Volume 7. Number 1.
Published by The University of Arizona at the
Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum
Editorial -The Importance of
Cacti in the Living
Plant Collection of the Boyce
K. C. Newland and E S. Crosswhite
The Page Ranch Story -Its
E. M. Schmutz, M. K. Sourabie and D. A. Smith
Notes on Arizona Grasses
J. R. Reeder and C. G. Reeder
Detection and Control of
Sandblast Injury to Jojoba
(Si m m ondsia chinensis [Link]
J. A. Mosjidis
Damage to Mescal Bean (Sophora secundiflora) by a Pyralid Moth
C. D. Crosswhite and C. Randall
This Mamillaria zeilmaniana grows contentedly in an old clay pot on a rock wall at the Arboretum with Mescal Bean
(Sophora secundiflora) in the background. See articles on page
3 dealing with Arboretum cacti and page 32 dealing with insect damage to Mescal Bean. Photograph by Carol D.
Desert Plants 7! 1 l
A quarterly journal devoted to broadening knowlege of plants indigenous or adaptable to arid and sub -arid regions, to studying the growth thereof and to encouraging an appreciation of these as valued components of the landscape.
Frank S. Crosswhite, editor
Volume 7, Number 1, 1985.
Published by The University of Arizona
at the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum
P.O. Box AB, Superior, Arizona 85273
The Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum at Superior,
Arizona, is sponsored by The Arizona State Parks Board,
The Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, Inc., and
The University of Arizona.
The Importance of Grasses. In this issue of Desert
Plants E.M. Schmutz, M.K. Sourabie and D.A. Smith review the vegetational dynamics and management of range grasses in southern Arizona at the Page Ranch research facility of the
University of Arizona. Also, J.R. Reeder and C.G. Reeder provide extremely valuable "nuts and bolts" additions to our knowledge of the grass flora of Arizona. Subscribers to Desert
Plants are to be commended for financially supporting the publication of "nuts and bolts" articles on such economically important families as legumes (last issue) and grasses (this issue). Without legumes and grasses there would be no Homo sapiens to study and appreciate the desert! Although man may not "live by bread alone" in the spiritual or psychological sense, the old saying "Man is grass" or "Life is grass" have deep and true meaning.
Research on the grasses of arid regions promises tremendous advances of breakthrough proportions. For example, the halophytic grass Distichlis palmen, which grows on land
adjoining estuaries inundated by the tide in the upper portions of the Gulf of California (in the center of the
Sonoran Desert), yields a grain similar to wheat. Can we grow this as a crop plant using seawater for irrigation? To show the potential of lowly grasses for improving man's lot on earth we need only to turn to Corn (Zea mays). In a previous issue of
Desert Plants Corn was shown to be a recently developed crop descended from a simple wild grass. A few enlightened historians recognize Zea mays as the golden asset which allowed the present wealth of the United States to develop! It is said that 5.5 billion bushels of Corn are produced annually in the United States, equivalent to more than 15 million bushels per day. Although we eat roasting ears, creamed corn, tacos, popcorn and Fritos directly, it has been estimated that we eat perhaps a pound of corn at each meal in the transformed substance of beef or pork, eggs, milk, butter or other foods.
Was it the advanced agricultural and industrial technology of the United States which allowed the successful research and development program which successfully exploited Zea mays?
Most experts on the history of science think rather that it was the successful research and development program adapting Zea to the environment of the American heartland that eventually resulted in the great economic, agricultural and industrial success of the country! The cornbelt happened to have an environment with a pre- existing potential for growing
Zea, just as Ireland had turned out to have an environment conducive to growing potatoes.
Just as a good case can be made for the successful development of the United States having hinged on the selection, matching and adapting of a single grass species to what
became the cornbelt, so too do we have hope that less
developed countries and regions may eventually find suitable species which can be exploited to allow their full economic, agricultural and industrial development as well.
The United States has been doubly blessed. In a number of regions where Zea growth is marginal because of lack of rain or adequate sun (or both), or seasonally hot and then cool, varieties of Wheat (Triticum aestivum, T. dumm) have been developed which are extremely productive. Types of Barley
(Hordeum vulgate) have been matched to high altitudes and latitudes with cold weather and short growing seasons. Rye
(Secale cereale) does well under cool conditions and produces on even poor soils. Oats (Avena sativa) produce at climatic extremes and adapt to a wide range of soil types.
Where U.S. climate is too hot and dry for Zea, we have developed hybrid cultivars of Sorghum, that ancient grain plant which fed the biblical Ninevah on the Tigris River.
continued on page 21
Cacti in the Living
Plant Collection of the Boyce Thompson
Kent C. Newland
Newland and Crosswhite Cacti
and Frank S. Crosswhite
Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum
WB, Thompson standing behind his namesake, Echinocereus fasciculatus var. boyce -thompsonii, the very first cactus planted at the Arboretum in the early 1920's,
The following list will serve as an index to the 805 kinds of cacti, belonging to 110 genera, in the living plant collection of the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum. The Arboretum has maintained a high degree of interest in the entire cactus family since the decade of the 1920's, resulting in numerous publications over the years on propagation and care, taxonomy, natural history, speciation and evolution, and life form relationships. Whether by original design or happenstance, the Arboretum has become a center for the study of cacti by scientist and casual visitor alike. Tourist guidebooks often call attention to the Arboretum's collection of cacti and invariably use superlatives, sometimes even calling it the greatest or largest or most complete cactus collection in the world. Although such claims may be somewhat exaggerated, the institution does seek to make the collection as meaningful and complete as possible. To this end the
Arboretum will happily accept contributions of species not found on the present list.
Most of the 805 kinds of cacti are displayed with identifying labels in the Arboretum's cactus garden or in a special cactus greenhouse attached to the Visitor Center building. A few are only in special propagating or research areas and are not yet on display to the public. In response to questions by visitors as to how they could purchase potted specimens of many of the desirable and rare species, a sales area was established adjacent to the Visitor Center building to make available propagated specimens which have not been dug up from the desert. This sales program is a conservation effort designed to discourge persons from despoiling the desert by illegally digging cacti or other desert plants, and to encourage them to grow desert plants which have resulted from horticultural propagation and production methods. The sales area is open only to persons who come to the Arboretum to walk its trails, study the plants, or otherwise participate in the educational and nature -appreciation aspects of the institution. This restriction was established to avoid creating an unrelated business activity and to adhere to University of Arizona regulations,
Arizona state law, and Internal Revenue Service guidelines dealing with non -profit educational and scientific institutions.
All income from the sales program goes directly into operating the Arboretum. It is important for subscribers to Desert
Plants to realize that the majority of the 805 kinds of cacti on the present list are not "stock items" in the sales area. They are members of the Arboretum's living collection used for purposes of research, education and display and as such will be available for sale only as propagation permits. Numerous cacti, including some popular and easy -to -grow types, are grown by a corps of volunteers at the Arboretum for placing in the sales area. Yet others are trucked to the Arboretum periodically by hobbyists and commercial growers for the
Arboretum to sell for fund- raising purposes. Although practically all of the 805 kinds of cacti on the present list have at
one time or another been present in the sales area, the
majority are available only as spin -offs of the educational and scientific programs and /or have an undependable and unpredictable supply. To adhere to the guidelines and philosophy of the "propagated plant sales program" the Arboretum asks that persons refrain from coming specifically to buy plants or to seek specific plants to buy. It is recommended that if persons have any landscaping or other plant requirements that can be anticipated in advance, they should visit some of
A young visitor looks at immense white Trichocereus flowers amidst a veritable jungle of cactus stems in a greenhouse attached to the visitor center of the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum. Photograph by
Carol D. Crosswhite.
Borzicactus aureispinus adapts to a hanging pot at the Boyce
Thompson Southwestern Arboretum. In its native Bolivia it hangs from sides of cif fs. Photograph by Carol D. Crosswhite.
the very excellent retail plant nurseries present in Arizona and adjacent desert regions.
Although the designation "arboretum" in the name of the institution emphasizes trees, cacti have always been included, along with other desert plants, among the subject matter to be studied and displayed. The Arboretum's interest in cacti goes back to the 1920's when Charles Russell Orcutt was hired as the institution's first professional plant collector.
Cacti collected by Orcutt in Mexico and the Southwestern
United States were established at the Arboretum at an early date. Of special interest historically are a handful of species discovered at or near the Arboretum itself and which Orcutt considered entirely new to science. First discovered were
Echinocereus arizonicus and Mammillaria viridiflora at 4700 feet elevation about 11 miles northeast of the Arboretum.
The Echinocereus is now considered a variety of Echinocereus triglochidiatus by Lyman Benson and is listed as an
"endangered species" by the United States government. Benson considers the Mammillaria to be a good taxon in species rank. It is not uncommon as a wild plant at the Arboretum itself. Orcutt also described Echinocereus boyce -thompsonii as a new species on the basis of wild plants native to the
Arboretum grounds. It is retained by Benson in the rank of variety under Echinocereus fasciculatus.
From 1928 to 1945 five Arboretum botanists and horticulturists published articles on cacti. Fritz Berger, the son of the famous European cactus and succulent expert Alwin Berger, grew cacti at the Arboretum as the institution's first professional plant propagator. We have found articles he published on Echinomastus and Mammillaria during this period of his career before he began his better -known work at the Huntington Botanical Garden in Pasadena, California. A number
Newland and Crosswhite Cacti 5 of Fritz Berger's cactus photographs taken at or near the
Arboretum appeared in his father's landmark book Kakteen,
Anleitung zur Kultur and Kenntnis der Wichtigsten Eingefuhrten Arten published in 1929 at Stuttgart. Ralph O. Baird published articles on "A Recent Cactus Expedition" and "A
New Species of Cactus" while employed at the Arboretum.
William Palmer Stockwell served as research assistant and propagator at the Arboretum during the decade of the 1930's.
In 1933 he was senior author, with Lucretia Breazeale, of a brand -new 116 -page book Arizona Cacti, published by the
University of Arizona. This was the forerunner of the University's later book Cacti of Arizona which appeared in 1940 under authorship of Dr. Lyman Benson. (This latter book, through all of its incarnations including the 1969 third edition, continued to be illustrated by Lucretia Breazeale, who became Lucretia Hamilton after marrying Louis Hamilton.)
Another employee of the Arboretum, Jack Whitehead, published on cacti and other desert plants in the decade of the
1930's, a good example being a 1936 article on Opuntia leptocaulis in the Journal of the Cactus and Succulent Society of
America. A plant collector for the Arboretum in both the
1930's and 1940's, J. Pinckney Hester, published numerous articles on his cactus discoveries, including a number of supposed new species and even a proposed new genus Escobesseya. Although some of his "new species" have stood the test of time, some have been downgraded to the status of variety or form or outright synonymized.
During the decade of the 1950's when most species of Arizona cacti had already been discovered, Arboretum botanist
Bernard W. Benson surprised cactus and succulent experts around the world by describing Pediocactus paradinei as a new species from House Rock Valley in Coconino County.
The famous German cactus expert Curt Backeberg proclaimed
Benson's cactus not only a new species but an entirely new genus as well, naming it Pilocanthus. Today scholars agree that Benson's cactus is quite unique, but accept Benson's classification in preference to that of Backeberg.
During the decade of the 1960's the University of Arizona officially entered into cooperative management of the Arboretum and a number of research projects, some resulting in successful MS theses and PhD dissertations, were undertaken by U. of A. students at the Arboretum. Noteworthy was a
1967 thesis by Don Despain on Survival of Saguaro Seedlings on Soils of Differing Albedo, Cover and Temperature.
When Dr. Verne Grant became Director of the Arboretum in 1968, research began to emphasize evolutionary biology and pollination systems, culminating in the 1971 book Plant
Speciation published by Columbia University Press. Verne and Karen Grant also published an article on "Dynamics of
Clonal Microspecies in Cholla Cactus" based on their studies while at the Arboretum and described the new species Opuntia kelvinensis.
During the 1970's and 1980's the emphasis on cacti at the
Arboretum shifted to conservation efforts and ecological studies. Kent C. Newland took charge of the Arboretum's cactus collections and a large number of plants were salvaged from highway construction projects, land scheduled to be cleared for power substations, or otherwise bulldozed. Newland has served on cactus conservation committees and was elected to membership in the International Organization of Succulent
Plant Study. An article on his crested Totem Pole Cactus appeared in the 1984 volume of the Journal of the Cactus and
Succulent Society of America.
During 1974 Dr. Frank S. Crosswhite conducted studies of
Echinocereus arizonicus, Mamillaria viridiflora, and Ferocactus acanthodes var. eastwoodiae for the U.S. Forest Service and supervised a mapping inventory of Echinocereus arizonicus on Forest Service land in 1977. In 1980 he published a
60 -page article on the Annual Saguaro Harvest and Crop
Cycle of the Papago, With Reference to Ecology and Symbolism and in 1984, jointly with Dr. Carol D. Crosswhite, a
36 -page article on life forms of Sonoran Desert plants which included six cactus life forms. Carol has managed the Arboretum's "propagated plant sales program" which emphasizes cacti, and has published on cochineal dye from Opuntia and
The Significance of Cacti in the Diet of the javelin. Newland and both Crosswhites have served as judges at cactus shows.
Thus, there has been an unbroken chain of interest in cacti by the staff of the Arboretum from the 1920's to the present.
Acanthocalycium glaucum Ritter.
Acanthocalycium klimpelianum (Weidl. & Werd.) Backe berg.
Acanthocalycium violaceum (Werdermann) Backeberg.
VIOLET SEA URCHIN.
Acanthocereus colombianus Britton & Rose. TRIANGLE CAC-
Akersia roseiflora - see Borzicactus roseiflorus.
Ancistrocactus scheeri (Salm -Dyck) Britton & Rose. FISHHOOK
CACTUS; ROOT CACTUS.
Ancistrocactus uncinatus ( Galeotti) L. Benson. TURK'S HEAD;
CAT -CLAW CACTUS; BROWN -FLOWERED HEDGEHOG; TEXAS HEDGEHOG.
Anisocereus gaumeri - see Pterocereus gaumeri.
Aporocactus flagelliformis (Linnaeus) Lemaire. RAT -TAIL CAC-
TUS; JUNCO; JUNQUILLO; FLORICUERNO; FLOR DE LATIGO.
Arequipa erectocylindrica - see Borzicactus hempelianus var.
Arequipa hemepeliana - see Borzicactus hempelianus.
Arequipa myriacantha - see Borzicactus myriacanthus.
Arequipa soehrensii - see Borzicactus hempelianus var. rettigii.
Arequipa spinosissima - see Borzicactus hempelianus var. spinosissima.
Ariocarpus agavioides (Castaneda) Anderson.
Ariocarpus fissuratus (Engelmann) Schumann var. fissuratus. LIVING ROCK; STAR CACTUS; STAR ROCK; SUNAMI; CHAUTLE; PEYOTE
Ariocarpus fissuratus var. lloydii (Rose) Anderson.
Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus (Lemaire) Schumann.
Ariocarpus lloydii - see Ariocarpus fissuratus var. lloydii.
Ariocarpus retusus Scheidweiler. SEVEN STARS; CHAUTE.
Ariocarpus scapharostrus Boedeker.
Armatocereus procerus Rauh & Backeberg.
Arrojadoa aureispina Buining & Brederoo.
Arrojadoa rhodantha (Gurke) Britton & Rose.
Astrophytum asterias (Zuccarini) Lemaire. SEA URCHIN CACTUS;
Desert Plants 7(1)
Arboretum vehicles laden with cacti collected in Mexico stop at the customs house on the international border at Sasabe on
Astrophytum capricorne (Dietrich) Britton & Rose. GoArs
Astrophytum myriostigma Lemaire. BISHOP'S CAP.
Astrophytum ornatum (DeCandolle) Weber. STAR CACTUS;
Austrocephalocereus albicephalus Buining and Brederoo.
Austrocephalocereus dolichospermaticus Buining and
Austrocephalocereus dybowskii (Gosselin) Backeberg. CAB -
ECA BRANCA; MANDACARU DE PENACHO.
Austrocephalocereus estevesii Buining and Brederoo.
Austrocephalocereus purpureus (Gurke) Backeberg.
Austrocylindropuntia inarmata - see Opuntia inarmata.
Austrocylindropuntia subulata - see Opuntia subulata.
Austrocylindropuntia verschaffeltii - see Opuntia verschaffelti.
Austrocylindropuntia vestita - see Opuntia vestita.
Aylostera spp. - see Rebutia.
Azureocereus hertlingianus (Backeberg) Backeberg.
Azureocereus viridis Rauh & Backeberg.
Backebergia chrysomallus - see Backebergia militaris.
Backebergia militaris (Audot) H. Bravo. GRENADIER'S CAP; TEDDY
Bartschella schumannii - see Mammillaria schumannii.
Bergerocactus emoryi (Engelmann) Britton & Rose. VELVET CACTUS;
Bolivicereus samaipatanus - see Borzicactus samaipatanus.
Borzicactus aurantiacus (Vaupel) Kimnach & Hutch.
Borzicactus aureiflorus (Ritter) Donald.
Borzicactus aureispinus (Ritter) Rowley. GOLDEN MONKEY -TAIL.
Borzicactus fossulatus (Labouret) Kimnach. MOUNTAIN CEREUS.
Borzicactus haynei (Otto) Kimnach.
Borzicactus hempelianus var. rettigii (Quel.) Donald.
Borzicactus hempelianus (Gurke) Donald var. spinosissimus (Ritter) Donald.
Borzicactus icosagonus (H.B.K.) Britton & Rose.
Borzicactus intertextus (Ritter) Donald.
Borzicactus paucicostatus (Ritter) Donald.
Borzicactus plagiostoma Britton & Rose.
Borzicactus ritteri (Buining) Donald.
Borzicactus samaipatanus (Cardenas) Kimnach. BOLIVIAN FIRE
Borzicactus trollii (Kupper) Kimnach. OLD MAN OF THE MOUN-
Borzicactus weberbaueri (Vaupel) Donald.
Brachycalycium tilcarense (Backeberg) Backeberg.
Brasilicactus graessneri - see Notocactus graessneri.
Brasilicactus haselbergii - see Notocactus haselbergii.
Browningia hertlingianus - see Azureocereus hertlingianus.
Browningia viridis - see Azureocereus viridis.
Buiningia aurea (Ritter) Buxbaum.
Buiningia purpurea Buining & Brederoo.
Calymnanthium substerile Ritter.
Carnegiea gigantea (Engelmann) Britton & Rose. SAGUARO.
Cephalocereus alensis - see Pilosocereus alensis.
Cephalocereus apicicephalium - see Neodawsonia apicicephalium.
Cephalocereus chrysomallus - see Backebergia militaris.
Cephalocereus euphorbioides - see Neobuxbaumia euphorbioides.
Cephalocereus hoppenstedtii (Weber) K. Schumann. CARDON
Cephalocereus leucocephalus - see Pilosocereus leucocephalus.
Cephalocereus maxonii - see Pilosocereus maxonii.
Cephalocereus mezcalensis - see Neobuxbaumia mezcalensis.
Cephalocereus palmeri - see Pilosocereus palmeri.
Cephalocereus polylophus - see Neobuxbaumia polylopha.
Cephalocereus purpusii - see Pilosocereus purpusii.
Cephalocereus royenii - see Pilosocereus royenii.
Cephalocereus russelianus - see Subpilocereus russelianus.
Cephalocereus scoparius - see Neobuxbaumia scoparia.
Cephalocereus senilis (Haworth) Pfeiffer. OLD MAN CACTUS;
Cephalocereus tetetzo - see Neobuxbaumia tetetzo.
Cereus aethiops Haworth
Cereus alamosensis - see Stenocereus alamosensis.
Cereus azureus Parmentier.
Cereus comarapanus Cardenas.
Cereus giganteus - see Carnegiea gigantea.
Cereus hankeanus Weber.
Cereus hexagonus (Linnaeus) Miller. SOUTH AMERICAN BLUE
COLUMN; BLUE CEREUS.
Cereus peruvianus (Linnaeus) Miller var. monstrosus
DeCandolle. CURIOSITY CACTUS.
Cereus schottii - see Lophocereus schottii.
Cereus tetragonus (Linnaeus) Miller.
Chamaecereus silvestrii - see Lobivia silvestrii.
Cleistocactus ayopayanus Cardenas.
Cleistocactus buchtienii Backeberg.
Cleistocactus candelilla Cardenas. SMALL CANDLE IN THE ANDES.
Cleistocactus chacoanus Ritter.
Cleistocactus hildewinterae Ritter.
Cleistocactus hyalacanthus (K. Schumann) Gosselin. SILVER
Cleistocactus jujuyensis (Backeberg) Backeberg. SILVER TORCH.
Cleistocactus ritteri Backeberg.
Cleistocactus strausii (Heese) Backeberg. SILVER TORCH.
Cochemiea pondii - see Mammillaria pondii.
Newland and Crosswhite Cacti 7
Cochemiea poselgeri - see Mammillaria poselgeri.
Cochemiea setispina - see Mammillaria setispina.
Coleocephalocereus goebelianus (Vaupel) Ritter ex
Copiapoa cinerea (Phil.) Britton & Rose var. albispina Ritter.
Copiapoa cinerea var. columna -alba (Ritter) Backeberg.
Copiapoa coquimbiana (Karwinsky) Britton & Rose var.
Copiapoa coquimbiana var. wagenknechtii Ritter.
Copiapoa cupreata (Poselger) Backeberg.
Copiapoa dura Ritter.
Copiapoa haseltoniana Backeberg.
Copiapoa humilis (Phil.) Hutch.
Copiapoa lembckei Backeberg.
Copiapoa tenuissima Ritter.
Coryphantha asterias (Gels) Boedeker.
Coryphantha borwigii J.A. Purpus.
Coryphantha calipensis H. Bravo.
Coryphantha clava (Pfeiffer) Lemair.
Coryphantha elephantidens (Lemaire) Lemaire. ELEPHANT -
Coryphantha erecta (Lemaire) Lemaire.
Coryphantha greenwoodii H. Bravo.
Coryphantha macromeris (Engelmann) Orcutt var.
runyonii (Britton & Rose) L. Benson. DUMPLING CACTUS.
Coryphantha missouriensis (Sweet) Britton & Rose.
Coryphantha nickelsae K. Brandegee.
Coryphantha cornifera (DeCandolle) Lemaire var. echinus
Coryphantha odorata Boedeker.
Coryphantha palmeri Britton & Rose.
Coryphantha poselgeriana (Dietrich) Britton & Rose.
Coryphantha recurvata (Engelmann) Britton & Rose.
Coryphantha reduncuspina Boedeker.
Coryphantha retusa (Pfeiffer) Britton & Rose.
Coryphantha robertii Berger. JUNIOR TOM THUMB CACTUS.
Coryphantha salm -dyckiana (Scheer) Britton & Rose.
Coryphantha strobiliformis (Quebel) Britton & Rose.
Coryphantha vivipara (Nuttall) Engelmann. SPINY STAR; BALL
CACTUS; SOUR CACTUS; BEEHIVE; ESTRIA DEL TARDE.
Cryptocereus anthonyanus Alexander. RICK RACK CACTUS.
Cylindropuntia spp. - see Opuntia spp.
Deamia testudo - see Selenicereus testudo.
Denmoza erythrocephala (K. Schumann) Berger.
Denmoza rhodacantha (Salm -Dyck) Britton & Rose.
Discocactus magnimammus Buining & Brederoo.
Dolichothele longimamma - see Mammillaria longimamma.
Dolichothele sphaerica - see Mammillaria sphaerica.
Dolichothele surculosa - see Mammillaria surculosa.
Echinocactus grusonii Heldmann. GOLDEN BARREL.
Echinocactus horizonthalonius Lemaire. TURKS HEAD:
DEVIL'S HEAD; EAGLE'S CLAWS; HORSE MAIMER: BISNAGRE; BISNAGA DE
DULCE; BISNAGA MELONCILLO.
Echinocactus platyacanthus Link & Otto.
Echinocactus polycephalus Engelmann & Bigelow. MANY -
HEADED BARREL; HAREM CACTUS.
Pediocactus paradinei, a rare cactus with long hair -like spines, described as new to science by Arboretum botanist Bernard
Echinocereus acifer (Otto) Lemaire.
Echinocereus adustus Engelmann.
Echinocereus barthelowanus Britton & Rose.
Echinocereus berlandierei Englemann var. papillosus
(Linke) L. Benson. YELLOW -FLOWERED ALICOCHE.
Echinocereus blanckii (Poselger) Palmer. DEVIL'S FINGER;
Echinocereus blanckii (Poselger) Palmer var. berlandieri
Echinocereus blanckii var. leonensis (Matths.) Backeberg.
Echinocereus brandegeei (Coulter) K. Schumann.
Echinocereus cinerascens (DeCandolle) Rümpler.
Echinocereus delaetii Gurke. LESSER OLD MAN; OLD LADY.
Echinocereus engelmannii (Parry) Rümpler var.
engelmannii. STRAWBERRY HEDGEHOG.
Echinocereus engelmannii var. nicholii L. Benson. GOLDEN
Echinocereus enneacanthus var. dubius (Engelmann)
Echinocereus enneacanthus Engelmann var. enneacanthus. WARTY HEDGEHOG; STRAWBERRY CACTUS; PITAHAYA.
Echinocereus enneacanthus var. stramineus (Engelmann)
L. Benson. SPINE -MOUND; STRAWBERRY CACTUS.
Echinocereus fasciculatus var. bonkerae (Thornber &
Bonker) L. Benson. SHORT -SPINED STRAWBERRY CACTUS.
Echinocereus fasciculatus var. boyce -thompsonii
(Orcutt) L. Benson. BOYCE THOMPSON'S HEDGEHOG.
Echinocereus fasciculatus (Engelmann) L. Benson var.
Echinocereus fendleri (Engelmann) Rümpler. PURPLE
HEDGEHOG; SITTING CACTUS; FENDLER'S PITAYA.
Echinocereus ferreirianus Gates.
Echinocereus fobeanus Oehme.
Echinocereus grandis Britton & Rose.
Echinocereus huitcholensis (Weber) Gurke.
Echinocereus knippelianus Liebner.
Echinocereus lauii Frank.
Echinocereus ledingii Peebles.
Echinocereus lloydii Britton & Rose.
Echinocereus longisetus (Engelmann) Rümpler.
Echinocereus maritimus (Jones) K. Schumann.
Echinocereus merkeri Hildmann.
Echinocereus morricalii Riha.
Echinocereus nivosus Glass & Foster.
Echinocereus pacificus (Engelmann) Britton & Rose.
Echinocereus pectinatus var. neomexicanus (Coulter)
L. Benson. NEW MEXICO RAINBOW HEDGEHOG.
Echinocereus pectinatus (Scheidweiler) Englemann var.
pectinatus. NEW MEXICO RAINBOW HEDGEHOG.
Echinocereus pectinatus (Scheidweiler) Englemann var.
Desert Plants 7 (1)
1985 pectinatus. COMB HEDGEHOG.
Echinocereus pectinatus var. rigidissimus ( Engelmann)
Rumpler. ARIZONA RAINBOW HEDGEHOG; CABEZA DEL VIEJO.
Echinocereus pectinatus var. rubispinus A. Lau.
Echinocereus pensilis - see Morangaya pensilis.
Echinocereus pentalophus (DeCandolle) Rumpler. ALICOCHE;
LADY -FINGER CACTUS.
Echinocereus pulchellus ( Martius) K. Schumann.
Echinocereus reichenbachii (Terscheck) Haage Jr. LACE
Echinocereus salm- dyckianus Scheer.
Echinocereus scheeri (Salm -Dyck) Rumpler.
Echinocereus schwarzii Lau.
Echinocereus subinermis Salm -Dyck. var. luteus (Britton &
Echinocereus tayopensis Marsh.
Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. arizonicus (Rose) L.
Benson. GIANT CLARET CUP.
Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. gonacanthus
)Engelmann & Bigelow) L. Benson.
Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. gurneyii L. Benson.
Echinocereus triglochidiatus Engelmann var.
triglochidiatus. CLARET CUP CACTUS; KINGS CUP CACTUS.
Echinocereus tulensis Bravo.
Echinocereus viereckii Werdermann.
Echinocereus viridiflorus Engelmann. GREEN -FLOWERED
HEDGEHOG: NYLON CACTUS.
Echinocereus websterianus Lindsay.
Echinocereus wembergii Weingart. ELEPHANT HEDGEHOG.
Echinofossulocactus lloydii Britton & Rose. BRAIN CACTUS.
Echinofossulocactus violaciflorus (Quehl.) Britton & Rose.
Echinofossulocactus zacatecasensis Britton & Rose.
Echinomastus erectocentrus - see Neolloydia erectocentrus.
Echinomastus johnsonii - see Neolloydia johnsonii.
Echinomastus macdowellii - see Thelocactus macdowellii.
Echinomastus unguispinus ( Engelmann) Britton & Rose var.
laui (Frank & Zecher) Glass & Foster.
Echinopsis calochlora K. Schumann. SHINING BALL CACTUS.
Echinopsis eyriesii )Turpin) Zuccarini.
Echinopsis hammerschmidii Cardenas.
Echinopsis hybrid 'Apricot Delight'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Atomic'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Best Orange'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Betelgeuse'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Black Comet'
Echinopsis hybrid 'China Doll'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Choice'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Dark Eyes'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Delight'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Forty Niner'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Gate's Yellow'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Goldie'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Hermanns Cameo'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Kate Walker'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Los Angeles'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Mars'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Mary Patricia'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Moonbeam'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Morgenzuber'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Morning Glory'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Orange Glory'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Orange Paramount'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Pacific Sunset'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Peach Monarch'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Peppermint'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Red Meteor'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Salmon Queen'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Scarlet O'Hara'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Stars and Stripes'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Sun King'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Tangerine'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Terra Cotta'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Tropic Sunset'
Echinopsis hybrid 'Watermelon'
Echinopsis hybrid 'White Knight'
Echinopsis leucantha (Gillies) Walp. ROSE EASTER LILY CACTUS.
Echinopsis mamillosa Gurke.
Echinopsis multiplex (Pfeiffer) Zuccarini. EASTER LILY CACTUS.
Echinopsis obrepanda (Salm -Dyck) K. Schumann. VIOLET EASTER
Echinopsis oxygona (Link) Zuccarini. RED EASTER LILY CACTUS.
Echinopsis pereziensis Cardenas.
Echinopsis rhodotricha K. Schumann.
Echinopsis semidenudata Cardenas.
Echinopsis tucumanensis Backeberg.
Echinopsis turbinata (Pfeiffer) Zuccarini.
Encephalocarpus strobiliformis (Werdermann) Berger.
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (DeCandolle) Haworth. QUEEN OF THE
NIGHT; REINA DE LA NOCHE; FLOR DE BAILE.
Eriocactus leninghausii - see Notocactus leninghausii.
Eriocactus magnificus - see Notocactus magnificus.
Eriocactus nigrispinus - see Notocactus nigrispinus.
Eriocactus schumannianus - see Notocactus schumannianus.
Eriocactus warasii - see Notocactus warasii.
Eriocereus guelichii (Spegazzini) Berger.
Eriocereus jusbertii (Rebut) Riccobono.
Eriocereus martinii (Labouret) Riccobono.
Escobaria runyonii - see Coryphantha macromeris var. runyonii.
Escontria chiotilla )Weber) Rose. QUIOTILLA; JIOTILLA; CHIOTILLA;
Espostoa hylaea Ritter.
Espostoa lanata (H.B.K.) Britton & Rose. PERUVIAN OLD MAN;
COTTON BALL; SOROCO; PISCOL COLORADO.
Espostoa laticornua Rauh & Backeberg.
Espostoa melanostele (Vaupel) Borg. SNOW POLE.
Espostoa mirabilis Ritter.
Espostoa nana Ritter.
Espostoa ritteri Buining.
Eulychnia acida Philbrick. TUNA DE COBADO.
Eulychnia aricensis Ritter.
Eulychnia taltalensis Ritter.
Facheiroa ulei (Gurke) Werdermann.
Ferocactus acanthodes Lemaire) Britton & Rose var.
acanthodes. CALIFORNIA BARREL; COMPASS BARREL.
Ferocactus acanthodes var. eastwoodiae L. Benson. GOLDEN
Ferocactus acanthodes var. lecontei (Engelmann) Lindsay.
Ferocactus alamosanus Britton & Rose.
Ferocactus chrysacanthus (Orcutt) Britton & Rose. CEDROS
Newland and Crosswhite
Ferocactus covillei (Britton & Rose) Berger. TRAVELER'S FRIEND;
Ferocactus diguetii (Weber) Britton & Rose.
Ferocactus fordii (Orcutt) Britton & Rose.
Ferocactus gatesii Lindsay.
Ferocactus glaucescens (DeCandolle) Britton & Rose. BLUE
Ferocactus gracilis var. coloratus (Gates) Lindsay.
Ferocactus gracilis Gates var. gracilis. FIRE BARREL.
Ferocactus haematacanthus Borg.
Ferocactus hamatacanthus TEXAS LONGHORN; BISNAGA
ESPINOSA; BISNAGA GANCHUDA; BISNAGA LIMILLA; BISNAGA DE TUNA;
Ferocactus histrix (DeCandolle) Lindsay.
Ferocactus latispinus (Haworth) Britton & Rose. CROW'S CLAWS.
Ferocactus macrodiscus (Martius) Britton & Rose. PLATTER
Ferocactus peninsulae (Weber) Britton & Rose. BAJA BARREL.
Ferocactus pottsii (Salm -Dyck) Backeberg.
Ferocactus rectispinus (Engelmann) Britton & Rose.
Ferocactus recurvus var. greenwoodiae Glass.
Ferocactus recurvus (Miller) Berger var. recurvus.
Ferocactus robustus (Link & Otto) Britton & Rose.
Ferocactus schwarzii Lindsay.
Ferocactus setispinus TWISTED -RIB CACTUS; STRAWBERRY CACTUS.
Ferocactus stainesii (Hooker) Britton & Rose.
Ferocactus townsendianus Britton & Rose.
Ferocactus viridescens (Torrey & Gray) Britton & Rose.
Ferocactus wislizenii (Engelmann) Britton & Rose. FISHHOOK
BARREL; SOUTHWESTERN BARREL; CANDY BARREL; VISNAGA; BISNAGA.
Frailea pumila (Lemaire) Britton & Rose.
Grusonia bradtiana - see Opuntia bradtiana.
Grusonia hamiltonii - see Opuntia hamiltonii.
Grusonia rosarica - see Opuntia rosarica.
Gymnocactus horripilus (Lemaire) Backeberg.
Gymnocactus valdezianus - see Turbinicarpus valdezianus.
Gymnocalycium anisitsii (K. Schumann) Britton & Rose.
Gymnocalycium artigas Hert.
Gymnocalycium baldianum (Spegazzini) Hoss. RED CHIN
Gymnocalycium bicolor Schutz.
Gymnocalycium bruchii (Spegazzini) Hoss. WHITE LACE
Gymnocalycium capillaense (Schickendantz) Backeberg.
Gymnocalycium cardenasianum Ritter.
Gymnocalycium chiquitanum Cardenas.
Gymnocalycium chubutense ( Spegazzini) Spegazzini.
Gymnocalycium damsii (K. Schumann) Britton & Rose. DAM'S
Gymnocalycium denudatum (Link & Otto) Pfeiff. SPIDER
Gymnocalycium eurypleurum Ritter.
Gymnocalycium eytianum - see Gymnocalycium pflanzii var.
Gymnocalycium fleischerianum Backeberg.
Gymnocalycium gibbosum (Haworth) Pfeiffer.
Gymnocalycium glaucum Ritter.
Gymnocalycium griseo -pallidum Backeberg.
Gymnocalycium hamatum Ritter.
Gymnocalycium horridispinum Frank.
Gymnocalycium hybopleurum (K. Schumann) Backeberg.
Gymnocalycium hyptiacanthum (Lemaire) Britton & Rose.
Gymnocalycium leeanum (Hooker) Britton & Rose.
Gymnocalycium mihanovichii (Fric & Gürke) Britton &
Arboretum propagator and cactus expert Fritz Berger in
Rose. ROSE PLAID CACTUS.
Gymnocalycium monvillei (Lemaire) Britton & Rose.
Gymnocalycium mostii (Gurke) Britton & Rose.
Gymnocalycium multiflorum (Hooker) Britton & Rose.
Gymnocalycium nigriareolatum Backeberg.
Gymnocalycium oenanthemum Backeberg.
Gymnocalycium pflanzii var. eytianum (Cardenas)
Gymnocalycium pflanzii (Vaupel) Werdermann var.
zeggarae (Cardenas) Donald.
Gymnocalycium quehlianum (Haage Jr.) Berger.
Gymnocalycium ragonesii Castaneda.
Gymnocalycium saglione (Gels) Britton & Rose. GIANT CHIN
Gymnocalycium schickendantzii Weber var. delaetti
(K. Schumann) Backeberg. WHITE CHIN CACTUS.
Gymnocalycium schroederianum Osten.
Gymnocalycium sigelianum (Schickendantz) Berger.
Gymnocalycium spegazzinii Britton & Rose.
Gymnocalycium tilcarense - see Brachycalycium tilcarense.
Gymnocalycium tillianum Rausch.
Gymnocalycium uebelmannianum Rausch.
Gymnocalycium uruguayense (Arechavaleta) Britton &
Gymnocalycium valnicekianum Jajo.
Gymnocalycium vatteri Buining.
10 Desert Plants 7(1)
Gymnocalycium zegarrae see Gymnocalycium pflanzii var.
Haageocereus akersii Backeberg.
Haageocereus chrysacanthus (Akers) Backeberg. GOLDEN
Hamatocactus hamatacanthus see Ferocactus hamatacanthus.
Hamatocactus setispinus - see Ferocactus setispinus.
Harrisia earlei Britton & Rose.
Harrisia fragrans Small.
Harrisia portoricensis Britton.
Harrisia simpsonii Small.
Hatiora salicornioides (Haworth) Britton & Rose. DRUNKARD'S
Heliabravoa chende (Gosselin) Backeberg. CHENDE, CHENTE,
Hildewintera aureispina - see Borzicactus aureispinus.
Homalocephala texensis (Hopffer) Britton & Rose. HORSE
CRIPPLER; DEVIL'S HEAD; MANCO CABALLO; VIZNAGA.
Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britton & Rose. QUEEN OF THE
NIGHT; PITAHAYA OREJONA; JUNCO TAPATIO; CHACAM, ZACAMB; CHAK -WOB;
REINA DE LA NOCHE.
Isolatocereus dumortieri - see Stenocereus dumortieri.
Lemaireocereus beneckei - see Stenocereus beneckei.
Lemaireocereus chende - see Heliabravoa chende.
Lemaireocereus dumortieri - see Stenocereus dumortieri.
Lemaireocereus griseus - see Stenocereus griseus.
Lemaireocereus hollianus - see Pachycereus hollianus.
Lemaireocereus marginatus see Stenocereus marginatus.
Lemaireocereus montanus - see Stenocereus montanus.
Lemaireocereus queretaroensis - see Stenocereus queretaroensis.
Lemaireocereus stellatus - see Stenocereus stellatus.
Leptocereus quadricostatus (Bello) Britton & Rose. SEBUCAN.
Leuchtenbergia principis Hooker. PRISM CACTUS;
Lobivia aurea (Britton & Rose) Backeberg. GOLDEN COB CACTUS.
Lobivia aurea var. leucomalla GOLDEN LILY CACTUS.
Lobivia backebergii (Werdermann) Backeberg. CARMINE COB
Lobivia chrysantha (Werdermann) Backeberg. var. jajoiana
Lobivia ferox Britton & Rose.
Lobivia formosa (Pfeiffer) Dodds. ssp. bruchii
(Britton & Rose) Rausch.
Lobivia formosa var. kieslingii Rausch.
Lobivia huascha (Weber) Marsh.
Lobivia huascha var. crassicaulis (Backeberg) Rausch.
Lobivia huascha var. grandiflora (Britton & Rose) Rausch.
Lobivia hybrid 'Firechief'
Lobivia hybrid little Red Riding Hood'
Lobivia lateritia )Gurke) Britton & Rose.
Lobivia pampana Britton & Rose.
Lobivia pentlandii (Hooker) Britton & Rose.
Lobivia pentlandii var. larae (Cardenas) Rausch.
Lobivia silvestrii (Spegazzini) Rowley PEANUT CACTUS.
Lobivia tiegeliana Wessn.
Lophocereus gatesii M. E. Jones.
Lophocereus schottii var. australis (K. Brandegee) Borg.
Lophocereus schottii fma. mieckleyanus Lindsay.
Lophocereus schottii fma. monstrosus Lindsay. TOTEM POLE.
Lophocereus schottii (Engelmann) Britton & Rose var.
schottii. ARIZONA OLD MAN; SENT "FA; SINITA; MOCHI; GARAMBUYO;
TUNA BARBONA; VIEJO; SINA,
Loxanthocereus nanus (Akers) Backeberg.
Machaerocereus eruca - see Stenocereus eruca.
Machaerocereus gummosus - see Stenocereus gummosus.
Malacocarpus tephracanthus - see Notocactus
Mammillaria albicans Berger.
Mammillaria albicoma Boedeker.
Mammillaria albilanata Backeberg.
Mammillaria angelensis Craig.
Mammillaria armillata K. Brandegee.
Mammillaria aureiceps Lemaire.
Mammillaria aureilanata Backeberg. GOLDEN FLEECE.
Mammillaria aurihamata Boedeker. YELLOW -HOOK CUSHION.
Mammillaria backebergiana Buchenau.
Mammillaria baumii Boedeker. BUTTERCUP PINCUSHION.
Mammillaria baxteriana (Gates) Boedeker.
Mammillaria beiselii Diers.
Mammillaria bella Backeberg.
Mammillaria blossfeldiana Boedeker.
Mammillaria bocasana Poselger. POWDER PUFF
Mammillaria bocensis Craig.
Mammillaria boolii Lindsay.
Mammillaria bombycina Quehl. SILKEN PINCUSHION.
Mammillaria brandegeei (Coulter) Brandegee.
Mammillaria camptotricha Dams. BIRD'S NEST
Mammillaria canelensis Craig.
Mammillaria candida Scheidweiler. SNOWBALL.
Mammillaria carmenae Castaneda.
Mammillaria carnea Zuccarini.
Mammillaria carrettii Rebut.
Mammillaria cerralboa (Britton & Rose) Orcutt.
Mammillaria chionocephala J.A. Purpus.
Mammillaria collinsii (Britton & Rose) Orcutt.
Mammillaria columbiana Salm -Dyck. GOLDEN PINCUSHION;
SOUTH AMERICAN PINCUSHION.
Mammillaria compressa DeCandolle. MOTHER -OF- HUNDREDS.
Mammillaria erinita DeCandolle.
Mammillaria crucigera Martius.
Mammillaria decipiens Scheidweiler.
Mammillaria deherdtiana Farwig var. dodsonii (Bravo)
Glass & Foster.
Mammillaria densispina (Coulter) Vaupel.
Mammillaria dioica K. Brandegee.
Mammillaria discolor Haworth.
Mammillaria dixanthocentron Backeberg.
Mammillaria duoformis Craig & Dawson.
Mammillaria eichlamii Quehl.
Mammillaria elongata DeCandolle. GOLDEN STARS; GOLD LACE
CACTUS; LADY'S FINGER.
Mammillaria eriacantha Link & Otto.
Mammillaria erythrosperma Boedeker.
Mammillaria estebanensis Lindsay.
Mammillaria evermanniana (Britton & Rose) Orcutt.
Newland and Crosswhite
Mammillaria fasciculata Engelmann.
Mammillaria fittkaui Glass & Foster.
Mammillaria fraileana (Britton & Rose) Boedeker.
Mammillaria geminispina Haworth. WHITEY.
Mammillaria glassii Foster.
Mammillaria glochidiata Martius. PINK CROWN.
Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiffer. NEEDLE -FINGERS.
Mammillaria grusonii Runge.
Mammillaria guelzowiana Werdermann.
Mammillaria guerreronis (H. Bravo) Backeberg.
Mammillaria haageana Pfeiffer. ROSY CROWN.
Mammillaria hahniana Werdermann. OLD LADY CACTUS.
Mammillaria hertrichiana Craig.
Mammillaria heyderi Muhlenpfordt var. hemisphaerica
Engelmann. TEXAS PINCUSHION; LITTLE CHILIS; BISNAGITA DE CHILITOS.
Mammillaria heyderi var. macdougallii (Rose) L. Benson.
Mammillaria humboldtii Ehrenberg.
Mammillaria johnstonii (Britton & Rose) Orcutt.
Mammillaria karwinskiana Martius.
Mammillaria kewensis Salm -Dyck.
Mammillaria klissingiana Boedeker.
Mammillaria lenta Brandegee.
Mammillaria lindsayi Craig.
Mammillaria longiflora (Britton & Rose) Berger.
Mammillaria longimamma DeCandolle. LONG MAMMA.
Mammillaria magnifica Buchenau.
Mammillaria magnimamma Haworth. MEXICAN PINCUSHION.
Mammillaria mainae K. Brandegee. HORNED TOAD CACTUS.
Mammillaria mammillaris (Linnaeus)( Karsten.
Mammillaria marksiana Krainz.
Mammillaria mathildae Kraehenbuehl & Krainz.
Mammillaria matudae H. Bravo.
Mammillaria mazatlanensis (Rebut) K. Schumann & Gurke.
meyranii H. Bravo.
microcarpa Engelmann. FISHHOOK PINCUSHION.
miegeana W. H. Earle.
muehlenpfordtii Forst. SHOWY PINCHUSHION;
BELLY -BUTTON CACTUS.
mystax Martius. BIRTHDAY CAKE CACTUS.
nejapensis Craig & Dawson. SILVER ARROWS.
nivosa Link. SNOWY CACTUS; WOOLLY NIPPLE -CACTUS.
obconella Scheidweiler. RUBY DUMPLING.
occidentalis (Britton & Rose) Boedeker.
oteroi Glass & Foster.
parkinsonii Ehrenberg. OWL'S EYES.
pitcayensis H. Bravo.
plumosa Weber. FEATHER CACTUS.
pringlei (Coulter) Brandegee.
prolifera (Miller) Haworth. GRAPE CACTUS.
pygmaea (Britton & Rose) Berger.
rekoi (Britton & Rose) Vaupel.
rhodantha Link & Otto. RAINBOW PINCUSHION.
Arboretum scientist Fred Gibson working in the cactus collection in the decade of the 1950's.
sartorii J. A. Purpus.
scrippsiana (Britton & Rose) Orcutt.
sempervivi DeCandolle. STRAWBERRY CACTUS.
sheldonii (Britton & Rose) Boedeker.
sphaerica Dietrich. BUTTER PINCUSHION.
spinosissima Lemaire. RED- HEADED
Mammillaria standleyi (Britton & Rose) Orcutt.
Mammillaria schwarzii Shurly. POWDER PUFF.
Mammillaria senilis Salm -Dyck.
Mammillaria sonorensis Craig.
Mammillaria sphacelata Martius.
Mammillaria stella -de- tacubaya Heese.
Mammillaria surculosa Boedeker.
Mammillaria swinglei (Britton & Rose) Boedeker.
Mammillaria tayloriorum Glass & Foster.
Mammillaria tetrancistra Engelmann. CALIFORNIA
PINCUSHION; CALIFORNIA FISHHOOK CACTUS.
Mammillaria uncinata Zuccarini.
Mammillaria vetula Martius.
Mammillaria viridiflora (Britton & Rose) Boedeker.
GREEN -FLOWERED PINCUSHION.
Mammillaria wagneriana Boedeker.
Mammillaria wildii Dietrich. FISHHOOK PINCUSHION.
Mammillaria winteriae Boedeker.
Mammillaria woburnensis Scheer.
Mammillaria wrightii Engelmann.
Mammillaria xaltianguensis Sanchez -Mejorada.
Mammillaria yaquensis Craig.
continued on page 27
Desert Plants 7(1
Research Guide to the Arid Lands of the World.
Stephen T. Hopkins and Douglas E. Jones. Oryx Press. Phoenix, Arizona. 391 pp.
This book resulted from a U.S. Department of Education grant to the University of Arizona Library. The purpose of the grant was to search for and acquire those publications of greatest importance to an understanding of arid lands and to make up a research guide to enable library users around the world to know which publications to turn to when researching questions concerning arid lands. The resulting volume is a disappointment to this reviewer. The title seems misleading for what the book actually does. The book is in reality a list of bibliographies, directories and similar compendiums dealing with some 40% of the earth's surface, 700 million people, and 110 national governments. Arid lands are so broadly defined that North Dakota is the most consistently or completely arid state of the United States (see Map 11, page 244). Obviously to cover some 40% of the earth's surface in 391 pages, it would be necessary to omit all but the most important of references. One might suppose therefore that the 14 references (Nos. 2141 -2154) listed under the category
"BOTANY" under the major heading "UNITED STATES" would list those publications of greatest significance to arid land botany of the United States as a whole. Much to this reviewer's surprise, four of the 14 entries are used up on Ponderosa
Pine, a tree which most scientists do not even recognize as an arid land species! Likewise, the bibliography of understoryoverstory vegetation relationships (Entry 2148) relates more to plants of mesic than arid conditions. It is hard to see what factors led to inclusion of Atlas of United States Trees:
Volume 3 (Entry 2150), Trees and Shrubs of the United States:
A Bibliography for Identification (Entry 21511, and Endangered and Threatened Plants of the United States (Entry
2144), in preference to the omitted Manual of the Grasses of the United States by A.S. Hitchcock and A. Chase, the omit
ted Legumes of the United States series by D. Isely, Yuccas of the Southwestern United States by S.D. McKelvey, or for that matter the immense and encyclopedic Botanical Exploration of the Trans -Mississippi West, 1790 -1850 by the same author.
The huge series on Wild Flowers of the United States by H.W.
Rickett is likewise omitted, as is the series of more technical floras sponsored by the New York Botanical Garden. Perhaps the most appropriate of the 14 entries is the 74- reference anonymous bibliography for Creosotebush from 1905 to 1972
(Entry 2147). But anyone wanting to know what modern researchers have found about Creosotebush should turn to the state -of- the -art 1977 volume on Creosotebush (not cited!) in the US/IBP Synthesis Series which had support not only of the prestigious International Biological Program, National Academy of Sciences, National Science Foundation, and Institute of Ecology, but of numerous universities as well! Often a good up -to -date book is of much greater use in researching a subject than an old bibliogaphy. True, the book may not replace the bibliography, but it may be eminently more useful and informative as an entry into the subject. It is in this sense that the Research Guide to the Arid Lands of the
World is misnamed unless "research" is arbitrarily construed to mean the successful finding of a large number of (possibly useless) bibliographies in preference to finding pertinent information and an up -to -date entry. Although this may sound overly critical, it is merely stated to illustrate a basic philosophical point. If the book were correctly titled List of
Bibliographies, Directories and Similar Compendiums Relating to Arid Lands of the World, with a cautionary note to the effect that few specific arid land subjects have suitable bibliographies, then the user would realize that it was not intended to be a complete research guide. To be the latter it would have to create new bibliographies to fill the gaps rather than being a mere bibliography of existing bibliographies in a field where thus far there are few appropriate bibliographies.
What is difficult to understand is why the Research Guide
does occasionally list a book or article which is not a
bibliography, directory, or similar compendium, unless it intends to list other such appropriate titles. Perhaps it is attempting to be a research guide. If so, its gaps are of a Grand
For example, under "ARIZONA" in the subcategory
"BOTANY" the reviewer finds a listing for The Cacti of
Arizona (Entry 2245) by L. Benson, but no entry for the broader and more useful Arizona Flora by T Kearney and R. Peebles which is the flagship volume for the entire botany of the state, a volume consulted daily by scores of researchers. True, A
Catalogue of the Flora of Arizona by J.H. Lehr supplements the book by Kearney and Peebles (although not at all replacing it) by updating the nomenclature. It is not listed either, however!
Perhaps it was erroneously supposed that Vegetation and Flora of the Sonoran Desert (Entry 2252), which partially geographically overlaps Arizona Flora, made the latter volume obsolete. The authorship of the publication at Entry 2252 is incorrectly stated and the annotation that it "ignores" the
Mohave Desert leads one to believe that the bibliographer thought that "the Sonoran biotic province of California,
Arizona, Baja California, Sonora" included all portions of those states. In any event, the inclusion of only 9 references for the botany of Arizona is perplexing when three turn out to be bibliographies treating only Jojoba (largely dealing with world -wide attempts to exploit the plant as a crop) and most of the significant publications for learning about the botany of the state are omitted!
Distressing too is
the absence of any listing in the
Research Guide for journals or periodicals which specialize in subjects relating to arid lands. If it is present anywhere in the book, the reviewer was unsuccessful in finding any entry for
Journal of Arid Environments or other similar periodicals, including even Desert Plants which is published by the same university at which the authors of the Research Guide were working. If the authors indeed had no intention of including periodicals then there is even more reason why "research guide" in the title is incorrect and misleading.
To further check on the completeness and accuracy of the
Research Guide, a few other topics chosen more or less at random were "researched" using the guide: Under the heading
"TROPICAL MEDICINE" are 8 entries, two of which deal with continued on page 24
The Page Ranch
Story its Vegetative
Ervin M. Schmutz
Schmutz, Sourabie and Smith Page Ranch
School of Renewable Natural Resources
University of Arizona
Martin K. Sourabie
BoBo -Dioulasso, Upper Volta
and David A. Smith
U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation Services
This article submitted as Paper No. 3729 Arizona Agricultural
Experiment Station, Tucson, AZ 85721.
a Authors are: Professor -Emeritus of Range Management and former graduate students in the School of Renewable Natural Resources,
Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721.
Keywords: Desert grassland, drought, fire, grazing, exclosure.
The Page- Trowbridge Experimental Ranch is a 640 -acre tract of desert grassland located 35 miles north of Tucson and 8 miles west of Oracle in Arizona. Its formation began in 1923 when Joseph Timothy Page, a retired street car conductor, utility company worker and dirt farmer from Kansas
City and his wife Sarah (Figure 1) purchased a half section
(320 acres) of "butchered" rangeland to live on. They fenced the land (Figure 2) and raised chickens, turkeys, rabbits and goats for food and sale; had a milk cow, horse or mule and a working dog to keep out stray cattle; and raised a garden, cultivated fruit trees and cut Mesquite trees for fuel (see
Figures 3, 4). The annual rainfall was about 15 to 16 inches, hardly enough for irrigated agriculture, so they built check dams to hold rain on the land to grow grass and channeled runoff to irrigate fruit trees, grapevines and a garden. They hauled their drinking water from the resort town of Oracle where Mrs. Page often cooked at the hotel on weekends to supplement their income. Page's efforts were so successful that his little green patch was referred to as "God's Little
Acre" by visitors. Stories of his efforts at soil and water conservation and grass improvement were featured in local and national publications and Mr. Page became a celebrated oracle on conservation (see Figure 5 and references).
In 1939 Mr. Page's tract was purchased by the University with money provided by ex- senator Trowbridge. This and another half -section to the south was provided to the University to do experimental work in range conservation and management. The tracts were officially known as the Page -
Trowbridge Ranch but were more commonly referred to as the Page Ranch.
For a number of years after its acquisition the university and the Research Division of the Soil Conservation Service used the area for ecological studies and for extensive experiments on grass seeding, brush control, water catchments, wildlife management and honeybee culture.
In Mr. Page's time his tract was lightly grazed by livestock but since 1941 the ranch has been largely protected from grazing by livestock. The vegetative cover varied with climatic cycles but generally increased with time. Its lush vegetation attracted and supported a variety of wildlife quail, deer, javelina, song birds, rabbits, rodents, etc. -and was referred to by the Arizona Game and Fish Department as the "best square mile of Gambel's and Scaled Quail habitat in the world."
Ecological studies comparing vegetative conditions on the Page half- section with an adjoining outside half - section
(see Figure 6) were started in 1941 by H.S. Haskell. His study documented changes since 1923 when the Page Ranch was fenced. This comparison was repeated in 1969 by D.A.
Smith and in 1980 by M.K. Sourabie. These and related studies are listed in the References and their results and implications for management of simliar desert grassland ranges are discussed in the following sections.
In 1983 the Page Ranch ecological oasis was lost as a natural range and wildlife study area when the arid lands program at the University of Arizona took over the Ranch to create the Page Ranch International Center for Arid
Lands Agricultural Systems. It is now being used to install practices and treatments which can be used to study and teach ways of growing crops and livestock in arid countries that have small scale technologies.
14 Desert Plants 7( 1)
Fig. 1. Mr. Page and wife Sarah about 1923.
This report compares and evaluates vegetation changes occurring between 1923 and 1980 on the Page Ranch, a protected desert grassland range in southern Arizona, and on adjacent grazed range. Crown cover of trees and shrubs increased rapidly on both ranges, increasing from 3.8 in 1941 to 8.0 and 18.8% in 1969 and 1980, respectively, on the protected range and from 8.5 to 9.7 and 19.7 %, respectively, on the grazed range. Basal cover of perennial grasses was 1.52, 3.0
and 1.54% in 1941, 1969 and 1980, respectively, on the protected range compared to 0.12, 1.12 and 0.01% on the grazed range. Basal cover of perennial forbs was 0.30, trace and 0.27% in 1941, 1969 and 1980, respectively, on the protected range and a trace in all three years on the grazed range. The differences between the vegetation classes on the grazed vs protected ranges in 1941 represent the changes up to that time from 1923 when the protected range was fenced out and grazing controlled. Also, a study on the effects of 1973 wildfires on a part of the protected range showed that trees and shrubs had largely recovered by 1980 but many perennial grasses had not recovered, presumably because of subsequent summer droughts. These responses are discussed in relation to causes and how they affect management of desert grassland ranges.
Despite intensive management practices and research, the desert grassland of the Southwest is changing to a desert shrub type, presumably because of grazing pressures, frequent droughts and lack of fire and competition to control shrub invasion. Vegetation surveys of 1941, 1969 and 1980 were compared to study these effects. The 1941 study was made by
Haskell (1945), the 1969 study by Smith (1970) and the 1980 study by Sourabie (1982).
The Study Area
The studies were conducted on and adjacent to the University of Arizona Page- Trowbridge Experimental Ranch, 13 km (8 miles) west of Oracle, in southern Arizona, at an elevation of 1135 m (3700 ft.). The area comprises two half sections in a desert grassland range. One area about 129.6 ha
(320 acres) has been largely protected from grazing since
1923. The other half- section is an adjoining heavily grazed area. In 1973, three separate fires burned about 60% of the western portion of the protected area. Although the area had largely recovered from fire by the time of the 1980 study it was analyzed separately to determine the long -term effects of fire.
Soils of the study area were formed from old alluvium high in granitic rock material. Most of the area is dominated by the Whitehouse -Caralampi association with the Whitehouse
Series dominant on both the protected and the grazed ranges.
Topography is nearly flat with a westerly slope less than 5 %.
The type of vegetation encountered in the study area indicates a deteriorated desert grassland with a dominance of shrubby vegetation over grasses. Smith (1970) suggested that the area could be classified as an ecotone, a transitional zone between the desert grassland and the southern desert shrub.
Temperatures are mild and plant growth is largely determined by precipitation.
The climate is semi -arid with the annual precipitation averaging 380 to 400 mm (15 to 16 inches) (Haskell, 1945). It is distributed about equally between summer and winter
(Smith, 1956). However, the major plant growth occurs during the summer (Culley, 1943; Cable, 1975).
So that direct comparisons could be made with previous studies, the 1969 and 1980 sampling plans of Smith and
Sourabie, respectively, followed that of Haskell in 1941. In all three studies each of the study areas was divided into eight blocks of equal size. Within each block ten 50 -ft. (about 15 m)
line transect samples were taken making a total of 80
samples per area analyzed. In all three studies a comparison was made between the grazed and protected areas. In addition, the 1980 study assessed the effects of the 1973 fires on a part of the protected area. Measurements on the vegetation were made using the line interception method outlined by Canfield
(1941). Basal cover (basal intercept) of perennial grasses and calculate percentage of cover and percentage of composition
Schmutz, Sourabie and Smith Page Ranch 15
Fig. 2. Aerial view (about 1936) of the Page portion of the
Page -Trowbridge Ranch looking southwest. Page's headquarters is in the left central part of the photo. Note the sparseness of mesquite, part of which may be due to woodcutting, but since mesquite is sparse in adjoining areas except along drainages, it may be in an early stage of invasion. The other half- section of the Page- Trowbridge Ranch can be seen in the upper left part of the photo and a part of the "grazed" half section in the lower left corner.
Fig. 3. Mrs. Page acquainting a young visitor with the "cattle dog," "milk cow" and ranch.
Fig. 4. Mr. Page and his mule plowing the garden.
16 Desert Plants 7( 1)
Fig. 5. Tucson Mayor Jastead and other admirers congratulating Mr. Page for his conservation achievements. Photo by J.
Fig. 6. Side view (about 1941) of Page's environmental "oasis" in the background, the grazed half- section in the foreground.
Schmutz, Sourabie and Smith Page Ranch 17 for each category of plants. Species presence on a line transect was used to determine percentage frequency. Annual forbs and grasses were not included in the survey procedure.
The two- sample T -test was used to determine significance of differences in species cover and frequency between protected and grazed areas and between protected unburned and burned areas.
Results and Discussions
Data showed that marked changes in vegetation occurred throughout the study period. Since both areas were presumably similar in 1923, the 1941 study showed the changes up to that date. Later changes were shown in the 1969 and 1980 studies. In general total basal cover of perennial grasses and forbs was greater on the protected area than on the grazed area (Fig. 7), although differences were not always statistically significant. In contrast, the crown cover of trees and shrubs was higher on the grazed area compared to the protected area, again not always being significant. These relationships are typical and can be due to such environmental factors as relative palatability, drought, plant competition, grazing and /or fire effects. In this case, all of the above factors appear to have had an effect at one time or another.
Effects of Precipitation, Grazing and Plant Com-
petition. Precipitation, grazing and plant competition had significant and varied effects on all classes of plants- trees, shrubs, grasses and forbs -and individual species.
EFFECTS ON CLASSES OF PLANTS. In general, perennial forbs increased on the protected area from 1923 to 1941, decreased between 1941 and 1969, and then increased back to the 1941 level by 1980. In contrast perennial grasses increased between
1923 and 1969 then decreased back to the 1941 level by 1980.
The grass changes appear to have resulted primarily from weather conditions since they occurred on both grazed and protected areas. Also, this conclusion is substantiated by an analysis of weather records from Oracle, Arizona prior to
1980. These records show that, while average precipitation was near normal, 5 of the 6 years prior to the 1980 study were below average in precipitation during the July -Agusut summer growing season (Sourabie, 1982). These results are similar to those of Cable (1967) and Paulsen and Ares (1962) who found marked declines in perennial grass cover following several years of deficient seasonal rainfall. Perennial forb changes on the proteced area appear to have been a reverse response due to the presence or lack of grass competition. On the grazed area the perennial forb level remained low in all three years, apparently predominantly affected by grazing pressure.
In contrast, trees and shrubs increased rapidly throughout the study period on both grazed and protected areas, particularly between 1969 and 1980. These effects appear to be primarily due to dominance by the trees and shrubs but were also affected in part by grass competition, or lack of it, since the increase in trees and shrubs between 1941 and 1969 was slower when grass cover doubled and more rapid between
1969 and 1980 when grass cover declined. Also the possibility exists that the decline in perennial grass cover between
1969 and 1980 was due in part to competition by trees and shrubs but this appears secondary at this level of crown cover since grass cover declined in open areas as well as among the trees and shrubs.
Fig. 7. Basal cover of perennial forbs and grasses and crown cover of trees and shrubs on protected and grazed ranges on the Page Ranch study area in 1941, 1969 and 1980.
The effect of grazing on total crown cover of trees and shrubs was negligible since crown cover increased rapidly on both areas. However, it is interesting to note that the increase in total crown cover of trees and shrubs was faster on the protected area than on the grazed area. This was mainly due to the rapid increase in the palatable buckwheat (see Table 1 in the following section), which was apparently caused by protection from grazing, and burroweed, which apparently resulted from a decrease in grass competition combined with favorable winter moisture (Cable, 1967). In contrast the total basal cover of perennial grasses was significantly greater on the protected area than on the grazed area in all three years, indicating an effect of grazing. The basal cover of perennial forbs was too low for significant analyses.
EFFECTS ON INDIVIDUAL TREES AND SHRUBS. Dominant trees
and shrubs found on the study area were Buckwheat,
Burroweed, Mesquite and Snakeweed (see Table 1 for results and scientific names).
Buckwheat. Crown cover of buckwheat increased steadily over time on the protected range from 0.6% in 1941 to 5.9% in
1980. In contrast the percentage on the grazed range remained little more than a trace. These differences were also reflected by similar change in species composition and plant frequency. These results indicate that grazing pressure was the dominant influence on this moderately palatable plant and that influences of drought and plant competition were negligible.
Desert Plants 7 (11
Burroweed. Cover, composition and frequency of burroweed showed that it was a dominant and widely distributed shrub on both grazed and protected ranges but was significantly more abundant on the grazed range. On the protected range, crown cover of Burroweed declined slightly in 1969 over 1941 and then increased considerably in 1980. A similar but more significant pattern occurred on the grazed range.
Part of the decline in Burroweed on both areas from 1941 to
1969 probably was due to increased grass competition. Conversely the increases in Burroweed on both areas from 1969 to 1980 was due in part to decreased grass competition but may have also been increased by higher winter moisture favoring increased germination of Burroweed (Sourabie, 1982).
Also, the higher level of Burroweed in the grazed area over the protected area probably was due primarily to lower grass competition.
Mesquite. Between 1941 and 1980 crown cover and frequency of Mesquite rapidly increased on both protected and grazed areas. Species composition of Mesquite also increased in both areas from 1941 to 1969 but declined in 1980 due to more rapid increases in associated shrubs. The increase was primarily due to the aggressiveness of Mesquite but was also affected by grass competition (as evidenced by the slower increase on the protected range in 1969 and fire (to be discussed later). Drought and grazing have indirect effects on
Mesquite abundance through their influence on grass cover, but have little direct effects because of the high drought tolerance and low palatability of Mesquite.
Snakeweed. Snakeweed had a relatively low crown cover and composition compared to other trees and shrubs but had a comparatively high frequency, especially on the grazed area, indicating wide distribution. Also, its cover, composition and frequency increased with time, especially from 1969 to 1980, and in all years they were higher on the grazed area than on the protected area. This indicates that grazing favors Snake weed, probably by reducing grass cover. Also, summer drought
(which reduces grass cover) and favorable winter moisture
(which increases Snakeweed growth) undoubtedly helped to increase snakeweed, especially during the period 1969 to
Other Trees and Shrubs. These plants, predominantly cacti, generally increased over time. They were little affected by grazing or plant competition but were affected by fire as noted later.
EFFECTS ON INDIVIDUAL PERENNIAL GRASSES. Perennial grasses varied widely in basal cover, composition and frequency (see
Table 2 for results and scientific names) Grazing and drought appeared to be the dominant factors affecting cover, composition and frequency of perennial grasses. However, cover of trees and shrubs, always a contributing factor, may be reaching a density which may exert a dominating influence on the grasses, except the shade tolerant and cool- season growing species which endure or avoid direct competition, respectively.
The 1941 data show that the dominant grasses on the pro-
tected range at the end of Mr. Page's tenure were Red
Threeawn and Rothrock Grama, two intermediate species.
Other grasses in significant amounts were the more productive Cane Beardgrass, Poverty Threeawns and Sideoats Grama.
Arizona Cottontop. Under protection this palatable mid grass increased significantly in cover, composition and frequency between 1941 and 1969. A similar but less pronounced pattern occurred on the grazed range. However, below normal summer precipitation between 1969 and 1980 resulted in a drastic reduction in this valuable plant on the protected range and eliminated it on the grazed range.
Cane Beardgrass. This moderately palatable midgrass was relatively abundant on the protected range in 1941 and had made moderate increases in cover and frequency by 1969.
However, it also was drastically reduced by summer droughts between 1969 and 1980. On the grazed range, it was a minor constituent in 1941 and 1969 and was eliminated by 1980.
Lehmann Lovegrass. Lehmann Lovegrass was introduced on the adjoining section south of the protected area in the
1930's and is moving northward. By 1969 it had established itself on limited areas in the western part of the protected range but hadn't invaded the grazed area, probably more because of distances involved than from grazing effects. This was evidenced by its absence from the unburned eastern part of the protected area which is adjacent to the grazed area. The presence of significant amounts on the protected area in 1980 indicates a recovery from fire regardless of the series of summer droughts prior to 1980. This indicates that it reseeds readily and is one of the more drought tolerant grasses.
Poverty Threeawn. These moderately palatable midgrasses more than doubled in basal cover on the protected area between 1941 and 1969 and increased from a trace to 0.32% on the grazed area. However, by 1980 they had decreased to their 1941 levels, apparently due to the summer droughts.
Similar changes occurred in species composition and frequency except that they were the only perennial grasses surviving on the grazed range. These results indicate that they are influenced by both grazing and drought, but more by drought since they were about equal in basal cover on both protected and grazed ranges in 1969.
Red Threeawn. This moderately palatable shortgrass, the most abundant grass on the protected area in 1941, declined steadily in basal cover to a trace in 1980. Similar declines occurred in species composition and frequency. It was generally insignificant in all three years on the grazed range. This indicates that in the absence of cool- season grasses this warm- season grass with cool- season growth tendencies was grazed heavily enough in the spring to practically kill it out.
On the protected range competition from the taller mid grasses apparently crowded it out indicating that it is susceptible to both competition and grazing effects. It also appears to be moderately susceptible to drought since it did not increase in 1980 after competing species declined.
Rothrock Grama. This short -lived shortgrass, which was moderately abundant on the protected range in 1941 and
1969, had declined to a trace in 1980. On the grazed range it increased from 0.06% in 1941 to 0.52% in 1969, and then had disappeared by 1980. Similar changes occurred in composition and frequency. These data indicate that this species is affected by both drought and grazing but more by drought. It is also a weak competitor with other species but this disadvantage is partially offset by its prolific propagation habits.
Sand Dropseed. This warm season midgrass was not found in either area in 1941, only in small amounts in 1969, and essentially absent in 1980. These data indicate little response of Sand Dropseed to grazing and small response to drought,
Schmutz, Sourabie and Smith
Table 1. Crown cover, composition and frequency of trees and shrubs on protected and grazed ranges in the Page Ranch study area in 1941, 1969 and 1980.
IProsopis juliflora var. celutinal
T indicate.s a trac
1941 1969 1980 1941
1980 1941 1969 1980
100.0 100.0 100.0
which is contrary to this species in other areas. It appears that the response of this species in this area is more affected by soil factors than other environmental influences.
Sideoats Grama. This palatable midgrass was found in moderate amounts on the protected range in
1941, had increased significantly by 1969, and had declined to a trace in
1980. It was found only in trace amounts in all three years on the grazed range. Similar results occurred in species composition and frequency. These data indicate that this species is strongly affected by both grazing and drought. It also appears that this species can compete successfully on this site with other species under normal rainfall and proper grazing conditions.
Other Perennial Grasses. Other perennial grasses were of minor importance on both the protected and grazed areas in
1941 and 1969. In 1980 they had made substantial increases on the protected area but were found only in trace amounts on the grazed area. Principal species on the protected area in
1980 were Bush Muhly, Purple Threeawn, Squirreltail and
Vine -Mesquite (see Table 4 in the following section). Increases by these palatable grasses were due primarily to protection from grazing but increases by cool -season growers was also influenced by favorable winter moisture, shade tolerance, and fire.
Effects of Fire. The 1980 study on the effects of fires
seven years after burning produced some interesting results on both classes and individual species of plants.
EFFECTS ON CLASSES OF PLANTS. The overall effect of fire on the protected area, seven years after burning, was to decrease total crown cover of trees and shrubs from 21.6% on the unburned area to 17.1% on the burned area (Table 3), which was not statistically significant. Also, the basal cover of grasses was 1.36% on the unburned area compared to 1.67% on the burned area (Table 4), again not significant. The basal cover of perennial forbs was too low for analyses of fire effects.
EFFECTS ON INDIVIDUAL TREES AND SHRUBS. The long -term
Table 2. Basal cover, composition and frequency of perennial grasses on protected and grazed ranges in the Page
Ranch study area in 1941, 1969 and 1980.
( Aristida divaricsna and hamulosal
T indicates a trace.
1969 1980 1941
1969 1980 1941 1969 1980
100.0 100.0 100.0
effects of fire on individual trees and shrubs varied with species (Table 3). Effects on cover, composition and frequency were similar.
Buckwheat. Effects of fire on Buckwheat were negligible or favorable since by 1980 the crown cover of Buckwheat was slightly higher on the burned area.
Burroweed. This shrub was equally abundant on the unburned and burned areas in 1980. This represents a rapid recovery since it is highly susceptible to killing by fire (Cable,
1967). Undoubtedly the above normal winter moisture, reduction in grass competition due to the fire, and fertility from the ashes favored recovery.
Mesquite. The 1973 fires had a marked effect on Mesquite since, in 1980, Mesquite crown cover on the burned area was still about half that on the unburned area. This was also evident by the numerous young and old dead tree skeletons still standing in 1980. The fires must have been very hot since prior studies indicate low total kills by fire on Mesquites with stems over 5 cm in diameter (Cable, 1965, 1967).
Snakeweed. The crown cover of this shrub was only slightly less on the burned area than on the unburned area in
1980. As with Burroweed this represents rapid recovery since it is highly susceptible to killing by fire.
Other Trees and Shrubs. The principal other species in this category were cacti. Fire had a very significant effect on cacti since, in 1980, the cacti were still only 17% as abundant on the burned area as on the unburned. This probably represents
Desert Plants 7I1)
Table 3. Crown cover, composition and frequency of trees and shrubs on the protected unburned and burned areas in the Page Ranch study area in 1980.
Table 4. Basal cover, composition and frequency of perennial grasses on the protected unburned and burned areas in the
Page Ranch study area in 1980.
T indicates a trace.
Unburned Burned Unburned Burned
the degree of kill by fire since it is moderately susceptible to burning and recovery is rather slow (Cable, 1967).
EFFECTS ON INDIVIDUAL PERENNIAL GRASSES. Fire had some very interesting and varied effects on perennial grasses (Table 4).
Effects on cover, composition and frequency were similar.
Arizona Cottontop. In the 1980 survey there was only about 10% as much Arizona Cottontop on the burned area as on the unburned. This indicates that this perennial- stemmed warm -season grass is highly susceptible to fire and that recovery is slow under below normal summer moisture conditions.
Cane Beardgrass. This grass was not very abundant on the protected area prior to the burning and most plants present were killed by the fires. As with Arizona Cottontop this indicates that this tall midgrass is highly susceptible to fire and that recovery is slow under below normal summer rainfall conditions. Also, since most plants were killed, the shortage of seed plants and scarcity of grazing animals to bring in seed further delayed recovery.
Lehmann Lovegrass. This introduced grass, which is highly susceptible to fire and one that reseeds rapidly (Cable, 1965,
1971), had not reached the unburned part of the protected area so comparison with the burned part was not possible.
However, the large amount on the burned area in 1980 indicates that it had recovered rapidly from the fire even with subnormal summer precipitation.
Poverty Threeawns. In 1980, basal cover of these species was 10 times as great on the burned area as on the unburned.
This indicates that fire favors their establishment. This response may be due to the ability of these warm -season grasses with cool -season growth tendencies to take advantage of above normal winter moisture, seed scarification by fire, reduced plant competition, fertilization from the fire ash, or a combination of the above.
Red Threeawn, Rothrock Grama, Sand Dropseed and Sideoats Grama. The levels of these species were too low on both burned and unburned areas to make evaluations.
Other Perennial Grasses. The basal cover of Bush Muhly,
Purple Threeawn and Squirreltail was lower on the burned area while basal cover of Vine -Mesquite was greater. The lower cover of Bush Muhly probably resulted because of the high susceptibility of its shrubby stems to damage by fire.
The lower levels of Purple Threeawn and Squirreltail on the burned area probably indicate recovery due to their ability to make early spring growth on favorable winter and spring moisture. Vine -mesquite is a sodgrass that grows mostly in swales where extra moisture is available so its distribution is limited. This is verified by frequency. Therefore the difference in Vine -mesquite on the two areas may be due to a sampling anomaly (because of its limited distribution) and /or site differences (such as higher soil moisture) which would reduce fire damage and increase recovery.
This study showed that mesquite is drought resistant and can rapidly invade desert grassland ranges regardless of protection from grazing but that competition from perennial grasses and fire can slow the invasion of Mesquite. For effective natural control it appears that a dense grass stand and very hot fires (more frequent than every 7 years) would be needed to effectively control Mesquite. These are conditions not likely to be found in drier desert grassland ranges such as the one studied. In the shrub category, Buckwheat, a desirable plant which was increased by protection, reduced by close grazing and resistant to drought and burning, can be maintained by proper grazing management. Also, the undesirable shrubs Burroweed and Snakeweed, which increased under close grazing and were reduced by grass competition, can be partially controlled by good grass management. In addition, both are susceptible to fire which can be used to aid in their control. Fire can also be used to control cacti but where fire is not desirable chemical or biological treatments may be needed.
In general the more palatable native perennial midgrasses, such as Arizona Cottontop, Cane Beardgrass and Sideoats
Grama, were favored by protection from grazing during the early part of the study but the below normal summer rainfall between 1969 and 1980 killed most of these plants regardless of protection. Also, the short -lived Rothrock Grama which had increased on both grazed and protected ranges by 1969, was killed on both ranges by summer droughts.
In addition, Arizona Cottontop, Bush Muhly, Purple Three awn and Squirreltail were reduced by fire. In contrast, Leh-
Schmutz, Sourabie and Smith
21 mann Lovegrass and the Poverty Threeawns were the most resistant of the perennial grasses to summer drought and both survived fire, Lehmann Lovegrass by revegetation and
Poverty Threeawns by withstanding burning and /or by revegetation. Vine -mesquite, which grows in swales, also survived drought and burning, probably because of better soil moisture conditions. Therefore, these latter three species were the most stable of the perennial grasses for this area.
Perennial forbs, although little affected by summer drought or fire, were inversely affected by grass competition and therefore under good grass management they would make up a minor constituent of the forage complex on this site.
In summary, wide fluctuations in grass cover and marked increases in tree and shrub cover occur on the desert grassland even under complete protection from livestock grazing.
Therefore, for range improvement to occur on this site, good grazing management combined with an effective means of
Mesquite control plus natural or artificial revegetation of drought and fire resistant native or introduced grasses will be needed to protect this area against erosion and make it possible to use it for wildlife and livestock production. Based on this study Lehmann Lovegrass and /or related crosses such as
Cochise Lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana x trichophora) are leading candidates for this low elevation desert grassland site. For higher elevations where drought cycles are not so critical, mixed native species appear more desirable. In any case some form of continuing Mesquite control will be necessary to maintain productivity.
1942. Back to grassland. Arizona Highways
Cable, D.R. 1965. Damage to mesquite, Lehmann lovegrass, and black grama by a hot June fire.
J. Range Manage.
Cable, D.R. 1967. Fire effects on semidesert grasses and shrubs. 1. Range Manage. 20:170 -176.
Cable, D.R. 1971. Lehmann lovegrass on the Santa Rita Experimental Range, 1937 -1968. 1. Range Manage. 24:17 -21.
Cable, D.R. 1975. Influence of precipitation on perennial grass production in the semidesert Southwest. Ecology
Canfield, R.H. 1941. Application of the line interception method for sampling vegetation. J. Forestry 39:388 -394.
Culley, M.J. 1943. Grass grows in summer or not at all. Amer.
Hereford J. 34:8, 10.
Haskell, H.S. 1945. Successional trends on a conservatively grazed desert grassland range. J. Amer. Soc. Agron. 37:978-
Musgrave, M.E. 1941. Miracle maker of rangeland. American
Forests 47:64 -66, 92 -93.
Paulsen, H.A., Jr. and F.N. Ares. 1962. Trends in carrying capacity and vegetation on an arid southwestern range. J.
Range Manage. 14:78 -83.
Schmutz, E.M. and D.A. Smith. 1976. Successional classification of plants on a desert grassland site in Arizona. J.
Range Manage. 29:476 -479.
Smith, D.A. 1970. Successional Trends on Protected Versus
Grazed Desert Grassland Ranges in Arizona. M.S. Thesis.
Univ. Arizona. Tucson. 62 p.
Smith, D.A. and E.M. Schmutz. 1975. Vegetative changes on protected versus grazed desert grassland ranges in Arizona.
J. Range Manage. 28:453 -458.
Smith, H.V. 1956. The climate of Arizona. Arizona Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bull. 279.99 p.
Sourabie, M.K. 1982. Dynamics of a Desert Grassland Range in Relation to Drought, Fire and Grazing. M.S. Thesis.
Univ. Arizona. Tucson. 73 p.
Vorhies, C.T. 1941. Mr. Page builds an oasis. Outdoor America
continued from page 2
Sorghum germplasm has been like putty in the hands of the plant breeder. We have reduced the internode length to make dwarf varieties easily harvested with a combine. We have
"sorgos" with sweet stalks that yield syrup. We have grain types Kaffir, Milo, etc.) used in making feeds for poultry and cattle. We have forage types like Sudangrass used for pasture, hay and silage. There are "broomcorn" types which have been selected to yield the stiff but tough straw for our traditional household broom.
There are many other grasses of great importance. The large number of field grasses nourish our beef animals and milk cattle. Small- grained crop grasses are lumped together under the name "millet." The average American is most familiar with them as the chief components of the birdseed sold in pet stores. They also are grown for forage and for mixing into stock feed.
The overall importance of grasses to the world's economy is staggering. Aside from the species discussed above there and Rice (Oryza sativa). Rice alone is said to feed half of the world's population! We have given the special name "cereal" to the grasses which have been adapted by man to yield enlarged easily harvested grains, adapting the name from the
Greek goddess Ceres, the giver of man's staff of life. Although we have made some strides in adapting existing cereals to irrigated agriculture in arid lands, we have spent precious little time doing the reverse - looking for adapted arid land grasses to make into new cultivars. This latter approach has much to offer and may prove to be the breakthrough field of the future! It should theoretically be more advantageous to create a cereal or forage from a grass already adapted to arid lands than to use large amounts of fresh water for irrigating non -arid cereals in arid lands. Over 420 kinds of grasses grow wild in Arizona alone and more in other arid regions. We need to thoroughly screen these for potential use in bettering the lives of desert dwellers.
Desert Plants 7(1)
John R. Reeder and Charlotte G. Reeder
Herbarium, University of Arizona
Since the publication of Lehr's Catalogue (1978), there has been increasing interest in keeping our knowledge of the Arizona Flora up to date. The following is presented in that spirit. In large measure, these notes are concerned with range extensions of plants already known to occur within the State, but in some cases new records are reported, and attention is also called to recent gatherings of species which have not been collected for a quarter century or more. The specimens cited here are deposited in the Herbarium of the University of Arizona, Tucson (ARIZ).
Aegilops cylindrica Host, an often troublesome European weed, was not listed as part of Arizona's grass flora by either Gould
(1951) or Kearney & Peebles (1951), but in the K. & P. Supplement
) 1960) collections are cited from Coconino, Navajo, and Yavapai
Counties. It also occurs in the southern part of the state. Two records from Cochise County are: 4.5 miles south of St. David, Dowell Curtis
Farm, 7 May 1960, Byron Forsyth )sine no.), and Huachuca Mountains,
Ramsey Canyon, just outside entrance to Mile -Hi Center, 2 June 1984,
H.P. Miller (sine no.).
Agropyron elongatum (Host) P. Beauv. is an introduction from the Mediterranean region. It is not listed in Hitchcock's Manual )1951), and is unreported from Arizona. Cronquist et al. (1977) indicate that it is known from scattered localities in the Intermountain Region. Two recent Arizona collections are: Coconino County, 8 km west of Coconino -Navajo county line along State Hwy. 260, 9
August 1981, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7403; and Navajo County, 9.5 km southwest of Lower Greasewood along State Hwy. 15, 3 September
1981, J.K. & C.G. Reeder 7456.
Agropyron intermedium Host) P Beauv. is another introduced species (Eurasian) which is not recorded in the literature from
Arizona. It is closely related to A. elongatum, but generally considered to be distinct. At ARIZ it is represented by the following collections:
Gila County, Sierra Ancha, 17 June 1958, R.R. Johnson ¡sine no.);
Mohave County, Black Rock Mountain, 28 June 1978, R.K. Gierisch
& C. Bundy 4408, Seegmiller Mountain, 29 June 1978, R.E. Coombs &
C.E. Bundy 2559; Navajo County, Buckskin Ridge, 12 miles south of
Heber, 26 June 1974, S. McLaughlin 339.
The nomenclature of members of the grass tribe Triticeae ¡Hordeae) is presently in something of a state of flux. There is an increasing tendency to follow the ideas of Eurasian authors in treating species of the Agropyron -Elymus complex as members of several different genera. Under those concepts )espoused principally in the U.S. by
A. Löve and D.R. Dewey), the names for the above two species would be: Elytrigia pontica (Podp.) Holub, and Elytrigia intermedia (Host)
Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng (Andropogon ischaemum
L.) is an introduced range grass from Eurasia. It was growing in the
Tucson Nursery, and several specimens collected there in the mid
1930's are at ARIZ. Otherwise it is represented, as grown spontaneously, by two collections from Pima County separated by 30 years: Santa Catalina Mountains, Marshall Gulch, 17 September 1952,
K.E Parker 8093, and Tucson Mountains, Arizona- Sonora Desert
Museum, 16 November 1983, T.R. Van Revender (sine no). New records from Cochise County are: Ca. 15 km southeast of Willcox along State Hwy. 186, 24 October 1983, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7631; Along
I -10 ca. 1.5 km east of exit 331 (near Willcox), 5 November 1983, J.R. &
C.G. Reeder 7653; Near mile 303 on State Hwy. 90, north of Sierra
Vista, 8 November 1983, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7654. Where we have seen this grass, it grows thickly along the roadside and is conspicuous, sometimes for a distance of five km or more. A reason for its poor representation in the herbarium may be that because of its similar size and reddish tinge, it is assumed to be one of the more common species of Andropogoneae occurring in the State.
Bromus arvensis L. is an annual weedy species of European origin.
It is reported from Flagstaff, Coconino County, by both
Kearney & Peebles (1951) and Gould (1951). Indeed, the only specimen for the State at ARIZ is a collection from that area, A.R. Purchase
440, 9 August 1937. While not a new record, the following collection is of interest since it indicates that the species is still present in the
State. The locality is eighty or more airline miles from Flagstaff: Eight km west of Coconino -Navajo county line along State Hwy. 260,
9 August 1981, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7404.
Bromus tectorum L., another European introduction, is a troublesome weed in many parts of the West. It has been collected on numerous occasions in the northern part of Arizona, but the following seems to be a new county record: Cochise County, Tombstone, 4 May
1979, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7130; 6 May 1983, 7597.
Chloris verticillata Nutt. was reported by both Kearney &
Peebles (1951) and by Gould ( 1951) as being represented in Arizona
Reeder and Reeder Arizona Grasses
23 by a collection from Gila County. It is now known from Apache
County, Canyon de Chelly National Monument, by two collections:
16 June 1970, TL. Burgess 720, and 8 July 1971, K.R. Halse 432. Also from Navajo County, 11 km north of Whiteriver along State Hwy. 73,
30 August 1981, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7435.
Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl. is one of the
"crabgrasses." Like D. sanguinalis, it is an European weed. It was not reported in either Gould (1951) or Kearney & Peebles (1951), but in the K. & P. Supplement (1960) the following specimen is cited: Pima
County, Tucson, University of Arizona Campus, 16 October 1955,
K.E Parker 8427. That sheet is still the only one we found in the D.
ischaemum folder at ARIZ. That this weed still persists in southern
Arizona is attested to by the following: Pima County, Tucson, corner of Broadway Blvd. and Kolb Road, 25 August 1981,1.R. & C.G. Reeder
7423. The plant was a pest in the lawn of an apartment complex.
Eragrostis echinochloidea Stapf, an African species, was grown in the S.C.S. Nursery in Tucson as early as 1944. In 1947 it was collected ten miles east of the city along the Benson Highway by
W.C. Bryan ( #139). A second gathering from apparently the same area, but two years later, is represented at ARIZ by K.E Parker 7146. Over the years it has been collected in various parts of Tucson where it grows as a street weed. Although we know of no records for this grass from any county other than Pima, there is now evidence that it is becoming naturalized outside the city. Recent collections are: Tucson,
Tumamoc Hill, near laboratory buildings, 14 September 1983, J.E.
Bowers 2756; Rincon Mountains, Posta Quemada Canyon, 31 October
1983, J.E. Bowers R1391, west base of Tanque Verde Ridge, 29 April
1984, J.E. Bowers & S.P. McLaughlin R1436; Ca. 2 km west of Jet. of
I -10 and State Hwy. 83, 24 October 1984, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7691.
This species was not listed for Arizona by Gould (1951) nor by
Kearney & Peebles (1951, 1960). It is, however, included in Lehr's
Eragrostis superba Peyr., an introduced African species, was reported as occurring spontaneously in Pima County by Mason &
( 1981). They also indicated a record from Cochise
County, but that is an error. The basis for the latter is "Martin,
October 1958." The locality, Davidson Canyon, is correct, but that canyon is in Pima County -not Cochise. That the species does, indeed, occur in Cochise County, however, is attested to by a recent collection: Mule Mountains, ca. 2.5 miles northeast of the tunnel at
Bisbee on U.S. Hwy. 80, 31 August 1984, A.C. Sanders et al. 5209.
Eragrostis superba seems to be adapting well to Arizona, and is now definitely a part of our flora. Recent collections, and new county records, are: Pinal County, ca. 5 km northwest of the Pinal -Pima county line along I -10, 6 August 1981, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7363; also
Santa Cruz County, 5 km west of I -19 along Ruby Road, 13 September
1981, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7480; and Near Washington Camp, 17
August 1981, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7422. Most of the reported collections are from roadsides, but at Washington Camp the species is colonizing a slope between the road and a nearby gulch.
Three species of Eragrostis listed by Lehr (1978) seem better treated as synonyms. These are: E. arida A. Hitchc., E. diffusa Buckl., and E.
neomexicana Vasey. In his study of the Eragrostis pectinacea -pilosa complex, Koch (1974) relegated E. arida to synonymy under E.
tephrosanthos Schultes. Also, E. diffusa was not considered to be distinct from E. pectinacea (Michx.) Nees. There has always been a problem in attempting to make a clear separation between E.
mexicana (Hornem.) Link and E. neomexicana. Recent authors tend to treat the two as synonyms, E. mexicana being the older, and therefore correct, name for the taxon. For examples of current publications in which these concepts are followed, see Gould & Moran
(1981) and McVaugh (1983).
Pennisetum setaceum (Forsk.) Chiov. is the "Fountain Grass" much used in ornamental plantings. All collections in the ARIZ herbarium are from Tucson, or the nearby Santa Catalina Mountains.
The following is from an area several kilometers east of Tucson, where it seems well established and is spreading along the roadside.
Pima County, 3.5 km south of Jet. of State Hwy. 83 and I -10, 26
August 1981, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7424.
Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubbard, an introduced
African species, has been known around Tucson since 1892 (Gould,
1951). Numerous collections from the Santa Catalina and Rincon
Mountains of Pima County are represented at ARIZ. Recent gatherings suggest that this species is beginning to become naturalized in other areas: Pima County, Cañada Agua, SE side of Tortolita Mts., 14
March 1981, T.L. Burgess & H. Miller 6063; Ca. 2 km west of Jet. of
I -10 and State Hwy. 83, 24 October 1984, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7690.
Santa Cruz County, 8 km SW of Patagonia in a small canyon, 4
November 1984, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7692. In each of the latter two localities, numerous clumps were observed.
The name for this species deserves some comment. In the older
U.S. literature, Tricholaena rosea Nees was applied to this grass, but since about 1950 most botanists have used Rhynchelytrum roseum
(Nees) Stapf & Hubbard. A concise explanation regarding the logic for considering R. repens to be the correct name is to be found in
McVaugh (1983, p. 345). He points out that most agrostologists working with Asian and African floras now treat R. repens and R.
roseum as synonyms; Hitchcock (1951) implied that they are distinctly different species.
Sporobolus neglectus Nash is a native species poorly known in Arizona. It is represented in the ARIZ herbarium by several collections, all from Coconino County. The following is apparently a new county record: Navajo County, 14.5 km south of Indian Pines, 30
August 1981, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 7437. Since the inflorescences are often entirely hidden in the sheaths, the plant is easily passed over as being too immature to collect.
Tragus racemosus (L.) All. was included by both Gould (1951) and Kearney & Peebles ( 1951). Both base the record on plants grown in Tucson in the early part of this century, and suggest that the species has probably not persisted. Lehr (1978) lists it in his Catalogue with a question mark. We were able to demonstrate (Reeder &
Reeder, 1977) that this species is, indeed, a part of our naturalized flora, and has been so since at least 1946. Our collections came from the Chiricahua Mountains in Cochise County. Recently we have found Tragus racemosus in a second locality, this time in the Santa
Rita Mountains in Pima County: ca. 0.5 km east of Box Canyon on the
Greaterville- Continental road, 6 September 1984, J.R. & C.G. Reeder
7668. In this locality, numerous plants were observed in sandy soil at the edge of the road.
Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, & P.K.
Holmgren 1977. Intermountain Flora Vol. 6. New York: Columbia
University Press. (Poaceae, pp.175 -464.)
Gould, EW 1951. Grasses of the Southwestern United States. Tucson:
University of Arizona Press. 352 pp. (Reprinted, 1977)
& R. Moran 1981. The Grasses of Baja California, Mexico. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. Memoir 12. 140 pp.
Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Manual of the Grasses of the United States.
(2nd ed. revised by Agnes Chase.) U.S. Dept. Agric. Misc. Publ. 200.
Keamey, T.H. & R.H. Peebles 1951. Arizona Flora. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1032 pp. (Supplement, 1960, pp. 1033 -1085, by
J.T. Howell & E. McClintock.)
Koch, S.D. 1974. The Eragrostis pectinacea -pilosa Complex in North and Central America (Gramineae: Eragrostoideae). Illinois Biological Monographs 48. 74 pp.
Lehr, J.H. 1978. A Catalogue of the Flora of Arizona. Phoenix, Arizona:
Desert Botanical Garden. VI + 203 pp.
Mason, C.T., Jr. & G. Yatskievych 1981. Notes on the Flora of Arizona
VI. Desert Plants 3: 29, 30.
McVaugh, R. 1983. Flora Novo -Galiciana. Vol. 14.436 pp. Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press.
Reeder, J.R. & C.G. Reeder 1977. Tragus racemosus in Arizona.
Madroño 25: 107, 108.
Desert Plants 7(11
continued from page 12 coccidioidomycosis, a regional but generally nontropical disease! The University of Arizona Press book on this disease
(Entry 3142) is incorrectly cited as to title. Under the tropical medicine heading this reviewer looked in vain for a listing of an up -to -date textbook of tropical medicine. Instead, and contrary to practice elsewhere in the Research Guide, a periodical is actually cited: Tropical Diseases Bulletin (Entry 3147).
Cited for no apparent reason is a 72 -page Foreign Travel and
Immunization Guide (Entry 3145). Is the Research Guide somehow trying to provide amenities for persons planning to travel to foreign countries? If so, it should have included such indispensible listings as a first -aid guide or a booklet on coping with snakebite or even more importantly, "M.R." Throughout the guide it is hard to see a consistent approach relating to the classes considered for inclusion.
Glancing to the page after "TROPICAL MEDICINE" the category "LANDSCAPING" caught this reviewer's eye under the major heading "ARCHITECTURE." It was dismaying to find only one entry here, a 4 -page bibliography on consumptive water use! Here one would have expected to find the book
Plants for Dry Climates by M.R. Duffield and WD. Jones, which has already become a classic since publication in 1981 and which reflects much of the research and thinking of the
Program in Landscape Architecture at the University of
Arizona. It is not cited. Neither is the Sunset Western Garden
Book by the editors of Sunset Magazine, a sourcebook used for landscaping information daily by professionals and amateurs alike! Also useful would have been the monumental compendium Australian Native Plants by J.W. Wrigley, useful in many arid parts of the world because of its emphasis on landscaping plants.
The introduction to the Research Guide states that it is intended to be a "sourcebook" of greatest value to researchers outside of their professional specialties. Although this relieves it somewhat from the necessity of citing superflouous detailed technical material that would be of interest only to a specialist, it often seems to give such information in preference to the kind that would be of more use to the general user: Under the major heading "NEW MEXICO" is a subdivision "ZOOLOGY"
Only a single entry appears there! Assume for sake of an example that an anthropologist with limited zoological background picks up the Research Guide to gain entry into the literature dealing with the zoology of arid regions of New
Mexico. Will this person find relevant material? No! The single entry turns out to be an esoteric list and bibliography of mosquitoes, intelligible indeed to a mosquito expert, but of no earthly good to 99.99% or more of the persons inquiring about zoology of the arid regions of New Mexico!
The authors of the Research Guide clearly disliked citing mere books. One searches in vain for a reference to the authoritative and handy 1881 -page Manual of the Vascular
Plants of Texas by Correll and Johnston and finds instead an entry for a 36 -page pamphlet Natural Vegetation of Texas and
Adjacent Areas, 1675 -1975 (Entry 2429). Why isn't the recent
1,025 page Flora of Baja California by I. Wiggins cited? Why isn't the 1978 volume Nitrogen in Desert Ecosystems cited? It is authoritative, compendious, and cites over 500 references!
Why isn't Dunbier's book on the Sonoran Desert cited? - Or for that matter the present reviewer's more recent treatment of the Sonoran Desert based on 1,362 cited references? The
2- volume treatment of Desert Biology edited by G.W. Brown,
Jr., is not cited. How easily can such important works be located by using bibliographies or other compendiums cited in the Research Guide? Unfortunately the best and most comprehensive books for any subject usually post -date the average bibliography. A bibliography of bibliographies is therefore doubly behind the times. For example, the 1980 Flora of Baja
California will not be found in the 1964 bibliography of
Mexican botany cited in the Research Guide. The monumental 1982 book Agaves of Continental North America by
H.S. Gentry cannot be found using the guide. Likewise, the book Fruits of the Desert by S. English, although appearing in print well before the Research Guide went to press, has thus far defied being located using any of the bibliographies cited.
Perhaps The Cacti of the United States and Canada by L.
Benson and Biotic Communities of the American Southwest edited by D.E. Brown appeared too late to be included. But would they have been included if they had been published a few months earlier? After paging through the Research Guide one has a feeling that the authors not only failed to discover some of the most important publications, but that they were really not familiar with the relative importance of the various publications which they did find and which competed for inclusion. Although the Research Guide used up -to -date
"on -line" sources, computerized data -bases, essentially state of- the -art information retrieval methods, it seems to have thrown the baby out with the bathwater.
Haworthia and Astroloba. A Collector's Guide.
John Pilbeam. Timber Press. Portland, Oregon. 1983. 167 pp.
This very excellent book represents a successful attempt to mesh names used by Haworthia enthusiasts who grow the plants as a hobby with the names accepted by professional plant taxonomists working with natural populations and herbarium specimens. The "species" names generally used by collectors for plants of the genus in recent years are presented alphabetically in boldface type at the heads of paragraphs throughout the book. Their presence in boldface, however, does not necessarily mean that they are taxonomically accepted by the author. It is necessary for the reader to digest the commentary under each species name to determine if the taxon is accepted in specific rank, reduced to a variety of another species, considered merely a "forma" of a variety or species, suspected of being a hybrid, treated as a cultivar, or outright rejected and treated as a synonym. The format therefore is that of a commentary rather than a formal taxonomic treatment. Photographs and line- drawings are generously included adjacent to the names of accepted taxa with the result that most kinds of Haworthia in cultivation can be readily identified without the use of keys and without a knowledge of technical characters. Since the small genus
Astroloha the former Apicra) is so closely related to Haworthia, and sometimes included in it, commentaries of the species are provided following those of Haworthia.
Mosjidis Sandblast to Jojoba
Detection and Control of Sandblast Injury to
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis [Link]
Jorge A. Mosjidis
Jocado Agriculture Corporation
Newport Beach, California)
Injury to Jojoba seedlings and cuttings caused by windblown sand in the area of Ford Dry Lake, County of Riverside,
California, is described. After wind erosion was reduced by a cover crop, some Jojoba seedlings were able to grow back despite having dead leaves and stems, or having their roots exposed up to 3 cm below the cotyledons. Barley was found to be successful in reducing sand movement in the field.
Sandblast injury to crops has been recognized as a serious problem in many areas with sandy soils and strong winds.
Although differences in crop tolerance to blowing soil have been reported (Woodruff et al., 1972), it seems that most of the traditional crops can be severely injured by sandblast. Soil eroded by wind can damage or destroy Wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Woodruff, 1956); Beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L.
(Skidmore, 1966); Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Armbrust,
1968; Fryrear, 1971); seedlings of several species of grass
(Lyles and Woodruff, 1960; Fryrear et al., 1973); and several species of vegetable crops (Fryrear and Downes, 1975a;
Woodruff et al., 1972.
'Current address: Department of Agronomy and Soils, Auburn University, Alabama 36849.
Windblown soil can damage leaves and stems. According to Lyles and Woodruff (1960), the abrasive action of sand whitens leaves or produces a burning effect. Sandstorms can severely reduce plant stands when they occur soon after seedling emergence. Studies on sandstorm effects have centered on the seedling survival rate of several crops and on the effects of sandblast on the remaining plants (Fryrear and
Downes, 1975a, 1975b; Downes et al., 1977).
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider) is a wild plant native to the Sonoran Desert of California and Arizona,
U.S.A., and Sonora and Baja California, Mexico. This perennial shrub has attracted worldwide attention because of the liquid wax present in its seeds (Yermanos, 1974). There is considerable effort on the part of private companies to domesticate
Jojoba. Most of the fields are being planted in desertic areas of
California, Arizona, and Mexico. Gusty winds are quite frequent in the Sonoran Desert. We might expect that Jojoba, in its natural habitat, would be tolerant to the sand carried by the wind. Possibly, Jojoba seedlings are more tolerant to sandblast than other crops, but we have found that Jojoba seedlings can be severely damaged by windblown sand. This paper describes sandblast injury in Jojoba seedlings grown under cultivation in the California sector of the Sonoran
Desert and outlines the method to reduce the blowing sand that causes this injury.
Farm Location and Wind Records
On September 15, 1982, the first 28 ha of a total of about
200 ha of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) were direct -seeded in the area of Ford Dry Lake, County of Riverside, California.
The seed was gathered from the wild. The farm soil belongs to the Carrizo- Rositas association, 0 -9% slope, classified as
Entisols by the Soil Conservation Service. Carrizo is sandy skeletal, mixed hyperthermic, Typic Torriorthents. Rositas is mixed, hyperthermic, Typic Torripsamments (S. Quesenberry,
Soil Conservation Service, Blythe, CA, United States Department of Agriculture). Particle size separation of three sites in the farm indicated that two sites had 3 -6% gravel, 91 -95% sand, 2 -3% silt, and no clay. The third site had 36% gravel,
62% sand, 2% silt, and no clay (Table 1).
In November, 1982, a Sierra Misco 1036 (1825 Eastshore
Highway, Berkeley, CA 94710) recording wind system was installed to provide a permanent record for wind speed and direction at 2.5 m above the ground. The instruments indicated that the prevailing winds came chiefly from the south, southwest, west, and northwest. The most frequent wind speed oscillated between 2.4 and 9.5 m /sec. However, there were days when the highest wind speed ranged between 9.5
and 11.9 m /sec. On November 26, 1982, winds with gusts up to 14.3 m /sec lasted for 8 h. Similar wind speeds were recorded during December. On January 27, 1983, winds of up to 19.1 m /sec were detected. During February, 1983, gusts up to 26.2 m /sec were measured.
Detection of Sandblast Damage
Three weeks after Jojoba seeds were sown, several spots in the field had newly emerged seedlings with necrotic leaves and stems. The dead tissue remained green, indicating a sudden death, like the one observed when there is an interruption of the water supply. However, the hypocotyl at or near the soil line and root system looked healthy. Plant samples were studied for the presence of pathogens. None was found.
Particle sizes from the first at three sites.
20 cm of the soil
Very fine sand
Diameter mm (range)
After injured Jojoba seedlings were detected and sandblast was suspected, a large number of seedlings showing several degrees of damage were protected with cardboard tubes open at both ends (5 x 5 x 15 cm plant bands; Monarch Mfg. Co.,
13154 Road 140, Salida, CO 81201). The tubes were put over seedlings showing dead leaves and stems, or slightly damaged leaves and stems, or emerging seedlings that did not show damage. Moreover, 100 cuttings 25 cm tall were transplanted with the cardboard pots used to root them to see whether their older tissue could tolerate the abrasion of the windblown sand better than the younger tissue of seedlings.
A few weeks after seedlings were protected with cardboad tubes, they developed new healthy -looking leaves and stems.
Those seedlings that had their first stem destroyed by
sandblast were able to grow new shoots from the cotyledon axillary buds. Slightly damaged seedlings had sound new leaves, and emerging seedlings did not show any damage.
Shortly after the 25 -cm tall cuttings were transplanted into the field, they showed a silvery damage on their leaves reminiscent of that caused by thrip. Later, the injured area took on a light brown coloration. This silvery damage had variable patterns. Sometimes the whole leaf showed damage; at other times only part of the leaf showed it. The latter happened when one leaf was close to another so that part of its surface was covered. The protected area did not present any damage but the rest of the leaf did. The stem showed a darkening of its brown color. After a few weeks, the leaves died.
In summary, the younger leaf and stem tissue of seedlings shriveled, turned dark green, and died when damaged by sandblast. Older leaf tissue of seedlings and cuttings whitened before dying. Older stem tissue of both seedlings and cuttings turned brown when damaged by the sand.
Fryrear and Downes (1975a) determined that wind with a speed of 10 m /sec can carry enough sand to destroy a crop of peppers after 20 minutes of exposure time. Furthermore,
Fryrear and Downes (1975b[ stated that sand blowing for 6 hours will destroy most crops. During the time that the jojoba plants were growing, winds up to 11.9 m /sec were quite frequent. In November 1982, winds up to 14.3 m /sec lasted for about 8 hours. This indicates that Jojoba seedlings and cuttings were exposed to severe sandstorms.
Wind erosion became evident in the area where the
cardboard tubes and the transplanted cuttings were located.
The wind added sand to the cardboard tubes. It also removed the sand surrounding them. By the end of December, 1982, about 5 cm of the top soil had been blown away. Seedlings and cuttings appeared dead. The seedlings had their main roots exposed about 3 cm below the cotyledons. Cuttings showed about 5 cm of the cardboard pots in which they were rooted.
Control of Wind Erosion
The most important factor in controlling wind erosion is the presence of a cover crop ( Siddoway and Barnett, 1977).
Thus, at the beginning of November, 1982, Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was planted between the rows of Jojoba to provide a vegetative cover to the field. The cereal was sown in rows
17.5 cm apart at a rate of 100 kg per ha. Barley was chosen because we consider it a crop that would grow fast even when high levels of salt and boron are present in the irrigation water, as is the case with water available on the farm. Also, a cover crop, if taller than the main crop, can be used to shelter a short crop from the wind ( Radke and Hagstrom, 1977). Soybeans
(Glycine max [L.] Merril), wind -sheltered with Maize (Zea mays L.), have been reported (Radke and Hagstrom, 1977) to show increased height, dry matter production, and leaf area index.
The Barley planted between the rows of Jojoba was able to grow enough to reduce the sand movement despite the severe damage inflicted on the Barley plants by the blowing sand.
Later, in March 1983, several Jojoba seedlings that looked dead and had their roots exposed, and a few cuttings that also looked dead, developed new shoots. This demonstrates that
Jojoba seedlings have a large capacity to survive under the harsh environment of the desert.
Despite their older tissue, Jojoba cuttings were not found to resist sandblast better than seedlings. Jojoba seedlings and cuttings can be destroyed by windblown sand. However, there seems to be variability within Jojoba populations for recovery after severe injury caused by sandblast. New land developed in the desert for cultivating Jojoba should be protected by a cover crop such as Barley to reduce wind erosion and to assure a proper environment for establishment of Jojoba plantations. Now that Jojoba growers are more frequently planting cuttings instead of seeds, it is advisable for them to establish a Barley crop before the cuttings are transplanted. Also, Jojoba growers should plant trees or other tall, fast -growing plants to provide a more permanent wind barrier.
Armbrust, D.V. 1968. Windblown soil abrasive injury to cotton plants. Agron. J. 60:622 -625.
Downes, J.D., D.W. Fryrear, R.L. Wilson, and C.M. Sabota. 1977. Influence of wind erosion on growing plants. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric.
Engineers 20:885 -889.
Fryrear, D.W. and J.D. Downes. 1975a. Estimating seedling survival from wind erosion parameters. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engineers
Fryrear, D.W. and J.D. Downes. 1975b. Consider the plant in planning wind erosion control systems. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Engineers
Fryrear, D.W., J. Stubbendieck, and W.G. McCully. 1973. Grass seedling response to wind and windblown sand. Crop Sci. 13:622 -625.
Lyles, L. and N.P. Woodruff. 1960. Abrasive action of windblown soil on plant seedlings. Agron. T. 52:533 -536.
Radke, J.K. and R.T. Hagstrom. 1977. Strip intercropping for wind protection. In: Stelly, M. Multiple Cropping. Amer. Soc. Agron.
Special Publication, Number 27, p. 201 -222. Madison, Wisconsin.
Siddoway, EH. and A.P. Barnett. 1977. Water and wind erosion control aspects of multiple cropping. In: Stelly, M. Multiple Cropping.
Amer. Soc. Agron. Special Publication, Number 27, p. 317 -335.
Skidmore, E.L. 1966. Wind and sandblast injury to seedling green beans. Agron. J. 58:311 -315.
Woodruff, N.P. 1956. Wind -blown soil abrasive injuries to winter wheat plants. Agron. 1. 48: 499 -504.
Woodruff, N.P., L. Lyles, EH. Siddoway, and D.W. Fryrear. 1972. How to
Control Wind Erosion. USDA, ARS Inf. Bull. No. 354.
Yermanos, D.M. 1974. Agronomic survey of jojoba in California.
Econ. Bot. 28:160 -174.
Newland and Cross white
27 continued from page 11
Mammillaria yucatanensis (Britton & Rose) Orcutt.
Mammillaria zeilmanniana Boedeker. RUBY CROWN.
Mammillaria zephyranthoides Scheidweiler.
Mammillopsis senilis - see Mammilaria senilis.
Marshallocereus thurberi - see Stenocereus thurberi.
Matucana haynei - see Borzicactus haynei.
Matucana myriacantha - see Borzicactus myriacanthus.
Matucana variabilis - see Borzicactus variabilis.
Matucana weberbaueri - see Borzicactus weberbaueri.
Melocactus azureus Buining & Brederoo. BLUE TURK'S CAP.
Melocactus brasiliensis Erie' ex Pazout. CABECA DE FRADE.
Melocactus caesius Wendl. TURK'S CAP; TURK'S HEAD.
Melocactus canescens Ritter. TURK'S CAP.
Melocactus ernestii Vaupel. TURK'S CAP.
Melocactus macrodiscus Werdermann. TURK'S CAP.
Melocactus matanzanus Werdermann. DWARF TURK'S CAP;
Melocactus neryi K. Sch. TURK'S CAP.
Melocactus salvadorensis Werdermann. TURK'S CAP
Melocactus violaceus Pfeiffer. TURK'S CAP.
Micranthocereus auri -azureus Buining & Brederoo.
Micranthocereus purpureus - see Austrocephalocereus purpureus.
Mila pugionifera Rauh & Backeberg.
Mitrocereus fulviceps (Weber) Backeberg.
Monvillea spegazzinii (Weber) Britton & Rose.
Morangaya pensilis (K. Brandegee) Rowley.
Morawetzia sericata Ritter.
Myrtillocactus cochai (Orcutt) Britton & Rose. DAGGER
Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Martius) Console. BLUE
MYRTLE; GARAMBULLA; PADRE NUESTRO.
Neolloydia erectocentra (Coulter) L. Benson var.
erectocentra. PURPLE -SPINED VISNAGITA.
Neolloydia grandiflora (Otto) Berger.
Neolloydia johnsonii (Parry) L. Benson. PINK- FLOWERED
Neoporteria bulbocalyx (Werdermann) Donald & Rowley.
Neoporteria chilensis (Hildmann) Britton & Rose.
Neoporteria gerocephala Y. Ito. OLD WOMAN CACTUS.
Neoporteria huascensis (Ritter) Donald & Rowley.
Neoporteria jussieui ( Monville) Britton & Rose.
Neoporteria littoralis Ritter.
Neoporteria multicolor Ritter.
Neoporteria napina (Phil.) Backeberg.
Neoporteria napina (Phil.) Backeberg var. mitis (Phil.)
Donald & Rowley.
Neoporteria nigriscoparia Backeberg.
Neoporteria paucicostata (Ritter) Donald & Rowley.
Neoporteria subgibbosa (Haworth) Britton & Rose. SOUTH
Neoraimondia roseiflora (Werdermann & Backeberg) Backeberg.
Normanbokea pseudopectinata see Turbinicarpus pseudo pectinatus.
Normanbokea valdeziana - see Turbinicarpus valdezianus.
Neobesseya missouriensis see Coryphantha missouriensis.
Neobinghamia climaxantha (Werdermann) Backeberg.
Neobuxbaumia euphorbioides (Haworth) E Buxbaum.
Neobuxbaumia mezcalensis (H. Bravo) Backeberg.
Neobuxbaumia polylopha (DeCandolle) Backeberg. AZTEC
Neobuxbaumia scoparia (Poselger) Backeberg.
Neobuxbaumia tetetzo (Weber) Backeberg. TETETZO; TETECHE;
CARDON; HIGOS DE TETECHE.
Neocardenasia herzogiana Backeberg. RED TORCH.
Neochilenia hauscensis - see Neoporteria huascensis.
Neochilenia mitis - see Neoporteria napina var. mitis.
Neochilenia napina - see Neoporteria napina.
Neochilenia paucicostata - see Neoporteria paucicostata.
Neodawsonia apicicephalium (Dawson) Backeberg.
Neoevansia striata (Brandegee) H. Sanchez -Mejorada. DAHLIA
CACTUS; PITAYITA; PITAHYITA; SARAMATRACA; JARAMATACA; CARDONCILLO.
Neogomesia agavoides - see Ariocarpus agavoides.
Notocactus acutus Ritter.
Notocactus allosiphon Marchesi.
Notocactus arachnites Ritter.
Notocactus apricus (Arechavaleta) Berger. BALL CACTUS; SUN CUP
Notocactus buenekeri (Buining) Buxbaum.
Notocactus buiningii Buxbaum.
Notocactus carambeiensis Buining & Berderoo.
Notocactus claviceps (Ritter) Krainz.
Notocactus concinnus (Monville) Berger. SUN CUPS.
Notocactus corynodes (Otto) Krainz.
Notocactus erinaceus (Haworth) Krainz.
Notocactus floricomus ( Arechavaleta) Berger.
Notocactus fuscus Ritter.
Notocactus glaucinus Ritter.
Notocactus graessneri (K. Schumann) Berger.
Notocactus haselbergii (E Haage) Berger. SCARLET CROWN;
SCARLET BALL; WHITE -WEB BALL.
Notocactus herteri Werdermann.
Notocactus horstii Ritter.
Notocactus leninghausii (Haage Jr.) Berger. GOLDEN BALL;
Notocactus leprosorum (Ritter) Theunissen.
Notocactus linkii (Lehman) Hert.
Notocactus magnificus (Ritter) Krainz.
Notocactus mammulosus (Lemaire) Berger. LEMON CROWN;
Notocactus minimus Fric & Krzgr.
Notocactus mueller- melchersii Fric ex Backeberg.
Notocactus multicostatus Buining & Brederoo.
Notocactus muricatus (Otto) Berger.
Notocactus nigrispinus (K. Schumann) Buining.
Desert Plants 7(1)
Notocactus orthacanthus (Link & Otto) van Vliet.
Notocactus ottonis (Lehmann) Berger var. ottonis. INDIAN
Notocactus ottonis var. venclusianus Schumann.
Notocactus rauschii van Vliet.
Notocactus rutilans Daen. & Krainz. PINK BALL.
Notocactus scopa (Spreng.) Berger. SILVER BALL.
Notocactus selowii (Link & Otto) Theunissen.
Notocactus sessiliflorus (Hooker) Krainz.
Notocactus schlosseri van Vliet.
Notocactus schumannianus (Nicolai) Berger. CITRON BALL.
Notocactus submammulosus (Lemaire) Backeberg. LEMON
Notocactus succineus Ritter.
Notocaetus succineus var. albispinus.
Notocactus tabularis (Cels ex K. Schumann) Berger.
Notocactus tephracanthus (Link & Otto) Krainz.
Notocactus uebelmannianus Buining.
Notocactus vanvlietii Rausch.
Notocactus warasii (Ritter) Hew. & Donald.
Notocactus werdermannianus Hert.
Nyctocereus serpentinus (Lagasca & Rodrigues) Britton &
Rose. SNAKE CACTUS; SERPENT CACTUS; JUNCO; JUNCO ESPINOSO.
Obregonia denegrii Fric. ARTICHOKE CACTUS; PEYOTL.
Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelmann & Bigelow. BUCKHORN
Opuntia aciculata Griffiths. COWBOY'S RED WHISKERS.
Opuntia arbuseula Engelmann. PENCIL CHOLLA; CHOLLA.
Opuntia articulata Otto. PAPER -SPINE CACTUS.
Opuntia basilaris Engelmann & Bigelow var. basilaris.
Opuntia basilaris var. treleasei (Coulter) Coulter. BEAVER TAIL.
Opuntia bigelovii Engelmann. TEDDY BEAR CHOLLA; BALL CHOLLA;
VELAS DE COYOTE; CHOLLA.
Opuntia bradtiana (Coulter) K. Brandegee. ORGANILLO VIEJO.
Opuntia bravoana Baxter.
Opuntia chaffeyi Britton & Rose. SACASIL.
Opuntia cholla Weber. CHOLLA.
Opuntia clavata Engelmann. CLUB CHOLLA; DAGGER CHOLLA.
Opuntia corrugata Salm -Dyck.
Opuntia dimorpha Forster.
Opuntia echinocarpa Engelmann & Bigelow. SILVER CHOLLA;
Opuntia echios How.
Opuntia erinacea Engelmann & Bigelow var. ursina (Weber)
Parish. GRIZZLY BEAR; PORCUPINE CACTUS.
Opuntia ficus -indica (Linnaeus) Miller. INDIAN HG; NOPAL DE
CASTILLA; TUNA MANSA.
Opuntia flexispina (Backeberg)
Opuntia floccosa Salm -Dyck. POLAR BEAR CACTUS.
Opuntia fulgida Engelmann var. fulgida. CHAIN -FRUIT CHOLLA;
Opuntia fulgida var. manunillata Coulter. BOXING GLOVE.
Opuntia galapageia HensloW. GALAPAGOS ISLANDS PRICKLY PEAR.
Opuntia hamiltonii (Gates)
Opuntia humifusa Rafinesque.
Opuntia ignescens Vaupel.
Opuntia imbricata (Haworth) DeCandolle. CANDELABRUM
CACTUS; CHAIN -LINK CACTUS; XOCONOSTLE; JOCONOSTLE; CARDENCHE;
TASAJO; COYONOSTLE; VELA DE COYOTE; ENTRENA; CARDON; ABROJO.
Opuntia invicta Brandegee. DEVIL'S CLUB.
Opuntia kelvinensis V. & K. Grant.
Opuntia kleiniae DeCandolle. KLEIN CHOLLA; CANDLE CHOLLA.
Opuntia leucotricha DeCandolle. AARON'S BEARD; PANCAKE
CACTUS; NOPAL DURAZNILLO; DURAZNILLO BLANCO; NOPAL COLORADO.
Opuntia leptocaulis DeCandolle. DESERT CHRISTMAS CACTUS;
ALFILERILLO; CATALINARIA; TASAJILLO.
Opuntia lindheimeri Engelmann var. lindheimeri.
Opuntia lindheimeri var. linguiformis (Griffiths)
L. Benson. COW'S TONGUE; LENGUA DE VACA.
Opuntia littoralis (Engelmann) Cockerell.
Opuntia macrorhiza Engelmann. PLAINS PRICKLY PEAR.
Opuntia megasperma How.
Opuntia mierodasys (Lehmann) Pfeiffer. BUNNY EARS; POLKA DOT
CACTUS; HOBNAIL CACTUS; ANGEL WINGS; CEGADOR; NOPALILLO CEGADOR.
Opuntia moelleri Berger.
Opuntia molinensis Spegazzini.
Opuntia munzii C. B. Wolf.
Opuntia neochrysantha Bravo.
Opuntia nigrispina Shumann.
Opuntia oricola Philbrick.
Opuntia orurensis Cardenas.
Opuntia paediophila (Ritter) Backeberg.
Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann var. discata (Griffiths)
Benson & Walkington. DISCUS CACTUS; TULIP PRICKLY PEAR.
Opuntia phaeacantha var. major Engelmann. BROWN -SPINED
Opuntia pittieri Britton & Rose.
Opuntia polyacantha Haworth. HUNGER CACTUS;
Opuntia prolifera Engelmann. COAST CHOLLA.
Opuntia pubescens Wendland.
Opuntia pycnacantha Engelmann.
Opuntia quimilo Schumann. NEEDLE CACTUS; QUIMILO.
Opuntia ramosissima Englemann. DIAMOND CHOLLA; PENCIL
CACTUS; HOLY CROSS CACTUS.
Opuntia robusta Wendland. NOPAL TAPON; BARTOLONA.
Opuntia rosarica Lindsay.
Opuntia rufida Engelmann. BLIND PEAR; CINNAMON BEAR.
Opuntia saxicola How.
Opuntia scheeri Weber.
Opuntia sphaerica Forster. COROTILLA; LEON; LEONCITO.
Opuntia spinosior (Engelmann) Tourney. CANE CHOLLA.
Opuntia stanlyi Engelmann. DEVIL'S CHOLLA; CREEPING CHOLLA;
Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire. TUNA CARDONA; NOPAL CARDON;
Opuntia stricta Haworth var. dillenii (Ker- Gawler) L. Benson.
PEST PEAR; PAK'AN; YAAXPAKAN.
Opuntia strobiliformis Berger. PINE CONE CACTUS; SPRUCE CONES.
Opuntia subulata (Muhlenpfordt) Engelmann. EVE'S NEEDLE.
Opuntia verschaffeltii Cels in Weber.
Opuntia versicolor Engelmann. STAGHORN CHOLLA.
Opuntia vestita Salm -Dyck. LAMB'S -LEGS CACTUS; COI ION POLE.
Opuntia violacea var. macrocentra (Engelmann) L. Benson.
LONG -SPINED PRICKLY PEAR; PURPLE PRICKLY PEAR.
Opuntia violacea Engelmann var. violacea. PURPLE -PAD
Opuntia violacea var. santa -rita (Griffiths) L. Benson.
PURPLE -PAD PRICKLY PEAR; BLUE BLADE; DOLLAR CACTUS.
Opuntia vulgaris var. variegata JOSEPH'S COAT.
Opuntia weben Spegazzini.
Opuntia whipplei Engelmann & Bigelow. WHIPPLE'S CHOLLA;
RAT -TAIL CACTUS; STICKER CACTUS; SMALL BITING CACTUS.
Oreocereus celsianus - see Borzicactus celsianus.
Oreocereus fossulatus - see Borzicactus fossulatus.
Oreocereus trollii - see Borzicactus trollii.
Ortegocactus macdougallii Alexander.
Lobivia (yellow form).
Lobivia silvestrii (red form).
Echinopsis hybrid 'Watermelon'.
Desert Plants 7 )1)
X Pachgerocereus orcuttii (hybrid of Pachycereus pringlei with Bergerocactus emoryi).
Pachycereus gaumeri - see Pterocereus gaumeri.
Pachycereus hollianus (Weber) E Buxbaum. BABOSO; BAVOSO;
Pachycereus pecten- aboriginum (Engelmann) Britton & Rose.
HAIRBRUSH CACTUS; INDIAN COMB; HECHO; CHIK.
Pachycereus weberi (Coulter) Backeberg. CANDELABRA CACTUS;
CARDÓN; CANDELABRO; CHICO; CANDEBOBE.
Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson) Britton & Rose. MEXICAN
GIANT; CARD6N; CARDÓN PELON; CARDÓN GIGANTE.
Parodia aureispina Backeberg. TOM THUMB.
Parodia commutans Ritter.
Parodia echinus Ritter.
Parodia hausteiniana Rausch.
Parodia laui Brandt.
Parodia maassii (Heese) Berger. VERMILLION PARODIA.
Parodia mairanana Cardenas.
Parodia miguillensis Cardenas.
Parodia penicillata Fechs. & v.d. Steeg.
Parodia purpureo -aurea Ritter.
Parodia sanguiniflora Frie' ex Backeberg. RED TOM THUMB.
Parodia schwebsiana (Werdermann) Backeberg.
Parodia tarabucina Cardenas.
Parodia uhligiana Backeberg.
Parodia yamparaezi Cardenas.
Pediocactus papyracanthus - see Toumeya papyracantha.
Pelecyphora aselliformis Ehrenberg. HATCHET CACTUS; PEOTE;
Peniocereus fosterianus Cutak.
Peniocereus greggii (Engelmann) Britton & Rose. ARIZONA QUEEN
OF THE NIGHT; DEERHORN CACTUS; NIGHT -BLOOMING CEREUS; SWEET POTATO
CACTUS; REINA DE LA NOCHE.
Peniocereus marnieranus Backeberg.
Peniocereus marianus (Gentry) H. Sanchez- Mejorada.
Pereskia grandiflora Haworth. ROSE CACTUS.
Pereskia lychnidiflora DeCandolle. ARBOL DE MATRIMONIO;
Pereskiopsis porteri (Brandegee) Britton & Rose. YELLOW ROSE
CACTUS; ALCADES; XOCONOSTLE; ROSA AMARILLA; ALCAHUESAR.
Phillipicereus castaneus (Phil.) Backeberg.
Pilocereus arrabidae Lemaire.
Pilosocereus chrysostele )Vaupel) Byles & Rowley.
Pilosocereus alensis (Weber) Byles & Rowley. BILLY GOAT CACTUS;
PITAHAYA BARBONA; BARBA DE VIEJA.
Pilosocereus bradei (Backeberg & Voll) Byles & Rowley.
Pilosocereus carolinensis Ritter.
Pilosocereus chrysacanthus (Weber) Byles & Rowley.
Pilosocereus coerulescens Ritter.
Pilosocereus glaucescens (Labouret) Byles & Rowley.
Pilosocereus gounellei (Weber) Byles & Rowley. CHIQUE -CHIQUE.
Pilosocereus leucocephalus (Poselger) Byles & Rowley. WOOLY
Pilosocereus magnificus Buining.
Pilosocereus maxonii (Rose) Byles & Rowley. TUNO; CABEZA DEL
Pilosocereus palmeti (Rose) Byles & Rowley. WOOLY TORCH.
Pilosocereus pentaedrophorus (Labouret) Byles & Rowley.
Pilosocereus purpusii (Britton & Rose) Byles & Rowley. VIEJO.
Pilosocereus salvadorensis (Werdermann) Byles & Rowley.
Pseudoespostoa nana - see Espostoa nana.
Pseudopilocereus azureus Buining & Brederoo.
Pseudopilocereus pachycladus var. chapensis
Pseudopilocereus pachycladus var. pachycladus
Pseudopilocereus superfloccosus Buining 8z Bredernn
Pseudolobivia kermesina - see Echinopsis mamillosa.
Pterocactus tuberosus (Pefeiffer) Britton & Rose.
Pterocereus gaumeri (Britton & Rose) MacDougall & Miranda.
Pygmaeocereus akersii Johnson.
Pyrrhocactus bulbocalyx - see Neoporteria bulbocalyx.
Quiabentia chacoensis Backeberg.
Quiabentia pereziensis Backeberg.
Rathbunia alamosensis - see Stenocereus alamosensis.
Rebutia donaldiana Lau & Rowley. ORANGE CROWN.
Rebutia heliosa Rausch var. condorensis. SUN CACTUS.
Rebutia krainziana Kesselr.
Rhipsalis capilliformis Weber. OLD MANS HEAD.
Rhipsalis cassutha Gärtner. MISTLETOE CACTUS.
Rhipsalis cereuscula Haworth. CORAL CACTUS; RICE CACTUS.
Rhipsalis lumbricoides (Lemaire) Lemaire.
Rhipsalis paradoxa Salm -Dyck. CHAIN CACTUS, LINK CACTUS.
Rhipsalis rauhiorum Barthlott.
Rhipsalis rhombea (Salm -Dyck) Pfeiffer. COPPER BRANCH.
Rooksbya euphorbioides - see Neobuxbaumia euphorbioides.
Selenicereus atropilosus Kimnach.
Selenicereus grandiflorus (Linnaeus) Britton & Rose. NIGHT -
BLOOMING CEREUS; REINA DE LA NOCHE.
Selenicereus hamatus (Scheidweiler) Britton & Rose. MOON
CACTUS; REINA DE LA NOCHE.
Selenicereus macdonaldiae (Hooker) Britton & Rose. QUEEN
OF THE NIGHT.
Selenicereus testudo (Karwinsky ex Zuccarini) E Buxbaum.
PITAHAYA DE TORTUGA.
Selenicereus vagans (K. Brandegee) Britton & Rose.
Seticereus chlorocarpus - see Borzicactus chlorocarpus.
Seticereus icosagonus - see Borzicactus icosagonus.
Soehrensia bruchii - see Lobivia formosa var. bruchii.
Soehrensia formosa - see Lobivia formosa.
Stenocereus alamosensis (Coulter) Gibson & Horak. RAMBLING
RANCHERO; NACIDO; SINA; TASAJO.
Stenocereus beneckei (Ehrenberg) Berger & E Buxbaum. WAXY
TORCH; CHALK TORCH.
Stenocereus dumortieri ( Scheidweiler) E Buxbaum. ORGANO;
Newland and Crosswhite Cacti
Stenocereus eruta (T. S. Brandegee) Gibson & Horak. CREEPING
DEVIL; CHIRINOLE; CASE DE RATAS.
Stenocereus griseus (Haworth) E Buxbaum. WAXY TORCH; PITAYO
DE MAYO; DAATOE; KADOESJI.
Stenocereus gummosus ( Engelmann) Gibson & Horak. OCTOPUS
CACTUS; PITAHAYA AGRE; PITAHAYA AGRIA.
Stenocereus marginatus Berger & F Buxbaum. MEXICAN FENCE
POST; MEXICAN ORGAN PIPE; ORGANO; CHILAYO.
Stenocereus montanus (Britton & Rose) F. Buxbaum. PITAYA
Stenocereus queretaroensis (Weber) F Buxbaum. PITAYO DE
Stenocereus stellatus (Pfeiffer) Riccobono. PITAYO; XOCONOSTLE.
Stenocereus thurberi (Engelmann) F Buxbaum. ARIZONA ORGAN
PIPE; PITAYO DULCE.
Stephanocereus leucostele (Gurke) Backeberg.
Stetsonia coryne (Salm -Dyck) Britton & Rose. NEEDLE CACTUS;
Strombocactus denegrii - see Obregonia denegrii.
Strombocactus disciformis (DeCandolle) Britton & Rose.
Strombocactus lophophoroides - see Turbinicarpus lophophoroides.
Strombocactus pseudomacrochele see Turbinicarpus pseudo macrochele.
Strombocactus schmiedickeanus - see Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus.
Submatucana aurantiacus - see Borzicactus aurantiacus.
Submatucana aureiflorus - see Borzicactus aureiflorus.
Submatucana intertextus - see Borzicactus intertextus.
Submatucana myriacantha - see Borzicactus myriacanthus.
Submatucana paucicostatus - see Borzicactus paucicostatus.
Submatucana ritteri - see Borzicactus ritteri.
Subpilocereus repandus (Linnaeus) Backeberg.
Subpilocereus rusellianus (Otto) Backeberg.
Sulcorebutia arenacea (Cardenas) Ritter.
Sulcorebutia kruigeri (Cardenas) Ritter.
Sulcorebutia rauschii Frank.
Sulcorebutia steinbachii (Werdermann) Backeberg.
Tephrocactus articulatus - see Opuntia articulata.
Tephrocactus dimorphus - see Opuntia dimorpha.
Tephrocactus flexispinus - see Opuntia flexispina.
Tephrocactus floccosus - see Opuntia floccosa.
Tephrocactus ignescens - see Opuntia ignescens.
Tephrocactus nigrispinus - see Opuntia nigrispina.
Tephrocactus molinensis - see Opuntia molinensis.
Tephrocactus sphaericus - see Opuntia sphaerica.
Tephrocactus strobiliformis - see Opuntia strobiliformis.
Tephrocactus weberi see Opuntia weberi.
Thelocactus bicolor (Galeotti) Britton & Rose. GLORY OF TEXAS.
Thelocactus bicolor var. bolansis (Runge) Knuth.
Thelocactus conothele var. aurantiacus Glass & Foster.
Thelocactus conothele (Reg. & Klein) Knuth var.
Thelocactus hastifer (Werdermann & Boedeker) Knuth.
Thelocactus heterochromus (Weber) Van Oost.
Thelocactus leucacanthus (Zuccarini) Britton & Rose var.
sanchez -majoradai (J. Meyr.) Backeberg.
Thelocactus mcdowellii (Rebut) Kladiwa & Fittkau.
Thelocactus phymatothele (Poselger) Britton & Rose.
Thelocactus rinconensis (Poselger) Britton & Rose var.
nidulans (Quehl.) Glass & Foster.
Thelocactus schwarzii Backeberg.
Thrixanthocereus senilis Ritter.
Toumeya papyracantha (Engelmann) Britton & Rose. GRAMA
GRASS CACTUS; PAPER -SPINED CACTUS.
Trichocereus candicans (Dillies) Britton & Rose.
Trichocereus carmarguensis Cardenas.
courantii (K. Schumann) Backeberg.
lamprochlorus (Lemaire) Backeberg.
pachanoi Britton & Rose. SAN PEDRO CACTUS;
AGUA- COLLA; GIG ANTON.
Trichocereus pasacana (Weber) Britton & Rose. PASACANA.
santiaguensis (Spegazzini) Backeberg.
schickendantzii (Weber) Britton & Rose.
smrzianus (Backeberg) Backeberg.
spachianus (Lemaire) Riccobono. GOLDEN
Trichocereus strigosus (Salm -Dyck) Britton & Rose.
Trichocereus taquimbalensis Cardenas var. wilkae
Trichocereus terscheckii (Parmentier) Britton & Rose.
Trichocereus thelegonus (Weber) Britton & Rose.
Trichocereus werdermannianus Backeberg.
Turbinicarpus lophophoroides (Werdermann) F. Buxbaum
Turbinicarpus pseudomacrochele (Backeberg) E Buxbaum
& Backeberg var. pseudomacrochele.
Turbinicarpus pseudopectinatus (Backeberg) Glass & Foster.
Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus (Boedeker) E Buxbaum &
Backeberg var, schmiedickeanus.
Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus var. schwarzii (Shurly)
Glass & Foster.
Turbinicarpus valdezianus (Moller) Glass & Foster.
Uebelmannia pectinifera Buining.
Weberbauerocereus horridispinus Rauh & Backeberg.
Weberbauerocereus johnsonii Ritter.
Weberbauerocereus seyboldianus Rauh & Backeberg.
Weberbauerocereus weberbaueri (K. Schumann) Backeberg.
Weberbauerocereus winterianus Ritter.
Weingartia neocununingii Backeberg.
Wigginsia corynodes - see Notocactus corynodes.
Wigginsia erinaceus - see Notocactus erinaceus.
Wigginsia sessiliflorus - see Notocactus sessiliflorus.
Wigginsia tephracanthus - see Notocactus tephracanthus.
Wilcoxia poselgeri (Lemaire) Britton & Rose. DAHLIA CACTUS;
Wittia panamensis Britton & Rose.
Zehntnerella squamulosa Britton & Rose.
Zygocactus truncatus (Haworth) K. Schumann. CHRISTMAS
CACTUS; HOLIDAY CACTUS; CRAB CACTUS; RINGENT- FLOWERED CACTUS.
Caterpillars of Uresiphita reversalis feeding on plants of Mescal Bean. The insects disfigure and weaken the plant. Control measures discussed below are recommended to halt the advance of this destructive insect.
Photographs by Carol D. Crosswhite.
Damage to Mescal Bean (Sophora secundiflora) by a
Pyralid Moth ( Uresiphita reversalis)
Mescal Bean (Sophora secundiflora), also known as Texas
Mountain Laurel, is rather widely planted in arid regions as a small specimen tree, as a hedge or screen, or silhouetted
against a structure as an espalier. The seeds are well -
documented as being poisonous and many gardening or
landscaping books recommend removing them before
maturity. The desirable features of the plant are the beautiful deeply violet -blue flowers which resemble Wisteria and the thick, leathery deep green leaves which seem to resist the coldest of winters. Books treat the species as pest -free or at least fail to mention any pests. For example, Mary Rose
Duffield and Warren D. Jones in their excellent book Plants for Dry Climates state that no maintenance is required for
Mescal Bean other than occasional pruning and training.
Therefore it is somewhat distressing in recent years to find this handsome plant infested with caterpillars of a moth in the family Pyralidae.
The moth has been identified as Uresiphita reversalis
(Guenee) by Dr. D.M. Weisman of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D.C. It seems to have appeared at the
Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum on plants of
Mescal Bean (see photos) in 1981. Specimens are present, however, in the insect collection of the Arizona Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture going back to 1975 on
"Spanish Broom" at Casa Grande, on Texas Mountain Laurel in
Sun City in 1978, and on both Genista and Sophora
secundiflora in 1980 in Phoenix. It has been seen to be a problem on roadside plantings of Sophora made in recent years by the Arizona Department of Transportation and severely infested seedling crops of Sophora at two wholesale nurseries in Phoenix. One outbreak was controlled using Bacillus thuringensis, a strain of bacteria which causes the caterpillars to sicken and die. Warren D. Jones reports that he has seen what could be this caterpillar feeding on cultivated plants of
Sophora arizonica in Tucson. A number of horticulturists and nurserymen were contacted who are quite knowledgeable and know Sophora well. They were mostly unaware of the moth or cited the same nursery infestations mentioned above.
Eugene Munroe treats Uresiphita reversalis on page 57
(fascicle 13.2) of R.B. Dominick's Moths of America North of
Mexico published in 1976 (London, E.W. Classey). It is said to be an occasional pest of nursery stock and ornamental plantings, Genista, Lupinus, Baptisia, Sophora and Lonicera being mentioned as food plants. Dr. D.M. Weisman (USDA) had identified it on Laburnum in Kansas, Nebraska and Maryland, on Lupinus or "Blue Bonnets" in Texas and New York, on
Genista in California and Arizona, on Spartium? in Georgia, on
Acacia? in Texas, and on Sophora secundiflora in Texas and
All records from Arizona seem to be from cultivated plants.
If there is no significant reservoir on wild plants here, it might be possible to eradicate it on the cultivated ones. Bacillus thuringensis should be tried first, then Sevin, then diazinon, according to label directions. Insecticides should be initially tried on a few leaves to make certain no burn occurs. Safer's agrichemical soap could be used but might be even less safe in terms of phytotoxicity. Always test it
first. - Carol D.
Crosswhite, Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum; and
Cay Randall, Arizona Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture.
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