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Volume XVII




Number 5







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A wise old saying, familiar to us all, says that the wheel which squeaks receives remedial attention from the wagonmaster.

It seems to me that, in honoring this wheel - an example of inattention, friction and lack of forethought we have not given sufficient homage to the smooth -rolling wheels which, without squeak or complaint, roll on toward their goal.

Similarly, in the past year or two we have seen undue publicity given to the few young people on college campuses and elsewhere who have misbehaved in one manner or other.

It would seem time to pay homage to the vast majority which, in serious application to learning, have not attracted attention.

The boys wearing the gold and purple of FFA, for example, and the bright boys and girls wearing the green clover leaf design of 4 -H. They work hard at a wide variety of projects, taking care of crops and livestock, cooking and sewing, directing organization activities, helping in the home and on farm and ranch.

They've just been too busy to get involved in stupid, exhibitionistic activity!

Take a few of the youngsters we hold in warm affection, for we have watched their development, and glory in their successes:

Sue Alexander, involved in the educational program of a large flour milling company, has had no time to daub silly signs protesting national policy.

Bill Woodruff, who spent the summer editing one of Arizona's better weekly newspapers, was too busy with camera and typewriter to dispute civil authority.

And Kathy Storey, an attractive Yuma high school girl working in our laboratories this past summer, found that her research project:

"The absorption and concentrations of contamination from nuclear fission of uranium radiostrontium by desert algae," just didn't leave her time to organize any campus riots.

These young people are representative of the majority, the vast number of "wheels which don't squeak," but which roll smoothly along on the highway of good citizenship and achievement.


College of Agriculture and

School of Home Economics





September -October,



No. 5

Published bimonthly by the

College of Agriculture, The University of Arizona,



Myers, dean.

Harold E.

Entered as second -class matter

March 1, 1949, at the post office at

Tucson, Arizona, under the act of

August 24, 1912.

Reprinting of articles or use of information in Progressive

Agriculture in Arizona, by newspapers and magazines is permitted, with credit.


John Burnham.

Editorial Board Members: Mildred

R. Jensen, Mitchell G. Vavich,

Norman F. Oebker, William H. Hale and

Director George E. Hull, ex- officio.

Calendar of Events _______ _________________________ _____ 2

Message from President Harvill

Pinal County Story

Early Safflower Harvest

Mystery Picture

--- - - - - -- - --

Cutting Production Costs in Vegetable Growing

Cultivating Our Garden

Desert Grassland Soils

Home Economics Teaching

Fall -Grown Potatoes

Beef Imports & Pricing

Citrus Frost Protection

Mystery Picture Answer

Plastics Conference

Wool Prices in Arizona,

Uniformity Ups Cotton Prices

Report From Brazil

Rak Scholarship Report

Frio, a New Safflower

Why Food Costs More

Farm Radio Schedule

Cotton Harvest- Defoliating

Burning Affects Water Intake

Of Forest Soils























Dr. Billy J. Hulett,

Poultry Scientist, Dies

Dr. Billy J. Hulett, associate professor of poultry science in The University of Arizona's College of Agriculture, died July 2. He was

32 years old.

The young scientist, who joined the

U of A faculty in February 1963, "was an outstanding teacher and researcher in the field of poultry nutrition," said

Dr. Bobby L. Reid, head of the U of

A's Department of Poultry Science.

Before coming to the U of A, Dr.

Hulett was director of research and nutrition for Darragh Company of

Little Rock, Ark., from 1961 to


He served in the U. S. Army from

1955 -1957,

and for a short period

following Army duty he was entomologist at the University of Arkansas.

Dr. Hulett was born in Swifton,

Ark., June

28, 1933.

He received the

B.S. and M.S. degrees at the University of Arkansas, and the Ph.D. in

1961 at Texas A & M College.

Author of nine publications in scientific

journals, Dr. Hulett was a

member of the Poultry Science Association, Alpha Zeta, Gamma Sigma


28- 30- Extension Agents - in - Charge

Conference, U of A Campus,



8- 10-

Greenlee County Fair -Duncan

19- "Pre -field Day Tour" for Arizona Cotton Wives

Organization, Cotton Research Center,


20- Cotton Research Center Field

Day, Cotton Research Center,



5 14- Arizona State Fair - Phoenix

16-18-National Agricultural Plastics

Conference, Phoenix.

Delta, World's Poultry Science, and

Phi Kappa Phi.

Dr. Hulett is sur vived by his wife and two children.

September- October

Page 2


,4yniultrtinc /aw1ede

Basic, II'eeded

By Richard A. Harvill

The University of Arizona ex-

tends a cordial welcome to new students entering the College of

Agriculture this fall.

You have chosen an area basic to your country and to this University.

Agriculture was the first field of training offered by this institution, as well as the first program in higher education offered in Arizona Territory.

Since then the College of Agriculture and School of Home Economics have graduated many young people who have gone on to positions of leadership in this state and in the nation.

Morrill Act Was Important

This is a Land -Grant University, established pursuant to the Morrill


Act passed by the United States Conegress in 1862.

That historic piece of legislation gave major impetus to the technological revolution which has transformed our country during the past century.

Institutions established under this system did not minimize

Ithe importance of liberal studies.

However they extended higher education into the vast and neglected fields of agriculture, engineering and related areas.

Equally important, the Land -Grant system extended opportunities for higher education to students of modest means.

The fact that The University of

Arizona is a Land -Grant institution is

very important to us and to you.

There is only one Land -Grant University in each state, and special federal funds are available to these institutions for research, teaching and extension activities.

This College Is Special

There are other things which set this College of Agriculture apart. For one thing, the factors that are special s .

about this state and its

agriculture make our kind of teaching and research important to all the world. The desert climate, water scarcity and salinity, irrigation techniques, the crops grown in this area, are not typical of the great "breadbasket" Midwest of

America, but of the hungry areas of


America, Africa and

Asia, where an improved agriculture is desperately needed.

That is why, in this College of Agriculture, you will find students from scores of nations around the world, all interested in the same knowledge you seek. The cultural stimulation of associating with these young people from other lands is one of the dividends you will receive here.

Medicine, Agriculture Go Together

Another thing important to you and your learning is the establishment here of a College of Medicine. There is a significant relationship between the fields of agriculture and of medicine.

The lessons learned with animals and plants are important to human health, and have been a great contribution to medical science.

Information about nutrition and physiology, findings regarding pharmaceutical plants and toxic plants, the science of genetics itself -all these have gone from agriculture to medicine, and medicine has benefited therefrom. We will expect our new College of Medicine and our established

College of Agriculture to have a

happy and mutually beneficial relationship.

Opportunities in agriculture today are unlimited.

America's growing population and our continually improved standards of living provide a market for agriculture that will increase as time goes on.

Greater efficiency, new techniques and improved knowledge much of it corning from our Land -Grant universities in America - make it possible to provide a greater bounty of agricultural produce than ever before.

Despite occasional surpluses in this country of a few products, there is a world -wide need for increased agricultural production and know -how.

Throughout the world there are whole continents of hungry people, whole nations where diet deficiencies and hunger- induced human lethargy and lack of vitality are endemic. The problem is one of poor distribution, of populations which have outrun their food supply, of nations where the techniques of America are needed.

Extending Needed Knowledge

One of the great tasks in the world today and it still will be there when you go forth from this University is extending the agricultural knowledge of America, the research and extension techniques of the Land -Grant university, so that the developing nations can help themselves.

Feeding the world is the most important, basic task of mankind, yesterday, today and tomorrow.

Americans in the past have done a good job of it, but your generation will do it better.

It is a career to test your best abilities and your greatest enthusiasm.

WASHINGTON and ARIZONA are closely linked in the business of agricultural research and extension, for the cooperation between each state's Land -Grant University and the U. S. Department of Agriculture was spelled out in the Morrill Act, over a century ago.

Here, conferring in Tucson, are (left to right) U of A President Richard

A. Harvill, Congressman Morris K. Udall, Secretary of Agriculture Orville L. Freeman, and U of A Dean of Agriculture Harold E. Myers.

(See cover).




Dr. Harvill is president of The University of Arizona.

ileged to have this contribution, suitably at

:irthis season

Progressive Agriculture is privas students turn their footsteps toward this campus.

Page .3

Progressive Agriculture

CLUB WORK FOR youths began early in Final County.

At left, a winning team in garden demonstration methods explains how to form earth for ridging for irrigation. This picture was taken nearly 40 years ago.

IN CENTER PHOTO, Pinal County youth club work shows a

4 -H miss intent on sewing a straight seam. At right, a swine showman at the Final 4 -H fair rests with his prize porker before going into the show ring.

144ats94 eaape4ation, ealioot and eadie


By Charles E. Robertson

Pinal County is a desert area with a colorful past. A look into the past some 3200 years indicates the rise and fall of civilizations in this area which have been directly related to water.

The ancient HoHoKam civilization has left ruins of canals and cities that indicate this area supported a population as large or larger than the population of today. Speculation on the fall of the HoHoKam is easy to associate with water; either a lack of water or a decline in quality.

HaloKams Came and Left

These ancient people worked together on their problems and built a thriving community but failure some-

where resulted in a return to the


Today the people of Pinal

County have built a thriving community.

Charles E. Robertson is an Indiana native characterized by a friendly manner and his staunch loyalty to Pinal County.

lie attended Indiana University in 1937 -38, received his bachelor's degree in agriculture from Purdue University in 1941, and was in the Air Corps 1941 -45.

Chuck Robertson then was an assistant in agricultural economics at The University of Arizona, 1946-

49, then went into cotton and cattle farming in Pinal County, until named assistant county agent at Casa Grande in the fall of


He was promoted to agent -in- charge

Sept. 1, 1960, succeeding Al Vincent.

Pinal County's

300,000 irrigated acres and its cattle ranches put $75,-

000,000 into the economy annually.

The county's 130,000 acres of upland cotton is two -fifths of the state's total, its 9,800 acres of long staple American- Egyptian cotton a fifth of the

Arizona total.

Pinal harvests 44,000 ley, more than acres of bara quarter of the state's barley production, and the 26,000 acres total.

of sorghum grown in


County is nearly

A third of the state's wheat acreage is in Pinal.

a fifth of the state

Food and Fiber

Translated for the layman, Pinal

County's cotton could shirt on every

put a new

man in America in

1964, plus enough yardage left over for shifts for every suburban housewife. And the beef produced in Pinal

County feedlots and ranches would furnish steak, hamburger or roast beef for every person in the city of Tucson

- 300,000 people - once a day for an entire year.

Also, Final County people spend $6,000,000 per month, as indicated by retail sales records.

Most important, perhaps, is the fact that the county's agriculture is well organized and integrated.

The tremendous volume of feed grains and alfalfa are utilized largely in feedlots within the county, barley turned into steaks without going across a county line.

Feedlot operator Jim Benedict, one of the ablest men in the business, mentions casually that his mills and feedlot at Stanfield use 35,000 tons of feed grains per year

- most of it

bought from growers within the county.

Will this area again return to desert? No one thinks so.

The agricultural problems of the people are being systematically overcome by the application of scientific methods.


1928 a demonstration on how to grow more with less

water was being

carried out.

The Farm Bureau is active in providing assistance to Agricultural Extension work. A sprinkler demonstration on how to grow more

(Continued on Next Page)

HORSES AND RIDING are important parts of 4 -H activity in Pinal County.

One of the most enthusiastic of the adult leaders is Mary Taylor, ramrod of the

Lasso Riders.

In photo below she two of her young charges.

is shown resting a bit and conferring with

September -October

Page 4

ONE OF THE MOST efficient feedlot operations in the nation is in Pinal

County, the James Benedict feedlot west of Casa Grande.

Here animals are fed and cared for scientifically, with every effort to make fast, efficient gains in weight.

A TREMENDOUS INVESTMENT in the feedlot business is the feed processing mill.

This one, at the Benedict feedlot, is the very latest thing in efficiency.

Through its huge metal maws go over 35,000 tons of grains per year, as well as vast quantities of alfalfa.

(Continued from Previous Page) with less water was a cooperative venture with the Farm Bureau.

There is an Extension Advisory

Board made up of local people familiar with local problems, to assist in meeting the demands of today's society.

Not only the demand for supplying bread and meat, but the activities in the home and the development of our youth.

About 600

4 -H youths and 120 leaders make up today's 4 -H clubs in Pinal County.

4 -H on Horseback

The many activities of 4 -H are valuable training experiences for both young and old.

Trail rides have become very popular and educational.

Great pride is taken in discipline and etiquette.

Leave a clean camp; leave a good impression.

Cleanliness is next to Godliness.

Make the Best


Through the years the home economics section of extension work has been active. The 16,000 Pinal County families may still avail themselves of the opportunity to improve their lives, as so many have done in the past.

Page 5

Progressive Agriculture

Dwarf Fruit Trees

Have Advantages

Dwarf fruit trees have some advantages for the home gardener, according to Harvey Tate, horticulture specialist with The University of Arizona.

"More trees can be planted in a limited area and they come into pollination earlier," he explains.

The home gardener can spray and harvest the trees easier because of their size.

"Before planting them, here are some things you should know," says


Dwarfs are not as hardy as standard trees because their root system is shallow and more susceptible to dry soil conditions, and low tern peratures.

He suggests mulching around a dwarf tree's base to help maintain even soil moisture and tern perature levels during the winter.

Dwarfs are achieved by grafting a standard variety on a dwarf rootstock which will dwarf the size of the tree.

Principal dwarf fruit trees are apples, which grow best at elevations

4,000 feet and above in



This young miss saw hours in the kitchen pay off in first place ribbons at the Pinal County 4 -H Fair.

However, Tate does not advise planting a real dwarf apple tree because the roots will not support the plant and staking is required.

Other dwarf fruit trees include a peach called Bonanza, dwarf pears from grafting on quince rootstock, and cherries dwarfed by grafting on

Nanking rootstock.

Dwarf trees are available from commercial nurseries.

"It's usually easier

to buy the

dwarfs than to try to graft the rootstock yourself," suggests Tate.




DOVES SWARMING over safflower plots at Yuma. Multiply an ounce and a half of seed per bird per day by several thousand birds, over a period of a month, and you can see where a valuable oilseed crop has gone.

Safflower Can Be Harvested

Before the Doves Eat It All

By Ernest B. Jackson and Phillip A. Tilt

Wildlife specialists estimate that a white -wing dove will eat at

least one and a half ounces of grain every day.

This fact may seem

insignificant by itself, but when you multiply it by several thousand and spread it out over a month or more, it takes on quite a different meaning. This is exactly what has been happening

this year in many

safflower fields throughout southern Arizona.

Doves by the thousands have been sitting on safflower plants, picking the grain from the seed heads.

The dove population on four acres of experimental plots at Yuma was estimated to be between 1,000 and

1,500 every day beginning in early


Continuous vigil was necessary to keep them away. Once they have started on a field, they quickly move in and gorge themselves every time it is left unguarded.

weeds such as sunflower can develop to the extent that they interfere with the harvesting by combine. And (3)

Harvesting as late as mid -July leaves little time for getting in a summer crop, such as grain sorghum.

Plantings Made at Yuma

To determine at what stage in the life cycle of the safflower plant the seed can be harvested without loss of yield or quality, an experiment was conducted on the Yuma Branch Experiment Station during the winters of 1961 -62 and 1962 -63.

Replicated plots of gila safflower were grown under normal cultural procedures until the plants had completed flowering.

Beginning when the last flowers had faded, plots were cut and windrowed each week until the normal harvesting time in July.

All plots were sampled for moisture content of stems, heads

( including the bracts around the seed heads), and seed as they were cut and windrowed, and again after one week of drying in the field.

Oil content and bushel weight of the seed were determined from samples taken when the plots were threshed for yield.

Visual indications of stages of maturity were the same in both years.

(Continued on Next Page)

Gila Safflower Windrowed at Seven -Day Intervals, Beginning When

the Last Flowers Had Faded. Yuma Valley Experimental Farm

Get It Harvested Quickly

The simplest solution to this problem is to harvest the seed as soon as it is mature.

Nothing is gained by letting it stand in the field another month.

Safflower planted at Yuma in December or January normally begins blooming about the second week in

May. By mid -June all blooming has ceased and the seed is maturing rapidly.

At this stage the plants are still green and succulent, and won't be dry enough to combine directly until mid -


During this long drying period, several things can happen: (1) Grain can be lost to feeding birds. (2) As the safflower plants dry up, summer

Dr. Jackson is an associate agronomist located at the Yuma Branch Station; Phillip

A. Tilt is a research assistant in agronomy, also at Yuma.

Oil content determinations were made through courtesy of George

Phelps, chief chemist, Producers Cotton Oil

Co., of Imperial Valley, Calipatria, Calif.

Time of















Moisture Content

When Windrowed

After 7 Days

In Windrow

Bushel Oil


Stems Heads Seed

Stems Heads Seed Weight Content Yield'


% % %

% %
































1961 -62






1962 -63










Acre -yields calculated from 1/1089- and 1 /2041 -acre plots.

All data are averages of four replications.





























"The penalty which we shall pay for failure to maintain a strong and vigorous research program in agriculture will be to supply the industry agriculture with obsolete knowledge.

a luxury f nowee is which we can ill afford.

This experiment station must be kept upto -date if we are not to be saddled with obsolete knowledge"

Dr. Harold A. Young, retiring after long service as director of the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station.

Mystery Picture Is A Strange Plant

(Continued from Previous Page)

Approximately one week after the last flowers had faded, the field began to exhibit a general appearance of yellowing or a fading green color.

All flowers were dry and the tips of the bracts around the seed heads were just beginning to die.

Although plants cut at this stage were much too high in moisture to be threshed immediately, they were easily threshed after a few days of drying in the windrow. As shown in the table, oil content, bushel weight and plot yield indicated that the seed was mature in 1962 -63 and almost mature in 1961 -62.

For Windrow Harvesting

Two weeks after the last flowers had faded, the seed was mature in both 1961 -62 and 1962 -63, and could be safely harvested by windrowing.

This stage

of plant maturity was

marked by a general appearance of ripeness throughout the field, with the green color almost gone. Perhaps the best indication of seed maturity was the seed heads themselves. They were beginning to turn brown and the bracts around the heads had died back from the tips.

Occasional early heads were completely brown with no green color left in the bracts.

The rest of the plant, however, was still green and high in moisture as is shown in the table.

These findings indicate that safflower can be windrowed or swathed between one and two weeks after the end of blooming.

From normal plantings at Yuma, this stage occurs between the tenth and fifteenth of

June; whereas, if the crop is left standing in the field until the plants are dry enough to combine directly, harvest is delayed for approximately one month.

Some of the advantages from windrowing safflower as soon as the seed is mature are:

Page 7

Has Several Advantages

Progressive Agriculture

Very few of our readers will recognize what kind of plant is pictured here.

Note the heavy dark, serrated leaves and the tiny

white blossom clusters.

It would be a striking plant anywhere. It is virtually unknown in Arizona, yet most of us couldn't get through the day without use of its product!

Look on Page 17 for the answer.

(1) Loss of seed to feeding birds is minimized.

(2) The safflower crop can be removed from the land early enough to permit a July planting of grain or forage sorghum.

(3) Summer weeds have less time to grow and interfere with the seed harvest. (4 )

Where fields are already weedy they can be harvested much more easily by windrowing. Tough green weeds go through the combine much better after a period of drying.

FIRST PLACE TO LOOK (in photo at left) is in the soil, "the manger or feed bunk of growing plants."

Soil samples from various places in a field are taken for analysis in the laboratory (right) where both soil and plant samples are analyzed, and where content of nitrogen and other nutrients is determined.

Erz eammeiciaI ?/eff& 4ie Qiawus9



By J. H. Park, W. D. Pew, and B. R. Gardner

Interest in a vegetable research program has recently been shown in Yuma County because of the growing concern over ever -increasing costs of production.

The Horticulture and

Agricultural Chemistry and Soils Departments have teamed up to carry out a series of tests in an attempt to reduce costs of vegetable production.

Not unlike the successful dairy or beef farmer, who frequently checks the feed mangers to see if his animals are utilizing their feed, the vegetable grower must also determine the effectiveness of all his cultural programs in crop production.

Obviously this is a far more difficult situation in the case of vegetables than for animals because of the less conspicuous means of making appropriate determinations.

Nevertheless efforts are currently being made in this program to provide the growers with a more tangible and realistic means, along with easier ways, of evaluating plant responses to their soil environment. To this end the emphasis is being placed on an adequate

J. IL Park, member of the Horticulture

Department, is in charge of the commercial vegetable program at the Yuma Experiment

W. D. Pew is horticulturist and


also superintendent of the Mesa Experiment


Bryant Gardner is a soils scientist at the Yuma Experiment Station.

and dependable soil and tissue testing program as the key to measuring such responses.

It's Not So Simple

Tests have been completed wherein the first attempts have been made to measure uptake and utilization of soil nutrients by lettuce.

Yet, in making a realistic evaluation of these data and findings, other factors often complicate the picture.

Thus a realistic or dependable measurement is not easily made.

Aside from the influence of such production practices as fertilization, irrigation, tillage, weed control and similar activities, the specific relationships to these by the plants become very real in such evaluations.

Is the manger still full, or is it empty, and should additional materials be given to satisfy the requirements of the plants of the present crop or those of the subsequent crop?


tainly the tried and proven adage

that indicates that properly managed cultural practices will enable the plants to more fully utilize the available moisture and plant nutrients and minimize the complicating influences is applicable.

Too Much Is Too Much!

An examination of what can happen when just one factor in the cultural program is improperly managed is pointed up when a grower either knowingly or unknowingly makes too frequent applications of irrigation water.

Such activity serves only to reduce or make more shallow the root systems of the plants and thus minimize the chances of the plants to reach their genetic capacity in production.

Plants with such a root system not only will have their capabilities reduced, insofar as water absorption is concerned, but also their ability to take up plant nutrients.

With this

dlo ed, the

grower is faced with the need for continuous frequent application of both water and fertilizers to keep the plants growing properly.

Costs in production are thus sharply increased in both of the areas of amounts of water and its application, and fertilizers and their application.

Many other indirect effects could be cited to further complicate the picture, such as leaching of plant nutrients and aggravation of soil compaction that results from such practices.

With a little thought on the part of the reader, if he visualizes the problem, he could readily see many of the subordinate complications that could cloud the picture even more.

Study Various Proportions

The current program has been designed and is to be adjusted as data are collected, so as to create situations and sets of circumstances to best

(Continued on Next Page)

September- October

Page 8

Cultivating Our garden

By Arthur H. Beattie


EDITOR'S NOTE: When Dr. Arthur

Beattie, professor of


Languages and Director of The University of Arizona's Honors Program, addressed the initiation banquet of

Gamma Sigma Delta, honorary society for agriculture, many staff members came to us suggesting that the beauty of prose and thought in this address should be brought to the readers of PROGRESSIVE AGRICUL-

TURE. Reading a copy of Dr. Beat tie's talk convinced us this should be done.

With his permission, the talk is being divided into portions, to be published in a series of issues.

Also, some of the talk is being omitted.

We hope readers of the talk will enjoy it as much as did those who first heard it.

Few stories of the modern world have been so widely read as Voltaire's

Candide which first appeared at Geneva, Switzerland, in 1759.

Although promptly condemned and ordered to be burned, the little work enjoyed a fantastic success, and was actually reprinted more than 40 times in the remaining 19 years of its author's life.

It can be read merely as a hilarious parody of novels of adventure, filled with satirical sallies against the pretensions of the minor German nobility, against the military spirit, against the Jesuit order, against the Spanish

Inquisition, against the injustice of kings and courts, and against a host of social evils.

But Candide is essentially a refutation of the so- called "optimism" of the philosophy of Leibniz.

It has the

forthrightness and inevitability of a mathematical demonstration.

It is a

clear and relentless proof, by the process of reduction to the absurd, of the falsity of the Leibnizian doctrine that

"All's for the best in the best of all possible worlds."

"Que Sera, Sera"

There is, of course, no more depressing and no more demeaning concept of man and his fate than to believe that whatever happens is part of a divine plan, and that it is therefore vain to seek in any way to modify the course of events.

"All's for the best in the best of all possible worlds," or, in Alexander Pope's phrasing, "Whatever is, is right," may have an appeal for the privileged few in an aristocratic society, eager to preserve for their own advantage the status quo, but such a doctrine fosters the perpetuation of all the evils in that society.

Voltaire is

too much a re-

former ever to accept the notion that disease, poverty, discrimination, prejudice, persecution, and war must be passively accepted as a necessary and divinely created part of our condition.

Dr. Pangloss, the ponderously stupid professor satirized by Voltaire, continues to the_ end, after an unbelievable series of tragic misfortunes, to repeat, with only slight conviction we may be sure, that "All's for the best in the best of all possible worlds."

Candide, who has found some degree of security and peace on the small plot of ground he now works with his companions, cannot agree.

One of his company sets forth the reasonable and honest claim that the only way we can make life endurable is to keep busy and not seek to fathom its meaning. And Candide, to silence once and for all the parroting of his meaningless formúla by the pedantic

Dr. Pangloss, provides the closing line of the tale :

"All that is very well, but we must cultivate our garden."

What is it to cultivate our garden?

It is to strive to retain the beauty of our physical environment, to protect and to improve this world we live in; it is also to work with others to the end that their life as well as ours may

be enriched, that their burden of

griefs and sufferings may be lightened, and that we may take at least a step toward a better order in our community, our state, our nation, and

the world in the hope that future

generations may conquer some of the physical and moral scourges which plague us today; it is, finally, to cultivate that inner garden of our mind and spirit so that we may grow, until the end of life, in knowledge, in understanding, and in the appreciation of beauty.

To Cultivate the Best

To cultivate our garden is, then, to preserve and to embellish our physical environment and preservation is by far the more urgent task.

Our ancestors came into an America of such rich natural resources that they could fell forests, drain ponds, break the sod of the prairies, reduce mountains to slag heaps, and fill the air with the fumes of smelters and the smoke of factory chimneys, with little or no thought of ultimate consequences.

This is no longer true today, as we all recognize.

Undoubtedly some of you in this room have contributed to the production in

Arizona of the world's

finest long-staple cotton.

Those persons, I am sure, are among the first to recognize that we cannot continue year after year to sink wells deeper and deeper in order to irrigate the cotton fields where nature in her wisdom recognized that the readily available water supply could take care of only such plants as prickly pear and bur sage that had learned to adapt themselves to the peculiar rigors of an arid climate.

We cannot long continue to mine water reserves deposited in deep beds of sand and gravel geologic ages ago, and which therefore cannot be replaced.

Such cities as Tucson will go the way of some of the great Roman cities of North Africa when a very slight change in climate diminished their water supply and reduced them

(Continued on Next Page)

(Continued from Previous Page) study and evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness

of lettuce and canta-

loup plants in utilizing nutrients, either native or applied, under varying moisture level conditions.

In short, are these plants cleaning up their mangers or are they being pre-

Page 9 Progressive Agriculture vented from doing so by a grower who is ill advised, or who unknowingly handled the growing procedures for his crop improperly

If we are to expect the greatest efficiency from our crops, that is, the greatest yield for the fewest dollars spent, every effort must be made to have all cultural factors in careful adjustment and balance.

PRICE SUPPORTS are a favorite topic of politicians, especially during election campaigns, when the "con" exceeds the "pro."

Many Americans, therefore, have the opinion government subsidies are an "evil" existing only in this nation. The truth, of course, is that price supports in one form or another are relatively common throughout the Free


In France for example, the government subsidizes most wineries, up to

85% of their output.

(Continued from Previous Page) to impressive ruins of broken columns and crumbling arches, unless new means of furnishing this area with abundant water are found, and neighboring fields of cotton and lettuce will give way to a desert at first contaminated with the noxious weeds our cultivation has introduced until at last a natural balance will be restored.

And ultimately archeologists may come to explore the ruins of the culture of Tucson in the second half of the twentieth century as we poke about the ruins of the Hohokam or the Cliff Dwellers. They will find as the most enduring remains of our community the vaults of banks which they may well take to be the vestiges of temples dedicated to a strange, mysterious cult whose rites involved hiding behind the laminated steel doors of reinforced concrete caverns inmeasurable representations of our major God who seems to have been symbolized by a double barred S.

In the desolation of the desert, it will still be possible to trace the outline of the buildings of the university.

They may well seem to constitute the palace of an idle and dissolute aristocracy ruling over a population of several hundred thousand common people who dwelt in small houses of baked clay and blocks made of sand and a powdered residue of burned calcareous material which by then would have almost totally disappeared.

This Student Union where we are meeting might well still be recognizable as a center of feasting and riotous entertainment for that privileged ruling class.

We Have Abused Nature

Of course this is wild fancy, beyond the certain knowledge of any man, to seek to imagine a remote future when ours will be a forgotten civilization.

But though I may deal facetiously with the problem of the rapid exhaustion of irreplaceable sources of underground water, I do not wish in any way to suggest that the problem itself is a laughing matter.

Nature offered our pioneer ancestors unparalleled riches, much of which we have squandered thoughtlessly.

By destroying woodlands to create farms and to provide lumber for the construction of towns and cities, we have fostered erosion, contributed to floods, and appreciably changed the climate of vast areas of our country.

By draining marshlands we have seriously upset nature's balance.

We took over broad stretches of the prairies where the lush grass brushed the bellies of browsing buffalo so that

ARIZONA IS HORSE COUNTRY, and typical of many county and 4 -H fairs this fall are scenes such as this, the lineup of winners in the horse judging contest.

This group participated in the Pinal County 4 -H fair in 1962.

we might grow more wheat to swell

the surplus for which we seek at

great expense to find storage space, and in many instances we have impoverished the soil and made possible the blinding, choking clouds of dust that during dry cycles cover a large part of our continent.

We are beginning to realize that perhaps our greatest need today, if we are to cultivate our garden in such a way as to promote the fullest and richest life for all, is to restore to their primitive state, so far as that may be possible, wastelands that we had in our folly sought to convert to what we considered productive uses.

To keep America prosperous, to retain a favorable climate, to protect our cities from destruction by floods, to save our soil ( as well as our culture) from being too soon gone with the wind, and to permit our teeming population to grow in health, and to develop spiritually amid the great natural beauty America lavishly provided for us, we must indeed practice conservation in those areas we have not yet despoiled, and do what

we can to

restore forests, prairie grasslands, lakes, and even marshes.

It is a wonderful thing to make the desert bloom, and this we must strive to do where, in the process, we will not be hurting ourselves and generations yet to come.

But it is an imperative matter in many instances to let the desert bloom in its own way with the gold of palo verde flowers to enrich our spirit, and the winecups of cactus blossoms to quench our thirst for beauty.

Cities Need Beauty, Too

But of course to make our physical environment conducive to good living, it is not enough to practice conservation and even to seek to reforest denuded hills, to clothe the dustbowl again with grass, and to encourage streams to flow all year with clean

water on which depends

all life, whether that of man or of his distant cousins it pleases us to call the lower animals because they lack the higher capacity for destruction which we alone possess. We must also seek to make the towns and cities in which our culture of today is concentrated more beautiful and better adapted to serve all the needs of our complex nature, and to bring beauty to the highway tentacles that they stretch out one to another and which tend to acquire very quickly along their edges all the nauseating aspects of city slums and factory districts.

Tucson's most distinguished writer,

Joseph Wood Krutch, has coined the term

"Sloburbia" to describe the formless blobs of suburban growth which surround our cities as their central districts fall into decay. These ugly, cancerous growths, marked by a tawdry succession of hamburger stands, used car lots, garish shopping centers, junk yards, bars, and motels, standing in their stark ugliness under the light of day, and bathed by night in a neon glow which seems borrowed from Dante's Inferno, now stretch in an almost unbroken sequence from

Los Angeles to San Francisco, and threaten to fill up the empty spaces between Tucson and Phoenix.

To put into practice the lesson of

Candide, we must seek to bring some degree of beauty and order into our cities, and to conquer the hideous disease represented by Sloburbia.

(To Be Continued)

September- October

Page 10


20euelaped Sails in ate beSe'd

4frtd beSe'd Q#iass1a#ic1


Arizona is probably best known to pedologists

( soil scientists ) for its reddish colored soils that have developed under the high annual tern perature and low annual rainfall of the southern part of the state.

Although areas in California, Nevada,

New Mexico and Texas have similar soils, Arizona is often recognized as the area characteristic of these soils in the United States.

These reddish colored soils have been classified into three great soil the Red Desert, the Reddish groups :

Brown and the Reddish Chestnut.

In general the Red Desert soils develop in those areas of the state with elevations below 2500 feet above sea level, while the Reddish Brown and

Reddish Chestnut soils develop at elevations between 2500 and 5000 feet

1) above sea level.

Generally the Red Desert soils receive less than 11 inches of rainfall annually, and the Reddish Brown and

Reddish Chestnut soils from 11 to 20 inches of annual rainfall.

As these soils require from several hundred to thousands of years to develop, they are found only on the geologically older landscapes, such as old fans and terraces rather than on the steeper mountain slopes or the alluvial valley bottoms.

Little Organic Matter

Of the soil series recognized in the

Red Desert group the Mohave series is probably the most widely recognized.


( This series was named for


However, the spelling was eventually changed to


Mohave soils have less than six inches of top soil which conis


This is the sixth and final article in a series by Dr. Buol, who has been engaged in a cooperative project for mapping Arizona soils.


He is a member of the Depart ment of Agricultural Chemistry and Soils.

Buol expresses deep appreciation to

Mr. Harmon Havens, an SCS soil special

ist stationed at The University of Arizona.

He has helped in preparation of these articles and is responsible for classification and correlation of Arizona soils.

pa Page 11

By S. W. Buol

Progressive Agriculture tains less than one percent organic matter and is therefore light colored.

The subsoil is noncalcareous to a depth of about 20 inches and is medium to moderately fine textured.

Below about 20 inches the soil usually becomes calcareous and soft nodules of lime are present. Another

Red Desert series recognized in Arizona is the Bitter Spring series which is thinner and contains more lime than the Mohave series. Bitter Spring soils

also have a

well developed

"desert pavement" which is a layer of gravel on the surface that acts to stabilize the soil surface against wind erosion.

Two other soils quite similar to the

Mohave but differing mainly in texture are the Adelanto series and the

Vekol series. The Adelanto series has a coarse -textured topsoil and a moderately coarse -textured subsoil, whereas the Vekol series has a medium textured topsoil and a moderately fine to fine -textured subsoil.

Adelanto soils derive their name from a town in southern California, while Vekol soils are named for a railroad siding near Casa Grande, Arizona.

Sonoita Series Typical

Reddish Brown soils are generally developed where there is over about

11 inches of rainfall and the temperatures are not quite as high as in the

Red Desert areas.

Reddish Brown soils usually contain less than one percent organic matter in their topsoils.

is quite charac-

The Sonoita series teristic of the entire group.

Sonoita soils have about 10 inches of moderately coarse -textured topsoil that is underlain to a depth of about 40 in-

ches by a

developed, moderately fine -textured subsoil.

Carbonates are usually not present above a depth of about 30 inches.

Another Reddish Brown soil that is extensive in Arizona is the Continental series.

It differs from the Sonoita mainly by being finer textured and by the presence of greater carbonate contents in the subsoil. Names for both of these series were taken from towns in Arizona.

The Reddish Chestnut soils are very similar to the Reddish Brown

MOHAVE PROFILE, a typical Red Desert profile.

Note the carbonate in the subsoil.


However, they contain more organic matter in their surface horizon. The White House series is typical of the Reddish Chestnut group, having a dark -colored surface horizon containing over one percent organic matter and a clay- textured subsoil free of carbonates to a depth of about 30 inches.

Primarily Rangelands

Most of the soils in these groups are used primarily for range; however, some of them when leveled and irrigated are used for cropland. There is difficulty in obtaining a uniform soil depth in a field after leveling because of the variable depth of carbo-

nate in these


Often, when leveling is done, the calcareous subsoil layers are exposed at the surface and a feature known as a "hardspot" is formed.

The value of these soils for range depends almost entirely on the amount of rainfall they receive.

Desert soils grazing.

The Red provide only seasonal

The Reddish Brown and

Reddish Chestnut soils produce somewhat more grass, as can readily be seen by driving through the Sonoita area in late summer.


Sc.4aaI Teczc/uiszy

dfome eco#uwnics d{c4 aaffrted Paricilv



:,:.: "sv;ä;,:óc;i./.,.,a,?ly..


{`,l> r..1,,,;

By Mary Davis and

Doris E. Manning sr,

Home Economics Education is one major which students may elect for the degree of bachelor of science in home economics. Each year about 30 majors complete the student teaching program.

These students teach for eight weeks in selected centers as near as the Tucson area or as far away as

Yuma and Douglas.

The following is a description of some of the projects which developed in student teaching centers this past year. The reporter is Mary Davis, now a graduate student in Home Economics Education, but a student teacher in the fall semester of 1964 and a beginning teacher in 1965.

New areas in home economics are being emphasized in high school classes, and changes are being made in the methods used for teaching.

A look at the activities of homemaking classes throughout Arizona shows interesting projects in child development, family relations, consumer education and interior decoration.

One of the most popular units for the homemaking class is the play school for children three and four years old.

For this unit, the home-

making department

must contain equipment for a play school usually for 10 to 15 children.

Make Own Equipment



Manuel, students made equipment to be used for the play school in their homemaking department.

The students did research on the type of equipment that would be most suitable and how the equipment should be designed.

They studied the size of pre- school children, and from this information determined the height of painting

Miss Davis is a graduate student in Home

Economics, specializing in home economics education.

Mrs. Manning is chairman of the division of home economics education, in the School of Home Economics.

TASTEFUL HOME FURNISHING project at Ajo High School.

easels and the size of toys.

Interests of pre- school children and their preferences for toys and colors were considered.

This project was sponsored by the Sears -Roebuck Foundation.

At Ajo High School, students completely redecorated the home economics department living area.

The students applied design principles they had studied in class, choosing colors, fabrics and accessories for a room that contained only draperies and two couches. To make the project realistic the students worked within a $50 budget.

Some made slipcovers and throw pillows, others refinished a table, bound and fringed a rug, and made mosaics and stitch eries for the walls.

Study Consumer Education

Being a wise consumer is not an easy task with the wide variety of new products on the market.

At Antelope Union High School in Wellton, homemaking classes completed a

AT SAN MANUEL, Sears Roebuck Foundation Child Development Project.

project concerning consumer education.

The classes bought samples of various types and qualities of cooking and dining utensils and conducted experiments to give them information on the advantages and disadvantages of the pieces.

For example, pots and pans in aluminum, stainless steel, cast iron, and other materials were purchased.

The students conducted experiments to compare the ease of cleaning and reaction of the materials to a basic substance ( baking soda) and an acid substance ( vinegar) .

In another experiment the class baked two cakes, one in a pan with spray -on teflon and one in a pan with commercially applied teflon.

The students became well acquainted with some of the kitchen and dining utensils available and gained practice in determining which pieces perform best for specified purposes.

Fabrics Evaluated

Experiments comparable to those in the consumer education project are being conducted at many schools. At

Catalina High School in Tucson, students made samples of various seam finishes on assorted fabrics.

The samples were laundered, and after comparing the results, the students chose the seam finish that would be best for their particular garment.

The homemaking teacher realizes that in our fast moving world the facts and skills she teaches may soon be outdated.

She is not satisfied, therefore, in teaching only what is needed today.

She aims to teach scientific methods for solving problems so students can make intelligent decisions both today and tomorrow.

September -October

Page 12

Fall Crop Potato Trials in Arizona

By Paul M. Bessey

Growing fall crop potatoes is different than growing spring crop potatoes in Arizona.

Occasionally a grower will plant in late summer in an attempt to capture a portion of the early winter "new potato" market.

More recently another goal has been to supply Arizona chippers with a local source of freshly dug potatoes.

Both outlets provide strong incentives to "experiment" with a 40 -, 80 -, or

160 -acre block, or as he would put it,

"Enough to make it worthwhile."

Later, when this grower finds a plant population of 20 percent or less, and harvests only 25 hundredweight per acre instead of 250 hundredweight, he is likely to ask the perplexing question, "What did I do wrong ?"

To show what the fall crop grower is up against, trials started in 1962 are a good illustration. A variety trial was planted August 6 and 25 at the

Mesa Branch Experiment


Seed potatoes saved from spring crop trials harvested in June and stored at

48° F. were planted 7" apart in rows spaced at 34 ".

Pre -irrigation, bedding, and fertilizer practice was the same as for the spring crop.

Fertilizer (16 -48 -0) was applied at 1,000 pounds per acre in two bands 4" to the side and 2" below the base of the seed piece.

Ten percent phorate

(Thimet) granular was applied in one band at the rate of 20 pounds per acre for systemic control of insects.

Variety and Planting Date

Soil temperatures from planting to

September 1 commonly reached 95°

F. at seed piece depth during late afternoon.

In dry soil, prior to irrigation,

105° F.

at 5" depth was

reached several times.

Since growth suppression and physiological collapse of seed pieces is anticipated at temperatures exceeding 90° F., the poor stands and yields obtained, as shown in the accompanying table, were not surprising.

Dr. Bessey is associate horticulturist at the Mesa Branch Experiment Station.

Page 13 Progressive Agriculture

Based upon delayed emergence, poor stands and apparent nutritional deficiencies encountered, experiments in 1963 and 1964 were set up to influence the breaking of dormancy and to devise a satisfactory fertilizer program.

Use of Cut Seed

By cutting potato tubers used for seed, terminal bud dominance can be broken. A cut vs. whole seed comparison was made in 1963 and 1964 to determine whether cutting would improve uniformity of emergence.

Shoots from cut seed in both years emerged from one to two weeks earlier than from whole seed.

In 1963, stand from cut seed averaged close to 100 percent while the stand from whole seed only reached 70 percent.

In both years the planting date was delayed until the first week in September to reduce high temperature growth inhibition.

Yields in

1963 were : cut

54 cwt. per acre, and whole


41; In 1964, cut

26, and whole


The latter comparison was part of an experiment which included study of the effects of previous seed storage temperatures and subsequent fertilizer applications.

Temperature of stored seed during the summer had a marked effect on early emergence.

For the temperature range from 38° to 75° F., emergence was advanced by 14 days.

There was, however, very little difference in final stand or total yield as influenced by storage temperature.

Nitrogen Fertilization

Application at planting of nitrogen fertilizer in the form of ammonium nitrate at the recommended rate for the spring crop had a depressing effect upon emergence and total stand.

In addition, if all the nitrogen was applied at planting time, acute deficiency developed in the latter third of the growing season.

In 1963, plots receiving all nitrogen at planting and plots with half at planting, and half side -dressed at midseason, each yielded 50 cwt. per acre.

Plots receiving all nitrogen in two side -dressings during the growing period, produced

67 cwt.

A zero nitrogen check was added in the next season.

Emergence, in

1964, was again delayed 7 to 10 days by ammonium nitrate applied at planting.

( check)

Yields were: no nitrogen

7 cwt. per acre; all nitrogen at planting 22; half nitrogen at planting and half side -dressed at midseason - 39; and all nitrogen side -dressed at midseason


While yields have not reached 200 cwt. per acre, improvements in culture adapted to commercial practice have raised production.

The best plots have produced over 100 cwt.

per acre. The major achievement has been to improve stands to near 100 percent.

Further research will be needed to learn how to boost plant vigor, control viruses and mature more tubers before frost.

Under present methods and conditions, commercial fall potato production is not economically feasible.


Effect of Variety and Planting Date on Stand and Yield of

Fall Grown Potatoes. 1962

Maturity and


August 6



Planting Date

August 25

Yield cwt. /Acre Stand

U.S. No. IA Percent

Yield cwt. /Acre

U.S. No. lA





Red Pontiac early, white mid, white late, white early, red mid, red





















Per capita production of beef and veal by major classes, imports of beef and veal, and prices, United

States, 1960-64.a




Fed Beef production

(steer and heifer beef, and veal)


Production of cow and bull beef


Imports of beef and veal


Low grade beef production

(cow and bull beef production plus imports)


(per cwt., Chicago)


Utility cows


Choice steers











( pounds per capita )
















( dollars)












Source: Economic Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.



Ikej 9mpc4i

Caille sees. and

P4iceS ai 'Çed Caille

the influence of this factor on fed beef prices.

Cattle Supplies Rising

The current cattle cycle has been on a rising phase since approximately


Total cattle numbers in the

U. S. reached an historical high in

1963 and again in 1964.

More pertinent to the present discussion, total and per capita supplies of steer and heifer beef also set new records in those years. ( See Table.)

Let us return to the statistical analy-

(Continued on Next Page)

By Robert A. Young and James Simpson

This is the second of two articles examining the factors


fluencing the decline during the period 1962 -64 in prices for fed


The first article

( Progressive Agriculture, July- August 1965) examined the influences of imported beef on fed cattle prices.

It was pointed out that beef imported into the U. S. is utilized primarily in hamburger and processed meats.

Cow and bull beef, the primary domestic source of beef for these purposes, became relatively short in supply beginning in 1958, as ranchers reduced culling rates during the cyclical buildup in cow herds.

The resulting favorable prices for low grade beef attracted sufficient shipments from

Dr. Young is assistant professor in Agricultural Economics.

Mr. Simpson, a June graduate of the university, this fall.

begins work toward the \1.S. in Agricultural Economics foreign sources to maintain the per capita supply of this grade beef. ( See

Table. )

Statistical analysis of factors influencing prices of fed beef showed that changes in supplies of low grade beef

( cow and bull beef, plus imports ) have much less influence on prices of

Choice steers than would equivalent changes in the supply of steer and heifer beef.

Furthermore, per capita supplies of low grade beef remained virtually unchanged in the period in question.

( See Table, Column

5. )

Therefore, the assertion that imports of beef were primarily responsible for the observed decline prices is

in fed cattle

not warranted.

turn to the changes in the

We now supply of fed beef in the

United States and to

GRAPH BELOW SHOWS the expected price at Chicago related to quantity sold, quality beef, U.S., 1963.


Ú o rn

0 u









Annual U. S. Production,




Pounds per Capita

Steer and heifer Beef and Veal

September- October

Page 14

; further in 1964 ( particularly in the early months of that year)


"TAKE A LOOK," says Pinal County Agent Chuck Robertson, "and see good Arizona cotton of nearly 40 years ago." __This field was photographed Aug. 4, 1928, after the first heavy irrigation.

It yielded what was a good average yield in those days - half a bale (250 pounds) per acre.

Thirty -seven years later, with research and extension carrying the word about new and better varieties, new plant nutrient applications, insect and disease control, knowledge of soils and irrigation, Pinal County and Arizona average over 1100 pounds of cotton lint per acre.

(Continued from Previous Page) sis cited in the earlier article and examine the effect of these increasing supplies on the price of fed cattle.

The statistical analysis shows that the primary determinants of the price of

Choice steers ( Chicago ) are supplies of steer and heifer beef, consumer income and preferences, and population.

Other factors, such as supplies of low grade beef

( including imports ), supplies of other meats ( pork, poultry, lamb ), and the price of byproducts, are known to have measurable but less important influences on the prices of fed beef.

A consequence of the familiar "law of demand" is: "If increased supplies of a commodity are offered on the market, other things unchanged, the price must fall if the market is to be cleared."

The statistical analysis in effect measures "how much" changing supplies might be expected to affect the price of Choice steers ( net of effects of changes in population, income, etc.) .

Increased Supply Cuts Price

This analysis indicated that, in

1963, an increase of one pound per capita in the annual supplies of steer and heifer beef and veal in the United

States would be expected to reduce the price of Choice steers in Chicago by about 68 cents per hundredweight.

This relationship between quantity and price is expressed in the accompanying graph.

The line D in that

Page 15

Progressive Agriculture figure represents the expected prices for Choice steers

( Chicago) for various quantities of steer and heifer beef and veal sold in 1963 ( given the existing levels of income and supplies of competing products)


( If expressed for another year, the relationship would be different.

As an example, for 1964, it would probably be somewhat to the right, as higher income leads consumers to purchase more beef per capita at any given price than they would have in 1963.)

In 1962 and 1963, production per capita of steer and heifer beef and veal was 70.8 and 75.9 pounds per capita, respectively.

Referring to the graph, we see that if per capita production in 1963 had remained unchanged from 1962 (in other words at 70.8 pounds per capita) the average price of Choice steers in Chicago for the year would be expected to have been about $27.70 per hundredweight.

With the supplies actually forthcoming

( 75.9 pounds )

, the average price of Choice steers

( Chicago ) would be expected ( on the basis of this analysis ) to fall to about

$24.25 per hundredweight.

( The reliability of our measurements for this purpose can be checked by reference to the table. The average price of

Choice steers in Chicago, 1963, as reported by the U. S. Department of

Agriculture, was $23.96 per hundredweight, about one percent lower than the price of $24.25 predicted by the statistical analysis.)

Additional increases in per capita supplies of fed beef drove the price of steers down

Fed Beef Supply Affects Price

Thus we may conclude that a major portion of the observed decline in steer prices is attributable to the in-

creased quantities of fed beef of-

fered in the market.

In summary, it has been shown that:



Changes in supply of low grade

( cow and bull beef plus imports ) have a much smaller influence on price for fed cattle than would an equivalent change in the supply of fed beef.

The increase in imports witnessed over the past several years is associated with a combination of factors, including low supplies and relatively favorable prices

of low

grade beef in the United States market, and the existence of larger supplies of such beef in the exporting countries.


Most of the decline in Choice steer prices which occurred in 1963 and 1964 is attributable to the increased production of steer and heifer beef.

There Are Qualifications

Some factors influencing domestic beef prices sis used here.

cannot be effectively measured with the method of analy-

First, although the quantities of beef imported into the

United States in the last several years were not sufficient to unduly weaken cow prices, they certainly were sufficient to prevent these prices from rising as far as they would have otherwise.

Thus, cattlemen probably retained cows in their herd that they might have found advantageous to sell had higher prices prevailed.

The resulting production from such cows added somewhat to the supply of fed cattle several production periods later.

This indirect effect of imports on fed cattle supplies and prices is not measured here.

Second, the use of Chicago prices in the analysis may underestimate the effect of imports on meat prices in markets immediately adjacent to ports of entry.

Prices for beef in such

markets are known to be affected for short periods in much greater degree than are prices in internal markets such as Chicago.

Third, prices and quantities used in the analysis are yearly averages.

Prices for cattle obviously show considerable variation around the annual average in response to seasonal variations in slaughter and in consumer preferences.


-o-. 22' '4-

By K. R. Frost

The author is a Professor of Agricultural





o x

O o


O o

O x

O o x



During several recent winters there have been opportunities to conduct evaluation trials of several methods of frost protection in citrus on the U. of

A. Yuma Mesa Station. These evaluations have been cooperative between

Agricultural Engineering and Dr. D.

R. Rodney of the Horticulture Department.

Frost protection methods o o

O x

O o


0 o




2.0 0 A.M. JAN. 14, 1963..



6 :00 AM JAN. 7, 1964.

O O O i

0 o


X o o





FIGURE 1 - Temperatures five feet above ground level several hours after wind machine was started.

Inversion temperature was about 8° (40 foot temperature - five foot temperature).

included in these trials are wind machines, sprinkler irrigation, propane burners and wax candles.

Engine- driven wind machines were installed at the station in the fall of

A tower upon which



mounted thermocouples for temperature measurement at several elevations, and a temperature recorder, are available for determination of vertical distribution of temperature.

Keep Temperature Records

The general technique of all evaluation trials has been to maintain a record of temperatures within the outside of an area to be treated with a

frost protection method.

Several hours of such records establish a temperature relationship between the treatment area and the non -treatment area.

After this relationship is established, temperature control treatment

( starting of wind- machine, lighting burners, etc. ) is initiated.


tures continue to be observed.

Changes in the temperature relationship between the treated and untreated area are an indication of the effectiveness of the temperature control treatment.

On the night of January 13 -14, 1963, a minimum temperature of 27° F.

was forecast at a low -wind velocity.

Thermometers were placed at various distances up to 300 feet from the wind machine.

Temperatures were also recorded outside of the area influenced by the draft of the propeller.

The wind was 2 to 3 m.p.h from an easterly direction.

Areas near the wind machine were 5° to 8° higher in temperature than temperatures recorded outside the test area.

Three hundred feet northwest of the wind machine the temperature at

2:00 a.m. ( 4 hours after machine was started) was 4 to 5 degrees warmer than in unaffected areas.

( See Figure 1 ) .

The temperature inversion

( temperature 50 feet above ground minus temperature 5 feet above the ground) at this time was 8° F.


(Continued on Next Page)

FIGURE 2 - Increase in temperature caused by propane burners under 21 trees, average temperature in the unheated area at five foot level.

September -October

Page 16

Mystery Picture Plant?

Coffee Tree, Of Course!

That mystery plant, pictured on

Page 7, is a small coffee tree growing in the horticulture greenhouse at this university's Campbell Ave. farm in


Prof. William Bemis, who experiments with many strange plants out there, pointed out this little greenhouse tree to us last June, when the tiny white blossom clusters were most attractive.


TEMP. 100 FT


Agricultural Plastics

Conference in Phoenix

FIGURE 3 - Effect of three lighted wax candles per tree placed between trees on temperature of 64 Valencia orange trees at five foot above ground level, Jan. 25 -26, 1965.

(Continued from Previous Page) about average for the Yuma Mesa.

These results indicate that temperature on the Yuma Mesa can be increased 6°

to 8° F. by adequate

equipment ( 50 H.P. machine for 10 acres ) when inversion is

F. or


Some Burner Damage

Propane burners designed especially for connection to permanent sprinkler system lines were installed in a block of 21 trees in the fall of 1963.

On the night of January 6 -7,

1964, the temperature dropped to 32° F.

and burners were fired at 3:00 a.m.

There was a slight wind blowing from the east at that hour.

Although the burners were placed

8 inches from the ground and directed a few degrees away from the tree trunk there were a few leaves burned.

Temperatures were taken at the 5 foot level in the trees as indicated in

Figure 2.

At 6:00 a.m. the temperature was 2° to 3° higher in the heated area than in the surrounding unheated area.

With a 3 -hour test the burners consumed 40 gallons of propane. The temperature increase would no doubt be higher if a 5 -to 10 -acre tract could be heated, for the small area under test was influenced greatly by the surrounding unheated area.

Wax Candles Tried

The petroleum industry has introduced a wax candle for orchard pro-

Page 17


Progressive Agriculture tection.

The candles tested weighed

14 lbs. and were provided with fiberglass or perlite wicks.

Candles burn for 12 to 14 hours and furnish 125,000

B.T.U. of available heat.

In the first test candles were placed one under each tree.

The rise in temperature was noticeable but not sufficient for protection. It was diffi-

cult to get candles under the tree

overhang and some trouble was encountered in lighting.

In a second test two candles per tree in under -tree locations were used in one treatment and two candles per tree in between -tree locations were used in another treatment. The location of candle placement had no influence on the temperature rise. Both two candle -per tree treatments gave a four degree temperature rise.

A third test was made on January 25-

26, 1965, with three candles per tree placed between trees

in a square

block of 64 trees.

Very little if any wind was blowing during this test.

A temperature rise of 6° F. was noted during most of the night after candles were fired ( Figure 3 ) .

Sprinkler Irrigation Used

In January of 1963, three sprinkler lines were operated with low -angle sprinklers to determine their effect on temperatures during cold periods.

The temperatures were lowered rather than increased when the sprinklers were operated on a windy night. The following night with no wind the tern-

Greenhouses and mulching will get special attention at a meeting of agricultural leaders which will turn the national spotlight on Arizona in November.

Other agricultural uses of plastics will be reviewed, too.

The meeting will be the Sixth Annual Plastics Conference scheduled for Nov. 16, 17, and 18 at the Ramada

Inn at Phoenix. Agricultural plastics experts from all over the nation will attend.

Activities will include tours, talks, meetings and discussions centering on the uses of plastics in agriculture.

Greenhouses and mulching will be given special attention.

A tour of

central Arizona agriculture will be taken the first day.

perature at 5-ft. level was 1° to 2° F.

higher during the sprinkling period in the sprinkled area than in the non irrigated area.

In summary, we learned that:

1. Wind -machines will increase temperatures at the 5 -ft. level by 5° to

8° F. if the inversion is 8° F. or more.

2. Propane burners installed on permanent sprinkler lines will give protection up to 3° and possibly more if one burner per tree is used on a tract of 5 to 10 acres.

3. Wax candles are satisfactory for orchard protection if emergency conditions three per tree are provided.

Probably they should be considered for special or as around yards, nurseries or young orchards.



Sprinklers are a useful orchard protection to the extent of several degrees.

Ice formation must be prevented by high application rates if overhead sprinkling is used on mature trees or trees will break from the weight of the ice.

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Wool Prices in Arizona









By Clarence D. Edmond and John W. Wildermuth









FIG. 1, at left, shows index of Arizona wool production


- total,

Indian and white, from 1951 through 1963.

Source: pound of wool by Arizona producers appears to be directly related to U. S.

prices, with Arizona prices tending to run about 4 to 8 cents lower ( Fig.



Wool prices for both Arizona and the U. S. have varied widely since

1910. Between 1914 and 1918, during

World War I, prices of wool in Arizona increased from 15 cents to 57 cents per pound, then fell sharply in


Prices were relatively good during the remainder of the '20's, but fell to an extreme low of 8 cents per pound in 1932.

Following the depression of the 1930's, wool prices worked upward to 1951, when an all time high of 72 cents per pound was reached.

Then prices dropped sharply between

1951 and 1955.

Since 1955, prices have varied between 32 and 43 cents per pound in Arizona, while U. S.

prices have varied between 36 and

54 cents per pound.

Generally, changes in production of a commodity exert a strong influence on the price of that commodity. However, there is little indi-

cation that U. S. wool production has much influence on U. S. wool


Rather, prices appear to be more a result of the competition

of wool imports and synthetic fibers.

Production of wool in Arizona has risen almost steadily since 1951 when about 2.5 million pounds of grease wool were produced ( Fig. 1)


At that time, wool production was about equally divided between Indians and whites, but the Indian share has increased slightly over the years.


1963 Indian wool accounted for 57

percent of the 3.5 million pound

Arizona wool crop.

Also, due primarily to the variation in numbers of sheep and lambs on feed, production by the whites has been more erratic from year to year.

Yields per fleece have been rather stable over the last

12 years according to USDA's




Average weights per fleece of white owned sheep have varied between 7.7 pounds in 1961

and 9.1 pounds in


Fleece weights of Indian owned sheep tend to average from half a pound to one pound lighter.

During the last 12 years, weights have varied between

6.0 pounds in 1961 and 6.8 pounds in 1950 and 1962.

Indian Flocks Increased

More sheep shorn was the major factor contributing to the one million pound increase in the state's wool production between 1951 and 1963.

The number shorn increased from

342 thousand in 1951 to 488 thousand in 1963 ( Fig. 2)


The Indians accounted for most of this 146,000 head increase in number shorn.


1951 they sheared 198,000 head compared to

144,000 head shorn by whites.

In 1963 the number shorn by Indians was 299,000 compared to

189,000 shorn by the whites.

The average price received per

Government Bolsters Price

The large drop in wool prices, between 1951 and 1963, is not indicative of returns to producers of wool after 1954, for in 1955 the government initiated a program of compensatory payments to support wool prices to producers.

Since that time, the support price in the U. S. has been 62 cents per pound of average wool sold.

But, depending upon quality, a producer might receive more or less than the 62 cent average for his wool. The rate of the compensatory payment is the percentage increase required to bring the value of an average pound of U. S. wool up to the support level of 62 cents.

To qualify for payments, a producer must market his wool during the given April 1 to March 31 mar -

(Continued on Next Page)

BELOW, sheep grazing irrigated alfalfa pasture in the Salt River Valley, near


This is the fourth article in a series by

Dr. Edmond, farm management specialist in the Extension Service, and Mr. Wilder muth, former student in the Department of

Agricultural Economics.

(Continued from Previous Page) keting year.

He must furnish with his payment claim sheet which contains the a bill of sale name and address of the buyer, date of sale, his own name and address,

net weight of

wool sold, and his net proceeds after normal marketing deductions.

For example, assume that during a given marketing year the national average price was determined to be 45 cents per pound. To bring the average price up to the 62 cent support, an increase of 17 cents, required.

or 38 percent, is

Now, suppose that, due to differences in quality, one rancher re

Page 19 y




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Support Levels and Payment Rates Since Inception of the Government Wool Program

Average Price Per Pound

Support Level

(cents per lb.)

U. S.


(cents per lb.)


Rate (percent)





































Source: Arizona Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service.










ceived 40 cents per pound for his wool, while another received 50 cents per pound. By law, both are entitled to the national average increase of 38 percent. A 38 percent increase would amount to 15.2 cents more per pound for the first rancher and 19.0 cents more per pound for the second rancher.

Thus, the wool program provides an incentive to produce better quality wool.

Prices, Supports Fluctuate

The actual support prices, national average prices, Arizona average price, and payment rates under the program since its inception are shown in our table.

Wool price supports have remained at 62 cents per pound over the entire period, but the national average price, and therefore the payment rates, has fluctuated considerably. The lowest price, and therefore the highest payment rate, received during this period was in 1958 when the national average price was 36.4

cents per pound and the payment rate was 70.3 percent.

Major reasons for the decline in

American wool production have been competition from foreign wools and domestic synthetics.

Production costs of foreign wools are generally lower than in the U. S., and quality of imported wools has remained high. Due to sharp price competition, synthetics have gained much of the fabric market.

Data on wool imports go back to

1923, when 388 million pounds of wool were imported, and 273 million pounds were produced

( Fig.

4 )


From 1923 to 1932 imports dropped sharply as domestic prices decreased.

Following the depression in the 30's, imports rose rather sharply to 1946, when slightly over one billion pounds were imported compared to 342 million pounds produced domestically.

Generally, due primarily to competition from synthetics, wool imports have trended downward since 1946.

Synthetics Output Zooms

Statistics on U. S. production of synthetic fibers began in 1920 when

10 million pounds were produced

( Fig. 4 )


Since then, production of synthetics has mushroomed. At present, U. S. output of synthetic fibers is over 2.5 billion pounds annually, compared to about 278 million pounds of wool produced in the U. S. and about

400 million pounds of wool imported into this country.

As a result of low


(Continued on Next Page)

Progressive Agriculture

FIG. 2, at left, lists sheep shorn in Arizona by Indian and white ownership,

1951 -63.

Source: USDA.

<<t1 iiIlt.ll,ll

1920 1930 1940 1950 1960


FIG. 3, above, shows average price per pound received by farmers for shorn wool.

Source: USDA.






:11. S. Production


Man-made Fibers



4, ft I


u. S.

l`W o o l eV/



% Imports voi.

U. S.

Production of





I h li f T


I 'l ' l


1920 1930




I I l






1950 1960 1970

FIG. 4 shows U.S. production and imports of wool and the production of man -made fibers, 1910 -63.

Source: USDA.

Large Uniform Lots Get

Higher Cotton Prices

(Continued from Previous Page) er prices and certain other qualities, man -made fibers have secured a large share of the U. S. fiber market.

Recently, ways have been found to greatly improve the crease holding ability of wool, and to make it completely washable.

Neither of these processes affect the absorbency and full- bodied appearance of wool.

Perhaps, with these technical improvements, wool will be able to acquire a larger share of the fiber market.

However, at least partially offsetting this will be continued improvements in present synthetics and introduction of new ones.

Thus, it appears that U. S. wool will continue to face strong competition, both from man -made fibers and from wool imports.

La urea sola agregada a una ración apropiada de granos para los rumiantes tiene mal sabor, y si el animal la ingiere en cantidad excesiva, puede sufrir intoxicación. Por esa razón, la urea no debe pasar de un tercio de la proteína total de la ración. Para obtener una mezcla más deseable se han usado diferentes compuestos combinados con la urea como una mezcla liquida de urea, melaza y elcohol etílico.

By Robert S. Firch and

Raymond O. P. Farrish

An analysis of factors affecting grower prices for 1964 Arizona cotton sold on bid sheets has just been completed. The study covered more than

74,000 bales ginned at 26 central Arizona gins and sold in over 2,600 individual lots.

Premiums for Large, Uniform Lots

This study of sales during 16 weeks indicated that growers who sold their cotton in one bale lots, depending upon the week, received 550 to $3.33

per bale less than those who sold their cotton in truckload lots.

Those who sold their cotton in lots with a single grade, staple, color, and foreign matter designation received 93¢ to $1.74

per bale more than those who sold their cotton in lots containing several different grades, etc.


Larger lots up to truckload size do increase grower prices.


Dr. Firch is Associate Professor of

Agricultural Economics and Dr. Farrish is Extension Marketing Specialist.

way to increase lot size is to put several grades and /or staples together in one lot.

However, the analysis of

1963 and 1964 sales indicates that the gain from larger lot size will almost never exceed the loss from reduced uniformity.

Cotton should be sold in perfectly uniform lots, even if it must be sold in lots containing just one bale.

Cotton growers can expect to gain

as much as $3 per bale for some

lots by selling their cotton in perfectly uniform truckload lots.

Perhaps the best way to obtain this objective is for growers to pool their cotton at the gin.

Premiums for Acala Cotton

In six of the 16 weeks studied there were enough lots of Acala 44 and 4 -42 cotton sold to allow a refined appraisal of the premiums paid for this cotton.

The analysis adjusted for the other major factors which affect selling price and found statistically significant premiums of $18.05, $18.50,

$21.65, $19.20, $3.10, and $4.05 per bale.

Small Premiums for Hand- Picked

Half of the weeks contained enough lots of hand -picked cotton to evaluate premiums over machine -picked cotton.

After adjusting for other factors, only two weeks had statistically significant premiums, and these were I

$1.20 and $3.20 per bale.

The average for the whole season was $1.02

per bale. It appears that growers can expect higher prices for hand -picked cotton only as it yields higher government grades.

A more detailed report may be obtained from the authors.


A good recovery by the Soviet Union from disastrously low farm production in

1963 was the outstanding feature of the agricultural situation in eastern Europe last year, the U. S. Department of Agriculture reports.

The department's economic research service said the Soviet Union officially reported record crops of sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes and vegetables.

Los granos y subproductos de éstos se utilizan en la preparación de los alimentos concentrados. Los que se compren deben escogerse sobre la base del costo relativo de la proteína digerible y de los nutrientes digeribles no protéicos.

Para escoger los más convenientes se calcula el costo por unidad de nutrientes en dos alimentos comunes de los que se conoce el precio corriente, uno bajo y otro rico en proteínas.

Los valores de estas normas se aplican a los contenidos de los alimentos que se trata de valuar.

September -October

Page 20

HAYING IS ARDUOUS - Here a Brazilian worker cuts hay with a straight knife or machete. The grass is tough and hours get long if the field is large.

Repast 14efft ß4a4I aft


By Edwin O. Finch

emphasis has shifted from experiencing to experimenting.

Bilingual Linguistics

Home turned out to be in the Mechanics Department where its Chief,

Dr. Milton and I grasped a few fundamentals of a new language which has been coined around the campus as

"Port- English."

Despite its varying percentage of Portuguese and English, we swapped jokes and ideas.

Using this same language

( with slightly larger amounts of Portuguese and a few overtones of his French) the likable second professor of mechanics and I sat down to draw up some lab outlines.

Meanwhile, my other contact, Dr. Barbosa, head of

Agricultural Practices, continued to introduce the students to tractors, some of them for the first time.

Contrasts are common from poor roads to stepped -up interest in road building, or from darkened shacks to giant new power lines

to meet a

present and future need. The northeast of Brazil is not that of 15 years ago, nor is the one of 15 years hence likely to be that of today.

"An auto parts vendor on every corner" might well have been the slogan of a recent day politician.

In the case in point, Fortaleza, Ceara, he must have won and carried through.

What this means to me is, there is

(Continued on Next Page)

In Arizona it is common practice to harvest crisp head lettuce by manually cutting a head at a time.


Ceara it is an equally common practice to cut grass for hay by hand almost one blade at a time. University of Arizona agricultural engineers are

concerned with both.

At the moment, with a four row commercial harvester test this season, the hometown team in Arizona is much further along with lettuce than is the road team with Brazilian hay.

But, having been a part of both teams,

I'd like to say a little about what I'm doing in Brazil.

Since a late August arrival last year,

I have had many experiences the warm reception of our hosts, the work and discussions in the mechanics department, the visits to equipment dealers and the trips to the university experiment farm and to other state, federal and private farms around the state.

More recently, however, the

STUDENTS ARE INTRODUCED by Dr. Barbosa to simple forms of tillage machinery.

He is discussing the single- bottom walking plow. At right, foreground, is a small spike tooth drag harrow.

Ed Finch is agricultural engineer in the

U. of A. team of agricultural scientists stationed at the University of Ceara, in northeast Brazil.

Page 21

Progressive Agriculture

better than granite or bronze


By John Burnham



500 1000


Rio de Janeiro


There are monuments of granite and plaques made of bronze.

MAP SHOWS STATE of Ceará and city of

Fortaleza where the U of A agricultural scientists are stationed.

(Continued from Previous Page) a growing mechanical awareness.

It has not yet reached deeply into the agricultural scene, perhaps deepest so far in the form of growing fleets of trucks to move products from the farms.

Power Farming Scarce

Around the countryside, power farming is scarce.

An extremely low percentage of private farms has tractor equipment.

Nor have advanced animal power tools developed to the extent they did in the U. S. before the advent and popularity of the trac-

At present, the majority of the tor.

rural population does not have the potential, in terms of capital or productivity, to intensively mechanize.

Economic changes are likely to occur before farm mechanization increases to any appreciable extent.

Today's ratio of 1 to 10,000 between a worker's daily wage and the cost of a tractor contrasts sharply with that of the U. S. of about 1 to 400.

There is little

doubt but what can and

will gain mechanization ground. The University of Ceara agricultural complex hopes to get a badly needed operator echelon maintenance and care school started in the not too distant future.

And ANCAR, the extension agency, is thinking in terms of limited mechanization on a broad base. On the commercial side, there are roughly half a dozen tractor dealers in Fortaleza and one of them is now constructing a workshop to be comparable to any.

Should you care to set up farming operations in Ceara,

Brazil, you may choose from familiar brands of equipment or unfamiliar

Ford, \Iassev- Ferguson, Fendt, Val met, Lilliston., etc.

Meanwhile, I'd best return to my hay making or is it making hay?

Charles L. Rak and his wife, Mary

Kidder Rak, chose something far more

lasting - the ever fresh and eager

countenance of a hopeful young person learning new skills in college.

Mr. and Mrs. Rak were pioneer Arizona ranchers.

Both had attended college and recognized the value of higher education.

When they died childless in 1958 they left their estate to The University of Arizona, for scholarships in Agriculture and Home


Was Western Author

Mrs. Rak, widely known for her lively and authentic books about the cowman's west, died Jan. 25, 1958.

Slightly more than three weeks later, on Feb. 17, her husband died.

An Associated

Press story from

The author is editor of PROGRESSIVE


Douglas in The Arizona Daily Star

( Tucson) told of the bequest:

DOUGLAS, March 11 AP

- The

University of Arizona Tuesday was named sole beneficiary to the estate of former Douglas rancher Charles


Rak's will, admitted to probate in

Cochise County Superior Court, left the estate for establishment of a Mary

Kidder Rak scholarship fund.

Rak died Feb. 17, a few weeks after the death of his wife.

The scholarship program, named in memory of Mrs. Rak, will be for deserving students in agriculture and home economics.

The extent of the program will not be known until the estate is appraised.

Came Here in 1919

A native of Texas, Charles L. Rak worked as a cowpuncher in that state

(Continued on Next Page)

ONE OF THE MOST beautiful county courthouses in the Southwest is the Cochise

County Courthouse (below) at Bisbee. Extending that good impression are the people who work in the building, all of whom were gracious, friendly and eagerly helpful to the reporter.



Sulphur Springs Valley.

The ranch in the Chiricahuas is now owned by

Mrs. W. S. Dana.

The Rak brands

the A plus L, the O slash C and the CR, have been retired, the irons no longer heated.

HERE ARE THE THREE Rak brands - Charles Rak's A plus L and O slash C, and the Mary Kidder Rak CR brand, carrying the initials of her husband.

(Continued from Previous Page) and New Mexico, and later studied forestry at the University of California at Berkeley before coming to

Arizona in 1919.

After spending a year in Tucson, where he worked for the state forest service and Mrs. Rak taught social science at The University of Arizona, they bought the Old Camp Rucker

Ranch in the Chiricahuas, where they lived until 1943.

From 1943 to 1949 they lived at Old

Orchard Place, three miles from their original ranch. After that they bought

Hell's Hip Pocket Ranch, 13 miles northwest of Douglas. He died Feb.

17 in a Cochise County hospital after a long illness.

California Social Worker

Mrs. Rak, a native of Iowa, was a graduate of Stanford University and taught school and did social work in the San Francisco area at the turn of the century.

After her marriage she came to Arizona with her husband.

She was a member of the DAR, and was a charter member of Cowbelles.

A well -known author, she wrote several books dealing with the west.

Besides her writing, she raised cattle on a ranch adjoining that of her husband's.

She died Jan. 25, 1958, in a

Douglas hospital after an extended illness.

The University of Arizona, following the wishes of Mr. Rak, set forth specifications for the scholarships, as indicated in a memorandum from Dr.

Willis R. Brewer, chairman of the

Committee on Scholarships a n d

Awards, to Dean of Agriculture Harold E. Myers.

In this memo of Sept.

17, 1958,

Dean Brewer said: "We should like to advise you that it is likely that in the very near future there will be authorized a $750 scholarship for the current year on the funds from the

Rak endowment.

"Eventually we will be offering a similar scholarship each year to an incoming freshman, which would be renewable for the three additional

Page 23

Progressive Agriculture years if good scholastic record is maintained.

Presumably this would be based on a 2.5 or better average in the university.

Total $3,000 Annually

"When all four classes are represented on the Rak scholarships, the total of $3,000 would be expended annually, which is the approximate income.

The scholarships are to be made available to men and women majoring in Agriculture or Home Economics, who are working to pay part

of their way at the U of A.

This would indicate that students on the

Rak scholarships would be engaged in some outside work in order to support themselves..."

A College of Agriculture awards committee later that month set up a set of six points for administering the

Rak scholarships. The one departure from Dean Brewer's memo was to provide two $375 scholarships a year, one in Agriculture and one in Home

Economics, instead of one $750 scholarship per year.

Applicants were to indicate actual need in applying.

28 Have Been Helped

From the fall of 1958, when scholarships were given one girl

( Home

Economics ) ture )

, and one boy

( Agriculthrough the spring of 1965, a total of 28 young people have been aided by these scholarships.

The scholarships given here totaled 47 student -year awards, indicating that slightly less than half the awardees were assisted an average of two years.

In actual practice, some students were aided more than two years. The first awardee, a Cochise County ranch boy, had a Rak scholarship all his four years at the university.

Executors of the Rak estates that of husband and wife were grouped as one were three old friends and neighbors, Everett Jones, Harold M.

Austin and William T. Meredith. The first two still live in Douglas, but

Meredith has now moved to Arkansas.

The ranches have been sold.


Glenn, who has an insurance and real estate agency at Douglas, has purchased the ranch near Douglas, in the

A Wonderful Immortality

But Charles Rak and his

gifted literary wife live on, in the blessed immortality of youth and education, as worthy but needy boys and girls each fall find the doors to classrooms and laboratories of The University of

Arizona opened by the bequest of this wonderful Cochise County couple.


4 Neu, SajíIawe'i

The Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station jointly announce the release of Frio, a new safflower variety.

Frio was developed through the safflower breeding program of the

ARS in cooperation with The University of Arizona.

The original cross, from which Frio was selected, was made at Beltsville, between a parent related to Gila and a breeding line provided by Pacific

Vegetable Oil Co. The selection was tested for several years in Arizona and other western states before conditionally it was released in

1964 as


Around 7000 acres were planted to

A104 during the past season.

Adequate supplies of planting seed, certified by the Arizona Crop Improvement Association, have been produced and will be distributed as Frio for planting the 1966 crop.

Frio is a white- seeded variety resembling Gila, the established commercial variety in Arizona, but Frio differs from Gila in several respects.

The flowers are yellow, drying to pale yellow. Blooming usually begins several days later than Gila and extends over several days' longer period. Plant height is two to six inches greater than Gila.

In most seasons

Frio ripens several days later than Gila,

(Continued on Next Page)

2(/4 JauSeweS

42e Pcøi Jllo4e ßa2

42 ciad

Reprinted from `U.S. News & World

Report,' June 7, 1965, published at Washington.

Prices in food stores creep higher and higher.

Yet prices that farmers get for producing the food show little change. What goes on?

One answer, officials say, is that housewives want frills and variety in foods, fancy stores, many services costing money.

But there are other findings, too, in a new study of the food industry

The cost of launched by Congress.

feeding the family is edging higher right now. Meat is being marked up in price.

price of milk has been raised in many areas.

Vegetables cost more. The

Bread has become more expensive.

Even so, food takes a smaller and smaller portion of the income that

Americans enjoy after taxes.

Income of the average American family, in other words, has been rising faster than the cost of food.

As a result, Americans still can buy their daily fare and have more money left than ever before to spend on other good things of life.

But the farmer who produces the food has been left at the tag end of the procession.

There has been virtually no increase in the price he gets for the raw foods as they leave the farm.

The income of the average farmer is less than that of most workers in the food industry.

Congressional Study

To seek an answer to this paradox of what people consider to be high prices paid in the grocery for food while the farmer complains of low prices for what he produces, Congress has set up a National Commission on

Food Marketing.

This body is now taking testimony at all levels of the industry but will not make its report for at least another year.

It appears, however, that, when all the studying is done, the answer to the paradox of food is going to be found in two major areas.

For one thing, workers in the food industry have been gaining steadily higher pay.

For another thing, housewives are demanding more and more products offered in more and more variations, packaged in fancier containers, and sold in fancier stores.

The new commission set up by

Congress has found that, on the average, the cost of retailing food alone accounts for 21 percent of the total cost of that food.

That is an increase of 4 percentage points over the average cost of retailing food 10 years ago.

Testimony given to the commission in hearings early in May indicated that emphasis on attracting customers is a major factor in the increased cost of retailing food.

Bigger Stores, Wider Aisles

Supermarket officials told the commission of the nationwide trend toward bigger stores with wider aisles, ever -larger parking lots, piped -in music, and other attractions for the shopping housewife.

Said one supermarket executive:

"We are now dealing with an ever

changing, younger consumer. A group who have been brought up during the most prosperous period this country has ever gone through. A group who feels two cars, two television sets, two telephones are the expected thing.

"They are ready purchasers of the great mass of new products coming like an avalanche from every food manufacturer.

It costs more to service their needs and desires.

"It's a group that is not satisfied

(Continued from Previous Page) and the stalks dry out more slowly.

The color of the seed is more variable and tends to appear striped.

Seed yields of Frio have equalled or exceeded those of

Gila in nearly all tests in Arizona. The oil content of Frio seed averages around 38 to 39 percent in central Arizona and exceeds that of Gila by about three percent.

Its higher oil content is due to reduced hull thickness, which also results in lower fiber content and increased protein in the oil -free meal.

Frio seed averages 36 to 38 percent hull by weight, while Gila averages

40 to 42 percent. Frio has outstanding early season frost tolerance and appears to be fairly resistant to Phytophthora root rot.

with a can or package of frozen peas, but prefers a package of boil- in -thebag vegetables in butter sauce at

10 cents a package more.

Fresh potatoes and onions are making way for a whole new world of processed products whipped, mashed, au gratin and scalloped potatoes prepared in a few minutes."

Shoppers, said the supermarket executive, want a wide variety of products from which to choose.

From his testimony to the commission: "We have 216 dog and cat foods to offer the customer twice as many as three years ago.

Pets are not eating more per animal, but we have to stock twice as many items at a higher cost.

"Sometimes I wonder how we got along for so many years without

Chocolate Parfait Angel Food Cake

Mix or Double Dutch Devil's Food

Moist or Applesauce Raisin


American cake mixes, or 98 other exotic flavors."

The supermarket official noted that consumers wanted greater variety in nonfood items, too, saying, "Life used to be so simple when we had 200 and

400 -count facial tissues, in white only.

Now we have Pocket Pack, Juniors,

Man Size lilac."


and a special pack that contains 14 aqua, 12 peach and 10

The commission heard complaints that the supermarkets are giving the housewife more than she really wants in the way of variety and service.

It was suggested that savings could be passed on to that housewife, if some of the frills in food retailing were eliminated.

Fancy Stores Preferred

Supermarket operators contended that there is ample evidence to show that the majority of housewives do prefer the modern food store.


said that discount food

stores, in which frills have been eliminated and savings on food offered, are available in many areas, but fancier stores still attract far more business.

Nationally it is estimated that the big supermarkets get about 70 percent of food sales and the discount stores no more than 5 percent.

The Farmer's Share

As evidence that the farmer is not benefiting from higher prices paid by housewives, the National Council of

(Continued on Next Page)

September- October

Page 24

PROMINENT FIGURES at a meeting of Arizona teachers of vocational agriculture, meeting on the U of A campus this summer, were the three men pictured above.

Owen Allen, at left, received a special award for long service in teaching agriculture in Arizona schools. He is retiring after 30 years of vocational agriculture teaching at

Glendale, preceded by similar work in schools at Gilbert and Mesa, for a total of 42 years.

Gordon Hall, at right, received the "teacher of the year" award.

He taught at

Tempe two years, before that for two years at Chandler, and now has gone to the state office of vocational agriculture education at Phoenix as special assistant to Carlos

H. Moore, state supervisor of agricultural education.

standing between Allen and Hall.

In the photo above, Moore is


(Continued from Previous Page)

Farmer Cooperatives presented these figures :

Of the $312 spent on food by the average U. S. citizen in 1950, the farmer got $132.

In 1964, the average person spent $417 on food, but the farmer got only $133 of that.

Meanwhile, wages of workers up and down the line between the farmer and the consumer have been rising steadily. The National Association of

Food Chains told the commission:

"Supermarket Institute studies indicate that food -chain wage rates have been increasing during the last

10 years at an average rate of 5.8 percent a year.

Additionally, the number and expense of fringe benefits has also risen dramatically during this period




Fringe benefits for large chains added about 15.6 percent to regular payroll costs in 1963 -64, as compared to 8.15 percent in 1955."

The food -chain association said that increases in production of workers had offset about half the increase in wages and fringe benefits.

Some union spokesmen held, however, that productivity of workers had increased as much as wages and fringe benefits.

Official studies of the U. S. Department of Agriculture show that labor costs generally in the food industry have been in a steady rise.

Taking into account both wage increases and increase in productivity of workers, the Agriculture Department studies show that labor costs per unit of output have risen 11 percent in the past five years.

Culprit Is Human Nature

Supermarket spokesmen agreed that the housewife herself must accept major responsibility for rising food costs.

One chain -store official

summed it up this way:

"If there is a culprit in this present era of food marketing, then it seems to me that this culprit is human na-

ture, a human nature that desires

personal attention, new and better products, and release from household drudgery.

And we are living in a generally affluent society which in most cases permits gratification of these desires."

Page 25 Progressive Agriculture

Copyright 1965, U.

Report, Inc.

S. News & World

Cochise County

KAWT, Douglas -6:15 a.m. Mon.

through Fri.

KHIL, Willcox

- Mon.

thru Fri.,

6 a.m.

Coconino County

KCLS, Flagstaff -Tues. and Thurs.,

8:20 a.m.

KCLS, Flagstaff ( Home Agent)


Wed., 9:45 a.m.

KPGE, Page

- Fri., 2:30 p.m.

Gila County

KIKO, Globe -Miami

Monday, 12:45 p.m.

Graham County

KATO, Safford - Sat., 9:30 a.m.

Mon. thru Fri., 12:45 p.m. (daily)

Maricopa County

KTAR, Phoenix

- Mon.

thru Fri.,

5:55 a.m.

KOY, Phoenix -

Tues. thru Sat.,

5:40 a.m.

KOY, Phoenix

Sunday Garden

Club of The Air, 8:35 a.m.

KPHO, Phoenix - Mon., Cotton

Report, 12:40 p.m.

KPHO, Phoenix - Thurs., Dairy and Livestock Report, 12:40 p.m.

KÇPD, Phoenix - Mon. thru Fri.,

5:30 a.m. and 12:30 p.m.

Mohave County

KAAA, Kingman -Mon., 1:15 p.m.

( Extension Home Economist)

Navajo County

KDJI, Holbrook - Tues., 12:45 to

1 p.m.

KINO, Winslow - Sat., 9:45 -10:00 a.m.

Piral County

KPIN, Casa

Sat., 6:55

9:30 a.m.;

12:20 p.m



Mon. thru a.m.; Mon. and Fri.,

Tues., Thurs. and Sat.,

Yavapai County

KYCA, Prescott

- Mon.,


Thurs. and Fri.

KNOT, Prescott

Fri., 6:25 a.m.


4:15 p.m.

- Mon.,

Wed and

Yuma County

KVOY, Yuma

5:45 a.m.

- Mon. thru


KYUM, Yuma

6:25 a.m.

- Mon. thru Fri.,

10:05 a.m., Sat.

Cotton Harvest-

Defoliation Scheduling

By H. N. Stapleton, M. D. Cannon and W. A. LePori

7500 --










20 30






Since 1961, harvest -defoliation tests with Delta Pine Smooth leaf cotton have been conducted at the U of A

Cotton Research Center.

Four seasons of field experiments produced data from six Green Pick, three Frost

Defoliated, and sixteen Chemically

Defoliated tests.

Statistical analysis showed in each year significant reduction in total harvested yield with time, but no significant relationship between total yield and the harvest schedule.

When to Harvest?

Certain significant stages in cotton plant development are distinguishable by observation or measurement. The same stage of plant development may fall on a different calendar date in successive or different years.

The stage of fifty -percent bolls open was

Abstracted from Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Paper 1001 given at the ASAE Annual

Meeting, Athens,

Georgia, June 20 -23, 1965.

Il. N


Stapleton, M. D. Cannon and

W. A. LePori are respectively, professor, associate professor and research associate in the Department of Agricultural Engineering,


Agricultural Experiment


University of Arizona.

found to be a convenient and critical

Time Zero for defining the beginning of the harvest -season plant response, and for relating all of the harvest operation to crop plant development.

Analysis of the data showed that by decision or default, when the crop is at 50 percent bolls open, the grower determines:

1. The tentative harvest schedule;

2. The proportion of high -grade cotton which will be harvested;

3. The tentative gross value of the crop.

For the four seasons of tests, this harvest Time Zero ranged from September 9 to October 4.

When Yield and Grade -index values for all of the years were adjusted to their appropriate Time Zero, a consistent pattern developed.


index showed a constant loss of 1/8 percentage point per day. The crop harvester interaction showed less total harvested cotton as picking was delayed.

A Figure of Merit

Combining the numerical values for

Yield and Grade permitted the development of a figure of merit.

A figure of merit is a derived or specified value by which numerical comparisons of alternatives may be made.

A figure of merit provides a clear -cut significant figure because it can be converted to dollars.

Yield and Grade -index can be made to provide such a figure of merit.

Termed Measure of Value ( MoV ) it can be symbolized by

MoV = GiYi + G2Y2 with the subscripts 1 and 2 referring to 1st picking and 2nd picking of the crop.

If there were but one picking, only the subscript one term would apply.


If there should be three pick-

a term with subscript three

would be added.

G stands for grade- index, and Y stands for harvested yield as a percentage of the gross field yield.

Thus the sum of the products of grade index times percent of gross yield

produces a figure of merit useful for management decisions, and which at any time can be converted to dollars by the substitution of price per pound times pounds of harvested yield.

In the analysis, MoV for the crop was plotted against days elapsed between the 50 percent bolls open stage and the day of first picking.


MoV for the crop is that which would be expected to result from a first picking on the day plotted plus a second picking after the crop was fully mature.

The curves in our figure show the interrelationship of grade- index, yield, and the advance of the season with

Green Pick and Defoliation, and the increment contributed to crop value by each of the pickings.

Emphasized are:

1. The importance of the 50% bolls open Time Zero.

2. The peaking of crop value from early picking.

3. The decreasing effectiveness of defoliation as a harvest aid as the season advances.

4. The usefulness of a figure of merit like MoV in numerical comparison of alternatives, including break even on defoliation costs and 2nd pick machine costs of harvest.

Timing is one of the elements in optimizing machine cropping practices.


In harvesting operations, timis achieved by a schedule designed from performance values for the crop, the machine, the weather, and acreage.

Numerical performance values can be determined and used in prediction. They provide input for planning and decision making for cost control and improvement of returns.

Investigaciones recientes realizadas en estaciones agrícolas experimentales muy distantes indican que existen factores no identificados presentes en la alfalfa deshidratada que estimulan las funciones del rumen y contribuyen al bienestar del ganado vacuno y del lanar. En Texas se encontró que la adición de harina de alfalfa deshidratada a la ración del ganado vacuno incrementa el aumento de peso en 15.4% con una disminución del 15.2% en los requisitos alimenticios por unidad de aumento.

La difusion de ciertos enfermedades ex-

óticas amenaza a la ganadería mundial en una escala verdaderamente inquietante. Representan un verdadero peligro brotes repentinos de la peste equina africana, de lengua azul, de listeriosis, de enterotoxemia, de dermatosis nodular, de paratuberculosis y de peste porcina.

September- October

Page 26

B144011149 411eCtS

7 Welt


4VieSt Sed

By Malcolm J. Zwolinski

The practice of controlled burning large acreages of forest lands in the west is becoming more accepted and is strongly advocated by several land management agencies.

It is felt that such a burning program, if properly administered, would reduce the potential of destructive wildfires by eliminating much of the fuel hazard.

An additional benefit often claimed is the reduction in the number of trees in dense sapling -size forest thickets.

FIGURE 1 - Application of a heavy burning treatment. Note how the fire is started at the plot perimeter and how it moves to the center to generate maximum heat.


Decreases Water Intake

Some of the influences and implications of such a burning program are not completely understood.

For example, studies have shown that burning causes a marked decrease in the rate of water intake by a soil.

Here in Arizona, where the demand for water is increasing each year and where large controlled burning programs are being carried on, this question of water entry into the soil as influenced by burning assumes major significance.


Department of


Management is conducting a series of experiments in an attempt to determine whether the burning programs, as practiced on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation in east central Arizona, influence the rates of water entry into the soil.

Sites near McNary were chosen and treated with light and heavy burnings in the summer of 1963. This area was selected because of the extensive ponderosa pine type and because of the large scale burning program being

Mr. Zwolinslci is an instructor -research associate in the Department of Watershed

Management, Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station.

Page 27 Progressive Agriculture carried out.

Soils in the study area are classified in the Western Brown

Forest great soil group.

Dr. S. W.

Buol has discussed these forested soils in a recent issue of Progressive Agriculture (Vol. 17, No. 3, p. 21)


Two Burning Treatments

Light and heavy burning treatments were controlled by the manner in which the fuel was ignited.

For a.

light burn the flame was applied to the leeward side of the treatment area

( usually 10 to 12 feet on a side) and the fire was allowed to burn slowly against the wind to the opposite side

( Fig. 2 )


This treatment removed the top layer of fresh needles and part of the underlying "F" or fermentation layer.

Fusion pyrometers inserted into the soil indicated a soil surface temperature between 500° F. and 600° F., which, it is felt, closely to corresponds quite the burning intensity reached by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Flame for the heavy burning treatment was applied nearly simultaneously to the perimeters of the treatment area and the fire moved to the center for maximum heat generation ( Fig. 1) .

During this treatment,

temperatures of



were reached at the soil surface and complete litter removal ( "L," litter; "F," fermentation; and "H," humus, layers ) was accomplished.

Each treatment, plus an undisturbed control plot, was replicated four times.

After treatment, infiltrometer plots were installed in the center of each treated and control areas with care being taken not to disturb the soil inside the plots.

Prior to the initial infiltration runs the installed plots were covered with plastic to prevent surface disturbance by natural rainfall.

Water Application Measured

Water application rate by a North

Fork type infiltrometer sprinkler assembly averaged about 71/2 to 8 inches per hour ( Fig. 3 ) .

The spray itself was a small to medium drop with no misting, and the application continued until runoff was constant for a minimum of 30 minutes. Consequently, the total time for most runs was over one hour.

Infiltration rate was determined by taking the difference between the constant water application rate and the measured surface runoff in inches per hour for a number of time intervals.

During the summer of 1963 two series of infiltration runs were conducted on all plots.

The heavy burning treatments, where mineral soil was exposed, showed a substantial decrease in water intake

( 50 percent to 60 percent less than the untreated controls)


A slight decrease of 10 percent to 15 percent was observed for the lightly burned plots.

The plots were left exposed to the

(Continued on Next Page)

(Continued from Previous Page) weather elements through the winter of 1963 -1964.

In the spring and summer of 1964 additional infiltration runs were conducted on the same plots.

Preliminary results from these data indicate that the infiltration rates for both the light and heavily burned plots have returned to nearly the same rate as the untreated controls.

It seems that the over -wintering effects of snow, freezing, and thawing, coupled with some herbaceous growth and needle fall on the burned surfaces, have exerted a beneficial influence on the rate of water intake.

Additional data are being collected from these same plots in the summer of 1965, after exposure to another winter.

These results, which are not yet completely analyzed, indicate that controlled burning on the reservation, if carried out in the fall just prior to the accumulation of a protective snow cover, has little or no detrimental effect on water infiltration into the soil.

Additional information pertaining to the changes in the physical properties of the soils due to the burning treatments is also being assembled.

FIGURE 2 -A light burn treatment made to simulate controlled burning. Note how the fire moves slowly across the plot without generating large amounts of heat.

FIGURE 3 - North Fork infiltrometer sprinkler assembly in place over an untreated control plot.

During the actual run, both the plot and the assembly are protected from wind effects by a plastic tent.

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