CHM lilt IN ARIZONA Volume XV NUMBER 3

CHM lilt IN ARIZONA Volume XV NUMBER 3
1963
MAY -JUNE
Volume XV
NUMBER 3
CHM lilt
IN ARIZONA
PUBLISHED BY THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA AT TUCSON
More than 100 Extension workers from 27 dif-
ferent states and 12 foreign countries were enrolled in the second annual Extension Winter
School last Feb. 4 -22, sponsored by the College
of Agriculture of The University of Arizona.
Course work included such items as Agricultural Policy, taught by Dr. Wallace Barr of Ohio
State University; Psychology for Extension Workers, by Dr. Ole A. Simley, University of Arizona;
Agricultural Communications, by Ralph Reeder,
Purdue University;
Working With Groups, taught by Edward V.
Pope of the Federal Extension Service, Washington; 4 -H Leadership Development, by Joe McAucliffe, also of the Federal Extension Service;
and Extension Teaching Techniques, by Dr. Marden Broadbent of Utah State University.
In the picture above, Ernie Foster, second from
left, an Arizona County Agent, shares "Extension
Education Ideas" with left to right, Miss Hazel
Thompson, Forsyth, Mont.; Ahmad Nasser, field
training instructor from Jordan; Mrs. Relia
Butcher, Philippi, West Virginia; and Gilbert
Matson of Payette, Idaho.
L J
WVUN OAREILII LA'Ur
"See your county agent."
This statement is made many times to
those who ask for Arizona agricultural
or home - economics information. Inquiries
about agriculture and related industries,
about youth programs, and about activities and programs for the home are constantly being referred to "the county
agent" for specific and accurate information.
The County Agricultural Agent - or
County Home Agent - is your local representative of The University of Arizona,
the land -grant university for the state of
Arizona. He or she is a member of the
staff of The University of Arizona Cooperative Extension Service, which is one
of the three branches of the College of
Agriculture in each land -grant college.
He is an agricultural leader. Or, in case
is
ber of a local school board. In other
words, he is a part of your local commun-
ity, and as such has the responsibility of
serving you to the best of his ability.
So the phrase "See Your County
Agent" is excellent advice. See your
County Agent for information on the
broadest area relating to agriculture and
home economics.
Who is "The County Agent" ?
of the Home Agent, she
likely to be a member of a local service
club, a local church, and perhaps a mem-
a home -
economics leader.
The County Agent is also an adviser in
the fields of agriculture and home economics and related activities, including
youth work. He is a local authority in
both specific farm and home programs
and activities, and in agriculture and
Here are the addresses of the county
extension offices where your County Agricultural Agents and County Home Agents
are located in each county of the state:
Casa Grande - - City- County Bldg.
Francis Bldg.
Duncan Court House
Flagstaff
- - Court House
Globe County Fairgrounds
Holbrook
County Welfare Bldg.
Kingman - Court House Annex
Nogales
1201 West Madison
Phoenix
Court House
Prescott
St. Johns
Tucson
Willcox
Yuma -
people effectively in the various subject matter fields involved in agriculture, home
economics, and youth programs.
The main objective of the county agent
service to Arizona residents in his
county. Each agent is backed by the reis
search resources of The University of Arizona College of Agriculture and School
of Home Economics, and by similar resources in other colleges of the Univer-
sity here and in other states, and also
from the United States Department of
Agriculture. Each agent has special train-
ing for working with the people of this
state in agricultural production, marketing and utilization, family living, youth
development, community and resource
development, and in the development of
local leadership, both adult and youth.
Your County Agent also is a local resident of your county. His or her office is
the "front door" to The University of
Arizona. The county agent and home
agent bring The University of Arizona
into your own county wherever you live
in the state of Arizona. He has in his
office numerous state and federal publications for the use of Arizona residents.
Your county agent is active in local
Civic, church, and school affairs. He is
Court House
112 West Pennington
Railroad Street
1047 Fourth Avenue
-
-
-
-
Dean
College of Agriculture
and
School of Home Economics
home economics subjects on a broad scale.
There is a county extension office in
each county of Arizona. Each office has
at least one Agricultural Agent and one
Home Agent in residence in the county.
Many of the county offices in Arizona
have a number of agents to serve local
Armory
Safford
Al Face of Yuma
Heads Brangus Assn.
Face Heads Brangus Assn. Too Many Cows, Not Enough Matches
Cotton Crop Up 7 Per Cent Seed Certification 30 Years Old Seeking Better Bermudagrass - Yuma Brangus Top Gaining Bull Agriculture & the Common Market
Arizona Farm Income $5121/2 Million
Oklahoma,
Florida,
Arkansas,
ence. He emphasized that the fat -lean
ratio of a beef carcass can definitely be
improved by the addition of about onehalf or slightly less than half Brahman
blood to the English breeds.
He also said there is more difference in
meat flavor and texture caused by age
5
5
6
6
ROGRESSIVE
AGRICULTURE IN
RIZONA
Phoenix. Face formerly was county extension agent in Yuma County.
Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa,
Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, South
Dakota, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada and in Canada.
Featured speaker at the convention was
Dr. Carl B. Roubicek of The Univers ;ty
of Arizona's Department of Animal Sci-
4
Trade names used in this magado not endorse products
named nor imply criticism of similar ones not mentioned.
Brangus Breeders Assn., when it met at
Texas,
3
zine
International
The new president said he would depend heavily on strong state Brangus associations to bolster the breed's progress
this year. There are state associations in
3
Plant Spacing of Pima Cotton - - - 7
Watching Sonora Cotton Weevils 9
Agricultural Radio News Schedule 9
Safford Hosts Science Teachers - - - 10
Nitrogen, Water Boost Flax Yields - - 12
The Case of the Missing Citrus - - - 14
Cotton Hunger Can Be Measured - - 16
3 Honored by Veterinarians - - - - 16
Forage Sorghum Planting Date Tests - 17
Film On Pond Cuts Water Loss - - - 19
20
What YOU Can Do
Al Face, cattle superintendent for the
Bruce Church Ranches at Yuma, was
elected president of the
2
Vol. XV
No. 3
May-June 1963
Published bimonthly by the College of
Agriculture, The University of Arizona,
Tucson, Arizona, Harold E. Myers, dean.
Entered as second -class matter March
1, 1949, at the post office at Tucson, Arizona, under the act of August 24, 1912.
Reprinting of articles, or use of information in Progressive Agriculture in
Arizona, by newspapers and magazines
is permitted, with credit.
Editor: John Burnham.
Editorial Board Members: Howard R.
Baker, Extension Service; Mitchell
G.
Vavich, Experiment Station; Russell V
Cline, Resident Instruction; Mildred IS
Jensen, School of Home Economics; Richard K. Frevert, chairman; Joe McClelland.
and feeding conditions than is caused by
difference in breed.
May -June 1963
Page 2
TOO MANY COWS
---
Range vegetation does change, although too slowly to be
evident to most of us. The eye and memory of man cannot
view contrast when it is measured in decades and centuries.
Dr. R. R. Humphrey, professor of Range Management
in this college, has used the camera to remedy man's shortsightedness. Bob Humphrey uses repeat photographs of
exactly the same area.
In the two photos above, Dr. Humphrey shows the
changes which have taken place over a 70 -year period on
the U.S. -Mexico boundary in the southeastern corner of the
Papago Indian Reservation.
The photo at left, of Boundary Marker 144, was taken in
1893. The photo at right, from almost exactly the same spot
was taken in 1963 - just 70 years later. (Object at right of
marker, in the earlier photo, is the photographer's dog.)
"In the earlier picture," points out Prof. Humphrey, "the
only mesquites were along Valshni Wash, which appears as
NOT ENOUGH MATCHES
a dark streak in the distant background. Grasses made up
most of the vegetation.
"Today there are no grasses; only mesquite, burroweed
and a few cholla cactus," says Humphrey. He has searched
early army records and reports that "antelope were once so
numerous in this area as to constitute a valuable source of
meat for the soldiers. One can readily visualize this as an
antelope habitat in 1893, but not today."
Why this change? The answer seems to lie in too many
cattle and too few fires, says the Range Management professor. He points out that grazing removed the grasses that
once served as fuel for fires that presumably kept the mesquites
under control.
Cattle, grazing along the wash, distributed mesquite seeds
over the entire area in their manure, and these - in the
absence of fire - germinated and took root in the fertile soil.
"The rest is history," says Humphrey, "the history of
millions of acres of similar rangeland in the Southwest."
'62 Arizona Cotton
Crop Was Up 73/4
Arizona's 1962 cotton crop was up
May
2- Annual Cattle Feeders Day, Tucson
3- Annual Poultry Industry Day,
U of A Poultry Research Center,
Tucson
June
3 -7 -17th Town and Country Life
Conference, U of A Campus
10 -15 -State 4 -H Junior Leader Laboratory, Prescott
July
29-31--State 4 -H Roundup, U of A Campus
August
o 1 -2 -State 4 -H Roundup, U of A Campus
14 -16- Annual Arizona FFA Leadership
Conference, U of A Campus
Page 3
Progressive Agriculture
nearly 7 per cent from the previous year.
The 1962 crop is expected to be approximately 858,000 bales when the tally is
completed. The final figure on the 1961
crop was 828,000 bales.
The increased production resulted from
increases in both harvested acreage and
yields per acre. About 25 per cent of the
acreage was skip -row planted and contributed to the increased yields.
Arizona again led the nation in yields
of both upland and American -Egyptian
cotton. The leading states in per -acre
yields of upland cotton were: Arizona,
1,114; California, 1,082; New Mexico,
689; Missouri, 583; Mississippi, 515.
The yields on American -Egyptian cotton were: Arizona, 569; Texas, 495; New
Mexico, 415.
Lower prices for both lint and seed
partially offset the increased production.
Bulletins
A 24-Sprinkler Irrigation (reprint of
former Bulletin 250)
A- 26- Protect the Cotton Plant from In-
sect Injury (replaces "Cotton Insect Control")
A -27- Gypsum and Sulfur -bearing
Amendments for Arizona Soils
During the vegetable crop year of 1961 -62,
58,179 carlot equivalents of vegetables and
melons were shipped from Arizona. Total value
of production was $80,100,000 compared to
$67,700,000 or an 18 per cent increase over
the 1960 -61 income. This increase is the result
of higher value of production for broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, winter and spring lettuce, and onions. These increases were partially offset by lower values for all melon
crops, carrots, and late fall lettuce.
Seec Çeieíeeo«
7e'4 fe
Robert Dennis
The Arizona Crop Improvement
Association was formed thirty years
ago. It is appropriate on this anniversary to review the seed certification movement in the United States
and in Arizona.
The Arizona Crop Improvement Association, like those in other states,
is a
non -profit organization of growers whose
objective is to make available genetically
uniform and high quality seed. In all
states where this objective is achieved
there is a close cooperative relationship
with the Land -Grant College, the U. S.
STATE FAIR exhibit of Arizona Crop Improvement Association. Note prominence
Department of Agriculture, private breeders, and commercial seed firms.
quality.
Seed Program 75 Years Old
Field crop varieties have been developed by agricultural experiment stations
for about 75 years. The first varieties
were made available to the public by
giving seed to leading farmers. These
farmers increased the seed and gave a
portion of the increase to their neighbors.
Growers observed the performance of
the new release and reported yields to the
breeder. Results of these tests were used
much the same as extension test demonstrations are used today. This method of
increasing and introducing a new variety
was satisfactory in some cases, but often
it was not.
Contamination from foreign pollen
sometimes was a problem. Often the new
variety was renamed and sold by unscrupulous dealers. High germination and purity standards were difficult to maintain.
The agricultural leaders of that time real-
ized there was need for a better system
for increase and release of new varieties.
Field Inspections Begin
The first efforts in the direction of seed
certification were those by experiment
station workers of the Land -Grant Colleges and Universities. Wisconsin initiated inspections of seed fields in 1913. A
pure seed association was organized in
Maricopa County, Arizona, in 1914, at
the time of the introduction of Pima cotton. Montana established a seed inspection program in 1915. Other states followed quickly with similar programs. All
but five of the states now have seed certifying agencies.
Dr. Dennis is an Extension Agronomist,
given to certified seed tag, symbol of
ers were producing 27,500 acres of seed
crops for certification. In 1962, alfalfa,
barley, cotton, millet, oats, safflower, sorghum, wheat, and several specialty crops
Arizona growers were among the first
in the nation to recognize the importance
were certified.
Several states exceed Arizona in acres
of seed inspected for certification. How-
of an organized cooperative effort to make
quality seed available to all. Numerous
groups were formed to facilitate the pro duction and marketing of pure seed.
The Arizona Crop Improvement Association was formed June 2, 1933, in a
meeting of the officers of the Chilean
Alfalfa Seed Growers Association, the
Maricopa County Farm Bureau Pure Seed
Association, and the Yuma County Pure
Seed Association, in the County Agent's
office at Yuma.
An Historic Meeting
Present at this important conference
were Sam Wallace, president of the State
Farm Bureau; William Walton, president
of the Buckeye Farm Bureau; Laurides
Alfalfa
Wayne
Wright, president of Yuma County Pure
Seed Association; A. D. Cox, manager of
Anderson, president, Chilean
Seed
Growers Association;
Yuma County Farm Bureau Marketing
Association; G. E. Blackledge, Yuma
County Agricultural Agent; and University of Arizona representatives H. N.
Watenpaugh, Extension Agronomist, and
Ian A. Briggs, Research Agronomist. The
first officers elected were William Walton,
Palo Verde, president; Wayne Wright,
Roll, vice -president;
and Mrs. Martha
Boggs, Phoenix, treasurer.
The Arizona Crop Improvement Association, now officially recognized by state
law as the state's official seed certification
agency, has served growers of field crops
in Arizona well. Through the years
its
ever, only a few states have a greater
percentage of their total cropland used
for the production of certified seed.
Has Full Time Secretary
eh
Operation of the Crop Improvement
Association in Arizona is supervised by
directors elected by growers who produce
seed in Cochise, Maricopa, Pima, Pinal
and Yuma counties. Harold Jacka has
served as secretary -treasurer of the Arizona association since January 1, 1947.
He developed an official handbook, first
published in 1949. Mr. Jacka works
closely with Experiment Station and Ex-
tension Service workers, with growers,
and with members of the seed trade.
Each year has brought new challenges
and opportunities for seed
certification
agencies. In recent years many new varieties have been produced by commercial
breeders. Arizona was one of the
first
states to extend certification to privately
developed hybrids and varieties. About
twice as many different hybrids and varieties were certified in 1960 as in 1950.
A current problem of all
certification
agencies is maintenance of rigid quality
standards for seed, which generally is
sold without the benefit of elaborate advertising programs. The need to use pure
seed of the best adapted varieties is just
as important in 1963 as in 1933, whet
agricultural leaders of the day first met i
Yuma to form the Arizona Crop Im-
representatives have authorized the use of
provement Association.
the certified label on many varieties of
seed. By 1960 some 180 Arizona grow-
Aby-fune 1963
Page 4
UA Team Approach
Seeking better
Bermlldagras Turf
Steve Fazio
Establishment and maintenance of turfgrass is an important industry in Arizona.
Turfgrass in golf courses, parks and home
lawns comprises about 50,000 acres.
However, more important than the total
acreage is the fact that it is grown by so
many people. Nearly half a million Arizona home owners, citizens who also use
parks and golf courses and playgrounds,
have a definite stake in bermudagrass
improvement, as compared to no more
than 5,000 Arizonans growing any other
crop.
High temperature, low humidity and
soil conditions peculiar to the semi -arid
Southwest result in a variety of problems.
A mild winter climate stresses the desirability of an all -year turfgrass or improve-
ment in overseeding methods and materials.
1) Studies Began 10 Years Ago
Persons in various departments of this
College of Agriculture have for years
worked to solve turfgrass problems. The
Horticulture Department initiated a research program about 10 years ago and
sponsored the annual Turf Conference in
cooperation with the Golf Course Superintendents Association for a number of
years. Concluding that a team approach
to many of these problems would be advantageous, a research committee was
created in 1959 consisting of members
Yuma Brangus Tops
bermudagrass is an attractive lawn when
Gain -Test Trials
eties.
Nearly three -quarters of the 76 bulls
entered in the recently completed gain grade test of the Arizona Beef Cattle Improvement Station met or exceeded all
Bermuda lawns infested with weeds
reveal the result of improper management. Lack of fertilizer, or improper application, has been responsible for many
requirements.
weed patches in lawns. Bermudagrass requires a constant and adequate supply of
nitrogen to maintain vigorous growth.
An application of ammonium sulfate in
The bulls were tested at The University
of Arizona River Road Farm in Tucson
by personnel of The U of A animal science department. Requirements were that
the bulls gain at least 2.3 pounds per day,
grade choice or higher, and have a minimum adjusted yearling weight of 825
pounds.
Although the work of the
research
committee is supported mainly by university funds and facilities, contributions
from interested persons and groups have
been helpful. The Arizona Golf Course
Superintendents Association made several
donations early in the development of the
program and has recently voted an addi-
tional contribution. Part of the program
has been supported from grants received
from bermudagrass seed growers, seed
companies and from individual country
clubs.
Chemical companies have been gener-
' Ous with materials and one has made a
The author is an associate horticulturist.
Page 5
Progressive Agriculture
late fall just prior to the frost season, at
the rate of 11/2 to 2 pounds per 100
square feet is recommended.
Another
application at the same rate should be
applied in early spring when the new
These are practical goals for a good growth emerges. These two applications
growing ration, according to Dr. Bruce will help bermudagrass to grow vigorR. Taylor, head of The U of A animal ously. Need for additional nitrogen durscience department.
The tested animals were ranked on an
index, with an average bull receiving a
score of 100. Above- average bulls are
ranked above 100; below- average bulls
below 100.
Top animal in the test group was bred
and entered by the Yuma Valley Cattle
Company. The Brangus bull was the high index bull (119) and the highest- gaining
bull (3.58 pounds per day) .
The second -high index bull, with a
score of 116, was bred and entered by
the Cowden Livestock Company of Phoe-
nix. The Hereford bull, which gained
3.12 pounds per day and graded fancy,
was sold to the Vaca Ranch of Patagonia
for $2,100 at the station sale.
The average rate of gain for all bulls
was 2.51 pounds per day. Their average
grade was middle choice and their average
adjusted yearling weight was 893 pounds.
The 76 bulls that finished the test included two Angus, eight Brangus, three Char -
Santa Gertrudis, two Shorthorns, and 56 Herefords. A total of 23
bray, five
bulls failed to meet the three requirements
for approval.
from the Departments of Horticulture,
Plant Pathology, Agronomy, Agricultural
Chemistry and Soils and Entomology.
given care bestowed on other turf vari-
cash grant. These contributions are used
for purchases of equipment, supplies and
labor not possible from the budgets of
the various departments. The Tucson City
Parks and Recreational Department has
furnished established turfgrass areas for
experimental use and has maintained the
test plots.
Brought Here From India
Common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) was introduced into the United
ing the growing season can be deter-
mined by observing the growth and color
of the grass.
Mow It Short and Often
Mowing plays an important role in the
ability of bermudagrass to grow vigorously. A properly maintained bermuda
lawn requires frequent mowing during
the period of high temperatures and low
humidity. Allowing a bermuda lawn to
grow two to three inches in height between mowings results in sunburning the
foliage which developed near the base, by
exposing this tender growth to a sudden
change in light intensity. Setting the
mower at a desired height and then mow-
ing the grass whenever it grows half to
three -quarters of an inch will prevent the
damaging effect of sunburning.
Irrigation of bermuda lawns is another
management practice which, when nein uneven growth and
sunburning. Poor management will increase weed control problems. An experienced person can often detect a water
stress in bermuda by a change of foliage
color. The appearance of a dark, bluegreen color in bermuda shows water
stress. If this is allowed to continue for
glected, results
several hours, sunburning may result.
Water stress may result when sprinklers
do not cover the entire surface, or when
the interval between irrigations is too
long. Variability of soils and climatic
conditions makes it difficult to water
lawns on a definite time schedule. Exam-
ination of soil moisture and the lawn
color, or the use of soil tensiometers, are
the best indicators in determining water
needs.
been favorable, and fails to maintain
The bermudagrass eriophyid mite has
been quite destructive in recent years in
bermuda lawns. Damage is more pronounced in grass that has not been kept
in a vigorous condition. Management
practices play an important role in keeping the mite infestation to a minimum.
A healthy, vigorous lawn has a better
ability to withstand weeds, insects and
vigorous growth and good color. Common
(Continued on Next Page)
States from India many years ago and it
became one of the best adapted grasses
for turf use in the Southwest. Its ability
to withstand adverse conditions and neglect has made it a popular grass for golf
courses and for home yards.
Observation of lawns indicates that
management of bermudagrass has not
Even Mr. K Has to
Bow to U.S. Farmers
"Farming is everybody's business. It's
the biggest business in America - and
the only one to which even Khrushchev
tips his hat.
"It's a $38 billion -a -year industry that
affects our taxes, our foreign policy, our
housewives' budgets and our eating hab-
Agriculture and the common Market
"All parents tell their children about
the piggies," says Dr. Conrad F. Joyner,
University of Arizona associate professor
of government, "but dilemmas arising
out of the creation of the European Common Market (ECM) make it possible to
tell the story in a new way."
This little piggy went to the Common
Market.
its."
So says Kenneth Scheibe!, who for 12
years has covered farm news from Washington for the Gannett papers and is now
starting a weekly column, "Washington
Farm Beat," for North American Newspaper Alliance.
Our readers will wish to watch their
daily newspaper for this NANA 700 word weekly farm column issued for
Monday publication.
(Continued from Previous Page)
diseases than one under stress. Any management practice which lowers the vigor
of the grass will make it more vulnerable
to mite infestation.
Telltale Tufted Look
A mite -infested bermuda turf will de-
velop a tufted growth with numerous
small leaf blades. Brown spots will be
evident after mowing. Chemical control
of the mite with diazinon can be accom-
plished if applied when the mites are
first noticed. Delaying treatment until
damage is severe results in a weakened
stand of grass and recovery will be slow.
If mites are present, extra attention should
be given to fertilization, watering and
mowing in order to create a more favorable environment for recovery of the lawn
area.
Winter dormancy of bermudagrass is
one of the main objections to its use as a
turf grass. This thermo- dormancy is offset
by overseeding the lawn area with one of
the many cool season grasses in late fall.
Tests are being made to determine the
adaptability of bents, bluegrass, fescues
and others, compared to the traditional
This little piggy stayed home in Iowa.
This little piggy wished he were roast
beef.
This little piggy didn't know what he
was.
This little piggy cried "wee, wee, wee,
I can't find my home."
"We find in the world today the para-
dox of agricultural abundance in some
areas in contrast to over -all scarcity," says
Dr. Joyner. Technical advances and fertile land make some areas more productive than others yet the rising birth rate
and lower infant mortality rate have
caused a scarcity of food.
Tariffs and other barriers discourage
distribution from the more productive
areas to those less fortunate.
The traditional economic solution to
these problems is a free world market in
which each country produces what it is
best suited to, imports what it needs and
exports its surplus.
In the long run (theoretically) everything would balance out.
The European Common Market is supposedly moving towards this type of free
world market.
Differences between the agricultural
situation in the Common Market and that
in the United States will create dilemmas.
Some of the differences he points out, are
that the United States farmer is more efficient, that the Common Market must
import some of its agricultural products
and that despite aids, farmers in Common Market countries have a lower in-
come than those here.
In the European Common Market there
are 180 million acres under agricultural
production; in the United States there are
300 million acres.
In the ECM there are 900 million
In moving towards a solution these
aims have been stated:
1. To attempt to balance supply and
demand, not only within the market but
also as it relates to the rest of the world.
2. To provide a fair income to the
farmer.
3. To stabilize agricultural markets by
providing a price the farmer can depend
upon.
4. To insure a fair deal to the consumer.
How do these aims affe:t
us ? The
United States sells $ 5 billion worth of
products to the Common Market. Of these,
$1.2 billion are agricultural products,
more specifically grains, pork, poultry and
eggs. We cannot lose this trade without
drastic effect, says Dr. Joyner.
Therefore, he feels, we must maintain
bargaining with the Common Market. If
we are not successful, we will have serious problems for our own agriculture.
Dr. Joyner concludes that the United
States may have been instrumental in
creating something that it does not know
how to handle.
Arizona Farm Income
$512 1/2 Million in '62
r
Arizona farmers received a record in-
come of $512,588,000 in cash
receipts
last year, 9 per cent above the 1961 figure.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture
said crops accounted for most of the receipts with a total return of $324,688,000,
up 12 per cent from 1961.
Up 3 per cent at $182,575,000 were
cash receipts from livestock and livestock
products.
Cotton lint and cottonseed earned more
than half the crop income. Government
payments to Arizona farmers in 1962
totaled $5,325,000, an increase of $40,000 from the preceding year.
The government payments are not included among cash receipts totals.
standby, annual ryegrass, for overseeding.
Overseeding bermudagrass in early fall
farms; in the United States there are 3.7
million farms. We have abandoned the
El ganado vacuno de carne debe seleccionarse de un tipo que alcance pronto su edad
prior to its dormant period has created a
12, 15, 17 and 18 acre farms that still
exist in abundance in Europe, Dr. Joyner
das, a la edad de los 12 a 18 meses llegue a
pesar de 320 a 450 kg. Conviene escoger una
problem of preventing further growth
after it has been overseeded with a cool
season grass. Growth retardants are being
used effectively on bermuda prior to seeding to control its growth during this warm
period.
Hybrid strains and selections of bermuda grass are being tested for their
adaptability to withstand our climatic
conditions in the Southwest. They are
also being evaluated for their texture and
use in golf courses and home yards.
notes.
In the ECM there are 12.5 million male
farm workers; in the United States there
are only half that many.
The goal of the ECM is to solve some
of the problems inherent in the European
agricultural situation.
Editor's Note: This summary of Dr. Joyner's
talk, before the League of Women Voters' foreign economic policy workshop here, was writ-
ten by Susan Szekely of The Tucson Daily
Citizen staff.
adulta, recio, y, que, bajo condiciones adecua-
raza que se adapte mejor a las condiciones
lo-
cales. La preferencia personal debe ser una
consideración muy importante al escoger una
raza.
TIERRA
Fishes in ditches are a help to farmers in
Arizona's Buckeye Valley where a tropical spe-
cies, tilapia, were planted in canals last year
The fish feed on warm water algae which slo
water movement. The state has now plante
2,000 tilapia in the Roosevelt Irrigation District.
May -lune 1963
Page 6
i
'
commercial varieties of Pima (Pima S-1
and Pima S -2) to different within -row
plant spacings under varying environ-
Plant Spacing of Pima Cotton
mental conditions.
In 1960, Pima S -1 and Pima S -2 were
grown at Tempe and Safford with the following within -row spacings : unthinned
Carl V. Feaster, E. L. Turcotte and R. E. Briggs
(planting rate approximately 20 pounds
per acre resulting in a 3 -inch average
spacing), 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 inches.
The proper within -row spacing of cotton plants for
optimum performance of the crop is of vital impor-
tance to the cotton grower. Plant spacing greatly
influences the type of growth of the cotton plant.
If plants are closely spaced in the row, the stalks
are small and spindly, fruiting branches are short,
and the crop consists largely of bolls located near tiie
main stalk, with the lowest bolls set relatively high
on the plant. Wide spacing results in a branching type
growth with long fruiting branches that begin to form
relatively low on the plant.
The spacing between rows was 40 inches
at Tempe and 38 inches at Safford. The
altitude at Tempe is approximately 1,200
feet and approximately 3,000 feet at
Safford.
In 1961 a similar test was grown only
at Tempe. The 1962 tests with only Pima
S -2 included the following spacings : un-
thinned (average spacing 3 inches) , 6,
9, 12, 15 and 18 inches. The 1962 tests
were grown at Tempe and Safford.
Check Several Items
The effect of plant spacing was determined for each of the following characteristics : lint yield per acre, per cent first
pick, plant height, boll size, lint per cent,
fiber length, fiber strength and fiber fineness.
Peebles, Den Hartog, and Pressley1 and
Leding and Cotton2 conducted within -row
spacing experiments with Pima cotton
(Gossypium barbadense L.) in Arizona
and New Mexico, respectively, between
16950 and 1952. They included Pima 32
nd several similar experimental strains in
their tests. Peebles et al found that close
plant spacing of 2 to 6 inches, compared
to a wide spacing of 12 to 16 inches, increased lint yield by an average of 12.9
per cent, and that earliness (percentage
of first pick) was nearly
15 per cent
greater at the 6 -inch than at 12- to 16inch spacings.
At a 4 -inch spacing, earliness was less
than 5 per cent above the mean for the
12- to 16 -inch spacings. Leding and Cot-
ton reported that in New Mexico appreciable yield differences occurred in favor
of spaced plants, with a 12 -inch spacing
appearing to give the best all -round reDr. Feaster is a research agronomist and Dr.
Turcotte a research geneticist in the Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, at The University
of Arizona Cotton Research Center,
imately 3.3 plants per foot)
The apparent lack of agreement in the
results of these two groups of workers in
regard to recommended within -row spacings could be due to environmental conditions. Differences in altitude (approx-
imately 1200 to 1400 feet for the Arizona tests and 3800 feet for the tests in
New Mexico) contributed much to the
varied growing conditions.
The present study was undertaken to
determine the response of the current
Spacing
No thin
June 1956.
18-inch
1953.
Page 7
24-inch
30-inch
Progressive Agriculture
eties resulted in highest yields and the
loss in yield from no thinning as cornpared to 6 -inch spacing was highly significant (Table I) . Also there was an increasing loss in yield as spacing was increased from 12 to 30 inches. At Safford
the 6 -inch spacing gave the highest yield
for Pima S -2 and the 12 -inch spacing for
Pima S -1, and there was no significant
yield reduction from no thinning when
compared to the 6 -inch spacing for either
variety. Spacing in excess of 6 inches for
Pima S -2 and 12 inches for Pima S -1 re-
sulted in a loss in yield when compared
to the spacing giving the maximum yield
(Continued on Next Page)
Pima S -2 at Tempe, 1960 -61, and Safford, 1960.
12-inch
xperiments with American -Egyptian Cotton
New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Press Bulletin 1083. April
YIELD OF LINT PER ACRE. -In 1960 at
Tempe, the 6 -inch spacing for both vari-
Table I. Effect of spacing on yield and earliness of Pima S -1 and
Pressley; Effect of Spacing on Some Agronomic and Fiber Characteristics of Irrigated Cot-
`A. R. Leding and John R. Cotton; Spacing
Between -
Different at Different Places
6-inch
ton. U.S.D.A. Technical Bulletin No. 1140,
.
row spacing in the Arizona tests was 36
inches and in New Mexico 40 inches.
Tempe, Ariz. Dr. Briggs is an associate agronomist in the Department of Agronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson.
'R. H. Peebles, G. T. Den Hartog and E. H.
-
sults. They compared spacings of 18, 12
and 6 inches and unthinned (approx-
Variety
S-1
S-2
S-1
S-2
S-1
S-2
S-1
S-2
S-1
S-2
S-1
S-2
Tempe, 1960
Pounds Per cent
lint /acre 1st pick
517
743
714
891
647
811
620
764
512
704
472
618
51
68
59
73
61
71
55
69
54
66
54
60
Safford, 1960
Pounds Per cent
lint /acre 1st pick
1164
1251
1195
1304
1258
1280
1215
1255
1150
1120
1084
1099
74
81
79
82
75
78
75
76
70
69
69
67
Tempe, 1961
Pounds Per cent
lint /acre 1st pick
795
935
821
1044
873
1068
818
1037
765
1014
714
906
46
56
54
61
56
65
48
56
47
51
44
48
(Continued from Previous Page)
Table IL Effect of spacing on yield and earliness of rima a -h at
Tempe and Safford, 1962.
for each variety - the wider spacings
giving the greater losses.
spacing. Although yields from the dif-
Spacing
ferent spacings were not significantly dif-
ferent, there was a gradual increase in No thin
6 -inch
yield from the unthinned to the 12 -inch
spacing and then a gradual decrease
9 -inch
through the 30 -inch spacing. The results
deviate slightly from those in 1960,
when the maximum yield at Tempe was
obtained from the 6 -inch spacing and the
loss of yield from unthinned as compared
Safford
Tempe
In 1961 at Tempe, maximum yield for
each variety was obtained at the 12 -inch
12 -inch
15 -inch
18 -inch
Pounds
lint /acre
Per cent
ist pick
Pounds
lint /acre
Per cent
969
905
816
738
690
664
84
89
87
88
82
82
942
929
921
837
762
779
67
73
75
74
70
64
ist pick 4
to 6 inches was highly significant.
Tests With S -2 Only
ciated with either closer or wider spacIn 1962, 9- and 15-inch spacings were ings. Close spacing exerts two opposing
substituted for the wider, relatively un- effects on crop maturity. The closely
productive spacings of 24 and 30 inches spaced plants have short fruiting branches
(Table II). Pima S -2 was the only variety so that the crop consists primarily of bolls
grown, since the relative reactions of located near the main stalk. Plants of
Pima S -1 and Pima S -2 to different spac- this type tend to mature earlier, because
ings were similar in 1960 and 1961. The the time interval of flower formation is
1962 season, as contrasted to 1960 and much shorter between first nodes of the
1961, was conducive to earlier boll set successive fruiting branches than between
and this in turn resulted in a more favor- successive nodes on a given fruiting
able yield response from the unthinned branch. On the other hand, low flowers
cotton. In closely spaced cotton, low in closely spaced cotton generally do not
fruiting branches usually do not develop, develop, and the first boll appears higher
and the first boll generally appears so on the plant, thus delaying development
high on the plant that yield is reduced. and maturity of the crop.
The 3 -inch spacing did not produce
Extremely wide spacing also has a dethis effect at either location in 1962. At laying effect on crop
because
Tempe the unthinned plants yielded sig- bolls are set on long fruiting branches.
nificantly above those at the 6 -inch spac- The time interval between flower appearing, while at Safford the unthinned plants ances on a given fruiting branch is about
ielded slightly but not significantly above twice as long as the interval between
those at the 6 -inch spacing. There was a flower development at the first nodes of
general trend for lower yields with wider successive fruiting branches. Spacing of
spacings at both locations.
approximately 6 inches seems to give the
In these tests over a 3 -year period, cot- optimum combination of flower formaton was grown under diverse conditions tion for maximum earliness.
due to altitude influence and years. It may
PLANT HEIGHT. - Shorter plants are
be expected that the results were not generally obtained with wider spacings;
entirely consistent. It does appear, how- however, within the range of spacings
ever, that a within -row spacing of approx- conducive to maximum yields, height difimately 6 inches will be satisfactory under ferences are minor. Height responses are
most conditions.
closely associated with bottom set as poor
bottom set tends to result in taller plants.
3 Inches Close Enough
In these tests the unthinned plots were
planted at approximately 20 pounds per
Lint Per Cent Not Affected
BOLL SIZE. -Boll size differences were
ciable difference in strength within the
range of spacings giving maximum yields.
FIBER FINENESS. -Spacing had a sig-
nificant influence on fineness in two of
the five tests. In these the closer spacings
gave the finest fiber.
Affects Yield, Earliness
Yield, earliness, and type of growth of
cotton are appreciably affected by plant
spacing. There are minor effects on boll
and fiber properties. However, these differences are not appreciable within the
range of spacings for maximum yield.
Spacings between 3 and 6 inches seem
most desirable, as these spacings tended
to give optimum performance of the cot-
ton plant in terms of yield, earliness
desirable plant type and fiber properties.
Unthinned plants (approximately 3inch spacing) gave excellent results in
the 1962 season when environmental conditions were conducive to a good bottom
set. In 1960, particularly at Tempe, when
the season was less favorable to a good
bottom set, the 6 -inch spacing was more
desirable.
Probably you were well aware of
National Farm -City W eek in Novem-
ber. But did you know it had its
origin right here in Arizona? Yes, it
was in 1952 that the late Kenneth
acre, which gave a stand with approximately a 3 -inch spacing. The only real
yield reduction from not thinning was
observed in only one of the five tests. In
this test, smaller bolls were obtained with
McMichen of Goodyear Farms, then
closer spacing.
experienced at Tempe in 1960. Thinning,
however, seems extremely desirable if
planting rates result in plants appreciably
LINT PER CENT. -Lint per cent was
serving as district chairman of the
not significantly influenced by spacing.
FIBER LENGTH. -Three of the five tests
showed significant effects of spacing on
Kiwanis agricultural committee, pro -
posed such a week to "foster better
relationships between farm and city
fiber length. Generally the longest fiber
become tall, top -heavy and lodged. This was obtained from the spacings which people." It was in 1955 when, as the
condition often results in yield reduction gave optimum yield performance.
idea kept spreading, Kiwanis Interwhich is more pronounced in some sea FIBER STRENGTH. - Two of the tests national formally made this a na4
sons than in others.
showed significant effects of spacing on
EARLINESS.- Maximum earliness (per fiber strength. In these tests weaker fiber tional event.
closer than 3 inches. Plants too closely
spaced have a poor bottom set and may
cent first pick) was obtained from the 6to 12 -inch spacings, with lateness asso-
was associated with the close spacing.
However, there generally was no appre-
May -June 1963
Page 8
WHERE, OH WHERE?
E---
In each issue PROGRESSIVE AGRICUL-
TURE will publish a picture of an Arizona view, one which cannot be confused
LI
with any other. At right is the first such
picture. Just for the fun of it, we'd like
our readers to search their memory of
back trails to see if they can identify the
OPEN RANGE WATCH FOR CATTLE ---K
JOE. MAHON
ass,.
T. J.BAKEP
II hi.
f56 w.
BUCKSKIN
EDD DEBORDE 155.
BRUCE BOSLEY 13!6ML
HOMER BYRD
I6.t.
LJ.FULMER
W.D.WEAR
t6m,.
DICK CALK1A1515.40.
JOE BULL
162..
..'ti<
PRE SIC1#! LARSON 15.5*
SUNSET VALLEY RANCH t11
scene.
13CKSHdP
RANCH
Here is the first one. How many of
you readers know where this group of
ranch signs stand, obviously at a road
intersection?
If you don't know, turn to Page 13
and get the answer.
Cotton Experts Keep
Anxious Watch On
Weevils in Sonora
the fields. Of vital concern to Arizona
and California growers, Dr. Johnston
The possibility of the boll weevil mov-
from the San Luis -Yuma area on the
ing from Mexico into cotton growing
areas of Arizona is very definite, an ento-
mologist told the Western Cotton Pro-
te are no more than 30 miles from Ari-
zona cotton north of Nogales and the
infestation at La Salina is about 140 miles
Colorado River.
As a result of the survey, the U. S.
this
Department of Agriculture and Mexican
officials conducted a spray program last
Dr. H. G. Johnston of the National
fall. A complete evaluation cannot be
made until early this summer, but pre-
duction
spring.
Conference
at
Phoenix
Cotton Council, Memphis, stated no one
can say, with any degree of assurance,
that the boll weevil in northern Sonora
will or will not be able to survive in cotton fields in the Santa Cruz Valley or in
the Salt River Valley.
"But at the rate it has spread over the
entire Caborca area during the past six
years, and the close similarity of much of
this area to cotton areas in Arizona, it
certainly should be placed in the category
of a very definite threat," Dr. Johnston
explained.
Dr. Johnston stated that today there
are at least two biologically different boll
weevil strains - one adapted to a humid,
rainfall climate and another to a dry, hot,
desert climate. Substantial evidence exists
the eastern strain is not capable of surviving in western cotton areas.
The story is different with the western
strain, however.
In the Caborca area, where production
has expanded greatly since World War
II, boll weevils were first found in 1956.
In six years it had spread over the entire
0
said, is that infested fields at Agua Calien-
area. Two years ago, weevils were found
in the Magdalena vicinity.
A U. S. Department of Agriculture
survey in 1962 revealed estimated losses
of one bale or more per acre in many of
Page 9
Progressive Agriculture
liminary results look encouraging, Dr.
Johnston explained.
Boll weevils were found at Delicias in
1950 and the Presidio Valley of Texas in
1953. In three years, they had spread over
the entire valley, and serious damage was
done in some fields the second year. The
entomologist said that since 1957 extensive control schedules have been followed,
and costs up to $45 per acre have been
reported by growers.
By 1961 weevils had spread up the Rio
Grande Valley some 150 miles. A cooperative project was initiated to apply
insecticides to all the infested area from
just above the Presidio Valley to the
lower end of the El Paso Valley.
Cooperating were the National Cotton
Council, U.S.D.A., Texas Experiment Station and State Department of Agriculture,
and the Mexican government.
Results have been most encouraging,
Dr. Johnston reported, and chances are
good weevils will be eliminated from this
area.
Dr. Johnston told the growers that lots
of additional information is needed con-
cerning western boll weevils and that
research now under way by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and The University of Arizona should provide some of
the needed answers.
Cochise County
KAWT, Douglas -Check local listings.
KHIL, Willcox - Mon. thru Fri.,
7:45 a.m.
Coconino County
KCLS, Flagstaff - Tues. and Thurs.,
8:20 a.m.
KGLS, Flagstaff (Home Agent)
Thurs., 9:45 a.m.
-
KPGE, Page - Fri., 2:30 p.m.
Graham County
KATO, Safford - Sat., 9:30 a.m.
Maricopa County
KTAR, Phoenix - Mon. thru Sat.,
5:30 a.m.
KUPD, Phoenix - Mon. thru Sat.,
5:30 a.m. and 12:25 p.m.
KPHO, Phoenix - Mon. (cotton report) 12:40 p.m.; Thurs. (dairy and
livestock report) 12:40 p.m.
Navajo County
KDJI, Holbrook - Tues., 12:45 p.m.
Pinal County
KPIN, Casa Grande - Mon. thru Sat.,
6:55 a.m.; Mon. and Fri., 9:30 a.m.;
Tues., Thurs. and Sat., 12:20 p.m.;
Fri., 5:00 p.m.; Sat., 7:00 a.m.
Santa Cruz County
KNOG, Nogales - Mon., 6:30 a.m.
Yuma County
Yavapai County
KYCO, Prescott
Fri., 5:55 p.m.
KNOT, Prescott
Fri., 5:35 a.m.
KVOY, Yuma
Mon., Wed. and
Mon., Wed. and
Mon. thru Fri., 5:45
a. m.
KYUM, Yuma
a.m.
Mon. thru Fri., 6:25
Sciettee 7eace't4 ene
two
High school pupils of today are apt
have an old -fashioned and incorrect
impression of modern agriculture and
-
t
research tools useful to that agriculture, scv.
Dr. Fred Turner, superintendent of the Sa
ford Experiment Station.
:
1,;YtiY"tt!Y.l
AN 'A
C
xaust
..
tot i un%
.....n
,.,_
y
i.oF°tloRra4 ú
SfHisttltY
.
f5
''.4
ti SggresZE4
`
1. SUPT. TURNER, at right, explains the make -up of the
College of Agriculture, with its Resident Teaching, Exten-
sion Service, Experiment Station and School of Home
Economics. Allan Halderman, Extension Agricultural Engineer, at left, helps hold the explanatory chart.
So on a beautiful Saturday in late VraI:
Fred Turner and his University of Arizon(
colleagues played host to high school
ence teachers from Graham County. It
an impressive and instructive affair, prc(_
ably first of several demonstrations designe
to introduce more and more groups to ma
em agriculture's research aids.
2. SHOWN BELOW is part of the group of interested
teachers looking at a neutron probe, a measuring device
for soil moisture. Charles Busch, associate professor in the
Department of Agricultural Engineering at the University, is in foreground, explaining how the device works.
CLIMATE IS IMPORTANT to crops in many
plains Dr. Turner, as he discusses the dial of a tempi
3,
ture - recording instrument.
s,
4(4
Sa#4,rd Stareaa
4. NOT ONE OF THE scientists, but busiest participant, was Mrs. Turner
then
who made gallons of coffee and cooked dozens of cookies beforehand,
Arizona
during the day manned a table with displays of University of
publications.
--_.._...
',AMINO"'
their needs
5. HUNGRY PLANTS can tell
device
of tissue
through the relatively new Amburgey,
soils
testing, explains Dr. Lyman
Extension
Service.
specialist in the UA
..s.
...
_
. <e
6. MOST ATTRACTIVE DISPLAY (excepting for the cookies) was this
mobile hydraulic flume, mounted on a pickup truck. Fitted with a water
pump and a number of variable baffles and inclines, it illustrated how flowing water would vary its flow under different conditions. Dr. Busch, at right,
explains the machine while Mr. Halderman, his Extension Service colleague,
mans the upper reaches of the mechanical ditch.
ited benefit in increasing yields. Un the
other hand, high levels of nitrogen were
None ?°d aid De l¢
ineffective when the irrigation was termi-
nated early. It is also shown in Figure i
that when a total of 225 pounds of nitrogen was applied, split applications prop- al
erly timed were more effective than a
(11a'tø9et aid ?Oue')
single application.
&lødt 9Qax Zldd
A look at the table on page 13 will
show that the nitrogen treatments had a
small effect on per cent of oil in the seed,
with a slight reduction at the high nitro-
gen levels. In spite of this slight reduction in per cent of oil, the highest yield
of oil per acre was obtained at the highest
nitrogen levels as shown in Figure 2.
E. B. Jackson, D. D. Rubis and Fred Carasso
These results show that timely nitrogen
(Continued on Next Page)
A little extra nitrogen and water
on a crop of flax can increase gross
returns as much as $42 per acre. This
is the conclusion drawn from an experiment conducted on The Univer-
sity of Arizona Experimental Farm
in the Yuma Valley in 1962.
Eight nitrogen
and two
Similar experiments at the Mesa Branch Station conducted by D. D. Rubis
and Rex Thompson over a two -year period showed that timely irrigation and
nitrogen applications resulted in yields over 60 bushels per acre. In 1962 four
extra irrigations in May and June and 40 pounds of nitrogen per acre resulted
in an increase of over 17 bushels per acre.
Figure 1
irrigation
treatments were imposed upon a field of
New River flax planted Dec. 7, 1961.
Nitrogen rates of 0, 75, 150 and 225
pounds per acre were applied in both
single and split applications. The field
was irrigated uniformly until April 27,
when irrigation was terminated on half
of the plots. The other half received four
more irrigations during May and June,
with the last one on June 21.
Based on $3 Price
April 27
Last Irrigatioll
60
June '21
a)
50
Q
The $42 figure is based on an average
increase of 14 bushels per acre at an
average price of $3 per bushel. This is
the current quotation to farmers at Yuma.
The increased yields resulted from a
second and even a third blooming period
brought on by the addition of nitrogen
and moisture during the first two blooming periods. The fact that both nitrogen
and moisture are necessary at this time is
shown by the graph in Figure 1. This
graph also shows that at a low level of
a)
30
X
nitrogen, the late irrigations were of limDr. Jackson and Dr. Rubis are both Associate Agronomists and Mr. Carasso is an Assistant in Research in Agronomy. Dr. Jackson
and Mr. Carasso are both stationed at the
Yuma Branch Station.
Acknowledgment is made to Dr. H. F. Kreizinger of the Department of Agricultural Chem-
istry and Soils for his part in planning the
experiment.
May -June 1963
Page 12
20
Nov.
15
Feb. 12
Mar. 15
Apr. 9
Apr. 26
0
75
25
25
25
150
75
75
2 25
75
50
50
50
75
25
50
25
50
Nitrogen Applications, Pounds per Acre
'1'
.
(Continued from Previous Page)
applications and irrigations can be very
Per cent oil content of flax seed grown under different irrigation
and nitrogen treatments. Yuma Valley Branch Station, 1961 -62.
effective in increasing yields of flax.
Nitrogen treatments, pounds per acre
Repeated Bloom Periods
This characteristic of the Imperial and
New River varieties to go into a second
Nov. 15
bred into these varieties. Varieties grown
Mar. 15
in Arizona 10 to 15 years ago did not
Apr.
possess this characteristic and were man-
Apr. 26
greatly increased flax yields.
The principle involved in producing a
second and third bloom period or, as is
often the case, a continuous blooming
period, is dependent on timely applications of nitrogen and maintenance of adequate soil moisture. By adding nitrogen
April 27
Last Irrigation
June 21
a
1600
irrigation.
1400
45.0 44.7
43.7 44.2 44.1
46.4 47.1 45.3
44.4 44.5
43.1 44.1 43.7
a
U
0
between Willcox
,..
. ..,
.
:.
1200
:....
,.,,
,.
...
...,
...,
...
,....,
..,.
:
.;
....
..
.
o
..J
800
.::
....
.
and
Safford.
...
;..
,
;:.
(1)
._
...
...
. . ..
.
....
: .:
...
1000
Fort Grant.
It is about 24 miles west of the turnoff
666,
..
:.
a
z
Highway
-
...
...
....
fence corner set of ranch listings, is on
the Sunset Valley Road. It is just west of
Bonita, which in turn is just beyond
of the Fort Grant road, where it leaves
..:
.r*%%
iv
MYSTERY PICTURE
The mystery picture on Page 9,
75
25
50
25
50
46.5 47.0 44.9
1.-
Ss
75
50
50
50
225
75
75
April 27
Last Irrigation
June 21
new
method to determine the need for an
150
Figure 2
at the time of full bloom, or near the
blooming period. If adequate moisture is
not maintained the flax plant will become
"hot" and go into final maturity with no
extra blooming. Feeling the flax plants to
determine whether they are cool is a good
25
25
25
9
Last Irrigation
end of a blooming period, new vegetative
growth is initiated in the leaf axils. This
new branching then produces
75
Feb. 12
and even third bloom period has been
aged like small grains. However, today
growers using proper fertilizer and irrigation practices have an opportunity for
0
600
:
..
..
11I1 . ..
.
..
...
.:
... :
.
...
....
,
...
...i
...
..
.,
...
:..;
...
. ..,
..
....
....
9.11.0%
...
:.0%
...,
....
....:
.
;.
La alimentacion artificial de becerras con
leche entera no presenta mayores problemas,
excepto lo elevado del costo de la leche. Se
recomienda que la becerra pase 2 6 3 días con
;.
.
;. . .
400
, ..
;.
la madre para que tenga acceso libre al calostro.
Sin embargo en el caso de vacas muy cariñosas
con sus crías, con sangre cebú o criolla, es
preferible separar inmediatamente las crías o
apenas han mamado la primera vez y continuando dando los calostros en balde.- TIERRA
Nov. 15
Feb. 12
Mar. 15
0
. .:
..:.
75
25
25
25
Apr. 9
Apr. 26
The sex life of coyotes is under scrutiny by
Don Balser, a Fish and Wildlife Service scientist in Denver. What he seeks is a chemosterilant which will prevent coyotes from hav-
ing pups. The idea isn't as far -fetched as it
sounds, because a coyote female comes into
eat only once, perhaps twice a year, for 10day periods. Balser's plan is to "bait" her
during breeding season and prevent conception.
Progressai'e Agriculture
75
75
225
Our esteemed friend on The Minneapolis Tribune, Will Jones, points out:
"If a Midwest farmer sits on his porch in
his undershirt he's a slob; if a Southwestmuda shorts it's called `gracious living.' "
..,
::..
.
....
.:.;
:..,
..
75
75
50
50
50
25
50
25
Nitrogen Applications, Pounds per Acre
ern farmer sits out in his patio in BerPage 13
150
,
...
....
50
If University of Arizona Holsteins get that
dreamy Hawaiian look, you can blame it on a
new feeding experiment. Cargill, Inc., has donated 2500 pounds of coconut oil meal and 400
pounds of coconut oil to the Dairy Science De-
partment. This will be used in feeding experiments to determine the nutritive value of coconut oil meal and oil for dairy cattle.
vironmental influences ana aulLy Sul «tral
procedures could be averted completely.
The Case of the Missing Citrus
$51/2 Million Loss
Let's look at the figures in Table I. The
difference between
Ross M. Allen
If a man has a $13,000 per year
job he expects his pay checks to show
a gross total of that amount. However, if the gross total is only $7,850,
even before taxes, he knows some-
ceives
only $7,844,095 per year,
the
thousands of industry members are not
taking home their full pay check.
As startling as they may seem, the
figures quoted above show the potential
and actual returns for the Arizona citrus
industry for 1962. The computations are
based on the actual bearing acreage (trees
actual crop value,
$7,844,095, and the potential value, $13,279,625, means that $5,435,530 has been
lost somewhere along the line. Somehow,
41 per cent of the industry pay check has
simply vanished. Perhaps a little detective
work will expose the culprits.
Table II lists some of the various
causes which have brought about this
$51/2 million loss. The percentage taken
by each of them - fungi, viruses, nematodes, disorders and frost, has been esti-
mated by University of Arizona citrus
specialists. This percentage can be converted easily into the dollar value of lost
thing is wrong and does something
8 years old or older) for each type of or damaged citrus.
about it.
This table also shows that the known
citrus: oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and
tangerines.
When an Arizona industry has a potential gross income of $13,279,625 but reDr. Allen is an associate plant pathologist at
the Yuma Branch Experiment Stations.
Actual yields and average returns per
field box are calculated for each crop.
These are compared with the potential
yields and returns - which is what the
industry could get if losses from diseases,
physiological disorders, detrimental en-
culprits have taken more loot from some
crop areas than from others. Valencia and
sweet orange income has been reduced by
31 per cent - amounting to a hefty
$1,623,650. Navel oranges lost 31 per
cent or $1,176,440; white grapefruit, 25
(Continued on Next Page)
Table I. Comparison of current actual and potential annual production returns from Arizona citrus
varieties.
Variety
Bearing
Acreage'
Valencia
Oranges 4,009
Sweet
Oranges 1,074
Navel
Oranges 4,600
White Grape-
Actual
Yield
Field
Boxes /At
Actual
Average
Return
per
Field Box'
Crop Value'
Per Acre
Total
Potential
Yield
Field
Boxes /A'
Potential
Crop Values
Per Acre
Total
Dollar Value
Lost for
Various Causes'
320
$2.25
$720.00
$2,886,480
500
$1,125
$ 4,510,125
$1,623,645
320
2.00
640.00
687,360
500
1,000
1,074,000
386,640
140
2.75
385.00
1,771,000
300
825
3,795,000
2,024,000
5,131
fruit
Red Grape426
fruit
750
.20
150.00
769,650
1000
200
1,026,200
256,550
750
.55
175,725
.75
1,327,680
750
234,300
2,074,500
58,575
640
200
1000
1000
550
Lemons 2,766
Tangerines 377
412.50
480.00
746,820
3.00
600.00
226,200
500
1,500
565,500
339,300
$13,279,625
$5,435,530
17,335
$7,844,095
'Acreage data based on Hilgeman, R. H., and C. W. Van Horn, 1955. Citrus Growing in Arizona. Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bulletin 258 (Revised).
Modified by additional data, June 1962, from Orange and Grapefruit Prorate Offices and Sunkist Exchange to account for acreage subdivided in
the Salt River Valley.
'Estimates based on packing house data and yield records of Branch Citrus Experiment Stations at Tempe and Yuma.
'Average returns are estimates based on limited information from packing houses in Yuma and Salt River Valley and on returns received by
Tempe Citrus Station.
'Calculated on basis of returns from acreage at least 8 years old.
'Potential yield estimates based on specific knowledge of selected bearing acreage of the several varieties where detrimental effects of diseases, pests,
weather, and cultural malpractices are nearly minimal. Estimates are regarded as conservative in all categories.
°Based on present average return per field box.
'Difference between "Actual" and "Potential" crop values. Causes include horticultural and pathological problems.
(Continued from Previous Page)
per cent or $256,540; red grapefruit, 25
per cent or $58,550; lemons, 17 per cent
or $352,660; and tangerines, 33 per cent,
for a loss of $186,610. It is readily apparent that the diseases and parasites are
truly big time operators.
Virus Loss $1 Million
When the UA Plant Pathology Department scientists finished assigning the
culprits into causal groups, the results are
reported in Table III. The fungi and
account for
$304,140 and
$621,540, respectively. The viruses managed to get away with the largest amount,
$1,200,450. Physiological disorders, granulation and frost took a large share,
nematodes
$439,420, $306,980 and $781,920, respectively.
These causes total only $3,654,450 of
the citrus loss. There still exists the difference between $3.6 million (Table III)
and the $5.4 million reported lost (Table
I) We believe the missing $1,781,080
.
can be attributed to such physical causes
as faulty irrigation, nutritional deficiencies, root -stock problems, salt problems,
poor drainage, pruning difficulties, weed
competition and minor other unidentified
causes.
A new enemy of citrus, tristeza virus,
possibly has been dipping into the cash
drawer, too, but the amount lost cannot
be reported at this time.
UA Scientists Working On It
What is being done about these things
which pare away $51/2 million from Arizona's annual citrus income ? In the College of Agriculture, the Departments of
Plant Pathology and Horticulture are very
much aware of this multiple problem. The
viruses
(tristeza,
psorosis,
xyloporosis,
exocortis, Stubborn Disease, and a few
others) are being subjected to an extensive (and very expensive) virus indexing
program at the Yuma Branch Citrus
Station.
Work on the Arizona Budwood Improvement Program is being pushed by
UA and USDA plant scientists. These
workers have imported more than 50
good citrus varieties to check virus diseases and rootstock problems. The fungi
are being attacked through experiments
on Phytophthora root rot, Rio Grande
Gummosis, Dry Root Rot and Hendersonula rot.
Granulation, irrigation, nutritional de-
frost injury and pruning are
being worked over by the Horticulture
ficiencies,
Department.
Nematodes
are
being
checked by UA and USDA scientists.
Increased usage of nematocides and wind
machines help curb nematodes and frost
injury. A few of the lesser criminals,
though still on the loose research -wise,
are still on the "wanted list."
Needs Bigger Police Force
And so we come to the final chapter of
"The Case of the Missing Citrus." The
Arizona citrus industry is being robbed
of 5.5 millions of dollars each year.
Certain thieves have been apprehended
(Continued on Next Page)
Table II. Estimated annual production losses from Arizona citrus groves, eight or more years old, due
to diseases and other conditions.
Disease
or
Condition
Valencia and Sweet
lt' "hite Grapefruit
Navel Oranges
Oranges
Lemons
Red Grapefruit
Tangerines
Thousands
EstiThousands
Esti- Thousands
EstiThousands EstiEsti- Thousands Esti- Thousands
of
mated
of
mated
mated
mated
of
of
mated
of
mated
of
Dollars Per cent Dollars Per cent Dollars Per cent Dollars
Dollars Per cent
Dollars Per cent
Per cent
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss'
Loss'
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
Root rot fungi 1.0
Psorosis virus 3.0
55.84
167.52
1.0
3.0
37.95
113.85
2.0
5.0
20.52
51.31
2.0
5.0
4.69
11.71
1.0
20.74
1.5
31.12
5.0
28.28
3.5
72.61
3.0
16.96
1.0
-
5.65
113.10
22.62
186.61
XyloporosisCachexia
Stubborn
Disease
Rio Grande
Gummosis
1.5
83.76
1.5
56.92
1.0
10.26
1.0
2.34
4.5
251.28
10.0
379.50
1.0
10.26
1.0
2.34
Nematodes_
5.0
279.20
5.0
189.75
1.0
5.0
10.26
51.31
1.0
5.0
2.34
11.71
Mesophyll
Collapse
1.0
55.84
1.0
37.95
1.0
10.26
1.0
2.34
0.5
0.5
8.0
5.13
5.13
82.10
0.5
0.5
8.0
1.17
1.17
18.74
10.0
207.45
1.0
20.0
4.0
25.0
256.54
25.0
58.55
17.0
352.66
33.0
Alternaria
rot -fungus
Splitting physiological
Breakdown -
physiological
Granulation
4.0
151.80 -
1.0
55.84
1.5
56.92
2.0
2.0
111.68
111.68
2.0
2.0
75.90
75.90
Freeze Injury 10.0
31.0
451.01' 1,623.65
31.0
-
1,176.44
20.74
'Based on averaged reports by several citrus specialists. Adjusted by acreage for districts. Figures adapted from typewritten report by R. H. Hilge-man to H. L. Keil, U.S.D.A., dated May 9, 1962.
-Losses calculated from "Potential Crop Values" shown in Table 1.
`Valencia oranges only.
Table III. Annual production losses from Arizona citrus groves, eight or more years old, according to
causal groups. (Expressed in thousands of dollars.)
Navel
Oranges
White
Grapefruit
Grapefruit
Lemons
55.84
189.75
30.78
7.03
20.74
502.56
550.27
71.83
16.39
31.12
28.28
1,200.45
223.36
170.77
15.39
3.51
20.74
5.65
439.42
279.20
189.75
51.31
11.71
72.61
16.96
621.54
111.68
75.90
5.13
1.17
113.10
306.98
82.10
18.74
207.45
22.62
781.92
256.54
58.55
352.66
186.61
3,654.45
Sweet and
Valencia Oranges
Causal Group'
Fungi
(Items 1, 5, 8)
Viruses
(Items 2, 3, 4)
Physiological
(Items 7, 9, 10)
Nematodes
(Item 6)
Unknown (Granulation)
(Item 11)
Environmental
(Item 12)
451.01*
1,623.65
1,176.44
Red
'Groupings are from following listed diseases or conditions:
1. Root rot fungi
7.
8.
2. Psorosis virus
3. Xyloporosis -cachexia virus
9.
4. Stubborn disease virus
5. Rio Grande
6. Nematodes
10.
11.
12.
Gummosis fungus
(Continued from Previous Page)
and are being questioned by lawmen of
several departments of the UA College
of Agriculture and by USDA scientists.
The criminal elements, fungi and viruses,
of the citrus disease mob are netting an
annual haul of $1,504,590. The disease
research force combatting these criminals
had an operating budget, exclusive of
salaries, oí$12,600 for fiscal ear 1962.
This budget is only .8 of 1 per cent of
the citrus loss. It would appear that a
larger budget would be a wise investment.
sending these stems to a laboratory to
find out the nitrate nitrogen level. The
samples are first collected when young
squares begin to appear, then every two
weeks until early August.
Dr. Tucker said farmers should select
stems from the youngest mature leaf from
the sample plants. Usually, this would be
the third or fourth leaf from the top of
the plant, he said.
Soil readings are taken before the
squares start forming so the nitrogen in
the soil can be adjusted early in the season. The stem readings then take over
Cotton's Hunger
Can Be Measured,
Says T. C. Tucker
when the plant starts squaring.
"If the soil nitrate level is between 20
Cotton plants can tell farmers whether
they are hungry for more nitrogen or are
receiving enough for a successful crop.
As cotton plants get older and near the
fruiting stage, it's desirable to let the
nitrogen level decline some, he pointed
out. Levels desired in the various stages
for Arizona conditions are: 15,000 to
18,000 parts nitrate nitrogen per million
when first squares form; 12,000 to 14,000
parts per million when flowering begins;
6,000 to 10,000 parts per million as the
first bolls form; and 4,000 parts per million at the time the first bolls are opening.
This advanced technique was presented
before the Western Cotton Production
Conference at Phoenix last March by Dr.
T. C. Tucker, professor of agricultural
chemistry and soils at The University of
Arizona.
The method he outlined was analysis
of stems from the cotton plant's leaves,
and he said it was more effective if used
in connection with soil testing to cover
the whole season.
Stem analysis, or petiole analysis, is
done by collecting 25 or 30 of the stems
that connect the leaf to the stalk, then
and 30 parts per million, nitrogen fertilizer will not be needed before petiole
analysis data can be used
.," he told
.
.
his audience.
All of this information can be gained
from analysis of the stems so the fer-
tilizer program can be adjusted to obtain
these desired concentrations of nitrate
nitrogen.
Total
Tangerines
304.14
Mesophyll collapse - physiological
Alternaria rot fungus
Splitting - physiological
Stem -end or rind breakdown - physiological
Granulation - cause unknown
Freeze injury
soil analysis for nitrate nitrogen, then he
told what the analysis system could NOT
do.
"These tools cannot be used to increas
the maximum yield possible or to correct
any factor limiting yield that is not nutritional. Therefore, the most effective use of
these tools will not always increase yields.
They can aid only in insuring that adequate nitrogen is available for the maximum yield possible under existing conditions. In many cases, the only benefit
that the grower can derive from the use of
these tools is the assurance that the nitrogen fertilizer program was adequate and
that excessive fertilizer was not used," he
said.
3 UA Men Honored
By Veterinarians
Three University of Arizona animal
pathologists have been named honorary
members of the Southern Arizona Veterinary Medicine Association.
Those honored were Dr. Richard H.
Diven, Dr. Leonard W. Dewhirst and
Robert J. Trautman. None is a veterinarian.
"Although these men are not veterinarians, they have worked so closely with
our association and are so familiar with
our problems that we felt they deserve
honorary membership," said Dr. Lloy
Orsborn, Tucson veterinarian and spokesman for the association.
Dr. Tucker emphasized that petiole
analysis is most valuable when used with
May -June 1963
Page 16
;,
Table 1. Shown below are calculated daily growth rates in tons
FORAGE SORGHUMS
1
per acre by dates of planting of
When to Plant in the Mesa Area
two silage sorghums.
Robert L. Voigt
LINDSEY 101F
Date Planted
March 15
How can I get the most for my April
4
money? This is a familiar question April
May
in agriculture just as in any business.
Personnel in sorghum investigations
at The University of Arizona are con-
June
June
20
10
4
27
tinually trying to help answer this
Days to Cut
Yield in T. /A.
Growth Rate in T. /A.
Per Day
121
112
119
135
116
107
14.86
18.47
33.40
27.69
37.42
20.69
.123
.165
.281
.205
.323
.193
REGULAR HEGARI
question for Arizona farmers.
A "date -of- planting" test was conduct-
ed at the Mesa Experiment Station in
1960 to check for optimum dates of
Date Planted
Days to Cut
Yield in T. /A.
Growth Rate in T. /A.
Per Day
March 15
121
112
117
99
90
93
85
13.45
17.56
22.43
21.70
24.46
15.30
9.03
.111
.157
.192
.220
.272
.165
.106
April
April
May
June
June
(Continued on Next Page)
The author is an assistant professor of Plant
Breeding and assistant plant breeder in the
111gricultural Experiment Station in charge of
orghum investigations, both Grain and Forage.
July
4
20
10
4
27
19
Lindsey 101 f
Oct
27
40
Oct
27
Regular Hegari
40
-
_
Aug
Sep
Oct
-1F-""Tr
Oct
27
Nov Sep
Jul
25,
10
Aug
i;
;
Jul
'
Aug
Sep
28:
Jul
77'
Oct
'
1I11;
I
...................
;Jun_JuI:
`II
Mari Ap
15
4
Apr iMay_;Jun
20
10
4
27
DATE PLANTED
15
4
20
10
27
19
YIELDS IN TONS per acre of silage from Regular Hegari and Lindsey 101 F, planted about every three weeks at Mesa in 1960.
Figures adjusted for 30 per cent dry matter. The shaded portions of these columns show yield and date of first cutting;
unshaded is yield and date of second harvest.
(Continued from Previous Page)
planting of forage sorghums. Highest
yield (tons per acre) was assumed to indi-
cate the most desirable period to plant.
These results, although for only one year,
showed a great difference in tonnage of
forage produced at different dates of
planting in the Mesa area.
It is important to learn from these data
what is the best time to plant to get the
highest yield of silage from a single cutting. This is important to the Arizona
farmer who may have a tight crop rotation schedule on his land, and wishes to
make each crop return the most for his
money.
First of June is Best
Used Two Varieties
Two different forage sorghums were
The highest single cut yield was ob-
used : Regular Hegari, a commonly grown
variety, and Lindsey 101 F, a commercial
tained with the June 4 planting date. This
hybrid which was well adapted to the
area. Plantings were made about every
three weeks beginning on March 15.
Yields in tons of fresh silage per acre
have been adjusted at 30 per cent dry
matter for comparison and are given in
our graph. All harvests were made as
near to soft dough stage of grain development as possible which correlates reason-
indicates that in the Salt River Valley
area the latter part of May or the first
part of June is generally the best planting
date for forage sorghums to get the most
tonnage. Much smaller yields result from
either earlier or later plantings. Farmers
should realize that there is no one high
particular recommended
variety or hybrid.
yield from a
ably close to the 30 per cent dry matter
'Rate of Gain' Sorghumwise
stage that is desired b Y most feeders.
The total seasonal yield is measured
Some more interesting data were obtained by dividing the total yield in tons
per acre by the number of days it took to
grow the crop for each date of planting.
by the full height of the bars, with the
shaded portions indicating the first cut
from each planting date. The total yield
for the season is, of course, highest for
the earliest planting date and decreases
for both varieties with progressively later
planting dates. The selection of a proper
planting date can be just as important in
obtaining high production as is proper
choice of a variety or hybrid seed.
This rate in tons per acre per day of
silage is much like the rate of gain per
day in beef cattle. Table I shows a peak
daily growth rate for the June 4 planting.
The hybrid Lindsey 101F shows a higher
rate
for most dates than the standard
variety Regular Hegari. Here, again, the
use of a hybrid is little different than
Table II. Per cent digestible laboratory nutrients and per cent pro-
tein of two silage sorghums by date of planting and
cutting.
Date Planted
March 15
April
April
May
4
20
10
June
June
4
27
74.5
67.0
63.0
72.5
67.5
66.0
7.79
5.33
6.30
5.19
4.93
3.71
Second Cutting
% Protein
DLN
75.0
78.0
3.19
3.34
Date Planted
March 15
April
April
May
June
June
July
4
20
10
4
27
19
80.5
77.0
4.57
3.24
The quality of forage harvested
(TDN) as measured by laboratory analyses for digestible laboratory nutrients
(DLN) and protein show some interest-
ing trends. In Table II are given the per
cent DLN and per cent protein on a dry
matter basis for each cutting by date of
planting. Note the higher per cent DLN
and lower per cent protein for all second
cuttings when compared to first cuttings.
Also there was a general continuous de-
cline in per cent protein as the season
progressed.
Sorghum is quite responsive to photo periodic effects and temperature in
its
growth rate, and temperature may also
have a pronounced effect on the chemical composition of a plant. A study now
under way seeks to determine response of
sorghum genotypes at various altitudes
(temperatures) and the same day lengths.
Already this study is beginning to yield
some interesting results. This study will
be reported upon as soon as there are
sufficient results to warrant conclusions
helpful to farmers.
Arizona Active in
'Service to Youth'
Arizona continued as an active partici%
pant in the "Service to Youth" programs
of the National 4 -H Club Foundation last
year, according to the foundation's annual
report just published.
operates the national 4 -H center in Washington, D. C., trains professional workers
and conducts experimental projects and
studies.
Arizona took part in the youth exchange program by playing host to John
J. Park of England. Park was the guest of
two Arizona families - Mr. and Mrs.
John Heward of Holbrook and Mr. and
Mrs. D. L. Scott of Morenci.
Arizona also sent Mrs. Audrey M.
REGULAR HEGARI
First Cutting
% Protein
% DLN
73.5
7.41
68.5
5.54
69.5
6.97
68.5
6.20
70.5
4.80
Earliness Means Protein
The foundation handles the international farm youth exchange program,
LINDSEY 101F
First Cutting
%DLN
% Protein
selecting a type of feeder cattle that will
give you the highest daily gains.
Second Cutting
% DLN
% Protein
75.0
78.5
78.0
73.5
4.57
4.57
4.37
4.70
Davis, home agent in Mohave County, to
the annual National Workshop in Human
Development and Human Relations
Training.
Listed among the financial sponsors of
the foundation's programs was the United
Dairymen of Arizona, Tempe.
Thomas M. Ware, a native of Globe
and president of International Minerals
and Chemical Corp., Skokie, Ill., was
named to the National 4 -H Sponsor?
Council, an executive group that advise
on the financial development of the program of the foundation.
Allar -June 1963
Page 18
For Saving Surface Water Supplies
the equipment involved makes it impractical for small ponds. On the other hand,
the use of solvents may prove to be prac-
tical on a small pond because of the
MONOMOLECULAR FILM
REDUCES EVAPORATION
relatively
cheap
equipment
required.
However, it would not be practical on a
larger reservoir where cost of the solvent
would be prohibitive. Thus, method and
cost of application depend on the size of
the reservoir. The type of dispensing
equipment suitable for a large reservoir
not be
feasible for stock ponds.
probably would
C. Brent Cluff and
Howard Goldstein
to animals or plants. They offer no appre-
Utilization of The University of Arizona
ability to suppress evaporation of water.
The theoretical amount of this material
necessary to form a monolayer on water
is quite small (0.08 lb. /acre).
combination of the various chain lengths
of fatty alcohols, the best physical state to
basic to man's survival. In the arid
pound for the material, the economics of
evaporation suppression by this method
are quite promising. In laboratory experiments using four -feet diameter pans these
films were able to conserve as much as 65
regions of the world, water is in very
per cent of the water normally lost to
short supply. As the population increases the strain on available sup-
evaporation.
plies is becoming more acute.
One very important source of agricul-
tural water in many arid regions is the
farmer's or rancher's individual pond.
SChe value of this water is multiplied
many times in isolated areas where other
water sources are unavailable. Conserva-
tion of this water is of critical importance. In many of these areas, the evapo-
ration loss may amount to as much as
six vertical feet of water per year. Not
only is this water lost, but the water left
behind is of lower quality because of the
concentration of dissolved salts.
Evaporation Inhibiters
Water that ordinarily would be lost to
evaporation can be saved by applying a
material that will form a monomolecular
film on the surface of the water. Films of
the fatty alcohols, hexadecanol and octadecanol, have proven most successful.
These alcohols have a long carbon chain
molecule, one end of which is attracted
to water, the other end being repelled by
Savings Up to 30 Per Cent
The Australians were the first to try
using the hexadecanol monolayer to prevent or suppress evaporation on reservoirs
back in 1952. They reported that they
obtained up to 30 per cent savings on
small reservoirs by dispensing the hexadecanol in flake form from gauze floats.
The Australian results interested various governmental research agencies in the
United States where testing of mono layers on reservoirs began around 1955.
Various estimates of the cost of saving
water in large reservoirs have been made.
These range from $4.50 to $300 per acre
foot.
There is no question that the mono layer film will reduce evaporation. The
problem is trying to maintain a film coverage so as to maximize savings with a
minimum cost of water saved. Factors
.which break up or destroy the film coverage are wind, bacteria and sunlight. Of
these, wind seems to be the most impor-
tant, because if a wind is blowing the
film will not remain on the water long
enough to be destroyed by sunlight and
water.
bacteria. Since the evaporation rate is very
cause the long alcohol molecules to stand
perpendicular to the surface of the water
maximum savings are to be obtained.
These attracting and repelling forces
in a monomolecular film. The thickness
of this monomolecular layer is approximately one ten -millionth of an inch.
Films of these materials are not toxic
Mr. Cluff is a research associate and Mr.
oldstein a research assistant, both on the staff
of the Institute of Water Utilization within the
College of Agriculture.
Page 19
Progressive Agriculture
In July 1961, the Institute of Water
ciable resistance to oxygen or carbon
dioxide diffusion, yet they have high
Even at a cost of about 50 cents a
Of all the world's natural resources, water is one of the most
economically
high during periods of wind, continuous
application of the material is necessary if
entered into a contract with the U. S.
Bureau of Reclamation to find the best
use, and the best apparatus to use for
stock ponds and reservoirs under 10 acres
in size.
'Film' Pond and Check
For field testing purposes, duplicate
ponds 53 by 78 feet in size were built
and lined with vinyl plastic to prevent
seepage. A stilling well and a hook gage
at each pond is used to measure change
in water storage. The testing procedure
calls for applying the film on one pond
and comparing the water loss with that
from the untreated pond.
To date, screened rafts with flakes of
hexadecanol inside have been used with
little or no savings. Solid material in the
form of doughnuts have also been tried
with no savings. Powder has been applied three times daily, resulting in savings of 6 to 10 per cent. A self- feeding
grinder -duster, which is a scaled down
version of the one the Australians developed, has been built.
The grinder- duster consists of a small
six volt motor and a wire brush, with a
feed system where the hexadecanol is fed
into the grinder, using a weight and
pulley system. By using this duster, we
have completely covered a 11/2 acre lake
within a matter of minutes with a film of
maximum cover. However, it may prove
to be impossible to keep a pond covered
dispensing from only one or two points
during high winds.
Solutions using common white gasoline
as a solvent have been tested, using a
simple dispensing apparatus which utilizes the difference in specific densities
between white gasoline and water. A
Can Be in Many Forms
bottle containing fatty alcohol dissolved
in white gasoline is placed on the bottom
The various physical forms of fatty
alcohols that can be applied are : (1)
powder, (2) solid, (3) molten, (4) solu-
of the reservoir and coming out of the
bottle are two glass tubes. One tube extends to the bottom of the bottle. This
(5) emulsion or slurry, and (6)
tube allows the water to enter. The fatty
alcohol in solution will float to the top
of the bottle and will be forced out the
plastic tubes leading to the surface. These
tubes lead to wind vanes on the ponds
tion,
flakes. Of these forms, powders, solutions (in hot weather) and emulsions
seem to be giving the best results.
Molten hexadecanol can be sprayed
through a nozzle to form a powder but
(Continued on Next Page)
What YOU Can Do
Donald V. Robertson
"Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what
You can Jo for your country.
.
w
Allhearts were stirred by this challenge voiced by Pres dent 'Kennedy in his inaugural address. All ears waited to
hear what needed doing. All responsible citizens searched for
1 way to help their
coann
Aamericans responded in different ways to the challenge.
Some joined the army. Some volunteered for the Peace
Corps. Some hecame active in community affairs. But most
(lent who plaYs and loafs and gets Karel- passing grades
ey re good enough), all are unwitting participants in this
silent eonspi,acY of mediocrity. Unless it is reversed, this
eo n:pirac,, this unconscious treason, can make America
second class more quickly and more surely than conspiracies
that deliberately work for America's destruction.
But the conspiracy of mediocrity can he reversed. Each
person need only Arlo the best he can. He maj not achieve
th7
perfection in has job; few are capahle of it and circumstances
still wait for instruction as to the hest way they can serve
their country.
Jo not often allow it. But he must conscientiously strive for
those who wait, we have a suggestions Jo Your hest,
Only 1) V doing his Lest can a person realize his greatest
potential as a citizen, an employee, and an individual.
To
By doing Your hest you can help combat a doctrine that
is fast engulfing America -- a doctrine more dangerous than
Communism or Fascism or anarchy -- the doctrine of Good
perfection.
so to serve yoaar country, to serve your employer, to
serve yourself 1)o your best.
Enough.
The mechanic who does a half -wa eloh (it's good
enough), the manufacturer who uses shoddy parts in his
product (they're good enough) , the scientist who is satisfied
with slipshod, inexact research (it's good enough) , the stn..
Editor's Note: The above was written by Donald V. Robertson, publications editor in the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Md. It was
included in a writing assignment given University of Arizona
and USDA personnel in Tucson a few months ago. We felt
it deserved a wider audience.
___0_0_,>_.,,,..,_0_,._.,__,._0__1=1..__,._0_:.,,,_<>e__0_4,,_ __ ,_4a.sm., _ ,____
(Continued from Previous Page)
that keep the material applied into the
wind.
Using this apparatus, savings of from
15 to 20 per cent were obtained. Before
additional tests could be made in the fall
of 1962, the temperature began to drop
below 60 °F. at night. This caused the
alcohol to precipitate out of solution,
which plugged up the dispensers. Further
tests made in the laboratory showed that
the solubility of alcohol in white gasoline was very temperature dependent and
not practical when temperatures dropped
below 60 °F.
Next
as high as 30 per cent have been obtained
using a 10 per cent concentration of
Emulsions
Because of this unforeseen development, testing with solutions was stopped.
Emulsions were tried next. Various types
of emulsifiers and alcohol concentrations
have been tried. A stable emulsion containing as high as 10 per cent alcohol,
which can be fed by gravity through a
quarter inch plastic tube, has been used.
Emulsions of various concentrations of
alcohol and emulsifying agents will be
tested further. To date savings of water
alcohol, feeding the emulsion continu-
ously by gravity.
Although there needs to be a lot of
additional research done to determine the
optimum physical form and the best
means of dispensing the monolayer, it
now appears that emulsions fed througlip)
a gravity feed system are the most prom
ising, at least as far as small reservoirs
and stock ponds are concerned. Most of
the remaining time in this project will
be spent in testing emulsions.
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