Frank W. Eddy A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the

Frank W. Eddy A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the
A SEQUENCE OF CULTURAL AND ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS IN
THE CIENEGA CREEK BASIN, SOUTHEASTERN ARIZONA
by
Frank W. Eddy
A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the
DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the Degree of
MASTER OF ARTS
In the Graduate College
UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
1958
STATEMENT BY AUTHOR
This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of recuire
ments for an advanced degree at the University of izona and is de
posited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers
under rules of the Library0
Brief quotatios from this thesis are allowable without special
permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made
Reauests for permission for extended ojuotation from or repr3duction
of this manuscript in whole or i part may be granted by the head of
the major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in
their judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interests of
acholarship0 In all other instances, however, permission must be
obtained from the author.
SIGNED:
/:-
APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR
This thesis has been approved on the date shown below:
I
.1
R0 H0 THOMPSO
Assistant Professor of Anthropology
7/
7'
Date
PREFACE
The investigation of archaeological sites and alluvial deposits
reported in this study was undertaken as part of a larger program
directed toward an understanding of the relationship between man and
nature in prehistoric Arizona. The long range program is a part of
the research activity carried on by the Department of Anthropology,
University of Arizona and the Arizona State Museum. Initial interest
in the problem developed out of the pilot study conducted by Drs. E.
W. Haury and E. B. Danson in company with five University students;
Messrs. Alexander J. Lindsay, Dick Shutler, Jr., William G. Soiheim,
Ernest E. Leavitt, Jr., and William J. Beeson. First hand knowledge
of the field situation was gained through a preliminary test excavation
carried out with the help of William J. Robinson and Christie G. Turner.
Geological study was undertaken by Mr. lvi. E. Cooley. This
project was followed by one of intensive archaeological excavation.
Actual labor was performed by the following workmen from Patagonia,
Arizona: Messrs. Augustine R. Moreno, Robert Moreno Flores, and
Joe Cruz Soto,
The sustained field project was financed by a grant from the
11
Comin' s Fellowship Fund administered by a committee of the Department
of Anthropology, University of Arizona. Valuable supplementary aid
was given by the Arizona State Museum in the form of supplies and
equipment.
Field work was performed on the Cienega Ranch owned by Mr.
John Greenway of Tucson and operated by Messrs. Fred and Harry
Barnett. Considerable information and aid of a local nature were supplied by both Barnett families as well as the hospitality of their respective homes.
Supplementary archaeological excavation of miscellaneous features was undertaken on weekend trips to the Cienega Ranch. Assistance was given by fellow students and other close friends including
Ernie Leavitt, Thomas P. Harlan, Alfred E. Johnson, Jim J. Hester,
and Andrew E. Douglass. Several carbon sample collecting trips were
made in company with Mr. Dick Shutler, Jr., Research Assistant in the
Department of Anthropology. Brief trips to the study area to re-check
sites were made in company with Mr. and Mrs. William J. Robinson.
The analysis of the archaeological data derived from the field
project was made with the helpful consultation of Mr. E. B. Sayles,
Dr. E. W. Haury, and many of my fellow students. Studies of collateral
environmental data were carried out by a number of specialists from
related fields. Mr. M. E. Cooley, currently with the Museum of
111
Northern Arizona, reported on the alluvial study (Appendix A). Mr. T.
L. Smiley, Geochronology Laboratories, identified the charcoal samples (Appendix B). Dr. E. Lendell Cockrum and Mr. William J.
Schaldach, Jr. of the Department of Zoology, with the assistance of
Mr. Jim J. Hester, identified and supplied me with a basic interpretation of the significance of the mammal remains (Appendix C). And
finally, Mr. Robert J. Drake, also of the Zoology Department, University of Arizona, provided me with a report on the nonmarine molluscan
remains (Appendix D).
The time aspect of the early alluvial and pre-ceramic cultural
horizon was provided by a series of radioc rbon dates analyzed by the
Carbon-14 Age Determination Laboratory of the University of Arizona
(Table 8). Discussion with Mr. Dick Shutler, Jr., the operating tech-
nician of this laboratory, led to many helpful suggestions regarding the
significance of these dates.
The preparation of the report was aided through discussion and
editorial suggestions by my thesis committee, Dr. Haury, with a long
standing interest in the history of the Cienega Valley, gave valuable
assistance in the form of stimulating questions and thought provoking
conversation. Dr. Raymond H. Thompson critically read the manu-
script from an editorial standpoint and supplied a great deal of help
in the organization of material. Mechanical difficulties in preparing
iv
figures were solved in discussion with Mr E B Sayles and photographic
work was handled by Mr. L. F. H. Lowe, photographer for the Arizona
State Museum,
To all of these people, I owe a considerable debt of gratitude.
It has been a pleasure to work with them toward the completion of this
report.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
1. INTRODUCTION
1
Statement of Problem
Area of Study
Summary of Field Work
2.
1
..... ....................
00
THE CURRENT ENVIRONMENT
8
Introduction
The Physiographic Setting
Climatic Patterns
2
4
........................
.
Life Zones
Fauna
Historic Fluctuations
.
.
.
a...
8
8
13
18
21
23
30 CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS
26
Introduction
San Pedro Hunters and Gatherers
Arizona EE:2:30
Location and Setting
Excavation Procedure
The Midden
26
27
27
27
28
Pits
Surface Hearths
TheStone Tool Complex ..........................
Bone and Horn Tools
Burial Customs
Discussion
Pre-Ceramic Site Survey
Discussion of the San Pedro Stage
Alluvial Association
Relationship with the Cienega Deposits
...................
Socio-.Economic Interpretation
Hohokam Village Agriculturalists
Introduction
The Physical Setting
......................
...................................
vi
28
31
37
38
49
52
54
55
56
56
57
58
60
60
61
Page
The Phase Sequence
Summary
The Phase Sequence
Alluvial Association
Settlement Pattern
Economic Development
65
85
85
THE TIME FACTOR IN CORRELATION
89
85
87
87
Introduction
Dating Methods
Carbon-14 Age Determination
Geologic-Climatic Dating
C er arnie Dating
Historic Dating
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Environmental Sequence
Alluvial Environments
Vegetation Cover
Mammals
Nonmarine Mollusks
Cultural Sequence
San Pedro Hunters and Gathers
Hohokarn Village Agriculturalists
Correlation of the Cultural and Natural Sequences
Stratigraphic Relationship
Environment and Man.
89
90
90
93
97
98
100
100
100
101
103
103
104
104
104
105
105
106
APPENDIX A - Recent Alluvial Geology of Cienega Valley
in the Area at the Confluence of Matty Wash with Cienega
Creek, Pima County, Arizona
108
APPENDIX B - Tabulation of Charcoal Identification
153
APPENDIX C - Mammal Habitats
154
APPENDIX D - Nonmarine Molluscan Remains from
Recent Sediments in Matty Canyon, Pima County, Arizona
158
REFERENCES
164
vii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
Following Page
1 Map of the Cienega Creek basin
2
2 Map of the study area showing the location of the
archaeological sites
3
3
Orientation view and detail of test 3, Arizona
EE:2:30
27
4 Plan of Arizona EE:2:30
27
5
Sections at Arizona EE:2:30
27
6
Test 1, Arizona EE:2:30
28
7
Plan and section of superimposed pits at Arizona
EE:2:30
35
....... .
8
Handstones, Arizona EE:2:30
9
Ground stone stools, Arizona EE:2:30
10 Chipped and ground stone tools, Arizona EE:2:30
39
41
.
41
11 Bone tools, Arizona EE:2:30
49
12 Composite profile at Arizona EE:2:12
56
13 Provenience of hearth lense 4 and associated trash
zone, Arizona EE:2:35 ..........................56
14 Stone tools from preceramic surveyed sites
56
15 Provenience of a buried pithouse and trash zone
components at Arizona EE:2:10 ................65
16 Pithouse (Arizona EE:2:],0) in the east bank of the
Matty Canyon arroyo
65
17 Plan of pithouse, Arizona EE:2:34
75
viii
Following Page
Figure
18 Pithouse sections, Arizona EE:2:34 . ... . .
75
Pithouse (Arizona EE:2:34) in the east bank of the
Matty Canyon arroyo
19
77
20 Rincon Phase ceramic vessels
78
21 Correlation of cultural sites, phases, and alluvial
units
22
106
Isometric fence diagram of Cienega Valleys Arizona
showing Recent alluvial stratigraphic relationships
.
In pocket
23 Drainage of Cienega Creek showing location of
(1)
Matty Canyon ...............163
24 View of frequently occurring nonmarine shells from
Recent deposits in Matty Canyon
(2)
163
25 Detail of freshwater clam and snail shells
163
26 Detail of landsnail shells
163
LIST OF TABLES
Following Page
Table
1
Pit data ................................31
2
Frequency of hand and millingstones by provenience ..
3
Frequency. of pecked and ground stone tools by
4
Frequency of unifacial chipped stone tools by
5
Frequency of bifacial chipped stone tools by
41
provenience....................................41
provenience ................ ...............
provenience ................................ . ...
47
47
6 Comparison of San Pedro Stage stone tool complexes
from the study area with those from adjacent
regions.......................................
ix
48
Following Page
Table
I Occurrence of ceramics on sties within the study
area.............. ....................... .
92
8
Tabulation of 0-14 dates
9
Correlation of environmental and cultural data
10 Age and relationships of the sedimentary environment
of the Recent alluvial units in Cienega Valley,
Arizona
11
84
Tabulation of mammal bones, Arizona EE:2:30
103
120
157
12 Measurements and study numbers of 14 samples
163
13 Molluscan remains in 14 samples
163
x
1
INTRODUCTION
Statement of Problem
This study is concerned with the interrelationship between culture and environment through time in a selected portion of the Cienega
Creek basin, southeastern Arizona0 The most obvious relationship ap-
parent in the field situation is a physical one0 A cursory inspection reveals archaeological components in association with recent alluvial de-
posits of the Cienega Creek basin. This association suggests the hypo-
thesis that man was living on a surface gradually rising due to alluviation. In time, this process effected a vertical spread of the human
material remains through a considerable depth of the alluvium0
Re-
flection on the wider significance of this relationship should indicate
the possibility of reconstructing the human environmental setting
The
nature of the alluvium and the remains of animal bone and nonmarine
shells collected from these deposits are indicative of changes in such
ecological factors affecting man as the local fauna, flora, and climate0
The varied forms of the cultural deposits similarly reflect both internal
social change and adaptations to the fluctuations of an external environment.
2
The vertical displacement of the archaeological components
offers an opportunity to employ the techniques of stratigraphic geology
in the solution of the order of cultural and environmental events.
Con-
clusions will be drawn regarding the correlation of the environmental
and cultural sequences in so far as this is feasible within the limited
area of study.
Area of Study
The drainage basin under study has been referred to in publication as the Cienega Valley by Schrader (1915:43). The Weekly Arizona
Star (August 19, 1880), the earliest reference to ranch homesteading
activities in this region, also refers to the area as the Cienega Valley.
However, a few years later, the Tombstone Weekly Epitaph (November
13
1882) employes the designation of Meadow Valley.
The following
year the Arizona Daily Star (January 14, 1883) speaks of the Stock
Valley. This place name also occurs on an early Official Map of Pima
County (Roskruge, 1893).
Today the local term in use by residents is the Empire Valley.
Apparently on the basis of this current usage, Swanson (1951) employed
this designation in his areal survey of the region, His definition of the
area generally parallels the one employed here (Swanson, 1951:11 and
Fig. 1). However, I have preferred to use the precise terminology of
FIGURE 1
Map of the Cienega Creek basin. The study area is in-.
dicated by a triangle and shown in greater detail in Figure 2
Map adopted from U S Geological Survey topographic map,
Patagonia and Benson Quadrangles0
ARt ZONA
1131 1100
T18S
Study Area
UJ
z
0
(fl
F-
I
w
CC
bNT CRUL CO
Sonoita
CANELO HILLS
scce fl mLe
-
3
Schrader's (1915:43) description of the Cienega Valley0
CIENEGA VALLEY:
The Cienega Creek basin lies in Townships 18, 19, and 20 south
and Ranges 16 and 17 east, Pima and Santa Cruz Counties, State of
Arizona (Fig0 1). The relief of the area is shown on the Patagonia
Quadrangle Map (1904) of the U. S. Geological Survey.
JUNCTION AREA:
That portion of the Cienega Creek basin selected for study is
composed of the "V" shaped junction area of Matty Canyon and Cienega
Creek. This segment of the larger area served as a sub-basin for the
deposition of certain cienega or marsh deposits which probably played
an important part in determining the human occupation.
The area of study was defined on the basis of the extent of the
alluvium mapped. Profiles were constructed covering approximately
1.3 airline miles of the Matty Canyon arroyo. Detail mapping was
begun above Arizona EE:2:10 (Arizona State Museum Survey designa-
tion: .Wasley, 1957) and taken northward to the junction (Fig. 2). Ap-
proximately 1 airline mile of profile mapping was carried from the
junction point upstream in the Cienega Creek bed. The archaeological
study encompassed the ridges adjacent to the flood-plain alluvium and
FIGURE 2
Map of the study area showing the location of the archaeo-
logical sites0 Location of sites buried by recent alluvium is in..'
dicated by a black circle0 Sheet erosion and ridge sites are
designated by a dashed circle0
Map adopted from contact prints 23, 25, 27, 55, and 57,
series L, Pima-Papago Reservation Aerial Photographic Survey,
Ground Water Branch, U0 S. Geological Survey. Map photograph..
ed on February 21, 1936 at a scale of 1:31, 680 or approximately
2 inches to the mile0
4
therefore slightly expanded the immediate area of interest.
The Cienega Creek-Matty Canyon junction area described here
lies within Township i8 south, Range 17 east, and sections 25 and 26
of the Patagonia Quadrangle, U. S. Geological Survey topographic map
(1904).
The area is bounded by the 4200 and 4300 ft. contour elevation
lines.
This portion of the Clenega Valley is located in Pima County on
the Cienega Ranch owned by Mr. John Greenway of Tucson and operated
by Mr. Fred Barnett, foreman, and his brother, Mr. Harry Barnett.
The ranch headquarters may be reached by leaving State Highway 83 at
the Empire Ranch turnoff sign and traveling 9 miles northeastward past
the Empire Ranch, across Cienega Creek, to the ranch houses. The
headquarters lie almost 60 miles southeast of Tucson by road and approximately 16 miles northeastward from Sonoita, Arizona.
Summary of Field Work
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY:
Intermittent archaeological investigation of the Cienega Valley
has been conducted by the Department of Anthropology, University of
Arizona, since 1926. Dr. Byron Cummings, then head of the department, excavated two human skeletons from the floor of Cienega Creek
5
on the Empire.Ranch. These inhumations were overlaid by 12 ft. of
undisturbed deposits of alluvium containing shell remains indicating a
wet period. No associated artifacts were recovered with the burials
(Mc. Gregor, 1941:115"6).
Dr. Emil W0 Haury, who subsequently became head of the
Department of Anthropology, carried on the work during occasional
weekend field trips. The resulting data are on file in the Arizona State
Museum Survey. The major results of this work consist of the location,
description, and designation of many of the sites presented in this paper.
In 1948, Mr. Earl Swanson, then a student at the University of
Arizona, commenced a three year archaeological survey of the Empire
Valley covering roughly the headwaters of Cienega and Sonoita Creeks
and the Babocomari River (Swanson, 1951, Fig. 1). His findings were
presented in thesis form to the Department of Anthropology.
EXPLORATORY TESTING:
During the Easter vacation of April, 1955, Drs, E. W. Haury
and E. B. Danson, accompanied by five students, spent three days
testing and excavating features at Arizona EE:2:30, a pre-ceramic
midden., as well as limited work at Arizona EE:2:1O, a ceramic horizon
pithouse. Both stations had been deeply buried by flood plain alluvia'-
tion in this section of the Cienega Creek basin, but have since been
exposed by the cutting of the Matty Canyon arroyo.
6
Lithic material recovered from Arizona EE:2:30 suggested affiliations with the Cochise culture defined by Sayles (1941) for south'-
eastern Arizona as a whole. Both the material collected and detailed
drawings made by Dr. Haury are filed at the Arizona State Museum.
In the fall of 1956, I became interested in the problem. At that
time a review of the Arizona State Museum Survey files was undertaken
and several brief trips were made to the area in question for purposes
of orientation.
During the Easter vacation of 1957 I spent three days in the field
working with the assistance of William J. Robinson and Christie G.
Turner. We dug test block 2 in the midden at Arizona EE:2:30. This
work made it clear that more extensive study was necessary, at least
part of which should be undertaken by a specialist in the field of geology.
The area of interest was enlarged to include the alluvial deposits extend-
ing to Cienega Creek. The archaeological focus was expanded to take
in all of the located sites within the alluvial area to be studied as well
as those on the immediately adjacent ridges. This latter move was
necessary since the ridge occupation was undoubtedly oriented toward
the flood plain drainage.
INTENSIVE STUDY:
With a grant-in-aid from the Comin' s Fellowship Fund and
assistance in the form of equipment and supplies from the Arizona
7
State Museum, a combined program of geological and archaeological
field work was begun in the latter part of September, 1957
A week of geological study was undertaken by Mre M. E. Cooley
which included the continuous profile mapping of the junction area of the
Matty and Cienega drainages. Beginning at the end of September,
slightly over two weeks of archaeological work was carried out at
Arizona EE:2:30. The major area of work was concentrated at test
block 3; a pit excavated into trash which was found to underlie a large
gravel bar in the bottom of the Matty arroyo (Fig. 4). A forth test consisted of a long trench against the base of the west arroyo wall. This
excavation removed midden material exposed as a shelf during the re-
cent lateral cutting of the arroyo channel.
SUPPLEMENTARY WORK:
During this period of intensive excavation, one of the five deeply
buried lenses of hearth material in the east bank of Cienega Creek at
Arizona EE:2:35 was dissected to study its method of construction and
to recover tools and charcoal samples (Fig. 13). Additional minor
projects included the removal by undercutting of a portion of the highly
cemented fill of a deeply buried pithouse at Arizona EE:2:1O (Fige 15)
and the complete excavation of a buried pithouse at Arizona EE:2:34
(Fig. 17).
THE CURRENT ENVIRONMENT
Introduction
Discussion of the present environmental conditions may be
treated in several ways. An analysis of the Cienega Valley is important to an understanding of the interrelationships between terrain,
climate, flora, and fauna. In addition, the current setting may serve
as a point of departure for a study of the environmental changes of
the past. The contemporary environment is described in this chapter.
Material relating to various segments of the past environment is treated by specialists in the appendices. Correlation of these data has been
undertaken in Chapter 5.
The Physiographic Setting
BASIN AND RANGE PHYSIOGRAPHY:
The area covered in this study lies in the Mexican Highland
8
9
section of the basin and range physiographic province described by
Fennemen (1949) as consisting.of isolated dissected block fault moun-
tain ranges separated by aggraded desert plains. In southeastern
Arizona, these plains consist of long, open ended troughs trending
northwest by southeast which are formed by down faulted blocks0
They lie roughly parallel to one another and contain the major drain-f
ages of the area. These rivers flow northwestward to a junction with
the westward draining Gila River which joins the Colorado River near
the head of the Gulf of California.
LOCAL PHYSIOGRAPHY:
An unusual example of basin and range physiography is situated
between two of these drainages, the San Pedro and Santa Cruz valleys.
This minor structural trough differs from the important surrounding
drainages in its short length and higher elevation. Locally this basin
has been referred to as the Cienega Valley (Schrader 19l5:43)
It
may be described as an elevated, intermontane plateau surrounded by
two major ranges of upthrust, generally northwsouth trending mountain
blocks (Fig. 1).
The western range includes the Empire and Santa Rit Mountains
and the Canelo Hills. The eastern range consists of the Whetstone and
Mustang Mountain masses. The whole basin forms a rectangular unit
blocked by the northeast-southwest trending Empire Mountains at the
10
northern end of the plateau and at the southern end by the northwestsoutheast trending Canelo Hills.
The crescent shaped, western mountain block was formed largely
through faulting. The structure is monoclinal with
gentle dip to the
east, The fault scarp of this range faces westward toward the Santa
Cruz Valley and presents a steeper aspect than the more gently sloping
east face which largely follows the monoclinal dip0 The rugged topog-
raphy has been produced by faulting and deep erosional dissection, The
west range rises to an altitude of 9, 432 ft0 at Mount Wrightson (Old
Baldy) and then slopes off to the north and south to an elevation of 5, 000
ft0 (Schrader, 1915:37-9).
A brief statement by Darton (1933, footnote 19) concerning the
Whetstones describes them as an uplifted block. A section through the
northwest end pictures a monoclinal dip to the west with an escarpment
facing the San Pedro Valley (Darton, 1933, Fig0 39). A maximum
elevation is attained at Apache Peak which lies at an altitude of 7, 684
ft.
Erosion of these block fault ranges has transported detrital
material into the down faulted basin of the Cienega Valley to form a
mantle of considerable thickness, This detritus is of Pleistocene(?)
age and has been the predominant factor in shaping the present land
surface. The pediment formed from the detritus is in an advanced
stage of dissection forming long sloping, nearly flat topped ridges (Schrader,
11
1915:43). It is on this erosion surface along the courses of the present
drainages that the recent floodplain alluviation has taken place. A
present cycle of alluvial erosion has resulted in the cutting of arroyos
which measure up to 25 or more feet in depth.
CIENEGA CREEK BASIN:
In the upper half of its course, the Cienega Valley ("Outer Valley,
Cooley, Appendix A) is a nearly equidimensional basin which is modified
to a long, narrow, finger-like projection at its lower end. Measured
from the base of the Santa Rita Mountains on the west to the base of the
Whetstone Mountains on the east, it is 15 miles across (Schrader, ii5:
43).
The detrital material filling the basin has largely been supplied
from the Santa Ritas and in consequence has forced the present drainage
toward the base of the Whetstone and Mustang Mountains. This factor
has given the basin an assymetrical form in cross section with the
maximum depth skewed to the east adjacent to the Whetstone Mountains.
The west flank of the basin drops from an altitude of approximately
5, 000 ft. at the base of the Santa Rita Mountains to 4, 500 ft. at the
creek. This decline gives the pediment a slope of approximately 50 ft.
to the mile (Schrader, 1915:43). The creek falls at a gradual pace
from south to north at about 50 ft. to the mile although this drop is
locally interrupted by bedrock outcroppings forming abrupt falls in the
12
vicinity of the junction with the Matty Canyon tributary. At the outlet of
the basin, which lies at an elevation of 4, 200 ft., the stream is forced
into a narrow canyon cut into the foothills of both the Empire and Whetstone Mountains,
THE DRAINAGE PATTERN:
Cienega Creek, the primary through flowing drainage of the
valley, is. a permanent stream which heads in the Canelo Hills on the
south, It flows northward into Pantano Creek which joins Rillito Creek,
a major tributary of the Santa Cruz River. The western lateral intermittent tributaries include Empire Gulch, which is derived from the
Santa Rita Mountains, and the Gardner Canyon drainage heading out of
Mount Wrightson from Apache Springs. The considerably shorter intermittent eastern drainages, such as Matty and Wood Canyons, flow
northwesterly from the Whetstones and Mustangs to a junction with
Cienega Creek (Fig. 1).
SPRINGS:
An important factor in a consider. tion of the ground water of
the area is a system of natural springs which occur just below the summit of the main masses of both the Santa Rita and Whetstone Mountains
(U. S. Forest Service Map, Coronado National Forest, 1953). Most of
13
the major canyons head out of one or more of these subsurface outlets,
although many have gone dry within the last half century (Swanson, 1951:
12).
Climatic Patterns
SOUTHWESTERN DESERT CLIMATES:
The climate of southern Arizona is part of a larger unit of
tropical and subtropical desert areas (BHh) defined by Trewartha (in
Goode, 1956:9) as a dry climate (B), with the maximum dryness oc-
curring in the winter (W) half of the year as compared to the summer
half, and all months containing average temperatures above freezing
(h)
The primary factors in a consideration of desert climates are
those of moisture and temperature. It is these determinants which are
directly responsible for the growth and distribution of plant and animal
communities.
The precipitation pattern for Arizona exhibits two semi-annual
peaks separated by intermittent periods of dryness
Summer rains are
brought by a shift northwestward of the subtropical nticyclone in the
Gulf-Caribbean area moving moisture laden air at its western end from
the west Texas-New Mexico region to the New Mexico-.Arizona region
14
(Bryson, 1957:6).
This dominant pattern Is replaced in winter by one in which the
westerly jet stream shifts southward to a mean position of 35 degrees
north latitude. The winter rains are brought about by migratory low
pressure systems and troughs of low pressure associated with this jet
wind (Bryson, 1957:4). The dry periods occurring in the intermittent
seasons are a result of the lag of one pattern behind the other,
Summer storms occur as the result of a build up of thunderhead
cloud masses which reach a peak in a short period, distribute precipitation in large quantities often over extremely local areas, and disappear
leaving clear skies again. The sharp, intense nature of these storms
produces rapid runoff and gully erosion due to the inadequate protection
of the vegetative cover,
Winter storms are marked by the appearance of dark sheet clouds
over large areas of the sky. Precipitation is more often general, for a
more extended period, and of less intense nature than that which occurs
during the summer rainfall peak. The increased cloudiness over more
extended periods reduces the extremely high evaporation rate, This
diminution results in a greater amount of actual moisture entering the
soil for use by plants and animals.
The rainfall pattern described for Arizona is similar for most
of northwestern Mexico. It is on the basis of this general agreement
that Bryson (1957:11) has established a "Sierra Madre Occidental"
15
precipitation type. Local variations indicated by Fouriers Hormonic
analysis have suggested three sub-types to the larger pattern. One
each for the Gila and Rio Grande Valleys and a Patagonia sub-type en-
compassing the Cienega Valley. A final pattern of significance is the
extension of a Pacific coast rainfall province eastward across the Sierras
of California at high elevations to form an "Upland's rainfall type (Bryson,
1957:11).
METEOROLOGIC AL DATA:
Data compiled by Smith (1956) from the United States Forestry
Service records gathered at the Canelo Ranger Station in Santa Cruz
County, provide the only information available on actual meteorological
statistics. The station was operated through the years 1910 to 1953
after which observations were discontinued. The instruments were
located on the north flanks of the Canelo Hills in the Babocomari River
drainage basin at an elevation of 5, 000 feet.
The mean maximum summer precipitation occurs during July
and August with 8. 96 inches of rainfall recorded (Smith, 1956, Table
26). This figure is more than twice the winter rainfall peak which
occurs during the months of December through February when a mean
total of 3. 95 inches fall, The total of the two maximum peaks is 63. 0
percent of the mean annual total for the year which is 18. 70 inches.
An important source of soil moisture affecting plant growth
16
and subsurface water storage is obtained from snowfall. At Canelo,
snow occurs in measurable quantities from November to March with a
peak during the winter precipitation season (Smith, 1956, Table 31).
A mean of 10. 7 inches occurs annually aJthough this can hardly be
representative of that falling at higher altitudes.
The mean maximum temperature of 90. 20 farenheit occurs in
June just before the cooling onset of the summer rainfall season '(Smith,
30
occurs in
1956, Table 14). The mean minimum temperature of 23.
January coincident with the winter rainfall season. The mean for the
month of December, a typical figure for the winter rainfall season, is
41. 4 degrees farenheit. A mean of 73. 40 farenheit occurring in July
is representative of temperatures occurring during the summer rainfall
season.
The extreme yearly range of temperature controls the agricultural growing season which is defined on the basis of spring and autumn
frosts. At Canelo, the average date for the last killing frost occurs on
the first of May while the first autumn killing frost occurs on October
18 giving the area 170 days of growing season (Smith, 1956, Table 21).
Temperatures as a whole tend to vary widely within a single 24-
hour period due to the general clear skies and lack of an insulating
blanket of clouds.
Arizona lies in a zone characterized by low humidity. The
annual relative humidity ranges from 40 to 60 percent which often drops
17
as low as 5 percent or less on summer afternoons in the southeastern
portion of the state (Smith, 1956:84). These yearly averages are
paralleled by great diurnal fluctuations0 Normally the highest relative
humidity occurs just before sunrise and drops to a minimum during the
early afternoon paralleling the pattern for the daily temperature fluctuations,
The state as a whole receives more sunshine than any other part
of the United States. Southeastern Arizona has clear skies and sun from
80 to 85 percent out of the total possible sunshine (Smith, 1956, Fig. 11),
The high percentage of possible sunshine and minimum amount of
blanketing clouds results in a high evaporation rate of surface water and
evapotranspiration of plants. Evaporation for most of the state averages
between 6 and 7 feet per year (Smith, 1956:93).
SUMMARY:
The Cienega Valley lies within a climatic area characterized
as a dry subtropical desert. Its precipitation pattern follows that
of a larger region encompassing the Southwestern United States and
Northwestern Mexico and referred to as the "Sierra Mache Occidental't
type. The valley additionally falls within a more restricted region
referred to as the "Patagonia" precipitation sub'-4ype. Thus it is a
distinctive unit which is set off from the surrounding San Pedro and
18
Santa Cruz River Valleys climatically. This distinctiveness in turn
affects a specialized natural and possibly human ecology.
Life Zones
SANTA RITA LIFE ZONES:
Bailey (1923), while carrying out a study of the bird comrnunities inhabiting the Santa Rita Mountains, briefly noted the plant associa-
tions encountered on the west face of the mountains. The lower Sonoran
zone was found to occur from the Santa Cruz River up on to the flanks
of the mountains and to be composed of cactus, ocotillo, mesquite, cats
claw, and zizyphs (Bailey, 1923:8).
The upper Sonoran zone extends over the greater part of the
mountain flanks and contains the checker barked juniper, Mexican nut
pine, Emory and Arizona live oaks, and manzanita. This zone was also
defined at an altitude of 5, 000 ft. at Gardner' s Ranch on the east flank
of the Santa Ritas. Juniper, a characteristic member of this belt has
been observed by the author growing both on ridges forming part of the
Davidson Canyon drainage northwest of the Cienega Valley and above
Matty Canyon east of the Cienega Ranch headquarters.
From 6, 000 to 9, 000 feet, the Transition zone is encountered0
The dominant Arizona or Ponderosa pine is found . ssociated with the
19
Chihuahua and White pines as well as Douglas spruce, madrone, and
locust (Bailey, 1923:8). One small patch of Canadian zone aspen was
found on a cool northeast slope at 9, 000 feet elevation (Bailey, 1923:
9).
No published information is available on the Whetstone and Mule
Mountains lying across the Cienega Valley from the Santa Ritas. A
statement by a local ranch foreman, Mr. Fred Barnett, indicates the
existence of a sparse growth of Transition zone pines on the flanks of
the Whetstones.
CIENEGA VALLEY FLORA:
The description of the Cienega Valley flora presented here is
based largely on the observations of the author supplemented by those
of Fred and Harry Barnett, local ranch operators
The valley proper contains a vegetation cover which characterizes
it as a member of the upper Sonoran life zone; although this situation
has been modified somewhat by the recent desication due to erosion.
The dissected mountain pediments support a rich growth of grama
grass (Bouteloua) which has been responsible for a flourishing cattle
industry within the historic period. Small, scattered mesquite (Prosopis)
trees are to be found on the ridge slopes, and live oak (Quercus) clusters
are to be found along the upper tributary drainages and scattered on
slopes high up against the base of the Santa Rita and Whetstone flanks.
20
Yucca (Yucca) is a common associated cactus and agave (Agave) is to be
found on the divide between the Davidson and Cienega Creek drainages.
The alluvial flats occurring along the main drainage lines sup-
ports quite a different cover consisting of a heavy sacaton growth. Mr.
Fred Barnett relates that within the last 50 years these sacaton flats
have been invaded and largely dominated by a fairly dense mesquite
woods. The network of roots this woods has sent down into the underlying alluvium, sometimes to depths of 20 ft. or more as evidenced by
exposures of tap roots in the arroyo walls, should be kept in mind when
considering Carbon-14 dates,
Cottonwood (Populus) groves are found along the major drainages
'wherever there is sufficient surface or subsurface water to support
them and black walnut (Juglans) occurs in Matty Canyon.
Agricultural fields on the former floodp1ain flats below the
Cienega Ranch headquarters contain local dense thickets of sunflowers
(Helianthella). Arrow weed (Pluchea) is also found as thickets on moist
sandbanks in portions of the Matty and Cienega drainage beds.
The unusual anomaly of the permanent flowing Cienega Creek
accounts for the growth of some water plants such as Cress and in the
recent past for the formation of a small cienega at the junction of the
Empire Gulch and Cienega Creek. According to Mr. Fred Barnett,
remnants of this marsh are still to be seen.
21
SUMMARY:
The Cienega Valley, due to its high elevation, greater precipita-
tion, and cooler temperatures, supports a mesquite-grassland cover
which contrasts markedly with the true desert flora of the lower and
warmer adjacent Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Valleys. This plant
habitat in turn could have offered a rich field for exploitation by peoples
with an economy focused on the gathering of plant food products or to a
subsistence pattern which was seasonally geared to such an endeavor.
Fauna
While undertaking the geological study, Cooley sighted a small
group of javalina (Pecan) in the mesquite wood adjacent to Cienega
Creek. Mr. Harry Barnett reports that they commonly frequented the
oak cover at the base of the Whetstone Mountains. This same habitat
also supports the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). The more open
grasslands at the base of the Mustang Mountains support small refugee
herds of antelope (Antilocapra americana). The pronghorn were former
ly common grazers in open range lands of both the upper and lower
Sonoran life zones (Olin, 1954:24).
During the early hours. of the night and again in the early morn
ing, the call of the coyote (Canis latrans) is of common occurrence.
22
This member of the, dog family is distributed throughout all of the life
zones of the Southwest (Olin, 1954:39).
A badger (Taxidea) was observed by the author. This animal's
preferred habitat is deep alluvial soil where it may burrow with little
obstruction and live off of rodents. It frequents all of the life zones of
the Southwest but is most numerous in the desert valleys of the lower
Sonoran zone (Olin, 1954:55).
The desert cottontail (Sylvilagus), while not as common as the
jack rabbit, may be observed in the mesquite woods and in the breaks
of sacaton grass on the alluvial flats. This animal is common to most
types of terrain and both of the Sonoran life zones (Olin, 1954:66). The
jack rabbit (Lepus) may occasionally be seen on the alluvial flats dur.
ing the day but may be observed far more frequently by the headlights
of a vehicle at night. The genus ranges over most of the Southwest and
both the Sonoran life zones (Olin, 1954:68).
Gopher burrows, while not common, are occasionally seen in
the Cienega Creek area. This small rodent (Thomomys) is common to
both of the Sonoran life zones (Olin, 1954:80). A second rodent seen
only at night is the kangaroo rat (Dipodomys). This animal was only
observed on the grama grass ridges in the vicinity of the Empire Ranch.
Its common range is in the upper portion of the lower Sonoran life zone
(Olin, 1954:83).
In summary, it appears that the Cienega Valley with its upper
23
Sonoran mesquitegrass1and cover, supports a rich variety of browsing
and grazing animals as well as many types of smaller rodents. This
population in turn supports a smaller number of large predators; the
whole serving as an important potential source of food for those full
and part time hunting peoples which might have occupied the valley.
Historic Fluctuations
PREARROYO CUTTING:
Bartlett (1854), while employed in conducting a boundary survey
between the Southwestern United States and Mexico, made limited ob-
servations on the local environment of the Cienega Valley in early
September of 1851. He (Bartlett, 1854:383) described a plateau, thought
to have been the Cienega Valley (Wasley, 1958), as being similar to the
western Praires. It was covered with short grass on the ridges and
the depressions, which lay 50 to 100 ft. lower than the plain, contained
pools of water, more luxuriant grass, and groves of small oaks.
Mustangs or wild horses were observed as well as many deer and
antelope (Bartlett, 1854:384).
The party proceeded in a southerly direction from Rain Valley
toward the Canelo Hills, While crossing what may have been the upper
portion of Cienega Creek or one of its tributaries, the mule drawn
24
supply wagon became bogged down in a swamp area where the rank grass
reached above the mens heads.
These observations correspond in many respects to the situation
found in the Cienega Valley today, with the exception of the swamp areas
and the apparent general lack of mesquite woods along the streams. The
drainages were running clear on or near the surface to the extent that a
four wheeled, mule drawn wagon could make their crossing several times0
Sheer walled arroyo banks, such as one observes today, seem to have
been absent.
ARROYO CUTTING:
About the turn of the century certain alterations took place in
the composition and exuberant nature of the Cienega Valley environment0
This change was primarily brought about by arroyo cutting which has
been variously attributed to both climatic desication and over grazing by
the cattle industry, This cycle of erosion presumably started in the
1880's in the adjacent and better documented areas of the surrounding
river valleys Antevs, in Smiley, 1955:157)
This cycle may have been
delayed somewhat in the Cienega Valley due to the more ample nature
of the ground cover necessary to check erosion. This supposition is
supported somewhat by the statement of a local ranch owner, Mr. E.
Hilton, who related to Mr. Harry Barnett that when he was a boy, it
was possible to drive across the valley floors in a buggy without
25
obstructions. The age of Mr. Hilton has been estimated at about 65
years. It would then seem that serious arroyo cutting had not commenced in the 1890's. Mr0 Fred Barnett who had come up from Sonoita
to spend a few days in the Matty Canyon area in 1905 informs me that,
as near as he can remember, "the arroyo was not a third as deep as it
is today." Obviously the cutting began sometime between these two
periods and the year 1900 does not seem to far out of line for an estimate.
The result of this dissection of the former flood plain has been
a general lowering of the water table, a desication of soil moisture, and
the prohibition of flood-plain and dry farming. The plant cover has
suffered considerably, Mr. Fred Barnett has observed a general replacement of grasslands by mesquite woods along the drainages within
the last fifty years and a drying up of several cienegas which formerly
existed on Cienega Creek.
3
CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS
Introduction
In previous discussion, we have presented a picture of the current environment which will serve as a point of departure for a study
of past environmental changes0 This changing environmental setting
in turn may be used as background into which man may be introduced0
The following discussion consists of two parts. The initial
description and interpretation concerns the hunting and gathering population which inhabited the Cienega Valley prior to the introduction of
agriculture(?) and true village living0 This section in turn is separated into an intensive study of a large base camp (Arizona EE:2:30) and
a summary of survey collections from a number of temporary camp-
sites. The significance of the former lies in the recovery of a sufficient sample of diagnostic tool and features which allow a cultural
equation with the better known San Pedro pattern. The survey sites
are important in their critical placement with reference to the preUnit 3 alluvium (Appendix A and Fig. 22).
A second section deals with ceramic horizon components.
26
27
Material remains of these village agriculturalists are significant in dating Unit 3 alluvial events and as indicators of cultural adaptations to the
environmental setting.
San Pedro Hunters and Gatherers
Arizona EE:2:30
LOCATION AND SETTING:
The late stage of the Cochise culture was intensively studied
through excavation of a pre-ceramic midden exposure (Fig0 4). This
station occurs at the base of the west bank (Fig. 3) of the Matty Canyon
arroyo approximately 1.2 airline miles above the junction of the Matty
and Cienega Creek drainages (Fig. 2). Of secondary interest is the
occurrence of pottery, tools, trash, and a burial associated with an
upper gravel surface stratigraphically higher than the basal cultural
exposure (Fig. 5).
Although the pre-ceramic midden was first located from its
exposure in the west arroyo bank, it was soon found to extend out into
the bed of the drainage where it is capped by a gravel bar composed
of material currently being transported by the flood waters of the
arroyo (Fig.
5.,
a). It is not known how far the midden continues in
FIGURE 3
Orientation view and detail of test 3, Arizona EE:2:30.
Top, view down the Matty Canyon arroyo at Arizona EE:2:30.
Pre-ceramic midden exposure occurs at base of bank in the
background. Work is in progress in pits 2 and 3 and tests 1
and 5. Bottom, test 3, Arizona EE:2:30e Meter stick is
standing upright in pit 11.
FIGURE 4
Plan of Arizona EE:2:300 Pit, p0
S rump Area
.ARROYO BANK
Old Meander
Bench
P-9C
P9AIP9B__ P-2
.0 H A N N EL
0
1
2
34
scale in meters
GRAVEL BAR
Key to smybals:
w-buriak
-moximum diameter of pits
FIGURE 5
Sections at Arizona EE:2:300 Alluvial unit designations
indicated in left hand column of section AA'. Current sand and
gravel ?tclrifttt on the Matty Canyon arroyo floor, a; zones of
mixed trash and red clay, b; midden accumulation, c; fill of pit
16, d0
Midden, alluvium, and a ceramic burial projected on
section
I-01
2
3
4
sccle in meters
Key to symbols.
sail
graveL and sand
B
A
\\i
00
IIIIIlIII)04
o040,IJ r,l(JI
0
0%O
LI
I
00 0000
Masked
0
1
c
C
,
0
0
00
C
Q 400
C
b.0
C
C
100
100
28
this direction since a trench put down in conjunction with test block 3
did not begin to define the eastern outer edge of this deposit0
EXCAVATION PROCEDURE:
The major approach in sampling the trash midden was through
test blocks removed in a single unit to the surface of the basal sterile
clay (Unit 100), The underlying pits were then exposed and excavated
as separate units0 Exceptions to this method occurred in pits 2, 3,
and 9A-C which had been exposed and nearly destroyed by the arroyo
channeling along the west bank of the drainage0 These features could
be gotten at immediately for excavation or profile study0
The initial plane table and ailidade mapping of the site was
performed by Dr. Haury in 1955
He drew off a profile of the west
bank running from the test 2 area to below test 1
In this work he
stressed the vertical relationships of the midden and the alluvial and
ceramic trash overburden0 Plane table mapping in 1957 consisted
in constructing a plan of test 3 and the contained pits0 The correlation of the two mapping projects was made with reasonable success0
THE MIDDEN:
SIZE:
The long axis of the trash deposit, as measured in the west
FIGURE 6
Test 1, Arizona EE:2:30. Top, view toward the west
bank of the Matty Canyon arroyo showing the midden exposure
and a pedestal which supports a dog burial0 Bottom, close up
of test 1, Arizona EE:2:300 Pit 1 in foreground.
29
bank, is 41 m. in length. Its maximum width is not known due to masking. However, a minimum figure of 15. 5 m. was measured from the
west bank to the last point the trash is observable under the gravel bar
in test 3 (Fig. 5). Its maximum thickness is 65 cm. measured in test
block 1.
COMPOSITION:
The midden is composed of a silty-clay which is stained a dark
gray or black due to admixture with charcoal and other decomposed
organic material. When first exposed to air, it has a sticky, gummy
consistency causing it to adhere to tools. However, after exposure
for a day, it "sets up" or hardens on its surface causing picks and
shovels to ring upon impact. With considerable effort, the hardened
midden could be busted up into large clods which then had to be further
pulverized with a hand pick.
An interesting feature of the midden profile is the occurrence
of two z nes of mixed red clay and trash, both at the base and upper
surface of the cultural deposit. These two bands are definitely hard-
er, more clay-like, and exhibit a reddish tinge upon a fresh face Fig.
5, b). As exposed in test blocks 2 and 3, they seemed to be thickening
toward the west and east outer edges of the midden.
The interpretation of these profile features is not altogether
clear. Certainly the lower band could be accounted for by assuming
that people walking on a wet clay surface (Unit 100) would trod the
30
organic, culturally derived debris accumulating under their feet into the
underlying sterile surface. Some of this process would naturally continue with the build up of the midden as people brought in clay mud on
the soles of their feet or foot gear when they returned home from the
food quest in the surrounding area0 However, why this mixture should
be pronounced on the upper surface S f the mounded trash is not apparent0
The midden material was found to contain small, white nodules
of weathered caliche probably derived from the basal clay (Unit 100),
Quantities of thermally fractured basalt cobbles were removed from
every test block. These were undoubtedly the discard hearth stones
found associated with the hearth area features. A few small, thin
lenses of a light gray ash were observed as well as several lenses of
sterile red clay. A small quantity of fractured bone was recovered
from the midden proper. The midden contains evidence of both current
and old root growth. Vertical streaks of yellow limonite suggest old
root holes.
SIGNIFICANCE:
The overall size and thickness of the midden accumulation is
indicative of some elapsed time, Just how much time was involved in
its depositi S n is a highly conjectural matter. A small group camped
or repeatedly returning to that one spot for many generations csuld
effectively account for the build up of the trash pile. The alternate
possibility is that a large group of individuals frequented the area for
31
a short period of time. This latter hypothesis seems less likely based
on the assumption that the hunting and gathering subsistence which was
probably in use would prohibit a large concentration of people in one
area for an appreciable portion of a year0
PITS:
Associated with the midden accumulation are 22 pits. It has
been assumed that pits were cut into the then existing surface at all
stages of the midden development0 However, in most cases, the dark
color of the pit fill precluded the possibility of .stinguishing them from
the equally dark color of the midden material0 Therefore2 it was only
possible to define the pits in those cases in which their dark fill contrasted with the underlying, lighter colored sterile clay (Unit 1OO)
TYPES:
Nineteen pits have been sufficiently defined to make an analysis.
The features have been reduced to three categories or types based on
the characteristic profile form0 Seven pits were straightsided, 8 were
undercut, and 4 pits were flare-rimmed9 Only the latter type was irregular in plan, the remaining types having been constructed as almost
perfect circles0
It is interesting to note that the orifice measurements for the
straightsided and undercut pit types do not differ more than 10 cm0;
TABLE 1
PIT DATA
Pit Types
Dimensions in cm.
Straight- Under- Flare.-. Orifice Max,
sided
cut
rimmed
1
2
Contents
Use
Depth*
Diam,
sample
85
85
60
C-14
A 74
80
125
70
trash burial 1
cooking
burial
trash
dump
3(?)
?
75
4
75
?
10
bone hearthstones
cooking
trash
trash
dump
70
5
70
25
trash
trash
dump
100
6
115
60
trash
trash
dump
7
8
55
80
?
hearthstones
70
70
?
trash
?
trash
dump
9A
?
80
55(?)
sterile clay
burial 10
storage
burial
120+
storage
40+ sterile grav
el burials 4, 9 burial
200+
40+ trash
burial
200
200
40
trash
burial
10
70
90
45
charcoal
cooking
11
50
100
80
C-14 sample
A-85 hearth-
cooking
?
9D
stones bone
mica sheets
hematite
TABLE 1
continued0
Pit Types
Dimensions in cm.
Straight- Under- Flare- Orifice Max.
sided
cut
rimmed
Contents
Use
Depth*
Diam,
(12 not excavated)
trash surface- house(?)
hearths 1, 3
13
14
15
16A
16B
100
130
75
C-14 sample
A-86 hearthstone bone
115
120
65
midden trash
hearthstones
175+
175
55
trash hearth
area 4
75
75
30
48
67
48
cooking
house(?)
storage
(17 not excavated)
18
trash
trash
dump
*/ From Unit 100 surface,
32
the former having an average diameter of 82 cm0 and the latter a width
of 72 cm. However, in contrast to the straightsided pits with a maximum
diameter occurring at the orifice, the undercut type has a maximum diameter
which occurs near the base of the pit and averages 101 cm. It is this
latter dimension which gives this category of pit its distinctive bell shape0
The flare-rimmed pits are uniformly large running in excess of 240 cm.
in maximum length exposed.
The depths, as measured from the surface of the basal clay to
the pit bottom, range from 25 to 80 cm, One 10 cm. measurements
(pit 4) was disregarded as being too highly influenced by erosion.
This
range has been arbitrarily broken down into shallow (25-50 cm.) and
deep (55-80 cm.) forms.
Straightsided pits were evenly constructed in both the deep and
shallow ranges. The undercut type was predominantly excavated to a
depth of over 55 cm. where as the flare-rimmed pits were more frequent-.
ly constructed as shallow depressions.
SEQUENCE:
Since it was impossible to determine the surface of the midden
from which many of the pits were cut, it was felt that an examination of
the depths of these features might help clarify the sequence of construction. Pits excavated directly from the basal clay (Unit 100) surface
would have been defined in their entirety by the field investigators, while
those cut from a subsequently higher level as the rn.idden accumulated,
33
would be defined only in the lower portion which actually bisected the
old clay (Unit 100). Based on this assumptive reasoning, predominantly
deep undercut pits would have been dug prior to the midden formation or
at least in its early stages. The straightsided pits, which occur as both
shallow and deep forms, would have been constructed throughout the formation of the midden; those pits defined as deep would precede those
classed as shallow.
This line of reasoning is substantiated with a consideration of the
form of the pits themselves. Although well cemented today, the midden
must have been composed of quite loose debris during its period of for-
mation. Hence the digging of undercut pits in this soft material would
have been impractical. On the other hand, the walls of a straightsided
pit would have stood up fairly well in the soft trash and therefore be of
a more practical nature during later periods of midden occupation. If
this argument be acceptable, all of the straightsided pits would fall into
the deep category.
COOKING PITS:
The primary and secondary use that the pits were put to were
principally interpreted on the basis of the nature of the fill0 Those pits
with a marked charcoal concentration in the lower one third of the struc-
ture, associated with fragments of animal bone and a clustering of
hearthstofleS, were thought to have been utilized as earth cooking ovens.
The ethnographic analogy for this statement may be drawn from mescal
34
pits.
Opler's (1941) description taken from his Chiricahua Apache in-
formants fits the archaeological situation perfectly. He (Opler, 1941:
357) describes the building of a mescal pit which is circular, measuring
7 ft. in diameter and 3 to 4 ft. deep. This pit is described as lined with
flat stone, filled with crisscross layers of wood, and then the contents
topped with a second layer of stones. The wood is fired and left to burn
until reduced ti coals. The mescal stalks are then stacked in the pit
upon the hot ashes and rock, Wet grass covers the ni.escal and the
whole buried with earth until no more steam escapes from the oven.
The smaller stalks may be baked by the next day. This is checked by
removing one for examination. The larger stalks may take up to four
days of baking. Opler (1941:367) also gives us a description of the
preparation of meat by this same method of cooking. This statement
is paralleled by frequent Mule deer, Antelope, and Jack Rabbit bones
extracted from cooking pits at Arizona EE:2:30 (Table 11),
In the case of the archaeological examples, the actual field
situation would not altogether represent the conditions during firing but
pits which had been utilized as ovens and then opened for the extraction
of the cooked meat or plant food. In many cases, the actual bone found
was probably discard sections of the animJ which were thrown as trash
into the still open pit while the feast was underway.
Five of the 19 pits (1, 3, 10, 11, and 14) were .ssigned a primary
35
use as cooking ovens. Four of these were undercut pits nd one was of
the straightsided type. In addition, many other pits must have been dug
and used as ovens but in the final cleaning out, the hearthstones, charcoal, and bone used as identifying criteria had been removed and our
chances of assigning an interpretive use destroyed.
Pit 14 is of unusual interest in a study of cooking techniques
(Fig. 7). When opened during excavation, it was found to contain two
superimposed layers of hearthstones and charcoal separated by layers
of sterile sand.
The practice of filling the bottom of an undercut pit with a layer
of sand, presumably to raise the level of the floor and increase the heat
retention, has an interesting parallel at the ceramic horizon site of
Paloparado (DiPeso, 1956, Fig0 16) on the Santa Cruz River0 Here
they were found associated with house compounds and interpreted as
outdoor cooking pits. The sub-floor gutter encircling the perimeter
base of pit 14 parallels a pit oven (type 1) reported by Trischka (1933:
428) from a Hohokarn village on the east flanks of the Mule Mountains,
Cochise County, Arizona.
Although fairly widespread in southern Arizona during the
ceramic horizon (DiPeso, 1956:141), cooking pits make their initial appearance in the Cochise tradition during the San Pedro stage where they
occur as a diaguostic feature (Sayles, 1941, Fig0 11).
FIGURE 7
Plan and section of superimposed pits at Arizona EE:2:30,
Current sand and gravel "drift" on the Matty Canyon arroyo floor,
a; midden accumulation, b; layer of mixed clay and trash, pos-
sibly representing an artificial flooring covering the pit 14 fill, c;
mixed trash and sand, d; sterile sand, e; mixed sandy-clay, charcoal, and hearthstones0 A carbon sample (A-86 av0) collected
from the two "f" layers produced an average date of 3307 + 400
(1958), f; unit 100, g; elk antler "in situ" in upper "f" layer, h.
0
50
scale in cm
A
/// -'
36
STORAGE PITS:
Those pits (9A-B) containing fill which is lacking in charcoal,
are thought to have been constructed either primarily as storage com-
partments or burial containers or perhaps both0 In the latter case they
would first have been utilized for storage and then deceased members
of the group placed in the pit which was filled with a sterile clay or
gravel material. Of the pits employed in this fashion, one was straight-.
sided (9A) and one flare-rimmed (9B). Quite likely many of the pits
(2, 9C-.D) secondarily filled with trash and burials were originally con-
structed and used as storage chambers but the direct evidence for this
interpretation is lacking0
HOUSES(?):
Two large flare-rimmed pits (13 and 16A) differ significantly
from all other types to warrant consideration0 Both had secondary
depressions or pits sunk from their floors. That from the shallow pit
13 was reconstructed as flare-rimmed (Fig0 7) while that from the
very deep pit 16A was straightsided (16B) (Fig. 5, d). Although neither
was completely uncovered by test block 3, pit 13 was exposed for 3 m,.
in length and 1. 75 m, in width while pit 16A measured 1, 50 m. on the
long axis of the trench in which it was defined. Pit 13 exhibited the
only direct superposition within the midden being constructed subsequent to the undercut cooking pit 14. It is suggested that these depres-
sions may have served as pit dwellings. Arguments against this
37
hypothesis are the lack of defined postholes, fire areas, and entry-ways,
However, the similarity in size and sub-floor pit features when compared with a San Pedro stage house defined by Sayles (1941, Fig. 2) seems
to the author to lend some weight to this view.
SUMMARY:
The major constructional feature recorded from the pre-ceramic
horizon at Arizona EE:2:30 are pit containers which were excavated
into the face of the living surface. The uses of these structures were
probably multiple, Undercut and straightsided pits were constructed
as earth. ovens. In addition, straightsided pits may have been employed
as both storage and burial depositories. Flare-rimmed depressions
were built for houses(?) and burial chambers. All types of pits were
secondarily utilized as trash depositories.
SURFACE }IEARTHS:
In addition to the deep subsurface cooking pits, five fire hearths
were defined which probably represented cooking areas utilized directly
upon the then existing surface of the midden. These areas were defined
on the basis of concentrations of thermally fractured basalt hearthstones
which occurred within shallow depressions in the midden or fill of pit
features. In no case were the five examples of this type of feature
completely excavated; exposure having taken place in the side of a test
38
block. However, in general they seemed to tend toward an oval form
with measurements in excess of 1 m. by . 50 cm. in plan view and
ranging from 20 to 30 cm,, in thickness. These features fit a pattern
defined at Benson:5:10, the type station for the San Pedro stage of the
Cochise culture (Sayles, 1941, Fig0 9).
THE STONE TOOL COMPLEX:
It was originally expected that excavation in the extensive midden
and pits at Arizona EE:2:30 would produce a sufficient sample of stone
tools for the independent establishment of artifact types and a tool assemblage0 However, it was not felt by the author that this goal was
wholly achieved and therefore the relevant archaeological reports
covering the late pre-ceramic horizon were utilized for this purpose.
A comparison of tools recovered from Arizona EE:2:30 was made with
the published reports of Haury (1950) and Sayles (1941), both of whom
have dealt extensively with the subject.
The ground stone tools have largely been categorized following
a modified version of Sayles (1958, personal communication) while the
chipped stone types have been described using a system set up by Haury
(1950:173).
39
PECKED AND GROUND STONE TOOLS:
Of the 141 intentionally fashioned tools recovered from the
midden and pits, roughly 52 percent were produced by pecking and
grinding. The major proportion of this category were apparently
utilized themselves in grinding and pounding of raw materials and food
products as indicated by their blunted and smoothed facets.
HANDSTONES: Following Sayles (1958, personal communica-
tion) a formal descriptive breakdown of handstones may be made on
the basis of the modified or unmodified nature of the tool perimeter
and the number of grinding surfaces (uniface or biface) present,
Modified handstones (Fig.
C):
These tool forms have been
intentionally shaped by pecking and grinding over the entire surface.
They tend towards a circular form and are thin relative to their width.
The grinding surfaces occur on both sides (biface) of the disc tool, and
are characteristically convex in profile in accordance with the concave
basin shape of the companion nether millingstone. This type follows
the pattern established by Sayles (1941, P1. 15, e, f).
Unmodified handstones (Fig. 8, a): The description as given
above for the modified handstones may largely be repeated under this
heading except for the lack of intentional shaping give to the entire
tool edge. In those cases in which modification is in evidence, the
handstone was probably secondarily employed as a pecking stone.
Grinding surfaces may occur on one (uniface) or both (biface) sides
FIGURE 8
Handstones, Arizona EE:2:300 Unmodified, biface, hand-
stone, pit 15, a; protou.pestle, test 2, b; modified, biface, han&
stone, pit 14, c
Length of a is 12 cm0
40
of the tool. The resulting outline is irregular in shape and follows the
form of the original natural cobble mteriaL
In general the biface working surfaces of the handstones are
parallel to one another; however, in a few cases, these facets may converge giving the tool a wedge shape in profile. This wedge tool form
was noted by Sayles (1941, P1. 15, c) as being a significant part of the
San Pedro tool assemblage.
Although some of the handstones run rather large, most of these
tools are of a size to be easily manipulated in a one hand grinding motions
The shape of the oval working surface of the miflingstone suggests a
rotary action in pulverizing food and materials. The granite and vesicular basalt tools would have been suitable for rough grinding of bulky
products while the fine grain basalt and sandstone tools would have been
better adapted to the production of meal from grasses and other types
of fine pulverizing.
PROTO-PESTLE (Fig. 8, b): An elongate, sub-rectangular
pestle form which has been completely shaped by pecking and grinding.
MILLJNGSTONES: The millingstones, upon whose surface the
actual grinding took place, were fashioned from blocks of stone which
may or may not be exteriorly modified by pecking. However, the impor-
tant interior face was pecked into either a deep or shallow basin which
was oval in outline. It is this oval shape which restricted the grinding
work pattern to a circular or vertical pounding motion. The nether
41
stones were constructed from blocks of fine grained basalt, sandstone,
and granite.
SMALL SLAB GRINDING STONE (Fig. 9, a): One example of a
biface flat slab nether stone was recovered. The grinding surfaces of
this implement exhibited a series of parallel striae indicating an axial
grinding motion. The small size of the water worn slab of granite
suggests use as a "lap stoie."
PECKING STONE. A thin disc shaped stone which exhibits
battering around its perimeter due to use. One example is pitted on
the side, perhaps to insure a better grip.
PEBBLE HAMMERSTONE-(Fig. 10, m): A tool derived from a
n. tural spherical cobble which exhibits numerous battered edges due to
use (Haury, 1950:256)
PERFORATED DISCS (Fig. 9, b): Small discs with bi-conical
perforations which give the object a doughnut appearance. These arti.
facts may well be the predecessors of the stone rings which occur
among the later Hohokam people where they have been given a religious
interpretation having to do with increase of the food supply (DiPeso,
i956:437)
UNPERFORATED DISC (Fig. 9, c): A large, thick disc shaped
from red granite material. The disc sides are parallel and lack the
convexity found on handstones. A small, circular depression occurs
in the center of one side0 Sayles (1958, personal communication) suggested
Ground stoie. tools, Arizona EE:a:30. Small slab grind'..
ing stone, bliace, pit 15, a; perforated dicJragment, pit 14, b;
unperforated disc, test 3, c. Length of b is 9. 7 cm.
FIGURE 10
Chipped and ground stone tools, Arizona EE:2:30
Tn-
angular blades, test 1 and pit 3, a-b; stemmed points, test 3,
c-cl; pendant, test 2, e; biface discs, thirpit 1, f, thick, pit 3,
j; end scrapers, keeled, pit 14, g, round nosed, test 2, h; side
scraper, elongate keeled, test 1, 1, rough flake, test 2, k; plane,
test 2, 1; pebble hammerstone, pit 14, rn; thick, discoidal, test 2,
n.
Length of a is 5 5 cm0
Q
C
e
TABLE 2
FREQUENCY OF HAND AND MILLINGSTONES BY PRO VENIENCE
Prov0
Modified
Handstones
Unmodified
Unif ace
Mfflingstones
D eep Shallow Small Slab
Bif ace
Parallel Wedge
T- 1 *
2
T-2
4
T4
1
1
1
1
P-3
P-14
1
1
1
1
4
P=15
2
2
1
2
P-16
P-18
Totals
1
2
1
1s
* -midden test
TABLE 3
FREQUENCY OF PECKED AND GROUND STONE TOOLS BY
PROVENIENCE
Ornaments
Discs
Proto- Hammering tools
Pestles Pecking Pebble Perf, Unperf. Cruciform Pendants
T-1
T-2
T-3
T-4
1
4
2
P-3
1
P-il
1
6
P- 14
P- 15
Totals
3
2
2
2
1
42
that this disc may be a "blankt' for the production of a stone bowL
CRUCIFORM ORNAMENT: While riding up the Matty Canyon
arroyo, Barnett (1957, personal communication) spotted and removed
a small cross shaped stone from the midden exposure some 10 ft. below
the pit 9 burial area. When first observed, only the tip of one arm of
the red jasper cross was protruding from its trash matrix
was shaped by pecking and grinding and then highly polished
The stone
It is
fashioned in a symmetrical cross form with the ends and sides of the
arms neatly squared off.
Sayles (1941, PL 15, B) depicts a similar shaped object from
Benson:5:10, which he interprets as a rubbing stone. However, in the
case of the object recovered from Arizona EE:2:30, abrasion between
the cross arms is lacking and therefore an ornamental use 'would be
more probable. Haury (1950:304) describes several pressure chipped
crosses from the San Pedro levels in Ventana Cave which he interpreted as amulets.
PENDANTS (Fig. 10, e): Several elongate, trapezoidal objects
made of thin pieces of tabular stone were recovered from the midden.
They differ very little from similar unmodified pieces of material
found except for grinding of the edges and corners. It is suggested
that these artifacts could have been suspended from a thong and hung
around the neck as an ornament.
43
CHIPPED STONE TOOLS:
The sharp edged, chipped stone tools making up slightly under
half (48 percent) of the total tool complex were probably utilized in
cutting, piercing, and chopping activities. Therefore, the cutting edge
of the instrument becomes of paramount importance in an analysis of
the .rtifact types.
CLASSIFICATION OF CUTTING EDGES: Following Haury
(1950:173), two forms of working edges have been noted and emphasized
in reviewing the collection.
Chipping of material by percussion and/or pressure means on
.ne face (uniface) only produces an edge exhibiting an acute angle cross
section comparable to the modern adze cutting blade. The tool form as
a whole is plano-convex in cross sectio although the convex face may
be modified by the removal of a flake from the curved upper surface.
This form of tool has been referred to a larger "chopper tool" tradition
extending over much of southeastern Asia (Braidwood, 1948:40).
The companion cutting edge is produced by modification of two
or more faces of the lithic material producing an instrument exhibiting
an axe-like or "V" shaped blade. This bifacial technique may be de-
veloped upon flake or core materials by percussion and/or pressure
methods.
MATERIAL: In large part, the percussion manufactured tools
as well as most of the secondarily pressure chipped artifacts were
44
produced from fine grain basalt. Exceptions to this statement include
the finely chipped "stemmed points, which were fashioned from
chalcedony. The technological inferior nature of most of the cutting
instruments can be attributed in part to the poor conchoidal fracturing
quality of basalt material.
The source of the material is unknown; the only bedrock outcroppings in the immediate vicinity being highly metamorphic mudstones
of Cretaceous age which would be unsuitable for stone knaping. It may
be inferred that igneous outcroppings occur in the nearby mountains
which would have been visited by the Cochise people.
In all cases, identification of material has been made by the
author whose petrological background in highly limited.
UNIFACE CUTTING EDGES:
PLANES (Fig. 10, 1): A core or thick flake tool which is characterized by its pronounced planoconvex profile, steep sided cutting edge,
and round or elongate outline (Haury, 1950:207). The tool was apparent-
ly produced by developing a striking platform on a natural cobble. The
steeply chipped cutting edge was manufactured by right angle blows upon
this surface resulting in a domed, convex top to the instrument. The
original striking platform became the tool base. The top forms a convenient handle grip and suggests an axial or "push-pull" work motion
with the base being held nearly parallel to the material being planed.
The cutting edge is occasionally outfiaring and extends entirely around
45
the tool perimeter; often showing evidence of use in its battered appear-
ance. The outfiaring nature of this edge gives the tool an inverted "bell"
shape in cross section.
The designation of planer for this artifact type suggests its inferred use in working wood and removing excess fat and tissue from
hides. It is additionally thought that this planing motion could have
been applied to the removal of pulp matter from the fiberous leaves of
cactus. This interpretive use as a "pulping plane" is based on the form
of the artifact plus its frequent occurrence on pre-ceramic sites whose
distribution correlates with the agave, yucca, and related types of
cactii which provided the cordage utilized by native peoples in the
Southwest (Sayles 1958, personal communication). Haury (1950:209)
found "planes" to be strongly diagnostic of the gathering..hunting peoples
of Ventana Cave during pre-pottery times.
SCRAPERS: A flake tool produced by working on one face only
resulting in a piano-convex form. The cutting edge is predominantly
inclined at a low angle although the "snub nosed" end scraper forms
tend toward the steep angle exhibited by the "planing" tool. There is
considerable variation as to the type and placement of the cutting edge
which becomes one of the diagnostic features in sub-typing the various
examples (Haury, 1950:212).
SIDE SCRAPERS:
1) Rough flake (Fig. 10, k): A category established in the Ventana
46
Cave material to serve as a "catch-all" grouping. Included within this
type are bulky scrapers with very rough chipping (Haury, 1950:217).
The jagged working edge is largely confined to one portion of the
thick flake and produced by percussion means.
2) Elongate (Fig. 10, i): The examples recovered were produced
from thin flakes and exhibited a long oval outline. Chipping extended
almost entirely around the tool perimeter. One example was keeled and
one lacked this feature.
END SCRAPERS: This form is distinctive in the emphasis placed
on the edge occurring at the end of the tool axis rather than parallel to
this trend. In those cases in which the retouching occurs in both posi
tions, a dual use must be inferred (Haury, 1950:224.5).
Keeled (Fig. 10, g): The central axis of the elongate, flake
tool is pronounced and the working edge is steeply inclined approaching
the angle of the "plane" (Haury (1950:227).
Round nosed (Fig. 10, h): An elongate flake tool, lacking a
pronounced central ridge, but exhibiting a steep "snub nosed" cutting
edge. The examples recovered from Arizona EE:2:30 lack the forward
hump to the convex upper face noted by Haury (1950:227).
DISCOIDAL SCRAPERS (Fig. 10, n): Examples generally fit the
thin flake sub-'type of Haury (1950:232) which are described as being
piano-convex in cross section, The tools from Arizona EE:2:30 tend
toward a convex keel shape and a steep working face which may approach
TABLE 4
FREQUENCY OF UNIFACIAL CHIPPED STONE TOOLS BY
PRO VENIENCE
Prov. Planes Side Scrapers
End Scrapers
Discoidal Scrapers
Rough Elongate Keeled Round nosed
T1*
T.2
T-3
T-4
P2**
P3
P-b
P-il
2
5
2
2
4
3
1
1
5
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
P-13
P-14
P-15
1
Total
12
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
15
2
3
9
8
* -midden test
** -pit
TABLE 5
FREQUENCY OF BIFACIAL CHIPPED STONE TOOLS BY
PRO VENIENC E
Prov. Points and blanks Discoidals
Thin Thick
T-1
T-2
T-3
T-5
1
P-3
4
2
3
1
1
P-i
P-il
1
1
2
1
P-13
Total
1
11
3
4
47
a "snub nosed" character in certain portions of the retouched cutting
edge. This working edge extends generally around the tool perimeter.
FLAKE KNIVES AND SCRAPERS: A tool form based on the oc
currence of a fine, serrate, retouched edge on more than 268 thin, waste
chips recovered from the trash and pits. These chips have no consistent
form; varying from quite small examples to large flakes (Haury, 1950:
236).
It is thought that they represent the use of waste material in
cutting and scraping activities. Many of the forms would probably
equate with Haury' s (1950:213) class of "thin flake side scrapers."
Since they probably do not represent an intentionally fashioned tool
form, they were not included in the tabulation and analysis of the tool
types.
BIFACE CUTTING EDGES:
PROJECTILE POINTS AND BLANKS (Fig. 10, a-sd): Thin, flake,
bifacial points were produced by pressure flaking. These forms were
developed from an essentially triangular blank with a straight or convex
base and slightly convex sides. Notching produced a parallel sided stem.
The resulting tangs were both sharp and rounded in form and project
either laterally or obliquely (Haury, 1950, Fig. 50). All points were
small and would have been suitable for arrow projectiles, drills, and
secondary use as cutting edges. The points from the midden at Arizona
EE:2:30 differ from those illustrated by Sayles (1941, P1. 16, c, d) in
being smaller, thinner, and lacking the pronounced expanding base
48
stem, Typologically, the triangular blades or blanks fit the San Pedro
pattern as previously defined (Sayles, 1941,, P1. 16, f).
BIFACE DISCOIDALS:
Thin disc (Fig. 10, 1): A small, thin disc scraper occurring t
Arizona EE:2:30 has been defined by Sayles (1941, P1. 16, e) .s being
a distinctive member of the San Pedro trait complex. Examples from
the midden and pits include forms flaked all over and those which are
rno.Vfied only on the tool perimeter. This artifact type may h ye been
employed as a side scraper.
Thick disc (Fig. 10, j): An artifact type produced by chipping
on both faces of a core or large flake prod cing a sinuous e si.. e extend-
ing entirely around the tool perimeter. Some examples lack secondary
retouching of this edge. Similarity is noted with the "biface spalls" re-
ported by S. yles (1941, P1. 16, b) for the San Pedro stage.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STONE TOOL COMPLEX:
The tool complex previously described would satisfy the requirements of a small group of people who were living in and exploiting a
desert environment by hunting and gathering means. The kit of tools
and the knowledge of their use would
low the effective acquisition,
preparation, and utilization of the local plant and animal food products
and materials.
Sayles (1941:28) has stressed the importance of the shift in
TABLE 6
COMPARISON OF SAN PEDRO STAGE STONE TOOL
COMPLEXES FROM THE STUDY AREA WITH
THOSE FROM ADJACENT REGIONS
Tool ypes Ventana Cave
Levels 3-5
Hand
stones:
oc se Cü:ure
S. E. Arizona
Haury (1950)
Sayles (1941)
Small, single
Unif ace
hand types
Asymmetrical
Rubbed
Flat
Biface
Convex
ArIzona
EE:2:30
Survey Sites
Ariz. EE:2:12,
Unmodified L-2, unit 3 & 4
Unif.ce
Biface
Modified
Ariz, EE:2:13,
pr c-unit 4
Planoconvex
Wedge
Pit
Multifac e
Pres.
Millingstones:
Pres,
Protopestle
Cylindrical
Pres.
Abs0
Abs.
Abs.
Abs.
Abs.
Deep Basin
Shallow Basin
Pres.
Pres.
Pres.
Slab
Pres,
Ariz. EE:2:12,
L-.2, unit 4
Ariz. EE:2:35
Lt4, unit 5
Ariz. EE:2:12,
Abs.
Mortar
Abs.
Abs.
Pres.
Pr es.
Pres,
Abs.
Scrapers: Side
Pres.
Pres.
End
Pres.
Pres.
Pres.
Ariz. EE:2:12,
unit 4 and 7
Abs.
Pres.
Abs.
Abs.
Abs.
Choppers: Pres.
Abs.
Abs.
Abs.
Gravers:
Abs.
Abs.
Abs.
Planes:
Hollow
Discoidal
Thick flake
Pres,
unit 3c
TABLE 6
Tool types Ventana Cave
Levels 3-5
Haury (1950)
Drills:
- continued.
Cockise Culture
S. E. Arizona
Sayles (1941)
Large and
Abs.
small flanged
forms
Projectile Stemmed, short Pres.
Points:
lateral tang,
long
Abs.
Abs0
Arizona
EE:2:30
Survey Sites
Abs.
Abs.
Abs.
Abs.
Stemmed,
Abs.
parallel
sided;
short lateral and
oblique
Abs.
Abs.
tang, short
Abs.
Stemmed, expanding base,
long.
Ariz, EE:2:12,
unit 4b
Blades:
L
lense
Triangular or
leaf shaped
Pres.
Pres.
Ariz, EE:2:13,
pre-unit 4
49
relative proportion of ground and chipped stone tools in the developmental sequence of the Cockise culture0 It was suggested that the early
Sulphur Spring stage had a major proportion of its subsistence economy
based on plant gathering activities s reflected in the predominance in
type and frequency of ground over chipped implements. As the Cochise
tradition developed through time, this ratio shifted to one in which the
reverse situation was present, This trend is reflected at Arizona EE:2:30
with a ratio of approximately 52 percent ground tools to 48 percent
chipped. However, these figures only have significance when compared
in retrospect with the development that preceded them. Taken as an
indicator of the relative proportion of the economy focused on either
hunting or gathering activities, they would indicate a near balance in
subsistence pursuits.
The tool complex agrees in its overall form with that defined by
Sayles (1941:28) and Haury (1950:340) for the San Pedro stage of the
Cochise culture. This group of traits is the major criteria for the as-
signment of the pre-ceramic trash midden occupation at Arizona EE:2:30
to that cultural tradition (Table 6).
BONE AND HORN TOOLS:
AWLS:
1) Whole bone (Fig. 11,
C):
One example of a deer ulna exhibit
ing a ground end and a high polish due to wear was recovered during
FIGURE 11
Bone tools, Arizona EE:2:30. Split bone awls, test 2,
a-b; whole bone awl, test 3, c; polished cylinder, test 4, d;
hammer, pit 15, e; tine flakers, test 5, f-he Length of d is
3 1 cm0
50
excavation. Use as a punch or reamer is implied by the shape and wear.
This type of tool would find greatest service in working hides and leather0
Split bone (Fig. 11, a.-b): An awl produced by splitting a
mammal long bone shaft lengthwise0 The tapering working end is ground
and polished through wear0
Unclassified tips and shafts: Fragments of whole and split
bone awls. Use is indicated by wear and polishing although the fragmentary nature of the objects hamper a detailed classification. Mate-
rial is primarily derived from mammal long bone shafts.
HAMMERS (Fig. 11, e): A section of antler, one end of which
has been bluntly rounded by cutting and grinding. Haury (1950:384)
describes a similar type of horn implement which he states could have
served as a percussion hammer0 Alternate interpretations could include
use as a tool handle; the modified portion recovered would then represent the butt end of the grip.
TUBES: A category of mammal leg bone tube described by
Haury (1950:381) is illustrated by one example from the midden level
at Arizona EE:2:30. The fragment h. s one beveled end which was
manufactured by cutting and then ground smooth. The tube orifice is
of too great a size to have served in a straw sucking capacity. Use
as a small container or in Shamanistic "sucking-curing" ritual might
be plausible.
CYLINDER (Fig. 11, d): A small, ground and well polished
51
bone object was removed from the midden level at Arizona EE:2:30.
This cylinder had a conical hole drilled at one end. The interpreted
use could range from a specialized handle, perhaps to a wand, or as
a nose plug0
TINE FLAKERS (Fig. 11, f-h): Deer antler tines were utilized
without intentional modification in the pressure flaking of stone material.
Evidence of use is observed in the form of the blunted and scarred tips;
some of the cuts running well down the tine shaft toward the handle grip.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BONE AND HORN TOOL COMPLEX:
In contrast to the stone tool complex which we interpreted as
being largely utilized in preparing food products and plant materials,
the assemblage of bone and horn tools seems to have been principally
developed for use in the manufacturing of other specialized m-terials,
Although some of the tool types were employed in stone flaking2 the
significance of the complex lies in demonstrating the emphasis of hides
and leather products in the craft economy. Thus we may speculate that
such articles as leather containers and clothing were manufactured and
utilized by the Cochise peoples even though the actual preserved articles
were not recovered.
52
BURIAL CUSTOMS:
Evidence of eight San Pedro burials were encountered in pits
associated with the midden. The difficulty of extraction from the compacted pit fill plus the fragmentary nature of the specimens due to exposure and erosion largely precluded any possibility of a physical study,
However, limited generalizations concerning burial customs will be attempted.
BURIAL PITS:
An interesting feature is the apparent clustering of burials in
one restricted portion of the midden area (Fig. 4). Seven burials were
recovered from a series of four pits (9A-D) which were immediately
adjacent to one another and in three cases actually intersected indic.t
tug successive construction (1, 9C; 2, 9B; 3, 9A. The pit types range
from the undercut form through straightsided to the flare-rimmed pro
file indicating a secondary use of all types for burial interment. Three
pits (9B-.D) contained pairs of burials which might indicate a primary
use of flare-rimmed pits for inhumation. One pit (9B) indicated that it
had been re-opened for the interment of burial 4 which overlies burial
9.
This latter pit contained a gravel fill which was unmixed with organic
debris
It is thought that this may represent the bringing in of material
from a nearby drainage bed specifically for covering the deceased, This
feature might additionally indicate that the pit had been previously dug
53
and utilized for other purposes, perhaps as a storage compartment,
BODY ORIENTATION:
An orientation of the body was determined in four cases. In two
cases, the individual was lying on its right side (burial 1, 10), in one
it was lying on its left (burial 4), and in one case the skull was oriented
upright. This latter burial (9) was probably disturbed by the intrusion
of burial 4. In 3 cases these individuals were facing southward and in
one to the north. The only complete skeleton (burial 10) lay in a flexed
position with its hands crossed and brought up in front of the face.
In all cases preserved burial offerings were lacking but this does
not prevent the possibility of there having been perishable food and
articles placed with the deceased.
DOG BURIAL:
An articulated skeleton of a young dog (Canis familiaris) was
found near the top of the main midden in test block 1 against the west
arroyo bank (Fig 6). It is entirely possible that this find represents
the intentional burial of a camp pet
This inference is born out by the
articulated nature of the skeleton; certainly if the animal had been
utilized for food, the skeletal frame would have been dismembered
during the butchering process.
54
DISCUSSION:
On the basis of the tool complex and undercut pit features, the
pre-ceramic occupation at Arizona EE:2:30 has been culturally identi
fied with the broad pattern of the San Pedro stage of the Cochise Cultures
However, there are a number of unique features occurring at this one
site which set it off from other habitation areas within the San Pedro
stage.
Apart from Benson:5:1O, the type site for the San Pedro stage,
it is the only site known to the author which lies deeply buried by al
luvium but is acessible for extensive work due to exposure, but not
destruction, by arroyo "cutting.
Arizona EE:2:30 has produced a large sample of pit features
allowing a study of form and use. Of paramount interest is the inter
preted use of these devices as specialized cooking, storage, burial,
and house(?) compartments. A significant feature developed from the
analysis is the light thrown on the subsistence economy by the cooking
pits. These earth ovens were apparently designed and utilized in the
steam baking of large mammals, which were restricted to the surroun&
ing local mountain and grassland habitats.
The vertical growth of the midden trash debris is highly unusual
in an open camp site. In such a situation, accumulation of debris is
generally in a lateral fashion. This factor suggests an annual visitation
to one particular spot for camping purposes or even the semi-sedentary
55
occupation of a habitation area by an assumed pre-agricultural group0
Which ever situation actually existed, a reasonably permanent nature
of the food quest is implied. Such a situation is not generally found
associated with an economy featuring solely the hunting of large mammals
or the trapping, netting, or snaring of smaller rodents. However, these
techniques, coupled with activities focused on the gi thering of plant
foods, might account for a more stable settlement. This balance in
subsistence activities could be accounted for by both a wide range of
easily accessible life zones and the even more convenient local cienega
areas containing what may have been an abundant source of wild foods.
Unfortunately, the perishable nature of the marsh plant foods and
products precludes the possibility of proving or disproving this hypoth
esis.
Pre-Ceramic Site Survey
Additional pre-ceramic sites were located by survey methods
carried out during the geological mapping operation and by University
of Arizona archaeological field parties. These stations tend to lie
toward the center of the basin ("Middle Valley") of
luvial deposition
which has effected a vertical spread to their occurrence and therefore
more critical placement with reference to the alluvial sequence. In
56
general, they equate with the base of the silt deposit (Unit 4) and the
preceding sand unit (5) (Fig0 22).
All of the stations are characterized by a scantiness of the
cultural debris and the construction and use of both surface and deep
hearths. The appearance of these exposures suggests highly temporary
camp sites as small groups of people made halts to exploit the local
food resources. The waste chips, minimum number of highly portable
tools, and the general lack of concentrated trash supports this view.
Although diagnostic tools and traits of the San Pedro stage occur
at all of the surveyed sites, no one station has produced a sufficient
sample to warrant the unreserved placement in that cultural category.
However, if the stations be considered as a whole, and compared to
Arizona EE:2:30, such an assignment would stand on much surer footing both qualitatively and quantitatively (Table 6).
Discussion of the San Pedro Stage
ALLUVIAL ASSOCIATION:
Broadly speaking, the pre-ceramic stations may be grouped
into three stratigraphic horizons. Arizona EE:2:35, 2:13, and isolated
tools at Arizona EE:2:12 are situated in pre-Unit 4 deposits (Figs. 12,
13). The principle camp site occupation of Arizona EE:212 (lenses 1-3)
FIGURE 12
Composite profile at Arizona EE:2:12, The profile is
compiled from the east bank in Matty Canyon and exposures
occurring in a lateral tributary arroyo (Fig. 2). Alluvial units
(MC..4) indicated in left hand column0 Hearth lense 1 (unexcavat.
ed), L-1; hearth lense 2 (excavated), L-2; scattered hearth material and artifacts (Haury, 1948 Arizona State Museum Survey
files), a; stemmed point, expanding base, b; side scraper, elon'
gate, thick flake, biface,
C;
side scraper, elongate, thick flake,
plano-convex keeled, ci.
Hearth lense 2 produced the following tools:
Handstones, unmodified uniface and biface (3) (Fig.
14, d)
Millintone, shallow basin fragment
(1)
Thin disc (1)
Chalcedony chips and shale fragments (one=*eighth
lb.)
Deer antler tine
Hearth area a produced the following tools:
Handstone, unmodified, biface (1) (Fig. 14, f)
Small slab grinding stone (1) (Fig. 14, e) -
\jJ
II
Urn
1
2
2m
30
M
6
m
3b
3c
0
x
c2?
6m
4b
b
cc
Lc
L -1
5
d
7
100
lOm
FIGURE 13
Provenience of hearth lense 4 and associated trash zone,
Arizona EE:2:35. Profile drawn from the east bank of Cienega
Creek (Fig. 2). Alluvial unit designations indicated in left hand
column.
Lense 4 is a deep cooking pit containing 2 shallow basin
rnihingstones (Fig. 14, g), abundant charcoal, and hearthstones,
Carbon dates on two samples (&.87, A-89 ac) obtained from
lense 4 are 2610 ± 250 (1958) and an average date of 2773 ± 300
(1958).
Identification of the charcoal indicated that mesquite
and an unknown wood were utilized as fuel (Appendix B).
The overlying trash zone consists of a light admixture of
charcoal and bone (Mule deer, Antelope, and Jack Rabbit) to the
alluvial sand unit.
wsw -o
NE
1
2
3
-2 m
4m
-- V.
Trash,
5
0
e
Zone
Lense 4
FIGURE 14
Stone tools from preceramic surveyed sites0 Side
scraper, elongate, thick flake, planoconvex keeled, Unit 7,
a; side scraper, elongate, thick flake, biface, Unit 4c, b;
stemmed point, expanding base, Unit 4c, c; handstone, un
modified, biface, lense 2, d; small slab grinding stone, Unit
3c, e; handstone, unmodified, biface, Unit 3c, f; shallow basin
millingstone, lense 4, g. AU tools illustrated are from Arizona
EE:2:12 except "g" which is from Arizona EE:2:350 Length of
C
is 7. 7 cm.
d
f
57
is directly associated with the cienega and flood-plain silts of Unit 4.
Arizona EE:2:33 and the upper pre-ceramic camp site component of
Arizona EE:2:12 are apparently associated with the base of the Unit 3
silts stratigraphically below the. "M" cienegasoil zone.
Arizona EE:2:30 presents certain problems in such a specific
placement. This exposure occurs in a rather large time hiatus repre
sented by the gap between the surface of the Unit 100 clay and the depo
sition of the overlying Unit 3 silts (Fig. 5). The only apparent alterna
tive hypothesis would be that the midden cultural event occurred synchronously with the deposition of the base of the Unit 3 silts at this
horizontal position, In this case, the trash would stratigraphically
equate with Arizona EE:2:33 and the upper preceramic component of
Arizona EE:2:12, Regardless of the alternative interpretations, the
site equates in a general fashion with the surveyed preceramic ex-
posures.
RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CIENEGA DEPOSITS:
Thus far in our discussion, we have been considering horizontal
relationships with an eye to working out the stratigraphic provenience
of various cultural events. However, it now becomes important to view
the situation from a different standpoint by considering the important
vertical continuity.
58
First, man seems to appear and remain on the scene in
a cone-
tinuous fashion throughout the alluvial silt sequence. Secondly, the
occurrence of a cienega somewhere within the area of study throughout
the period in which the silt deposits were forming was
more or less con=.
tinuous. This continuity is most apparent towards
the western side of
the Cienega Creek trough. Here the dark organic stained silts extend
throughout the section in a continuous fashion0 In distinction to this
continuity, the Matty Canyon arroyo sections stress the boundary
fluctuations of the marsh. The maximum transgressions of the cienega
occur as narrow zones of organic stain whereas the minimum regres.
sions were simply not recorded at that distance from the center of the
alluvial basin.
SOCIOECONOMJC INTERPRETATIONS:
SHOSHONEAN ANALOGY:
A study by Steward (1955:101) of the Great Basin Shoshonean
Indians provides one of the most interesting parallels to the archeolog
ical pattern presented above. This analysis of early contact Shoshonean
society stresses the twin limiting factors of the sparse and erratic
nature of the desert environment coupled with the simple level of the
hunting and gathering technology. Of particular importance is the
effect of wild vegetatle products in influencing separatism in exploi-.
tative activities as opposed to intra.family cooperation. In general,
59
individual nuclear families were widely scattered about the countryside
in collecting activities in such a manner as to effect an even take on the
plant products. A concentration of families in a given area would quick
ly impoverish its limited food supply leaving all to suffer.
Exceptions to this diffuse settlement came about during the
winter encampment determined by caches of surplus pinyon nuts and
at intervals when collective hunts might profitably be held (Steward,
1955:109). Such animals as rabbits and antelope build up concentrated
populations of sufficient numbers to support groups of families who may
assemble to cooperatively hunt. Techniques utilized include the sur-
round or drive into nets and corrals. Other food concentrations allow.
ing larger aggregates of individuals to form for limited periods of time
are the occurrence of fish runs and water fowl on marsh areas.
SAN PEDRO PARALLELS:
The environmental and material cultural features defined for
the San Pedro stage parallel in part those discussed by Steward (1955:
101). Projecting the ethnographic analogy into the past,
we arrive at
a reconstruction picturing a semi-nomadic subsistence cycle. Paralleling the situation of the Shoshonean winter encampment, the Cochise
people may have found a concentrated food supply of sufficient quantity
to allow settlement in a restricted area at base camps illustrated by
the midden at Arizona EE:2:30 for a portion of every year, Here an
60
association of families (band) would collectively hunt the large popula.-
tion of rabbits and herds of antelope. Collecting activities might be
centered on marsh greens(?) and tubers('?) from the nearby cienegas
as well as the local grass seeds and mesquite "beans0" During the
fall, individual families would likely be induced to break away from
the band and carry out separate collecting activities from the fruitbearing cactus which must have been growing at lower altitudes in
the adjacent river valleys0 Additional sortie trips to the base of the
adjacent mountains would be in order to harvest the acorn nut crop
and hunt mammals such as Whitetail deer, big horn sheep(?), and
elk which frequent higher altitude habitats0
Hohokam Village Agriculturalists
Introduction
We have emphasized a basal alluvial association in previous
discussion on the San Pedro stage material remains. Ceramic com.
ponents to be considered are found within the upper silt alluvium as
well as a long lived surface developed upon this material0
The ceramic chronology allows statements to be made concerning
the rate of alluvial deposition and the relative time bracket of important
61
environmental reversals such as dry arroyo cutting and moist soil formation. Limited data on the cultural development suggests a shift
from the pre.ceramic hunting and gathering subsistence to one of
mixed collecting and agricultural production0
Physical Setting
BURIED PITHOUSES:
Two examples of pithouse architecture were located 500 ft.
apart in the east bank of the Matty Canyon arroyo 1.25 airline miles
above the junction with Cienega Creek. The houses were bisected by
erosion exposing their pit form and fill in profile. Stratigraphical.ly,
the earlier structure (Arizona EE:2:10) was excavated into the basal
clay (Unit 100) prior to the deposition of the Unit 3 silts in this locality
(Fig0 15).
The younger pithouse (Arizona EE:2:34) was "let down"
from a temporary local surface developed in the middle of the Unit 3
alluvium (Fig. 18). This surface may correlate with the break be.
tween sub-units 3a and 3b noted by Cooley (Appendix A) at the meas-
ured section (MC3) taken at Arizona EE:2:10.
62
BURIED TRASH ZONES:
Two deposits of cultural debris occur within the Unit 3 alluvium
stratigraphically higher than the pithouse component at Arizona EE:2:10,
LOWER TRASH ZONE:
The lower deposit of trash consists of a thin admixture of char
coal and cremated bone to the base of the alluvium (Fig. 15). A single
"in situ" cremation (3) is associated with this zone as well as a hearth
(1) which lies on the surface of Unit 100 adjacent to the pithouse. This
material may represent a continuation of the underlying pithouse occupation as the Unit 3 alluvium was laid down. The trash, which is only
observable as a zone under certain lighting conditions, measured 90
cm. in thickness and extends for 50 m. laterally. This deposit has
produced scattered tools and probably equates with a series of other
trash lenses occurring at the base of Unit 3 and on the contact surface of Unit 3 and 1000 These deposits extend down the arroyo in
the east bank to Arizona EIE:2:30
They are all characterized by
the scanty nature of their artifact content and occasional hearth areas.
UPPER TRASH ZONE:
Scattered tools, redonbrown sherds, and a series of "in situ"
crematiOns (1, 2) and burials (1, 2) occur near the top of the Unit 3
silts (Fig0 15) Although no direct indications of burial pits were
63
defined during field work, all of these features must have been "let
down" from a slightly higher surface.
Cremation 2 is of crucial importance in assigning a phase correlation to the upper section of Unit 3 (Fig. 15). Associated with and
directly overlying this bone pocket were two restorable bowls which
are identifyable as to phase and time (see Rincon Phase ceramics).
However, the possibility must not be ruled out that the cremation pit
was dug down from a higher surface (top of Unit 3).
The validity of this alluvial provenience is verified by the ceramic component at Arizona EE:2:30 (Fig. 5) which lies approximately
500 ft. below Arizona EE:2:10. Here a single pit containing an upright
flexed skeleton is associated with a gravel lense and soil ("k" zone)
surface, Scattered upon the surface are ash and stray red-on-brown
ceramics which typologicafly equate with pottery from Cremation 2
and the upper trash zone at Arizona EE:2:l0.
SHEET EROSION SITES:
Settlement is characterized by the occupation of the alluvial
flats during the flood-plain deposition of the upper portion of Unit 3
stratigraphicallY above the "M" zone and/or the long lived stable surface developed UOfl these silts. Just what relation this occupation
had to the then current drainage is not discernible. The occurrence of
sites along the present position of the drainage is purely fortuitious.
64
Many more sites inhabited elsewhere during this same cultural period
may be present but not exposed by lateral stripping of cover and upper
alluvium adjacent to the currently incised drainages,
An interesting problem presenting itself in connection with sheet
erosion sites is concerned with the physical difference between these
manifestations and all other occupation within the area of study0 The
lack of carbonized trash is noteworthy. It increases the difficulty of
assigning a provenience within the alluvial sequence and it presents
problems as to what type of occupation was actually involved. It ap
pears axiomatic that an extended and intensive use of an area for living
purposes must involve the accumulation of waste materials high in
organic content0 Various causal factors which may have operated to
remove the organic stain from the zone of cultural debris are leaching,
cultural preference dictating a difference in trash disposal habits, and
short term seasonal occupation.
RIDGE SITES:
Settlement generally occurs toward the ends of ridges above the
surrounding alluvial flats at the junction of drainage lines0 In some
cases, the sites are situated on low "points" of land at ridge tips which
lie just above the surrounding flats. These "tips" represent eroded
remnants of the much higher main body of the ridge. In other cases,
65
the main crest of the ridge is employed for habitation with
elevations
which may run approximately 50 to 75 ft. above the flats,
The Phase Sequence
Vahki-.Estrella Phase
LOCATION:
A single example of early Pioneer Period occupation is illus
trated by a pithouse component at Arizona EE:2:10. Occupation took
place upon the surface of a basal clay (Unit 100) prior to the deposition
of the overlying silt alluvium at this locality in the Matty Canyon drain
age (Fig0 15).
CERAMIC COMPLEX:
The identification of the micaceous plain and red wares as Vahkj
types plus the absence of painted pottery suggests an early Pioneer
Period placement for this component (Haury2 1950, personal communjca..
tion). The single occurrence of an Estrella grooved sherd tends to ver-
ify this identification, However, the small number (32) of sherds involved
in the sample necessitates a tentative phase identification (Table 7).
FIGURE 15
Provenience of a buried pithouse and trash zone components at Arizona EE:2:100 Profile is compiled from the ex
posure in the east bank of the Matty Canyon arroyo (Fig0 2).
Alluvial unit (MC-3) designations indicated in the left hand col-
umn0 Cremations 2 and 3, C.2, 3; hearth lense 1, H-i.
NW
soiL
l
'H
H
IPI lii
I
I
I
U
11
VT
H
I
I liii
I
'1 H1'
1
1
1
I
'1
II
II''
2
- -
Upper Trash Zone
Lower Trash Zone
a
C-2
-
Old Arroyo Channel FiLL
ithouso FILL
100
Current Arroyo Floor
A
A
plan
0
1
scale in meters
2
FIGURE 16
Pithouse (Arizona EE:2:1O) in the east bank of the Matty
Canyon arroyo. Fill partially removed during an undercutting
operation. Hearth 1 is shown on the Unit 100 surface to the
right of the house0
66
ARCHITECTURE:
The pithouse consists of a structure measuring 3. 4 m. in width
and averaging 75 cm. in depth. The walls are slightly undercut and
the floor slopes toward the deep end of the house which occurs at the
south side. The walls and floor are unplastered, consisting of the
rough surface of the pit excavation into the Unit 100 clay. No addition-
al architectural features such as postholes, entryway, or a fire hearth
were uncovered.
The pithouse fill consists of silts and sands, and is well cemented by local calichification. Hearthstones, a few tools, sherds, and
bone were removed in an "undercutting" operation. No levels or sepa
ration of materials within the fill were attempted. The ceramic complex from the pithouse does not date the house but rather its filling.
However, both events preceded the deposition of the Unit 3 alluvium
and are probably roughly synchronous.
TOOL COMPLEX:
The small quantity of tools removed from the pithouse fill and
hearth 1 on the immediately adjacent living surface do not allow extensive interpretation. However, it is significant that the tool types
depart very little from the ground stone complex described at the San
Pedro site of Arizona EE:2:30,
6?
A basin type millingstonet(hearth 1) coupled with the companion
handstones from the house suggest a continued dependence on wild food
products. Whether or not agriculture has entered the scene is a debatable question. Several flake knives, side scrapers, and hammer
stones are of little diagnostic value since they have a wide distribution
in time.
DISCUSSION:
The stratigraphic position of this pithouse and the pre-ceramic
midden at Arizona EE:2:30 is identicaL It is difficult to estimate the
elapsed time between the cultural events but it is not unreasonable to
postulate a rather short lag of the pithouse behind the slightly older
midden. If the large, deep pit (16A) interpreted as a house(?) at
Arizona EE:2:30 plus the millingstone complex be compared to the pit
house component at Arizona EE:2:1O, the major cultural difference is
found to lie in the addition of pottery to the material cultural complex.
The remains and physical situation suggest a direct cultural continuity.
68
Snaketown Phase
LOCATION:
This phase is represented by a single trash mound area (Arizona
EE:2:40) occurring on the end of a ridge above the confluence of two
intermittent surface washes. The village(?) area occurs on the ridge
"tip" just before the gravel surface dips beneath the surrounding floodplain alluvium,
CERAMIC COMPLEX:
The cultural identity of this site was made on the basis of plain
wares which compare with Pioneer Period types, Similarity is noted
in the thinness and lack of red wares (Haury, 1958, personal communi
cation), A single Snaketown grooved sherd supports this placement.
A
Gila Polychrome sherd may be considered to be "drift," perhaps from
an adjacent higher site (Arizona EE:2:11) found on the same ridge
(Table 7).
SURFACE INDICATIONS:
Two or three small, low mounds of rock and trash cluster in an
area approximately 100 sq. m. in extent. These features mark this
site as distinctive from the adjacent house and thin sheet trash area
69
designated as Arizona EE:2:11. No visible signs of architecture were
noted but the occurrence of the trash mounds suggests an occupation
of some permanency and possibly village type habitation.
TOOL COMPLEX:
Several varieties of side scrapers and planes collected from
this site suggest an emphasis on gathering and possibly hunting0 How-
ever the small size of the sample precludes any substantial interpre-.
tation.
Canada del Oro-Rfflito Phases
Canada del Oro Phase
LOCATION:
Sites assigned to the Canada del Oro phase occur in the upper
portion of the Unit 3 alluvium and/or the old stabilized ground surface
developed upon this material in the drainage hljunctionu area0 They
have been exposed by sheet erosion along the presently incised drainage
where they occur as sherd concentrations.
70
CERAMIC COMPLEX:
The plain ware complex consists predominantly of a micaceous
and sand grit tempered ware associated with a small amount of plain
red. Several sherds of local paste Canada del Oro Red-on-brown occur
at Arizona EE:2:. Painted wares occurring in maximum frequency are
intrusive Gila Butte Red-on-buif derived from the Gila-Salt Valleys oc-
cupied by the River Hohokam, Additional trade wares are represented
by several sherds of San Francisco Red(?) occurring at Arizona EE:2:9
(Table 7)
DISCUSSION:
Lithic material is extremely scarce and not directly attributable
to this phase of occupations Barter is oriented toward the Gila-Salt
Valleys. The primary value of these sites lies in supplying a minimum
date to the old stable ground surface developed upon the Unit 3 alluvium
in the "junction" area.
U ndifferentiated Sites
Two sites were assigned a hyphenated Canada del Oro-Rillito
phase designation due to the inability to segregate the painted wares
71
(Arizona EE:2:4Z or lack of diagnostic painted sherds (Arizona EE:2:34)0
Arizona EE:2:42
LOCATION:
A sheet trash area lying on the low "tip2' end of a northwest.-
southeast trending ridge
The site lies just above the surrounding
flood-plain alluvium and the junction of two small intermittent surface
"washes" which feed into the Matty Canyon arroyo.
CERAMIC COMPLEX:
Undecorated pottery consists of polished and unpolished plain
and red wares. Although later phase (Tanque Verde) material is present, the major occupation may be represented by a group of red-onbrown ceramics which fall principally in a Canada del Oro-Rillito
phase grouping (Haury, 1958, personal communication). One intrusive
Gila Butte Red-on-buff sherd was collected. On the basis of the buff
paste, it was probably derived from the Gila-Salt drainage through
trade (Table 7).
72
SURFACE INDICATIONS:
An area of 80 sq. m. is covered to
minimum depth of 15 to 20
cm. with rock, sherds, chips, and carbonized soiL The depth, which
was determined by exposure in rodent burrows, is a minimum figure
and may be in excess of this estimate. Evidence of t 4 ols was lacking.
Arizona EE:2:34
LOCATION:
A buried pithouse "let down" from a local surface occurring
within the Unit 3 alluvium. Exposure of the structure is due to cutting
of the current Matty Canyon arroyo. This station occurs in the east
bank 1.3 airline miles above the junction with Cienega Creek.
EXCAVATION PROCEDURE:
The house was shown to the author by Mr Fred Barnett while
the major excavation project at Arizona EE:2:30 was underway. While
riding along the east bank of the Matty Canyon arroyo, his gaze happened
to fall upon some charcoal at the mouth of a rodent burrow. Mr. Barnett
informed his wife and daughter who located and trenched the north and
south pithouse walls for a meter back into the arroyo bank. Mrs. Barnett
73
Informed me that nothing of significance was located.
The writer, with the assistance of a group of students "faced up"
the bank and pithouse fill and drew off a profile showing the relationship
of the structure and the alluvium. Excavation of the pithouse from the
present surface was undertaken in three levels, The initial cut removed
overburden extending from the surface to the top of the pithouse walls.
The actual house fill, which was largely sterile lacking the usual charcoal discoloration, was removed as a unit to within 30 cm0 of the floor.
This later level containing charred roofing material and meager cultural
trash was defined as floor fill and excavated as a separate unit0
CERAMIC COMPLEX:
UPPER LEVEL:
The upper level contained two plain ware sherds as well as several red-on-brown fragments of a Tanque Verde vessel0 The painted
material occurred just under the surface in association with the upper
alluvium (Units 1 or 2)
PITHOUSE LEVELS:
The pithouse and floor fill levels produced essentially identical
ceramic material and therefore may be lumped for purposes of analysis.
The complex consists of unpolished and polished plain and red wares
which suggest a cultural placement somewhere within the Canada del
74
Oro or Rillito phase units. This assignment was made an the basis of
the thinness of the sherds and their micaceous temper (Haury, 1958,
personal communication). This picture would have been clarified con-
siderably if painted wares had been present, but such was not the case
(Table 7).
SIGNIFICANCE:
It should be pointed out that no ceramic material was recovered
directly in contact with the floor0 The lack of trash debris in the pit-
house fill suggests a very rapid washing into the structure of surrounding
alluvium and a few sherds, some of which took place before the roof
crossmembers had completely disintegrated and collapsed into the pit0
The point is that sherds recovered from the house do. not directly date
the structure, However, this washing seems to have taken place quickly
and before the continuation of Unit 3 alluviation and therefore the occur-
rence of the sherds and house must be very close together in time. The
cultural assessment of the ceramics would apply equally well to the
house in so far as our archaeological controls are concerned.
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES:
The subsurface portion of the house consists of a deep, rectangu..
lar, adobe plastered pit with rounded corners and sloping or battered
walls. The house dimensions are 4. 65 m. by 3. 15+ m.
75
ENTRYWAY:
An entryway measuring L. 9 m. in length occurs in the middle
of the east wall, Exit from the house is gained by a step-up into this
passage and a second riser leads out of the entry onto the old ground
surface, The entrance passage lies nearly horizontal with just a slight
depression near its outer encL This feature may have served as a
water catchment basin. In plan view, the entry has a bulbous shape
expanding from a narrow door at the house end which measured 50 cm.
to a maximum width of 75 cm, near the exit, In cross section, it has
pronounced sloping walls which are rounded in a saucer shape.
Two slots occur toward the house end of the entry. One imme
diately above the house stepup contained a fragment of a burned branch
which may have served as a step rungs The second slot lacked evidence
of charcoal and was filled with clean sand
A similar type of depression
occurring in house ramps has been interpreted as a deflector slot by
DiPeso (1956, Fig. 15).
FLOOR FEATURES:
The portion of the floor remaining intact after erosion by the
arroyo, exhibits a number of interesting features. Two deep postholes
occur toward the house corners; one of which contained the charred butt
of a major roof support. These were probably paralleled by another
set since eroded away. Two shallow depressions probably mark points
FIGURE 17
Plan of pithouse, Arizona EE:2:34. Fire pit, f; postholes,
p; shallow depressions, d; sub.floor pit, s; slot in entryway, sl;
rung set in entry floor, rg; coping of plastered wall over old sur
face, c; thatch roof matting, th; roofing clay, rc; arroyo wall
"faced up," ar; extent of excavation, ex
- unmodified cobbles
Key to symbols
-roof timber fragments
ar
A
'c--- Arr.oyo
B'
I
scaLe in meters
0
FIGURE 18
Pithouse sections, Arizona EE:2:34. Alluvial unit desig-
nations are indicated in the left haiid column of both section A_AT
andB-B'.
A
A
rc__
100
B
U
1
B'
scale in meters
rc
th
100
Key to symbols
roof timber fragments
unmodified cobbles
-
soil
gravel surface
76
at which secondary braces were propped up to support the roof cross-
members. Additional floor features include a shallow basin fire pit
filled with a fine, white ash and a plastered over sub-floor pit in the
southeastern room corner.
ROOFING MATERIAL:
The 30 cm. layer defined as floor fill contained quantities of
burned roofing materiaL. Fragments of charred poles 10 to 15 cm. in
diameter lay on or near the floor and were generally oriented parallel
to the short axis of the house, These burned timbers probably repre-.
sent the remains of the roof crossmembers. A 7 to 8 cm, layer of
charred grass cane and bark thatch was distributed over the central
portion of the room. This material lay directly on the floor in the
southern portion of the pit but was underlain by as much as 10 cm. of
sterile alluvium in the northern half. Overlying the thatch was a 10 to
15 cm. layer of hard clay. In places this material had been oxidized
to a light orange color by fire. Five water worn cobbles complete the
inventory of material associated with the roof fall,
HOUSE RECONSTRUCTION:
The reconstruction of the roofing would be as follows, Four
major upright dimension timber supports were capped with crossmem.,
ber beams. These in turn were additionally supported by two props
butted in shallow depressions on the house floor, Lighter stringers
77
were leaned from the ground surface over to the central frame. This
skeleton construction was covered with a layer of thatch and capped
with a thick coating of mud plaster. The river cobbles found on the
floor may have been weights to secure tag ends on the roof0 The entry-
way roofing followed this same pattern. Two possible small postholes
on the old ground surface adjacent to the entry wall suggest vertical
sides to the bulbous passage. Reed and grass impressions in the entry
4
way plaster also imply this type of construction.
TOOL COMPLEX:
The total return of lithic tools from all levels of excavation was
extremely small. Two fragments of unmodified manos from the pithouse
fill level and two small unmodified handstones from the lower floor fill
level complete the listing.
DISCUSSION:
The association of this house and a local surface supplies a
Canada del OroRillito date to the middle portion of the Unit 3 aUuvia.
tion,
Architecturally, this structure shows greater affinities with
the Mogollon culture to the east. This statement is supported by the
long, lateral entryway, deep pit nature of the structure, and the use
FIGURE 19
Pithouse (Arizona EE:2:34) in the east bank of the Matty
Canyon arroyo. Gravel lense in rear of the excavation cut
marks the surface from which the house was "let down0"
78
of the pit walls as a portion of the house structure.
In contrast, the plain ware ceramics indicate that the structure
was occupied by people of the Tucson Hohokam tradition as defined for
this portion of the Cienega Valley. However, since this valley lies in
a peripheral position in regard to the Tucson area a certain amount of
"overlap" should be expected with adjacent regions.
Rincon Phase
LOCATION:
Occupation during this phase took place at sites located with
equal frequency on the ridges and alluvial flats0
CERAMIC COMPLEX:
Undecorated pottery includes both polished and unpolished plain
and red wares. Indigenous Rincon Red-on.brown sherds define the
phase. A single whole jar (Fig. 20, b) recovered "in situ" from the
top of the Unit 3 alluvium at Arizona EE:2:14 has a "Gila Shoulder"
which is characteristic of the equivalent Sacaton phase in the Gila-.Sajt
Valleys. Additional restorable vessels (Fig. 20, a, c) equated with
this phase occurred as cremation (2) offerings at Arizona EE:2:10
(Fig. 15). Red-on-brown design elements plus the flaring form of one
Rincon phase ceramic vessels. Red-on-brow bowls
from cremation 2, Arizona EE 2 10, a, c, plain ware jar from
upper portion of the Unit 3 aliuvium at Arizona EE:2:14, b.
Diameter of a is 15. 2 cm.
/
/
/
//
79
of the bowls (Fig. 20, c) suggests a Rincon pottery identification (Haury,
1958, personal communication). Intrusive Dragoon R ed-on-brown(?)
trade wares were acquired from the San Pedro River Valley. The identification of these foreign types may indicate a shift in trade relations
over the previous surplus exchange linked with the River Hohokam
(Table 7).
SIJR FACE INDICATIONS:
Ridge sites exhibit several types of trash disposal. One site
(Arizona EE:2:37) contained small, low mounds of rock and trashy
soil. Other ridge sites (Arizona EE:2:1i, 2:42) are characterized by
the sheet or lateral distribution of trash over their surfaces. The lack
of organic trash and structures on the flats could indicate a temporary
form of occupation. The upper buried trash zone at Arizona EE:2:10
was largely an inhumation area where mixed types of burials and cre'mations were deposited in shallow pits(?).
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES:
Direct evidence of architecture was recovered from a single
ridge site (Arizona EE:2:11). These features consist of rectangular
rock alignments measuring 5 by 1. 5 m. The structures were found
scattered along the axis of a ridge in a random fashion over an area
80
1/4 mile in length. The rock alignments probably served as a base for
a "jacal" type construction. The lack of orientation or clustering suggests a seasonal occupation or a very loose or open village plan such
as one observes today on the Papago reservation. Village occupation
is indicated at other ridge sites by trash mounds although evidence of
architectural features is absent.
TOOL COMPLEX:
Considerable difference in the quantity of lithic tools was
observed between the ridge and sheet erosion sites. Although evidence
of manufacture was present at the former, the amount of lithic material
did not approach that found on the adjacent ridges, where abundant evidence of work shop material and frequent examples of finished tools are
to be found.
Chipped tools collected from Rincon phase sites include small
expanding based stemmed points, biface blades and knives, planes,
and multiple varieties of scrapers. Ground and pecked tools include
hammerstones, open end trough metates, modified uniface manos with
a "loaf shape" profile, small cobble and large boulder type mortars,
and a single example of a carved stone bowl. Ornaments include a
carved shell bracelet and a small slab petroglyph.
In large part, the chipped stone complex resembles very closely
the Cochise tool types which were given a gathering and hunting
81
interpretation. The grinding tools parallel the types found associated
with Hohokam agriculturalists in other portions of the southern desert9
The lack of ornamental obj ects, particularly quantities of carved shell
objects which are characteristic of the Hohokam elsewhere, is noteworthy.
DISCUSSION:
Settlement during the Rincon phase may represent a transition
from occupation of the flood-plain flats to the adjacent ridges. Surface
indications suggest both stable ridge villages and temporary camp sites
on the flats,. Surplus trade relations may have been established with
the adjacent San Pedro Valley in preference to the former tie in with
the Gila-Salt Valleys. The tool complex indicates a mixed economy
featuring both gathering and hunting as well as agricultural activities.
Since this phase was studied almost entirely by surface collect-
ing techniques, it is impossible to directly associate tools, houses,
and diagnostic ceramics. However, in most cases, occupation begun
in the Rincon phase was carried over to the succeeding Tanque Verde
phase with no indication of a break, Therefore, the pattern outlined
above probably holds in large part for both cultural units,
82
Tanque Verde Phase
LOCATION:
Villages were largely situated upon the crest or at the low "tip'T
ends of ridges adjacent to the alluvial flats just above the confluence of
drainages.
CERAMIC COMPLEX:
Tanque Verde occupation was defined on the basis of an associat-
ed complex of plain, red, and red-on-brown wares. One site, Arizona
EE:242, produced several local paste corrugated sherds which fit into
this trait cluster
Design elements occurring on the Tanque Verde Red-
on-brown ware represent a regional variation of the Tucson area styles
(Haury, 1958, personal communication). The absence of trade wares
is unexpected (Table 7)
SURFACE INDICATIONS
TOOL COMPLEX
(see discussiOn under Rincon Phase)
(see discussion under Rincon Phase)
83
DISCUSSION:
Settlement is almost entirely relocated upon the ridges. Surface indications suggest stable village life. Evidence recorded in the
Arizona State Museum files and reanalyzed from Swanson (1951, Fig.
12) indicates a maximum use of the Cienega Valley as a whole. The
number of villages reflecting a large population exceeds the number
of sites from any of the preceding phases. Trade wares are absent
but whether this truly indicates a lack of outside contact is doubtful.
The tool complex as previously discussed suggests a mixed economy.
Huachuca and Babacomari(?) Phases
LOCATION:
Sites occur both upon the ridges flanking the major Cienega
Creek drainage and directly upon an old flood-plain surface beneath
the recent alluvium (Unit 1) (Arizona State Museum Survey files).
These sites are situated south of the area of study concerning us in
this paper; however, the addition to the phase sequence should not
be ignored.
84
CERAMIC COMPLEX:
Diagnostic ceramics defining these phases are Babacomari
plain, red, and polychromec. The phases are subdivided on the basis
of the occurrence of multiple trade wares in the early Huachuca phase
and the lack of this extensive exchange system during the later Babacom
an phase (DiPeso, 1951:214). It should be pointed out that this type of
subdivision, which is based on negative evidence, is extremely hazardous in survey work.
Swanson (1951, Fig. 12) reported on half a dozen sites which the
author feels meet the ceramic criteria discussed above. He found a
trade complex associated with the Huachuca phase which consisted of
Gila, Tucson, Santa Cruz, and St. Johns Polychrome. Tanque Verde
Red-eon-brown is also present. An equal number of sites lacked these
trade wares which may suggest the later Babacomari phase(?).
DISCUSSION:
The significance of these sites for our purposes lies in demonstrating the continued stabilized alluvial conditions, Their cultural
importance lies in lengthening the phase sequence and indicating the
intrusion of new cultural influences and perhaps peoples from the
south. The small number of sites suggests a decrease in population
over the previous Tanque Verde phase.
TABLE 7
OCCURRENCE OF CERAMICS ON SITES WITHIN THE STUDY AREA
Phases
Ceramic
Complex
Babacomari
Huachuca
Tanque
Verde
Sites
:10 :40 :14 :9 :42 :34 :36 :11 :32 :37
Babacomari
Poly.
Gila Poly.
P
T
Tanque Verde
R/br.
P
P
Red
Plain
C or rug ated
Rincon
Rincon R1/br.
Red
P
D
Rillito-
Rihito-C anada
Canada del
Oro
Red
T
del Oro R/br,
D
PP
PP
T
Canada del
P
Oro R/br
PP
PP
Red
Plain
Gila Butte
R/bu.
San Francisco
Red(?)
Vahki'=
Estrella
p - present
Snaketown Gr,
Pioneer painted
Plain
P
T
Gila Butte
R/bu.
Snaketown
D PDP
PP
PP P
P
P
Plain
Canada del
Oro
PP P
D
p
P
Plain
p
Dragoon R/br.
PD
P
PP P
P
P
P
P
D
TT
T
PP
P
P
Estrella Gr.
Red
Plain
P
P
P
D-dominant painted
T'-trade
85
Summary
THE PHASE SEQUENCE:
Cultural manifestations located within the selected portion of
the Cienega Valley under study illustrate a development from a pre-
ceramic horizon base (San Pedro stage) through a sequence of ceramic
horizon phases (Vahki-Estrella through Tanque Verde). Affiliations of
the ceramic components reported in this paper lie with the Tucson area.
However, a survey study of the entire valley (Swaison, 1951) indicates
a late shift to influences or possibly intrusion of peoples from the
Babacomari Valley (HuachucaBabacornari(?) phases) and the north
em
Sonoran area. No direct evidence of historical occupati n was
located in the literature but the distribution of Piman speaking peoples
which entirely surrounds the area suggests their awareness of the valley.
ALLUVIAL ASSOCIATION:
Components of the San Pedro stage are associated with the
lower silts and cienega deposits (Units 5, 4, and base of 3) in the
western portion of the alluvial basin ("Middle Valley," Cooley, Appendix
A) under study. These units pinch out toward the east side of the basin
where occupation (Arizona EE:2:30) was directly upon the basal clay
86
(Unit 100).
The eastern portion of the alluvial basin contains a maximum
thickness of Unit 3 alluvium and a complete sequence of ceramic sites
ranging from a Vahki-Estrella phase pithouse through a Rincon trash
and burial zone (Arizona EE:2:10). The rate of deposition of the Unit
3 alluvium was less intense in the drainage "junction" area where we
find Canada del Oro through Tanque Verde phase (Arizona EE:2:9, 2:14)
occupation occurring in the upper Unit 3 silts and/or an old ground sur
face developed upon these same silts.
If ceramic materi. equated with various occupation horizons
was actually situated within the Unit 3 alluvium, the erosion, of the fine
silt may have "let down" the upper sherd concentrations onto a lower
erosional surface causing a telescope mixing. On the other hand, if
this occupation was actually upon the upper surface of Unit 3, then an
apparent reversal in ceramic stratigraphy must be explained. The
oldest phase material at Arizona EE:2:9 and 2:14 is of Canada del Oro
age0
At Arizona EE:2:10, Rincon phase burials were associated with
the upper portion of Unit 3. This inconsistency may be resolved by
projecting buried surfaces in the eastern portion of the study area
(Matty Canyon area) up onto the stable surface developed upon Unit 3
in the vicinity of the "junction" area.
87
SE TTLEMENT PATTERN:'
The floodplain flts were predominantly utilized for village and
campsite habitation up through the Rillito phase. Hereafter, occupation
occurred more frequently upon the adjacent ridges. The Rincon phase
marked a period of transition to the latter type of setting. In contrast
to the early single phase occupation, villages established during the
Rincon phase carry over to the Tanque Verde indicating settlement
stability.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:
The basic subsistence pattern of the Cienega Creek region from
early to late seems to have been a mixed economy. The chipped stone
tool types equated with hunting and gathering carry through the cultural
sequence. The ground stone complex equated with plant gathering is
altered late in the development toward types associated with agriculture,
In overall view, this region shows closer parallels with the
Desert Hohokam economy than with the River or San Pedro areas.
The economies of the latter groups were based on irrigation agriculture
and elaborate surplus production and exchange systems, while the former
region was oriented toward subsistence gathering and hunting activities
(DiPeso, 1953, Fig. 31).
During the Canada del Oro phase, a maximum amount of trade
88
was carried out with the River Hohokam of the Gila=Salt Valleys. This
economic exchange was diminished during the Rincon phase and re
oriented toward the San Pedro River Valley. During the Huachuca
phase, trade was extensive and linked with peoples to the north (Tucson
area and northern Plateau), south (Santa Cruz, Sonora) and west
(Papagueria), The general lack of shell ornaments and trade goods dur
ing most phases indicates a lack of integration into the widespread sur=
plus exchange systems of the River Hohokam,
4
THE TIME FACTOR I1 CORRELATION
Introduction
The data on the current environment in Chapter 2 and the reports on past environments in the appendices provide the basis for the
development of an environmental sequence. The sequence of cultural
events presented in Chapter 3 is based on excavation and intensive
survey. The discussion in this section is focused on the means for
correlating natural and cultural sequences.
Alluvial geology supplies the basic framework for all correlation. The stratigraphic sequence of events allows the relative place-
ment of the associated natural and cultural data. Time correlation
has been attempted for the earlier events on the basis of the radiocarbon method of age determination. Later events have been dated
by ceramics and historic information. Correlation with the Southwestern regional climatic sequence has been attempted as an overall
check on other methods.
89
90
Dating Methods
CARBON-14 AGE DETERMINATION:
PROVENIENCE OF SAMPLES:
Pits from two pre-ceramic stations produced a sufficient quam=.
tity of charcoal to run Carbon-14 age determination tests, Three pits
(1, 11, 14) from Arizona EE:2:30 are associated with extensive trash
containing San Pedro stage remains. This exposure lies at the contact between the Unit 3 alluvium and a basal clay (Unit 100).
Lense 4, Arizona EE:2:35 (Fig. 13) occurs above the first bedrock falls in Cienega Creek 1/2 mile above the junction with the Matty
Canyon arroyo. This lense probably represents a deep cooking pit
bisected by the current arroyo cutting and occurring within the Unit 5
sands. The significance of this station lies in the occurrence of cultural material which underlies the main silt and cienega deposits (Units
4 and 3).
A series of samples was removed from a natural "peatt' deposit
(M zone, Unit 3) occurring in the west bank of the Matty Canyon arroyo.
This location occurs 1/8 mile downstream from Arizona EE:2:30 and
60 ft. northwest of a geological measured section (MC-5) (Fig. 22).
91
COLLECTION METHODS:
Charcoal was collected during the excavation of the cooking pits
(1, 11, 14, and lense 4) for their bone and artifact content
The carbon
occurred as concentrations in the lower one third of the features in association with hearthstones and damp, sandy clay fill. It was removed
as chunks which in some cases were large enough for charcoal identifica
tion, Collection was made with a pen knife and the carbon stored in a
polyethylene bag as a precaution against contamination, Insofar as pos
sible, old and current rootlets were avoided and a minimum of non
organic matter excluded from the samples0 Pit 1 was collected from
by student members of Dr. Haury' s 1955 excavation crew
Pits 11,
14, and lense 4 were sampled during the 1957 excavation project.
A separate collection trip was made in company with Mr Dick
Shutler, Jr, Research Assistant of the University of Arizona C-14 Age
Determination Laboratory, to remove samples from the 'peat" zone
(M zone, Unit 3) occurring in the vicinity of MC5. The samples were
obtained from two zones exhibiting a pronounced dark, organic appear.
ance and designated by Cooley (Appendix A) as
and M2.
The date
reported in this paper came from the upper zone (M1) which was dry
and contained a profusion of rootlets9 As far as possible, these were
removed or avoided in the field. The material was again sacked in
plastic bags of qt. volunin and sealed with rubber bands. As far as
possible, the bag openings were kept sealed with a rubber band or
92
twisted closed at all times when the actual collection was not in process0
DISCUSSION OF DATES:
All radiocarbon dates reported in this paper were supplied by
the Carbon14 Age Determination Laboratory of the University of Arizona.
The solid-carbon method developed by Willard F. Libby and his co
workers was used in processing samples (Wise and Shutler, 1958:72-4).
Radiocarbon dates obtained from the cooking pits at Arizona
EE:2:30 encompass a range of 1350 years occurring within the late
pre-Christian era0 The exact relationship of these pits to the main
trash accumulation is not altogether clear0 However, if the straightsided cooking pit (1) located within test block 1 may be interpreted as
occurring toward the end of the trash accumulation, its date of 1950 ±
200 (1957) would fall close to the end of the San Pedro occupation. The
early span of occupation would then be indicated by the 2550 ± 330 (1958)
date obtained from the undercut pit 11 and the still older average date
of 3307 + 400 (1958) obtained from three runs on a carbon sample from
undercut pit 14 (Table 8). In part, this sequence is a verific-tion of the
postulated pit order discussed previously. However, it is unusual to
find such an extended period of time involved in a single site. This
factor may be accounted f.r by the specialized environmental and
perhaps economic features occurring in this locality as well as inde-
terminate factors within the dating method Itself.
Two carbon dates of 2610 + 250 (1958) and an average date of
93
2773 ± 300 (1958) obtained from lense 4, Arizona
EE:2:35 equates well
with the span of San Pedro occupation at Arizona EE:2:30 (Table 8).
It
supports the postulated cultural equivalence of the latter station and the
pre-ceramic surveyed sites. This date has further significance in
placing a lower time limit on the development of the Unit 4 silts and its
contained cienega deposits.
An average date of 2860
305 (1958) calculated for the M1 zone
(Unit 3) presents a major contradiction to the relative order of events
as established by the stratigraphic study (Table
8)
Unit 3 contains
post-Christian era components at Arizona EE:2:10, Projection of
zone to Arizona EE:2:30 (Fig0 22) indicates that the peat would occupy
the stratigraphic position a few feet above or possibly at the top of the
pre-ceramic midden. In contrast to this, utilizing only the radiocarbon
date at face value, the ??peatt? (M1 zone) would fall well within the main
time range for midden occupation.
GEOLOGIC-CLIMATIC DATING:
POST-GLACIAL DATED CLIMATIC SEQUENCE:
Investigation by Antevs (in Smiley:1955) has led to the establishment of a regional Southwestern chronology of climatic and geological
events0
Three post-glacial climatic periods have been established on
the basis of temperature and moisture fluctuations0 The early Anathermal
is a cool, moist period immediately following the terminal glaciation and
94
extending up to 7500 BP (Antevs in Smiley, 1955:157). The succeeding
Altithermal "Long Drought" is a warm, dry period dating from 7500 to
4000 BP. More moderate, semi-arid conditions referred to as the
Medithermal were inaugurated following this dry extreme which con-
tinue to the present.
Extensive ponding and laminated lake beds are correlated with
the Anathermal. Major arroyo channels or massive calichification
equate with the Altithermal. However, some channels such as those
cutting through these beds may fall within the Medithermal (Antevs in
Smiley, 1955;157).
MEDIT HER MAL PERIOD:
Considering only the alluvial units associated with man (Units
5-1), no major climatic departures from present conditions are indicat
ed. In general, flood-plain deposition, cienega ponding, and erosion
surfaces and channels indicate minor fluctuations within a semi-arid
range and current or Medithermal conditions.
EROSION SURFACES:
Three surfaces concerning man may be examined for possible
dated climatic significance. The Unit 100 surface ("Mid. e Valley,"
Cooley, Appendix A) upon which Cochise man lived (Arizona EE:2:30)
forms a base to the alluvial deposition. Lack of Anathermal or Altithermal age deposits plus the lower limits set by the C-14 dating of
95
the San Pedro occupation may indicate that this portion of the Cienega
Creek basin was completely evacuated during the AltithermaJ. "Long
Drought." The Unit 100 surface may have been partially developed
during this period0
A long lived surface developed upon the Unit 3 alluvium provided
the setting for prehistoric (AD 500.4400 or AD 1200.4400) occupation
(Arizona EE:2:14) as well as early historic (1870's) occupation (Arizona
EE:2:38). Climatic fluctuations occurring during this stabilized situa-
tion are indicated by the buried channel at MC-2 adjacent to Arizona EE:
2:10 and channel filling (Unit 2) which terminated in the formation of a
soil zone (Unit 2). Based on minimum dates set by "in situ" archaeo
logical ceramic and inhumation material (Arizona EE:2:10, Cremation 2),
the channel erosion must have occurred after AD 1200 in this portion of
the valley0 Corresponding dry periods available for correlation are the
"Great Drought" of AD 1276-1299 and the lesser drought of AD 15731593 (Antevsin Smiley, 1955:157). This latter drought has not been
recognized in arroyo cutting.
The establishment of the present alluvial surface ("Inner Valley,"
Cooley, Appendix A) and current incised arroyo is of recent origin.
Causal factors attributed to this minor extreme range from climate to
overgrazing (Antevs in Smiley, 1955:157). Historic dating by oral
communication from local residents in the various river valleys of
Southeastern Arizona indicate the late 1880's as the beginning period
96
of alluvial incision. Personal statements and a consideration of the
physical setting suggests a somewhat later beginning for the Cienega
Creek "down cutting" (c. a. 1900).
WET PERIODS:
Silt deposits (Units 4 and 3) indicate a flood-plain environment
and a more moist climate than what had preceded (Unit 100 surface) or
followed (terminal Unit 3 surface). The occurrence of cienega deposits
within this alluvium Is indicative of a certain amount of moisture and
reduced evaporation rate. However the occurrence of similar marshes
within historic times suggests their common occurrence within a semiarid climate and the Medithermal period as a whole.
Moist conditions are indicated by local laminated pond clays
(Unit 2) occurring within the old buried channel at MC-2. Terminal
effects of this incised drainage resulted in a gently sloping profile to
the channel as the climate changed from dry to wet.
The filling of the old arroyo ended in a well developed soil zone
indicating relatively heavy vegetation cover. Dr. Haury observes that
this zone is widespread within the area of study and adjacent river valt.
leys.
97
CERAMIC DATING:
CORRELATION OF TIME AND CERAMICS:
Dating cultural and natural events by association with ceramic
types requires the working out of a chain of events which extend up
onto the northern plateau of the Southwest. DendrochronOlOgiCal study
of house timbers, fire pits, trash dumps, and wooden artifact specimens has allowed the absolute dating of architectural structures built
by Pueblo Indians occupying the plateau for the last 2000 years (Smiley
in Smiley, 1955:189). Black-on-white and related styles of pottery found
in association with these dated structures may be assumed to carry the
same general dates. Intrusive northern pottery types found in excavated
sites within the Gila Valley, provide an extension of this time chronology
into the southern desert culture. A second jump is made by correlating
River Hohokam pottery types with the Tucson area by means of trade
war es.
SURFACE COLLECTION METHODS:
Sites sampled by surface collection were approached from a
biased standpoint. It was felt that more information could be obtained
by securing diagnostic painted ceramics than through indiscriminate
collection. Therefore, the proportion of painted to plain wares is
highly slanted in favor of the former. For this reason, the actual
numbers of sherds are not reported, but rather the emphasis is placed
98
on the occurrence of types in the ceramic complex (Table 7).
Collection took place through repeated trips to the study area,
particularly alter rains when new material might be exposed by washing.
DISCUSSION:
Correlation of Tucson area ceramics with the phase sequence
established in the Gila Valley (Danson, 1955, lecture notes) allows a
projection of a fairly uniform 200 year time unit into the Cienega Valley0
The dated ceramics may then be used themselves as a dating tool to
correlate cultural and natural events with the Christian calendar0
This approach to time study has established a maximum range of 1200
years (AD 1-1200) for the deposition of Unit 3 alluvium at Arizona EE:
2:10. The stable surface developed upon this alluvium was occupied for
a minimum of 300 years (AD 1200-1500) by prehistoric peoples.
HISTORIC DATING:
HISTORIC STRUCTURES AND MATERIAL:
Although adobe corrals and structures identified with the Sanford
Ranch (United States Geological Survey Topographic Map, 1904; and
Barnett, 1957, personal communication) occur in the vicinity of the
MattyCieflega drainage junction area (Fig. 2), only one historic build-
ing is actually situated within the alluvial sequence in such a fashion as
99
to provide direct evidence of a historical date for terminal alluvial
events. This rock floor area (Arizona EE:2:38), which is associated
with historic green glass bottle fragments and metal, was constructed
upon the Unit 2 soil zone developed upon the terminal Unit 3 surface
prior to the deposition of the overlying Unit 1 sand and gravels (Fig. 2).
Perusal of files located in the Arizona Pioneer' s Historical
Society relating to the study area resulted in establishing an approximate
date for homesteading activities of the Sanford family along this section
of the Cienega Creek. The earliest records on the Sanfords date within
the first portion of the 187O s and extend up until he was bought out in
1882 by the Vail family. In all probability, the main ranch building,
corral adjacent to Arizona EE:2:14, and perhaps the buried rock floor
building(?) (Arizona EE:2:38) may be bracketed within this 12-year
periodG
An additional type of historic data concerns the occurrence of
domestic livestock bones (burro and domestic goat) within the old soil
zone (Unit 2) or the upper portion of Unit 3 in the vicinity of the Sanford
Corral '(Fig 2). Information concerning the historic arroyo cutting
and occurrence of environmental conditions was obtained from local
residents by. oral communication and the published literature (Bartlett,
1854).
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Environmental Sequence
ALLUVIAL ENVIRONMENTS:
Continuous flood'-plain deposition took place within the area of
study for approximately 2500 years. Surface drainage varied from
quiet to torrential. "Peat" and deposits exhibiting a dark, organic
stain indicate local ponding and swamp conditions throughout the depo-
sition of the floodplain silts. This situation reflects a relatively wet
climate within a semi-arid range.
A sharp reverse in environmental conditions is recorded by a
buried arroyo channel located at MC-2 in the east bank of the Matty
Canyon drainage. The incised drainage plus a gravel fill in the bottom
of the channel (Unit 2C, MC-2) indicate torrential drainage and dry
climatic conditions similar to those current today.
Features indicating a return to wetter conditions are the sloping
profile of the channel as the erosional cutting diminished and the channel
fill which took place under quiet, slow moving or ponded drainage condi.-
tions. This wet cycle climaxed in a widespread and well developed soil
100
101
zone. Arroyo cutting and soil formation took place upon a long lived
surface (top of Unit 3) which may have undergone some erosion in cone-
junction with the dry cycle. Historic information supplied by Bartlett
(1854) indicates surface drainage and ponding during the mid l800ts.
A final dry reversal followed which is in full swing today.
Sometime after the early 1870's, a quick scouring took place which
brought down a blanket of flood-plain sand and gravel deposits. This
material was partially reworked by wind action as evidenced by crossbedding. This transition from wet to dry climatic conditions climaxed
in the current arroyo cutting which may have commenced c. a. 1900 in
this region.
VEGETATION COVER:
Today the Cienega Valley contains a mesquite-'grassland cover
which is bounded by a higher altitude (c. a. 5000 ft.) belt of oak on the
lower flanks of the surrounding mountains. Oak is locally drawn down
into the valley proper by increased moisture along tributary drainage
lines. However, in general, the distribution of oak and mesquite,
which cluster in heavy woods along the main drainages, remains separate and distinct.
Charcoal samples obtained from cooking pits at Arizona EE:2:30
and Arizona EE:2:35 were identified as to genus (Appendix B) before
102
reduction to elemental carbon by the University of Arizona C-14 Lab-
oratory. This measure provides us with a double set of information concerning the time and nature of alterations in the shrub ground cover.
Ignoring human preference, the fire wood brought into camp by San
Pedro man must pretty well reflect the available fuel which occurred
within a mile or so of his campsite in the area of study. The dates supplied by the C-14 method of age determination are insufficiently critical
to work out a fine sequence of fluctuations, but the general picture seems
to be one of re-occurring replacement of mesquite by oak and reverse
for a 1300year period within the preChristian era. These alterations
in turn reflect small changes in the moisture'temperature cycle as the
cooler, wetter needs of the oak were fluctuated with the dryer, warmer
requirements of mesquite4 Historic information supplied by documents
and oral statements indicates that one of these minor shrub alterations
took place in this region within the last 100 years. The apparent per'
sistence of Antelope throughout the time period under discussion sug-
gests that a grassland habitat was maintained within the changes of
shrub growth.
Soil (Unit 2) formation may indicate very wet conditions and a
heavy vegetation cover. The buried profile observable in the arroyo
bank today must have been formed from a developed humus zone and
stabilized environmental conditions.
103
MAMMALS:
The occurrence of a similar basic complex of mammals both
early and late within the environmental sequence suggests a stable
faunal population. This view is supported by the sporodic specimens
occurring within intermediate age alluvial deposits.
Such animals as elk, bighorn sheep(?), and whitetail deer are
generally associated with a high altitude habitat of oak and pine forest
cover. Antelope infer extensive grasslands while mule deer, jack
rabbit, and cottontail suggest a mixed grasslandshrub environment
(Appendix C).
NONMARINE MOLLUSKS:
Molluscan remains collected from all alluvial units and cienega
zones indicate a vertical sequence of ponds and/or slow moving streams.
Landsnail material gave indication of probable grassland and/or mod.='
erate vegetation cover. There was no indication of forms common to
heavy vegetation cover or rushing rivers. In general, the shell remains
reflect modern conditions (Appendix D).
?
1500
?
Arroyo cutting.
dry turn
Channel deposits, ponding
to torrential drainage.
dry
ing wet
wet
wet
Unit 2Soil formation.
Ponds, surface drainage
1851
action.
Stabilized conditions
Gap
dry
ima e
ident.
arcoa
eg.
Ample
grass
Oak
Grass
grass
Mesquite-
cover
Environmental Séquenc e
Unit 1'Flood plain, quiet to wet turn
torrential drainage, wind
ing dry
Arroyo cutting
Geo ogica
1870
1900
AD
1958
Time
shrub
Grass-
Mamm.
hab.
TABLE 9
CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND CULTURAL DATA
ponds
ponds
M.
N.
hab.
Huachuc a
Ranchingmining
Sequence
Cultural
500
AD1
500
1200
Time
wet
wet
"M" zoneSwamp and
soil formation.
Unit 4-Flood plain contain
ing lakes and swamps.
Unit 3 Flood plain, quiet to wet
torrential drainage.
Geological
Mesquite
P11, Oak,
Mesquite
Oak
Grass
shrub
Oakspine
ponds
ponds
ponds
Mammal *N, M. M.
hab.
hab.
Mesquite, Grass,
Oak
Grass
grass
shrub,
Environmental Sequence
Climate Charcoal Vèg.
cover
ident,
TABLE 9 - continued.
San Pedro
Stage
Estrella
Vahki
Canada del
Oro
Rincon
Tanque
Verde
Sequence
Cultural
Unit 5Quiet drainage,
Geological
**
***
*
!nonmarine molluscan habitats
rnidden test, Arizona EE:2:30
pit, Arizona EE:2:30
****4ense, Arizona EE:2:35
1300
BC
600
Time
wet
Mesquite
Pl4,
Mesquite
ident0
Climate Charcoal
cover
Veg.
continued
Environmental Sequence
TABLE 9
Grass,
Grass
shrub
ponds
Mammal *N. M. M.
hab.
San Pedro
Stage
Sequence
Cultural
104
Cultural Sequence
SAN PEDRO HUNTERS AND GATHERERS:
Occupation of the Cienega Valley by the San Pedro Stage peoples
may have spanned a period of 1300 years, apparently without a major
interruption. Material remains indicate temporary and semi-permanent
base camps upon the alluvial flats. These sites were probably oriented
toward cienega areas which may have provided water and a rich source
of plant foods
The surrounding grasslands would have yielded seeds
to be reduced to meal on the grinding stone and game which was steam
baked in the deep cooking pits. Sorties from the base camp to other
nearby vegetation zones could have provided cactus fruit, mesquite
"beans" and acorns during those periods when the latter were not im-
mediately accessible.
The large number of pits and possibly houses(?) suggests a
semi-settled way of life which provided the logical transition to the
true village communities and agricultural practices
HOHOKAM VILLAGE AGRICULTURALISTS:
Based upon evidence from other portions of the Southwest, corn
agriculture was introduced into the southern desert around AD L This
new food producing technique was superimposed upon the subsistence
105
pattern of the indigenous hunters and gatherers (San Pedro Stage). The
revolutionary effect was a stable village life and surplus or leisure time
for cultural elaboration.
However, in the Cienega Valley, conditions which had been
bountiful for the hunters and gatherers now became limiting factors
for the would be agriculturalists. In comparison with the adjacent
valleys, a shorter growing season, denser growth covering the alluvial
flats, restricted flood-plain area for farming, and isolation must have
effected a reduced economic development. In general, the number and
size of villages and evidence of trade with outside areas does not sug-
gest a major surplus production. Instead, the basic San Pedro Stage
pattern continued with a mixed subsistence based both on hunting and
gathering and limited agriculture.
Correlation of the Cultural and Natural Sequences
STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONSHIP:
Lower flood-plain deposits occurring in maximum thickness
toward the western portion of the alluvial basin contain scattered camp-
site remains of San Pedro man, Upper floodplain deposits occur in
maximum thickness in the Matty Canyon area where they contain a
nearly continuous sequence of ceramic cultural components. Buried
106
sites range from a Vahki-Estrella pithouse to an "in situ" Rincon Phase
burial and trash zone,
An erosional surface established upon these deposits was occupied by people living during the Tanque Verde through Huachuca phase
units0 The stratigraphic relationship between this occupation and the
dry channel cutting and wet soil formation could not be pin pointecL
Subsequent to these events, historic Anglo ranchers moved into
the area. After what must have been a brief occupation of the old prehistoric surface, a quick, sharp climatic reversal precipitated a recent
flood-plain deposit which was partially reworked by wind action0 The
deposition covered a building and buried historic domestic bone speci-
mens0 This terminal alluvium was interrupted soon afterwards by
arroyo cutting which is widespread throughout the Southwest today.
ENVIRONMENT AND MAN:
Human occupation of the Cienega Valley occurred within a
grassland environment which saw periodic shrub cover fluctuations from
mesquite to oak, Modern fauna inhabited the prairies and shrub growth
which must have occurred along the slow moving ponded streams0
Several pronounced environmental fluctuations may have effected
man0 The dry post-1200 arroyo cutting probably desiccated the area
in a fashion similar to current conditions0 This drying up would have
FIGURE 21
Correlation of cultural phases, sites, arid alluvial units.
Ceramic time units are applied based on the best current estimates (Haury, 1958, personal communication).
Time
Units
Setected
Phase Units CorreLations
ALLuviaL Units
Sites
AD
1900" Historic
1870-s
1500
gap
214
H u a c h u ca
11.00
Tarique Verde
2:10
R incon
230
1200
900
2.3/4
R1LitoCanada del.
3--
Oro
600
Snaketown
LQ 0
gap
300
AD1
Vahki-
2:10
2:30
Estrelta
San Pedro
Stage
2:12
2:35
2:12
1300
BC
Pre-4
107
eradicated the local marshes and diminished an important food supply0
The succeeding wet period, with indications of a heavy ground cover,
may have reinstated the supply of cienega foods but intensified the thf
ficulty of flood-plain farming0 Apparent absence of full time historic
occupation by aboriginal peoples may indicate that late land use of the
valley was thought of in terms of seasonal collecting and hunting.
APPENDIX A
RECENT ALLUVIAL GEOLOGY OF CIENEGA VALLEY IN THE
AREA AT THE CONFLUENCE OF MATTY WASH WITH
CIENEGA CREEK, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA
by
M. E0 Cooley
Introduction
A mappable sequence of Recent alluvium is well exposed in the
area of confluence of Matty Wash with Cieneg. Creek. Here, six
stratigraphic units of the Recent alluvium are traceable throughout
the area.. These units, consisting of fluvial and lacustrine sediments,
form a gradational and intertonguing sequence ranging in thickness
from 15 to over 50 feet in thickness..
Field work was done during the last two weeks of September
1957, which consisted of mapping the arroyo walls of both Cienega
Creek and Matty Wash from their point of junction to about one mile
upstream, totaling 14, 600 feet of arroyo walls mapped at a scale of
one inch equals 50 feet. In addition, seven stratigraphic sections were
measured and described at key points within the area, and other lithologic
108
109
samples were taken of the several units for additional stratigraphic
description.
The purpose of this investigation is two-fold: (1) The tracing
and correlation of the various Recent alluvial stratigraphic units was
made in order to understand the Recent geologic history and sedimentary environment of the area, and (2) the tying in of each archeological
site to the alluvial stratigraphy. The author was ably assisted in the
field work by Frank Eddy whose archeological dating is used extensively
in this report.
An isometric fence diagram (Fig. 22) was compiled in order to
graphically portray the general stratigraphic correlation of the several
alluvial units, the physiographic relationships of the Recent alluvium
to the pre-alluvial valley, and to show the effect of geologic structure
upon the recent alluvial deposition. In addition, the fence shows the
distribution and Uthology of the sediments, the lateral extent of developed soil zones, and the amount of channeling which underlies or had
occurred during the deposition of the sediments, The surface of the
fence diagram represents the valley of Cienega Creek before being
dissected by the present period of arroyo cutting.
Physiogr .phic Setting
The area under investigation comprises about two square miles
and lies in the valley of Cienega Creek between the Empire and Whetstone
110
Mountains at altitudes ranging between 4, 100 and 4, 300 feet. Here in
the middle portion of Cienega Creek drainage the outline and physio-
graphic shape of the present valley has been developed during three
principle stages of development.
The older "outer" valley, occupying the structural lowlands between the Empire and Whetstone Mountains, truncated tilted sedimen-
tary strata consisting of Cretaceous sediments. This "outer" valley
probably represents the initial valley development following the prom-
inent structural movements of mid-Tertiary time. Continued but intermittent elevation of the region caused the deepening and widening of the
valley during most of the late Cenozoic. However, as this process was
not continuous, deposition of gravelly materials took place from time to
time within the ancestral Cienega Valley. Erosion of much of the gravelly
deposits occurred immediately after the deposits were laid down in the
middle portion of Cienega drainage with greater preservation of the
gravels in the upper and lower parts of the drainage. Unit 100 probably
represents a deposit of this type.
The "middle" valley, underlying the Recent alluvium, has been
cut below the highest level of fill developed during the deposition of Unit
100. Erosion by Cienega Creek and. tributaries has left a series of low
terraces developed chiefly on sediments of Unit 100 with some of the
terraces extending toward the mountains and beveling the Cretaceous
rocks.
111
The "inner" or present valley forms the broad flood plain between
the terraces cut on Unit 100. The flood plain was built up to its present
level by the accumulation of the several alluvial units which are discussed
in this report0
Str atigraphy
The oldest rocks are of Cretaceous age and occur throughout the
area either on the surface of at depth covered by the valley fill, and are
the only rocks of the area which have been subjected to the effects of
low-.grade metamorphism. An older valley fill, Unit 100, of possible
Pleistocene age overlies the Cretaceous rocks and is exposed in sev-
eral places in the arroyo walls. The youngest sediments comprising
the Recent alluvium were laid down as floo&plain deposits forming a
relatively thin mantle upon the older rocks.
Cretaceous Rocks
The rocks of Cretaceous age form the "bedrock" and consist of
an alternating sequence several hundreds of feet thick of aricosic fine-.
to medium-gra.ined crossbedded sandstones and flat-bedded silty fine-i
grained sandstones (see section MC-6). These sediments are lenticular
thick to very thick bedded and some of the individual units can be traced
across the area investigated. A buff limy sandstone bed containing
abundant fossils of the genus Oystrea occurs about on&fourth mile west
112
of Cienega Creek. The Cretaceous units represent near shore types of
depositional environment with flood-plain types of sediments predominating.
P'leistocene(?)
The Pleistocene(?) sediments, called informally Unit 100 in this
paper, are chiefly sand and gravel beds which are cemented primarily
by caliche. Sediments of Unit 100 are exposed only along the sides of
Cienega Valley as the present arroyos are not of sufficient depth to ex-
pose these sediments in the center of the valley.
Unit 100 ranges in color from a moderate yellowish brown to a
pale red, is poorly sorted, and weakly to firmly cemented by calcareous
materials. Limestone nodules and well-developed caliche zones are
commonly observed within the unit. The gravel has a maximum size
of about one foot but most sizes are less than four inches across the
long dimension. The matrix is chiefly of quartz sand size particles
that are rounded to subangular in shape which is a higher degree of
rounding than that of the sand grains of the overlying Recent deposits.
A few thin silty layers composed of ttmudchipst? occur throughout the
unit. Unit 100 is lenticular, thick and very thick bedded but with individual layers not exceeding four feet in thickness. The beds are
predominantly crossbedded with low- and very lowangle medium- to
large-scale trough and planer types0
113
In many places a soil zone or a residual mantle derived from
the underlying material has been preserved at the top of Unit 100 and
is well shown in most of the exposures along Matty Wash. These
residual-soil materials range in thickness from one half to about three
feet and have formed indiscriminately across the sand and gravel beds.
The soil zone is generally structureless and contains some carbonaceous
material and limestone nodules.
Recent Deposits
The Recent deposits or floodplain deposits consist of gradational
and intertonguing sequences which show variations in lithology both in
cross sectional and in longitudinal profiles in Cienega Valley0 Units 5
and 6 are closely related depositionally and form the basal Recent sediments in the valley. Similarly, Units 3 and 4 are closely related and
makeup the bulk of the sediments. Unit 2 is chiefly a soil zone developed upon Unit 3, and Unit 1 indicates a short period of deposition which
immediately preceded the cutting of the present arroyos. Unit 7 is not
a stratigraphical unit like Units 1 to 6, but represents an accumulation
of residual-colluvial sediments occurring along the sides of Cienega
Valley. Unit 7 therefore, intertongues with Units 3, 4, 5, and 6 which
form a continuous overlapping sequence on the sides of Cienega Valley
(Fig. 22).
114
Description
The lithologies of the several units were determined by use of a
10..power binocular microscope, from approximately 100 samples which
were collected throughout the area0 Because of the large variations in
thickness of each unit, these thicknesses are not mentioned in the text,
but they can be obtained from Figure 22 and from the measured sections0
Unit 7
Unit 7 is the oldest Recent sedimentary unit which was
deposited in this part of Cienega Valley and chiefly overlies Unit 100,
but in places it has been preserved in low's developed on the Cretaceous
bedrock units0 It, being a residual type of deposit, is composed of ma=
terials derived principally from the older rock units0 Unit 7 is struc
tureless, chiefly a silty sand or sandy silt containing angular pebbles
scattered throughout the unit, and is weakly bonded by calcareous and
argillaceous cements0 The unit is generally a pale brown but near site
Arizona EE:2:10 it is a grayish orange pink0 At section MC4 some
carbonaceous material, trash, and a few crude artifacts were found
interbedded within the unit. Locally, limestone nodules are common
within the unit.
Unit 6. The grayish unit 6 is chiefly a mud, but its composition
may range from an impure clay to a silt containing some fine-grained
sand. It is flat and thinly bedded, but in some exposures the unit is
115
contorted, suggestive of primary slumpage0 The unit is plastic when
wet and is very weakly cemented by calcareous materials. Fragments
of plant remains are scattered throughout the unit0 The intertonguing
between Unit 6 and Unit 5 is shown on most of the clear exposures (see
Fig. 22).
Unit 5. - -Sandy fluvial. sediments of Unit 5 overlie Unit 6 with the
common contact being partly gradational and partly intertonguing0 How-
ever, in some exposures along Cienega Creek, several small channels
containing sand and gravel extend short distances downward into Unit 6.
Unit 5 varies locally from a sandy mud to a sandy gravel, but whose gen-
eral composition is a sand or a silty sand, pale yellowish brown in color.
The sand is very fine to fine grained, composed of subrounded to sub-
angular quartz grains, and is very weakly cemented with calcareous ma-
terials. Most of the unit is crossbedded with small-scale trough and
planer types of crossbedding, but at section MC-7 large-scale crossbedding features are common0 Silt and a few mud beds occur in the
lower part of Unit 7 which are similar in lithology to Unit 6.
The sandy sediments of Unit 5 grade and intertongue laterally
and upward with the muddy sediments of Unit
4
In places along Matty
Wash where no sediments of Unit 4 are present, Unit 5 is overlain by
the sandy materials comprising Unit 3. Elsewhere it is overlain by
Unit 4.
116
Unit 5 contains many artifacts and fire pits believed to belong
to the San Pedro Stage. These occur along Cienega Creek between the
"upper" and "lower" falls. Elsewhere along Cienega Creek only charcoal
fragments and some poorly developed trash(?) zones have been preserved
in the unit. No indications of human occupation have been observed from
Unit 5 along Matty Wash0
Unit 4. The fine-grained sediments of Unit 4, comprising the
"Cienega beds," were laid down in shallow lakes and swampy areas occupying considerable portions of Cienega Valley. The unit is composed
of thin-bedded sequences of brownish gray muds that contain few stringers
of silty sand and abundant carbonaceous material. These muds are thicker along Cienega Creek and thin to the east by intertonguing with Unit 3.
The almost pure peat layers at section MC-5 along Matty Wash ar believed to be the tongues of Unit 4 which are interbedded with the sediments
of Unit 3.
Individual beds within Unit 4 can be traced laterally for several
hundreds of feet as essentially no channeling is present. The "X' mark
er bed, forming the top of the unit in the northern part of the area, is
an excellent marker bed which is well displayed in the arroyo walls.
Only one San Pedro occupation has been recognized in Unit 4 and
it occurs within a sandy layer at section MC-4. This sandy layer can be
traced for about 150 feet to the south where it is not recognizable from
117
the typical muds comprising Unit 4.
Unit 3. Unit 3 is the most complex of all the Recent alluvial
units exposed within the area as it consists of several subunits composed
of fluvial sediments which are separated by soil profiles. The unit is
characterized by channeling which is more common and better developed
along Matty Wash where the many sharply defined and steep-sided chan-.
nels have formed a maze of lenticular deposits. Only at the ttlower?T
falls has a large channel been cut into the underlying cienega deposits
of Unit 4 and near section MC-1 channels truncate Unit 100.
The sediments composing Unit 3 are of three general types: (1)
crossbedded silty sands and gravels which makeup the channel deposits;
(2) "structureless" sandy silts which are similar to some bess deposits;
and (3) several silty soil zones. Two prominent soil zones can be traced
laterally over large portions of Cienega Valley and can be used for cor-
relation purposes. These are the "M" marker bed, in the northeastern
portion and the "KY' marker bed in the southern portion of the area.
Other soil zones, of only local extent, occur throughout the area, Many
of the soil zones of Unit 3 can be traced laterally into cienega deposits
which occur as tongies from Unit 4.
Unit 3 ranges in color from pale red to a pale brown. It is gen-.
erally weakly bonded with a calcareous cement and is more consolidated
in the southeastern part of the area. Unit 3, by intertonguing with Unit
4, thins to the west and is composed of finer sediments near Cienega
118
Creek,
Abundant human occupation of Rincon and Rillito ages is indicat-
ed in all parts of Unit 3. These sites are located in the siltier beds,
but they are not located, or preserved, near channels or on the well-
developed soil profiles. No remains of San Pedro culture were found
in Unit 3.
Unit 2. -'-The formation and deposition of Unit 2 follows an ero-
sional interval which in places may have removed large portions of Unit
3.
The unit is primarily a soil zone developed across the beds of ,Unit
3, However, two deep channels, filled w'ith sediments of Unit 2, and
unit 2 being thicker along the flanks of Cienega Valley, indicate that
some deposition took place in addition to soil development. The soil
zone is brownish gray and is chiefly a silt or a sandy silt which in places
is over three feet in thickness. The unit is very weakly bonded by a
calcareous cement and some poorly formed limy nodules occur within
the unit,
The channel at section MC-2 contains about 6 feet of gravelly
sediments in the bottom of the channel, but the gravel is not present in
the channels exposed near the confluence of Matty and Cienega Creek,
However, all channels contain very thin-bedded silts and sandy silts
which contain "mudchips," Few layers of carbonaceous materials
about one-eighth inch thick are scattered throughout the silty beds.
119
All beds clip slightly toward the center of the channel,
Unit 1 --Unit 1 is believed to be sediments which were deposited
during the initial stage of the present period or arroyc cutting0 The unit
is preserved as a thin blanket-type deposit ranging chiefly from one-half
to four feet in thickness, Locally, small channels are preserved, having
a maximum depth of six feet, Unit 1 is thicker and contains more gravel
near Matty Wash, The sediments are chiefly silty sands and sands cOntaining pebbles scattered throughout the unit, Gravel is concentrated in
the deeper channels and some wind-deposited sand was laid dc
at sec-
tions MC-2 and MC-30
Geologic History and Stratigraphic Relationships
During the late Pleistocene and the early part of Recent time,
erosion was the predominant geological process which caused the ex-
cavation of the pre-alluvia]. valley of Cienega Creeks Near the end of
the last stage of the pre-alluvial valley development, parts of the Cienega
Valley were in a stabilized condition, where no erosion or deposition
was taking place, allowing for the formation of a soil zone to be developed on the gravels of Unit 1OO
Either during the formation of this soil
zone or at a later time, most of the caliche and limestone nodules were
formed in both the gravels and soil zone of Unit 100. The formation of
this caliche is believed to have occurred during the Altithermal because
120
of the following reasons: (1) no well-developed caliche has been formed
in the overlying Recent sediments; and (2) no sedimentational break is
indicated in the Recent sediments until about AD 1200. Some additional
supporting evidence is indicated by the fact that Unit 5 contains remains
of the San Pedro cultural stage, 500 BC to AD 1, and the intertonguing
relationships between Units 5 and 6 suggest that the maximum age of
Unit 6 is not much older than 500 BC (see Table 10).
The clayey sediments of Unit 6 indicate that they were laid down
in a relatively broad but shallow lake or lakes which at that time oc-
cupied the center of Cienega Valley. Streams, probably perennial in
character, brought in sandy materials of Unit 5 and encroached on the
borders of this ancient lake and partially filled the lake basin leaving
only a series of swampy lowlands. Thin mud layers occurring in the
sands of Unit 5 indicate considerable fluctuation of shorelines as the
streams occasionally shifted their courses. The shifting of the stream
courses is believed to have been the result of normal overloading by
sediments rather than any noticeable climatic or environmental change.
In general, because the sediments of Units 5 and 6 indicate slow rates
of deposition, the overall environment was therefore fairly stable for
a considerable length of time, perhaps as long as 1, 000 years, ending
prior to the year AD 1.
During the deposition of the lower part of Unit 4, which inter
conditions had
tongues with the upper part of Unit 5, the sedimentary
TABLE 10
AGE AND RELATIONSHIPS OF THE SEDIMENTARY
ENVIRONMENT OF THE RECENT ALLUVIAL
UNITS IN CIENEGA VALLEY, ARIZONA
Depositional
or erosional
Maximum
age
unit
range
Present
Post
period of
arroyo
cutting
1875
Sedimentary
environment
Erosion and downcutting,
runoff concentrated in
channels; no permanent
Indicated
climate
Highly unstable;
rapid precipitation; short wet
deposition; streams carry periods separated
by longer periods
only gravel& in transit.
of drouth.
Unit 1
18751900
Unstable wet-dry
Formation of shallow
conditions; rapid
channels and rapid deposition during flash floods; precipitation.
may be considered as a
transitional process before erosion became
completely predominant.
Unit 2
1200(?)-.
1875
Stable geologic conditions Stable wet condias indicated by widespread tions; no long dry
soil zone; some deposition periods indicated;
on flanks of Cienega Val- precipitation slow
ley and in older arroyos
and steady.
slow runoff is indicated
by no deposits of rapid
depositional types.
Period of
stripping
and arroyo
cutting
1200-.
1300(?)
Considerable portions of
Highly unstable wetunit 3 stripped off; fordry conditions;
mation of arroyos in part rapid precipitaof Cienega Valley.
tion; may not have
been as intense as
present drouth.
continued.
TABLE 10
Depositional
or erosional
unit
Unit 3
Maximum
age
Sedimentary
environment
Indicated
climate
range
AD 11200
Partly unstable
Consists of soil zones,
conditions;
channel deposits, and
longer periods
fine sediments indicating changing depositlonal of wet conditions
alternating with
conditions ranging from
shorter drier
slow to fast types; more
periods becomchannels in upper poring drier since
tion; intertongues with
cienega deposits indicat- AD 900.
ing incomplete drainage
of flood plain.
Unit 4
Unit 5
500 BC to
between
AD 1000
and 1200
Cienega deposits; inter-
500 BC-
Str earn and shore deposits adjacent to lakes
as indicated by trough
and planer types of
crossbedding; contains
interbedded cienega de-.
AD 1
tongues with Units 3
and 5.
Can not be used
as climatic indicator because
of intertonguing
relationships.
Fairly stable wet
conditions.
posits; streams perennial and relatively
sluggish.
Unit 6
Post
Altither-.
mal and
prior to
500 BC
Lake bed and cienega
deposits.
Stable to fairly
stable wet conditions.
121
begun to change because deposition of lake beds had ceased throughout
the valley. However, only a slight environmental change occurred be.-
fore about AD 1 as cienega type deposits were laid down in parts of the
valley. The cienegas were probably discontinuous because stream laid
deposits tended to localize and isolate the cienegas by building alluvial
barriers across portions of the valley.
The cienega beds of Unit 4, being deposited in parts of Cienega
Valley away from the main stream arteries, were laid down at the
same time as the fluvial sandy sediments of the upper part of Unit 5
and during most of the time of deposition of Unit 3. Because of the
intertonguing and gradational relationships between Unit 4 and the
sandy units, Unit 4 indicates that swampy conditions with local ponding were present in parts of Cienega Valley until AD 1000 or 1200.
The lack of archeological material in the unit suggests indirectly that
the deposits were "spongy" and saturated with water and were unfit for
camp and dwelling sites.
Unit 4 is thicker in the west side of the valley and thins to the
east because fluvial sediments of Unit 3 were also being deposited dur-.
ing this time in the eastern portion of Cienega Valley. Recurrent fault
movement at the "lower" falls, forming a low on the downthrown side,
probably accounts for the thick accumulation of Unit 4 sediments in the
area immediately downstream from the fault (see Fig. 22). This fault
movement probably occurred at some time between AD 1 and 500 because
122
beds of Unit 3, containing archeological sites which can be dated younger
than AD 500, were deposited continuously across the fault area and have
no apparent relationships with the underlying structure. The fault off
set Units 5 and 6, which are present at higher elevations on the upthrown block; this places AD 1 as being approximately the time of
earliest possible movement.
Westward and northwestward flowing streams, bringing in the
sediments of Unit 3, deposited their load in the eastern part of Cienega
Valley principally by forming a series of channel-type deposits. Some
of these deposits were built up in the form of alluvial fans or deltas
which at times encroached upon the cienegas to the west, Other deposits
indicate the aggrading of the flood plain by broad and braided channels
by through flowing streams. The deposition of the finer materials
adjacent to the streams probably kept pace with the deposition in the
broad channels, allowing for no appreciable amount of relief to develop
on the flood plain. This general alluviation was stabilized occasionally
and soil zones were developed. This is indicated near Cienega Creek by
the formation of a soil zone across older gravels of a broad channel and
with some lateral shifting of the channel, were formed contemporaneously
with younger gravels of the same channel (.see Fig. 22).
Most of the fine material in Unit 3 is probably fluvial in origin,
but accumulated at relatively slow rates of deposition allowing some
reworking by vegetation, and may be in part residual in character.
123
Some bess may have been deposited as evidenced by poorly developed
columnar jointing.
The prominent soil zones in Unit 3 indicate periods of relatively
long stability for the particular area in which they occur
Some of the
soils were formed on higher and drier areas adjacent to the cienegas in
the lowlands. Gradations between soil zones and cienega deposits are
shown by the "Ky' and "M" marker beds and partly by the 1?Qt marker
bed. The time of formation of any one soil zone may not have exceeded
400 years, with most of the soils formed during less than 200 years.
Changing environmental conditions, perhaps as conditions be-
came drier, caused the cutting of a series of channels which interrupted
the general depositional sequence of Unit 3. These channels are believed
to have been cut mostly alter AD 500. However, some channeling prob-
ably did occur during the initial deposition of Unit 3, as evidenced by
the channel cut into Unit 100 near section MC-1 and the channel cut into
Unit 4 at the "lower" falls. The following chief periods of channeling,
which may be considered actually as scouring and filling because depo'=.
sition probably took place almost immediately alter cutting, are: (1)
about AD 1; (2) prior to AD 700; and (3) between AD 900 and 1200, with
increasing intensity after about AD 1000.
Erosion after AD 1200 stripped off portions of Unit 3 in the north-
eastern part of the area. Some structural movements during this time
may have aided the stripping because in the area between sections MC-4
124
and MC7 the
t?M?T
and t?y marker beds dip as much as 20 or 30 to the
east, Much of the stripping was terminated by the formation of two
arroyos., One arroyo extended up the Matty drainage area, but west of
the present position of Matty Wash, Evidence of this former drainage is
exposed at section MC-2 and near the confluence of Matty and Cienega
Creeks, The other arroyo possibly formed for some distance up an
eastward flowing tributary that empties into Cienega Creek at section
MC-7 (see Figs. 2, 22). No arroyo of this age was exposed along
Cienega Creek or in Cienega Valley in the southern part of the area,
The cutting of these arroyos can be dated as later than AD 100 by the
archeological sites preserved in Unit 3; and they are believed by the
author to have been cut primarily during the thirteenth century because
it probably had taken considerable time, perhaps 50 years or longer,
for these arroyos to have formed in this part of Cienega Valley. This
is based on two reasons: (1) the time available during the drought period
of the late 1500's was not sufficient for this extensive cutting of the
arroyos; and (2) if erosion had been the dominant geological process
from 1200 to about 1600, the previously deposited alluvium would have
been carved into badlands forming an irregular erosion surface, How
ever, this is not the case, as the erosion surface underlying Unit 2 and
the soil zone of Unit 2 are essentially flat throughout the valley.
The residual type sediments and the soil zone of Unit 3 represent
stable conditions returning to Cienega Valley following the period of
125
stripping and arroyo cutting. In the process of filling the previously
formed arroyos some fluvial sediments were laid down. The only
gravel preserved occurE at the bottom of the arroyo at section MC-2
and these gravels may have been carried in by the streams during the
late phase in the cutting of the arroyo. The finer sediments overlying
the gravel and the fine sediments in the other arroyo exposures indicate
ponding. Mudchips preserved in these deposits suggest that the ponding
was intermittent and these arroyo channels were dry from time to time,
The very thin stringers of carbonaceous material included with the fine
sediments indicate the depositional rates were rather slow,
The deposition of Unit 2 was terminated abruptly by the erosion
and intermittent deposition of Unit 1 which occurred near the end of the
last century and immediately prior to the beginning of the present period
of arroyo cutting. Some stripping is indicated by the removal in places
of the soil zone of Unit 2 and by the formation of shallow channels which
probably were filled almost immediately after cuttings However, by
about 1880=4900 runoff was sufficiently concentrated in channels that
permanent arroyos were formed and have continued until the present
positions of Matty Wash and Cienega Creek were attainecL Some time
during the present period of arroyo cutting slight upbowing, shown
principally by Units 3 and 4, in the faulted area at the 'tuppert' falls
occurred, causing erosion of both Units 1 and 2. The depth and
distribution of the present arroyos are greater and more widespread
126
than any previously formed arroyos or channels in the Recent deposi'
tiona]. sequence since the beginning of deposition of Unit 6
127
Matty Canyon MC-1
Measured by M. L Cooley and Frank Eddy
Sept. 18, 1957
Location: In Matty Wash, west side, about 100 feet north of fence and
400 feet south of site Arizona EE2:10.
Feet
RECENT:
Sandy silt, pale brown 5YR-5/2 to light brown 5YR-
6/4, silt to fine-grained sand, clear, frosted, and
amber quartz, fair-sorted, subangular to angular;
black mineral abundant, feldspar and muscovite
rare as accessories; very weakly cemented, calcar eous; splits crumbly; flat and lenticular very
thin to thin bedded; crossbedded, lenticular and
wedge, low angle, small to medium scale trough;
weathers smooth and puffy; forms irregular ledge
and slope; base forms niche; at 3 feet lenses of
gravel, size less than 8 in. in diameter; unit is
composed of an alternating series of flat bedded
silt and sandy gravel with some wind-blown sand;
environment, flood plain, fluvial with blowsand;
base is sharp and irregular with channeling having
local relief up to 3 feet.
5-1/2
Unconformity, erosional, with 3 feet of relief by channeling;
unconformity is present throughout the area near the section0
2
Sandy silt, pale brown 5YR6/2, silt to very finegrained with few fine grains, poorly sorted, subangular to angular clear and amber quartz; black
mineral common, feldspar and muscovite rare as
accessories; very weakly cemented, calcareous;
structureless and thick bedded; splits friable;
weathers knoby and columnar; forms poorly developed ledge; soil zone at top of unit; contains gastro
pod fossils; contains few scattered pebbles, less
than 1 in. in size; slightly limy; environment, flood
plain, chiefly soil zone, perhaps some bess; base
is sharp ançI irregular with relief up to 3 feet.
Unconformity, erosional, with 3 feet of relief in area of
section0
4
128
Feet
3
Sand, gravel, and silt; pale brown 5YR-5/2, silt
to coarse-grained sand, poorly sorted, subrounded to angular, clear, frosted, and some amber
quartz; feldspar-!potassium and plagioclase,
muscovite, and black minerals as accessories;
very weakly to uncemented, calcareous; splits
hackly; flat and lenticular very thin to thin bedded;
crossbedded, lenticular and tabular, medium to
low angle, medium to large scale trough; weathers
hackly; forms irregular slope. Unit consists in
descending order:
Sand
2-1/2 ft.
Gravel
Sandy silt
Gravel
1
1
0.3
Flat bedded tabular crossbedded units are large
scale. Channel containing gravel south of section;
gravel size, maximum 6 in., average 1/4-1/2;
composition, volcanic and metamorphic rock types,
Base is sharp and irregular with relief of 4 feet,
PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT:
Unconformity, erosional with formation of present valley
partly filled by deposits of units 1, 2, and 3; responsible
for terraces overlooking Matty Wash.
PLEISTOCENE(?).:
100A
Silty sand, light brown 5YR-6/4, chiefly silt to
a fine-grained sand with few medium to very
coarse grains, poorly sorted, rounded to subangular clear, frosted, and some amber quartz;
black mineral as an accessory; weakly cemented,
calcareous; splits massive and crumbly; flat and
lenticular thin bedded; weathers blocky; forms
irregular ledge. Consists in descending order
of:
5
129
Feet
Gravelly sand
Gravel
1 ft.
2
Niche at base of gravel. Gravel size, maximum
12 in., average 1/2-3. Unit highly limy containing limy encrustation on grains. Environment,
fluvial with being subjected to later calichification. Base is sharp and irregular with a relief
100B
of 1 foot.
3
Gravelly sand, light brown 5YR6/4, fine to
medium grained with some coarse and very
coarse grains, poorly sorted, subangular,
clear and frosted quartz; feldspar and black
mineral rare as accessories; weakly cemented,
calcareous; splits crumbly; flat and lenticular,
thin bedded; crossbedded, lenticular and tabular,
low to very low angle, small to medium scale
trough and planer; weathers smooth; forms irregular ledge and slope; unit is alternation of
gravelly stringers in sand and sandy silt, all
partly cemented by caliche; contains calichelike nodules and inclusions; limy encrustation on
grains; environment, fluvial; base is concealecL
3=4/2
Total incomplete thickness of Unit 100
Total thickness of Recent sediments
61/2
14
130
Matty Canyon MC2
Measured by M. E0 Cooley and Frank Eddy
Sept. 19, 1957
Location: East side of Matty Wash about 100 feet southeast of Arizona
EE:2:10, measured across large channel,
Feet
RECENT:
Sand, pale brown 5YR-5/2 to pale yellowish
brown 1OYR-6/2, chiefly fine grained with some
very fine grains and few medium grains, well-
sorted, subrounded to angular, clear, frosted,
and amber quartz; feldspar and black minerals
as accessories; uncemented; splits crumbly; flat
and lenticular very thin to thin bedded; crossbedded, lenticular; weathers smooth; forms irregular and covered slope; contains some thin
lenses of gravel at base, size of gravel less than
6 in, in diameter; most of deposit composed of
wind-blown sand probably originating from adjacent wash; gravel composed of igneous and metamorphic rock types; environment, flood plain,
torrential and quiet fluvial and blow-sand; base
is sharp and flat,
3
Unconformity, erosional, prominently exposed, flat, very
little evidence of local channeling0
2
2A
Unit contains a prominent soil zone developed
upon a large channeL
Soil zone, mudstone, pale brown 5YR5/2 to
light brownish gray 5YR6/1, silt and clay with
some very fine and fine-grained sands black mineral common as an accessory; weakly cemented,
c aic ar eous; splits crumbly; structureless; weathers hackly; forms ledge; contains limy incrustation
and few poorly developed limy nodules; contains
some carbonaceous material; slightly darker color
ed than rest of Unit 2; base is gradational upon
channel deposits of Unit 2
1
131
Feet
2B
Channel deposit, silt and sandy silt, pale red 1OR
6/2, silt to fine-grained sand, subrounded to angu1ai
clear, frosted, and amJer quartz; black mineral
common as an accessory; weakly cemented, calcar-.
eous; splits platy and crumbly; flat and crinkled very
thin beds of mudchips suggestive of ponding; compos=.
ed of various sets of lithology ranging from silt to
2C
2D
sand; environment, quiet fluvial, partly lacustrine;
base is gradational.
9
Sand, pale brown 5YR-5/2 to pale reddish brown
1OR-5/, chiefly fine to medium grained with some
coarse and very coarse sand, fair-.sorted, subround-.
ed to angular, clear and frosted quartz; feldspar and
black mineral common as accessories; very weakly
cemented, calcareous; splits crumbly; lenticular very
thin to thin bedded; crossbedded, lenticular, low to
very low angle, small to medium scale planer and
trough; weathers smooth; forms irregular ledge and
slope; contains few mud inclusions and small pebbles;
pebbles composed of igneous and metamorphic rock
types; contained 1 grain of obsidian; environment,
fluvial, quiet to torrential; base is gradationaL
2
Gravel, pale brown to grayish pink, fine to coarse
grained with some very coarse grains, poorly sort-.
ed, subangular to angular with some rounded and
subrounded clear, frosted, and amber quartz; black
mineral as an accessory; very weakly cemented;
splits crumbly; lenticular bedded; crossbedded, poor-.
ly developed; weathers hackly; forms irregular ledge;
gravel, 6 in. maximum diameter; environment,
fluvial torrential; base is sharp
4
Total thickness of Unit 2
16
Total thickness of Recent deposits
19
PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT:
Unconformity, erosional, with 15 feet of local relief in area;
unconformitY prominently exposed.
132
Feet
PLEISTOCENE(?):
100
Silty sand, light brown 5YR-6/4, silt to finegrained sand, poorly sorted, subangular, clear,
frosted quartz; weakly cemented, calcareous;
splits massive and crumbly; structureless thick
bedded; weathers knobby; forms irregular ledge
and slope; contains abundant nodules of caliche;
could be called caliche zone; environment, soil
zone developed on fluvial units with calichification; base is concealed,
1+
Matty Canyon MC-3
133
Measured by M. E. Cooley and Frank Eddy
Sept, 19, 1957
Location: At site Arizona EE:2:1O along north side of Matty Wash
Feet
RECENT:
Sand, light brown 5YR-6/4, very fine to fine
grained, well sorted, subangular to angular
with few subrounded grains, clear and frosted
quartz; black mineral common as an accessory;
uncemented; splits crumbly; flat and lenticular
very thin to thin bedded; crossbedded, lenticular;
weathers smooth; forms irregular and covered
slope; environment, blow sand on flood plain;
base is sharp and flat.
3-1/2
Unconforiity, erosional, flat, widespread, prominently displayed in area.
2
Silty sand, and sand, pale brown 5YR-5/2, silt to
medium-grained sand, poorly sorted, subrounded
to angular, clear and frosted quartz; black mineral
common and muscovite rare as accessories; weakly
to very weakly cemented, calcareous; splits crumb
ly; structureless and thinly bedded; weathers smooth;
forms irregular ledge; contains soil zone in upper
part; upper soil zone is partly eroded by pre-unit 1
channeling; contains some residual gravel and sand
derived from Unit 3 in the lower part; grades into
Unit 2B of section MC-2; some fragments of quartz
contains magnetite(?); environment, flood plain,
very quiet fluvial and soil deposition; base is flat
with part of soil zone formed on upper part of unit
3.
2-1/2
134
Feet
3A
3B
Sand, light brown 5YR-6t4, chiefly very fine to
fine grained with some medium to very coarse
grains, poorly sorted, subangular to angular
with some subrounded grains, clear., frosted,
and amber quartz; muscovite rare, biotite rare,
and black mineral common as accessories; very
weakly to uncemented, calcareous; splits crumbly;
flat and lenticular very thin to thin bedded; crossbedded, lenticular, low angle, small to medium
scale; weathers hackly; forms irregular slope;
contains some fine gravel less than 1/3 in. in
diameter, but chiefly less than 1/2 in. size;
gravel derived from igneous and metamorphic
types; environment, quiet fluvial and flood plain;
base is sharp and flat.
3
Sandy silt, pale brown 5YR-5/2 to light brown
5YR6/4, silt to very fine grained with some fine
grains; poorly sorted, subangular to angular; clear,
frosted, and amber quartz; feldspar, muscovite
rare; and black mineral common as accessories;
weakly cemented, calcareous; splits massive; flat
and lenticular thin bedded; crossbedded lenticular,
low angle, medium scale; weathers blocky; forms
irregular ledge; upper part more structureless,
lower partcontains trash and other material;
contains gravel up to 8 in, size concentrated in
lower part; some secondary limy materials; few
beds appearing to be composed of mudchips; becomes sandier and more thin bedded in places;
environment, quiet fluvial and floodplain; base is
sharp and irregular with relief of 2 ft.
6-8
Total thickness of Unit 3
941
Total thickness of Recent
15-17
Unconformity, erosional, 2 feet of relief in rea, widespread,
easy to recognize, forms prominent niche
135
Feet
PLEISTOCENE(?):
100
Sand, gravel, and caliche, pale reddish brown 10R
5/4, chiefly silt to fine grained with some medium
to very coarse grains, poorly sorted, subrounded,
clear and stained quartz; black mineral rare as an
accessory; weakly cemented, caicareous; splits
massive; structureless and thick bedded; weathers
knobby; forms irregular ledge and slope; soil zone
at top of unit about 1-1/2 ft. thick0 Unit consists
in descending order of:
Reddish soil zone
Silty sandstone with limy
nodules, similar to Unit
1-1/2 ft0
100 of MC-2
Sandy gravel
2
2
Gravel maximum size 6 in., chiefly 1/4 to 1 in.
Environment, quiet to torrential fluvial with
later formation of soil and caliche. Base is
concealed.
5-1/2
136
Matty Canyon MC-4
Measured by M. E. Cooley and Frank Eddy
Sept. 25, 1957
Location: On east side of Matty Wash about 1/4 mile upstream from
junction with Cienega Creek, at site Arizona EE:2:12.
Feet
RECENT:
Sandy silt, pale brown 5Y.R-5/2, silt to very fine
grained with few fine grains, fair sorted; subrounded to subangular, clear and frosted quartz; black
mineral common as an accessory; uncernented with
calcareous stain splits crumbly; flat and lenticular
very thin to thin bedded; crossbedded, lenticuL r,
low angle, small to medium scale trough; weathers
puffy; forms irregular slope; more crossbedded in
channels; gravel in channels less than 7 in. size,
chiefly less than 3 in.; some bedding suggestive of
wind action; environment, flood plain, quiet, and
toriential fluvial; base is sharp and irregular with
relief of 4 feet.
1- 5
Unconformity, erosional, with channeling in area, 4 feet
relief, widespread in area.
2
Silt, pale brown 5YR-5/2, silt with few very fine
and fine-grained sands, fair sorted, subrounded to
subangular, clear and frosted quartz; black miner .1
common and muscovite rare as accessories; very
weakly cemented, calcareous; splits shaley and
crumbly; structureless; weathers hackly; forms irregular slope; contains small gastropod fossils;
environment, chiefly a soil zone developed on top
of Unit 3 with slight amount f deposition; base is
flat and rather indefinite.
24
137
Feet
3A
Sand, pale brown 5YR-5/2 to light brown 5YR-
6/4, silt to fine grained, fair sorted, subangular
to angular, clear and frosted quartz; black mineral common as an accessory; very weakly cemented, calcareous; lenticular thin to thick bedded;
crossbedded, lenticular low angle., medium to large
scale trough; weathers hackly; forms irregular
ledge; splits crumbly; consists of flat bedded finer
grained sediments cut by maze of channels, some
3B
3C
of channels extend downward into unit 3B; gravel
in channels 6 in0 maximum size, with mostly less
than 1/2 in0; environment, quiet and torrential
fluvial, flood plain and alluvial fan; base is gradational.
6
Mudstone, light brownish gray 5YR-6/l, silt and
clay; weakly cemented, calcareous; splits shaley;
structureless; weathers hackly; forms irregular
slope; possible old soil zone developed upon cienega
type deposits; leached; few small gastropods; fish
scales(?).; contains carbonaceous material; top is
"M" marker bed; environment, flood plain which
is partly lacustrine; base is gradational0
3
Silty sand, light brownish gray 5YR-6/1 to pale
brown 5YR-5/2, silt to fine-grained sand, poorly
sorted, subrounded to angular, clear and frosted
quartz; black mineral common as an accessory;
very weakly cemented, calc.ireous; splits shaley
and crumbly; flat and lenticular very thin to thin
bedded and structureless; some crossbedding, low
to very low angle, small scale; weathers hackly;
forms irregular ledge and slope; contains few
scattered pebbles less than 2 in. in diameter;
contained one plain wear sherd 1 ft. above base;
finer grained units are structureless, sandy
lenses crossbedded; environment, quiet fluvial
and flood plain; base is gradational.
2
Total thickness of Unit 3
11
138
Feet
4A
Mud, light brownish gray 5YR-6/1, silt and clay;
black mineral as an accessory; very weakly cemented, calcareous and argillaceous; bedding features
similar as Unit 4C; top of unit "X" marker bed;
contains carbonaceous material; environment,
lacustrine and swamp; base is sharp and flat.
1
Local unconformity, developed on top of Unit 4B below which
fire hearths and artifacts found indicated a sub-areal surface;
surface extends only 200-300 feet laterally.
4B
Sand, pale yellowish brown lOYR6/2, silt to
medium-grained sand, poorly sorted, subrounded
to angular, clear and frosted quartz; muscovite
rare and black mineral common as accessories;
very weakly cemented, calcareous and argillaceous;
splits crumbly; flat and lenticular very thin to thin
bedded; crossbedded, low to very low angle, small
scale trough; weathers blocky; forms irregular ledge;
lithology is similar to Unit 3; trash in upper 6 in.;
some silty mudchips interbedded with the sand; unit
tongues laterally within 125 ft. to the south into
cienega deposits allowing Units 4A and 4C to coalesce;
contains tools and hearth stones; environment,
quiet fluvial; contains small gastropod fossils;
base is sharp and irregular with 4 in. of relief.
2
Local unconformity, erosional, slight relief and irregular and
only a few hundred feet in extent.
4C
Silt, pale brown 5YR-5/2 to light brownish gray
5YR-6/1, silt and clay; black mineral as an accessory; very weakly cemented, calcareous and
argillaceous; splits platy, shaley, and crumbly;
flat very thin bedded and structureless; weathers
hackly; forms slope; contains carbonaceous ma-
terial; environment, lacustrine, unit probably deposited in shallow lake or swamp but later exposure to air and soil formation destroyed much of
bedding; base is sharp and flat4
Total thickness of Unit 4
3
6
139
Feet
5
Silty sand, pale brown 5YR-5/2, silt to finegrained sand, fair'-sorted, subangular to angular,
clear, frosted, and abundant amber quartz; black
mineral common as an accessory; very weakly
cemented, calcareous and argillaceous; splits
crumbly; flat and lenticular thin bedded; crossbedded, lenticular low angle, small scale trough;
weathers smooth; forms irregular ledge and slope;
mudchips common; much of finer parts structureless; tongues against Unit 7; environment, quiet
fluvial; base is sharp and flat with 2 in. of relief.
0-3
Unconformity, very slight relief, erosional, contact between
Units 5 and 7 quite sharp.
7
Silty sand, pale yellowish brown 1OYR-6/2, silt
to fine-grained sand, fairsorted, subrounded to
angular, clear, frosted, and rare amber quartz;
black mineral commonas an accessory; weakly
cemented, argillaceous; splits massive and crumbly; flat thick bedded and structureless; weathers
hackly; forms irregular ledge; contains trash in
upper 1 ft, with artifacts; many scattered pebbles
less than 3 in0 in size, chiefly less than 3/4 in.;
some gravel suggesting channeling underlying
trash zone with cobbles up to 8 in0 which grades
laterally into finer materials; few bedding features
preserved; unit 4 overlies unit 7 on top of "ridge"
composed of Unit 100; along flank of "ridge" Unit
4 tongues and overlaps upon unit 7, same is true
of Unit 5; some carbonaceous material and stain;
appears partly leached; environment, residual
soil materials; base is indefinite and irregular.
PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT:
Unconformity, erosional, with relief of over 6 ft. in area; cut
outline of present inner valley containing the Recent sediments,
24
140
PLEISTOCENE(?):
100
Sandy silt, light brown 5Y.R-6/4 to moderate yellowish brown 1OYR-5/4, silt to fine-.grained sand, sub
rounded, clear and frosted quartz; black mineral
rare as an accessory; firmly to weakly cemented,
calcareous; splits massive and crumbly; structureless and thick bedded; weathers pitted and knobby;
forms irregular slope; contains limestone nodules,
pebbles, and cobbles; unit modified by formation of
caliche; cobbles maximum size 8 in., rounded to
subangular; part of unit leached of calcareous ma
terials; environment, fluvial and later partly modified by formation of residual deposits and caliche;
base is concealed..
Feet
2-4
141
Matty Canyon MC5
Measured by M. E. Cooley and Frank Eddy
Sept. 26, 1957
Location: On west side of Matty Wash, 1, 500 feet northwest and
downstream from site Arizbna EE:2:10
Feet
RECENT:
Sand, pale brown 5YR_5,f'2 to light brown 5YR-
6/4, silt to fine-grained sand, fairsorted, subangular to angular, clear, frosted, and amber
quartz; muscovite rare and black mineral common
as accessories; very weakly to uncemented, ca1
careous; splits crumbly; flat and lenticular thin
bedded; crossbedded, lenticular; weathers smooth;
forms regular slope; environment, quiet fluvial,
flood plain, with blow sand; base is sharp and flat.
2...1/2
Unconformity, erosional, prominent throughout area, relief of
less than one foot.
2
Silt, brownish gray 5YR4/l, silt to very finegrained sand; muscovite rare and black mineral
common as accessories; very weakly cemented,
calcareous and argillaceous; structureless; splits
crumbly and friable; weathers hack.ly; forms ledge;
some columnar structure; small gastropod fossils;
essentially a soil zone developed on Unit 3; environment, flood plain, a soil zone; base is indefinite.
3A
Silty sand, pale red 10R.6/2, silt to fine-grained
sand, poorly sorted, subrounded to angular, clear
frosted, and amber quartz; we. kly cemented, calcareous; splits crumbly; flat and lenticular thin to
thick bedded and structureless; crossbedded, lenticular low angle, medium scale trough; weathers
smooth; forms vertical ledge. Divided in descending order into the following parts:
1
142
Feet
Structureless silty sand
Sand and gravel
Structureless silty sand
3B
3C
3D
.
2 ft.
1
1-1/2
(sample taken)
Contains whitish limy film throughout unit; gravel 5
in. maximum size. Structureless units slightly
columnar and jointed suggesting some bess deposition. Limy encrustation on grains. Environment
flood plain and alluvial fan, generally quiet fluviaL
Base is sharp and flat,
4-1/2
Sandy silt, pale brown 5YR-5/2 to light brownish
gray 5YR-6/i, silt to fine'.grained sand, poorly
sorted, subangular to angular, clear and frosted
with some amber quartz; black mineral common
as an accessory; very weakly cemented, calcareous;
splits friable; structureless; weathers into small
blocks and hackly; forms part of ledge of unit 3; two
soil zones at section; grades laterally into one zone;
ranges from 1-1/2 to 4 ft. in thickness; contains
small gastropod fossils; UK!? marker bed; base is
gradationaL
2
Silty sand, pale brown SYR-5/2, silt to fine-grained
sand, subangular to angular, clear, frosted and
amber quartz; muscovite rare and black mineral
common as accessories; very weakly cemented, calcareous and argillaceous; splits crumbly; structureless and partly flat bedded; contains thin soil zone
of unit; some leaching at top of unit; grades laterally
into well-sorted sand 50 ft. to the north; contains
small gastropod fossils; base is gradational.
3-1/2
Mud, brownish gray 5YR-4/l, silt and clay with
few very fine sand grains; black mineral common
as an accessory; very weakly cemented, calcareous;
splits friable; flat and lenticular very thin bedded;
weathers hackly; contains small pelecypod and
gastropod fossils; contains carbonaceous material,
Unit composed in descending order:
143
Feet
0, 3 ft..
Gray silty clay with peat
Silt sand similar to Unit 3C.., 0.. 3
0.. 1
Silt and peat
Silty sand similar to Unit
3C but containing some
0.2
peat
0. 1
Silt and peat
"lVP' marker bed., Base is gradational.
3E
Silty sand, pale yellowish brown 1OYR-6/2 to
grayish orange pink 5YR-7/2, silt to very fine-grain-
ed sand with few fine grains, clear, frosted, and amber quartz; muscovite rare and black mineral common
as accessories; weakly cemented, calcareous; splits
crumbly; flat and lenticular, slightly crinkled very
thin bedded; mudchips common; unit is alternation
of silty sand like Unit 3D with peaty silt; contains
gastropod fossils; base is gradational..
3F
1
2
Peat, dark gray N3 to medium light gray N6, very
weakly cemented with peaty material, no calcareous
material present; flat thin bedded; beds within unit
can be traced laterally for 100 feet; unit thickens to
1/2 ft.. to the north. Composed in descending order
of:
Peat
Gray silt
Peat
3G
0.lft.
0. 1
0.1
"M" marker bed. Base is gradational..
1/3
Alternation of sandy silt and mud, medium light
gray N6 to pale yellowish brown 1OYR-6/2, silt
to fine-grained sand, subangular t. angular, clear
frosted, with some amber quartz; very weakly cemented, argillaceous; contains streaks of peaty
silt; base is concealed.
1-1/2
Total incomplete thickness of Unit 3
14-3/4
144
Matty Canyon MC-6
Measured by M. E. Cooley and Frank Eddy
Sept. 27, 1957
Location: In narrows about 1/2 mile above "lower" falls on Cienega
Creek.
Feet
RECENT:
Sand, similar as Unit 1 of section MC-5.
1
Unconformity, erosional, fairly flat, occurs throughout area.
Mud, pale brown 5YR-5/2, silt and clay with few
very fine and fine-grained sands, clear and frosted
quartz; black mineral common as an accessory;
very weakly cemented, calcareous; splits friable;
structureless and thin to thick bedded; we.thers
hackly; forms irregular slope; environment, soil
zone developed on a flood plain; base is indefinite
and irregular.
2
3A
Silty sand, light brownish gray 5YR-6/1 to pale
red 5R-.6/2, silt to very fine-grained sand, poorly sorted, subangular to angular with few subrounded grains, clear, frosted, and amber quartz; black
mineral common as an accessory; very weakly cemented, calcareous; splits massive; flat and lenticular thin to thick bedded; crossbedded, lenticular, low
to very low angle, small to medium scale trough;
weathers blocky; forms irregular ledge; to southeast
contains more channels filled with gravelly sand; few
lirny irregular- shaped inclusions; environment, generally quiet fluvial, flood plain; base is sharp and
irregular with 1/2 ft. relief.
3B
Mud, medium gray N5, silt and clay with some
very fine-grained sand; black mineral common as
an accessory; very weakly cemented, calcareous;
splits friable; structureless and very thin to thin
bedded; weathers hackly; forms irregular slope or
"niche;" environment, lacustrine or soil zone on
flood plain; base is gradational.
1/2-3
36
5
145
Feet
3C
Sand, pale brown 5YR-5/2 to light brown 5YR6/4, silt to fine-grained sand with few medium
grains, poorly sorted, subangular to angular with
few subrounded grains, clear, frosted, and amber
quartz; muscovite rare and black mineral common
as accessories; very weakly cemented, calcareous;
flat and lenticular thin bedded; crossbedded, lenticular low angle small to medium scale planer and
trough; splits massive; weathers blocky; forms irregular ledge; becomes thicker to the southeast and
is essentially not present to the north by intertonguing
with Unit 4; more gravelly sand channels to the southeast; contains few very thin cienega beds and angular
pebbles; environment, quiet fluvial, flood plain, base
is partly gradational and partly sharp and with 2 in,
of relief0
1
Total thickness of Unit 3
4
9-12
Mud, brownish gray 5YR-4/1 to pale brown 5YR5/2, silt and clay with some very fine-grained
sand; black mineral common as an accessory; very
weakly cemented, calcareous; splits platy and
shaley; flat and lenticular very thin bedded; weathers hackly; forms irregular slope; contains few
angular pebbles scattered throughout unit; contains
small gastropod fossils and organic material. Consists in descending order:
Mud (cienega) ...
Silty sand
Mud (cienega)
Sandy silt
Mud (cienega)
...
3 ft.
1/2
1/2
1/2
1
Environment, lacustrine and swamp; base is gradational.
5-1/2
146
Feet
5A
Sand, pale yellowish brown 1OYR-.6/2, very fine
to very coarse grained, poorly sorted, subrounded
to subangular, clear and frosted quartz; muscovite
common and black mineral common as accessories;
very weakly cemented, calcareous; splits crumbly;
flat and lenticular thin bedded; crossbedded, lenticular low angle, small scale trough; weathers blocky;
forms irregular ledge; coarser sand in small channel-like lenses; contains charcoal; magnetite(?)
crystals inbedded in quartz in one fragment; some
small gravel; contains pink siltstone or silty sandstone fragments., subrounded; muscovite possibly
altered to biotite; one hexagonal biotite crystal;
environment, quiet fluvial; base is sharp and irregular with 1/2 ft. relief.
5B
5C
Silt and sandy silt, pale yellowish brown 1OYR-6/2
to light brownish gray 5YR-6/1, clay to fine-grained sand; black mineral common as an accessory;
very weakly cemented, calcareous; flat and lenticular very thin bedded; weathers smooth; forms irregular slope; contains carbonaceous material; environment, quiet fluvial and ponding; base is both
gradational and sharp and flat with less than 2 in.
2-1/3
relief.
2-1/2
Sandy mud, brownish gray 5YR-4/1, silt to medium-grained sand, poorly sorted, subangular to
angular with few founded to subrounded grains, clear
and frosted quartz; black mineral common as an accessory; very weakly cemented, calcareous; structureless and thin bedded; weathers hackly; forms
ledge; contains few small pebbles and small gastropod fossils; slightly plastic when wet; grades laterally into basal part of Unit 5B; environment, quiet
fluvial and partly residual or slight reworking of
Unit 7; base is gradational.
0-1/2
Total thickness of Unit 5
4-5/6 to 5-1/6
147
Feet
6
7
Mud, clay and silt with some very line and finegrained sand; muscovite rare to common as an
accessory; very weakly cemented, calcareous;
structureless and thin bedded; weathers blocky;
splits shaley; forms irregular ledge; plastic when
wet; muscovite be altered biotite; environment
lacustrine; base is concealecL
1
Pebbly silt, pale brown 5YR-4/2 to brownish gray
5YR-4/1, clay to very coarse grained, poorly sorted, subrounded to angular, clear and frosted quartz;
black mineral common as an accessory; weakly cemented, calcareous; splits crumbly; structureless;
weathers hackly; forms irregular ledge and slope;
contains angular pebbles derived from either units
100 or 1000; units 3A, 4, 5 and 6(?) tongue into
unit 7; occupies depressions on units 100 and 1000;
environment, residual and/or soil; base is indef-
inite, sharp, and irregular.
Total incomplete thickness of Recent
1%23
25+
PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT:
Unconformity, erosional, forms present valley (inner) containing
Recent sediments.
PLEISTOCENE(?):
100
Conglomerate, pale red 1OR-6/2 to grayish orange
pink 5YR-7/2, very fine- to very coarse-grained,
poorly sorted, subrounded to subangular with few
rounded grains, clear and frosted quartz; black mineral common as an accessory; weakly cemented, calcareous; splits massive; lenticular thin to thick
bedded; crossbedded, lenticular low to very low angle,
medium to very large scale trough; weathers round
and hackly; forms irregular ledge and slope; gravel
maximum size 1 IL,, generally concentrated in broad
lenses or wide channels; some caliche formation; upper 15 ft. on west side of Cienega Creek weathered to
shades of grays; few mudchips very thin silt beds; environment, quiet and torrential fluvial, partly residual;
base is sharp and irregular.
50
148
Feet
PROBABLY PLEISTOCENE:
Unconformity, erosional, formed outer valley in which alluvial
sedimentation occurred; essentially no weathering prior to
cutting of channels at base of Unit 100.
CRE TACEOUS:
1000
Alteration of sandstone and silty sandstone.
Sandstone, arkosic, mottled pale yellowish brown
1OYR-6/2 and grayish orange pink 5YR-7/2, fine
to medium grained, clear quartz and feldspar;
black mineral common as an accessory; firmly
cemented, siliceous; splits massive; lenticular
thin to thick bedded; crossbedded, lenticular med=
ium to low angle, small to medium scale trough;
weathers blocky; forms irregular ledge; environment, quiet to torrential fluvial; base is sharp and
irregular with 4 ft. of relief.
Silty sandstone, olive gray 5Y-4/1 to light olive
gray 5Y5/2, clay to fine-grained sand, clear
and amber quartz; black mineral as an accessory;
weakly cemented, siliceous; splits shaley; flat and
lenticular very thin to thick bedded; crossbedded
lenticular very low angle, very large scale; weath
ers hackly; forms irregular slope; alteration and
metamorphism, influx of silica cemented grains;
environment, quiet fluvial; base is gradational and
sharp.
/
149
Matty Canyon MC-7
Measured by M. E. Cooley and Frank Eddy
Sept. 27, 1957
Location: On east side of Cienega Creek at end of "peninsula" about
300 feet soith of junction with Matty Wash.
Feet
RECENT:
Silty sand, pale brown 5YR-5/2, silt to fine-grained sand, poorly sorted, subrounded to angular,
clear, frosted, and some amber quartz; muscovite
rare and black mineral common as accessories;
very weakly cemented, calcareous; splits crumbly;
flat and lenticular very thin to thin bedded and
structureless; weathers hackly; forms irregular
slope; contains an occasional pebble; slightly more
flat bedded at base; environment, quiet fluvial,
flood plain--lower part, blow- sand- -upper part;
base is sharp and irregular.
1-2
Unconformity,, erosional, with about 1 ft. of relief; prominent
throughout area.
2
Sandy silt, brownish gray 5YR-4/-I to light
brownish gray 5YR-9/1, clay to very fine-grained sand, subangular to angular, poorly sorted;
muscovite rare and black mineral common as
accessories; very weakly cemented, calcareous;
splits crumbl; structureless; we thers hackly;
forms irregular ledge and slope; contains small
gastropod and pelecypod fossils; muscovite appears to be partly altered; unit formed on top of
Unit 3 and deep channel of Unit 2; environment,
flood plain, soil zone; base is indefinite0
1
150
Feet
Channel deposit of Unit 2: Silty sand, pale red
1OR-6/2 to grayish orange pink 5YR-.7/2, silt to
fine-'grained sand with some medium to very coarse
grains, poorly sorted, subangular to angular with
few subrounded grains, clear and frosted quartz;
muscovite rare and black mineral common as accessories; very weakly cemented, calcareous; splits
crumbly ; lenticular thin bedded; crossbedded, lenticular low angle, small to medium scale trough;
weathers hackly; forms ledge; contains few lenses
of small gravel which is less than 5/8 in. in size;
limonite stained; environment, quiet fluvial to torrential fluvial; channel 12 feet deep; soil zone developed on top of channel deposits; base is sharp.
Unconformity, erosional with formation of sharply defined
channel as an arroyo; some stripping of Unit 3 in area; no
channeling in areas overlain only by soil zone,
Silty sand, pale brown 5YR-5/2, silt to fine-grained sand, poorly sorted, subangular to angular, clear
and frosted quartz; muscovite rare and black mineral
common as accessories; very weakly cemented, calcareous; splits crumbly; flat and lenticular thin to
thick bedded; crossbedded, lenticular low to very
low angle, medium to large scale trough; weathers
hackly; forms ledge; contains thin lenses of gravelly
sand forming broad channels and thin beds of silt
containing carbonaceous material; part of unit is
structureless with some columnar jointing developed; limonite stained; environment, quiet fluvial;
6-7
base is sharp and irregular with 1/2 ft. of relief.
3
4A
Silt, pale brown 5YR-5/2 to light brownish gray
5YR-6/1, silt with few very fine-grained sands;
muscovite rare and biotite common as accessories; very weakly cemented, argillaceous; limonite
stains suggestive of leaching; contains small gastropod fossils and plant impressions; muscovite
highly altered maybe from biotite; bedding features like Unit 4C.
151
Feet
4B
4C
Sand, pale yellowish brown 1OYR-6/l, very fine
to very coarse grained, poorly sorted, subangular
to angular with some rounded to subrounded grains,
clear and frosted quartz; muscovite common and
black mineral common as accessories; very weakly
cemented, calcareous; splits crumbly; flat and lenticular bedded; crossbedded, lenticülar low angle,
medium scale; weathers smooth and hackly; forms
ledge; contains few small low angle gravelly chan
nels; gravel maximum size 1 in, chiefly less than
1/4 in,; limonite stained; larger sand and gravel
composed of most any old rock type; environment,
quiet fluvial., flood plain.
2
Silt and silty sand, brownish gray 5YR-4/1, silt
to very coarse-grained sand, poorly sorted, subangular to angular with few subrounded grains, clear
and frosted quartz; muscovite rare and black mineral
common as accessories; very weakly cemented, cal
careous; splits crumbly; flat and lenticular very thin
bedded; weathers hackly; contains carbonaceous material, limonite stained; two silty layers separated by
medial silty sand bed; contains occasional pebble; intertongues with unit 5; some columnar jointing; environment, flood plain and lacustrine; base is gradationaL
1
Total thickness of Unit 4
4
152
Feet
5
6
Sand, pale yellowish brown 1OYR.6/2, silt to fine-s
grained sand, poorly sorted, subangular to angular
with few subrounded grains, clear, frosted, and
amber quartz; muscovite rare and black mineral
common as accessories; very weakly cemented;
calcareous; splits crumbly; flat and lenticular thin
to thick bedded; crossbedded, lenticular low to very
low angle, medium to large scale planer and trough;
weathers smooth; forms ledge; contains gravel
lenses with maximum size 7 in,., average size less
than 1 in,; intertongues laterally southward into
silty beds at base of Unit 4; few sandy cienega beds
in unit; few pebbles concentrated along crossbedding
planes; sandy units planer; gravelly units channeled;
contains carbonaceous material and fragments of
small gastropod fossils; environment, quiet fluvial,
deltaic or alluvial fan; intertongues with Unit 6;
base is gradational.
Chiefly mud with some silty sand: Mud, medium
light gray N6 to light brownish gray 5YR6/l, silt
and clay with some very fine-grained sand; musco
vite rare and black mineral common as accessories;
very weakly cemented, calcareous; splits shaley;
lenticular very thin to thin bedded; weathers smooth;
forms irregular ledge; primary slumpage common;
plastic when wet; tongues of mud beds nd mudchip
beds extend upward and laterally in overlying sand
of unit 5; contortion follows contour of channels;
some sand within unit grades in and out; contains
small gastropod fossils and carbonaceous material;
environment, lacustrine; base is concealed.
Silty sand of Unit 6: Pale brown 5YR=.5/2, silt to
finegrained sand, poorly sorted, subangular to
angular, clear, frosted, and some amber quartz;
other features same as for mud; contains abundant
small gastropod fossils and organic material;
limonite stained0
8-4/2
6+
APPENDIX B
TABULATION OF CHARCOAL IDENTIFICATION
by
Terah L Smiley
ARIZONA EE:2:30
Test 2
Midden
Quercus sp. ? (Oak)
Test3
Pit 11 (*A_85) Prosopis sp. ? (Mesquite)
Quercus sp. ? (Oak)
Pit 13, hearth areas 1 and 3
Prosopis sp, ? (Mesquite)
Pit 14 (A-86 a-c) Prosopis sp ? (Mesquite)
ARIZONA EE:2:35
Lense 4 (A-89 a-c) **UnkJlown sp. ?
(A-87)
Unknown sp. ?
Pro sopis sp. ? (Mesquite)
* C-carbon sample designation of the University of Arizona C.14 Age
Determination Labor atory
**_genus not identified.
153
APPENDIX C
MAMMAL HABITATS
Introduction
Bone specimens recovered from Arizona EE:2:30 (Fig. 2) were
obtained during archaeological excavation of a pre-ceramic midden and
associated pit and shallow fire hearth features. This cultural component
has been correlated with the San Pedro hunting and gathering culture
discussed elsewhere in this report
The bone fragments were sacked
by test block and pit feature and turned over to the Zoology Department,
University of Arizona. Laboratory analysis by William J. Schaldach,
Jr., with the assistance of Jim J. Hester, resulted in the identification
of 153 parts of 11 different animals. Dr0 E Lendell Cockrum, Curator
of Mammals, supplied the author with a basic interpretation concerning
the significance of this material in terms of the ecological habitats in
which the animals were living.
154
155
Restriction to Habitat
Because of the locomotion powers of mammals, it is commonly
assumed that they range very widely. However, on the contrary, it has
been found that animals which subsist on fruit and herbage are restrict
ed to the vicinity where this food is plentifuL Predatory animals, on
the other hand, may wander widely in proportion to their size and the
occurrence of their prey (Olin, 1954:6-7).
This problem is further complicated by San Pedro man himseiL
Operating from a base camp near the Cienega Creek, he may have
hunted well up into the adjacent mountain ranges for higher altitude
fauna.
Inferred Habitats
Based on the current setting of the mammals identified from
Arizona EE:2:30, three generalized habitats were reconstructed,
Antelope are restricted to grass feeding on extensive savannahs.
Thirty one bones occurring in parts of the site tested suggest that a
grassland type of cover was an important feature then as now.
A complex of mule deer, jack rabbit, and cottontail rabbit infer
a mixed grassland-shrub habitat. The mule deer are browsers which
156
which suggest a shrub situation, perhaps along a stream or dry water
course. The large number of bones (55) suggests a sizable population.
The greater proportion of jack rabbit 25 bones) to cottontail (2) infers
a preponderance of grass area over shrub0 The occurrence of pocket
gopher supports a grassland and/or stream side situation0
A high altitude oak-pine setting is suggested by the occurrence
of elk, bighorn sheep(?), and whitetail deer0 In general, elk and big='
horn(?) prefer a rough, rocky mountain side terrain but on occasion
they may feed down to lower altitudes0 Whitetail deer range from the
oak zone up into the higher transition pine cover.
Such predatory animals as the bobcat and coyote range widely
from desert lower Sonoran country up into the high altitude transition
forests.
Negative Evidence
Certain animals are conspicuous due to their absence. This
may indicate one of two possibilities. Man may simply have disdained
to hunt these species or the environmental setting was unfavorable.
The stream side situation postulated should have attracted beaver and
raccoons. The local mountains would have been suitable settings for
bears and mountain lions. The transition pine zone should contain
157
porcupines and tree squirrels while the lower oak belt could have supported javalina0
Summary
Identification and interpretation of a series of mammal bones
obtained during archeological excavation of a San Pedro Cochise
habitation site has resulted in the establishment of 3 general environmental settings for the animals involved0 Various dating procedures
suggest a span of a thousand years or so for San Pedro occupation within the Cienega Valley. This dating may in turn be applied to the mammal
bone data0 Isolated bone specimens collected from alluvial and cultural
deposits of later age indicate a continuity of the mammal associations
which carries through to the present.
TABLE 11
TABULATION OF MAMMAL BONES ARIZONA EE:2:30
ORDER ARTIODACTYLA
Family Cervidae (Deer)
Cervus sp0 ? (4) Elk
Odocoileus hemionus (55) Mule Deer
Odocoileus virginianus (9) Wh.itetailed Deer
Odocoileus sp0 ? (15) Deer sp0 ?
Family Antilocapridae (Pronghorn)
Antiloc apra americana (31) Pronghorn
Family Bovidae (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats)
cf0 Ovis canadensis (3) Bighorn Sheep
ORDER LAGOMORPHA
Family Leporidae (Rabbits and Hares)
Lepus californicus (1) Black-tailed Jack Rabbit
Lepus sp ? (24) Jack Rabbit
Sylvilagus sp ? (2) Cottontail
ORDER RODENTIA
Family Geomyidae (Pocket Gophers)
Thomomys sp ? (1) pocket Gopher
Rodent (1)
TABLE 11
continued.
ORDER CARNIVORA
Family Canidae (Foxes, Wolves, and Dogs)
Canis latrans (2) Coyote
Canis familiaris (Articulated skeleton) (domesticated dog)
Family Felidae (Cats)
Lynx rufus (4) Bobcat
(
ef
)
snumber of identified bones
-comparable to
sp0 ?..species unknown
APPENDIX D
NONMAIi
MOLLUSCjJ REMAINS FROM RECENT SEDIMENTS
INMATTYCANYON, PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA
by
Robert
Drake
Abstract
Three hundred and fifty nonmarine molluscan shells from 14
sediment samples from Recent deposits in Matty Canyon, southeastern
Pima County, Arizona, were studied as to abundance of shells, propor
tion of each form or general taxonomic type, and the implied environment
al conditions under which they lived.
The mollusks were studied without recourse to the results of
similar research on mammalian remains and an archaeologic-geologic
study of the region.
Mullusks from 13 of the 14 samples gave indications of some
shallow water (pond, marsh, and/or slow moving stream) habitat.
Landsnail material in 12 of the 14 samples gave indication of probable
grassland and/or moderate vegetation cover. In the molluscan material
there was no indication of forms common to heavy vegetation cover or
159
rushing rivers0 In general, the mollusks reflected conditions akin to
modern ones, prior to the present overgrazed situation.
Introduction
In November of 1957, 14 sediment samples (including snail
and clam remains) were submitted by Mr0 Frank W, Eddy0 They had
been collected from Recent deposits in Matty Canyon (Fig. 23), Pima
County, Arizona, the previous September by Mr. F. W. Eddy and Mr.
M. E. Cooley. Mr. Eddy requested a report on environmental conditions under which the mollusk shells had existed as parts of living
animals. He also allocated funds to provide partially for assistance in
working over the samples and to prepare a report.
Thanks are given to Messrs. Eddy and Cooley for bringing the
specimens to my attention, Drs. E. W. Haury and A. R. Mead offered
encouragement and give the opportunity for studying this type of mol-
luscan material in connection with Mr, Eddy' s study of past land use
in Matty Canyon by Homo sapiens L. Through the courtesy of Dr. P.
S. Martin, a trip was made on February 8, 1958 to Matty Canyon so
current conditions there could be observed,
Procedure
Each sample was weighed; it was roughly measured for volume
in large glass cylinders graduated in cubic cenimeters. These
160
measurements are given in Table 12.
In general, the shells in the sediment samples were fragile; the
only practical way to recover them for study was to pick them out of
the matrix. Each sample was picked over on two separate occasions,
and, although there perhaps remain undetected shells and fragments,
it is felt that the forms and gross numbers of those forms given here
are representative of the samples0
Plastic trays, as well as the glass cylinders used for volume
measurements, were washed well before and after the individual samples
were processed in them0 In the event that the samples are used later
for pH determination or study of other contained organic items such as
diatoms, fungus hyphae, ostracods,
, the trays and glass cylinders
were rinsed in distilled water before and after washing9
Each sample was given a study number (2771 to 2784). Forms
of mollusks within a sample were also given study numbers (2792 to
2854); however, there were more numbers than forms in some samples
as unique, photographed, or illustrated individual shells (as the specimen of Helisoma of Figure 25, 7) were assigned separate numbers,
After study, the samples and specimens were returned to the Arizona
State Museum.
The forms in a sample were identified usually to genus, In
the case of the numerous specimens of members of the terrestrial
family Succineidae, determination to genus was not attempted as the
161
genera cannot be distinguished in this family from the shells only0
Landsnails of the family Pupillidae were often too fragmentary or
fragile when whole to permit sufficiently detailed examination.
Information concerning the mulluscan remains in the 14 samples
is presented in Table 13,
Size of the Specimens
Relative size of most types of shells from Matty Canyon is
shown in Figure 24, 2; the distal portion of a safety match which meas
ured 3, 4 to 4.0 mm, wide has been included in Figure 24, 2 to point up
size of smaller nonmarine shells in relation to the size of small arti
facts. Usual sizes of shells of most genera studied from Matty Canyon
are shown in Figure 24, 2, Helisoma (Fig, 25, !) ranges from 10 to
15 mm, Succineids (Fig. 26, 12) measure from 3 to 10 mm, in length;
the several shells of Lymnaea (Fig. 25, 4) are about 4 to 6 mm. high.
As a size class, smaller shells were pupillids (Fig. 26, 8, 9) small
discoids (Fig. 26, 10), and the amnicolids (Fig. 25, 6). Physa (Fig.
25, 5) was about the size of the peaclam Pisidium (Fig. 25, 3) in the
Matty Canyon shells, although it has been observed to be much larger
in other Recent deposits in the Southwest.
162
ttThe Present is the Key to the Past..
TI
In the current Southwest, none of the 5 types of freshwater forms
(Pisidium, Physa, Helisoma, lymnaeids, and amnicolids) would normally be found living In deep and swift rivers. They would however, some
times be found living under swampy conditions or in shallow ponds at the
edges of lakes, meandering creeks, and rivers
Freshwater forms were contained in 5 samples but 13 of the
14 samples contained succineid landsnails0 The succineids are almost
amphibious and are usually considered so because they have generally
been found living in the damp, wet zone on the substratum at the edges
of bodies of water0
The one sample (EddyCooley sample 13
study noQ 2783, from
geologic Unit 3C, MC-5) containing no aquatic forms or succineids, con
tains only 3 landshells in spite of its weight of 152 grams and a volume
of roughly 50 cc.
Regardless of small numbers of individuals and small sample
size, the mere presence of the freshwater forms and succineids indicates
that some pond or swampy conditions existed during (or before, if by
redeposition) the time that 13 of the 14 samples were deposited.
Other than the succineids, the landsnail remains represent
members of three families of minute forms: The discoid Zonitidae
(Hawaiia), tall Cionellidae (Cionella), and the toothed and sculptured
163
Pupillidae (Vertigo, Gastrocopta, Pupila, and Pupoides). Species of
these genera now occur in southeastern Arizona in a variety of eleva
tions and habitats0 Their numerical strength in the sediment samples
(of several different weights and volumes) does not necessarily indicate
heavy vegetation; rather, grasslands or moderate arboreal vegetation
would harbour such small numbers.
TABLE 12
MEASUREMENTS AND STUDY NUMBERS OF 14 SAMPLES
Eddy'. Sample Geologic Specimen
Cooley Study
Units
Study
Sample Nos.
Nos
Nos.
1
2771
1
2792 to
Wt. In Volume As No Of
Grams In Cubic
Shells
Centimeters
161
110
15
2799
2
2772
2,
2800 to
1349
1000
30
2814 to
190
30
25
2820 to
125
50
36
60
15
12
712
565
760
600
142
soil zone 2813
5
2775
2,
soil zone 2819
3
2773
4
2777
2774
14
2784
13
2783
7
3
2824
3
2825
3,
2826 to
"MT" zone 2832
3B, MC 2833 to
5, "K"
2835
12
soil zone
3C,
2836
152
50
2
3D
2837 to
450
490
9
3E,
2840
2841
55
15
1
137
100
16
162
75
28
45
25
14
89
20
8
4252
3340
350
MC5
11
2781
MC5
12
2782
MC5
9
2779
4,
2842 to
"X" zone 2845
10
2780
4
8
2778
5
6
2776
7
TOTALS
2846,
2847
2848 to
2851
2852 to
2854
TABLE 13
MOLLUSCAN REMAINS IN 14 SAMPLES
Geologic Study No0 No0 Of
Unit
Shells
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
1
4
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
1
1
1
1
5
9
.2
1
2
1
1
1
7
8
3
3
1
3
31
1
1
1
12
23
40
75
Identification and or Remar S
L, Hawaiia sp.; Figure 26, 10,
L, Hawaiia sp.
FW, Pisidium sp.; 3 valves0
L, succineid snail shells0
L or FW, basal portion of snail shell0
L, basal portion of pupillid snail shell,
FW, Helisoma sp.
FW, Pisidium sp.; 1 valve; Figure 25, 3.
FW, Physa sp.; Figure 25, 5.
FW, Physa sp.
FW, amnicolid snail shell; Figure 25, 60
FW, amnicolid snail shell,
L, small discoid snail shell0
FW, Pisidium sp.; 1 articulated clam0
FW, Pisidium sp.; 5 valves0
L, succineid snail shells.
FW, Helisoma sp.
FW, Lymnaea sp.; Figure 25, 4.
FW, Lymnaea sp.
L, Vertigo sp.
L, Pupilla sp.; Figure 26, 8.
FW, Helisoma sp.; Figure 25, 7,
FW, Helisoma sp.
L, succineid snail shells0
FW, Pisidium sp.; 3 valves.
FW, Physa sp0
L or FW, basal portion of snail shell.
L, Hawaiia sp.
FW, Helisoma sp.
L, succineid snail shells,
L, succineid snail shell,
L, Gastrocopta sp.
L, succineid snail shell; Figure 26, 12.
L, succineid snail shells,
L, succineid snail shells,
L, Hawaiia sp.
L, pupillid snail shells; Vertigo and
Gastrocopta; mostly fragments,
TABLE 13
eolog1c Study No. No, Of
Unit
Shells
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
1
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
7
7
5
5
5
5
2848
2849
2850
2851
11
7
7
7
2852
2853
2854
6
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
7
4
1
2
4
1
3
1
1
1
1
25
3
1
1
1
1
L-land form(s)
FW-fr eshwater form(s)
-
continued,
Identification and/or Remarks
FW, lymnaeid snail shell.
L, Gastrocopta sp.
L, Vertigo sp0
L, Vertigo sp,; Figure 26, 9
L, succineid snail shells.
L, Hawaiia sp.
L, pupillid snail shell.
L, Hawaiia sp.
L, succineid snail shells0
FW, Pisidium sp.; articulated clam.
FW, Pisidium sp0; 3 valves0
L, Gastrocopta sp.
L, sue cineid snail shell.
L, succineid snail shells.
L, Gastrocopta sp.
L, Gastrocopta sp0
L, Gastrocopta sp0
L succineid snail shells0
L, pupillids0
L, succineid snail shells,
FW, Pisidium sp.; 1 valve,
L, Cionella sp0; Figure 26, 11.
L, basal portion of snail sheir
L, succineid snail shells.
L, Gastrocopta sp.
L Pupoides sp.
FIGURE 23
Drainage of Cienega Creek showing location of Matty
Canyon.
FIGURE 24
View of frequently occurring nonmarine shells from Rec
deposits in Matty Canyon. Match (3,4 to 4.0 mm. wide) inciud4'
for scale.
FIGURE 25
Detail of freshwater clam and snail shells0 Pisidiurn sp.,
two views of same valve (2799) 3; Lymnaea sp0 two views of
same shell 28O9), 4; hysa sp0, (2800), 5;. an amnicolid snail
shell, (2802), 6; Helisoma sp0, two views of same shell
7
Scale lines = 1 mm.
FIGURE 26
Detail of landsnail shells0 Pupilla sp0, c2812), 8; Vertigo
sp0, (2832), 9; Hawaiia sp0, (2792), 10; Clonella sp.,
a succineid snail shell, (2824), 12. Scale lines
=
285O), 11,;
1 mm0
REFERENCES
Antevs, Ernst
1955
?Geo1ogic_Climatic Method of Dating." in Geochronology,
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Bailey, Florence Merriam
1923
"Birds Recorded from the Santa Rita Mountains in Southern
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1955 "Dendrochronology.
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Bartlett, John Russel
1954 Personal Narrative of Exploration and Incidents in Texas,
New Mexico, California, Sonora, aiiChihuahua, Connected
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Braidwood, Robert J0
1950 Prehistoric Men. Chicago Natural History Museum, Popular
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Bryson, Reid A.
Lectures on paleo-climate delivered at the University of
1957
Arizona.
1957
The Annual March of Precipitation in Arizona, New Mexico,
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.ãi
FAtmospheric Physics, Technical Reports on the Meteoro=.
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1955
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164
165
Darton, N. H.
1933
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1951
The Babocomari Village Site on the Babocomari River,
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1956 The Upper Pima of San Cayetano del Tumacacori, No. 7,
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1953
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Physical Divisions of the United States. Map prepared in
1949
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1950
The Stratigraphy and Archaeology of Ventana Cave Arizona.
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Mc. Gregor, J. C.
1941
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166
Nichol, A. A.
1937
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1954 Animals of the Southwest Deserts,, Southwestern Monuments
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1941
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1945
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1941
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1956
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gaster of Arts 'tffesis, University of Arizona, Tucson.
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Edward B. Espenshade, Jr. Ninth Edition, pp. 8-9, Rand
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1933
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167
TuthiU, Carr
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1957
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"Annotated Abstract" Personal Narrative of Exploration and
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Univ. of Arizona Library
EXPLA NATION
Cienega deposits
and lake beds
Recent
Marker
Marker
bed
bed
Marker
bed
Silt
AR!Z EE;?36
Pleistocene 1?) 100
Sand
3
Cretacevus- K
5
Sand and gravel teith channel
Vertical scale:
i\j
inch =25 feet
Datum 4175 feet
Soil zone
I
V
Fool
x
rchaeologicol
UPPER
site
FALLS
AR!Z EE:235
A
LOWER
FALLS
M'2
O
MC-5
A!RIZ EE:2:30
ARIZ EEl 2:10
4
MC-2,3
N
4
X MO-P
ARIZ EE:2:14
5M0-5
N4
MC-7
A
C -2 3
.5
-eeC--n
5,' MO-I
MC'4
MC-4
ARIZ EE.212
INDEX MAP
Area a pproaimotety
twa miles long
FIGURE 22.--ISOMETRI-C FENCE DIAGRAM OF CIENEGA VALLEY, ARIZONA,
SHOWING RECENT ALLUVIAL STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONSHIPS.
45,
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