of
stormwater runoff, mechanical aeration of the water, and
direct chemical addition.
< 0.5 mg /kg, respectively).
INTRODUCTION
The water quality of urban lakes in Arizona is not
currently regulated by the State. However, because of the
rampant development of master -planned communities
incorporating lakes as recreational and stormwater
retention structures, and pressure placed on the State
Legislature by water conservation groups to restrict
further development of urban lakes, the State has begun
formulation of water quality standards and has adopted
restrictions regarding water use for urban impoundments.
The Clean Water Act reauthorization bill dictates that
states must develop plans for municipal stormwater
discharges (Rhein 1987).
Because many urban lakes are
designed to retain stormwater runoff, State and local
regulatory agencies will become increasingly interested in
the accumulation and discharge of metallic and organic
67
Metals
pollutants associated with these urban reservoirs.
associated with automobile use have been found in unusually
high concentrations in urban runoff (Galvin and Moore 1982,
Athayde et al. 1983, Milligan et al. 1984, Pitt 1985) and
receiving waters adjacent to urbanized areas (Pitt and
Bozeman 1982, Cole et al. 1983, Calvin et al. 1984).
urban runoff has been found to contain
Similarly,
measurable amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHCs)
derived directly from crankcase oil deposits on streets and
from associated agglomerations with street soil and dust
particles (Hoffman et al. 1982, 1985).
Until recently, a limited number of urban impoundments
have received sewage effluent and little attention was paid
to unique environmental problems which might develop in the
lakes as a result of contaminants remaining in the
effluent.
In 1987, the State of Arizona adopted Senate
Bill 1200 as a water conservation measure, restricting the
use of groundwater in new, non -public artificial lakes
(Ferris 1986, State of Arizona 1987).
In response,
developers have begun incorporating sewage treatment
facilities into their planned communities and have designed
lake systems to receive the secondary effluent.
The
increasing number of these impoundments and the potential
for aesthetic problems such as algal blooms and odors from
the effluent has generated public concern.
Currently, over 40 urban lake systems have been
identified in the Phoenix area.
Due to the array of
contaminants that are potentially present in the
environment arising from urban and industrial pollution, it
is necessary to chemically survey a wide variety of lakes
systems to determine whether population densities, land
use, geographic location, water source, lake age, design
and operation, and stormwater addition affect the type of
degree of contamination of the lake sediments and pose
potential threats to surface water and groundwater
resources.
Contamination of
lakes can best be detected by
analysis of sediments because pollutants usually have
strong affinities for particulates which are deposited in
the lake bottoms.
Once deposited many pollutants tend to
persist because degradative processes (photooxidation,
chemical oxidation,
and biological transformation)
are
inoperative or reduced in the anaerobic sediments (Neff
1979, Wallace 1986).
Most metals which enter urban lake
systems in central Arizona are in the particulate form and
rapidly settle to the lake bottoms (Sommerfeld and Amalfi
1987).
Precipitation at alkaline pH and in hardwater
impoundments common to this area causes additional
68
accumulation of metals which originally enter the lake in
the dissolved form.
THE STUDY
A survey of 22 urban lake systems in Central Arizona
was conducted to provide a data base on the presence and
accumulation of metallic priority pollutants and petroleum
In addition,
hydrocarbons in urban lake sediments.
anaerobic EP Toxicity analyses were performed on the
sediments to estimate the maximum potential for release of
Preliminary findings are presented below and
metals.
include simple correlations of chemical and physical data
collected
to
date.
Multivariate
statistical
analysis
necessary to confirm the implications of the regression
analyses is in progress.
METHODS
Field Sampling
Twenty -two urban lake systems were sampled. With the
exception of one system, all were located in the Phoenix
metropolitan area.
Sediment samples were collected with an Ekmann dredge
from three locations at each lake and were composited on an
equal weight basis.
The three subsamples were collected at
equidistant points along a
transect drawn from a major
point of stormwater entry into the lake (if present) to the
opposite shore.
All sample containers and preservation techniques
conformed to the recommendations of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (USEPA 1983).
Laboratory Analyses
Metallic priority pollutants.
Metallic elements that
included primary drinking water
contaminants delineated under the Interim Primary Drinking
Water Regulations Implementation (CFR 40, Ch. 1, Part 141,
1985) and elements named in the USEPA list of priority
pollutants.
Metallic analyses were performed by flame and
furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy in accordance with
the methods of the USEPA (1986). All sediment samples were
acid digested according to EPA Method 3050 (USEPA 1986)
were
quantitated
prior to instrumental analysis.
69
To ascertain the degree of release of
EP toxicity.
metals from the lake sediments, both the standard protocol
and a modification of EPA Method 1310 (USEPA 1986) were
evaluated to characterize the leachability of the lake
Because most lake sediments become anoxic a few
centimeters below the water -sediment interface and the
standard EP Toxicity extraction is carried out under
aerobic conditions, an additional extraction procedure was
performed under anaerobic conditions.
Deoxygenation was
accomplished by treating extraction dilution water with
Preliminary tests showed that the sodium
sodium sulfite.
sulfite effectively removes the oxygen from the dilution
water, scavenges the oxygen remaining in the headspace of
the extraction vessel during the tumbling period, and adds
no measurable metals to the extract.
deposits.
Total petroleum hydrocarbons.
hydrocarbons were quantitated by
Petroleum -based
EPA Method 418.1
(extraction with trichlorotrifluoroethane and infrared
detection, USEPA 1983).
Sediment samples were dried with
anhydrous magnesium carbonate and pulverized prior to
extraction, and were quantitated on a dry weight basis.
Statistical Analysis.
Chemical and physical data was
analyzed using the nonparametric Spearman rank correlation
program of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to identify
significant associations between chemical constituent
concentrations in the sediments and between constituent
concentrations and physical characteristics of the lakes.
Discriminant analysis using SAS was performed to obtain
partial correlation coefficients for assessing the
influence of other variables on highly correlated
characteristics.
SAS PRINCOMP was used to obtain simple
linear correlations (Pearson product moment correlation)
for development of
regression equations of highly
correlated variables. Variables analyzed included arsenic,
cadmium, chromium, lead, selenium, silver, copper, nickel,
zinc, TPHC, lake age, presence or absence of storm sewerage
terminating at the lake, presence or absence of mechanical
aeration systems in the lake, and primary water source of
the lake (groundwater, surfacewater, or secondary domestic
sewage effluent).
Coded variables were placed into the
data matrix for storm sewerage, aeration, and water source
characteristics.
Results of the two EP Toxicity extraction procedures
were evaluated nonparametrically by the Wilcoxson paired
sample test (Zar 1984).
70
RESULTS
Metals
the results for total metal
concentrations in the lake sediments. Concentration ranges
Table
for
arsenic,
1
presents
cadmium,
chromium,
nickel,
selenium,
and
silver were relatively small, whereas rather large
differences in concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc
were apparent among the lakes.
Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Table 2 summarizes the total petroleum hydrocarbon
concentrations in the sediments of the 22 lakes.
The data
illustrate substantial variability in distribution of
hydrocarbons among the lakes. On a dry weight basis, lake
11 had the lowest concentration of TPHCs with 35 mg /kg in
the sediment and lake 13 had the highest with 8070 mg /kg.
EP Toxicity
A statistical comparison of the standard protocol EP
Toxicity extraction with the modified anaerobic extraction
indicated that there were significant differences between
the amounts of copper (0.01 < p < 0.025) and zinc (p =
0.005) released under each test condition.
Concentrations
of lead and cadmium in each extract type were also
evaluated, but were so frequently at or below the detection
limit that no statistical difference between the techniques
could be identified.
The modified procedure provided the
best estimate of the maximum potential release of metals
from the lake sediments.
Results of the modified EP
Toxicity extraction are presented in Table 3.
Associations of Variables
The nonparametric
(Spearman)
correlation matrix
for the lake data
indicated significant correlations
(p < 0.001) between lake age and TPHCs, lead, and zinc
concentrations (rs = 0.5702, 0.8151, 0.6359, respectively);
and lake lead content and chromium,
zinc,
and TPHC
concentrations
(rs
=
0.7022,
0.8224,
0.6918,
0.8151,
respectively).
Analysis of partial correlation
coefficients for these combinations still revealed high
correlations (p < 0.01) when the influences of the other
variables in the data matrix were removed.
As a graphic
example, the linear relationship between lake age and lead
content (following logarithmic transformation) of the lake
sediments is presented in Figure 1.
Poor correlation was
found between coded variables of qualitative lake
71
characteristics and chemical constituent concentrations in
the sediments.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
Preliminary results suggest that priority pollutant
metals and petroleum hydrocarbons are accumulating in the
Lake age
urban lake sediments of metropolitan Phoenix.
appears to be an important factor in determining the degree
of accumulation of pollutants, with older lakes tending to
Lead,
have greater concentrations in the sediment.
chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, and TPHCs were the chemical
High
constituents found in highest concentrations.
concentrations of copper in at least three of the lake
systems is attributable to the application of chelated
copper or copper sulfate as algicides.
The highly significant correlations between lead,
chromium, zinc, and TPHCs suggests that automobile- related
contaminants deposited on streets are carried into the
The absence of direct
lakes by stormwater runoff.
stormsewer discharges into a lake system does not preclude
the capture and deposition of runoff- related contaminants
The lake feedwater source appears to have
by the lake.
minimal influence on the quantity of metallic and
petroleum -based contaminants accumulated in the lake
sediments.
Although metals are found in high concentrations, the
results of the modified EP Toxicity analysis suggest that
they are tightly bond to the sediments and probably would
not be released in concentrations that would impact the
environmental quality of the surface water or underlying
A comparison of the range of metal
groundwater resources.
concentrations determined for the lake sediment extracts
and maximum contaminant levels for hazardous wastes and
None of the
drinking water is presented in Table 4.
sediments can be considered hazardous wastes and only
of
of the extract constituents
6.6 percent
(13
198)
analyzed had concentrations in excess of the drinking water
standards.
The levels of petroleum hydrocarbons measured in the
lake sediments exceeded, in 19 of 22 cases, the State
recommended level for total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil
(100 mg /kg).
The extremely high value for lake 13 is
attributed to accidental or intentional dumping of a
decane -based
solvent
(tentatively identified by gas
Based on
chromatography /mass spectroscopy) into the lake.
its association with zinc and lead, the origin of the
72
petroleum hydrocarbons in the other lakes appears to be
engine oil wear metal deposits from roads and parking areas
washed into the lake by precipitation runoff.
The simple statistical analyses applied to the data
thus far infer some degree of association between lead,
zinc, chromium, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and lake age.
Before developing a model designed to predict the
environmental status of urban lakes or to identify lake
and operational features which minimize
additional
data analysis and expended
contamination,
design
studies
are
Statistical
required.
analyses
including
evaluation of various coding techniques for qualitative
information and multivariate analysis need to be performed
on the current data set.
Future studies should include
chemical analysis of specific organic priority pollutants
in
the
sediments
as
well
as
expanding
the
physical
parameter evaluated to include demographic and watershed
characteristics.
REFERENCES CITED
Athayde, D.N., P.E. Shelley, E.D. Driscoll, D.D. Gaboury,
and G. Boyd.
1983.
Results of the Nationwide urban
Runoff Program. Vol. 1. Final Report. PB84- 185552.
Cole, R.H., R.E. Frederich, H.P. Healy, and R.G. Rolan.
1983.
Preliminary findings of the priority pollutant
monitoring project of the Nationwide Urban Runoff
Program.
Proc. 56th Annual Water Pollution control
Federation Conference.
Ferris, K.
1986.
Arizona's groundwater code: strength in
compromise. Journal American water Works Association.
78(10): 79.
Galvin, D.V. and R.K. Moore.
1982.
Toxicants in urban
runoff.
municipality of Metropolitan Seattle, Water
Quality Division.
Galvin, D.V., G.P. Romberg, D.R. Houck, and J.H. Lesniak.
1984.
Toxicant pretreatment planning study summary
report.
Municipality of metropolitan Seattle, Water
Quality Division.
Kreamer, D.K.
1985.
Assessment of priority pollutants in
the Salt River Project's water supply.
College of
Engineering and Applied Sciences, Arizona State
University, Tempe.
73
Hoffman, E.J., J.S. Latimer, G.L. Mills, and J.G. Quinn.
Petroleum hydrocarbons in urban runoff from a
1982.
commercial land use area.
Control Federation.
Journal Water Pollution
54(11): 1517.
Hoffman, E.J., J.S. Latimer, C.D. Hunt, G.L. Mills, and
Stormwater runoff from highways.
1985.
J.G. Quinn.
Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 23: 349.
Milligan, J.D., I.E. Wallace, and R.P. Betson. 1984.
The
relationship of urban runoff to land use and
Tennessee Valley Authority.
groundwater resources.
Office of Natural Resources and Economic Development.
Neff, J.M. 1979.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the
Aquatic Environment.
Sources, fates and biological
effects.
Applied Science Publishers Ltd.
Essex,
England.
Characterizing and controlling urban
1985.
runoff through street cleaning.
EPA project summary.
Pitt, R.
EPA /600/S2 -82 -090.
Pitt, R. and M. Bozeman. 1982.
Sources of urban runoff
pollution and its effects on an urban creek.
EPA- 600/S2 -82 -090.
Rhein, R.
1987.
Large majorities pass Clean Water Act
again. McGraw -Hill Construction Weekly. January 29.
Sommerfeld, M.R. and F.A. Amalfi.
1987.
A limnological
investigation of the Dobson Ranch lakes.
Department
of Botany and Microbiology, Arizona Sate University.
Tempe, Arizona.
State of Arizona.
Official Compilation of
Rules and Regulations.
1986.
Administrative
Section
R9 -21 -209.
State of Arizona.
1987.
Official Compilation of
Administrative Rules and Regulations. Arizona Revised
Statutes 45 -131.
Department of State, Phoenix.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
chemical analysis of water
1983.
Methods for
and wastes.
EPA
600/4 -79 -020.
Environmental Monitoring and Support
Laboratory. Cincinnati, Ohio.
74
Test methods
1986.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
for evaluating solid waste -physical and chemical
Office of Solid Waste.
Washington
methods.
SW846.
D.C.
The effect of urbanization on
Wallace, I.E.
1986.
toxicant concentrations in Lake Austin and Town Lake,
Texas. M.S. Thesis. University of Texas, Austin.
Zar, J.H.
Inc.
1984.
Biostatistical Analysis.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
75
Prentice -Hall,
TABLE 1
TOTAL METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN LAXE SEDIMENTS
Concentration mg /kg
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
7.8
12.3
15.3
15.8
20.2
11.9
25.6
12.7
11.6
19.8
17.3
11.5
14.4
10.9
11.1
26.6
<0.5
<0.5
0.5
0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
8.6
23.4
11.2
12.3
10.7
15.4
<0.5
15
20
48
34
55
36
40
21
14
34
19
21
24
20
20
33
36
39
22
24
21
34
5.7
24
138
27
154
44
39
8.8
< 1.0
15
5.7
7.3
12
4.2
10
4.2
84
7.2
90
12
10
24
0.22
0.07
0.60
0.30
0.08
0.01
0.02
1.05
0.90
0.16
<0.01
0.09
0.13
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
0.16
0.02
0.08
0.05
<0.01
1.08
0.6
1.1
2.1
1.1
0.6
0.2
0.6
0.2
0.2
1.1
1.1
0.6
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2
1.1
232
62.6
173
58.3
99.1
30.4
50.1
573
79.8
218
56.9
76.6
75.8
76.6
38.3
834
140
72.6
69.1
86.3
25.1
2756
TABLE 2
TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN URBAN LAKE SEDIMENTS
Lake
TPHC
TPHC
I.D.
Ea /ka dry wt
ma /ka wet wt
1
350
522
2360
353
4250
1070
770
292
2160
305
35
134
8070
42
255
90
1440
425
4820
1250
435
758
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
159
289
554
101
1590
577
216
109
1310
125
23
72
4400
30
152
58
544
220
2020
455
213
98
76
5.0
11
25
28
25
16
27
16
9.5
28
16
18
11
20
10
40
15
34
16
15
11
9.5
35.2
57.7
239
85.0
221
82.7
137
73.6
33.9
92.5
54.5
70.2
61.4
34.3
54.3
49.4
73.4
62.9
184
61.4
48.0
55.6
TABLE 3
RESULTS OF ANAEROBIC EP TOXICITY EXTRACTONS OF LAKE SEDIMENTS
Concentration mq/L
La)sa
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
Ja..
__5D__
_CS.
_P@_
__AE.-
_a_
0.021
0.021
0.048
0.050
0.073
0.064
0.068
0.027
0.026
0.075
0.026
0.043
0.053
0.029
0.041
0.009
0.054
0.007
0.084
0.069
0.034
0.124
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
0.007
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
0.007
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
0.007
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
0.17
<0.05
0.09
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
0.011
<0.001
0.005
0.002
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
0.013
0.013
0.037
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.005
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0'.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
_9111_
_NI_
SN_
0.08
0.03
0.05
0.02
0.69
0.13
0.08
0.06
0.22
0.05
0.13
0.22
0.07
0.45
0.40
6.20
1.05
0.30
0.22
0.80
0.21
0.09
<0.02
.<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
0.05
0.05
0.02
<0.02
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.02
<0.02
0.09
0.05
0.09
<0.02
0.07
<0.02
<0.02
0.04
<0.02
0.07
0.05
0.26
0.05
1.63
0.66
0.63
0.09
0.03
0.06
0.02
0.05
0.01
0.01
0.23
0.09
0.48
0.11
0.46
0.16
0.13
0.05
TABLE 4
COMPARISON OF ANAEROBIC EP TOXICITY RESULTS WITH MAXIMUM
CONTAMINANT LEVELS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES AND DRINKING WATER
Values in mg /L
EP Tox
Rance
As
Cd
Cr
Pb
Se
Ag
Cu
Ni
Zn
(NS)
0.007-0.124
<0.005
<0.02
<0.05-0.17
<0.001-0.037
<0.01
0.02-6.20
0.02-0.09
0.01-1.63
#
Max
5.0
1.0
5.0
5.0
1.0
5.0
NS
NS
NS
Over EP
MCL
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
No Standard
77
pW MCL
0.05
0.01
0.05
0.05
0.01
0.05
1.0
NS
NS
# Over DW
MCL
8
0
0
2
1
0
2
-
2
FIGURE 1.
0.0
0.2 -
0.4 -
0.6 -
0.8
1.0 -©
1.2 o
1.4 -
1.6 -
1.8 -
2.0 -
2.2 -
2.4 -
2.6 -
2.8 -
3.0
i
4
1
1
6
i
o
8
1
o
1
1
1
1
12
i
1
14
LAKE AGE (YEARS)
10
1
16
1
o
i
8
o
1
18
i
o
1
20
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAKE AGE AND SEDIMENT LEAD CONTENT
1
o
0
Z
0
Occurrence of Enteric Viruses and Parasites in Reclaimed Wastewater
Used for Irrigation in Arizona
Ricardo De Leon, Jaime E. Naranjo, Joan B. Rose, and Charles P. Gerba
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
and of Nutrition and Food Science
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721
ABSTRACT
The State of Arizona recently implemented virus and parasite standards
for discharge and reuse of effluent.
This study monitored for two years the
enterovirus and Giardia content of reuse effluent from several Arizona
wastewater treatment facilities.
All treatment facilities met the restricted
access irrigation virus standard of 125 enteric virus /40 L, but most plants
would have to upgrade their treatment for open access year -round reuse which
has a 1 enteric virus /40 L standard.
Up to 43% of samples from facilities
with primary treatment and oxidation ponds were positive and exceeded 1
enteric virus /40 L.
Also, 27% of secondary (activated sludge) effluent
samples, which were sand filtered and disinfected by ultraviolet light, were
positive and exceeded the 1 enteric virus /40 L standard.
Plants using sand
filtration and /or chlorine disinfection of activated sludge effluent had the
fewest positive samples (20% positive and only 12.5% exceeded 1 enteric
Parasites are monitored for presence or absence in recommended
virus /40 L).
Giardia monitoring is required for effluent intended for food crop
volumes.
irrigation or full body contact recreation categories.
INTRODUCTION
The State of Arizona under its wastewater reuse permit system requires
the monitoring of human pathogenic enteric viruses and certain parasites in
addition to fecal coliform bacteria (Kramer, 1984). Reuse regulations affect
some 180 facilities in Arizona which altogether reuse some 200 million gallons
The level of enteric viruses acceptable for discharge as
of wastewater a day.
well as for restricted access irrigation and partial body contact recreation
The standard for irrigation of food crops for
is 125 enteric viruses /40 L.
possible raw consumption or for full body contact recreation water is 1
Parasites, on the other hand, are monitored on a
enteric virus /40 L or less.
In our laboratory, one gallon samples are usually
presence or absence basis.
tested for Ascaris lumbricoides and Taeniarhynchus saginatus but larger
volumes, 40 L, are examined for Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
Sewage effluents reused for food crop irrigation or full body contact
recreation are monitored for Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
Effluents used for open access irrigation or for food crops for possible raw
consumption, partial, and full body recreation are monitored for Ascaris
Taeniarhynchus saginatus is monitored in effluents used for
lumbricoides.
pastures or livestock watering (Kramer, 1984).
Sewage has been found
to
contain over
120 possible enteric viruses
The enteric viruses, with members in several animal virus
(Bitton, 1980).
families, may cause a diverse range of diseases in humans like diarrhea,
myocarditis and hepatitis
conjunctivitis,
paralysis,
aseptic meningitis,
Well established cell culture methods are
(Schmidt and Lennette, 1979).
79
available for the detection of most enteroviruses, such as polio, echo and
coxsackieviruses. The detection methodology relies primarily on concentration
by virus adsorption to and elution from filters followed by further
reconcentration by organic flocculation to a 20 -30 ml volume and assay on
The concentration of enteric
established mammalian cell lines (USEPA, 1984).
viruses may vary greatly in domestic sewage depending on the time or perhaps
season of the year, the prevalence of disease in the community, the socioeconomic status of the community, etc. (Bitton, 1980).
Disinfection by
halogens is most effective against the free or non -solid associated viruses
although resistance to chlorine differs among the enteric virus groups and
even within a family of viruses like the enteroviruses (Liu et al, 1971).
Parasites like Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides,
1986) and more recently Cryptosporidium
Taeniarbynchus saginatus (Craun,
are present in wastewater and are
1987)
1987; Madore et 'al,
'(Musial,
potentially transmitted by water (Craun, 1986; D'Antonio, 1985).
Chlorine
resistance studies of Cryptosporidium by Campbell et al. (1982) suggest that
Cryptosporidium, like Giardia, may be resistant to the levels of chlorine used
The concentration methods
in common wastewater disinfection practices.
developed for Giardia used in conjunction with immunofluorescence have been
used to detect cysts from environmental samples by Sauch (1985) and later by
others (Rose et al., 1986).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Enteric virus concentration.
Enteric viruses were concentrated from
The method is described
water by adsorption- elution from microporous filters.
Viruses which were
in detail by Gerba et al. (1978a,b) and USEPA (1984).
adsorbed to the filter were eluted by passage of 1 L of beef extract at pH 9.5
Viruses in this eluate were reconcentrated to a final
through the filter.
volume of 25 -30 ml by the bioflocculation procedure of Katzenelson et al.,
(1976).
Wastewater concentrates were assayed for human
Enterovirus assays.
enteroviruses using the Buffalo Green Monkey Kidney (BGM) cell line which was
grown, passaged, and maintained by previously described methods (Melnick et
At least 2/3 of the reconcentrated sample was inoculated onto
al., 1979).
BGM monolayers in five replicate 75 cm2 flasks (3 ml /flask), five 25 cm2
The BGM
flasks (0.3 ml /flask) and five 25 cm2 flasks (0.03 ml /flask).
monolayers were pretreated with trypsin for sensitivity enhancement by the
The BGM monolayers were observed for 14
method of De Leon and Gerba, (1987).
The concentration of
days for the presence of cytopathogenic effects (CPE).
viruses was determined by a most probable number (MPN) test (APHA), 1980).
Parasites were concentrated from water in
Concentration of parasites.
polypropylene filters, Micro Wynd II (AMF -CUNO Division, Meriden, CT) with 1.0
Adsorbed
um nominal porosity at a flow rate no greater than 5 gallons /min.
parasites were eluted by backflushing 2700 ml of deionized water with 0.1%
Filters were cut and
Tween 80 (J.T. Baker Chemical Co., Phillipsburg, NJ).
fibers were washed with the original eluate to increase parasite recovery.
The eluates were reconcentrated by centrifugation at 1200 x g for 10 min.
Pellets were resuspended with 10 -20 ml of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) -1%
Tween 80, divided in two and centrifuged again.
formalin and the other in
10 -20 ml of 10%
dichromate.
80
One volume was resuspended in
10 -20 ml of 2.5% potassium
Pellet volumes equivalent to 40 L of original
Parasite enumeration.
sample were cleaned by flotation in potassium citrate for Giardia. The final
sample was filtered through a 1.2 um cellulose triacetate 13 mm 5 um filter
Each filter was treated with 0.1 ml of primary monoclonal
for Giardig.
from John Riggs,
antibody against Giardia
(obtained
California State
washed
with
PBS and tagged with fluorescein
Berkeley,
CA)
Laboratory,
isothionate (FITC) labelled secondary antibody (AWWA, 1985).
The Giardia
filter was counterstained with 0.003% Evan's Blue.
Samples were observed with
40x objective in an epifluorescent microscope.
RESULTS
Enteroviruses in effluent.
Effluent from three separate oxidation pond
facilities was positive for enteroviruses in 43% of samples examined. In all
positive samples the 1 enteric virus /40 L standard for food crop irrigation
or full contact recreation was exceeded but the 125 enteric viruses /40 L
restricted access or partial body contact recreation standard was not (Table
1).
Enteroviruses were isolated 27% of the time from samples of secondary
effluent which was UV disinfected and sand filtered.
The positive samples did
125 enteric viruses /40 L, but all samples positive with the
exception of one were greater than 1 enteric virus /40 L.
On one occasion the
not exceed
UV system from one plant malfunctioned and a 3 log higher enterovirus count
was observed than the previous or following samples
(Table 2).
The
enterovirus positive samples from secondary effluent which was sand filtered
and /or chlorinated were 20%.
Of the positive samples only 12.5% were greater
than 1 enteric virus /40 L and none exceeded 125 enteric viruses /40 L (Table
The percent of enterovirus positive samples decreased as quality of
3).
The differences were more dramatic when the 1 enteric
treatment increased.
virus /40 L standard is considered.
In this case, the number of positive
samples for secondary treatment with chlorination greater than 1 enteric
virus /40 L was only 12.5% and the values for the other treatments remain the
The percent enterovirus positive samples in plants where more
same (Table 3).
than one sample has been analyzed follow a similar pattern as by treatment
with the exception of plant G, which has been operating at greater than
designed capacity.
The percentage of positive samples in effluents
Parasites in effluents.
The concentration of parasites ranged from Oexamined was 37% for Giardia.
Geometric mean of Giardia in raw sewage was
140/40 L for Giardig (Table 4).
In secondary effluent the geometric mean was 1.2 Giardia
3.7 cysts /L.
cysts /L.
Sand filtration at two facilities gave geometric means of 0.008
The occurrence of Giardia in effluent varied with the type
cysts /L (Table 5).
of treatment.
Overall, 43% of samples from oxidation ponds and 29% from
chlorinated secondary effluent have been positive (Table 6).
Sand filtration
of secondary effluent does appear to reduce the number of cysts, however
Giardia could still be detected (Tables 5 and 6).
DISCUSSION
Enterovirus removal efficiencies by the different processes in wastewater
More recent studies have
treatments has been reviewed by Bitton, (1980).
dealt with the removal efficiency of sand filters in conjunction with
In these
coagulation and chlorination (Morris, 1984; De Leon et al., 1986).
81
studies, sand filtration was found to be efficient only when it was preceded
by coagulation since virus removal by sand filters is essentially restricted
in the decrease of
Sand filtration aids
to
solid - associated virus.
enteroviruses in effluent by decreasing the turbidity of the effluent and thus
In this
enhancing chlorine inactivation of free virus (Gerba, 1981).
monitoring study oxidation ponds were found to be the least efficient in
enterovirus removal; none - the -less, chlorination of oxidation pond effluent
may decrease the enterovirus content.
The virus standard of 125 enteric
viruses /40 L for restricted access irrigation was met by all treatment plants,
but most plants would need to upgrade their treatment to meet the open access
irrigation and full body contact recreation standard of 1 enteric virus /40 L.
The parasite Giardia was more efficiently removed by secondary treatment
Oxidation ponds
followed by sand filtration, although it was still detected.
This
were found to be less effective in the removal of this parasite.
preliminary data of the samples suggests that Giardia may be removed more
Removal of Ascaris and Taenia has been
efficiently by secondary treatment.
Both
reported to be efficient by oxidation ponds by Gunnerson et al. (1985).
Ascaris and Taenia cysts are larger than Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidiu
Ascaris was found to be removed effectively by sand filtration in a
oocysts.
previous study (De Leon et al., 1986) but Giardia has been detected in sand
It appears that the size of the cyst or
filtered effluents in this study.
oocyst is important in determining which treatment, pond, activated sludge or
sand filtration conditions will be more effective in their removal, although
other factors may be involved.
REFERENCES
Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater.
American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Giardia Methods Workshop, In:
1985.
American Water Works Association, AWWA.
Water Supplies Detection, Occurrence and Removal, p 49.
APHA.
1980.
Introduction to Environmental Virology, Wiley, NY.
1980.
Bitton, G.
Effect of
1982.
Campbell, I., S. Tzipori, G. Hutchinson, and K.W. Angus.
Veterinary
Record.
disinfectants on survival of Cryptosporidium oocysts.
III: 414 -415.
CRC Press, Boca
Waterborne diseases in the United States.
1986.
Craun, G.F.
Raton, FL.
Characterization on sewage
1978a.
Gerba, C.P., C.H. Stagg, and M.G. Abadie.
Wat. Res.
in
natural
waters.
solid -associated viruses and behavior
12:805 -812.
C.P., S.R.
1978b.
Wallis and J.L. Melnick.
Concentration of enteroviruses from large volumes of tapwater, treated
Gerba,
Farrah,
S.M.
Goyal,
C.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35:540 -548.
sewage and seawater.
Virus and
In:
Virus survival in wastewater treatment.
1981.
Gerba, C.P.
Pergamon
Press,
Wastewater Treatment. Eds. Goddard, M. and Butler, M.,
New York, pp. 39 -48,
Health effects of
1985.
Gunnerson, C.G., H.I. Shuval, and S. Arlosoroff.
In:
wastewater irrigation and their control in developing countries.
pp
1576CO,
Future of Water Reuse, AWWA Research Foundation, Denver,
1602.
Organic flocculation:
1976.
Katzenelson, E., B. Fattal, and T. Hostovesky.
the detection of
concentration
method
for
an efficient second step
viruses in tapwater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:638 -639.
82
Kramer,
R.E.
1984.
Regulations for the reuse of wastewater in Arizona.
Proceedings of the Water Reuse Symposium III.
AWWA Research Foundation,
Denver, CO, pp 1666 -1672.
1979.
Lennette, E.H. and N.J. Schmidt.
Diagnostic Procedures for:
Viral,
Ricketsial and Chlamydial Infections. 5th Edition.
Am. Public, Health
Assoc. Washington, DC.
Ma, P., D.L. Kaufman, C.G. Helmick, A.J. D'Souza, and T.R. Navin.
1985.
Cryptosporidiosis in tourists returning from the Caribbean.
New England
Journal of Medicine.
312:647 -648.
Madore, M.S., J.B. Rose, M.J. Arrowood, C.R. Sterling, and C.P. Gerba.
1987.
Occurrence of Cryptosporidium in sewage effluents and select surface
waters.
J. Parasitology.
In press.
Melnick, J.L., H.A. Wenner and C.A. Phillips.
1979.
Enteroviruses.
In:
Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydial Infections.
Eds. E.H. Lennette and N.J. Schmidt, 5th edition, American Public Health
Association, Washington, DC, pp 471 -534.
Morris, R.
1984.
Reduction of naturally occurring enteroviruses by
wastewater treatment processes.
J. Hyg. 92:97 -103.
Rose, J.B., C.E. Musial, M.J. Arrowood, C.R. Sterling and C.P. Gerba.
1985.
Development of a method for the detection of Cryptosporidium in drinking
water.
In:
Technology Conference, Houston, TX, Amer. Water Works
Assoc., Denver, CO, Dec. 8 -11, p 117.
Rose, J.B., M.S. Madore, J.L. Riggs, and C.P. Gerba.
1986.
Detection of
Cryptosporidium and Giardia in environmental waters.
Water Quality
Technology Conference, Amer. Water Works Assoc. Portland, OR, p 16 -19.
Sauch, J.F.
1985.
Use of immunofluorescence and phase- contrast microscopy
for detection and identification of Giardia, cysts in water samples.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50:1434 -1438.
U.S. EPA.
1984.
Manual of Methods for Virology.
U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.
83
TABLE 1
ENTEROVIRUSES IN EFFLUENT FROM OXIDATION PONDS
PLANT AND SAMPLE
MPN /40L1
A -1
4.5
B -1
2.0
B -2
0
B -3
0
C -1
0
10.8
C -2
C -3
0
TOTAL SAMPLES
7
1 MPN /40L
125 MPN /40L
POSITIVE
1Most probable number in a 40 liter sample
43%
0%
43%
TABLE 2
ENTEROVIRUSES IN SECONDARY EFFLUENT, SAND FILTERED AND UV DISINFECTED
PLANT AND SAMPLE
MPN /40L
D -1
2.6
E -1
3
E -2
1
E -3
2.4
1537
E -4
(MALFUNCTION)
E -5
8.4
E-6
0
E-7
0
E-8
0
E-9
0
E-10
0
E-11
0
E-12
0
E-13
0
E-14
0
E-15
0
E-16
1.5
E-17
0
E-18
0
E-19
0
E-20
0
E-21
0
E -22
0
TOTAL SAMPLES
23
1 MPN /40L
125 MPN /40L
27%
0%
27%
POSITIVE
85
TABLE 3
ENTEROVIRUSES IN CHLORINATED SECONDARY EFFLUENT
PLANT AND SAMPLE
MPN /40L1
F -1 -13*
0
F -14
0.3
F -15 -16
0
F -17
0.2
F -18
0.4
F -19 -28
0
G -1
0
G -2
2.9
G -3
4.0
14.0
H -1*
I -1
0
I -2
0
I -3
O
I -4
0
I -5
1.5
I -6
0
J -1*
0
K -1
5
TOTAL SAMPLES
40
1 MPN /40L
125 MPN /40L
12.5%
POSITIVE
20%
'Most probable number in a 40 liter sample.
*These plants also sand filter.
86
0
TABLE 4
VARIATIONS IN CONCENTRATIONS OF GIARDI4 CYSTS IN TREATED SEWAGE*
CYSTS
Percentage samples
positive
37
Ranges in concentration
per 40 L
0 -140
*Partially adapted from Madore et al., 1987
TABLE 5
CONCENTRATIONS OF GIARDIA IN ARIZONA SEWAGE1
TREATMENT
NUMBER
OF
FACILITIES
NUMBER
OF
SAMPLES
CYSTS2 /L
Raw
3
5
3.7
Secondary
5
14
1.2
Sand Filtered
2
6
1Partially adapted from Madore et al., 1987.
2Geometric Means.
87
0.008
TABLE 6
OCCURRENCE OF GIARDIA IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS
NUMBER SAMPLES POSITIVE/
NUMBER COLLECTED
PERCENT
POSITIVE
Oxidation ponds
3/7
43
Biotowers
1/3
33
Secondary effluent
Chlorinated
4/14
29
Secondary effluent sand
filtration chlorinated
1/4
25
Secondary effluent sand
filtration, UV
1/2
50
TYPE OF
TREATMENT
88
WATER CONTAMINATION SITES IN THE SOUTHWEST:
COMPILING A DATA BASE
K. James DeCook, Glenn W. France,
Donald T. Rivard, Martin M. Karpiscak,
University of Arizona,
Tucson, Arizona 85719
and Donald E. Osborn,
ABSTRACT
The University of Arizona, under a contract from the Solar Energy
Research Institute (SERI), investigated water contamination problems in six
Southwestern States -- Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma,
and Texas.
A variety of surface and groundwater problems were encountered,
including 1) high total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations,
2) contamination by organic compounds, 3) contamination due to high
concentrations of inorganic compounds,
4) biological contamination,
5) radioactive contamination, and 6) toxic and hazardous waste disposal.
Literature and computer searches provided an overview of existing
problems, but no central depository of information on water contamination
problems was found to exist. Specific information was obtained from
federal, state, and local government agencies concerned with water quality.
Data were collected via telephone interviews, letters, and in- person office
visits.
Limitations inherent in these data collection methods included,
1) not knowing if all the correct contacts were made concerning a specific
problem or site,
2) inability to ascertain whether all contacts were
willing and /or able to supply complete, accurate, and updated information,
3) possible bypassing of important data sources, and 4) delays in receiving
reports and materials by mail from telephone contacts.
Findings indicate that many localities in the Southwest have water
contamination problems in some form; more than sixty sites have been
described to date.
INTRODUCTION
Since September 1987, researchers from the Office of Arid Lands
Studies, in cooperation with scientists from the Solar Energy Research
Facility, University of Arizona, have been working on Task 1 of the Solar
Thermal Water Reclamation Project to identify, investigate, describe, and
prepare summaries on water contamination and /or hazardous waste disposal
sites in six Southwestern States -- Arizona, California, Colorado, New
Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI)
will review these site summaries to determine if solar thermal technologies
can be incorporated into remedial clean -up measures.
Possible technologies
include direct contamination clean -up processes such as solar- enhanced air
stripping, UV -ozone decomposition, reactivation of the carbon used in carbon
adsorption, and solar -fired incineration, as well as solar electric
generation at remote sites to provide power for conventional treatment
processes.
89
METHODOLOGY
To obtain information on water contamination and hazardous waste
SERI provided a
disposal sites, a number of approaches were employed.
general outline of the types of information that they required. Literature
and computer searches of the University of Arizona libraries provided a
general overview of existing problems. Task 1 then developed a
The questionnaire was employed to
questionnaire based on SERI's outline.
obtain specific site information from government agencies concerned with
water quality (Table I) via correspondence, telephone interviews, and inperson office visits.
Table 1.
Sources of Information: Government Agencies
Federal:
Bureau of Reclamation - Denver and Sacramento
Environmental Protection Agency - Dallas, Denver, and
San Francisco
Geological Survey - Tucson
Department of Defense - various military installations
Department of Energy - Denver
Arizona:
State Department of Health Services - Phoenix
State Department of Environmental Quality - Phoenix and
Tucson
Regional Councils of Governments - Tucson, Flagstaff,
and Douglas
University of Arizona libraries - Tucson
California:
State Water Resources Control Board - Sacramento
Regional Water Quality Control Boards - Sacramento, Palm
Desert, and Riverside
State Department of Health - Los Angeles and Sacramento
Colorado:
State Department of Health - Denver
Nev Mexico:
State Department of Health, Environmental Improvement
Division - Santa Fe
Oklahoma:
State Department of Environmental Quality and Pollution
Control - Oklahoma City
Texas:
Texas Water Commission - Austin
90
Task 1 activities have led to 1) the establishment of a collection of
technical reports obtained from the various government and /or responsible
clean -up agencies and 2) a data base of sixty -two (62) site summaries
stored on computer disks. Summaries vere written using WordPerfect 4.2
software package to facilitate information exchange among the various
project team members.
WATER PROBLEMS IN THE SOUTHWEST
A variety of surface and groundwater contamination /problem sites were
encountered, many of them being either federal and /or State Superfund sites.
In general, the sites can be classified into six (6) categories, depending
on contaminant /problem.
Five (5) of the categories are classified by
salinity products,
2) organics,
contaminant:
1)
3) inorganics,
4) biological pollutants, and 5) radioactive materials. The sixth category
consists of a collection of both active and closed -down landfills, toxic and
hazardous waste disposal facilities, and deep -well injection sites. At all
of these, significant amounts of toxic and /or hazardous waste products are
concentrated and there is potential for treatment and /or destruction of
these wastes.
The six categories, the contaminants in each category, and
representative sites for each category, are listed and described as follows:
1) Salinity /Total Dissolved Solids (15 Sites)
High concentrations of:
Dissolved Solids.
Calcium, Chloride, Fluoride, Salts, Sodium, Total
Representative Site
The Tularosa -Hueco Basin is located in south -central New Mexico, with
The problem at this site is
Alamogordo' as the major population center.
drinking water which contains a concentration range of 500 mg /1 to 35,000
Ninety -eight percent (98%) of
mg /1 and an average of 1000 to 3000 mg /1 TDS.
the saturated deposits in the basin contain saline water at this
concentration average.
Conventional treatment processes for high salinity /TDS include
impoundment and evaporation, aeration, coagulation /flocculation,
Possible solar
sedimentation, filtration, and demineralization.
applications include solar assisted desalination and solar electric
generation used in conjunction with conventional treatment processes.
of these solar processes are currently in use at this site.
Information on this site was obtained from the U.S. Bureau of
Reclamation, Engineering and Research Center, Denver, Colorado.
91
None
2)
Organics (38 Sites)
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): Dichloroethane (DCA), Dichloroethene
(DCE), Tetrachloroethene (PCE), Trichloroethane (TCA), Trichloroethene (TCE)
Acids, Aviation fuels, Benzene, Caustics, Chloroform, Halogenated
organics, Hydrocarbons, Methyl ethyl ketones (MEKs), Polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs), Pesticides, Phenols, Solvents
Other:
Representative Site
Tucson Airport Area, an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund
site, is comprised of two sections -- Tucson International Airport and
The problem at this site is groundwater
Hughes /Air Force Plant #44.
Measured concentrations
contamination by VOCs, with TCE the most prevalent.
Total volume of contaminated
of TCE have been found as high as 3100 ug /l.
The clean -up project involves
water is estimated at 33,700 acre -feet.
pumping, treating, and recharging some 26 billion gallons of water.
Treatment duration is estimated at 10 years.
Hughes /Air Force Plant #44, which is responsible for approximately
half of the contamination - the portion located south of Los Reales Road has built and is operating an air stripping water treatment plant with a
This facility will clean up only
capacity of 5000 gallons per minute (gpm).
A second treatment plant will
the Hughes portion of the contaminated plume.
be constructed to clean up the portion of the plume located north of Los
Reales Road.
One possible solar technology application is solar UV- catalyzed
ozonation - the use of ozone in conjunction with UV light - to enhance and
speed up the oxidation of VOCs.
Information on this site was obtained from the U.S. Air Force, the EPA,
the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Arizona Department of Environmental
Quality.
3)
Inorganics (26 Sites)
Aluminum, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Cyanide, Fluoride, Freon, Iron, Lead,
Manganese, Nickel, Nitrates, Selenium, Sodium, Zinc
Representative Sites
Odessa Chromium I and II, two EPA Superfund sites, are located just
The main problems at
outside the northwestern city limits of Odessa, Texas.
these sites are groundwater and soil contamination by elevated
concentrations of chromium. At Odessa I, hexavalent chromium concentrations
of up to 72 parts per million (ppm) in groundwater and 4977 ppm in soil were
At Odessa II, concentrations were 9.9 ppm in groundwater and 720 ppm
found.
Lead, zinc, nickel, and copper were also found in soils at
in soil.
elevated levels.
92
No conventional treatment processes have started at these sites. A
possible solar application is solar electric generation used in conjunction
with conventional treatment processes.
Information on these sites was obtained from the EPA, Region VI, Dallas
and the Texas Water Commission, Austin.
4)
Biological (2 Sites)
Fecal Coliform
Representative Site
The New River is located in the Imperial Irrigation District, south of
the Salton Sea in Southern California. The New River is a grossly polluted
water course that enters California after flowing through the heart of
It is polluted within Mexicali by a number of
Mexicali, Mexico.
contaminants, including industrial wastes, untreated and partially treated
sewage, and wastes from hog and cattle pens, a slaughterhouse, and a dairy
located along the river.
Samples taken from the New River, along its 60 -mile course from the
international border to the Salton Sea, revealed median concentrations of
fecal coliform of 550,000 colonies, with a maximum of 8 million colonies.
Possible solar thermal applications to clean up this type of
contamination have not been identified by the project at present.
Information on this site was obtained from the California. Regional
Water Quality Control Board, Colorado River Basin - Region 7.
5)
Radioactive (4 Sites)
Radioisotopes, Radionuclides, Gross alpha, and Gross beta
Representative Site
The Tuba City Uranium Mill Tailings Site is located six miles east of
Tuba City, Arizona on the Navajo Indian Reservation, Coconino County.
Leachate from the tailings pile has contaminated the underlying groundwater
with a variety of radionuclides, heavy metals, and other constituents
associated with the uranium mining process. Estimates are that 1.1 billion
gallons of water are contaminated. Approximately five times this amount
(5.5 billion gallons) must be removed from the aquifer to sweep the
contaminated water out of the system.
Samples from within the contaminant plume have revealed concentrations
of cadmium, gross alpha, selenium, and nitrate that exceed EPA Primary
Gross alpha was found in concentrations ranging
Drinking Water Standards.
Concentrations
The EPA primary standard is 3.0 mg /l.
from 10 to 860 mg /l.
of iron, manganese, TDS, and sulfate were found to exceed EPA Secondary
Drinking Water Standards.
93
A possible solar thermal application at this site is the use of solar
The concentrated brine
evaporation ponds to concentrate contaminated brine.
could be used to establish a solar salt -gradient pond to generate power for
pumping and treating the groundwater.
Information on this site was obtained from a U.S. Department of Energy
(DOE) report found during a literature search in the University of Arizona's
This report led to calling the
main library, government documents section.
DOE to obtain reports on similar sites in the Southwest.
Toxic and Hazardous Waste Disposal (9 Sites)
Representative Site
Hardage -Criner Hazardous /Industrial Waste Disposal Facility, an EPA
Superfund Site, is located 30 miles southwest of Oklahoma City in McClain
The facility operated from 1972 to 1980 and received some 20
County.
million gallons of industrial wastes from Oklahoma and Texas. The 60 -acre
site contains a 1.5 -acre sludge mound which is 15 -20 feet thick, and a drum
mound 0.8 acres in area which is 30 -40 feet thick. The drum mound may
contain over 20,000 drums filled with waste materials.
Groundwater contamination has occurred at this site as a result of
improper disposal practices. The principal groundwater pollutants and their
1,2 -DCA (350 ppm); 1,1,2 -TCA
corresponding maximum concentrations include:
(54 ppm); PCE (24 ppm); and TCE (36 ppm). Other contaminants include:
toxaphene, arsenic, solvents, pesticides, PCB oils, paint sludge, ink, and
heavy metals.
One possible solar thermal application at this site and other similar
disposal facilities is solar powered /enhanced incineration.
Information on this site was obtained from the EPA, Region VI, Dallas.
DISCUSSION
Collection of data on water contamination is not an easy nor a
straightforward process. Many limitations and obstacles were encountered
during data collection, including (1) not knowing if all the correct and /or
most appropriate contacts were made concerning a specific problem or site,
(2) the inability to ascertain whether all contacts were willing and /or able
to supply complete, accurate, and up -to -date information, (3) some important
sources of information may have been completely bypassed, (4) waiting for
reports and materials to arrive by mail from requests made by correspondence
and telephone contacts was often time -consuming and nearly always required
follow -up, while pre -arranged office visits often yielded immediate results,
and (5) the requirement by some federal agencies that information on some
sites can be released only through the Freedom of Information Act, which
also can be quite time consuming.
Although many water contamination and waste disposal sites are known,
94
few to date have been fully investigated and /or documented, therefore no
information is yet available on many of these sites. Different agencies may
be dealing with the same problem, but may or may not have joint oversight
responsibilities. The main problem in attempting to compile a data base on
water contamination sites is that no one source or central depository of
With so many water contamination sites
information on these sites exists.
in the United States - the U.S. Military Services alone have some 3,700
known sites - there is a definite need for such a central depository or
clearinghouse.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Funding for this research was provided by the Solar Energy Research
Institute (SERI), Golden, Colorado, under Subcontract #XX -8- 17199 -1.2
95
THE QANATS OF YAZD
Jeffrey Zauderer
Office of Arid Land Studies
(University of Arizona)
845 N. Park,
Tucson, Az. 85719
Intoduction
Qanats are underground infiltration galleries excavated into
water -bearing sediments of piedmont and alluvial fans.
They can
be considered as structures that drain a sloping aquifer (Bybordi,
1974; Schmid and Luthin, 1964).
The gradient of genets in a
region is a function of tunnel length, water table elevation, and
depth of mother well (highest well upslope).
Gradients may vary
from 4 to more than 10 o /oo (Mandevi and Anderson, 1983).
Once a
slope is fixed, the yield is a function of the height of saturated
alluvium above the tunnel,
the slope of the water table, and the
length of the tunnel into the saturated zone.
In the Yazd region,
genet lengths can be from 40 to 0.35 km.
The deepest well is
about 120 m deep.
Discharges vary from 400 to 1 cubic meter per
hour.
Water tables are phreatic, with gradients of 8 m /1000 in
Taft, 10.8 m /1000 in Mehriz, and
2.7 m /1000
in the Yazd -Ardakan
alluvial valley.
Achaemenid and Sassanians spread the use of qanats to the
arid fringes of their extensive empires
(English,
1968).
The
interior of Iran on the Central Plateau was settled by the
Sassanians:
Kirman in the early period, Yazd in the later period.
Mehriz was established by Mehrnigar, daughter of Xosrau I (531579) (Bonine, 1980).
The construction of qanats in the Yazd area was dependent
upon a flourishing economy and stable politics.
The area escaped
Mongol devastation.
In
later times,
qanats were built by
provincial governors
in
the later half of
the 18th century.
During the Qajar period,
several
long -term
officials were
responsible for adding gardens and qanats to Yazd and Taft.
Mushir al- Mamalik, head of the Qajar finance office for 4 decades
in Yazd (Bonine, 1980) built a great branched qanat supplying Yazd
from alluvial channels in the Shir Kuh 40 km distant.
97
Studies in the trade and econimíc networks of settlement in
the social and physical organizations of
Kuh area,
water use and distribution, and the impact of genets on urban
as well as contempory
1982),
1980,
morphology (Bonine, 1979,
Zproastrian agricultural practices (Boyce, 1969), link the various
ways of Yazdi life to water supplied by genets.
the Yazd -Shir
This paper aims to identify and inter -relate the physical
characteristics of the geo- hydrologic system with settlement and
The major sources of
agriculture location, water use, and supply.
and Aug. 1973),
information are Landsat images of the area (Dec.
and a report of the Ministry of Water and Power, 1974
(plate 1),
Figure 1 shows the location
for the Yazd region (Fahrzadi, 1974).
of Yazd within the major features of Iran.
Results and Discusion
Regional Characteristics
the region's highest mountains, lie in the
The Shir Kuh,
north -western nose of the Central Iranian Plateau fold structure
containing thick Mio- Pliocene folded argillaceous
1969)
(Issar,
lacustrine deposits of low transmissivity, and thick Pleistocene
good aquifers, especially where they extend
alluvial deposits;
carved into scarp prominently
from Creatceous limestiones,
breaching valleys, and dip -slope branching channels. Massive
Near Mehriz is a
Jurassic sandstones are cliff formers near Taft.
indurated Pliocene conglomerates.
lineation of
fault scarp
along the
Tertiary -aged andesites occur in the Mehriz area,
southwest, and west of the range.
but receives
a
yearly water deficit,
has
area
The
precipitation in winter as a result of easternmost extensions of
Only the Shir Kuh near Yazd and the mountains
Mediterranean lows.
near Kirman in the southern nose of the fold structure are high
enough to wring moisture from the winter atmospheric lows that
Figure 5 (data from Fahrzadi, 1974) shows the
move over the area.
average monthly precipitation for 3 stations seen on figure 2.
Montane vegetation is mostly limited to the upper wide openings of
deeply cut valleys.
Figure 2 is a contour map of the area made by integrating
topographic information with several Landsat images of differing
This map allows for the
and elevations.
solar azimuths
planimetric estimation of surface areas used for computation.
Figure 3 is a map of features seen on plate 1, including
areas of active agriculture. This figure shows the myriad deeply
A band of reflective
cut valleys filled with coarse alluvium.
fine -grained alluvium extends from Taft and curves behind the Shir
A coarse fan with wide and incised channels extends into the
Kuh.
Snow lies in the
reflective inner alluvium of the Mehriz basin.
98
figure's white areas above 9000 feet,
filling high montane
valleys.
Arrows indicate the direction of surface runoff and
infiltrated water flow.
The Pliocene conglomerate outcroppings
cut across the basin west of Mehriz.
Notice that most of the agricultural fields occur at the base
extensive Pleistocene alluvial fans, and extend downslope
toward Ardakan.
The
fields have a lineation indicating their
water supply:
sources from Yazd or Taft.
The alluvial valley,
where not irrigated, has the high reflectance of dunes and salt.
of
Yazd and Ardakan grow wheat, most of the region's cotton and
pistacios.
Yazd hyas half the region's almonds,
and most of the
grapes.
Ardakan grows half of the region's pomegranates, figs,
and mulberry. Mehriz grows some wheat and barley, in addition of
orchard crops.
The cultivated fields in this figure are active in winter,
and watered by genets.
Recent pumpwells are used to maintain
summer crops and orchards in June through August.
Figure 6 shows the hydrographs for Taft and Ibrahimabad,
which is inside the Mehriz basin.
The peaks occur at the April
decline of rainfall, about one month after the maximum average
rainfall when snow is melting and flooding the deep valleys into
the alluvial basins.
The Ibrahimabad
station shows a longer
period of groundwater recession than Taft:
this
is probably due
to the effect
of
the Pliocene conglomerate,
which acts as a
groundwater dam.
The
general
month's
difference between
groundwater maximum height and maximum averagr rainfall represents
the infiltration time.
Figure 4 shows representative genet paths.
The Mehriz area
supports more Banat systems and agruculture than the Taft area.
Qanats distribute water from the Yazd system downslope to Ardakan.
Results
Figure 7 shows two measures of yearly discharge into the
Mehriz
basin,
Q1- and
Q2,
in
relation to surface area,
evapotranspiration (Et), precipitation (Ppt), and elevation.
The
curve Ppt -Et
is an estimate of surface runoff plus infiltration.
LlF1 is obtained from the relation
AFI/Ppt - exp [- (Et /Ppt)]
(Sellers,
1965).
The curve Q1 - Ppt -Et x area gives a lower
measure than Q2 - F1 x area:
4F1 gives more runoff at lower
elevations where Et exceeds Ppt, and so may be a more realistic
measure for desert winter flood conditions.
The boundary of the Mehriz watershed encloses about 720 sq
Effective precipitation begins at about 7000 feet elevation.
The watershed area above 7000 feet is about 375 sq km. Snow above
9000 feet covers 160 sq km.
The interior basin below 6000 feet
bounded by the Pliocene conglomerate encloses about 115 sq km.
km.
99
feet, Q1 total - 67.5 million
million cubic meters. Another
total
cubic meters.
Q2
gives a
1[Et
/Ppt
(tanh Ppt /Et)]
A
F2
/Ppt
measure of runoff,
(not shown on figure 7).
total Q3 - 75 million cubic meters
Fahrzadi (1974), for a total of 116 genets in the Mehriz -Yazd
system, gives a yearly total discharge of nearly 62 million cubic
meters.
Based on the area above 7000
-
82
The recharge of the Mehriz basin is sufficient to supply the
Ardakan is
observed system discharges for the area's (pinata.
supplied by water that passes through the Yazd system and the Taft
(Fahrzadi estimates the Ardakan genet yearly
alluvial fan.
and the discharge of Taft
discharge at 67 million cubic meters,
(lanats as nearly 57 million cubic meters per year.)
Conclusion
Life and irrigated agriculture in the Shir Kuh system is
sustained by the happy confluence of of three factors:
1) Mountains of sufficient heitht and area to wring upper
level moisture derived from the Mediterranean, and store it as
snow until April. Rain at lower elevations maintains antecedent
moisture conditions in alluvium and slope surfaces so that the
melt water floods pass through the deep limestone valleys into the
snow melt -water with a short delay caused
basin alluvium.
Thus,
by groundwater flow time of the recharge wave feeds the qanats,
whose discharges will follow the hydrograph trends.
geology.
The
interface of Cretaceous
2)
Favorable
and their favorable
structural attitude with the
limestones,
allows quick recharge from
coarse Pliestocene alluvial fans,
montane flow into the Mehriz basin. An active wet Pleistocene was
responsible for the extensive dissection of the structure, and
Pleistocene
development of coarse piedmont and alluvial fans.
groundwater poobably keeps the modern yearly fluctuation of ground
water levels within reach of qanats. The occurrence of the fault
acting as a dam,
and Pliocene conglomerate across the basin,
allows the (pinata to drain the basin more efficiently.
and the
3) Periods of political and economic stability,
region's connection to a larger social network, allowed for the
extensive capitalization needed to develop and maintain genets.
The genet systems
of
the Yazd -Shir Kuh presently are in
On the whole, it
winter -spring recharge.
supports about 60,000 souls and extensive agriculture. Extending
equilibrium with
the
the area drained by genets would maximize recharge use, but the
total discharge would still be limited by the system recharge.
The present genet systems are close to the average recharge
100
in the Mehriz basin could cause
Pumpwell development
volumes.
most of the (lariats to dry.
ACKNOWLEGEMENT
Bonine of the Middle Eastern
M.E.
My appreciation to Dr.
Arid
Land
studies
faculty,
University of Arizona, for
Studies and
the generous use of his research materials.
REFERENCES CITED
The morphogenesis of Iranian cities.
1979.
Annals
Bonine, M.E.
of the Association of American Geographers 69(2):208 -224.
Margurger
and its Hinterland.
1980.
Yazd
232 pp.
Geographisches Schriften, Heft 83. Margburg,
traditional irrigation
From genet to kort:
1982.
Iran XX:145 -159.
terminology and practices in Central Iran.
M.
1969.
Boyce,
village of Yazd.
farming in a Zoroastrian
Some aspects
of
Persica IV:121 -140.
1974.
Ghanats of Iran:
drainage of a sloping
Bybordi, M.
Irrigation and Drainage Division,
Journal of the
aquifer.
American Society of Civil Engineers, 100, IR3:245 -253.
genets in the Old
The origin and spread of
1968.
English, P.W.
World.
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society,
112(3):170 -181.
Groundwater in the
Ministry of Water and
Electricity, Hydrology Unit. 204pp. (In Farsi).
Fahrzadi, K.
1974.
Yazd -Ardakan
Report
Region.
on
Geology
Vol.
and
II.
Issar, A.
1969.
The groundwater provinces of Iran.
Scientific
the International Association of
XIV(1):87 -99.
Mandevi, M. and Anderson, E.W.
the margin
of
Dasht -i
Bulletin 10(2):131 -145.
1983.
Kavir.
Bulletin of
Hydrologists
The water -supply system in
Middle Eastern Studies
sloping lands.
Schmid, P., and Luthin,J.
1964.
The drainage of
Journal of Geophysical Research 69(8):1525 -1529.
W.D.
1965.
Physical Climatology.
Chicago Press, Chicago. 272 pp.
Sellers,
101
University of
FIGURE 1.
GEOMORPHIC SETTING OF YAZD
102
PLATE 1.
WINTER LANDSAT SCENE, BAND 5, OF SHIR KUH AREA
1 03
FIGURE 2. CONTOUR MAP OF SHIR KUH AREA DRAWN TO LANDSAT IMAGE
BASE
104
ón
Ó
<NX
1
\ '^
4,
/
4,4
e
r tv4;' ,-
1/;
t
e4
r,
-
°J
.I,
/
,
YA 2 D
/
/
liT
V
t
!s
A'(11(;,.'^
e
'
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.
}
+ rock
outcrops
son EL 31
®
In shadow or snow free
IIe
cities, towns, villages
wr
field* of 115.151
WIN
10
o
20
30
T i
e
Ir
Ope
w.
1
FIGURE 3. FEATURES SEEN ON LANDSAT WINTER SCENE OF SHIR KUH AREA
105
4
AROAKAN \
\
REPRESENTATIVE OANAT PATHS
4
IN THE YAZD-SHIRKUH
\
%
SYSTEM.
"
,
.
..
(
T
M
/
MEHRIZ
oso,
ó:.
ón
FIGURE 4. REPRESENTATIVE QANAT SYSTEMS OF SHIR KUH AREA
106
31. 3e-
40
x NASRBAD
YR AV 185 mm
ME HRIZ
YR AV 1 0 0 m m
A YAZD
YR 2kV50mm
1011
12 12 3
45
6
7
89
MONTH
FIGURE 5. AVERAGE MONTHLY PRECIPITATION IN THE SHIR KUH AREA.
(DATA FROM FAHRZADI, 1974)
107
MEHRIZ BASIN GROUNDWATER
metres
fe)
N
(D
cD
o
CO
b31dMONf10aJ 13d1
108
tO
0
100
I
I
0
25
,
5
200
300
millimetres
50
75
square
kilometr e s
I0
115
O
63
400
1
500
1
100
125
210
215
M
FIGURE 7. SUMMARY CURVES SHOWING ELEVATION VARIATIONS FOR SURFACE
AREA (IN SQ KM) , ET (IN MM) , PPT (IM MM) , PPT -ET (IN MM), AF1 (IM
MM), Q1 AND Q2 (IN MILLION CUBIC METERS).
109
600
I50
THE SECOND MANAGEMENT PLAN:
A MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR THE 1990s
by
Katharine L. Jacobs, Director
Tucson Active Management Area
Arizona Department of Water Resources
The Arizona Department of Water Resources is now entering the
second phase of a five -phase process which is intended to
eliminate overdraft of the groundwater supplies by the year 2025
in selected parts of the state. The majority of Arizona's water
users are within regions of the state called "active management
It is within these four geographic areas that the
areas" (AMAs).
conservation and augmentation efforts required by the 1980
Groundwater Management Act are focused.
of the management efforts in the Prescott, Phoenix and
Tucson AMAs is to achieve safe -yield, resulting in a balance
between demand for groundwater and the average rate of
The Pinel AMA's goal as stated in the Code is
replenishment.
less defined; it requires extending the agricultural economy for
as long as possible while preserving groundwater supplies for
Groundwater depletions in the four areas
non -irrigation uses.
have been ongoing since the 1940s, when agricultural water use
More recently,
expanded rapidly in central and southern Arizona.
rapid urbanization has placed increasing demands on the state's
groundwater supplies.
The goal
The primary tools that are available to the Department to control
demand for groundwater are the Management Plans, which contain
mandatory conservation requirements for most municipal,
Other
industrial and agricultural water users within the AMAs.
tools include limitations on drilling new large wells, a
prohibition on bringing new irrigated land into production, and a
provision which precludes subdividing land in the absence of a
100 year assured water supply for the proposed development.
The First Management Plan (FMP) for the period 1980 -1990 was
adopted in December of 1984; its requirements were not
enforceable until calendar year 1987. The FMP was an important
first step towards the goal of safe yield, but was viewed in part
as a vehicle to establish the management structure for subsequent
The data base available when the first plan was written
plans.
was somewhat limited, since mandatory metering requirements went
into effect the same year it was drafted. Since then, DWR staff
have had significantly more opportunity to assemble water use
data and analyze alternative conservation approaches.
111
Maximum Reasonable Conservation
In contrast to the First Management Plan, the conservation goals
in the Second Management Plan have been deliberately designed to
achieve the maximum reasonable level of conservation in all
The Groundwater Code actually requires that
sectors.
requirements for the agricultural sector "assume the maximum
conservation consistent with prudent long -term farm management
Industrial users are required to use the "latest
practices."
commercially available conservation technology consistant with
reasonable economic return." The language in the Code is less
specific for municipal users than that for other sectors, but the
approach used in setting the municipal targets incorporated the
"maximum reasonable" concept.
DWR's strong conservation approach in the SMP reflects the
Department's philosophy that establishing high expectations for
conservation in the early years will make the safe yield goal
The majority of the water users who will be
more achievable.
With one of the
served in 2025 have not yet moved to Arizona.
fastest growth rates in the country, it is important that DWR
require new users to start out with low water use landscaping,
low flow plumbing devices, and an understanding of the water
It is
management strategies that are appropriate for this area.
far easier for social and economic reasons to build-in water
conservation "from the ground up" than to expect significant
retrofitting at a later date. Also, reductions in water demand
in the early years will result in higher groundwater levels when
the safe -yield goal is reached, since less water will have been
Higher groundwater levels relate to
removed from the aquifer.
reduced pumping costs, better water quality, and reduced risk of
subsidence.
Greater Degree of Specificity
The Second Management Plan (SMP) is far more detailed than the
FMP for reasons in addition to the availability of a better data
In order to eliminate problems that have been identified
base.
in the First Plan, the SMP is far more individually tailored,
For example, the FMP used
especially in the municipal program.
an across -the -board percent reduction for all municipal providers
whose 1980 water use rate exceeded 140 gallons per capita per
The SMP contains target rates that are based on an
day.
individual analysi s of the conservation potential of the
approximately 100 large providers in the four AMAs. The
conservation potential analysis required the development of a
detailed data base for each provider, enabling di saggregati on of
residential -vs- non -residential, single -vs- multifamily, and
interior -vs- exterior water use patterns in each service area.
Water use projections for each sector enabled identification of
In each service area, conservation
new -vs- existing users.
measures were selected which would be appropriate for
implementation in the water use categories which were determined
to have conservation potential.
112
There are several other examples of areas in which the SMP
The
requirements have greater specificity than the FMP version.
requirements for turf and "other industries" are more tailored to
In the
the water use patterns of the affected facilities.
agricultural sector, the program is laid out in a manner quite
similar to that in the FMP, but the water allocations are based
on an analysis that is far more detailed than the original
versi on.
Effluent Use Incentives /Requirements
The FMP baseline assumed 100% of the effluent generated within
the AMA would be reused by 1990. This assumption proved to be
In the SMP, it is assumed that 60% of the
overly optimistic.
total effluent generated in the AMA will be used by 2000 (50,000
This number has also generated questions about how
acre feet) .
In 1985, 11% of the
realistic the effluent use projections are.
effluent generated was being used.
In light of these concerns, stronger effluent use incentives have
been built into the SMP, and for the first time, there are also
The draft plan is expected
effluent use requirements included.
to undergo further revisions to expand the incentives for
effluent use, but at present they include the following:*
Municipal
o
Effluent does not count against a municipal provider's
gallons per capita per day target. This target is
calculated by taking the total water withdrawn, diverted
or received except effluent, and dividing this number by
the population served.
Industrial
o
Turf facilities that use effluent are given an additional
1/2 acre -foot per acre per year in their maximum annual
water allotment
o
o
Effluent lakes on new golf courses are not limited in
size, while potable water lakes are indirectly limited
through the allotment
Turf facilities that experience technical difficulties
associated with effluent use may apply for a modification
In addition, a leaching allowance
of their allotment.
can be obtained as needed.
* Since this paper
effluent use has
turf application
increased to one
was presented, a 10% discount rate for
been added for agricultural users, and the
incentive in the Phoenix AMA has been
acre -foot per acre per year.
113
o
o
o
Cooling towers (in excess of 250 tons of cooling
capacity) are exempt from recycling requirements if they
use effluent.
New large landscape users (in excess of 10,000 square
feet of water -intensive vegetation) are exempt from
acreage limitations if they use effluent.
Augmentation grant funds may be available to fund certain
effluent -related projects.
In addition to the incentives listed above, new turf facilities
built after 1990 must use effluent to serve at least 50% of their
total annual water requirements after 1995. The incentive rate
is set to encourage users to exceed the 50% requirement. Thus,
those who exceed the 50% figure get 0.3 acre -feet per acre of
effluent incentive, and those in excess of 90% effluent use get
0.5 acre -feet.
Sand and gravel and metal mining facilities are both required to
evaluate the potential for effluent use.
Expanded Augmentation Program
The Augmentation Program that was contained in the FMP for Tucson
related to a specific project, the Alamo Wash /Rillito Recharge
An amendment to the FMP document contained the
Project.
rationale for development of this project, which is a multiagency cooperative effort that is currently in the feasibility
The Alamo /Rillito project was intended to
assessment phase.
demonstrate how urban fl oodfl ows could be safely charged into the
Effluent and CAP water may also be considered for
aquifer.
recharge at that site.
The SMP Augmentation Program contains a complete assessment of
five new sources of supply for the Tucson Basin, and evaluates
the role of effluent use and artificial recharge as a storage
The evaluation is done on both a statewide and a
mechanism.
local level for the following augmentation options:
o
o
o
o
o
Expanded utilization of CAP /Plan 6
Storm water runoff
Water transfers
Watershed management
Weather modification
In addition to this assessment of potential augmentation
measures, the SMP develops goals and objectives for the TAMA, and
defines the role the Department is likely to take in regional
supply enhancement schemes. The chapter also establishes
criteria for determining consistency with management plan goals
to be used in evaluating underground storage and recovery
Finally, the SMP prescribes the development of an
projects.
augmentation grants program to be allocated to entities that
114
intend to build augmentation projects and do planning and
feasibility studies. The grants will be supported by the
augmentation fees collected within TAMA.
Water Quality
The Code requires that DWR include, for the first time, a water
quality assessment in the SMP. A program for water quality
management is optional under the Code, but DWR is specifically
directed to seek legislation that authorizes any new water
The
quality management programs that are deemed to be necessary.
SMP water quality program includes an assessment of six major
It was determined that the
constituents found in groundwater.
water quality management program could be achieved within
existing authority given that primary responsibility for water
quality protection rests with the Department of Environmental
Quality.
The importance of water quality issues in the overall water
Use limitations
management picture should not be underestimated.
associated with poor quality water may have a significant impact
on the AMA's ability to achieve safe -yield and to demonstrate 100
year assured supplies.
The constituents that were evaluated as part of the assessment
included the following:
o
o
o
o
o.
o
Total dissolved solids
Sulfates
Nitrates
Metals
Pesticides
Volatile organic compounds
In general, it was found that groundwater quality in the Tucson
Maps of the occurence of these constituents
AMA is excellent.
have been included in the Plan. The groundwater management
strategy proposed by the Department incorporates water quality
considerations into rule packages that are presently being
developed on the following subjects:
o
o
o
o
o
Assured water supply
Well construction and drillers licensing
Well spacing /impacts analysis
Groundwater withdrawal permits
Recharge and underground storage and recovery projects
In addition to this effort, the DWR has committed to an ongoing
water quality assessment program and evaluation of incentives for
the use of poor quality water.
115
Conservation Assistance
The Second Management Plan alludes to the Department's commitment
to assist water users in meeting conservation requirements. It
is anticipated that the Department will be very active in
development of education materials and providing technical
The program is presently
assistance to various water users.
being developed, but will definitely include several
Sample conservation programs, demonstration projects
strategies.
Consultants may be
and cooperative programs will be developed.
engaged to provide detailed technical assistance to user
groups.
DWR staff will faci l i ti ate ongoing conservation
activities through public presentations, interagency
coordination, development of educational materials, and flexible
compliance programs.
Conclusi on
The Second Management Plan provides a comprehensive water
From the perspective of the
management strategy for the 1990's.
Tucson AMA, a number of the limitations of the First Management
Plan approach have been addressed through the use of a more
comprehensive data base and a more tailored regulatory
Greater emphasis on "maximum reasonable" levels of
approach.
conservation is complemented by a greatly expanded augmentation
The water quality considerations that are crucial to
effort.
integrated, effective water policy have been identified.
Finally, DWR has committed to an ongoing partnership with water
users in achieving regional conservation goals.
116
THE PHOENIX WATER RESOURCE PLAN- -1987
PHIL REGLI1
ABSTRACT: The Phoenix Water Resource Plan- -1987 is the official water resource plan for
It
the City of Phoenix, Arizona.
covers the areas of supply, demand management and
supply augmentation. The plan also addresses the issue of drought management.
KEY TERMS: Water resource plan; demand management; supply augmentation; drought.
INTRODUCTION
The Phoenix Water Resource Plan- -1987 is part of an ongoing planning process to meet
water needs of the City of Phoenix in both normal and drought periods. The city
will meet water demands during normal or drought period through supply augmentation and
To address potential water problems, the
by reducing water demand through conservation.
plan was broken up into three areas: the current supply and demand situation, water
conservation through demand management, and supply augmentation through obtaining new
supplies or exploring new avenues of water reuse.
the
The City of Phoenix is divided into two water service areas (Map 1). The Salt River
Project water service area, referred to as "on- project," and consists of lands with a
Lands not located
right to water stored behind Salt River and Verde river dams.
Some land located within the project
"off -project ".
on- project are referred to as
boundaries, but without water rights, are referred to as "non- member lands" and are part
of the second service area, the off -project area.
SUPPLY AND DEMAND
Demand
Fifty year water demand projections for both the on- and off -project service areas
were developed by incorporating the following factors: Population, weather, and current
The base demand was developed using population and
water conservation programs.
water
use.
Then high and low water use levels were developed by
historical
incorporating weather related impacts.
The base demand then was adjusted for the
programs:
Public Awareness Program, Water Rates changes,
conservation
following
The Public Awareness Program is an
Building Code Revisions, and the Retrofit Program.
It is estimated that this program will result in a
on -going public information program.
1986).
the 50 -year planning period (P &M
2.5 percent reduction in demand during
Increasing block water rate schedules saved an estimated 10,700 acre feet in 1985 and
are planned to maintain the same proportional savings throughout the planning period.
The 1980 building code revision resulted in a 2,300 acre -ft /yr savings for 1985 based on
a 40 percent compliance rate. The actual savings of this building code program are
The home emergency plumbing retrofit
estimated to increase over the planning period.
This
program saved the city 2,700 acre -ft /yr by retrofiting 41,000 homes in 1985.
1 Water Resource Specialist, City of Phoenix Water and Wastewater Department
455 N. 5th Street, Phoenix, AZ 85004
117
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8
FOREST
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Future Water
Service Area
JOMAX R0.
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Nonmember
Off -project North of CAP
® Off -project South of CAP
® Area sold to Scottsdale
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The combined
program's impact will diminish over the planning period.
four programs along with the base demand are presented in Table 1.
savings
TABLE 1
ON- PROJECT AND OFF -PROJECT
SUPPLY & DEMAND
(Thousands of Acre Feet)
On-Pro iect
Year
1985
2000
2015
2025
2035
185
12
173
224
252
263
17
207
21
23
231
240
268
25
243
127
63
28
218
155
195
24
220
241
7
0
0
0
0
226
220
241
45
14
Demand
Unadjusted Demand
Conser. Programs Savings
Adjusted Demand
Supply
a) SRP Surface
b) SRP Groundwater
c) Groundwater
Total Supply
Surplus (Deficit)
48
18
221
(
5)
(20)
(2)
Off- Project
Year
1985
2000
2015
2025
2035
107
11
96
198
259
284
294
16
182
24
235
27
29
257
265
63
37
0
0
0
0
39
21
114
16
19
114
0
19
114
0
19
114
2
2
2
2
25
30
25
30
25
30
25
30
100
231
206
190
190
4
49
(29)
(67)
(75)
Demand
Unadjusted Demand
Conser. Programs Savings
Adjusted Demand
Supply
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
Groundwater
Gatewater
CAP
Effluent
Roosevelt Space
Mc Mullen Valley
Total Supply
Surplus (Deficit)
119
of
these
Supply
Salt River Project (SRP) provides water for the on- project area. In 1986 more than
193,000 acre -ft /yr of surface water was delivered by SRP and that will increase to
240,000 acre -ft /yr as agricultural land is converted to urban use (Table 1). Mined
groundwater use will be reduced to zero by 2025, in compliance with the 1980 Arizona
Groundwater Management Act.
The off -project water supply consists of four sources:
Groundwater
Groundwater, gatewater, freewater, and Central Arizona Project (CAP) water.
is the most
dependable water supply in the off -project area and it needs to be
preserved. The City of Phoenix used more than 63,000 acre -ft /yr of groundwater in 1985
reduce its mined groundwater use to 0 by 2025. Gatewater is captured water
and must
SRP has projected
stored behind gates built on top of SRP's Horseshoe Dam spillway.
to
2000 will be 21,000 acre -feet /yr and then 19,600 acre-ft/yr
use
gatewater
thereafter. Gatewater is unpredictable and has the potential of dropping to zero in any
given year.
Free water is that released by SRP from the dams for lack of storage
Since
capacity. This water is free to all water users for use both on and off project.
freewater is unpredictable it is not considered in long term supply projections.
Central Arizona Project has been delivering water to the City of Phoenix since May
of 1986. Eventually it will deliver 113,882 acre -ft /yr of Colorado River water.
The city has made a financial commitment to the expansion of groundwater rights,
conservation space at Roosevelt Dam, and the development of treated wastewater for turf
irrigation (Table 1). In 1986 the City of Phoenix purchased approximately 14,000 acres
The city plans
of land in McMullen Valley west of the City for its groundwater rights.
transport that water to
the next 100 years and
to withdraw 30,000 acre -ft /yr over
New conservation space is being
Phoenix through the Central Arizona Project canal.
constructed on top of Roosevelt Dam to capture water traditionally lost during wetter
The amount of storage space has been estimated to be 11,250
than normal years.
Reclaimed wastewater for turf irrigation soon will begin to have an impact
acre- ft /yr.
on construction of golf courses. Two water treatment developments, the South Pointe and
the Foothills, may use advanced wastewater treatment to support golf courses and lakes.
Treated wastewater from these plants for appropriate uses is projected to save 1,800
acre -ft /yr of potable water supplies.
The
Current supply and demand figures are presented in Table 1.
exceeds projected supply by 2015 in both the on -and- off -project areas.
demand
for
water
DROUGHT SUPPLY AND DEMAND
The Phoenix metropolitan area has experienced droughts during the last 100 years and
can expect them to recur within the next 50 years. To plan for a drought, historical
water flows had to be examined for both the Colorado River system and the Salt River and
Verde River systems. In a drought, demand for water rises because an increase of sunny
It was then
Supply of water would decline due to the lack of rainfall.
days.
conservation
and
new
determined that Central Arizona Project, gatewater, freewater,
Surface flows from the Salt River
space would be reduced to zero in a severe drought.
These combined impacts are
and Verde River would be reduced to 60 percent of normal.
that
supply
to both the on- project and
The end results show
presented in Table 2.
off -project areas will not be able to keep up with the demand throughout the planning
period.
120
TABLE 2
ON- PROJECT AND OFF- PROJECT
SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN A SEVERE DROUGHT
(Thousands of Acre Feet)
On Project
1985
2000
2015
2025
2035
High Demand with
Conservation Saving
175
221
250
261
264
100 yr Drought Supply
SRP Surface Water
SRP Groundwater
Groundwater Wells
Total Supply
76
63
28
167
93
48
18
159
117
24
132
145
0
7
0
0
0
148
132
145
-8
-62
-102
-129
-119
2015
2025
2035
324
334
YEAR
Water Deficient
Off -Pro ect
1985
2000
118
232
114
114
45
45
0
Groundwater
McMullen Valley
Reclaimed Wastewater
Total Supply
0
37
63
0
0
0
16
0
0
0
0
30
30
30
2
2
2
2
100
186
172
77
77
Water Deficient
-18
-46
-126
-257
-267
YEAR
High Demand with
Conservation Say.
100 yr. Drought Supply
CAP
Gatewater /Roosevelt
40
30
208
FUTURE DEMAND MANAGEMENT
Water conservation alternatives were evaluated to determine how to reduce the
A wide range of
forecasted water demands under both normal and drought conditions.
technical
applicability,
on
based
evaluated
were
alternatives
conservation
water
met
If
a
water
conservation
alternative
feasibility, and social acceptability (PAM 86).
What
How
would
the
measure
be
implemented?
reexamined:
was
then
those criteria it
What are the
How effective is the measure?
would be the duration of the measure?
direct and indirect costs.
above criteria and were conceptually approved by the City
These measures in 2035 would save 52,400 acre -ft /yr on- project and 54,600
That Demand Management Program will allow the City of
off -project (Table 3).
acre -ft /yr
Phoenix to meet the future water needs for the entire service area up to 2020.
Nine
Council.
measures met
the
121
That programs is described below.
Stricter Enforcement of Existing Plumbing Code:
The 1980 plumbing code requires 4 gallon -per -flush toilet and 3 gallon -per -minute
This code has not been
showerheads. Compliance is currently at 40 percent.
code
would
save approximately 1,000
of
this
strictly enforced.
Full enforcement
acre -ft /yr by 1990 and 15,000 acre -ft /yr by 2035.
Retrofit:
A major retrofit program would be implemented to retrofit all homes constructed
prior to 1980. The result of this program would be a savings of 8,400 acre -ft /yr by
1990, dropping to 3,300 acre -ft /yr by 2035 because of the demolition of older homes.
New Plumbing Code:
A plumbing code revision will reduce the flow for toilets to 1.5 gallons per flush
This measure would save 1,200 acre -ft /yr in 1990
and shower heads to 2.0 gal /min.
and the savings would grow to 22,000 acre-ft/yr by 2035.
Limiting Turf Size:
This measure limits the amount of turf in new developments to not more than 50
percent of the landacapable area. Estimated water savings would be 1,000 acre -ft /yr
by 1990 and 20,000 acre -ft /yr by 2035.
Turf Management:
The turf management program is designed to provide good weather data which will
assist turf managers in reducing water application by about 10 percent. Anticipated
annual water savings from these actions will be approximately 1,000 acre -ft /yr by
1990 and 20,000 acre -ft /yr by 2035.
New Water Rate Structure:
Uniform water rates based upon marginal cost instead of average cost would have a
is
estimated that water savings on this
It
tremendous impact on water demand.
measure alone would be approximately 19,000 acre -ft /yr by 1990 and 31,000 acre -ft /yr
A modified increasing block rate structure would achieve a strong
by 2035.
Meeting
conservation benefit in a less disruptive way than the marginal structure.
revenue requirements alone would reduce demand by 6,000 acre -ft /yr in 1990.
Watering Alert:
This program is intended to reduce peak summer usage by advocating that customers
water their lawns every third day for a two -week period. This program will increase
public awareness of efficient water use and is expected to save approximately 3,000
acre -ft /yr by 1990 and 7,700 acre -ft /yr by 2035.
Best Available Commercial /Industrial Technology:
The Best Available Commercial /Industrial Technology Program (BAT) is designed to
commercial and industrial high water -use customers to reduce water
encourage
Estimated water savings
consumption by adopting the most advanced technologies.
from this measure will reach approximately 6,400 acre-ft/yr by 1990 and 10,500
acre -ft /yr by 2035.
Secondary Education:
It is proposed that the current primary school program be expanded to teach students
in intermediate and secondary schools about water conservation and water resources
management.
122
TABLE 3
ON- PROJECT AND OFF PROJECT
SUPPLY AND DEMAND WITH NEW DEMAND MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
(thousands of acre feet)
On- Project
1990
2000
2015
2025
2035
Average Demand
Conservation Plan Savings
Adj. Demand
188
207
37
240
243
170
231
42
189
48
192
191
Supply
220
221
226
220
241
53
51
37
28
50
YEAR
Surplus (Deficit)
31
167
52
Off Project
Average Demand
Conservation Plan Savings
Adj. Demand
122
14
108
182
23
159
235
42
193
257
49
208
265
Supply
222
224
206
190
190
Surplus (Deficit)
114
65
13
(18)
(20)
55
210
The implementation of these nine new measures is still not adequate to meet the
demand for water in the off -project area, nor adequate during a severe drought. Strict
conservation measures are still needed to help reduce the demand for water during a
Three major conservation programs that the City of Phoenix would
severe drought.
)n
Drought Emergency Education, Restrictions
implement during a severe drought are:
these
To finance
and Voluntary Commercial /Industrial Conservation.
Use,
Sprinker
programs, a drought surcharge of up to 25 percent of current rates would be implemented
These programs are descrt:Ded
the cost of the emergency drought program.
to cover
below.
:d
Drought Emergency Education would be implemented in the beginning of a mild drought
would be maintained until the drought is over. This education campaign is essential
Public response could reduce demand '-y
communicate to the public what needs to be done.
21,200 acre -ft /yr in 1990 and 23,500 acre -ft /yr in 2035.
Restrictions on Sprinkling Use would be voluntary in a mild drought but would became
t.:is
In a mandatory situation the overall savings of
mandatory in a severe drought.
program would be 18,000 acre-ft/yr in 2035.
Voluntary Commercial /Industrial Conservation: A survey of 68 manufacturing firms ar..1 +i
commercial establishments in Phoenix which showed that substantial reductions in wirer
use can be achieved during droughts without significant impact on operations.
.is
average reduction in manufacturing plants was 25.3 percent, and in commercial use,
/yr
could
be
achov.1
Based on these figures, a savings of 34,000 acre -ft
33.5 percent.
during a severe drought.
123
Drought Surcharge: Designed to recover costs during periods of normal demand and
supply,
the drought surcharge could be as much as a 25 percent increase in rates. In
the first year of implementation,in 2035, savings through reduced demand would be 7,500
acre -ft /yr
and by the third year the savings would be 23,000 acre- ft /yr. The total
savings from the emergency conservation program in 2035 would be 60,000 acre -ft /yr
on- project
and 34,000 acre -ft /yr off -project. Even with the implementation of emergency
conservation programs, there would be a 7,000 acre-ft/yr deficit in the on- project area
and a 168,000 acre -ft /yr deficit in the off -project area in 2035. Emergency groundwater
will cancel the deficit in the on- project area but will not reduce the deficit on the
off -project and non -member lands.
WATER RESOURCE AUGMENTATION
The need for additional supplies to meet demand during normal and drought conditions
To meet future needs these options are under evaluation:
Central Arizona
is apparent.
reuse options for treated
state trust land allocation;
Project (CAP) reallocation;
The impact of these
wastewater; purchase of water rights; and groundwater recharge.
water resources projects is described below.
Central Arizona Project Reallocation:
Additional allocation CAP water may be allocated to Phoenix because some of the original
CAP allocatees may not contract for the water. The amount of water from reallocation
has not been determined.
State Trust Land Allocation:
The Arizona State Land Department is finalizing the contracting of CAP municipal and
industrial water that will permit the use of up to 12,000 acre -ft /yr of CAP water on
state trust land within the City of Phoenix service area.
Reuse Options for Treated Wastewater:
The Phoenix water supply may be augmented by treating wastewater to make it acceptable
for turf irrigation, agricultural transfers, industrial use and potable water use.
1.
The turf irrigation option is already being developed through two projects within
0.5 to 2 Mgal /day satellite facilities will be constructed at
the City of Phoenix.
turf irrigation or other similar
various locations to treat wastewater for use in
from
$350 to $150 per acre foot,
range
estimates
cost
uses.
Treatment
of
pumping and lengths of
amount
Capital
costs
will
depend
on
the
respectively.
This
option
will
be
able
to
produce
3,300 acre -ft /yr
installed.
must
be
pipe that
by 2015.
2.
Approval has been given for Agricultural transfers among the City of Phoenix, SRI
and the Roosevelt Irrigation District. The City of Phoenix will deliver to RID as
much as 30,000 acre -ft /yr of SRP water which will be diverted to the Salt
Irrigation District is
River /Pima /Maricopa Indian communities. After the Roosevelt
be
treated
and made suitable for
form,
water
can
urban
the
then
into
converted
industrial use or agricultural use in the Estrella industrial district.
3.
Using wastewater for potable use is undergoing a feasibility analysis by the City of
This option is controversial because of public perception that wastewater
Phoenix.
is not a potable water resource, and the perceived expense. This option is expected
to generate 20,000 acre -ft /yr by 2000 and a total of 40,000 acre -ft /yr by 2035.
124
Purchase of Water Rights:
The City of Phoenix evaluated numerous parcels of land to determine if purchasing the
Of all the lands evaluated,
the City
of
water rights would be beneficial to the city.
Phoenix purchased McMullen Valley in 1986 and is planning to purchase additional land
that will generate 20,000 acre -ft /yr for use by 2020.
Groundwater Recharge:
The recharge
The City of Phoenix plans to recharge 80,000 acre -ft /yr of surface water.
program is essential will be a joint effort of local water agencies and municipalities.
This program will allow the City to withdraw groundwater to maintain pressure within the
city system and to develop a groundwater reserve during times of water shortages.
SUPPLY AND DEMAND WITH BOTH NEW SUPPLIES AND DEMAND MANAGEMENT
The development of water resources in addition to the Demand Management program will
allow the City of Phoenix to meet the forecasted water demand throughout the planning
period and to meet the requirements of the State of Arizona. The supply and demand
situation for the off -project area is presented in Table 4.
TABLE 4
OFF -PROJECT
SUPPLY AND DEMAND WITH DEMAND MANAGEMENT AND SUPPLY AUGMENTATION
(Thousands of Acre Feet)
Year
Demand with
Conserv. Savings
Current Supply
New Supplies
Total Supply
Surplus
1985
2000
2015
2025
2035
96
182
235
257
265
100
100
231
36
267
206
78
284
190
111
301
190
111
301
4
85
49
44
36
0
SUPPLY AND DEMAND WITH NEW SUPPLIES IN A DROUGHT
In a severe drought, the implementation of the water conservation plan, along with
is
essential to meet forecasted demand for
the development of additional resources,
Emergency conservation
water. Unfortunately, these two measures will not be enough.
program will be needed in both the on- and off -project areas along with the use of all
groundwater facilities. By implementing these programs the City will be able to meet
In Table 5 the
the water demand in a severe drought throughout the planning period.
This table shows a
supply and demand situation in a severe drought is presented.
combination of emergency conservation programs and emergency supplies necessary for the
In the case of a surplus,
off -project area. It also shows that a surplus may exist.
the most expensive supply or conservation program would be reduced.
125
TABLE 5
ON- PROJECT AND OFF- PROJECT
SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN A SEVERE DROUGHT
WITH DEMAND MANAGEMENT & SUPPLY AUGMENTATION
(Thousands of Acre Feet)
On- Project
Year
1985
2000
2015
2025
2035
High Demand with
Cur. Conservation
Conservation Plan
Emer. Conservation
Adjusted High Demand
175
- 0
-49
126
221
-37
-53
131
250
-42
-58
150
261
-48
-60
153
264
-52
-60
152
Supply in Drought
Emergency Wells
Total Supplies
167
34
201
159
51
210
148
62
210
132
145
62
194
62
207
Surplus (Deficit)
75
79
60
41
55
Off- Project
Year
High Demand with
Cur. Conservation
Conservation Plan
Emer. Conservation
Adjusted High Demand
Supply in a Drought
Emergency Groundwater
New Supplies
Total Supplies
Surplus (Deficit)
1985
2000
2015
2025
2035
118
-14
-19
85
232
-23
-23
186
298
-42
-29
227
324
-49
-32
243
-55
-34
245
100
172
97
112
75
99
100
186
50
40
276
344
288
112
98
287
15
90
117
45
42
0
0
77
334
"
77
CONCLUSION
Without a combination of new supplies and demand management, the City of Phoenix
cannot meet the demand for water and will be unable to deal with a severe drought during
the next century.
It
is crucial
to examine
both water conservation and demand
augmentation to determine which strategies best benefit a municipality. In the case of
the City of Phoenix, planning and implementing the Phoenix Water Resource Plan- -1987 is
Our Water is Our Future.
prudent.
Literature Cited:
Planning & Managment Consultants,
Water Service Area. City of Phoenix.
1986.
Water Conservation Evaluation for the Phoenix
(This paper was also presented at the American Water Resources Association symposium,
"Water -Use Data for Water Resources Management," held in Tucson, August 28 -31, 1988.
paper is included in the proceedings of that symposium.)
126
The
WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER
SERVES
THE ARIZONA WATER COMMUNITY
Joe Gelt
University of Arizona
Office of Arid Lands Studies /Water Resources Research Center
Tucson, Arizona 85721
Marvin Waterstone
University of Arizona, Water Resources Research Center
Tucson, Arizona 85721
Introduction
The Water Resources Research Center has a broad focus.
The
center, which is funded by federal and state monies, is located
within the University of Arizona's College of Engineering and
The Center's scope of interest, however,
Mines.
includes all
academic disciplines that are involved in water -related studies.
Further,
the center,
although located on the UA campus,
is
involved
with
other
Arizona
universities -- Arizona
State
University and Northern Arizona University.
Also,
the center promotes communications
between
the
universities and the wider water community, including federal,
state and local government agencies and the private sector.
The
center is one of 54 water centers funded nationally by the U.S.
Centers exist in each of the 50 states and in
Geological Survey.
Puerto Rico,
the Virgin Islands, and the District of
Guam,
Columbia.
This paper discusses the center's main activities -- research
support and information transfer - -and will describe the specific
agencies
services the center provides to the people,
and
institutions that make up the state and regional water community.
As the center plans its research support and information transfer
activities, it confers with representatives of water users
groups, public water agencies, and other water decision makers to
identify critical state water issues. Information is exchanged
through the center's formal advisory committee, water conferences
and meetings, and informal discussions.
The identified state
issues provide the basis for research and information transfer
activities.
Research Support
The center's research support program is best understood as a
specific
assessments,
involving state -of- knowledge
process
projects or reports from Scientific Advisory Committees organized
127
For example, a research topic might be
by the water center.
addressed by a state -of- knowledge assessment which is later
reviewed by a Scientific Advisory Committee. From the review the
committee might then develop further research topics for future
for
state -of- knowledge assessments and also suggest topics
The assessments are published as
specific research projects.
issue papers and are distributed as part of the center's
information transfer program.
Each of the components of the research support program
be discussed.
will
State -of- Knowledge Assessments
The important first step in any research enterprise is an
By investigating what is known,
assessment of current knowledge.
of what further work needs to be
done is developed;
a sense
therefore, the center funds state -of- knowledge assessments.
The
assessments are usually supported for about three to six months.
Currently, state -of- knowledge assessments are being developed for
water
aspects of integrated and conjunctive
institutional
management and for a unified hydrologic flow model. As mentioned
the results of the assessments will be presented as issue papers
to be distributed as part of the center's information transfer
program.
Scientific Advisory Committee
state -ofA
Scientific Advisory Committee responds to
Water
of
the
and
is
made
up
of
members
knowledge assessments
committee,
university
advisory
Resources
Research Center's
researchers and others who are knowlegeable in particular subject
areas.
An assessment helps set the agenda of the Scientific
Advisory Committee which proposes additional research in the area
and sets research priorities.
Specific Projects
Specific projects respond to research priorities set by the
major
These projects are
Advisory Committees.
Scientific
three
to
and
can
be
supported
for
periods
up
research efforts
years.
Information Transfer
transfer and research are closely related
Information
Research gathers and interprets information and
activities.
timely
information transfer disseminates the results in a
fashion. Along with disseminating research results, the center's
information transfer program also provides interpretation of
research results and identifies areas of needed research.
128
of
The
center's information transfer program consists
publications, conferences and workshops, and database services.
Publications
The Water Resources Research Center's publications include
issue papers, newsletters and other periodic publications.
Issue Papers The center sponsors a series of issue papers on
water topics of critical importance. The purpose of the issue
papers is to disseminate information about research findings and
to identify research gaps that exist; thereby, setting the agenda
for the next round of research. Depending upon the subject
matter and its treatment, the papers are directed to various
audiences,
from water professionals to the general public.
For
example, the issue paper, "Central Arizona Project Water Quality:
An Examination of Management Options," discussed diverse water quality management options.
It described possible choices and
evaluated the relative advantages and disadvantages, strengths
and weaknesses, and costs and benefits of various water -quality
management methods. The issue paper was intended as a resource
to assist water managers in choosing a suitable water -quality
strategy for various CAP water uses.
The center's most recent issue paper, "Water Farming:
The
Promise and Problems of Water Transfers in Arizona," has a
different focus. This issue paper provides a general review of
the issues and concerns relating to water transfers.
The
publication is intended for professionals as well as a general,
nonspecialized audience, with material presented in a question and- answer format.
The previously mentioned state -of- knowledge assessments that
are in progress will be published as issue papers.
Newsletters The center also publishes a quarterly newsletter
"Arroyo."
The newsletter is sent to almost 2,000 people, most
from Arizona but some from other parts of the Southwest and a few
from other areas of the country. Readers come from a wide range
of backgrounds and interests.
Each issue of "Arroyo" focuses on a different water topic.
Two recent topics were water quality and water transfers.
The
next issue will discuss the Arizona Groundwater Code and the
Second Management Plan.
The center also publishes the "Arizona Water Research News."
This newsletter, which is published during the academic year,
is
distributed to water researchers at the state universities in
The newsletter contains information about research,
Arizona.
funding sources and general information of interest to water
researchers.
129
Other periodic publication The center publishes an annual
sponsored
including
its activities,
report
that describes
research, publications, conferences, staff activities, and other
The annual report is
aspects of the center's operations.
available project
The
center
also
makes
published each July.
to provide
reports
from
research
efforts,
and
plans
completion
access to theses and dissertations resulting from these projects.
needs
are
are developed as specific
publications
Other
identified.
Conferences and Workshops
The center sponsors an annual research conference to promote
communications between water researchers and research users. The
was called
first conference, which was held two years ago,
appropriately, "Getting Acquainted: Arizona's Water Researchers
It provided a unique opportunity for
and Research Users."
research users to tell of their concerns, needs and priorities;
and researchers from the three Arizona universities to present
the results of their work.
This year's conference was titled, "University Water Research
The
Arizona: What Have We Learned? Where Are We Going ?"
morning session was made up of three panels each featuring a main
speaker who presented an overview of research in a specific area.
Each main speaker was followed by two research users who
commented on the conducted research and provided ideas for future
research needs. A poster session was also organized to provide
researchers the opportunity to display the results of their work.
in
The third annual research /researcher
planned for this fall.
users
conference
is
organizes
also
Center
Resources Research
The
Water
Last
specialized workshops on water topics of current interest.
fall the people of Tucson were asked to vote on a proposition
that would decide whether the city's allotment of Central Arizona
Project water should be entirely recharged into the aquifer or
To help
whether a portion should be treated and distributed.
Tucsonans decide the issue, the water center organized a series
various
from
issue
meetings to discuss the
public
of
Other workshops or forums will be conducted as
perspectives.
needed.
Data Base Services
The center's objective is to provide several types of
Several
database services, primarily to the academic community.
numerical water databases (e.g. WATSTOR, STORET, Hydrodata, etc.)
will be available, as will a variety of bibliographic databases
expertise
computerized
a
Also
(through
PROSEARCH).
directory /referral service is being devloped that will list water
and water - related researchers at Arizona's state universities and
130
their specialized interests. The center is also in the process
40,000 - document
of cataloguing and computerizing its library, a
The
library
has
an
extensive
collection
of the socollection.
project
"gray
literature"
(e.g.,
conference
proceedings,
called
represent a significant
completion reports,
etc.) and will
resource for researchers once ongoing automation procedures are
completed in about a year and a half.
131
CURRENT RESIDENTIAL WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES AND BEHAVIORS:
COMPARING TWO POPULATIONS
By
Glenn France
University of Arizona
Department of Geography and Regional Development
Tucson, Arizona 85721
ABSTRACT
The availability of quality water is an important issue facing the
residents of Tucson, Arizona and several communities in the Southwestern
United States.
As cities continue to grow, more emphasis is being
placed on the importance of adopting efficient water use practices and
behaviors.
A water conservation demonstration, education, and research
single family residence named Casa del Agua (Spanish for House of Water)
has been established in Tucson, Arizona. Water conservation information
is presented to the public via oral and video presentations and a guided
tour of the perimeter of the residence. A questionnaire is given to the
visitors as they arrive for the tour.
The
responses to this
questionnaire make it possible to determine the types of water
conservation behavior being practiced by the visitors to Casa del Agua.
Water conservation attitude questions were also included in the
questionnaires as were questions about several water issues.
From this
preliminary study, it has been determined that the levels of adoption of
water conservation behaviors have been low to modest.
It appears that many of the visitors to Casa del Agua have about
the same level of knowledge concerning water conservation as the general
public, although the random survey data for the Tucson area has yet to
be analyzed.
A comparison was made of similar questions asked in a
random survey conducted in the Phoenix metropolitan area March 17 -20,
Some of the findings include:
1988.
1) The amounts of self- reported
water conservation behavior adoption are similar, although the residents
of the Phoenix area seem to report a slightly higher percentage of water
conservation practices being implemented.
2)
Few respondents from
either survey indicated they have attended a water conservation
demonstration or workshop.
3) Negative public perceptions of water
utilities need to be addressed.
4) Water conservation programs that
include economic incentives are favored by both survey populations.
133
INTRODUCTION
A water conservation research and education project is located in
The house is a single family
Tucson, Arizona named Casa del Agua.
Tours
residence equipped with various water conservation technologies.
are offered to the public on weekends and through special arrangement.
These tours explain and demonstrate the water conservation techniques
and technologies that are appropriate in this semi -arid region of the
country.
Research conducted by the University of Arizona Office of Arid
Lands Studies has been continuous at the house since it was opened in
This research has focused on quantifying all water
November, 1985.
inputs and outputs in order to assess the overall impact of the various
On November 1, 1986, my family and
systems on water conservation.
My contribution to the
myself became the residents of Casa del Agua.
research being conducted has focused on the visitors who come to take
the tours offered and their knowledge of water conservation and water
My thesis involves the evaluation of the tour offered at Casa
issues.
del Agua and its effectiveness producing water conservation behavior
This paper deals with the self- reported water conservation
changes.
perceptions and behaviors of these individuals and a random sample
survey of Phoenix area residents (Arizona Field Research, 1988).
BACKGROUND
Approximately 33 percent of the earth's land surface can be
The Tucson Active Management Area
classified as arid or semi -arid.
Because of the
(Tucson AMA) is included within this classification.
rapid increase in population, coupled with the sparseness of rainfall,
concern has been expressed whether an adequate supply of quality
In the Tucson AMA
drinking water will be available in the future.
groundwater withdrawals exceed replenishment by a factor of 2 to 1
Tucson currently relies totally on pumped
(Foster and DeCook, 1986).
Also in the Tucson AMA, 40% of the
groundwater for its water supply.
Residential consumption
total water use is for municipal purposes.
accounts for about 65% of this use (Tucson Water Co, 1987).
The population of the Tucson AMA is expected to increase by more
Even with the transfer of Colorado River
than 50% by the year 2000.
water via the Central Arizona Project (CAP) to the Tucson AMA (proposed
for completion in 1991), the reuse of sewage effluent for large turf
areas such as golf courses and parks, and changes in per capita use as a
result of conservation, there will still be 84,000 acre feet more water
withdrawn from the ground than is replenished (Foster and DeCook, 1986).
To help insure an adequate supply of water for the future and to better
manage current supplies, Arizona enacted the Arizona Groundwater
The cornerstone of that act is conservation.
Management Act of 1980.
To increase the amount of change in per capita use of water through
conservation, a water conservation education and experimental research
single family residence named Casa del Agua (Spanish for House of Water)
The residential sector represents one area of
has been built in Tucson.
134
potential water savings in which individuals can participate directly
Casa del Agua exists to educate
(DeCook, Foster, and Karpiscak, 1987).
the public and thus help realize some of this water savings.
Support for the residence is supplied by Tucson Water Company,
which under state law, The Arizona Groundwater Management Act of 1980 Second Management Plan, must show a continued reduction in residential
water use through the year 2000 (A.R.S. @ 45- 565.A.2), Pima County
Wastewater Management Department, the Arizona Department of Water
Resources, the Southern Arizona Water Resources Association (SAWARA),
and many community business contributors.
Since November 1985,
the University of Arizona's Office of Arid
Lands Studies and Department of Microbiology have
research which has focused on six interrelated tasks:
been
conducting
continuing a water quality sampling program which
characterizes the -graywater and rainwater produced and
determines the potential for impact on our environment; 2)
conducting a water balance analysis which quantifies fresh
water use, graywater production and use, rooftop runoff and
use; 3) continuing evaluation of system components which could
enhance graywater reuse; 4) determining the impacts of water
reuse and conservation on quantity and quality sewer flows; 5)
refining the
-Index ", a residential water efficiency rating
system, for retrofit and new home construction which provides
a measure of water conservation potential; and 6) maintaining
and modifying existing systems (Karpiscak, Foster, DeCook,
Gerba, and Brittain, 1987).
1)
Some significant findings of the ongoing research include:
1)
The operation of the graywater reuse system and the
rainwater harvesting system, with storage, can significantly
reduce the summer demand peak for municipal water; 2) Use of
municipal groundwater at Casa del Agua is about 50 percent of
that used in "average" homes; 3) Interior use of municipal
water. for toilet flushing can be reduced by 75 percent by
installation of 1 gallon per flush units; 4) Total fecal
conform concentration in graywater appears to be reduced by
as much as 99 percent in passing through the water hyacinth
aquacells and sand filter ( Karpiscak, 1988)
.
Until recently the educational aspects of Casa del Agua had not
been included in the research conducted.
They are considered to be
important aspects by many of Casa's support organizations. The focus of
my research at Casa concerns how effective the water conservation
education is in producing water conservation behavior changes. Were the
tours of Casa presenting water conservation information to the public in
a
manner that would encourage the visitors to adopt some of the
techniques presented? This question turned into a master's thesis topic
and this paper presents some of my early findings.
135
to conduct the water
is
The primary duty of the residents
The presentation includes a
conservation education tours on weekends.
lecture, a video tape presentation and a guided tour of the perimeter of
The tour acquaints the visitors with the various low -flow
the home.
plumbing fixtures available, ways of capturing and utilizing rainwater,
Landscape irrigation techniques are
and graywater recycling systems.
A
demonstrated and xeriscape techniques are described and presented.
list of low -water -use plants and brochures containing water conservation
information for interior and exterior use are available.
METHODOLOGY
A questionnaire is given to the visitors of Casa del Agua before
they take the tour or are exposed to any water conservation educational
No correlation analysis has been performed on the data
materials.
Some descriptive analysis was possible and
collected for this paper.
the results are presented below.
The questionnaire given as people arrive for the educational tour
includes questions that are designed to elicit socio- economic
information so a determination can be made concerning the average
education, age, and income of the respondents and if the respondents own
Respondents are asked to rate the importance or
or rent their home.
usefulness of several water related issues using a five response Lichert
Scale ranging from 1- "not at all important" or "not at all useful" to 5They are also asked to rate the
"very important" or "very useful ".
it,
of
several possible ways water
usefulness,
as
they perceive
conservation could be mandated by water suppliers or government
Finally the visitors are asked how they rate the importance
entities.
or usefulness of several water conservation techniques and devices and
which of these have been adopted by the respondents themselves.
The responses to the questions were analyzed descriptively using
Since I was most interested in the responses that
straight percentages.
were answered as 4- "important" or "useful" or 5 - "very important" or
"very useful" I did not use the other responses in my analysis.
The data from the Phoenix study conducted by Arizona Field Research
was based on 624 interviews with full -time residents 18 years of age or
The method of selection was Random
older living in Maricopa County.
Digit Dialing, which insures non -listed telephone numbers are included
in the sample.
A margin of error of + or - 5% was placed on the 350
responses to the questions answered by those who had voluntarily made an
effort to conserve water.
136
FINDINGS
189 visitors filled out questionnaires prior to taking the tour of
Casa del Agua.
164 (87%) of the respondents are residents of Pima
County, 71 (36x) have lived in the county for less than five years and
93 (64%) have lived there for more than five years.
105 (55%) of the
respondents have a college degree; 78 (41%) are over 44 years old; 147
(77%) own their own home; 124 (74%) own a single family home.
Only 68
visitors were asked income levels; of those 35 (51%) have an income of
$25,000 a year or more.
76% of the respondents indicated that they
practiced at least one water conservation technique.
The Phoenix survey had 624 respondents.
76% have lived in Maricopa
County more than 5 years and 24% have lived there for less than 5 years.
21% have a college degree and 44% are over 44 years old.
72% own their
own home and 69% own a single family home.
61% have incomes in excess
of
$25,000 per year.
56%
of
the
624 respondents stated that they
practice some sort of water conservation.
WATER ISSUES
The 189 Casa del Agua responses to the water issues questions using the
five part Lichert Scale gave the following responses:
(91%) rated water conservation within
important or very important.
172
their
community
as
132 (70%) rated the cost of quality drinking water as an important
or very important water issue.
178 (94%) rated an assured supply of quality drinking water as an
important or very important water issue.
182 (96%) rated the quality of the water as an important or very
important water issue.
144
(76%)
rated the source of the quality drinking water as an
important or very important water issue.
When asked which entity should be responsible for the cost, quality,
quantity and the source of the drinking water the 189 respondents
replied as follows (some chose more than one answer):
105 (55%) stated government agencies.
73 (39%) stated water companies.
129 (68%) stated experts in water resource management.
137
WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAMS
The 189 respondents to the water conservation program questions using
the five part Lichert Scale gave the following responses:
56 (30Z) rated raising the price of water as useful or very useful
in promoting water conservation.
106 (56%) stated that some form of water use limitation guidelines
would be useful or very useful in promoting water conservation
practices.
116 (61%) stated that local water conservation publicity campaigns
would be useful or very useful in promoting water conservation.
stated that monetary incentives paid after water
142
(75%)
conservation practices had been adopted would be useful or very
useful in promoting water conservation practices.
47 (25%) stated that water rationing would be useful or very useful
in promoting water conservation practices.
134 (71%) stated that economic incentives for switching to an arid
adapted landscaping would be useful or very useful in promoting
water conservation.
The Phoenix area respondents rated water rationing at a 26% favorable
The
rate and water use limitation guidelines at a 67% favorable level.
remainder of the responses could
compatible questions being asked.
not
be
compared
because
of
non -
INDIVIDUAL WATER CONSERVATION ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS
The 189 respondents to the individual water conservation attitude and
behavior questions,
following responses:
using
the
five
part
Lichert
Scale,
gave
the
(47%) of the respondents rated a low -flow shower head as an
"important" or "very important" water conservation device. Of those
90, 47 (52%) have installed a low flow shower head.
90
(58%)
of the
respondents rated low -flow toilets as an
"important" or "very important" water conservation device. Of those
110, 46 (41%) have installed a low -flow toilet.
110
92 (49%) of the respondents rated storing and using stored rainwater
as an "important" or "very important" water conservation technique.
Of those 92, 8 (9%) have stored and used stored rainwater.
131 (691) of the respondents rated using low- water -use vegetation or
the removal of high water use vegetation as an "important" or "very
Of those 131, 89 (68%)
important" water conservation technique.
have planted low- water -use or removed high water use vegetation.
138
The 350 (or 56% of the total) Phoenix area respondents who said that
they practiced some form of water conservation gave the following
responses:
47% have installed a low -flow toilet; 57% have installed a low -flow
showerhead; 462 have planted low water use vegetation or removed
some high water use vegetation. The low -flow toilet figure may seem
high, but with the 5% margin of error it comes out about the same as
the Casa sample. So far, Phoenix is the only city meeting the water
reduction goals set by The Arizona Department of Water Resources
First Management Plan.
These were the only questions from this
section that were the same on both surveys.
CONCLIISIONS
There are some conclusions and /or implications that can be drawn
Both populations agree on the
importance of water conservation.
Neither population indicated that
(less than 10%) they have attended any water conservation demonstrations
or workshops /seminars.
This would indicate that more information and
publicity about the need to conserve water and the availability of
demonstration projects similar to Casa del Agua needs to be made
from the comparison of these two studies.
available to the public.
When 91% of a population think that water conservation is important;
94% think that an assured supply is important; and 96% believe quality
water is important, then those issues should be examined and addressed
by the policy makers.
So far the water conservation issue has not been
addressed in any meaningful manner. Policy makers should also take note
of the types of water conservation programs that are preferred. Programs
that include economic incentives appear popular in both populations.
People would agree to saving money on their water bills as an incentive
for conserving in some instances; however, the public is more likely to
agree to incentives that are oriented toward the installation costs of
the water devices.
Pilot programs could be implemented that test some
of the these incentive programs.
If reductions in water use are noted
then permanent programs could be put in place.
Another area that could be examined by policy makers concerns which
entities should be responsible for our water.
The respondents to the
Casa questionnaire don't seem to want water companies to have control of
their water supplies.
They think experts in water resource management
should be the responsible parties.
Negative public perceptions
concerning the role of the water utilities should be addressed.
The most important finding or conclusion that can be drawn from this
comparative investigation, in my opinion,
is
that more water
conservation information needs to reach the public.
Since both surveys
indicate that less than 10% of the respective populations have received
some kind of water conservation information from a demonstration or
workshop /seminar.
More of these types of programs should be
implemented.
Water conservation demonstration programs, that show the
139
pubic water conservation practices and techniques, should be implemented
in all cities that have water shortage problems or are expected to have
problems in the future (That would include most of the Southwest U.S.).
The more that is known about the techniques of water conservation, the
The practice of conserving
more likely the techniques will be adopted.
water must take place
in desert regions if man is survive in those
regions.
REFERENCES CITED
Arizona Field Research. 1988.
market research department
Gazette, March, 1988.
Public opinion poll conducted for the
of the Arizona Republic and Phoenix
Arizona Revised Statute Number 45- 565.A.2.
DeCook, K. James, Foster, Kennith, and Karpiscak, Martin.
Index for residential water conservation. In press.
Foster, Kennith E. and DeCook, K. James.
water reuse in the Tucson area.
1986.
Water
1987.
The W-
Impact of residential
Resources Bulletin,
22(5):753 -757.
Karpiscak, Martin.
1988.
Unpublished research results of ongoing
research at Casa del Agua.
Karpiscak, Martin, Foster, Kennith, DeCook, K. James, Gerba, Charles,
and Brittain, Richard.
1987.
Summary Report On Phase II Casa del
Agua: A Community Water Conservation Demonstration And Evaluation
Project.
Tucson: University of Arizona.
Tucson Water Company.
1987.
Annual Report, 1987.
140
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