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JUNE

Volume XVII

1965

Number 3

IN ARIZONA

PUBLISHED BY THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA AT TUCSON

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For young people of high school age in America this is a difficult, perplexing world. They are living in a world which is changing before their eyes, a world of critical adults, of changing standards, of rapid innovation in agriculture, industry, education and life itself.

It is especially difficult for young people from rural homes, for agriculture itself is changing more rapidly than almost any other industry or profession. The training which made a successful farmer or rancher of dad is completely inadequate for the world of tomorrow.

Historically, in the world and in

America, high school graduates have poured into the job market each spring, filling the jobs which needed no great vocational skill. Those young people are still pouring into the market, almost three million each year.

In the 1960 decade there will be 26 million youths seeking jobs, 40 percent more than in the 1950's.

At the same time, the jobs available for young people with no college training are becoming scarce. As one young chap said ruefully, "You almost need a college degree nowadays to pump gas." The use of physical labor by humans is diminishing as machines are taught to prepare the soil, plant the crop and harvest it, to package it and take it to market.

Chemistry hoes the weeds today and kills the bugs. Even the farmer's stub pencil has fallen victim to the electric computer. Meanwhile, opportunities for a young person to acquire

land of his own, to

start farming, have narrowed vastly as farms and ranches have become fewer, larger and much more expensive.

As the unskilled jobs - chief employment for young people out of high school a generation ago are disappearing, the jobs of today and tomorrow will be jobs which require higher skills, more training, and the increased maturity and judgment gained in four or more years in a college environment.

There is a bright side, however. As the job market disappears for the lad with only high school training, the colleges are opening their doors even wider to welcome those alert young people who want the extra skills and extra training which college can give.

The cost of higher education is rising, of course, but the grants, scholarships and various types of financial assistance are increasing.

The important thing is for the young person

24-etAie-eie

Dean

College of Agriculture and

School of Home Economics

PROGRESSIVE

May - June, 1965

Vol. XVII

_1 u

to have the burning desire to get

ahead, the aspiration to go on to college, the encouragement from his parents to spur him on to the training which will prepare him for the world of the 1970's and 1980's.

Paradoxically, college today and tomorrow will actually train for jobs which today do not even exist. There will be an agriculture, industry, communications, engineering, foods and foods processing, transportation and political environment which do not even exist today. But the training in the classroom and the laboratory of today can teach the skills and aptitudes and techniques which will be useful in those yet -undiscovered jobs of the future. The research methods, the trained thinking, the sharpened mind will be ready for that challenge.

The world will still need it will require human brains to guide the intricate machines which will do tomorrow's work.

Higher education, a college education, is the only known ladder to reach that lofty plateau of tomorrow.

AGRICULTURE IN

ARIZONA

No. 3

Published bimonthly by the College of Agriculture, The University of Arizona, Tucson,

Arizona,

Harold E.

Myers, dean.

Entered as second -class matter

March 1, 1949, at the post office at

Tucson, Arizona, under the act of

August 24, 1912.

Reprinting of articles or use of information in Progressive Agriculture in Arizona, by newspapers and magazines is permitted, with credit.

Editor :

John Burnham.

Editorial Board Members :

Mildred

R. Jensen, Mitchell G. Vavich, Norman F. Oebker, William H. Hale and

Director George E. Hull, ex- officio.

IN THIS ISSUE

Calendar of Events

Search for Hybrid Barley

Farm Radio Listings

----- - - - - --

-

Hopicala - New Cotton Variety

Horticulture in Ceara

Sue Wins Pillsbury

Farm Record Data

Do Ads Sell Eggs?

Plan Mobile Study Tour

Winter Course Picture _____________ _______

___

Our Mystery Picture

Mohave County Story

State Farm Income Down

Shetland Pony Winner

10

13

13

New Bulletins Available

14

Dr. Carruth Honored ________ ___

14

Girl Angus Winner

Arizona Tops Nation

Report on Grass Congress

Hazards for Campesinos

14

14

15

16

Weathersby a Winner

Screwworm Control Drive

Mystery Picture Answer

Whitethorn Control

Why Doth the Busy Bee?

Soils of Conifer Forests

Sinaloa Students Visit Us

Foreigners Learn by Living

16

17

1.

18

20

21

22

22

Potato Fertilization

Wild Oats a Good Parent

23

24

Corrals Go to Cows

Stripper Cotton Tests

Protecting the Consumer

25

26

27

MAY

5- Growers Field Day, Mesa Experiment Station, Mesa

6

Cattle

Feeders

Day,

Casa

Grande Highway & Campbell

Ave. Farms, Tucson

7 -9th Annual Poultry Industry

Day, Poultry Research Farm,

Tucson

JUNE

7- Annual Meeting of

Arizona

Homemakers' Council, U of A

Campus, Tucson

7 -11

19th Town & Country Life

Conference, U of A Campus

7 -11

State 4 -H Junior Leader Laboratory, Shadow V a l l e y

Ranch, near Prescott

9-11--Conference for Arizona Teachers of Vocational Agriculture,

U of A Campus, Tucson

JULY

26 -30 -State 4 -H Roundup

U of A

Campus, Tucson

AUGUST

8 -13- Annual FFA Leadership Conference

U of A Campus.

May-shine

Page

Geneticist at UA

Advances Search

For Hybrid Barley

The growing of corn was revolutionized several years ago by introduction of hybrids, which vastly increased production and uniformity of that grain and forage crop. Sorghum hybrids are now leading to higher yields of that crop.

For several months Dr. Robert T.

Ramage, professor of agronomy at the

University of Arizona and cytogeneticist with the U.

S. Department of

Agriculture, has been working here in efforts to produce a hybrid barley.

As Dr. Ramage explains, successful commercial production of hybrid barley seed depends on a reliable and economical source of male sterile individuals to serve, in effect, as the

"female" parent of the hybrid.

A balanced tertiary trisomic, using a genetic recessive male sterile as the marker gene, may provide the female parent for such commercial production of a hybrid barley seed.

This material to be released consists of a bulk of 240 F6 lines derived from the cross of a Manchurian type as the male sterile, and the variety

Bonus as the translocation parent.

Only six -row lines are included in this bulk material, which is now being released to plant breeders as a source material from which female parents of hybrids may be selected.

Now the Crops Research Division of ARS and the U of A Agronomy

Department can jointly announce release of a balanced tertiary trisomie, a step toward that hybrid.

Cover Picture

Written requests for such planting material should be sent to the Arizona

Crop Improvement Association, at the

Department of Agronomy, University of Arizona.

-

Alert in 3 Languages

Our temporarily international correspondent, Dr. Neal Wright, furnished this picture taken at the ninth International Grassland

Congress in Brazil, at Sao Paulo, which he attended. This issue of

PROGRESSIVE AGRICULTURE includes an informal report by

him.

Among the photos Dr. Wright brought back is the one shown on our cover, a portion of the general session of

the congress, show-

ing how delegates wore earphones in order to select a language

most familiar to them.

Official languages of the congress were Spanish, Portuguese and English, and through a translating device and the earphones, translations for the delegates were made even as the speaker at the podium was delivering his address.

Page 3

Progressive Agriculture

Cochise County

KAWT, Douglas -6:15 a.m. Mon.

through Fri.

KHIL, Willcox

Mon. thru Fri.,

6 a.m.

Coconino County

KCLS, Flagstaff -Tues. and Thurs.,

8:20 a.m.

KCLS, Flagstaff ( Home Agent) -

Wed., 9:45 a.m.

KPGE, Page - Fri., 2:30 p.m.

Gila County

KIKO, Globe -Miami

Monday, 12:45 p.m.

Graham County

KATO, Safford - Sat., 9:30 a.m.

Mon. thru Fri., 12:45 p.m. ( daily )

Maricopa County

KTAR, Phoenix

Mon. thru Fri.,

5:55 a.m.

KOY, Phoenix - Tues. thru Sat.,

5:40 a.m.

KOY, Phoenix

Sunday Garden

Club of The Air, 8:35 a.m.

Mon., Cotton

KPHO, Phoenix

Report, 12:40 p.m.

KPHO, Phoenix

Thurs., Dairy and Livestock Report, 12:40 p.m.

KUPD, Phoenix

Mon. thru Fri., x:30 a.m. and 12:30 p.m.

Mohave County

KAAA, Kingman -Mon., 10:45 a.m.

( Home Agent)

Navajo County

KDJI, Holbrook

1:15 p.m.

KINO, Winslow a.m.

- Tues.,

1:00 to

-

Sat., 9:45 -10:00

Pinal County

KPIN, Casa Grande Mon. thru

Sat., 6:55 a.m.; Mon. and Fri.,

9:30 a.m.; Tues., Thurs. and Sat.,

12:20 p.m.

Yavapai County

KYCA, Prescott - Mon., Wed.,

Thurs. and Fri., 4:15 p.m.

KNOT, Prescott - Mon., Wed and

Fri., 6:25 a.m.

Yuma County

KVOY, Yuma

5:45 a.m.

KYUM, Yuma

6:25 a.m.

- Mon. thru Fri.,

- Mon. thru Fri.,

10105 a.m., Sat.

1-lopicala

...

A New Cotton Variety

By WARNER FISHER

Hopicala, a cotton variety being released to Arizona farmers this year, is a product of cooperative effort by state and federal research agencies. The original seed source of Hopicala was obtained in 1950 by the Agronomy Department of New Mexico State University from George J. Harrison of the

United States Cotton Research Station, Shafter, Calif.

This seed stock was derived from crosses of the native Hopi Indian cotton and the Acala variety. Eight generations of pedigree selection from this seed stock produced Hopicala.

Earlier generations of selection were made by G. N. Stroman and Glen Staten. The final three generations of selection were made by John R. Cotton.

It has been in yield tests in New Mexico since 1959 and in regional tests, including Arizona, since 1962, carrying the designation 4447. Its performance in the western regional tests indicate that it has excellent yielding ability at a wide range of locations. The variety has a moderate degree of tolerance to verticillium wilt, and Arizona tests indicate that it shows the greatest relative advantage in those areas affected by wilt.

In non -wilt areas such as Yuma and parts of the Salt River Valley, Hopi

-

cala has not been the highest yielding variety, but the yields have been high enough that a modest premium for quality could make it competitive.

Hopicala is not currently recommended in New Mexico because the fiber length is about 1/16 inch shorter than the 1517 varieties which produce staple lengths ranging from 1 1/8 to 1 3/16 inches. Fiber and spinning data

accum-

ulated from regional tests indicate that Hopicala fiber is slightly longer and slightly stronger than Acala 4 -42, a variety long recognized for its excellent

quality.

Hopicala has a sturdy, close fruited plant, and is relatively early compared to other Acala varieties.

In plant height it grows almost as tall as Acala 44, consequently may become too rank under certain growing conditions.

On soils

which normally grow big plants, some caution is suggested in the use of water and fertilizer to avoid excessive vegetative growth.

Dr. Fisher is plant breeder at the U. of A. Cotton Research Center.

_lla y -June

Page 4

VEGETABLE BEDS ON stilts. Dr. Kuykendall, right, and Prof. Erima Cabral discuss the spacing of head lettuce in one of the raised beds. It is said one of the chief advantages of the raised beds over ground beds is that it is easier to control insects.

These beds are about 1 x 10 meters in size and have a soil depth of

8 to 10 inches. Bottom of the beds is about two feet off the ground. The wood is from local trees known for resistance to termites and wood rot; these beds, for example, are

12 years old. Note beds of green onions on either side of the lettuce beds. The scene is a commercial vegetable garden at west edge of Fortaleza.

Briggs)

(Photo by Dr. Bob

HORTICULTURE IN CEARA

By J

.

R. KUYKENDALL

Most of the Arizonans who are working here at the Escola de Agronomia are still somewhat reluctant to try many of the tropical fruits that are grown in Ceara. Many of these fruits do have very exotic and aromatic flavors and aromas.

For the Advisor in Horticulture, a displaced kanaka from Hawaii, it is a real treat to be able to have papaya every morning for breakfast.

Professor Resnick says that the mangos here are nearly as good as those which he has eaten in their native habitat, India. The Advisor in Field Crops, Dr.

Briggs, has become an expert in giving us a critical consumer reaction to various selections

of banana. Our

Economist, Dr. Menzie, thinks the local pineapples are very good most of the time.

Dr. Pistor prefers pineapple and bananas once in awhile, but otherwise is strictly an agua de coco man. The horticulturists have sought bananas to suit the critical taste of our secretary,

Amelina Heredia.

Papaya Quality Variable

The first time that the writer went to one of the local markets with his wife, and she asked him to select a

of good papayas, he was

couple stumped. On the various counters were piled papaya fruit of many sizes, shapes and many shades of green, yellow and orange.

In Hawaii one would select a small to medium sized round fruit and be reasonably sure of getting one from a selection of the variety

Solo, which would have a thick flesh, small seed cavity and be very sweet.

Most of the fruit which comes to the market here in Fortaleza is from unselected seedling trees

- hence the

large variability in types. Fortunately, most of the local fruit is very good.

In seven months I've only encountered about a dozen which I considered not edible.

This country along the northeast coast of Brazil is the native habitat of the cashew nut tree.

The principal means of propagating trees is by seed.

As is the case with papaya, most of the trees are from unselected seedlings, and the resulting fruit is extremely variable.

If it were not for

the large numbers of trees which

grow wild in some areas, the local processors of cashew nuts would be hard put to turn out the reasonably uniform nut product that they do.

Some propagating benches have been completed and the writer and his counterpart, Prof. Diogenes Cabral, will soon start some experiments trying to find a means of propagating cashew trees from stem cuttings. If a convenient means for vegetative propagation can be found, it will then be possible to do some selecting and reproduction of superior clones of this valuable nut crop.

(Continued on Next Page)

FRUIT IN OPEN market at Fortaleza.

Brought to market in wooden boxes and wicker baskets, the mangos, coconuts, papayas, bananas, etc., are hawked by vendors. In the background can be seen Prof.

Diogenes Cabral and Dr. Kuykendall hefting a large jaca (jack- fruit)

.

(Photo by

Tarquino Prisco)

"Dick" Kuykendall is professor of horticulture and Advisor in Horticulture as a member of The University of Arizona's team of agricultural scientists in Brazil. Dr. Kuykendall's article is sixth in a series in which all members of the "Brazilian Arizonans" tell, in turn, about their work.

Dr. Kuykendall sent us several excellent pictures illustrating the work and agriculture of northeastern Brazil, of which we can use but a few. We promise our readers that more of these pictures will be used in subsequent issues.

Page 5

Progressive Agriculture

(Continued from Previous Page)

Yes, We Have Bananas

There are plenty of bananas -

more bananas

.

.

.

bananas.

is and still more

This tropical fruit, which relatively expensive in the super markets at home, is very cheap here and is one of the staple foods in the diet of the Cearense people.

Bananas come in all sizes and in many shapes small "egg" shaped, long and slender, large and fat. One of the lasting impressions of our first visit to the open markets was the vast piles of bananas and they were so cheap. At every street corner down town there are vendors selling bananas.

One of the first problems posed to the writer by our chief of party was,

"Why do so many people prefer the bananas sold by the peddler who has the tiny stall across the street from the

San Pedro Hotel, rather than from the larger market down the street ?" The horticulturist feels this type of problem should be worked on by the team economist, but hopes it is an indication of some taste or quality prefer-

ence on the part of some of the

people.

ON THE CAMPUS of the Escola de Agronomia is the large lath house where the

Advisor in Horticulture and his Brazilian counterparts are making propagation trials with fruit trees and vegetables. Near the lath house are 40 concrete beds for raising vegetables. Here, as shown above, Prof. Erima Cabral and Prof. Barbosa examine fruit of box heart tomatoes. Buildings in distant background are not the escola, but are part of a military school.

(Photo by Dr. Kuykendall)

Sue 41exaøtde'i

Wus /)11siu'zv

Sue Alexander, University of Arizona Home Economics senior, has been selected the national winner of the 7th annual Pillsbury awards contest.

Miss Alexander will receive $500 in cash for winning first place in the national contest. On June 15 she w i 1 1 begin working for Pillsbury as associate manager for the

4- company's educational program at a salary of $4,800 for one year.

At the end of this year she can

choose between a $2,500 scholarship for graduate study in home economics or a permanent position in the Pillsbury consumer service kitchens.

Miss Alexander, who is a Tucson resident, is the first finalist from a

Southwestern school.

She competed with four other semi- finalists from

Purdue, Kansas State, Oregon State, and Stout State of Menomonie, Wis.

At Minneapolis, in March, Miss

Alexander and the other semi -finalists were interviewed by public relations,

THE ADVISOR IN Horticulture and three of his Brazilian counterparts at the Escola de Agronomia examine an assortment of tropical fruits. Banana, papaya and mango are important fruits in the diet of the local people. Papaya vary greatly in quality.

GRAVIOLA (soursop) is used to flavor a native ice cream, while CIRIGUELA is used fresh as a condiment after drinking the local brandy. Left to right above, Francisco

Forte Barbosa, Professor of Practices in Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry; Tar quinio Prisco (son of Dean Prisco Bezerra), Instructor in Botany; Erima Cabral de

Vale, Assistant Professor of Horticulture, and Dr. J. Richard Kuykendall, Advisor in

Horticulture. (Photo by Dr. Howard Ray) marketing, education, and consumer kitchen personnel of Pillsbury.

Officials later notified her that she won first place.

Her year's on- the -job training program will include testing recipes, developing party plans and menus for young people, writing copy for newspapers and appearing on television and before student audiences.

She will also attend the American

Home Economics Association national convention in Atlantic City in June, where she will speak at the meeting of the college club section. Early next year, she will serve as hostess to the junior division in the company's national bake -off in San Francisco.

Back in Tucson, the ever -modest

Sue scarcely waited for congratulations before leaving for Chandler, where she did her practice teachintz.

May -June

Page 6

At a recent meeting of the Arizona

Society of Farm and Ranch Managers and Rural Appraisers one of the speakers made the point that, with electronic data processing equipment, summaries of farm record data can be made available to management currently throughout the year, within three days following receipt of the raw data.

Questions were then asked :

Why

the hurry in

getting the sum all maries?

Is the added value to management sufficient to justify the added expense? Answers to these questions depend upon the type of management decisions to be made.

A self -evident fact that should be kept in mind is that data are of maximum value at the time decisions are made. Thus, analysis of the timing of management decisions will indicate when farm record data will be of greatest use to management.

Based on Three Terms

The analysis presented in this paper is primarily in terms of ( a ) using factors to produce a product,

( b ) the combination of factors used in producing a product, and ( e ) the combination of enterprises included in the farm business. Some attention also is given to financial management, including income tax management.

Basic assumptions underlying the entire discussion are that management is dealing with a commercial farm or ranch business and that the objective is to maximize income.

The timing of decisions in producing a product depends upon the nature of the product and of the factors of production employed. First, consider the case where the flow of both factor and product is fairly continuous such as milk production with an established dairy herd. Management needs current record data on feed fed and milk production to facilitate making adjustments in feed -milk ratios to maximize income. A similar situation prevails with fuel and tractor power produced, and with fuel and irrigation water produced.

In such cases

Dr. Nelson is a professor of Agricultural

Economics.

FARM RECORD DATA

*J/te#t $n Mc*zae4S Really ìVd 9í?

Page 7

By y

,

AARON G. NELSON

Progressive Agriculture the manager can use current data to advantage in appraising current performance. If performance is not what it should be, management has the opportunity to make changes without delay.

It should be recognized, however, that the range within which adjustments can be made may be limited in some cases.

For example, if too large an adjustment is made in feed fed to a milk cow, the level of her production may be reduced for the remainder of the lactation period, thereby precluding the possibility of heavier feeding and higher milk production, should such become profitable.

Piled Up Costs, Harvests

Now consider the situation where the factor or the product is "lumpy," such as is the case with cotton production.

Fairly large amounts are spent on land preparation, fertilizer, water, insecticide and the like, at various times during the cropping season. The product also is "lumpy," received in a few large amounts at harvest time. In such cases management decisions are made when plans for the crop are formulated on the basis of existing knowledge,

( experience, record data from earlier years, experiment station data, and the like ) and estimated production.

Modifications of initial plans may be made throughout the year as the crop progresses.

Water applications may be adjusted somewhat according to the amount available and progress of the crop. If the crop is unusually weedy, more labor or herbicides may be applied than had been planned.

But such modifications of initial plans will be based upon observed conditions relative to the current and prospective condition of the crop, rather than on the amount which had been spent.

Current record data would be of little value in making these types of decisions, except possibly for fertilizer and water, where a record of amounts applied may serve as an indicator of the nutrient or moisture content of the soil.

However, in these cases a direct test of the soil would be far more reliable.

Third Kind of Relationship

Managerial decisions relative to

purchase of capital items such as

land, machinery, milk cows, breeding stock and improvements may be considered as a third type of factor -product relationship.

Purchase of such items involves a relatively large amount or "lump" of funds.

Annual summaries of record data would be useful to management in deciding whether it would pay to purchase the item, or how much he could afford to pay for it.

However, current rec-

ord data would have

little direct value to management in decisions of this type.

What combination of factors will be most economical in producing a given product? Current record data are of limited use to management in making decisions of this type.

Livestock rations, man -machine ratios, man- irrigation water ratios, land -irrigation water ratios, land -fertilizer ratios, etc., are determined upon the basis of knowledge existing

( experimental data, experience, record data from earlier years, etc. ) at the time the decision is made. However, with repairs versus a new machine, current record data on repairs may be useful to management in determining whether it would pay to buy a new machine.

Combining Enterprises

Most farmers have limited resources and must make a decision regarding the combination of enterprises which will be most profitable.

Obviously, there can be no current record data at the time the initial enterprise selection is made. Thus, current record data are of limited usefulness in such decisions.

When product flows of the various enterprises are continuous, the manager would be able to make use of current record data in determining adjustments which would be profitable, as was outlined above.

Current record data can be of considerable value to management in managing current finances, and also in income tax management if the business is on a cash basis, as are most farms and ranches.

Current record data enable the manager to keep track of current in and out -cash flows, together with accounts and notes payable and receivable.

Such data also facilitate monthly cumulative totals throughout the year, a further aid in financial management.

These data are needed for analyzing income and expenses during the year to determine whether a savings could be made in income taxes by shifting income and expenses from one year to another.

Do Newspaper Ads

Help Sell Eggs?

By R. C.

Newspaper advertisements by food stores are aimed at increasing customer traffic, sales and profit. This may or may not imply stimulating sales of the particular products advertised.

The objet of this investigation was to determine whether in its present form newspaper advertising of eggs significantly affects egg sales. Knowledge of the effectiveness of advertising, and the factors which contribute to an effective promotional program, should be of value to the egg industry.

Data on egg deliveries during 1961 and 1962 were obtained from an Arizona grocery chain and that chain's wholesale supplier. Information on the quantity of egg advertising and advertised prices was obtained from all major daily newspapers in Arizona.

It is

Many Factors Intrude readily apparent that many factors affect egg sales in addition to any effect newspaper advertising may have. This complicates the analysis somewhat, because explicit recognition must be given these other variables. The following were considered in the analysis:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Price of the sample firm's eggs.

Price of competitor's eggs.

Quantity of the sample firm's advertising.

Quantity of competitor's advertising.

Seasonal price movements.

In order to separate the effect of each of the above variables, the data were subjected to stepwise multiple regression analysis.

This statistical procedure yields quantitative estimates of the association between the dependent variable ( eggs sold by the sample firm) and the independent

CC variables.

It also provides measures of the reliability of the estimates.

Four models were estimated.

( A model," for the purpose of this article,

may be thought of as a particular

mathematical formula relating a de-

This article is based on research done cooperatively by Dr. R. C. Angus and Dr.

R. O. P. Farrish, both of the Department of Agricultural Economics, and Dr. Franklin

D. Rollins, Poultry Specialist in the Extension Service.

ANGUS

pendent variable to one or more independent variables. )

In addition to estimating each model for the entire state of Arizona, each of the four was estimated separately from data for the cities of Tucson, Phoenix, Flagstaff and Yuma.

This division by cities was made to determine whether the effects of the independent variables differed according to geographic location. No reliable estimate of an association between newspaper advertising and egg sales could be found.

The failure to find large associations may be explained in several ways. For example, the study may not have included all relevant variables. The results could have been due to the data generated or to errors in measurement. Or the lack of association could have been caused by the particular mathematical form chosen for estimating purposes.

Try a New Model

At this stage in the research, the investigators were faced with several alternatives. These included estimating equations of different mathematical forms, attempting to refine the data, or taking a new approach toward estimating the egg sales of the sample firm. Appraisal of these alternatives led to the formulation of a different model which incorporated variables designed to represent consumer buying patterns. \Ve took this line of investigation because the importance of consumer habits and buying patterns were highlighted in previous research.

Model four was designed to include variables which represented consumer buying patterns and habits, in addition to the price and advertising variables. The same stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed.

Time Most Important

Results showed egg sales to be a function of day of the week, holiday periods, deliveries of eggs in the nrevious period, and the number of days from the last payday, but there was little association between sales response and egg advertising. The only variables included were thus of the type which represent consumer buy-

ing patterns, such as the

habit of shopping on weekends.

These results raise questions as to whether the egg industry is receiving any benefit from the type of newspaper advertising that retail stores devote to eggs. While this may see startling at first, it may well be con' sistent with the advertising polici of retail grocers. Retailers advertí to increase traffic and to build an

"image" of specific price and qualitvj levels not to increase egg sales as such.

Where

Not What

It matters little to retailer A whether his customers buy eggs or corn flakes - as long as they buy from him instead of his competitor.

Retail stores advertise egg prices not food value, ease of preparation or other quality characteristics because their aim is to pull customers away from other stores, not to switch their own customers from pancakes to eggs. Grade A eggs are

Grade A eggs to most consumers no matter where they are purchased.

The only factor left for the retailer to differentiate his store by is price.

Advertising eggs in isolation and by price only tends to pit eggs against eggs in the competition for the consumer's dollar. This is the natural result of competition between retail stores. There may be substantial reason to believe the egg industry does not benefit from present forms of advertising by retail stores.

Cackleberries vs. Cornflakes

From another Tucson survey, it appears eggs are primarily in competition with cereals and other breakfast foods. Yet, the major portion of retail advertising is not devoted to winning customers away from cereals.

Up to now, producers of these other foods have been the only ones to direct their advertising efforts directly at the individual consumer. This is the result of the fact that producers of cereals advertise their products while producers of eggs do not.

The egg industry cannot expect the retail store to make any substantial promotional effort to influence consumers in choosing between eggs and cereals. As we have noted, it does not make any difference to the retailer whether the housewife buys eggs or cereals so long as she buys in his particular store. Thus, if consumers are to be influenced to choose eggs over cereals, then it would that the industry seem must go directly to the consumer with its promotion. This is the challenge which looms ahead.

May-June

Page 8

Above is a group picture of the 100 persons

;llo attended the 1965 Western Regional Exten-

;on Winter School at The University of Arizona

'eb. 1 -19.

According to the director, Dr. Kenneth 01-

7n, this enrollment of 100 included people from

5 states and seven foreign countries. The class

-

5ork included courses in agricultural policy, agritiltural communications, techniques for working

ith groups, agricultural marketing, communicating in groups, and principles of extension.

In the group of 100 there were 12 Arizonans,

all members of the state extension staff.

They

are Garrett Blackwell, Tucson; Ernest Foster,

Duncan; Dwain Gale, Holbrook; Daniel Gerhart,

Willcox; Robert Halvorson, Phoenix; Keith Jones,

Casa Grande; Lucy Logsdon, Phoenix; William

Reynolds, Safford; Maxine Sager, Duncan; Sarah

Twomey, St. Johns; Marilyn Voreis, Yuma, and

John Sears, Safford.

Mobile Classroom

Tour is Scheduled

Dr. Marvin Selke and Dr. Le I oyne

Hogan will serve as instructors for the new "Travel Course" this summer in The University of Arizona College of Agriculture, says Dr. D. S.

Metcalfe, director of resident instruction for the college.

The "classroom on wheels" will begin May 31 and will include 7,000 miles of travel over the nation. The five -week course will provide six college credits.

It will be limited to not more than 33 students.

Dr. Selke received his B.

S.

degree in Animal Husbandry at Iowa

State University, and his M. S. and

Ph.D. degrees from the University of Kentucky, both in Animal Science.

Dr. Hogan is associate professor of horticulture with the U of A, having served this institution since September 1, 1962.

He is a native of

Choudrant, La., received his B. S. and

M. S. at Louisiana State University and his Ph.D. at the University of

Iaryland.

Students taking the travel course will have plenty of work to do. They will be required to take detailed notes,

Page. 9 Progressive Agriculture make scientific observations, take photographs, and make a thorough written report on what they learn on the trip.

Purpose of the course is to study experimental and applied food production and processing methods in certain major livestock and crop regions of the United States.

The instructors and students will investigate the basic ecological relationships among native vegetation, crop plants, animals, soils, and climate.

OUR MYSTERY PICTURE

10

HORSES

ON

SIDEWALK

Las Plantas Requieren

Mas Que Nutrientes, Agua

PROGRESSIVE AGRICULTURE is very happy and proud that an article published first in this magazine has been reprinted in TIERRA, leading agricultural magazine in Mexico.

The article, written by Extension

Soils Specialist Lyman Amburgey, appeared in these pages under the title,

"Plants Require More Than Food and

Water." It was reprinted in Spanish, in TIERRA, in its entirety, including the graphic accompanying drawing by

Artist Al Hesselberg.

TIERRA has been a gracious journalistic friend, which has honored us

in the past by using articles from

PROGRESSIVE AGRICULTURE.

We, in turn, scrutinize TIERRA closely and often borrow material from its pages. It is a very happy two -way exchange.

The saddle horse is a respected member of the community in many

- in fact, most

- Arizona communities, in some cases requiring special highway signs.

This one will be familiar to you if you travel around this great state very much. Identification is given on Page 17.

A novel battle plan now being tested by the USDA involves exposing insects to flashes of light lasting less than 1 /1000th of a second.

This photoflash type of warfare reportedly upsets the normal life cycle of insects, causing them to develop into adults "ahead of schedule." If they're far enough ahead, they're so out of step with nature that they soon perish, the USDA bug men declare.

Range Country Invaded

MOHAVE COUNTY

It is a land of sparse population, yet the county seat

Kingman - is one of the most attractive, up

-to -date growing cities in Arizona. And if you want a postscript to that, Havasu City, a man -made industrial city, is growing almost overnight from nothing to an industrial and retirement city destined for a great future.

ac

Walt

iS

e1de4,

Si2a4tdmeit

Climate, Wate4 and San

By JAMES N. McDOUGAL

But Mostly Cattle Country

Mohave County is a land of contrast -- an elevation of 450 feet with two inches of rainfall on the Colorado

River bottoms, but also cool Ponderosa pine forests rising to an elevation of 10,000 feet where 16 to 18 inches of humidity is recorded annually.

Mohave County is cattle country besieged by fisher-

men.

In other words, it is range country where the population- pushed sportsman has discovered new fields to in Indian Reservations, and much of the balance is

But mostly it is cattle country.

There are

9,600 irrigated acres, scarcely one one -thousandth of the county's area, and most of those irrigated acres supply feed for the cattle which graze over most of the rest of the state. These feed crops consist of sorghum, alfalfa, permanent pasture

conquer.

Mohave is fifth largest county in the United States

8,486,400 acres. Nearly 600,000 acres are included

Probably a third of Mohave

grasses and small grains, all marketed locally as supplemental feed when the range grasses are not sufficient.

In addition, range cattle are some-

state and federal lands.

County is privately owned.

A Land of Contrast

Mohave is unique in many ways:

It is a land of rugged mountains yet it has more than 1,000 miles of rain fall in one place and 18 inches shoreline on lakes and rivers.

It is a land of black river bottom

In Mohave County there are 14,850 people, and 13,644 of them greet their county agricultural agent with a warm smile and a "Hey, Jim "! As for the rest -

1200 are children too young to talk, three adults have laryngitis, and the last three just moved in last week and haven't gotten acquainted yet. For in Mohave County the county agent is widely known and warmly liked.

James N. McDougal was born on a ranch near Deming, New Mexico, and attended

Deming High School. He enrolled at New

Mexico State University, at

Las Cruces, majoring in animal husbandry.

After two years of college he enlisted in the armed forces, serving from 1942 -43 in the Coast Artillery. He then returned to

Las Cruces in 1944, but in 1945 transferred to Colorado State University, at Fort Collins, majoring in forestry. He graduated at

Fort Collins, with a major in range management, in 1947.

He was a county agricultural agent in

Colorado for two years, then went to the

Soil Conservation Service as Range Conservationist and Unit Conservationist, first in Colorado and later at Kingman, Ariz.

In April of 1959 he was named County

Agricultural Agent under The University of

Arizona's

Cooperative

Extension Service, with offices at Kingman. He is the first

Mohave County Agent in the county's history.

In fact he was the only county agent until March of 1961 when Mrs. Audrey

Davies joined the staff as county home farmlands and high ponderosa pine forests.

It is a land where two inches of in another.

times given supplemental feeding of ground meal, salt and vitamin A, all fed together. The irrigated areas lie along the Colorado River bottoms, along the Bill Williams river which separates

Mohave County on the south from Yuma County, and on the

(Continued on Next Page)

DISCUSSING BRUCELLOSIS cleanup campaign are, left to right, Dr. William M.

Thompson, State Veterinarian; Dr. T. T. Oyler, Phoenix, supervisor, Animal Disease

Eradication Division, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture; Clayton Atkin, director of Northern

Livestock Assn., and (kneeling) Slats Jacobs, brand inspector on the Arizona Strip.

agent.

(Continued from Previous Page)

Big Sandy river bottom.

All of this is pump irrigation, with very little diversion from the rivers themselves.

One -Third Is Separated

Mohave County itself is a geographical anomaly. As said, it has the Bill

Williams river on the south, between it and Yuma County. It has the Colorado river between it and California as its western boundary. It has Lake

Mead articulating its boundary with

Nevada.

Then comes Utah as the northern boundary, Coconino and Yavapai counties as eastern boundaries.

Like a ragged upright oblong, Mohave county is pierced by the great chasm of the Grand Canyon, which cuts off the north third of the county.

The county agent thus must go through two other states

Nevada and Utah

- to

reach that 3,500,000 acre area north of the Colorado, an area known colloquially as "the strip."

Besides feed crops, Mohave County has a small interest

-

300 acres or so - in Arizona's cotton production picture. This cotton, like a commercial watermelon and cantaloup crop of high quality and reputation, is grown on Colorado river bottomlands.

Cotton yields are highest in Arizona

- a

phenomenal four to five bales per acre.

Mines Preceded Cattle

But the cattle

- some 25,000 to

30,000 head owned by nearly 200 ranchers is the big Mohave County agricultural interest. And even these

FROM 40,000 to 50,000 acres of the Hualapai Indian Reservation in Mohave County has been improved by burning pinon- juniper forests and seeding range grasses. Above, left,

Tribal leaders and Bureau of Indian Affairs personnel plan a burn. At right, same area three years later. Notice excellent grass cover.

cattle came in a little late, after gold and silver mining first put their stamp on the area.

For after the Indianas - the Hualapai, Mohave and Kaibab Piutes the miners came first to the Mohave country. There were mining camps at places a dream about

might

Chloride, Gold Road,

Oatman, Signal, Mineral Park and others.

The cattlemen followed the miners, and the railroad pushed its thin steel highway through the mountains in 1880.

Today Mohave County is a cattle -

producing - a beef -producing -

land. The mother cow herds produce the fat yearlings which are sold to many areas - Colorado, Montana,

Utah, California, the Midwest - each spring, to fatten on lush grass until fall, when they will go to feedyards for finishing.

About two years out of five the rain gods favor Mohave County to a degree that the home grown calves can't keep the grass down. Then ranchers buy steers and turn them out, from

December until spring, when they are grass -fat and ready for the feedyards, probably in California.

Ranges Vary Greatly

Mohave County ranges vary, some high pastures carrying six to eight

head per section, but most of the

mountain ranges carry around two head per section. The better ranges are in the high country, from 4,500 feet up, but not in the Ponderosa, for pine forests bear little grass.

Herefords are favored in Mohave

County, although there are two or three excellent

Angus herds, and many ranchers have crossbreds, cattle which carry the desirable bloodliness of both English and Indian breeds.

Brahman blood is desired where ranging ability, ruggedness, and ability to travel to cover sparse range, is desirable.

Range improvement, the replacement of worthless brush with desirable grasses, has been practiced successfully on 40,000 to 50,000 acres of the Hualapai Reservation under direction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Tribal leaders. Burning has taken away the pinon -juniper forests, and range grasses have been planted.

Seed Before the Rains

Usual procedure is to burn off the dense evergreen growth in June or

July, when it burns readily, then immediately sowing grass seed in the seedbed of ashes in time to catch the benefits of summer rains.

Crested and intermediate wheatgrass, brome, yellow sweet clover and other cool season grasses have grown readily from such seedings.

Considerable help to cattlemen is

(Continued on Next Page) Page 11

Progressive Agriculture

(Continued from Previous Page) the Mohave County Livestock Marketing Association, which gathers information from cattlemen and then furnishes a listing to buyers, telling how many, sex, age, approximate weight and time of delivery of sales cattle and calves. This service is performed through the county agent's office, with cooperation of the cattlemen.

The county agent's efforts on behalf of cattlemen have been largely in the areas of feeding, marketing and disease control. Recently the county's herds have undergone brucellosis testing in a move to lift the county from modified to certified brucellosis free status. Mohave County's Certified Free Certificate was obtained during the latter part of February.

It is being held by the State Veterinarian until the time when he and the

Agricultural Research Veterinarians will be on hand to make the presentation to the Mohave Livestock raisers.

Therefore, Mohave became the first county in Arizona to reach this status.

This is important chiefly as a marketing aid. California will readily accept cattle only from those areas certified and thus certificaas brucellosis -free, tion opens the big wide gate of California markets for Mohave cattle.

A Range Management Guide

Riding the range with cattlemen, the county agent has counseled them in range management, identifying desirable feed plants, cautioning that grazing should be regulated to not exceed range capacity. This spring the livestock men have been interested in screwworin control through biological means release of male sterile screwworm flies which cause the female to lay infertile eggs which will not hatch. This is another step in the protection of Mohave County's livestock.

Youngsters learn adult lessons early in a vigorous 4 -H program in Mohave

County. Some 180 boys and girls are enrolled in the program, and the fat beef sale of 4 -H calves at Kingman has received national recognition, evidenced by prices paid by businessmen for the 4 -H animals. The average of these prices has topped the nation,

one recent year being 54 cents

a pound and that's the average!

An Area Development Council, encouraged and assisted by the county agent's office and The University of

Arizona, has coordinated efforts to meet specific community problems. It is our belief that this coordination, this unification of thinking and effort, this marshalling of human resources,

EXTENSION SPECIALISTS from The University of Arizona help with the local program occasionally in Mohave county. Here Mrs. Carol Doty, home economics specialist, explains the life cycle of the typical American housewife. Left to right above, Mrs.

Clifford Touchette, Mrs. W. J. Bailey, Mrs. Doty, Home Agent Mrs. Audrey Davies,

Mrs. K. B. Johnson and Mrs. William Duncan.

is almost as important for its own sake as for its accomplishments.

This Mohave County Area Development Council has worked on such projects as water and sewer facilities at Chloride and an airport authority for Kingman.

Currently there is a study to evaluate the economic worth to Mohave County communities of a new interstate highway which will pierce this northwest corner of Arizona.

New Industry

Recreation

Like most of Arizona,

Mohave

County has its water problems, despite its wide area of lake and river

frontage. To get that water to the

farms and communities, to the fields and people who need it, is a problem indeed.

On the other hand, the vast lake shore areas caused by man's damming of the Colorado River is already bringing recreational industries to the county. This new "business of fun" is expected to increase greatly as more and more people have the time and money to fish, water ski, go boating, swim and picnic. These shore areas also make Mohave County increasingly attractive, plus the area's superb climate, for retired people.

Early this year there were 420 developments of one kind or another in

Mohave County, ranging from trailer parks to ranchettes. Along the Colorado River, in a rich flat area of river bottom soil, many people have built retirement homes on small acreages, but acreages large enough to include gardens, fruit trees, small fields of al-

falfa and other feed

crops.

With home grown fresh fruits and vegetables, with feed for a beef steer, a milk cow or two and a flock of chickens, these people have found retirement with all its ideals outdoor activity, partial subsistence, community activities, quiet and fresh air, and a superb climate.

New and Old Live Together viore and more, in future years, can we expect this influx of people to contribute to the county's economy people many of whom have spent their more active working years elsewhere, but bring with them a dependable retirement income. Best of all, these retirement colonies, as well as new industry at Havasu City and elsewhere, complement and do not interfere w_th the principal industry of livestock agriculture. They can all live together, all contribute together,

one taking up the slack when another facet is slowed for one reason or another. The result is a balanced, thriving economy.

As in all counties, the distaff side of extension work contributes its share.

Mrs. Audrey Davies, like many Arizonans, is clime.

a refugee from a colder

She had been an extension worker in Montana and Alaska before coming here, as our first county home agent, in the spring of 1961.

There are five homemakers' clubs in the county two at Kingman, one at Chloride, another at Lake Mohave

Ranchos and the fifth at

Topock.

Each club has a monthly meeting, frequently with a lesson or topic pre -

(Continued on Next

Page)

111ay-Jirne

4Page 12

(Continued on Next Page) pared by Mrs. Davies, occasionally with a guest leader from The University of Arizona.

Wide Range of Interests

Topics of club discussion and activity, chosen by the members themselves, range from the importance of wills and estate planning to a Christmas workshop. The selection of furniture, color harmonizing for the home, making over used clothing, an upholstery workshop, foods and meal planning, all are included.

Each spring there is a homemakers' tea, when the clubs meet together, members bringing guests who may be inclined to participate in future activities of the groups.

The county home agent also supervises the distaff side of 4 -H work, with home management, clothing and food projects for girls enrolled in 4 -H, direction in public speaking, and this all climaxed by a 4 -H revue each spring, with a dress revue, favorite food show and public speaking.

Many Aid Extension Program

The extension work in Mohave

County has a number of built -in advantages which ease the work for the county agent -in- charge more effective.

and home agent, and make that work much

The Mohave County Livestock Association, the Cowbelles, the county's

Area Development Council, the 4 -H

Leaders Council, the Homemakers'

Clubs and their leaders, all cooperate actively and effectively in the work we try to do.

Equally important

are the town

folks

- the Kingman merchants who support 4 -H activities and bid on the

4 -H calves. The Rotary, Soroptimists,

Lions, Optimists, the Women's clubs and the garden clubs

- all contribute to any success we have.

And finally, key to public expression and leadership so direly needed by every community, are the avenues which report on the community to itself and to outsiders

- the news

media. The Mohave County Miner and Radio Station KAAA have ever been eager to help carry our message, to report on agricultural and homemaker activities, to help bring crowds to our affairs and to report on those meetings afterward, and to encourage our very successful county fair, where

4 -H, agriculture and the homemaker groups find their annual show window.

Without the help of others, we and our work would be nothing.

EDWARD AND HIS PONY, the Shetland he received from the American Shetland

Assn. Edward Taylor, 16, son of Mr. and Mrs. Shirley S. Taylor of Florence, Ariz., was given this pony to care for, as a 4 -H project. Edward was one of two Arizona boys to be given custody of ponies at ceremonies at Mrs. Frederica Page's Hungry Horse

Ranch, near Tucson.

SIalû 4?aun

9#ieame .234afad

ByJOHN RIDDICK

-

Arizona farmers and ranchers sold their goods last year for $541 million

$41 million less than the year before and $47 million below 1962.

A fall in prices on both cotton and cattle struck the state agriculture a blow in the pocketbook.

The annual report of the University of Arizona department of agricultural economics reveals that the state income from cotton fell from $138,665,-

000 in 1963 to $131,859,000 last year.

And the cattle industry suffered an even greater setback, falling

$21.1

million to a level of $153.7 million.

Total agricultural production was 7 percent below 1963 and 8 per cent below 1962.

"It may be that 1964 was a year of transition and that we will see a continued decline in agricultural income," said Dr. Jimmye S. Hillman, the department head.

"The two keys to the situation, are commodity support prices and the water supply.

"And the further decline in income will be contingent on what the government does about the price support situation, what the United States and the state do about water, and on the management efficiency of the farmers in dealing with these two problems."

The state is mining 41,/> million acre feet of water a year from its underground reserves. And the dropping water table is forcing more and more agricultural land out of production because pumping costs simply make it uneconomical.

Along with cotton and cattle, the agricultural income also declined in hay, vegetables and citrus.

The cotton market last year was primarily controlled by a drop in the government support price from 321/, cents a pound in 1963 to 30 cents.

There will be another drop of a cent a pound this year.

The crucial event in the cattle industry last year was that the feeders, who had been suffering from lowered prices since 1962, shared their problem with the producers, said Hillman.

The result was a decline in prices across the board although the number of cattle slaughtered increased from

203,000 to 223,800.

The average price of choice 900 to

1,100 pound steers at Phoenix was

$22.60 per hundred pounds, compared to $23.81 in 1963. Range feeder calves dropped from 28 cents a pound in

1963 to 21 cents in 1964.

In harmony with the declining cattle prices, the value of hay production in 1964 was estimated at $24.6 million compared to $32.8 million in 1963 as the price dropped $6.90 a ton.

(Continued on Next Page)

Page 13

Progressive Agriculture

John Riddick is science and education writer for The Tucson Daily Citizen.

Bulletins

A -1 Revised Chemical Weed Control Recommendations

A -15 Revised

A -39

Barley in Arizona

-

Minimum Tillage in the

Southwest

44Gu2 qwisn

9ncowe

"The machine now has a high school education, in the sense that it can do most jobs that a high school graduate can do, so machines will get the jobs because they work for less than a living wage.

A person needs 14 years of education to compete with machines."

-Willard Wirt-z, f r. S. Secretary of Labor

Scholarship Program

Honors Dr. L. A. Carruth

A new scholarship program honors

Dr. L. A. Carruth, head of the U of

A Department of Entomology.

The new scholarship program is sponsored jointly by the U of A Department of Entomology and the

Structural

Pest Control Association of Arizona.

The scholarship program has an initial goal of $250 to finance the first scholarship planned for next fall.

Those wishing to donate to the

fund should send checks to Wayne

Van Stelle, Secretary -Treasurer, Structural Pest Control Association of Arizona, Route 3, Box 527, Tucson, Ariz.

(Continued from Previous Page)

The income from vegetables last year was $80.5 million -down 8 per cent from 1963, partly because of a poor spring lettuce crop and a decline in melon income by about $1.6

million.

The value of the 1964 -65 citrus crop also is expected to be down to an estimated $17,012,000 compared to the record high of $19,222,000 for the

1963 -64 season. Oranges, lemons and grapefruit production all are expected to be behind last year.

On the positive side, dairy income climbed by $3.1 million to $29.5 million, mostly due to increased production.

And despite lower prices, total egg sales rose from $5 to $5.5 million, again because of more production.

F e d e r a l government agricultural programs directly affect about two thirds of Arizona's crop lands.

One of the most significant developments in Arizona agriculture is that farmers and ranchers are depending more and more on credit.

Loans on production rose from

$115.1 million in 1960 to $212.7 million at the end of 1964. And the loans on real estate by farmers and ranchers rose from $118.6 million in 1960 to

$163.9 million in 1964.

LINDA HOLBROOK, member of the Tan que Verde 4 -H club in Tucson was state champion 4 -H Angus cattle judge, selected in competition at the annual Angus

Field Day at the U of A Tucson research farms.

Circulars

180 Revised

Staystitching Makes

Sewing Easier

184 Revised Making Bound Buttonholes and Pockets

May -Jane Page 14

9frt 1964 .2eacQ4

1VaIori

Despite a sharp 29 per cent drop,

Arizona farms led the nation in average net income in

1964. U.S. Department of Agriculture figures credit

Arizona farmers with a net average income of $19,633 in 1964, compared to the $27,293 chalked up in 1963.

Nationally, the government figures reflect that farm income last year increased $126 million to $12,644,000,-

000.

This was far below the record high of $17,789,000,000 in 1948.

Government payments to farmers last year totaled $2,168,000,000, an increase of

$482 million over 1963.

Thus,' had subsidies been held to the 1963 level, total farm income last year would have dropped.

The $12,644,000,000 income was the amount farmers had left from market receipts, government payments, the value of farm products consumed on the farm and the rental value of home dwellings after deducting production costs. Total gross receipts were $42,-

012,000,000 in 1964, compared with

$41,737,000,000 in 1963.

Average net income of the farm population last year was $1,405, up

$29 from 1963. This increase largely reflected a further decline in the farm population and increased earnings from non -farm work and other non farm sources.

This farm population average was

61 per cent of the average net income of $2,318 reported for the nation's non -farm population. The average income of the non -farm population was

$2,181 in 1963.

The net income of farm operators last year averaged $3,659, up $16 from the 1963 average. By states, the average ranged from Arizona's high to a low of $887 in West Virginia.

The small increase in the national average net income of operators reflected a

3 per cent decline in the number of farms last year.

The average net incomes per farm in other states and the percentages they represent of the 1963 average included:

Oklahoma $2,448, up 7; Texas $3.-

877, down 11; New Mexico $5,719, down 11.

Montana $3,225, down 24; Idaho

$2,839, clown 4; Colorado $4,964, up

17; Wyoming $3,331, down 18; Utah

$1,838, down

18;

Nevada

$1,308, down 28; Washington $4,039, down

27; Oregon $2,172, up 10; California

$11,652, up 22.

3 GRASSLAND DELEGATES caught by the photographer in corridor conversation are, left to right, Dr. Harold

Heady, University of California; Dr. Robert R. Humphrey of The University of

Arizona Brazilian team, and Dr. Kenneth

Parker of the U. S. Forest Service.

Wii9Itt Iepa'IS

Q4czss CG#iO4etS

dield ßr2 /3ncil

EDITOR'S NOTE: Following is an interview with Dr. Neal Wright, professor of agronomy and research agronomist with the

U. S. Department of Agriculture. Note our cover picture and reference to it on Page 3.

Nine International Grassland Congresses have been held in various countries. The first was in Germany in 1927, the second in Sweden and

Denmark in 1930, the third in Switzer-

land in 1934, the fourth in Great

Britain in

1937, the fifth in the

Netherlands in 1949, the sixth in the

United

States

( Pennsylvania State

University ) in 1952, the seventh in

New Zealand in 1956, the eighth in

England in 1960, and the ninth in

Brazil in 1964/65.

It has been the general plan to hold the congresses every three or four years; however, the tenth congress is scheduled for Finland in 1966. Three countries

( Canada, Australia,

Russia ) and extended invitations to host the eleventh congress. Those in attendance in Sao Paulo, Brazil voted to accept the invitation of Australia to host the eleventh congress in 1970.

From 50 Nations

It was my privilege to attend the

Ninth International Grassland Congress in Sao Paulo, Brazil, January 7-

21, 1965. There were more than 800 delegates and members in attendance

Page 15 Progressive Agriculture from 50 or more countries. More than

200 scientific papers were presented and discussed during the nine days of the formal meetings in 20 sections and plenary sessions.

I was invited by the congress to present a paper in the area of my primary interest, genetics and breeding of forage plants.

The title was

"Drouth Tolerance Evaluation Among

Range -Grass

Genera, Species, and

Accessions of Three Species Using

Program - Controlled Environment."

There was excellent audience participation during the discussion period.

Other major subject areas of the congress were physiology, ecology, nutrition, conservation, utilization, soil, and economics. Papers were presented by delegates from Brazil on various aspects of the host country. Brazil was the first country with tropical grasslands to sponsor the congress. Thus, the general theme centered around research of the tropics.

In Three Languages

The official languages were Portuguese, Spanish, and English. All proceedings of the congress were simultaneously translated to the other two languages, so those in attendance could dial the language of their choice and listen to the proceedings through individual earphones. Questions, answers and discussions were translated.

The sessions were most informative and educational.

Perhaps the most stimulating and profitable experiences were the personal discussions and visiting during off hours with research workers from around the world who are concerned with grassland problems of arid and semi -arid environments. Some very fine contacts were made and closer ties established for exchange of ideas and research progress.

In addition to the professional aspects of the congress, the trip was most educational and pleasurable, particularly since my wife and I made the trip together. The congress provided extensive activities for the ladies and opportunities were available for excursions. The Brazilian people are very gracious and were wonderful hosts.

Various Side Trips

We visited Santos -Guaruja which is known as the "World's Coffee Port" which is connected with Sao Paulo by one of the most modern highways in

South America. The shipping industry of Santos is of major importance to Brazil, as is the tremendous resort attraction of the beaches.

"Millionaire's Beach" of

Guaruja attracts thousands of Brazilians during the summer mo n t h s. The population grows from a few hundred thousand during the winter to several, million for the vacation season. These people are largely native, as Rio De Janeiro attracts the foreign tourists.

Another excursion was to Brasilia, the new national capital, which is a city approaching a million people, a city completely built in the past seven and one -half years. The ultra -modern architecture was a sight to behold.

It's people are proud to state that

Brazilia is the only city in

Brazil with a complete system of purified

(Continued on Next Page)

BELOW, DR. WRIGHT of the U of A and

USDA addresses the 800 delegates at Sao

Paulo.

dJe'z4ae,

atiaahci 4dta#iceS

ctn

empeuos

ByJOHN BURNHAM

The First Interamerican Research

Symposium on the Role of Communications in Agricultural Development

( Primer Symposium Interamerican de

Investigacion de las Funciones de la

Divulgacion en el Desarrollo Agricola ) was held in Mexico City and I was privileged to attend.

There were 35 to 40 participants, about half of them from Mexico and the rest from Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Brazil and the United States. There were representatives from government agencies, colleges, Ford and Rockefeller foundations, from agricultural extension services of governments and universities.

Papers were read each day of the

10 -day session, some in English and some in Spanish, but typed copies in both languages usually were available later. Discussion periods were vigorous, ranging the gamut from human liberty and birth control to laboratory and office equipment and personnel.

Motive to Help People

A keynote voiced by Felipe Gaytán

C., early in the session was ( I translate loosely ) "The final aim of Agricultural Extension work is not solely

Mr. Burnham is Experiment Station editor.

(Continued from Previous Page) water and a complete and modern sewer system.

One of the most beautiful spectacles of nature in the world is Iguassu Falls, longest natural falls in the world. Of course the city that is known the world over is Rio De Janeiro. We spent two days in Rio and enjoyed every minute.

Rio is celebrating its

400th Anniversary this year, so the activities are many. The only discour-

aging part of the entire trip for a

couple of sun loving "desert rats" was the frequency of rain. With our back ground we realized the importance of rain to grasslands so we were happy for them, particularly since the state of Sao Paulo and other areas of Brazil have experienced drouthy periods during recent years.

A SHARP EYE for black cows has Jake

Weathersby, son of Mr. and Mrs. Newell

Weathersby of Graham County. Jake was champion 4 -H bey judge at the Angus

Field Day held at The University of Arizona's farms here.

greater agricultural production. That is only a means toward a better eco-

nomic condition

of agricultural people. It is necessary that the Agricultural Extension Service utilize its strength not only to see that the fields produce more, or better, but also to see that this is translated into a gen-

eral rise in the level of life of the

agricultural producers and their families."

Reviewing the subsistence life of the Latin -American campesino, speakers agreed that I ) He is not lazy, although his efforts frequently may be handicapped by poor nutrition or ill health; 2 ) He does have aspirations

Dr. R. R. Humphrey, a member of

The University of Arizona team on r assignment in Fortaleza, Brazil with the University of Ceara, also attended the congress.

I enjoyed visiting with

Bob in Sao Paulo about the grasslands of Brazil.

Mrs. Wright and I traveled to northeastern Brazil and spent four days in Fortaleza. We were guests in the home of Dr. and

Mrs. R. E. Briggs. We had the opportunity to visit with all the Arizona group there. We attempted to bring them up to date on the happenings of

Tucson, and extended best wishes on behalf of friends and associates.

It was certainly a pleasure for us to see their work and visit in their homes.

We hope our visit added a spark to the continued progress in their work, and pleasure while away from home.

for a better life, a better living, but

3) Those aspirations are sh ackl -d his limited resources which do not permit him to gamble with any change from proven methods.

Thus, he grows a diversity of pitiful little crops, not daring to take a chance on one or two major crops, for if they failed, his family would go hungry. He must put his little eggs in many baskets. Likewise, he has no extra cash for the fertilizers, insecticides, better seeds and other crop improvement materials or methods which could improve his lot.

Initiative Not Encouraged

Frequently his initiative, a daring to make a change, is stunted by many generations of living under the padrón system, whereby all agricultural decisions were made for him, and initiative on the part of the field worker not only was not needed but was frowned upon. Another handicap, of course, is lack of markets, or only markets which are distant and not easily reached by roads which may he impassable much of the year. Thus, production, excepting for the large commercial farming areas

( such as the Yaqui Valley in Sonora and

Sinaloa ) is largely for the household, and for trade within the home village.

Efforts to change things for the campesino are diverse, but results frequently are frustrating. First of all, of course, he is suspicious of the outsider who enters his village. He is suspicious of trickery on the part of anyone from the outside, especially if that person represents government.

Other means of communication, besides the direct human contact, have their difficulties. Some large rural areas are largely illiterate.

Many speakers told of whole villages where newspapers and other printed materials scarcely penetrated. In others, where there is no electricity and transistor radios are too expensive, even radio communication is sparse.

If

He Can't Afford Risks communication can be established through extension workers, through printed and radio messages

-there is still the barrier of risk and uncertainty. The greatest need for research in this general field would appear to be related to risk and uncertainty which the subsistence farmer faces in considering new and improved practices. Such research should also identify ways in which the cam pesino can make desired changes by reducing these risks.

Dr. Myren of the Rockefeller Foun-

(Continued on Next Page)

May-June

Page 16

Sc'ewwcvim 2üe T#is a Afe«iec

\Var on the screwworm, which currently includes an eradication drive in Arizona, is being shifted from the

Southwestern United States to breeding grounds of the insect in Mexico.

Al Lane, U of A livestock specialist, says this move is being made to protect the extensive gains made against the costly livestock pest since the eradication campaign began in

1962.

The prime objective is to weaken screwworm infestations along the east and west coasts of northern Mexico, which constitute a major threat to

U. S. areas freed of the pest. An unusually mild winter in northern Mexico has permitted large numbers of screwworms to survive and multiply there.

This has increased the threat of migration by the pest into the U. S.

Screwworms are nearly eradicated from the United States, with the exception of Arizona and California.

Eradication workers are prepared to deal quickly with any isolated outthat occur in these areas.

breaks

Measures against reinfestation from the screwworm flies in Arizona and

California include inspection of livestock in transit at the Arizona -New

Mexico state line, and seasonal release of sterile flies along that line.

Our Mystery Picture

Comes From Wickenburg

Flies will be released in areas of infestation reported in Arizona.

Hence, Arizona ranchers are being asked to report all such infestations.

Screwworms caused an estimated

$25 to $100 million loss per year in each of five states -Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana- before eradication efforts got under way. No estimate is available for Arizona losses.

Activities in Mexico involve release of millions of artificially reared, sexually sterilized screwworm flies to mate with native flies. These sterile flies sharply re-uca the ability of the wild screwworm flies to multiply and hamper their springtime migration northward toward the United States.

Continuous release of the sterile exico, along rivers and other favorable routes followed by migrating native screwworm flies, will provide a living barrier against spread of the screwworm into the United

States.

At the same time, cooperating ranchers in northern Mexico will continue to experience considerable relief from screwworm damage to their livestock.

As further protection, all livestock entering the United States from Mexico is inspected and treated for screwworms.

Colorful Wickenburg, northwest of

Phoenix, is the town where this "No

Horses on Sidewalk" sign, pictured on Page 9, appears along the main thoroughfare. For those of you who have summer vacations and time to read, we urge a summer project of reading about this colorful, beautiful community of Wickenburg. Your local library has

- or can

obtain the source material.

"Let us, in the beef business, be grateful and thankful that Americans - young and old - like hot dogs and hamburgers, because there's a lot of this kind of meat on every critter that's sent to market.--National Livestock and Meat Board.

Los piojos del plumon de las aves causan en las mismas una irritación constante de la piel, por lo que se alimentan mal, duermen peor y reducen la postura. Las plumas se les caen a las aves, llegando a tomar éstas un aspecto desplumado, feo. En los pollitos, la irritación causa a los animalitos una constante inquietud, se ponen tristes, pierden el apetito e incluso pueden morirse.

(Continued from Previous Page) dation told us:

"The subsistence farmer looks for sure bets. The possibility of obtaining a 20(j- gain in nine years out of ten may have little appeal for him. In fact, the probability of a 100% gain in nine years out of ten, through the introduction of a new practice, may still not be convincing to a farmer who has no reserves to fall back on.

"In the case of a farmer with no re-

serves, with his back to the wall,

probability may be of little relevance.

He must be principally concerned with whether there will be a failure this year. This, I expect, is one of the identifying characteristics of the subsistence farmer. He finds it impractical to be concerned with probabilities of gain, and must he concerned with the possible extent of loss under the worst possible circumstances."

A speaker quoted a study made in the villages of India, but applicable

Page 17 Progressice Agriculture throughout Latin America. The villager tells the outsider:

"There was no one outside of our own group whom we dared trust.

Everyone who comes to us or

to whom we go thinks only of what he can get from us, be it money or gain or personal glory. You may call us stubborn and backward and hard, but we have learned hard lessons, we and our fathers. Those lessons have made us cautious. We know that we cannot make much progress without experience and resources, but again we ask just where would progress lead us.

«'e feel safe behind the barriers of our mud walls and our status quo, and we are uneasy when you or our sons propose a change."

U. S. People from Midwest

Interesting to us was the fact that attendance from this country was

largely from the Midwest - Uni-

versity of Minnesota, University of

Wisconsin, Michigan State University,

University of Chicago, Iowa State

University, University of

N'1 issouri,

University of Kentucky, as well as one each from Harvard, Pennsylvania

State, and the University of Colorado.

But of the

states contiguous to

Latin America, and with sizable Latin populations of their own

New Mexico, Arizona, Southern California

Texas,

- we were the only representative. One speaker, however, was Dr.

Marion Brown of the University of

Wisconsin, who is an Arizona native, took his bachelor's degree at the University of Arizona and now is studying

Andean village and rural culture in

Chile.

Understandably this study of the problems of the campesino, and of getting him information which will help him improve his agriculture, has little to do with the highly skilled commercial farmer in Arizona who has large scale financing, the most advanced technologies, and the most precise control over his operations.

However, the campesino's lot is directly comparable to that of our considerable Indian population in Arizona. In fact, the risks and uncertainties of change in agricultural practices are not limited solely to Indians, hut are applicable to a considerable portion of our Anglo farming population.

PHOTOS AT LEFT are of the Whitethorn control experimental area. Photo at top shows an untreated area, while below is view of a plot showing grass growth four years after treatment with two pounds of

2,4 -D.

Table 1.

Total kill of whitethorn from herbicides on Chi -

huahuan Desert Shrub

plots near H e r e f or d,

Ariz. Plots were sprayed in June, 1959 and evaluated in October, 1960.

Herbicidal rate lb. /A ae

4

8

1

9

Total kill of plants at various herbicidal rates

2,4 -D 2,4 -D

2,4,5 -T o

2

35

60

2,4,5 -T

( Percent ) o

27

10

35 o

10

20

35

WI-IITETHORN CONTROL

W4e#i S44hA

Q 'cUS

aze

Su4dued

Caae'i i2 9,4ie'ieased

By D. G. W I LCOX, DAVID E. LITTLE and ERV I N M. SCHMUTZ

The upper fringes of the Chihuahuan Desert in southeastern Arizona are characterized by a cover of low shrubs including whitethorn ( Acacia constricta var.

vernicosa)

, tarbush

(Flourensia cerium), and creosote bush ( Larrea tridentata) .

The specific dominants frequently occur in almost pure stands, depend-

D. G. Wilcox is agricultural adviser, Department of

Agriculture,

Perth, Western

Australia; David E.

Little is a graduate assistant in research and Ervin M.

Schmutz is an assistant professor in Range Management, Department of Watershed

Management, Arizona Agricultural Experiment

Station.

ing in part on the parent material

from .which the soils were derived.

Underlying these shrubs are scattered clumps of bush muhly ( Muhlenbergia porteri ), tobosa (H ilaria mutica ), and various grama grasses, predominately blue ( Boutelona gracilis ), black

( B.

eriopoda)

, and sideoats ( B. curti pen d tlla ), which provide sparse grazing for cattle.

These areas of Chihuahuan Desert occur as islands within the desert grassland and have a potential for grass production where soils are suitable and the elevation is over 4,000 feet. This study was designed to determine the effects of herbicidal treatments on the grass -shrub relationships of a whitethorn dominated type in this desert.

San Pedro Valley Site

The study area is located in southeastern Arizona five miles south of

Hereford in the valley of the San

Pedro River at an elevation of about

4,500 feet. The average annual rain

fall is about 12 inches, of which about

60 percent falls during the months of

July, August and September, when it can be expected to be available for perennial grass production. The soil is a mixed alluvium derived from a limestone parent material, and is a sandy clay loam capable of supporting perennial grass.

Before treatment, the vegetation was dominated by whitethorn, which rarely exceeded four feet in height.

Other shrubs in isolated patches included littleleaf sumac ( Rhus micro phylla) and Mormon tea

( Ephedra tri f urca)

.

The grass cover was restricted to clumps of perennials which occurred sparsely through the stand, and commonly intertwined with the shrubs. Bush muhly was the most important species, but occasional clumps of grama grasses and tobosa were also present.

First Herbicidal Treatments

The study area was sprayed in June,

1959, using a boom -sprayer mounted

(Continued on Next Page)

May-June

Page 18

Percent of Total Weight for

Each Treatment by Species

YT yz

Bush muhly and miscellaneous grasses

GRAPH AT LEFT shows how shrub ground cover was subdued and grass production increased four years after different herbicidal treatments.

Table 2.

Herbicidal e f f e c t s on

shrub crown cover in a

whitethorn shrub type 4

years after treatment.

Herbicidal rate

Herbicidal effects on shrub crown cover

2,4 -D lb /A ae

1

2

4

8

Average herbicidal

2,4 -D 2,4,5 -T

2,4,5 -T effects

-( Percent of cover remaining )-

21.6

17.5

23.0

20.7

13.3

7.4

32.7

17.8

5.1

5.5

11.3

18.4

8.7

13.0

11.0

10.6

19.3

Average rate

11.5

8.2

effects

0 w

0

10

0

70

=

20 m

TI

T2

DI T4

DTI DT4 T8

DT2 D8

D2

D4 DT8

=

30 cn

40

D 0.

2,4 -D

T E

2,4,5 -T

DT

1:1 mixture of 2,4 -D and 2,4,5 -T

1,2,4,8 E lbs per acre applied

(Continued from Previous Page) on a trailer. Herbicidal treatments applied were the PGBE esters of 2,4 -D,

2,4,5 -T and 50 -50 mixture of the two.

Four rates of each treatment were applied, namely 1, 2, 4 and 8 lbs.

ae

( acid equivalent) per acre.

The herbicides were applied in one gallon of diesel oil and 40 gallons of water per acre. The study area was divided into 3 blocks of 31/9 acres each. Each herbicide was applied to one block. Within each block the various rates of the chemical were applied to 4 strip- randomized, unequal plots.

The 1 -lb.

rate in each case

was applied to

1

-acre, the 2 -lb. rate to DA-acre, and the 4- and 8 -lb. rates to 1/4-acre plots.

Preliminary measurements of herbicidal effects on whitethorn were made in October, 1960 on 20 to 40 plants selected in each plot before treatment.

These results show that 2,4 -D gave highest total kill and that an 8 -lb.

Page 19 Progressive Agriculture rate of herbicide was needed for a

50 percent total kill ( Table 1 )

.

Effects of the herbicides on grass-.

shrub relationships were evaluated in two ways :

(1) by reduction in shrub crown cover following treatment, and

( 2) by changes in grass composition and production.

Measurements were made in September, 1963 on a series of 8 belt transects 21.78 feet long and one foot wide, located in a random grid pattern at 50 -foot intervals along two lines within each plot. Shrub crown cover along each transect was estimated in tenths of a square foot, using a one -foot -square frame, which was divided into 0.1- and 0.5- squarefoot sections.

Along the same transect grasses were cut at one inch above ground and separated by species, oven -dried at 90°

C. for 48 hours, and then

weighed. For the most part the grasses were actively growing during the cutting period.

No annual grasses were found in the association.

Results showed that shrub crown cover and grass composition and production in the whitethorn shrub type were markedly influenced by the herbicidal treatments, as indicated in the photos on Page 18.

Shrub Crown Cover Effects

Results of the herbicidal treatments on crown cover after four years closely paralleled initial total -kill effects

( Tables 1 and 2)

.

Herbicides, rates and herbicide -rate interaction all had significant effects on shrub cover.

Separation of effects by the Duncan

Multiple range test showed that

2,4 -D and the 50 -50 mixture were not significantly different,

but that

both were more effective than the 2,4.5 -T.

The effect of herbicidal rate on shrub crown cover generally increased directly with rate of application. The

8 -lb. rate was more than twice as effective as the 1- and 2 -lb. rates but not different from the 4 -lb. rate.

In turn, the 4 -lb. rate was more effective than the 1 -lb. rate but not the 2 lb.

There was no difference between the

1- and 2 -lb. rates. The herbicide X rate interaction on shrub -cover, although highly significant,

did not

show any distinct pattern. However, the 4- and 8 -lb. rates of 2,4 -D were the most effective and the 1- and 2 -lb.

rates of 2,4,5 -T were least effective in reducing shrub crown cover.

Grass Production Is Noted

Herbicidal effects on grass production after the four years were not as great as on shrub cover

( Table 3 )

.

Both herbicides and rates were significant at the 5- percent level but the interaction was not significant.

Results were less significant, probably because herbicidal effects on grass production were mainly i n d i r e c t

Table 3.

Herbicidal rate lb /A ae

1

2

4

8

Average herbicidal effects

Herbicidal effects on grass production in a whitethorn shrub type 4 years after treatment'.

Herbicidal effects on grass production

2,4 -D

2,4 -D-

2,4,5 -T

2,4,5 -T

( pounds per acre)

Average rate effects

273

485

88

282

916

731

154

600

1013

670 476

720

833

1022

718

858

758 727

359

(Continued from Previous Page) through their effects on shrub cover.

The relative effects of the herbicides on grass production were similar to those on shrub cover ( Tables 2 and

3 )

.

The 2,4 -D and the 50 -50 mixture had about the same effect on grass production,

and both were about

twice as effective as the 2,4 -5 -T.

Similarly, grass production generally increased with the herbicidal rate, increasing from 282 lbs. /A at the

1 -lb. rate to 858 lbs. at the 8 -lb. rate.

The 4- and 8 -lb. rates increased grass production significantly over the 1 -lb.

rate but the effects on the 2 -lb. plots were not significantly different from any of the other rates.

Grass -Shrub Interrelationships

A comparison of the effect of shrub cover changes on grass production, as seen in the photos on Page

18.

showed that there was an inverse relationship with a highly significant

Taber Wants to Find Out

A curious young man has been added to the staff of the USDA "bee lab" out on East Allen Road, Tucson.

The young scientist is

Stephen

Taber III, and he is curious about bees, why they do certain things, and how. Mr. Taber is newest recruit in that happy family of apiculturists who man the federal facility near the U of

A Dairy Research Center, a facility affiliated with the U of A College of

Agriculture and its Entomology Department.

"Why," says Mr. Taber, "do bees go to a plant for pollen? Why do they go to one plant instead of another?

What attracts bees to flowers ?"

Presumably the attractant is odor, correlation.

This shows that even a shrub with such sparse foliage as whitethorn can seriously compete with grass cover for light, moisture and soil nutrients.

Less Shrub and More Grass

Results of this study showed that

2,4 -D was about twice as effective as

2,4 -5 -T in controlling whitethorn but it required as much as 8 lbs. ae per acre of 2,4 -D to produce effective

( over 50% ) total kill.

However, shrub crown cover was significantly reduced by both herbicides and the reduction in crown cover resulted in marked increases in grass growth.

Grass production at the 2 -, 4- and

8 -lb. rate was generally 2, 2.5 and 3 times greater, respectively, than at the

1 -lb.

rate, which represents an average increase of 46 lbs. per acre in grass production ( clipped at 1 -inch stubble height ) for each 1- percent decrease in shrub crown cover.

"Why Doth the Busy Bee.. ?"

the sweet smell of honeysuckle or orange blossom. Although, of course, bees don't have noses to smell with.

ing

Taber notes that if

a sugar -andwater dish is left right at the hive door, bees will still prefer to make thousands of trips to flowers, collect-

pollen and nectar

amounts.

in minute

"It is like you lived next door to a bank," explains the apiculturist, "and

any time you wanted money you

could go in and get a hundred dollar bill.

For nothing. But, instead, you preferred to drive five miles to work every day, and worked hard all day long. That's the kind of choice these bees are making. Why? I'm curious

STEPHEN TABER III about it."

It is a known fact to beekeepers that the sugar- and -water solution in a handy saucer will be consumed by bees when flowering plants are not abundant. So the "artificial" food is taken readily by them, and they can be sustained by it.

So why do bees make their living the hard way? Taber is obsessed by that problem.

So much so that he gave a talk on it before a world congress of apiculturists in Czechoslovakia a couple of years ago. He made a movie on the subject, which he showed at that meeting in Prague.

Taber feels that when we know more about why bees act this way, we shall be a long step further on the road to solving many of our pollination problems.

Addition of Mr. Taber to the federal Honey Bee Research Laboratory here, says Dr. Marshall Levin, head of the facility, is part of an expansion program which adds personnel as well as a proposed new building.

Mr. Taber has been with the USDA

Entomology Research Division, stationed at Louisiana State University, for the past 15 years.

Both he and

Mrs. Taber were in the navy, both attended the University of Wisconsin where both received their bachelor of science degrees. Now there are five little Tabers, happily getting used to the Southwest.

"The research possibilities here are absolutely fantastic," says Taber, as he looks out the laboratory window.

Then he adds, "I've why bees

.

.

." always wondered

May -June

Page 20

SOILS

ß 4'o4sia/s

Ca4e %YeSIS

By S. W. BUOL

Much of Arizona that receives over

20 inches of annual rainfall supports stands of conifers. In addition to the forest products, these areas also provide the state with rangeland, wildlife habitat, recreational

area and

watershed area.

Most of the soil under the conifer forests in Arizona is classified in two great soil groups, the Gray Wooded soils and the Western Brown Forest

The Gray Wooded soils have soils.

been developed by the process of pod zolization.

During this process, iron and clay are leached from the top

Recognition of these soils is soil.

easily made by their characteristic light- colored, ash -like top soil layer under the surface layer of pine needles.

This ash -like layer is the origin of the word Podzol from the Slavonic words poda ( soil) and zola ( ash) .

Include Several Series

Their subsoils are reddish in color and usually of clay or clay loam texture.

Soil series in the Gray Wooded group include the deep

( over 36")

McVickers and the shallow to moderately deep ( less than 36 ") Wildcat series developed over Coconino Sandstone; the moderately deep to deep

( over 20"), Elledge series over Dakota sandstone; the deep ( over 36 ")

,

Soldier series and the moderately deep ( 20 to 36" deep )

,

Hogg series on cherty limestone of the Kaibab formation, and the Overgaard series developed on Tertiary gravels.

In general, these soils support the better stands of timber in the state.

The reasons for this seem to be :

( 1 ) the high infiltration rate provided by the coarse textured, ash -like topsoil layer which allows much of the rainfall to enter the soil and ( 2 ) the fine textured subsoil which stores the

This is ell fifth article in a series by Dr.

Buol, describing the various soils in Arizona.

The author, engaged in a cooperative project for mapping Arizona soils, is eminently qualified for this subject.

He is member of the Department of Agricultural a

Chemistry and Soils.

Page 21

Progressive Agriculture

PONDEROSA PINE and understory of grass on a Western Brown Forest soil.

water for plant use during periods of little or no precipitation.

The other group of soils

in the

forested areas of Arizona, the Western Brown Forest soils, do not have the ash -like top soil.

Rather, they have a moderately fine to medium textured dark -colored surface layer.

Soil series recognized in this group of soils include the fine -textured Siesta and Bolliar series on basalt, the medium a n d moderately fine -textured

Sponsellar series developed from vol-

PROFILE OF SOLDIER soil, a Gray

Wooded soil developed on Cherty limestone.

canic ash and cinders over basalt and the gravelly textured Sizer series developed on deep deposits of volcanic cinders.

Poorer Trees, Better Grass

In general the Western Brown Forest soils produce as good a stand of trees as do the Gray Wooded soils, however, a better understory of grass is usually found on the Western

Brown Forest soils.

Many demands are placed on the forested soils in Arizona.

Most of these demands stem from the fact that these soils are in areas of the state with the highest rainfall. Most of the demands can be summarized in the following management alternatives.

( 1 ) Should the management attempt to provide as much run -off as possible for use in the irrigated agriculture of the warmer valleys?

( 2 ) Should the growth of timber be the primary concern, or should the overstory vegetation he thinned or removed to encourage increased growth of grass for rangeland? (3) How much of the area should be developed for recreation and /or wildlife?

As all of these alternatives have economic considerations, each q uestion is receiving considerable study at present. It now appears that no single use is best for the entire area. Rather, the most reasonable solution would seem to depend largely on the type of soil present. Each kind of soil presents unique features that need to he considered when managing the area.

be made available and acceptable to the Brazilian people.

GRADUATING SENIORS of the Agricultural College of the University of Sinaloa,

(Escuela Superior de Agricultura y Ganaderia) with their instructors took a mailman's holiday in February, coming by bus from Culiacán to The University of Arizona campus.

Here they were luncheon guests of U of A students, and heard cordial welcoming talks from President Harvill, Vice President Johnson and Dean of Agriculture Myers. Then they had three days of visiting farms and laboratories, including a field trip to Agricultural Experiment Stations up in the Salt River Valley.

This is the first class to graduate in agriculture in Culiacán, the agricultural branch of the university being established in 1961.

4?a4e

Slade#dS

'.2ervut 4 iur,.f' ire d{ame eco#u&ø,ucs

Keyed to Home Land Economy

Similarly, in learning about management of clothing resources, she examines ideas about procuring clothing in a manner which satisfies the aesthetic, economic, psychological, social, and physical goals of people in the American culture.

She must then examine the value of these ideas for the present and emerging Nigerian culture.

This creates a challenge to these students and to the teachers who work with them.

Even though these foreign students are studying in a culture different from their own they are succeeding scholastically. Ten of the 12 enrolled last semester had grade records better than the all- university undergraduate average. Two of these were on the Dean's Honor Roll.

In addition to academic work, their programs will include field observation and study. Each will live with a ranch or farm family for a week or two.

There she will observe and participate in the work and life of the family and in its community activities.

omist extension advisers or teachers of home economics.

The other four young women from Brazil are readying themselves to become professors of home economics in Brazilian universities.

By AMY J EAN KNORR

Sometime within the next four years you may meet an eager young Nigerian woman working with the home agent in the extension program in your county.

If you do, she is likely to be one of the international students in the School of Home Economics at the University.

Currently 12 young women, five from Ceará, Brazil; six from Nigeria, and one from Kenya, are participants ill programs sponsored by the Agency for International Development in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Land -Grant Colleges and Universities.

While in the United States, they intend to earn B.S. degrees in home economics.

The young women from

Kenya and Nigeria and one from

Brazil are preparing to serve in their home countries as either home econ-

Dr. Knorr is a member of the staff of the

School of Home Economics, and academic adviser and group leader for AID students in Home Economics.

For Their Native Land

All the young women have as their mission to improve the home living conditions among people in their own countries.

To this end they are taking a basic home economics program which emphasizes the application of physical sciences, social sciences and humanities in the betterment of home and family living.

Special emphasis is being given in their programs to aspects of home living which are of particular importance in their countries at the present time, such as nutrition, health and sanitation and child development.

Each student is finding that in her courses she learns how principles are applied in the American culture. Then she has to go beyond this to examine their relevance in her own culture.

For example in nutrition she deals with nutritive values of foods common in the American diet.

To prepare herself for working in her own country she must go beyond this to understand the nutritive deficiencies of, for example, the common Brazilian diet and the nutritive values of foods which are or could

Home and School Experiences

She will seek a mental picture of the similarities and differences between this family and those she has known at home.

Each student will also have planned field experiences in which she is oriented to home economics work with youth and adults in schools or in 4 -H Clubs and the adult extension program.

Later she will serve as a home economics teacher in a local school or a home agent in an Arizona county.

Her program also will include participation in workshops sponsored by the Agency for International Development for international women in nutrition education at Iowa State University and home improvement at the

University of Ohio.

Finally, back at the University of

Arizona a series of seminars will be designed so each student can explore the soundness of ways to bring about desirable changes in the living practices of the people of her country.

This entire program is aimed to help these young women acquire sound fundamental knowledge and practical skills which will help them work with people in their own coup tries, thus to better the quality of home living.

May-June

Page 22

POTATO FERTILIZATION

By W. D. PEW and JAMES H. PARK

Table 2.

Effects of Fertilizer Potash on Yield.

Yield

Treatment

Material

1

?

3

10-20-0

10-20-5

10-20-10

100 lb. Sacks /Acre

291

280

267

The wise use and skillful application of fertilizers play an important role in producing high yields of good quality potatoes.

Because of the large fertilizer

re-

quirements for this crop, developing an adequate, yet unwasteful, fertilizer program is often difficult.

Where other factors are at an optimum, the composition of the fertilizer to be used is very important. The ratio between nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium appears important, but the water solubility of the phosphorus seems to be the key in proper fertilization.

Obviously the best and most carefully thought out program would be useless in bringing about the desired results if other factors, such as irrigation practices, fertilizer placement and other cultural practices, and the soil itself are not carefully considered and placed into proper relationship with the whole production process.

Table 1.

E f f e c t s of Increasing

Amounts of

P205 on

Yield of Potatoes.

Treatment

1

2

3

4

5

6

-- - -

Ratio*

N

2

Yield

P205 K20 100 lb. Sacks /Acre

1

0

216

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

2

0

2.5

0

3 0

4.4

0

231

258

278

315

287 type.

All materials were chemically combined

Nitrogen constant at 120 pounds per acre.

Old Methods Good No More

Studies with fertilizers and fertilizer programs have shown that very important changes have become necessary to achieve the highest degree of success. These studies have shown in general that the previously used fertilizer programs are not adequate for today's crop.

The need for fertilizer phosphorus for potato production in Arizona has been demonstrated in many experiments and under several soil conditions.

Treatments listed in Table 1 were selected from a greater list to represent the fertilizers of various ratios ranging from 2 -1 -0 to 1- 4.4 -0.

A study of the data shows progressive increases in yield associated with the broadening of the N and P205 ratio up to 1 to 3.

Each of the fertilizer materials used in obtaining the range of ratios was a different commercially available one.

Since the

This is fourth in a series of articles on potato culture in Arizona by these two highly competent authors. Dr. Pew is professor of Horticulture and superintendent of the

Mesa Branch Experiment Station. James H.

Park is an assistant in research, for several years at Mesa but now at the Yuma Branch

Experiment Station.

Page 23 Progressive Agriculture same fertilizer was not used in each ratio, at least two contributing factors exist in relation to their influence on growth.

These are the direct increase in amount applied and the variation in solubility. Hence, the increase in yield is associated with the total availability of phosphorus to the plants through either or both of these relationships.

Different Ratios Today

In the past, where a 1 -2 -1 ratio was deemed best, today fertilizers with ratios of 1 -2.5 -0 or 1 -3 -0 produce the best yields.

Yet knowing the ratio of

N to P is not enough.

Actually, the solubility of the phosphate is the important consideration. Sources of fertilizer with the same ratio can often produce yields that vary as much as materials of different ratios.

Fertilizers with a high water soluble phosphate in the ratio range of 1 -2.5 -0 to

1 -3 -0 are therefore most desirable.

Caution should be exercised in the selection of fertilizers, and the question of water solubility should be a standard one for all potato growers to ask.

Note in Table 1 the almost straight line increase in yields as the ratio changes from 2 -1 -0 to 1 -3 -0, followed by a leveling off as the ratio widens beyond this range.

It must be remembered that for most soils the total nitrogen should be at or near the 120- pounds -per -acre level for a given potato crop.

This means that if a 90 -pound application is made at planting time, 30 additional pounds should be applied as a side -dressing not later than when the tubers are about the size of marbles.

In most cases, though, all of the nitrogen fertilizer may be applied at planting time with excellent results.

This method eliminates having to incur additional expense and labor in making a second application.

Don't Use Potash

Much has been said concerning the use of potassium in potatoes, but generally its use, even in small quantities

( 5 percent of the fertilizer )

, almost always will cause a reduction in yield and generally will reduce the chipping quality by lowering the dry matter ( specific gravity )

.

The use of fertilizer at the recommended rates, but with a 10 percent level of potash, is practically, a guarantee to a reduction in yield.

Data in Table 2 substantiate this finding. These tests over the past several years have consistently shown a reduction in yields where potash is present as added fertilizer.

In summary, care should be exercised in selecting a fertilizer material with a ratio

1 -2.5 -0 to

within the range of

1 -3 -0 and that the phos-

phate contained therein be of the

highest water solubility possible. The usual citric acid expression of phosphate solubility should not be used except in broad generalities, in evaluating fertilizer desirability for this crop.

Keep nitrogen level at or near

120 pounds per acre.

All fertilizer may be applied at planting time. If a split application is used, the last application should be made prior to the time the early tubers reach the size of marbles.

The use of potash should be avoided except where specific reasons are apparent such as buyer requirement.

Such reasons are generally not directly associated with yield or chipping quality, since both of these tend to be lowered with the use of fertilizer potash.

WILD OATS MAKE A GOOD PARENT

By R. K. THOMPSON

Wild oats have flourished in the Southwest from the time they were brought in by the early Spanish missionaries. Their spread and persistence, both in the wild state and later under cultivation, demonstrate their remarkable adaptability to growing conditions in Arizona.

Although they have been utilized to some extent for forage, to the Arizona farmer they have been a weed of dubious value. Wild oats can be successfully crossed with cultivated species of oats. Most undesirable characters are simply inherited and easily discarded in the early gen-

erations of a cross.

Extreme variability in plant type and seed conformation has been found in the progeny of a Kanota x wild oat

cross. Selections from this cross show promise for improving both the grain and forage production of oats in Arizona.

Genetic and cytological studies of crosses between the wild oat (Avena fatua) and the cultivated oat (Avena byzantina) have shown no isolation harriers between these species; there

fore

in a plant breeding program

they may be considered as varieties of the same species.

In fact there is evidence of considerable introgression of A. byzantina germ plasm into

A. fatua.

For five years

( 1960-64 ) experiments have been conducted at the

Mesa Branch Experiment Station to evaluate the performance of a Kanota

(A. byzantina X Wild Oat (A. fatua) cross.

The original cross was made by C. A. Suneson at Davis, California.

The bulk F7 seed of this cross was brought to Arizona by R. T. Ram age in 1959.

Variability Is Extensive

Many of the undesirable characters contributed by the wild parent, such as hairy lemmas, seed dormancy, shattering, and maturity extremes were eliminated by growing the early generation of the bulk under field conditions of planting and harvesting.

The bulk F7 was quite variable and thousands of potentially valuable combinations from the cross remained.

Plants in the bulk F7 ranged in

height from 30 to 90 inches, with a maturity variation

of up to

three weeks.

Mature stem diameter differ cnces were very marked in thin seed ings, with some of tooth -pick size and others as large as pipestems.

Variations in leaf fineness, width and number per stem were numerous.

Con-

The author is a Research Associate in

Agronomy, located at the Mesa Branch Experiment Station.

siderable diversity in early growth habit was observed, with many prostrate winter types, intermediate, and erect early growing plants present.

Panicle types ranged from short and compact to long and open.

Many differences in seed conformation and appearance were evident.

Seeds were black, red, grey, yellow, white and various combinations or blends.

Seeds were both small and large, varying from long and slender to short and plump.

An occasional hairy lemma and long, hard twisted awn typical of the wild oat parent was observed.

Mesa Experiment Station in December, 1959 and has been advanced one generation each year. One thousand random head selections were made from the bulk F7 and planted in head rows the following season.

From this planting 78 entries with promising forage and grain qualities were selected for increase and evaluation.

Yield tests were conducted on a replicated small plot basis.

The Arizona recommended oat varieties, Palestine for grain and Markton for forage, were compared with the Kanota

X Wild Oat bulk for grain, hay and simulated pasture forage. Grain yield data were obtained at the Mesa and

Yuma Experiment Stations for five years ( 1960-64 ) .

One of the best appearing selections was included in tests at both locations in 1903 and

1964. Yield comparisons for hay were made for four years ( 1961-64) at the

Mesa Station.

The hay was harvested in early head or flowering stage of plant development.

Simulated pasture data was obtained at the Mesa Station for a five -year period ( 1960-64 ) .

Pasture conditions were simulated by clipping

with a

sickle mower three inches above ground level.

The clippings were made at the onset of jointing, when the plants were 12 to 14 inches tall.

Grain Yield Is Competitive

The grain yields for Kanota X

Wild Oat bulk and Markton, when compared with the Palestine check, were similar for 1960, 1961. and 1964

( Table 1 )

.

In 1962, 1963, and 1964

First Planting Here in 1959

The bulk F7 seed of Kanota X

Wild Oats was first planted at the

(Continued on Next Page)

Table 1.

Grain Production of Cultivated x Wild Oat Cross Compared

with Arizona Recommended Oat Varieties, Palestine and

Markton.

Year harvested

Identity

Yield in Percent of Palestine

Mesa

Yuma

Average

1960

Palestine

100

100

100

1961

Markton

Kanota X Wild Oat Bulk F7

Palestine

Markton

72

67

100

77

42

56

100

38

57

62

100

62

1962

Kanota X Wild Oat Bulk F8

Palestine

Markton

79

100

73

42

100

42

61

100

58

1963

Kanota X Wild Oat Bulk F9

Palestine

83

100

97

100

90

100

1964

I\larkton

Kanota X Wild Oat Bulk Flo

K X WO Selection 683

Palestine

Markton

Kanota X Wild Oat Bulk F

K X WO Selection 683

45

78

102

100

92

90

105

41

101

109

100

91

83

106

43

90

106

100

92

87

106

May -June

Page 24

AT LEFT, Rex Thompson inspects a group of selections from Kanota x Wild Oats

Bulk, noting variability in growth.

x"rNV7N

"

á ar..

ve

Table 2.

Hay Production at Mesa of Kanota x Wild Oat Bulk Compared with Markten and Palestine Oats. Harvest was made in the

Early Head or Bloom Stage of Plant Development.

Oat entry

Oven Dry Hay Yields in Percent of Markton

1961 1962 1963* 1964

Average

Markton

Kanota X Wild Oat Bulk F8-11

Palestine

100

80

80

100

81

53

100

126

131

100

83

58

100

93

81

Vegetative growth froze back to ground level in mid- January.

Consequently two harvests were made, one in late January and one when the entries were headed.

(Continued from Previous Page) the yield of the Kanota X Wild Oat bulk was competitive with Palestine.

Perhaps the improved performance can be attributed in part to the natural selection of adaptable germ plasm contributed by the wild oat parent.

The grain yield of Kanota

X Wild Oats Selection 683 exceeded that of Palestine in both 1963 and

1964. Average bushel weight at Mesa in 1963 and 1964 were Markton, 33.5;

Wild Oat bulk, 34; Palestine, 35; and

Selection 683, 36 pounds.

Hay production data ( Table 2 ) indicate that the yield of the Kanota

X Wild Oats bulk is

intermediate between Markton and Palestine when harvested at the early head stage of which contributes to sustained vegetative growth over an extended period in the spring.

In a two -year study ( 1963-64 ) an attempt was made to improve on, or duplicate,

the performance of the

bulk by blending six selections of varying plant type characteristics, such as plant height, maturity, early growth habit and grain production qualities.

The blend produced no more and perhaps slightly less green pasture forage than the bulk, and each year two or more of the selections included yielded as much or more than the blend.

Several selections from the Kanota

X Wild Oat Bulk F7 have exhibited superior qualities for grain production and an ability to produce large quantities of a good quality forage. These are being further evaluated in small plot studies, and increased in alternating and replicated combine harvest strips throughout the state preliminary to possible release of a new oat variety for Arizona.

Table 3.

Pasture Production at Mesa of Kanota x Wild Oat Bulk Compared with Markton and Palestine Oats. Grazing was Simulated by Clipping Seven Times Each Season at the Onset of

Jointing.

Oat entry

Green Pasture Forage Yield in Percent of Markton

1960

1961

1962 1963* 1964

Kanota X Wild Oat Bulk F7-11

Markton

Palestine

113 loo

98

121

100

98

114

100

100

97

100

103

112

100

91

* Oats were only clipped three times in the 1963 pasture season. A severe freeze following the third clipping on January 9 killed most of the plants.

Page 25 Progressive Agriculture growth.

The Kanota X Wild Oat Bulk F7 to F> > has made an excellent showing when harvested as simulated pas-.

ture ( Table 3 )

.

In the peak production year, the 1960 -61 growing season, yields of green forage were 21 percent more than the Markton check.

The average percent total protein for seven clippings of Kanota X Wild

Oat Bulk F8 was 21.01 compared to

Markton with 18.44. This limited quality data is indicative that a wild oat cross is at least equal if not superior to other oats in forage nutrient value.

Has Two Advantages

The exceptional performance of the bulk wild oats cross as a pasture forage is attributed to

( 1 ) its natural adaptation to Southern Arizona growing conditions and ( 2 ) its variability,

Here Brand New Idea

Taking Corral to Cows

Taking the loading chute and corral to the livestock on the range is a new idea being tried on the Yerba

Buena Ranch managed by Fred Voorhees in Santa Cruz County, Arizona.

Voorhees designed and built the portable loading chute for specialized use on the ranch.

The ranch, which is owned by movie star Stewart Granger, produces

Charolais cattle for breeding purposes. It also produces a few animals for the fat cattle market.

Voorhees is using the portable chute to move cattle from one pasture to another, to pick up cattle for treatment, and for other specialized uses.

The ranch includes 600 acres of irrigated pasture.

Just how well the portable chute

will work on the various kind of

range land in Arizona, particularly rough land, has not yet been determined.

Table 3.

Stripper Harvest Tests, Fiber Data

Variety

Arizona 6010

Arkansas 61 -30

Lankart 57

Paymaster 101 -A

Blightmaster

Paymaster 111

Northern Star 5

Gregg 35

Northern Star 4 -11

Length

Fibergraph - UHM

Marana CRC Enke

1.08

1.07

1.05

Strength

Pressley -A"

L1 iarana CRC Enke

Fineness

Micronaire

Marana CRC Enke

Deltapine 45

3.04

3.25

3.38

4.57

4.99

4.90

Deltapine Smooth Leaf 1.05

1.02

1.00

3.00

3.26

3.48

4.52

4.95

5.00

Lockett 4789 1.07

1.08

1.04

1.03

1.00

2.97

3.29

3.19

4.56

5.12

5.15

3.10

3.35

4.91

5.15

0.98

0.95

1.01

2.74

2.97

5.47

5.72

0.96

0.94

2.61

2.86

3.20

4.78

5.11

5.05

0.99

0.93

0.95

2.82

3.30

3.55

4.74

5.05

5.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

2.85

1.07

1.01

1.06

3.23

3.36

3.37

4.40

4.76

5.00

3.56

3.85

4.78

5.00

4.30

0.98

0.96

1.00

0.90

2.79

2.82

3.05

4.41

4.30

5.05

0.96

0.88

3.16

3.48

3.68

4.13

4.51

4.40

1.03

3.05

4.90

Stoneville 213

Stoneville 7 -A

DeKalb 353

DeKalb 220

Paymaster 54 -13

TPSA Deltapine

( Texas Planting

Seed Association)

1.07

1.03

1.02

1.04

0.95

1.05

3.32

3.15

3.13

3.28

3.05

3.41

5.05

5.05

4.80

4.65

4.65

4.85

(Continued from Previous Page) tests and the Extension test with Fred

Enke in Pinal County are presented in Table 3.

Yield data from the test with Fred Enke were not kept.

A Way To Go Yet

Some observations made from these tests indicate that stripper cotton has a long way to go before it will be profitable in Arizona.

Of all the stripper varieties tested, none yielded as well as varieties currently grown for spindle harvest. In addition, fiber quality of the stripper varieties is generally poorer.

However, our current open boll varieties are not suitable for efficient stripper harvest.

Deltapine and Stoneville varieties are characterized by a spreading, much branched type of growth with open, fluffy bolls.

Under Arizona conditions, in order to make a yield satisfactory to Arizona farmers, these varieties grow too rank for a stripper harvester.

In order to be suitable for a stripping machine, cotton must be short, fruited close to the stalk, have a minimum of branching and have a boll that does not fluff and string out.

Needs Dry, Dead Plants

One of the biggest problems with

Arizona stripper cotton was the failure to get a good desiccation.

Cotton must be dead before the machine can strip well and this vas accomplished only after frost. A desiccant must be found that will kill and completely dry the plant whenever desired to prevent leaving the cotton in the field till frost. Green stalks and bolls don't strip well, and they stain the lint.

CONSUMER PROTECTION

eftjG4ced

Nentai

By F LOY D ROBERTS

Arizona statutes provide that a state chemist shall he appointed

by the dean of the college of agriculture of The University of Arizona

.

to enforce the Arizona Commercial Feed Law, the Arizona Ferti-

lizer Materials Act, and the Arizona Pesticide Act.

These laws are designed to provide quiring certain specific information protection to consumers of the reon the label and reasonable assurance spective commodities affected by reof their being as represented. This is accomplished through registration and

The author is state chemist, with offices and laboratories at the Mesa Branch Experiment Station, Mesa, Ariz.

periodic sampling and analyzing of these commodities.

Page 27 Progressive Agriculture

Most products subject to these laws are required to be registered with the state chemist prior to distribution or offering for sale. Labeling information which shows that all statements required by law are provided

on the product must be presented

with an application for registration before an item will be registered, except when only minor corrections may be requested at the time of registering, to be effected as soon as practicable.

Collection of Samples

Official samples of feeds, fertilizers and pesticides are drawn, by inspectors from the office of the state chemist, from stocks being held for sale or from material delivered to the consumer. Most samples of pesticides are taken at air strips from which applications are to be made, while feeds are taken mainly from stocks held by the suppliers, and fertilizer samples come largely from deliveries made at consumers' fields or premises ready for application.

These samples are submitted for analysis by the chemists under direction of the state chemist.

Enforcement costs are paid from fees collected in accordance with provisions in the three laws. While there is no fee provided for the registraof commercial feeds, there is collected an inspection fee of eight cents per ton of feed distributed. On commercial fertilizer and agricultural minerals a fee of $5 for each product is required for registration, plus an in-

spection fee of 12c per ton on all

distributed.

In the case of pesticides no inspection fee is provided for, but registration fee amounts to $25 for the first two items and $7.50 for each additional item registered by a registrant.

Ninety per -cent of these fees are applied to enforcement and 10 percent is required to be transmitted to the state general fund.

Under the commercial feed law nearly 1900 separate feed items represented by 280 companies were registered in 1964.

The feeds included a rather substantial number of pet foods.

During the past five years the tonnage of feeds distributed, as reported to the state chemist by distributors, has shown a steady increase from about 309.000 tons in 1960 to about 463,000 tons in 1963, but show

ing a drop to 450,000 tons in 1964.

still ahead of years prior to 1963.

Approximately 5 percent of all feeds distributed each year consists of pet foods, both canned and dry.

(Continued on Next Page)

(Continued from Previous Page)

Many Are Garden Items

About an even 1,000 commercial fertilizer and agricultural mineral items were registered in 1964 under the labels of 168 firms. Many of these products were of the specialty type sold through lawn and garden sup ply outlets. Tonnage of all commercial fertilizer and agricultural minerals distributed has shown a slight, but steady, increase from 200,655 tons in 1960 to 237,417 tons in 1964.

Products of 478 firms numbering slightly under 4,000 were registered as pesticides in 1964. Since the Arizona Pesticide Act does not provide for reporting tonnage, no figures are available on the amount of pesticide distributed at any time. The number of items registered during each of the previous five somewhat.

years has fluctuated

This has been reflected by a fluctuation in total registration fees between $30,800 and $36,750:

The pesticides registered included insecticides, fungicides, algaecides, nematocides, germicides, rodenticides, herbicides, desiccants, defoliants, animal and bird repellants and, according to law, other substances to con-

trol pests which may infest or be

detrimental to vegetation, man, animals or households, or be present in any environment whatever, except viruses, fungi or bacteria on or in living man or other animals.

Many of these items are found offered for sale on the shelves of groceries, nurseries, druggists, etc. for home and garden use.

While some products are not required to be registered nor subject to labeling requirements, a section of the fertilizer law which prohibits false and misleading statements is applied.

For example, distributors of certain peats have been required to strike from the labeling on bags the word "Moss" from the product name

"Peat Moss" when, in reality, the product did not qualify as a moss type of peat. In some cases the type was found to be that of "muck."

No Loose Wording!

A recent regulation was promulgated, directed toward the distribution of wood or bark materials labeled to show prominently such wording as

"Nitrogen Added," but the total nitrogen is substantially less than 1% .

Under the regulation, suppliers are required to qualify this statement by showing a guarantee of the minimum amount of nitrogen or refrain from indicating its presence.

Such action as this

is taken in the interest of

the consumer, lest someone may gain a false impression of a product.

At the same time legitimate producers are protected against unfair competition.

Much of the feeds and fertilizers are distributed today in bulk, however, proper labeling is still required under these laws.

Labeling is ef-

fected by means of a written or

printed statement to accompany the delivery, and to be furnished to the consumer.

Consumer Should Be Alert

Consumers should be aware of this,

Reading the Fine Print

In enforcing these consumer laws, labels are closely examined to determine that required guaranteed analyses and statements concerning the composition are provided, and that no false or misleading statements are given.

They are also checked for proper warning or caution statements and directions for use, when necessary.

This applies, especially, to pesticides and to commercial feeds containtig drugs.

Requirements of the

United States Food and Drug Administration are applied to the latter.

Commercial fertilizers and agricultural minerals to which a pesticide has been added must be registered under both the pesticide and fertilizer laws, and must comply with requirements of both laws.

The number of such mixtures registered is slowly increasing.

and insist on receiving a written or printed statement with each delivery.

The furnishing of a regularly registered

tag with each

delivery, when available, is considered as meeting this requirement.

This part of the laws poses difficulty in enforcement.

The consumer can do much to influence compliance by insisting on the proper labeling to which he is entitled in bulk deliveries.

The state chemist is not authorized to accept samples of any materials from individuals desiring chemical analyses.

Such requests are usually referred to commercial laboratories.

However, if there is a question concerning legality of a product from the composition standpoint, or otherwise, of any product under jurisdiction of these laws, the office makes every reasonable effort to have an official sample drawn. Official action is then taken when indicated. In fact, the office encourages requests for sampling when there is any doubt about compliance as this occasionally provides the only means for locating certain products in the channel of trade.

In the normal course of enforcement copies of laboratory reports are submitted to consumers whose materials are sampled by the inspectors, as well as to the manufacturer or registrant of the material.

At the close of each year annual reports covering all samples analyzed during the year are published and are available upon request.

These reports cover separately commercial feeds, fertilizer materials, and pesticides.

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