Desert Plants Volume 22, Number 2 Flora of the San Pedro

Desert Plants Volume 22, Number 2 Flora of the San Pedro
Volume 22, Number 2
Desert
Plants
December 2006
Flora of the San Pedro
Riparian National
Conservation Area
Elizabeth Makings
San Pedro River at Hereford, June 2003
2
Desert Plants
2006
Desert Plants
Volume 22, Number 2, December 2006
A journal devoted to broadening knowledge of plants indigenous or adapted to arid and sub-arid regions and to encouraging the appreciation of these plants.
Published by The U~iversity of Arizona for the Boyce
Tltompson Southwestern Arboretum
37615 E. Highway 60
Superior, Arizona 85273-5100
Margaret A. Norem, Editor
2120 E. Allen Road
Tucson, Arizona 85719
(520) 318-7046
[email protected]
Copyright2006
The Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of The University
of Arizona
The Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum at Superior,
Arizona is cooperatively managed ty the Arizona State Parks
Board, Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, Inc. and
The University of Arizona.
Floristics -the taxonomic assemblage of plants in an area, their geographic ranges, evolutionary and migratory history.
My first exposure to the Arizona flora was as a first semester graduate student in Les Landrum's 'Trees and Shrubs' in the
fall of2000. I quickly realized floristics was the thing for me. Deciding to do a flora was the easy part, but there are many
factors to consider when choosing a site- size, accessibility, travel, location, etc ... I could hardly believe when fellow grad
student Ken Bagstad suggested I do my work on the San Pedro. There was no comprehensive botanical inventory of such
an important area? I welcomed the opportunity.
My first trip to the San Pedro was to help out a couple oflab mates with some survey work. It was December on the middle
basin, and my impressions were probably like that of most people - leafless trees and not much of a river. What had I
gotten myself into? But the beauty of the San Pedro can be subtle, revealed over time. One appreciates the character of this
desert riparian ecosystem after watching cottonwoods leaf into ribbons of green, observing sand and scour explode into
lush vegetation, and trickles of June flows swell into muddy monsoon torrents.
An emotional attachment is naturally cultivated during years of field work at a particular site. And even now, collecting
trips along the San Pedro are rewarded with new discoveries. There are so many remarkable things about this area, yet so
many unknowns. By now we know that human impacts on our environment are neither negligible nor necessarily benevolent.
Economic and ecological values converge dramatically along the upper San Pedro River. Hopefully this work can bring a
deeper appreciation for this rare ecosystem, while reinforcing reasons to conserve it.
Elizabeth Makings
This Desert Plants is a special issue. In order to publish it in its entirety and include so many color photos, Elizabeth
Makings and I had to secure additional funding. We are both extremely grateful to the underwriters and supporters who
responded to our requests for funding.
Underwriters
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
Josiah Austin
Frank Ellis
Harris Environmental Group, Inc.
Nancy Norem
Salt River Project
U.S. Department of the Interior,
Bureau of Reclamation
Supporters
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Michael N. Baker
Mr. and Mrs. Jack Carter
Cathy K. Cook
Lisa Huckell
PaulS. Martin
San Pedro River
Flora of the San Pedro Riparian
National Conservation Area
Elizabeth Makings
Introduction
Biological inventories are one of the first steps in advancing
understanding of our natural resources and providing a
foundation of information for a variety of fields. A flora is
defmed as an inventory of plants growing within a specific
geographic boundary (Palmer et al. 1995). They can range
from simple checklists of small areas to multivolume,
descriptive and analytical floras of continental regions.
Floristic data have been used in a variety of ways in
academia: to assess biodiversity, study plant distribution, test
premises of island biogeography, evaluate biological species
concepts, and determine the prevalence of exotic species
(Barkley 2000, Palmer et al. 1995). Local floras are valuable
for historical information, documenting range extensions,
providing baseline information on immigrant or extinct
species, and providing data for regional floristic comparisons
(Bowers 1981). Local floras in Arizona have been used to
fill in gaps in species distribution, study geographic patterns
of endemism, and identify floristic elements on a regional
scale (McLaughlin 1995, McLaughlin 1986). Agency
scientists use floras to document endangered or vulnerable
species, plan and conduct restoration projects, and monitor
commercial and recreational activities (Charlet 2000).
Floristic information is relevant to applied fields such as
horticulture, crop development, resource management,
ecological consulting, mining, and environmental law
(Wilken, et al. 1988). Additionally, the potential value of a
species-level botanical inventory may not be realized until
well into the future (Withers et al. 1998).
Makings
3
growth in surrounding population centers such as Sierra Vista
will also alter San Pedro River ecosystem (Stromberg &
Tiller 1996). Cataloging the present flora is critical in the
context of disappearing surface and groundwater. This study
may serve as comprehensive baseline information on the
vascular flora against which we might evaluate the impacts
of future changes.
STUDY SITE
San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area
In 1988 Congress designated the San Pedro Riparian
National Conservation Area (SPRN CA) " ... a protected
repository of the disappearing riparian habitat of the arid
Southwest." The SPRNCA was the Nation's first riparian
NCA and extends from the US/Mexican border to the town
of St. David, Arizona (Figure 1). The SPRNCA is a narrow
strip approximately 69 kilometers (43 miles) long and 4
kilometers (2.5 miles) wide encompassing 19,291 hectares
(47,668 acres, 74m2), at an average elevation of 1200 meters
SAN PEDRO RIPARIAN
NATIONAL CONSERVATION AREA
The main goal of this study is to document the occurrence
and abundance of the vascular plant species, as well as
provide a general description of the major plant associations
within the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area.
Riparian areas in Arizona constitute less than 1% of the
landscape but support a disproportionately large portion of
the total flora (McLaughlin 2000, Valencia et al. 1993).
Because riparian ecosystems are dynamic, relative abundance
of plant species and community types change over time. On
the San Pedro, for example, fire frequency, beaver
reintroduction, climatic cycles, and numerous other
environmental factors are changing. All have the potential
to significantly alter species composition and vegetation
communities. Pumping of groundwater to sustain rapid
Figure 1. San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area
boundary showing surrounding land ownership and commonly accessed collection sites. Map provided by Bureau
of Land Management, used with permission (U.S. Government Printing Office: 2001-673-079/43005 Region No.8.
4
Desert Plants
2006
(.....,4000 feet). The legislation directed the Bureau of Land
Management to manage the San Pedro Riparian National
Conservation Area (SPRNCA) "in a manner that conserves,
protects, and enhances the riparian area and the various other
resources of the NCA" (USDI-BLM 1988). Significant
concerns over water quality and quantity, protection of
cultural and paleontological resources, as well as
conservation of natural resources are among the challenges
for current and future land managers. Currently, there is a
moratorium on historical land use activities such as livestock
grazing, sand and gravel mining, and off-road vehicular
traffic.
The SPRNCA is positioned in a crossroads of biological
regions and is one of the most diverse areas in the United
States (The Nature Conservancy 2003). Influences from the
Sierra Madre of Mexico, the Rocky Mountains, and the
Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts have created a rich flora
and fauna. Many animal and plant species are dependent on
this desert river ecosystem. An estimated 70% of vertebrate
species in a region will use riparian corridors in some
significant way during their life cycle (Naimen et al. 1993).
Figure 2. Example of perennial reach of the San Pedro River.
Near Hereford Bridge, November 2003.
The San Pedro is one of the most important migratory
corridors in the Western Hemisphere. Millions of birds take
advantage of the north-south orientation of surface water
and resource abundance. A total of355 species of birds have
been recorded within the SPRNCA (Krueper 2000), as well
as over 80 species of mammals, 40 species of reptiles and
amphibians, and thousands of insect and invertebrate species.
The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax trailli
extimus) and the Huachuca water umbel (Lilaeopsis
schaffneriana var. recurva) are among the endangered
species found within the SPRNCA (United States Fish and
Wildlife Service 2003).
The free-flowing hydrology of the San Pedro River is also
notable. Uncontrolled rivers are relatively rare in the region,
making the San Pedro River an important reference for
degraded riparian ecosystems throughout the Southwest.
Flood disturbances of relatively high frequency and
magnitude result in a dynamic floodplain with varying soil
properties and topography. The biotic community responds
with a variety of life history strategies over broad scales of
space and time (Naiman & Decamps 1997).
Hydrology
The San Pedro is a low-gradient, alluvial desert river
originating from the Sierra La Mariquita, Sierra San Jose,
and Sierra Los Ajos in north central Sonora, Mexico. It flows
north approximately 240 kilometers ( 145 miles) to its
confluence with the Gila River near the town of Winkelman,
Arizona.
A complex sub-surface geology creates a surface hydrology
of perennial and intermittent reaches along the upper San
Pedro River. Shallow bedrock helps to maintain perennial
Figure 3. Unnamed wash in the northwest end of the
SPRNCA. Drainages such as these are characterized as
ephemeral, surface flow is only in response to rainfall events.
Yellow-flowered shrubs on the right are Ericameria nauseosa
(rabbit brush). September 2003.
flows (Figure 2), i.e. reaches that have surface flow throughout
the year. Intermittent reaches typically lack surface flow during
periods of drought and summer-dry months.
The upper San Pedro River has numerous drainages referred
to as tributaries, washes, or arroyos. These areas are
characterized as ephemeral and surface flow is only in
response to rainfall events (Figure 3). The largest drainages
(tributaries) include the Babocomari River from the west,
and Walnut Gulch from the east. Smaller drainages, called
washes or arroyos, are usually narrower, and often steepwalled as a result of downcutting.
San Pedro River
5
Makings
Information is periodically collected on the San Pedro River
to generate maps of surface flow. Volunteers from TheNature
Conservancy (2003) use Global Positional Units to record
data on the presence of surface water to create a snapshot of
the river in mid-June. In June of 1999, 52% of the River
length within the Conservation boundary had perennial flow.
The longest uninterrupted perennial segment was over 25
km (16 mi) in the central portion of the SPRNCA from
Highway 90 to just south of Highway 82.
The USGS maintains several stream gauges along the upper
San Pedro River and stream flow statistics are available on
a daily basis (USGS 2003). In June of 2005 and 2006, the
stream gauge at Charleston recorded no surface flow for the
first time in its 100-year history, underscoring a disturbing
trend.
Figure 4. Spring source of perennial water along Horsethief
Basin. Muhlenbergia rigens (deer grass, on the right bank)
is abundant in these areas. March 2003.
The upper San Pedro River also has a number of spring
sources with localized perennial surface water such as
Horsethief basin, Murray Springs, Government Draw, and
the St. David Cienega (Figure 4).
Figure 5 summarizes monthly stream flow statistics at the
Charleston gauge during the bulk of this study. The monthly
readings for September 2000 - November 2003 follow the
general pattern of late summer flooding, with spikes of
several hundred cubic feet/second in August of each year.
Recharge during monsoon season is important in maintaining
late-summer stream flows along the San Pedro River.
Flooding also occasional occurs in the fall, following tropical
storms. The three-year high reading of8550 cfs on the upper
San Pedro River was registered in October 2000 following
one of these fall storms.
San Pedro River surface flow at Charleston
during study
.,
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=
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100
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-.......
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.
Monthy means
• Monthly maximum
010
as
~
0
001 ~
i;:
E
as
.......CD
en
000
000
..
Sep00
Nov- Jan- Mar- May00
01
01
01
rI
~
Jul01
Sep- Nov01
01
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Jan- Mar- May02
02
02
Jul02
Sep02
Nov- Jan- Mar02
03
03
r ~J
May03
r
Jul03
Sep03
Figure 5. San Pedro River surface flow statistics during study, September 2000-0ctober 2003 (USGS 2003).
6
Desert Plants
2006
The St. David Cienega is an area of rare hydrology along
the upper San Pedro River valley (Figure 7). Cienegas, the
regional name for marshes, are wetlands where water
permanently intersects the surface of the ground. They are
created by such mechanisms as impoundment of receiving
channels, upwelling from spring sources, artesian wells,
beaver dams, and impervious dikes that intersect alluvial
aquifers and force groundwater to the surface (Hendrickson
& Minckley 1985). Broadly speaking, the marshy character
of the St. David Cienega is probably a function of the low
relief and topographic gradient, specific geology, deep soils,
and presence of springs.
Figure 6. Example of severe channel incision on an intermittent reach of the San Pedro River near St. David. October 2003.
An episode of arroyo cutting and channel trenching on the
upper San Pedro River probably began between 1890 and
1908 due to a combination of factors (Bryan 1925, Hastings
1959). Severe drought followed by a series of large floods,
beaver extirpation, woodcutting for mining operations,
overgrazing, and a sizeable earthquake, transformed the San
Pedro River from an almost imperceptible bed lined with
bottomland marshes and grasses, to the current two-tiered
floodplain where banks are often separated from the stream
bed by several meters (Figure 6). Channel widening through
lateral migration and expansion of entrenched meanders
continued until about 1955, and has stabilized since then
(Hereford 1992).
Figure 7. Portion of the St. David Cienega facing west,
Whetstone Mountains in background. July 2003.
Climate
The climate of the upper San Pedro valley is typical of the
Chihuahuan Desertscrub region (Brown 1994) characterized
by hot summer temperatures, moderately cold winter
temperatures, and low levels of annual precipitation. Intense,
localized convective thunderstorms in late summer provide
nearly 2/3 of the annual rainfall. These rains are essential
for the maintenance of perennial grasses and for the
appearance of summer annuals. The more gentle winter rains,
and infrequently snows, account for the spring productivity
of annuals. April, May and June are typically dry. Average
annual precipitation is 335 mm (13.2 inches). July and August
are the wettest months each averaging about 80 millimeters
(3 .2 inches) of precipitation. June and July are the hottest
months with maximum average temperatures of36 C (97%
F). December lows average -2.3 C (18% F) (WRRC 2002).
Geological setting
The SPRNCA lies in the basin and range physiographic
region possessing gently sloping valleys and abruptly rising
mountains known as the Madrean Archipelago, or "Sky
Islands" (Figure 8). The upper San Pedro valley separates
the Dragoon and Mule Mountains in the east from the
Whetstone and Huachuca Mountains in the west. Elevation
range along the River is a moderate 291 m (955 ft); from
1109 m (3640 ft) at Escalante Crossing, to 1300 m (4265 ft)
at the US/Mexican border south of Palominas, AZ. The
SPRNCA is located between areas of impressive mountain
ranges, but there is little relief within the study site boundary.
Topographically, the upper San Pedro basin is a broad valley
interrupted only by the bedrock of the low-lying Tombstone
Hills. The highest point in the SPRNCAis 1411 m (4628 ft.)
in the Charleston Hills (a subset of the Tombstone Hills), a
localized set of rocky outcrops near the center of the study
site (Figure 9).
The terrain of alternating fault-bounded linear mountain
ranges and sediment-filled basins began to form about 17
million years ago in southeastern Arizona (Gettings & Houser
2000). The sedimentary rocks in the upper San Pedro Valley
are Miocene and Holocene, chiefly alluvial sand and gravel
deposits of fans, valley centers, terraces and channels. Thin,
surficial deposits of stream channels, flood plains, and
terraces are made up of more recent Pleistocene and
San Pedro River
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7
Figure 8. Digital image of the southeastern quarter ofArizona known as the "Sky Islands" region
(Chalk Butte, Inc. 1995.) Approximate boundary of SPRNCA outlined.
Figure 9. Gallery forest of cottonwood (Populus
fremontii) winding north through the Charleston
Hills. October 2003 from the top of "Headless
Sphinx".
8
Desert Plants
Holocene alluvium. A sequence of late Pleistocene to early
Holocene alluvium is exposed in several tributary streams.
These deposits are notable because they contain evidence
of paleo-Indian occupation of the area approximately 11,000
years ago·. Within the SPRNCA, older volcanic and granitic
igneous outcrops are found isolated in the Charleston Hills.
The thickness and character of the alluvial sediments that
were deposited in the basins of the upper San Pedro valley
in the late Cenozoic provide important constraints on
groundwater availability of the area, with less consolidated,
overlying basin-fill sediments forming better aquifers.
Gettings & Houser (2000) have shown the upper San Pedro
basin to be composed of a series of structurally controlled
subbasins with intervening bedrock highs. The subbasins are
generally filled with a consolidated alluvium overlain with
an unconsolidated basin fill unit. The depth to bedrock ranges
from 1,700 m in the Palominas subbasin to 800 m in the
Huachuca City subbasin. In general, the basin fill unit
occupies the upper 250-300 m.
Cultural History
The SPRNCA contains an array of archaeological site types
from many time periods. The following is an attempt to
highlight some important historical contexts as outlined by
Bahre (1991), Hastings (1959), Rogers (1965), USDI-BLM
(1988), and Wilkin & Galante (1987).
The upper San Pedro valley was contemporaneously
occupied by humans and mammoths, and has more known
Clovis sites than any other area in the New World. Evidence
of Clovis hunters, 11,200-8,000 years ago, has been
excavated in several sites, including Murray Springs,
HorsethiefDraw, and Woodcutter Draw.
The Cochise Culture represents a period of archaic hunting
and gathering from about 8,000 BP to AD 1. The Cochise
Culture gradually evolved from wild plant gathering to com
growing around 300 BC. The SPRNCA has artifact sites of
stone tools and fire hearths, scattered throughout terrace tops
immediately adjacent to the San Pedro River.
The prehistoric age of the Mogollon, Hohokam, and Salado
from about 1 AD to 1450 is notable for rock art as well as
early evidence of ceramics. The subsistence strategy was
further refined to include floodplain and dryland agriculture.
Other advances were the use of the bow and arrow, and
structures made from stone and adobe. Petroglyphs from
these ancient peoples can be found at or near the base of
hills or slopes throughout the SPRNCA, especially in the
Charleston Hills.
The protohistoric, agricultural communities of Sobaipuri
were probably ancestors of the peaceful Pima and Tohono
0 'odham Indians of southern Arizona. Their presence from
about 1450-1769 is evident from burial sites and agricultural
2006
fields. Sobaipuri lived in villages overlooking the San Pedro,
and probably practiced extensive irrigation.
The first Spaniards to enter the valley were the Franciscan
priest Marcos de Niza in 1538, and the explorer Francisco
Vasquez de Coronado one year later. Coronado traveled
with an extensive entourage of people and domestic
livestock. Historians agree that these were the first cattle to
graze the upper San Pedro valley. The early phase of Spanish
exploration was followed by the mission period of the late
17th and 18th Centuries, in an attempt to establish permanent
settlements.
Padre Eusebio Francisco Kino established the first mission
outposts in Arizona along the upper San Pedro River in the
Sobaipuri villages of Quiburi and Gaybanipitea (both near
Fairbank). Kino left cattle and crop seed with the natives in
1696, introducing cattle ranching into the San Pedro
economy for the first time. Kino fought without success to
establish a mission at Quiburi. In 1775 construction began
on the Presidio Santa Cruz de Terrenate, the former village
at Quiburi, to protect ranchers from the fierce Apaches. The
presidio was occupied under constant struggle.
The San Juan de las Boquillas y Nogales and the San Rafael
del Valle were two large land grants issued in the San Pedro
valley after Mexican independence from Spain in 1821. This
marked the beginning of large scale cattle ranching by
prosperous families. The war with Mexico ushered in the
era of Anglo exploration in the middle of the 19th century.
Records of early explorers of this era such as those from
Colonel Phillip St. George Cook leading the Mormon
Battalion are some of the first descriptions of the San Pedro
before entrenchment.
Anglo settlement of the upper San Pedro region developed
after the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, dominated by cattle
and mining industries. Discovery of silver deposits in the
late 1870s brought rapid settlement to Tombstone and mill
towns along the upper San Pedro valley. The boom was shortlived and essentially over by 1889, and activities associated
with cattle ranching, farming, and the Ft. Huachuca military
base have dominated the regional economies since then.
METHODS
Collecting
The SPRNCA was explored on foot mainly from 2000-2003.
Recent minor additions have also been made. Objectives
for each trip were to collect voucher specimens and
accumulate information on each plant including associated
species, habitat type, and relative abundance. Latitude/
longitude and elevation were determined by a handheld
Garmin GPS unit. Specimens were pressed, dried, and
mounted using standard methods. Voucher specimens were
placed in the Arizona State University (ASU) Herbarium.
Duplicate specimens were exchanged first with the
San Pedro River
University ofArizona Herbarium (ARIZ), then various other
herbaria throughout the United States and Mexico.
Herbarium searches/ other collections
To make the flora as complete as possible, herbarium
searches were conducted at ASU, ARIZ, and the Deaver
Herbarium of Northern Arizona University (ASC).
Examination of over 500,000 specimens was impractical so
a list of target species was compiled from surrounding floras.
Herbarium searches added five taxa to the flora that were
not collected by me during the study. All were from ARIZ
collections with locality information placing them within the
SPRNCA boundary: Eragrostis barrelieri, Eragrostis
intermedia, Euphorbia spathulata, Flaveria trinerva, and
Samolus parviflorus. All specimens were examined and
taxonomically verified. This method of manually searching
herbaria is now obsolete, as nearly all Arizona collections
are easily queried on the World Wide Web through the
Southwest Environmental Information Network web site
(SEINET 2006). A recent search with "Cochise County" and
"San Pedro" in the county and locality fields respectively,
added Citrullus lanatus to the flora. Eight collections from
other researchers working within the SPRNCA are also
vouchered and included: Boerhavia spicata, Cynanchum
ligulatum, Echeandia flavescens, Erigeron concinnus,
Fraxinus gooddingii, Milla biflora, Pectis linifolia, and
Penstemon stenophyllus. Several ARIZ specimens are
notable but not included because of ambiguity of locality
information: Amsonia palmeri, Daucus pusillus, Eleocharis
radicans, Eleocharis bella, Hydrocotyle verticillata, and H.
ranunculoides are historical collections from "San Pedro
Valley, Cochise County." Daucus pusillus and Amsonia
palmeri were collected in 1908 by Leslie Goodding. The
two Hydrocotyle species were collected in 1894 by J. W.
Tourney, possibly a testament to the marshy character of the
San Pedro at that time. Other collections of ambiguous locale
are Ammannia auriculata, cited in Kearney et al. (1960) as
"collected along the San Pedro River, possibly in Arizona,"
and three collection of the aquatic Egeria dens a from "ponds
in the area of St. David," probably just north ofthe SPRNCA
boundary. Tephrosia tenella and Desmodium batocaulon are
type specimens collected by C. Wright in 1851 cited in
Kearney et al. from "along the San Pedro River". They were
also not found during this study.
Plant nomenclature and identification
Arizona Flora (Kearney et al. 1960) was the main source
for plant identification, but was superseded by more recent
treatments for the Manual of Vascular Plants of Arizona
(Vascular Plants ofArizona, Editorial Committee 1992-2006)
and Flora of North America (1993-2006). Many wetland
plants were identified using Correll & Correll (1972).
Appropriate treatments, especially reprints and manuals
published after 1960, were used for groups listed in Table 1
(p. 78). Taxonomically problematic specimens were sent or
shown to experts or knowledgeable sources for identification.
Nomenclature first follows recent treatments for Arizona
Makings
9
published in the Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy
of Science and Flora ofN orth America, and taxa not covered
in these treatments follows Kartesz (1994) and updates via
the United States Department of Agriculture PLANTS
database on the World Wide Web (United State Department
of Agriculture 2002).
Database archive
A digital database was compiled with information on each
plant's form, phenology, lifespan, wetland indicator score
(USFWS 1996), native/exotic status and habitat. Collection
data such as latitude/longitude coordinates, plant description,
associated species, and habitat were entered in the ASU
collections database and made available on the World Wide
Web at http://ces.asu.edu/collections/index.html. Many
photographs have been digitized and entered into the ASU
images database and are displayed online with the checklist
of the upper San Pedro River at http://seinet.asu.edu/
bioExplorer/ChecklistChoices.jsp.
VEGETATION TYPES
Vegetation consists of all the plant species in a region (the
flora) and the ways those species are spatially or temporally
distributed (Barbour et al. 1999). Assigning plants to
particular assemblages is an abstract process, but may
contribute to the understanding of the plant-environment
relationship. Species that occupy similar habitat types often
have similar attributes (Mills et al. 2003, Lavorel, et al. 1997,
Leishman & Westoby 1992).
I characterize plant associations or habitat types within the
SPRNCA based on the most abundant and largest (dominant)
plants, and on physical features. The major vegetation types
are Chihuahuan Desertscrub, mesquite terraces, cottonwoodwillow riparian corridors, sacaton grasslands, rocky outcrops,
and cienegas (Table 12, p. 87). In general, plant distributions
can be explained in terms of variations in available moisture,
as well as topographical gradient, geological substrate,
disturbance, and elevation.
Chihuahuan Desertscrub
Chihuahuan Desertscrub vegetation covers the largest area
within the SPRNCA. Southeastern Arizona represents the
northwestern limit of Chihuahuan Desertscrub vegetation in
North America (Brown 1994). The Arizona outlier is
characterized by an abundance oflong-lived, microphyllous
shrubs on calcareous soils (Figure 10). Larrea tridentata
(creosote), Acacia constricta (whitethorn acacia), A.
neovernicosa (viscid acacia), and Flourensia cernua
(tarbush) are the dominant shrub species: Prosopis velutina
(mesquite), in its low, shrubby xerophytic form, is also able
to grow on the uplands in association with Acacia spp.,
Larrea tridentata, and Flourensia cernua. Other common
shrubs include Parthenium incanum (guayule), Koeberlinia
spinosa (all thorn), Ephedra trifurca (Ephedra), and A triplex
canescens (four-wing saltbush). Condalia globosa var.
pubescens (Condalia), Rhus microphylla (desert sumac),
10
Desert Plants
Fouquieria splendens (ocotillo), and Dalea formosa
(featherplume, usually localized near drainages) make up
minor components of the shrub community. Thymophylla
acerosa (dogweed), Gutierrezia microcephala (snakeweed),
Zinnia acerosa (desert zinnia), and Isocoma tenuisecta
(burroweed) are scattered but abundant sub-shrubs. Krameria
erecta (ratany) and Tiquilia canescens (crinklemat) are not
widespread but may be locally common sub-shrubs. The
density of the waist high shrubby vegetation is moderate to
high, broken only by drainages.
Cacti such as Cylindropuntia spinosior (cane cholla),
Ferocactus wislizeni (barrel cactus), Cylindropuntia
leptocaulis (Christmas cholla), and Opuntia phaeacantha
(prickly-pear) are also a noticeable component of the
Chihuahuan Desertscrub vegetation.
The most abundant perennial grass in the desertscrub is
Muhlenbergia porteri (bush muhly) with other important
perennials such as Hilaria mutica (tobosa), Eragrostis
lehmanniana (Lehman's lovegrass), Bouteloua curtipendula
(side oats grama), B. eriopoda (black grama), B. rothrockii
(Rothrock grama), Tridens muticus (slim tridens), and
Aristida purpurea (purple three-awn). Small drainages,
interfluvial depressions, and alluvial fans create areas of
deeper soil and are often populated by small stands ofHilaria
mutica.
Annual grasses such as Urochloa arizonica (Arizona
signalgrass), Panicum alatum var. minus (winged
panicgrass), P. capillare (witchgrass), P. hirticaule (Mexican
panic grass), Tragus berteronianus (bur grass), Dasyochloa
pulchella (fluff grass), and Enneapogon desvauxii (nine-awn
pappus grass) appear in the desert uplands in response to
summer rains. Annual forbs such as Tidestromia lanuginosa
(woolly tidestromia), Chamaesyce florida (sandmat),
Boerhavia spp. (spiderlings), andKallstroemia grandiflora
(Arizona poppy) may also be abundant in the summer flora
following rains.
Mesquite terraces
Within the riparian continuum, mesquite vegetation occurs
in the drier habitat types (Stromberg 1993). The transition
from riparian gallery forest to terrace vegetation in the
SPRNCA can be abrupt in areas of severe channel incision
(Figure 6). The distinct terrace vegetation on preentrenchment alluvium above the River channel is dominated
by Prosopis velutina of various age classes. Mature mesquite
forests with dense canopies are known as "bosques," the
Spanish word for "forests". Examples of remnant mesquite
bosques remain on river terraces throughout the SPRNCA
(Figure 11 ).
Mesquite bosques are generally separated into three
vegetational strata: canopy, shrub and vine stratum, and
herbaceous understory (Stromberg 1993). Canopy vegetation
is naturally mesquite, occasionally interrupted by Celtis
2006
reticulata (netleaf hackberry), Acacia greggii (catclaw
acacia), or Sapindus saponaria (soapberry). Ziziphus
obtusifolia (graythom), Mate lea producta (milkweed vine),
Sarcostemma cynanchoides (climbing milkweed), Clematis
drummondii (virgin bower), and Atriplex canescens, are
recurrent elements in the shrub and vine understory. Less
consistent, but sometimes common are species such as
Anisacanthus thurberi (desert honeysuckle), Rhus
microphylla, Isocoma tenuisecta, Gutierrezia microcephala,
Koeberlinia spinosa, Passiflora mexicana (Mexican passion
flower), and Lycium spp.
Species abundance and density in the herbaceous understory
of the mesquite bosques and terraces increases dramatically
after summer rains. Especially noticeable is the emergence
of Viguiera dentata (golden eye) from its quiescence, which
can create an explosion of gold during late August through
September. Other important perennial forbs include Acourtia
nana (desert holly), Machaeranthera pinnatifida (lacy
tansyaster), Commelina erecta (herba del polio), and Datura
wrightii Gimsonweed).
The spring and pre-monsoon annuals of greatest abundance
are Descurainia pinnata (yellow tansy mustard) and
Lepidium thurberi (Thurber's peppergrass). The most
abundant post-monsoon annuals are Amaranthus palmeri
(carelessweed), Verbesina encelioides (golden crownbeard),
Acalypha spp., Ipomoea spp. (morning-glory), Bidens
leptocephala (bur marigold), Sanvitalia abertii (Abert's
dome), Chenopodium spp. (goosefoot), Machaeranthera
tanacetifolia (tanseyaster), Eragrostis cilianensis
(stinkgrass) and Setaria grisebachii (Grisebach bristlegrass).
The flowering of sacaton and other bunchgrasses in the warm
season further enhances the perceived density of vegetation.
While sacaton is the most abundant species of grass in
mesquite terraces, Setaria leucopila (bristlegrass),
Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed), Bothriochloa
barbinodis (cane beardgrass ), Chloris crinita (feather
fingergrass), Panicum obtusum (vine mesquite), and
Bouteloua curtipendula (side oats grama), and Leptochloa
dubia ( sprangletop) are also common.
Cottonwood-willow riparian corridors
The riparian plant community is characterized by species
and life forms strikingly different from that of the immediate
non-riparian surroundings. The broadleaf deciduous trees
of the riparian corridor represent the "signature" vegetation
of the SPRNCA, maintained by relatively permanent water
sources. Populus fremontii (Fremont cottonwood) are the
giants of this gallery forest, creating a ribbon of green that
stands out against the desert background in summer months
(Figure 9).
The key feature of flood prone riparian environment is
successional dynamics. Recurrent disturbance is a normal
and inevitable component ofthis community structure. Scour
San Pedro River
Makings
11
Figure 10. Chihuahuan Desertscrub vegetation, characterized by an abundance of shrub species such as Larrea tridentata
(creosote bush), Flourensia cernua (tarbush), Acacia constricta (whitethorn acacia), and A. neovernicosa (viscid acacia).
The smaller, light colored shrubs in the foreground are Parthenium incanum (guayule), which can be locally abundant.
October 2003, facing west, Huachuca Mountains in background.
Figure 11. Mesquite bosque (Prosopis velutina) with understory of dense grasses and forbs. August, 2006 near Boquillas
Ranch.
12
Desert Plants
2006
Figure 12. Cottonwood-willow riparian corridor vegetation.
Patches of Populus fremontii of similar size indicate historical recruitment and establishment events. July 2003 near
Palominas. Yellow-flowered shrub in foreground is
Gymnosperma glutinosum.
Figure 13. Riparian vegetation of the upper San Pedro
River. Floating aquatics are Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minor and L. gibba. July 2002 along a perennial reach south
of the San Pedro House.
and deposition from flooding of varying magnitude and
frequency create a dynamic floodplain with complex
topography and a variety of microhabitats. Floodplain
microsites and terraces are occupied by plants with a mixture
of age classes that reflect the history of flooding. For
example, during periods oflow discharge, exposed portions
of the active channel may be occupied by seedlings of shrubs,
trees, and herbaceous species. Scour from flooding may result
in a channel devoid of plants. Populus fremontii and Salix
gooddingii (Goodding willow) grow in even aged vegetation
patches arranged in narrow strips along active and abandoned
channels along the San Pedro River (Figure 12). Patches of
Populus fremontii of similar size indicate historical recruitment
and establishment events (Stromberg 1998).
1. Aquatic. During non-flood conditions, surface water may
be deep and pond-like, e.g. near Hereford, or shallow and
running, e.g. San Pedro House. Reaches with year-round
surface water create habitat for perennial emergent aquatics
such as Schoenoplectus acutus (bulrush), Eleocharis spp.
(spikerush), Typha spp. (cat-tail), Veronica anagallisaquatica (water speedwell), and Nasturtium officinale
(watercress). Zannichelia palustris (homed pondweed) is
the only example of a submerged aquatic on the upper San
Pedro River. Lemna minor (duckweed), L. gibba (inflated
duckweed), andAzollafiliculoides (waterfem) are common
floating aquatics. Figure 13 is a photograph taken near the
San Pedro House. The lush vegetation is typical of areas
with perennial water.
2. Riparian channel edge. A variety of annual, perennial,
native, and exotic wetland species occupy the frequentlyscoured sand bars and channel edges of the San Pedro. The
most ubiquitous are the shrubs Baccharis salicifolia (seep
willow) and B. emoryi (Emory Baccharis), which may fonn
continuous thickets defining river margins.
The riparian corridor spans the active floodplain, which may
be several hundred meters wide with gently sloping banks,
or narrow (less than 50 meters) and steep-banked in reaches
with severe channel incision. The vegetation within the
riparian corridor from mid-channel to the edge of the
floodplain includes the following zones:
San Pedro River
The herbaceous species of this zone are primarily perennial
graminoids such as Equisetum laevigatum (horsetail),
Muhlenbergia rigens (deer grass), Sorghum halepense
(Johnson grass), Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass), Elymus
canadensis (Canada wild rye), Juncus torreyi (Torrey's rush),
andJ. arcticus var. balticus (wire rush). The most abundant
pre-monsoon forb species is Melilotus alba (white
sweetclover). Xanthium strumarium (cocklebur), Amaranthus
palmeri, Polygonum pensylvanicum (pinkweed), P.
lapathifolium (willow smartweed), andPolanisia dodecandra
ssp. trachysperma (western clammyweed), become increasingly
important after summer rains.
Annual grasses dominate channel bars and stream edges.
Polypogon monspeliensis (rabbitsfoot grass) is abundant
during spring and early summer months, replaced by
Echinochloa crusgalli (barnyard grass) in the warm season.
Makings
13
perennial forbs in this zone. Examples of other herbaceous
species are numerous and wide-ranging due to frequent
disturbance in the riparian zone. The most abundant annual
grasses and forbs are Ipomoea cristulata (scarlet morningglory), Helianthus petiolaris (western sunflower), Laennecia
coulteri (Coulter's conyza), Amaranthus palmeri, Aristida
adscensionis (six weeks three-awn), Bidens leptocephala
(bur marigold), Bouteloua aristidoides (needle grama),
Eriochloa spp. (cupgrasses), Eragrostis spp., Chloris virgata
(feather finger grass), Sanvitalia abertii (Abert's dome), and
Xanthocephalum gymnospermoides (broomweed).
Sacaton grasslands
Sporobolus wrightii (sacaton) is the dominant herbaceous
species within the SPRNCA. Sacaton grasslands cover large
areas of lower alluvial terrace not previously cleared for
agriculture (Figure 14). The flowering panicle can reach
heights of greater than 2 m, creating sacaton "seas". Small
3. Riparian cottonwood-willow corridor. Within the
floodplain, mature Populus fremontii are the lone occupant
of the canopy and reach heights of greater than 30 meters.
Salix gooddingii are also abundant, but secondary in stature
to the taller cottonwoods. Cottonwoods and willows are
colonizers of disturbed sites and ideally adapted to the
floodprone San Pedro River environment. They produce
large numbers of wind and water dispersed seeds which are
viable for short periods of time. Cottonwoods and willows
germinate on wet sand and gravel following winter/early
spring rains (Reichenbacher 1984).
Tree species diversity of cottonwood-willow forests is low
(Stromberg 1991 ). In the SPRNCA, Tamarix ramosissima
(salt cedar) and Sapindus saponaria are the only other
species with noticeably significant cover. Tamarix
ramosissima is more common in the northern end of the study
site, and tends to form thickets of individuals with multiple
stems. Sap indus saponaria stands are found throughout the
SPRNCA, usually composed of same-age cohorts or clonal
populations. Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea (Mexican
elderberry), Juglans major (Arizona walnut), Celtis
reticulata and Fraxinus velutina (velvet ash) are scattered
and occasional species. Salix exigua (coyote willow) is
present in only a few locations, in small clonal stands of
shrubs or trees. The understory of the cottonwood-willow
corridor is predominantly perennial grasses of mainly
Sporobolus wrightii, Bouteloua curtipendula, Aristida
ternipes (spidergrass), Sorghum halepense, Bothriochloa
barbinodis, Sporobolus contractus (spike dropseed),
Panicum obtusum, and Leymus triticoides (beardless wild
rye).
Ericameria nauseosa (rabbit brush), Hymenoclea monogyra
(burro brush), and Senecio flaccidus (thread-leaf groundsel),
are common shrubs of the cottonwood-willow understory
and canopy interspaces. Ambrosia psilostachya (western
ragweed), Brickelliafloribunda (Chihuahuan brickellbush),
and Chloracantha spinosa (spiny aster) are abundant
Figure 14. Sporobolus wrightii (sacaton) grassland.
August 2003 near Lewis Springs.
spaces between individuals are generally habitat for summer
annuals like Acalypha neomexicana (New Mexican
copperleaf),A. ostryifolia (hornbeam), Verbesina encelioides
( crownbeard), Ipomoea spp., Aristida adscensionis,
Phaseolus acutifolius var.latifolius (tepary bean), Euphorbia
heterophylla (painted spurge), Eriochloa acuminata
(cup grass), Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (hyssop spurge) and
Anoda spp. Perennial herbaceous species in sacaton
grasslands include Ambrosia psilostachya, Chloracantha
spinosa, Chamaesyce albomarginata (rattlesnake weed),
Cucurbita foetidissima (buffalo gourd), and Hoffmannseggia
glauca (hog-potato).
River terraces of abandoned/recovering agricultural fields
(Figure 15) are characterized by an herbaceous community
14
Desert Plants
2006
Figure 15. Abandoned agricultural field in "recovery" east
of the San Pedro River near Palominas, Huachuca Mountains in background. September 2003.
Figure 16. Rocky outcrop vegetation in the Charleston Hills.
Characteristic species include Dasylirion wheeleri, Acacia
spp., Aloysia wrightii and Cnidoscolus angustidens. August
2006.
of annual weedy species such as Amaranthus palmeri,
A triplex wrightii (Wright saltbush), Sa/sola tragus (Russian
thistle), Chloris virgata, Chenopodium spp., and Portulaca
oleracea (common purslane). Some of the most common
herbaceous perennials in disturbed terraces are Sphaeralcea
angustifolia (narrow-leaved globe mallow), Sorghum
halepense, Hymenothrix wislizenii (Transpecos
thimblehead), Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed),
Apodanthera undulata (melon loco), Argemone pleiacantha
(bluestem pricklepoppy), and Solanum elaeagnifolium
(silverleaf nightshade). Scattered individuals of Atriplex
canescens and Prosopis velutina also colonize abandoned
agricultural terraces in recovery.
Agave palmeri (Palmer's agave), and Ferocactus wislizeni
(barrel cactus) occur with greater frequency as one moves
higher up the slopes. All seven species of terrestrial ferns of
the SPRNCA flora are known only from this area, preferring
the shaded crevices of boulders and rocks. The most
abundant perennial forbs are Sida abutifolia (spreading
fanpetals), Talinum aurantiacum (orange flameflower), T.
paniculatum (pink baby breath), A !!ionia incarnata (trailing
four-0 'clock), Croton pottsii (leather weed), and Evolvulus
arizonicus (Arizona blue eyes). The rocky outcrops have an
interesting sub-shrub community, especially diverse in
members of the Malvaceae (mallow family), which may
prefer the shallow soils. Examples includeAbutilon incanum
(pelotazo), A. parvulum (dwarf Indian mallow), A. palmeri
(Palmer's Indian mallow), A. mollicomum (Sonoran Indian
mallow), Herissantia crispa (bladdermallow), Hibiscus
denudatus (rock hibiscus), H coulteri (desert rosemallow),
and Sphaeralcea laxa (caliche globe mallow). Other
subshrubs such as Brickellia coulteri (Coulter's
brickellbush), Carlowrightia arizonica (Arizona
wrightwort), Haplophyton crooksii (cockroach plant),
Boerhavia scandens (climbing wartclub), and Rivina humilis
(rouge plant), further characterize this distinct habitat type.
Rocky outcrops
The gentle slope of the upper San Pedro valley is abruptly
interrupted by an isolated set of volcanic and granitic
outcrops known as the Charleston Hills (Figure 16). The
unique edaphics and geology have created a distinct plant
association within the SPRNCA of many taxa that do not
occur in lower riparian, terrace, or even adjacent desertscrub
habitats. Roughly 10% of the flora was restricted to the higher
elevation rocky outcrops of the Charleston Hills, including
Brunckow Hill and the "Headless Sphinx" to the south (Table
2, p. 79). The flora (and geology) of these volcanic knolls
probably overlaps with that of the nearby Tombstone Hills
and the lower bajadas of the Mule and Dragoon Mountains.
Vegetation may differ depending on aspect, elevation and
parent material. In general, the shrubs Aloysia wrightii
(oreganilla), Acacia greggii, Mimosa aculeaticarpa var.
biuncifera (eat's claw mimosa), Prosopis velutina, Acacia
constricta, and A. neovernicosa are abundant throughout.
Janusia gracilis (slender Janusia), Fouquieria splendens,
Cienegas
Cienegas, described by Hendrickson and Minckley (1985),
are mid-elevation wetlands (1,000-2,000 m) characterized
by permanent, scarcely fluctuating water sources amid semiarid surroundings. The saturated soils result in an organic
muck that precludes colonization of all but specialized
organisms. The plant components of cienegas are primarily
aquatic and semi-aquatic graminoids (Figure 17).
San Pedro River
Makings
15
(southern cat-tail) is locally abundant, subdominant with
Schoenoplectus american us.
Along the immediate perimeter of the cienega, soils become
less saturated and increasingly saline, occupied by halophytic
species such as Anemopsis californica (yerba mansa),
Distichlis spicata, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton),
Asclepias subverticillata (whorled milkweed), Almutaster
pauciflorus (alkali marsh aster), and Heliomeris multiflora
ssp. nevadensis (Nevada goldeneye).
A smaller cienega is located a few hundred meters east of
the San Pedro River between Lewis Springs and Government
Draw with a similar species composition and insular
character. Many of the plants found in cienega habitats in
the SPRNCA are specialized halophytes and/or aquatics
which restrict their distribution. Table 3 (p. 79) lists the
species I observed to be unique to the cienega habitats within
theSPRNCA.
Figure 17. Example of wetland graminoid vegetation characteristic of the St. David Cienega. Taller sedges are
Schoenoplectus americanus, wispy grass is Muhlenbergia
asperifolia.
The St. David Cienega is located in the northern end of the
SPRNCA, approximately 300 meters west of the San Pedro
River. This rare riparian habitat is maintained by an artesian
spring source (Martin 1979). The water table permanently
intersects the surface forming an expansive marshy flat of
approximately 30 hectares (~75 acres). Surrounding
vegetation consists of mesquite grasslands (highly impacted
by grazing), mesquite bosques, and Chihuahuan Desertscrub.
The cienega is completely vegetated having no visible open
water. Areas that are perennially wet are generally ankle deep
and shallower depending on the time of year.
Plant species composition in cienegas may be determined
by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors (Cross 1991). In
my observation of this area, species distribution patterns are
influenced by the moisture gradient from perennially
saturated soils in the middle to the seasonally dry periphery.
These patterns form zones of plant composition similar to
concentric lines of a topographic map depicting a mesa
(Figure 18). For example, Schoenoplectus americanus
(chairmaker's bulrush), mixed with Lythrum californicum
(California loosestrife), and Berula erecta (cutleaf water
parsnip), form dense stands throughout the middle portion
of the cienega. This zone is permanently saturated, with
standing water throughout. Moving outward (narrower
concentric lines) there are three more zones characterized
by the following species mix 1) Carex praegracilis (clustered
field sedge)/Eleocharis rostellata (beaked spike rush), 2)
Muhlenbergia asperifolia (alkali muhly)/Distichlis spicata
(salt grass)/Juncus arcticus var. balticus, transitioning into
3) Sporobolus spp./Panicum obtusum/forbland zone. In the
northwestern section of the cienega, Typha domingensis
Cienegas have great archaeological and biological value.
Their environs have surely been inhabited for millennia. But
the future of cienegas is uncertain. Cienega habitat has been
greatly reduced over the last 150 years mainly due to the
influences of man. Many are only remnants of their historical
condition, aquatic islands with a precarious future.
FLORA COMPOSITION
The personality of a flora is determined by its species
composition, and each flora is a unique expression of local
climate, elevation, and soil conditions. The flora of the San
Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area includes 625
taxa from 614 species, 9 additional infraspecific taxa, and 2
interspecific hybrids (Table 4, p. 80). There are 92 families
and the largest are the Asteraceae (composites), Poaceae
(grasses), and Fabaceae (legumes), which combined, account
for42% of the flora. Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae, Malvaceae,
and Cactaceae are in the second tier of importance (Table 5,
p. 80). There are 73 non-native taxa (12% of the flora).
Twenty-five of the 105 grass taxa (24%) are non-native.
Sixty-six percent of the SPRNCA flora is represented by
families with 3 or fewer members. Thirty-five families have
only one representative. The SPRNCA flora has 358 genera
(Table 6, p. 80) especially species-rich in Chamaesyce
(Euphorbiaceae ), Eragrostis (Poaceae) and Bouteloua
(Poaceae). Four of the top 12 genera are grasses.
Figure 19 is a summary of lifespan and growth forms of the
SPRNCA flora (see table 10 for description of growth forms).
Percentage of the total flora is noted in parentheses after
growth form category. Annuals account for 38% of the flora,
and most of the perennial species are represented by forbs
and graminoids. In fact, most of the flora is herbaceous in
terms of species numbers. Four hundred ninety-three taxa
(80% of the flora) are non-woody forbs, ferns, or graminoids.
There are 23 tree species that make up less than 4% of the
flora.
16
Desert Plants
There are a total of243 annuals or biennials in the SPRNCA
flora. Table 7 (p. 80) represents the distribution of annual
species by their primary flowering season. The majority of
the annual flora responds to summer rains. Winter/spring
combined with spring/summer annuals represent 14% of the
total flora, and 37% of the annual flora. Summer combined
with summer/fall annuals represent 25% of the total flora,
and 63% of the annual flora.
Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Cyperaceae are the best
represented obligate and facultative wetland plant families
in the SPRNCA (Table 8, p. 80)). The Poaceae have the
most taxa in this category, and 31% of their representatives
are non-native. Five out of six (83%) ofthe wetland taxa in
Polygonaceae (the buckwheat family) are non-native.
I use a general definition for "native" to describe a species
whose range included North America at the time ofEuropean
contact (about 1500 AD). "Exotic", "introduced", or "nonnatives" are used to describe species introduced purposefully
or accidentally, from a range outside North America. Sources
such as the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC 2003)
and the United State Department of Agriculture- Natural
Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS 2002),
further categorize non-natives according to the severity of
their biological and/or socio-economical impacts on the
environment. For example, "invasive" species are defmed
as not only naturalized, but expanding their distribution on
their own. Category I invasives on the FLEPPC Plant List
are described as "altering native plant communities by
displacing native species, changing community structures
or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives." The
USDA-NRCS defines a "noxious weed" as a native or nonnative that has the "potential to invade and degrade our
landscapes."
Many species in the SPRNCA flora are listed as non-native,
noxious weeds (e.g. Cynodon dactylon, Melilotus alba,
Sorghum halepense, Tamarix ramosissima), and cover
significant portions of the study area. However, it is unclear
whether the riparian corridor of the SPRNCA has been
"invaded" to the point of fundamental changes at the
ecosystem level. Composition in terms of native and exotic
species appears to be spatially and temporally specific.
Percent cover of herbaceous non-natives in some portions
of the riparian zone is considerably higher than percent cover
for natives (Lite 2003, Stromberg et al. 2005). Further, the
percentage of non-native species in the wetland flora of the
SPRNCA is slightly higher than that of the overall flora (14%
vs. 11%). The breakdown of geographical barriers and
introduction of species to provinces outside those in which
they evolved, is an ongoing phenomenon in the current
atmosphere of globalization (Rosenzweig 2001 ). The
relevance of non-native species to the biodiversity and
functioning of the upper San Pedro River ecosystem remains
to be explored.
2006
TAXA OF INTEREST
There are several ways in which a state flora can grow. First,
botanical inventories often identify new entities that have
been persisting, but may have been overlooked because they
are rare, cryptic, and/or remote. Many Arizona taxa that have
been added over the years are the result of intense collecting
for floristic studies, revealing moderate to extreme range
extensions of previously known distributions. Second, floras
grow because of plant introduction due to a variety of natural
and man-made forces. The San Pedro is especially prone to
plant immigration because of its proximity to an international
border as well as the influx of migratory birds.
State records
The SPRNCA flora is capricious and unpredictable by nature
since it represents influences from entire watersheds and
beyond. The vagaries of this riparian ecosystem are
exemplified by the occurrence of new and unexpected taxa.
The upper San Pedro River has been at best moderately
collected, especially in the last 50 years, so it is not surprising
to find plants new to the state flora. Four of the five,
Calystegia sepium (Convolvulaceae), Carlowrightia texana
(Acanthaceae, Daniel et al. 2005), Mancoa pubens
(Brassicaceae), and Psilactis brevilingulata (Asteraceae), do
not represent dramatic range extensions. Carlowrightia
texana and P. brevilingulata are previously known from New
Mexico, Texas, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and
Sonora. Mancoa pubens is previously known from three
counties in southwest Texas and northwestern Chihuahua,
Mexico, and the Arizona plants represent a disjunct of some
500 kilometers (Makings 2002). Psilactis brevilingulata was
fairly common in the SPRNCA, collected in mesquite terrace,
marsh, and cottonwood-riparian habitats, suggesting an
established presence. Mancoa pubens and Carlowrightia
texana are probably more recent arrivals, restricted to single
locales and few individuals. Calystegia sepium was collected
in the St. David Cienega and not found anywhere else within
the SPRNCA. The Arizona collection represents another
minor range extension since it is found in every other state
in North America (USDA-NRCS 2002).
Tagetes minuta was collected near the international border.
Its annual habit, proximity to the San Pedro River, and
"invasive" label suggest a likely recent introduction,
probably within the last few years. Originally from Argentina,
this plant is listed as a "noxious weed" on the USDA's Plants
Database. It was observed resprouting in summer 2003, after
the Palominas fire of spring 2003. Previous collections are
from north-central California and several southeastern
Atlantic states, making the San Pedro population highly
disjunct.
Accidental species
Five species collected within the SPRNCA are described as
"accidental," or occurring out of context of their typical
habitat. Quercus emoryi (Emory oak), Platanus wrightii
(Arizona sycamore), Rhus aromatica var. trilobata (skunk
San Pedro River
17
Makings
-··-··-··-··--·-··-··-... - -
gas pipeline
...
.....
-... ....
-
..................... __ _
Pluchea-
dense Salix-Cepha/anthusProsopis
San Pedro River -300M
//
_____.•.
...........................
············
grasses-forbs
Prosopis-grasses
•
-lOOM
•
~
north
Figure 18. Schematic of St. David Cienega. Species distribution patterns are influenced by a moisture gradient from
perennially saturated soils in the middle to the seasonally dry and increasingly saline periphery.
Lifespan and growth forms of SPRNCA flora
250~-----------------------------------.
196
200 ~~--------------------------------~
55
o Annuals
150
a Perennials
100
50
0
8
_ _ _ .a__!
Figure 19. Comparative life span and growth froms of SPRNCA flora.
18
Desert Plants
bush), and Ribes aureum (golden currant), were found in
the riparian cottonwood-willow floodplain. All were isolated,
presumably transient individuals that do not normally occur
along the upper San Pedro River, but were present in
surrounding published floras [Appleton-Whitten Research
Ranch in northeastern Santa Cruz County (McLaughlin et
al. 2001 ), the Huachuca Mountains (Bowers & McLaughlin
1996), the Mule Mountains (Wentworth 1982), and/or the
Chiricahua Mountains (Bennett, et al. 1996)]. Another
"accidental" taxon, Rosa woodsii (Woods' rose), was
collected at Lewis Springs, the site of an old homestead. It
could have been intentionally planted, but appears to be
thriving and clonally reproducing along the spring source.
Rosa woodsii is found in the Chiricahua Mountain flora.
Platanus wrightii, Quercus emoryi and Rhus aromatica var.
trilobata are common in all the surrounding uplands. Ribes
aureum is cited in the Huachuca Mountain flora and in the
Appleton-Whittell flora. The Huachuca Mountain specimen
is from Garden Canyon, based only on a 1910 Leslie
Goodding collection, and the Appleton-Whittell population
is noted, "rare, a few shrubs in the Post Canyon above the
reservoir." Bowers and McLaughlin apparently were not
able to relocate the Garden Canyon population and comment,
"likely to have been extirpated." Sadly, the San Pedro
individual was incinerated in the Palominas fire of spring
2003, along with the Rhus and Quercus.
2006
possible that further exploration of these deposits may reveal
other interesting floristic patterns, reinforcing the concept
of the role of late Tertiary deposits as edaphic refugia.
DISCUSSION
Diversity influences
Bowers and McLaughlin (1982) examined the factors that
contribute to relative diversity among local floras in Arizona.
They found that 77% of absolute diversity (i.e., the number
of species in a flora) is a function of elevation range and
collecting time. The remaining 23% appear to be related to
vegetation community type, presence or absence of aquatic
habitats, and presence or absence of canyon environments.
They developed an equation to predict number of species
expected based on elevation range and collecting time, where
S = expected number of species, E = elevation range in
meters, and T =collecting time to the nearest 0.5 year, shown
below:
S = 4 7 + 0.349E + 8.20T.
For the SPRNCA flora, the following equation results:
s = 47 + 0.349(302) + 8.20(3) = 177
The actual number of species vouchered was 625, indicating
that there are factors other than elevation range and collecting
time contributing to the richness of the area. Bowers and
McLaughlin went on to derive an expression of relative
richness for the Arizona floras examined, where R =relative
richness and s = observed number of species:
New species
A new species of shrubby buckwheat has been recently
described (Eriogonum terrenatum Reveal, 2004) with type
locality near the ruins of the Spanish Presidio of Terrenate.
The original specimen was collected inApril2003, and had
only sterile flowering branches. It was sent to Dr. Reveal for
identification, and was sufficiently novel in character to
warrant an investigation. I was able to accompany Dr. Reveal
along with BLM botanist John Anderson, and BLM biologist
Jack Whetstone in the field to recollect plant in October 2003.
It was vouchered in a flowering state, and confirmed by Dr.
Reveal to be a new taxon. Other localities for the species
are now known near the town of Vail, Arizona where it was
previously collected by John Anderson, as well as a small
population in the SPRNCA about 1 km south of the original
locality.
The occurrence of E. terrenatum and possibly other rare taxa
can be explained in the context of the regional geology. The
mid-Miocene Basin and Range Disturbance created a series
of fault block mountains in central and southeastern Arizona
(Damon et al. 1984, Smiley 1984). The resulting closed
basins accumulated lacustrine (lake bed) deposits that were
partially eroded during later Pleistocene glacial periods.
These exposed limy tuffs and relatively infertile azonal soils
(atypical of the surrounding common soils), have been shown
to host endemic and disjunct species (Anderson 1996).
Eriogonum terrenatum is evidently restricted to such late
Tertiary lacustrine deposits, isolated in patches oflimy tuffs
in noticeably contrast with surrounding soil conditions. It is
R = 1OO(s- S) + S.
Applied to the SPRNCA flora, the following equation results:
R = 100(625-177) + 177 = 253.
R-values express the extent to which factors other than
elevation range and collecting time contribute to the absolute
diversity of the area. Therefore, an R-value of 253 means
that there are 253% more species in the SPRNCA than would
be expected on the basis of elevation gradient and collecting
time. The following explores some of the factors why.
At the broad regional scale, Coblentz (2005) explains,
"Numerous biologic, geographic, and geologic factors have
fortuitously combined to create the unique setting ofthe Sky
Islands, including; (1) geographic setting at the convergence
of four major ecoregions: two major floristic zones
(Neotropic and Holarctic) and two major faunal realms (the
Neotropic and Nearctic); (2) location at the convergence of
three major climatic zones (tropical, subtropical, and
temperate); (3) predominantly NW- SE trending topography,
which encourages northward movement of Neotropical
species (the product of regional tectonic forces); (4) complex
topography combined with large elevation gradients
(resulting from the interaction between geology and
weathering factors); and (5) bimodal annual rainfall
distribution (due to geographic and climatic factors). Many
of these are the result of the continental-scale deformation
that has occurred over the past several hundred million years
in response to plate tectonic activity. Thus, "deep time"
San Pedro River
processes that operate over timescales of tens to hundreds
of million years need to be appreciated when considering
the various sources responsible for the elevated biodiversity
of the Sky Islands."
Specifically, the San Pedro River is a part of the Colorado
River basin, where many geographic elements converge,
including clockwise from southeast, 1) Chihuahuan Desert,
2) Sonoran Desert, 3) Mohave Desert, 4) Great Basin Desert,
5) Rocky Mountains, and 6) southern Great Plains. Floristic
elements are groups of species with geographical
relationships (McLaughlin 1995), and the floristic provinces
of the Southwest where these assemblages occur, are more
or less coincident with the above regions (McLaughlin 1986).
The flora of the SPRNCA is dominated by Chihuahuan
floristic elements such as Larrea tridentata, Acacia
constricta and A. neovernicosa, but species representatives
from the remaining floristic provinces are also present, such
as Hymenopappus filifolius var. pauciflorus from the Great
Basin province, Opuntia engelmannii from the Sonoran
province, and Bouteloua gracilis from the southern Great
Plains (Muldavin 2002), etc.
The species richness of the SPRNCA can also be explained
in the context of regional watersheds. The Sky Islands (as
well as adjacent, lower elevation floors, which tend to be
ignored) act as biological reservoirs (McAuliffe & Burgess
1995). The diversity of plant life is reflected in the ecological
variability as described by Coblentz, as well as landscape
characteristics of relief, slope, and gradient. Riparian valley
floors such as the San Pedro, situated between such areas
echo the diversity of their surroundings, and may play a role
in maintaining regional biodiversity (Naimen et al. 1993).
Further, they may harbor displaced taxa not only from
surrounding uplands, but remote environs as well. Those
outliers previously described are evidence ofthis. Over time,
outliers and disjunct entities may lead to speciation and
endemism. The SPRNCA flora has a number of Sky Island
endemics listed by McLaughlin (1995), including Agave
palmeri (Agavaceae), Brickellia floribunda (Asteraceae),
Phacelia arizonica (Hydrophyllaceae ), and Bouteloua
eludens (Poaceae). Judging by the locality data, we could
probably include others such as Achnatherum eminens
(Poaceae), Bouteloua eludens (Poaceae), Bouchea
prismatica (Verbenaceae ), Carlowrightia linearifolia
(Acanthaceae ), Eriogonum terrenatum (Polygonaceae ),
Eryngium sparganophyllum (Apiaceae), Hermannia
pauciflora (Sterculiaceae), Pyrrhopappus pauciflorus
(Asteraceae), and Sphinctospermum constrictum (Fabaceae).
Within the SPRNCA, species diversity is also high due to
habitat heterogeneity and hydrological processes. Patterns
in species assemblages exist in the SPRNCA from a fine
patch scale, to a larger landscape one, and environmental
gradients influence vegetation associations (sacaton
grasslands, cienegas, rocky outcrops, etc.) at the intermediate
scale. Within the SPRNCA, longitudinal environmental
Makings
19
gradients are minimal due to the lack of significant elevation
range, but lateral environmental gradients can be striking.
Plants detect and respond to lateral variation in soil
properties, soil moisture, topography, and microclimate, as
well as biotic influences including competition and herbivory.
Where boundaries of environmental controls are abrupt, such
as between certain soil types, discrete structural entities exist;
an example of this in the SPRNCA is the plant assemblage
associated with the volcanic outcrops in the Charleston Hills.
Ecotones, transition areas between vegetation types, such
as the sloping strata linking riparian corridors and lower
alluvial terraces in the SPRNCA are also positively correlated
with diversity (Risser 1995, Ward & Tockner 2001). Spatial
complexity in the SPRNCA, as in multiple habitat types,
offers niche opportunities for variety in vegetation
associations, and therefore, increased numbers of species.
Finally, measures of species diversity in the SPRNCA are
explained in the context of the fluvial processes of the San
Pedro River. The role of topography as it relates to moisture
and terrestrial gradients profoundly influences the plant
assemblages along the San Pedro. The two most important
factors as they relate to the San Pedro hydrology are perennial
surface water and flood dynamics (Decocq 2002, Hupp &
Osterkamp 1996). Within the riparian zone, water is not a
limiting resource along major portions of the upper San Pedro
River. Perennial surface water and low depth-to-groundwater
conditions amid a desert environment have resulted in an
ecosystem with rare aquatic and wetland habitat types. The
flora has 39 and 42 obligate and facultative wetland species
respectively. With nearly 15% of the flora as wetland species,
the presence of perennial water is likely one of the most
important factors influencing species diversity.
The presence of relatively natural fluvial dynamics on the
San Pedro River results in an active floodplain with high
structural diversity. While upper topographic levels offer a
relatively steady habitat, flooding in the riparian zone results
in a dynamic environment characterized by instability. Flood
patterns of variable magnitude, frequency, and duration drive
active successional processes. Disturbance from flooding
results in high seral diversity due to shifting microtopography
and patchy resources (Lyon & Sagers 1998, Pollock et al.
1998, Ward & Tockner 2001). Because successional stages
contain distinct species associations, species diversity is
positively correlated with successional diversity.
Considerations for the future
The discovery of outliers, disjuncts, and rare taxa along the
San Pedro River underscores the importance of floristic
studies in the region (see Table 9, p. 81 for rare and/or
noteworthy collections). Botanically rich areas such as the
San Pedro River deserve conservation status, not only for
protection of endangered species like the diminutive
Huachuca water umbel, but for their botanical potential. This
inherently dynamic ecosystem will continue to harbor novel
taxa, and welcome immigrant species as long as steps are
taken to maintain its functional integrity. Periodic fire,
20
Desert Plants
introduced species, global warming, unrestrained
development, as well as unforeseen factors, add to the
enormous challenge of effectively managing the San Pedro.
And given the complexity of ecosystem processes at multiple
scales, clear advice about conservation priorities is difficult.
One effective strategy is to identify the dominant ecological
processes and focus efforts there (Folke et al. 1996, Grime
1997, Mooney 2002, Naeem 2002, Sprugel1991). On the
San Pedro River, perennial surface water is the key
component sustaining biodiversity. A simplified strategy
regulating the demands on the regional aquifer must be
implemented if this fragile and rare ecosystem is to survive.
Addressing the social, cultural, and economic driving forces
causing groundwater loss in the region is also difficult.
Ultimately, the preservation of the San Pedro River
ecosystem will only be accomplished through interplay of
stakeholder planning and regulation, public participation,
and input from the scientific community.
Acknowledgements
This work is based on my research as a master's student
under the supervision of Drs. Leslie Landrum and Julie
Stromberg. I was privileged to have the opportunity to work
with so many people of remarkable talent and quality during
my graduate studies. I would like to gratefully acknowledge
the following people and agencies for their contributions to
this work in form of plant identification, field help, financial
or other support: The Bureau of Land Management, Merle
Makings, Shannon Doan, Ken Bagstad, Ed Gilbert, Donald
Pinkava, John and Charlotte Reeder, Dixie Damrel, Laura
Williams, Jack Whetstone, Jeni and Mike Devine, Andrew
Salywon, Torn Daniel, Phil Jenkins, John Anderson, David
Morgan, Charlotte Christie, Marc Porter, Jim Reveal, Kathy
Rice, John Gaskin, Lee Lenz, Michael Denslow, Tyler
Richener, Hoski Shaafsma, Chuck Paradzick, Jeff Brasher,
Jeff Johnson, Carol and Frank Crosswhite. I would also like
to thank the authors of previous floristic studies which I
often referred to: Jeremy Beugge, Janice Bowers, Mary
Butterwick, Torn Daniel, Richard Felger, Sylvia Forbes,
Wendy Hodgson, Greg Imdorf, Bill Johnson, David Keil,
Meredith Lane, Elinor Lehto, James Leithliter, Gayle MarrsSmith, Kathryn Mauz, Steve McLaughlin, Bruce Parfitt,
Anne Pierce, Shelly Pilversack, Tim Reeves, Kathy Rice,
Mary Russo, Eric Sundell, Laurence Toolin, Torn
VanDevender, Gretchen Walters, John Weins, Torn
Wentworth, Lynn Wolden, and George Yatskievych.
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APPENDIX A
Catalog and Attributes of Vascular Plants of the San
Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area
Plants are listed alphabetically by family following Kartesz
(1994). Nomenclature first follows recent treatments of
Arizona taxa published in the Journal oftheArizona-Nevada
Academy of Science, and Flora ofNorth America, and taxa
not covered in these treatments follows Kartesz (1994) and
updates via the United States Department of Agriculture
PLANTS database on the World Wide Web (USDA 2002).
With the exception of cacti, subspecific nomenclature
includes autonyms only if there are two or more taxa for that
species.
Taxa of non-native origin are preceded by an asterisk (*).
The primary reference for determining native and non-native
status is the USDA PLANTS database (USDA, NRCS 2002).
All photographs were taken by the author within the San
Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area. Insects are often
San Pedro River
useful for scale. Each species entry is accompanied by the
following information sequence:
1.
2.
3.
Common name in small capitals. Lehr (1978)
is the primary reference and the USDA
PLANTS database is the secondary reference.
Recently superceded synonymy in the
literature in brackets, especially Kearney &
Peebles (1960) and Lehr (1978).
Plant description. Growth forms are described
in Table 10 (p. 81). Descriptions come from
the author's observations of SPRNCA
specimens and numerous references: Correll
& Correll (1972), Felger (2000), FNA (19932006), Gould (1977), Hickman (1993),
Hitchcock (1971), Kearney et al. (1960), VPA
(1993-2006), Welsh et al. (1987) and Whitson
(2000). Descriptions are generally for "plant
in hand" determinations. They are not meant
to be overly technical, but some group-specific
terminology is necessary.
Bidens leptocephala (Aster) fewflower beggarticks
Mahngs
25
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Flowering time, determined by author's
SPRNCA collections, examination of ASU
Herbarium collections and literature.
Primary flowering season, determined by
author's observations ofthe SPRNCAflora and
not necessarily ASU collections.
Locality of collection and collection number
(see Figure 1 for collection sites). All
collections are those of the author unless
otherwise indicated. Names and collection
numbers of other collectors are spelled out
followed by the acronym where vouchers are
held.
Habitat - includes only habitat types from
vouchered specimens (Table 11, p. 82).
Habitats respectively follow localities.
Numbers after habitat types indicate number
of occurrences in that particular habit type.
Relative abundance (Table 12, p. 83).
Wetland indicator categories (Table 13, p. 83).
Porophyllum ruderale ssp. macrocephalum (Aster)
yerba poros
26
Desert Plants
ACANTHACEAE
Anisacanthus thurberi (Torr.) Gray - DESERT HONEYSUCKLE
Shrub to 1.5 m; leaves opposite, lanceolate 1-3 em
long; flowers orange, tubular and bilabiate; fruit an
explosive capsule that splits in two.
February-November; spring/summer. St. David 436,
Charleston-mesquite 980. BOS2. Occasional. 5.p.84
Carlowrightia arizonica Gray - ARIZONA WRIGHTWORT
Sub-shrub usually less than 20 em; leaves opposite,
lanceolate 1-3 em long; flowers whitewith 5 lobes,
the upper petal tinged with purple; fruit an explosive
capsule that splits in two; seeds flattened, black, round
with slight notch at base.
April-May; spring. Charleston Hills S 1389,
Charleston Hills W 1509. ROC2. Infrequent. 5.
Carlowrightia linearifolia (Torr.) Gray - HEATH WRIGHTWORT
Straggling shrub to 1 m tall, much-branched with
slender branches, often appearing leafless; leaves
opposite, linear, 1-3 em long; flowers purple,
bilabiate, with 2 exerted stamens; fruit an explosive
capsule that splits in two.
July-August; summer. Charleston-mesquite 678,
Walnut Gulch 857. CDS/WASH. Infrequent. 5.
Carlowrightia texana Henrickson & Daniel - TEXAS
WRIGHTWORT
Erect to spreading subshrub less than 20 em; herbage
pubescent; leaves opposite, oval-lanceolate,
mostly < 1em; flowers white; fruit an explosive
capsule that splits in two. New for Arizona.
July-October?; summer. Tombstone-gauge 1299.
ROC. Rare. 5.
Efytraria imbricata (Vahl) Pers. - PURPLE SCALYSTEM
Perennial scapose forb without well-developed main
stem, to 15 em; leaves opposite, linear-ovate 1~
3 em long; flowers pale purple, irregular, in spikes
subtended by closely imbricate bracts.
April-October; summer. Charleston Hills 1239, 1114.
ROC2. Infrequent. 5. p.84
Ruellia nudiflora (Engelm. & Gray) Urban- VIOLET WILD
PETUNIA
Erect perennial forb 30-50 em; Stems leaves opposite,
long-petiolate, lance-ovate, 10-17 em long,
reduced upwards; inflorescences open and wide,
branching opposite; flowers tubular, purple, slightly
irregular, 4-5 em long, in loose, open, terminal
panicles; fruit a capsule.
June-September; summer. Charleston Hills W 1192,
Boquillas 1322. CDS/TER. Infrequent. 5. p. 84
AGAVACEAE
Agave pafmeri Engelm. - PALMER'S CENTURY PLANT
Rosette herb 40-130 em tall, flowering scape 4-7
m tall; leaves succulent, 35-90 em long and 4-20 em
wide, spines on margins widely spaced; flowers
cream-pale yellow with musky-sour fragrance.
July-October; summer. Charleston Hills W 1115,
1426. ROC2. Infrequent. 5. p.84
2006
Dasyfirion whee/eri S. Wats. - DESERT SPOON, SOTOL
Rosette herb 40-1 00 em tall, flowering scape 3-6 m
tall ; leaves 40-70 em long, I em wide, spines on
margins numerous; male and female flowers on
separate plants, in large terminal spike-like panicles;
fruit a three-winged capsule.
July-October; summer. Charleston Hills N 1157.
ROC. Infrequent. 5.
No/ina microcarpa S. Wats. - BEARGRASS, SACAHUISTA
Rosette herb/shrub to 2.5 m, acaulescent; leaves in
basal rosette, linear, wiry, 80-130 em long, 5-12 mm
wide, the margins serrulate; scape 30-150 em long,
slightly surpassing the leaves; inflorescence
paniculate; flowers white, 2-3 mm; fruit a thin-walled
capsule, inflated; seeds globose.
May-June; spring. Palominas 1632. CDS. Rare. 5.
Yucca baccata Torr. x madrensis Gentry - YuccA HYBRID
Rosette herb, mature specimens tree-like to 2.5 m;
leaves thick, succulent, linear-lanceolate, 30-50 em
long, 3-7 em wide, spineless, numerous in rosette;
flowering stalk exerted.
April-May; spring. Hereford 1475, 1715. CDS2.
Infrequent. 5. p.84
Yucca efata (Engelm.) Eng elm. - SOAP TREE YUCCA, PALMILLA
Rosette herb, mature specimens tree-like up to 8 m,
with one to several stems; leaves linear, 35-45 em
long, 5 mm wide, numerous in rosette; flowering stalk
1-2m long; flowers cream; fruit a dry capsule.
May-July; spring/summer. Hereford 487, Boquillas
989. CDS/TER. Common. 5. p.84
AIZOACEAE
Trianthema portulacastrum L. - HORSE PURSELANE
Annual prostrate, branching, forb; leaves succulent,
oval, opposite, the pair very unequal in size; flowers
recessed and inconspicuous, axillary, purplish-pink.
June-October; summer. Palominas-UA 574, St. David
1384. TERIWASH. Occasional. 5. p.84
AMARANTHACEAE
Alternanthera caracasana Kunth- KHAKIWEED, WASHERWOMAN
[Alternanthera repens (L.) Link, non J.F. Gmel.]
Perennial prostrate mat-forming forb from a thick
vertical root; leaves opposite, oval, the pairs unequal;
flowers in short axillary spikes with conspicuous white
bracts.
May-October; spring/summer. Boquillas 1200. TER.
Occasional. 5. p. 84
Amaranthus albus L. - PIGWEED
Monoecious annual forb I 0-70 em; leaves alternate,
petiolate, elliptic-obovate, l-3cm long; inflorescence
spikes axillary throughout plant;flowers
inconspicuous, bracts green, spine-tipped;seeds black.
June-October; summer. Fairbank 1168. DIST.
Infrequent. 4.
San Pedro River
Amaranthusfimbriatus (Torr.) Benth. ex S. Wats.- FRINGED
AMARANTH
Monoecious annual forb 30-90 em; stems often
reddish; leaves alternate, petiolate, linear to narrowly
lanceolate, 2-10 em long; lower inflorescence spikes
axillary and terminal; flowers inconspicuous, bracts
scarious.
July-December; summer/fall. Charleston-gauge 1240.
ROC. Infrequent. 5.
Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. - PALMER's AMARANTH,
CARELESS WEED
Dioecious annual forb 20-150 em; stems often
reddish; leaves alternate, lanceolate to ovate, blade
1-5 em long, the petiole often longer than the leaf
blade; inflorescence spike terminal or axillary; flowers
inconspicuous, bracts spine-tipped.
June-November; summer. Kolbe 359, Boquillas 1250.
RIP(CH)/WASH. Abundant. 4.
Froelichia arizonica Thornb. ex Standi. - ARIZONA SNAKE
COTTON
Perennial forb, sparingly branched above the base, to
70 em; herbage lanate-tomentose; leaves
opposite, oblanceolate, 1-2 em wide, mostly basal;
flowers inconspicuous, subtended by dark-colored
bracts, in somewhat elongate glomerules; fruit an
indehiscent utricle.
August-October; summer. Charleston Hills E 1280,
Headless Sphinx 1681. ROC2. Infrequent. 5.
Gomphrena nitida Rothrock - PEARLY GLOBE AMARANTH
Annual forb 15-25 em; stems unbranched, sparingly
leafy; leaves opposite, elliptic-ovate; flowers in
globose heads conspicuously subtended by white,
scarious bracts; spikes usually solitary, commonly
subtended by two or more leaves.
August-October; summer. Cottonwood 780. TER.
Infrequent. 5.
Gomphrena sonorae Torr. - SoNORAN GLOBE AMARANTH
Perennial forb 15-60 em; stems sparingly branched,
sparingly leafy; leaves opposite, narrow, elliptic,
lanceolate, or oblanceolate; flowers in globose heads
conspicuously subtended by cream to pale orange,
scarious bracts; spikes usually clustered, subtended
by two or more leaves.
July-October; summer. Charleston Hills S 1358. ROC.
Infrequent. 5.
Guilleminea dens a (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Moq.- SMALL
MATWEED
[Brayulinea densa (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Small]
Perennial prostrate mat-forming forb; stems numerous
from a thick root; leaves opposite, ovate, the pair
unequal, woolly beneath; flowers in dense axillary
glomerules.
June-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 276. CDS.
Occasional. 5. p.84
Tidestromia [anuginosa (Nutt.) Standi.- WOOLLY TIDESTROMIA
Annual forb 10-20 em; stems procumbent to prostrate,
radiating from the root; stems reddish; herbage with
Makings
27
branched hairs making leaves appear whitish; leaves
(opposite) broadly ovate to spatulate 1-2 em across;
flowers yellow, in small axillary clusters; fruit a
compressed utricle.
June-November; summer/fall. St. David 605,
Charleston-gauge 1184. TER/CDS. Commonabundant. 5. p.84
ANACARDIACEAE
Rhus aromatica Ait. var. trilobata (Nutt.) W. A. Weber SKUNK BUSH
[Rhus trilobata Nutt.] Shrub to 1.5 m; leaves
alternate, compound, with 3 coarsely crenate leaflets,
the middle one sessile or nearly so; inflorescence
dense, spikelike, appearing before the leaves;
flowers small, yellow, with cup-shaped disc around
the ovary; fruit a globose, small, 1-seeded, red drupe.
March-July; spring. Palominas-3 578. RIP(CH). Rare.
5.
Rhus microphylla Engelm. ex Gray - DESERT SUMAC
Shrub to 3 m; leaves alternate, compound, the rachis
winged; leaflets 5-9, pilose, sessile, less than 2 em
long, 2-6 mm wide; flowers small, whitish, in axillary
and terminal panicles, with cup-shaped disc around
the ovary, appearing before the leaves; fruit a globose,
small, 1-seeded, red drupe.
March-May; spring. Palominas-3 428, Fairbank 65,
Charleston-gauge 150. RIP(CW)/BOS2. Common. 5.
p.84
Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze var. divaricatum
(Greene) Gillis - POISON IVY
Subshrub 20-40 em; leaves alternate, trifoliate, middle
leaflet long-stalked, leaflets Sub-shrub 20-40 em;
leaves alternate, trifoliate, middle leaflet long-stalked,
leaflets 4-10 em long, oblong-lanceolate to ovate;
panicle inflorescence appearing after the leaves;
flowers greenish-white with cup-shaped disc
around the ovary; fruit yellowish-white, globose.
April-June; spring. Charleston-gauge 1421.
RIP(CW). Infrequent-rare. 2.
APIACEAE
Beru[a erecta (Huds.) Coville- CUTLEAF WATER PARSNIP
Perennial aquatic forb from fascicled fibrous roots,
to 1 m; stems weak, usually supported by other
vegetation; leaves simply pinnate, the segments
linear to ovate, entire to variously lobed; umbellate
inflorescence axillary and terminal, compound;
flowers tiny, white; fruit oval to orbicular, 2mm
long, laterally compressed.
June-October; summer. SDC 1257. SDC.
Occasional. 1.
*Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britt. &
Wilson - WILD CELERY, MARSH CELERY
[Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) F. Muell. ex Benth.]
Annual forb to 30 em; leaves alternate, pinnately or
temate-pinnately decompound, the segments linear;
28
Desert Plants
inflorescence a compound umbel; flowers minute,
white; fruit ovate, 1-3 mm long, ribbed.
March-July; spring. Hereford 313. RIP(CW).
Infrequent-occasional. 3.
Eryngium sparganophyllum Hemsl. - ARizoNA ERYNGO
Perennial scapose forb to 1.5 m; leaves elongate and
linear, parallel-veined, in basal rosette, to 50 em long;
inflorescence open, wide, branching opposite; flowers
cream, in dense, globose heads at ends of scapes; fruit
ovoid, flattened, covered with hyaline scales or
tubercles.
August-September; summer. Lewis Springs 1575.
MARSH. Rare. 1. p.84
Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (Schlecht.) Coult. & Rose ssp.
recurva (A.W. Hill) Affolter - HUACHUCA WATER UMBEL,
SCHAFFNER'S GRASSWORT
[Lilaeopsis recurva A. W. Hill]
Rhizomatous aquatic perennial forb to 20 em; leaves
linear, hollow, transversely septate; inflorescence
a simple umbel; flowers white, minute; fruit
subglobose ~2 mm long, ribbed.
June; summer. Cottonwood 1069. AQU. Rare. 1.
Spermolepis echinata (Nutt. ex DC.) Heller - BRISTLY
SCALESEED
[Apium echinatu'!' (Nutt. ex DC.) Benth. & Hook. f.
ex S. Wats.]
Annual forb to 20 em; leaves alternate, linear and
dissected; inflorescence a compound umbel;
flowers minute, cream; fruit 2 mm, globose, covered
in bristles.
March-April; spring. Escalante Crossing 937,
Charleston-gauge 1495. RIP(CH)2. Common. 5.
APOCYNACEAE
Haplophyton crooksii (L. Benson) L. Benson - cocKROACH
PLANT
Sub-shrub to 50 em; leaves mostly alternate, bright
green, lanceolate to lance-ovate; flowers yellow,
salverform, the lobes longer than the tube, terminal,
solitary or in clusters of 2 or 3; fruit a pair of slender,
elongate follicles.
July-October; summer. Charleston Hills£ 1123, 1341.
ROC2. Infrequent. 5. p.85
Macrosiphonia brachysiphon (Torr.) Gray - HuACHUCA
MOUNTAIN ROCK TRUMPET
Sub-shrub to 50 em; leaves opposite, ovate or ellipticovate; flowers white, large and showy, fragrant,
funnelform with a long tube and throat, mostly
terminal, solitary or in twos or threes, opening in the
evening; fruit a pair of elongate follicles.
July-September; summer. Charleston Hills E 1281.
ROC. Infrequent-rare. 5. p.85
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
Aristolochia watsonii Woot. & Standi. -INDIAN ROOT, PIPEVINE
Perennial herbaceous vine from thick root; leaves
alternate, triangular-hastate, often dark green to
2006
purplish; flowers axillary, solitary, irregular,
resembling pipe shape; fruit a dehiscent, valved
capsule; seeds numerous. This is an obligate food
plant for the caterpillar phase of the pipevine
swallowtail butterfly, Papilio philenor.
April-October; spring/summer. Boquillas 722, 1078,
Lewis Springs 740, Charleston. DIST2/GRAS/ROC.
Occasional. 5. p. 85
ASCLEPIADACEAE
Asclepias asperula (Dcne.) Woods.- ANTELOPE HORNS, GREEN
MILKWEED
Perennial forb 10-80 em; stems unbranched; herbage
with milky sap; leaves irregularly alternate, petiolate,
linear-lanceolate, 5-19 em long, 6-25 em wide; umbels
solitary and terminal, 4-7 em broad; flowers greenish
sometimes purplish, lobes ascending, 9-12 mm
long, crown hoods dark purple; follicle fruit erect, 510 em long.
April-September; summer. Fairbank 969, Charleston
Rd. 1203. DIST2. Infrequent. 5.
Asclepias brachystephana Engelm. ex Torr. - SHORTCROWN
MILKWEED, BRACT MILKWEED
Perennial forb 20-50 em; stems much-branched
below, fmely short woolly; herbage with
milky sap; leaves opposite, narrowly lanceolate to
linear lanceolate, 3-13 em long; umbels lateral from
many of the upper nodes, 2-4 em broad; flowers
purple, the lobes 5-6 mm long, horns short-exerted;
follicle fruit erect, 4-7 em long, purple-striped.
May-September; summer. Lewis Springs 1072,
Kingfisher Pond 1131, Charleston Rd. 1132. TER2/
DIST. Occasional. 5.
Asclepias nyctaginifolia Gray - MoJAVE MILKWEED
Perennial forb 10-40 em; stems sparingly branched;
herbage with milky sap; leaves opposite, ovate to
broadly lanceolate, 3-14 em long, 2-7 em broad;
umbels lateral, 5-8 em broad, the peduncles sessile to
2 em long; flowers large, purplish-green, the lobes
12-16 mm long; horns exerted ~lmm; follicle fruit
erect, 5-9 em long;
April-October; summer. Charleston-mesquite 1144,
Charleston Rd. 1202. CDS/DIST. Occasional. 5.
Asclepias subverticil/ata (Gray) Vail- HORSETAIL MILKWEED
Perennial rhizomatous forb 20-100 em; herbage with
milky sap; leaves whorled, mostly 3-4 per node, linear,
2-12 em long; umbels lateral to subterminally
crowded, single or paired at upper nodes, 2-4 em
broad; flowers small, whitish-greenish, lobes 4-5 mm
long, horns exerted 1-2 mm; follicle fruit erect, 6-12
em long.
June-September; summer. Palominas-3 424, SDC
759, 1101, Hunter 1047. RIP(CW)/SDC2/SAC.
Common-occasional. 4. p.85
Cynanchum ligulatum (Benth.) Woods. - MILKWEEK VINE
[Mellichampia sinaloensis (Brandeg.) Kearney &
Peebles]
San Pedro River
Perennial herbaceous vine; herbage with milky sap;
leaves opposite, ovate-cordate, 4-10 cmlong;
inflorescence racemose, tardily elongate; flowers
white, the tube 2-3 mm long, lobes 6-9 mm long,
spreading-recurved; follicle fruit 8-9 em long.
August; summer. St. David, Laura Williams s.n., ASU.
TER. Infrequent. 5.
Matelea producta (Torr.) Woods.- ANGLEPOD, MILKWEED VINE
[ Gonolobus productus Torr.]
Perennial herbaceous vine; herbage with milky sap;
leaves opposite, petiolate, cordate to subhastate, 1-9
em long; flowers greenish, ~ 1 em long, cylindric
campanulate; follicle fruit 9-12 em long.
May-August; spring/summer. Hereford 445,
Charleston-mesquite 1004, St. David 1382.
BOS3. Common. 4. p. 85
Sarcostemma crispum Benth. - WAVYLEAF TWINEVINE
Perennial herbaceous vine; herbage with milky sap;
leaves opposite, narrowly lanceolate to linear-hastate,
3-10 em long, margins conspicuously undulate;
umbels 4-10 flowered; flowers dark purple, 6-10 mm
long; follicle fruit lanceolate-fusiform, long attenuate,
9-16 mm long.
April-August; spring/summer.
Charleston Hills E 1286. ROC. Infrequent-rare. 5.
Sarcostemma cynanchoides Dcne.ssp.cynanchoides CLIMBING MILKWEED
[Funastrum cynanchoides (Dcne.) Schlechter ssp.
cynanchoides]
Perennial herbaceous vine; herbage with milky sap;
leaves opposite, ovate to broadly lanceolate, 1-6 em
long, the base cordate; umbels 5-30 flowered; flowers
white to purplish, 5-7 mm long; follicle fruit single,
lanceolate-attenuate, 6-12 em long.
July-November; spring/summer. Walnut Gulch 1352.
WASH. Common. 3. p.85
Sarcostemma cynanchoides Dcne.ssp. hartwegii(Vail) R.
Holm - CLIMBING MILKWEED
[Funastrum heterophyllum (Eng elm.) Standley]
Perennial herbaceous vine; herbage with milky sap;
leaves opposite, narrowly lanceolate to linear, 1-6
em long, the base cordate; umbels 5-30 flowered;
flowers white to purplish, 5-7 mm long; follicle
fruit single, lanceolate-attenuate, 6-12 em long.
March-December; spring/summer. Contention 662,
Walnut Gulch 851, 1014. WASH3. Common. 3.
ASTERACEAE
Acourtia nana (Gray) Reveal & King- DESERT HOLLY
[Perezia nana Gray]
Perennial forb 5-15 em; stems woolly at base; leaves
alternate, spine-toothed, holly-like; flower heads
solitary, fragrant; phyllaries strongly graduated;
flowers all bilabiate; pappus of numerous scabrous
bristles.
April-December; spring. Contention 141, Fairbank
1543. BOS/CDS. Occasional. 5. p.85
Makings
29
Acourtia wrightii (Gray) Reveal & King- BROWNFOOT
[Perezia wrightii Gray]
Perennial forb 40-1 00 em; leaves alternate, longer
than wide; flower heads numerous, panicled, very
fragrant; phyllaries strongly graduated; flowers
purple, bilabiate; pappus of numerous scabrous
bristles.
February-July; spring. Charleston-mesquite 162,
Tombstone-gauge 1301, Charleston-gauge 1312.
ROC3. Infrequent-occasional. 5. p.85
*Acroptilon repens (L.) DC. - RussiAN KNAPWEED
[Centaurea repens L.]
Perennial rhizomatous forb 10-60 em; stems erect and
openly branched; lower leaves deeply lobed 5-10 em
long, upper leaves entire or serrate, narrow to a sessile
base; flower heads 5-l 0 mm in diameter, discoid;
phyllaries rounded with papery margins; flowers
pink or lavender.
May-September; spring/summer. Kolbe 490,
Summers 1042. SAC/BOS. Occasional-infrequent.
5. p.85
Almutaster pauciflorus (Nutt.) A.& D. Love - ALKALAI MARSH
ASTER
[Aster pauciflorus Nutt.]
Perennial forb to 1m; stems erect, branching above;
leaves alternate, elongate linear and grass-like;
phyllaries densely glandular; ray flowers light purple,
disk flowers yellow.
May-September; summer. SDC 753, 1260. SDC2.
Common in cienega. 2. p.85
Ambrosia confertiflora DC. - SLIMLEAF BURSAGE
Perennial monoecious forb 40-75 em with deep tap
root; herbage with whitish, appressed hairs; leaves
alternate, 6-17 em long, 2-3 times pinnately divided;
heads unisex, staminate above pistillate; pistillate
phyllaries developing into spiny burs; burs 3-4 mm
with 10-20 small, hooked spines.
August-October; summer. Kolbe 808, St. David 1379,
Walnut Gulch 853. RIP(CW)2/WASH. Common. 5.
Ambrosia psilostachya DC. - WESTERN RAGWEED
Perennial rhizomatous, monoecious forb 40-7 5 em;
leaves alternate, 6-17 em long, mostly once
pinnatifid; heads unisex, staminate above pistillate;
pistillate phyllaries developing into spiny burs; burs
3-4 mm in a single series around the middle.
July-October; summer. Palominas-3 549, Charlestonmesquite 674, Lewis Springs 729, St. David
1375. RIP(CW)3/RIP(CH). Abundant. 3. p.85
Ambrosia tri.fida L. - GIANT RAGWEED
Robust, monoecious annual exceeding 2 m in moist
locations; stems and leaves rough; leaves opposite,
petiolate, palmately divided, normally having three
lobes; flower heads in terminal, spikelike clusters,
staminate above, female below; seeds ~8mm long,
with four or five terminal spikes.
August-October; summer. St. David 628. RIP(CW).
Common. 3.
30
Desert Plants
Artemisia dracunculus L. - FALSE TARRAGON
[Artemisia dracunculoides Pursh]
Sub-shrub to 1 m; leaves alternate, linear, entire or
some of the lower ones 3-cleft, 5-8 em long, 1-6 mm
wide; heads small, discoid, usually very numerous;
achene short, thick.
July-September; summer. Cottonwood 765, 1414.
SAC/GRAS. Occasional. 5.
Artemisia [udoviciana Nutt.- WHITE SAGEBRUSH
Sub-shrub 40-100 em; herbage white woolly; leaves
alternate, entire to dissected, to 7 em long; heads
small with (1) bisexual disk florets only, or (2) the
outer florets pistillate, disk-like with a greatly reduced
corolla, and the inner disk florets either bisexual or
staminate; phyllaries overlapping in two to several
series.
August-December; summer/fall. Kingfisher Pond 836,
Charleston 1425. RIP(CW)/ROC. Occasional. 5.
Baccharis brachyphylla Gray - SHORTLEAF BACCHARIS
Dioecious shrub 30-70 em; twigs and leaves with
gland-tipped hairs; leaves alternate, linear, 10-20
mm long, 1-2 mm wide; flower heads discoid, in short
terminal racemes, 4-5 mm long; pappus of white
capillary bristles; achene with 5 longitudinal ribs.
August-October; summer/fall. Contention 669, St.
David 1653. TER/CDS. Infrequent. 5.
Baccharis emoryi Gray - EMORY BACCHARIS
Dioecious shrub to 3 m; leaves alternate, 4-8 em,
usually toothed with 3 prominent veins;
flower heads numerous, discoid, ~4 mm across,
arranged pyramid-like at branch ends;
pappus of white capillary bristles; female pappus
exceeding the phyllaries at least 4 mm.
Flowering throughout the year; summer. Palominas3 508, Palominas-3 509, Tombstone- gauge 1293,
Escapul Wash 829, SDC 1430, St. David 1371.
RIP(CH)3/WASH/SDC/RIP(CW). Abundant. 2.
Baccharis pteronioides DC. - YERBA DE PASMO
Dioecious shrub 60-150 em, appearing leafless; leaves
alternate, usually less than 1 em, toothed; flower heads
5 mm across, at tips of very short, leafy branchlets,
arranged in racemes along branches; female flower
with pappus of white capillary bristles.
May-July; spring. Lewis Springs 233, Hereford 318,
1548, 1549, Kolbe 396. RIP(CW)2/TER2/
SAC. Occasional. 5.
Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pavon) Pers.- SEEP WILLow
[Baccharis glutinosa Pers.]
Dioecious shrub to 3 m; leaves alternate, 4-8 em,
usually toothed with 1 prominent midvein; flower
heads numerous, discoid, ~4 mm across, arranged in
dense rounded terminal clusters; pappus of white
capillary bristles; female pappus exceeding the
phyllaries at least 4 mm.
Flowering throughout the year; summer. Tombstonegauge 1291, St. David 1372. RIP(CH)/RIP(CW).
Abundant. 2.
2006
Baccharis sarothroides Gray - DESERT BROOM
Dioecious shrub to 3m; usually leafless and broomlike; herbage often viscid; flower heads numerous,
discoid, -4 mm across, (inflorescence differs from
B. emoryi in being more elongate); pappus of white
capillary bristles, elongating and maturing to form a
cottony mass; female pappus exceeding the phyllaries
at least 4 mm.
Flowering throughout the year; summer. Walnut Gulch
1666. WASH. Occasional- common. 3. p.85
Baccharis sp. L. - probable hybrid
Dioecious shrub to 3 m; intermediate characters of
B. salicifolia and B. emoryi; leaves alternate,
linear-elliptic, 4-8 em; flower heads numerous,
discoid, -4 rom across, arranged pyramid-like at
branch ends; pappus of white capillary bristles; female
pappus exceeding the phyllaries at least 4 mm.
Intermediate between B. salicifolia and B. emoryi.
Flowering throughout the year; summer. Escapul
Wash 829, St. David 1373. WASHIRIP(CW).
Common.2.p.86
Baccharis wrightii Gray- WRIGHT's BACCHARIS
Dioecious subshrub 30-50 em; herbage glabrous,
nearly leafless; stems angled; leaves alternate,
linear, 3-20 mm long; flower heads usually single at
branch tips; involucre 7-10 mm high; pistillate
pappus brownish or purplish, conspicuous in fruit.
May-June; spring/summer. Hereford 1022. TER.
Infrequent. 4. p.86
Bahia absinthifolia Benth. - HAIRYSEED BAIDA
Perennial forb to 50 em; herbage white woolly; leaves
opposite below, alternate above, dissected; heads
showy, solitary or few at branch tips, long-peduncled;
ray flowers yellow, disk flowers yellow; achenes
conspicuously long-hairy at base.
March-November; summer. Contention 135,
Cottonwood 251, SDC 748, Mason Rd.
1637. CDSffERIDIST2. Occasional-common. 5.p.86
Baileya multiradiata Harvey & Gray ex Gray - DESERT
MARIGOLD
Perennial forb 30-50 em with well-developed taproot;
herbage densely white woolly; leaves in basal rosettes
and alternate on stems, pinnatifid below, reduced and
entire on stems; heads showy, on long peduncles; ray
flowers yellow, large and showy, disk flowers
yellow; achene papillose-hispid, conspicuously
ribbed.
Flowering throughout the year; spring/summer/fall.
Contention 650, Boquillas UA 1001. TER/
RIP(CW). Occasional. 5. p.86
Berfandiera [yrata Benth. - GREEN EYES, CHOCOLATE FLOWER
Scapose perennial forb; leaves in basal rosette,
oblanceolate, lyrate-pinnatifid, 4-7 em long; scapes
with whitish matted hairs; flowers exuding the
fragrance of chocolate; heads showy, usually single
at ends of long peduncles; phyllaries green, broad,
about 3-seriate; ray flowers yellow with maroon
San Pedro River
stripes; disk flowers maroon; ray achenes strongly
flattened, adnate to the base of subtending phyllary.
April-November; summer. Moson Springs 372,
Palominas-3 965. CDS/TER. Infrequentoccasional. 5. p.86
Bidens aurea (Ait.) Sherff- AruzoNA BEGGARTICKS
Perenni<~l forb to 70 em; lower leaves opposite,
lanceolate or oblong, serrate and not lobed, or
pinnately parted into 3 or 5 lanceolate or linear
divisions; heads rather showy, ray flowers yellow,
1em long, disk flowers yellow; achenes narrow, linear;
pappus of two retrorsely hispid awns.
July-October; summer. Palominas-UA 1406.
RIP(CW). Rare. 1.
Bidens leptocephala Sherff- BUR MARIGOLD
Annual forb to 50 em; lower leaves opposite, mostly
2 or 3 times dissected; leaf divisions mostly
lanceolate; heads rather elongate, long-peduncled; ray
flowers small or vestigial, disk flowers yellow; achene
linear, black, pappus of two retrorsely hispid awns.
August-October; summer. St. David 584, Charlestongauge 1442, Fairbank 670. RIP(CW)2/BOS.
Common.3.p.25
Brickellia coulteri Gray- CoULTER's BRICKELLBUSH
Sub-shrub to 80 em; leaves mostly opposite, petiole
well-developed, blades ovate to triangular, coarsely
toothed, 3-6 em long, those of upper branches
reduced; phyllaries graduated, striate; heads discoid,
in loose, open panicles; disk flowers 13-15 per head,
yellow-green with purple-brown tips; achenes 2.5-4.5
mm, blackish with short white hairs; pappus of
plumose bristles.
Flowering throughout the year; spring/summer.
Charleston Hills E 1333, Charleston Hills S 1392.
ROC2. Occasional. 5.
Brickellia eupatorioides (L.) Shinnersvar.chlorolepis (Woot.
& Standi.) B.L. Turner- FALSE BONESET
[Brickellia chlorolepis (Woot. & Standi.) Shinners]
Perennial forb to 45 em and much-branched; roots
tuberous; leaves alternate, linear; flower heads
narrow, with white disk flowers only; achenes with
bristly pappus.
May-October; summer. Hereford 315, Hunter 1046,
Charleston Road 1542. TERIRIP(CW)/DIST.
Infrequent-occasional. 5. p.86
Brickellia jloribunda Gray - CHnruAHUAN BRICKELLBUSH
Perennial forb to 1.5 m; herbage sticky-glandular,
fragrant; leaves alternate, triangular, shallowlytoothed, petiolate, 3-8 em long; heads discoid, -1 em
long, numerous in open panicles; phyllaries graduated;
pappus of white capillary bristles.
September-October; summer/fall. Escapul Wash 817.
WASH. Abundant. 3. p. 77
Makings
31
Brickellia venosa (Woot. & Standi.) B.L. Robins. -VEINY
BRICKELLBUSH
Sub-shrub 30-50 em; leaves opposite, linear, 3-6 em
long, 3-9 mm wide, strongly three-veined beneath;
heads discoid, on slender peduncles, -4mm across;
phyllaries graduated; pappus of white capillary
bristles.
September-November; fall. Charleston 1657,
Charleston Hills E 1663. ROC2. Infrequent. 5.
*Centaurea melitensis L.- MALTESE STAR THISTLE, TOCOLOTE
Thistle-like annual forb to 60 em; stem branches
winged, with cottony pubescence; leaves alternate,
basal deeply lobed, upper leaves entire, narrow to a
sessile base; phyllaries tipped with sharp spines >
5mm long; heads discoid, flowers yellow.
March-June; spring. Fairbank 388a. TER. Infrequent.
5.
Chaetopappa ericoides (Torr.) Nesom- WHITE ASTER, ROSE
HEATH
[Aster hirtifolius Blake Leucilene ericoides (Torr.)
Greene]
Perennial forb to 15 em; leaves linear to scale-like,
pointing up along stem; ray flowers white, tinged
purple, disk flowers yellow.
April-September; spring/summer. Charleston Hills W
1508. ROC. Infrequent. 5. p.86
Chloracantha spinosa (Benth.) Nesom - SPINY ASTER,
MEXICAN DEVILWEED
[Aster spinosus Benth.]
Rhizomatous perennial forb, much-branched, to 60
em; leaves absent, branches green, often spiny;
flower heads 5-7 mm long, ray flowers white, disk
flowers yellow; pappus of capillary bristles.
August-October; summer. Lewis Springs 734,
Palominas-3 1600. RIP(CW)/SAC.Abundant. 2. p.86
Cirsium neomexicanum Gray - NEw MExiCO THISTLE
Thistle biennial forb to 40-120 em; leaves woolly
beneath, lobed and spine-tipped; flower heads discoid,
3-5 em long; phyllaries with conspicuous cobwebby
hairs and stout spines; flowers pale purple; pappus of
capillary, plumose bristles.
March-July; spring. Hereford 306, Palominas-3 1554.
RIP(CW)/RIP(CH). Infrequent. 5.
Cirsium ochrocentrum Gray - YELLOWSPINE THISTLE
Thistle biennial or short-lived perennial forb to 60
em; stems usually single to sparingly branched;
herbage with short woolly hairs; leaves alternate, 515 em long, with tufts of soft woolly hairs on the
surface and densely woolly pubescent on the
underside, pinnately cleft into narrow lobes not
reaching the midrib, and long yellowish spines at lobe
tips; flower heads discoid, single at branch tips, 3-6
em across; flowers rose to cream colored.
June-October; summer. Charleston-mesquite 174,
Hereford 1021, Lewis Springs 1073. TER2/SAC.
Occasional-common. 5. p. 86
32
Desert Plants
*Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.- BULL THISTLE
Biennial forb to 1 m; stems branching, spiny; leaves
rosette in first year, alternate in second, pinnately
lobed, hairy and prickly on upper side, cottony
underneath; flower heads single at branch tips; flowers
purple-pink; fruit with white pappus bristles.
July-September. summer. SDC 1254. SDC.
Infrequent. 4. p.86
Cirsium wheeleri (Gray) Petrak- WHEELER's THISTLE
Biennial or perennial forb 40-70 em; leaves
spine-tipped, woolly, lighter below; flower heads
usually 3 em tall or less; phyllaries with cobwebby
hairs on margins, spine-tipped; flowers pale purple.
July-September; summer. Summers 1061. RIP(CH).
Infrequent. 4.
Conoclinium greggii (Gray) Small- PALMLEAF TIIOROUGHWORT
[Eupatorium greggii Gray]
Perennial rhizomatous forb to 40 em; leaves opposite,
palmately 3 to 5 cleft, with toothed to pinnatifid
divisions; heads discoid, .5-1 em across, clustered at
branch tips; flowers violet, fragrant; achenes 5ribbed; pappus of numerous capillary bristles.
August-November; summer/fall. Palominas-3 580,
Lewis Springs 2504. SAC, TER. Infrequent. 5. p.86
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.- CANADIAN HORSEWEED
Taprooted annual forb to 1 m; stems branched above;
leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, 2-8 mm wide,
3-6 em long, entire; inflorescence many-flowered
elongate panicles; flower heads discoid, ~3 mm
across; pistillate flowers filiform, in several series
along outside of head; hermaphrodite flowers
toward center ofhead, yellow; pappus of white
capillary bristles.
August-October; summer. Palominas-3 515,
Charleston-mesquite 691, Lewis Springs 214. GRAS/
RIP(CH)/RIP(CW). Abundant. 4.
Ericameria nauseosa (Pallas ex Pursh) Nesom & Baird var.
latisquamea - RABBIT BRUSH
[Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pallas ex Pursh) Britt
ssp.latisquameus (A. Gray) H. M Hall & Clements]
Shrub to 1. 7 m; herbage strong-scented, silky or white
woolly; leaves alternate, slender, 3-6 em long; flower
heads discoid, 4-7 flowered, densely clustered at
branch tips; flowers yellow; fruit 5 angled, pubescent;
pappus of white bristles.
June-November; summer/fall. Lewis Springs 887.
WASH. Common. 3.
Erigeron ariso/ius Nesom- ARID THRONE FLEABANE
Annual forb to 50 em; herbage with coarse hairs;
leaves alternate, linear, 2-4 mm wide; flower heads
1-4 at ends of stems, ~ 1em across; ray flowers light
purple, disk flowers yellow.
August-September; summer. Palominas-3 1611. AGR.
Rare. 5.
Erigeron concinnus (Hook. & Am.) Torr. & Gray - FLEABANE
Perennial forb to 50 em; herbage with soft hairs;
leaves alternate, linear 2-4 mm wide; flower heads
2006
1-4 at ends of stems, ~ 1em across; ray flowers light
purple, disk flowers yellow.
April-July; spring. St. David, Bagstad 509 ASU.
RIP(CW). Occasional. 5.
Erigeron divergens Torr. & Gray - FLEABANE DAISY
Annual forb to 50 em; herbage with soft hairs; leaves
alternate, linear 2-4 mm wide; flower heads 1-4 at
ends of stems, ~1cm across; ray flowers light purple,
disk flowers yellow.
March-September; spring/summer. Lewis Springs
206, Kolbe 344, Palominas-UA 558, Escalante
Crossing 925. GRAS/SAC/AGRIRIP(CH). Common.
5.
Evax verna Raf. - RABBIT TOBACCO, COTTON ROSE, SPRING SAND
PYMGMYWEED
[Evax multicaulis DC.]
Low, diffusely branched annual forb < 5 em; herbage
white woolly; leaves alternate, oblanceolate or
spatulate, entire; heads discoid, clustered in bracted,
globose, terminal glomerules;outer flowers pistillate,
inner flowers hermaphrodite.
March-April; spring. Escalante Crossing 935.
RIP(CH). Infrequent-occasional. 5. p.86
Flaveria trinervia (Spreng.) C. Mohr- CLUSTERED YELLOWTOPS
Annual forb to 30 em; stems dichotomously branched;
leaves opposite, lanceolate, toothed, 3-nerved;
heads very small, 1 or 2-flowered, densely glomerate;
phyllaries 1 or 2; ray flower solitary or none; achene
oblong, 8-10 ribbed, glabrous.
April-November; summer/fall. St. David, Goodding
674-58, ARIZ. TER. Rare?. 5.
Flourensia cernua DC. - TAR BUSH
Shrub to 1.5 m; stems much-branched; herbage
resinous; leaves alternate, ovate to oval,
entire, ~ 1em; heads discoid, nodding; flowers yellow;
achene cuneate, laterally compressed but somewhat
thickened, villous; pappus of two unequal awns.
October-December; fall. Fairbank 388b, Curtis
Windmill1667. CDS2. Abundant. 5. p.87
Gaillardia pinnatifida Torr. - BLANKETFLOWER
Perennial forb 20-30 em; leaves alternate, entire to
toothed-pinnatifid; flower heads solitary, showy; ray
flowers yellow or maroon with yellow tips; palea of
the pappus narrowed into an awn the length of the disk
corolla. Collection from San Pedro House
probably from seed mix distributed along roadside.
March-September; summer. Moson Springs 370, San
Pedro House 1559. RIP(CW)/DIST. Infrequent. 5.
p. 87
Gnapha/ium pa/ustre Nutt. - WESTERN MARSH CUDWEED
Annual forb 20-40 em; herbage woolly; leaves
alternate, narrow, entire; heads small, numerous,
clustered at tips of the stem and branches; heads
discoid; phyllaries graduated, numerous and scarious;
outer flowers pistillate, inner flowers hermaphrodite;
pappus of capillary bristles.
San Pedro River
March-July; spring. Contention 115. RIP(CH).
Occasional. 2.
Grindelia nuda Wood var. aphanactis (Rydb.) Nesom RAYLESS GUMWEED
[Grindelia aphanactis Rydb.]
Perennial forb to 60 em; leaves alternate, entire,
toothed, elliptic, sessile; heads urnshaped, discoid; phyllaries strongly graduated;
flowers yellow; achenes more or less thickened;
pappus of 2-8 slender caducous, paleaceous awns.
July-September; summer. Kingfisher Pond 840.
RIP(CW). Infrequent. 5. p.87
Gutierrezia microcephala (DC.) Gray - THREE-LEAF
SNAKEWEED
Sub-shrub to 80 em; herbage glandular; leaves
alternate, linear-filiform 15-40 mm long;
heads 2-3 mm high, in glomerules at branch tips;
phyllaries graduated; ray flowers 1, yellow; disk
flowers yellow; achene with white trichomes; pappus
of white scales.
July-October; summer/fall. Boquillas 798,
Tombstone-gauge 1305, Hunter 1349.
TER/CDS/SAC. Common. 5.
Gymnosperma glutinosum (Spreng.) Less.- GUMHEAD
[Selloa glutinosa Spreng.]
Sub-shrub to 1 m; leaves glutinous, alternate, oblonglanceolate to linear, entire, 3-8 em long; heads
radiate, panicled in dense, rounded, terminal clusters;
involucre graduated, the phyllaries chartaceous, with
short green tips; flowers yellow; achene puberulous,
4-5 ribbed; pappus very minute or wanting.
July-November; summer. Palominas UA 1641.
RIP(CW). Infrequent. 5. p. 87
Hedosyne ambrosiifolia (Gray) Strother- MARSH-ELDER
[Iva ambrosiifolia (Gray) Gray]
Annual forb to 70 em; stems bristly and pubescent;
leaves alternate, 2-3 pinnatifid, pubescent; heads
discoid, small, numerous, loosely panicled on slender
peduncles up to 1em long; phyllaries double; outer
flowers pistillate, inner flowers hermaphrodite;
achenes obovate, thickened; pappus none.
August-September; summer. St. David 618,
Charleston-mesquite 684, Walnut Gulch 856,
Charleston-gauge 1678. TER/CDS/WASH/ROC.
Occasional. 5.
Helenium thurberi Gray - SNEEZEWEED
Annual or biennnial forb to 70 em; stems winged;
leaves alternate, decurrent, narrow and sessile; heads
discoid, rounded, < 1em; flowers brown, minute and
numerous; pappus of short, blunt squamellae.
May-July; spring/summer. Charleston-gauge 268,
Charleston-mesquite 979. RIP(CH)2. Common. 1.
p. 87
Helianthus annuus L.- COMMON SUNFLOWER
Robust annual forb to 3 m in moist areas; leaves
opposite below, alternate above, scabrous, deltoid,
petiolate; heads very large on prominent peduncles;
Makings
33
phyllaries at least 4 mm wide, the attenuate tip at least
4 mm long; ray flowers yellow, disk flowers brown;
achenes thick, laterally compressed, enclosed by
chaffy bracts; pappus of awned scales.
June-October; summer. St. David 634. RIP(CH).
Common-occasional. 2.5
Helianthus ciliaris DC. - PLAINS SUNFLOWER
Rhizomatous perennial forb to 60 em; leaves opposite,
linear to deeply lobed 4-10 em long; heads showy;
phyllaries obtuse to acute, ciliate on margins; ray
flowers yellow, disk flowers brown; achene oblong,
thickened; pappus of 2 paleaceous awns.
June-September; summer. Fairbank 670. TER.
Infrequent-rare. 3. p.87
Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. - WESTERN SUNFLOWER, PRAIRIE
SUNFLOWER
Robust annual forb to 2 m in moist areas; leaves
opposite below, alternate above, scabrous, lanceolate,
petiolate; heads large on prominent peduncles;
phyllaries < 4 mm wide, lanceolate or linearlanceolate; ray flowers large yellow, disk flowers
brown; achenes thick, laterally compressed, enclosed
by chaffy bracts; pappus of awned scales.
July-October; summer. Hereford 480, Charlestonmesquite 673, Palominas-3 531, Escapul Wash 831.
RIP(CW)2/SAC/WASH. Common-abundant. 4.p.87
Heliomeris longifolia (Robins. & Greenm.) Cockerell var.
annua (M.E. Jones) Yates- LONGLEAF FALSE GOLDENWEED
[Viguiera annua (M.E. Jones) Blake]
Annual forb to 1 m; leaves opposite, linear to narrowly
elliptic, short-petiolate to sessile, 3-6 em long,
scabrous; heads somewhat showy, single at branching
tips; ray flowers yellow ~ 1 em long; disk flowers
yellow; achene 4-angled; pappus none.
September-November; summer/fall. SDC 755, Kolbe
810, Escapul Wash 832. SDC/RIP(CW)/WASH.
Common-abundant. 4.
Heliomeris multiflora Nutt. var. nevadensis (A. Nels.) Yates
-NEVADA VIGUIERA, NEVADA GOLDENEYE
[Viguiera multiflora (Nutt.) Blake var. nevadensis
(A. Nels.) Blake]
Rhizomatous perennial forb to 1 m; leaves mostly
opposite, narrowly elliptic, short- petiolate to sessile
3-6 em long, scabrous; heads somewhat showy, single
at branching tips; ray flowers yellow > 1 em long;
disk flowers yellow; achene 4-angled; pappus none.
July-September; summer. SDC 1432. SDC. Common.
3. p.87
Heterosperma pinnatum Cav. - WINGPETAL
Annual forb to 40 em; leaves opposit~, once or twice
pinnately divided into linear lobes; heads small,
terminal; phyllaries double; ray flowers yellow; outer
achenes oval, incurved, wing-margined; inner achenes
narrower, often infertile, not margined, narrowed into
a beak, their pappus of 2-3 deciduous awns.
August-September; summer. Palominas-UA 1408.
RIP(CW). Infrequent. 5.
34
Desert Plants
2006
Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rushy- CAMPHOR
August-October; summer/fall. Palominas-UA 384,
WEED
Palominas-3 S4S. TER/SAC. Occasional. 3.
[Heterotheca psammophila Wagenkn]
Laennecia coulteri (Gray) Nesom- CoULTER's CONYZA
Annual forb from tap root, 40-70 em; herbage densely
[Conyza coulteri Gray]
glandular and hairy; leaves alternate, sessile;
Taprooted annual forb to 1 m; herbage sticky
phyllaries narrow, graduated; ray flowers yellow, disk
glandular; leaves mostly alternate, clasping,
flowers yellow; ray achene glabrous or slightly hairy,
oblong-lanceolate, 2-1S mm wide, regularly toothed
disk achene densely hairy, their pappus double, the
or shallowly lobed; inflorescence many-flowered
elongate panicles; flower heads ~3mm across, discoid;
outer series of short bristles or setiform squamellae,
inner series of longer capillary bristles.
pistillate flowers filiform, in several series along
August-October; summer. Contention 6S1, Escapul
outside of head; hermaphrodite flowers yellow toward
Wash 818. TER/WASH. Common. 4. p.87
center of head; pappus of white capillary bristles.
Hymenoclea monogyra Torr. & Gray ex Gray- BURRO BRUSH
Flowering throughout the year; summer. PalominasMonoecious shrub to 2 m; leaves alternate, linear3 S17, Palominas UA 1643. GRASIRIP(CW).
filiform; heads small, those of both sexes usually
Common-abundant. 2.
intermixed in leaf axils; fruiting involucre with
Lasthenia californica DC. ex Lindl. - CALIFORNIA GOLDFIELDS
scarious wings near middle.
[Baeria chrysostoma Fisch. & C.A. Mey., Lasthenia
September-October; fall. Walnut Gulch 8SS, 166S,
chrysostoma (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Greene]
Lewis Springs 891. WASH3.Common. 3.
Low slender annual forb < 10 em; herbage slightly
Hymenopappusfilifolius Hook. var.pauciflorus (Johnst.) B.
pubescent; leaves opposite, linear, entire; heads
L. Turner - FINELEAF HYMENOPAPPUS, YELLOW CUTLEAF
terminal; ray flowers yellow; achenes linear-clavate,
Sub-shrub; herbage densely tomentose; leaves
4-angled.
alternate, pinnatifid to dissected, often all
February-May; winter/spring. Contention 101.
basal; inflorescence scapose; heads discoid, cymose;
RIP(CW). Infrequent. S.
flowers yellow; phyllaries 6-12 in one series; achene Machaeranthera tagetina Greene - MESA TANSYASTER
4 or S angled, pubescent, often villous; pappus of 10[Aster tagetinus (Greene) Blake]
20 mostly obtuse scarious paleae or squamellae.
Taprooted annual or biennial forb to 1m; leaves
July-October; fall. Contention 1683. CDS. Rare. S.
alternate, deeply lobed to bipinnatifid; heads broadly
p.87
turbinate; phyllaries 20-40, in 4-7 graduated series;
Hymenothrix wislizenii Gray - TRANSPEcos THIMBLEHEAD
ray flowers purple, disk flowers yellow; pappus of
Annual or perennial taproot forb to 70 em; leaves
ciliate bristles.
alternate, dissected into many filiform lobes; flower
August-October; summer/fall. Palominas-3 536,
heads numerous, 7-10 mm high in cymose
Charleston-gauge 70S, 1368.AGR/TERIDIST.
panicles, ray and disk flowers yellow.
Common. 5. p.88
July-October; summer. Fairbank 63S, Palominas-3
Machaeranthera tanacetifolia (Kunth) Nees- TANSEYLEAF
1606. TER/AGR. Common. S. p.87
TANSYASTER
Isocoma acradenia (Greene) Greene- ALKALI GOLDENBUSH
[Aster tanacetifolius H.B.K.]
Taprooted annual or biennial forb to 1m; leaves
[Haplopappus acradenius (Greene) Blake]
alternate, deeply lobed to bipinnatifid; heads
Sub-shrub to 80 em; leaves alternate, linear- cuneate,
somewhat glandular; heads discoid, flowers goldenhemispheric; phyllaries S0-80, in 4-7 graduated series;
yellow ~Scm long, in dense cymes at ends of stems.
ray flowers purple, disk flowers yellow; pappus of
September-October; summer. Lewis Springs 1S73.
ciliate bristles.
August-October; summer/fall. Palominas-3 520,
CDS. Infrequent. S. p.88
lsocoma tenuisecta Greene - BURROWEED
Palominas-UA S60, St. David 619. AGR2/BOS.
[Haplopappus tenuisectus (Greene) Blake]
Common.S.
Sub-shrub to 80 em; leaves alternate, pinnatifid,
Malacothrix stebbinsii W.S. Davis & Raven - STEBBIN's
somewhat glandular; heads discoid, flowers golden- DESERT DANDELION
yellow ~Scm long, in cymes at ends of stems.
[Malacothrix clevelandii Gray var. stebbinsii (W.S.
September-October; summer. Contention 661, Murray
Davis & Raven) Cronq.]
Springs 792. TER/CDS. Common- abundant. S.p. 88
Annual forb < 30 em; herbage with milky sap; leaves
*Lactuca serrio/a L. - PRICKLY LETTUCE, WILD LETTUCE
most basal, entire to coarsely toothed; heads often
Annual forb to 70 em; herbage with milky sap; early
nodding in bud; phyllaries strongly graduated and
leaves sometimes in basal rosette, stem leaves
overlapping; flowers allligulate, yellow; achenes
alternate; heads broadened at the base in fruit, ligulate;
columnar but short; pappus bristles white.
achenes compressed, ribbed, with long, slender beak;
March-May; spring. Escalante Crossing 47, Fairbank
pappus of silky white hairs.
63, Hereford 302,310. DIST/TERIRIP(CW)/GRAS.
Occasional. S.
San Pedro River
Melampodium leucanthum Torr. & Gray - PLAINS BLACKFOOT
Perennial forb or sub-shrub < 40 em; leaves opposite,
entire to pinnatifid; heads 10-30 mm wide; ray flowers
white, often purplish-veined, 6-15 mm long; outer
phyllaries completely enclosing the achene and
falling with them; achenes obovate-oblong, pappus
none.
March-September; spring/summer. Hereford 1712.
CDS. Infrequent. 5. p. 88
Melampodium longicorne Gray - ARlZONA BLACKFOOT
Annual forb to 20 em; leaves opposite, linearoblanceolate, 3-4 em long, scabrous; heads
terminal or axillary, 6mm wide; ray flowers pistillate,
yellow, inner phyllaries completely enclosing the
ray achene; disk flowers hermaphrodite, sterile;
achene with raised hood at apex.
August-October; summer/fall. Palominas-3 1609, St.
David, Bagstad 134. GRASIRIP(CW). Infrequent. 5.
Parthenium incanum Kunth - MARIOLA, GUAYULE
Shrub to 1m; herbage grey-tomentose, fragrant;
leaves alternate, pinnatifid, with blunt roundish
lobes; heads 3-4 mm across, cymose-panicled; ray
flowers fertile, disk flowers sterile; achenes small,
flattened.
August-October; summer/fall. SDC 747, CW 878, St.
David 1654. CDS3. Abundant. 5. p.88
Pectis cylindrica (Fern.) Rydb.- SoNORAN CINCHWEED
Low diffuse annual forb usually less than 10 em;
leaves opposite, linear-oblong, 1-2 em long, glanddotted; flowers heads 9 mm high, sessile, much
surpassed by the leaves, phyllaries 3, in one series;
yellow ray flowers only; pappus of2-6 scarious palea.
August-October; summer. Fairbank 1396(a). DIST.
Common. 5.
Pee tis fzlipes Harvey & Gray - FIVEBRACT CINCHWEED
Annual forb to 15 em; stems capillary, dichotomously
branching; leaves opposite, linear, 1-3 em long,
gland-dotted; flower heads 7mm high borne singly at
branch tips on long peduncles, phyllaries in one
series; yellow ray flowers only, 4-6 mm long; pappus
of 2-4 antrorsely hispid awns.
August-October; summer. Walnut Gulch 861,
Fairbank 1615, Charleston-gauge 2501.
WASH/CDS2. Occasional-common. 5. p.88
Pectis finifolia L. - ROMERO MACHO
Annual forb to 30 em; stems delicate, dichotomously
branching; leaves opposite, linear, 1-3 em long, glanddotted; flower heads 7mm high borne singly at branch
tips, phyllaries in one series; yellow ray flowers only,
~1mm long; pappus of2-3 smooth, divergent awns.
August-November; summer. Cottonwood, Bagstad
135 in 2001, ASU. RIP(CW). Infrequent. 5.
Pectis prostrata Cav. - SPREADING CINCHWEED
Low, diffuse annual forb usually less than 10 em;
leaves opposite, linear-oblong, 1-2 em long, glanddotted; flowers heads 9 mm high, sessile, much
Makings
35
surpassed by the leaves, phyllaries 5, in one series;
yellow ray flowers only; pappus of2-6 scarious palea.
August-October; summer. Palominas-3 540,
Palominas-UA 575, St. David 630, Fairbank
1396. GRAS/SAC/RIP(CW)/DIST. Common. 5.
p.88
Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. - SALTMARSH FLEABANE,
SWEETSCENT
[Pluchea purpurascens (Sw.) DC]
Rhizomatous perennial forb to 1 m; herbage aromatic
and glandular; leaves alternate, ovate, downy; flower
heads discoid, pinkish-purple, numerous, in flattopped clusters at ends of stems.
July-November; summer. SDC 1261, 1420. SDC2.
Infrequent-rare. 2. p.88
Pluchea sericea (Nutt.) Coville- ARROW WEED
Clonal shrub up to 4 m; leaves linear-lanceolate 1-4
em, light green; flower heads discoid, purple-pink, in
clusters at ends of stems.
February-July; spring. SDC 1419. SDC. Infrequentrare. 2.
Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. ssp. macrocephalum
(DC.) R.R. Johnson- YERBA POROS
[Porophyllum macrocephalum DC.]
Annual forb to 40 em; herbage glaucous, with
conspicuous oil glands in the tissues; leaves
opposite, oval, petiolate; heads discoid, narrow,
elongate, -2cm long; phyllaries in one series, with
conspicuous oil glands; achene slender and narrow;
pappus of capillary bristles.
August-October; summer/fall. Charleston Hills E
1236, 1327. ROC2. Infrequent-rare. 5. p. 25
Pseudognaphalium canescens (DC.) R.R. Johnson WRIGHT'S CUDWEED
[Gnaphalium canescens DC. Gnaphalium wrightii
Gray]
Annual forb 20-60 em; herbage woolly; leaves
alternate, narrow, entire; heads small, numerous,
clustered at tips of the stem and branches; heads
discoid; phyllaries graduated, numerous, tips white
or somewhat straw-colored; outer flowers pistillate,
inner flowers hermaphrodite; pappus of capillary
bristles.
June-November; summer. Charleston-mesquite 801,
Kolbe 809, Headless Sphinx 1681. RIP(CW)2/
ROC. Common. 4.
Pseudognaphalium leucocephalum (Gray) A. Anderb. WHITE CUDWEED
[Gnaphalium leucocephaleum Gray]
Perennial rhizomatous forb to 60 em; herbage densely
white-woolly; leaves alternate, narrow, entire; heads
small, numerous, clustered at tips of the stem and
branches; heads discoid; phyllaries graduated,
numerous, tips pearly white; outer flowers pistillate,
inner flowers hermaphrodite; pappus of
capillary bristles.
36
Desert Plants
July-September; summer. Boquillas Ranch 1428.
RIP(CW). Infrequent. 5. p.88
Pseudognaphalium stramineum (Kunth) W.A. Weber COTTONBATTING, CUDWEED.
[Gnaphalium chilense Spreng.]
Annual forb 20-60 em; herbage woolly; leaves
alternate, narrow, entire, decurrent with adnate
auricles; heads small, numerous, clustered at tips of
the stem and branches; heads discoid; phyllaries
graduated, numerous, tips white or somewhat strawcolored; flowers yellowish, outer flowers pistillate,
inner flowers hermaphrodite; pappus of capillary
bristles.
July-October; summer/fall. Hereford 474, Kingfisher
Pond 1127. RIP(CW)/RIP(CH). Occasional. 3.
Psilactis brevilingulata Schultz-Bip. ex Hemsl. - TRANsPEcos TANSYASTER
Taproot annual or short-lived perennial forb to 60
em; herbage somewhat glandular; leaves alternate,
variable, but mainly sessile, linear and entire,
becoming smaller toward apex of plant; flower
heads <lcm across, ray flowers pale purple, disc
flowers yellow. New for Arizona.
September-October; summer. Kolbe 346, 807,
Walnut Gulch 869, Lewis Springs marsh 1584.
SAC/RIP(CW)/TER/MARSH. Infrequent. 3.
Pyrrhopappus pauciflorus (D. Don) DC.- FALSE DANDELION
[Pyrrhopappus multicaulis DC., Pyrrhopappus
rothrockii Gray]
Perennial forb to 50 em, several stemmed; leaves
mostly in basal rosette, entire to pinnatifid 4-15 em
long; heads few, long-peduncled to 2 em long,
flowers yellow, ligulate; achenes sub fusiform,
tapering into a slender beak; pappus of copious
capillary bristles.
April-August; spring/summer. Hereford297, Lewis
Springs 1581. RIP(CW)2/SDC. Infrequent-rare. 3.
p.88
Sanvitalia abertii Gray- ABERT's DOME
Slender annual forb < 20 em; leaves opposite,
lanceolate or lance-linear; heads terminal; ray
flowers yellow, fading whitish, pales of the
receptacle with rigid, cuspidate tips; rays sessile,
persistent on the achene; ray achenes with pappus of
short awns or tubercles, disk achenes4-angled;
pappus none.
August-September; summer. Fairbank 564,
Charleston-gauge 1186, St. David 596.
TER2/RIP(CH). Common-abundant. 5. p.89
Senecio flaccidus Less. var. flaccidus - THREADLEAF
GROUNDSEL
[Senecio douglasii DC. var. longilobus (Benth.) L.
Benson Senecio longilobus Benth.]
Shrub to 1.5 m; herbage grey-green from woolly hairs;
leaves alternate, crowded, entire to pinnatisect, the
lobes narrowly linear; heads ~ 1em tall; phyllaries in
2006
one series; ray and disk flowers yellow; achene with
pappus of soft, white, capillary bristles.
June-October; summer. Fairbank 74, Cottonwood
243, Palominas-3 967. RIP(CH)/RIP(CW)/AGR.
Occasional-common. 3. p. 89
Senecio flaccidus Less. var. monoensis (Greene) B.L. Turner
& T.M. Barkl. - THREAD-LEAF GROUNDSEL
[Senecio douglasii DC. var. monoensis (Greene)
Jepson Senecio monoensis Greene]
Perennial forb to 70 em; herbage glabrous; leaves
dissected, the lobes linear; ray and disk
flowers yellow; achene with pappus of soft, white
capillary bristles.
February-May; spring. Escalante Crossing 1481.
RIP(CH)). Infrequent. 3. p.89
Solidago velutina DC. - THREENERVE GOLDENROD
[Solidago sparsiflora Gray]
Perennial forb to 1.5 m; leaves alternate, linearelliptic, 2-6 em long, 5-10 mm wide, scabrous;
flowers heads in pyramidal clusters arranged on one
side of the inflorescence axis, ~5 mm tall; ray flowers
yellow, disk flowers yellow; pappus of capillary
bristles.
August-November; summer/fall. Kolbe 812, Lewis
Springs 1649. SAC/TER. Infrequent. 5.
*Sonchus asper (L.) Hill- PRICKLY SOWTHISTLE
Annual forb sometimes reaching 1 m; herbage with
milky sap; stems hollow, plants usually conspicuously
spiny; leaves alternate, clasping, deeply lobed to
pinnatifid; heads with yellow ligulate flowers only;
achene smooth between ribs, the margins thin and
winglike; pappus of numerous fine, soft hairs, plus a
few deciduous scales.
March-June; spring. Lewis Springs 215, Charlestongauge 267, Boquillas UA 999. RIP(CW)IRIP(CH)2.
Occasional. 2.
*Sonchus o/eraceus L. - COMMON SOWTHISTLE
Annual forb usually < 1 m; herbage with milky sap;
plants not spiny; leaves alternate, clasping, deeply
lobed to pinnatifid; heads with yellow ligulate flowers
only; mature achene wrinkled-roughened between
ribs, the margins not thin and wing like; pappus of
numerous fine, soft hairs, plus a few deciduous scales.
February-September; spring/summer. Cottonwood
248, Kolbe 392. AGR/RIP(CW). Occasional. 5.
Stephanomeria exigua Nutt. - SMALL WIRE LETTUCE
Annual forb to 60 em; herbage glabrous with milky
sap; leaves alternate much-reduced above; deeply
lobed to pinnatifid below; heads ~5- flowered, in open
panicles; phyllaries ~5 in a single series, with
accessory bracts below; flowers allligulate and equal
in size, white to pink or rose; achenes columnar, 5angled or 5-ribbed; pappus bristles plumose.
April-September; spring. Hunter 1050. SAC.
Infrequent. 5.
San Pedro River
Stephanomeria minor (Hook.) Nutt. - WIRE LETTUCE, STICK
WEED
[Stephanomeria tenuifolia (Torr.) H. M. Hall]
Sub-shrub usually < 40 em; herbage glabrous with
milky sap; leaves alternate much- reduced above;
deeply lobed to pinnatifid below; heads ~5- flowered;
phyllaries ~5 in a single series, with accessory
bracts below; flowers allligulate and equal in size,
white to pink or rose; achenes columnar, 5-angled
or 5-ribbed; pappus bristles plumose, bright white.
May-October; spring/summer. Palominas-3 958.
AGR. Occasional. 5.
Stephanomeria pauciflora (Torr.) A. Nels. -DESERT STRAW,
WIRE LETTUCE
Sub-shrub usually < 40 em; herbage glabrous with
milky sap; leaves alternate much-reduced above;
deeply lobed to pinnatifid below; heads ~5- flowered;
phyllaries ~5 in a single series, with accessory
bracts below; flowers allligulate and equal in size,
white to pink or rose; achenes columnar, 5-angled
or 5-ribbed; pappus bristles merely scabrous near
base, tinged brown.
Flowering throughout the year; spring/summer/fall.
Charleston-gauge 280. TER. Occasional. 5. p.89
Symphyotrichum falcatum (Lindl.) N esom var. commutatum
(Torr. & Gray) Nesom- WHITE PRAIRlE ASTER
[Aster commutatus (Torr. & Gray) Gray]
Sub-shrub to 60 em, sometimes rhizomatous; leaves
small and clustered; heads small and numerous on
short peduncles lining stem; ray flowers white, disk
flowers yellow; pappus of white, capillary bristles.
July-October; summer/fall. Lewis Springs 735, SDC
1656. TER/SDC. Infrequent. 4. p.89
Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michx.) N esom var. ligulatum
Sunderberg - SALT MARSH ASTER
[Aster subulatus Michx. var. ligulatus Shinners]
Annual, sometimes biennial forb to 80 em; leaves
linear-ovate 3-8 em long, larger leaves near base;
heads small and numerous, weakly cymosepaniculate; ray flowers violet, disk flowers
yellow; pappus of white capillary bristles.
August-October; summer/fall. Fairbank 643,
Summers 1267. RIP(CH)2. Occasional. 1.
*Tagetes minuta L.- MUSTER JOHN HENRY, WILD MARIGOLD
Robust annual forb to 2 m; herbage with strong
marigold fragrance; leaves opposite, compound, 4-7
em long, conspicuously gland-dotted; leaflets lancelinear, coarsely serrate; flower heads numerous and
terminal, narrow and elongate, ~ 1em tall; disk flowers
cream, ray flowers yellow. New for Arizona.
August-September; summer. Palominas-3 420, 1402.
RIP(CW)2. Rare. 5. p.89
*Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers- COMMON
DANDELION
Taproot perennial forb < 20 em; herbage with milky
sap; leaves in basal rosette, toothed or lobed;
Makings
37
heads ligulate, solitary, scapose; ligules yellow;
achene fusiform, beaked.
March-September; spring/summer. Lewis Springs
239, 1447. RIP(CW)/DIST. Infrequent. 4.
Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze - HoPI TEA
Perennial forb with slender, weak stems 30-60 em;
leaves opposite or whorled, pinnately parted into a
few narrow lobes, appearing linear; flowers heads
discoid, ~ 1 em across, borne singly at ends of long
peduncles; flowers golden, lobes of the corollas linearlanceolate; pappus of two triangular hispid teeth.
July-October; summer. Kolbe 354, Charleston-gauge
1190, Murray Springs 1591. RIP(CW)/WASH2.
Occasional. 5. p.89
Thymophylla acerosa (DC.) Strother- PRICKLYLEAF DOGWEED
[Dyssodia acerosa DC.]
Sub-shrub usually< 30 em; leaves with translucent
oil glands, filiform and clustered at nodes; ray flowers
yellow; palea of the pappus dissected into 5 to 12
capillary bristles.
May-October; summer/fall. Murray Springs 791,
Curtis Windmill 881, Charleston Rd.1134.
CDS2/DIST. Common. 5. p.89
Thymophylla pentachaeta (DC.) Small var. belenidium (DC.)
Strother - DOGWEED, FETID MARIGOLD
[Dyssodia pentachaeta (DC.) B.L. Robins. var.
belenidium (DC.) Strother]
Perennial forb to 30 em; leaves with translucent oil
glands, filiform and clustered at nodes; ray flowers
yellow; palea of the pappus 10, the 5 inner ones 3toothed and 1-awned.
April-November; spring/summer. Tombstone-gauge
886. CDS. Occasional-common. 5. p.89
Tragopogon dubius Scop. - GOATS BEARD
Biennial forb to 60cm; herbage with milky sap; leaves
grass-like and woolly at nodes; flower heads large
with yellow ligulate flowers only; achenes longbeaked 20-40 mm long and tapered at base; pappus
of plumose bristles.
May-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 1498.
GRAS. Infrequent. 5.
Trixis californica Kellogg - AMERICAN THREEFOLD
Shrub to 1m; leaves alternate, lanceolate, densely
sessile-glandular beneath; heads 9-12 flowered,
solitary or clustered; phyllaries in two series; flowers
yellow, two-lipped, the outer lip 3-toothed, the inner
lip 3-cleft; achene densely hispidulous, subrostrate,
pappus of numerous straw-colored bristles.
March-September; spring/summer. Tombstone-gauge
1302, Charleston-gauge 1313. ROC2. Infrequent. 5.
p.89
Uropappus lindleyi (DC.) Nutt.- SILVER PUFFS
[Microseris linearifolia (Nutt.) Schultz-Bip.]
Annual forb 10-40 em; leaves linear, in basal rosette,
entire to pinnatisect; yellow ray flowers only; mature
flower heads with "puff ball" appearance due to
38
Desert Plants
spreading achenes; achenes dark brown with pappus
of 5 papery awns.
February-May; winter/spring. Charleston-gauge 1514.
DIST. Infrequent. 5.
Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Gray GOLDEN CROWNBEARD
Taproot annual forb to 1 m; herbage with coarse hairs;
leaves opposite below, alternate above, petiolate,
blades 3-7 em long, ovate-triagular, coarsely toothed;
phyllaries 10-13 mm long; heads showy, 3-5 em wide;
ray and disk flowers yellow; disk achene strongly
flattened laterally, winged on each edge, often with 1
or 2 awns.
March-October; summer. Contention 102, Kolbe
1631. RJP(CW)/SAC. Abundant. 3. p.89
Verbesina rothrockii Robins. & Greenm. - RoTHROCK's
CROWNBEARD
Perennial forb 30-50 em; leaves opposite, clasping,
lance-ovate, sandpapery; flower heads radiate, borne
singly on long peduncles, ~2 em across; ray flowers
golden, disk flowers golden; achene strongly flattened
laterally, 2-winged, pappus none.
May-September; summer. Murray Springs 1593.
SAC. Rare-infrequent. 5.
Viguiera dentata (Cav.) Spreng. GOLDEN EYE
Perennial forb to 2 m; herbage coarsely pubescentscabrous; leaves opposite, at least below, petiolate,
deltoid-triangular, blades 3-15 em long; heads showy;
ray flowers yellow, disk flowers yellow-brown;
achenes laterally compressed, thickened; pappus of
2 awns and several short squamellae, or sometimes
none. Variety lancifolia with narrowly lanceolate
leaves.
August-October; summer/fall. St. David 617, 1370,
San Pedro House 834. BOS2/WASH. Abundant. 4.
p.89
Xanthisma gracile (Nutt.) D.R. Morgan & R.L. HartmanSLENDER GOLDENWEED
[Haplopappus gracilis (Nutt.) Gray,Machaeranthera
gracilis (Nutt.) Shinners]
Taprooted annual forb to 50 em; leaves entire,
spinulose-toothed or lobed, the lobes bristle-tipped;
phyllaries bristle-tipped,~ 1mm long, eglandular; ray
flowers yellow, disk flowers yellow; achenes slightly
dimorphic, ray achene usually rounded on dorsal edge,
disk achene flattened laterally; pappus of white to
tawny bristles.
March-September; spring/summer. Palominas-3 514,
Palominas UA 571, St. David 633, Charleston 1369.
GRAS/R1P(CW)2/DIST. Common. 5.
Xanthisma spinulosum (Pursh) D.R. Morgan & R.L. Hartman
- LACY TANSYASTER
[Haplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC.,
Machaeranthera pinnatifida (Hook.) Shinners]
Perennial forb or sub-shrub to 50 em; leaves entire,
spinulose-toothed or lobed, the lobes bristletipped; phyllaries tipped by bristles, ~ 1mm long,
2006
glandular; ray flowers yellow, disk flowers yellow;
achenes slightly dimorphic, ray achene usually
rounded on dorsal edge, disk achene flattened
laterally; pappus of white to tawny bristles.
Flowering throughout the year; spring/summer.
Fairbank 143, Cottonwood 249. CDS/TER. Common.
5.
Xanthium strumarium L. - cocKLEBUR
[Xanthium saccharatum Wallr.]
Monoecious annual forb to 60 em; herbage glandular
and scabrous; leaves alternate, long-petiolate, blades
5-15 em wide and long, often 3-lobed, margins serrate;
staminate heads above with chaffy bracts subtending
the many flowers, pistillate heads with 2 flowers
tightly enclosed in a bur with hooked spines, the bur
formed of fused phyllaries.
June-September; summer. Charleston-mesquite 690.
RJP(CH). Abundant. 3. p.90
Xanthocephalum gymnospermoides (Gray) Benth. & Hook.
f. - SAN PEDRO MATCHWEED, BROOMWEED
Robust taprooted annual to 2 m in moist areas;
herbage glutinous; leaves alternate, linear to lanceoblong; heads ~5 mm tall, in dense cymose panicles;
ray and disk flowers yellow; pappus ofthe ray achene
none, in the disk achene of unequal, basally united
squamellae or paleae.
August-September; summer. Palominas-3 506, 548.
RIP(CW)2. Common. 2. p.90
Zinnia acerosa (DC.) Gray - desert zinnia
[Zinnia pumila Gray]
Sub-shrub usually< 30 em; leaves linear, opposite,
entire, 3-ribbed; phyllaries graduated; ray flowers
yellow, 8-16 mm long, persistent on the achene; disk
achene strongly compressed.
March-August; spring/summer. Contention 658,
Charleston Rd. 1133, Char-gauge 706.
CDS2/TER. Common. 5. p.90
Zinnia grandiflora Nutt. - RocKY MoUNTAIN ZINNIA
Sub-shrub usually < 30 em; leaves linear, opposite,
entire, 1-ribbed; phyllaries graduated; ray flowers
white, ~ 12 mm long, persistent on the achene; disk
achene strongly compressed.
June-September; summer. Hereford 485, Charlestongauge 1243. TER/ROC. Occasional. 5. p.90
*Zinnia peruvian a (L.) L. - PERUVIAN ZINNIA
Annual forb 20-30 em; leaves opposite, lance-ovate,
2-4 em long, sandpapery; flower heads borne singly
at ends of branching stems; ray flowers deep red,
conspicuous; phyllaries strongly graduated.
August-November; summer/fall. Palominas UA 1644.
RJP(CW). Infrequent-rare. 5. p.90
AZOLLACEAE
Azol/aji/ic;:u/oides Lam.- MOSQUITO FERN, WATERFERN.
Annual floating aquatic fern, tending to form mats;
leaves bilobed, only several cells thick.
San Pedro River
NA; NA. San Pedro House 1125. AQU. Occasional.
1.
BIGNONIACEAE
Chilopsis linearis (Cav.) Sweet ssp. arcuata (Fosberg)
Henrickson- DESERT WILLOW, DESERT CATALPA
Tree to 9 m; leaves mostly alternate, simple, linear to
linear lanceolate, 6-15 em long, 2-6 mm wide;
inflorescence a terminal raceme or panicle; flowers
pink, tubular campanulate, with white throat; fruit a
linear capsule 13-32 em long; seeds hairy.
May-August; spring/summer. Palominas-3 427.
RIP(CW). Occasional. 4.
BIXACEAE
Amoreuxia palmatifida Moe. & Sesse ex DC. - SAIYA,
TEMAQUI
Perennial forb to 40 em; roots often woody; leaves
long-petioled, subentire or deeply parted into 5-9
lobes, orbicular to reniform; inflorescences terminal,
few-flowered cymes; flowers showy, salmon-yellow,
4-6 em long with deep maroon basal spots; fruit a
capsule, broadly ovoid, 2-4 em long; seeds black,
shiny.
July-September; summer. Charleston Hills 1120.
ROC. Infrequent-rare. 5. p.90
BORAGINACEAE
Cryptantha angustifolia Moe. & Sesse ex DC. - NARRowLEAVED CPRYTANTHA
Annual forb to 30 em; herbage bristly; flowers white,
in cymes; nutlets 4, with pale tuberculations, one
abaxial odd nutlet.
February-June; winter/spring. Contention 137,
Tombstone-gauge 1055. CDSIRIP(CH). Common. 5.
Cryptantha barbigera (Gray) Greene- BEARDED CRYPTANTHA
Annual forb to 30 em; herbage bristly; flowers white,
in cymes; nutlets 4, tuberculate, similar in size, with
rounded edges.
February-June; winter/spring. Boquillas 1532a.
RIP(CH). Infrequent-occasional. 5.
Cryptantha circumscissa (Hook. & Am.) I.M. JohnstonWESTERN CRYPTANTHA
Tiny annual forb usually less than 5 em in small clump;
herbage bristly; flowers white; calyx splitting at the
middle at maturity.
February-June; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 903,
SDC 1487. RIP(CH)/CDS. Occasional. 5.
Cryptantha crassisepala (Torr. & Gray) Greene var.
elachantha l.M. Johnston- THICK-SEPALED CRYPTANTHA
Annual forb to 30 em; herbage bristly; flowers white,
in loose cymes; nutlets 4, with pale tuberculations,
one axial odd nutlet.
March-July; spring. Contention 97, 136, Escalante
Crossing 941. BOS/MST/RIP(CH). Common. 5.
p.90
Makings
39
Cryptantha micrantha (Torr.) I.M·. Johnston- PURPLE-ROOTED
CRYPTANTHA
Annual forb to 10 em; herbage bristly; roots and base
of plant with red dye; flowers white, in cymes, nutlets
slightly tuberculate.
March-June; spring. Boquillas 1529. RIP(CH).
Infrequent. 5.
Cryptantha pusilla (Torr. & Gray) Greene- LOW CRYPTANTHA.
Annual forb to 10 em; herbage bristly; flowers white,
in cymes; nutlets 4, tuberculate, similar in size and
strongly curved at base.
April-June; spring. Escalante Crossing 936,
Charleston-gauge 1505. RIP(CH)2. Occasional. 5.
Lappula occidentalis (S. Wats.) Greene- FLATSPINE STICKSEED
Annual forb 10-40 em; herbage dark green, bristly;
flowers pale blue or white in racemes; fruit a spiny
bur.
January-July; winter/spring. Contention 117,
Escalante Crossing 911. MST/RIP(CH). Common. 5.
Pectocarya heterocarpa (I.M. Johnston) I.M. Johnston HAIRY-LEAVED COMB BUR, CHUCKWALLA COMBSEED
Annual forb to 10 em; stems prostrate and spreading;
herbage bristly; flowers minute, white; nutlet with
paired divergent appendages.
February-June; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 916,
SDC 1484. RIP(CH)2. Occasional. 5.
Plagiobothrys arizonicus (Gray) Greene ex Gray- ARIZONA
POPCORN FLOWER
Annual forb usually less than 15 em; herbage bristly;
basal leaves opposite or crowded into a rosette,
charged with a purple dye, particularly about the
midrib and margins; calyx circumscissile, flowers
white; nutlets rugose, incurved. Mixed collection with
Cryptantha barbigera.
February-June; winter/spring. Boquillas 1532b.
RIP(CH). Infrequent. 5.
Tiquilia canescens (DC.) A. Richards. - SHRUBBY COLDENIA,
WOODY CRINKLEMAT
Sub-shrub usually less than 20 em; leaves irregularly
alternate and clustered, ovate-elliptic < 1 em long,
soft-canescent, grayish; flowers purplish pink; tubular.
March-May; spring. Curtis Windmill 879, 1386.
CDS2. Occasional. 5. p.90
BRASSICACEAE
Descurainia pinnata (Walt.) Britt.- YELLOW TANSY MUSTARD,
WESTERN TANSY MUSTARD
Annual forb 10-50 em; leaves alternate, pinnate,
bipinnate, or pinnatisect, 3-7 em long; flowers minute,
cream, in elongate racemes; fruit a 2-celled clavate
capsule, 5-10 mm long.
February-June; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 34,
924. RIP(CH)2. Abundant. 5.
*Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl - FLIXWEED
Annual forb 10-50 em; leaves alternate, pinnate,
bipinnate, or pinnatisect, 3-7 em long; flowers minute,
40
Desert Plants
2006
Mancoa pubens (Gray) Rollins - TRANSPEcos CRESS
cream, in elongate racemes; fruit a 2-celled linear
Short-lived perennial forb to 50 em; stems branched;
capsule, 1-2 em long.
stems pale green; leaves alternate, coarsely toothed,
February-May; winter/spring. SDC 57, Hereford 322,
mostly basal, 1-2 em long; infructescence 3/4 or more
Escalante Crossing 920. DIST/RIP(CH)2.
of stem; flowers cream, in dense racemes; fruit a 2Occasional. 5.
celled pod, ovoid, - 8 mm long. New for Arizona
Draba cuneifolia Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray - WEDGELEAF DRABA
(Makings 2002).
Annual forb usually less than 15 em; stems scapose;
June; spring/summer. Kolbe 365, 1019. SAC/
leaves in basal cluster, ovate, pubescence of forked
RIP(CW). Rare. 5.
hairs; flowers whitish; fruit a 2-celled clavate capsule
Nasturtium officinale Ait. f. - WATERCRESS
5-10 mm long.
Perennial aquatic; leaves alternate, pinnate, leaflets
February-May; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 894.
broadly ovate to suborbicular; flowers white, in
RIP(CH). Common. 5.
crowded racemes; fruit a cylindric or subclavate
Halimolobos diffusa (Gray) O.E. Schulz - SPREADING
capsule, 8-20 mm long.
FISSUREWORT
March-October; spring/summer. Charleston-mesquite
Perennial forb to 60 em; herbage soft-canescent with
172, Kolbe 363. AQU2. Abundant. 1.
forked or stellate hairs; leaves alternate, deeply
*Sisymbrium irio L. - LoNDON ROCKET
toothed; flowers white, in lateral racemes; fruit a
filiform capsule, < 2cm long.
Annual forb to 90 em; leaves alternate, pinnate to
pinnatifid, variable in length; flowers yellow, in dense
August; summer. Charleston-gauge 1423. ROC. Rare.
racemes; fruit a linear capsule, terete, 3-4 em long.
5.
December-June; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 45,
Lepidium lasiocarpum Nutt. - PEPPERWEED
Lewis Springs 188. DIST/RIP(CW). Occasional. 5.
Annual forb usually less than 20 em; stems muchbranched; leaves alternate, pinnatifid to entire; flowers Streptanthus carinatus C. Wright ex Gray ssp. arizonicus
small, cream, in dense racemes; fruit a 2-celled pod, (S. Wats.) Kruckeberg, Rodman & Worthington- ARizoNA
JEWEL FLOWER
orbicular and flattened, 2-3 mm across, with tiny
[Streptanthus arizonicus S. Wats.]
notch at apex. Very similar to L. oblongum.
Erect annual forb to 60 em; leaves alternate, glaucous,
February-May; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 919.
clasping, lance-oblong to lance-ovate; flowers cream,
RIP(CH). Common. 5.
urn-shaped; fruit a 2-celled capsule 4-6 em long.
Lepidium oblongum Nutt. - VEINY PEPPERWEED
February-May; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing
Annual forb usually less than 20 em; stems much1482. RIP(CH). Infrequent. 5. p.90
branched; leaves alternate, pinnatifid to entire; flowers
small, cream, in dense racemes; fruit a 2-celled pod,
CACTACEAE
orbicular and flattened, 2-3 mm across, with tiny
Coryphantha vivipara (Nutt.) Britt. & Rose var. bisbeeana
notch at apex. Very similar to L. lasiocarpum.
February-May; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 41, (Orcutt) L. Benson- BISBEE SPINYSTAR
[Escobaria vivipara (Nutt.) Buxbaum var. bisbeeana
899. RIP(CH)/RIP(CW). Occasional. 5.
(Orcutt) D.R. Hunt]
Lepidium thurberi Woot.- THURBER's PEPPERWEED
Low globular cactus usually with several hemispheric
Annual or short-lived perennial forb usually less than
stems; tubercles -1 em long, distinctly grooved, with
20 em; stems much-branched; leaves alternate,
many radial spines; flowers showy, pink-magenta.
pinnatifid; flowers small, cream, in dense racemes;
June-July; spring/summer. Curtis Windmill 880. CDS.
fruit a 2-celled pod, orbicular and flattened, 2-3 mm
Infrequent. 5. p.90
across, apex entire.
Cylindropuntia leptocaulis (DC.) Knuth - DESERT CHRISTMAS
March-June; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 44,
CROLLA
Fairbank 161, Escalante Crossing 914, St. David
[Opuntia leptocaulis DC.]
1080. Habitat(s): RIP(CW)2/RIP(CH)2. Common.
Cylindrical-stemmed cactus to 1 m; sparingly-densely
5.
branched, usually bearing many short, commonly
Lesquerellafendleri (Gray) S. Wats.- FENDLER's BLADDERPOD
spineless branchlets; stem branches 3-5 mm in
Short-lived perennial forb, much-branched, usually
diameter; flowers pale green; fruit turning red with
less than 15 em; herbage stellate-canescent; leaves
age, obovoid, smooth, spineless, fleshy.
alternate, crowded, lance-ovate, < 2cm excluding
March-August; spring/summer. Contention 659, 1162.
petiole; flowers yellow, in crowded racemes; fruit pod
TER/CDS. Occasional. 5.
inflated, orbicular, 2-3 mm across, style persistent,
Cylindropuntia leptocaulis (DC.) Knuth x spinosior
pedicel elongate in fruit.
(Engelm.) Knuth - CHRISTMAS CROLLA X CANE CROLLA HYBRID
April-May; spring. Walnut Gulch 1015, 1025.
WASH2. Infrequent. 5.
Cylindrical-stemmed cactus to 1.5 m; stem branches
often whorled, 1-2 em in diameter; flowers pale
San Pedro River
orange, fruit tinged orange, obovoid, tuberculate and
often spiny.
April-August; spring/summer. Charleston-gauge
1039, Lewis Springs 1572. CDS/TER. Infrequent.
5.p.91
Cylindropuntia spinosior (Engelm.) Knuth - CANE CROLLA
[ Opuntia spinosior (Eng elm.) Tourney]
Cylindrical-stemmed cactus to 2m; stem branches
whorled, 2-3 em in diameter; flowers magenta-red;
fruit yellow, tuberculate.
April-August; spring/summer. Palominas-3 410.
GRAS. Common-occasional. 5. p.91
Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) F. Seitzvar. fasciculatus
(Engelm. ex B.D. Jackson) N.P. Taylor - PINKFLOWER
HEDGEHOG
Hedgehog cactus usually< 40 em tall, with cylindric
stems not more than 10 times longer than wide,
unbranched, but often mound-like; vertically ribbed;
flowers showy, pink-magenta.
March-April; spring. Charleston Hills S 1223. ROC.
Infrequent. 5. p.91
Echinocereus rigidissimus (Eng elm.) Haage f. - ARizoNA
RAINBOW CACTUS
[Echinocereus pectinatus (Scheidw.) Engelm. var.
rigidissimus (Engelm.) Rumpl.] Hedgehog cactus
usually< 20 em tall, with globular-cylindric stems
not more than 5 times longer than wide, unbranched,
usually solitary; spines all radial, more or less
obscuring the stem; flowers pink.
May-June; spring. Charleston Hills 1480. ROC. I
Infrequent. 5. p.91
Ferocactus wislizeni (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose -BARREL CACTUS
Barrel cactus with large stem up to 1.5 m, but usually
much lower; usually 4 stout central spines, the
lower one hooked downward at the end; flowers
usually reddish, borne at apex; fruit yellow, fleshy.
March-September;spring/summer. Charmesquitel005, Charleston Hills 1122.CDS/ROC.
Occasional. 5. p.91
Mammillaria grahamii Engelm.- GRAHAM's NIPPLE CACTUS
[Mammillaria microcarpa Engelm.]
Low globular cactus < 15 em; stems solitary or
clustered, somewhat cylindrical; radial spines
numerous, central spine hooked; flowers pink, forming
circle around stem below apex.
March-July; spring/summer. Charleston Hills 1119.
ROC. Infrequent-occasional. 5. p.91
Mammillaria heyderi Muehlenpfordt - LITTLE NIPPLE CACTUS
[Mammillaria gummifera Eng elm.]
Low globular cactus < 10 em with milky sap; stem
solitary, noticeably sunken on top, wider than tall;
axils initially woolly; flowers mostly cream, forming
a circle around stem below the apex.
March-May; spring. St. David 743(a). CDS.
Infrequent-rare. 5. p. 91
Makings
41
Mammillaria wrightii Engelm. var. wilcoxii (Tourney ex K.
Schum.) W.T. Marsh- WRIGHT's FISHHOOK CACTUS
[Mammillaria wilcoxii Tourney ex K. Schum.]
Low globular cactus< 10 em; stems ball-shaped;
central spine hooked, radial spines numerous; f
flowers pinkish, forming circle near apex.
May-July; spring/summer. Charleston-gauge 707.
CDS. Infrequent-rare. 5. p.91
Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck var. engelmannii ENGELMANN'S PRICKLY PEAR, CACTUS APPLE
Erect pad cactus becoming tall, with circular-rhombic
pads; spines short, whitish or yellow; flowers yellow.
April-July; spring/summer. Charleston Hills W 1432.
ROC. Infrequent. 5. p.91
Opuntia macrocentra Engelm.- BLACK-SPINED PRICKLY PEAR,
PURPLE PRICKLY PEAR
Erect to sprawling pad cactus with subcircular pads,
sometimes turning reddish under stress; spines stout,
dark, sometimes pointing down (pads often spineless);
flowers yellow.
March-June; spring. Charleston gauge 1422. ROC.
Infrequent. 5. p.91
Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm.- PLAINS PRICKLY-PEAR
Clump-forming pad cactus with rhombic or
subcircular pads, spines dark, stout; roots tuberous;
flowers yellow with reddish base.
May-August; spring/summer. Escalante Crossing
1494, Charleston-gauge 1497. CDS2. Infrequent. 5.
Opuntia phaeacantha Engelm. - PRICKLY PEAR
Erect to sprawling pad cactus with subcircular pads,
sometimes turning reddish under stress; spines stout,
dark, sometimes pointing down (pads often spineless);
flowers yellow.
April-June; spring. Boquillas 968, Curtis Windmill
1387, Charleston-gauge 1321. CDS2/ROC.
Occasional. 5. p.91
Opuntia pottsii Salm-Dyck- PRICKLY PEAR
[Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. var. pottsii (SalmDyck) L.D. Benson]
Clump-forming pad cactus with rhombic-shaped pads;
spines flexible; roots tuberous; flowers yellow with
reddish base.
May-August; spring/summer. Escalante Crossing
1492, 1493, 1494. CDS3. Infrequent. 5. p.92
Peniocereus greggii (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose var. greggiiDESERT NIGHT-BLOOMING CEREUS, ARIZONA QUEEN OF THE NIGHT
Inconspicuous columnar cactus, sparingly branched;
stems erect to sprawling, grayish green, 10-25 mm in
diameter; flowersl5-20 em long, whitish; fruits bright
red, ellipsoid.
May-June; spring/summer. Curtis Windmil11567.
CDS. Rare. 5. p.92
Sclerocactus intertextus Engelm. - WHITE FISHHOOK CACTUS
[Echinomastus intertextus (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose]
Low globular cactus < 10 em; stems solitary, balllike; radial spines white, numerous, obscuring the
stem; flowers mostly cream, borne at apex.
42
Desert Plants
March; spring. Charleston Hills N 1161. ROC. Rare.
5. p.92
CAMPANULACEAE
2006
long-exerted; fruit an elongate, flattened, erect
capsule.
May-October; summer. Palominas-3 535, Contention
973, 126. RIP(CH)2/RIP(CW). Common. 4. p. 92
Lobelia cardinafis L. - CARDINALFLOWER
Perennial aquatic forb 30-70 em; leaves alternate,
linear-lanceolate to 13 am long, minutely toothed;
flowers bright red, tubular, showy, two-lipped.
July-October; summer. Lewis Springs 1576. MARSH.
Rare. 1.
Nemacladus glanduliferus Jepson- GLANDULAR THREADPLANT
Diffusely branched, delicate annual forb 5-15 em;
flowers tiny, irregular, in racemes on all branches,
white with purple tinge, bilabiate.
March-May; spring. Fairbank 1546. RIP(CH).
Infrequent. 5.
Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl.var. biflora (Ruiz & Pavon)
Bradley- CLASPING VENUS' LOOKING GLASS
Annual forb to 40 em, usually with single stem; leaves
clasping; floral bract longer than wide; flowers bluepurple; fruit a capsule opening by lateral pores near
apex.
April-June; spring. Hereford 311. RIP(CH).
Infrequent. 3. p. 92
Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl.var. perfoliata -CLASPING
VENUS' LOOKING GLASS
Annual forb to 40 em, usually with single stem; leaves
clasping; floral bract about as wide as long; flowers
blue-purple; fruit a capsule opening by lateral pores
about midway from apex.
April-June; spring. Charleston-gauge 1507. RIP(CH).
Infrequent. 3.
CANNABACEAE
*Cannabis sativa L. - GANGA, MARIJUANA
Annual, dioecious, erect forb; leaves palmately
compound with 3-9 leaflets, the margins crenate·
serrate.
February-September. spring/summer. Charlestongauge 1501. RIP(CH). Infrequent. 3.
CAPPARACEAE
Koeberlinia spinosa Zucc. - ALL THORN
Shrub usually wider than tall, often forming thickets;
stems leafless, twigs slender and thorn-tipped;
inflorescence of small semipersistent racemes; flowers
pale yellow, clustered, ~ 4mm; fruit a globose berry
~3mm.
March-September; summer. Escalante Crossing 30,
Moson Springs 373, 1032. RIP(CW)/CDS2.
Common. 5. p. 92
Polanisia dodecandra (L.) De. ssp. trachysperma (Torr. &
Gray) Iltis- WESTERN CLAMMYWEED
Annual forb to 1 m; stems erect, branched; herbage
glandular-pubescent, clammy, and strong scented;
leaves trifoliate, the leaflets elliptic or lanceolate;
flowers whitish, stamens numerous, the filaments
CAPRIFOLIACEAE
Sambucus nigra L. ssp. cerulea (Raf.) R. Bolli - TAPIRO,
MEXICAN ELDERBERRY
[Sambucus cerulea Raf.]
Tree up to 10 m; stems often pithy; leaves large,
pinnate, leaflets lanceolate-ovate and finely serrate;
flowers small, cream-yellow, clustered in compound
cymose panicles; fruit a blackish berry 3mm.
March-July; spring. Lewis Springs 228, Palominas-3
1556. RIP(CW)2. Occasional. 3.
CARYOPHYLLACEAE
*Saponaria officina/is L. - BOUNCING BET
Perennial forb to 1 m; stems numerous; leaves
opposite and clustered at nodes, lance-ovate 4-8 em
long, sessile, strongly-veined; flowers pink-purple,
fragrant, tubular, - 3 em long, clustered in cymes at
branch tips; fruit a many-seeded capsule.
July-August; summer. Boquillas 1054. DIST. Rare.
4.p.92
Silene [aciniata Cav.- CARDINAL CATCHFLY, MEXICAN CAMPION
Perennial forb 20-50 em; herbage glandular; leaves
opposite, lance-ovate 2-6 em long, sessile; flowers
terminal, in open cymose panicles; flowers reddishorange, showy, - 4 em long, deeply notched; fruit a
many seeded capsule.
July-October; summer. Hereford 485a. RIP(CH).
Infrequent-rare. 5. p.92
CELASTRACEAE
Mortonia scabrella Gray - MORTONIA
Shrub to 2 m, about as wide as tall; branches erect,
stiff; leaves alternate, elliptic, sandpapery; 3-10 mm
long with inrolled margins; inflorescence a crowded
bracteate raceme terminating some of branches;
flowers 1-3 mm, cream, finely ciliate with glandular
hairs.
June-September; summer. Palominas 1620. CDS.
Rare. 5.
CHENOPODIACEAE
Atripfex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. - FOURWING SALTBUSH,
CHAMISO
Dioecious shrub to 2 m; leaves linear to oblonglanceolate, light green; flowers in glomerules in spikes
at ends ofbranches; fruit conspicuously four-winged.
May-August; spring/summer. Palominas-UA378, St.
David 1085, St. David 1551.AGRIWASH/TER.
Abundant. 5.
*A triplex semibaccata R. Br. - AusTRALIAN SALT-BUSH
Monoecious, suffrutescent forb or sub-shrub with
spreading stems; leaves clustered at nodes, whitish
San Pedro River
scurfy, oblong-ovate, < 1em, shallowly toothed;
fruiting bractlets diamond-shaped, 4mm, turning
red at maturity.
Flowering throughout the year; winter/spring. SDC
1486, Escalante Crossing 1550. TERJBOS.
Infrequent. 3.
Atriplex wrightii S. Wats.- WRIGHT's SALTBUSH
Monoecious annual forb, robust specimens to 1.5 m;
leaves dark green above, whitish-farinose below,
linear-lanceolate 2-3 em long; male flowers in long
glomerules at ends of branches; female flowers in
leafy spikes below.
August-September; summer. Palominas-3 532,
Hereford 788.AGR/RIP(CW). Common-abundant. 5.
Chenopodium ber/andieri Moq. - PITSEED GOOSEFOOT
Annual forb to 1 m; herbage usually densely farinose;
stems often reddish; leaves alternate, petiolate, 3-8
em, mostly rhombic, wavy-toothed; inflorescence
spike or panicle-like clusters, axillary and terminal;
flowers very small, green; fruit lenticular, horizontal,
~ 1.5 mm, wall surface honeycombed, adherent to
seed.
June-September; summer. St. David 441. RIP(CW).
Common.5.
Chenopodiumfremontii S. Wats.- FREMONT's GOOSEFOOT
Annual forb to 1 m; herbage usually densely farinose;
stems often reddish; leaves alternate, petiolate, 3-8
em, mostly rhombic, 1-3 lobed at base; inflorescence
spike or panicle-like clusters, axillary and terminal;
flowers minute, green; fruit lenticular, horizontal,~ 1.5
mm, wall surface smooth, free from seed.
July-October; summer. Palominas UA563, St. David
614, Cottonwood 766, Contention 663, Charlestonmesquite 671. AGR/BOS/SACIRIP(CW)2. Commonabundant. 5.
Chenopodium leptophyllum (Moq.) Nutt. ex S. Wats. SLIMLEAF GOOSEFOOT
Annual forb to 1 m; herbage usually densely farinose;
leaves alternate, petiolate, 3-8 em, mostly linear to
narrowly lanceolate, entire; inflorescence spike or
panicle-like clusters, axillary and terminal; flowers
minute, green; fruit lenticular, horizontal, ~ 1.5 mm,
wall surface smooth, adherent to the seed.
April-September; summer. Palominas 3 534,
Contention 644. SAC/GRAS. Common. 4.
Chenopodium neomexicanum Standi. - NEw MEXICO
GOOSEFOOT
Annual forb to 1 m; herbage usually densely farinose;
stems often reddish; leaves alternate, petiolate, 3-8
em, mostly rhombic, with one pair of short teeth;
inflorescence spike or panicle-like clusters, axillary
and terminal; flowers minute, green; fruit
lenticular, horizontal, ~ 1.5 mm, wall surface
honeycombed, free from seed.
May-October; summer. Charleston-mesquite 672.
RIP(CW). Common. 5.
Makings
43
Chenopodium pratericola Rydb. - DESERT GOOSEFOOT
Annual forb to 1 m; herbage usually densely farinose;
leaves alternate, petiolate, 3-8 em, narrowly elliptic
to lanceolate, lower blades usually 1 to 2-lobed;
inflorescence spike or panicle-like clusters, axillary
and terminal; flowers minute, green; fruit lenticular,
horizontal, ~ 1.5 mm, wall surface smooth, free from
seed.
April-September; summer. Hereford 479. RIP(CW).
Common. 5.
*Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. - MEXICAN FIREWEED
Annual branching forb to 1 m; leaves alternate, linearlanceolate, 1-2 em long; flowers perfect, lmm,
axillary, sessile, solitary or in clusters; perianth in fruit
with 5 wedge-shaped wings.
August-September; summer. Kingfisher Pond 1126,
Fairbank 1617. RIP(CW)/DIST. Infrequentoccasional. 3.
Monolepis nuttalliana (J.A. Schultes) Greene - PATATA,
NUTTALL'S POVERTY WEED
Annual forb 4-40 em; stems 2 to many from base, not
branched above; leaves alternate < 4 em, lanceolate,
fleshy, 2-toothed to hastate; inflorescence axillary
clusters; flowers minute; fruit an utricle, -2mm,
wall pitted.
February-April; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 40.
TER. Infrequent. 3.
*Sa/sola tragus L. - PRICKLY RussiAN THISTLE
Annual forb usually much-branched; leaves reduced,
becoming thick and spine-tipped; inflorescence
axillary; flowers generally 1 per axil, sepals becoming
thickened and winged in fruit ~3 mm wide.
May-November; summer. St. David 607, 615, San
Pedro House 1130. TERJBOS/DIST. Common. 4.
Suaeda moquinii (Torr.) Greene- QUELITE SALADO, DESERT
SEEPWEED, MOHAVE SEABLITE
[Suaeda torreyana S. Wats.]
Shrub to 1.5 m; stems muchwbranched, yellowwbrown;
leaves alternate, fleshy, linear; inflorescence cyme;
flowers minute, clustered in compound spikes
confined to upper stems; seed~ 1 mm, biconvex, shiny,
black.
July-November; summer/fall. St. David 752, SDC
1618. TER/SDC. Common around cienega. 3.
COMMELINACEAE
Commelina erecta L. - HERBA DEL POLLO, WHITEMOUTH
DAYFLOWER
Perennial forb (or graminoid) freely branching to 60
em; leaves alternate, distichously arranged, linearlanceolate, 4-15 em long, < 3 em wide; inflorescence
of solitary or clustered spathes; upper petals blue,
lower petals smaller, white; fruit a capsule, 3-5 mm
long.
July-November; summer/fall. Palominas-3 519,
Palominas-UA 570, Contention 653, Charleston-
44
Desert Plants
gauge 1193. RIP(CW)2/TER/CDS. Occasionalcommon.5.p.92
CONVOLVULACEAE
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. - HEDGE FALSE BINDWEED
Perennial rhizomatous forb; stems trailing and
twining, to 2 m long; leaves long-petiolate, cordate
at base, acuminate apically; flowers axillary, solitary
or paired; floral bracts 2, overlapping, about twice as
long as the calyx and enclosing it; corolla funnelform,
5-8 em long, white; fruit a capsule. New for Arizona.
July-September; summer. SDC 2108. SDC. Rare. 3.
p.92
*Convolvulus arvensis L.- FIELD BINDWEED
Rhizomatous perennial vine; stems decumbent or
twining; leaves usually basally cordate or hastate, 17 em long; inflorescences 1 to 3-flowered cymes;
flowers on pedicles 5-18 mm long, campanulate, white
or tinged pink, 2-3 em long; fruit a globose capsule
5-7 mm wide.
April-August; spring/summer. Palominas-UA377.
AGR. Occasional. 5. p. 92
Convolvulus equitans Benth. - HOARY BINDWEED, TEXAS
BINDWEED
Perennial herbaceous vine with taproot; stems
prostrate to decumbent; leaves variable, usually
triangular lanceolate with projecting basal lobes, 1-7
em long; inflorescences 1 to 3-floweredcymes;
flowers on pedicles 5-22 mm long, campanulate, white
or tinged pink with reddish center, 2-3 em long; fruit
a globose capsule 7-8 mm wide.
April-September; spring/summer. Boquillas Ranch
1427. RlP(CW). Infrequent. 5.
£volvulus alsinoides (L.) L. - DIO DE VIBORA, SLENDER DWARF
MORNING GLORY
Perennial forb < 40 em; stems usually radiating from
central point; leaves alternate, elliptic to oblonglanceolate, entire, 1-2 em long, sparsely hairy;
inflorescence 1-2 flowers on filiform peduncles;
flowers on pedicles 2-4 mm long, rotate, white, 7-1 0
mm wide; fruit a globose capsule 2.5 mm.
April-October; summer. Charleston Hills E
1124,1285, Charleston Hills S 1388. ROC3.
Occasional-infrequent. 5.
Evolvulus arizonicus Gray - ARIZONA BLUE EYES, WILD DWARF
MORNING GLORY
Perennial forb, somewhat suffrutescent, <50 em;
stems usually radiating from central point; leaves
alternate, elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, entire, 1-3 em
long, sparsely hairy; flowers on filiform pedicles along
stems; pedicles 3-4 mm long; corolla blue, rotate, 1222 mm wide; fruit a globose capsule 3-4 mm.
May-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 282,699,
Kolbe 495. TER/CDS/RlP(CW). Occasionalcommon. 5. p. 92
Ipomoea barbatisepala Gray- BEARDED SEPAL MORNING-GLORY,
CANYON MORNING-GLORY.
2006
Annual twining vine; leaves alternate, orbicular-ovate
in outline, petiolate, deeply 5-7 lobed, 3-8 ern long,
2-8 em wide; inflorescence mostly axillary, 1 to 3flowered cymes, peduncles 2-6 em long; flowers on
pedicles 4-5 mm long, sepals hispid-pilose, tips
narrowly linear, corolla blue, funnelform,- 2 ern long;
fruit a globose capsule ~9 mm long.
August-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 1241.
ROC. Infrequent-occasional. 5.
Ipomoea costellata Torr. - CRESTRIB MORNING-GLORY
Annual twining vine; leaves alternate, deeply
palmately dissected, the segments 5-9, linear, linearlanceolate to oblanceolate, 7-25 mm long;
inflorescence mostly solitary, peduncles 1-3 ern long;
flowers on pedicles 15-25 mm long, sepals, tips
narrowly linear, corolla blue, funnelform,- 2 ern long;
fruit a globose capsule ~9 mm long.
August-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 1228,
1355a. GRAS/ROC. Common. 5.
Ipomoea cristulata Hallier f. - ScARLET MORNING-GLORY
Annual twining vine; leaves alternate, ovate, petiolate,
entire or 3-5 partly-lobed, 2-10 em long, 1-7 em wide;
inflorescence mostly axillary, 3 to 7 -flowered cymes,
peduncles 3-6 em long; flowers on pedicles 5-14 rnm
long, sepals muricate or smooth, unequal; corolla
scarlet, salverform, 2-3 em long; fruit a globose
capsule - 9 mm long.
August-October; summer. Palominas-UA 561,
Charleston-gauge 1230. AGR/GRAS. Commonabundant. 5. p. 93
*Ipomoea hederacea Jacq.- IVYLEAF MORNING-GLORY
[Ipomoea hirsutula auct. non Jacq. f.]
Annual twining vine; leaves alternate, orbicular-ovate
in outline, petiolate, entire to 3 to 5-lobed, basally
cordate, 5-12 em wide; inflorescence mostly axillary,
1 to 3-flowered cymes, peduncles 5-10 em long;
flowers on pedicles 3-7 mm long, sepals densely longhirsute, abruptly narrowed from rounded base into a
narrow acuminate apex, corollas funnelform, 2-4 em
long, blue; fruit a globose capsule 8-12 mm.
August-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 1229.
GRAS.Common.4.p.93
*Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth- BLUE MORNING-GLORY, WOOLLY
MORNING-GLORY
Annual twining vine; leaves alternate, orbicular-ovate
in outline, petiolate, entire to 5-lobed, basally cordate,
5-12 em wide; inflorescence mostly axillary, 2 to 5flowered cymes; flowers on pedicles 5-16 mm long,
sepals pubescent near base, abruptly acuminate
apically, corollas blue, funnelform, 3-4 em long; fruit
a globose capsule -8 mm.
August-September; summer. Fairbank 644(a), Walnut
Gulch 859. TERIWASH. Common. 5.
Ipomoea ternifolia Cav. var. leptotoma (Torr.) J.A.
McDonald- TRIPLELEAF MORNING GLORY, HAIRY BIRD'S FOOT
[Ipomoea leptotoma Torr.]
San Pedro River
Annual twining vine; leaves alternate, orbicular-ovate
in outline, petiolate, palmately 5 to 11-parted, 1-8 em
long, 1-6 em wide, segments linear; inflorescence
mostly axillary, 1 to3-flowered cymes, peduncles 16 em long; flowers on pedicles 6-18 mm long, sepals
unequal, glabrous or hirsute, corollas funnelform, 24 em long, purple; fruit an ellipsoid capsule 3-5 mm.
August-September; summer. Charleston-gauge 712,
Walnut Gulch 868, Charleston Hills E 1324. GRAS/
WASH/ROC. Common. 5. p. 93
CUCURBITACEAE
Apodanthera undulata Gray - MELON Loco
Perennial monoecious forb, roots thickened; stems
prostrate- spreading; herbage with rough, appressed
pubescence; leaves 5-l 0 em across, alternate,
reniform, wavy-margined; flowers showy, yellow;
fruit round, gourd-like.
June-September; summer. Charleston-mesquite 984.
TER. Common. 5. p. 93
*Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld- WATERMELON
Monoecious annual forb, stems procumbent or
climbing; tendrils simple or branched; leaves
alternate, petiolate, 5-15 em long (including petiole),
pinnatifid with the divisions again lobed; flowers
solitary, yellow; corolla rotate, deeply parted; female
flowers with 3 staminodes; fruit globular and oblong.
September-October; summer. St. David, Van
Devender sn, ARIZ. RIP(CW). Rare. 2.
Cucurbita digitata Gray - FINGERLEAF GOURD
Perennial monoecious forb with thick root; stems
prostrate-spreading; herbage with rough, appressed
pubescence; leaves large, digitately cleft, upper
surface whitish near midvein, greenish near margins;
flowers showy, yellow; fruit round, gourd-like.
June-September; summer. Charleston Road 1141.
DIST. Occasional. 5. p. 93
Cucurbita foetidissima Kunth - BUFFALO GOURD
Perennial monoecious vine with thick root; herbage
with strong fetid odor; stems prostrate-spreading;
herbage with rough, appressed pubescence; leaves
very large, triangular-ovate, sometimes> 30 em long;
flowers showy, yellow; fruit gourd-like, hardshelled.
June-September; summer. Boquillas 1006. BOS.
Common. 5. p. 93
Echinopepon wrightii (Gray) S. Wats. -WILD BALSAM APPLE
Annual monoecious vine with slender stems; leaves
alternate, shallowly lobed, cordate at base;
staminate flowers in long racemes, corolla 7-8 mm,
pistillate flowers solitary; fruit an ovoid bur ~2 em
with glandular-hirsute spines.
August-September; summer. Hunter 1351, Palominas3 1403. RIP(CW)2. Occasional. 3.
Sicyos ampelophyllus Woot. & Standi. CUCUMBER
ONE-SEEDED BUR
Makings
45
Annual monoecious vine with slender stems; leaves
alternate, angulate to deeply cleft; staminate and
pistillate flowers mostly from same axils; fruit a spiny,
ovoid bur < 1 em.
August-October; summer/fall. Cottonwood 783.
RIP(CW). Infrequent-occasional. 5.
CUPRESSACEAE
Juniperus coahuilensis (Martinez) Gaussen ex R.P. Adams
- REDBERRY JUNIPER
[Juniperus erythrocarpa auct. non Cory]
Dioecious evergreen tree to 5 m; leaves scale-like to
awl-shaped, with conspicuous white resin; seed cones
terminal, spherical 6-7 mm long, green with bloom,
maturing reddish; seeds usually 1 per cone, 4-5 mm
long; pollen cones terminal 3-4 mm long, oblong.
NA; NA. Charleston Hills N 1158. ROC. Infrequentrare. 5.
CUSCUTACEAE
Cuscuta umbellata Kunth - UMBRELLA DODDER
Leafless and rootless, perennial, parasitic forb; stems
twining or trailing, yellow-orange; flowers small,
almost colorless, in many-flowered cymose clusters;
calyx equaling or surpassing the campanulate
corolla tube; fruit a circumscissile capsule.
August-October; summer/fall. Charleston-gauge
1238, Curtis Windmill1673. ROC/CDS. Common.
5.p.93
CYPERACEAE
Carex praegraci/is W. Boott - CLUSTERED FIELD SEDGE
Monoecious rhizomatous perennial graminoid to 45
em; leaves well-developed tapering to a point,
usually exceeding the inflorescence; inflorescence
spikelike, spikelets crowded to interrupted; achene
enclosed by a perigynium (papery envelope).
March-July; spring. SDC 1091. SDC. Abundant in
cienega. 2.
Cyperus niger Ruiz & Pavon - BLACK FLATSEDGE
Perennial mat-forming graminoid; leaves few or
leafless; stems filiform and flexible; inflorescence a
single cluster of(3-30) linear, flattened spikelets; bract
much exceeding the inflorescence; spike lets manyflowered; achene lenticular, dark brown.
June-October; summer. Lewis Springs marsh 1578,
SDC 1621. MARSH/SDC. Infrequent-rare. 2.5.
Cyperus odoratus L. - FLAT SEDGE
Perennial graminoid 20-90 em; stems three-sided;
leaves mainly basal I 0-30 em long; inflorescence
subtended by long leafy bracts much surpassing
inflorescence; inflorescence of numerous very
unequal spreading or ascending branches with denselax secondary linear branches; spikelets rounded, the
rachilla disarticulating into !-fruited joints; achene
trigonous.
46
Desert Plants
July-October; summer. Palominas-3 569, St. David
631, SDC 1623. RIP(CW)2/SDC. Common. 2.5.
p.93
Cyperus spectabilis L. - SPECTACULAR FLATSEDGE
Perennial graminoid 20-90 em; stems three-sided;
leaves mainly basal! 0-30 em long; inflorescence
subtended by long leafy bracts much surpassing
inflorescence; inflorescence of numerous unequal
spreading or ascending branches; spikelets flattened,
two-ranked, rarely crowded; achene lenticular.
July-September; summer. SDC 1622. SDC. Rare. I.
Eleocharis montevidensis Kunth - SPIKERUSH
Rhizomatous mat-forming perennial graminoid to 50
em; leaves reduced to bladeless sheath, usually with
distinct tooth; spike inflorescence solitary, terminal,
ovoid; achene dark brown trigonous, slightly
reticulate, topped with distinct tubercle. Very similar
to E. parishii.
May-September; summer. Escalante Crossing 929,
946. RIP(CH)2. Common. 2.
Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes - COMMON
SPIK.ERUSH
Rhizomatous mat-forming perennial graminoid to 50
em; leaves reduced to bladeless sheath; spike
inflorescence solitary, terminal, lanceolate; achene
dark brown trigonous, smooth, topped with distinct
tubercle.
May-June; spring. Charleston-mesquite 165,
Boquillas 1537. AQUIRIP(CH). Common. I.
Eleocharis parishii Britt.- PARisH's SPIKERUSH
Rhizomatous mat-forming perennial graminoid to 50
em; leaves reduced to bladeless sheath, usually with
distinct tooth; spike inflorescence solitary, terminal,
narrow, lanceoloid; achene dark brown-yellow,
trigonous, slightly reticulate, topped with distinct
tubercle. Very similar to E. montevidensis.
May-September; summer. Palominas-3 414,
Charleston-mesquite 1002, Hunter 1049, 1051.
RIP(CH)4. Common. 2.
Eleocharis rostellata (Torr.) Torr.- BEAKED SPIKERUSH
Clump-forming perennial graminoid to 50 em; leaves
reduced to bladeless sheath; spike inflorescence
solitary, terminal, narrow; achene olive green-brown,
surface greasy, without distinct tubercle.
April-August; spring/summer. SDC 1093, 1563.
SDC2. Abundant in cienega. 1.
Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) A.& D. LoveBULRUSH
[Scirpus acutus Mahl. ex Bigelow]
Perennial rhizomatous graminoid to 2 m; stems
cylindric; leaves 3-4 all basal, 8-12 em long;
inflorescence terminal; spike lets in clusters of 2-8,
scales reddish to straw-colored, ovate, 3-4 mm long,
2-3 mm wide; achene obovoid 2-3 mm long.
May-August; summer. Charleston-mesquite 166,975,
Hereford 460. RIP(CH)2/AQU. Common. I.
2006
Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.) Volk. ex Schinz & R.
Keller- GREAT BULRUSH, CHAIRMAK.ER'S BULRUSH
[Scirpus american us Pers.]
Perennial rhizomatous graminoid to 1.5 m; stems
sharply trigonous, side deeply concave;
leaves usually 3, all basal, less than 112 stem length;
inflorescence terminal; spikelets in clusters of2-20,
scales reddish to straw-colored, ovate, 2-3 mm long,
2-3 mm wide; achene obovoid 2-3 mm long.
March-July; spring. Escalante Crossing 908, Summers
1058, SDC 1090. RIP(CH)2/SDC. Abundant in
cienega, occasional throughout SPRNCA. 1.
EPHEDRACEAE
Ephedra trifurca Torr. ex S. Wats. - LONG-LEAVED JOINT-FIR,
CANATILLA, POPOTILLA TEPOSOTE
Dioecious shrub with slender, jointed branches; leaves
reduced to three scales at nodes; staminate
inflorescences cone-like, in whorls in axils, with 2-8
stamens, pistillate inflorescences cone-like in whorls,
with overlapping, scarious bracts.
February-May (pollen-bearing male cones present);
spring. Palominas-3 963, 964, Charleston Hills W
1439, Hereford 1476, 1477. CDS5. Common. 5.
p.93
EQUISETACEAE
Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun - SMOOTH SCOURING RUSH
Rhizomatous perennial graminoid to 70 em; stems
slender, jointed, mostly unbranched or with a few
irregular branches, the internodes hollow; branch
nodes with toothed sheaths; sporangia borne in
terminal cones.
NA; NA. Charleston-mesquite 167,976, Hereford
787. RIP(CW)IRIP(CH)2. Common- abundant. 2.
EUPHORBIACEAE
Acalypha neomexicana Muell.-Arg. - NEw MEXICAN
COPPERLEAF
Monoecious annual forb to 35 em; leaves alternate,
ovate 2-5 em long, 1-3 em wide, base rounded,
margins serrate; inflorescences of two kinds of spikes;
staminate spikes axillary, pistillate spikes terminal;
bracts subtending pistillate flowers 2-3 mm long, with
7-13 acute teeth of which the middle tooth is much
longer than the other; fruit a capsule 2 mm.
August-September; summer. St. David 625, Lewis
Springs 1416. RIP(CW)2. Common. 5. p. 93
Acalypha ostryifolia Riddell - HORNBEAM THREE-SEEDED
MERCURY
Monoecious annual forb to 70 em; leaves alternate,
ovate 3-8 em long, 2-5 em wide, base rounded,
margins serrate; inflorescences of two kinds of spikes;
staminate spikes axillary, pistillate spikes terminal;
bracts subtending pistillate flowers 2-3 mm long, with
13-17 narrow lobes- 2/3 the length of the bract; fruit
a capsule - 2 mm.
San Pedro River
August-October; summer. St. David 620, Lewis
Springs 1417, Charleston-gauge 1182.
RIP(CW)2/TER. Common. 5. p. 93
Argythamnia neomexicana Muell.-Arg. - NEw MEXICO
SILVERBUSH
Monoecious perennial forb or subshrub to 50 em;
herbage silvery-green, often with pick-shaped hairs;
leaves alternate, lance-elliptic 2-4 em long, < 1 em
wide; inflorescence axillary, racemose; pistillate
flowers at base, staminate flowers above; fruit a threeseeded capsule.
February-October; spring/summer/fall. Charlestonmesquite 804. CDS. Occasional. 5. p. 94
Chamaesyce abramsiana (L.C. Wheeler) Koutnik PROSTRATE SPURGE
[Euphorbia abramsiana L.C. Wheeler]
Prostrate annual forb branching from central point;
herbage generally glaucous; stems sometimes
pubescent, with milky sap; leaves opposite,
inequilateral at base, the margins widely serrate;
flowers monoecious borne in cyathia; petaloid
appendages minute; ovary and capsule glabrous,~ 1.5
mm long, widest at middle; seeds transversely ridged.
July-November; summer/fall. Boquillas Wash S 1249,
Moson Rd. 1638. WASH/DIST. Occasional. 5.
Chamaesyce albomarginata (Torr. & Gray) Small WHITEMARGIN SANDMAT, RATTLESNAKE WEED
[Euphorbia albomarginata Torr. & Gray]
Prostrate perennial forb branching from central point;
herbage glabrous with milky sap, stipules united into
a glabrous, membranous scale; leaves opposite,
inequilateral at base, margins entire; flowers
monoecious borne in cyathia; petaloid appendages
white, conspicuous; ovary and capsule glabrous, ~
2mm long; seeds smooth.
March-October; summer. Lewis Springs 209,
Charleston-gauge 279, Kolbe 393, SDC 749,
Palominas-3 954. GRAS/CDS/RIP(CW)/DIST2.
Common.5.p.94
Chamaesyce dioica (Kunth) Millsp. - ROYAL SANDMAT
[Chamaesyce indivisa (Engelm.) Millsp. Euphorbia
indivisa (Engelm.) Tidestrom]
Prostrate annual forb branching from central point;
herbage with milky sap; leaves opposite, inequilateral
at base, margins minutely serrate; flowers monoecious
borne in cyathia; petaloid appendages cream-pinkish,
conspicuous, the 2 proximal ones greatly prolonged;
ovary and capsule bearing hairs, ~ 2mm long; seeds
with 5-6 deep, transverse grooves.
August-November; summer. Boquillas 796, Walnut
Gulch 1354(a). WASH2. Occasional. 5. p. 94
Chamaesyce florida (Engelm.) Millsp. - CHIRICAHUA
MOUNTAIN SANDMAT
[Euphorbia florida Engelm.]
Erect annual forb to 20 em; herbage with milky sap;
leaves opposite,inequilateral at base, linear, 3-5 em
long; flowers monoecious borne in cyathia; petaloid
Makings
47
appendages white aging pink, conspicuous; ovary
and capsule glabrous,~ 3mm long; seeds with 2(3)
low transverse ridges.
July-October; summer. St. David 589, Boquillas 797,
Charleston-gauge 1191, Curtis Windmill 1671.
RIP(CW)/WASH2/CDS. Common. 5. p. 94
Chamaesyce hyssopifolia (L.) Small - HYSSOP SPURGE
[Euphorbia hyssopifolia L.]
Erect annual forb to 20 em; herbage with milky sap;
stems reddish; leaves opposite,inequilateral at base,
larger leaves > 2 em long, margins serrulate; flowers
monoecious borne in cyathia; petaloid appendages
white; ovary and capsule glabrous, ~ 2.5mm long;
seeds wrinkled or ridged.
July-October; summer. Palominas-3 538, PalominasUA 568, Boquillas 1411. SAC/RIP(CW)/WASH.
Common. 5.
Chamaesyce micromera (Boiss. ex Engelm.) Woot. & Standi.
- SoNORAN sANDMAT
[Euphorbia micromera Boiss. ex Engelm]
Prostrate annual forb; herbage with milky sap; leaves
opposite, inequilateral at base, < 5 mm long, margins
entire; flowers monoecious borne in cyathia, petaloid
appendages absent or minute; ovary and capsule
glabrous, ~ 1.5 mm long; seeds with slight transverse
wrinkles.
July-November; summer. Walnut Gulch 1355,
Boquillas Wash 1412. WASH2. Common. 5.
Chamaesyce prostrata (Ait.) Small- PROSTRATE SANDMAT
[Euphorbia chamaesyce auct. non L. Euphorbia
prostrata Ait. ]
Prostrate or erect annual forb to 40 em; herbage with
milky sap; leaves opposite, inequilateral at base, 510 mm long, margins entire; flowers monoecious
borne in cyathia, petaloid appendages minute;
ovary and capsule ~ 1.5 mm long, bearing hairs on
external angles; seeds with sharp transverse ridges.
June-October; summer. SDC 1619. SDC. Infrequent
5.
Chamaesyce revoluta (Engelm.) Small- THREADSTEM SANDMAT
[Euphorbia revoluta (Engelm.) Small]
Erect annual forb 10-20 em; herbage with milky sap;
stems delicate; leaves opposite, linear, 1-2 em long,
with revolute margins; flowers monoecious borne in
cyathia; petaloid appendages white; ovary and
capsule glabrous; seeds white with transverse
wrinkles.
August-October; summer. Palominas-3 1607. GRAS.
Infrequent-occasional. 5.
Chamaesyce serpyllifolia (Pers.) Small- THYMELEAF SANDMAT
[Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers.]
Prostrate annual forb branching from central point;
herbage with milky sap; stems reddish; leaves
opposite, inequilateral at base, serrate margins on
upper half, often red along midvein; flowers
monoecious borne in cyathia; petaloid appendages
48
Desert Plants
white, ovary and capsule glabrous, ~2mm long; seeds
wrinkled.
July-September; summer. Charleston-gauge 1183,
Boquillas Wash 1410. TERIWASH. Common. 5.
Chamaesyce serrula (Engelm.) Woot. & Standi.- SAWTOOTH
SPURGE
[Euphorbia serrula Engelm.]
Prostrate to ascending annual forb; herbage pilose,
with milky sap; leaves opposite, inequilateral at base,
with serrulate margins, sometimes with red along
midvein; flowers monoecious, borne in cyathia;
petaloid appendages white; ovary and capsule
glabrous, ~2mm long; seeds smooth.
August-November; summer. Walnut Gulch 1354, St.
David 1381. WASH(2). Occasional. 5.
Chamaesyce setiloba (Engelm. ex Torr.) Millsp. ex ParishYUMA SPURGE
[Euphorbia setiloba Engelm. ex Torr.]
Prostrate annual forb branching from central point;
herbage pubescent, with milky sap; leaves opposite,
inequilateral at base, with entire margins; flowers
monoecious borne in cyathia; inflorescence
(cyathium) urceolate; petaloid appendages white,
deeply parted into attenuated segments; ovary and
capsule pubescent, -1.5 mm long; seeds smooth.
February-November; summer. Charleston-mesquite
682, Boquillas Wash 1413. CDS/WASH. Common.
5.p.94
Chamaesyce stictospora (Engelm.) Small - NARROW-SEEDED
SPURGE
[Euphorbia stictospora Engelm.]
Prostrate annual forb branching from central point;
herbage pubescent, with milky sap; leaves opposite,
inequilateral at base, margins irregularly serrate on
upper half; flowers monoecious borne in cyathia;
petaloid appendages white (minute); ovary and
anywhere else,~ 1.5 mm long; seeds punctately pitted
and mottled.
September-October; summer. Charleston-gage
1183(a), Palominas-3 1404. TER/GRAS. Common.
5.
Chamaesyce vermiculata (Raf.) House- WORMSEED SANDMAT
[Euphorbia vermiculata Raf.]
Prostrate annual forb branching from central point;
herbage generally pubescent, usually with pilose hairs
at nodes, milky sap; leaves opposite, inequilateral at
base, margins widely serrate; flowers monoecious
borne in cyathia; petaloid appendages absent; ovary
and capsule glabrous, - 1.5 mm long; seeds
reticulately wrinkled to smooth. August-October;
summer. Palominas-3 522. AGR. Occasional. 5.
Cnidoscolus angustidens Torr. - MALA-MUJER
Monoecious perennial forb from fleshy rhizomes;
herbage with stinging hairs and milky sap; leaves
alternate, palmately veined and often palmately deeply
lobed, blades 10-15 em long; Inflorescences terminal
cymes; staminate flowers toward outside ofthe cyme,
2006
calyx 5-lobed and petal-like, white; pistillate flowers
toward the center ofthe cyme, sepals 5 separate, petallike, white; fruit a 3-seeded capsule.
June-October; summer. Charleston Hills 1113. ROC.
Infrequent. 5. p. 94
Croton pottsii (Klotzsch) Muell.-Arg. -LEATHER WEED
[Croton corymbulosus Engelm.]
Monoecious perennial forb usually< 30 em; herbage
with watery latex, stellate to !epidote pubescence;
leaves alternate, mostly lanceolate, < 2.5 em wide;
inflorescences terminal and axillary; pistillate flowers
proximal and numerous, staminate flowers distal
with well-developed corollas; fruit a 3-seeded capsule.
June-October; summer/fall. Charleston Hills N 1160,
Boquillas 800, Charleston 1204. ROC/CDS2.
Occasional. 5. p. 94
Euphorbia cuphosperma (Engelm.) Boiss.- SPURGE
[Euphorbia dentata Michx. var. cuphosperma
(Engelm.) F em.]
Annual branching forb 10-20 em; leaves opposite,
linear-lanceolate with entire margins 3-7 em long;
flowers monoecious borne in cyathia; petaloid
appendages white; ovary andcapsule pubescent, -3
mm, seeds with transverse ridges.
August-October; summer. Fairbank- Graveyard Gulch
1188. TER. Infrequent. 5.
Euphorbia dentata Mich.x. - TOOTHED SPURGE
Annual branching forb 10-30 em; leaves opposite,
lance-ovate with undulate-toothed margins 3-6
em long; flowers monoecious borne in cyathia;
petaloid appendages absent, glands of the involucre
cup-shaped; ovary glabrous, 3 mm long 4mm wide,
seeds with warty protuberances.
July-November; summer. Palominas-3 1601. AGR.
Occasional. 5. p. 94
Euphorbia exstipulata Engelm. - SQUARESEED SPURGE
Annual erect forb 10-20 em, herbage with milky sap;
stem branches opposite, lower ones the longest;
leaves opposite, serrate, narrow, 2-4 em long; flowers
monoecious borne in cyathia; petaloid appendages
white, ovary glabrous, 3 to 5 mm across; seeds brown
to sordid white.
August-September; summer. Charleston Hills E 1282,
Palominas-3 1598, Charleston-gauge 2499. ROC/
AGR/CDS. Infrequent. 5. p. 94
Euphorbia heterophyl!a L. - PAINTED SPURGE, MEXICAN
FIREPLANT, CATALINA
Annual branching forb 20-40 em; leaves alternate,
highly variable (linear to irregular), mostly entire, 38 em long; flowers monoecious borne in cyathia;
petaloid appendages absent, glands of the involucre
cup-shaped; ovary glabrous, -3 mm seeds with warty
protuberances.
August-October; summer. Palominas-3 579, St. David
591, Hunter 1348. GRAS/SAC2. Common 5. p. 94.
San Pedro River
Euphorbia spathulata Lam. - WARTY SPURGE
Annual forb to 45 em; herbage with milky sap; leaves
opposite, margins serrate; flowers monoecious
borne in cyathia, petaloid appendages minute; ovary
capsule roughened.
March-June; spring. St. David, F.W. Gould 3129,
ARIZ. RIP(CW). Infrequent? 4.
Jatropha macrorhiza Benth. - RAGGED NETTLESPURGE
Monoecious perennial forb to 60 em; root enlarged
tuber; herbage with clear latex; leaves large,
alternate, with 5-7 deeply incised lobes; inflorescence
terminal cymes; pistillate flowers pink; fruit a 3seeded capsule.
May-August; spring/summer. Hereford 4 7 6, Lewis
Springs 736. TER/GRAS. Occasional. 5. p. 94
Manihot angustiloba (Torr.) Muell.-Arg. -DESERT MOUNTAIN
MANIHOT
Monoecious perennial forb with tuberous roots and
milky latex; leaves alternate, long petiolate 4-10
em long, deeply palmately lobed.
July-October; summer. CharlestonHillsE 1116, 1224,
Brunckow Hill1571. ROC3.Infrequent. 5. p. 95
Tragia nepetifolia Cav. var. dissecta Muell.-Arg. - CATNIP
NOSEBURN
Monoecious perennial forb; stems slender, often
twining; herbage with stinging hairs; leaves
alternate, serrate, elliptic < 3 em; flowers borne in
terminal or lateral bracteate racemesstaminate flowers
above, 2 to many; pistillate flowers below, 1 to 2, the
sepals 6; fruit 3-seeded capsule.
June-November; summer. Fairbank 1074, Charleston
Hills W 1195, 1435. DIST/ROC/CDS. Infrequentoccasional. 5 ..
FABACEAE
Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze -WHITE BALL ACACIA, FERN
ACACIA
Shrub to 150 em; leaves alternate, twice compound,
6-1 0 em long, leaflets 4-8 mm long; flowers white, in
dense globose heads; pod 3-7 em long, ~ 1em wide.
June-September; summer. Fairbank 1143, Charleston
Hills S 1357, CharlestonHillsN 1159, Hereford 1633.
TER/ROC(2)/DIST. Infrequent-occasional. 5. p. 95
Acacia constricta Benth. - WHITETHORN ACACIA
Shrub to 4m, usually with paired spines at nodes aging
white; leaves alternate, twicecompound with 3-5
pinnae; flowers yellow, in dense globose heads; fruit
a linear strait-slightly curved pod, strongly constricted
between seeds. Large specimens with minute
spines, sometimes referred to as var. paucispinus
(Makings 15 56).
March-September; spring/summer. Fairbank 637,
Moson Springs 1033, Hunter 1556. TER/CDS2.
Abundant. 5. p. 95
Acacia greggii Gray- CATCLAW ACACIA
Shrub or tree to 4m, armed with curved spines; leaves
alternate, twice compound with 2-4 pinnae; flowers
Makings
49
cream in dense elongate clusters; fruit a pod with
round segments irregularly constricted.
April-September; spring/summer. Boquillas UA 995.
BOS. Abundant. 5. p. 95
Acacia neovernicosa Isely - VISCID ACACIA, WHITE THORN
ACACIA
Shrub to 3 m with paired spines at nodes aging white,
young twigs and leaves sticky-glandular; leaves
alternate, twice compound with 1-2 pairs of pinnae;
flowers yellow in dense globose heads; fruit a
linear strait-slightly curved pod, constricted between
seeds.
April-August; spring/summer. Tombstone-gauge
1303, Hunter 1556. ROC/CDS. Abundant. 5. p. 95
Astragalus allochrous Gray var. playanus Isely - HALFMOON
VETCH
[Astragalus wootonii Sheldon]
Short-lived perennial, acaulescent forb to 30 em;
leaves compound, leaflets linear-lanceolate about 1
em long, strigose on both sides; flowers purple in
many-flowered racemes; pods inflated 15-25 mm
long.
March-May; spring. Palominas-3 957, Charlestongauge 1500. AGR/TER. Infrequent-occasional. 5.
Astragalus mollissimus Torr. - WOOLLY MILKVETCH
Perennial acaulescent forb; leaves compound to 20
em long; leaflets > 20, lance-ovate, woolly, < 2cm
long.
March-June; spring. Murray Springs 1587. WASH.
Rare. 5.
Astragalus thurberi Gray- THURBER's MILKVETCH
Short-lived perennial acaulescent forb to 30 em;
leaves compound, leaflets linear-lanceolate about 1
em long, strigose on underside, glabrous on top;
flowers purple in crowded racemes; pods inflated,
globose, less than 10 mm long.
March-May; spring. Palominas-3 953. DIST.
Infrequent-occasional. 5. p. 95
Astragalus vaccarum Gray - Cow SPRING MILK VETCH
Prostrate to erect perennial forb 20-40 em; leaves
compound, alternate; leaflets > 15, hairy underneath,
glabrous above, 8-15 mm long; flowers purple, ~5mm
long, in dense racemes; pods deflexed, 6-12 mm long,
with cusp-like beak.
June-October; summer/fall. San Pedro House 1646.
AGR. Rare-infrequent. 5.
*Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) Wallich ex D. Dietr.- MEXICAN
BIRD-OF-PARADISE
Shrub to 3 m; leaves alternate, bipinnate, large, with
many small leaflets; flowers in terminal racemes, large
and showy, the petals yellow with red throat; stamens
and pistil showy, red; pods large, flat.
May-August; summer. Kolbe 1020, Walnut Gulch
1353. AGRIWASH. Infrequent. 5. p. 95
Calliandra eriophylla Benth. - FAIRY DUSTER
Sub-shrub under 40 em without spines; leaves
alternate, compound, leaflets usually more than seven
50
Desert Plants
pairs, < 7 mm long, < 2 mm wide, grayish pubescent;
flowers in heads with long red conspicuous stamens,
about 20 mm long; pods pubescent, sword-shaped,
erect.
March-October; spring/summer/fall. Charleston Hills
S 1361, Charleston Hills W 1440, Charleston Hills E
1764. ROC3. Infrequent. 5. p. 95
Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench - PARTRIDGE PEA
[Cassia leptadenia Greenm.]
Annual erect forb to 25 em; leaves alternate,
compound, 2-3 em long; flowers yellow, in leaf axils;
fruit a flattened pod 3-4 em long.
August-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 708,
Palominas-3 1596. CDSIRIP(CW). Common. 5.
Crotalaria pumila Ortega - RATTLE BOX
Annual forb to 40 em; leaves alternate, trifoliate,
leaflets oblanceolate 1-3 em long; flowers in terminal
and axillary racemes, petals orange-yellow much
surpassing the calyx; pod inflated oblong, ~ 2 em long.
August-October; summer/fall. Cottonwood 768,
Summers 1274. RIP(CW)/TER. Occasional. 5.
Da/ea a/biflora Gray - WHITEFLOWER PRAIRIE CLOVER
Perennial or annual forb to 60 em; leaves alternate,
compound, leaflets ovate-elliptic, 5-8 mm long;
flowers white, in dense heads at branch tips,
peduncles usually longer than the spikes; bracts longattenuate.
June-October; summer/fall. Summers 1273. RIP(CH).
Rare-infrequent. 5.
Dalea candida Michx. ex Willd. var. oligophylla (Torr.)
Shinners - WHITE PRAIRIE CLOVER
[Petalostemon candidum (Willd.) Michx. var.
oligophyllum (Torr.) F.J. Herm.]
Perennial forb 20-50 em; leaves alternate, compound,
odd pinnate, glad-dotted 2-3 em long; leaflets 3-5, <
lcm, spatulate; flowers white, in dense heads at branch
tips.
May-August; summer. Murray Springs 1590. WASH.
Infrequent-rare. 5.
Da/ea formosa Torr. - FEATHERPLUME
Shrub usually< 1 m; leaves alternate, compound, odd
pinnate, glad-dotted, leaflets < 3 mm long; flowers in
terminal few-flowered spikes; corolla purple, bracts,
setaceous.
February-October; spring/summer. Curtis Windmill
870. CDS. Occasional. 5.
Da/ea [achnostachys Gray - GLANDLEAF PRAIRIE CLOVER
Perennial forb to 40 em; herbage with strong odor,
conspicuously gland-dotted; leaves alternate,
compound, leaflets ovate, pubescent, gland-dotted;
inflorescence a spike 4-8 em long and 20 mm wide;
flowers purple, calyx lobes ending in awn 5 mm long,
covered in soft hairs.
June-September; summer. Charleston Road 1245,
1367, Brunckow Hilll539. DIST2/ROC. Infrequent.
S.p. 95
2006
Dalea neomexicana (Gray) Cory- DOWNY PRAIRIE CLOVER
Perennial forb 15-30 em; stems mostly prostrate;
leaves alternate, compound, leaflets ovate, glanddotted, < 5 mm long ; inflorescence a spike ~2 em
long and 1 em wide; flowers purple, calyx lobes with
soft hairs.
March-May; spring. Fairbank 1111. DIST. Infrequent.
5.
Da/ea pogonathera Gray - BEARDED PRAIRIE CLOVER
Perennial forb to 40 em; leaves alternate, compound,
leaflets linear-elliptic, gland-dotted, < 1 em long;
inflorescence a spike 5 to 10 em long and ~ 1.5 em
wide; flowers purple, calyx lobes setaceous.
April-September; spring/summer. Charleston-gauge
288, Charleston Rd 1142, 1209, Charleston Hills E
1340. TERIDIST2/ROC. Occasional. 5.
Dalea wrightii Gray- WRIGHT's PRAIRIE CLOVER
Perennial forb to 30 em; leaves alternate, compound,
leaflets lance-elliptic to ovate, gland-dotted,~ lcm
long, pubescent; inflorescence a spike 3 to 7 em long
and ~2 em wide; flowers purple, calyx lobes
setaceous.
August-November; summer/fall. Charleston Hills E
1328, Headless Sphinx 1681. CDS/ROC. Infrequent.
5.p.96
Desmodium neomexicanum Gray- NEw MEXICO TICKTREFOIL
Annual forb to 60 em; leaves alternate, trifoliate,
leaflets lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1-5 em long;
flowers in terminal and axillary racemes, the corolla
small, pinkish-whitish; fruit a flattened lament, usually
sessile, segments contorted.
August-October; summer/fall. St. David 603. BOS.
Occasional. 5.
Desmodium procumbens (P. Mill.) A.S. Hitchc.- WESTERN
TRAILING TICKTREFOll..
Annual forb to 60 em; leaves alternate, trifoliate,
leaflets lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1-5 em long;
flowers in terminal and axillary racemes, the corolla
small, pinkish-whitish; fruit a flattened lament,
distinctly stipate, segments contorted.
August-October; summer/fall. Charleston-gauge
1318. ROC. Infrequent. 5.
Desmodium rosei Schuh.- RosE's TICKTREFOIL
Annual forb to 60 em; leaves alternate, trifoliate,
leaflets linear-lanceolate, 1-5 em long, not more than
5 mm wide; flowers in terminal and axillary racemes,
the corolla small, pinkish-whitish; fruit a flattened
loment, segments not contorted.
August-October; summer/fall. Cottonwood 774. TER.
Occasional-infrequent. 5.
Galactia wrightii Gray- WRIGHT's MILKPEA
Perennial herbaceous vine; leaves pinnately trifoliate;
leaflets elliptic to oblong-lanceolate; flowers pale
purple and greenish yellow, in axillary, peduncled,
bracted racemes; calyx 4-cleft, the wings and keel
united below; pods linear, several seeded.
San Pedro River
Makings
51
June-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 1234,1237,
Charleston Hills E 1332. ROC3. Infrequent. 5.
p.96
*Gleditsia triacanthos L.- HONEYLUCUST
Mature tree ~12 meters tall surrounded by clonal
suckers; large branching thorns at nodes along trunk.
Only known specimen at Government Draw (Lewis
· Springs), probably remnant from old homestead.
May; spring. Lewis Springs 1517. RIP(CW). Rare. 3.
Hoffmannseggia glauca (Ortega) Eifert - HOG-POTATO,
CAMOTE-DE-RA.TON
[H offmannseggia densiflora Benth.]
Rhizomatous perennial forb 10-20 em; roots often
tuberous; leaves bipinnately compound,leaflets
small; flowers in terminal racemes, yellow, glanddotted red; pods 20-40 mm long, flattened, slightly
curved.
April-August; summer. Hereford 321, Kolbe 355.
TER/SAC. Common. 4. p. 96
*Lathyrus latifolius L. - PERENNIAL PEA
Perennial climbing vine; stems broadly winged; leaves
6-12 em long; leaflets 2, 3-8 em long, 5-20 mm wide,
lance-elliptic; tendrils branched, coiled; peduncles 715 em long; racemes 5-15 flowered; flowers pink
purple, fading white; pods 6-8 em long. Probably
cultivated, but persisting and spreading at homesite.
June-July; spring/summer. Boquillas 2511. DIST.
Rare. 4.
Lotus humistratus Greene - HILL LOCUST
Annual forb to 20 em; stems sometimes prostrate;
leaves alternate, compound, pubescent; leaflets lanceovate, < 1 em long; flowers orange, axillary.
March-May; spring. Kolbe 327. RIP(CH). Infrequent.
Perennial forb; leaves trifoliate, the leaflets finely
dentate; flowers small, in heads; corolla violet;
pods spirally coiled, several-seeded, glabrous.
March-September; spring/summer. San Pedro House
1169. DIST. Infrequent. 5.
*Melilotus alba Medik. - WHITE SWEET CLOVER
Annual forb to 1 m; stems usually much-branched;
leaves trifoliate; leaflets fmely dentate; flowers white,
~4 mm long, in elongate, narrow racemes; pods ovoid,
seeds 1 or few.
May-September; spring/summer. Contention 972.
Habitat(s): RIP(CH). Abundant. 4.5.
*Melilotus indicus (L.) All. - YELLOW SWEETCLOVER,
SOURCLOVER
Annual forb to 60 em; stems usually much-branched;
leaves trifoliate; leaflets fmely dentate; flowers yellow,
< 3 mm long, in elongate, narrow racemes; pods ovoid,
seeds 1 or few.
March-July; spring/summer. Lewis Springs 179,
Moson Springs 1029. RIP(CH)2. Common. 4.5.
Mimosa aculeaticarpa Ortega var. biuncifera (Benth.)
Bameby- CAT'S CLAW MIMOSA
Shrub usually less than 1 m armed with curved spines;
leaves compound with numerous small leaflets;
flowers white, small, in many-flowered heads.
May-August; summer. Palominas-3 409, Charleston
Hills S 1360. TER/CDS. Occasional. 5. p. 96
Parkinsonia acufeata L. - MEXICAN PALO VERDE, RETAMA
Immature tree 1.8 m tall armed with thorns; leaves
compound, in clusters at nodes, rachis 20-30 em long;
leaflets ovate,< 3mm long; flowers yellow. Only one
specimen found along Hwy 92.
April-August; spring. Palominas 1566. DIST. Rare.
5.
Lupinus concinnus J.G. Agardh- SCARLET LUPINE
Annual forb 7-15 em; leaves digitately compound,
woolly, long-petiolate; flowers purple, in spike-like
raceme, not or barely surpassing the leaves; pods
about 10 mm long, pubescent.
March-May; spring. Palominas-3 960, Boquillas
1535. RIP(CW)IRIP(CH). Infrequent. 5.
*Macroptilium gibbosifolium (Ortega) A. Delgado VARIABLELEAF BUSHBEAN
[Phaseolus heterophyllus Willd.]
Perennial herbaceous vine; stems long and trailing;
herbage soft pubescent; leaves pinnately trifoliate;
flowers brick red drying purplish, in axillary racemes;
pods linear< 5 mm wide. July-October; summer/fall.
Escapul Wash 823(a). WASH. Infrequent. 5.
*Medicago fupufina L. - BLACK MEDICK
Annual forb; leaves trifoliate, the leaflets finely
dentate; flowers small, in axillary racemes; corolla
yellow; pods kidney-shaped, coiled in 1 plane, 1seeded, pubescent.
April-October; spring/summer. Hunter 1052.
RIP(CH). Infrequent. 3.
*Medicago sativa L. - ALFALFA
Phaseolus acutifolius Gray var. latifolius Freeman - TEPARY
BEAN
Annual vine; stems long and trailing; leaves pinnately
trifoliate, leaflets mostly triangular-lanceolate; flowers
purplish, in axillary racemes; pods 4-7 em long, 4-10
mmwide.
August-October; summer. St. David 621, Kolbe 806.
TERIRIP(CH). Common. 5. p. 96
Phaseolus angustissimus Gray - SLIMLEAF BEAN
Perennial herbaceous vine; stems long and trailing;
leaves pinnately trifoliate; leaflets mostly
triangular-ovate, much longer than wide; flowers
purplish, in axillary racemes; pods 4-7 em long, 4-1 0
mmwide.
May-October; spring/summer. Fairbank 1110, 13 97.
DIST2. Occasional. 5.
Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. torreyana (L. Benson) M.C.
Johnston- WESTERN HONEY MESQUITE
[Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. var. torreyana L.
Benson]
Tree or shrub; leaves alternate, with one pair of
pinnae; leaflets about 5 times longer than
wide, often 10 mm long, 11-19 pairs/pinna;
5.
52
Desert Plants
inflorescence a dense, spike-like cylinder, 6-9 em
long; flowers numerous, crowded, pale yellowish, 45 mm long; pods strait to moderately curved, 10-20
em long, slightly constricted between seeds.
April-June; spring. Charleston-gauge 1220. RIP(CW).
Rare. 5.
Prosopis velutina Woot. - VELVET MESQUITE
[Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. var. velutina (Woot.)
Sarg.]
Tree or shrub; leaves alternate, with one pair of
pinnae; leaflets - 3 times longer than wide, < 10 mm
long, closely spaced, >20 pairs/pinna; inflorescence
a dense, spikelike cylinder, 6-9 em long; flowers
numerous, crowded, pale yellowish, 4-5 mm long;
pods strait to moderately curved, 10-20 em long,
slightly constricted between seeds. Dominant tree/
shrub on pre-entrenchment alluvium.
March-August; spring. Cottonwood 265, Moson
Springs 1031. BOS/TER. Abundant. 4. p. 96
Rhynchosia senna Gillies ex Hook. var. texana (Torr. &
Gray) M.C. Johnston- ROSARY BEAN
[Rhynchosia texan a Torr. & Gray]
Perennial herbaceous vine with trailing or weakly
twining stems; leaves pinnately trifoliate; leaflets
seldom less than twice as long as wide, linear or
narrowly elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, rounded to
acutish at apex, the veins often prominent beneath;
flowers yellow, in few-flowered axillary racemes
or fascicles; the keel more or less falcate; podsflat,
pubescent, slightly lunate, asymmetric, completely
dehiscent; seeds 1 or 2.
June-October; summer. Hereford 316, Tombstonegauge 1289. SAC/ROC. Occasional. 5.
Senna bauhinioides (Gray) Irwin & Barneby- TWINLEAF
SENNA
[Cassia bauhinioides Gray]
Perennial forb to 50 em; leaves alternate, compound;
leaflets 1 pair, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, 2-3 em long,
densely velvety; flowers all axillary, solitary or in
two's on peduncles surpassing the petioles, 2-3 em
wide, pale yellow; pods 2-3 em, splitting at both
sutures, pubescent.
April-August; spring/summer. Contention 657,
Charleston Rd. 1135, Hereford 1714. TER/DIST/
CDS. Occasional. 5. p. 96
Senna hirsuta (Gray) Irwin & Barneby- WOOLLY SENNA,
SLIMPOD SENNA
[Senna leptocarpa Benth.]
Perennial forb to 1.5 m; leaves alternate, compound;
leaflets lanceolate, 3-7 em long; flowers in terminal
paniculate racemes; curved, > 15 em long.
July-September; summer. Boquillas Wash 794, St.
David 1252. WASH/RIP(CH). Occasional. 5. p. 96
Sophora nuttalliana B.L. Turner- WHITE LOCO, SILKY SOPHORA
[Sophora sericea Nutt.]
Perennial rhizomatous forb< 30 em; leaves alternate,
compound; leaflets -8-10 mm long; flowers in
2006
terminal racemes, corolla cream, -1cm long; pods
1-4 em long, 1 to 3- seeded, constricted between
seeds.
May-June; spring. Kingfisher Pond 1129. RIP(CW).
Infrequent-rare. 5.
Sphinctospermum constrictum (S. Wats.) Rose- HOURGLASS
PEASEED
Delicate annual forb < 15 em; stems slender, sparingly
branched; herbage sparsely strigose; leaves
reduced to one long, narrowly linear leaflet; flowers
axillary, solitary or in pairs, light purple; pods linear,
flat and dangling.
May-October; summer/fall. Boquillas 799, Charleston
Hills E 1283, Charleston-gauge 2498. WASH/
ROC/CDS. Infrequent. 5. p. 96
FAGACEAE
Quercus emoryi Torr. - EMORY OAK
Monoecious tree or shrub to 10 m; leaves alternate,
mostly oblong-lanceolate, 2-6 em long, 1-3 em
wide, woolly when young, commonly with tuft of
reddish hairs on base of midvein, margins
sinuate with small, spinulose teeth; staminate flowers
in aments, pistillate flowers solitary or in groups on
spike; fruit an acorn. Only one specimen found.
March-April; spring. Palominas-3 Bagstad s.n.ASU.
RIP(CW). Rare. 5.
FOUQUIERIACEAE
Fouquieria splendens Engelm. - ocoTILLO
Spiny shrub to 4 m; leaves on new growth petioled,
soon deciduous in dry weather, the petioles in part
remaining as a spine when the leaf falls; inflorescences
terminal panicles 5-20 em long; flowers bright red,
tubular, 7-22 mm long; fruit a 3-valved capsule.
December-June; winter/spring. Curtis Windmill1062,
Charleston Hills 1466. CDS/ROC. Occasional. 5.
FUMARIACEAE
Corydalis aurea Willd. - SCRAMBLED EGGS
Annual forb from taproot, usually < 20 em; herbage
glaucous; leaves alternate, once or twice compound;
inflorescences terminal or axillary racemes or
panicles, usually not exceeding the leaves; flowers
irregular, with a spur, yellow, 14-18 mm long; fruit a
cylindrical capsule, 12-24 mm long.
March-June; spring. Escalante Crossing 32, Fairbank
64, Summers 901. TER/BOS/RIP(CW).
Occasional. 5.
GENTIANACEAE
Centaurium calycosum (Buckl.) Fern.- ARizoNA CENTAURY
Annual forb to 70 em; leaves opposite, sessile,
lanceolate to ovate, 2-5 em long; inflorescence
cymose; flowers pedicellate, corolla pink, the tube
12-20 mm long, lobes lanceolate; anthers spirally
twisting; fruit cylindric capsule, 8-14 nun long.
San Pedro River
May-October; spring/summer. Kolbe 326, Escalante
Crossing 1106. RIP(CH)2. Infrequent. 3.5. p. 96
GROSSULARIACEAE
Ribes aureum Pursh - GOLDEN CURRANT
Shrub to 3m; leaves alternate, deeply 3-lobed, the
lobes sparingly crenate-dentate, shallowly cleft;
flowers in racemes, (yellow?); fruit a globose berry,
smooth, reddish or black, 6-8 nun. One individual
found near Palominas.
March-July; spring. Palominas-UA 404. RIP(CW).
Rare. 3.
HYDROPHYLLACEAE
Eucrypta micrantha (Torr.) Heller- SMALL-FLOWERED EUCRYPTA
Delicate annual forb 5-15 em; herbage glandular and
pubescent; leaves opposite below, pinnatifid, reduced
upwards; inflorescences few-flowered cymes; flowers
blue, axillary.
February-May; winter/spring. Boquillas 1536.
RIP(CH). Infrequent. 5.
Nama hispidum Gray- SAND BELLS
Annual forb 5-15 em; herbage pubescent; leaves
alternate, narrowly spatulate, gradually
narrowing to a winged petiole, upper leaves smaller,
sessile; flowers lavender, 13-15 mm long; fruit a
capsule.
February-June; spring. Fairbank 79, St. David 611.
TER2. Occasional-common. 5. p. 96
Phacelia arizonica Gray -ARIZONA PHACELIA
Annual forb to 40 em; herbage glandular, with stiff
hairs; leaves alternate, entire to bipinnate, larger
leaves basal; inflorescences helicoid (curled at the tip
like a scorpion's tail); corolla tubular, light blue,
stamens and styles exerted 3-4 mm; fruit a capsule;
central ridge of seeds lacking corrugations.
March-May; spring. Fairbank 66, Palominas-3 417.
RIP( CW)/TER. Occasional. 5.
Phacelia caerulea Greene- SKYBLUE PHACELIA
Annual forb to 40 em; herbage glandular, with stiff
hairs; leaves alternate, entire to bipinnate, larger
leaves basal; inflorescences helicoid; corolla tubular,
light blue, stamens and styles exerted 2 nun or more;
fruit a capsule; ventral surface of seed divided by a
prominent ridge, corrugated on one side.
April; spring. Fairbank 67, Escalante Crossing 928a,
Contention 98, Lewis Springs 230. RIP(CH)2/
TER/RIP(CW). Common-occasional. 5.
Phacelia crenulata Torr. ex S. Wats. - WILD HELIOTROPE
Annual forb to 40 em; herbage glandular, with stiff
hairs; leaves alternate, entire to bipinnate, larger
leaves basal; inflorescences helicoid; corolla tubular,
light blue, stamens and styles exerted 4-10 nun; fruit
a capsule; ventral surface of seed divided by a
prominent ridge, corrugated on one side.
February-June; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 928,
SDC 1488. RIP(CH)2. Common. 5.
Makings
53
IRIDACEAE
Sisyrinchium demissum Greene - BLUE-EYED GRASS
Perennial graminoid to 40 em; leaves grass-like, tworanked; flowers in few-flowered umbels, blue-violet
with yellow bases; fruit a straw-colored capsule.
April-October; summer. SDC 1564. SDC. Infrequentrare. 1. p. 96
JUGLANDACEAE
Juglans major (Torr.) Heller- ARIZoNA WALNUT
Monoecious tree, mature specimens to 15 meters tall;
leaves pinnately compound; leaflets 9-13,
lanceolate, serrate; staminate flowers in drooping
catkins; pistillate flowers solitary or few; fruit a hardshelled nut.
March-June; spring. Moson Springs 366, Lewis
Springs 1518. RIP(CW). Occasional. 2.
JUNCACEAE
Juncus arcticus Willd.var. balticus (Willd.) Trautvetter- WIRE
RUSH, BALTIC RUSH.
Rhizomatous perennial graminoid to 70 em; 1 or 2
basal, sheathing leaves, blades absent;
inflorescences lateral, primary bract many times
exceeding inflorescence; flowers congested,
variously pedicellate; tepals chestnut brown or paler;
fruit a capsule.
April-October; spring/summer. Cottonwood 260,
Boquillas UA 1007, Summers 1266. AQU/
RIP(CW)/RIP(CH). Common. 1.
Juncus interior Wieg. - ARIZONA RUSH, INTERIOR RUSH
Rhizomatous perennial graminoid to 60 em; leaves
basal, flat, 5-15 em long; inflorescence compact,
primary bract usually shorter than inflorescence;
flowers congested, variously pedicellate; tepals
greenish; fruit a capsule.
February-September; spring/summer. Palominas-3
961. RIP(CH). Infrequent. 3.
Juncus torreyi Coville- TORREY's RUSH
Rhizomatous perennial graminoid; stems round in
cross-section to 90 em; 1-3 linear stem
leaves, 15-20 em long, extending at 30-40 degree
angle from stem apex; inflorescence ahead-like
cluster of flowers, greenish-brown; fruit a capsule.
April-July; spring/summer. Boquillas UA 990,
Charleston-gauge 1553. RIP(CH)2. Common. 2.
p.97
KRAMERIACEAE
Krameria erecta Willd. ex J.A. Schultes - WHITE RATANY
[Krameria parvifolia Benth.]
Much branched shrub to 40 em; leaves lanceolatelinear 1-2 em long, variably strigose, sometimes
bearing trichomes; flowers reddish-purple, irregular,
solitary or clustered in axils or near branch tips;
stamens 4, filaments distinct beyond the point of
54
Desert Plants
insertion; fruit globose, with a few retrorse barbs at
spine tips.
March-October; summer. Charleston Hills N 1163.
CDS. Occasional-infrequent. 5. p. 97
Krameria lanceolata Torr. - RATANY
Sprawling sub-shrub < 30 ern; sterns herbaceous,
radiating from central woody underground stern;
leaves lanceolate-linear 1-2 ern long, tornentose;
flowers reddish-purple, irregular, arranged on one side
of the stern axis near branch tips; stamens 4,
filaments connate 1-2.5 mm beyond the point of
insertion; fruit globose, without barbs at spine tips.
May-August; summer. Palorninas-3 1604. AGR.
Infrequent-rare. 5.
LAMIACEAE
*Marrubium vulgare L. - COMMON HOREHOUND
Rhizomatous perennial forb; herbage tornentose;
leaves opposite, ovate to round, crenate;
inflorescences axillary, flowers cream, in head-like
clusters, two-lipped; calyx 4-6 mm, with 10 teeth.
April-September; spring/summer. Palorninas-UA383,
Palorninas-3 421. RIP(CW)2. Occasional. 5.
*Mentha spicata L. - SPEARMINT
Perennial rhizomatous forb; herbage spearmint
scented; leaves opposite, ovate, serrate, 2-5 ern long;
flowers pale purple, in dense spikes at ends of
branches.
June-October; summer. SDC 1560, Lewis Springs
marsh 1577. SDC/MARSH. Infrequent. 2. p. 97
Salvia rejlexa Homern. - RocKY MoUNTAIN SAGE, LANCELEAF
SAGE
Annual forb to 70 ern; leaves opposite, petiolate,
mostly linear-lanceolate, finely-toothed;
inflorescence a terminal spike 5-25 ern long; flowers
in verticles of mostly 2(or more); corollas blue, twolipped, calyx with non-glandular hairs; fruit a nutlet.
Very similar to S. subincisa, differing in the
characters of the calyx, and leaf margins.
June-September; summer. SDC 743, Fairbank 1167.
TER/DIST. Occasional. 5.
Salvia subincisa Benth.- SAWTOOTH SAGE
Annual forb to 70 ern; leaves opposite, petiolate,
mostly linear-lanceolate, coarsely- toothed;
inflorescence a terminal spike 5-25 ern; flowers in
verticles of mostly >2; corollas blue, two-lipped; calyx
with glandular hairs; fruit a nutlet. Very similar to S.
reflex a differing in the characters of the calyx, leaf
margins, and flowers being more exerted.
June-September; summer. Charleston-gauge 1181.
TER. Occasional. 5. p. 97
*Salvia ti/iifo/ia Vahl - LINDENLEAF SAGE
Annual forb to 70 ern; leaves opposite, petiolate, ovate
to round, crenate; inflorescences terminal and lateral
spikes 5-25 ern long; flowers in verticles of mostly 1
to 4; corollas blue, two-lipped; fruit a nutlet.
2006
September-October; summer. Palorninas-3 1401.
RIP(CW). Rare. 5. p. 97
LEMNACEAE
Lemna gibba L. - INFLATED DUCKWEED
Floating aquatic forb; leaves reduced to minute
spherical fronds, obovate, 1-8 rnrn long,
single or cohering in small groups, lower surface often
inflated.
March-September; spring/summer. Cottonwood 1071.
AQU. Occasional. 1.
Lemna minor L. -DUCKWEED
Floating aquatic forb; leaves reduced to minute
spherical fronds, obovate, 1-8 mm long, single or
cohering in small groups.
June-August; summer. Kolbe 361. AQU. Occasional.
1.
LILIACEAE
Echeandia flavescens (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) Cruden TORREY'S CRAGLILY
Scapose perennial graminoid; leaves narrow,
grasslike; flowers in slender racemes; corolla
orange-yellow, the segments narrow, distinct or nearly
so; fruit an oblong capsule.
August-September; summer/fall. Palominas, L.
Williams s.n., ASU. CDS. Infrequent. 5. p. 97
Milia bijlora Cav. - MEXICAN STAR
Perennial grarninoid from tunicate bulb; leaves all
basal, narrow, grasslike; flowers solitary or in umbellike clusters of 2 or 3; corolla large, salverform, the
lobes about 2 ern long, white with a green midvein;
fruit a capsule.
July-September; summer. Palorninas, L. Williams s.n.,
ASU. CDS. Infrequent. 5.
Zephyranthes longifolia Hernsl. -ZEPHYR-LILY
Perennial graminoid from bulb; leaves narrow, onionlike, somewhat fleshy; flowering sterns scapose;
flowers yellow, subtended by spathelike bract, borne
singly at end of stern.
June-August; summer. St. David 1655, Fairbank2382.
CDS/TER. Rare. 5. p. 97
LOASACEAE
Mentzelia albicaulis (Dougl. ex Hook.) Dougl. ex Torr. &
Gray- SMALL-FLOWERED BLAZING STAR
Annual forb to 15-45 em; sterns pale; leaves 2-10 em
long, narrowly elliptic, clasping, sandpapery, mostly
deeply lobed; flowers yellow 1-5 mm long; fruit a
linear capsule, slightly curved; seeds irregular in
cross-section.
February-June; spring. Contention 92, Charlestongauge 1504. TERIRIP(CH). Occasional. 5.
Mentze/ia aspera L.- STICKLEAF, BLAZINGSTAR
Annual forb 20-7 5 ern; leaves 4-8 ern wide, ovate,
toothed, petiolate, sandpapery; flowers
San Pedro River
orange, 6-10 nun long; fruit a capsule 25-30 nun long,
tapering to the base; seeds blocky in outline.
August-September; summer. Charleston-gauge 1212.
ROC. Occasional. 5.
Mentzelia asperula Woot. & Standi.- STICKLEAF, BLAZING STAR
Annual forb 15-30 em; leaves 2-4 em long, broadly
ovate with large teeth near base, petiolate,
sandpapery; flowers orange 6-10 nun long; fruit a
capsule 7-15 nun long, tapering to the base; seeds
blocky in outline.
August-October; summer. CW 877, Charleston Hills
S 1399. CDS/ROC. Infrequent. 5.
Mentzelia isolata H. C. Gentry- ISOLATED BLAZING STAR
Annual forb 8-45 em; leaves 2-5 em long, lanceolate,
toothed near base, petiolate, sandpapery; flowers
orange 5-7 nun long; fruit a capsule 20-30 nun long,
tapering to base; seeds blocky in outline.
August-October; summer. Curtis Windmill876,
Charleston Hills S 1391. CDS/ROC. Infrequent. 5.
Mentzelia montana (Davidson) Davidson- VARIEGATED-BRACT
BLAZINGSTAR
Annual forb 10-50 em; leaves 2-5 em long, narrowly
elliptic-linear, usually entire, sandpapery; flowers
golden yellow 2-7 nun long; fruit a capsule 10-20 nun
long, tapering near base; seeds irregular in crosssection, angles sharp.
April-June; spring. Palominas-3 952, 962. AGR/
RIP(CH). Occasional. 5.
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray - MANY-FLOWERED
BLAZINGSTAR,ADONISBLAZINGSTAR
[Mentzelia pumila (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray]
Perennial forb to 80 em; leaves to 15 em long,
narrowly elliptic, deeply lobed, sessile, sandpapery;
flowers yellow, showy, 10-20 nun long; fruit a
cylindric capsule, 10-20 nun long; seeds winged.
March-October; spring/summer. St. David 610,
Walnut Gulch 1015. TER!WASH. Commonoccasional. 5. p. 97
LYTHRACEAE
Ammannia coccinea Rottb.- VALLEY REDSTEM
Annual erect forb to 70 em; leaves opposite, narrow
and clasping, 3-8 nun long, ; flowers pinkish, 4lobed, in axillary cymes of usually 3 or more; petals
and stamens borne on the throat of the calyx; fruit a
capsule, seeds numerous.
September-October; summer. SDC 1620. SDC. Rare.
1. p. 97
Lythrum californicum Torr. & Gray- CALIFORNIA LOOSESTRIFE
Perennial stoloniferous forb to 1.5 m; stems erect,
very leafy; leaves alternate or nearly opposite,
sessile, linear lanceolate 1-3 em long; flowers rose
purple, 8-10 nun long, solitary in axils, petals and
stamens borne on the throat of the calyx: fruit a
capsule, seeds numerous.
June-October; summer. SDC 1258. SDC. Common
in cienega, rare in SPRNCA. 1. p. 97
Makings
55
MALPIGHIACEAE
Janusia gracilis Gray- SLENDER JANUSIA
Sub-shrub usually < 40 em, with slender, sometimes
twining, tangled branches; leaves opposite, narrow,
with malpighiaceous hairs (fixed at the middle and
spreading, pick-like); flowers yellow, petals
clawed; fruit a pair (sometimes 3) samaras, tinged
red with age.
March-October; summer/fall. Charleston Hills E
1278, 1325. ROC2. Occasional. 5. p. 97
MALVACEAE
Abutilon incanum (Link) Sweet- PELOTAZO
Sub-shrub to 80 em; leaves alternate, serrulate, ovate,
2-6 em long, densely tomentulose; flowers in
stem axils, yellow-pink with dark red center; fruit a
schizocarp, with 5 segments that split from the top.
Flowering throughout the year; fall. Charleston Hills
1465, Headless Sphinx 1679. ROC2. Infrequent. 5.
Abutilon malacum S. Wats. - INDIAN MALLOW
Sub-shrub to 80 em; herbage stellate tomentose;
leaves alternate, broadly ovate, 3-7 em long, margins
sharply serrate; flowers in compact panicles, orange,
petals 9-15 nun long; fruit a schizocarp with 5
segments that split from the top, 7-9 nun in diameter.
Flowering throughout the year; summer. Curtis
Windmill1672. CDS. Infrequent. 5. p. 97
Abutilon mollicomum (Willd.) Sweet - SoNORAN INDIAN
MALLOW
[Abutilon sonorae Gray]
Sub-shrub to 2 m; stems and petioles with spreading
simple hairs 2-4 mm long; leaves alternate, broadly
ovate, 10-20 em long, markedly discolorous, larger
leaves at base, margins irregularly dentate; flowers
in large terminal panicles, rising above the leaves;
petals orange, 5-8 nun long; fruit a schizocarp with
5 segments that split from the top, 8-1 0 mm in
diameter, stellate pubescent.
Flowering throughout the year; summer/fall.
Charleston-gauge 1221, Charleston Hills E
1343. CDS/ROC. Infrequent. 5. p. 98
Abutilon pa[meri Gray-PALMER'S INDIAN MALLOW
Sub-shrub to 80 em; herbage stellate pubescent and
sometimes with simple hairs; leaves alternate,
broadly ovate, 3-7 em long, softly tomentose, margins
dentate; flowers solitary in leaf axils or forming
leafless terminal panicles, orange, petals -2cm long;
fruit a schizocarp with 10-15 segments that split from
the top.
April-October; summer. Charleston Hills E 1277,
13 31, Charleston-gauge 1317. ROC3. Occasional. 5.
Abutilon parvulum Gray - DWARF INDIAN MALLOW
Sub-shrub to 80 em stems often trailing; herbage
covered in stellate hairs; leaves broadly
ovate, serrulate, 2-4 em long; flowers orange, solitary
in leaf axils; fruit a schizocarp, with 5 segments that
split from the top.
56
Desert Plants
February-September; summer. Fairbank 142,
Charleston-gauge 713, Charleston Hills W
1512. TER/GRAS/ROC. Occasional. 5.
Anoda cristata (L.) Schlecht. - SPURRED ANODA, CRESTED
ANODA
Annual erect forb to 50 em; stems usually hispid;
leaves alternate, ovate to hastate, often with purple
blotch along midvein; flowers solitary in leaf axils
on long pedicels; petals blue; fruit a flattened
schizocarp, disc-shaped, 8-11 mm in diameter,
mericarps 10-19 with horizontal spines.
July-November; summer. St. David 616, Summers
1271, Lewis Springs 1418. TER/SAC/RIP(CW).
Common-occasional. 3. p. 98
Anoda pentaschista Gray - FIELD ANODA
Annual or short lived perennial erect forb to 1 m;
stems stellate pubescent to glabrate; leaves
alternate, highly variable in form, ovate to hastate,
discolorous; flowers in lax panicles; petals yellow,
sometimes fading reddish; fruit a schizocarp, oblate,
puberulent; mericarps 5-8, dorsally spurred.
August-November; summer/fall. Charleston-gauge
2500. TER. Occasional. 5. p. 98
Anoda thurberi Gray - ARizoNA ANODA
Annual forb to 1 m; stems minutely stellate pubescent;
leaves alternate, ovate to hastate, sometimes with
purplish blotch along midvein; flowers in open
racemes or panicle; petals blue, 4-7 mm long; fruit a
schizocarp, oblate, minutely pubescent, 6-8 mm in
diameter; mericarps 6-8, dorsally spurred.
August-November; summer/fall. Palominas-UA 559,
SDC 744. AGR/TER. Occasional. 5.
Herissantia crispa (L.) Briz.- BLADDERMALLOW. [Gayoides
crispum (L.) Small]
Erect to trailing subshrub; stems flexuous, stellate
pubescent and also with long simple hairs --1mm;
leaves alternate, ovate, crenate, 2-6 em long,
progressively reduced upwards; flowers white, usually
solitary in leaf axils; fruit a pendulous, inflated,
hemispheric schizocarp, 1.5-2 em in diameter;
mericarps 10-12, one-seeded.
Flowering throughout the year; spring/summer/fall.
Charleston Hills N 1661. ROC. Infrequent. 5.
Hibiscus coulteri Harvey ex Gray - DESERT ROSEMALLOW
Sub-shrub to 60 em; stems with appressed, stellate
hairs; leaves alternate, trifoliate; leaflets 3-5 times as
long as wide, hispid, 2-3 em long; flowers yellow,
with or without purplish basal spot, petals 2-3 em long;
fruit an ovoid capsule, hispid, 9-10 mm long.
Flowering throughout the year; summer. Charleston
Hills S 1393. ROC. Infrequent. 5.
Hibiscus denudatus Benth. - ROCK HIBISCUS, PALEFACE
Sub-shrub to 60 em; stems densely stellate-tomentose;
leaves alternate, ovate to orbicular, 2-3 em long,
margin dentate; flowers showy, lavender or white with
purplish basal spot, petals 2-3 em long; fruit a
globose capsule, pubescent apically, 7-8 mm long.
2006
Flowering throughout the year; spring/summer/fall.
Charleston Hills N 1151, Charleston Hills E 1464.
ROC2. Infrequent. 5.
Malvella lepidota (Gray) Fryxell- SCURFY SIDA.
[Sida lepidota Gray]
Prostrate perennial forb; herbage with stellate and
Iepidote pubescence; leaves alternate, triangular,
margins crenate; flowers solitary in leaf axils, cream,
petals 12-15 mm long; fruit an oblate schizocarp, 5-6
mm in diameter, mericarps 7.
Flowering throughout the year; spring/summer/fall.
Hereford 307,483, Kolbe 339. RIP(CW)/SAC/TER.
Occasional. 5.
Rhynchosida physocalyx (Gray) Fryxell - TUBEROUS SIDA,
BUFFPETAL
[Sida physocalyx Gray]
Perennial forb trailing or ascending with large taproot;
herbage with stellate pubescence; leaves
alternate, oblong-ovate, 2-5 em long, coarsely
pubescent with ciliate margins; flowers
solitary in leaf axils, orange-yellow; fruit a pendant
schizocarp surrounded by inflated calyx.
Flowering throughout the year; spring/summer/fall.
Contention 118, 652, 1309, Charleston Hills N
1660. TERIRIP(CW)/DIST/WASH. Occasional. 5.
*Sida abutifolia P. Mill.- SPREADING FANPETALS
[Sidafilicaulis Torr. & Gray Sida procumbens Sw.]
Procumbent perennial forb; herbage with stellate
pubescence and simple hairs; leaves alternate,
ovate to oblong, margins crenate, up to 1.5 em long;
flowers solitary in leaf axils on slender pedicels; petals
white to orange, 5-6 mm long; fruit an oblate-conical
schizocarp, pubescent, 5 mm in diameter, mericarps
5.
Flowering throughout the year; summer/fall. St. David
431, Escapul Wash 830, Palominas-3 955,
Charleston Hills E 1329, Moson Rd. 1636.
DIST/GRAS/AGR/ROC/DIST. Common. 5.
Sida Spinosa L. - PRICKLY FANPETALS
Annual (sometimes perennial sub shrub) forb to 1 m
tall; leaves narrowly oblong-lanceolate, dentate, 2-4
em long; discolorous; flowers solitary or grouped in
leaf axils, crowded apically, petals yellow; fruit
conical, 4-5 mm diameter; mericarps 5, with apical
spines 1 mm long.
Flowering throughout the year; summer/fall.
Charleston-mesquite 704. TER. Occasional. 5.p. 98
Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Cav.) G. Don- NARROW-LEAVED
GLOBE MALLOW
Perennial forb or subshrub to 1 m; herbage stellate
pubescent; leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate,
angulate or toothed near the base, not more than 1/3
as wide as long; inflorescence racemose-paniculate,
many-flowered; corolla orange; fruit a schizocarp,
breaking into 9-17 segments.
May-September; summer. Kolbe 348, Palominas-UA
376. SAC/AGR. Common. 5. p. 98
San Pedro River
Sphaeralcea emoryi Torr. ex Gray- EMORY's GLOBE MALLOW
Perennial forb or subshrub to 70 em; herbage stellate
pubescent; leaves alternate, ovate-triangular, 3lobed, 3-5 em long; inflorescence racemosepaniculate, many-flowered; corolla reddish, petals 1012 mm long; fruit a schizocarp, breaking into 9-17
segments.
March-September; spring. Cottonwood 769,
Palominas-UA 1405. RIP(CW)2. Occasional. 5.
Sphaeralcea laxa Woot. & Standi. - CALICHE GLOBE MALLOW
Perennial forb or subshrub to 1 m; herbage stellate
pubescent; leaves alternate, ovate-triangular, 3-lobed,
3-5 em long; inflorescence racemose-paniculate,
many-flowered; corolla orange, petals 10-12 mm long;
fruit a schizocarp, breaking into 9-17 segments.
Flowering throughout the year; summer. Charlestongauge 1222. ROC. Infrequent-occasional. 5.
MARTYNIACEAE
Proboscidea althaeifolia (Benth.) Dene. - DESERT UNICORN
PLANT, YELLOW DEVIL'S CLAW
[Proboscidea arenaria (Engelm.) Dene.]
Perennial forb to 50 em with tuberous root; herbage
glandular; petiole much longer than leaf; leaves
mostly opposite, shallowly three-lobed, palmately
veined, usually wider than long, 4-10 em across;
flowers yellow, showy, in terminal racemes, spotted
red in throat; fruit large, somewhat fleshy,
ending in long, incurved, hooked beak.
June-September; summer. Escalante Crossing 1109,
Charleston-mesquite 1150. DIST/CDS.
Occasional. 5. p. 98
Proboscidea parviflora (Woot.) Woot. & Standi. - DEVIL's
CLAW
Annual forb to 50 em; herbage glandular; leaves longpetiolate, mostly opposite, large, cordate, palmately
veined, 4-18 em across; flowers purple to nearly white,
~25 mm across, in terminal racemes; fruit large,
somewhat fleshy, ending in long, incurved,
hooked beak.
August-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 1219,
Boquillas Wash S 1247, Palominas 1599. DIST/
WASH/AGR. Common. 5. p. 98
MOLLUGINACEAE
Mollugo verticillata L. - GREEN CARPETWEED
Annual forb < 5 em; stems delicate, usually several
from base; leaves whorled at nodes, oblanceolate
to obovate, basal leaves to 4 em long, 1 em wide;
cauline leaves ~2 em long and 3 mm wide; flower
pedicellate, 1 to several, < 3 mm long, corolla white;
fruit a capsule.
August-October; summer/fall. Charleston-gauge 701,
Palominas-3 1595. CDS/RIP(CW). Occasional. 3.
p.98
Makings
57
MORACEAE
*Ficus Carica L. - EDIBLE FIG
Monoecious tree leaves deeply palmately lobed 610 em long, sandpapery above, lower surface hairy;
fruit a multiple of achenes with fleshy inflorescence
receptacle. Only one sapling found ~ 2 m tall.
May-June; spring. Escalante 1552. RIP(CW). Rare.
4.
*Morus alba L.- WHITE MULBERRY
Dioecious tree (mature plants to 12 m); leaves
alternate, obovate, sandpapery, margins
serrate; flowers in catkins, male catkins elongate,
female catkins becoming an aggregate berry aging
purple.
March-May; spring. Contention 974. BOS. Rare. 4.
Morus microphylla Buckl. - LITTLE-LEAF MULBERRY, TEXAS
MULBERRY
Shrub (in SPRNCA) to 3m; leaves alternate, often
deeply lobed, sandpapery, margins serrate;
flowers small, in catkins, male catkins elongate,
female catkins becoming thick and succulent in fruit;
fruit an aggregate berry aging purple.
April-May; spring. St. David 1377, Palominas-UA
1407, Charleston Hills E 1334, 1661.
RIP(CW)2/ROC2. Infrequent. 4.
NYCTAGINACEAE
A/lionia incarnata L. - TRAILING FOUR-0 'CLOCK
Prostrate perennial forb herbage glandular pubescent;
leaves opposite, petioled, very unequal in pair, oblong
to ovate, 1-2 em; involucres solitary on axillary
peduncles, flowers grouped in threes, subtended by
rose-purple bracts, perianth campanulate rotate;
fruit flattened, margin strongly incurved, usually with
~6 triangular teeth.
May-October; summer. Fairbank 61, Contention 116,
Palominas-3 430, Curtis Windmilll669. TER/
RIP(CW)/SAC/CDS. Common. 5. p. 98
Boerhavia coccinea Buckl. - SCARLET SPIDERLING
Perennial erect forb to 70 em with delicate branching
stems; herbage glandular-pubescent; leaves
opposite, unequal in pair, oblong to ovate; 1-2 em;
inflorescence of glomerules at ends of branches,
flowers tiny, dark red.
June-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 275,
Palominas-3 556, St. David 609. CDS/DIST/
TER. Common. 5. p. 98
Boerhavia coulteri (Hook. f.) S. Wats.- CoULTER SPIDERLING
Annual erect forb to 50 em with delicate branching
stems; herbage glandular-pubescent; leaves
opposite, unequal in pair, oblong to ovate; 1-2 em;
flowers tiny, pinkish white, in elongate
racemes, not crowded; fruit clavate, 3-4 mm long, 5angled with broad ridges and narrow furrows.
July-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 1185, 1400,
Boquillas 1344. TER/RIP(CW)/BOS. Common. 5.
p.98
58
Desert Plants
Boerhavia erecta L. - ERECT SPIDERLING
Annual erect forb stems often more than 50 em;
herbage sparsely glandular to glabrous, the internodes
often with a viscid band; leaves opposite, unequal in
pair, oblong to ovate, 1-2 em; flowers tiny, pinkish
white, in cymose panicles; fruit clavate, 3-4 mm long,
5-angled with broad ridges and narrow furrows.
July-October; summer. St. David 601, Charleston Rd
1207, Charleston-gauge 1444, Charleston
Hills 1342. RIP(CW)/DIST2/ROC. Common. 5.
p.98
Boerhavia spicata Choisy - CREEPING SPIDERLING
Annual erect forb to 70 em with delicate branching
stems; herbage glandular; leaves opposite, unequal
in pair, oblong to ovate, 1-2 em; flowers tiny, pinkish
white, in elongate racemes, crowded; fruit clavate, 34 mm long, 5-angled, with broad ridges and
narrow furrows.
July-September; summer. Escapul Wash, Bagstad 84,
ASU; Hedrick 708, ASU. WASH/TER. Common. 5.
Boerhavia wrightii A. Gray - LARGEBRACT SPIDERLING
Annual erect forb to 70 em with delicate branching
stems; herbage glandular-pubescent; leaves
opposite, unequal in pair, oblong to ovate; 1-2 em;
flowers tiny, pinkish white, in elongate racemes,
crowded; fruit clavate, 3-4 mm long, 4-angled with
broad ridges and narrow furrows.
August-October; summer. Char-mesquite 686,
Charleston Rd. 1206. CDS/DIST. Common. 5.
Commicarpus scandens (L.) Standi.- CLIMBING WARTCLUB
[Boerhavia scandens L.]
Sub-shrub with long and weak stems, usually
supported by other plants; leaves petioled, opposite,
subequal in pair, broadly ovate-cordate, 1-3 em long;
flowers cream, < 5mm long, in umbels; fruits narrowly
clavate with stipitate glands.
April-October; summer. Charleston Hills N 1153,
Charleston Hills E 1635. ROC2. Infrequent. 5. p. 99
*Mirabifis jalapa L. - MARVEL OF PERU, CULTIVATED FOUR
O'CLOCK
Perennial forb .5-1 m, much branched, roots tuberous;
leaves opposite, ovate-deltoid, 4-8 em long;
inflorescence terminal glomerate many-flowered
cyme; flowers purplish-red, 3-6 em long, tubular,
opening in evening. Possibly planted, but persisting
and spreading.
June-September; summer. Boquillas House 1226,
Lewis Springs 1579. TER/RIP(CW). Infrequentrare. 5.
Mirabifis finearis (Pursh) Heimerl - NARROWLEAF FOUR
O'cLOCK
[Oxybaphus linearis (Pursh) B.L. Robins.]
Perennial forb; stem many-branched; leaves opposite,
linear; involucre-like calyx subtending 1-5 pink
flowers; fruit 5-angled.
May-September; summer. Lewis Springs 742, Murray
Springs 1588. GRAS/WASH. Infrequent. 5.
2006
Mirabilis longiflora L. var. wrightiana (Gray ex Britt. &
Kearney) Kearney & Peebles- swEET FOUR o'cLOCK
Perennial forb .5-1.5 m, much branched, roots
tuberous; leaves opposite, cordate-ovate, 6-12
em long; inflorescence dense, axillary or terminal,
many flowered cymes, subtended by reduced leaves;
flowers white tinged with pink, long, slender and
tubular, 7-17 em long, fragrant; opening in evening.
July-October; summer. St. David 613, Cottonwood
770, 781. TERIRIP(CW)/SAC. Occasionalinfrequent. 4. p. 99
Mirabilis multiflora (Torr.) Gray- CoLORADO FOUR o'cLOCK
Perennial forb to 1.5 m; stems repeatedly forked;
leaves opposite, petiolate, blade round to ovate, 3-12
em, somewhat fleshy; inflorescence forked, calyx-like
involucre I per axil, bell-shaped; flowers opening in
evening, 4-6 em long, purple-magenta, visited by
hawk moths.
May-October; spring/summer. Tombstone-gauge
1307. CDS. Rare. 5. p. 99
OLEACEAE
Fraxinus gooddingii Little- GoonDING's ASH
Tree or shrub; leaves alternate, compound, oddpinnate; leaflets usually 5-7, lanceolate
ovate, to oblanceolate <2 em long, margins entire or
serrulate; fruit a samara, 1-2 em long.
April-May; spring. St. David, Bagstad 68, ASU.
RIP(CW). Rare. 4.
Fraxinus velutina Torr. - VELVET ASH
Tree, mature specimens to 15 m; twigs velvety; leaves
alternate, compound, odd-pinnate; leaflets usually 57, lanceo1ate ovate, > 4 em long, margins often
serrulate; fruit a samara, wing equaling or shorter than
the body of the fruit.
February-May; winter/spring. Palominas-3 425,
Boquillas 983. RIP(CW)2. Occasional. 4. p. 99
Menodora scabra Gray - ROUGH MENODORA
Sub-shrub to 60 em; leaves alternate, linearlanceolate, 1-3 em long; flowers yellow, 10-15 mm
across, 5-lobed, calyx with 7 or more linear lobes,
stamens 2; fruit a paired, globose capsule.
March-September; summer. Murray Springs 1588,
Fairbank 1614. WASH/CDS.Infrequent. 5. p. 99
ONAGRACEAE
Camissonia chamaenerioides (Gray) Raven- LONGCAPSULE
SUNCUP
[Oenothera chamaenerioides Gray]
Annual forb to 40 em; herbage dark reddish brown;
stems slender; leaves alternate and reduced
upwards, reddish with dark spots, blades elliptic;
flowers opening near sunset; ovary inferior; flowers
tubular, 4-merous, petals pink-white; fruit a narrow,
linear capsule opening apically.
San Pedro River
March-June; winter/spring. Contention 114, Moson
Springs 369, Fairbank 1011. GRAS/ RIP(CH)2.
Occasional. 5.
Camissonia claviformis (Torr. & Frem.) Raven- BROWN-EYED
PRIMROSE
[Oenothera claviformis Torr. & Frem.]
Annual forb 40 em; leaves basal, toothed, tinged with
red; flowers vespertine, pink-yellow with 4 petals;
fruit a 4-sided capsule, 13-27 mm long, opening
apically.
February-May; winter/spring. Fairbank 1545.
RIP(CH). Occasional. 5.
Epilobium ciliatum Raf. - WILLOW WEED
[Epilobium californicum Hausskn.]
Perennial forb to 60 em; leaves opposite, sessile,
lance-elliptic, 1-5 em long, margins widely serrate;
inflorescence a terminal raceme; ovary inferior;
flowers long-tubular, 3-4 em long, ~2mm wide, petals
white; fruit a slender, cylindric capsule, ~3 em long,
clavate, opening apically.
June-September; summer. SDC 1433. SDC. Rare. 2.
Gaura coccinea Nutt. ex Pursh - SCARLET GAURA
Perennial forb to 40 em; leaves alternate, ellipticlanceolate, narrow, with widely-spaced teeth;
inflorescence a spikelike raceme, erect, slender, manyflowered 10-20 em long; ovary inferior; flowers small,
pale to bright pinkish; filaments and style exerted;
fruits hard, woody, indehiscent, nutlike, widest at or
below the middle.
April-August; spring/summer. Charleston-gauge
1038. RIP(CW). Occasional. 5. p. 99
Gaura hexandra Ortega ssp. gracilis (Woot. & Standi.)
Raven & Greg - HARLEQUINBUSH
[Gaura gracilis Woot. & Standi.]
Annual or perennial forb to 1 m with stout taproot;
leaves alternate, elliptic-lanceolate, narrow, with
widely-spaced teeth; inflorescence a spikelike raceme,
erect, slender, many-flowered 20-30 em long; ovary
inferior; flowers small, petals 4-6 mm long; pale to
bright pinkish; filaments and style exerted; fruits
hard, indehiscent, nutlike, widest near the base.
April-September; spring/summer. Cottonwood 266,
Kolbe 338. TERIRIP(CW). Occasional. 5.
Gaura mollis James- VELVETWEED, SMALL FLOWERED GAURA
[Gaura parviflora Dougl. ex Lehm.]
Annual forb to 2 m with stout taproot; often branching
above the middle; herbage glandular; stem leaves
alternate, soft velvety, elliptic to oblanceolate;
inflorescence a spikelike raceme, erect, slender, manyflowered 20-30 em long; ovary inferior; flowers
small, petals ~2 mm long, pale to bright pinkish;
filaments and style exerted; fruits hard,
woody, indehiscent, nutlike, widest near the base.
April-September; spring/summer. Kolbe 349, 356,
Palominas-3 550, Cottonwood 782. RIP(CW)2/
RIP(CH)/SAC. Occasional. 4.
Makings
59
Oenothera elata Kunth ssp. hirsutissima (A. Gray ex S.
Wats.) Dietrich- TALL EVENING PRIMROSE
[Oenothera hookeri Torr. & Gray var. hirsutissima
(Gray ex S. Wats.) Munz]
Perennial forb to 60 em; herbage soft-pubescent;
leaves alternate, lance-elliptic, 3-15 em long, margins
with widely-spaced teeth; inflorescence a terminal
spike; ovary inferior; flowers showy, 4-merous,
yellow, tinged red; fruit a woody capsule opening
apically.
July-October; summer. Kolbe 805. RIP(CW).
Infrequent. 2.
Oenotheraflava (A. Nels.) Garrett ssp. taraxacoides (Woot.
& Standi.) W.L. Wagner- YELLOW EVENING PRIMROSE
[Oenothera taraxacoides (Woot. & Standi.) Munz]
Perennial acaulescent forb; herbage mostly glabrous;
leaves 3-30 em long, deeply toothed or lobed;
ovary inferior; flowers 4-merous, showy, petals
yellow, turning pinkish, 3-4 em long; capsule at base
of plant, sharply 4-angled, woody.
May-August; spring/summer. Kolbe 342. SAC.
Infrequent. 5.
Oenothera primiveris Gray - YELLOW DESERT PRIMROSE.
Annual acaulescent forb; herbage often pubescent;
leaves 3-30 em long, deeply toothed or lobed;
ovary inferior; flowers 4-merous, showy, petals
yellow, turning pinkish, 2-3 em long; capsule
at base of plant, sharply 4-angled, woody.
January-April; winter/spring. Fairbank 62, Contention
113. DIST/TER. Infrequent- occasional. 5.
Oenothera rosea L'Her. ex Ait. -ROSE SUNDROPS, ROSE EVENING
PRIMROSE
Perennial forb to 60 em; leaves basal and caulescent,
petiolate, alternate, lance-elliptic, 2-6 em long;
inflorescence few-flowered, terminal; ovary inferior;
flowers with 4 deep pink petals ~ 1 em long; fruit
a 4-angled capsule, club-shaped, widest near top.
May-August; spring/summer. Contention 133, Lewis
Springs 224, Boquillas VA 992. SAC/
RIP(CW)/RIP(CH). Occasional. 2.
OROBANCHACEAE
Orobanche cooperi (Gray) Heller- BROOMRAPE
[Orobanche ludoviciana Nutt. var. cooperi (Gray) G.
Beck]
Annual parasitic forb; above ground stem 10-40 em,
purple-brown; leaves reduced to scales,
alternate but tending to form a series of tight spirals
along stems; flowers bilateral, 5-lobed and 2-lipped,
purple, 2-3 em long, lower ones pedicelled the upper
ones sessile; fruit a capsule; seeds numerous and
minute. Parasitic on Hymenoclea.
February-April; winter/spring. Charleston-gauge
1112. RIP(CW). Rare. 5.
OXALIDACEAE
Oxalis drummondii Gray- DRUMMOND's wooDSORREL
60
Desert Plants
[Oxalis amplifolia auct. non (Trel.) R. Knuth]
Perennial acaulescent forb with bulbs; leaves
palmately compound, 6-20 em long; leaflets 3, 13 em long, 1-5 mm wide, obcordate; inflorescence 310 flowered; flowers lavender 8-20 mm long; fruit a
cylindricalloculicidal capsule 4-12 mm long.
August-September; summer. Charleston Hills E 1634.
ROC. Rare. 5. p. 99
Oxa/is stricta L. - YELLOW WOOD SORREL, CHANCHAQUILLA
Perennial forb to 40 em; bulbs absent; stems
unbranched; leaves palmately compound;
leaflets 3, 5-20 mm long; inflorescence 2 to 5flowered; flowers yellow, 4-11 mm long; fruit a
cylindricalloculicidal capsule 8-13 mm long.
June-September; summer. Lewis Springs 223, 1415,
739. RIP(CW)2/SAC. Occasional. 4. p. 99
PAPAVERACEAE
Argemone pleiacantha Greene - BLUESTEM PRICKLEPOPPY
Perennial forb to 1 m; herbage with yellow sap; stems
prickly; leaves lobed and prickly; flowers
showy, cream, with > 100 yellow -orange stamens.
May-October; summer. Lewis Springs 217, Hunter
1559. RIP(CW)/CDS. Common. 5. p. 99
Eschscholzia californica Cham. ssp. mexicana (Greene) C.
Clark- MEXICAN GOLD POPPY, AMAPOLA DEL CAMPO
[Eschscholzia mexicana Greene]
Annual forb usually < 20 em; leaves mostly basal,
glabrous, ternately dissected, terminal
divisions often widened at tips; flowers showy, orange
to yellow, petals 3-7 em long; fruit a cylindric,
elongated capsule, dehiscent from base, 3-11 em long.
February-May; winter/spring. Contention 130.
RIP(CW). Infrequent. 5.
2006
Perennial acaulescent forb to 40 em; leaves longpetiolate, broadly ovate, 10-30 em long,
parallel-veined; inflorescence an elongate spike;
bracts ovate ~4 mm long; sepals scarious-margined;
capsule breaking below middle; seeds 6-many.
April-November; summer/fall. Hereford 1686.
RIP(CH). Infrequent. 2.
Plantago patagonica Jacq.- WOOLLY PLANTAIN
[Plantago purshii Roemer & J.A. Schultes]
Annual forb to 30 em; herbage woolly; leaves basal,
linear; flower cream in slender spikes
subtended by linear bract.
February-June; spring. Cottonwood 262, Boquillas
1531. TER/RlP(CH). Occasional. 5.
Plantago rhodosperma Dcne. - RED SEEDED PLANTAIN
Annual forb to 30 em; herbage hairy; leaves basal,
ovate-lanceolate; flowers cream in slender spikes;
seeds dark red, the inner surface flat.
March-June; spring. Kolbe 335a. RIP(CW).
Infrequent. 3.
Plantago virginica L.- VIRGINIA PLANTAIN
Annual forb to 30 em; herbage hairy; leaves basal,
ovate-lanceolate; flowers cream in slender spikes;
seeds dark red, the inner surface deeply concave.
April-June; spring. Lewis Springs 221. RIP(CW).
Infrequent. 4.
PLATANACEAE
Platanus wrightii S. Wats. - ARIZONA SYCAMORE
Immature tree 3-4 m; leaves palmately veined and
coarsely toothed.
February-May; winter/spring. Charleston-gauge
1036. RIP(CW). Rare, only known from
individual sapling. 2.
PASSIFLORACEAE
POACEAE
Passiflora mexicana Juss. - MEXICAN PASSION FLOWER
Achnatherum eminens (Cav.) Barkworth - SOUTHWESTERN
Vine with pungent odor; leaves alternate, very deeply
two-lobed; flowers with purple corona.
August-September; summer. Boquillas 1251. BOS.
Infrequent-occasional. 5. p. 99
PHYTOLACCACEAE
Rivina humilis L. - ROUGE PLANT
Subshrub to 1m; stems slender; leaves petiolate,
alternate, 3-11 em long, deltoid to ovate, the apices
acute to acuminate; inflorescences terminal or axillary
racemes, 3-15 em long; flowers white to pink, ~4 mm
long; fruit a globose drupelet; seeds black, lensshaped.
July-October; summer/fall. Charleston-mesquite
1146, Charleston-gauge 1242. ROC2.Infrequent. 5.
p.99
PLANTAGINACEAE
Plantago major L. - COMMON PLANTAIN
NEEDLE GRASS
[Stipa eminens Cav.]
Perennial grass to 75 em; culms slender and wiry;
leaves thin and revolute; panicles open,
nodding; spikelet of one floret; glumes subequal,
hyaline; lemma hairy; awn 3-6 em long, twisted and
slightly bent.
May; spring. Brunckow Hill1538. ROC. Rare. 5.
Andropogon glomeratus (Walt.) B.S.P.- BUSHY BLUESTEM
Perennial, reed-like bunchgrass to 2m tall with bushy
inflorescences.
June-October; summer/fall. Escapul Wash 827, Lewis
Springs marsh 1682. WASH/MARSH. Rareinfrequent. 2.
Aristida adscensionis L. - SIX WEEKS THREE-AWN
Annual grass 10-30 em; inflorescence narrow and
spikelike, often with a purplish color; spikelets with
one floret, glumes unequal; lemma elongated into a
twisted awn column, apex bearing three awns 5-15
mmlong.
San Pedro River
June-December; summer. St. David 594, Cottonwood
762, Escapul Wash 824, Tombstone-gauge
1300. RIP(CW)/AGRIWASH/GRAS. Commonabundant. 5.
Aristida purpurea Nutt. var. longiseta (Steud.) Vasey FENDLER THREE-AWN
Perennial grass 10-60 em; inflorescence narrow and
spikelike; spike lets with one floret, glumes
unequal; lemma elongated into a twisted awn column,
apex bearing three awns 7-10 em long.
April-September; summer. Walnut Gulch 865,
Charleston-gauge 1513. CDS/RIP(CW). Common. 5.
Aristida purpurea Nutt. var. nealleyi (Vasey) Allred REVERCHON THREE-AWN, BLUE THREEAWN
Perennial grass 10-60 em; inflorescence narrow and
spikelike; spikelets with one floret, glumes
unequal; lemma elongated into a twisted awn column,
apex bearing three awns 2-3 em long.
April-September; summer. Charleston-mesquite 803,
Fairbank 1075, Charleston Hills S 1366. CDS/
DIST/ROC. Common. 5.
Aristida ternipes Cav. var. gentilis (Henr.) Allred SPIDERGRASS
[Aristida hamulosa Henr. Aristida ternipes Cav. var.
minor (Vasey) A.S. Hitchc.]
Perennial grass to 1.2 m; inflorescence open panicle,
branches spreading at right angles; spikelets with
one floret, unequal glumes; lemma elongated into a
twisted awn column, apex bearing three awns, 11-14
mm long, all three well-developed.
July-November; summer/fall. Kolbe 488, Charlestonmesquite 688. RIP(CW)/CDS. Common-abundant. 5.
Aristida ternipes Cav. var. ternipes (Henr.) Trent SPIDERGRASS
Perennial grass to 1.2 m; inflorescence open panicle,
branches spreading at right angles; spikelets with one
floret, unequal glumes; lemma elongated into a twisted
awn column, apex bearing three awns, 11-14 mm long,
only one well-developed.
July-November; summer/fall. Kolbe 492, Palominas3 503, Charleston-gauge 1214, Charleston Hills E
1330. RIP(CW)2/DIST/ROC. Common-abundant. 5.
*Arundo donax L. - GIANT REED
Giant reed-like grass to 5 m tall.
September-October; summer/fall. Kolbe 813, Lewis
Springs 1650. RIP(CH)/DIST. Infrequent. 2.
*Avena fatua L. - WILD OAT
Annual grass to 1 m; panicle large, with long,
spreading, curving, deflexed branches; spikelets 3 to
4-flowered, disarticulating above the glumes; glumes
~3 em long, exceeding the uppermost floret; lemmas
notched at apex, with a stout, twisted, geniculate awn,
2-4 em long.
March-June; spring. Lewis Springs 229. RJP(CW).
Infrequent. 5.
Bothriochloa barbinodis (Lag.) Herter - CANE BEARDGRASS
[Andropogon barbinodis Lag.]
Makings
61
Perennial grass to 120 em; leaves 20-30 em long, 27 mm wide; panicle 5-15 em, oblong to fan-shaped,
silvery white; spikelets paired, sessile spikelet 4.56.5 mm long with long geniculate awn,
pedicellate spikelet 3-4 mm long, unawned.
August-October; summer/fall. Hereford 4 72,
Palominas-3 512, Charleston-gauge 1040.
RJP(CW)/GRAS/DIST. Common. 5.
*Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng- YELLOW BLUESTEM
[Andropogon ischaemum L.]
Perennial grass to 80 em; leaves tending to be basal
5-15 em long, 2-4 mm wide; panicle 5-10 em, fanshaped, silvery reddish purple; spikelets paired, sessile
spikelet 3-4 mm long, with geniculate awn,
pedicellate spikelet ~equal, unawned.
August-December; summer/fall. Summers 1272,
Charleston Hills 1659. RJP(CW)/CDS.
Infrequent. 5.
Bothriochloa laguroides (DC.) ssp. torreyana (Steud.)Allred
& Gould- SILVER BEARDGRASS [Andropogon saccharoides
(Sw.) Rydb.]
Perennial grass to 1 m; leaves 20-30 em long, 2-7
mm wide; panicle 5-15 em, oblong to fan-shaped,
silvery white; spikelets paired, sessile spikelet ~4mm
long with long geniculate awn, pedicellate spikelet
reduced.
June-October; summer. Lewis Springs 73 7,
Palominas-3 423, Moson Springs 1024,
Hunter 1048. GRASIRIP(CW)3. Occasional. 5.
Bouteloua aristidoides (Kunth) Griseb. -NEEDLE GRAMA
Annual grass to 50 em; blades 2-5 em long, <2mm
wide, flat or folded; panicles 3-10 em with 4-15
branches; branches one-sided, 10-45 mm, delicate,
deciduous, densely pubescent with 2-10 spike lets/
branch.
June-September; summer. St. David 587. RJP(CW).
Common-abundant. 5.
Bouteloua barbata Lag. - SIXWEEKS GRAMA
Annual grass usually <40 em, culms often geniculate;
blades 5-7 em long, , 4 mm wide; panicles with
4-9 branches; branches one-sided, 10-30 mm,
persistent, with 20-55 spikelets.
July-December; summer. St. David 599, Contention
646, Curtis Windmill1385. TERIRIP(CW)/CDS.
Common. 5.
Bouteloua chondrosioides (Kunth) Benth. ex S. Wats. SPRUCETOP GRAMA
Perennial grass 30-60 em, culms erect, unbranched;
leaves mostly basal, blades 1-1 0 em long, <3 mm
wide, flat; panicles 3-6 em with 3-6 branches;
branches one-sided, 10-15 mm, deciduous, densely
pubescent with 8-12 spikelets.
July-September; summer. Charleston Hills E 1338,
Charleston Hills S 1364. ROC2. Occasional. 5.
Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.- SIDE OATS GRAMA
Perennial grass often rhizomatous, culms to 80 em;
blades to 30 em long, 3-7 mm wide, scabrous on
62
Desert Plants
underside; panicles one-sided, with 13-30 reflexed
branches; branches 10-30 mm, deciduous with 2-7
spikelets.
March-November; summer. Palominas-3 412,
Charleston-mesquite 687, Tombstone-gauge 1304.
RIP(CW)/DIST/ROC. Abundant. 5.
Bouteloua eludens Griffiths- SANTA RITA GRAMA
Perennial grass to 60 em; leaves mostly basal, blades
to 15 em long, < 2 mm wide; panicles 6-10 em, with
12-16 branches; branches one-sided, 5-11 mm,
deciduous, pubescent, with 4-6 spike lets.
August-September; summer. Charleston-gauge 1319.
ROC. Infrequent. 5.
Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr.- BLACK GRAMA
Stoloniferous perennial grass to 60 em, stolons
woolly-pubescent, culms wiry, decumbent, often
rooting at nodes, lower internodes woolly; blades 36 em long,< 2mm wide; panicles 2-15 em with 2-8
branches; branches persistent, with 8-18 spikelets.
August-September; summer. Charleston-mesquite
802, Charleston Hills E 1323, Curtis
Windmill873. ROC2/CDS. Common. 5.
Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths - BLUE
GRAMA
Perennial bunchgrass, often with rhizomes, culms to
70 em, erect-decumbent; blades 2-12 em long,< 3
mm wide; panicles 2-8 em, with 1-3 branches, these
racemose; branches one-sided, 13-50 mm, persistent.
June-October; summer. Lewis Springs 731. GRAS.
Occasional. 5.
Bouteloua repens Scribn. & Merr. - SLENDER GRAMA
[Boutelouafiliformis (Fourn.) Griffiths]
Perennial grass to 65 em, culms erect or decumbent,
sometimes rooting at lower nodes; blades 5-20
em long, 1-5 mm wide; panicles 4-14 em, with 7-12
branches; branches one-sided, 10-20 mm,
deciduous, with 2-8 spikelets.
May~September; summer. Charlestonwgauge 1210,
1320, Charleston Hills E 13. DIST/ROC3.
Occasional. 5.
Bouteloua rothrockii Vasey - RoTHROCK GRAMA
Short-lived perennial grass to 60 em, culms erectgeniculate; blades 6-10 em, 1-4 mm wide; panicles
5-25 em with 3-8 branches; branches one-sided, 1530 mm, with 35-55 spikelets.
June-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 273,
Palominas-3 518, Charleston-mesquite 681.
DIST/RIP(CW)/CDS. Common. 5.
*Bromus catharticus Vahl - RESCUE GRASS
Annual grass; inflorescence a contracted to somewhat
open panicle; spikelets large, 2-3 em long, with
5-10 florets, strongly compressed laterally.
March-October; spring/summer. Palominas-3 554,
Kolbe 336, St. David 1089. RIP(CW)2/DIST.
Occasional. 5.
2006
Cenchrus spinifex Cav. - FIELD SANDBUR
[Cenchrus incertus M.A. Curtis, Cenchrus
pauciflorus Benth.]
Annual grass seldom over 30 em, stem often
geniculate; leafblades flat; spikelets stiff
spiny burs, usually two-flowered.
July-October; summer. Cottonwood 242, Moson Rd.
1639. RIP(CW)/DIST. Occasional. 5.
Chloris crinita Lag. - FALSE RHODESGRASS, FEATHER
FINGERGRASS
[Trichloris crinita (Lag.) Parodi]
Perennial grass to 1.2 m; usually in dense clumps from
a base of stout, short rhizomes; blades firm, flat, 1-4
broad; inflorescence branches usually numerous, 515 em long, densely aggregated at the culm apex
(finger-like); spikelets small, numerous along spike
branches.
May-September; summer. Boquillas 565. TER.
Common-occasional. 5.
Chloris virgata Sw. - FEATHER FINGER GRASS
Annual grass to 60 em; blades weak, flat or folded,
2-8 mm broad; inflorescence branches
usually numerous, 2-6 em long, densely aggregated
at the culm apex (finger-like); spikelets small,
numerous along spike branches.
July-October;summer/fall. Palominas-3 583,
Escalante Crossing1104. RIP(CW)/RIP(CH).
Common-abundant. 5.
Cottea pappophoroides Kunth - COTTA GRASS
Perennial or annual grass to 70 em; culms with knotty
base; panicle open-narrow; spike lets 5-10 mm with
6-1 0 florets; lemmas with long hairs at base, 9-13
veins extending into barbed awns or awned teeth.
September-November; summer/fall. Fairbank 638,
Charleston-mesquite 696, Cottonwood 779. DIST/
TER/RIP(CW). Occasional. 5.
*Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.- BERMUDA GRASS
Rhizomatous perennial grass; culms stoloniferous,
with short internode; inflorescence branches mostly
2-6 em long, digitate; spikelets numerous and crowded
in two rows along spike branches.
Flowering throughout the year; spring/summer.
Hereford 304, Escapul 819, Charleston Rd. 1139.
RIP(CH)/RIP(CW)/DIST. Abundant. 4.
Dasyochloa pulchella (Kunth) Willd. ex Rydb. -FLUFF GRASS
[Erioneuron pulchellum (Kunth) Tateoka, Tridens
pulchellus (Kunth) A.S. Hitchc.]
Low perennial grass, appearing annual, < 15 em;
culms numerous, wiry, consisting mainly of a
single elongated internode bearing at its apex a
fascicle of leaves and spike lets, the fascicles
eventually bending over to the ground and rooting;
blades 1-5 em long; inflorescence of capitate clusters
of sessile or short-pedicelled spikelets, most 7-13
mm long, 6 to 12-flowered.
April-December; summer. Contention 668, Walnut
Gulch 1026. CDS/WASH. Common. 5.
San Pedro River
Digitaria californica (Benth.) Henr.- ARizoNA COTTONTOP
[ Trichachne californica (Benth.) Chase]
Perennial bunchgrass to lm; blades flat or folded 2-5
mm wide; panicle contracted, 5-15 em long;
spikelets 3-4 mm long, occurring in unequally
pedicellate pairs, fringed with silvery to purple-tinged
hairs, 2-4 mm long; sterile lemma three-nerved, villous
on the margins but glabrous on the intemerves;
grain ovate-lanceolate abruptly narrowing to a short
awn-tip.
May-December; summer. St. David 612, Charlestonmesquite 680. TER/CDS. Occasional-common 5.
p.99
Digitaria cognata (J.A. Schultes) Pilger- FALL WITCHGRASS
[Leptoloma cognatum (J.A. Schultes) Chase]
Perennial grass to 70 em; blades short, 2-4 mm wide;
inflorescence much-branched, open panicle,
somewhat included at the base of the sheath to
maturity; spikelets 2-3 mm long, on pedicels 13 em long.
June-September; summer. Curtis Windmill875. CDS.
Infrequent. 5.
Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman- SOURGRAss
[ Trichachne insularis (L.) N ees]
Perennial bunchgrass to 1.2m; blades flat or folded
4-12 mm wide; panicle somewhat contracted with
numerous erect branches, 12-30 em long; spikelets
3-4 mm long, occurring in unequally pedicellate pairs,
with whitish to golden brown hairs 2-4 mm long;
sterile lemma inconspicuously nerved, villous on the
margins and intemerves; grain lanceolate tapering to
point or short awn, dark brown or maroon at maturity.
September-October; summer/fall. Charleston Hills E
1664. WASH. Rare. 5.
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.- CRABGRASS
Annual grass; culms spreading-decumbent, often
rooting at lower nodes; blades pilose or
thinly pubescent, broad, flat, thin; inflorescence
branches 6-10 mm long, digitate or clustered at
culm apex, occasionally scattered along culm;
spikelets numerous along spike branches, paired,
2-3 mmlong.
August-November; summer/fall. St. David 623.
RIP(CW). Occasional. 4.
Distich/is spicata (L.) Greene - DESERT SALTGRASS
[Distich/is stricta (Torr.) Rydb.]
Dioecious perennial grass with extensive, tough, thick
rhizomes; culms usually< 30 em; inflorescence a
contracted panicle or spikelike raceme; spikelets
flattened, with 5-18 or more closely imbricate,
awnless florets.
May-October; summer. SDC 754, 1095. SDC2.
Abundant in cienega. 2.
*Echinochloa colona (L.) Link - JUNGLE RICE
Annual grass; culm usually decumbent; leaves often
with horizontal red stripes; inflorescence denselyflowered panicle branches, I-3 em long; spikelets
Makings
63
subsessile, in 2-4 rows on one side of the spike
branch.
May-October; summer. Charleston-gage 281,
Escalante Crossing II03. RIP(CH)2. Commonoccasional. 2.
*Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. -BARNYARD GRASS
Annual grass sometimes> 1 m; inflorescence a panicle
with branches to I 0 em long;spikelets subsessile,
crowded along spike branches, not in definite rows;
sterile lemma extending into a stout awn as much as
3 em long.
June-October; summer. Hereford 477, Palominas-3
544, Walnut Gulch 846. AQU/RIP(CH)/WASH.
Common-abundant. 2.
Elymus canadensis L. - CANADA WILD RYE
Perennial grass to 1.5 m; blades 5-15 mm wide;
inflorescence a dense, bushy spike 8-20 em long,
densely flowered; spikelets 2-4 at each node, mostly
3 to 5-flowered; lemmas - I em long with awn up to 5
em long.
May-September; summer. Hereford 464, Cottonwood
77I, Kolbe 337, Boquillas-UA 996.
RIP(CW)2/TERIRIP(CH). Common. 3. p. IOO
Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey- SQUIRREL TAIL
Perennial grass to 50 em; blades 2-5 mm wide;
inflorescence a dense, bushy spike 5-IO em long,
densely flowered; rachis readily fragmenting when
dry; spikelets 2 at each node; glumes awnlike to the
base, the awn stout and divergent, up to 9 em long.
April-September; summer. Contention I31, Walnut
Gulch I017, Summers 1265. TERIWASH/BOS.
Occasional. 5.
Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners - SLENDER
WHEATGRASS
Perennial grass to> Im; culms slender; blades
scabrous, flat, 2-6 mm wide; inflorescence a slender
spike; spikelets usually 2 per node of continuous
rachis, 12~20 mm long, 4 to 6a flowered; glumes and
lemmas awnless.
May-September; spring/summer. SDC I 56 I. SDC.
Infrequent. 3.
Enneapogon desvauxii Desv. ex Beauv. -NINE-AWN PAPPUS
GRASS
Perennial or annual grass to 45 em, culm nodes hairy;
blades 2-12 em long, 1-2 mm wide; slightly hairy,
involute; Panicles spike-like 2-10 em, grayish-green;
spikelets with 3-6 florets, lemmas strongly 9veined, these extending into barbed awns.
August-November; summer/fall. Contention 667,
Charleston-gauge 719, Walnut Gulch 866,
Charleston Hills S 1359. TER/CDS2/ROC.
Occasional. 5.
*Eragrostis barre/ieri Daveau - MEDITERRANEAN LOVEGRASS
Annual grass to 60 em, eulms erect or decmnbent with
a ring of glandular tissue below the nodes; blades 210 em long, 1-3 mm wide, flat; panicles 4-20 em open-
64
Desert Plants
contracted, rachises with glandular spots below
nodes; spikelets 4-7 mm with 7-12 florets.
July-November; summer. Charleston, J. Reeder & C.
Reeder 7990, ARIZ. RIP(CW). Infrequent? 5.
*Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen- STINKGRASS
Annual grass to 45 em, culms sometimes abruptly
decumbent; blades 5-20 em long, 3-5 mm wide, flatinrolled; panicle 5-16 em, primary branches diverging
20-80 degrees from rachises; spikelets 6-20 mm long,
2-4 mm wide, lead-colored, with 10-40 florets.
July-November; summer. St. David 627, Charleston
Hills S 1356. DIST/CDS. Common-abundant. 4.
*Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees -WEEPING LOVEGRASS
Perennial bunchgrass 60-150 em, culms erect; blades
12-50 em long, 1-3 mm wide, flat-inrolled;
panicles 16-35 em, nodding, lower axil long hairy;
spike lets 4-8 mm long, lead- colored to yellowish, 310 florets.
May-October; summer. Cottonwood 244, Charlestonmesquite 676, Charleston-gauge 1441, Escapul
Wash 825. RIP(CW)3/WASH. Occasional. 4.
*Eragrostis echinochloidea Stapf- AFRICAN LOVEGRASS
Perennial grass 30-100 em, culms erect-decumbent
with narrow sunken glandular bands; glades 5-20
em long, 2-6 mm wide, with small bowl-shaped glands
on keels and veins; panicles 4-19 em; spikelets 2-5
mm wide, 2-4 mm wide, greenish to lead-colored.
March-October; summer. Charleston-gage 296,
Escapul Wash 823, Lewis Springs 889.
DIST/WASH(2). Infrequent. 5.
Eragrostis intermedia A.S. Hitchc.- PLAINS LOVEGRASS
Perennial bunchgrass 40-90 em, culm erect; blades
10-20 em long, 1-3 mm wide, flat-inrolled,
adaxial surfaces densely hairy behind the ligules;
panicles 15-40 em, open; spikelets 3-7 mm long,
1-2 mm wide with 5-11 florets; grain with prominent
groove.
June-November; summer. Palominas, Proctor s.n.,
ARIZ. CDS. Infrequent. 5.
*Eragrostis lehmanniana N ees - LEHMANN LOVEGRASS
Perennial bunchgrass 40-90 em, culm commonly
geniculate; blades 2-12 em long, 1-3 mm wide flatinrolled; panicles 7-18 em; spikelets 5-12 mm long,
1 mm wide with 4-12 florets; grain without groove.
June-October; summer. Contention 664, Escapul
Wash 820, Boquillas 1199, Charleston-gauge 1189.
TERIWASH/RIP(CW)/CDS. Common. 5.
Eragrostis mexicana (Homem.) Link - MEXICAN LOVEGRASS
Annual grass to 100 em; culms sometimes with a ring
of glandular depressions below the nodes; sheaths
sometimes with glandular pits; blades 5-25 em long,
2-7 mm wide, flat; panicles 10-40 em long 5-20 em
wide; pedicels 1-6 mm, almost appressed to narrowly
divergent, stiff; spikelets 5-l 0 mm long, 1-3 mm wide,
often purplish; glumes subequal, membranous;
fruit ovoid, with a groove on the adaxial surface.
2006
August-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 2497.
CDS. Infrequent. 4.
Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) N ees ex Steud. var.
miserrima (Foum.) J. Reeder- DESERT LOVEGRASS
[Eragrostis arida A .S. Hitchc.]
Annual grass to 60 em; blades 2-15 em, 2-4 mm wide,
flat; panicles 10-25 em, open; spikelet stalks
(pedicles) widely spreading; spike lets 5-8 mm long,
< 2 mm wide with 5-15 florets. August-October;
summer. St David 626, Escapul Wash 826, Walnut
Gulch 849. RIP(CW)/WASH2. Common. 3.
Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees ex Steud. var.
pectinacea (Michx.) Nees ex Steud.- TUFTED LOVEGRASS
[Eragrostis diffusa Buckl.]
Annual grass to 60 em; blades 2-15 em long, 2-4 mm
wide, flat; panicles 10-25 em, open; spikelet stalks
(pedicles) appressed; spikelets 5-8 mm long, < 2 mm
wide with 5-15 florets.
August-October; summer. St. David 592, Walnut
Gulch 847, Contention 1429, SDC 1628.
RIP(CW)/WASHIRIP(CH)/SDC. Common. 3.
*Eragrostis superba Peyr. - WILMAN LOVEGRASS
Perennial grass 45-95 em, culms erect; blades 7-25
em long, 3-7 mm wide, mostly flat, margins sharply
scabrous; panicles 10-30 em long, 1-6 em wide,
condensed, interrupted below; spikelets 6-15 mm
long, 3-9 mm wide with 4-20 florets.
April-October; summer. Palominas Rd. 1068. DIST.
Infrequent. 5.
Eriochloa acuminata (J. Presl) Kunth var. acuminata CUPGRASS
[Eriochloa gracilis (F oum.) A. S. Hitchc. , Eriochloa
lemmonii Vasey & Scribn. var. gracilis (Foum.)
Gould]
Annual grass to 30-100 em; blades 5-12 em long, 512 mm wide, flat; panicle 7-16 em, loosely
contracted, primary branches 1-5 em with 20-36
spikelets in unequal pedicellate pairs; spikelets 4-6
mm, lanceolate, tapering to short awn.
July-December; summer. Palominas 3 527,
Tombstone-gauge 1296. AGR/RIP(CH).
Common-abundant. 2.
Eriochloa acuminata (J. Presl) Kunth var. minor (Vasey)
R.B. Shaw - CUPGRASS
[Eriochloa gracilis (Foum.) A.S. Hitchc. var. minor
(Vasey) A.S. Hitchc.]
Annual grass to 30-100 em; blades 5-12 em long, 512 mm wide, flat; panicle 7-16 em, loosely
contracted, primary branches 1-5 em with 20-36
spike lets in unequal pedicellate pairs;
spikelets 4 mm, lanceolate, acute.
July-December; summer. Cottonwood 761,
Charleston-gauge 1231. AGR/TER. Common. 3.
Eriochloa aristata Vasey - CUPGRASS
Annual grass to 30-100 em; blades 5-12 em long, 512 mm wide, upper surface sometimes with short
hairs; panicle 7-16 em, primary branches 1-5 em, with
San Pedro River
20-35 spikelets in unequally pedicellate pairs;
spikelet 4-6 mm long, lanceolate, awned.
August-October; summer. Contention 645,
Tombstone-gauge 1297. RIP(CW)/RIP(CH).
Common-occasional. 2.
Heteropogon contortus (L.) Beauv. ex Roemer & J.A.
Schultes - TANGLEHEAD
Perennial grass to 80 em; inflorescence a unilateral,
spike-like raceme, 3-7 em long, usually single at culm
tips; spikelets in pairs, one sessile, sterile, the other
short-pedicellate, fertile; the fertile spikelet~ 1
em long, with firm, coreaceous glume enclosing the
second; awn of the fertile lemma stout, twisted, twice
geniculate, pubescent below, usually falling entangled
with the awns of other spikelets.
June-November; summer/fall. Charleston Hills E
1279, Charleston Hills S 1362. ROC2.
Occasional. 5.
Hilaria belangeri (Steud.) Nash- CURLY MESQUITE
Stoloniferous perennial grass 10-35 em; culms erect,
nodes hairy; blades 3-15 em long 1-4 mm wide;
inflorescence a terminal spike-like panicle, 2-4 em,
of reduced, disarticulating branches with three
spikelets.
July-November; summer. Charleston Hills E 1335.
ROC. Infrequent. 5.
Hilaria mutica (Buckl.) Benth. - TOBOSA GRASS
[Pleuraphis mutica Buckl.]
Rhizomatous perennial grass 30-60 em; culms
bending at middle nodes; leaf blades 2-15 em,
mostly scabrous on both sides; inflorescence a
terminal spikelike panicle 4-8 em long, of
reduced, disarticulating branches; each branch with
three spikelets.
June-November; summer. Hereford 309, Palominas3 1065, Charleston Hills N 1164. GRAS/TER/
ROC. Common-abundant. 5. p. 100
Hordeum jubatum L. - FOXTAIL BARLEY
Perennial grass often appearing annual, to 60 em;
spicate racemes 5-1 0 em long, pale green or
reddish tinged, conspicuously bristly with long,
slender, spreading awns.
May-September; summer. Palominas UA397, St.
David 1088, SDC 1096. RIP(CW)/DIST/SDC.
Occasional. 2.
*Hordeum murinum L. ssp. glaucum (Steud.) Tzvelev SMOOTH BARLEY
[Hordeum stebbinsii Covas]
Annual grass to 50 em; spike 5-9 em long, often partly
enclosed by the inflated uppermost sheath; spike lets
sessile and clustered at nodes of rachis, sometimes
reduced to bristles; lemmas tapering into awn 3-4 em
long.
March-May; spring. Escalante Crossing 918.
RIP(CH). Infrequent. 5.
Leptoch[oa dubia (Kunth) Nees- GREEN SPRANGLETOP
Makings
65
Tall perennial grass to 1m; blades flat; inflorescence
with numerous spikes scattered along main axis;
spikelets subsessile on one side of continuous rachis,
3-10 mm long, 2-15 flowered; lemmas notched at
apex, unawned.
July-November; summer/fall. Palominas-3 513,
Charleston-gage 714. GRAS2. Common. 5.
Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth ssp. fascicularis (Lam.) N.
Snow - BEARDED SPRANGLETOP
[Leptochloafascicularis (Lam.) Gray]
Robust annual grass to 1 m; leaves up to 40 em long;
inflorescence of numerous spikes scattered
along main axis; spikelets subsessile on one side of
continuous rachis, 4-10 mm long, 2-15 flowered;
lemmas 4-5 mm long, one-nerved, notched at apex
and awned in the middle.
July-October; summer. SDC 1624. SDC. Infrequentrare. 2.
Leptochloa panicea (Retz.) Ohwi ssp. brachiata (Steudl.)
N. Snow - SPRANGLETOP
[Leptochloa filiform is (Lam.) Beauv.]
Annual grass to 70 em; inflorescence of numerous
unilateral spicate branches 1/2 to 1/3 the length of
the plant; branches very slender, spreading, 3-8 em
long; spikelets 2-3 mm long, 2 to 3-flowered,
usually red or purple-tinged. August-November;
summer/fall. SDC 745, St. David 600, 622,
Charleston Hills S 1390. SDC/CDSIRIP(CW)/ROC.
Common.1.
Leptoch[oa vise ida (Scribn.) Beal - STICKY SPRANGLETOP
Low, spreading annual grass to 40 em, usually
decumbent; herbage viscid; panicle of dense, short,
spicate branches,< 10 em long, branches 1-3 em long;
spikelets 4-6 mm long, 4 to 7-flowered; lemmas
with a rounded, notched apex.
August-November; summer/fall. SDC 1625, Curtis
Windmill1668. SDC/WASH. Infrequent. 3.5.
Leymus triticoides (Buckl.) Pilger - BEARDLESS WILD RYE
[Elymus triticoides Buckl.]
Rhizomatous perennial grass to 1m; blades narrow
and stiff, usually pointing up; inflorescence a slender
spike, 6-20 em long; spikelets 2-3 per node, 10-16
mm long, 4 to 6-flowered; lemmas acute with a very
short awn.
April-August; summer. Cottonwood 256, Moson
Springs 371, Kolbe 398, St. David 1086, SDC 1565.
RIP(CW)3/DIST/SDC. Common-abundant. 4.
*Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire - TALL
FESCUE
[Festuca arundinacea Schreb.]
Perennial bunch grass to 1m; panicle 15-30 em, erect
or nodding, with numerous branches, contracted;
spike lets 6 to 8-flowered, 8-12 mm long; lemmas 710 mm long, rarely short-awned.
May-August; spring/summer. Summer 1059,
Escalante Crossing 1108. RIP(CH)2. Occasional.
3.5.
66
Desert Plants
*Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot. -RYE
GRASS
[Lolium multiflorum Lam.]Annual or short-lived
perennial grass to 70 em; culms often decumbent at
base; blades glossy, 3-8 mm broad; inflorescence a
spike 8-25 em long;spikelets laterally compressed,
10 to 20-flowered; glumes 5-12 mm long, 113 to 2/3
as long as the spikelet; lemmas 4-7 mm long, distinctly
awned.
April-July; spring. Charleston-mesquite 170, Moson
Springs 367a. RIP(CH)2.
Occasional. 4.
*Lolium perenne L. ssp. perenne - RYE GRASS
Annual or short-lived perennial grass to 70 em; culms
often decumbent at base; blades glossy, 3-8 mm broad;
inflorescence a spike 8-25 em long; spikelets laterally
compressed, 5 to 12-flowered; glumes 5-12 mm long,
113 to 2/3 as long as the spikelet; lemmas 4-7 mm
long, awnless or with a minute awn tip.
April-July; spring. Moson Springs 367, Boquillas-UA
997. RIP(CH)2. Occasional. 4.
Muhlenbergia asperifolia (Nees & Meyen ex Trin.) Parodi
-SCRATCHGRASS,ALKALIN.nJHLY
Rhizomatous perennial grass to 60 em; blades 2-7 em
long, 1-3 mm wide, flat; panicles 6-21 em, open
and broadly ovoid; primary branches 3-12 em,
capillary; spikelets 1-2 mm, usually one-flowered.
July-October; summer. SDC 756, Lewis Springs
marsh 1585. SDC/MARSH. Abundant in
cienega and Lewis Springs marsh. 2. p. 100
Muhlenbergia emersleyi Vasey - BULLGRASS
Perennial grass to 1.2 m; panicle 10-40 em long,
many-flowered, usually dense and contracted,
branches long; spikelets one-flowered; lemmas ~3 mm
long, usually pubescent below, with a slender, flexuous
awn 1-2 em long, borne between the lobes of a
minutely notched apex.
July-November; summer/fall. Charleston Hills E
1658. WASH. Rare. 5.
Muhlenbergia fragilis Swallen - DELICATE MUHLY
Annual grass 10-40 em; blades 1-10 em long, <2 mm
wide, flat, scabrous on underside, stringy hairs
on top side; panicles 1-24 em long, 3-7 em wide,
diffuse, primary branches spreading 80-90 degrees;
spikelets 1 mm, with one floret.
July-October; summer. Curtis Windmill874. CDS.
Infrequent. 5.
Muhlenbergia porteri Scribn. ex Beal - BUSH MUHLY
Stoloniferous perennial grass 25-100 em, culms wiry,
freely branched, branches geniculate; blades 2-8
em long, <2 mm wide, flat or folded; panicles 4-14
em, open, not dense, usually purple; spikelets 3-5 mm,
one-flowered, lemma purplish, with 5-13 mm awns.
March-December; summer. St. David 586, Fairbank
642. RIP(CW)/TER. Abundant. 5.
Muhlenbergia repens (J. Presl) A.S. Hitchc. - CREEPING
MUHLY
2006
Rhizomatous perennial grass 5-40 em, forming dense
mats; blades to 6 em long, < 2 mm wide, inrolled;
panicles contracted, 1-9 em long, narrow, usually
partially included in the upper leaf sheaths;
spikelets 3-4 mm, usually with one floret.
March-October; summer. Lewis Springs 728,
Palominas-3 1610. GRAS2. Infrequent. 4.
Muhlenbergia rigens (Benth.) A.S. Hitchc.- DEER GRASS
Perennial bunchgrass 50-150 em, culms stiffly erect;
blades 10-50 em long, 2-6 mm wide, inrolled,
scabrous on underside; panicle 15-60 em long, .5-1.2
em wide, spikelike and dense; spikelets 3-4 mm,
one-flowered.
March-October; summer. Escapul Wash 821. WASH.
Common-abundant. 4.
Panicum alatum F. Zuloaga & 0. Morrone var. minus F.
Zuloaga & 0. Morrone- WINGED PANICGRASS
[Panicum hirticaule J. Presl var. minus Andersson]
Annual grass 20-40 em; sheaths and leaf blades
pappilose-hispid 4-8 em long, 3-7 mm wide; panicle
open 113 to 114 the length of the culm; spikelets 3-4
mm long; first glume about 1/2 length of second
glume; fruit smooth and shiny; fertile lemma with
"wings" at base. Similar toP. hirticaule.
July-September; summer. Contention 647, Summers
1264. GRAS/BOS. Common. 5.
*Panicum antidota[e Retz. - BLUE PANICGRASS, GIANT
PANICGRASS
Tall perennial grass to 2m; leaves 25-60 long, 3-12
mm wide, flattened; panicle open 20- 30 em long,
spikelets 3-4 mm long; first glume < half as long as
spikelet, second glume and sterile lemma equal.
February-August; spring/summer. Lewis Springs 732,
Kingfisher Pond 83 7. RIP( CW)/WASH. Occasional.
4.
Panicum bulbosum Kunth- BULB PANIC GRASS
[Panicum plenum A.S. Hitchc. & Chase]
Tall perennial grass to 2 m, culms often bulbous at
base; leaves 25-60 long, 3-12 mm wide, flattened;
panicle open 20-50 em long, spikelets 3-4 mm long;
first glume < half as long as spikelet, second glume
and sterile lemma equal; grain transversely rugose.
July-September; summer. Moson Springs 1310, Lewis
Springs 1580. RIP(CW)/GRAS. Infrequent. 5.
Panicum capillare L. - WITCHGRASS
Annual grass 20-40 em; sheaths and leaf blades
pappilose-hispid 4-8 em long, 3-7 mm wide; panicle
open, diffuse, more than 112 length of the culm;
spikelets 2-3 mm long; first glume less than 112length
of second glume; fruit smooth and shiny.
July-September; summer. Fairbank 1165. BOS.
Occasional. 3.
Panicum hirticaule J. Presl- MEXICAN PANICGRASS
Annual grass 20-40 em; sheaths and leafblades
pappilose-hispid 4-8 em long, 3-7 mm
wide; panicle open 113 to 114 the length of the culm;
spikelets 3-4 mm long; first glume about 1/2
San Pedro River
length of second glume; fruit smooth and shiny.
Similar to P. alatum var. minus but fertile lemma not
"winged" at base.
June-November; summer. Palominas-3 533. GRAS.
Common. 5.
Panicum obtusum Kunth - VINE MESQUITE
Stoloniferous perennial grass to 80 em, stolons 1 m
or more in length, with swollen, densely hairy nodes;
leaves flat, 2-7 mm wide. Light bluish green; panicle
contracted;spikelets oblong-ovate, 3.5-4 mm long,
subsessile on one side of the branches; first glume
equaling or only slightly shorter than second glume.
May-October; summer. Hereford 475, Palominas-3
1066, SDC 1100. RIP(CW)/SAC/SDC. Commonabundant. 3.
Panicum virgatum L. - SWITCHGRASS
Rhizomatous perennial to 2m; blades 30-60 em long,
to 15 mm wide, flat, ascending; panicle long and
open, primary branches ascending to spreading;
spikelets 4-6 mm long; lower glume nearly as long as
the spikelet, 5-9 veined; floret smooth and shiny.
May-October; summer. San Pedro House 1647.
RIP(CW). Infrequent. 3.
Pappophorum vaginatum Buckl. - PAPPUS GRASS
[Pappophorum mucronulatum auct. non Nees]
Perennial bunchgrass 50-100 em; leafblades 10-25
em long, 2-5 mm wide; inflorescence atightly
contracted panicle 10-25 em, usually whitish;
spikelets with 3-5 florets; lemma veins narrowed into
7 awn-like lobes forming a pappus-like crown.
May-November; spring/summer/fall. St. David 604.
DIST. Infrequent. 5.
*Paspalum dilatatum Poir. - DALLIS GRASS
Perennial grass from a hard, knotty base, 50-150 em;
inflorescence usually 3-5 spicate branches, these 5-8
em long, single at the nodes; spikelets 3-4 mm long,
acute to abruptly pointed; first glume absent,
second glume 3-nerved, pubescent with rather long,
soft hairs on the margins; grain nearly orbicular.
June-October; summer. Escalante Crossing 1105.
RIP(CH). Infrequent. 3.
Paspalum distichum L. - KNOTGRASS
Perennial grass 20-60 em, from extensive, creeping
stolons; nodes of culms and stolons pubescent;
inflorescence 2, sometimes 3 spicate branches, 3-6
em long, usually not more than 1 em apart at culm
apex; spikelets on one side of rachis.
June-September; summer. Hereford 786, Escalante
Crossing 1107, Hunter 1350, SDC 1626. RIP(CH)3/
SDC. Occasional. 1.
*Pha/aris minor Retz. - LITTLESEED CANARY GRASS
Annual grass to 1 m; panicle dense and spikelike, 35 em long; spikelets awnless, laterally compressed,
pale green, with large, equal, strongly-keeled glumes,
4-6 mm long, a single perfect floret, and one or two
sterile florets below. March-June; spring.
Makings
67
Contention 125, St. David 1084. RIP(CW)/DIST.
Occasional. 5.
Poa bigelovii Vasey & Scribn.- BIGELow's BLUEGRASS
Annual grass 15-45 em; panicle contracted, the
branches strictly erect to slightly spreading; spike lets
laterally compressed, 4 to 5-flowered; lemmas 3-4
mm long, densely pubescent with long hairs on the
midnerve and two lateral nerves; base of floret often
with a tuft oflong, kinky hairs.
March-April; spring. Escalante Crossing 917.
RIP(CH). Infrequent. 5.
*Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. - RABBITSFOOT GRASS
Annual grass to 30 em; culms often geniculate; panicle
dense, spike like and contracted, 3-10 em long, bristly
with awns, resembling a rabbit's foot; spikelets oneflowered; glumes about equal, ~2 mm long, with a
strait awn, 5-10 mm long
March-July; spring/summer. Fairbank 68, Charlestonmesquite 977. RIP(CH)2. Abundant. 2.
*Po/ypogon Viridis (Gouan) Breistr. -BEARDLESS RABBITSFOOT
GRASS
[Agrostis semiverticillata (Forsk.) C. Christens.]
Annual grass to 40 em; culms often geniculate; panicle
dense, spikelike and contracted, 3-12 em long;
spikelets one-flowered; glumes about equal, ~2 mm
long.
April-July; spring/summer. Hereford 323, Boquillas
UA 1008, Escapul Wash 833. RIP(CH)2/WASH.
Occasional. 2.
*Schismus arabicus N ees - MEDITERRANEAN GRASS
Low annual grass < 15 em; inflorescence paniculate,
contracted; spikelets several-flowered; glumes large,
about equaling the spikelet; lemmas notched at apex,
conspicuously hairy on the back.
February-May; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 37,
922. TERIRIP(CH). Occasional. 5.
Scleropogon brevifolius Phil. - BURROGRASS
Dioecious, stoloniferous, perennial grass < 25 em;
staminate inflorescence a contracted panicle;
spikelets 2-3 em long, 5 to 10-flowered, glumes and
lemmas awnless; pistillate spikelets 3 to 5flowered, lemmas narrow, rounded on back, 3-nerved,
the nerves extended into twisted, scabrous awns 610 em long. August-October; summer/fall.
Charleston-gauge 720. TER. Infrequent-occasional. 5.
*Setaria adhaerens (F orssk.) Chiov. - BURR BRISTLEGRASS
Annual grass to 60 em; blades flat; panicle spike-like;
spikelets 1.5-2 mm long, clustered on short branchlets,
subtended by 1-3 retrorsely scabrous bristles.
August-October; summer/fall. Summersl270,
Cottonwood 764, San Pedro House 1645.
SAC/AGR(2). Common. 5.
Setaria grisebachii Foum.- GRISEBACH BRISTLEGRASS
Annual grass to 70 em; blades flat, tapering, mostly
< 12 em; panicle spike-like, cylindrical, interrupted;
spikelets 1.5-2.2 mm long, clustered along main axis
or borne on short pedicels along ascending branches;
68
Desert Plants
bristles single below each spikelet, antrorsely
scabrous.
August-October; summer. Walnut Gulch 845, Moson
Springs 1311. WASH/BOS. Common. 5.
Setaria leucopila (Scribn. & Merr.) K. Schum.- BRISTLEGRASS
Perennial bunchgrass to 1m; blades flat or folded 825 em long, 2-5 mm wide, usually scabrous on
both surfaces; panicle densely flowered and spikelike; spikelets 2-2.5 mm long; 1st glume about 1/2 as
long as the spikelet, three nerved; bristles usually
solitary below each spikelet; fertile lemma evenly
rugose from base to tip.
April-November; summer. Fairbank 150, Palominas3511, St. David 453, Charleston-gauge 1232.
GRAS2/RIP(CW)/DIST. Common. 5.
Setaria vulpiseta (Lam.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes- PLAINS
BRISTLEGRASS
[Setaria macrostachya Kunth]
Robust perennial bunchgrass to 1.2 m; blades flat or
folded 8-25 em long, >7 -15 mm wide, usually
scabrous on both surfaces; panicle densely flowered
and spike-like; spikelets 2-2.5 mm long; 1st glume
about 1/3 to 1/2 as long as the spikelet, 3 to 5 nerved;
bristles usually solitary below each spikelet; fertile
lemma coarsely rugose below, more finely rugose
toward apex.
July-November; summer. Charleston-gauge 1315.
ROC. Common. 5.
*Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.- JoHNSONGRASS
Robust, rhizomatous perennial grass to 3 m; leaf
blades flat with prominent midvein; panicle open;
pedicelled spikelets male, sessile spikelets perfect.
June-November; summer. Lewis Springs 180,
Charleston-gauge 270. RJP(CH)/RlP(CW).
Abundant. 4.
Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn.- WEDGESCALE
Annual (sometimes perennial) grass to 70 em; panicle
contracted and dense, spikelike, 5-10 em long;
spikelets 2-3 mm long; second glume obtuse and
rounded at the very broad apex.
May-June; spring. Boquillas UA 998, Moson Springs
1028. RIP(CH)2. Common- occasional. 2.
Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr.- ALKALI SACATON
Perennial bunchgrass to 1 m; apex of sheath glabrous;
leaves involute 5-17 em long; panicle open and
diffuse, 1-2 times as long as broad, branches naked
below; spikelets one-flowered, ~2mm; lemmas onenerved, awnless, membranous; grain compressed
laterally, falling readily from floret.
May-October; summer. SDC 1097, Charleston Road
1138. SDC/DIST. Occasional. 3.
Sporobolus contractus A.S. Hitchc.- SPIKE DROPSEED
Perennial bunchgrass to 1.5 m; apex of sheath
conspicuously villous; leaves involute 5-30 em
long; panicle contracted, spikelike, branches densely
flowered; spikelets one-flowered, ~2mm; lemmas
2006
one-nerved, awnless, membranous; grain compressed
laterally, falling readily from floret.
July-October; summer. Boquillas 566. TER. Common.
4.
Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray - SAND DROPSEED
Perennial bunchgrass to 1 m; apex of sheath
conspicuously villous; leaves involute 5-17 em long;
panicle open, branches densely flowered; spikelets
one-flowered, ~2mm; lemmas one-nerved, awnless,
membranous; grain compressed laterally, falling
readily from floret.
July-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 715,
Contention 1429a, Boquillas. TER/RIP(CH)/DIST2.
Common.4.
Sporobolus pyramidatus (Lam.) Hitchc. -WHORLED DROPSEED
Annual or short-lived perennial grass to 60 em; blades
3-10 em long, 2-6 mm wide, flat; panicles (when
mature) pyramidal; lower nodes with 7-12 branches;
spikelets 1-2 mm; glumes very unequal, upper
glume often as long as the floret; lemma and palea
membranous.
August-October; summer. Lewis Springs 2513. TER.
Infrequent-rare. 4.
Sporobolus wrightii Munro ex Scribn. - SACATON
Perennial bunchgrass to 2m; apex of sheath glabrous
with stiffhairs in throat; leaves usually flat 30-50 em
long; panicle open 30-60 em long, somewhat densely
flowered nearly to the base; spike lets one-flowered,
~2mm; lemmas one-nerved, awnless, membranous;
grain compressed laterally, falling readily from floret.
August-September; summer.
Charleston-gauge 721, Palominas-3 1064, SDC 1099,
Lewis Springs 1574. GRAS/RIP(CW)/SDC/CDS.
Abundant. 4.
Tragus berteronianus J.A. Schultes - BUR GRASS
Annual grass to 45 em; blades 7-8 em long, 2-5 mm
wide, smooth and flat; Inflorescence a terminal spikelike panicle; branches resembling burs with 2-5
spikelets.
August-October; summer/fall. St. David 606, Lewis
Springs 892. CDS/WASH. Occasional. 5.
Tridens albescens (Vasey) Woot. & Standi.- WHITE TRIDENS
Perennial grass to 80 em; inflorescence a narrow
panicle, greenish to nearly white, 10-20 em long;
Spikelets short-pedicelled, 8 to 12-flowered, 5-7 mm
long.
April-June; spring. Lewis Springs 738. RIP(CW).
Rare. 2.
Tridens muticus (Torr.) Nash- SLIM TRIDENS
Perennial grass to 50 em; blades narrow; inflorescence
6-20 em long, paniculate or racemose, narrow and
spikelike, the spikelets not crowded; spikelets 9-13
mm long, 5 to 8-flowered; lemmas tinged with purple.
June-November; summer/fall. Curtis Windmi11872,
Charleston Hills W 1194. CDS/ROC. Common. 5.
San Pedro River
Trisetum interruptum Buckl. - PRAIRIE FALSE OAT
Annual grass < 40 em; panicle dense and contracted
4-10 em long; spike lets 2 to 4- flowered, laterally
compressed, 4-7 em long; lemmas 5-8 mm long; awns
of the lemma 5-8 mm long, twisted and twice
geniculate.
March-May; spring. Escalante Crossing 942.
RIP(CH). Infrequent. 5.
Urochloa arizonica (Scribn. & Merr.) 0. Morrone & F.
Zuloaga- ARIZONA SIGNALGRASS
[Brachiaria arizonica (Scribn. & Merr.) S.T. Blake
Panicum arizonicum Scribn. & Merr.]
Annual grass < 60 em, usually much branched at base;
blades usually ciliate on margins; panicle 7-15 em
long; spikelets 3-4 mm long, on pedicels - 2 mm long;
first glume and sterile lemma abruptly pointed at
apex, strong vertical veins, without cross veins, or
these present near the apex; grain reticulate or
finely rugose, 2-3 mm long.
August-October; summer/fall. Palominas-3 526,
Charleston Hills W 1194a. AGRIROC.
Common-occasional. 5.
Urochloafusca (Sw.) B. F. Hansen & Wunderlin- BROWNTOP
SIGNALGRASS
[Brachiariafasciculata (Sw.) Parodi Panicum
fasciculatum Sw. , Urochloa fasciculata
(Sw.) R. Webster]
Annual grass to 60 em; panicle 6-15 em long, main
panicle axis and branches scabrous or with scattered
long, stiff hairs; spikelets 2.6-3 mm long, yellowish
brown or golden-tinged at maturity; second glume
and sterile lemma reticulate with fine cross veins.
August-October; summer/fall. St. David 1383, St.
David 1652. CDS/GRAS. Common-occasional. 4.
Vulpia octojlora (Walt.) Rydb. - SIXWEEKS FESCUE
[Festuca octojlora Walt.]
Annual grass < 30 em; blades narrow, involute;
panicle 2-8 em long, contracted, the branches and
pedicels short, erect-appressed; spikelets 6 to ISflowered, laterallycompressed, florets closely
imbricate.
March-June; spring. Escalante Crossing 915.
RIP(CH). Occasional. 5.
POLEMONIACEAE
Eriastrum diffusum (Gray) Mason- WOOLLYSTAR
Annual forb< 15 em with tap root; stems diffuselybranched; leaves alternate, linear, entire to dissected,
the segments spinulose-tipped; flowers sessile, in
compact, woolly heads, the tube yellowish, the
lobes blue or white.
February-June; winter/spring. Contention 119,
Escalante Crossing 926. CDS/RIP(CH).
Occasional. 5.
Gilia jlavocincta A. Nels. var.australis- YELLOWTHROAT GILIA
Annual forb < 20 em with tap root; upper stems
glandular; leaves alternate, mostly in basal rosettes,
Makings
69
reduced above, 2 to 3-times dissected, with cobwebby
hairs; inflorescence few to many-flowered panicles;
pedicels short or long; flowers tubular, white tinged
violet; fruit a capsule.
February-May; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 923,
SDC 1485. RIP(CH)2. Common. 5.
Giliastrum acerosum (A. Gray) Rydb.- BLUEBOWLS
[Gilia rigidula Benth. var. acerosa Gray]
Perennial forb or subshrub usually <20 em; herbage
glandular, especially along pedicel and calyx;
leaves alternate, crowded, entire to palmately lobed,
the segments linear and weakly spine-tipped;
inflorescence an open panicle at branch tips; flowers
bright blue with yellow in throat, 1.5 em across with
3-parted stigma; calyx membranous between ribs;
fruit an ovoid capsule separating from the top.
April-September; spring/summer. Hereford 1711.
CDS. 5. Rare-infrequent. p. 100
Ipomopsis longiflora (Torr.) V. Grant- WHITE-FLOWERED GILIA
Annual or short-lived perennial forb to 40 em; leaves
alternate, dissected, the segments linear; inflorescence
open panicles; flowers white to purple-tinged, longtubular, 3-7 em long.
February-September; spring/summer. Lewis Springs
193, Escalante Crossing 931, Walnut Gulch 863.
RIP(CH)2/WASH. Occasional. 5.
POLYGALACEAE
Polygala lindheimeri Gray var. parvifolia Wheelock SHRUBBY MILKWORT
Perennial forb or subshrub 5-25 em; leaves alternate,
narrowly elliptical, 5-15 mm; flowers irregular,
pinkish-purple, in elongate-compact racemes; fruit an
oval, flattened capsule < 1em long.
May-July; spring/summer. Hereford 1713. CDS. Rareinfrequent. 5.p. 100
Polyga[a obscura Benth. - VELVETSEED MILKWORT
Perennial forb usually< 20 em; leaves alternate, lanceelliptic, 1-4 em long; inflorescence an open
raceme at branch ends; flowers irregular, petals
purple, united below, forming a dorsally-cleft
tube; fruit a thin, flattened, ovate capsule.
June-September; summer. Contention 656,
Charleston-gauge 1196, Charleston Hills S
1394. CDS2/ROC. Infrequent. 5.
POLYGONACEAE
Eriogonum abertianum Benth.- ABERT's BUCKWHEAT
Annual forb to 50 em; herbage velvety; leaves oblong
to ovate, in whorls along stem; flowers cream, in headlike clusters at branch tips.
March-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 278,
Palominas-3 553, Palominas-UA 573,St. David 590.
CDSIRIP(CW)/SAC/GRAS. Occasional. 5.
Eriogonum dejlexum Torr. - FLATCROWN BUCKWHEAT
Annual forb to 50 em; stems much-branched; leaves
ovate, long petiolate, woolly, in basal rosette; flowers
70
Desert Plants
small, cream-pink, dangling in small clusters along
stems. Flowering throughout the year; summer.
Contention 970, St. David 1081. RIP(CH)2.
Occasional. 5.
Eriogonum polycladon Benth. - SORREL BUCKWHEAT
Annual forb to 60 em; herbage grey, velvety; leaves
reduced upwards along stem; inflorescence scattered
along branches; flowers pink in short, dangling
clusters.
July-October; summer. Cottonwood 775, Boquillas
795. RIP(CW)/WASH. Occasional. 5.
Eriogonum terrenatum Reveal - BUCKWHEAT
Erect-spreading shrub to 50 em; leaves mostly elliptic
< 2cm long, revolute and slightly woolly;
inflorescence a cyme-umbel; small flowers white with
reddish-brown midrib. Recently described species
(Reveal 2004).
August-November; summer/fall. Contention 1467,
1684. CDS2. Infrequent-rare. 5. p. 100
Eriogonum trichopes Torr. - LITTLE DESERTTRUMPET
Delicate, much-branched annual forb, usually less
than 25 em; leaves ovate, in basal rosette; flowers
minute, yellow.
February-October; spring. SDC 53, St. David 450,
Contention 971. DIST/CDS/RIP(CH).
Common-occasional. 5.
Eriogonum wrightii Torr.- WRIGHT's BUCKWHEAT
Sub-shrub 20-30 em; leaves alternate,< 2 em long,
oblanceolate, tomentose; inflorescence branches
tomentose, 10-20 em long; flowers 3 mm long, cream
with pink midrib, in 4- to 5-flowered involucres.
August-October; summer. Palominas-3 1605. CDS.
Infrequent. 5.
*Polygonum avicu[are L. - PROSTRATE KNOTWEED
Prostrate annual forb; stems branching out from
central point, with sheaths at nodes; flowers small,
pink, scattered along stems in axillary clusters.
March-October; summer. Hereford 312, St. David
434. RIP(CW)/DIST. Occasional. 2.
*Polygonum convolvulus L. - BLACK BINDWEED
Annual vine; leaves triagular; fruit three-sided with
single black seed.
June-September; summer. Fairbank 1166. DIST.
Infrequent. 3. 5.
*Polygonum lapathifolium L. - WILLOW SMARTWEED
Annual forb, robust specimens to 2 m tall; stems with
prominent sheaths and sometimes swollen at nodes;
leaves lanceolate, serrate; inflorescence spikes at the
ends ofbranches sometimes nodding, flowers
white.
May-October; summer. Hereford 458, 789.
RIP(CH)2. Common. 1.
Polygonum pensylvanicum L. - PINKWEED
Annual forb, robust specimens to 2 m tall; stems with
prominent sheaths and sometimes swollen at
nodes; leaves lanceolate, serrate; inflorescence spikes
2006
at the ends of branches, erect or nearly so, flowers
bright pink.
June-October; summer. Hereford 459, 790.
RIP(CH)2. Common. 1.
*Rumex crispus L.- CURLY DOCK
Perennial forb; leaves alternate, simple, the stipules
united into a cylindric, more or less caducous sheath
(ocrea); leaves large, crisped on margins; perianth
calyx-like, 6-parted, the 3 inner segments (valves)
becoming enlarged and modified in fruit; valves 4-6
mm long; fruit a trigonous achene.
April-October; spring/summer. Lewis Springs 189,
SDC 1094. RIP(CH)/SDC. Occasional. 2.
*Rumex dentatus L. - TOOTHED DOCK
Perennial forb; leaves alternate, simple, the stipules
united into a cylindric, more or less caducous sheath
(ocrea); leaf margins mostly smooth; perianth calyxlike, 6-parted, the 3 inner segments (valves)
becoming enlarged and modified in fruit; valves
usually sharply and conspicuously dentate; fruit a
trigonous achene.
March-October; spring/summer. Hereford 463.
RIP(CH). Occasional. 1.
*Rumex obtusifolius L. - BITTER DOCK
Perennial forb; leaves alternate, simple, the stipules
united into a cylindric, more or less caducous sheath
(ocrea); leaf margins mostly smooth; perianth calyxlike, 6-parted, the 3 inner segments (valves)
becoming enlarged and modified in fruit; valves
usually sharply and conspicuously dentate; fruit a
trigonous achene.
July-September; summer. Hereford 319. RIP(CW).
Occasional. 2.
PORTULACACEAE
Phemeranthus auruntiacus (Engelm.) Kiger - ORANGE
FLAMEFLOWER
[Talinum aurantiacum Engelm.]
Perennial succulent forb to 30cm with tuberous roots;
leaves alternate, 2-5 em long, narrowly lanceolate;
flowers axillary, pedicels often recurving in fruit;
petals 9-15 mm long, reddish-orange. Makings 1298,
sometimes recognized separately as Phemeranthus
angustissimus (Gray) Woot. & Standi., differs from
the above in having slender stems, very narrow leaves,
and yellow petals.
July-September; summer. Charleston-gauge 697,
Lewis Springs 741, Charleston Hills N
1154, Tombstone-gauge 1298. CDS/GRAS/ROC2.
Occasional-common. 5. p. 100
Portulaca halimoides L.- SILKCOTTON PURSLANE
[Portulaca parvula Gray]
Succulent annual forb 5-10 em, with diffuse stems;
leaves alternate, <1 em long; inflorescences terminal;
flowers yellow with 2 sepals, on peduncles along
branches, subtended by pilose hairs; fruit a
circumscissile capsule 2mm across.
San Pedro River
August-October; summer. Contention 660a. TER.
Occasional. 2.
Portulaca oleracea L. - COMMON PURSLANE, VERDOLAGA
Succulent annual forb with tap root; stems prostrate
to somewhat ascending with radially spreading
branches 4-25 em long; leaves alternate, flat, ovatecuneate or spatulate, 1-2 em long, widest near
tips; inflorescences terminal; flowers yellow or pink
with 2 sepals; fruit a circumscissile capsule.
July-October; summer. St. David 602, 624,
Charleston-gauge 1213. GRASIRIP(CW)/ROC.
Occasional. 3. p. 100
Portulaca pilosa L. - CHISME
[Portulaca mundula Johnst.]
Succulent annual forb to 20 em; roots fibrous; stems
much branched; leaves alternate, linear, cylindrical,
1-2 em long; sepals 2; flowers solitary or clustered at
branch tips; petals pink to purple, 3-7 mm long,
subtended by pilose hairs; fruit a circumscissile
capsule 3 mm across.
August-October; summer/fall. Palominas-3 1594.
RIP(CW). Occasional. 4.
Portulaca suffrutescens Engelm. - SHRUBBY PURSLANE
Succulent perennial forb to 23 em; roots tuberous
thickened; stems erect or ascending, somewhat
suffrutescent; leaves alternate, narrow, cylindric, 1-2
em long; sepals 2; flowers clustered at ends of
branches, petals orange, 3-10 mm long; subtended by
pilose hairs; fruit a circumscissile capsule.
July-September; summer. Contention 660. TER.
Infrequent-occasional. 5. p. 100
Portulaca umbraticola Kunth - WINGPOD PURSLANE
[Portulaca coronata Small]
Succulent annual forb 10-15 em; roots fibrous; stems
mostly erect, glabrous; leaves few, mostly
alternate, flat, lanceolate or spatulate, 1-3 em long;
sepals 2; flowers clustered at ends ofbranches; petals
pink, yellow or orange, 5-10 mm long; fruit a
circumscissile capsule with an expanded circular
membranous wing just below the rim.
August-October; summer. Charleston-gauge 1217.
ROC. Occasional. 3. p. 100
Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn. - PINK BABY BREATH,
RAMADEL SAPO
Perennial succulent forb; roots tuberous; leaves mostly
toward the base of plant, broad and widest toward
the tips, to 12 em long, reduced upwards;
inflorescence a long, open panicle; petals 3-5 mm,
pink; fruit a globose capsule 3-5 mm.
July-September; summer. Contention 648,
Charleston-mesquite 1149. TER/ROC.
Occasional. 5.
PRIMULACEAE
Androsace occidentalis Pursh - WESTERN ROCK JASMINE
Tiny annual forb to 6 em, leaves in basal cluster;
flowers whitish, on delicate stalks. February-
Makings
71
April; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing 938.
RIP(CH). Infrequent. 4.
Samolus velarandi L. ssp. parviflorus (Raf.) Hulten- WATER
PIMPERNELL
[Samolus floribundus H.B.K., Samolus parviflorus
Raf.]
Perennial aquatic forb; stems leafy mostly below;
leaves broad, entire; flowers small, pedicelled, in
loose racemes, several to many-flowered, petals white;
fruit a globose capsule opening apically by valves.
September-October; summer/fall. SDC, Van
Devender & Mead s.n., ARIZ. SDC. Rare? 1.
PTERIDACEAE
Argyrochosma limitanea (Maxon) Windham- SOUTHWESTERN
FALSE CLOAKFERN
[Cheilanthes limitanea (Maxon) Mickel, Notholaena
limitanea Maxon, Pellaea limitanea (Maxon)
Morton]
Fern with creeping rhizomes; petioles mostly shorter
than the blades, wiry, dark; blades with 1 to 4
pinnae; pinnae white-waxy beneath.
NA; NA. Charleston Hills N 1156. ROC. Infrequent.
5.p. 100
Astrolepis integerrima (Hook.) Benham & Windham- HYBRID
CLOAK FERN
[Cheilanthes integerrima (Hook.) Mickel,
Notholaena integerrima (Hook.) Hevly, Notholaena
sinuata (Lag. ex Sw.) Kaulfuss var. integerrima
Hook.]
Fern with short, creeping, scaly rhizomes; leaves
linear, once pinnate, 20-35 em long, the axis scaly;
leaflets somewhat thickened, shallowly and irregularly
lobed on each side, lower surface obscured by dense,
overlapping scales, upper surface olive green.
NA. NA. Charleston Hills 1118, Charleston-gauge
rock art 1147. ROC(2). Infrequent. 5.
Astrolepis sinuata (Lag. ex Sw.) Benham & Windham- WAVY
CLOAK FERN
[Cheilanthes sinuata (Lag. ex Sw.) Domin,
Notholaena sinuata (Lag. ex Sw.) Kaulfuss]
Fern with short, creeping, scaly rhizomes; leaves
linear, once pinnate, 20-35 em long, the axis
scaly; leaflets somewhat thickened, 3 or 4 conspicuous
lobes on each side, lower surface obscured by
dense, overlapping scales, upper surface olive green.
NA; NA. Charleston-gauge 1216, Charleston-gauge
1675. ROC2. Infrequent. 5. p. 100
Bommeria hispida (Mett. ex Kuhn) Underwood- COPPER FERN
Fern with scaly rhizomes; petioles much long than
the blades; leaves tripinnatifid, bladesfinger-like;
sporangia following the veins throughout.
NA; NA. Charleston Hills W 1437. ROC. Infrequent.
5.
Cheilanthes eatonii Baker- EATON's LIPFERN
[Cheilanthes castanea Maxon]Fern with short,
creeping, scaly rhizomes; leaves mostly 2 to 3-
72
Desert Plants
pinnate, hairy, scaly on lower surfaces; sporangia in
sori near margins of leaf segments or leaflets, the
margins somewhat folded over the sori.
NA; NA. Charleston Hills 1155, Charleston-gauge
1314. ROC2. fu:frequent. 5.
Cheilanthes bonariensis (Willd.) Proctor- GOLDEN LIPFERN
[Notholaena aurea (Poir.) Desv.]
Fern; rhizome scales dark red-brown, with
membranous to orange-brown toothed margins, the
center turning black with age; leaves 20-39 em long;
pinnae deeply lobed.
NA. NA. Charleston-gauge 1215. ROC. Infrequent.
5.
Pellaea truncata Goodding - CLIFF BRAKE
[Pellaea longimucronata auct. non Hook.]
Fern with short, creeping rhizomes; leaves 1 to 3pinnate, 20-30 em long, the pinnules on short
"branchlets" with 3 leaflets; petioles dark brown,
mostly glabrous.
NA; NA. Charleston Hills 1117. ROC. Infrequent. 5.
RANUNCULACEAE
Clematis drummondii Torr. & Gray - TEXAS VIRGIN BOWER,
BARBAS DE CHIVATO
Woody vine; leaves opposite, toothed, trifoliate;
flowers cream, perfect or unisex; pistils and stamens
numerous; fruit achenes in globose heads, dispersed
by long, feathery styles.
April-September; summer. Cottonwood 784,
Kingfisher Pond 1128. TER/RIP(CW).
Occasional. 3. p. 101
Myosurus minimus L. - TINY MOUSETAIL
Dwarf annual forb usually < 5 em; leaves linear, all
basal; inflorescence a slender spike; fruit a beaked
achene.
March-July; spring. SDC 51, Escalante Crossing 948.
SDC/RIP(CH). Infrequent. 1.
Ranunculus scleratus L. - BUTTERCUP
Annual forb to 50 em; basal leaves entire to pinnately
compound, stem leaves alternate or rarely opposite;
flowers in terminal heads, pistils numerous, petals
yellow; fruit an achene.
March-June; spring. Fairbank 75, Boquillas UA 991.
RIP(CH)/AQU. Occasional. 2.
RESEDACEAE
Oligomeris linifolia (Vahl) J.F. Macbr. - LINEAR-LEAVED
CAMBESS
Annual forb to 20 em; leaves linear; flowers tiny,
white, irregular, in spikes at ends of stems.
December-May; winter/spring. Escalante Crossing
934. RIP(CH). Infrequent-rare. 5.
RHAMNACEAE
Condalia globosa I. M. Johnston var. pubescens I. M.
Johnston- CONDALIA, BITTER SNAKEWOOD
2006
[Condalia spathulata Gray, Condalia warnockii M.C.
Johnston var. kearneyana M.C. Johnston]
Intricately-branched, spiny, long-lived shrub to 3
meters; leaves alternate or fascicled, 3-5 mm long;
flowers minute, corolla absent; fruit a globose drupe
turning dark purple.
July-September; summer/fall. Kolbe 1629. CDS.
Infrequent. 5.
Sageretia wrightii S. Wats. - WRIGHT's MOCK BUCKTHORN
Shrub to 1 meter; leaves dark green, glossy, ovate, 12 em; flowers cream, minute; fruit dark purple,
round.
July-October; summer. Tombstone-gauge 1288,
Charleston-gauge 1676. ROC2. Infrequent-rare. 5.
Zizyphus obtusifolia (Hook. ex Torr. & Gray) Gray GRAYTHORN
[Condalia lycioides (Gray) Weberb.]
Shrub with spine-tipped branches. Leaves ovate,
usually less than 1 em, light green; flowers tiny,
greenish-yellow; fruit a dark purple globose drupe.
June-August; summer. Cottonwood 264, St. David
456, Charleston-mesquite 986. RIP(CW)/BOS2.
Common. 5. p. 101
ROSACEAE
Rosa woodsii Lindl. - WooDs' ROSE
Clonal shrub to 2 meters; leaves compound; leaflets
serrate from apex to just below middle; flowers pink,
showy, with many stamens. Only known from one site
at Government Draw along spring; probably
cultivated, but persisting.
May-August; spring/summer. Lewis Springs 1516.
RIP(CW). Rare. 4.
RUBIACEAE
Cephafanthus occidenta/is L. - COMMON BUTTON BUSH
Shrub to 2.5 m; leaves large, opposite or in whorls of
3, broadly lanceolate to oblong-ovate; flowers small,
very numerous, in dense globose, long peduncled
heads; corolla whitish, tubular-funnelform, 4-lobed;
fruits achenelike, obpyramidal, 2-celled, 1 or 2seeded.
June-September; summer. Summers 1245, SDC 1256,
St. David 1287.
RIP(CW)/SDC/WASH. Infrequent. 1. p. 101
Ga/ium microphyllum Gray - BRACTED BEDSTRAW
Perennial forb; stems weak and reclining or supported
by other plants; leaves appearing whorled, small,
mostly 4 in the whorl; flowers small, axillary, sessile,
solitary in each bract; fruits paired, slightly fleshy at
maturity, granulate or tuberculate.
March-December; summer. Charleston-gauge
1424. ROC. Infrequent. 3.
Mitracarpus breviflorus Gray - WHITE GIRDLEPOD
Annual forb <15 em; stems erect or sparingly
branched; leaves opposite, lanceolate;
flowers small, in few very dense, terminal and axillary
San Pedro River
clusters; calyx with two pairs of lobes very unlike in
size and texture, the larger ones surpassing the whitish
corolla; capsule 2-celled.
August-September; summer. Palominas (Boy Scout
Camp) 1409. RIP(CH). Rare. 5.
RUTACEAE
Thamnosma texan a (Gray) Torr. - DUTcHMAN's BREECHES, RUE
OF THE MOUNTAINS
Suffrutescent forb to 30 em herbage grayish green;
leaves linear, gland-dotted, with a medicinal-spicy
odor; fruit a 2-lobed capsule.
March-August; spring. Headless Sphinx 1523. ROC.
Rare-infrequent. 5.
SALICACEAE
Populus fremontii S. Wats. - FREMONT COTTONWOOD
Dioecious tree, mature specimens to 30m; leaves
broadly triangular-ovate. Dominant tree along river
corridor.
February-April; winter/spring. Charleston-gauge
1455,1456, San Pedro House 1448, 1462. RIP(CW)2/
DIST2. Abundant. 2. p. 101
Salix exigua Nutt. - COYOTE WILLOW
Dioecious clonal shrub or tree; leaves alternate, blades
mostly linear, 3-16 em long, 2-9 mm wide; staminate
flowers in densely flowered catkins 1-5 em long;
pistillate flowers in loosely-flowered catkins, 1-10
em long.
March-June; spring. Palo-UA 386, Kolbe 496,
Fairbank 1013, SDC 1255. RIP(CW)2/RIP(CH)/
SDC. Infrequent. 1.
Salix gooddingii Ball - GooDDING WILLOW
Dioecious tree to 20 m; leaves alternate, narrowly
elliptic, 7-13 em long, 1-2 em wide, finely serrate;
staminate flowers in densely-flowered catkins 3-7 em
long; pistillate flowers in loosely-flowered catkins,
2-6 em long. Co-dominant with Fremont cottonwood
along river corridor.
March-June; spring. Escalante Crossing 950, Hereford
bridge 1478, 1479. RIP(CW)3. Abundant. 1.
Salix lasiolepis Benth. - ARROYO WILLOW
Dioecious clonal shrub to 3 m, branches reddishbrown; flowers in catkins, appearing before leaves;
floral bracts with wavy hairs. Only known from lonely
male shrub at Murray Springs.
February-August; spring. Murray Springs 1451.
WASH. Rare. 2.
Salix taxifolia Kunth- YEW-LEAF WILLOW
Dioecious clonal shrub or tree to 5 m; leaves alternate,
blades narrowly oblanceolate 2-4 em long, 1-4 mm
wide; staminate flowers in densely-flowered catkins
1-2 em long; pistillate flowers in densely-flowered
catkins, 1-2 em long. Only known from large clonal
population in Escapul Wash.
March-October; spring/summer. Escapul Wash 816,
1135. WASH2. Rare. 2.
Makings
73
SAPINDACEAE
Sapindus saponaria L. - WESTERN SOAPBERRY
Monoecious clonal tree to 10 m; leaves alternate,
pinnately compound; leaflets lanceolate-obovate, 412 em long,< 2 em wide; inflorescence 15-25 em
long, racemose to paniculate, villous, many-flowered;
flowers cream, 2-6 mm long, 5-8 mm wide; fruit
amber-colored, globose, drupe-like,~ 1 em, with
translucent pulp.
April-July; spring/summer. Charleston-mesquite 981,
Boquillas UA 994, St. David 1079. RIP(CW)/
BOS/WASH. Occasional. 3.
SAURURACEAE
Anemopsis californica (Nutt.) Hook. &Am.- YERBA-MANSA
Rhizomatous/stoloniferous perennial forb to 30 em;
leaves alternate, basalleavespetiolate, the blades 515 em long, elliptic-oblong with a truncate or cordate
base, stem leaves sessile and clasping; inflorescence
a terminal, compact, conic spike subtended by
showy, white or reddish petaloid bracts; flowers 7 5150, each subtended by a white, obovate bract with a
narrow claw; fruit a capsule.
April-October; summer. SDC I 098. SDC.
Infrequent. 1. p. 101
SCROPHULARIACEAE
Castilleja minor (Nutt.) Hook. & Am. - LESSER INDIAN
PAINTBRUSH
Annual forb; stems very leafy; leaves alternate, sessile;
flowers in conspicuously red-bracted terminal spikes,
corolla tubular with an upper lip; fruit a capsule.
March-October; summer. Hereford 303, Fairbank
1012. RIP(CH)2. Infrequent. 1.
Maurandella antirrhiniflora (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.)
Rotbm. - BLUE SNAPDRAGON VINE
[Maurandya antirrhiniflora Humb. & Bonpl. ex
Willd.]
Perennial herbaceous vine; leaves alternate,
petiolate, triangular and hastately lobed, < 2 em;
flowers purple, irregular, the throat mostly closed;
fruit a globose capsule.
March-October; spring/summer. Charleston-gauge
1218. ROC. Infrequent. 5. p. 101
Mimulus guttatus DC. - MONKEYFLOWER
Annual forb; leaves opposite, petiolate to sessile,
serrate-toothed; flowers axillary on long peduncles,
corollas yellow, bilabiate; fruit a capsule.
June-November; spring/summer. Hereford 299,
Fairbank 157, Escalante Crossing 943,
Palominas-3 959. Habitat(s): RIP(CW)IRIP(CH)3.
Occasional-common. 1.
Penstemon parryi (Gray) Gray- PARRY's BEARDTONGUE
Perennial forb; leaves opposite, sessile, lance-linear,
3-7 em long; flowers usually several in axils; corolla
rose-magenta, tubular, two-lipped; fruit a capsule.
74
Desert Plants
February-April; spring. Charleston Hills E 1453.
ROC. Infrequent. 5.
Penstemon stenophyllus (Gray) T.J. Howell- BEARDTONGUE.
Rhizomatous perennial forb to 40 em; leaves opposite,
sessile, linear, 4-8 em long; flowers blue, tubular, in
loose terminal racemes; fruit a capsule.
August-September; summer. Palominas, Williams s.n.,
ASU. CDS. Infrequent. 5. p. 101
Schistophragma intermedia (Gray) Pennell - HARLEQUIN
SPIRALSEED
Small annual < 10 em; herbage glandular pubescent;
leaves opposite, petiolate, pinnatifid; flowers
axillary, small, purple, tubular; fruit a capsule.
August-October; summer. Charleston-mesquite 679,
Fairbank 1395. CDS/DIST. Occasional. 5. p. 101
*Verbascum virgatum Stokes - WAND MULLEIN
Biennial erect forb to 1 m; herbage pubescent; leaves
crowded basally, alternate above and clasping; flowers
in open elongate spikes; corollas yellow; fruit a
capsule.
May-September; summer. St. David 1374. RIP(CW).
Infrequent. 5. p. 101
Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. - WATER SPEEDWELL
Perennial forb to 60 em; leaves opposite, mostly
sessile, finely serrate; flowers in terminal and axillary
loose racemes; corollas light purple, 4-lobed; fruit a
capsule.
March-October; spring/summer. Fairbank 69, Kolbe
362. RIP(CH)/AQU. Common-abundant. 1.
Veronica peregrina L. - NECKLACE WEED
Annual forb usually< 10 em; leaves alternate, linearlanceolate to oblanceolate, flowers small, white,
usually single in axils; fruit a capsule.
February-September; spring/summer. Hereford 324,
Escalante Crossing 910. RIP(CH)2. Occasional. 1.
SIMAROUBACEAE
*Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle - CANCER TREE, TREE
OF HEAVEN
Rapidly growing clonal tree to 20 m; functionally
dioecious; leaves compound, 30 to 100 em long;
leaflets lanceolate, 8-15 em long; flowers small,
greenish to whitish, 2-3 mm long; fruit a samara 3-5
em long, linear, curved.
April-June; spring. Boquillas 1248. DIST. Infrequent.
4.
SOLANACEAE
Calibrachoa parviflora (Juss.) D' Arcy- WILD PETUNIA, SEASIDE
PETUNIA
[Petunia parviflora Juss.]
Annual forb usually < 10 em; stems prostratespreading; leaves alternate, 5-20 mm, mostly linear
to spatulate or oblanceolate; flowers axillary, small,
purple, tubular; fruit a capsule opening apically.
February-December; winter/spring/summer. Kolbe
358, Palominas-3 1067. RIP(CH)2. Occasional. 2.
2006
Chamaesaracha coronopus (Dunal) Gray - SMALL
GROUNDCHERRY
Perennial forb, usually low and spreading, from deep
roots; herbage glandular with stellate hairs; leaves
alternate, 3-8 em long, narrowly elliptic, the margins
pinnately lobed or wavy; flowers in axils on slender
pedicels, corolla rotate, 2-4 em, cream-yellow with a
dark center; fruit globose berry.
March-November. spring/summer. Charlestonmesquite 169, Charleston Road 1136. SAC/DIST.
Occasional. 5.
Chamaesaracha sordida (Dunal) Gray - FALSE NIGHTSHADE,
HAIRY FIVE EYES
Perennial forb, usually low and spreading, from deep
roots; herbage with stellate hairs; leaves alternate, 310 em long, narrowly elliptic, the margins pinnately
lobed or wavy; flowers in axils on slender pedicels,
corolla rotate, 2-4 em, cream-yellow with a dark
center; fruit a globose berry.
March-September; spring/summer. Curtis Windmill
871. CDS. Infrequent. 5. p. 101
*Datura quercifo/ia Kunth - OAK LEAF THORN APPLE
Annual forb to 70 em, dichotomously branched with
taproot; leaves alternate, long-petiolate, ovate, 6-16
em long, 3-6 em wide, margins pinnately lobed, the
lobes often toothed, upper surface glabrescent, lower
surface pubescent along veins; flowers white,
tinged purple, tubular, the tube 4-7 em long, the limb
1-2 em wide; fruit erect, ovoid, covered in spines.
May-October; summer. Walnut Gulch 844, St. David
1378, Tombstone-gauge 1308, Kolbe 1630. WASH2/
CDS/SAC. Occasional. 4. p. 101
Datura wrightii Regel - SACRED DATURA, JIMSONWEED,
TOLGUACHA
[Datura meteloides DC. ex Dun.]
Perennial forb to 70 em, dichotomously branched with
tuberous root; leaves alternate, long-petiolate, ovate,
10-23 em long, 5-12 em wide, upper surface
glabrescent, lower surface canescent along veins;
flowers white, tinged purple, tubular, the tube 1626 em long, the limb 7-15 em wide; fruit pendant,
globose, covered in spines.
April-October; summer. Palominas UA 387, Walnut
Gulch 860, St. David 1253. DIST/WASH/
RIP(CW). Common. 5. p. 102
Lycium andersonii Gray- ANDERSON THORNBUSH
Intricately branched, spiny shrub to 2 m; leaves
fascicled in irregular clusters, 5-l 0 mm long; flowers
white, tubular, ~5 mm long, borne singly or in clusters
in leaf fascicles; fruit a globose berry turning black.
February-December; spring/summer/fall. St. David
454, St. David 1041. TER2. Infrequent. 5.
Lycium pallidum Miers -RABBIT THORN
Intricately branched, spiny shrub to 1.5 m; leaves
fascicled in irregular clusters, 2-5 em long, pale
green; flowers cream, tubular, ~2 em long, borne
San Pedro River
singly or in clusters in leaf fascicles; fruit a
globose, orange berry.
March-August; spring/summer. Charleston-gauge
292, St. David 432, 1082. TERJRIP(CW)2.
Occasional. 5. p. 102
*Nicotiana glauca Graham - TREE TOBACCO, TRONADORA
Tree or shrub; herbage glaucous; leaves alternate,
long-petiolate, ovate, 5-10 em long; flowers yellow,
tubular, 25-50 mm long, clustered at ends of stems;
fruit an apically dehiscent capsule with numerous
minute seeds.
January-November; spring/summer. St. David 1376.
RIP(CW). Rare. 3.
Nicotiana obtusifolia Mertens & Galeotti - DESERT TOBACCO
[Nicotiana trigonophylla Dunal]
Perennial forb to 60 em; herbage sticky-glandular;
leaves alternate, clasping, 3-10 em long; flowers
tubular, cream; fruit an apically dehiscent capsule with
copious minute, black seeds.
February-November; spring/summer/fall. Walnut
Gulch 862, Charleston-gauge 1211, Headless
Sphinx 1524. WASHIROC2. Infrequent. 4.
Physalis acutifolia (Miers) Sandw. - GROUND CHERRY
[Physalis wrightii Gray]
Annual branched forb 10-30 em; leaves alternate,
long-petiolate, lance-ovate, 3-6 em long with deeply
dentate margins; flowers white-cream, rotate, on
lateral peduncles; calyx becoming enlarged,
papery, enclosing the globose, berry fruit.
July-November; summer/fall. St. David 629, SDC
746, Palominas-3 1603. DIST2/AGR.Commonoccasional. 5. p. 102
Physalis hederaefolia Gray- IVY-LEAVED GROUNDCHERRY
Perennial branched forb 10-30 em; herbage usually
pubescent and glandular; leaves alternate, petiolate,
ovate, 2-4 em long with deeply toothed margins;
flowers campanulate, yellowish-green, dark at base
oflimb; calyx becoming greatly enlarged, papery,
enclosing the globose, berry fruit.
May-October. summer. Charleston 1137. DIST.
Common-occasional. 5. p. 102
Physalis longifolia Nutt. - LONGLEAF GROUNDCHERRY
[Physalis virginiana P. Mill. var. sonorae (Torr.) Waterfall]
Perennial branched forb 10-30 em; herbage glabrous;
leaves alternate, petiolate, oblanceolate, 3-7 em long,
entire margins; flowers campanulate, yellowish-green,
dark at base of limb; calyx becoming enlarged,
papery, enclosing the globose, berry fruit.
June-October; summer. Kolbe 364, Palominas-3 426,
552. RIP(CW)3. Occasional-infrequent. 5.
Physalis pubescens L. var. integrifolia (Dunal) Waterfall HAIRY GROUNDCHERRY, TOMATO FRESADILLA
Annual branched forb 10-30 em; herbage glandularpubescent; leaves alternate, long-petiolate, lanceovate, 3-6 em long with widely dentate margins;
flowers greenish-yellow, campanulate, on lateral
Makings
75
peduncles; calyx becoming enlarged, papery,
enclosing the globose, berry fruit.
March-October; summer. Charleston Hills E 1275,
Charleston-gauge 1675. ROC/DIST. Infrequentoccasional. 5.
*Salpichroa origanifolia (Lam.) Baill. - LILY OF THE VALLEY
VINE, COCKS EGGS
Perennial forb 30-100 em; leaves alternate, petiolate,
rhombic in outline; flowers ~5 mm long, white,
urn-shaped, pendant, borne mostly singly in leaf axils.
Probably cultivated, but persisting and spreading at
homesite.
June-October; summer. Boquillas 724,2510. DIST2.
Rare. 5. p. 102
Solanum douglasi Dunal - AMERICAN NIGHTSHADE
Perennial forb 30-60 em; leaves alternate, lanceolate,
3-6 em long and coarsely toothed; flowers white,
10-18 mm wide, in pedicellate, cymose-paniculate
clusters; fruit a many-seeded berry, turning black at
maturity.
February-October; spring/summer. Palominas-3 546,
Lewis Springs 725, Boquillas 793. RIP(CW)2/
WASH. Occasional. 3. p. 102
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. - SILVERLEAF NIGHTSHADE
Perennial forb 30-60 em with deep rootstocks;
herbage prickly and whitish !epidote; leaves
alternate, linear-oblong, 3-7 em long, margins entire
to dentate; flowers purple, rotate, with prominent
yellow anthers; fruit globose, yellow with age.
March-November; spring/summer. Palominas-UA
388, Cottonwood 763, St. David 1083,
Escalante Crossing 1102. DIST/AGR/TERIRIP(CW).
Common. 5. p. 102
Solanum jamesii Torr. - WILD POTATO
Annual forb to 40 em; leaves alternate, compound,
4-10 em long, with > 7 lanceolate leaflets; flowers
white, ~ 1Omm across, borne singly or in pairs on
peduncles; fruit a globose berry ~7mm.
August; summer. Lewis Springs 1583. SAC. Rare. 5.
*Solanum rostra tum Dunal - BUFFALO BUR, MALA MUJER
Annual forb to 45 em; herbage covered in stout spines
and stellate hairs; leaves alternate, pinnatilobed,
4-10 em long; flowers yellow, showy; anthers opening
by terminal pores; fruit a spiny bur.
June-September; summer. Palominas-3 1602, SDC
1627. AGR/SDC. Infrequent. 5.
STERCULIACEAE
Ayeniafiliformis S. Wats.- TRANSPECOS AYENIA
Perennial forb to 40 em; leaves alternate, 2-4 em,
serrate; flowers tiny, purple, in stem axils; fruit round,
2-4 mm, breaking into 5 segments.
March-October; spring/summer/fall. Charleston
Hills E 1233, Fairbank 1613b. ROC/CDS. Infrequent.
5.p. 102
76
Desert Plants
Hermannia pauciflora S. Wats. - HIERBA DEL SOLDADO
Trailing-erect perennial forb to 25 em; leaves
alternate, serrate, with stellate hairs; flowers yellow,
axillary and terminal, pendant; fruit globose, winged,
and spiny.
August; summer. Charleston Hills E 1235, 1287.
Habitat(s): ROC2.Infrequent. 5. p. 102
TAMARICACEAE
*Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. - SALT CEDAR, TAMARISK
Tree or shrub usually <5 m; leaves minute, scale-like,
deciduous; flowers small, pink, clustered on long,
slender, branching spikes.
March-September; spring/summer. Fairbank 159,
Escalante Crossing 951. RIP(CW)2. Common. 2.
TYPHACEAE
Typha domingensis Pers. - SOUTHERN CAT-TAIL
Tall, rhizomatous, perennial graminoid; leaves long,
slender, flattened; male and female portions of the
inflorescence spike interrupted. March-November;
spring/summer/fall. Kingfisher Pond 839, SDC 1651.
AQU/SDC. Infrequent-occasional. 1.
Typha latifolia L. - BROADLEAF CAT-TAIL
Tall, rhizomatous, perennial graminoid; leaves long,
slender, flattened; male and female portions of the
inflorescence spike continuous. May-September;
spring/summer/fall. Charleston-mesquite 1003.
AQU. Occasional. I.
ULMACEAE
Celtis pallida Torr. - DESERT HACKBERRY, GRANJENO
Intricately branched, spiny shrub to 3 meters; leaves
simple, alternate, unequal at base, rough to the touch;
flowers minute, in axillary clusters.
Flowering throughout the year; spring/summer/fall.
Charleston Hills 1463, Headless Sphinx 1523. ROC2.
Rare. 5.
Celtis reticula fa Torr. - NET LEAF HACKBERRY, PALO BLANCO
Tree usually < 5 m; bark warty; leaves alternate,
unequal at base, ovate or lance-ovate, acute to
sharply acuminate at apex with prominent veins
underneath, rough above; flowers small, axillary,
often unisexual.
March-May; spring. Charleston-mesquite 982, 985,
Lewis Springs 1521. BOS2/RIP(CW). Commonoccasional. 3. p. 102
URTICACEAE
Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. - PELLITORY
Prostrate-ascending annual forb 4-60 em; leaves
broadly elliptic to ovate, < 1em; flowers
minute, clustered along stem at leaf nodes, subtended
by bracts; seeds shiny.
February- June; spring. Charleston-gauge 1510. ROC.
Infrequent. 5.
2006
VERBENACEAE
Aloysia wrightii Heller ex Abrams - OREGANILLA, SPICE BUSH,
WRIGHT LIPPIA
Shrub usually < 1.5 meters; herbage fragrant; leaves
opposite, 1em, crenate; inflorescence a terminal or
lateral spike; flowers white.
July-December; summer/fall. Charleston-mesquite
rock art site 1145, Fairbank 1616. ROC/CDS.
Common. 5. p. 102
Bouchea prismatica (L.) Kuntze- PRISM BOUCHEA
Annual to 45 em; leaves opposite, crenate, petiolate,
1-3 em long; inflorescence 1-several elongated
spikes; flowers blue 2-3 mm across; fruit with 2
nutlets.
September-October; summer. Palominas-3 1608,
Fairbank 1613a. AGR/GRAS. Infrequent. 5.
Glandularia bipinnatifida (Nutt.) Nutt.- VERVAIN
[Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt.]
Annual forb to 50 em; leaves toothed to deeply lobed;
inflorescence a terminal spike; flowers pink-purple,
emerging from green bracts.
February-November; spring/summer. Palominas-UA
382, Charleston Road 1140. RIP(CW)/DIST.
Infrequent-occasional. 5. p. 102
Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene- TURKEY TANGLE FROGFRUIT.
Perennial prostrate forb; leaves sharply toothed above
the middle; inflorescence a globose head on short
or long peduncle; flowers pink.
May-October; spring/summer/fall. Hereford 1858.
SAC. Infrequent. I. p. 103
Tetraclea coulteri Gray - CouLTER's WRINKLEFRUIT
Perennial forb 20-50 em; leaves opposite, lance-ovate,
toothed, 1-3 em long; flowers cream with pinkish tube,
on short pedicles in leaf axils; fruit a 4-lobed nutlet.
March- September; spring/summer. Charleston-gauge
1187, Charleston Rd. 1208. TER/DIST. Infrequent.
5.p. 103
Verbena carolina L. - CAROLINA VERVAIN
Perennial forb to 50 em; leaves opposite, crenate;
several inflorescence of long, slender spikes;
flowers blue.
April-October; spring/summer. Palominas-3 547.
RIP(CW). Occasional. 5.
Verbena gracilis Desf. -FoRT HuACHUCA VERVAIN
Perennial forb to 50 em; leaves opposite, crenate to
deeply lobed; several inflorescences oflong, slender
spikes; flowers blue-purple.
April-October; spring/summer. Lewis Springs 236,
Cottonwood 772. TER2. Infrequent. 5.
VIOLACEAE
Hybanthus verticillatus (Ortega) Baill. - GREEN VIOLET,
BABYSLIPPERS
Perennial forb to 25 em; leaves opposite, linear, 3-6
em, with prominent midvein; flowers axillary,
dangling, solitary or in small clusters, irregular,
San Pedro River
greenish-purplish; fruit an ovoid capsule with black
seeds.
April-October; spring/summer. Charleston Rd.
1205, Charleston Hills E 1276, 1339,
Charleston-gauge 2503. DIST/ROC/CDS2.
Occasional. 5. p.103
VITACEAE
Cissus trifoliata (L.) L.- SORREL VINE
Woody vine with tendrils; leaves deeply 3-lobed to
trifoliate, somewhat succulent; flowers small,
greenish, numerous, in clusters; fruit a small berry.
June-September; summer. Tombstone-gauge 1056,
Charleston-gauge 1316. RIP(CW)/ROC. Infrequent.
3.p. 103
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.- VIRGINIA CREEPER
[Parthenocissus inserta (Kerner) Fritsch]
Woody vine with tendrils; leaves alternate, palmately
compound, leaflets 3-7, toothed; flowers small,
greenish, in many-flowered clusters; fruit a small
berry.
May-July; spring. Boquillas House 1077, Lewis
Springs 1520. DISTIRIP(CW). Infrequent. 3. p. 103
Vitis arizonica Engelm. - CANYON GRAPE, PARRA DEL MONTE.
Woody vine with tendrils; leaves alternate, simple,
3-5 em across, toothed, soft and pubescent when
young; flowers small, greenish, in many-flowered
clusters; fruit a small berry.
March-June; spring. Palominas-UA 1070, Charleston
1515. RIP(CW)/DIST. Occasional. 3.
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Kallstroemia grandiflora Torr. ex Gray-
77
Makings
March-October; spring/summer.
Palominas-UA 385. GRAS. Infrequent. 5. p. 103
As this manuscript was being prepared for publication three
new species were added to the list:
Brickellia californica DC. (Asteraceae) California
brickellbush (Makings 2530)
Simsia lagasceiformis DC. (Asteraceae) annual
bushsunflower (Makings 2524)
Dalea brachystachya Gray (Fabaceae) Fort Bowie prairie
clover (Makings 2529)
ARizoNA POPPY,
ORANGE CALTROP.
Annual forb to 50 em; stems erect-prostrate; leaves
compound, pubescent; flowers orange, showy, 1530 mm across.
June-October; summer. Palominas-3 537, Fairbank
636, 1398, Charleston Hills E 1284. GRAS/TER/
DIST/ROC. Common. 5. p. 103
Kallstroemia parviflora J.B.S. Norton- WARTY CARPETWEED
Annual forb to 50 em; stems erect-prostrate; leaves
compound, pubescent; flowers orange, 6-12 mm
across.
June- October; summer. Charleston-gauge 709,
Charleston Hills E 1284. CDS/ROC. Occasional. 5.
p. 103
Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Moe. ex DC.) Coville - CREOSOTE
BUSH, GREASEWOOD
Shrub to 2m; leaves two-lobed; flowers yellow; fruit
globose, densely white-pubescent.
March-December; spring/summer/fall. St. David 452,
Moson Springs 1034. CDS2. Abundant. 5.
*Tribulus terrestris L. - PUNCTUREVINE
Prostrate annual forb, diffusely branched; leaves
compound; flowers yellow, 5 mm across; fruit a
spiny bur.
Brickellia jloribunda (Aster)
Chihuahuan brickellbush
78
Desert Plants
2006
Table 1. Additional treatments used in identification ofvarious groups.
Group
Author
Acanthaceae
Daniel 1984
Hodgson 1999
Agavaceae - Agave
Agavaceae- Yucca
Lenz & Hanson 2001
Apiaceae - Lilaeopsis
Affolter 1985
Apocynaceae
McLaughlin 1994
Aristolochiaceae
Mason, Jr. 1999
Asclepiadaceae
Sundell 1994
Nesom 2006
Asteraceae Erigeron
Asteraceae- Hedosyne
Strother 2000
Asteraceae- Heliomeris
Yates & Heiser 1979
Nesom 1990
Asteraceae - Laennecia
Asteraceae - Machaeranthera
Morgan 2006
Asteraceae- Tagetes minuta
Hickman, ed. 1993
Brown 1974
Asteraceae - Tragopogon
Hartman 2006
Asteraceae - Xanthisma
Bignoniaceae
Mason, Jr. 1999
Bixaceae
Hodgson 1994
Pinkava 1995,1999,2003
Cactaceae
Bradley 1975
Campanulaceae - Triodanis
Cannabaceae
Mason, Jr. 1999
Celastraceae - Mortonia
Brasher 1998
Chenopodiaceae - Sa/sola
Mosyakin 1996
Commelinaceae
Puente & Faden 2001
Convolvulaceae
Austin 1998
Cupressaceae
Bartel 1994
Cyperaceae - Eleocharis
Smith et al. 2002
Cyperaceae - Schoenoplectus
Smith2002
Euphorbiaceae - Acalypha and Cnidoscolus
Levin 1995
Euphorbiaceae - Croton
Steinmann & Felger 1997
Steinmann & Felger 1997
Euphorbiaceae - Tragia
Fabaceae- Acacia constricta,
Clark, et. al. 1990
A. neovernicosa
Fabaceae -Astragalus
Barneby 1964
Fabaceae- Prosopis
Johnston 1962
F ouquieriaceae
Mason, Jr. 1999
Fumariaceae
Holiday & Perez 2001
Gentianaceae
Mason, Jr. 1998
Iridaceae - Sisyrinchium
Cholewa & Henderson 1994
Juglandaceae
Laferriere 1994
Juncaceae - Juncus
Brooks & Clemants 2000
Krameriaceae
Simpson & Salywon 1999
Lemnaceae
Landolt 1992
Liliaceae - No/ina
Hess 2002
Loasaceae
Christy 1998
Fryxell1994
Malvaceae - all genera except Sphaeralcea
Molluginaceae
Christy 1998
Nyctaginaceae - Mirabilis
LeDuc 1994
Oxalidaceae
Omduff & Denton 1998
Papaveraceae
Ownbey, et. al. 1998
Passi floraceae
MacDougal 2001
Phytolaccaceae
Steinmann 2001
Plantaginaceae
Huisinga & Ayers 1999
Platanaceae
Laferriere 1994
Poaceae
Gould 1977, Hitchcock 1971
Poaceae - Aristida
Allred 1992, Allred 1984
Poaceae - Eriochloa
Shaw & Webster 1987
Poaceae - Setaria
Rominger 1962
Polemoniaceae
Wilken & Porter 2005
Polygonaceae - Eriogonum
Reveal1976
Portulacaceae
Bair et al. 2006
Primulaceae
Cholewa 1992
Rhamnaceae
Christie et al. 2006
Rubiaceae
Dempster & Terrell1995
Salicaceae - Populus
Eckenwalder 1992
Salicaceae - Salix
Argus 1995
Sapindaceae
Salywon 1999
Saururaceae
Mason, Jr. 1999
Simaroubaceae
Brasher 1999
Solanaceae -Datura
Bye2001
Solanaceae - Physalis
Waterfal11958
Typhaceae
Ricketson 2001
Urticaceae
Boufford 1992
Violaceae
Little 2001
Viscaceae
Hawksworth & Wiens 1994
San Pedro River
79
Makings
Table 2. Species found only in rocky outcrop habitat.
Family
Acanthaceae
Acanthaceae
Acanthaceae
Agavaceae
Agavaceae
Amaranthaceae
Amaranthaceae
Amaranthaceae
Apocynaceae
Apocynaceae
Apocynaceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Bixaceae
Brassicaceae
Cactaceae
Cactaceae
Cactaceae
Cactaceae
Cactaceae
Cactaceae
Convolvulaceae
Convolvulaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Fabaceae
Fabaceae
Species
Carlowrightia arizonica
Carlowrightia texana
Elytraria imbricata
Agave palmeri
Dasylirion wheeleri
Amaranthus fimbriatus
Froelichia arizonica
Gomphrena sonorae
Haplophyton crooksii
Macrosiphonia brachysiphon
Sarcostemma crispum
Acourtia wrightii
Brickellia coulteri
Brickellia venosa
Chaetopappa ericoides
Porophyllum ruderale
Trixis californica
Amoreuxia palmatifida
Halimolobos diffusa
Echinocereus fendleri
Echinocereus rigidissimus
Mammillaria grahamii
Sclerocactus intertextus
Opuntia engelmannii
Opuntia macrocentra
Evolvulus alsinoides
Ipomoea barbatisepala
Cnidoscolus angustidens
Manihot angusti/oba
Calliandra eriophylla
Galactia wrightii
Family
Loasaceae
Malpighiaceae
Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Nyctaginaceae
Oxalidaceae
Phytolaccaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Pteridaceae
Pteridaceae
Pteridaceae
Pteridaceae
Pteridaceae
Pteridaceae
Pteridaceae
Rhamnaceae
Rubiaceae
Rutaceae
Scrophulariaceae
Sterculiaceae
Ulmaceae
Urticaceae
Species
Mentzelia aspera
Janusia gracilis
Abutilon incanum
Abutilon palmeri
Herissantia crispa
Hibiscus coulteri
Hibiscus denudatus
Sphaeralcea laxa
Boerhavia scandens
Oxalis drummondii
Rivina humilis
Achnatherum eminens
Bouteloua chondrosioides
Bouteloua eludens
Hilaria belangeri
Setaria vulpiseta
Argyrochosma limitanea
Astrolepis integerrima
Astrolepis sinuata
Bommeria hispida
Cheilanthes eatonii
Notholaena aurea
Pellaea truncata
Sageretia wrightii
Galium microphyllum
Thamnosma texana
Maurandella antirrhiniflora
Hermannia pauciflora
Celtis pal/ida
Parietaria pensylvanica
Table 3. Species unique to cienega habitats in SPRNCA (*Indicates non-native)
Species
Location
Almutaster pauciflorus
St. David Cienega/ Lewis Springs cienega
Ammannia coccinea
St. David Cienega
Anemopsis californica
St. David Cienega/ Lewis Springs cienega
Carex praegracilis
St. David Cienega
*Cirsium vulgare
St. David Cienega
Cyperus spectabi/is
St. David Cienega
Distich/is spicata
St. David Cienega
Eleocharis rostellata
St. David Cienega
Elymus trachycaulus
St. David Cienega
Epilobium ciliatum
St. David Cienega
Eryngium sparganophyllum
Lewis Springs cienega
Leptochloafusca ssp.fasciculata
St. David Cienega
Lobelia cardinalis
Lewis Springs marsh
Lythrum californicum
St. David Cienega/ Lewis Springs cienega
*Mentha spicata
St. David Cienega/ Lewis Springs cienega
Muhlenbergia asperifolia
St. David Cienega/ Lewis Springs cienega
Pluchea odorata
St. David Cienega
Pluchea sericea
St. David Cienega
Samolus valerandi ssp. parviflorus
St. David Cienega
Sisyrinchium demissum
St. David Cienega
80
Desert Plants
2006
Table 4. Taxonomic come,osition o[_the SPRNCAfJpra.
Division/class
Equisetophyta
Polypodiophyta
Pinophyta
Magnoliophyta
Magnoliopsida
Liliopsida
Totals
Families
1
Genera
2
2
1
7
2
77
10
92
286
62
358
SEecies
1
Additional
infrasEecific taxa
Asteraceae
Poaceae
Fabaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Solanaceae
Malvaceae
Cactaceae
Polygonaceae
Brassicaceae
Chenopodiaceae
Nyctaginaceae
Genera
69
44
25
9
8
8
8
3
9
6
3
h~brids
Total
taxa
8
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
8
2
476
127
614
3
6
9
1
1
2
481
133
625
Table 6. Best represented genera in
SPRNCA f!.ora.
Table 5. Best represented families ofSPRNCA f!.ora.
Family
Inter-specific
Native
taxa
Non-native
taxa
Total
taxa
101
80
38
26
15
17
17
7
10
9
10
9
25
6
0
3
1
0
6
2
3
110
105
44
26
18
18
17
Genus
Chamaesyce
Eragrostis
Bouteloua
Baccharis
Dalea
Panicum
Cryptantha
Eriogonum
Ipomoea
Mentzelia
13
12
12
11
Table 7. Distribution ofannuals.
%of
#of
annual
Flowering season
taxa
flora
Winter/spring
68
28
Spring/summer
21
9
Summer
120
49
Summer/fall
34
14
Totals
243
100
Muhlenbergia
%of
total
flora
11
3
19
5
38
Table 8. Best ree.resented wetland e.lant families o[.SPRNCA 1.
Family
Genera
Native
Non-native
Total taxa
taxa
taxa
Poaceae
5
16
12
11
1
15
Asteraceae
12
14
0
10
Cyperaceae
4
10
5
6
Polygonaceae
2
1
0
5
Salicaceae
2
5
4
0
4
Scrophulariaceae
3
0
3
Apiaceae
3
3
3
0
Onagraceae
2
3
2
0
Juncaceae
2
2
0
Lemnaceae
2
2
0
2
Lythraceae
2
0
2
Ranunculaceae
2
2
0
2
Typhaceae
2
1
1
Obligate and facultative, having ?:66% chance of being found in wetlands.
#of taxa
13
10
9
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
San Pedro River
Makings
Table 9. Noteworthy collections in SPRNCA.flora (*indicates non-native)
Species
Comments
Achnatherum eminens
Rare in SPRNCA, fairly infrequent in AZ - Cochise, Pima
Co.
Rare- reported for AZ, but first time collected.
Astragalus vaccarum
Bouchea prismatica
Scattered in southern half of AZ. Several notable older
collections (Thornber 1905, McClellon & Stitt 1935, etc.)
Fairly rare- Cochise, Santa Cruz Co.
Calystegia sepium
First time collected in AZ.
Carlowrightia linearifolia
Rare - Cochise Co.
Carlowrightia texana
First time collected in AZ.
Rare, few AZ localities in disturbed areas.
Ammannia coccinea
*Citrullus /anatus
Rare- infrequent, Cochise, Graham, Pima Co.
Rare - Cochise, Pima, Santa Cruz Co.
Cissus trifoliata
Cryptantha pusilla
Rare- Cochise, Pima, Santa Cruz Co.
Rare - Cochise, Gila, Pima Co.
Cynanchum ligulatum
Cyperus spectabilis
Digitaria insularis
Eriogonum terrenatum
Eryngium sparganophyllum
*Gleditsia triacanthos
Halimolobos diffusa
Hermannia pauciflora
Lilaeopsis schaffneriana ssp. recurva
Mancoa pubens
Psilactis brevilingulata
*Mirabilis jalapa
Fairly rare- Cochise, Pima, Santa Cruz Co.
Rare- new species/narrow endemic, Cochise, Pima Co.
Rare - only known from 3 localities, Cochise, Pima Co.
Rare - escaped or near old settlements, Apache, Cochise,
Yavapai Co.
Rare - Cochise, Mohave, Pima Co.
Fairly rare - Cochise, Pima Co.
Rare- Federally listed endangered plant; Cochise, Pima,
Santa Cruz Co.
First time collected in AZ.
First time collected in AZ.
Rare - first time coiiected out of cultivation in AZ.
Rare- Cochise, Pima, Santa Cruz Co.
Rare- reported for AZ, but first time collected.
Pyrrhopappus pauciflorus
*Salvia tiliifolia
*Tagetes minuta
Rare or possibly frequently unnoticed - Cochise, Pima, Pinal,
Santa Cruz Co.
First time coiiected in AZ.
Tridens albescens
Rare - Cochise, Pima, Pinal Co.
Sphinctospermum constrictum
Table 10. Description ofplant growth forms used by the author.
Plant growth form
Cactus
Description
Succulent with ribs or tubercles and lacking leaves.
Fern
Herbaceous, spore-producing plant without flowers.
Forb
Herbaceous flowering plant, non grass-like. Twining or vine-like plants
included.
Herbaceous grass or grass-like flowering plant.
Graminoid
Shrub
Sub-shrub
Tree
Woody perennial lacking well-developed main trunk, usually taller than 1
meter at maturity. Woody vines included. Rosette herbs,
scapose perennials with leaves crowded in basal rosette also included
(Yuccas, Agaves).
Perennial, mostly woody toward the base. Growth is shrub-like but often
herbaceous upward. Usually shorter than lm at maturity.
Long-lived, woody plant with obvious main trunk.
81
82
Desert Plants
2006
Table 11. Habitat types recognized by the author.
Habitat
Description
AGR- Agricultural
Abandoned agricultural field (Figure 15).
AQU - Aquatic
BOS - Mesquite bosque
CDS - Chihuahuan Desertscrub
Submerged to partially submerged plants rooted in wet stream or
standing water. Common perennial graminoids: Schoenoplectus
acutus, Eleocharis spp. Common aquatic forbs: Rorripa
nasturtium-aquaticum, Veronica anagallis-aquatica, Zanichellia
palustris, and Lemna spp. (Figure 13).
Mature Prosopis velutina forest with dense canopy. Typical
understory shrubs: Ziziphus obtusifolia, Atriplex canescens.
Common understory perennial grasses: Sporobolus wrightii,
Setaria leucopila, Bothriochloa barbinodis. Abundant perennial
forb: Viguiera dentata (Figure 11).
Uplands of desertscrub vegetation. Dominant shrubs: Larrea
tridentata, Flourensia cernua, Acacia constricta, A. neovernicosa
(Figure 10).
DIST - Disturbed
Habitats altered through human disturbance (excluding
agricultural fields in recovery) Examples include roadsides, rail
road tracks, parking lots, etc.
GRAS - Other grassland
Grasslands of perennial bunchgrass other than Sporobolus
wrightii; species such Hilaria mutica, Bouteloua curtipendula,
Sporobolus airoides, and Eragrostis lehmanniana. Common sod
grasses: Panicum obtusum, Leymus triticoides.
RIP (CH)- Riparian (channel
zone)
Located within the active channel or along channel bank.
Baccharis salicifo/ia and B. emoryi abundant along channel
banks. Common wetland grasses and graminoids: Sorghum
halepense, Cynodon dactylon Muhlenbergia rigens, Elymus
canadensis, Equisetum laevigatum, and Juncus spp. Abundant
forb species: Melilotus a/bus, Xanthium strumarium (Figure 13).
RIP(CW)Riparian (cottonwood-willow
zone)
Primary floodplain. Alluvial soils usually within 50 meters (up to
150 meters) of active channel. Dominant trees: Populus
fremontii, Salix gooddingii. Common grasses: Cynodon dactylon,
Sorghum halepense, Sporobolus wrightii, Bothriochloa
barbinodis, Aristida ternipes, Sporobolus contractus, Bouteloua
curtipendula, Panicum obtusum, Leymus triticoides (Figure 12).
ROC - Rocky outcrop
Granitic, volcanic and limestone outcrops just north of Charleston
Road referred to as the "Charleston Hills." (Figure 16).
SAC- Sacaton grassland
Dense stands of Sporobolus wrightii, usually on lower terraces
with fine-textured soils (Figure 14).
SDC - Cienega
St. David Cienega. Large wetland located in the northwest part of
the SPRNCA. Dominant vegetation: wetland graminoids
Schoenoplectus americanus, Carex praegracilis, Juncus arcticus
var. balticus, Distich/is spicata, and Eleocharis rostellata (Figures
7 and 17).
Prosopis velutina-Sporobolus wrightii savanna above primary
floodplain. Prosopis range from small shrubs to medium size
trees, not forming a dense canopy. Other common grasses:
Bouteloua curtipendula, Panicum obtusum, Setaria leucopila,
Bothriochloa barbinodis, Leptochloa dubio, and numerous
summer annual grasses (Figure 20).
A significant drainage to San Pedro River (tributary or arroyo),
which drains intermittently. Populus fremontii and Salix
gooddingii sometimes mark the shallow water table approaching
the San Pedro. Other common trees: Chilopsis linearis, Celtis
reticulata, Prosopis velutina. Common shrubs: Ericameria
nauseosa, Hymenoclea monogrya, Baccharis spp. Common
perennial grasses: Sporobolus wrightii, Sorghum halepense, and
Muhlenbergia rigens. Abundant forb: Brickellia floribunda
(Figure 3).
TER - Mesquite terrace
WASH- Wash
San Pedro River
Makings
83
Figure 20. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) terrace habitat- open savanna with mesquite of various age classes. Understory
usually dominated by Sporobolus wrightii. Forbs such as Ipomoea spp. and Viguiera dentata are common. September 2006.
Table 12. Abundance scale used1•
Description
Abundance
Abundant
Dominant or co-dominant in one or more habitats.
Common
Easily seen in one or more habitats but not dominant in any.
Occasional
Widely scattered but not difficult to find.
Infrequent
Difficult to find, with few individuals or colonies.
Very difficult to fmd, few individuals limited to one or very few locations or
uncommon habitats.
1Based on subjective observations by the author following Palmer et al. (1995).
Rare
Table 13. Wetland indicator categories (USFWS 1996).
Estimated probability of
Category
occurring in wetlands
1 = Obligate wetland
>99%
Comments
Occurring in wetlands under natural
conditions.
2 =Facultative Wetland
67%-99%.
Usually occurring in wetlands.
3 =:Facultative
34%-66%
Equally likely to occur in wetlands or
non-wetlands.
4 =Facultative Upland
5 = Obligate Upland
1%-33%
<1%
Usually occurring in non-wetlands.
Almost always occurring in nonwetlands.
Desert Plants
84
Anisacanthus thurberi (Acanth)
Desert honeysuckle
Agave palmeri (Agav)
Palmer's agave
2006
Elytraria imbricata (Acanth)
purple scalystem
Yucca baccata x madrensis (Agav)
yucca hybrid
Trianthema portulacastrum (Aiz)
horse purselane
Alternanthera caracasana
(Amaranth) khakiweed
Tidestromia lanuginosa (Amaranth)
woolly tidestromia
Rhus microphylla (Anacard)
desert sumac
Ruellia nudiflora (Acanth)
violet wild petunia
Yucca elata (Agav)
soap tree yucca, palmilla
Guilleminea densa (Amaranth)
small matweed
Eryngium sparganophyllum (Apia)
Arizona eryngo
San Pedro River
85
Makings
Haplophyton crooksii (Apoc)
cockroach plant
Macrosiphonia brachysiphon (Apoc)
Huachuca Mountain rock trumpet
Aristolochia watsonii (Arist)
pipevine
Asclepias subverticillata (Asclep)
horsetail milkweed
Matelea producta (Asclep)
milkweed vine
Sarcostemma cynanchoides (Asclep)
climbing milkweed
Acourtia nana (Aster)
desert holly
Almutaster pauciflorus (Aster)
alkali marsh aster
Acourtia wrightii (Aster)
brownfoot
Ambrosia psilostachya (Aster)
western ragweed
Acroptilon repens (Aster)
Russian knapweed
Baccharis sarothroides (Aster)
desert broom
86
Desert Plants
Baccharis spp.
(Aster)
Baileya multiradiata (Aster)
desert marigold
Chaetopappa ericoides (Aster)
white aster, rose heath
Cirsium vulgare (Aster)
bull thistle
2006
Baccharis wrightii (Aster)
Wright's baccharis
Berlandiera lyrata (Aster)
green eyes, chocolate flower
Chloracantha spinosa (Aster)
spiny aster
Conoclinium greggii (Aster)
palmleaf thoroughwort
Bahia absinthifolia (Aster)
hairyseed bahia
Brickellia eupatorioides var.
chlorolepis (Aster) false boneset
Cirsium ochrocentrum (Aster)
yellowspine thistle
Evax verna (Aster)
rabbit tobacco
San Pedro River
Flourensia cernua (Aster)
tar bush
Flourensia cemua
branch
Grindelia nuda var. aphanactis
(Aster) rayless gumweed
Gymnosperma glutinosum (Aster)
gumhead
Helianthus ciliaris (Aster)
plains sunflower
Helianthus petiolaris (Aster)
western sunflower
Heterotheca subaxillaris (Aster)
camphor weed
87
Makings
Hymenopappus .filifolius var.
pauciflorus (Aster) yellow cutleaf
Gaillardia pinnati.fida (Aster)
blanketflower
Helenium thurberi (Aster)
sneezeweed
Heliomeris multiflora var. nevadensis
(Aster) Nevada goldeneye
Hymenothrix wislizenii (Aster)
Transpecos thimblehead
88
Desert Plants
Isocoma acradenia (Aster)
alkali goldenbush
Machaeranthera tagetina (Aster)
mesa tansyaster
Parthenium incanum
flowers
Pluchea odorata (Aster)
saltmarsh fleabane
2006
Isocoma tenuisecta (Aster)
burroweed
Melampodium leucanthum (Aster)
plains blackfoot
Pectis filipes (Aster)
fivebract cinchweed
Pseudognaphalium leucocephalum
(Aster) white cudweed
Machaeranthera pinnatifida (Aster)
lacy tansyaster
Parthenium incanum (Aster)
mariola, guayule
Pectis prostrata (Aster)
spreading cinchweed
Pyrrhopappus pauciflorus
(Aster) false dandelion
San Pedro River
89
Makings
Sanvitalia abertii (Aster)
Abert's dome
Senecio flaccidus var. flaccidus
(Aster) thread-leaf groundsel
Senecio flaccidus var. monoensis
(Aster) Mono groundsel
Stephanomeria pauciflora
(Aster) wire lettuce
Symphyotrichum falcatum var.
commutatum (Aster) white prairie
Tagetes minuta (Aster)
wild marigold
Thelelsperma megapotamicum
(Aster) Hopi tea
Thymophylla acerosa (Aster)
pricklyleaf dogweed
Thymophylla pentachaeta var.
belenidium (Aster) dogweed
Trixis californica (Aster)
American threefold
Verbesina encelioides (Aster)
golden crownbeard
Viguiera dentata (Aster)
golden eye
90
Desert Plants
2006
Xanthium strumarium
(Aster) cocklebur
Xanthocephalum gymnospermoides
(Aster) San Pedro matchweed
Zinnia acerosa (Aster)
desert zinnia
Zinnia grandiflora (Aster)
Rocky Mountain zinnia
Amoreuxia palmatifida (Bix)
saiya, Temaqui
Tiquilia canescens (Borag)
woody crinklemat
Amoeruxia palmatifida
leaf
Streptanthus carinatus ssp. arizonicus
(Brass) Arizona jewel flower
Xanthocephalum gymnospermoides
flowers
Zinnia peruviana (Aster)
Peruvian zinnia
Cryptantha crassisepala var. elachantha
(Borag) thick-sepaled cryptantha
Coryphantha vivipara var. bisbeeana
(Cact) Bisbee spinystar
San Pedro River
Cylindropuntia leptocaulis x spinosior
(Cact) cholla hybrid
Echinocereus rigidissimus (Cact)
Arizona rainbow cactus
Mammillaria grahamii (Cact)
Graham's nipple cactus
Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii
(Cact) Engelmann's prickly pear
91
Makings
Cylindropuntia spinosior
(Cact) cane cholla
Ferocactus wislizeni (Cact)
barrel cactus
Mammillaria heyderi (Cact)
little nipple cactus
Opuntia macrocentra (Cact)
black-spined prickly pear
Echinocereus fendleri var. fasciculatus
(Cact) pinkflower hdegehog
Ferocactus wislizeni
spines
Mammillaria wrightii var. wilcoxii
(Cact) Wright's fishhook cactus
Opuntia phaeacantha (Cact)
prickly pear
92
Desert Plants
2006
Opuntia pottsii (Cact)
prickly pear
Peniocereus greggii var. greggii
(Cact) night-blooming cereus
Triodanis perfoliata (Camp)
clasping Venus' looking glass
Koeberlinia spinosa
(Capp) all thorn
Saponaria o.fficinalis (Caryoph)
bouncing bet
Calystegia sepium (Conv)
hedge false bindweed
Silene laciniata (Caryoph)
cardinal catchfly
Convolvulus arvensis (Conv)
field bindweed
Sclerocactus intertextus (Cact)
white fishhook cactus
Polanisia dodecandra ssp.trachysperma
(Capp) western clammyweed
Commelina erecta (Comm)
herba del polio
Evolvulus arizonicus (Conv)
Arizona blue eyes
San Pedro River
Ipomoea cristulata (Conv)
scarlet morning-glory
93
Makings
Ipomoea hederacea (Conv)
Ivyleaf morning-glory
Ipomoea ternifolia var. leptotoma
(Conv) tripleleaf morning-glory
Apodanthera undulata (Cue)
melon loco
Apodanthera undulata
fruit
Cucurbita digitata (Cue)
fingerleaf gourd
Cucurbitafoetidissima (Cue)
buffalo gourd
Cuscuta umbellata (Cusc)
umbrella dodder
Cyperus odoratus (Cyper)
flat sedge
Ephedra trifurca (Ephed)
joint-fir (male)
Acalypha neomexicana (Euph)
New Mexican copperleaf
Acalypha ostryifolia (Euph)
hornbeam three-seeded Mercury
94
Desert Plants
Argythamnia neomexicana (Euph)
New Mexico silverbush
Chamaesyce florida (Euph)
Chiricahua Mountain sandmat
Cnidoscolus angustidens
leaf
Euphorbia exstipulata (Euph)
squareseed spurge
2006
Chamaesyce albomarginata (Euph)
rattlesnake weed
Chamaesyce dioica (Euph)
royal sandmat
Chamaesyce setiloba (Euph)
Yuma spurge
Cnidoscolus angustidens (Euph)
mala-mujer (female)
Croton pottsii (Euph)
leather weed
Euphorbia heterophylla (Euph)
painted spurge, Mexican :fireplant
Euphorbia dentata (Euph)
toothed spurge
Jatropha macrorhiza (Euph)
ragged nettlespurge
San Pedro River
Jatropha macrorhiza
leaf
Acacia angustissima (Fab)
fern acacia
Acacia greggii
fruit
Caesalpinia gilliesii (Fab)
Mexican bird of paradise
95
Makings
Manihot angustiloba (Euph)
desert mountain manihot
Manihot angustiloba
male flower
Acacia constricta (Fab)
whitethorn acacia
Acacia greggii (Fab)
catclaw acacia
Acacia neovernicosa (Fab)
viscid acacia
Astragalus thurberi (Fab)
Thurber's milkvetch
Calliandra eriophylla (Fab)
fairy duster
Dalea lachnostachys (Fab)
glandleaf prairie clover
96
Desert Plants
Dalea wrightii (Fab)
Wright's prairie clover
Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera
(Fab) eat's claw mimosa
Senna bauhinioides (Fab)
twinleaf senna
Centaurium calycosum (Gent)
Arizona centaury
2006
Galactia wrightii (Fab)
milkpea
Phaseolus acutifolius var. latifolius
(Fab) tepary bean
Senna hirsuta (Fab)
woolly senna, slimpod senna
Nama hispidum (Hydro)
sand bells
Hoffmannseggia glauca (Fab)
hog-potato, camote-de-raton
Prosopis velutina (Fab)
velvet mesquite
Sphinctospermum constrictum (Fab)
hourglass peaseed
Sisyrinchium demissum (lrid)
blue-eyed grass
San Pedro River
97
Makings
Mentha spicata (Lam)
spearmint
Juncus torreyi (June)
Torrey's rush
Krameria erecta (Kram)
white ratany
Salvia subincisa (Lam)
sawtooth sage
Salvia tiliifolia (Lam)
lindenleaf sage
Echeandia.flavescens (Lili)
Torrey's craglily
Mentzelia multiflora (Loas)
Adonis blazing star
Ammannia coccinea (Lyth)
valley redstem
Janusia gracilis (Malp)
slender janusia
Abutilon malacum (Malv)
Indian mallow
Zephyranthes longifolia (Lili)
zephyr-lily
Lythrum californicum (Lyth)
California loosestrife
98
Desert Plants
Abutilon mollicomum (Malv)
Sonoran Indian mallow
Sida spinosa (Malv)
prickly fanpetals
Proboscidea parviflora (Martyn)
devil's claw
Boerhavia coccinea (Nyct)
scarlet spiderling
2006
Anoda cristata (Malv)
spurred anoda
Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Malv)
narrow-leaved globe mallow
Mollugo verticillata (Mollug)
green carpetweed
Boerhavia coulteri (Nyct)
Coulter spiderling
Anoda pentaschista (Malv)
field anoda
Proboscidea althaeifolia (Martyn)
yellow devil's claw
Allionia incarnata (Nyct)
trailing four-o'clock
Boerhavia erecta (Nyct)
erect spiderling
San Pedro River
99
Makings
Commicarpus scandens (Nyct)
climbing wartclub
Mirabilis longiflora var. wrightiana
(Nyct) sweet four o'clock
Mirabilis multiflora (Nyct)
Colorado four o'clock
Fraxinus velutina (Olea)
velvet ash
Menodora scabra (Olea)
rough menodora
Gaura coccinea (Onag)
scarlet gaura
Oxalis drummondii (Oxal)
Drummond's woodsorrel
Oxalis stricta (Oxal)
yellow wood sorrel
Argemone pleiacantha (Papav)
bluestem pricklepoppy
Passiflora mexicana (Passif)
Mexican passion flower
Rivina humilis (Phyto)
rouge plant
Digitaria californica (Poa)
Arizona cottontop
100
Desert Plants
2006
Elymus canadensis (Poa)
Canada wild rye
Hilaria mutica (Poa)
tobosa grass
Muhlenbergia asperifolia (Poa)
scratchgrass, alkali muhly
Giliastrum acerosum (Polem)
bluebowls
Polygala lindheimeri var. parvifolia
(Polygal) shrubby milkwort
Eriogonum terrenatum (Polygon)
buckwheat
Phemeranthus auruntiacus (Port)
orange flameflower
Portulaca oleracea (Port)
common purslane, verdolaga
Portulaca umbraticola (Port)
wingpod purslane
Argyrochosma limitanea (Pter)
southwestern false cloak fern
Portulaca suffrutescens (Port)
shrubby purslane
Astrolepis sinuata (Pter)
wavy cloak fern
San Pedro River
Clematis drummondii (Ran)
Texas virgin bower
Populus fremontii (Salic)
Fremont cottonwood
101
Makings
Zizyphus obtusifolia
(Rhamn) graythom
Populus fremontii
mature tree
Cephalanthus occidentalis (Rub)
common button bush
Anemopsis californica (Saur)
yerba-mansa
_._.
Maurandella antirrhiniflora (Scroph)
blue snapdragon vine
Penstemon stenophyllus (Scroph)
beardtongue
Schistophragma intermedia (Scroph)
harlequin spiralseed
Verbascum virgatum (Scroph)
wand mullein
Chamaesaracha sordida (Solan)
false nightshade
Datura quercifolia (Solan)
oak leaf thorn apple
102
Desert Plants
2006
Datura wrightii (Solan)
sacred datura, jimsonweed
Lycium pallidum (Solan)
rabbit thorn
Physalis acutifolia (Solan)
ground cherry
Physalis hederaefolia (Solan)
ivy-leaved groundcherry
Salpichroa origanifolia (Solan)
lily of the valley vine, cocks eggs
Solanum douglasi (Solan)
American nightshade
Ayenia filiform is (Sterc)
Transpecos ayenia
Hermannia pauciflora (Sterc)
hierba del soldado
Solanum elaeagnifolium (Solan)
silverleaf nightshade
Celtis reticulata (Ulm)
net leaf hackberry, palo blanco
Aloysia wrightii (Verb)
oreganilla, spice bush, Wright lippia
Glandularia bipinnatifida
(Verb) vervain
San Pedro River
Phyla nodiflora (Verb)
turkey tangle frogfruit
103
Makings
Tetraclea coulteri (Verb)
Coulter's wrinklefruit
Cissus trifoliata (Vit)
sorrel vine
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Vit)
Virginia creeper
Kallstroemia parviflora (Zygo)
warty carpetweed
Tribulus terrestris (Zygo)
puncturevine
Hybanthus verticillatus (Viol)
green violet, babyslippers
Kallstroemia grandiflora (Zygo)
Arizona poppy, orange caltrop
104
Desert Plants
2006
San Pedro River north of Fairbank August 2006
Sacaton-mesquite terrace with cottonwoods in the distance. Near Lewis Springs. August 2006.
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