1 THE SYNTAX OF COMPARATIVE CORRELATIVES IN MANDARIN CHINESE

1  THE SYNTAX OF COMPARATIVE CORRELATIVES IN MANDARIN CHINESE
1
THE SYNTAX OF COMPARATIVE CORRELATIVES
IN MANDARIN CHINESE
by
Chen-chun E
__________________________
A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the
DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS AND SCHOOL OF ANTHROPOLOGY
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the Degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
In the Graduate College
THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
2014
2
THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
GRADUATE COLLEGE
As members of the Dissertation Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation
prepared by Chen-chun E, titled The Syntax of Comparative Correlatives in Mandarin
Chinese, and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for
the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Heidi Harley____________________________________________________________________ Date: 05/03/2014
Andrew Carnie
_____________________________________________________________
Date: 05/03/2014
Simin Karimi______________________________________________Date: 05/03/2014
Qing Zhang_______________________________________________________________________Date: 05/03/2014
Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate’s
submission of the final copies of the dissertation to the Graduate College.
I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and
recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.
Dissertation Director: Heidi Harley
Date: 05/03/2014
3
STATEMENT BY AUTHOR
This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfilment of requirements for an
advanced degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library
to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.
Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission,
provided that an accurate acknowledgement of the source is made. Requests for
permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in
part may be granted by the head of the major department or the Dean of the Graduate
College when in his or her judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interests of
scholarship. In all other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author.
SIGNED: Chen-chun E
4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.
- Isaac Newton
Those days when I received academic training in the Joint Ph. D program in
Anthropology and Linguistics (ANLI) constitute a significant chapter and a turning point
in my life. Throughout these years, I have been blessed with admirable mentors, faculty
members, colleagues, scholars, and friends. Their presence in my life at different times
has all significantly led to my development in both personal and professional ways.
In undertaking the dissertation project, I have many people to express my
appreciation for supporting me in various ways. First, my deepest gratitude goes to my
dissertation committee: Heidi Harley, Andrew Carnie, Simin Karimi, and Qing Zhang. If
my research work can be considered a small contribution to the field, I attribute it to my
brilliant and supportive committee.
My academic adviser, Heidi, has been a role model as a researcher, scholar, and
educator. Her presence and guidance has had the most profound impact on my career
development as a scholar. Ever since the first time I met her on a summer day right after I
arrived in Tucson in 2007, her cordial manner, sincerity, and constant support have been
the main reason for me to persevere and to advance throughout these years. I deeply
admire her expertise and great passion for research. I especially admire her passion for
exploring unfamiliar syntactic constructions of various languages and her devotion to
advising graduates and collaborating with colleagues. In our discussion meetings, I
learned a lot from her knowledge and from the way she examined the data and generated
possible hypotheses. She always felt excited when we discovered interesting data or
figured out plausible solutions. That kind of energy and excitement about linguistic
phenomena was so contagious and encouraging that I was able to maintain interest and
confidence in my research. Whenever I felt discouraged and stuck in doing research,
Heidi’s insights and encouragement could always boost my confidence and passion. Her
praise and approval has been the main motivation for me to make efforts to advance. The
most admirable quality of Heidi is her modest manner. Knowledgeable and outstanding
as she is, she still maintains humility and caring attitudes. I am blessed to have her as my
adviser and mentor, walking with me through various stages of my academic life. She
makes me aspire to become a better scholar and educator.
I am deeply grateful to Andrew Carnie for his professionalism, especially for his
guidance in my academic writing. If my ability to do linguistic argumentation is
satisfactory, I attribute it to Andrew’s advice and instruction. His seminars and classes on
syntax and particularly his Analysis-and-Argumentation class benefited me profoundly
with methods of presenting and analyzing data as well as conducting effective
5
argumentation. When I read his praise and positive comments on my analysis chapters of
the dissertation, I felt an extreme sense of achievement, which greatly motivated me and
boosted my confidence in the rest of the writing. In addition to his expertise and
professionalism, I deeply appreciate his timely encouragements. Before I reached the
status of ABD, there were a couple of times when I was suffering from a crisis of
confidence. His encouragements sustained me and greatly motivated me to keep making
progress.
Simin Karimi is one of the giants, whose scholarship has aided my academic
career development and helped me see further. I was lucky to take classes of syntax with
Simin. I appreciate her professionalism and her well-organized lecture preparation and
delivery. I have been greatly indebted to her advice and comments on my research since I
worked on my prelim paper back in 2009. Our discussions were always productive and
beneficial. I especially would like to thank her for supporting me by writing numerous
recommendation letters, one of which helped me get a dissertation fellowship. I was
blessed to have her in my dissertation committee. She is an elegant and dedicated scholar
as I wish to become.
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Qing Zhang, who is not only a
supportive academic mentor but also a trustworthy friend. I greatly benefited from her
classes and seminars on sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology. It is largely because
of her influence and encouragement that I managed to strike a balance in the
interdisciplinary doctoral program and learned to embrace the science of language as well
as the humanism of linguistics anthropology. Her devotion to advising graduates and to
her research projects is worth respect. I was extremely fortunate to have the opportunity
to work with her on a book chapter, which was a precious experience for me as a novice
scholar. Her mentorship has had a profound and meaningful impact on my pursuit of
academic achievements.
My appreciation to the above committee members is beyond description. They are
all outstanding role models as scholars, researchers and mentors. I am taking the
dissertation study not as my personal achievement, but as a way for me to honor my
committee members and the both departments.
The Dissertation Workshops held in the fall of 2011 and in the spring of 2012
were very helpful for me to keep making progress. I thank Heidi and my dear fellows for
their comments on my dissertaion in the weekly workshops. Sincere gratitude goes to
Greg Key, Jaehoon Choi, Hyun Kyoung Jung, Sylvia Reed Schreiner, Tatyana
Slobodchikoff, Megan Stone, Deniz Tat, and Alex Trueman.
I am greatly indebted to many scholars with whom I discussed my research topics
on different occasions, and their comments and suggestions greatly enhanced this
dissertation study. My special appreciation goes to Dr. Sung-Ho Gyemyong Ahn, who I
met at the 2010 Seoul International Conference on Linguistics (SICOL-2010). He
recommended Dr. Eiichi Iwasaki’s research work on English comparative correlatives to
me. It was because of this important scholarly exchange with Dr. Ahn and Dr. Iwasaki
that I was able to find and establish the main line of argumentation and reasoning for my
dissertation research. I also thank Yosuke Sato, Hsu-Te Cheng, and Jiun-shiung Wu for
6
their comments and suggestions in personal discussion or via email correspondence.
Comments from anonymous conference reviewers were also very helpful for me to
address theoretical issues in my dissertation. I would like to thank the reviewers of the
following conferences: LSA 2013, Glow in Asia X, Chicago Linguistics Society (CLS)
50, and WCCFL 32. In addition, different parts of the dissertation were presented at the
2010 Seoul Intl Conference on Linguistics (Seoul, June 2010), North American
Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL 23, at the University of Oregon, June 2011),
Arizona Linguistics Circle 7 (at the University of Arizona, Oct. 2013), and the Joint
Meeting of the 22nd IACL and the 26th NACCL (at the University of Maryland, May
2014), and I am grateful to the attendees for their questions and comments. All errors
remain my own.
I am grateful that my dissertation study was funded in part with the Dissertation
Fellowship granted by Chiang Ching-Kuo Foundation International Scholarly Exchange
(Project No. DF012-A-1, 蔣經國國際學術交流基金會). I also sincerely appreciate
financial support and funding from Fulbright Program of the Institute of International
Education, the Department of Linguistics, the School of Anthropology, and from the
College of Social Behavioral Sciences at the University of Arizona.
Throughout the years, I have benefited by taking classes with faculty members in
the department of linguistics. I thank Adam Ussishkin for his phonology class, graduate
TA training workshops, and a prelim-paper-writing class, Natasha Warner for the great
professionalism class, and Tyler Peterson for letting me sit in his well-organized and
informative lectures on formal semantics. My special appreciation goes to Amy Fountain
for being such a great devoted professor and understanding colleague. Her dedication to
teaching and teaching philosophy are valuable qualities I wish to develop. I also like to
thank Andy Wedel and Mike Hammond. It was my pleasure to work on the same floor in
Douglass Building with them. Once in a while, when I felt gloomy while working on the
dissertation in the study room, their cordial manner and presence always brought lively
energy, and that made my research and writing time less bleak. I would like to extend my
gratitude to the following faculty members in other departments, whom I had great
fortune to take classes with, work with, or participate with in scholarly exchanges: Jane
Hill, Rudy Troike, Ken Foster, Hai Ren, Feng-hsi Liu, Diana Archangeli, Diane Ohala,
Norma Mendoza- Denton, and Jennifer Roth-Gordon among others.
My special thanks goes to dear Marian Wiseley for arranging a study room for
me, which made my days of writing dissertation much more productive and efficient. She
always kindly helped out and made my life easier whenever I needed an urgent help with
processing certain documents. Another cordial lady, who made my days of writing
dissertation less stressful and more enjoyable, is Luise Betterton, the program coordinator
in the Division for Late Medieval and Reformation Studies. I appreciate those wonderful
tea times and lighthearted conversations with her during which I got a break from my
research work.
I am blessed to have a group of lovely graduate friends and fellows in different
departments and programs at the University of Arizona. Their friendship is valuable and I
am thankful to them for sharing life with me. My special thanks go to Keri Miller, Jessica
7
Nelson, Soo-Min Jwa, Jin Zhang, Yu-Ying Hu, Yan Chen, Kara Johnson, Jaehoon Choi,
Kyusang Park, Sunjin Ji, Hui-Yu Huang, Rolando Coto Solano, Hyun Kyoung Jung,
Colin Gorrie, Yijun Ding, Baijie Gu, Steven Feng, Teh Lai, Wei-chun Kuan, and Ryeojin
Park. All of them played an important part in my life in Tucson. I always remember those
wonderful times spent with them, and I especially appreciate their companionship when I
was in sorrow or felt discouraged. I also would like to thank the following colleagues and
fellows for their positive presence in my doctoral studies at different times: Peter
Norquest, Jeff Berry, David Medeiros, Mercedes Tubino-Blanco, Jeff Punske, Kara
Hawthorne, Jaime Parchment, Jae-Hyun Sung, Priscilla Liu, Bryan James Gordon, Jorge
Muriel, Alan Hogue, M’Balia Thomas, Heidi Ann Orcutt-Gachiri, Ashley Stinnett, Maisa
Taha, Dana Osborne, Joon-Beom Chu, Maureen Hoffmann, and many others (too
numerous to list).
Outside the busy academic life, I feel blessed and lucky to have a group of
warmhearted friends and caring fellows who have meaningful impacts on my spiritual
growth. They are Mei-kuang Chen, Philip Alderink, Hilda Grob, Yu-Ying Hu, Mike and
Valerie Begley, Lou and Jennie Kisch, Joe and Emalie LaRose, Jim and Linday Floyd,
Cheena Ugwu, Hsin-Hui Chang, and Yu-Rong Liu, from whom I have learned how to
love, how to pray with thanksgiving, how to live with a peaceful and grateful heart, and
how to deal with life issues with perspectives. Among these friends, I am especially
grateful to Mei-kuang Chen, Philip Alderink, and Hilda Grob. If I have grown as a more
loving and more caring person, I attribute my better being to them. They are like family,
cheering for my achievements and especially accompanying me in sorrow and in bad
times throughout these years.
A special thanks goes to Y. H. Hu, who is a former colleague, friend, and brother,
whose friendship and encouraging words in numerous emails have sustained me
throughout these years. I thank him for being watching over me since my mid-twenties,
for encouraging me to reach my full potential, for sustaining me in distress, and for
motivating me to refine myself.
Last but not least, I would like to thank my family back in Taiwan, especially my
devoted and affectionate mother. Her unconditional love gives me a sense of security. I
appreciate her dedication and making efforts to foster an environment that values
education and character. She is also a role model, who teaches me to be loving, caring
and be able to persevere. I am also thankful to my brother and my sister-in-law for their
being supportive and trustworthy, particularly in a last-minute rush. My family’s
unconditional love makes me feel where my heart is. No matter how far I am away from
them, affection and love tightly connects me with them. It is my great wish that my
academic achievements bring honor to my family.
8
DEDICATION
To my mother, from whom I’ve learned how to love,
how to persevere, and how to be devoted to life,
and
to Heidi Harley, who is the kind of scholar I wish to become.
9
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................... 12
CHAPTER ONE ................................................................................................... 14
1.1 Observations of comparative correlatives .................................................... 14
1.1.1 Basics of English comparative correlatives ................................. 14
1.1.2 Basics of Chinese comparative correlatives ................................ 15
1.1.3 The interpretation and the syntactic interdependency of CCs ..... 18
1.2 Goals of the dissertation and research questions ......................................... 19
1.3 The theoretical framework and hypotheses ................................................. 20
1.4 Organization of the chapters ....................................................................... 22
1.5 Orthography and glosses ............................................................................. 24
CHAPTER TWO .................................................................................................. 26
2.0 An overview ................................................................................................ 26
2.1 Typology of Comparative Correlatives ....................................................... 26
2.1.1 Languages that use paired words followed by a comparative ..... 27
2.1.2 Languages that use a morpheme denoting degree or quantity ..... 29
2.1.3. Languages that use a measure phrase ......................................... 30
2.2 Previous studies in the literature ................................................................. 32
2.2.1 Culicover and Jackendoff (1999) ................................................. 32
2.2.2 Dikken’s (2005) correlative approach ......................................... 37
2.2.3 Taylor (2006, 2009); Kapetangianni and Taylor (2009a, 2009b) 40
2.2.4 Iwasaki & Radford (2009) ........................................................... 43
2.2.5 Leung’s (2004, 2005) typological study on CCs ......................... 47
2.3 A summary of this chapter .......................................................................... 49
CHAPTER THREE .............................................................................................. 51
3.0 An overview ................................................................................................ 51
3.1 General distribution of yue .......................................................................... 51
3.2 The scope of yue .......................................................................................... 56
3.3 Types of predicates modified by yue........................................................... 59
3.4 Island effects in Chinese CCs ...................................................................... 63
3.5 The structural relationship between the two clauses ................................... 74
3.6 A variant structure with yue1 in a NP .......................................................... 78
3.7 A summary of this chapter .......................................................................... 80
CHAPTER FOUR ................................................................................................. 81
4.0 An overview ................................................................................................ 81
10
4.1 Correlatives ................................................................................................. 82
4.2 Comparative Correlatives ............................................................................ 84
4.3 Correlatives in Chinese ............................................................................... 87
4.3.1 Left-peripheral clauses ................................................................. 87
4.3.2 Two strategies to realize Chinese CCs......................................... 91
4.4 Wh-in-situ and DegP-in-situ ....................................................................... 94
4.4.1 A-bar movement or not? .............................................................. 98
4.4.2 In-situ indefinites ....................................................................... 100
4.5 Unselective binding ................................................................................... 104
4.5.1 Unselective binders in Lewis (1975) ......................................... 104
4.5.2 Unselective binding in Heim (1982) .......................................... 105
4.5.3 Unselective binding in Chinese bare conditionals ..................... 107
4.5 A summary of this chapter ............................................................ 110
CHAPTER FIVE ................................................................................................ 111
5.0 An overview .................................................................................. 111
5.1 The role of yue........................................................................................... 112
5.1.1 YUE is an indefinite degree quantifier in the DegP .................. 112
5.1.2 A correlativity operator binding yue-variables .......................... 118
5.1.3 Obligatory paired occurrence of yue1 and yue2 .......................... 121
5.2 An adjunct approach .................................................................................. 122
5.3 A Topic-comment approach to Chinese CCs ............................................ 124
5.4 An alternative proposal ............................................................................. 128
5.4.1 Information focus and the [+focus] feature ............................... 129
5.4.2 Derivation .................................................................................. 131
5.4.3 The split CP................................................................................ 133
5.4.4 When a Topic is involved in the left periphery.......................... 140
5.5 A summary of this chapter ............................................................ 144
CHAPTER SIX ................................................................................................... 146
6.0 An overview .............................................................................................. 146
6.1 A variant of Chinese yue-constructions..................................................... 147
6.2 Arguments against the movement approach ............................................. 151
6.2.1 Extraction from wh-islands ........................................................ 152
6.2.2 No reconstruction effect ............................................................. 155
6.2.3 No weak crossover effect ........................................................... 156
6.2.4 Lack of an anaphoric relation .................................................... 160
6.2.5 Resumptive pronouns are possible............................................. 162
6.3 The yue1-NP in the left periphery .............................................................. 163
6.3.1 The yue1-NP functions as a focus .............................................. 164
6.3.2 When a topic is involved............................................................ 165
6.4 The proposed analysis ............................................................................... 166
6.5 Summary ................................................................................................... 171
11
CHAPTER SEVEN ............................................................................................ 172
7.1 A summary of the proposal ........................................................................... 172
7.2 Contributions of this study ............................................................................ 176
7.3 Issues for future research .............................................................................. 178
REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 180
12
ABSTRACT
This dissertation is an analysis, assuming the framework of Government and
Binding Theory, of the syntactic derivation of comparative correlative constructions
(hereafter CCs for short) in Mandarin Chinese. It attempts to evaluate the theoretical
adequacy of extant treatments of CCs and propose an alternative analysis to the
prevailing adjunct approach.
CC constructions exist crosslinguistically. An English example is The more
chocolate I eat, the happier I feel. In Chinese, a simplex CC sentence consists of two
non-coordinated clauses; the lexical word yue, which indicates degree, is obligatory in
both clauses, as illustrated in (1):
(1) tianqi
yue1
re,
dian-fei
yue2
gao.
weather [ YUE1 hot], electricity-fee [YUE2 high]
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity fee is.’
Unlike the English comparative phrase, which has been shown to undergo A-bar
movement in earlier studies, the yue-constituent remains in situ. I argue that yue is
generated in [Spec, DegP] and behaves as an indefinite in-situ degree element on a par
with an in-situ wh-element (Li 1992; Tsai 1994; Cheng and Rooryck 2000; Cheng 2003a,
2003b). The yue-variable in each clause is unselectively bound (Lewis 1975, Heim 1982,
Cheng and Huang 1996) by an implicit CORRELATIVITY OPERATOR and does not undergo
A-bar movement.
13
In addition to the idiosyncratic in-situ yue-phrase, another property of CCs is the
syntactic interdependency between the constitutive clauses. Earlier studies (Dikken 2005,
Taylor 2006, 2009, Tsao and Hsiao 2002) treat the preceding clause as an adjunct.
However, an adjunct approach cannot account for the property of syntactic
interdependency. As an alternative, I assume Rizzi’s (1997) work on the Split CP
Hypothesis, arguing that Chinese CCs implicate the information structure in the left
periphery and that they are a type of Focus construction. A Chinese CC sentence like (1)
is projected by a null functional head Foc0. The first clause is focused and base-generated
in [Spec, FocP] and the second clause is the complement of the null Foc0. The [+focus]
feature in Foc0 licenses the co-occurrence of yue1 and yue2. This alternative analysis can
capture not only crosslinguistic commonalities but also the language-internal property of
topic-prominence in Chinese.
14
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Observations of comparative correlatives
1.1.1 Basics of English comparative correlatives
The comparative correlative construction exists in various languages.
Crosslinguistic commonarities and language-specific properties of this construction have
received attention and been brought into discussion in the literature of generative syntax
since the late 1990s (Beck 1997; McCawley 1998; Culicover and Jackendoff 1999; Hsiao
2003; Dikken 2005; Taylor 2006, 2009; Iwasaki and Radford 2009)1. The English
sentences in (1) exemplify the simplest form of this construction, which is typically
composed of two clauses. Each clause contains a comparative constituent following the
article the:
(1) a. The more you exercise, the more energy you need.
b. The hungrier I am, the faster I eat.
c. The more desserts he eats, the better he feels.
1
This construction was noted first in the generative literature by Ross (1967:sec. 6.1.2.6; cited in C & J
1999: 545).
15
As we see in (1a) and (1b), the comparative phrases are dislocated to the clause-initial
position following the article the. When a nominal is involved, it is pied-piped, as
illustrated in (1c).
The semantic interpretation of this construction involves proportional and
conditional readings, and therefore it is also referred to as the comparative conditional
construction (McCawley1988, Beck 1997, Michaelis 1994) or the proportional
comparative construction (Hsiao 2003) in the literature. Following Culicover and
Jackendoff (1999), I will use the term comparative correlative construction or
comparative correlatives (hereafter CCs for short) throughout this study.
1.1.2 Basics of Chinese comparative correlatives
Similar to English, a typical simplest form of Chinese CCs also contains two
clauses. The degree morpheme yue is obligatory in each clause, as shown in (2), in which
the square bracket indicates the yue-constituent, i.e. yue and the phrase it c-commands:
(2) a. 天氣越熱,電費越高
tienqi
yue
re,
dian-fei
yue
gao
weather [ YUE[AdjP hot]], electricity-fee [YUE [AdjP high]]
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity fee is.’
b. 天氣越熱,他越想吃冰
tienqi
yue
re, ta
yue
xiang
chi bing
weather [YUE [AdjP hot]], he [ YUE [VP feel.like eat ice cream]]
‘The hotter the weather is, the more he feels like eating ice cream.’
16
In examples (1) and (2), we observe that syntactically the construction consists of two
non-coordinated clauses, each containing a comparative or degree-denoting constituent.
English and Chinese contrast in the position of the comparative constituent. In English, it
is fronted to the clause initial position along with the definite article the. In Chinese, the
constituent modified by the degree morpheme yue remains in situ. In earlier studies on
CCs of different languages, the comparative constituent is analyzed as part of the DegP
(Beck 1997; Dikken 2005; Taylor 2006, 2009; Kapetangianni and Taylor 2009a, 2009b)
or the QP (Culicover and Jackendoff 1999, Iwasaki and Radford 2009). I will present
typological differences in the syntactic position of DegP at PF in Chapter Two. In
languages such as English, Greek, Spanish, Polish, and Italian among others, the DegP in
CCs is dislocated (Borsley, 2004; Dikken 2005; Abeille et al 2006; Taylor 2006, 2009;
Kapetangianni and Taylor 2009a, 2009b). By contrast, in languages such as Chinese,
Thai, and Indonesian, the DegP stays in situ. In Chapter Four, I will propose an analysis
to account for the nature of the in-situ DegP of Chinese CCs.
In addition to the canonical two-clause structure, Chinese has a variant CC
construction, which does not exist in English. This variant structure features a leftdislocated NP containing yue1 while yue2 occurs in the main clause. Two examples are
given in (3):
17
(3) a. 越簡單的設計, 我越喜歡。
Yue1 jiandan-de
sheji,
wo
yue2
[YUE1 simple-DE2 design NP]i , [IP I YUE2
xihuan ec.
like eci ]
‘The simpler a designi is, the more I like iti.’
Lit. ‘A designi which is simpler, I like ti better.’
b. 越多名人推薦的書, 越多人買。
yue1 duo mingren tueijia
de
shu
yue2
duo ren
mai ec.
[[YUE1 many celebrity recommend tj DE Rel] bookj NP]i, [IP YUE2 many people buy eci]
‘The more celebrities recommend a book, the more people buy it.’
or ‘For those booksi which more celebrities recommend, more people buy themi.’
Lit. ‘Booksi which more celebrities recommend, more people buy ti.’
In (3a) and (3b), yue1 is contained in a left-dislocated NP headed by shiji ‘design’ and shu
‘book’ respectively. The left-dislocated NP is co-indexed with the empty category in the
object position of the main verb. The question immediately raised here is whether the
sentence-initial NP undergoes movement from the main clause. In Chapter Six, I will
argue that the position of the left-dislocated NP, which contains yue1, is not derived via
2
The bound morpheme de can mark adjectives, a genitive case, and it can also mark a relative clause by
attaching to the end of it. Examples are given below:
(i)
tian-de
pingguo
Sweet-DE apple
‘sweet apples’
(ii)
wo-de
diannao
1st.sg.-Gen. computer
‘my computer’
(iii)
wo
zuotian yudao de na-ge
ren
[1st.sg. yesterday met DE] that-CL person
‘the person who I met yesterday’
18
movement, but via the strategy of base-generation.
1.1.3 The interpretation and the syntactic interdependency of CCs
As mentioned above, CC constructions involve conditional semantics (Fillmore
1987, McCawley 1988, Beck 1997, Oda 2008, Lin 2007, Liu 2008 among others).
However, the English CC sentence “The more money you earn, the more money you
spend” is not a simple conditional such as “If you earn more money, then you spend
more.” Instead, it is a conditional that involves a correlational relationship (Leung 2004,
Liu 2008) between two degrees: If you earn more money to a degree, then you spend
more to the corresponding degree. Leung (2004, 2005) suggests that it is the cooccurrence of the CORRELATIVE MARKERS in his term (e.g. the paired the…the…in
English) that generates the denotation of proportionality and clausal correspondence. In
this sense, Leung (2004, 2005) argues that the correlative marker in the preceding clause
designates an indefinite degree whereas the one in the consequent clause designates an
anaphoric expression of degree (originally emphasized in Leung 2005). In Chapter Four,
the anaphoric relationship between the two clauses will become clear by examining the
clausal connection in the configuration of standard correlatives and comparative
correlatives. I will show that even though the yue-constituents in CCs are
morphologically and orthographically identical, the degree/ amount denoted by the
second second yue-variable hinges on that of the first yue-variable in the same way that
the interpretation of a donkey-pronoun hinges on the values assigned to its antecendent.
19
1.2 Goals of the dissertation and research questions
The CC constructions of a variety of languages have been examined brought into
discussion in the literature. However, there is only a paucity of syntactic research on this
construction in Mandarin Chinese (hereafter Chinese for short). Earlier contributions to
our understanding of this idiosyncratic construction include Tsao and Hsiao’s (2002)
analysis using a topic-comment approach and Hsiao’s (2003) description data of the CCconstruction in Chinese and Mongolian. Lin’s (2007) and Liu’s (2008) study examine
this construction from the perspective of formal semantics.
To contribute to the understanding of Chinese CC constructions, I tackle this
construction from a syntactic perspective. This dissertation study aims to analyze the
syntactic derivation of the constitutive clauses and the nature of the in-situ yueconstituent. It attempts to evaluate the theoretical adequacy of extant treatments of CCs,
identify the problems to be addressed, and propose an alternative analysis. Specifically,
the dissertation study deals with the following research questions:
1) How is the structural relationship between the preceding and the consequent
clause in Chinese CCs established? Is an adjunct approach valid to account for
it? Is it a coordinate structure?
2) Do Chinese CCs conform to the macrostructure proposed by Dikken (2005)?
3) Since Chinese is well-known for its property of topic-prominence, how is this
property compatible with the CC construction?
4) What is the role of the morpheme yue in Chinese CCs? Does it project into a
DegP or a QP?
20
5) What is the nature of the in-situ yue-constituent in Chinese CCs? In Chinese
grammar, are there parallels between the in-situ DegP in CCs and in-situ whelements?
6) In derivation, what licenses the obligatory co-occurrence of the yue1constituent and the yue2-constituent?
7) In the variant type of Chinese CCs, is the left-dislocated NP derived via
movement or base-generation?
Following Dikken (2005), Taylor (2006, 2009), Iwasaki and Radford (2009), and
Tsao and Hsiao (2002), I endeavor to address the above research questions and propose
an analysis. I will argue that despite the idiosyncrasy of the morpheme yue, Chinese CCs
also demonstrate crosslinguistically common properties, which can be accounted for in
the framework of Government and Binding Theory.
1.3 The theoretical framework and hypotheses
This dissertation adopts the theoretical framework of GOVERNMENT AND BINDING
(Chomsky 1981, 1982, 1986 and others) in generative syntax. Assuming Rizzi’s (1997,
2004) work on THE SPLIT CP HYPOTHESIS, I will argue that Chinese CC constructions are
a type of focus construction, projected by a null functional head Foc0. For the overall
configuration, the first clause in Chinese CC constructions is proposed to be basegenerated in the left periphery and the consequent clause is analyzed as the complement
of the null Foc0.
21
The property of the in-situ DegP in Chinese CCs implicates QUANTIFICATIONAL
VARIABILITY EFFECTS (QVE,
Huang et al (2009, Chapter 7), Cheng 2003a and 2003b, Li
1992, Cheng 1992 among others), which will be discussed in Chapter Four. It will help us
better understand the parallel semantic meaning of in-situ wh-elements and the in-situ
DegP in Chinese. I will argue that the in-situ DegP functions as an indefinite degree
element on a par with indefinite in-situ wh-elements. In addition, the mechanism of
UNSELECTIVE BINDING
(Heim 1982, Pesetsky 1987, Cheng and Huang 1996) will be
adopted to account for relationship between an implicit operator and the in-situ DegP.
Via unselective binding, it will be explained why the DegP does not undergo A-bar
movement at PF in Chinese CCs and the correlative interpretation of the two degrees will
be derived.
For the variant type of of Chinese CCs, as exemplified in (3), I will argue that the
left-dislocated NP containing yue1 is not derived via movement. Arguments against the
movement approach are based on results of diagnoses of WH-ISLAND CONSTRAINTS
(Chomsky 1981; Huang 1982a, 1982b), RECONSTRUCTION EFFECTS (Fox 1999), WEAK
CROSSOVER EFFECTS
(WCO, Chomsky 1976; Higginbotham 1980; Reinhart 1983; Lasnik
and Stowell 1991; Postal 1993; Shyu 1995; Badan and Gobbo (2010), and the lack of
mandatory anaphoric relation between the left-dislocated NP and the gap. As an
alternative, I propose that the left-dislocated NP is derived via base-generation and is a
focused NP in the left periphery.
22
1.4 Organization of the chapters
In Chapter Two, I first present crosslinguistic data and typological differences in
the morphology and surface structures of CCs. Languages such as Chinese, Thai,
Vietnamese, and Indonesian have the DegP stay in situ whereas languages such as
English, Greek, Polish, Hindi, and Hungarian among others have the DegP moved to the
left periphery. In the second section, earlier studies on comparative correlatives of will be
discussed.
Chapter Three starts with the basic properties and distribution of the morpheme
yue. Then locality constraints on English CCs and Chinese CCs are examined. It is shown
that the Complex NP Constraint (CNPC), the Wh-island Constraint, and the Condition on
Extraction Domains (CED)3 are observed in English CCs, but are not relevant in Chinese
CCs. With respect to the structural relationship between the two constitutive clauses, I
will argue that the preceding clause is not an adjunct, nor is it valid to analyze the CC
construction as a coordinate structure. In addition, the variant type of Chinese CCs (as
presented in (3) above) is introduced at the end of the chapter.
In Chapter Four, I first review the claim made by Dikken (2005) and Lipták
(2009) that CCs are a subset of standard correlatives. Following their contention, I
propose that there are two types of Chinese CCs: The wh-type CC and the yue-type CC.
The wh-type uses a pair of indefinite wh-phrases to realize the correlative interpretation
3
For detailed discussion of the mentioned locality constraints of CNPC, wh-islands, and CED, readers are
referred to Chomsky (1973, 1981) and Huang (1982b).
23
while the yue-type uses a pair of yue-constituents. For the internal structure of the DegP,
I will argue that the position [Spec, DegP] is realized by the wh-phrase in the wh-type
CC, but by the morpheme yue in the yue-type CC. Neither the wh-phrase nor the yuephrase underhgoes A-bar movement in each type of CCs, and I argue that this has to do
with the wh-in-situ property of Chinese syntax. Assuming quantificational variability
effects in Chinese wh-indefinites, the interpretation of which hinges on an implicit
binding operator, I propose that the wh-phrase and the yue-phrase in each type of Chinese
CCs are in-situ indefinites and unselectively bound by a null CORRELATIVITY OPERATOR.
In interpretation, this null operator accounts for the correlational relationship between the
paired degree variables.
In Chapter Five, I first propose that the paired yue morphemes and the noncoordinated syntactic clauses constitute a degree description. On a par with the dependent
that-clause in the English so…that…construction (e.g. The mount is so tall that you
cannot see the top), which functions as a complement of the adjective head tall, the
consequent clause in Chinese CCs is argued to be treated as a complement of a certain
type of head in derivation. The correlational relationship of the two yue-variables and the
syntactic interdependency of the two clauses cannot be accounted for by the adjunct
approach proposed in earlier studies on English CCs by Dikken (2005, 2006) and Taylor
(2006) and Tsao and Hsiao’s (2002) study on Chinese CCs. The problems of the adjunct
approach will be examined. To address the problems, I propose an alternative analysis,
which assumes Rizzi’s (1997, 2004) work on a split CP and argue that Chinese CCs are a
functional projection of a Foc(us)P, with its head Foc0 being null. The proposed structure
24
can also accommodate a topic in the specifer of the TopP, if there is any, and the TopP is
in a higher position above the FocP.
Chapter Six deals with the variant type of Chinese CC, in which yue1 is contained
in a left-dislocated nominal phrase. I argue that the left-dislocated NP is not derived via
movement. Arguments against the movement approach are based on the results obtained
from applying diagnostics for wh-island constraints, reconstruction effects, weak
crossover effects, and the lack of an anaphoric relation between the left-dislocated NP
and the gap. Instead, I propose that it is a base-generated focused NP in the left periphery,
licensed by the [+Focus] feature in the head Foc0. It will become clear that the analysis of
this variant is unitary with the analysis proposed for the canonical two-clause CCs in
Chapter Five.
1.5 Orthography and glosses
In this dissertation, sentence examples are given with traditional Chinese
characters in the first line, the romanization in the second line (with tone markers
omitted), the word-for-word English gloss in the third line, and the English translation in
the fourth line. The following is a list of abbreviations used in English glosses:
ASP: aspect
AUX: auxiliary
CL: classifier
COM: comparative marker
25
CPR: comparative word
DAT: dative
DE: genitive marker, nominal marker, relative-clause marker
DEM: demonstrative
ERG: ergative case
GEN: genitive case
MOD: modal
NEG: negative
PART: particle
PAST: past tense
REL: relative clause
Q: question particle
26
CHAPTER TWO
PREVIOUS STUDIES
ABOUT COMPARATIVE CORRELATIVES
2.0 An overview
This chapter attempts to present the commonalities and typological differences
observed in the CCs of various languages. In Section 2.1, I classify the CCs of various
languages into three categories based on the morpho-syntactic properties of the degree/
amount/ measure phrases. Among the crosslinguistic data, there is a group of languages
which exhibit in-situ comparative phrases or degree phrases. In Chapter Three and
Chapter Four, we will see this in-situ property is also characteristic of Chinese CCs.
Another purpose of this chapter is to review previous studies on CCs. In Section 2.2, I
review how CCs of English, Greek, and Thai have been analyzed, particularly the
syntactic derivations that have been proposed. Insights from these studies lay an essential
foundation for in my analysis of the DegP and the syntax of Chinese CCs in the
subsequent chapters. Throughout the chapter, readers will note that even though
language-specific idiosyncrasy exists, it is still possible to analyze CCs in the framework
of Principles-and-Parameters framework.
2.1 Typology of Comparative Correlatives
Both common and idiosyncratic properties of the CC construction in different
languages have been observed. Crosslinguistic data show that it generally consists of two
27
clauses. Whether the two clauses’ linear order can be varied is language specific and
often has to do with the language’s morphology. Each of the two constituent clauses
contains language-specific morphemes indicating the comparative relation, degree, or
quantification. Three typological categories of CCs are presented in the following
subsections.
2.1.1 Languages that use paired words followed by a comparative
The first category involves CCs that are expressed with a pair of unique words
which are followed by a comparative. I will refer to the paired words as comparative
correlative markers. English, which uses the more/-er… the more/ -er…in its CCs, is a
representative. German, Polish and Basque demonstrate a similar pattern, as shown in the
following examples, in which the paired comparative correlative markers are boldfaced:
(1) German (from Beck 1997: 229)
Je müd-er
Otto ist, desto
JE tired-COM
Otto
aggressive-er ist er.
is, DESTO aggressive-COM he is.
‘The more tired Otto is, the more aggressive he is.’
(2) Polish (from Borsley: 2004: 64)
Im więcej ksiązek czytam,
IM more
tym więcej rozumiem
books I-read, TYM more
I-understand
‘The more books I read, the more I understand.’
28
(3) Basque4 (from Taylor 2006: 596)
Gero eta Jonek
CC
sagar gehiago buldu, gero eta
John-ERG apples more pick,
zituen
CC
pastel gehiago egiten
pies
more
did
bere amak
Aux.-Trans.-Past his
mom-ERG
‘The more apples John picked, the more pies his mother baked.’
French CCs, Italian CCs, and Spanish CCs begin with a fronted comparative but
do not have a unique lexical word preceding it. In these three languages, a conjunction is
optional, as shown in the following5:
(4) French (from Abeille et al 2006)
Plus
je
lis
(et)
plus
more
I
read (and) more
I
je comprehends.
understand
‘The more I read (and) the more I understand.’
(5) Italian (from Abeille et al 2006)
Più
leggo (e) più
capisco.
more I-read (and) more I-understand
‘The more I read, the more I understand.’
(6) Spanish (from Abeille et al 2006)
Más leo
(y)
more I.read (and)
más entiendo.
more I.understand
‘The more I read, the more I understand.’
According to Taylor’s (2006: 596) documentation, gero eta in Basque is glossed here as CC in the same
way McCawley gloaased yue in Mandarin. Elsewhere is Basque, gero and eta are used independently:
gerois an adverb meaning ‘after’ and eta is a conjunction, meaning ‘and’. When used in CC constructions,
the two words need to co-occur and be adjacent.
5
The presence of an optional conjunction in French, Italian, and Spanish may support Culicover and
Jackendoff’s (1999) paratactic approach for these languages (cf. discussion in Section 2.2.1).
4
29
2.1.2 Languages that use a morpheme denoting degree or quantity
The second category of CCs use a pair of morphemes denoting ‘increasing
degree’. Chinese is a representative of this category. Chinese CCs features the morpheme
yue, literally meaning ‘transcending’ or ‘crossing’. Similarly, Cantonese uses yuht,
literally meaning ‘surpassing’, Thai uses ying ‘exceeding’, Vietnamese uses càng
‘increasing’, and Indonesian uses makin ‘increasing’. The salient feature that contrasts
this category with the other two categories is that the degree/quantity-denoting element
remains in situ in each clause. The following examples throughout (7) and (10) are
documented by Leung (2005):
(7) Cantonese
ni
yuht gong,
You YUHT
talk
keoi
yuht
ganzoeng
he
YUHT nervous
‘The more you talk, the more nervous he is.’
(8) Thai
khun
ying
phuut,
khaw
You YING talk,
ying dandeng
he YING nervous
‘The more you talk, the more nervous he is.’
(9) Indonesian
Ali
makin
besar
Ali
MAKIN old
makin
sombong
MAKIN arrogant
‘The older Ali gets the more arrogant he becomes.’
(10) Vietnamese
Càng
nhiêu-nguòi càng
CANG many
vui
CANG happy
‘The more, the merrier.’
30
2.1.3. Languages that use a measure phrase
The third category of CCs features a pair of measure phrases. The measure phrase
in the first clause contains a non-interrogative wh-element, and the one in the second
clause contains a demonstrative element. Like the first category, this category of
languages involve displacement of the comparative element. Examples are given in (11)(17):
(11) Latin (from Hsiao 2003: 266)
quanto
in
pectore hane
How.much
in
heart
tantoo
mi
that.much
me grief
rem
meo
magis
this matter my more
aegritudo auctior est
greater is
in
animo
in
spirit
volute,
(I)ponder
‘The more I turn this matter over in my mind, the greater the grief is in my soul.’
(12) Spanish (from Abeille et al 2006)6
(cuanto)
más
libros
leo,
(tanto)
más cosas
entiendo
(how-much) more books I.read, (that-much) more things
I.understand
‘The more books I read, the more things I understand.’
(13) Italian (from Abeille et al 2006)
Quanto
più
leggo,
(tanto)
più
capisco
how-much more I.read, (that-much) more I.understand
‘The more I read, the more I understand
6
Abeille et al (2006) point out that the fronted comparative in Spanish CCs and in Italian CCs can be
premodified by an element meaning ‘how much’ in the preceding clause and by a demonstrative element
meaning ‘that much’ in the consequent clause. Readers may note the alternation by comparing the example
in (12) and (13) with the example in (5) and (6) in Section 2.2.1.
31
(14) Khalkha Mongolian (from Hsiao 2003)
Xedii
targan max
how-much fat
meat
todii
amttai.
that-much delicious
‘'The fatter a piece of meat is, the more delicious it is.'
(15) Hindi (from Taylor 2006: 596)
a. jitne
zyaada sawaal
Joanna sujjhaae, use
How-much more problem Joan-ERG solve,
utne
acche
to-her that-much good
ank aaye
score came
‘The more problems Joan solved, the better score she received.’
b. Jitnii jaldi
How fast
Bill kaam karegaa, use
Bill
utnaa zyaadaa mithaaii milegii
work do-FUT he-DAT that more sweets
get-FUT
‘The more quickly Bill finishes his work, the more desserts he will get.’
(16) Greek (from Kapetangianni and Taylor 2009)
Oso
(pio poli) zahari tros
as.much.as (more)
toso
(pio poles) thermides
sugar eat.2sg.pres that.much (more)
calories
pernis
get.2sg.pres
‘The more sugar you eat, the more calories you get.’
(17) Russian (from Dikken 2005)
Naskol'ko
luchshe mashina,
nastol'ko
ona
dorozhe.
by-how-much better car-NOM by-that-much it-F.NOM more.expensive
'The better the car, the more expensive it is.'
32
In this category, the occurrence of the demonstrative form indicates an anaphoric
relationship between the clauses. This observation corresponds to Leung’s (2005)
contention that the degree denoted in the preceding clause designates an ‘indefinite’
degree whereas the one in the second clause designates an ‘anaphoric’ expression of
degree.
In Chapter Four, I will argue that there are in fact two types of CCs in Chinese.
One is realized with a pair of non-interrogative wh-words on a par with the third category
of CCs, as illustrated in examples from (11) to (17). The other type is realized with a pair
of yue morphemes and belongs to the second category of CCs presented in Section 2.1.2;
this is the type that is focused on in this dissertation. In Chapter Four and Five, I will
argue that the lexical word yue functions as an indefinite degree element like a wh-in-situ.
2.2 Previous studies in the literature
2.2.1 Culicover and Jackendoff (1999)
In their study of English comparative correlatives, Culicover and Jackendoff
(1999: 543) claim that there is a mismatch between syntax and semantics: The two
constitutive clauses are “connected paratactically in syntax, but the first clause is
subordinate in semantics.” An argument for taking the preceding clause as a subordinate
clause is based on the results of testing the CC construction in subjunctives, tag
questions, direct questions, and imperatives.
First, when CC is the complement of a verb or adjective that governs the
subjunctive, subjunctive morphology may appear on the second clause but not on the first
33
clause, as shown in the following examples ( extracted from Culicover and Jackendoff
(1999: 548-9):
(18) Subjunctives
a. It demands/ is imperative that [the more John eats, the more he pay(s)].
* b. It demands/ is imperative that [the more John eat, the more he pay(s)
Second, a tag question’s form is based on the second clause, not on the first clause. The
contrast is illustrated in (19):
(19) Tag questions
a. The more we eat, the angrier you get, don’t you.
*b. The more we eat, the angrier you get, don’t we.
*c. The more we eat, don’t we, the angrier you get.
Third, when a direct question is constructed, the article the is replaced with how much.
Inversion takes places in the second clause, and the complementizer that cannot appear in
the second clause, as shown in (20):
(20) Direct questions
a. The harder (that) it has rained, how much faster a flow (*that) appears in the river?
b. The harder (that) it rains, how much faster (*that) do you run?
Fourth, in combining the CC with the imperative construction by using a generic subject
in the second clause, a moderately acceptable imperative can be formed, like the example
34
of (21a), which is intended to have the semantic meaning in (21c). By contrast, the first
clause cannot have the imperative form, as shown in (21b):
(21) Imperatives
a. ?The more John eats, the tighter everyone keep your mouth shut about it, OK?
b. *The more everyone eat, the more John keeps his big mouth shut about it, OK?
d. If/When/As John eats more, (everyone) keep your mouth shut tighter, OK?
The above results of test of the construction demonstrates that the first clause is
subordinate while the second clause has main-clause force. However, Culicover and
Jackendoff (1999) argue that the subordinate interpretation of the first clause is only a
semantic fact, which is not reflected in syntax. If the first clause is subordinate and the
second clause is a main clause in syntax, we would expect that extraction from C2 would
be unproblematic whereas extraction from Clause 1 would result in a violation of the
Condition on Extraction Domains (CED, Huang 1982a, 1982b).
This prediction turns out to be incorrect. Extraction is possible not only from the
second clause but also from the first clause. Consider the following examples, with the
one in (22) being the ‘base’ sentence (Culicover and Jackendoff 1999: 569):
(22) The sooner you solve this problem, the more easily you’ll satisfy the folks up at
corporate headquarters.
(23) a. This is the sort of problem whichi the sooner you solve ti , the more easily you’ll
satisfy the folks up at corporate headquarters. [extraction from Clause 1 ]
35
b. The folks up at corporate headquarters are the sort of people whoi the sooner you
solve this problem, the more easily you’ll satisfy ti . [extraction from Clause 2 ]
(24) a. This problemi, the sooner you solve ti , the more easily you’ll satisfy the folks
up at corporate headquarters.
[extraction from Clause 1 ]
b. ? The folks up at corporate headquartersi, the sooner you solve this problem, the
more easily you’ll satisfy ti .
[extraction from Clause 2 ]
(25) a. It is this problemi that the sooner you solve ti, the more easily you’ll satisfy the
folks up at corporate headquarters.
[extraction from Clause 1]
b. ?*It is the folks up at corporate headquartersi (not the ones here at the regional
office) whoi the sooner you solve this problem, the more easily you’ll satisfy ti.
[extraction from Clause 2]
The above examples throughout (23) and (25) show that extraction is possible
from both clauses in English CCs. If the movement constraint of CED holds true, we can
conclude that the first clause in these examples is not an adjunct. In other words, the CC
construction shows no subordination in syntax despite its subordinate semantics.
Culicover and Jackendoff (1999: 566) conclude that the two clauses are “coordinate in
syntax but subordinating in semantics”.
For the position of the comparative phrase within the CC, they propose that the
following plausible structure for each constitutive clause, as schematized in (26)
(Culicover and Jackendoff 1999: 558):
36
(26)
CP
Spec
C’
XPi
C
X’
Spec
(that)
IP
…ti…
QP
Spec
Q’
the
Q
more/less
In the above structure, the C0 is null or realized by that since the complementizer that
may optionally occur in either constitutive clause of a CC7. In addition Culicover and
Jackendoff propose that the comparative morpheme more/ -er projects into a QP, with the
article the in the specifier. On a par with a fronted wh-phrases, the fronted comparative
phrase carries along the elements of which the more is a left branch and moves out of the
IP to [Spec, CP]. However, the motivation for the article the to sit in [Spec, QP] still
remains mysterious, which is another idiosyncratic property of English CCs.
7
Two examples of CCs with an optional that are given in (i) (Culicover and Jackendoff 1999: 546):
(i) a. The more (that) you eat, the less (that) you want.
b. The angrier (that) Sue gets, the more (that) Fred admires her.
37
Culicover and Jackendoff use the following schema in (27) to distinguish the sui
generis parts of the CC construction (enclosed with dotting lines) from the parts that
conform to more general principles (Culicover and Jackendoff 1999: 567):
(27)
sui generis
IP/CP
CP
QP
(that)
[the more XP]i
CP
IP
… ti …
QP
(that)
[the more YP]j
IP
…tj …
principled
They conclude that the peculiar configuration in the specifier of the comparative phrase
and the mismatch between semantics and syntax make the dotted part sui generis while
the IP domain follows more general principles of X-bar theory.
2.2.2 Dikken’s (2005) correlative approach
In his study on CCs, Dikken (2005) argues against Culicover and Jackendoff’s
paratactic approach, which is mainly based on the possibilities of extraction from either
clause (as discussed in Section 2.2.1). Dikken (2005) points out that extraction in English
CCs is not entirely free, which is evidenced by the following examples in (28) (Dikken
2005: 509, footnote 13):
(28) a. *the kind of doctor that [the more he wants to be ec], [the less able he
will be to actually become one]
38
b. ?/* the kind of doctor that [the more he wants to be one], [the less able he
will be to actually become ec]
In addition, extraction from either clause is prohibited in the CC construction of Dutch
and German. In other words, the extraction possibilities of comparative correlatives are
not universally robust.
Alternatively, Dikken (2005, 2009) proposes a correlative approach. He
investigates data from CC constructions of various languages and contends that the CC
construction exhibits a high degree of crosslinguistic consistency and is “well-behaved…
analyzable in keeping with the principles and parameters of UG” (Dikken 2005: 498).
Adopting Srivastav’s (1991) correlative structure, Dikken (2005 and 2009: 264) proposes
a general structure (i.e. a ‘macrostructure’ in his term) for crosslinguistic CCs, as
schematized in (29), in which the relative clause functions as the sub-clause (SUBCL)
and adjoins to the head clause (HEADCL):
(29) [HEADCL [SUBCL REL/WH-operator+CPR...] [HEADCL CORREL-PART+CPR ...]]
Consider the Dutch sentence in (30):
(30) {hoe/ des-te} meer
je leest, {hoe/ des-te} minder je begrijpt
how/the-Gen. more you read, how/the-Gen. less
‘The more you read, the less you understand.’
you understand
[Dutch]
39
According to the macrostructure in (29), Dikken treats the initial clause in (30) as an adjoined
relative clause, with hoe or des serving as a relative pronoun, and the second clause as the
head clause with hoe or des being the correlative particle.
Dikken (2005) also examines the internal structure of the constituent clauses and
the internal configuration of the comparative phrase at the left edge of each clause. The
detailed microstructure of the English sentence The more you read, the more you
understand is demonstrated in (31) (Dikken (2005: 510):
(31)
HEADCL= CP
SUBCL=CP
C’
DegPi
Deg’
PPMEASURE
P
QP
OP
Deg
The
Q’
Q
HEADCL= CP
you read ti
AP
CPR
more
C’
DegPj
P
Deg’
PPMEASURE
QP
DEM
you understand tj
Deg
the
AP
Q’
CPR
more
Q
40
In the above structure, the fronted comparative phrase is a DegP. Its specifier position is
occupied by a (prepositional)8 measure phrase, and the head of DegP is spelled out as the
definite article the, taking a comparative AdjP or AdvP as its complement.
2.2.3 Taylor (2006, 2009) and Kapetangianni and Taylor (2009a, 2009b)
Examining the CC construction in English and in other languages, Taylor (2006)
proposes an analysis assuming the Minimalist Program. In Taylor’s proposal, the
subordinate clause is taken as an adjunct, base-generated and left-adjoined to the main
clause, as shown in the structure of (32) (Taylor 2006):
(32)
CPMatrix
CPAdjunct
CPMatrix
For the English sentence The more sugar you eat, the more calories you get, a structure is
schematized in (33) (Taylor 2006):
8
In his discussion, Dikken (2005: 502) points out that in Early Modern English, a measure phrase headed
by a preposition is overtly present in the CC construction:
(i) By how much the lesse he looked for this discourse, by so much the more he liked it.
(Lyly, Euphues, 16th century)
Russian also has a prepositional measure phrase in the clause-initial position in its CCs, as shown in the
example of (17) in Section 2.1.3.
41
(33) The internal structure of comparative correlatives (Taylor 2006)
CP
CP [C1] Adjunct Clause
CP [C2]Main Clause
C’
C
the
C’
FP
C
the
FP
F’
[comparative.X]i
more sugar
F
ø
F’
IP
you eat ti
[comparative.X]j
more calories F
ø
IP
you get tj
In the structure of (33), Taylor treats the obligatory the in the English CC
construction as a complementizer C0, which selects a functional phrase (FP)9. The head
of FP triggers A-bar movement of the comparative constituent out of IP to [Spec, FP].
This A-bar movement of the comparative constituent to [Spec, FP] is like the A-bar
movement of a null wh-operator to [Spec, CP]. However, taking the as a C0 is
controversial. An argument against the contention that the is a complementizer is based
on the observation (cf. Iwasaki and Radford’s discussion in 2009) that the CC
construction can contain an overt complementizer that (also noted in Footnote 7 above),
for example, “the more chocolate that you eat, the quicker you put on weight.”
9
In a later paper, Kapetangianni and Taylor (2009a) propose that the functional projection is FocusP. The
evidence is based on ungrammaticality caused by focus movement in Greek CC constructions. In Chapter
Five, I will propose that Chinese CCs are a functional projection of FocP, and each yue carries with it a
focus feature. For Taylor, the [focus] feature is checked in each clause independently, but in my proposal
for Chinese CCs, they are both checked in the matrix clause.
42
As Dikken (2005) points out, the internal configuration of the DegP is languagespecific and demonstrates lexical idiosyncrasies. In their study on Greek CCs, Taylor and
her colleague examine the internal structure of the DegP (Kapetangianni and Taylor
2009a, 2009b). An example of Greek CCs is given in (34):
(34) oso
pio poli zahari
tros,
[Greek]
as.much.as more sugar eat.2SG.PRES,
toso
pio poles thermides pernis
that.much more
calories
get.2SG.PRES
‘The more sugar you eat, the more calories you get’
The sentence in (34) shows the canonical paired occurrence of two lexical
markers oso…toso… ‘as much as…that much…’. Kapetangianni and Taylor (2009a: 102)
take oso as a non-interrogative and bare wh-item, projecting a QP, and acts as a measure
phrase in [Spec, DegP]10. The fronted constituent in the first clause of the sentence in
(34) accordingly has the following structure in (35):
10
Kapetangianni and Taylor’s (2009a) explication on oso, a non-interrogative wh-item in Greek, lends an
essential support to my treatment of yue in Chinese CCs as an indefinite non-interrogative measure
expression. Detailed discussion regarding yue as an indefinite degree element will be presented in Section
4.4 of Chapter Four.
43
(35)
NP
DegP
QP
Deg’
NP
zahari
sugar
Q
Deg
AP
oso
pio poli
ø
as.much.as
more
Likewise, the demonstrative item toso that appears in the matrix clause also
functions as a measure phrase. According to Taylor (2006) and Kapetangianni and Taylor
(2009a), even though the English the and the Greek oso appear in front of a comparative,
they are not counterparts of each other: In their proposals, the English article the is C0,
introducing either clause of the CC, whereas oso / toso in Greek CCs are quantifiers and
project into a QP. In Chapter Four, it will be argued that the lexical word yue in Chinese
CCs has a similar status as the Greek oso/ toso and is not an equivalent of English the.
2.2.4 Iwasaki & Radford (2009)
Iwasaki and Radford (2009) are in line with Taylor’s (2006) and Dikken’s (2005)
claim that it is possible to arrive at a principled description of CC constructions within
the principles-and-parameters approach and Minimalist framework. However, they argue
against the idea of taking the article the as C0 in Taylor’s (2006) analysis of the English
CC construction. Instead, they propose that the originates within TP and functions as a
degree operator, linked to its correlative counterpart in the paired clause. For the
sentence The more chocolate (that) you eat, the more weight you put on, Iwasaki and
44
Radford (2009) treat the more chocolate as a QP, headed by the comparative
morpheme more/ er, and the degree operator the is generated in the specifier. The
structure of the QP is shown in (36):
QP
(36)
Q’
the
Q
more
NP
chocolate
The QP originates as the direct object of eat and undergoes A-bar movement. For the
derivation of each clause, Iwasaki & Radford (2009) assume Rizzi’s (1997, 2004) work
on the split CP and propose the following clause internal structure in (37), which applies
to both clauses:
45
(37)
ForceP (=CP)
Force
ø
FocP
QP
the more chocolate
Foc’
Foc
ø
FinP
Fin
(that)
TP
T’
DP
you
T
ø
vP
QP you eat QP11
In the above derivation, the QP first moves to the edge of vP according to the
Phase Impenetrability Condition (Chomsky 2000) and thereafter to the edge of
FocP. The overt that is treated as the head of a FinP.
To capture the structural dependency between the two clauses, Iwasaki & Radford
(2009) propose the projection of a TopP12, with the first clause being a ForceP (i.e. the
conventional CP) in [Spec, TopP]. The derivation is schematized in (38):
11
12
The two italicized QPs denote copies of the moved QP the more chocolate.
Their argument in favor of the notion that the functional projection is TopP is based on two assumptions:
1) ‘satellite’ constituents are typically topics, and 2) clauses can be topics (Alrenga 2005).
46
(38)
ForceP=CP
TopP
Top’
ForceP
the more chocolate
(that) you eat
Top
ø
FocP
Foc’
QP
the more weight
Foc
ø
FinP
Fin
ø
TP
QP you put on QP
Iwasaki & Radford suggest that in the structure of (38) the Force0 in the first clause may
be conditional in nature whereas the Force0 in the second clause is declarative in nature.
Applying Rizzi’s (1997) cartographic structure of the left periphery to deal with
English CCs sheds light on the proposed analysis of Chinese CCs in this dissertation
study. However, I will argue in Chapter Five and Chapter Six that the relevant functional
projection in Chinese CCs is not a TopP, but a FocP.
47
2.2.5 Leung’s (2004, 2005) typological study on CCs
Leung (2004, 2005) presents a typological study of the CC construction in various
languages. He uses the term ‘correlative marker’ to refer to lexical items occurring in
pairs in CCs, such as the…the…in English, yue…yue…in Chinese, or ying…ying… in
Thai. Leung (2004) attempts to decompose the semantics of the CC construction into
combinations of the semantics of compositional lexical items. He claims that languages
differ in two aspects. First, they differ in whether the realization of the correlative marker
is overt (e.g. English, German, Dutch, Chinese) or not (e.g. French, Italian). Second, they
differ in whether the semantics of comparatives in CCs is expressed by comparatives
(e.g. English) or is incorporated into the lexical meaning of the correlative markers such
as the morpheme ying, which means ‘exceeding(ly)’, in Thai CCs (Leung 2004). Similar
to ying in Thai, the Chinese lexical word yue has the verbal meaning of ‘transcending’ or
crossing’ when used in other contexts. An example of the CC construction in Thai and its
Mandarin equivalent are given in (39):
(39) a. khun
You
ying
phuut,
YING talk,
khaw
he
ying
dandeng.
[Thai]
YING nervous
‘The more you talk, the more nervous he is.’
b. ni
yue shou, ta
You YUE
yue jinzhang
[Chinese]
talk, he YUE nervous
‘The more you talk, the more nervous he is.’
Because ying in (39) denotes an increasing degree and incorporates the meaning
of comparatives, Leung (2004) claims this accounts for why a comparative morpheme is
48
not needed13. It is noted that the CC construction denotes a ‘proportional’ relation
between the two clauses. This denotation is missing in regular conditionals, nor can it be
expressed by comparatives alone. Leung (2004) thus proposes that the proportional
interpretation is attributed to the paired correlative markers (e.g. the…the…in English).
On the other hand, the in the English CC construction does not explicitly express the
directionality of comparison, and therefore the comparative morpheme more/-er is
required.
A central point in Leung’s (2004) analysis is that ying is a wh-operator and
functions as an operator which scopes over the constituent it c-commands. The notion
that ying is a scopal operator is evidenced by the following two examples in (40), where
the difference in their meaning is accounted for by the scope of ying14.
(40) a. khaw khit waa khun ying
he
khayǎn,
khaw ying diicai
think that you YING hardworking, he YING happy
‘The more hardworking he thinks you are, the happier he is.’
b. khaw ying khit waa khun khayan,
he
YING think that
khaw ying diicai
you hardworking, he
YING happy
‘The more he thinks that you are hardworking, the happier he is.’
13
The Thai morpheme ying differs from the ordinary comparatives suffix morpheme kwaa. An example of
a regular Thai comparative is given in (i):
(i) khun mai suung, khaw suung-kwaa
you not tall
3sg. Tall-Comp.
‘You are not tall; he is taller’
14
In Chinese, the scope of yue works in the same way.
49
In (40a) ying has a narrow scope over the adjective ‘hardworking’ in the first clause, but
a larger scope over the matrix VP ‘think that you are hardworking’ in (40b). The
difference in scope contributes to different interpretations. The degree of his happiness
co-varies with the degree of your hardworkingness in (40a). On the other hand, in (40b),
the degree of his happiness depends on the degree of his thinking of you as hardworking.
Both Chinese CCs and Thai CCs feature an in-situ element that expresses the
covariance of two degree variables. The CC data in these two languages contrast with
English and other languages in which a certain type of movement or fronting is
implicated in CCs.
2.3 A summary of this chapter
In this chapter, I have presented crosslinguistic data exemplifying CCs and
grouped them into three categories based on their morpho-syntactic properties. The three
groups are 1) languages that use paired words followed by a comparative, 2) languages
that use a morpheme denoting degree or quantity, and 3) languages that use a measure
phrase.
Then I reviewed previous studies on CCs in the literature. Culicover and
Jackendoff (1999) point out an apparent mismatch between syntax and semantics in
English CCs and also distinguish a sui generis part in the structure from the part that
conforms to the general principles of X-bar Theory. Dikken (2005) argues against
Culicover and Jackendoff’s (1999) paratactic coordination approach and instead proposes
a correlative approach, taking the preceding clause as a type of relative clause adjoined to
50
the head clause (i.e. the consequent clause). He also emphasizes that despite languagespecific idiosyncrasies, the syntax of the CC construction exhibits a high degree of
crosslinguistic consistency and is well-behaved and analyzable in the Principles-andParameters framework. In the same line of reasoning, Taylor (2006, 2009),
Kapetangianni and Taylor (2009a, 2009b), and Iwasaki and Radford (2009) also analyze
the construction in the principles-and-parameters framework, and their analyses
commonly involve information structure. The analysis of English CCs proposed by
Taylor (2006, 2009) and Greek CCs by Kapetangianni and Taylor (2009a, 2009b) both
feature a functional projection of FocP while the analysis of English CCs proposed by
Iwasaki and Radford (2009) involves a functional projection of TopP. Like Dikken’s
proposal, Taylor (2006) also treats the first clause of CCs as an adjunct. However, in
terms of the internal structure of the DegP in English CCs, the Deg0 is realized by the
article the for Dikken, whereas it is realized by the comparative morpheme more/ -er for
Taylor. On the other hand, in Iwasaki and Radford’s (2009) study on English CCs, the
article the is in the specifier of the QP and the comparative morpheme more/ -er is
realized as the head Q0. Chinese CCs and Thai CCs feature an in-situ element that
expresses the covariance of two degree variables. The CC data in these two languages
contrast with English and other languages in which a certain type of movement or
fronting is implicated in CCs. Leung’s (2004, 2005) typological study shows that both
Chinese CCs and Thai CCs feature an in-situ element that expresses the covariance of
two degree variables. The CC data in these two languages contrast with English and
other languages in which a certain type of movement or fronting is implicated in CCs.
51
CHAPTER THREE
YUE IN CHINESE COMPARATIVE CORRELATIVES
3.0 An overview
This chapter aims to describe the basic properties and the configuration of
Chinese yue-constructions. The general distribution of the lexical word yue is presented
in Section 3.1. The scope of yue is dealt with in Section 3.2 by showing its interaction
with negation, modal verbs, and predicates. Section 3.3 addresses the compatibility of yue
with aspect-marked predicates, predicates of different situation types, and finiteness. In
Section 3.4, I discuss locality constraints with respect to ‘topic’ in non-CC sentences and
CC-sentences. The empirical data show that while arguments are relatively free to be
topicalized via base-generation, the yue-constituent itself is restricted to the local domain.
In Section 3.5, the structural relationship between the two constitutive clauses is
examined. By testing with the coordinate structure constraint I show that the two clauses
in Chinese CCs are not coordinate clauses. In Section 3.6, a variant structure of CCs will
be presented, which does not have an equivalent in English CCs. Section 3.7 concludes.
3.1 General distribution of yue
When standing alone, the lexical word yue is oftentimes taken as a verb, meaning
‘to cross; to exceed; to transgress’. Examples of compound words are given in (1):
52
(1) a. 越界
yue-jie
cross-border
‘cross the border’
‘overstep the boundary’
‘beyond the mark’
b. 越獄
yue-yu
cross-jail
‘jailbreak’
c. 越級
yue-ji
cross-rank
‘bypass the immediate leadership’
d. 越冬作物
yue-dong zuowu
cross-winter crop
‘overwintering crops’
In CCs, yue must occur in pairs. Dropping either yue in either clause would cause
absolute ungrammaticality, as shown in (2):
(2) a. 天氣越熱,電費越高。
tianqi
yue re,
weather YUE hot,
dian-fei
yue
gao.
electricity-fee YUE high
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity is.’
53
b. 天氣*(越)熱,電費越高。
tianqi
*(yue) re,
dian-fei
weather *(YUE) hot,
yue
gao.
electricity-fee YUE
high
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity is.’
c. 天氣越熱,電費*(越)高。
tianqi
yue re,
weather YUE hot,
dian-fei
*(yue)
gao.
electricity-fee *(YUE) high
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity fee is.’
Given the English translation in (2), readers may conjecture that yue is the
counterpart of the English comparative morpheme er/more. However, this is not the case.
The lexical word yue does not indicate comparison, which is evidenced by that fact that it
cannot be attached to adjectives or adverbs to form regular comparatives. Comparatives
in Chinese are constituted by attaching a comparative morpheme, gen (更), bijiao (比較),
or jiao (較) to a bare adjective or adverb. Examples are given in (3):
(3) a. (和大衛比), 約翰跑得更/比較快/ *越。
(han Dawe bi),
Yuehan pao-de
(with David compare), John
run-DE
gen- / bijiao- / *yue- kuai.
GEN/ BIJAO- / *YUE- fast
‘(Compared with David), John runs faster.’
b. (和那支手錶比), 這支更/ 比較/ *越 便宜。
(han na-zhi shoubiau bi),
zhe-zhi
gen / bijao / jiao/ *yue pianyi.
With that-CL watch compare, this-CL GEN/BIJAO/ JIAO/ *YUE cheap
‘(Compared with that watch), this one is cheaper.’
54
The asterisk in front of yue indicates that yue does not form a regular comparative phrase.
Therefore, gen or (bi)jiao are more likely candidates for the direct equivalent of English
er or more. To avoid confusion and stress the unique role of yue in Chinese CCs, I will
use YUE instead of ‘the more/ er’ in the word-to-word gloss throughout the dissertation.
The lexical word yue in CCs denotes a proportional increase in the degree of a
property or the amount of an entity. In general, yue precedes the adjective, adverb, or
verb phrase which it modifies, as shown respectively in the following examples through
(4) to (6), where the brackets indicate the yue-constituent:
(4) yue modifies an AdjP:
a.天氣越熱,電費越高。
tianqi
yue
re,
dian-fei
yue
gao.
weather [YUE[AdjP hot]], electricity-fee [YUE [AdjP high]]
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity fee is.’
b.瑪麗賺越多錢, 就買越多書。
Mali zhuan yue dou
qian, pro jiou mai
yue duo shu.
Maryi earn [YUE much] money, proi then buy [YUE many] book
‘The more money Mary earns, the more books she buys.’
(5) yue modifies an AdvP:
你越早寫完作業, 就可以越早睡覺。
ni
yue zao
xie-wan
zuoyie,
pro
jiu keyi.
youi [YUE early] [VP write-finish homework], proi then can
yue
zao
shuijiao
[YUE early] [VP go.to.bed]
‘The earlier you finish writing your homework, the earlier you can go to bed.’
55
(6) yue modifies a VP:
天氣越熱, 他越想吃冰。
tienqi
yue re,
ta yue
xiang
chi bing.
weather YUE hot, he [YUE [VP feel.like] ] eat ice.cream
‘The hotter the weather is, the more he feels like eating ice cream.
As the English translation shows in the examples through (4)-(6), fronting of the
comparative constituents and pied-piping of the associated phrase is obligatory in
English. The fronting results in a filler-gap structure in English CCs. By contrast,
dislocation of the yue-constituent would cause ungrammaticality in Chinese CCs15, as
shown in (7b):
(7) a. 天氣越熱, 電費越高。
tienqi
yue re,
dian-fei
yue
gao.
weather [YUE hot], electricity-fee [YUE high]
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity fee is.’
b. *[越熱]天氣, [越高]電費。
*yue re
tienqi
,
[YUE hot]i weather ti ,
yue gao
[YUE high]j
dian-fei.
electricity-fee tj
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity fee of my house is.’
15
As seen in Chapter Two, crosslinguistic data show typological differences in whether the comparative
constituent is dislocated. Abeillé and Borsley (2008, p.1154) point out that in English and French, fronting
is obligatory in both clauses. They propose that the C⁰ which heads the clauses has a certain feature which
requires its specifier position to be filled by a correlative phrase. In Chapter Four, I will argue that the yueconstituent remains in situ and is bound by an implicit operator on a par with Chinese indefinite wh-in-situ.
56
Another difference noticed between Chinese CCs and English CCs pertains to
whether a prepositional than-phrase is allowed. Consider the following example in (8)
(originally from Liu 2008), which shows that an overt than-phrase is allowed in Chinese,
but not in English:
(8) 你越比漢斯傑出, 他越嫉妒你。
ni
yue
(bi
hansi) jiechu,
ta
yue
jidu ni.
you YUE (than Hans) outstanding, he [YUE [VP envy you]]
‘The more you are outstanding (*than Hans), the more he envies you.’
3.2 The scope of yue
When interacting with negation, yue precedes and modifies a negated predicate.
For instance, in (9a) and (9b), bu, as a negation adverb16, negates the predicate following
it, and yue needs to c-command the negated predicate so as to have scope over it:
(9) a.蘋果越不甜越不好吃
pingguo
Applei
yue
bu
tian,
pro
yue
bu
hauchi.
[YUE [AdjP Neg. sweet]], proi [ YUE [AdjP Neg. tasty]]
‘The less sweet an apple is, the less tasty it is.’
b.你越不喜歡我去跳舞, 我就越要去
ni
yue bu
xihuan wo qu tiaowu,
you [YUE [Neg. [VP like
wo jiou
yue
iao qu
I go dance]]], I then [YUE [VP want go]]
‘The more you dislike that I go dancing, the more I would like to go (dancing).’
16
The interaction between a NegP projected by bu and a predicate is beyond the scope of this dissertation,
and I do not deal with it here. Readers are referred to discussion about Chinese NegP in Ernst (1995), Hsiao
(2002), and Huang (2003).
57
That yue functions as a scopal element is also demonstrated in (10). Note the
relative position of the yue-constituent with respect to the modal verb:
(10) a. 你越早準備, 表現才會/能越好
ni
yue
zao zhuenbei,
you YUE early prepare,
biaoxian
cai
hui/ neng yue hao
performance then [Mod.
[YUE good]]
‘The earlier you start preparing, the betteri your performance will be ti.’
‘If you prepare earlier, your performance will then be better.
b. 給他越多時間, 他越能表現得好
pro ta yue dou shijian,
ta
yue
neng
biaoxian-de hao
pro he YUE much time, he [YUE [Mod. [VP perform-DE well]]
‘The more time we give to him, the better he will perform.’
‘If we give more time to him, he is more likely to perform well.’
The modal verb hui/neng ‘will/can’ composes with the yue-constituent yue hao
‘better’ in (10a). By contrast, in (10b), the lexical word yue composes with the
constituent headed by the modal verb neng ‘can’. This is more transparent in the second
English translation. A similar contrast in scope is shown in (11) and (12):
(11) a. 他越認為你有實力, 你要越積極
ta yue renwei
ni
you-shili,
ni
yao
yue jiji
he [YUE think [CP you have-competence]], you need YUE active
‘The more he thinks that you are competent, the more active you need to be.’
58
b. 他認為你越有實力, 你要越積極
ta
renwei ni
yue
you-shili,
ni
yao yue jiji
he [VP think you [YUE have-competence]], you need YUE active
‘The more competent he thinks that you are, the more active you need to be.’
(12) a. 你越認為你懂行銷, 你會越容易忽略細節
ni
yue renwei
ni
dong xingxio,
ni hui
yue rungyi hulyue xijie
you [YUE think [CP you know marketing]], you will YUE likely neglect detail
‘The more you think you know about marketing, the more likely you will be
to neglect details.’
b. 你認為你懂得越多, 你會越容易忽略細節
ni renwei
ni
dong-de yue duo ,
ni
hui yue
rungyi hulyue xijie
you think [CP you know-DE YUE much], you will YUE likely neglect detail
‘The morei you think you know ti, the more likely you will be to neglect
details.
The example (11a) shows that yue precedes and takes scope over the matrix verb
renwei ’think’ and its complement CP. This results in the interpretation that the degree of
your needing to be active correlates with the degree of his thinking of you as competent.
On the other hand, in (11b) yue occurs in the embedded clause selected by the matrix
verb rewei ’think’ and thus has a narrower scope. The degree of your needing to be active
59
correlates with the degree of your being competent17. The same account applies to the
contrast between (12a) and (12b).
The above data showing scope of yue indicate that it is interpreted in situ and thus
does not need to be raised at LF. If the yue-constituent could move at LF, one might
expect to find that sentences like the ones above would exhibit scopal variability, rather
than fixed scope. In Chapter Four, I will argue that the yue-constituent remains in situ as
an indefinite degree expression on a par with other Chinese wh-in-situ expressions are
bound by an abstract operator.
3.3 Types of predicates modified by yue
From the above description, we have seen that yue can modify both asserted and
negated predicates. Nevertheless, there is restriction on the type of predicates that it can
modify in terms of aspectual marking. Bounded aspectual particles le/guo/wan are not
compatible with the morpheme yue18. Consider the example in (13a) and (13b), where all
the verbs can be interpreted as either present tense or past tense, depending on the context
and immediate discourse. However, when aspectual particles such as le (了), which
17
As noted in Chapter Two, an identical observation regarding scope also exists in Thai CCs, where the
lexical word ying is the equivalent of yue in Chinese CCs (Leung 2004, 2005).
18
Unlike its Mandarin equivalent sentence in (13a), the English sentence in (i) below, is grammatical. The
past tense doesn't prevent an atelic reading with predicates like think or worry, which are regarded as atelic
verbs:
(i) The more I thought about it, the more I worried about it.
60
indicates ‘perfectiveness’ and guo (過), which indicates ‘experience’ and wan (完),
which indicates ‘completion’, are attached after the verbs, ungrammaticality occurs, as
shown in (13a) and (13b):
(13) a.我越想 (*了/*過/*完) 越擔心(*了/*過/*完) 。
wo yue xiang (*le/*guo/*wan), pro yue danxin (*le/*guo/*wan).
Ii
YUE worried (*Asp.)
, proi YUE worry (*Asp.)
‘The more I think (about it), the more I get worried.’
b.你越罵 (*了/*過/*完)他, 他越不說實話 (*了/*過/*完)。
ni
yue
ma
ta (*le/*guo/*wan), ta yue bu shou-shihua (*le/*guo/*wan).
You [YUE [scold him (*Asp.)]]
, he [YUE [Neg. tell-truth
(*Asp.)]]
‘The more you scold him, the more he rejects telling the truth.’
As shown in (13), when yue composes with an unbounded VP, it must be an imperfective
VP. In addition to being sensitive to aspectual marking, Liu (2008: 1036-7) points out
that predicates in Chinese CCs must be ‘unbounded’ such as a state (e.g. 14a), an activity
(e.g. 14b.), or a derived multiple-event consisting of repeated achievement (e.g. 14c) or
semelfactive events (e.g. 14d)19. In the examples in (14), the relevant predicates are in
boldface and the type of the predicate is indicated in square brackets:
19
Readers are referred to Smith (1997, Chapter Two) for detailed explication about features of [stative],
[durative], and [telic] in verbs of different situation types. According to Smith (1997), predicates of state
are [+stative, +durative, -telic], predicates of activity are [-stative, +durative, -telic], predicates of
achievement are [-stative, -durative, +telic], predicates of accomplishment are [-stative, +durative, + telic],
and semelfactive predicates are [-stative, -durative, -telic].
61
(14) a.女孩子越大(就)越漂亮。
nuhaizi yue
girl
da,
(jiu)
yue piaoliang.
[state]
YUE grown.up, then YUE beautiful
‘The older a girl is growing, the more beautiful she will be.’
b. 你越追, 她越跑。
ni
yue
zui
eci,
you YUE chase eci,
tai
yue pao.
hei
YUE run
[activity]
‘The more you chase after him, the more he runs / evades.’
c. 士兵越死越多。
shibing yue
si
soldier YUE die
pro yue duo.
[achievement]
pro YUE many
‘(As the war continues), there are more and more deaths of soldiers.’
d. 門越敲越響。
men yue
qiao, pro
yue xiang.
[semelfactive]
door YUE knock, pro YUE loud
‘As the act of knocking-at-the-door continues, the louder the knocking is.’
e. #你越打破碗, 瑪麗越生氣。
#Ni yue dapuo wan , Mali
yue shengqi
[accomplishment]
You YUE break bowl, Mary YUE angry
#‘The more (times) you break bowls, the angrier Mary gets.’
The examples through (14a)- (14e) indicate that yue occurs with atelic predicates or
predicates denoting repeated or cumulative events. For the sentence in (14e), both
62
English and Mandarin get a similar effect with the telic predicate break. The symbol #
does not mean that they are ungrammatical, but we need to understand it as a repeated
incident.
We have seen, through the above examples, that the occurrence of yue is
compatible with imperfective and unbounded VP. The following examples in (15) and
(16) show that there is also a restriction on the finiteness of the clause that contains yue:
(15) a. 你越逼大衛學鋼琴, 他越逃避。
ni
yue bi
Dawei
xue
gangqin,
ta
yue taobi.
[CP you YUE force [IP David to.learn play.the.piano]], he YUE evade
‘The more you force David to learn playing the piano, the more he evades.’
b. *你逼大衛越學鋼琴, 他越逃避。
* ni
bi
Dawei yue xue
gangqin,
ta
yue
taobi.
[CP you force [IP David YUE to.learn play.the.piano], he YUE evade
‘The more learning to play the piano you force David to do, the more he
evades.’
(16) a. 你越求大衛幫忙, 他越高傲。
ni
yue qiou
Dawei
[CP you YUE beg [IP David
bangmang,
to.help
ta
yue
gaoao.
]], he YUE insolent
‘The more you beg David to do you a favor, the more insolent he gets.’
b. *你求大衛越幫忙, 他越高傲。
*
ni
[CP you
qiou
Dawei
beg
[IP David
yue bangmang,
YUE to.help
ta
yue
gaoao.
]], he YUE insolent
‘The more helping you beg David to do, the more insolent he gets.’
63
In (15a), yue1 occurs in the matrix clause and modifies the verb bi ‘force’, which selects a
non-finite clause as its complement. By contrast, ungrammaticality in (15b) is caused
when yue occurs with the infinitive verb xue ‘to learn’ in the embedded clause. The same
account also applies to (16b).
3.4 Island effects in Chinese CCs
In English CCs, the comparative form of the adjective or adverb is extracted to
the clause-initial position following the article the. If there is a noun modified by the
comparative adjective is required to be pied-piped. Examples are shown in (17):
(17) a. The hungrier I am ti, the faster I eat tj.
b. The more desserts he eats ti, the better he feels tj.
c. The more money he earns ti, the more book he buys tj.
The extraction creates a dependency between the moved comparative phrase and the gap
within the clause, as pointed out by Culicover and Jackendoff (1999: 555-557). Typical
locality constraints are observed in such extractions. The following English examples in
(18) show effects of the Complex NP Constraint (CNPC), the Wh-island Constraint, and
Condition on Extraction Domain (CED)20 (examples originally from Culicover and
Jackendoff 1999:555):
20
In Chomsky (1973, 1981) and subsequent works, the constraints that prohibit extraction out of complex
NPs and wh-islands are subsumed under the Subjacency Condition. In Huang (1982b), prohibitions of
extraction out of subject and adjunct phrases are explained by the Condition on Extraction Domain (CED).
For detailed discussion about effects of the Subjacency Condition and the CED in Mandarin Chinese,
readers are referred to Huang (1982b) and Huang et al (2009).
64
(18) a. *[The more food]i Mary knows a man that eats ti, the poorer she gets. (CNPC)
b. *[The more people]i I ask whatj he will give tj to ti, the more he reads. (wh-island)
c. *[The fatter]i he goes to a doctor when he gets ti, the more he eats. (CED)
The same island effects are not observed in the Chinese counterpart of the above
examples since no extraction occurs in Chinese CCs, as shown in (19), where the in-situ
yue-constituents are bracketed:
(19) a.瑪莉認識一個吃越多食物的人,她就越窮。
Mali renshi yige chi
yue duo shiwu
de
ren,
ta jiou
yue qiung
Mary know one [eat [YUE much food] DE21CP] person, she then [YUE poor]
*’The more foodi Mary knows a man that eats ti, the poorer she gets.’
b. 我問他送什麼給越多人, 他就會看越多書。
wo wen ta song shime gei yue duo
I ask he give
ren,
ta jiou hui
kan
yue
duo shu
what to [YUE many people], he then will read [YUE many book]
*’The more peoplei I ask whatj he will give tj to ti, the more he reads.’
c. 當他變得越胖去看醫生, 他吃越多。
dang ta bian-de
yue pang ec qu kan yisheng, ta chi-de
[when he get-Adv. [YUE fat]] pro go see doctor,
yue duo
he eat-Adv. [YUE much]
*’The fatteri he goes to a doctor when he gets ti, the more he eats.’
21
In Chinese syntax, the bound morpheme de (的) is a general modification marker, which occurs with
prenominal modifiers, such as adjectival modifiers, possessors and relative clauses (Cheng 2005 among
others).
65
The above Chinese examples show that since the comparative phrase in either clause is
not extracted or moved, conditions on movement are therefore not relevant in Chinese
CCs.
However, observations related to topicalized arguments from either clause reveal
some properties of Chinese CCs that are worth investigation. In Chinese, the topic in
topic-comment structures is analyzed in different manners according to its nature22. Both
movement and base-generation approaches are employed to analyze derivation of topics
in Chinese syntax (Li and Thompson 1976, 1981, Tsao 1977, Tang 1979, Her 1991; Shi
1989, 1992, 2000, Huang et al 2009, among many others). As our discussion proceeds,
readers will see that the base-generation approach is adopted in this study to account for
the relevant data concerning Chinese CCs. In the following examples, (20a) and (21a) are
22
The role of topics in Chinese syntax has been much explicated. A topic is generally, but not always,
related to a constituent inside the comment (Shi 2000; Huang et al 2009:197-211). On the other hand, there
exists another type of topics, which are referred to as ‘base-generated topics’, ‘aboutness topics’ or ‘nongap
topics’, i.e. topics “that bear no anaphoric relationship to a constituent in the comment sentence (Gasde and
Paul, 1996: 267).” The existence of this type of topics calls the movement analysis of gapped topics into
question. An example is presented by Li and Thompson (1976: 462):
(i) na-chang huo, xinkui
xiaofangdui lai-de
kuai
That-CL fire fortunately fire-brigade come-Adv.particle quickly
‘That fire (topic), fortunately the fire-brigade came quickly.’
In addition, as a discourse-oriented language, Mandarin has ‘zero topics’, that is, a discourse topic
which is not overtly indicated. The example in (ii) shows that in object-drop constructions, an empty
category can be licensed by a zero topic (or discourse topic), which refers to an element in previous
discourse (Huang 1984, 1989).
(ii) [Top ec ], [Zhangsanj shuo [Lisik bu
renshi ec ]]
eci
Zhangsan say
Lisi NEG know ec i/*j /*k ‘
‘*(Himi), Zhangsan say Lisi didn’t know eci.
In their review of relevant studies, Huang et al (2009, Chapter Six) conclude that topics are not all derived
in the same manner. Some topics are derived by movement and related to gaps in the associated clause; on
the other hand, some topics are not related to any gaps and are derived by base-generation.
66
regular non-CC sentences. The object of the first clause can be topicalized and coindexed with the empty category within the clause, as shown in (20b) and (21b):
(20) a.瑪莉去年買了那棟房子, 她的父母很高興。
Mali qunian
mai-le
na-dong fangzi, tade fumu
hen
gaoxing.
Mary last.year buy-Perf. that-CL. house, her parents very be.pleased
‘Mary bought that house last year; her parents are pleased.’
b. 那棟房子, 瑪莉去年買了, 她的父母很高興。
na-dong fangzi,
Mali
qunian mai-le
ec, tade fumu hen
gaoxing.
that-CL. housei, Mary last.year buy-Perf eci, her parents very be.pleased
‘That housei, Mary bought ti last year; her parents are pleased.’
(21) a. 天氣很熱的時候, 瑪莉喜歡吃冰淇淋。
tianqi hen re deshiho, Mali xihuan chi bingqilin.
weather very hot time, Mary like
eat ice.creami
‘When the weather is very hot, Mary likes eating ice cream.’
b. 冰淇淋, 天氣很熱的時候, 瑪莉喜歡吃。
bingqilin,
tianqi
hen re deshiho,
Mali xihuan chi
ec.
ice.creami, weather very hot time in.the.time, Mary like eat
eci
‘Ice creami, when the weather is very hot, Mary likes eating ti.’
Similarly, in Chinese simplex CCs, an argument is also allowed to be topicalized. The
sentences in (22a) and (23a) are regular simplex CC sentences while in (22b) and (23b),
an argument is topicalized, highlighted in boldface:
67
(22) a. 瑪莉買越大的房子, 她的父母越高興。
Mali
mai yue dade fangzi, tade fumu
yue
gaoxing.
Mary buy YUE big house, her parents YUE be.pleased
‘The bigger a house Mary will buy, the more pleased her parents will be.’
b. 房子, 瑪莉買越大的, 她的父母越高興。
fangzi, Mali
mai yue dade ec, tade fumu hen
gaoxing.
housei, Mary buy YUE big eci, her parents very be.pleased
‘For a housei, the bigger onei Mary will buy ti, the more pleased her parents will
be.’
(23) a. 天氣越熱, 瑪莉越喜歡吃冰淇淋。
tianqi
yue re,
Mali yue xihuan chi bingqilin.
weather YUE hot, Mary YUE like eat ice.cream
‘The hotter the weather is, the more Mary likes eating ice cream.’
b. 冰淇淋, 天氣越熱, 瑪莉越喜歡吃。
bingqilin,
tianqi
yue re, Mali
yue xihuan chi
ice.creami , weather YUE hot, Mary YUE like
eat
ec
eci
‘For ice cream, the hotter the weather is, the more Mary likes eating it.’
If topicalization in the b-sentence from (20) trough (23) above is derived by movement,
island effects would be predicted to occur when these sentences are embedded in islands.
However, consider the examples in (24), where a wh-island is embedded, as well as the
68
examples in (25), where a complex NP is embedded. The fact that topicalization does not
cause violation of subjacency in (24b), (24d), (25b), and (25d) evidences that no
movement takes place:
(24) a.我想知道是否瑪莉決定買那棟房子,她的父母就會高興。
wo xiangzhidao
I wonder
tade fumu jiou
shifo
Mali jiueding mai na-dong fangzi,
[CP whether Mary decide buy that-CL. house,
hui
gaoxing.
her parents then will be.pleased].
‘I wonder whether Mary decides to buy that house and her parents will then be
pleased.’
b. 那棟房子,我想知道是否瑪莉決定買,她的父母就會高興。
na-dong fangzi, wo xiangzhidao
that-CL. Housei, I wonder
tade fumu jiou hui
shifo Mali jiueding mai ec
[CP whether Mary decide buy eci
gaoxing.
her parents then will be.pleased].
*‘That housei, I wonder whether Mary decides to buy ti and her parents will then
be pleased.’
69
c. 我想知道是否[瑪莉買越大的房子, 她的父母越高興] 。
wo xiangzhidao
I wonder
shifo Mali mai yue dade fangzi,
[CP whether Mary buy YUE big house,
tade fumu jiou yue
gaoxing.
her parents then YUE be.pleased]
‘I wonder whether the bigger a housei Mary will buy ti, the more pleased her
parents will be.’
d. 房子, 我想知道是否[瑪莉買越大的, 她的父母越高興]。
fangzi, wo xiangzhidao
housei , I
wonder
tade fumu jiou yue
shifo Mali mai yue
[CP whether Mary buy YUE
dade
ec,
big
eci,
gaoxing.
her parents then YUE be.pleased]
‘For a housei, I wonder whether the bigger onei Mary will buy ti, the more
pleased her parents will be.’
*‘A house, I wonder whether Mary buys a bigger ti, the more pleased her
parents will be.’
(25) a. 我很懷疑[天氣熱,瑪莉很喜歡吃冰淇淋的說法。
wo hen huaiyi
tianqi
re, Mali hen xihuan chi bingqilin de
I very doubtful [[CP weather hot, Mary very like
shuofa.
eat ice.cream DE] NP] claim
‘I am doubtful about the claim that when the weather is hot, Mary likes eating ice
cream very much.’
70
b.冰淇淋, 我很懷疑[天氣熱,瑪莉很喜歡吃]的說法。
bingqilin,
wo hen huaiyi
tianqi
re, Mali hen xihuan chi ec de
shuofa.
ice.creami, I very doubtful [[CP weather hot, Mary very like eat eci DE] NP] claim
‘For ice creami, I am doubtful about the claim that when the weather is hot, Mary
likes eating iti very much.’
* ’Ice creami, I am doubtful about the claim that when the weather is hot, Mary likes
eating ti.’
c. 我很懷疑[天氣越熱, 瑪莉越喜歡吃冰淇淋]的說法。
wo hen huaiyi
tianqi
yue
re, Mali
yue xihuan chi bingqilin de shuofa
I very doubtful [CP weather YUE hot, Mary YUE like eat ice.cream DE] NP] claim
‘I am doubtful about the claim that the hotter the weather is, the more Mary
likes eating ice cream.’
d. 冰淇淋, 我很懷疑[天氣越熱, 瑪莉越喜歡吃]的說法。
bingqilin,
wo hen huaiyi
tianqi
yue
re,
Mali yue xihuan chi ec de shuofa
ice.creami, I very doubtful[[CP weather YUE hot, Mary YUE like eat eci DE]NP] claim
‘For ice creami, I am doubtful about the claim that the hotter the weather is, the more
Mary likes eating iti.’
* Ice creami, I am doubtful about the claim that the hotter the weather is, the more
Mary likes eating ti.’
In the above examples of (24) and (25), the b-sentence (a non-CC sentence) and the dsentence (a CC-sentence) involve a topicalized argument, which is co-indexed with an
empty category in the wh-island and the complex NP. For both non-CC sentences and
71
CC-sentences, topicalization of an argument does not cause violation of subjacency in
(24) and (25). The topicalized argument is therefore analyzed to be derived via basegeneration, not movement. By contrast, the asterisk mark in the translation indicates that
in English, where topics are derived via movement, the extraction out of the wh-island
and the complex NP violates the condition of subjacency. If the condition of subjacency
holds true across languages, topicalization in Chinese must be derived via the strategy of
base-generation in both non-CC sentences and CC-sentences23.
However, while nominal arguments in both ordinary non-CC sentences and CC
sentences can be topicalized via base-generation, the yue-constituent itself is prohibited
from being topicalized along with the nominal argument it modifies. Consider two sets of
examples in (26) and (27) below and note particularly the ungrammatical c-sentence and
e-sentence, where the yue-constituent is dislocated:
(26) a. 瑪莉買越大的房子
Mali
她的父母越高興
mai yue dade fangzi,
tade fumu jiou
yue gaoxing.
Mary buy YUE big housei , her parents then YUE be.pleased
‘The bigger a house Mary buys, the more pleased her parents will be.’
b. 房子, 瑪莉買越大的,
fangzi, Mali
她的父母越高興
mai yue dade
housei , Mary buy YUE big
ec, tade fumu
jiou yue
gaoxing.
eci, her parents then YUE be.pleased
‘For a housei, the bigger onei Mary buys ti, the more pleased her parents will be.’
23
For some linguists of Chinese syntax, who apply the movement approach to analyze Chinese, locality
constraints on movement are observed in certain constructions (Huang 1984, Shyu 1995, Aoun and Li
2003, and A. Li 2007). Readers are also referred to Huang et al (2009, Chapter Six) for a review of
subjacency and island effects observed in those constructions where topics are derived via movement.
72
c. *越大的房子,瑪莉買, 她的父母越高興
*yue dade fangzi, Mali
YUE big
mai ec,
tade fumu
jiou yue
gaoxing
housei , Mary buy eci, her parents then YUE be.pleased
‘The bigger a housei Mary buys ti, the more pleased her parents will be.’
*’For the bigger a housei, Mary buys ti, the more pleased her parents will be.’
d. 房子, 我想知道是否[瑪莉買越大的, 她的父母越高興]
fangzi, wo xiangzhidao
housei , I
shifo
Mali mai yue dade
wonder [CP whether Mary buy YUE big
tade fumu jiou yue
ec,
eci,
gaoxing
her parents then YUE be.pleased]
‘For a house, I wonder whether the bigger *(onei) Mary buys ti, the more
pleased her parents will be.’
e. *越大的房子, 我想知道是否[瑪莉買, 她的父母越高興]
* yue dade
YUE
big
fangzi, wo xiangzhidao shifo
housei , I wonder
tade fumu jiou yue
Mali mai ec,
[CP whether Mary buy eci,
gaoxing
her parents then YUE be.pleased]
* ‘The bigger a housei, I wonder whether Mary buys ti, the more pleased
her parents will be.’
(27) a. 天氣越熱, 瑪莉吃越多冰淇淋。
tianqi
yue re, Mali
chi yue duo
bingqilin
weather YUE hot, Mary eat YUE much ice.cream
‘The hotter the weather is, the more ice cream Mary eats.’
73
b. 冰淇淋, 天氣越熱, 瑪莉吃越多。
bingqilin,
tianqi
yue re, Mali
chi
ice.creami weather YUE hot, Mary eat
yue duo
ec
YUE much eci
‘For ice creami, the hotter the weather is, the morei Mary eats ti.’
c. *越多冰淇淋, 天氣越熱, 瑪莉吃。
*yue
duo bingqilin,
tianqi
yue re,
Mali
chi
ec
YUE much ice.creami , weather YUE hot, Mary eat
eci
*‘The more ice creami, the hotter the weather is, ti Mary eats ti.’
d. 冰淇淋, 我很懷疑[天氣越熱, 瑪莉吃越多]的說法。
bingqilin,
wo hen huaiyi
tianqi
yue re, Mali chi
yue duo ec
de
shuofa.
ice.creami, I very doubtful [[CP weather YUE hot, Mary eat YUE much eci DE]NP] claim
‘For ice cream, I am doubtful about the claim that the hotter the weather is, the more
Mary eats.’
e. *越多冰淇淋, 我很懷疑[天氣越熱, 瑪莉吃]的說法。
*yue duo bingqilin,
wo hen huaiyi
tianqi
yue
re,
Mali chi ec de
shuofa
YUE much ice.creami , I very doubtful [[CP weather YUE hot, Mary eat eci DE]NP] claim
*‘The more ice creami I am doubtful about the claim that the hotter the weather is, ti
Mary eats ti.’
In (26) and (27), ungrammaticality of the c-sentence and the e-sentence shows that yue
and the predicate it modifies (da ‘big’ and duo ‘much’ respectively), is not allowed to be
topicalized along with the argument either in the context of a simplex CC sentence ((26c)
and (27c)) or when the CC sentence is embedded in an island ((26e) and (27e). That is,
74
while nominal arguments are freer to be topicalized, the yue-constituent is more
restricted.
3.5 The structural relationship between the two clauses
The idiosyncrasy of CCs is demonstrated in the structural relationship between
the two constitutive clauses. Tsao and Hsiao’s (2002) analysis treats the first clause in
Chinese CCs as an adjunct, as do Dikken’s (2005) and Taylor’s (2006) analysis of
English CCs. In Chapter Five, I will argue against treating the first clause as an adjunct.
The main reason is that adjuncts are generally optional, but the first clause of CCs is
apparently not optional.
An alternative analysis is to treat the yue-construction as a coordinate structure
that does not allow an overt conjunction, such as han/ erqei ‘and’, as shown in (28):
(28) 你越緊張, (*和/*而且) 他越不能專心
ni
yue jinzhang, (*han/*erqei) ta yue bu-neng zhuanxin
you YUE nervous
(* and)
he YUE Neg.-can concentrate
‘The more nervous you are, the less he can concentrate.’
However, if the two clauses in a yue-construction are coordinated, then we would expect
the Coordinate Structure Constraint (CSC) (Ross 1967, Postal 1998, Zhang 2006,
Haspelmath 2007) to be observed24. According to the CSC, in a coordinate structure, no
24
The coordinate structure constraint is generally obeyed in Chinese (Rodman 1977, Zhang 2006). In the
following examples, (a) is the basic sentence, where the coordinate structure is bracketed. Extraction of
both conjuncts is permissible while extraction of either conjunct or extraction of an element from either
conjunct is barred:
(i ) a. 我買了香檳和蛋糕。
75
wo mai-le
xiangbin han dangao.
I buy-Perf. [ champagne and cake]
‘I bought champagne and cake.’
b. 香檳和蛋糕, 我買了_。
xiangbin han dangao, wo mai-le ec.
[ champagne and cake]i I buy-Perf. eci
‘Champagne and cake, I bought.’
c. *香檳, 我買了_和蛋糕。
*xiangbin , wo mai-le ec han dangao.
champagnei, I buy-Perf. [eci and cake]
*‘Champagnei, I bought ti and cake.’
d. *蛋糕, 我買了香檳和__。
* dangao, wo mai-le
xiangbin han ec.
cakei,
I buy-Perf. [champagne and eci]
*‘Cakei, I bought champagne and ti.’
(ii) a. 我早上去了超市和郵局。
wo zaoshang qu-le
chaoshi
han youju.
I morning go-Perf. [super.market and post.office]
‘I went to the supermarket and the post office this morning.’
b. 超市和郵局, 我早上去了___。
chaoshi
han youju,
wo zaoshang qu-le
ec.
[super.market and post.office]i,
I morning go-Perf. eci
[The supermarket and the post office]i, I went to ti this morning.
c. *超市, 我早上去了_和郵局。
*chaoshii,
wo zaoshang qu-le
ec han youju.
super.marketi, I morning go-Perf. [ eci and post.office]
*The supermarketi, I went to ti and the post office this morning.
d. *郵局, 我早上去了超市和__。
* youjui, wo zaoshang qu-le chaoshi han ec.
post.officei,
I morning go-Perf. [super.market andeci ]
*The post officei, I went to the supermarket and ti this morning.
(iii) a. 大衛喜歡看電影和寫小說
Dawei xihuan kan dianying han xie xiaoshuo.
David like [watch movies and write novels]
‘David likes watching movies and writing novels.’
b.
*電影, 大衛喜歡看_和寫小說
*dianying, Dawei xihuan kan ec han xie xiaoshuo.
moviei,
David like [watch eci and write novels]
*‘Moviesi, David likes watching ti and writing novels.’
76
conjunct can be extracted, not can an element contained in a conjunct be extracted out of
that conjunct (Ross 1967). This is not the case for Chinese CCs; extraction from either
clause is in fact permissible, as seen in (22), (23) and shown again in (29):
(29) a. 這些書, 越多名人推廌, 作者越高興。
zhe-ben shu,
yue
duo mingren tueijian
ec, zuozhe YUE gaoxing.
This-Cl. booki, YUE many celebrity recommend eci, author YUE happy
‘This book, the more celebrities recommend t, the happier the author is.’
b. 這個問題, 你請教越多人, 越能有效解決。
zhe-ge-wenti ,
ni qingjao yue duo
ren,
pro yue neng
this-Cl.-problemi, youj consult YUE many people, proj
youxiao
YUE
can
jiejiue ec .
effectively solve
eci
‘This problem, the more people you consult, the more effectively you can
solve t.’
In (29a), the sentence-initial argument is associated with the gap in the first clause, and in
(29b) the gap is in the second clause. Since the CSC does not exert effects here, we can
conclude that the two yue-clauses are not coordinated.
c. 小說, 大衛喜歡看電影和寫__
*xiaoshuo, Dawei xihuan kan dianying han xie ec.
novelsi,
David like [watch movie
and write eci]
*‘Novels i, David likes watching movies and writing ti.’
77
Another argument against a coordinate structure for Chinese CCs pertains to the
linear order of conjuncts. Two coordinate clauses can usually switch in order without
severely affecting the intended meaning. This is not true with the two yue-clauses25.
When the two clauses in (28) above switch in order, the intended meaning is entirely
changed or even cannot be interpreted at all, as shown in (30):
(30) # ta
yue bu-neng zhuanxin,
he YUE Neg.-can concentrate,
ni
yue
you YUE
jinzhang
nervous
‘The less he can concentrate, the more nervous you are.’
The symbol # is used for this sentence because it’s not ungrammatical; rather it just does
not have the intended meaning.
In addition, the interpretation of Chinese CCs also indicates that the relationship
between the two yue-clauses is a subordinate-head dependency, instead of a coordination
relationship. The above sentence in (28) can have a conditional interpretation, meaning
‘If you are acting more nervous, he is less likely to concentrate’ or a causality
interpretation, meaning ‘Because you are being more nervous, he is less likely to
concentrate.’ This fact is consistent with Dikken’s (2005, 2006) contention that the
second clause in CCs is construed as the head clause as well as Culicover and
Jackendoff’s (1999) viewpoint that the first clause in English CCs is interpreted as a
subordinate clause while the second clause has the main-clause force (cf. discussion in
Chapter Two.)
25
The order of the two clauses in both English and Chinese CCs cannot be inverted. Nevertheless, the
order can be switched without affecting the intended meaning in some languages, such as Polish and
Russian (Borsley 2004 and Dikken 2005).
78
3.6 A variant structure with yue1 in a NP
So far, all the examples of Chinese CCs we have seen are typically made up of
two clauses as English CCs. In addition to the canonical two-clause structure, Chinese
has a variant CC construction, which does not exist in English. This variant structure
features a left-dislocated NP containing yue1, and yue2 occurs in the main clause. The
dislocated NP is associated with a gap in the main clause. Two sets of examples are given
in (31) and (32):
(31) a. 越簡單的設計, 我越喜歡
Yue1 jiandan-de
sheji,
wo
yue2
xihuan ec
[YUE1 simple-DE26 design NP]i , [IP I YUE2
like eci ]
‘The simpler a designi is, the more I like iti.’
Lit. ‘A designi which is simpler, I like ti better.’
26
The bound morpheme de can mark adjectives, a genitive case, and it can also marks a relative clause by
attaching at the end. Example are given bellow:
(i) tian-de
pingguo
Sweet-DE apple
‘Sweet apples’
(ii) wo-de
diannao
1st.sg.-Gen. computer
‘My computer’
(iii) wo
zuotian yudao de
] na-ge
ren
[1st.sg. yesterday met DE CP] that-CL person NP]
‘The person who I met yesterday’
79
b. 越甜的蘋果越好吃
yue
tian de pingguo
yue
haochi
[IP [NP YUE sweet DE apple ] YUE
tasty ]
‘The sweeter an apple is, the tastier it is.’
Lit.‘An applei which is sweeter is tastier.’
(32) a. 越多名人推薦的書, 越多人買
yue duo mingren tueijia
de
shu
yue duo ren
mai ec
[[YUE many celebrity recommend tj DE Rel] bookj NP]i, [IP YUE many people buy eci]
‘The more celebrities recommend a book, the more people buy it.’
or ‘For those books which more celebrities recommend, more people buy them.’
Lit. ‘Books which more celebrities recommend, more people buy.’
b. 越多名人推薦的書, 賣得越好
yue duo mingren tueijia
de
shu
ec mai-de yue hao.
[[YUE many celebrity recommend tj DE Rel] bookj NP]i, [IP proi sell-DE YUE well]
‘The more celebrities recommend this book, the better it sells.’
or ‘For those books which more celebrities recommend, they sell better.’
Lit. ‘Books that more celebrities recommend sell better.’
In (31a) and (31b), yue1 occurs in the sentence-initial NP and modifies the
adjective. The initial NP is co-indexed with the empty category in the object position in
the main clause in (31a), but in (31b) it is interpreted as the subject of the entire
construction. The example of (32a) and (32b) demonstrate a similar structure, but the leftdislocated NP is a complex NP, in which yue1 is contained in the relative clause. In
Chapter Six, I will argue that the left-dislocated (complex) NP in this variant construction
80
is base-generated in the left periphery no matter whether it is construed as the object (i.e.
(31a) and (32a)) or as the subject (i.e. (31b) and (32b)) in the entire construction.
3.7 A summary of this chapter
In this chapter, I have presented the general distribution of the lexical word yue in
Chinese CC and its interaction with negation, modal verbs, predicates, aspect-marking,
and finiteness. I also argue that the lexical word yue is not the equivalent of the
comparative morpheme er/more in English. Then in the discussion concerning locality
constraints with respect to ‘topics’, the data show that topicalization in both non-CC
sentences and CC-sentences does not violate the Subjacency Condition or the Condition
on Extraction Domains. The data also show that while arguments are relatively freer to be
topicalized via base-generation, the yue-constituent itself cannot be topicalized. With
respect to the structural relationship between the two constitutive yue-clauses, I argue
against the coordinate structure but for a subordinate-main clause dependency. In the last
section of this chapter, a variant structure of Chinese CCs is presented, which does not
have an equivalent in English CCs. My analysis of the variant structure will be presented
in Chapter Six.
81
CHAPTER FOUR
CORRELATIVES AND COMPARATIVE CORRELATIVES
4.0 An overview
This chapter shows that Chinese has two types of CCs, the wh-type CC and the
yue-type CC. I treat both as a subset of ordinary correlatives, which is a construction
characteristic of Hindi among other languages. Unlike the DegP in English CCs, which is
argued to undergo A-bar movement, I propose that the DegP in Chinese CCs does not
undergo A-bar movement. The argument implicates the nature of wh-in-situ
characteristic of Chinese syntax. Assuming quantificational variability effects in Chinese
(wh)-indefinites as well as the mechanism of unselective binding, I propose that the whword and the yue-constituent in the two types of Chinese CCs are in-situ indefinites,
unselectively bound by a base-generated abstract correlativity operator, and therefore are
free from movement.
Section 4.1 introduces ordinary correlatives much cited from Hindi. In Section
4.2, the macrostructure of comparative correlatives is presented and its resemblance to
the structure of ordinary correlatives shows it to be a subset of ordinary correlatives. In
Section 4.3, I show that Chinese has two types of CCs. One is formed in the same way as
Hindi and uses wh-phrases, which I refer to as the wh-type CC. The other is formed with
a unique morpheme yue, which I refer to as the yue-type CC. In Section 4.4, I first
address the typological difference in the syntactic position of the DegP at PF. In
82
languages such as English, Greek and others, the DegP in CCs has been shown to
undergo A-bar movement. By contrast, in Chinese CCs, the DegP stays in situ. To
account for this, I briefly review the quantificational variability effects in Chinese wh-insitu, and accordingly I claim that the in-situ DegP functions as an indefinite element on a
par with an indefinite wh-in-situ expression. Section 4.5 reviews the notion of unselective
binding and I propose that the indefinite DegP in each clause of CCs is unselectively
bound by an abstract correlativity operator.
4.1 Correlatives
Correlativization is a relativization strategy that has been studied in typological
linguistics27 (Downing 1973; Keenan 1985) and in generative linguistics (Srivastav
1991; Izvorski 1996; Bhatt 2003; Dikken 2005; Lipták 2009, 2012, Mitrenina 2010
among others). Hindi is partculaly most referred to and well-known for this characteristic
construction. Correlatives feature a non-local strategy of relativization in which a relative
clause is not adjacent to the nominal it modifies and rather is found left dislocated and
linked to the main clause by a correlate, which is a nominal and usually realized in a
demonstrative form (Izvorski 1996; Lipták 2004, 2009, 2012). The structure of
correlatives is schematized in (1) (originally in Lipták 2004: 305):
(1) [matrix CP [Rel. Cl. ]i [matrix CP …DEMi ... ]]
27
Correlativization is a typologically relevant notion: some languages make extensive use of the
correlative strategy for relativization and other subordinated clausal adjuncts (conditionals, temporals,
comparatives and degree clauses). (Lipták 2004: 305)
83
The ungrammaticality of the example in (2) shows that correlatives are not possible in
English (quoted from Citko 2009: 49):
(2)* What John is working on right now, that (topic) I like.
Crosslinguistic examples of correlatives are given in (3), in which the relative words and
demonstratives are boldfaced:
(3) a. Hindi (in Dikken 2005: 498)
[IP [CP Jo larRkii khaRii
hai] [IP vo
REL girl standing is
lambii hai]]
DEM tall
is
‘The girl that is standing is tall.’
(lit.) ‘Which girl is standing, that (one) is tall.’
b. Hungarian (in Lipták 2004: 288)
[RC Amit
Mari tegnap főzött ],
azt
nem ette meg János.
what-ACC Mari yesterday cooked, that-ACC not ate PV John
‘John did not eat what Mari cooked yesterday.’
c. Russian (in Citko 2009: 50)
kogo
ljublju,
togo poceluju.
Whom love.1sg, DEM kiss.1sg
‘I kiss who I love.’
(lit.) ‘Whom I love, I kiss that (one).’
d. Polish (in Citko 2009: 50)
kogo
lubisz,
tego
pocałuj.
Whom like.2sg, DEM kiss.imp
‘Kiss the one you like.’
(lit.) ‘Whom you like, kiss that (one).’
84
e. Bulgarian (in Citko 2009: 50)
Kolkoto
pari
iska
How.much money wants
misli če šte i dam.
tolkova
that.much thinks that will her give
‘She thinks that I’ll give her as much money as she wants.’
All the examples in (3) have a relative clause preceding the matrix clause which contains
the pronominal correlate in a demonstrative from. For interpretation, Lipták (2004) points
out that the correlate must refer to a unique/maximal individual that has the property
denoted by the dislocated relative clause. Therefore, the correlate can only be a definite
entity.
4.2 Comparative Correlatives
4.2.1 The macrostructure of CCs
Consider now examples of comparative correlatives (hereafter CCs for short) in
(4), which demonstrate a similar structure to ordinary correlatives:
(4) a. Hindi (in Dikken 2005: 499)
Jiitnii
der ho-tii
gayii,
[IP[CP how-much late be-HAB go-PF]
utnii(-hii)
[IP
ThanD baRh-tii
that-much(-only) cold
gayii.
increase-HAB go-PF]]
'The later it got, the colder it became.'
b. Hungarian (in Dikken 2005: 525)
amennyivel
magasabb az apa,
annyival
alacsonyabb a gyerek.
A-how.much-INST taller the father, that.much-INST shorter
‘The taller the father, the shorter the child.’
the child
85
c. Russian (in Dikken 2005: 522)
Naskol'ko
luchshe mashina,
by-how-much better
nastol'ko
ona
dorozhe.
car-NOM, by-that-much it-F.NOM more.expensive
'The better the car, the more expensive it is.'
d. Polish (in Citko 2009: 51)
Im
więcej
się
usmiechase, tym
REL more REFL smile
lepiej
się
czujesz
DEM.Instr. better REFL feel.2sg
‘The more you smile, the better you feel.’
On a par with ordinary correlatives in (3), the preceding clause in the examples in (4) is a
left peripheral relative clause and is linked to the demonstrative pro-form in the
consequent clause.
Observing the syntactic parallelism in structures like those in (3) and (4) in
various languages, including Dutch, German, Russian, Hungarian, and pre-modern
English, Dikken (2005, 2006, 2009) treats CCs as a subset of correlatives. The
occurrence of comparative words/morphemes is characteristic of this construction. As
described in Chapter Two, he proposes a macrostructure for comparative correlatives
(Dikken 2005, 2006, 2009), which is schematized in (5):
(5) [HEAD-CL[SUB-CL REL/WH-operator+CPR…][HEAD-CL CORREL-PRT+CPR…]]
In the structure of (5), the subclause (i.e. the first clause) contains a relative word or a
wh-word followed by a comparative, and the headclause (i.e. the second clause) has a
corresponding correlate word or a particle followed by a comparative. Following the
86
same line of reasoning, Lipták (2009: 19) gives a structure, illustrated in (6), for the
English sentence the more I read, the more I understand:
(6) [correlative clause [the more]i I read ti] [main clause [the more]j I understand tj]
In each clause, the the-phrase, as a filler, undergoes A-bar movement to [Spec, CP] and
binds a trace in the IP. To account for the fronting operation observed in crosslinguistic
data, Dikken (2005) argues for an operator which turns the first clause in the CC into a
relative clause and establishes a link with the second clause where a correlative particle
must appear28.
In interpretation, Citko (2009) points out a difference in interpretation between
CCs and ordinary correlatives: The left peripheral clause in CCs is interpreted as a
conditional one while it is a restrictive one in ordinary correlatives. In the examples of (4)
and (6), the first clause expresses a condition under which the proposition of the second
clause holds true. Therefore, the CC construction is also referred to as a ‘comparative
conditional’ in the literature (such as McCawley1988, Beck 1997, Michaelis 1994, Oda
2008).
28
For English CCs, Iwasaki and Radford (2009) treats the determiner the as the degree operator triggering
the fronting whereas Dikken (2005) considers the to be the Deg0 and the fronting is triggered by a null
operator (cf. discussion in Section 2.1.2 and 2.1.4 in Chapter Two).
87
4.3 Correlatives in Chinese
4.3.1 Left-peripheral clauses
In Section 4.1 and 4.2, I have discussed two types of correlatives in natural
languages. One is ordinary correlatives, and the other is comparative correlatives. The
latter is considered a subset of the former based on parallel syntactic features (Dikken
2005 and Lipták 2009). This section shows that Chinese has both types of correlatives.
The examples in (7) instantiates a Hindi-type ordinary correlative:
(7) a. 你喜歡哪一本書,我就送那一本給你
ni xihuan nǎ yi-ben shu,
wo jiou song
nà yi-ben
gei ni
you like [which one-Cl. book]i, I then give [that one-Cl. ]i to you
‘I will give to you whichever book you like.’
Lit. ‘Whichever book you like, I will give that one to you.’
b. 你不喜歡哪一個員工,我就開除那一個
ni
bu
xihuan nǎ
yi-ge yuangong,
wo jiou kaichu na
you Neg. like [which one-Cl. employee]i, I then
yi-ge.
fire [that one-Cl.]i
‘I will fire whichever employer you don’t like.’
Lit. ‘Whichever employee you don’t like, I will fire that one.’
As in ordinary correlatives, the above two examples show that the preceding
clause contains a non-interrogative wh-phrase, which is linked to a demonstrative
pronominal in the main clause. The wh-phrases in (7) are not interpreted as an
interrogative. Instead, they are interpreted as existential quantifiers, which is a
demonstration of quantificational variability effects (QVE). The idea is that a Chinese
wh-phrase is a lexically indeterminate category and enters syntax from the lexicon
88
underspecified for its quantificational force (cf. discussion about QVE in Chinese in
Huang et al (2009, Chapter 7), Cheng 2003a and 2003b, Li 1992, Cheng 1992 among
others). The wh-phrase gets its quantificational force according to which operator it is
associated with. In the cases of (7), the wh-phrase is considered to be bound by a null
operator indicating existentiality29. The demonstrative pronominal in the main clause is a
variable and co-indexed with the wh-element. The left-peripheral clause is thus
semantically linked to the main clause via the demonstrative. In syntax, we can be
positive that since there is no gap in the main clause, the left-peripheral clause is not
derived by movement.
In addition, the referential wh-expression can be topicalized to the sentence initial
position. This results in a surface structure resembling that of Hindi correlative, as
presented in (8), where the wh-expression and the demonstrative are boldfaced:
(8) a. 哪一本書你喜歡,我就送那一本給你
nǎ
yi-ben
shu ni xihuan ec, wo jiou song
[which one-Cl. book]i you like eci,
nà
yi-ben
gei ni
I then give [that one-Cl.]i to you
‘I will give to you whichever book you like.’
Lit. ‘Whichever book you like, I will give that one to you.’
29
Evidence of such null operators determining the quantificational force of a wh-phrase is not clear in
Chinese morphology but is clearly demonstrated in Japanese morphology. See the following paradigm of
quantificational force realized through suffixes to a wh-word in Japanese (Cheng 2003b: 130):
(i)
dare ‘who’
dare-mo ‘everyone’
dare-ka ‘someone’
nani ‘what’
nani-mo ‘everything’
nani-ka ‘something’
doko ‘where’
doko-mo ‘everywhere’
doko-ka ‘somewhere’
Given the paradigm in (i), Japanese wh-words can be considered to consist of an indefinite and a
quantifier. The suffix mo indicates universal quantification and ka indicates existential quantification. It is
reasonable to consider that dare ‘who’ is made up of the indefinite and a null quantifier/operator, i.e. dareOp, which introduces the interrogative force.
89
b. 哪一個員工你不喜歡,我就開除那一個
nǎ yi-ge
yuangong ni
bu xihuan ec, wo jiou kaichu nà yi-ge
[which one-Cl employee]i you Neg. like eci,
I then fire [that one-Cl. ]i
‘I will fire whichever employee you don’t like.’
Lit. ‘Whichever employee you don’t like, I will fire that one.’
In (8a) and (8b), the wh-phrase is co-indexed with the empty category in the object
position and also with the demonstrative in the main clause. The left peripheral clause is
restrictive, and it is connected to the main clause via the demonstrative pronominal.
With respect to interpretation, a difference in definiteness is exhibited between
left-peripheral clauses and regular headed relative clauses. Consider the following
examples with regular relative clauses:
(9) a. 我會開除你不喜歡的(那個)員工
wo hui kaichu ni
bu xihuan eci
I will fire [ [you Neg. like
de
(nà-ge)
yuangong.
eci DE Rel.] (that-Cl.) employeei
NP]
‘I will fire the employee who you don’t like.’
b. 你不喜歡哪一個員工,我就開除那個/*一個
ni
bu xihuan
nǎ
yi-ge yuangong , wo jiou kaichu nà –ge /*yi-ge
you Neg. like [which one-Cl employee]i , I then
fire thati -Cl. /*one-Cl.
‘I will fire whichever employee you don’t like.’
Lit. ‘Whichever employee you don’t like, I will fire that one.’
In the sentence of (9a), which has a regular head-final relative clause modifying the
object yuangong ‘employee’, the parentheses indicate that a demonstrative is optionally
present in the NP domain. By contrast, in (9b), the asterisk shows that the nominal
90
variable co-indexed with the wh-phrase can only be definite and needs to be in the
demonstrative form. This observation is consistent with Lipták’s contention (2004, 2009,
2012) that correlatives can be considered generalized quantifiers over maximal entities or
individuals in the main clause. Like free relatives in general, correlatives have a
characteristic meaning component: They identify a unique or maximal individual or a
maximal set of individuals/degrees that have the property denoted by the left-peripheral
correlative clause.
Another difference between a left-peripheral correlative clause and a regular
headed relative clause lies in their discourse functions. The left-peripheral correlative
clause can have an interpretation of ‘aboutness’30 while a regular headed relative clause
simply modifies and restricts the N0. For example, the sentence of (9a) contains a regular
head-final relative clause, which modifies the nominal yuangong ‘employee’. In terms of
discourse functions, the ‘employee’ modified by the relative clause is not meant to be
interpreted as the salient topic of the discourse. By contrast, the sentence in (9b) makes
the first clause a salient topic, and the second clause is the comment associated to the
30
The aboutness reading of the left-peripheral clause is also observed in Hungarian left-peripheral relative
clauses (cf. discussion in Lipták (2004: 288-299)). Two Hungarian examples in (i) and (ii) are given by
Lipták (2004) to illustrate the difference in interpretation:
(i) [
Amit
Mari tegnap f őzött], azt
a levest
nem ette-meg János.
[REL What-ACC Mari yesterday cooked], that-ACC the soup-ACC not
ate
John
‘As regards the soup Mari cooked yesterday, John didn’t eat it.’
(ii) János azt
a levest
[
amit
Mari tegnap
főzött] megette.
John that-ACC the soup-ACC [REL what-ACC Mari yesterday cooked ate
‘John ate up the soup that Mari cooked yesterday.’
The sentence in (i) has a left-peripheral relative clause whereas in (ii) the relative clause is embedded in the
regular position following a nominal. According to Lipták (2004), the difference between (i) and (ii) has to
do with discourse function: The left-peripheral relative clause in (i) can be interpreted as an aboutness topic
while the regular embedded relative clause in (ii) does not have such a reading at all.
91
topic. That is, the whole sentence (9b) is meant to talk about an individual the addressee
does not like, and the speaker comments that the individual will be fired. This ‘aboutness’
reading is not supported by the regular head-final relative clause in (9a) at all.
4.3.2 Two strategies to realize Chinese CCs
In semantics, comparative correlatives denote a proportional relationship between
the degree variable in each clause. Chinese has a type of CCs formed in the same way as
the Hindi-type using indefinite wh-phrases (such as the example of (4a) in Section 4.2.1).
I therefore refer to this type as ‘wh-type’ CCs throughout the discussion. Consider the
following examples:
(10) a. 媽媽買幾個布丁, 我就吃幾個(布丁)
Mama mai jige
buding , wo
Mom buy how.many pudding,
?(jiou) chi
I ? (then) eat
jige
how.many
‘I ate the amount of puddings which Mom bought.’
Lit. ‘Mom bought a certain amount of pudding, I then ate that amount.’
b. 大衛有多生氣 瑪麗*(就)有多高興
Dawei youdou shengqi, Mali *(jiou) youdou gaoxing
David how.mcuh angry, Mary *(jiou) how.much happy
‘How angry David is, and that’s the degree how Mary is happy accordingly.’
Lit. ‘David is angry to what degree, Mary is happy correspondingly to that
degree.’
92
c. 瑪麗賺多少錢, 就花多少(錢)
Malii zhuan duoshao qian,
ec jiou
hua duoshao (qian)
Maryi earn how.much money, proi correspondingly spend how.much (money)
‘Mary spends the same amount of money as she earns.’
Lit. ‘Mary earns money of a certain amount, and she spends that amount
correspondingly.’
In this type of CCs, the wh-phrase, which is non-interrogative, must occur in each clause.
As discussed in the previous subsection, the quantificational force of the paired wh-words
is determined by an abstract operator, which unselectively binds (Heim 1982, Pesetsky
1987, Cheng 2003a and 2003b) the two wh-variables in each clause and indicates the covarying values of the two variables. The nature of unselective binding will be further
explicated in Section 4.5.
The second strategy to realize CCs in Chinese is to use the lexical word yue in
each clause, as English uses the in CCs. I will refer to this type as ‘yue-type’ CCs.
Examples are given in (12):
(11) a. 媽媽買越多布丁, 我(就)吃越多
Mama mai
yue dou buding , wo (jiou) chi
yue dou (buding)
Mom buy [DegP YUE many pudding], I (then) eat [DegP YUE many (pudding)]
‘The more pudding Mom buys, the more (pudding) I eat.’
b. 大衛越生氣, 瑪麗(就)越高興
Dawei
yue shengqi, Mali (jiou)
yue gaoxing
David [DegP YUE angry], Mary (jou) [DegP YUE happy]
‘The angrier David is, the happier Mary is.’
Lit. ‘David is angry to a certain degree, and Mary is correspondingly happy to
93
that degree.’
c. 瑪麗賺越多錢, 就花越多
Mali zhuan
yue duo
qian,
ec jiou
hua
yue duo
Maryi earn [DegP YUE much money, proi correspondingly spend [DegPYUE much]
‘The more money Mary earns, the more she spends.’
As mentioned in Chapter Three, when used outside of the CC, the lexical word yue
occurs as a bound morpheme in compound words, meaning ‘cross(ing)’. The paired
occurrence of yue are used uniquely in CCs. Similar lexical idiosyncrasy is also observed
in CCs of other languages (cf. the typological differences discussed in Chapter Two).
As presented in Chapter Two and Section 4.2 in this Chapter, the semantic
dependence in CCs is denoted in some languages by using a demonstrative in the second
clause, and results in a surface form of how much…that much….(for example, Hindi,
Hungarian, Greek etc.). In Chinese, although the paired wh-words or yue-constituents in
CCs are morphologically and orthographically identical, the degree/ amount denoted by
the second wh-variable or the second yue-variable hinges on that of the first wh-variable
or the first yue-variable. Therefore the second wh-word or yue-constituent is considered
to have the same function as a demonstrative31.
31
One thing to note about the syntactic realization of the two types of CCs pertains to occurrence of the
complementizer rugo or yaoshi ’if’. Even though the conditional reading is shared by both types of CCs,
the complementizer rugo or yaoshi ’if’ is optionally allowed in the yue-type but forbidden in the wh-type,
as illustrated in the following examples:
(i) a. (如果/要是)瑪麗賺越多錢, 她就花越多
(rugo/ yaoshi) Malii zhuan yue duo
qian, ta jiou hua
yue duo
if
Maryi earn YUE much money, shei then spend YUE much
‘The more money Mary earns, the more she spends.’
94
4.4 Wh-in-situ and DegP-in-situ
The two sets of morphology (‘wh-word….wh-word…’ vs. ‘…yue….yue…’) used
to realize Chinese CCs are in complementary distribution in the DegP. Reconsider the
examples in (10c) and (11c), repeated below in (12) below. The asterisck in (12c)
indicates that the wh-phrase duoshao and the yue-phrase are in complementary
distribution:
(12) a. 瑪麗賺多少錢, 就花多少(錢)。
Malii zhuan duoshao qian,
ec jiou
hua duoshao (qian).
Maryi earn [how.much money], proi correspondingly spend [how.much (money)]
‘Mary spends the same amount of money as she earns.’
Lit. ‘Mary earns money of a certain amount, and she spends that amount
correspondingly.’
b. 瑪麗賺越多錢, 就花越多。
Malii zhuan
Maryi earn
yue duo
qian,
ec jiou
hua
yue duo.
[YUE much money], proi correspondingly spend[ YUE much]
‘The more money Mary earns, the more she spends.’
‘If Mary earns more money, she spends more.’
b.(*如果/*要是) 瑪麗賺多少錢, 她就花多少
(*rugo/* yaoshi) Malii zhuan duoshao qian,
ta jiou hua duoshao
(*if)
Maryi earn how.much money, shei then spend how.much
‘Mary spends the amount of money which she earns.’
‘If Mary earns a certain amount of money, she spends that amount.’
I have no explanation for this puzzle and will leave it for future research. A possible explanation is that
perhaps rugo is the overt realization of the operator, barred in the wh-type because in that case they are
bound by a wh-operator.
95
c. 瑪麗賺多少(*越多)錢, 就花多少(*越多)(錢)。
Malii zhuan duoshao (*yue duo) qian,
Maryi earn [how.much (*YUE much) money],
ec
jiou
hua duoshao (*yue duo )
(qian).
proi correspondingly spend [how.much (*YUE much) (money)]
‘Mary spends the same amount of money as she earns.’
Assuming the internal structure of the DegP proposed by Kennedy (1997), I propose that
both doushao ‘how much’ and yue project a QP, base-generated in [Spec, Deg], as shown
in (13):
(13)
DegP
QP
yue/duoshao
Deg0
Ø
Deg’
XP
Both Kennedy (1997) and Dikken (2005) suggest the Deg0 is realized as the English
comparative morpheme er/more32. Readers might consider the lexical item yue to be the
equivalent of the English comparative morpheme er or more. This is not the case. As
shown in Section 3.1 of Chapter Three, the yue itself does not indicate comparison. It
cannot be attached to an adjective/ adverb or any other expression to form a regular
32
While Kennedy (1997) and Dikken (2005) both analyze the English comparative morpheme more/-er as
the head of DegP, Culicover and Jackendoff (1999) and Iwasaki and Radford (2009) analyze more/ -er the
head of QP.
96
comparative. I therefore propose that the Deg0 is null in Chinese CCs. The modified XP
may be an AdjP, AdvP or a VP. The first clause in the example of (12a) is illustrated in
(14a), and the same structure applies to the second clause, which is omitted here:
(14a)
IP
NP
Mali
Mary
I’
I0
VP
V’
V0
zhuan
earn
NP
DegP
QP
duoshao
how.much
Deg’
NP
qian
money
Deg0
Ø
By contrast, the first clause in the example of (12b) has the structure of (14b), where
readers can see a tree of a yue-DegP in parallel to the duoshao-DegP in (14a):
97
(14b)
IP
NP
Mali
Mary
I’
I0
VP
V’
V0
zhuan
earn
NP
DegP
QP
yue
YUE
NP
Deg’
Deg0
Ø
qian
money
AdjP
Adj’
Adj0
duo
much
The next question raised here pertains to the in-situ property of the DegP. Unlike
its counterpart in English, the DegP in Chinese CCs remains in situ. As described in
Chapter Two, crosslinguistic data show typological differences: Languages such Chinese,
Thai, Vietnamese, and Indonesian have the DegP stay in situ whereas languages such as
English, Greek, Polish, Hindi, and Hungarian among others have the DegP moved to the
left periphery. The following section discusses how A-bar movement is triggered to move
the DegP in English CCs proposed in earlier studies, and then I will explicate why such
movement is absent in Chinese CCs.
98
4.4.1 A-bar movement or not?
In analyzing English CCs, Iwasaki and Radford (2009) propose that the sentenceinitial the-constituent in both clauses is a QP, with the comparative morpheme more/er
being the head, and the QP undergoes A-bar movement out of the IP to the specifier of
the FocusP. The internal structure of the QP and the clausal structure (which is applied to
either clause) are repeated below in (15) and (16):
(15) Iwasaki and Radford (2009)
QP
the
Q’
Q
more
(16)
NP
chocolate
ForceP
Force0
ø
FocP
QP
the more chocolate
Foc’
Foc0
ø
FinP
Fin0
that
TP
T’
DP
you
T0
ø
vP
t you eat t
99
For Iwasaki and Radford (2009), the A-bar movement is triggered by the degree operator
the, which pied-pipes the subordinate materials, on a par with wh-operator movement.
Taylor (2009) also posits an A-bar movement of the comparative constituent to
the specifier of a functional projection (FP), as illustrated in (17):
(17) Taylor (2009)
CP
CP [C1] Adjunct Clause
CP [C2]Main Clause
C‘
C0
the
C’
C0
the
FP
FP
F’
[comparative.X]i
more sugar
F
ø
F’
IP
[comparative.X]j
more calories F
ø
you eat ti
IP
you get tj
Taylor (2009) suggests that semantic features of the functional head must be checked
with the DegP, the head of which is the comparative morpheme. Therefore the A-bar
movement in Taylor’s analysis is triggered by the need for feature checking.
On the other hand, in the case of Chinese CCs, neither the wh-word nor the yueconstituent undergoes a similar A-bar movement. Since Chinese is a wh-in-situ language,
it is reasonable to hypothesize that the in-situ DegP may reflect the wh-in-situ nature of
Chinese. This is what to be addressed in the following section.
100
4.4.2 In-situ indefinites
Since the work of Huang (1982), a general assumption about wh-in-situ is that
wh-movement occurs at LF. However, many scholars have argued that Chinese wh-insitu does not always implicate covert movement at LF. The idea that Chinese wh-words
should be treated as indefinites has been much explored in the literature (cf. Cheng 1991;
Li 1992; Aoun and Li 1993b; Huang and Cheng 1996; Cheng and Rooryck 2000; Cheng
2003a, 2003b; Tsai 1994b among others). In this line of research, wh-words in Chinese
are regarded as polarity items, that is, indefinite NPs which do not have inherent
quantificational force but which obtain their quantificational force through an implicit
external operator that licenses and binds them. Two sets of examples are given below to
illustrate interrogative and non-interrogative indefinite wh-in-situ, with relevant parts in
boldface:
(18) a. 他買了什麼?
ta mai-le
sheme?
he buy-ASP what
‘What did he buy?’
b. 他中午沒吃什麼
ta chungwu mei
he at.noon
chi sheme.
Neg. eat what
‘He did not eat anything at noon.’
101
(19) a. 誰買了這張票(呢)?
shei mai-le
zhe-chang piao (ne)?
Who buy-Asp. this-Cl.
ticket (Q.part.) ?
‘Who bought this ticket?’
b. 誰都可以為社會做點什麼
shei dou keyi wei shehui
zuo dian
sheme.
who all can for society do a.bit something
‘Everyone can do something for society.’
As mentioned above in Section 4.3.1, the wh-in-situ in (18) and (19) demonstrate
quantificational variability effects (QVE). To be interpreted, a wh-element needs a ccommanding licensor, and felicitous interpretations of a given wh-element hinge on the
property of the licensor/binder. When a wh-element is bound by a question operator, it is
interpreted as an interrogative, as illustrated above in (18a) and (19a). If bound by a nonovert universal or existential operator, such as the sentences in (18b) and (19b), it gets
universal or existential quantification. The schema of (20) below illustrates the cases in
which a wh-element is licensed and bound by a question operator (abbreviated as Qu) (cf.
detailed discussion in Cheng 2003a and 2003b as well as Chapter 7 on question formation
in Huang et al (2009):
(20) [ CP Qui [IP ... whi ... ]]
What the schema (20) tells us about Chinese wh-in-situ is that the binding between the
implicit question operator (or other quantificational operators) and the wh-element occurs
102
in the syntax. That is, each wh-element enters from the lexicon ‘underspecified for its
quantificational force’ (Huang et al 2009: 276).
Tsai (1994a) suggests that English wh-elements also exhibit similar
quantificational variability effects (QVE) by being associated with different operators.
However, as illustrated in (20) above, QVE occurs at the level of syntax in Chinese,
whereas English QVE occurs in lexicon. A paradigm demonstrating English QVE is
given in (21):
(21) a. Universal
b. Existential
c. Interrogative
whoever
somewhat
who
whatever
somewhere
what
wherever
anywhere
where
whenever
nowhere
when
however
somehow
how
When the wh-element is bound by the operator ever, it gets the force of universal
quantification. Similarly, when bound by the operator some, it gets the force of existential
quantification. Accordingly, it is reasonable to assume that in (21c) there is a null
question operator associated with the wh-element to license an interrogative
quantificational force.
On a par with the hypothesis that indefinite wh-elements are licensed and bound
by an abstract operator, I propose that in the two types of Chinese CCs, there exists a
covert CORRELATIVITY OPERATOR (abbreviated as Cor.-OP) binding the variable
introduced by the wh-word or the lexical word yue in each clause. The lexical item yue is
103
analyzed as an indefinite degree quantifier33 whose quantificational force is contributed
to by the abstract Cor.-OP. The operator-variable binding relationship is schematized in
(22):
(22) Cor.-OPi, j [CP [CP …[DegP yuei …]], [IP …[DegP yue j...
]]]
The co-indexation in (22) shows that the Cor.-OP binds the two variables introduced by
yue in each clause at the same time. The covariance of the value (x) and (y) of the yuevariable contained in each DegP is represented as follows:
(23) x y [ the value of x increases]→[ the value of y proportionally changes too]
When we juxtapose the binding represented in (20) and that in (22), we notice a
salient difference between them: In the former, an abstract question operator binds a whin-situ, while in the latter an abstract correlativity operator binds two indefinite variables
introduced by yue. An inquiry is raised here: What evidence is there for the possibility
that an abstract operator can bind two indefinite variables simultaneously? Are there
other constructions which implicate an (implicit) operator binding more than one
variable? The following section will show that the answer to these two questions
implicates the notion of unselective binding. It will be demonstrated that indefinite
As discussed in Section 2.2.3 of Chapter Two, Kapetangianni and Taylor’s (2009a) explication on oso, a
non-interrogative wh-item in Greek, lends an essential support to my treatment of yue in Chinese CCs as an
indefinite non-interrogative measure expression.
33
104
degree variables in Chinese CCs are unselectively bound in the same way as indefinites
in donkey sentences are bound.
4.5 Unselective binding
The discussion in the above section indicates that Chinese indefinite wh-words
behave like indefinites and the appropriate interpretations of a given wh-word hinges on
the property of its binder. This particular binding relationship between an abstract
operator and indefinite variables is reminiscent of ‘unselective binding’, which was first
explicated in Lewis (1975) and further developed in Heim (1982).
4.5.1 Unselective binders in Lewis (1975)
Quantifiers such as every, any, or some in English are ‘selective’. They bind an
associated variable x and stop there while other variables that may occur free in their
scope are left free and are bound by other quantifiers (Lewis 1975:6). Consider the phrase
every boy in the sentence “Mary saw every boy.” Every boy is raised at LF and adjoins to
IP via Quantifier Raising (May 1997). The trace it leaves is the variable x, and the raised
every boy is said to binds x. Such a binding relationship is ‘selective’ because the
quantifier binds only one variable that is co-indexed. In contrast to familiar selective
quantifiers, a class of English adverbs such as always, usually, never, or sometimes are
treated as ‘unselective’ quantifiers that can bind more than one variable in their scope.
Lewis (1975:6) gives such illustrations as (24a) and (24b) to explain his contention:
105
(24) a.
Sometimes, it happens that x sells stolen goods to y, who sells them to z,
who sells them back to x.
b.
Usually, x reminds me of y if and only if y reminds me of x.
Lewis argues that the adverbs sometimes and usually in (24) are interpreted in a nontemporal way, for they quantify not over times, but over cases. The sentence in (24a) is
true iff some triple of persons (x,y, z) satisfies the open sentence after sometime.
Likewise, (24b) is true iff most pairs of persons satisfy the open sentence after usually.
Lewis suggests that the ‘adverbs of quantification’ such as sometimes and usually in (24)
are operators and simultaneously bind all the variables in their scope unselectively. In
other words, ‘unselective quantifiers’ bind not just one particular variable, but multiple
variables simultaneously (cf. detailed discussion about English adverbs of quantification
in Lewis 1975 as well as reviews in Pesetsky 1987, Authier1989, Cheng and Huang
1996).
4.5.2 Unselective binding in Heim (1982)
Heim (1982) draws on Lewis's (1975) analysis of unselective quantifiers to
account for the interpretation of indefinites. Heim (1982: 84) argues that indefinites do
not have quantificational force of their own, but "are rather like variables, which may get
bound by whatever quantifiers is there to bind them.” Accordingly, Heim's analysis of
donkey sentences allows the two indefinites to be unselectively bound by whatever
adverbs of quantification are available in the linguistic context, as represented in (25):
106
(25) a. If a man owns a donkey, he always beats it.
b. Always ((x is a man ˄ y is a donkey ˄ x owns y), x beats y)
In other words, the indefinites a man and a donkey exhibit ‘quantificational variability
effects’ depending on the various adverbs of quantification they occur with. This is
further illustrated in (26)-(28), in which the interpretation is given in the (b)-line (Huang
and Cheng 1996: 124):
(26) a. Always, if a farmer owns a donkey, he beats it.
b. All farmers (x) and donkeys (y) are such that if x owns y, then x beats y.
(27) a. Usually, if a farmer owns a donkey, he beats it.
b. Most farmers (x) and donkeys (y) are such that if x owns y, then x beats y.
(28) a. Sometimes, if a farmer owns a donkey, he beats it.
b. Some farmers (x) and donkeys (y) are such that if x owns y, then x beats y.
When there is no overt quantifier, such as the example in (29) below, Heim argues
that the quantificational force is contributed by a morphologically unrealized ‘necessity
operator’, i.e. necessarily, which gives a universal interpretation of the sentence (Heim
1982: 86):
(29) a. If a man owns a donkey, he beats it.
b. Necessarily ((x is a man ˄ y is a donkey ˄ x owns y), x beats y)
The above discussion indicates that in Heim’s analysis, indefinites such as a man
and a donkey as well as their associated pronouns are all treated as variables, bound by an
107
available adverb of quantification34. The indefinite’s quantificational force is therefore
determined by a quantifier or operator available in the relevant linguistic context.
4.5.3 Unselective binding in Chinese bare conditionals
In Chinese syntax, the notion of unselective binding is applied to account for
‘bare conditionals’ by Huang and Cheng (1996) and Huang et al (2009, Chapter 9). Two
examples of bare conditionals are given bellow (cited from Huang et al (2009: 367)):
(30) a. 誰先來, 誰(就)先吃
shei xian lai,
shei (jiou) xian chi.
whoi first come, whoi (then) first eat
‘If x comes first, x will eat first.’
(Whoever comes first eats first.)
b. 誰先進來, 我(就)先打誰
shei xian jinlai, wo jiou
whoi first enter,
xian da shei
I (then) first hit whoi
‘If x enters first, I will then hit x first.’
(I will beat up whoever comes in first.)
A bare conditional does not have an overtly realized complementizer ruguo or yaoshi ‘if’,
as suggested by the name. As shown in the English translation in (30), these sentences
34
As Huang et al (2009: 365) note, although the mechanism of unselectively binding can nicely capture
the phenomenon of quantificational variability exhibited in indefinites in so-called donkey sentences, it is
not unproblematic in analyzing the donkey pronoun. Controversy lies in the binding and coindexiation
between the indefinite NP and its associated donkey pronoun. This issue is not to be addressed in this
dissertation since it is beyond the scope of our discussion about comparative correlatives. Readers are
referred to detailed explication in Huang et al (2009: 365-371).
108
have a conditional reading, which is indicated by the optional occurrence of the word jiou
‘then’35. The key feature of bare conditionals in (30) is the occurrence of two identical
wh-words in each clause. They are identical both in morphology and in reference. The
wh-word in the second clause is an anaphoric element to the wh-word in the first clause.
As discussed previously, in-situ wh-words in Chinese are generally assumed to be
indefinites licensed and bound by an implicit external operator36. With this assumption,
Huang and Cheng (1996) propose that the wh-indefinites in bare conditionals are
unselectively bound by an abstract necessity operator (abbreviated as NEC) in the sense
of Heim (1982). The schema in (31) illustrates the binding relationship for the sentence in
(30b):
(31) NECi sheii xian jinlai, wo xian da sheii
whoi first enter
I first hit whoi
‘If x enters first, I will then hit x first.’
35
Note that the bare conditionals we are dealing with here are distinguished from regular if-conditionals.
An example of regular Chinese if-conditional introduced by ruguo ’if’ is given in (i):
(i) 如果誰先來, 他/就先吃
ruguo shei xian jinlai , ta / nage ren
jiou xian chi.
if
whoi first enter hei / that person then first eat
‘If someone comes in first, then he / that person will eat first.
Except the occurrence/ absence of the complementizer ruguo or yaoshi ‘if’, there are other properties that
distinguish bare conditionals and regular if-conditionals. They are beyond the scope of our current
discussion, but readers are referred to detailed explication in Huang and Cheng (1996) as well as Huang et
al (2009: 367-370).
36
In addition to works on Chinese wh-in-situ by scholars such as Cheng (1991), Li (1992), Aoun and Li
(1993b), Huang and Cheng (1996), Cheng and Rooryck (2000), Cheng (2003a, 2003b), Tasi (1994b)
among others, readers are also referred to Pesetsky (1987) for discussion of wh-in-situ juxtaposed with
debates over unselective binding.
109
Note that in (31), the two identical wh-indefinites shi ‘who’ do not c-command each
other. The co-reference is established through the implicit NEC operator, which binds
directly the two wh-variables in each clause.
The above discussion about the notion of unselective binding and its application
in explaining Chinese bare conditionals sheds light on my analysis of the interpretation of
the DegP in Chinese CCs. Reconsider the two types of Chinese CCs in (32), where (32a)
represents the wh-type and (32b)37 represents the yue-type:
(32) a. 瑪麗賺多少錢, 就花多少(錢)。
Mali zhuan
duoshao
qian,
ec jiou
hua
duoshao (qian).
Maryi earn [DegP how.much money], proi accordingly spend [DegP how.much (money)]
‘Mary spends the amount of money which she earns.’
Lit. ‘Mary earns money of a certain amount, and she spends that amount accordingly.’
b. 瑪麗賺越多錢, 就花越多
Malii zhuan
yue duo
qian,
ec jiou
hua
yue duo (qian)
Maryi earn [DegP YUE much money], proi accordingly spend [DegP YUE much(money)]
‘The more money Mary earns, the more she spends.’
37
Readers may notice that the example (32a) resembles the bare conditional examples in (30) on the
surface since they all consist of two identical wh-elements in each clause and have conditional readings.
However, the proportional reading, that is, the covariance in values of the two wh-variables is unique in the
CC, but not perceived in the bare conditional. Therefore, I still maintain the stance to categorize sentences
such as (32a) that denote a proportional reading as CCs.
110
On a par with the wh-words in bare conditionals, each DegP in the examples in (33),
either the wh-type or the yue-type, is proposed to be taken as an indefinite degree
expression and function as a variable at LF. Although the DegP in each clause does not ccommand each other, there exists a co-variance relationship between the two variables.
The mechanism of unselective binding offers a plausible account for this co-variance
relationship. In the following two Chapters, I will only focus on the yue-type CCs, but the
proposed analysis is also applicable to the wh-type.
4.5 A summary of this chapter
In this chapter, I have shown that the structure of CCs resembles that of
ordinary correlatives and therefore CCs are analyzed as a subset of ordinary CCs. I also
show that Chinese has two types of CCs: One is the wh-type CC and the otheris the yuetype CC. In both types, the DegP stays in situ. Referring to quantificational variability
effects (QVE) in Chinese syntax, I claim that the in-situ DegP is an indefinite element
and functions as a variable at LF on a par with an indefinite wh-in-situ expression. To
account for the co-variance relationship between the two DegP variables, I propose that
the indefinite DegP in each clause of CCs is unselectively bound by an abstract
correlativity operator.
111
CHAPTER FIVE
STRUCTURE OF CHINESE YUE-CONSTRUCTIONS
5.0 An overview
The central function of this chapter is to present the macrostructure of the Chinese
CC construction as a functional projection of a null Focus0. Based on Tsao and Hsiao’s
(2002) initial work on the Chinese CC construction, the analysis that I propose retains a
key insight of their analysis--- the property of topic prominence in Chinese. However, the
analysis proposed by Tsao and Hsiao does not account for the obligatory co-occurrence
of yue1 and yue2, nor does the structure in their analysis explain how the correlation
introduced by yue1 and yue2 arises. In the alternative analysis proposed here, Rizzi’s
(1997, 2004) cartographic approach to a split CP and earlier studies on Chinese
information structure in the left periphery (Grade and Paul 1996; Paul 2005; Badan 2008a
and 2008b; Constant and Gu (2010) are made use of.
This chapter consists of four sections. Section 5.1 addresses the role of the lexical
word yue and the internal structure of the DegP. In addition, the two degree variables
constituted by yue1 and yue2 and the predicate they modify will be presented showing
how they are bound by a null operator. In Section 5.2, I will first briefly review earlier
studies on the macrostructure of the CC construction, particularly the derivation of the
first clause. Problematic issues will be examined, too. In Section 5.3, an analysis in an
earlier study by Tsao and Hsiao (2002) on the Chinese CC-construction is discussed. The
112
alternative proposal will be presented in Section 5.4, in which I will show that Chinese
CC construction is projection of a FocusP.
5.1 The role of yue
This section examines the status of the syncategorematic lexical word yue in the
DegP38. It is argued that yue1 functions as a quantifier, realized in the position of [Spec,
DegP] and takes scope over the intermediate projection of Deg-bar. There is a correlation
between the two degree variables constituted by the DegP in each clause; that is, the
degree in the first clause (hereafter the yue1-clause) correlates with the degree in the
second clause (hereafter the yue2-clause). I will propose that the two degree variables
introduced by yue1 and yue2 are unselectively bound by a null CORRELATIVITY OPERATOR,
which binds from a higher position in the tree structure.
5.1.1 YUE is an indefinite degree quantifier in the DegP
As explained in Section 3.1, the lexical word yue is not analyzed as the equivalent
of the English comparative morpheme er or more. The morpheme gen or (bi)jiao, but not
yue, are more likely candidates for the direct equivalent of English er/ more39. The lexical
word yue is uniquely and obligatorily used in pairs in Chinese CC constructions. It has
38
Corver (1991) presents evidence from Dutch and English data supporting the existence of a Degree
Phrase structure. Readers are also referred to Lin (2009) and Xiang (2003, 2005) for Chinese comparatives
and the DegP.
39
The structure of regular Chinese comparatives is beyond the scope of this study and is not addressed
here. Readers can refer to (Liu 1996 ; Xiang 2003; Lin 2009; Liu 2011) for relevant discussion on Chinese
regular comparatives and (Liu 2010) for evidence of the DegP projected by an overt positive morpheme
hen 很‘very, in Mandarin Chinese.
113
scope over the XP to its right. With regard to its overall semantic contribution, we can
say that yue denotes an increasing degree40, which accounts for why this construction
lacks an overt comparative morpheme. That the morpheme yue introduces degrees can be
tested by replacing the yue-constituent with a wh-measurement-expression to form a
question41. Consider the following example, with the relevant part being boldfaced:
(2) A: 我要練習多久
wo yao
I
技術才會更好?
lianxi duo-jiou, jishu cai hui gen-hao?
need.to practice how-long, skill then will COM-good
‘How long do I need to practice so that my skills will get better?’
B: 你練習越久, 技術就會越好。
Ni
lianxi
yue jiou, jishu
you practice YUE long, skill
jiou hui
then
will
yue hao.
YUE good
‘The longer you practice, the better your skills will be.’
40
It is observed that in Thai CCs, the lexical item ying behaves similarly to Chinese yue. Leung (2004:
211) proposes that ying in Thai CC constructions inherits an increasing degree, and this explains why a
comparative morpheme is absent in Thai CCs. By contrast, the in the English CC construction does not
explicitly express the directionality of comparison, and therefore the comparative morpheme more/-er is
required.
41
The replacement is also observed in English CC constructions (Culicover and Jackendoff 1999: 550)
The following is the English example given by Culicover and Jackendoff :
(i) ‘How much harder has it rained, the faster a flow you see in the river?’
(cf. ‘The harder it has rained, the faster a flow you see in the river.)
Similarly, the morpheme ying in Thai CC constructions is also analyzed as a degree morpheme and can be
replaced with a wh-word thaw-rai to form a question. The example given by Leung (2004: 211-212) is
reproduced below:
(ii) a. Khaw khit wâa khun ying
khayan, khaw ying diicai
3sg think that you YING hardworking 3sg YING happy
‘The more hardworking he thinks you are, the happier he is’
b. khun khayan
thaw-rai,
khaw ca ying diicai?
you hardworking much-how, he will YING happy
‘How much more hardworking you are, the happier he is?’
114
The constituent yue jiou ‘longer’ in Speaker B’s answer corresponds to the wh-element
dou-jiou ‘how long’ in Speaker A’s question. This indicates that the yue-constituent is a
measurement expression with yue being the degree operator.
The idea of distinguishing the degree operator in CCs from a comparative
morpheme is also discussed by Kapetangianni and Taylor (2009) in their analysis of
Greek CC-constructions (cf. Section 2.2.3 in Chapter 2 for more details). Their proposed
DegP structure for the fronted nominal phrase oso pio poli zahari ‘the more sugar’ in the
sentence of (3) is schematized in (4), where the morpheme oso ‘as much as’ is treated as
a quantifier and projects QP in [Spec, DegP]:
(3) oso
pio poli
as.much.as
toso
zahari
more
[Greek]
sugar eat.2SG.PRES,
pio poles
that.much more
tros,
thermides
calories
pernis.
get.2SG.PRES
‘The more sugar you eat, the more calories you get’
(4)
NP
DegP
QP
Q0
oso
as.much.as
NP
Deg’
Deg0
pio poli
more
zahari
sugar
AP
ø
The structure in (4) shows that the Deg0 is phonetically overt in Greek, while I will show
later that the head is phonetically null in Chinese CC constructions.
115
Moreover, as Dikken (2005) points out, the internal structure of the DegP in CC
constructions may be more complicated in other languages. The macrostructure for the
English sentence The more you read, the more you understand proposed by Dikken
(2005:510) based on a variety of languages’ CC construction is repeated bellow in (5).
The DegP is projected by the article the:
(5)
HEADCL=CP
SUBCL=CP
C’
DegPi
Deg’
PPMEASURE
P
QP
OP
HEADCL= CP
Deg0
the
Q’
Q
you read ti
AP
CPR
more
C’
DegPj
Deg’
PPMEASURE
P
QP
DEM
you understand tj
Deg0
the
AP
Q’
CPR
more
Q
As shown in the above structure, the DegP is fronted to [Spec, CP] in both clauses. In
Modern English, there is no other element spelt out before the head Deg0, and therefore
the is the initial element in each clause. By contrast, Dikken’s (2005) collected data from
other languages and older English show that the internal structure of the DegP may vary
in different languages. In Early Modern English, a measure phrase headed by the
preposition by is considered to be in [Spec, DegP]. Two examples are given in (6) (taken
from Dikken 2005:502):
116
(6) a. By how much the better than my word I am, by so much shall I
falsifie mens hope. (Shakespeare, Henry the Fourth; 16th century)
b. By how much the better man you are yourself, by so much the more will you
be inclined to believe me. (Fielding, Tom Jones; 19th century.)
Russian demonstrates a more complete DegP than Modern English, with the prepositional
measure phrase projected (taken from Dikken 2005:522):
(7) Russian
Naskol'ko
luchshe mashina,
by-how-much better
car-NOM
nastol'ko
ona
dorozhe.
by-that-much
it-F.NOM
more.expensive
'The better the car, the more expensive it is.'
Compared with the Russian example in (7), Chinese has a relatively simple DegP
structure in the CC construction. Since yue denotes an increasing degree, its role is
considered to be an INDEFINITE DEGREE QUANTIFIER which functions as a variable: it is an
indefinite variable licensed and bound by a null operator (the nature of the operator will
be explicated in a latter section). For the internal structure of the DegP, I propose (in
Section 4.4) that yue projects as a QP in the specifier of the DegP and c-commands the
predicate XP to its right. The proposed structure of DegP in Section 4.4 is reproduced
below in (8):
(8)
DegP
Deg’
QP
yue
Deg0
ø
XP
117
As I discussed above, yue itself does not function as a comparative morpheme as
English er or more does. Therefore I conclude that the head Deg0 is null, taking a
predicate XP as its complement42. An example and its structure is given in (9):
(9)
天氣越熱,電費越高。
[CP [IP tienqi
[I’ [VP [V’ [DegP [QP yue] [Deg’ Deg0 [AP re]]]]],
weather
[CP [IP dian-fei
YUE
hot,
[I’ [VP [V’[DegP [QP yue] [Deg’ Deg0 [AP gao]]]]]]]].
electricity-fee
YUE
high
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity fee is.’
The DegP in English CC constructions is argued to undergo overt A-bar movement as
argued by Taylor (2009) and Iwasaki and Radford (2009). By contrast, the Chinese DegP
stays in situ. In the following section, I will argue that the in-situ Deg phrases in the two
clauses constitute variables at LF, which are bound by a null operator from a higher
position.
42
In the proposed structure of the DegP, I assume the Functional AP Hypothesis, according to which an
AP is embedded (Corver 1991, Lin 2009 among others).
118
5.1.2 A correlativity operator binding yue-variables
The DegP in the yue1-clause43 and the DegP in the yue2-clause both constitute
degree variables at LF. The relationship between the two degree variables is subject to a
correlation:
(10) For a degree variable x introduced by the yue1-constituent and a degree
variable y introduced by the yue2-constituent in Chinese CC constructions,
when the value of x changes, the value of y proportionally changes at the
same time.
Therefore, a conditional reading is obtained even though an overt complementizer ruguo
‘if’ is absent44 in the yue1-clause, as shown in (11):
(11) 天氣越熱,電費越高。
(ruguo) tienqi
if
yue
re,
weather YUE hot,
dian-fei
yue
gao.
electricity-fee YUE high
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity fee is.’
Or ‘If the weather is hotter, the electricity fee is higher.’
Liu (2008) points out that in addition to the conditional component, Chinese CC
constructions can have a universal interpretation. For the above sentence in (11), a
universal interpretation of the conditional is obtained:
(12) Always, if the weather is hot to a higher degree, the electricity fee is
likewise raised to a higher degree.
For convenience of explicatation, the term ‘yue1-clause’ is used to refer to the first clause in Chinese
CCs and ‘yue2-clause’ to the second clause.
44
As reviewed in Chapter Two, conditional readings are common, if not default, in CC constructions of
various languages (McCawley 1988; Culicover and Jackendoff 1999; Leung 2004; Dikken 2005; Liu
2008).
43
119
This universal interpretation complies with Beck’s (1997) contention that universal
quantification is a default in CC constructions (cf. Oda 2008 for detailed discussion).
In addition to the conditional component and universal reading in interpretation,
the unique correlation between the two yue-variables needs to be explained in the
derivation. As presented in Section 4.4 in Chapter Four, I claim that a null operator
(hereafter OP), which denotes correlativity, occurs in the left peripheryin the Chinese CC
constructions and it binds the two DegPs45 from [Spec, CP]. The structure of binding is
illustrated in (13):
(13)
CP
Cor. OPi, j
FP46
F’
CP (yue1-clause)
…DegPi…
F0
IP (yue2-clause)
…DegPj…
The correlativity operator is proposed to unselectively bind the two DegPs in a similar
way as a variable in a donkey sentence is unselectively bound. The operator-variable
45
The two Deg phrases forms two variables. According to May’s (1977, 1985) study of quantification
within the Government and Binding tradition (Chomsky 1981, 1986), variables need to be bound. May’s
study highlights the following principles governing scope (c.f. discussion in Dayal (2013)):
a. The condition on Quantifier Binding: every quantified phrase must properly bind a variable.
b. Condition on Proper Binding: Every variable in an argument position must be properly bound.
46
The FP here represents a functional projection, which will be argued to be a FocP in later discussion of
this chapter.
120
binding structure and the universal interpretation are illustrated in (14) (repeated from
(22) in Section 4.4.2 in Chapter Four):
(14) Cor-OPi, j [CP [CP … yuei … ], [IP … yue j ... ]]
x y [ the value of x increases]→[ the value of y proportionally changes too].
The operator-variable binding mechanism proposed here is on par with the binding
relation in which a null question operator binds an in-situ wh-element in Chinese (Aoun
and Li 1993b; Huang et al 2009; and cf. Cheng 1991, 2003a, 2003b for wh-in-situ in
Chinese). Chinese wh-words do not have inherent interpretation with respect to their
‘quantificational force’. Depending on the context where they occur, they may be
interpreted as universal or existential quantifiers or as interrogative expressions.
Examples are given in (15), with relevant parts boldfaced:
(15) a. 誰都喜歡書
shei dou xihuan shu.
who all
like book
‘Everyone likes books.’
b. 如果你喜歡誰, 就請他來
ruguo ni xihuan shei, jiu qing ta lai.
If
you like
who, then ask him come
‘If you like someone, then invite him over.’
c. 誰喜歡你呢?
shei xihuan ni ne?
Who like you Q.part. ?
‘Who likes you?’
121
In other words, a wh-phrase is lexically an “indefinite category.” Similarly, Aoun and Li
(1993b) and Tsai (1994b) also suggest that a wh-phrase is not an inherent
quantificational expression, but a variable licensed and bound by a proper operator that
determines its quantificational force (cf. discussion in 4.4 and 4.5 in Chapter Four).
In the current proposal, the lexical yue variable is treated as parallel to wh-words
in Chinese. The yue-constituent is analyzed as an in-situ indefinite expression, and its
semantic content needs to be specified by the null correlativity operator. While wh-insitu may move at LF in order to be interpreted (Huang 1982a; Cheng 2003a among
others), the DegP in the CC construction can be interpreted in situ without ambiguity. As
addressed in 3.4 in Chapter Three, the yue-constituent is not sensitive to island effects;
therefore, covert LF movement of the yue-constituent is not proposed in this study.
5.1.3 Obligatory paired occurrence of yue1 and yue2
The next question that needs to be accounted for concerns the obligatory cooccurrence of yue1 and yue2. The co-occurrence of yue1 and yue2 shows that yue1 licenses
the occurrence of yue2 in a similar way as can occur in negative and interrogative
expressions, which contain an operator licensing a subordinate polarity item such as
any47 (Radford 2009: 330).
47
Two examples of licensing the polarity item any (cited from Radford 2009: 330):
(i)
What sympathy did any of the protestors get?
(ii)
Not a grain of sympathy did any of the protestors get.
122
Matushansky (2002) points out that degree can be expressed by a certain sort of
dependent constituent, as illustrated in the following English example:
(16) Mt. Everest is so tall that you cannot see the top.
In (16), the degree operator so as well as its dependent that-clause predicates the degree
of the degree argument, i.e. the adjective tall. Following Matushansky’s insight, I
propose the linking relation between yue1 and yue2 in (17):
(17) The paired yue morphemes and the non-coordinated syntactic clauses
constitute a degree description.
On a par with the dependent that-clause functioning as a complement of the
adjective head in (16), the yue2-clause in Chinese CC is treated as a complement of a
certain type of head in the derivation. A rough hypothetical structure is proposed in (18):
(18)
FP
F’
yue1-clause
… DegP…
F0
Yue2-clause
… DegP…
In Section 5.4, I will further argue that the functional projection is a FocP.
5.2 An adjunct approach
In his proposed macrostructures for the CC constructions, Dikken (2005, 2006)
dubs the first clause the ‘sub-clause’ (SUBCL), adjoined to the ‘head clause’ (HEADCL).
123
Similarly, Taylor (2006) proposes that the first clause is subordinate and an adjunct, basegenerated and left-adjoined to the main clause, i.e. the second clause. The macrostructures proposed by Dikken (2005) and Taylor (2006) are repeated in (19) and (20)
respectively:
(19) Dikken (2005)
HEADCL= CP
SUBCL=CP
HEADCL= CP
(20) Taylor (2006)
CP Matrix
CPAdjunct
oso pio poli zahari tros
as.much.as more sugar eat.2SG.PRES
CP Matrix
toso
pio poles thermides pernis
that.much more calories
get.2SG.PRES
Both Dikken’s and Taylor’s proposals implicating adjunction emphasize that the
two clauses are not coordinated and that the second clause is the main clause in the CC
construction. However, as pointed out by Abeillé and Borsley (2008) and Iwasaki and
Radford (2009), the adjunct approach cannot account for the fact that the preceding
clause is obligatory while adjuncts are optional. Alternatively, following Abeillé and
Borsley (2008), Iwasaki and Radford (2009) propose a functional projection---a TopP---
124
to capture the relative order of the two clauses and their structural dependency on each
other. The structure they propose is illustrated in (21):
(21)
TopP
CP1
the more chocolate you eat
Top’
Top0
ø
CP2
the more weight you put on
In Iwasaki and Radford’s (2009) analysis, the first clause is in [Spec, TopP] and the
second clause is the complement of the null Top0. Their analysis, implicating a functional
projection, sheds light on the current study. In a later section, I will argue for projection
of a FocP in Chinese CC-constructions.
5.3 A Topic-comment approach to Chinese CCs
With respect to the literature of Chinese syntax, research on the CC construction
is scarce. Tsao and Hsiao’s (2002) initial study on this construction adopts the topiccomment approach, which captures a characteristic property of Chinese grammar: topic
prominence (Chao 1968, Xu and Langendoen 1985, Tsao 1988, Her 1991, Shi 1992,
Grasde and Paul 1996 among others)48. In this dissertation, the term ‘topic’ is taken as a
48
Chao (1968:69) made the widely-adopted contention that 'the grammatical meaning of subject and
predicate in a Chinese sentence is topic and comment'. The majority of linguists working on Chinese follow
the assumption that both topic and subject exist in Chinese as separate grammatical notions and the both
can exist in the same sentence.
125
grammatical category parallel to ‘subject’ or ‘object’. In syntactic structures of Chinese,
the topic precedes the subject if they both occur in a sentence. The topic may encode the
semantic function of a ‘frame’, and so may the subject. When a topic is absent, the
subject may be interpreted as the frame in semantics or in discourse, which complies with
Chao’s contention (1968) (cf. Her 1991 for detailed distinction between syntactic topics
and semantic topics in Chinese).
In Tsao and Hsiao’s (2002) analysis of Chinese CCs, the yue1-clause is treated as
a topic of the lower IP and is realized as an IP adjunct, left adjoined to the yue2-clause,
which functions as the comment. An example they give is reproduced in (22):
(22) 天氣越熱, 他越吃不下。
tianqui
yue re,
weather YUE hot,
ta
yue chi-bu-xia.
3rd.sing. YUE eat-NEG-down
‘The hotter the weather is, the less he would like to eat.’
In (22), tianqui yue re ‘the hotter the weather is’ acts as a clausal topic49, an IP adjunct to
the second clause. Moreover, there can be another higher topic. For example, in the
following sentence in (23), the third personal singular pronoun ta ‘he’ appears in the
sentence initial position, marked in boldface:
49
The idea that clauses of time, location, reason, concession and condition should be treated as the primary
topic of the sentence is explicated in Chao’s (1968) and Tsao’s (1998) work on syntactic behaviors of
topics in Chinese.
126
(23) 他天氣越熱, 越吃不下。
tai
tianqui
yue
re,
3rd.sing.i weather YUE hot
eci
yue
chi-bu-xia.
proi
YUE eat-Neg.-down
‘For him, the hotter the weather is, the less he can eat.’
Tsao and Hsiao (2002) propose that for a sentence like (23), the pronoun ta ‘he’, as the
topic of the whole CP, is base-generated in [Spec, CP] and co-indexed with the empty
category pro50 in [Spec, IP]. The structure they propose for the sentence in (23) is
reproduced in (24):
(24)
CP
C’
NP
tai
he
IP
0
C
CP
IP
tianqu yue re NP
weather YUE hot proi
I’
I0
VP
AdvP
yue
VP
ti chi-bu-xia
eat-NEG-down
In the above structure, the yue1-clause is treated as an IP adjunct. The idea that clauses
can act as a topic is not new in the literature. Scholars such as Iwasaki and Radford
50
Chinese is a subject pro-drop language. Null subjects are taken as a pro while null objects should be
analyzed as a variable based on the outcome of the test of Principle C (c.f. Huang 1989 for detailed
discussion).
127
(2009) analyze the preceding clause as a Topic in English CC-constructions, and in more
recent studies Iwasaki (2011a, 2011b) also takes the left-periphery approach to deal with
certain types of German and Dutch CC-constructions51. Similarly, Lipták (2012)
considers correlative clauses in Hungarian to be topical and merged at the edge of the CP.
Tsao and Hsiao’s (2002) proposed structure demonstrates the property topicprominence in Chinese syntax. However, as noted above, the contention that the yue1clause is an adjunct to the yue2-clause fails to capture a major trait of yue-constructions:
the syntactic interdependence between the two clauses. A property of adjunction is that it
merges constituents that are complete themselves (Haegeman 2006). If the yue1-clause,
based on the structure in (24), were an IP adjunct to the yue2-clause, then it would be
falsely predicted that the yue1-clause would be optional and the yue2-clause could be an
independent clause52. This is not the case, as shown in (25):
(25) *(tianqui
yue
re,) ta
weather YUE hot
3rd.sing.
yue chi-bu-xia
YUE eat-NEG-down
‘*(The hotter the weather is,) the less he would like to eat.’
The ungrammaticality of the sentence in (25) shows that the first yue1-clause constituent
is obligatory for the second clause to be interpretable.
In addition, a typical clausal adjunct does not select for specific types of clauses it
adjoins to, whereas there is restriction on the selection of the two component clauses in
Iwasaki’s (2011b) arguments for the Topic-comment approach to analyze German and Dutch CCs are
based on observation of verb positions.
52
Arguments against the adjunct approach are also presented in Iwasaki (2011a) and Abeillé and Borsley
(2008).
51
128
the CC constructions: Both clauses needs to contain a yue-constituent. In the examples in
(26), we see that when a yue-clause combines with a regular clause containing no yueconstituent, ungrammaticality results:
(26) a. tianqui *(yue) re,
ta
yue chi-bu-xia
3rd.sing. YUE eat-NEG-down
weather YUE hot,
‘*The weather is hot, the less he would like to eat.’
b. pingguo yue
tian,
apple YUE sweet,
I
wo *(yue) xihuan chi
YUE like
eat
ec
‘* The sweeter an apple is, I like eating it.’
The above examples demonstrate the two yue-constituents’ syntactic interdependence:
The first clause licenses the second one and vice versa. An alternative analysis therefore
needs to account for the fact that the two yue-clauses need to occur in pair with the linear
clause order fixed.
5.4 An alternative proposal
This section aims to show that the first clause in Chinese CC constructions is basegenerated in the left periphery. Assuming Rizzi’s (1997, 2004) work on split CP, I will
argue that Chinese CC constructions are a type of focus construction, projected by a null
functional head Foc0, which carries a [+focus] feature. The [+focus] feature licenses
occurrence of both yue1 and yue2. The first clause contains a focused phrase, which is the
DegP, and the second clause is analyzed as the complement of the null Foc0.
129
5.4.1 Information focus and the [+focus] feature
It is widely assumed that in an answer to a wh-question, the constituent which
corresponds to the wh-operator is taken as a focus (Badan 2008). Therefore if the yue1constituent can be an answer to a wh-question, its focus status is borne out. Consider the
following examples:
(27) Speaker A: (我)要花多少時間練習,琴藝才會好?
(Wo) yiao hua
DOUSHAO
shijian lianxi,
qin-yi
cai hui hao?
(I) need.to spend how.much time practice, piano.skill then MOD good
‘How much time do I need to spend on practicing so that my skills of
playing the piano will be good?’
Speaker B: (你)花越多時間練習,你的琴藝就會越好。
(ni) hua
YUE DOU
shijian lianxi, qin-yi
jiao hui
yue hao?
you spend YUE much time practice, piano.skill then MOD YUEgood
‘The more time you spend on practicing, the better your skills of
playing the piano will be.’
(28) Speaker A: 什麼樣的天氣, 冰淇淋賣得好?
sheme-yang-de tianqi, bingqilin mai-de-hao?
What-type-Gen. weather,ice-cream sell-DE-well
‘In what kind of weather does ice cream sell well?’
Or 天氣多熱, 冰淇淋就賣得好?
tianqi dou-re, bingqilin jiou mai-de-hao?
weather how-hot,ice-cream sell-DE-well
‘How hot is the weather so that ice cream may sell well?’
130
Speaker B: 天氣越熱, 冰淇淋賣得越好。
Tianqi
YUE RE,
bingqilin mai-de yue hao
Weather YUE hot, ice.cream sell-DE yue hao
‘The hotter the weather is, the better ice cream sells.’
In (27), the interrogative wh-word doushao ‘how much’ is responded to with the DegP
yue-dou ‘the more’ in speaker B’s answer. Note that in speaker B’s response, the object
shijian ‘time’ in the first clause and the subject qinyi ‘skills of playing the piano’ in the
second clause are both old information and construed as the topic in the discourse. The
new information given in speaker B’s answer is the amount of time that speaker A needs
to spend. Therefore, what is focused in Speaker B’s answer is the amount of time, but not
the entire clause. Similarly, in the examples of (28), yue-re ‘the hotter’ in speaker B’s
answer is the information focus while tianqi ‘weather’ is given old information. The
observation in (27) and (28) shows that the yue1- clause can consist of a known topic (i.e.
shijian ’time’ in (27) and tianqi ‘weather’ in (28)) and an information focus, which is
realized by the DegP. Now consider the question and the answer in (29) and (30):
(29) Question: 如何讓琴藝變好?
ruhe rang qin-yi
How
bian hao?
let piano-skills become good
‘How do we make our skills of playing the piano become good?’
Answer: (你)花越多時間練習,你的琴藝就會越好。
(ni) hua yue dou
shijian lianxi, qin-yi
jiao hui
yue hao?
you spend YUE much time practice, piano.skill then MOD YUE good
‘The more time you spend on practicing, the better your skills of
playing the piano will be.’
131
(30) Question: 什麼時候冰淇淋賣得好?
shemeshihou bingqilin mai-de-hao?
When
ice.cream sell-DE-well
‘When does ice cream sell well?’
Answer: 天氣越熱, 冰淇淋賣得越好。
Tianqi
yue re, bingqilin mai-de yue hao
Weather YUE hot, ice.cream sell-DE yue hao
‘The hotter the weather is, the better ice cream sells.’
In the example of (29) and (30), the entire yue1-clause can also act as new information in
respond to a wh-question. This suggests that the morpheme yue can be associated with
focus in some circumstances. The above examples argue that the yue-clauses cannot be
required to be topics; that is, they argue against a TopicP analysis. Since they are
associated with the left periphery, and they can be foci as in these wh-questions, I
propose that FocusP is the correct functional projection to analyze them in.
5.4.2 Derivation
The next question is how the yue1-cluse is generated in the derivation. As
discussed in an earlier section, the adjunct approach fails to account for the obligatory cooccurrence of the two yue-clauses. An alternative analysis is to treat the yue1-clause as
base-generated in the left periphery. Since Chinese features topic-prominence, the
hypothesis seems to be plausible that the yue1-clause functions as a topic in a topiccomment syntactic structure, as proposed by Tsao and Hsiao (2002). However, based on
observation of empirical data, moved topics or base-generated gapless topics in Chinese
132
are generally triggered by certain pragmatic or discourse contexts, but rarely, if not never,
triggered by lexical items53. Nevertheless, it is clear that the lexical word yue plays the
essential role in the CC constructions.
Instead, since Chinese CC constructions are essentially grounded on the lexical
word yue, it is plausible to analyze it as a type of focus construction. As discussed in
Section 5.1, yue acts as an indefinite degree variable at LF. I propose that yue in the yue1clause functions as a focus marker and focalizes the constituent it c-commands. The
entire yue1-clause is base-generated in [Spec, FocP]. The yue2-clause is the complement
of the Focus0. The proposed structure is schematized in (31):
(31)
Foc P
yue1-clause
… yue1…
Foc’
Foc0
[+focus]
Yue2-clause
… yue2…
In the above structure, the Foc0 carries a focus feature54. This focus feature is proposed to
license the occurrence of the yue1 via the spec-head relation of agreement and at the same
time selects as its complement a clause containing the yue2. Here, assuming Feature
Topic particles, such as a 啊, ne 呢, dehua 的話, are not considered to trigger the presence of a topic. On
the contrary, they are by-products of a topic’s presence.
54
In Section 2.2.3 of Chapter Two, Taylor’s (2006, 2009) study on English CCs and Kapetangianni and
Taylor’s (2009) study on Greek CCs are reviewed. The analysis they propose also involve [focus] features.
For Taylor and Kapetangianni, the [focus] feature is checked in each clause independently, but in my
proposal for Chinese CCs, they are both checked in the matrix clause.
53
133
Percolation Principles (Cooper 1986, Cole et al 1993)55, I propose that the [+focus]
feature on the focus head Foc0 is checked via the spec-head relation. In the process of
derivation, yue1 projects into a QP, base generated in [Spec, DegP]. The feature [+Focus],
generically inherited in yue1, percolates to its maximal projection (QP), then to the
maximal projection of the category it is in construction with, i.e. the DegP, via Agree.
Yue2 checks the [+Focus] feature on Foc0 in the same way.The obligatory paired
occurrence of the yue1 and yue2 is thus accounted for.
5.4.3 The split CP
The above proposed structure is grounded on Rizzi’s (1997, 2004) work on the
split CP hypothesis, in which the internal constitution of the CP can be split into several
functional projections (c.f. discussion in Cinque and Rizzi 2008 and in Radford 2009). A
fully-fledged split CP in Rizzi’s analysis is schematized bellow:
Feature percolation is a hypothesis, which requires that “in syntactic derivation all the features of the
head are also on the mother, but the mother may have additional features” (Cooper, 1986:32). In fact, there
is a hidden problem in applying feature percolation to account for feature-checking between the lexical
head yue and the functional head Foc0. Typically percolation only goes to the maximal projection of the
head bearing the features, e. g. from Q0 to QP. However, the yue-phrase is embedded inside maximal
projections of another category (IP) in [Spec, FocP]. Percolation from DegP to the maximal category IP in
the relationship to the Foc0 would be a difficult implementation. I do not have solution to this problem and
will leave it for future research.
55
134
(32)
ForceP (=CP)
TopP
FocP
FinP (=IP)
With the hypothesis of a split CP assumed, it is proposed that Chinese CC
constructions are the projection of the FocP. The next question concerns the nature of the
first yue-clause: Are they CP or IP projections56? Consider the following example and its
structure in (33) and (34):
(33)
(如果/要是/當)天氣越熱,電費(就)越高
(ruguo/iaoshi/dang ) tienqi
if /
if /
yue
re,
when weather YUE hot,
dian-fei (jiou)yue
gao
electricity-fee YUE high
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity fee is.’
Or ‘If the weather is hotter, the electricity fee is higher.’
56
For convenience and clarity in explication, I stick to using the conventional terminology of CP and IP
throughout the entire dissertation, instead of using ForceP and FinP.
135
(34)
CP
C’
C0
FocP
CP
Foc’
ruguo tianqi yue re Foc0
if weather YUE hot
IP
dian-fei (jiou) yue gao
electricity-fee (then) YUE high
That complementizer ruguo / iaoshi ’if’or dang ‘when’ can optionally appear and
introduce the first clause indicates that the yue1-clause is a CP. In addition, the entire CC
construction is a CP (i.e. ForceP in Rizzi’s terminology) and can be embedded below CPselecting verbs. Two examples are given in (35) and (36), where the embedded CC
construction is bold-faced:
(35) 瑪麗相信主管的領導能力越好, 部屬的效率就越高
Mali xiangxin
Mary believe
bushu-de
zhuguan-de
lingdaonengli
[CP supervisor –Gen. leadership
xiaolu
jiou yue
yue hao,
YUE good,
gao
subordinate-Gen. efficiency then YUE high]
‘Mary believes that the better the supervisor’s leadership, the better the
subordinate’s efficiency.
136
(36) 我們必須接受[投注越多時間和金錢 結果不一定越好]的事實
Ni
bixiu jieshou
you need.to accept
bu-yiding
ec touchu yue dou shijian han jinqian, jiahuo
[CP pro spend YUE much time and money, result
yue hao] -de
shishi
Neg.-necessary YUE good –Nom. fact
‘You need to accept that fact that it is not necessary the more time and money
you spend, the better the result will be.’
In (35), the CC construction is the complement of the verb believe of the matrix clause,
and in (36) it is the complement of the complex NP with shishi ‘fact’ being the head.
The claim that the entire CC construction is a CP can also be tested by yes-no
question formation. To form a yes-no question in Chinese, the sentence-final question
particle ma, assumed to be the C0, is attached to the end of the clause (c.f. Chapter 7 in
Huang et al (2009) for detailed discussion about question formation in Chinese). To make
the example of (33) into a yes-no question, ma appears at the end of the clause and is
realized as the C0, as shown in (37). The structure is illustrated in (38)57:
(37) 如果天氣越熱,電費(就)越高嗎?
(ruguo) tienqi
if
weather
yue
re,
dian-fei
(jiou) yue
gao
ma?
YUE hot, electricity-fee then YUE high
‘Is it the case that the hotter it is, the higher the electricity fee is?’
57
In Chinese, there are cases in which a CP is head initial, as shown in example (33) in the text. On the
other hand, there are also cases in which the head of a CP is head-final, as illustrated by the example in (37)
with the question particle ma. The issue whether the Chinese CP is head- initial or head-final has been
under debate. I assume both exist in this dissertation.
137
(38)
CP
C’
C0
ma
Q-particle
FocP
CP
Foc’
ruguo tianqi yue re
if weather YUE hot
Foc0
IP
dian-fei (jiou) yue gao
The above structure shows that the question particle ma scopes over the entire
construction. No ambiguity arises in the ma-question (yes-no question)58. On the other
hand, note that formation of tag questions can cause ambiguity. To form a tag question,
another particle shima is attached to the end of a clause. Consider the example and its
structure in (39) and (40):
(39) 我們吃得越多, 媽媽越高興, 是嗎?
women chi-de
we
yue
duo,
eat-DE59 YUE much,
mama
mom
yue gauxing,
YUE happy
shima?
Q.Part.
‘It is (always the case): the more we eat, the happier Mom is, isn’t it?’
Dr. Heidi Harley (p.c.) points that in English if “yes” or “no” follows at the end of the sentence, it sets a
whole-clause reading, as shown in (i):
“The more we eat, the happier she is, yes/no?”
The yes in this example then corresponds to Chinese sentence final question particle ma.
59
The morpheme de (得) here is a different one from the genitive case marker de (的) in footnote 6. The
former de is bound morpheme attached to the end of a verb and before an adverbial phrase/a resultative
state, for example:
wo zo-de
hen kuai
I
walk-DE very fast
‘I walked/walk every fast.’
58
138
(40)
CP
C’
C0
shima
tag-Q-particle
FocP
CP
Foc’
women chi-de yue dou
Foc0
we eat-DE YUE much
IP
mama yue gauxing
Mom YUE happy
The above structure shows that the tag-question particle shima has a scope over the entire
CC construction, and the tag question is interpreted as such: It is true that the more we
eat, the happier Mom is, isn’t it? Nevertheless, the sentence is ambiguous in that the tagquestion may also be formed based on the second clause, with the tag-question particle
shima only scoping over the second yue-clause. The English translation in (41)
demonstrates the different interpretation:
(41) (如果)我們吃得越多, 媽媽越高興, 是嗎?
(ruguo)women chi-de
(If)
we
eat-DE
yue
duo,
YUE much,
mama
mom
yue gauxing,
YUE happy
shima?
Q.Part.
‘The more we eat, the happier Mom is, isn’t she?’
To explain this ambiguity, I propose that the first yue-clause CP is moved upward to
[Spec, CP] and is thus out of the scope of the tag-question particle shima. Accordingly,
139
the tag question is interpreted based on the lower IP, i.e. the yue2-clause. The structure is
schematized in (42):
(42)
CP
CPi
C’
(Ruguo) women chi-de yue dou
if
we eat-DE YUE much
C0
shima
tag-Q-particle
FocP
ti
Foc’
Foc0
IP
mama yue gauxing
Mom YUE happy
The tag questions in (39) and (41) demonstrate ambiguity; they can either be based on the
whole structure or on only the second clause. By contrast, in English CCs, tag questions
are only formed based on the 2nd clause of the CC construction (Culicover and Jackendoff
1999: 548). No ambiguity is caused, as shown in (43):
(43) *The more we eat, the angrier you get, isn’t it? (cf. the Chinese example in (39))
The more we eat, the angrier you get, don’t you? (cf. the Chinese example in (41))
The above discussion is mainly to show that the yue1-clause is a CP, in which a
complementizer ruguo ’if’ or dang ‘when’ is optional. The yue2-clause, on the other
140
hand, is an IP, and question formation can be based on the IP or on the entire CC
construction.
5.4.4 When a Topic is involved in the left periphery
In this section, I further argue that Chinese CC constructions not only contain
focused elements, introduced by the lexical word yue, but also demonstrate the
characteristic topic-prominence in Chinese. As mentioned earlier, the focusP projection is
grounded on Rizzi’s (1997, 2004, 2008) cartographic structure of the split CP, in which
another functional projection above the FocP is an iterative TopP. Rizzi’s cartographic
structure of the left periphery in (32) is repeated below60:
(44)
ForceP (=CP)
TopP
FocP
FinP (=IP)
An argument that sustains the proposed Focus projection of the CC construction
implicates the occurrence of a topic. Assuming the split CP hypothesis predicts that there
can be a topic in a higher position than the focused yue1-clause. The following example
In addition to Rizzi’s split CP in the left periphery, Paul (2005) and Badan (2008) point that the TopP
and FocP are possible in the IP domain, which is referred to as the low periphery. This study of Chinese CC
constructions only concerns the left periphery in the CP domain.
60
141
bears out the prediction, in which a non-gap topic (marked bold-faced) appears in the
initial position, and its structure is presented in (46):
(45) 這家店, 天氣越熱, 冰淇淋賣得越好
zhe-jia-dian(a/ne/dehua),
tianqi yue
re,
bingqilin mai-de yue hao
This-Cl.-shop PART. , weather YUE hot, ice.cream sell-DE YUE well
‘For this shop, the hotter the weather is, the better (its) ice cream sells.’
(46)
ForceP (=CP)
TopP
NP
zhe-jia-dian
This-Cl.-shop
Top’
Top0
(a/ne/dehua)
FocP
Foc’
CP
tianqi yue re
Foc0
IP
bingqilin mai-de yue hao
The NP zhe-jia-dian is an instance of a non-gap topic; that is, it bears no anaphoric
relationship with a constituent in the yue1-clause or in the yue2-clause. No movement is
implicated, and it is analyzed to be base-generated in [Spec, TocP]. Note that a particle
a/ne/dehua can optionally attach to the end of the NP and realizes as the Top0.
142
Furthermore, it is observed that an argument which is co-indexed with an empty
category in either one or both yue-clauses is also able to be topicalized61 and occurs in
[Spec, TopP]. Examples are given in (47):
(47) 這家店的冰淇淋, 天氣越熱,賣得越好
Zhe-jia-dian-de
bingqilini,
tianqi
yue re,
This-Cl.-shop-Gen. ice.creami, weather YUE hot,
eci mai-de
yue hao
proi sell-DE YUE well
‘For ice cream of this shop, the hotter the weather is, the better *(it) sells.’
In (47), the NP zhe-jia-dian-de bingqilin ‘ice cream of this shop’ is considered to be
base-generated in [Spec, TopP] and coindexed with the empty category, which is a pro,
in the subject position of the second clause. With the topic in the initial position, the
entire CC-construction acts as its comment. The presupposition is “when the weather is
hot, ice cream of this shop sells well.” Based on this presupposition, the co-occurrence of
the lexical word yue1 and yue2 brings in an emphatic interpretation: The degree of hotness
correlates with the amount of ice cream consumed. If the yue1-clause were a topic to the
yue2-clause, according to Tsao and Hsiao’s (2002) analysis, such correlation based on the
presupposition could not be captured. Instead, it is proposed that the [+focus] feature in
the head Foc0 licenses yue1 and selects yue2. The structure for (47) is represented in (48):
61
In the literature of Chinese syntax, movement or base-generation are both possible approaches to address
the issue of topicalization (Xu and Langendoen 1985; Shi 1992; Qu 1994; Shyu 1995; Badan and Gobbo
2010 among others). In this dissertation, I take a broader concept with respect to topicalization: It refers to
the operation, either movement or base-generation, which makes a constituent stand out in the left
periphery.
143
(48)
ForceP (=CP)
TopP
Top’
NP
zhe-jia-dian-de bingqilin Top0
This-Cl.-shop-Gen. ice.creami
FocP
Foc’
CP
Foc0
tianqi yue re
IP
proi …yue hao
The following example further demonstrates the property of topic prominence, in
which the initial topic NP co-indexes with empty categories in the topic chain (Li 2004,
Shi 1989)62:
(49) 那幅畫, 我越看越喜歡
na-fu-hua,
wo
yue kan ec ec
that-Cl.-picturei, [CP Ij YUE see
ti
proj
yue
xihuan ec
YUE like
ti ]
‘That picture, the more I look at it, the more I like it.’
62
A typical example (originally in Li 2004: 25) of a topic chain in Chinese discourse is given in (i), in
which the symbol Ø represents empty categories and two topics are bold faced:
那輛車 i, Øi 價錢太貴 Øi 顏色也不好 我不喜歡 Øi 不想買 Øi
Na-liang chei jiaqian tai gui, Øi yanse ye bu hao,
woj bu xihuan Øi, Øj bu xiang mai Øi.
that-CL cari,
price too high, eci color also not good, Ij not like eci, ecj not want buy eci.
昨天去看了一下
還開了一會兒 還是不喜歡
Øj Zuotian qu kan le yixia Øi, Øj hai kai le yihuir Øi, Øj haishi bu xihuan Øi.
ecj yesterday go see PRT a-bit eci, ecj also drive PRT a-while eci , ecj still not like
eci.
In (i), 10 empty categories are identified. Those subscribed with “i” are coreferential with na-liang
che ‘that car’ in the first clause; the ones subscribed with “j” are coreferential with wo ‘I’ in the third
clause. In Chinese linguistics, the clause(s) with the phonetically null NP(s) and the one with the overt
coreferential NP are considered to form a chain with the overt NP being the topic of the chain. This
structure is commonly referred to as the topic chain (c.f. Li (2004) and Shi (1989) and references cited
there for detailed discussion about Chinese topic chains).
144
(50) 這件褲子, 越穿越鬆
zhe-jian-kuzi,
ec
yue
chuan ec
this-Cl.-pantsi, [CP proj YUE wear
ti
ec
yue
song
] [IP proi YUE become.loose]
‘This pair of shoes, the further *(I) wear them, the looser it becomes.’
In (49), na-fu-hua ‘that picture’, as the head in the topic chain, coindexes with the two
empty categories in both object positions of the yue1-clause and the yue2-clause. In (50),
the head topic NP is coindexed with the empty category in the object position of the yue2clause but with that in the subject position of the yue2-clause. Such coreferential
relationships between the initial overt topic and the empty categories cannot be accounted
for by a movement approach. Therefore, the initial NP is considered to be base-generated
in these examples.
5.5 A summary of this chapter
In this chapter, I have reviewed and presented the internal structure of the DegP
proposed in earlier studies on CCs of different languages. I propose that the DegP in
Chinese CCs is headed by a null Deg0 and that the lexical word yue acts as an indefinite
degree quantifier and is realized as a QP in [Spec, DegP]. The DegP in each clause
constitutes a degree variable at LF. To account for the correlation between the two degree
variables, I argue that they are bound by a null correlativity operator. The operatorvariable binding mechanism proposed here is on par with the binding relation in which a
null question operator binds an in-situ wh-element in Chinese, which is much discussed
in the literature of Chinese syntax.
145
For the macrostructure of the CC construction, I have addressed the problematic
issues with respect to the adjunction approach and to the analysis proposed by Tsao and
Hsiao’s (2002) initial work on Chinese CCs. The alternative analysis I propose in this
study assumes Rizzi’s (1997, 2004) cartographic approach to a split CP, and I argue that
the Chinese CC is a functional projection of a null Focus0. I also show that the alternative
structure can accommodate presence of a topic; therefore the property of topic
prominence in Chinese syntax is retained in the proposed analysis.
146
CHAPTER SIX
A VARIANT OF CHINESE YUE- CONSTRUCTIONS
6.0 An overview
The canonical CC construction in both English and Chinese consists of two noncoordinated clauses. As we have seen in previous chapters, the yue1 and the yue2 are
embedded in the first and the second clause respectively in the canonical Chinese CC
construction. This chapter concerns a variant of the Chinese CC-constructions, in which
yue1 is not contained in a clause, but in a left-dislocated NP. I will argue that the leftdislocated NP containing yue1 is not derived via movement. Instead, it is a base-generated
focused NP, licensed by the [+Focus] feature in the head Foc0. The proposed analysis will
be shown to be unitary with the analysis I presented in Chapter Five.
This chapter contains five subsections. Section 6.1 presents structures of the
variant yue-construction. In Section 6.2, through diagnostics of movement, I argue
against a movement approach to deriving the position of the left-dislocated yue1-NP. The
status of the yue1-NP in the left periphery and its interaction with a topic is accounted for
in Section 6.3. In Section 6.4, I preset the proposed analysis and structure of derivation. A
summary of this chapter is given in Section 6.5.
147
6.1 A variant of Chinese yue-constructions
In the variant Chinese CC construction, the yue1–constituent and the yue2–
constituent can form a structure in which the yue1–morpheme precedes an adjective or an
adverb or is embedded in a relative clause modifying an NP (hereafter the yue1-NP for
short) while the yue2-constituent is contained in the IP. The structure is schematized in
(1):
(1) a. [CP [[[ …yue1 Adj…] N0] NP], [IP …yue2 …]].
b. [CP [[[ …yue1 …Rel] N0] NP], [IP …yue2 …]].
Examples illustrating the structure of (1a) are given in (2):
(2) a. 越簡單的設計, 我越喜歡。
Yue1 jiandan-de
sheji,
wo
yue2
[YUE1 simple-DE design NP]i , [IP I YUE2
xihuan ec.
like
eci ]
‘The simpler a designi is, the more I like iti.’
Lit. ‘A design which is simpler, I like better.’
b. 越勤奮的員工, 越有機會升遷。
yue1
qinfen-de
yuangong,
[IP ec yue2
you jihui
shenqian].
[[YUE1 diligent-DE employee NP]i, [IP eci YUE2 have opportunity get.promoted]
‘The more diligent an employee is, the more opportunities he may have to get
promoted.’
or ‘An employee who is more diligent has more opportunities to get promoted.’
Lit. ‘The more diligent an employee, the more opportunity he has to get
promoted.’
In (2a), yue1 is contained in an NP headed by shiji ‘design’, and the NP is co-indexed
with the empty category in the object position of the main verb xihuan ‘like’. In Section
148
6.2, it will be argued that the empty category in (2a) is not a trace, but a variable. For the
example in (2b), the left-dislocated NP yue qinfen-de yuangong ‘a more diligent
employee’ is coindexed with the empty category, which is a pro63, in the subject position
of the IP where yue2 scopes over the VP you jihui ‘have opportunities’. The English
translations for (2a) and (2b) indicate that this variant has no counterpart in English CC
constructions.
For the structure in (1b), where the left-dislocated NP is a complex NP with the
head N0 modified by a relative clause containing yue1, examples are given in (3):
(3) a. 越多名人推薦的書, 越多人買。
yue1 duo mingren tueijia
de
shu
yue2
duo ren
mai ec.
[[YUE1 many celebrity recommend tj DE Rel] bookj NP]i, [IP YUE2 many people buy eci]
‘The more celebrities recommend a book, the more people buy it.’
or ‘For those books which more celebrities recommend, more people buy them.’
Lit. ‘Books which more celebrities recommend, more people buy.’
b. 越多名人推薦的書, 賣得越好。
yue1
duo mingren
tueijia
de
shu
ec mai-de yue2 hao.
[[YUE1 many celebrity recommend tj DE Rel] bookj NP]i, [IP proi sell-DE YUE2 well]
‘The more celebrities recommend this book, the better it sells.’
or ‘For those books which more celebrities recommend, they sell better.’
Lit. ‘Books that more celebrities recommend sell better.’
In (3a), the complex NP consists of a relative clause which modifies the head shu
‘books’, and the entire NP is coindexed with the empty category in the object position of
63
Readers are reminded here that Chinese is a subject pro-drop language.
149
the verb mai ’buy’ while it is coindexed with the empty category in the subject position in
(3b).
We must determine whether the complex NP undergoes movement or is based
generated in the surface position. If it is derived via movement, then what triggers the
movement? It might be plausible to hypothesize that the complex NP is moved, via
topicalization, from an argument position to an A-bar position in the left periphery.
However, topicalization of an argument in regular Chinese sentences is an optional
operation and the overall meaning is not affected, as illustrated in (4) and (5):
(4) a. 我喜歡簡單的設計。
wo
xihuan
jiandan-de sheji.
[IP I [VP like [NP simple-DE design] ]]
‘I like simple designs.’
b. 簡單的設計, 我喜歡。
jiandan-de sheji,
wo xihuan ec.
[NP simple-DE design]i [IP I [VP like eci ]]
‘Simple designs, I like (*them).’
(5) a. 很多人買名人推薦的書。
henduo ren
mai mingren
tueijian
ec de shu.
[IP [ many people] [I’ [VP buy [[ celebrities recommend ti DE Rel] booki NP]]]]
‘Many people buy books which celebrities recommend.’
b. 名人推薦的書, 很多人買。
mingren
tueijian
ec de
shu,
henduo ren
mai ec.
[[ celebrities recommend ti DE Rel] booki NP]j , [IP many people [I’[VP buy ecj]]]
‘Books which celebrities recommend, many people buy (*them).’
150
The sentences in (4a) and in (5a) are regular sentences with the canonical SVO word
order, whereas the sentences in (4b) and (5b) demonstrate an OSV word order. The
examples indicate that no matter whether the object NP is topicalized to the periphery or
not, the sentence is grammatical.
On the contrary, when yue1 and yue2 are inserted, in the examples of (4a) and (5a),
into the position of the empty categories with which they are coindexed,
ungrammaticality arises, as illustrated in (6a) and (7a):
(6) a. *我越喜歡越簡單的設計。
* wo
yue xihuan
[IP I [VP YUE like
yue jiandan de sheji.
[[YUE simple DE] design NP] ]]
Lit. *‘The more I like the simpler design.’
Intended meaning is as it is in (7b) below.
b. 越簡單的設計, 我越喜歡。
Yue1 jiandan-de sheji,
wo
yue2 xihuan ec.
[YUE1 simple- DE design NP]i , [IP I YUE2 like
eci ]
‘The simpler a design is, the more I like it.’
or ‘A design which is simpler, I like (*it) better.’
(7) a. *越多人買越多名人推薦的書。
* yue duo
ren
mai
yue duo mingren tueijian
de
shu.
[IP[YUE many people] [I’[VP[buy[YUE many celebrities recommend DE Rel] book NP]]]]
Lit. * ‘The more people buy books the more celebrities recommend.’
Intended meaning is as it is in (7b) below.
151
b. 越多名人推薦的書, 越多人買。
yue duo
mingren tueijia
de
shu,
yue duo
ren
mai ec.
[[YUE many celebrity recommend tj DE Rel]bookj NP]i, YUE many people buy eci
‘The more celebrities recommend a book, the more people buy it.’
or ‘Those books which more celebrities recommend, more people buy (*them).’
The examples in (6) and (7) demonstrate an anti-c-command restriction: The yue in the
matrix clause is prohibited from c-commanding the yue contained in the left-most NP. If
the left-dislocated object NP in (6b) and (7b) were derived via topicalization movement,
the sentence in (6a) and (7a) with the NP reconstructed back to the original object
position would be incorrectly predicted to be grammatical.
Two points should be emphasized about the above phenomenon. First, there is a
mandatory anaphoric relationship between the yue1-(complex) NP and a gap in the main
clause. Second, an argument in regular Chinese sentences can be optionally topicalized to
the sentence-initial position without changing the intended meaning. However, yueconstructions behave differently because the dislocation is obligatory. The above data are
meant to show that this variant CC construction cannot be derived via normal Chinese
topicalization processes.
6.2 Arguments against the movement approach
The following subsections present diagnostics of movement in the variant yueconstruction. Overridden locality constraints, lack of reconstruction effects and absence
of weak crossover effects, structures without a gap, and the availability of a resumptive
152
pronoun will be introduced in support of the proposal that the yue1-NP is base-generated,
but not moved to the periphery.
6.2.1 Extraction from wh-islands
Subjacency specifies locality constraints on movement. In Chomsky (1981),
constraints on extraction from wh-islands are subsumed under the Subjacency Condition.
For the variant of YUE- constructions, I will show that the link between the yue1-NP and
the empty category that is coindexed with can cross a wh-island. This link would violate
the Subjacency Condition if it were created by movement64. Therefore, the yue1-NP is
base-generated, not created by movement.
64
For the Subjacency Condition, Huang (1982a, b) proposes that while Chinese does not have whmovement in overt syntax, it employs a covert movement process in Logical Form (LF) (cf. Huang et al
2009: 260-268 for detailed discussion and review about covert wh- movement in Chinese). One of the
arguments for LF-movement hypothesis is evidenced by the following examples in (i) and (ii). The
sentence in (i) is not ambiguous and interpreted as a statement containing an embedded question while the
sentence in (ii) is ambiguous and can be either interpreted as a question or a statement:
(i) 張三想知道李四買了什麼。
Zhangsan xiang-zhidao Lisi mai-le shenme.
Zhangsan wonder
Lisi buy-Asp. What
‘Zhangsan wonders what Lisi bought.’
(ii) 張三記得李四買了什麼。/ ?
Zhangsan jide
Lisi mai-le shenme?
Zhangsan remember Lisi buy-Asp. What
‘Zhangsan remembers whati Lisi bought ti.’
‘Whati does Zhangsan remember Lisi bought ti?’
Assuming that the wh-phrase in (i) and (ii) undergoes movement in LF as it does in overt syntax, the
following structures may be derived from (i) and (ii):
(iii) a. *[shenmei [Zhangsan xiang-zhidao [[Lisi mai-le ti]]]]
‘For which x: x a thing, Zhangsan wonders Lisi bought?’
b. [[Zhangsan xiang-zhidao [shenmei [Lisi mai-le ti]]]]
‘Zhangsan wonders [for which x: x is a thing, Lisi bought x].’
(iv) a. [shenmei [Zhangsan jide [[Lisi mai-le ti]]]]
‘For which x: x a thing, Zhangsan remembers Lisi bought ti?’
b. [[Zhangsan jide [shenmei [Lisi mai-le ti]]]]
‘Zhangsan remembers [for which x: x a thing, Lisi bought x].’
153
The examples in (8) contain an embedded wh-question introduced by shifo
‘whether’. Consider the islandhood and compare the position of the NP yue jiandan-de
shiji ‘the simpler design’ in (8a) and (8b):
(8) a.*張三想知道是否顧客會越喜歡越簡單的設計
*Zhangsan xiang-zhidao shifo
ZS
guke hui yue
xihan yue jiandan-de shiji
wonder [CP whether clients may YUE like [NPYUE simple-DE design]]
‘Zhangsan wonders whether clients like a simpler design more.’
The non-ambiguity of (i) follows because it corresponds to only one LF representation (i.e. (iii) b) that
satisfies the selectional requirement of the matrix verb. By contrast, the two LF representations shown in
(iv) indicate that there are two sites for the wh-movement and therefore the sentence in (ii) is ambiguous.
A seocnd argument is related to extraction of a wh-adjunct out of a syntactic island. In English, such
extraction causes ungrammaticality, as shown in (v):
(v) a. *Howi do you like [the man who fixed the car ti]?
b. *Howi did you feel satisfied [after he fixed the car ti]?
Consider now Chinese examples in (vi):
(vi) a.大衛喜歡為什麼買書的瑪莉?
Dawei xihuan weishenme mai shu
de Mali?
David like
[ why
buy books DE] Mary?
*‘Whyi does David like Mary who bought books ti?’
b. 他在李四為什麼買書以後生氣了?
ta zai Lisi weishenme mai shu yihou shengqi-le?
he [at Lisi
why
buy books after] get.angry-Asp.
*’Whyi did he get angry [after Lisi bought the books ti]?’
The asterisks in (vi) indicate that the wh-adjunct weshenme ‘why’ inside the syntactic island cannot be used
to form a direct question about the adjunct. That is, the wh-adjunct cannot move out of the syntactic island
(a complex NP in (vi) a and an adjunct island in (vi) b).
Another evidence is related to an argument/adjunct asymmetry observed in extraction out of an
indirect question. In English, it is more difficult to move an adjunct out of a wh-island than it is to move an
argument, as shown in (vii):
(vii) a. ?? Whati did you wonder [how to fix ti]?
b. *Howi did you wonder [what to fix ti]?
A similar argument/adjunct asymmetry is also observed in Chinese. Consider the example in (viii):
(viii) 張三想知道李四為什麼買了什麼?
Zhangsan xiang-zhidao [Lisi weishenme mai-le shenme]?
Zhangsan wonder
Lisi why
buy-Asp. what
‘What is the x such that Zhangsan wonders why Lisi bought x.’
Not: ‘What is the reason x such that Zhangsan wonders what Lisi bought for x?’
The example in (viii) shows that with the two wh-phrases shenme ‘what’ and weishenme ‘why’ being in
situ, it can be interpreted as a direct question about ‘what’, but not about ‘why’.
In short, English and Chinese are both subject to island restrictions. The main difference is that the
restrictions are observed in overt syntax in English whereas they are observed in LF in Chinese.
154
b. 張三想知道是否越簡單的設計,顧客會越喜歡。
Zhangsan xiang-zhidao shifo
Yue jiandan-de shiji,
Zhangsan wonder
guke hui
[CP whether [NPYUE simple-DE design]i, clients may
yue xihan ec.
YUE like eci]
‘ Zhangsan wonders whether the simpler a design is the better clients may like it.’
c. 越簡單的設計, 張三想知道是否顧客會越喜歡。
Yue jiandan-de shiji, Zhangsan xiang-zhidao
YUE simple-DE design, ZS
wonder
shifo guke hui yue xihan ec.
[CP whether clients may YUE like ec]
‘For a design which is simpler, Zhangsan wonders whether clients may like it
more.’
Lit. *‘ The simpler a design is, Zhangsan wonders whether clients may like it
more.’
The embedded wh-clause of the sentence in (8a) has a regular SVO word order, with the
NP yue jiandan-de shiji ‘a design which is simpler’ in the object position. The
ungrammaticality of (8a) indicates that the yue1-NP is not allowed in the object position.
In (8b), the yue1-NP is left-dislocated in the embedded clause, and it can even cross
further as shown in (8c). The surface structure of (8c) shows that the yue1-NP is leftdislocated in the left periphery of the matrix clause while the yue2-clause remains in the
embedded clause. The empty category in object position of the embedded clause is coindexed with the yue1-NP. If the empty category were a trace left behind, the movement
of the yue1-NP would cross the wh-island and violate the subjacency condition. If the
subjacency condition holds true, then the movement approach is refuted. The empty
155
category is thus proposed not to be a trace, but a variable bound by the yue1-NP from an
A-bar position.
6.2.2 No reconstruction effect
As generally assumed in generative grammar, A-bar movement involves binding
reconstruction. Therefore, reconstruction effects can be diagnostics for movement (Fox
1999). Consider the following examples in (9) and (10):
(9) a. 傑克認為他一定很喜歡大衛常看的書。
Jeike renwei
ta
yiding
hen xihuan Dawei chang kan de shu.
Jack thinks [CP he*i definitely very like [Davidi often read DE Rel] book NP]
‘Jack thinks that he*i definitely likes those books Davidi often reads.’
b. 大衛越常看的書, 傑克認為他一定越喜歡。
Daweii
[[Davidi
yue chang kan de shuk,
YUE often read DE] book NP]k,
Jieke renwei
tai
yiding
yue xihuan
Jack thinks [CP hei definitely YUE like
eck.
eck ]
‘Those books which Davidi reads more often, Jack thinks hei definitely likes t
more.’
(10) a. 他常出錢贊助大衛喜歡的畫家。
Ta chang chu-qian
zanzhu
Dawei xihuan de
He*i often donate-money sponsor [David
huajia.
like DE Rel] artist NP]
‘He*i often donates money to sponsor the artists Davidi likes.’
156
b. 大衛越喜歡的畫家, 他越常出錢贊助。
Dawei
yue xihuan de
huajia,
ha chang chu-qian
zanzhu.
[David YUE like DE Rel] artist NP], hei often donate-money sponsor
‘The artists Davidi likes more, hei donates money more often to sponsor t.’
The examples in (9a) and (10a) are regular sentences without yue and have the canonical
SVO word order. Principle C in Binding Theory is observed: The referential nominal
Dawei ‘David’ cannot be bound by the pronominal ta ‘he’. By contrast, Principle C is
irrelevant in the yue-construction sentences. For instance, in (9b) and (10b), the
referential nominal Dawei ‘David’ in the complex yue1-NP can be co-indexed with the
pronominal ta ‘he’ in the main clause. Therefore, we conclude that it isn’t reconstructed
as a movement approach would predict. The two examples show that there is no
reconstruction effect, which indicates the complex yue1-NP is not moved from the object
position.
6.2.3 No weak crossover effect
Another way to diagnose movement is to examine whether a weak crossover
(WCO) effect is displayed (Chomsky 1976; Higginbotham 1980; Reinhart 1983; Lasnik
and Stowell 1991; Postal 1993; Shyu 1995)65. The general assumption about the WCO
effect concerns proper binding---the impossibility of interpreting the pronoun as
65
Readers are also referred to Badan abd Gobbo (2010) and Shyu (1995) for detailed discussion about
WCO in topic and focus structures in Chinese.
157
anaphoric to the wh-element or the quantifier (Chomsky 1976, cited in Aoun’s (1993:2)
discussion concerning Chinese data), as illustrated in the examples of (11):
(11) a. *Whoi did hisi mother see?
b. *Hisi mother saw everyonei.
Ungrammaticality in (11) is caused when the pronoun is coindexed with the wh-operator.
Interpretation is considered to crash because the wh-operator crosses over the pronoun
and leaves a trace, which is a variable. Such configuration makes the pronoun unable to
covary with the variable, and it thus is termed the crossover effect. Reinhart (1983, cited
in Shyu 1995: 85-6) proposes the restriction in (12):
(12) A pronoun must be c-commanded by its binder in order to be interpreted as
a bound variable.
This accounts for the contrast between the two examples in (13):
(13) a. * Hisi mother wonders whoi Mary likes ti.
b. Everyonei loves hisi mother.
The sentence in (13a) crashes in interpretation, for the pronoun his is not c-commanded
by its antecedent who. By contrast, the pronoun in (13b) is c-commanded by the binder
everyone and can get interpreted as a variable.
158
Given the generally-accepted assumption that Chinese is a wh-in-situ language,
the condition on proper binding stated in (11) is observed in PF, as illustrated in the
following example in (14)66:
(14) 他的顧客信賴誰?
*tadei guke xinlai
hisi
client trust
sheii ?
who*i?
*‘Whoi does hisi client trust ti?’
Since crossover effects are caused by movement, it can be used to diagnose movement. If
there is no WCO effect in a sentence, it indicates that no movement occurs. Consider the
example in (15):
(15) a. 越謹慎的設計師, 他的顧客越信賴。
yue jinshen-de
shijishi ,
tade j guke hui
[NP YUE prudent-DE designer] j, [IP hisj
yue xinlai ec j.
client will YUE
trust ecj ]
‘The more prudent a designer is, the more his clients trust him.’
Lit. ‘Those designers who are more prudent, their clients trust more.’
66
For the interrogative Chiense sentence in (14) to be interpretable, it should be changed into the sentence
in (i), and the corresponding paired answer is given in (ii):
(i) Question: 誰的顧客信賴誰?
Sheii-de
guke xinlai sheii?
Whoi-Pos. client like whoi?
‘Whosei client likes whoi?’
(ii) Answer: 張三的顧客信賴張三; 李四的顧客信賴李四…
Zhangsan-de guke xinlai Zhangsan; Lisi-de guke xinlai Lisi…
Zhangsan-Pos. client like Zhangsan; Lisi-Pos. client like Lisi…
‘Zhangsani’s clients trust himi; Lisij’s clients trust himj…’
In (i), the wh-element shei ‘who’ in the object position is c-commanded and bound by the wh-quantifier
shei-de ‘whose’ and thus can be interpreted as a variable.
159
b. 創意越多的作家i 他的讀者越樂於支持。
chuangyi yue
[idea
dou
de
zuojia,
tade duzhe yue leyu
zhichi ec.
YUE many DE Rel] writer NP]i, hisi readers YUE happy.to support eci
‘The more ideas a writer has, the happier his readers are to support him.’
Lit. ‘Those writers who have more ideas, his readers are happier to support.’
The possessive pronoun tade ‘his’ in above two examples covaries with the leftdislocated NP, which is co-indexed with the empty category in the object position. The
coindexation between the nominals in (15) has the following schema:
(16) yue1-NPi…pronouni…eci
If the yue1-NP were moved from the object position, the WCO effect would be displayed,
and the empty category (the trace) could not be bound by the pronoun. That the empty
category is freely bound by the pronoun indicates that the WCO effect is absent, and
accordingly the empty category is not a trace left after movement67. This lends support to
the contention that the empty category is base-generated; no movement occurs here.
Without movement, the binding relation that holds between the empty category in
the object position and the left-dislocated yue1-NP should be an antecedent-pronoun
relation, with the yue1-NP A-bar binding the empty category. This is evidenced by the
following example:
67
Lasnik and Stowell (1991) suggest that WCO effects occur only when the pronoun and the trace are
locally A’-bound by a true QP (or by a trace of a true QP). Since the yue1-NP is not a true quantifier phrase
(QP), but rather an indefinite degree expression, Lasnik and Stowell’s contention may help account for
absence of WCO in the variant of yue-constructions discussed in this Chaper.
160
(17) 越謹慎的設計師, 張三認為顧客越信賴。
Yue jinshen-de shejishi,
Zhangsan renwei
guke
yue xinlai ec.
[YUE prudent-DE designer NP]i, Zhangsan think [CP clients YUE trust
eci]
‘The more prudent a designer is, the more Zhangsan thinks clients trust him.’
If the empty category in the example of (17) is pronominal, it could refer to the yue1-NP,
Zhangsan, or even some other person in the discourse according to Principle B. However,
grammaticality judgment shows that the empty category can only refer to the referential
expression represented by the yue1-NP. Therefore, the empty category in the main clause
is analyzed as a variable68 (Hou and Kitagawa 1987; Huang 1989).
6.2.4 Lack of an anaphoric relation
The movement approach is also refuted by evidence from sentences in which the
fronted yue1-NP does not have an anaphoric relation to a gapless main clause, as shown
in (18):
68
In Huang (1989) explication of the pro-drop phenomenon in Chinese, he argues that the Chinese null
subject is regarded as a genuine null pronominal whereas the null objects should be best analyzed as a
variable. The evidence is based on identification of the empty category in the object position of the
sentence in (i):
(i) Zhangsan shou [Lisi hen xihuan ec
le ]
Zhangsani say [Lisij very like
ec*i/*j Perf]
‘Zhangsani said Lishj likes him*i/*j/k very much.
In (i), the null object must refer to some other person (a discourse topic understood in context), but not to
the matrix subject Zhangsan, and it is A-bar bound by a null operator.
161
(18) a. 越有名的餐廳, 食物不一定越好吃。
Yue youming de canting,
shiwu bu-yiding
yue haochi.
[YUE famous DE restaurant NP], food not-necessary YUE tasty
Lit. ‘For a more famous restaurant, (its) food is not necessarily tastier.’
or ‘It’s not necessary that the more famous a restaurant is, the tastier (its)
food is.’
b. 我越喜歡的餐廳, 生意越好。
wo yue xihuan de canting,
[ I YUE like
shenyi
yue hao.
DE restaurant NP], business YUE good
‘For the restaurant I like better, (its) business is better.’
c. 颱風越多的季節, 蔬菜的價格越高。
[[taifong yue dou de Rel] jijei NP], shucai-de
Typhoon YUE dou DE
jiage yue gao.
season, vegetables-Gen. price YUE high
‘For the seasons when there are more typhoons, the price of vegetables is
higher.’
In all the three examples, the left dislocated NP is not linked to an argument in the main
clause. Therefore, movement does not occur here, and the left dislocated NP is derived by
the base-generation strategy.
With respect to interpretation, the left located NP seems to function as an
‘aboutness’ topic or a gapless topic and the main clause in which the yue2 is contained is
the comment. However, as noted in Chapter Five, the occurrence of Chinese topics is not
dependent on a particular lexical item, but we nonetheless observe that the lexical word
yue is obligatory in the left-located NP. That is, if an analysis assumes the entire left-
162
dislocated NP is a topic, it needs to account for the crash of interpretation when yue1 is
absent from the left-dislocated NP. Alternatively, I propose that the entire yue1- NP is
analyzed as a focused phrase, with the N0 head alone taken as a topic or given
information. The structure will be presented in a later section.
6.2.5 Resumptive pronouns are possible
It is generally assumed that a trace left behind cannot host an overt pronoun, that
is, a resumptive pronoun (Aoun and Li 2003, Gasde and Paul 1996, Kuong 2006 among
others). In other words, occurrence of a resumptive pronoun indicates the absense of
movement. Consider the following examples in (19):
(19) a. 能力越好的部屬 老闆越願意給他機會。
Nengli
laoban
yue uanyi
[Capability YUE good DE subordinator NP]i, boss
YUE willing
gei
yue
hao
de bushu,
(ta) jihui.
give (himi) opportunity
‘The more capable a subordinatori is, the more willing the boss is to
give himi opportunities.’
b. 越能吸引讀者的作家, 出版商越有興趣和他合作。
yue neng xiyin duzhe de
zuojia, chubanshang yue you-xingqu
[YUE can attract readers DE Rel] writer NP] i, publisher YUE have-interest
han ta
hezuo.
with him i cooperate
‘The more able to attract readers a writeri is, the more interested the
publisher will be in cooperating with himi. ’
163
c. 風格越獨特的設計師
fengge yue
dute
推薦他的顧客越多
de shejishi,
tueijian
[style YUE unique DE designer NP] i, [recommend
(ta)
de
guke
(him i) DE Rel] clients NP]
YUE dou
YUE many
‘The more unique a designer’s style is, the more clients there are who
recommend him.’
d. 越有才華的畫家, 越多人買他的作品
yue you-caihua de huajia,
yue duo ren
mai *(ta-de) zuopin
[YUE have-talent DE] artist NP] i, YUE may people buy *(hisi) works
‘The more talents an artist shows, the more people there are buying his
works.’
All the above examples demonstrate that a resumptive pronoun can occur in the position
where the yue1-NP is construed. That indicates the yue1-NP is derived by a basegeneration strategy, but not through movement.
6.3 The yue1-NP in the left periphery
The previous section presents arguments against a movement approach to the
derivation of the yue1-NP. This section addresses the status of the yue1-NP as a focused
phrase in the left periphery and how it interacts with a topic. Empirical data will show
that a topic may be embedded in the yue1-NP or occur in a higher position.
164
6.3.1 The yue1-NP functions as a focus
In Chapter Five, for the canonical Chinese CC construction consisting of two
clauses, I argue that the yue1-clause is a focused clause in the specifier of the FocP, with
the yue2-clause being the complement. The argument pertains to the observation that a
focused expression corresponds to a wh-element in wh-questions (cf. Section 5.4 in
Chapter Five). Similarly, in the variant yue-construction, the yue1-NP can also act as an
information focus in answering a wh-question. An example is given in (20), with the
focused NP boldfaced:
(20) Speaker A: 什麼樣的書 越多人買?
Shenme-iang-de
shu,
yue
dou
ren
mai ec?
[NPWhat- kind-DE book]i, YUE many people buy eci
‘What kinds of books are purchased by more people?’
Lit. *‘What kinds of books, the more people buy them?’
Speaker B: 越多名人推薦的書 越多人買
yue duo mingren tueijia
de
shu
[[YUE many celebrity recommend tj DE Rel] bookj NP]i,
yue duo
ren
mai ec
[IP YUE many people buy eci ]
‘Those books which more celebrities recommend, more people buy.’
In the above example, the given topic in the question is shu ‘book’. The complex yue1-NP
in Speaker B’s answer corresponds to the wh-element sheme-iang-de ‘what kinds of’ in
Speaker A’s question. This suggests that the complex yue1-NP is a focused NP, with the
given topic, i.e. shu ‘books’, embedded in it.
165
Note that the yue2 is present in the question of (20), and an answer without yue1
embedded in the complex NP would be invalid, as shown in (21):
(21) *很多名人推薦的書 越多人買
* hendou mingren tweijian
shu,
yue dou
ren
mai ec
[[many celebrities recommend DERel] book NP]i, YUE many people buy eci
Lit. ‘Those books that many celebrities recommend, more people buy.’
A native speaker’s answer which correctly contains the yue1 indicates the selectional
restriction imposed by yue2 in the derivation.
6.3.2 When a topic is involved
The property of topic-prominence is demonstrated in this variant yueconstruction. A topic may be embedded in the yue1-NP. In the example of (22), Speaker
A raises a wh-question, with the N0 shine sheji ‘interior design’ being the (discourse)
topic. Three possible answers are given in Speaker B’s reply. For clarification, the
focused element is boldfaced and the topic is underlined:
(22) Speaker A: 瑪麗喜歡什麼樣的室內設計?
Mali xihuan sheme-iang-de shine sheji?
Mary like what-kind-of interior design
‘What kind of interior design does Mary like?’
Speaker B: a. 瑪莉喜歡簡單的室內設計
Mali xihuan jiandan-de shine sheji
Mary like simple-DE interior design
‘Mary likes simple interior design.’
166
b. 越簡單的室內設計,瑪麗越喜歡
yue jiandan-de shine sheji,
Mali yue xihuan ec
[YUE simple-DE interior design NP]i , Mary YUE like eci
‘The simpler the interior design is, the more Mary likes it.’
c. 室內設計, 越簡單的,
shine sheji,
瑪麗越喜歡
yue jiandan-de ec, Mali yue xihuan ec
interior designi, YUE simple-DE eci, Mary YUE like eci
‘For interior design, the simpler (it is), the more Mary likes.’
In Speaker B’s first answer (a), both the focus and the topic are in-situ. The answer (b)
has the topic contained in the yue1-NP, which is co-indexed with the empty category in
the object position of the main clause. The topic shine sheji ‘interior design’ can also
occur higher than the yue1-constituent, as shown in the answer (c). Since NPs are island,
the topic shine sheji ‘interior design’ in the (c) answer cannot be derived via movement.
Therefore, the topic is treated as base-generated. It is the head of the topic chain (Shi
2000, Li 2004) and is coindexed with the empty category in the yue1-NP and in the main
clause respectively.
6.4 The proposed analysis
For the variant Chinese CC construction examined in previous sections, this
section presents an analysis, which is unitary with the analysis of the canonical Chinese
CC construction proposed in Chapter Five. In Section 5.4 in Chapter Five, I propose that
the yue1-clause is analyzed as a focused clause in the specifier of the FocP. In semantics,
a null correlative operator binds the degree variable expressed by yue in each clause.
167
Similarly, for the current variant construction, I assume Rizzi’s (1997, 2004)
cartographic approach to the left periphery and propose that the yue1-NP is a focused NP
in [Spec, FocP] and that the null Foc0 selects a clause containing yue2. The feature
[+focus] in the Foc0 makes co-occurence of yue1 and yue2 obligatory. For the sentence in
(3a), repeated below as (23), the internal structure of the complex yue1-NP and the entire
construction’s structure are schematized in (24) and (25):
(23) 越多名人推薦的書, 越多人買
yue1 duo mingren tueijia
de
shu
yue2
duo ren
mai ec
[[YUE1 many celebrity recommend tj DE Rel] bookj NP]i, [IP YUE2 many people buy eci]
‘The more celebrities recommend a book, the more people buy it.’
(24) The structure of the complex yue1-NP
NP
N’
N0
shu
booki
CP
C’
IP
NP
DegP
QP
yue
YUE
NP
Deg’
Deg0
I’
I0
C0
de
DE
VP
N’
AdjP N0
dou
ren
many people
tueijian t
recommend ti
168
(25)
CP (=ForceP)
FocP
NPi
Foc’
yue1 duo mingren
tueijia
de shu
Foc0
YUE many celebrities rcommend DE book
IP
NP
I’
yue2 duo ren
YUE many people
I0
VP
mai eci
In the structure of (25), the yue1-NP is the A-bar antecedent binding the variable
in the object position. It may also co-index with a pro in the subject position of the yue2clause. An example is given in (26) and its structure is shown in (27):
(26) a. 越謹慎的設計師(,) 越挑剔細節
Yue jinshen-de shejishi (,)
ec
yue tiaoti
xijei
[YUE prudent-DE designer NP]i (,) proi YUE be.picky.about details
‘Designers who are more prudent are pickier about details.’
or ‘The more prudent a designer is, the more pickier he is about details.’
169
(27)
CP (=ForceP)
Cor.OPj,k
FocP
NPi
yue jinshen de shejishi
YUEj prudent DE designer
Foc’
Foc0
[+Focus]
IP
proi
I’
I0
VP
yue
tiaoti xijei
YUEk picky.about details
The pause is optional in articulation. Readers might conjecture that the yue1-NP is
derived as a regular subject and spelt out in [Spec, IP]. However, the feature [+Focus] in
the Foc0 needs to be checked by yue1 via the spec-head relation. Therefore, the yue1-NP is
required to be generated in [Spec, FocP].
In both derivation schematized in (25) and (27), the feature [+Focus] needs to be
checked by yue1 and yue2 via agreement, which explains their co-occurrence. In Section
5.1.2 in Chapter Five, it is mentioned that the values of the yue1 variable and the yue2
variable correlate with each other. The statement of (10) in Chapter Five is repeated
below as (28):
(28) For a degree variable x introduced by the yue1-constituent and a degree
variable y introduced by the yue2-constituent in Chinese CC constructions,
when the value of x changes, the value of y proportionally changes at the
same time.
170
For the correlation to be established, a correlative operator (Cor. OP) in [Spec, CP]
unselectively binds the two variables denoted by yue1 and yue2.
As presented in Section 6.3.2, a topic can precede the focused yue1-NP. The
example presented in Section 6.3.2 is repeated here as (29):
(29) 室內設計 (的話/呢/啊), 越簡單的, 瑪麗越喜歡
shine sheji
(dehua/ne/a), yue jiandan-de
interior designi
Part.,
ec, Mali yue xihuan ec
YUE simple-DE eci, Mary YUE like eci
‘For interior design, the simpler (it is), the more Mary likes.’
A topic particle dehua, ne, or a can optionally be attached to the topic shine sheji ‘interior
design’, and if present, the particle is realized as the Top0, as shown in the following
structure:
(30)
CP
Cor.OPj,k
TopP
NPi
shine sheji
interior designi
Top’
Top0
(dehua/ne/a)
FocP
NP
yue jiandan-de ec
Foc0
YUE simple-DE eci
Foc’
IP
Mali yue xihuan ec
Mary YUE like eci
171
As mentioned earlier, the focused yue1-NP is an island, and therefore the topic is not
derived by movement, but by base generation, and has an anaphoric relation with the
empty categories in the yue1-NP and in the IP.
6.5 Summary
In this chapter, I first present a variant of Chinese CC-constructions. What
distinguishes the variant construction from the canonical CC construction is that its yue1
is contained in a left-dislocated nominal phrase. I argue that the left-dislocated NP
containing yue1 is not derived via movement, but via base-generation. Arguments against
the movement approach are based on the results of diagnoses of wh-island constraints,
reconstruction effects, and weak crossover effects. The empirical data illustrating the
possibility of including a resumptive pronoun and the lack of an anaphoric relation
between the left-dislocated NP and a gap also indicate evidence against the movement
approach. I propose that the left-dislocated NP is a base-generated focused NP in the left
periphery, licensed by the [+Focus] feature in the head Foc0. The proposed structure
assumes a split CP and therefore can accommodate possible presence of a topic in a
higher position above the focused NP. The analysis is shown to be unitary with the
analysis I presented for the canonical CC construction in Chapter Five.
172
CHAPTER SEVEN
CONCLUSION
7.1 A summary of the proposal
In this dissertation, I reviewed and evaluated earlier studies on comparative
correlatives, examined the lexical properties of the lexical word yue, investigated the
structural dependency of the constitutive clauses, and then proposed an analysis for the
syntactic derivation of Chinese CCs. Specifically, I have sought to analyze three major
properties of Chinese CCs: 1) The in-situ property of the yue-constituent, 2) the
correlation between the two degree variables represented by the yue1-constituent and the
yue2-constituent in each clause, and 3) the structural relationship between the constitutive
clauses and the overall syntactic derivation.
For the property of the lexical word yue, I first argued that it is not the equivalent
of the comparative morpheme er/more in English (Section 3.1 in Chapter Three). Instead,
I treated yue as an in-situ INDEFINITE DEGREE EXPRESSION. In the internal structure of
DegP in CCs, I proposed that the lexical word yue (and the indefinite wh-in-situ of the
wh-type CCs) projects into a QP in [Spec, DegP] whereas the head Deg0 is null.
Crosslinguistically, the idea of distinguishing the degree/measure expression from a
comparative morpheme in CCs is not unique. It is also discussed, for example, by
Iwasaki and Radford (2009) and Kapetangianni and Taylor (2009a, 2009b) in their
analysis for English and Greek CCs (Section 2.2 in Chapter Two as well as Section 4.4 in
Chapter Four).
173
Similar to indefinite wh-in-situ expressions, the yue-phrase also demonstrates
quantificational variability effects (QVE, discussed in Section 4.4.2 in Chapter Four). I
proposed that the semantic content of the yue-constituent needs to be specified by an
implicit operator on a par with non-interrogative wh-in-situ, the quantificational
variability of which is determined by a null binding operator (Section 4.4 in Chapter Four
and Section 5.1 in Chapter Five).
Even though the paired yue-constituents in CCs are morphologically and
orthographically identical, the degree denoted in the preceding yue-constituent designates
an ‘indefinite’ degree whereas the one in the second yue-constituent designates an
‘anaphoric’ expression of degree. In other words, the degree denoted by the second yuevariable hinges on that of the preceding yue-variable (Section 4. 5. 3 in Chapter Four). To
account for the correlational relationship between the two degree variables represented by
the DegP in each clause, I proposed that the implicit binding operator is a
CORRELATIVITY OPERATOR. It unselectively binds the two indefinite yue-variables such
that the following correlational relationship is established: for a degree variable x
introduced by the yue1-constituent and a degree variable y introduced by the yue2constituent in Chinese CC constructions, when the value of x changes, the value of y
proportionally changes at the same time (Section 4.5 in Chapter Four and Section 5.1.2 in
Chapter Five). It is noted that since the yue1-variables does not c-command the yue2variable, the binding relationship between the abstract operator and indefinite variables is
not a regular type, but it is established via the operation of ‘unselective binding’ (Heim
1982; Pesetsky 1987; Cheng and Huang 1996).
174
For the contrast in the position of the DegP between English (and many other
languages’) CCs and Chinese CCs, we have seen that the comparative constituent in
English CCs undergoes A-bar movement and is restricted by locality constraints on
movement (Section 3.4 in Chapter Three). On the other hand, the yue-constituent in
Chinese CCs remains in situ and can be interpreted in situ without ambiguity. A covert
movement is not proposed since the yue-constituent is immune to island effects (Section
3.4 and Section 5.1.2).
I also evaluated the theoretical adequacy of extant treatments of CCs with respect
to the structural relationship between the two constitutive clauses. I first argued against
the prevailing adjunct approach to the derivation of the preceding clause. A property of
adjunction is that it merges constituents that are complete themselves (Haegeman 2006).
If the yue1-clause were an IP adjunct to the yue2-clause, then it would be falsely predicted
that the yue1-clause would be optional and the yue2-clause could be an independent
clause. The topic-comment approach, proposed in Tsao and Hsiao’s initial work on
Chinese CCs, can correctly capture the lineal order of the constitutive clauses and also
reflect the property of topic prominence in Chinese grammar. However, their analysis
also treats the yue1-clause as an adjunct to the yue2-clause, and therefore fails to account
for the syntactic interdependence between the two clauses. It does not account for the
obligatory paired occurrence of yue1 and yue2, either. In Chinese, moved topics or basegenerated gapless topics are generally triggered by certain pragmatic or discourse
contexts, but are rarely, if not never, triggered by lexical items. Nevertheless, it is clear
that the lexical word yue plays the essential role in the CC constructions.
175
The results of applying the diagnostics for the Coordinate Structure Constraint
showed that extraction from either yue-clause is permissible, and therefore the
coordinate-structure approach was also ruled out (Section 3.5 in Chapter Three). Instead,
assuming Rizzi’s (1997, 2004) split CP hypothesis, I argued that the entire CC
construction involves information structure in the left periphery. Empirical data showed
that the yue1-constituent can correspond to the wh-element and be taken as the answer in
wh-questions. This argument is a proof of the plausibility that the yue1-constituent can be
associated with a focus (Section 5.4.1 in Chapter Five). Since the yue1-constituent is
associated with the left periphery, and it can be a focus in answering wh-questions, I
therefore proposed that FocP is the correct functional projection to analyze Chinese CCs
in. The FocP is projected by a null functional head Foc0, which carries a pair of [+focus]
features. The first clause is focused, base-generated in the left periphery, and contains the
yue1-constituent while the second clause containing yue2-constituent is the complement of
the null Foc0. The [+focus] feature is checked by yue1 and yue2, and their co-occurrence
is therefore accounted for (Section 5.4 in Chapter Five). The proposed analysis can also
accommodate possible presence of a topic in a higher position above the FocP. The
characteristic topic prominence in Chinese grammar is thus retained.
After investigating the canonical two-clause structure of Chinese CCs, I presented
a variant structure, which does not have an equivalent in English CCs. The variant
structure festures a left-dislocated nominal phrase in which the yue1-constituent is
embedded. I argued that the left-dislocated NP is not derived via movement, but via basegeneration. My arguments against the movement approach are based on the results of
176
applying the diagnostics of wh-island constraints, reconstruction effects, and weak
crossover effects (Section 6.2 in Chapter Six). The empirical data illustrating the
possibility of including a resumptive pronoun and the lack of an anaphoric relation
between the left-dislocated NP and a gap also indicate evidence against the movement
approach. I proposed that the left-dislocated NP is a base-generated, focused NP in the
left periphery, licensed by the [+Focus] feature of the head Foc0. The proposed analysis
for the variant structure is unitary with the analysis I proposed for the canonical twoclause structure: I argued that both are the functional projection of FocP.
7.2 Contributions of this study
In the literature, the idiosyncratic properties of English CCs with respect to the
mismatch between the semantic interpretation and the syntactic configuration led
Culicover and Jackendoff (1999: 567) to claim that the CC construction does not comply
with the general patterns of X-bar theory (Section 2.2.1 in Chapter Two). Culicover
(1999) further categorized it to be a ’syntactic nut’--- an idiosyncratic construction whose
properties do not derive from general properties of English grammar. In contrast, Dikken
(2005: 498) maintains that CC constructions exhibit a high degree of crosslinguistic
consistency and is “well-behaved… analyzable in keeping with the principles and
parameters of UG.” In the same line of reasoning, Taylor (2006) and Iwasaki and
Radford (2009) also analyze the construction in the Principles-and-Parameters
framework. My investigation of Chinese CC-constructions has shown that Chinese data
demonstrate many crosslinguistic commonalities in syntax and in semantics and therefore
177
further support Dikken’s (2005, 2009) contention regarding generality in syntactic
configurations. Among the three categories of CC constructions that I described in
Chapter Two, Chinese CCs feature the in-situ DegP. Thai, Indonesian, Vietnamese, and
Cantonese also demonstrate a similar syntactic pattern. The typological contrast between
the moved DegP and the in-situ DegP does not undermine the generality of CCs. Instead,
it reflects the parameter of wh-in-situ.
Another major contribution of this study is to reveal that in addition to the wellknown yue-type CCs, there exists the wh-type CC construction, which also denotes the
correlational relationship between the paired degree/ amount variables (Section 4.3.2).
The wh-type features a pair of non-interrogative wh-in-situ expressions. Chinese is not
the only language which uses no-interrogative wh- expressions to form CC construction.
As described in Chapter Two, crosslinguistic data show that CC constructions of
languages such as Greek, Hindi, Latin, Spanish, Italian, Russian, etc. also employ noninterrogative wh- expressions. What distinguishes Chinese from those languages is the
position of the DegP. In the case of Chinese, it stays in situ, while for those languages, it
is fronted to the clause-initial position. I proposed that the in-situ DegP in Chinese CCs
reflects the wh-in-situ property in Chinese internal grammar. The parallelism between the
wh-type and the yue-type CCs, both employing in-situ indefinite expressions, leads us to
a better understanding of wh-in-situ expressions in the Chinese grammar.
178
7.3 Issues for future research
There some issues pointed out by colleagues and conference reviewers at different
times that I will leave for future research. First, I will consider and investigate whether
other Deg heads in Chinese can appear in CC constructions. Second, in Chapter Five, I
proposed that the feature [+Focus] percolates from the lexical head yue up to its maximal
projection QP and all the way up to the entire IP in [Spec, FocP]. However, there is a
hidden problem. Typically percolation only goes to the maximal projection of the head
bearing the features. However, the yue-phrase is embedded inside maximal projections of
another category (IP). This is a difficulty that must be addressed. I will further investigate
the issue regarding the [Focus]-feature-checking between the lexical word yue and the
Foc0 and evaluate the theoretical adequacy of appealing to feature percolation. Third,
Chinese CCs can contain three clauses, as shown in the following example:
天氣越熱, 電費越高, 我的開銷越大。
tienqi
yue re, dian-fei
yue gao, wode kaixiao yue da.
weather YUE hot, electricity-fee YUE high, my expense YUE big.
‘The hotter the weather is, the higher the electricity fee is, the poorer I am.’
I will seek to accommodate the configuration exemplified by the above example in my
analysis. Fourth, I plan to consider whether the proposed analysis in Chapter Five and Six
can also account for a similar construction realized in the pattern of ‘…zai (再) …ye (也)
…’. The following is an example of this construction:
你買再貴的禮物, 我也不會接受。
ni mai zai-kuei-de
liwu, wo ye
bu-huei
jieshou ec.
you buy ZAI-expensive-DE gifti,
I YE Neg.-Mod. accept eci
‘No matter how expensive a gifti you buy (for me), I will not accept iti.’
179
I did not incorporate this construction into my dissertation. However, by intuition, there
may be shared properties between this construction and CCs. My future research will
examine whether this construction may also be treated as projection of FocP. Last but not
least, I will investigate whether other wh-in-situ languages also demonstrate a similar
correspondence between the general language-internal wh-in-situ property and in-situ
DegP in CC constructions.
180
REFERENCES
Abeillé, A., Borsley, R. D., & Espinal, M. T. 2006. The syntax of comparative
correlatives in French and Spanish. In Proceedings of the HPSG06. Standford:
CSLI Publications.
Abeillé, A., R. Borsley. 2008. Comparative correlatives and parameters. Lingua
118. 1139-1157.
Alrenga, P. 2005. A sentential subject asymmetry in English and its implications for
complement selection. Syntax 8: 3. 175-207.
Aoun, J. and Yen-hui A. Li. 1993a. Syntax of Scope. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
---
1993b. Wh-elements in-situ: syntax or LF? Linguistic Inquiry, 24. 199–238.
---
2003. Essays on the representational and derivational nature of grammar: The
diversity of wh-constructions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Authier, J-Marc P. 1989. Arbitrary null objects and unselective binding. In The Null
Subject Parameter. 45-67. Netherlands: Springer.
Badan, L. 2008a. The even-construction in Mandarin Chinese. Chinese Linguistics in
Leipzig, R. Djamouri, and R. Sybesma (eds.). 101-116.
---
2008b. Preposed object and low periphery in Mandarin Chinese. Studies in
Linguistics: CISCL Working Papers on Language and Cognition Vol. 2. 19-42.
Badan, L. & F. Del Gobbo. 2010. On the Syntax of Topic and Focus in Chinese. In
Mapping the Left Periphery, Benincà P. & Munaro N. (eds.). 63-90. OxfordNew York: Oxford University Press.
Beck, S. 1997. On the Semantics of Comparative Conditional. Linguistics and
Philosophy 20. 229-271.
Bhatt, Rajesh. 2003. Locality in correlatives. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory
21. 485-541.
Boarsley, R. 2004. On the periphery: Comparative Correlatives in Polish and English. In
Proceedings of Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics (Vol. 12), Olga
Arnaudova et al (eds.). 59-90. Michigan Slavic Publications.
181
Chao, Y. R. 1968. A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Los Angeles and Berkeley, CA:
University of California Press.
Cheng, Lisa. 1991. On the Typology of Wh-questions. Doctoral dissertation, MIT.
---
2003a. Wh-in-situ. Glot International, 7(4). 103-109.
---
2003b. Wh-in-situ. Glot International, 7(5). 129-136.
Cheng, L. L. and C. J. Huang. 1996. Two types of donkey sentences. Natural Language
Semantics, 4(2). 121-163.
Cheng, L.-S. and J. Rooryck. 2000. Licensing wh‐in‐situ. Syntax, 3(1). 1-19.
Cheng, L. L. S., & Sybesma, R. 2005. A Chinese relative. Organizing Grammar:
Studies in Honor of Henk van Riemsdijk. Broekhuis, Hans et al (eds.). 69-76.
Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Chomsky, N. 1973. Conditions on transformations. In A Festschrift for Morris Halle.
Stephen Anderson & Paul Kiparsky (eds.). 232-286. New York: Holt, Rinehart
and Winston.
---
1976. Conditions on rules of grammar. Linguistic Analysis 2. 303-51.
---
1981. Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris.
---
1982. Some Concepts and Consequences of the Theory of Government and
Binding. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
---
1986. Barriers. Cambridge: MIT Press.
---
2000. Minimalist inquiries: the framework. In Step by Step: Essays on Minimalist
Syntax in Honor of Howard Lasnik, R. Martin, D. Michaels, J. Uriagereka
(eds.). 89-155. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Cinque, G., & Rizzi, L. 2008. The cartography of syntactic structures. Studies in
Linguistics 2. 42-58.
Citko, B. 2009. What don‘t wh-questions, free relatives, and correlatives have in
common?. In Correlatices Cross-linguistically, A. Lipták (ed.). 49-80.
Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
182
Cole, P., G. Hermon, and L. M. Sung. 1993. Feature percolation. Journal of East Asian
Linguistics 2. 91-118.
Constant, N. and Chloe C. Gu. 2010. Mandarin even all and the trigger of focus
movement. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Penn Lingistics Colloquium Vol.
16 (1). 21-30.
Cooper, Robin. 1986, Swedish and the head-feature convention. Topics in Scandinavian
Syntax, L. Hellan and K. Koch Christensen (eds.). 31-52.
Corver, Nobert. 1991. Evidence for DegP, Proceedings of NELS, Vol. 21. 33-47.
Culicover, P. W. 1999. Syntactic nuts: Hard cases in syntax. Oxford University Press.
Culicover, P., R. Jackendoff. 1999. The View from the Periphery: The English
Comparative Correlative. Linguistics Inquiry 40. 543-571.
Dayal, Veneeta. 2013. The syntax of scope and quantification. In The Cambridge
Handbook of Generative Syntax, Marcel den Dikken (ed.). Cambridge, MA:
University Press.
Dikken, Marcel den. 2005. Comparative Correlative Comparatively‟, Linguistic Inquiry
36. 497-532.
---
2006. Comparative correlatives and successive cyclicity, Manuscript,
CUNY Graduate Centre.
---
2009. Comparative correlatives and successive cyclicity. In Correlatives Crosslinguistically, Anikó Lipták (ed.). 263-306.
Downing, Bruce T. 1973. Correlative clauses in universal grammar. In Minnesota
Working Papers in Linguistics and Philosophy of Language 2. 1–17.
Ernst, T. 1995. Negation in Mandarin Chinese. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory,
13(4). 665-707.
Fillmore, Charles J. 1987. Varieties of conditional sentences. Eastern States Conference
on Linguistics. Vol. 3. 163-182.
Fox, Danny 1999. Reconstruction, interpretation and the binding theory of chains.
Linguistic Inquiry 30. 157–196.
Gasde, H. D. and Waltraud Paul. 1996. Functional categories, topic prominence, and
183
complex sentences in Mandarin Chinese. Linguistics 34. 263-294.
Haegeman, Liliane. 2006. Thinking Syntactically: A Guide to Argumentation and
. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Haspelmath, Martin. 2007. Coordination. In Language Typology and Syntactic
Description Vol. 2: Complex Constructions Complex Constructions. Timothy
Shopen (ed.). 1-51. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Heim, I. 1982. The Semantics of Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases. Doctoral
dissertation. University of Massachusets, Amherst.
Her, One-Soon. 1991. Topic as a grammatical function in Chinese. Lingia 84. 1-23.
Higginbotham, J. 1980. Pronouns and bound variables. Linguistic Inquiries 11. 679-708.
Hou, John Y. and Chisato Kitagawa. 1987. Null operator and the status of empty
categories in Chinese. Linguistic Inquiry, 18 (3). 518-523.
Hsiao, Su-ying. 2002. Negative Sensitivity in Chinese: A Comparative Study of
Mandarin Chinese and Holo Taiwanese. Doctoral dissertation, National Tsing
Hua University.
Hsiao, S.-Y. 2003. On proportional correlative constructions in Chinese and Mongolian.
Journal of Taiwanese Language and Literature 1 (1). 243-272.
Huang, C. T. James. 1982a. Move wh in a language without WH movement. The
Linguistic Review 1. 369–416.
---
1982b [1998]. Logical relaions in Chinese and the theory of grammar. Doctoral
dissertation, MIT; edited version published by Garland, New York, 1998.
---
1984. On the distribution and reference of empty pronouns. Linguistic Inquiry 15
(4). 531- 574.
---
1989. Pro-drop in Chinese: A generalized control theory. In The Null Subject
Parameter. 185-214. Springer Netherlands.
---
2003. The distribution of negative NPs and some typological
correlates. In Functional Structure(s), Form and Interpretation, Audrey Li,
and Andrew Simpson (eds.). 262-280. London/New York: Routledge Curzon.
Huang, C.T. and Y.H. Li and Y.F. Li. 2009. The syntax of Chinese. Cambridge:
184
Cambridge University Press.
Iwasaki, Eiichi & Radford, Andrew. 2009. Comparative Correlatives in English: A
Minimalist-Cartographic Analysis. Essex Research Reports in Linguistics 57
(6).pp.1-14
Iwasaki, E. 2011a. Comparative Correlative Constructions Revisited. The Economic
Journal of Takasaki City University of Economics, 54, 39-55.
Iwasaki, E. 2011b. Comparative Correlatives in German and Dutch: Germanic Word
Order and Some Asymmetry. The Economic Journal of Takasaki City
University of Economics, 54, 17-34.
Izvorski, Roumyana. 1996. The Syntax and Semantics of Correlative Proforms. In
Proceedings of NELS 26. 133-147. University of Massachusetts, Amherst:
GLSA.
Kapetangianni, Konstantia, & Taylor, H. L. 2009a. Comparative correlatives in Greek:
The syntax of oso. In Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop in Greek Syntax and
Semantics at MIT. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 57. 91-105.
Kapetangianni, Konstantia, & Taylor, H. L. 2009b. Focus, degree, and quantification:
Comparative correlatives and equative comparatives. Proceedings of the 8th
International Conference on Greek Linguistics (ICGL 8). 207-220.
Keenan, Edward 1985. Relative clauses. In Language typology and syntactic description,
Timothy Shopen (ed.). 141–70. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Kennedy, C. 1997. Projecting the Adjective: The Syntax and Semantics of Gradability
and Comparison. Ph.D. Dissertation, UC Santa Cruz.
Kuong, Io-Kei. 2006. Clausal Peripheries and Resumptives: A Cross-Linguistic Study
of Topic-Comment Structures. Doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University.
Lasnik, H. and T. Stowell. 1991. Weakest Crossover. Linguistic Inquiry 22. 687-721.
Leung, T. T.-C. 2004. Thai ying and the syntax-semantic mapping of comparative
correlatives. SEALS XIV: papers from the 14th meeting of the Southesat Asian
Linguistics Society (2004). 205-217. Pacific Linguistics.
---
2005. Typology and universals of comparative correlatives (handout).
The Sixth International Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology.
Padang Indonesia.
185
Lewis, D. 1975. Adverbs of Quantification. In Formal Semantics of Natural Language.
Edward Keenan (ed.). 3-15. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Li, C. N. and S. Thompson. 1976. Subject and topic: A new typology of language. In
Subject and Topic, (ed.) Charles N. Li, 457-489. New York: Academic Press.
--- 1981. Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar. Berkeley: University
of California Press.
Li, Wenda. 2004. Topic chains in Chinese discourse. Discourse Processes 37 (1). 25-45.
Li, Y. H. Audrey. 1992. Indefinite Wh in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of East Asian
Linguistics 1(2). 125-155.
---
2007. Theories of empty categories and Chinese null elements. Yuyan Kexue
[Linguistic Sciences] 6. 37-47.
Lin, J. W. 2007. On the semantics of comparative correlatives in Mandarin Chinese.
Journal of Semantics 24. 169-213.
Lin, J. W. 2009. Chinese comparatives and their implicational parameters. Natural
Language Semantics 17(1). 1-27.
Lipták, Anikó. 2004. On the correlative nature of Hungarian left peripheral relatives. In
ZAS Papers in Linguistics: Proceedings of the Dislocated Elements Workshop.
287-313.
Lipták, Anikó. 2009. The landscape of correlatives: An empirical and analytical survey.
In Correlative Cross-linguistically, Anikó Lipták (ed.). 1-48. Philadelphia:
John Benjamins.
Lipták, Anikó. 2012. Correlative topicalization. Acta Linguistica Hungarica 59 (3). 245302.
Liu, Chen-sheng L. 1996. A note on Chinese comparatives. Studies in the Linguistic
Sciences 26. 217-235.
---
2008. The view from yue: Chinese comparative correlatives. Lingua 118(8). 10331063.
---
2010. The positive morpheme in Chinese and the adjectival structure. Lingua
120(4). 1010-1056.
---
2011. The Chinese bi comparatives. Lingua 121. 1767-1795.
186
Matushansky, Ora. 2002. Movement of Degree/degree of movement. Doctoral
dissertation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
May, Robert. 1977. The Grammar of Quantification. Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
--- 1985. Logical Form: Its Structure and Derivation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
McCawley, J. D. 1988. The comparative conditional construction in English, German
and Chinese. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley
Linguistics Society. 176-187.
Michaelis, L. 1994. A case of constructional polysemy in Latin. Studies in Language
18. 45-70.
Mitrenina, O. 2010. Correlatives: Evidence from Russian. Formal studies in Slavic
linguistics. Proceedings of Formal Description of Slavic languages, 7. 135152.
Oda, Toshiko. 2008. Degree Constructions in Japanese. Doctoral dissertation. University
of Connecticut.
Paul, Waltraud. 2005. Low IP and left periphery in Mandarin Chinese. Recherches
Linguistiques de Vincennes 33. 111-134.
Pesetsky, D. 1987. Wh-in-situ: Movement and unselective binding. In The representation
of (in) definiteness, Eric J. Reuland and Alice G. B. ter Meulen (eds.). 98-129.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Postal, P. Martin. 1993. Remarks on weak crossover effects. Linguistic Inquiry 4(3). 539556.
---
1998. Three Investigations of Exrtraction. (Current studies in linguistics series Vol.
29). MA: MIT Press.
Qu, Yanfeng. 1994. Object Noun Phrase Dislocation in Mandarin Chinese. Doctoral
Dissertation. University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Reinhart, Tanya. 1983. Coreference and bound anaphora: A restatement of the anaphora
questions. Linguistics and Philosophy 6. 44-87.
Rizzi, L. 1997. The fine structure of the left periphery. In Elements of Grammar.
Handbook of Generative Syntax, Haegeman L. (ed.). 281-337. Dordrecht:
187
Kluwer.
---
2004. Locality and left periphery. Structures and beyond: The cartography of
syntactic structures, Vol. 3. 223-251.
Rodman, Robert. 1977. Constraints on Coordination in Thai, Korean, and Mandarin
Chinese. Linguistica Antverpiensia Vol. 11. 143- 154.
Ross, J. Robert. 1967. Constraints on Variables in Syntax. Doctoral dissertation,
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Shi, D. 1989. Topic chain as a syntactic category in Chinese. Journal of Chinese
Linguistics 17. 223–261.
---
1992. The Nature of Topic-Comment Constructions and Topic Chains.
Doctoral dissertation. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
---
2000. Topic and topic-comment constructions in Mandarin Chinese. Language 76
(2). 383-408.
Shyu, S. 1995. The Syntax of Focus and Topic in Mandarin Chinese. Doctoral
dissertation, University of Southern California.
Smith, C. 1997. The Parameter of Aspect, 2nd ed. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic
Publishers.
Srivastav, Vaneeta. 1991. The Syntax and Semantics of Correlatives. Natural Language
and Linguistic Theory 9. 637-686.
Tang, Ting-Chi. 1979. Studies in Chinese Syntax.Taipei: Studednt Books.
Taylor, Heather L. 2006. Can comparative correlatives be derived under minimalist
assumptions? In Proceedings of the 36th meeting of the North East Linguistics
Society (NELS), C. Davis, A. R. Deal, Y. Zabbal (eds.). 587- Amherst, MA.
---
2009. The syntactically well-behaved comparative correlative. In Merging
Features: Computation, Interpretation, and Acquisition, José M. Brucart, Anna
Gavarró, and Jaume Solà (eds.). 254-275. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tsai, W.-T. D. 1994a. On Economizing the Theory of A-bar Dependencies. PhD
Dissertation, MIT.
188
---
1994b. On nominal islands and LF extractions in Chinese. Natural
Language and Linguistic Theory 12. 121–175.
Tsao, Feng-Fu. 1977. A functional study of topic in Chinese. Doctoral dissertation,
University of Southern California.
Tsao, F.F., and Su-ying Hsiao. 2002. Lun hanyu liang-zhong guanlian jushi de yufa yu
yuyi [On the syntax and semantics of two correlative constructions in Mandarin
Chinese]. Language and Linguistics 3 (4). 811–838.
Xiang, Ming. 2003. A phrasal analysis of Chinese comparatives. In Proceedings from
the Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Vol. 39 (1). 739-754.
Chicago Linguistic Society.
---
2005. Some Topics in Comparative Constructions. PhD dissertation,
Michigan State University.
Xu, Liejiong and Langendoen, D. T. 1985. Topic structures in Chinese. Language 61(1).
1-27.
Zhang, Niina Ning. 2006. On the configuration issue of coordination. Language and
Linguistics. 7.1. 175-223.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement