CHM lilt IN ARIZONA Volume XV NUMBER 3
1963 MAY -JUNE Volume XV NUMBER 3 CHM lilt IN ARIZONA PUBLISHED BY THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA AT TUCSON More than 100 Extension workers from 27 dif- ferent states and 12 foreign countries were enrolled in the second annual Extension Winter School last Feb. 4 -22, sponsored by the College of Agriculture of The University of Arizona. Course work included such items as Agricultural Policy, taught by Dr. Wallace Barr of Ohio State University; Psychology for Extension Workers, by Dr. Ole A. Simley, University of Arizona; Agricultural Communications, by Ralph Reeder, Purdue University; Working With Groups, taught by Edward V. Pope of the Federal Extension Service, Washington; 4 -H Leadership Development, by Joe McAucliffe, also of the Federal Extension Service; and Extension Teaching Techniques, by Dr. Marden Broadbent of Utah State University. In the picture above, Ernie Foster, second from left, an Arizona County Agent, shares "Extension Education Ideas" with left to right, Miss Hazel Thompson, Forsyth, Mont.; Ahmad Nasser, field training instructor from Jordan; Mrs. Relia Butcher, Philippi, West Virginia; and Gilbert Matson of Payette, Idaho. L J WVUN OAREILII LA'Ur "See your county agent." This statement is made many times to those who ask for Arizona agricultural or home - economics information. Inquiries about agriculture and related industries, about youth programs, and about activities and programs for the home are constantly being referred to "the county agent" for specific and accurate information. The County Agricultural Agent - or County Home Agent - is your local representative of The University of Arizona, the land -grant university for the state of Arizona. He or she is a member of the staff of The University of Arizona Cooperative Extension Service, which is one of the three branches of the College of Agriculture in each land -grant college. He is an agricultural leader. Or, in case is ber of a local school board. In other words, he is a part of your local commun- ity, and as such has the responsibility of serving you to the best of his ability. So the phrase "See Your County Agent" is excellent advice. See your County Agent for information on the broadest area relating to agriculture and home economics. Who is "The County Agent" ? of the Home Agent, she likely to be a member of a local service club, a local church, and perhaps a mem- a home - economics leader. The County Agent is also an adviser in the fields of agriculture and home economics and related activities, including youth work. He is a local authority in both specific farm and home programs and activities, and in agriculture and Here are the addresses of the county extension offices where your County Agricultural Agents and County Home Agents are located in each county of the state: Casa Grande - - City- County Bldg. Francis Bldg. Duncan Court House Flagstaff - - Court House Globe County Fairgrounds Holbrook County Welfare Bldg. Kingman - Court House Annex Nogales 1201 West Madison Phoenix Court House Prescott St. Johns Tucson Willcox Yuma - people effectively in the various subject matter fields involved in agriculture, home economics, and youth programs. The main objective of the county agent service to Arizona residents in his county. Each agent is backed by the reis search resources of The University of Arizona College of Agriculture and School of Home Economics, and by similar resources in other colleges of the Univer- sity here and in other states, and also from the United States Department of Agriculture. Each agent has special train- ing for working with the people of this state in agricultural production, marketing and utilization, family living, youth development, community and resource development, and in the development of local leadership, both adult and youth. Your County Agent also is a local resident of your county. His or her office is the "front door" to The University of Arizona. The county agent and home agent bring The University of Arizona into your own county wherever you live in the state of Arizona. He has in his office numerous state and federal publications for the use of Arizona residents. Your county agent is active in local Civic, church, and school affairs. He is Court House 112 West Pennington Railroad Street 1047 Fourth Avenue - - - - Dean College of Agriculture and School of Home Economics home economics subjects on a broad scale. There is a county extension office in each county of Arizona. Each office has at least one Agricultural Agent and one Home Agent in residence in the county. Many of the county offices in Arizona have a number of agents to serve local Armory Safford Al Face of Yuma Heads Brangus Assn. Face Heads Brangus Assn. Too Many Cows, Not Enough Matches Cotton Crop Up 7 Per Cent Seed Certification 30 Years Old Seeking Better Bermudagrass - Yuma Brangus Top Gaining Bull Agriculture & the Common Market Arizona Farm Income $5121/2 Million Oklahoma, Florida, Arkansas, ence. He emphasized that the fat -lean ratio of a beef carcass can definitely be improved by the addition of about onehalf or slightly less than half Brahman blood to the English breeds. He also said there is more difference in meat flavor and texture caused by age 5 5 6 6 ROGRESSIVE AGRICULTURE IN RIZONA Phoenix. Face formerly was county extension agent in Yuma County. Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, South Dakota, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada and in Canada. Featured speaker at the convention was Dr. Carl B. Roubicek of The Univers ;ty of Arizona's Department of Animal Sci- 4 Trade names used in this magado not endorse products named nor imply criticism of similar ones not mentioned. Brangus Breeders Assn., when it met at Texas, 3 zine International The new president said he would depend heavily on strong state Brangus associations to bolster the breed's progress this year. There are state associations in 3 Plant Spacing of Pima Cotton - - - 7 Watching Sonora Cotton Weevils 9 Agricultural Radio News Schedule 9 Safford Hosts Science Teachers - - - 10 Nitrogen, Water Boost Flax Yields - - 12 The Case of the Missing Citrus - - - 14 Cotton Hunger Can Be Measured - - 16 3 Honored by Veterinarians - - - - 16 Forage Sorghum Planting Date Tests - 17 Film On Pond Cuts Water Loss - - - 19 20 What YOU Can Do Al Face, cattle superintendent for the Bruce Church Ranches at Yuma, was elected president of the 2 Vol. XV No. 3 May-June 1963 Published bimonthly by the College of Agriculture, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, Harold E. Myers, dean. Entered as second -class matter March 1, 1949, at the post office at Tucson, Arizona, under the act of August 24, 1912. Reprinting of articles, or use of information in Progressive Agriculture in Arizona, by newspapers and magazines is permitted, with credit. Editor: John Burnham. Editorial Board Members: Howard R. Baker, Extension Service; Mitchell G. Vavich, Experiment Station; Russell V Cline, Resident Instruction; Mildred IS Jensen, School of Home Economics; Richard K. Frevert, chairman; Joe McClelland. and feeding conditions than is caused by difference in breed. May -June 1963 Page 2 TOO MANY COWS --- Range vegetation does change, although too slowly to be evident to most of us. The eye and memory of man cannot view contrast when it is measured in decades and centuries. Dr. R. R. Humphrey, professor of Range Management in this college, has used the camera to remedy man's shortsightedness. Bob Humphrey uses repeat photographs of exactly the same area. In the two photos above, Dr. Humphrey shows the changes which have taken place over a 70 -year period on the U.S. -Mexico boundary in the southeastern corner of the Papago Indian Reservation. The photo at left, of Boundary Marker 144, was taken in 1893. The photo at right, from almost exactly the same spot was taken in 1963 - just 70 years later. (Object at right of marker, in the earlier photo, is the photographer's dog.) "In the earlier picture," points out Prof. Humphrey, "the only mesquites were along Valshni Wash, which appears as NOT ENOUGH MATCHES a dark streak in the distant background. Grasses made up most of the vegetation. "Today there are no grasses; only mesquite, burroweed and a few cholla cactus," says Humphrey. He has searched early army records and reports that "antelope were once so numerous in this area as to constitute a valuable source of meat for the soldiers. One can readily visualize this as an antelope habitat in 1893, but not today." Why this change? The answer seems to lie in too many cattle and too few fires, says the Range Management professor. He points out that grazing removed the grasses that once served as fuel for fires that presumably kept the mesquites under control. Cattle, grazing along the wash, distributed mesquite seeds over the entire area in their manure, and these - in the absence of fire - germinated and took root in the fertile soil. "The rest is history," says Humphrey, "the history of millions of acres of similar rangeland in the Southwest." '62 Arizona Cotton Crop Was Up 73/4 Arizona's 1962 cotton crop was up May 2- Annual Cattle Feeders Day, Tucson 3- Annual Poultry Industry Day, U of A Poultry Research Center, Tucson June 3 -7 -17th Town and Country Life Conference, U of A Campus 10 -15 -State 4 -H Junior Leader Laboratory, Prescott July 29-31--State 4 -H Roundup, U of A Campus August o 1 -2 -State 4 -H Roundup, U of A Campus 14 -16- Annual Arizona FFA Leadership Conference, U of A Campus Page 3 Progressive Agriculture nearly 7 per cent from the previous year. The 1962 crop is expected to be approximately 858,000 bales when the tally is completed. The final figure on the 1961 crop was 828,000 bales. The increased production resulted from increases in both harvested acreage and yields per acre. About 25 per cent of the acreage was skip -row planted and contributed to the increased yields. Arizona again led the nation in yields of both upland and American -Egyptian cotton. The leading states in per -acre yields of upland cotton were: Arizona, 1,114; California, 1,082; New Mexico, 689; Missouri, 583; Mississippi, 515. The yields on American -Egyptian cotton were: Arizona, 569; Texas, 495; New Mexico, 415. Lower prices for both lint and seed partially offset the increased production. Bulletins A 24-Sprinkler Irrigation (reprint of former Bulletin 250) A- 26- Protect the Cotton Plant from In- sect Injury (replaces "Cotton Insect Control") A -27- Gypsum and Sulfur -bearing Amendments for Arizona Soils During the vegetable crop year of 1961 -62, 58,179 carlot equivalents of vegetables and melons were shipped from Arizona. Total value of production was $80,100,000 compared to $67,700,000 or an 18 per cent increase over the 1960 -61 income. This increase is the result of higher value of production for broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, winter and spring lettuce, and onions. These increases were partially offset by lower values for all melon crops, carrots, and late fall lettuce. Seec Çeieíeeo« 7e'4 fe Robert Dennis The Arizona Crop Improvement Association was formed thirty years ago. It is appropriate on this anniversary to review the seed certification movement in the United States and in Arizona. The Arizona Crop Improvement Association, like those in other states, is a non -profit organization of growers whose objective is to make available genetically uniform and high quality seed. In all states where this objective is achieved there is a close cooperative relationship with the Land -Grant College, the U. S. STATE FAIR exhibit of Arizona Crop Improvement Association. Note prominence Department of Agriculture, private breeders, and commercial seed firms. quality. Seed Program 75 Years Old Field crop varieties have been developed by agricultural experiment stations for about 75 years. The first varieties were made available to the public by giving seed to leading farmers. These farmers increased the seed and gave a portion of the increase to their neighbors. Growers observed the performance of the new release and reported yields to the breeder. Results of these tests were used much the same as extension test demonstrations are used today. This method of increasing and introducing a new variety was satisfactory in some cases, but often it was not. Contamination from foreign pollen sometimes was a problem. Often the new variety was renamed and sold by unscrupulous dealers. High germination and purity standards were difficult to maintain. The agricultural leaders of that time real- ized there was need for a better system for increase and release of new varieties. Field Inspections Begin The first efforts in the direction of seed certification were those by experiment station workers of the Land -Grant Colleges and Universities. Wisconsin initiated inspections of seed fields in 1913. A pure seed association was organized in Maricopa County, Arizona, in 1914, at the time of the introduction of Pima cotton. Montana established a seed inspection program in 1915. Other states followed quickly with similar programs. All but five of the states now have seed certifying agencies. Dr. Dennis is an Extension Agronomist, given to certified seed tag, symbol of ers were producing 27,500 acres of seed crops for certification. In 1962, alfalfa, barley, cotton, millet, oats, safflower, sorghum, wheat, and several specialty crops Arizona growers were among the first in the nation to recognize the importance were certified. Several states exceed Arizona in acres of seed inspected for certification. How- of an organized cooperative effort to make quality seed available to all. Numerous groups were formed to facilitate the pro duction and marketing of pure seed. The Arizona Crop Improvement Association was formed June 2, 1933, in a meeting of the officers of the Chilean Alfalfa Seed Growers Association, the Maricopa County Farm Bureau Pure Seed Association, and the Yuma County Pure Seed Association, in the County Agent's office at Yuma. An Historic Meeting Present at this important conference were Sam Wallace, president of the State Farm Bureau; William Walton, president of the Buckeye Farm Bureau; Laurides Alfalfa Wayne Wright, president of Yuma County Pure Seed Association; A. D. Cox, manager of Anderson, president, Chilean Seed Growers Association; Yuma County Farm Bureau Marketing Association; G. E. Blackledge, Yuma County Agricultural Agent; and University of Arizona representatives H. N. Watenpaugh, Extension Agronomist, and Ian A. Briggs, Research Agronomist. The first officers elected were William Walton, Palo Verde, president; Wayne Wright, Roll, vice -president; and Mrs. Martha Boggs, Phoenix, treasurer. The Arizona Crop Improvement Association, now officially recognized by state law as the state's official seed certification agency, has served growers of field crops in Arizona well. Through the years its ever, only a few states have a greater percentage of their total cropland used for the production of certified seed. Has Full Time Secretary eh Operation of the Crop Improvement Association in Arizona is supervised by directors elected by growers who produce seed in Cochise, Maricopa, Pima, Pinal and Yuma counties. Harold Jacka has served as secretary -treasurer of the Arizona association since January 1, 1947. He developed an official handbook, first published in 1949. Mr. Jacka works closely with Experiment Station and Ex- tension Service workers, with growers, and with members of the seed trade. Each year has brought new challenges and opportunities for seed certification agencies. In recent years many new varieties have been produced by commercial breeders. Arizona was one of the first states to extend certification to privately developed hybrids and varieties. About twice as many different hybrids and varieties were certified in 1960 as in 1950. A current problem of all certification agencies is maintenance of rigid quality standards for seed, which generally is sold without the benefit of elaborate advertising programs. The need to use pure seed of the best adapted varieties is just as important in 1963 as in 1933, whet agricultural leaders of the day first met i Yuma to form the Arizona Crop Im- representatives have authorized the use of provement Association. the certified label on many varieties of seed. By 1960 some 180 Arizona grow- Aby-fune 1963 Page 4 UA Team Approach Seeking better Bermlldagras Turf Steve Fazio Establishment and maintenance of turfgrass is an important industry in Arizona. Turfgrass in golf courses, parks and home lawns comprises about 50,000 acres. However, more important than the total acreage is the fact that it is grown by so many people. Nearly half a million Arizona home owners, citizens who also use parks and golf courses and playgrounds, have a definite stake in bermudagrass improvement, as compared to no more than 5,000 Arizonans growing any other crop. High temperature, low humidity and soil conditions peculiar to the semi -arid Southwest result in a variety of problems. A mild winter climate stresses the desirability of an all -year turfgrass or improve- ment in overseeding methods and materials. 1) Studies Began 10 Years Ago Persons in various departments of this College of Agriculture have for years worked to solve turfgrass problems. The Horticulture Department initiated a research program about 10 years ago and sponsored the annual Turf Conference in cooperation with the Golf Course Superintendents Association for a number of years. Concluding that a team approach to many of these problems would be advantageous, a research committee was created in 1959 consisting of members Yuma Brangus Tops bermudagrass is an attractive lawn when Gain -Test Trials eties. Nearly three -quarters of the 76 bulls entered in the recently completed gain grade test of the Arizona Beef Cattle Improvement Station met or exceeded all Bermuda lawns infested with weeds reveal the result of improper management. Lack of fertilizer, or improper application, has been responsible for many requirements. weed patches in lawns. Bermudagrass requires a constant and adequate supply of nitrogen to maintain vigorous growth. An application of ammonium sulfate in The bulls were tested at The University of Arizona River Road Farm in Tucson by personnel of The U of A animal science department. Requirements were that the bulls gain at least 2.3 pounds per day, grade choice or higher, and have a minimum adjusted yearling weight of 825 pounds. Although the work of the research committee is supported mainly by university funds and facilities, contributions from interested persons and groups have been helpful. The Arizona Golf Course Superintendents Association made several donations early in the development of the program and has recently voted an addi- tional contribution. Part of the program has been supported from grants received from bermudagrass seed growers, seed companies and from individual country clubs. Chemical companies have been gener- ' Ous with materials and one has made a The author is an associate horticulturist. Page 5 Progressive Agriculture late fall just prior to the frost season, at the rate of 11/2 to 2 pounds per 100 square feet is recommended. Another application at the same rate should be applied in early spring when the new These are practical goals for a good growth emerges. These two applications growing ration, according to Dr. Bruce will help bermudagrass to grow vigorR. Taylor, head of The U of A animal ously. Need for additional nitrogen durscience department. The tested animals were ranked on an index, with an average bull receiving a score of 100. Above- average bulls are ranked above 100; below- average bulls below 100. Top animal in the test group was bred and entered by the Yuma Valley Cattle Company. The Brangus bull was the high index bull (119) and the highest- gaining bull (3.58 pounds per day) . The second -high index bull, with a score of 116, was bred and entered by the Cowden Livestock Company of Phoe- nix. The Hereford bull, which gained 3.12 pounds per day and graded fancy, was sold to the Vaca Ranch of Patagonia for $2,100 at the station sale. The average rate of gain for all bulls was 2.51 pounds per day. Their average grade was middle choice and their average adjusted yearling weight was 893 pounds. The 76 bulls that finished the test included two Angus, eight Brangus, three Char - Santa Gertrudis, two Shorthorns, and 56 Herefords. A total of 23 bray, five bulls failed to meet the three requirements for approval. from the Departments of Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Agronomy, Agricultural Chemistry and Soils and Entomology. given care bestowed on other turf vari- cash grant. These contributions are used for purchases of equipment, supplies and labor not possible from the budgets of the various departments. The Tucson City Parks and Recreational Department has furnished established turfgrass areas for experimental use and has maintained the test plots. Brought Here From India Common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) was introduced into the United ing the growing season can be deter- mined by observing the growth and color of the grass. Mow It Short and Often Mowing plays an important role in the ability of bermudagrass to grow vigorously. A properly maintained bermuda lawn requires frequent mowing during the period of high temperatures and low humidity. Allowing a bermuda lawn to grow two to three inches in height between mowings results in sunburning the foliage which developed near the base, by exposing this tender growth to a sudden change in light intensity. Setting the mower at a desired height and then mow- ing the grass whenever it grows half to three -quarters of an inch will prevent the damaging effect of sunburning. Irrigation of bermuda lawns is another management practice which, when nein uneven growth and sunburning. Poor management will increase weed control problems. An experienced person can often detect a water stress in bermuda by a change of foliage color. The appearance of a dark, bluegreen color in bermuda shows water stress. If this is allowed to continue for glected, results several hours, sunburning may result. Water stress may result when sprinklers do not cover the entire surface, or when the interval between irrigations is too long. Variability of soils and climatic conditions makes it difficult to water lawns on a definite time schedule. Exam- ination of soil moisture and the lawn color, or the use of soil tensiometers, are the best indicators in determining water needs. been favorable, and fails to maintain The bermudagrass eriophyid mite has been quite destructive in recent years in bermuda lawns. Damage is more pronounced in grass that has not been kept in a vigorous condition. Management practices play an important role in keeping the mite infestation to a minimum. A healthy, vigorous lawn has a better ability to withstand weeds, insects and vigorous growth and good color. Common (Continued on Next Page) States from India many years ago and it became one of the best adapted grasses for turf use in the Southwest. Its ability to withstand adverse conditions and neglect has made it a popular grass for golf courses and for home yards. Observation of lawns indicates that management of bermudagrass has not Even Mr. K Has to Bow to U.S. Farmers "Farming is everybody's business. It's the biggest business in America - and the only one to which even Khrushchev tips his hat. "It's a $38 billion -a -year industry that affects our taxes, our foreign policy, our housewives' budgets and our eating hab- Agriculture and the common Market "All parents tell their children about the piggies," says Dr. Conrad F. Joyner, University of Arizona associate professor of government, "but dilemmas arising out of the creation of the European Common Market (ECM) make it possible to tell the story in a new way." This little piggy went to the Common Market. its." So says Kenneth Scheibe!, who for 12 years has covered farm news from Washington for the Gannett papers and is now starting a weekly column, "Washington Farm Beat," for North American Newspaper Alliance. Our readers will wish to watch their daily newspaper for this NANA 700 word weekly farm column issued for Monday publication. (Continued from Previous Page) diseases than one under stress. Any management practice which lowers the vigor of the grass will make it more vulnerable to mite infestation. Telltale Tufted Look A mite -infested bermuda turf will de- velop a tufted growth with numerous small leaf blades. Brown spots will be evident after mowing. Chemical control of the mite with diazinon can be accom- plished if applied when the mites are first noticed. Delaying treatment until damage is severe results in a weakened stand of grass and recovery will be slow. If mites are present, extra attention should be given to fertilization, watering and mowing in order to create a more favorable environment for recovery of the lawn area. Winter dormancy of bermudagrass is one of the main objections to its use as a turf grass. This thermo- dormancy is offset by overseeding the lawn area with one of the many cool season grasses in late fall. Tests are being made to determine the adaptability of bents, bluegrass, fescues and others, compared to the traditional This little piggy stayed home in Iowa. This little piggy wished he were roast beef. This little piggy didn't know what he was. This little piggy cried "wee, wee, wee, I can't find my home." "We find in the world today the para- dox of agricultural abundance in some areas in contrast to over -all scarcity," says Dr. Joyner. Technical advances and fertile land make some areas more productive than others yet the rising birth rate and lower infant mortality rate have caused a scarcity of food. Tariffs and other barriers discourage distribution from the more productive areas to those less fortunate. The traditional economic solution to these problems is a free world market in which each country produces what it is best suited to, imports what it needs and exports its surplus. In the long run (theoretically) everything would balance out. The European Common Market is supposedly moving towards this type of free world market. Differences between the agricultural situation in the Common Market and that in the United States will create dilemmas. Some of the differences he points out, are that the United States farmer is more efficient, that the Common Market must import some of its agricultural products and that despite aids, farmers in Common Market countries have a lower in- come than those here. In the European Common Market there are 180 million acres under agricultural production; in the United States there are 300 million acres. In the ECM there are 900 million In moving towards a solution these aims have been stated: 1. To attempt to balance supply and demand, not only within the market but also as it relates to the rest of the world. 2. To provide a fair income to the farmer. 3. To stabilize agricultural markets by providing a price the farmer can depend upon. 4. To insure a fair deal to the consumer. How do these aims affe:t us ? The United States sells $ 5 billion worth of products to the Common Market. Of these, $1.2 billion are agricultural products, more specifically grains, pork, poultry and eggs. We cannot lose this trade without drastic effect, says Dr. Joyner. Therefore, he feels, we must maintain bargaining with the Common Market. If we are not successful, we will have serious problems for our own agriculture. Dr. Joyner concludes that the United States may have been instrumental in creating something that it does not know how to handle. Arizona Farm Income $512 1/2 Million in '62 r Arizona farmers received a record in- come of $512,588,000 in cash receipts last year, 9 per cent above the 1961 figure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture said crops accounted for most of the receipts with a total return of $324,688,000, up 12 per cent from 1961. Up 3 per cent at $182,575,000 were cash receipts from livestock and livestock products. Cotton lint and cottonseed earned more than half the crop income. Government payments to Arizona farmers in 1962 totaled $5,325,000, an increase of $40,000 from the preceding year. The government payments are not included among cash receipts totals. standby, annual ryegrass, for overseeding. Overseeding bermudagrass in early fall farms; in the United States there are 3.7 million farms. We have abandoned the El ganado vacuno de carne debe seleccionarse de un tipo que alcance pronto su edad prior to its dormant period has created a 12, 15, 17 and 18 acre farms that still exist in abundance in Europe, Dr. Joyner das, a la edad de los 12 a 18 meses llegue a pesar de 320 a 450 kg. Conviene escoger una problem of preventing further growth after it has been overseeded with a cool season grass. Growth retardants are being used effectively on bermuda prior to seeding to control its growth during this warm period. Hybrid strains and selections of bermuda grass are being tested for their adaptability to withstand our climatic conditions in the Southwest. They are also being evaluated for their texture and use in golf courses and home yards. notes. In the ECM there are 12.5 million male farm workers; in the United States there are only half that many. The goal of the ECM is to solve some of the problems inherent in the European agricultural situation. Editor's Note: This summary of Dr. Joyner's talk, before the League of Women Voters' foreign economic policy workshop here, was writ- ten by Susan Szekely of The Tucson Daily Citizen staff. adulta, recio, y, que, bajo condiciones adecua- raza que se adapte mejor a las condiciones lo- cales. La preferencia personal debe ser una consideración muy importante al escoger una raza. TIERRA Fishes in ditches are a help to farmers in Arizona's Buckeye Valley where a tropical spe- cies, tilapia, were planted in canals last year The fish feed on warm water algae which slo water movement. The state has now plante 2,000 tilapia in the Roosevelt Irrigation District. May -lune 1963 Page 6 i ' commercial varieties of Pima (Pima S-1 and Pima S -2) to different within -row plant spacings under varying environ- Plant Spacing of Pima Cotton mental conditions. In 1960, Pima S -1 and Pima S -2 were grown at Tempe and Safford with the following within -row spacings : unthinned Carl V. Feaster, E. L. Turcotte and R. E. Briggs (planting rate approximately 20 pounds per acre resulting in a 3 -inch average spacing), 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 inches. The proper within -row spacing of cotton plants for optimum performance of the crop is of vital impor- tance to the cotton grower. Plant spacing greatly influences the type of growth of the cotton plant. If plants are closely spaced in the row, the stalks are small and spindly, fruiting branches are short, and the crop consists largely of bolls located near tiie main stalk, with the lowest bolls set relatively high on the plant. Wide spacing results in a branching type growth with long fruiting branches that begin to form relatively low on the plant. The spacing between rows was 40 inches at Tempe and 38 inches at Safford. The altitude at Tempe is approximately 1,200 feet and approximately 3,000 feet at Safford. In 1961 a similar test was grown only at Tempe. The 1962 tests with only Pima S -2 included the following spacings : un- thinned (average spacing 3 inches) , 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 inches. The 1962 tests were grown at Tempe and Safford. Check Several Items The effect of plant spacing was determined for each of the following characteristics : lint yield per acre, per cent first pick, plant height, boll size, lint per cent, fiber length, fiber strength and fiber fineness. Peebles, Den Hartog, and Pressley1 and Leding and Cotton2 conducted within -row spacing experiments with Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) in Arizona and New Mexico, respectively, between 16950 and 1952. They included Pima 32 nd several similar experimental strains in their tests. Peebles et al found that close plant spacing of 2 to 6 inches, compared to a wide spacing of 12 to 16 inches, increased lint yield by an average of 12.9 per cent, and that earliness (percentage of first pick) was nearly 15 per cent greater at the 6 -inch than at 12- to 16inch spacings. At a 4 -inch spacing, earliness was less than 5 per cent above the mean for the 12- to 16 -inch spacings. Leding and Cot- ton reported that in New Mexico appreciable yield differences occurred in favor of spaced plants, with a 12 -inch spacing appearing to give the best all -round reDr. Feaster is a research agronomist and Dr. Turcotte a research geneticist in the Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, at The University of Arizona Cotton Research Center, imately 3.3 plants per foot) The apparent lack of agreement in the results of these two groups of workers in regard to recommended within -row spacings could be due to environmental conditions. Differences in altitude (approx- imately 1200 to 1400 feet for the Arizona tests and 3800 feet for the tests in New Mexico) contributed much to the varied growing conditions. The present study was undertaken to determine the response of the current Spacing No thin June 1956. 18-inch 1953. Page 7 24-inch 30-inch Progressive Agriculture eties resulted in highest yields and the loss in yield from no thinning as cornpared to 6 -inch spacing was highly significant (Table I) . Also there was an increasing loss in yield as spacing was increased from 12 to 30 inches. At Safford the 6 -inch spacing gave the highest yield for Pima S -2 and the 12 -inch spacing for Pima S -1, and there was no significant yield reduction from no thinning when compared to the 6 -inch spacing for either variety. Spacing in excess of 6 inches for Pima S -2 and 12 inches for Pima S -1 re- sulted in a loss in yield when compared to the spacing giving the maximum yield (Continued on Next Page) Pima S -2 at Tempe, 1960 -61, and Safford, 1960. 12-inch xperiments with American -Egyptian Cotton New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Press Bulletin 1083. April YIELD OF LINT PER ACRE. -In 1960 at Tempe, the 6 -inch spacing for both vari- Table I. Effect of spacing on yield and earliness of Pima S -1 and Pressley; Effect of Spacing on Some Agronomic and Fiber Characteristics of Irrigated Cot- `A. R. Leding and John R. Cotton; Spacing Between - Different at Different Places 6-inch ton. U.S.D.A. Technical Bulletin No. 1140, . row spacing in the Arizona tests was 36 inches and in New Mexico 40 inches. Tempe, Ariz. Dr. Briggs is an associate agronomist in the Department of Agronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson. 'R. H. Peebles, G. T. Den Hartog and E. H. - sults. They compared spacings of 18, 12 and 6 inches and unthinned (approx- Variety S-1 S-2 S-1 S-2 S-1 S-2 S-1 S-2 S-1 S-2 S-1 S-2 Tempe, 1960 Pounds Per cent lint /acre 1st pick 517 743 714 891 647 811 620 764 512 704 472 618 51 68 59 73 61 71 55 69 54 66 54 60 Safford, 1960 Pounds Per cent lint /acre 1st pick 1164 1251 1195 1304 1258 1280 1215 1255 1150 1120 1084 1099 74 81 79 82 75 78 75 76 70 69 69 67 Tempe, 1961 Pounds Per cent lint /acre 1st pick 795 935 821 1044 873 1068 818 1037 765 1014 714 906 46 56 54 61 56 65 48 56 47 51 44 48 (Continued from Previous Page) Table IL Effect of spacing on yield and earliness of rima a -h at Tempe and Safford, 1962. for each variety - the wider spacings giving the greater losses. spacing. Although yields from the dif- Spacing ferent spacings were not significantly dif- ferent, there was a gradual increase in No thin 6 -inch yield from the unthinned to the 12 -inch spacing and then a gradual decrease 9 -inch through the 30 -inch spacing. The results deviate slightly from those in 1960, when the maximum yield at Tempe was obtained from the 6 -inch spacing and the loss of yield from unthinned as compared Safford Tempe In 1961 at Tempe, maximum yield for each variety was obtained at the 12 -inch 12 -inch 15 -inch 18 -inch Pounds lint /acre Per cent ist pick Pounds lint /acre Per cent 969 905 816 738 690 664 84 89 87 88 82 82 942 929 921 837 762 779 67 73 75 74 70 64 ist pick 4 to 6 inches was highly significant. Tests With S -2 Only ciated with either closer or wider spacIn 1962, 9- and 15-inch spacings were ings. Close spacing exerts two opposing substituted for the wider, relatively un- effects on crop maturity. The closely productive spacings of 24 and 30 inches spaced plants have short fruiting branches (Table II). Pima S -2 was the only variety so that the crop consists primarily of bolls grown, since the relative reactions of located near the main stalk. Plants of Pima S -1 and Pima S -2 to different spac- this type tend to mature earlier, because ings were similar in 1960 and 1961. The the time interval of flower formation is 1962 season, as contrasted to 1960 and much shorter between first nodes of the 1961, was conducive to earlier boll set successive fruiting branches than between and this in turn resulted in a more favor- successive nodes on a given fruiting able yield response from the unthinned branch. On the other hand, low flowers cotton. In closely spaced cotton, low in closely spaced cotton generally do not fruiting branches usually do not develop, develop, and the first boll appears higher and the first boll generally appears so on the plant, thus delaying development high on the plant that yield is reduced. and maturity of the crop. The 3 -inch spacing did not produce Extremely wide spacing also has a dethis effect at either location in 1962. At laying effect on crop because Tempe the unthinned plants yielded sig- bolls are set on long fruiting branches. nificantly above those at the 6 -inch spac- The time interval between flower appearing, while at Safford the unthinned plants ances on a given fruiting branch is about ielded slightly but not significantly above twice as long as the interval between those at the 6 -inch spacing. There was a flower development at the first nodes of general trend for lower yields with wider successive fruiting branches. Spacing of spacings at both locations. approximately 6 inches seems to give the In these tests over a 3 -year period, cot- optimum combination of flower formaton was grown under diverse conditions tion for maximum earliness. due to altitude influence and years. It may PLANT HEIGHT. - Shorter plants are be expected that the results were not generally obtained with wider spacings; entirely consistent. It does appear, how- however, within the range of spacings ever, that a within -row spacing of approx- conducive to maximum yields, height difimately 6 inches will be satisfactory under ferences are minor. Height responses are most conditions. closely associated with bottom set as poor bottom set tends to result in taller plants. 3 Inches Close Enough In these tests the unthinned plots were planted at approximately 20 pounds per Lint Per Cent Not Affected BOLL SIZE. -Boll size differences were ciable difference in strength within the range of spacings giving maximum yields. FIBER FINENESS. -Spacing had a sig- nificant influence on fineness in two of the five tests. In these the closer spacings gave the finest fiber. Affects Yield, Earliness Yield, earliness, and type of growth of cotton are appreciably affected by plant spacing. There are minor effects on boll and fiber properties. However, these differences are not appreciable within the range of spacings for maximum yield. Spacings between 3 and 6 inches seem most desirable, as these spacings tended to give optimum performance of the cot- ton plant in terms of yield, earliness desirable plant type and fiber properties. Unthinned plants (approximately 3inch spacing) gave excellent results in the 1962 season when environmental conditions were conducive to a good bottom set. In 1960, particularly at Tempe, when the season was less favorable to a good bottom set, the 6 -inch spacing was more desirable. Probably you were well aware of National Farm -City W eek in Novem- ber. But did you know it had its origin right here in Arizona? Yes, it was in 1952 that the late Kenneth acre, which gave a stand with approximately a 3 -inch spacing. The only real yield reduction from not thinning was observed in only one of the five tests. In this test, smaller bolls were obtained with McMichen of Goodyear Farms, then closer spacing. experienced at Tempe in 1960. Thinning, however, seems extremely desirable if planting rates result in plants appreciably LINT PER CENT. -Lint per cent was serving as district chairman of the not significantly influenced by spacing. FIBER LENGTH. -Three of the five tests showed significant effects of spacing on Kiwanis agricultural committee, pro - posed such a week to "foster better relationships between farm and city fiber length. Generally the longest fiber become tall, top -heavy and lodged. This was obtained from the spacings which people." It was in 1955 when, as the condition often results in yield reduction gave optimum yield performance. idea kept spreading, Kiwanis Interwhich is more pronounced in some sea FIBER STRENGTH. - Two of the tests national formally made this a na4 sons than in others. showed significant effects of spacing on EARLINESS.- Maximum earliness (per fiber strength. In these tests weaker fiber tional event. closer than 3 inches. Plants too closely spaced have a poor bottom set and may cent first pick) was obtained from the 6to 12 -inch spacings, with lateness asso- was associated with the close spacing. However, there generally was no appre- May -June 1963 Page 8 WHERE, OH WHERE? E--- In each issue PROGRESSIVE AGRICUL- TURE will publish a picture of an Arizona view, one which cannot be confused LI with any other. At right is the first such picture. Just for the fun of it, we'd like our readers to search their memory of back trails to see if they can identify the OPEN RANGE WATCH FOR CATTLE ---K JOE. MAHON ass,. T. J.BAKEP II hi. f56 w. BUCKSKIN EDD DEBORDE 155. BRUCE BOSLEY 13!6ML HOMER BYRD I6.t. LJ.FULMER W.D.WEAR t6m,. DICK CALK1A1515.40. JOE BULL 162.. ..'ti< PRE SIC1#! LARSON 15.5* SUNSET VALLEY RANCH t11 scene. 13CKSHdP RANCH Here is the first one. How many of you readers know where this group of ranch signs stand, obviously at a road intersection? If you don't know, turn to Page 13 and get the answer. Cotton Experts Keep Anxious Watch On Weevils in Sonora the fields. Of vital concern to Arizona and California growers, Dr. Johnston The possibility of the boll weevil mov- from the San Luis -Yuma area on the ing from Mexico into cotton growing areas of Arizona is very definite, an ento- mologist told the Western Cotton Pro- te are no more than 30 miles from Ari- zona cotton north of Nogales and the infestation at La Salina is about 140 miles Colorado River. As a result of the survey, the U. S. this Department of Agriculture and Mexican officials conducted a spray program last Dr. H. G. Johnston of the National fall. A complete evaluation cannot be made until early this summer, but pre- duction spring. Conference at Phoenix Cotton Council, Memphis, stated no one can say, with any degree of assurance, that the boll weevil in northern Sonora will or will not be able to survive in cotton fields in the Santa Cruz Valley or in the Salt River Valley. "But at the rate it has spread over the entire Caborca area during the past six years, and the close similarity of much of this area to cotton areas in Arizona, it certainly should be placed in the category of a very definite threat," Dr. Johnston explained. Dr. Johnston stated that today there are at least two biologically different boll weevil strains - one adapted to a humid, rainfall climate and another to a dry, hot, desert climate. Substantial evidence exists the eastern strain is not capable of surviving in western cotton areas. The story is different with the western strain, however. In the Caborca area, where production has expanded greatly since World War II, boll weevils were first found in 1956. In six years it had spread over the entire 0 said, is that infested fields at Agua Calien- area. Two years ago, weevils were found in the Magdalena vicinity. A U. S. Department of Agriculture survey in 1962 revealed estimated losses of one bale or more per acre in many of Page 9 Progressive Agriculture liminary results look encouraging, Dr. Johnston explained. Boll weevils were found at Delicias in 1950 and the Presidio Valley of Texas in 1953. In three years, they had spread over the entire valley, and serious damage was done in some fields the second year. The entomologist said that since 1957 extensive control schedules have been followed, and costs up to $45 per acre have been reported by growers. By 1961 weevils had spread up the Rio Grande Valley some 150 miles. A cooperative project was initiated to apply insecticides to all the infested area from just above the Presidio Valley to the lower end of the El Paso Valley. Cooperating were the National Cotton Council, U.S.D.A., Texas Experiment Station and State Department of Agriculture, and the Mexican government. Results have been most encouraging, Dr. Johnston reported, and chances are good weevils will be eliminated from this area. Dr. Johnston told the growers that lots of additional information is needed con- cerning western boll weevils and that research now under way by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and The University of Arizona should provide some of the needed answers. Cochise County KAWT, Douglas -Check local listings. KHIL, Willcox - Mon. thru Fri., 7:45 a.m. Coconino County KCLS, Flagstaff - Tues. and Thurs., 8:20 a.m. KGLS, Flagstaff (Home Agent) Thurs., 9:45 a.m. - KPGE, Page - Fri., 2:30 p.m. Graham County KATO, Safford - Sat., 9:30 a.m. Maricopa County KTAR, Phoenix - Mon. thru Sat., 5:30 a.m. KUPD, Phoenix - Mon. thru Sat., 5:30 a.m. and 12:25 p.m. KPHO, Phoenix - Mon. (cotton report) 12:40 p.m.; Thurs. (dairy and livestock report) 12:40 p.m. Navajo County KDJI, Holbrook - Tues., 12:45 p.m. Pinal County KPIN, Casa Grande - Mon. thru Sat., 6:55 a.m.; Mon. and Fri., 9:30 a.m.; Tues., Thurs. and Sat., 12:20 p.m.; Fri., 5:00 p.m.; Sat., 7:00 a.m. Santa Cruz County KNOG, Nogales - Mon., 6:30 a.m. Yuma County Yavapai County KYCO, Prescott Fri., 5:55 p.m. KNOT, Prescott Fri., 5:35 a.m. KVOY, Yuma Mon., Wed. and Mon., Wed. and Mon. thru Fri., 5:45 a. m. KYUM, Yuma a.m. Mon. thru Fri., 6:25 Sciettee 7eace't4 ene two High school pupils of today are apt have an old -fashioned and incorrect impression of modern agriculture and - t research tools useful to that agriculture, scv. Dr. Fred Turner, superintendent of the Sa ford Experiment Station. : 1,;YtiY"tt!Y.l AN 'A C xaust .. tot i un% .....n ,.,_ y i.oF°tloRra4 ú SfHisttltY . f5 ''.4 ti SggresZE4 ` 1. SUPT. TURNER, at right, explains the make -up of the College of Agriculture, with its Resident Teaching, Exten- sion Service, Experiment Station and School of Home Economics. Allan Halderman, Extension Agricultural Engineer, at left, helps hold the explanatory chart. So on a beautiful Saturday in late VraI: Fred Turner and his University of Arizon( colleagues played host to high school ence teachers from Graham County. It an impressive and instructive affair, prc(_ ably first of several demonstrations designe to introduce more and more groups to ma em agriculture's research aids. 2. SHOWN BELOW is part of the group of interested teachers looking at a neutron probe, a measuring device for soil moisture. Charles Busch, associate professor in the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the University, is in foreground, explaining how the device works. CLIMATE IS IMPORTANT to crops in many plains Dr. Turner, as he discusses the dial of a tempi 3, ture - recording instrument. s, 4(4 Sa#4,rd Stareaa 4. NOT ONE OF THE scientists, but busiest participant, was Mrs. Turner then who made gallons of coffee and cooked dozens of cookies beforehand, Arizona during the day manned a table with displays of University of publications. --_.._... ',AMINO"' their needs 5. HUNGRY PLANTS can tell device of tissue through the relatively new Amburgey, soils testing, explains Dr. Lyman Extension Service. specialist in the UA ..s. ... _ . <e 6. MOST ATTRACTIVE DISPLAY (excepting for the cookies) was this mobile hydraulic flume, mounted on a pickup truck. Fitted with a water pump and a number of variable baffles and inclines, it illustrated how flowing water would vary its flow under different conditions. Dr. Busch, at right, explains the machine while Mr. Halderman, his Extension Service colleague, mans the upper reaches of the mechanical ditch. ited benefit in increasing yields. Un the other hand, high levels of nitrogen were None ?°d aid De l¢ ineffective when the irrigation was termi- nated early. It is also shown in Figure i that when a total of 225 pounds of nitrogen was applied, split applications prop- al erly timed were more effective than a (11a'tø9et aid ?Oue') single application. &lødt 9Qax Zldd A look at the table on page 13 will show that the nitrogen treatments had a small effect on per cent of oil in the seed, with a slight reduction at the high nitro- gen levels. In spite of this slight reduction in per cent of oil, the highest yield of oil per acre was obtained at the highest nitrogen levels as shown in Figure 2. E. B. Jackson, D. D. Rubis and Fred Carasso These results show that timely nitrogen (Continued on Next Page) A little extra nitrogen and water on a crop of flax can increase gross returns as much as $42 per acre. This is the conclusion drawn from an experiment conducted on The Univer- sity of Arizona Experimental Farm in the Yuma Valley in 1962. Eight nitrogen and two Similar experiments at the Mesa Branch Station conducted by D. D. Rubis and Rex Thompson over a two -year period showed that timely irrigation and nitrogen applications resulted in yields over 60 bushels per acre. In 1962 four extra irrigations in May and June and 40 pounds of nitrogen per acre resulted in an increase of over 17 bushels per acre. Figure 1 irrigation treatments were imposed upon a field of New River flax planted Dec. 7, 1961. Nitrogen rates of 0, 75, 150 and 225 pounds per acre were applied in both single and split applications. The field was irrigated uniformly until April 27, when irrigation was terminated on half of the plots. The other half received four more irrigations during May and June, with the last one on June 21. Based on $3 Price April 27 Last Irrigatioll 60 June '21 a) 50 Q The $42 figure is based on an average increase of 14 bushels per acre at an average price of $3 per bushel. This is the current quotation to farmers at Yuma. The increased yields resulted from a second and even a third blooming period brought on by the addition of nitrogen and moisture during the first two blooming periods. The fact that both nitrogen and moisture are necessary at this time is shown by the graph in Figure 1. This graph also shows that at a low level of a) 30 X nitrogen, the late irrigations were of limDr. Jackson and Dr. Rubis are both Associate Agronomists and Mr. Carasso is an Assistant in Research in Agronomy. Dr. Jackson and Mr. Carasso are both stationed at the Yuma Branch Station. Acknowledgment is made to Dr. H. F. Kreizinger of the Department of Agricultural Chem- istry and Soils for his part in planning the experiment. May -June 1963 Page 12 20 Nov. 15 Feb. 12 Mar. 15 Apr. 9 Apr. 26 0 75 25 25 25 150 75 75 2 25 75 50 50 50 75 25 50 25 50 Nitrogen Applications, Pounds per Acre '1' . (Continued from Previous Page) applications and irrigations can be very Per cent oil content of flax seed grown under different irrigation and nitrogen treatments. Yuma Valley Branch Station, 1961 -62. effective in increasing yields of flax. Nitrogen treatments, pounds per acre Repeated Bloom Periods This characteristic of the Imperial and New River varieties to go into a second Nov. 15 bred into these varieties. Varieties grown Mar. 15 in Arizona 10 to 15 years ago did not Apr. possess this characteristic and were man- Apr. 26 greatly increased flax yields. The principle involved in producing a second and third bloom period or, as is often the case, a continuous blooming period, is dependent on timely applications of nitrogen and maintenance of adequate soil moisture. By adding nitrogen April 27 Last Irrigation June 21 a 1600 irrigation. 1400 45.0 44.7 43.7 44.2 44.1 46.4 47.1 45.3 44.4 44.5 43.1 44.1 43.7 a U 0 between Willcox ,.. . .., . :. 1200 :.... ,.,, ,. ... ..., ..., ... ,...., ..,. : .; .... .. . o ..J 800 .:: .... . and Safford. ... ;.. , ;:. (1) ._ ... ... . . .. . .... : .: ... 1000 Fort Grant. It is about 24 miles west of the turnoff 666, .. :. a z Highway - ... ... .... fence corner set of ranch listings, is on the Sunset Valley Road. It is just west of Bonita, which in turn is just beyond of the Fort Grant road, where it leaves ..: .r*%% iv MYSTERY PICTURE The mystery picture on Page 9, 75 25 50 25 50 46.5 47.0 44.9 1.- Ss 75 50 50 50 225 75 75 April 27 Last Irrigation June 21 new method to determine the need for an 150 Figure 2 at the time of full bloom, or near the blooming period. If adequate moisture is not maintained the flax plant will become "hot" and go into final maturity with no extra blooming. Feeling the flax plants to determine whether they are cool is a good 25 25 25 9 Last Irrigation end of a blooming period, new vegetative growth is initiated in the leaf axils. This new branching then produces 75 Feb. 12 and even third bloom period has been aged like small grains. However, today growers using proper fertilizer and irrigation practices have an opportunity for 0 600 : .. .. 11I1 . .. . .. ... .: ... : . ... .... , ... ...i ... .. ., ... :..; ... . .., .. .... .... 9.11.0% ... :.0% ..., .... ....: . ;. La alimentacion artificial de becerras con leche entera no presenta mayores problemas, excepto lo elevado del costo de la leche. Se recomienda que la becerra pase 2 6 3 días con ;. . ;. . . 400 , .. ;. la madre para que tenga acceso libre al calostro. Sin embargo en el caso de vacas muy cariñosas con sus crías, con sangre cebú o criolla, es preferible separar inmediatamente las crías o apenas han mamado la primera vez y continuando dando los calostros en balde.- TIERRA Nov. 15 Feb. 12 Mar. 15 0 . .: ..:. 75 25 25 25 Apr. 9 Apr. 26 The sex life of coyotes is under scrutiny by Don Balser, a Fish and Wildlife Service scientist in Denver. What he seeks is a chemosterilant which will prevent coyotes from hav- ing pups. The idea isn't as far -fetched as it sounds, because a coyote female comes into eat only once, perhaps twice a year, for 10day periods. Balser's plan is to "bait" her during breeding season and prevent conception. Progressai'e Agriculture 75 75 225 Our esteemed friend on The Minneapolis Tribune, Will Jones, points out: "If a Midwest farmer sits on his porch in his undershirt he's a slob; if a Southwestmuda shorts it's called `gracious living.' " .., ::.. . .... .:.; :.., .. 75 75 50 50 50 25 50 25 Nitrogen Applications, Pounds per Acre ern farmer sits out in his patio in BerPage 13 150 , ... .... 50 If University of Arizona Holsteins get that dreamy Hawaiian look, you can blame it on a new feeding experiment. Cargill, Inc., has donated 2500 pounds of coconut oil meal and 400 pounds of coconut oil to the Dairy Science De- partment. This will be used in feeding experiments to determine the nutritive value of coconut oil meal and oil for dairy cattle. vironmental influences ana aulLy Sul «tral procedures could be averted completely. The Case of the Missing Citrus $51/2 Million Loss Let's look at the figures in Table I. The difference between Ross M. Allen If a man has a $13,000 per year job he expects his pay checks to show a gross total of that amount. However, if the gross total is only $7,850, even before taxes, he knows some- ceives only $7,844,095 per year, the thousands of industry members are not taking home their full pay check. As startling as they may seem, the figures quoted above show the potential and actual returns for the Arizona citrus industry for 1962. The computations are based on the actual bearing acreage (trees actual crop value, $7,844,095, and the potential value, $13,279,625, means that $5,435,530 has been lost somewhere along the line. Somehow, 41 per cent of the industry pay check has simply vanished. Perhaps a little detective work will expose the culprits. Table II lists some of the various causes which have brought about this $51/2 million loss. The percentage taken by each of them - fungi, viruses, nematodes, disorders and frost, has been esti- mated by University of Arizona citrus specialists. This percentage can be converted easily into the dollar value of lost thing is wrong and does something 8 years old or older) for each type of or damaged citrus. about it. This table also shows that the known citrus: oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and tangerines. When an Arizona industry has a potential gross income of $13,279,625 but reDr. Allen is an associate plant pathologist at the Yuma Branch Experiment Stations. Actual yields and average returns per field box are calculated for each crop. These are compared with the potential yields and returns - which is what the industry could get if losses from diseases, physiological disorders, detrimental en- culprits have taken more loot from some crop areas than from others. Valencia and sweet orange income has been reduced by 31 per cent - amounting to a hefty $1,623,650. Navel oranges lost 31 per cent or $1,176,440; white grapefruit, 25 (Continued on Next Page) Table I. Comparison of current actual and potential annual production returns from Arizona citrus varieties. Variety Bearing Acreage' Valencia Oranges 4,009 Sweet Oranges 1,074 Navel Oranges 4,600 White Grape- Actual Yield Field Boxes /At Actual Average Return per Field Box' Crop Value' Per Acre Total Potential Yield Field Boxes /A' Potential Crop Values Per Acre Total Dollar Value Lost for Various Causes' 320 $2.25 $720.00 $2,886,480 500 $1,125 $ 4,510,125 $1,623,645 320 2.00 640.00 687,360 500 1,000 1,074,000 386,640 140 2.75 385.00 1,771,000 300 825 3,795,000 2,024,000 5,131 fruit Red Grape426 fruit 750 .20 150.00 769,650 1000 200 1,026,200 256,550 750 .55 175,725 .75 1,327,680 750 234,300 2,074,500 58,575 640 200 1000 1000 550 Lemons 2,766 Tangerines 377 412.50 480.00 746,820 3.00 600.00 226,200 500 1,500 565,500 339,300 $13,279,625 $5,435,530 17,335 $7,844,095 'Acreage data based on Hilgeman, R. H., and C. W. Van Horn, 1955. Citrus Growing in Arizona. Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bulletin 258 (Revised). Modified by additional data, June 1962, from Orange and Grapefruit Prorate Offices and Sunkist Exchange to account for acreage subdivided in the Salt River Valley. 'Estimates based on packing house data and yield records of Branch Citrus Experiment Stations at Tempe and Yuma. 'Average returns are estimates based on limited information from packing houses in Yuma and Salt River Valley and on returns received by Tempe Citrus Station. 'Calculated on basis of returns from acreage at least 8 years old. 'Potential yield estimates based on specific knowledge of selected bearing acreage of the several varieties where detrimental effects of diseases, pests, weather, and cultural malpractices are nearly minimal. Estimates are regarded as conservative in all categories. °Based on present average return per field box. 'Difference between "Actual" and "Potential" crop values. Causes include horticultural and pathological problems. (Continued from Previous Page) per cent or $256,540; red grapefruit, 25 per cent or $58,550; lemons, 17 per cent or $352,660; and tangerines, 33 per cent, for a loss of $186,610. It is readily apparent that the diseases and parasites are truly big time operators. Virus Loss $1 Million When the UA Plant Pathology Department scientists finished assigning the culprits into causal groups, the results are reported in Table III. The fungi and account for $304,140 and $621,540, respectively. The viruses managed to get away with the largest amount, $1,200,450. Physiological disorders, granulation and frost took a large share, nematodes $439,420, $306,980 and $781,920, respectively. These causes total only $3,654,450 of the citrus loss. There still exists the difference between $3.6 million (Table III) and the $5.4 million reported lost (Table I) We believe the missing $1,781,080 . can be attributed to such physical causes as faulty irrigation, nutritional deficiencies, root -stock problems, salt problems, poor drainage, pruning difficulties, weed competition and minor other unidentified causes. A new enemy of citrus, tristeza virus, possibly has been dipping into the cash drawer, too, but the amount lost cannot be reported at this time. UA Scientists Working On It What is being done about these things which pare away $51/2 million from Arizona's annual citrus income ? In the College of Agriculture, the Departments of Plant Pathology and Horticulture are very much aware of this multiple problem. The viruses (tristeza, psorosis, xyloporosis, exocortis, Stubborn Disease, and a few others) are being subjected to an extensive (and very expensive) virus indexing program at the Yuma Branch Citrus Station. Work on the Arizona Budwood Improvement Program is being pushed by UA and USDA plant scientists. These workers have imported more than 50 good citrus varieties to check virus diseases and rootstock problems. The fungi are being attacked through experiments on Phytophthora root rot, Rio Grande Gummosis, Dry Root Rot and Hendersonula rot. Granulation, irrigation, nutritional de- frost injury and pruning are being worked over by the Horticulture ficiencies, Department. Nematodes are being checked by UA and USDA scientists. Increased usage of nematocides and wind machines help curb nematodes and frost injury. A few of the lesser criminals, though still on the loose research -wise, are still on the "wanted list." Needs Bigger Police Force And so we come to the final chapter of "The Case of the Missing Citrus." The Arizona citrus industry is being robbed of 5.5 millions of dollars each year. Certain thieves have been apprehended (Continued on Next Page) Table II. Estimated annual production losses from Arizona citrus groves, eight or more years old, due to diseases and other conditions. Disease or Condition Valencia and Sweet lt' "hite Grapefruit Navel Oranges Oranges Lemons Red Grapefruit Tangerines Thousands EstiThousands Esti- Thousands EstiThousands EstiEsti- Thousands Esti- Thousands of mated of mated mated mated of of mated of mated of Dollars Per cent Dollars Per cent Dollars Per cent Dollars Dollars Per cent Dollars Per cent Per cent Loss Loss Loss Loss Loss Loss Loss' Loss' Loss Loss Loss Loss Root rot fungi 1.0 Psorosis virus 3.0 55.84 167.52 1.0 3.0 37.95 113.85 2.0 5.0 20.52 51.31 2.0 5.0 4.69 11.71 1.0 20.74 1.5 31.12 5.0 28.28 3.5 72.61 3.0 16.96 1.0 - 5.65 113.10 22.62 186.61 XyloporosisCachexia Stubborn Disease Rio Grande Gummosis 1.5 83.76 1.5 56.92 1.0 10.26 1.0 2.34 4.5 251.28 10.0 379.50 1.0 10.26 1.0 2.34 Nematodes_ 5.0 279.20 5.0 189.75 1.0 5.0 10.26 51.31 1.0 5.0 2.34 11.71 Mesophyll Collapse 1.0 55.84 1.0 37.95 1.0 10.26 1.0 2.34 0.5 0.5 8.0 5.13 5.13 82.10 0.5 0.5 8.0 1.17 1.17 18.74 10.0 207.45 1.0 20.0 4.0 25.0 256.54 25.0 58.55 17.0 352.66 33.0 Alternaria rot -fungus Splitting physiological Breakdown - physiological Granulation 4.0 151.80 - 1.0 55.84 1.5 56.92 2.0 2.0 111.68 111.68 2.0 2.0 75.90 75.90 Freeze Injury 10.0 31.0 451.01' 1,623.65 31.0 - 1,176.44 20.74 'Based on averaged reports by several citrus specialists. Adjusted by acreage for districts. Figures adapted from typewritten report by R. H. Hilge-man to H. L. Keil, U.S.D.A., dated May 9, 1962. -Losses calculated from "Potential Crop Values" shown in Table 1. `Valencia oranges only. Table III. Annual production losses from Arizona citrus groves, eight or more years old, according to causal groups. (Expressed in thousands of dollars.) Navel Oranges White Grapefruit Grapefruit Lemons 55.84 189.75 30.78 7.03 20.74 502.56 550.27 71.83 16.39 31.12 28.28 1,200.45 223.36 170.77 15.39 3.51 20.74 5.65 439.42 279.20 189.75 51.31 11.71 72.61 16.96 621.54 111.68 75.90 5.13 1.17 113.10 306.98 82.10 18.74 207.45 22.62 781.92 256.54 58.55 352.66 186.61 3,654.45 Sweet and Valencia Oranges Causal Group' Fungi (Items 1, 5, 8) Viruses (Items 2, 3, 4) Physiological (Items 7, 9, 10) Nematodes (Item 6) Unknown (Granulation) (Item 11) Environmental (Item 12) 451.01* 1,623.65 1,176.44 Red 'Groupings are from following listed diseases or conditions: 1. Root rot fungi 7. 8. 2. Psorosis virus 3. Xyloporosis -cachexia virus 9. 4. Stubborn disease virus 5. Rio Grande 6. Nematodes 10. 11. 12. Gummosis fungus (Continued from Previous Page) and are being questioned by lawmen of several departments of the UA College of Agriculture and by USDA scientists. The criminal elements, fungi and viruses, of the citrus disease mob are netting an annual haul of $1,504,590. The disease research force combatting these criminals had an operating budget, exclusive of salaries, oí$12,600 for fiscal ear 1962. This budget is only .8 of 1 per cent of the citrus loss. It would appear that a larger budget would be a wise investment. sending these stems to a laboratory to find out the nitrate nitrogen level. The samples are first collected when young squares begin to appear, then every two weeks until early August. Dr. Tucker said farmers should select stems from the youngest mature leaf from the sample plants. Usually, this would be the third or fourth leaf from the top of the plant, he said. Soil readings are taken before the squares start forming so the nitrogen in the soil can be adjusted early in the season. The stem readings then take over Cotton's Hunger Can Be Measured, Says T. C. Tucker when the plant starts squaring. "If the soil nitrate level is between 20 Cotton plants can tell farmers whether they are hungry for more nitrogen or are receiving enough for a successful crop. As cotton plants get older and near the fruiting stage, it's desirable to let the nitrogen level decline some, he pointed out. Levels desired in the various stages for Arizona conditions are: 15,000 to 18,000 parts nitrate nitrogen per million when first squares form; 12,000 to 14,000 parts per million when flowering begins; 6,000 to 10,000 parts per million as the first bolls form; and 4,000 parts per million at the time the first bolls are opening. This advanced technique was presented before the Western Cotton Production Conference at Phoenix last March by Dr. T. C. Tucker, professor of agricultural chemistry and soils at The University of Arizona. The method he outlined was analysis of stems from the cotton plant's leaves, and he said it was more effective if used in connection with soil testing to cover the whole season. Stem analysis, or petiole analysis, is done by collecting 25 or 30 of the stems that connect the leaf to the stalk, then and 30 parts per million, nitrogen fertilizer will not be needed before petiole analysis data can be used .," he told . . his audience. All of this information can be gained from analysis of the stems so the fer- tilizer program can be adjusted to obtain these desired concentrations of nitrate nitrogen. Total Tangerines 304.14 Mesophyll collapse - physiological Alternaria rot fungus Splitting - physiological Stem -end or rind breakdown - physiological Granulation - cause unknown Freeze injury soil analysis for nitrate nitrogen, then he told what the analysis system could NOT do. "These tools cannot be used to increas the maximum yield possible or to correct any factor limiting yield that is not nutritional. Therefore, the most effective use of these tools will not always increase yields. They can aid only in insuring that adequate nitrogen is available for the maximum yield possible under existing conditions. In many cases, the only benefit that the grower can derive from the use of these tools is the assurance that the nitrogen fertilizer program was adequate and that excessive fertilizer was not used," he said. 3 UA Men Honored By Veterinarians Three University of Arizona animal pathologists have been named honorary members of the Southern Arizona Veterinary Medicine Association. Those honored were Dr. Richard H. Diven, Dr. Leonard W. Dewhirst and Robert J. Trautman. None is a veterinarian. "Although these men are not veterinarians, they have worked so closely with our association and are so familiar with our problems that we felt they deserve honorary membership," said Dr. Lloy Orsborn, Tucson veterinarian and spokesman for the association. Dr. Tucker emphasized that petiole analysis is most valuable when used with May -June 1963 Page 16 ;, Table 1. Shown below are calculated daily growth rates in tons FORAGE SORGHUMS 1 per acre by dates of planting of When to Plant in the Mesa Area two silage sorghums. Robert L. Voigt LINDSEY 101F Date Planted March 15 How can I get the most for my April 4 money? This is a familiar question April May in agriculture just as in any business. Personnel in sorghum investigations at The University of Arizona are con- June June 20 10 4 27 tinually trying to help answer this Days to Cut Yield in T. /A. Growth Rate in T. /A. Per Day 121 112 119 135 116 107 14.86 18.47 33.40 27.69 37.42 20.69 .123 .165 .281 .205 .323 .193 REGULAR HEGARI question for Arizona farmers. A "date -of- planting" test was conduct- ed at the Mesa Experiment Station in 1960 to check for optimum dates of Date Planted Days to Cut Yield in T. /A. Growth Rate in T. /A. Per Day March 15 121 112 117 99 90 93 85 13.45 17.56 22.43 21.70 24.46 15.30 9.03 .111 .157 .192 .220 .272 .165 .106 April April May June June (Continued on Next Page) The author is an assistant professor of Plant Breeding and assistant plant breeder in the 111gricultural Experiment Station in charge of orghum investigations, both Grain and Forage. July 4 20 10 4 27 19 Lindsey 101 f Oct 27 40 Oct 27 Regular Hegari 40 - _ Aug Sep Oct -1F-""Tr Oct 27 Nov Sep Jul 25, 10 Aug i; ; Jul ' Aug Sep 28: Jul 77' Oct ' 1I11; I ................... ;Jun_JuI: `II Mari Ap 15 4 Apr iMay_;Jun 20 10 4 27 DATE PLANTED 15 4 20 10 27 19 YIELDS IN TONS per acre of silage from Regular Hegari and Lindsey 101 F, planted about every three weeks at Mesa in 1960. Figures adjusted for 30 per cent dry matter. The shaded portions of these columns show yield and date of first cutting; unshaded is yield and date of second harvest. (Continued from Previous Page) planting of forage sorghums. Highest yield (tons per acre) was assumed to indi- cate the most desirable period to plant. These results, although for only one year, showed a great difference in tonnage of forage produced at different dates of planting in the Mesa area. It is important to learn from these data what is the best time to plant to get the highest yield of silage from a single cutting. This is important to the Arizona farmer who may have a tight crop rotation schedule on his land, and wishes to make each crop return the most for his money. First of June is Best Used Two Varieties Two different forage sorghums were The highest single cut yield was ob- used : Regular Hegari, a commonly grown variety, and Lindsey 101 F, a commercial tained with the June 4 planting date. This hybrid which was well adapted to the area. Plantings were made about every three weeks beginning on March 15. Yields in tons of fresh silage per acre have been adjusted at 30 per cent dry matter for comparison and are given in our graph. All harvests were made as near to soft dough stage of grain development as possible which correlates reason- indicates that in the Salt River Valley area the latter part of May or the first part of June is generally the best planting date for forage sorghums to get the most tonnage. Much smaller yields result from either earlier or later plantings. Farmers should realize that there is no one high particular recommended variety or hybrid. yield from a ably close to the 30 per cent dry matter 'Rate of Gain' Sorghumwise stage that is desired b Y most feeders. The total seasonal yield is measured Some more interesting data were obtained by dividing the total yield in tons per acre by the number of days it took to grow the crop for each date of planting. by the full height of the bars, with the shaded portions indicating the first cut from each planting date. The total yield for the season is, of course, highest for the earliest planting date and decreases for both varieties with progressively later planting dates. The selection of a proper planting date can be just as important in obtaining high production as is proper choice of a variety or hybrid seed. This rate in tons per acre per day of silage is much like the rate of gain per day in beef cattle. Table I shows a peak daily growth rate for the June 4 planting. The hybrid Lindsey 101F shows a higher rate for most dates than the standard variety Regular Hegari. Here, again, the use of a hybrid is little different than Table II. Per cent digestible laboratory nutrients and per cent pro- tein of two silage sorghums by date of planting and cutting. Date Planted March 15 April April May 4 20 10 June June 4 27 74.5 67.0 63.0 72.5 67.5 66.0 7.79 5.33 6.30 5.19 4.93 3.71 Second Cutting % Protein DLN 75.0 78.0 3.19 3.34 Date Planted March 15 April April May June June July 4 20 10 4 27 19 80.5 77.0 4.57 3.24 The quality of forage harvested (TDN) as measured by laboratory analyses for digestible laboratory nutrients (DLN) and protein show some interest- ing trends. In Table II are given the per cent DLN and per cent protein on a dry matter basis for each cutting by date of planting. Note the higher per cent DLN and lower per cent protein for all second cuttings when compared to first cuttings. Also there was a general continuous de- cline in per cent protein as the season progressed. Sorghum is quite responsive to photo periodic effects and temperature in its growth rate, and temperature may also have a pronounced effect on the chemical composition of a plant. A study now under way seeks to determine response of sorghum genotypes at various altitudes (temperatures) and the same day lengths. Already this study is beginning to yield some interesting results. This study will be reported upon as soon as there are sufficient results to warrant conclusions helpful to farmers. Arizona Active in 'Service to Youth' Arizona continued as an active partici% pant in the "Service to Youth" programs of the National 4 -H Club Foundation last year, according to the foundation's annual report just published. operates the national 4 -H center in Washington, D. C., trains professional workers and conducts experimental projects and studies. Arizona took part in the youth exchange program by playing host to John J. Park of England. Park was the guest of two Arizona families - Mr. and Mrs. John Heward of Holbrook and Mr. and Mrs. D. L. Scott of Morenci. Arizona also sent Mrs. Audrey M. REGULAR HEGARI First Cutting % Protein % DLN 73.5 7.41 68.5 5.54 69.5 6.97 68.5 6.20 70.5 4.80 Earliness Means Protein The foundation handles the international farm youth exchange program, LINDSEY 101F First Cutting %DLN % Protein selecting a type of feeder cattle that will give you the highest daily gains. Second Cutting % DLN % Protein 75.0 78.5 78.0 73.5 4.57 4.57 4.37 4.70 Davis, home agent in Mohave County, to the annual National Workshop in Human Development and Human Relations Training. Listed among the financial sponsors of the foundation's programs was the United Dairymen of Arizona, Tempe. Thomas M. Ware, a native of Globe and president of International Minerals and Chemical Corp., Skokie, Ill., was named to the National 4 -H Sponsor? Council, an executive group that advise on the financial development of the program of the foundation. Allar -June 1963 Page 18 For Saving Surface Water Supplies the equipment involved makes it impractical for small ponds. On the other hand, the use of solvents may prove to be prac- tical on a small pond because of the MONOMOLECULAR FILM REDUCES EVAPORATION relatively cheap equipment required. However, it would not be practical on a larger reservoir where cost of the solvent would be prohibitive. Thus, method and cost of application depend on the size of the reservoir. The type of dispensing equipment suitable for a large reservoir not be feasible for stock ponds. probably would C. Brent Cluff and Howard Goldstein to animals or plants. They offer no appre- Utilization of The University of Arizona ability to suppress evaporation of water. The theoretical amount of this material necessary to form a monolayer on water is quite small (0.08 lb. /acre). combination of the various chain lengths of fatty alcohols, the best physical state to basic to man's survival. In the arid pound for the material, the economics of evaporation suppression by this method are quite promising. In laboratory experiments using four -feet diameter pans these films were able to conserve as much as 65 regions of the world, water is in very per cent of the water normally lost to short supply. As the population increases the strain on available sup- evaporation. plies is becoming more acute. One very important source of agricul- tural water in many arid regions is the farmer's or rancher's individual pond. SChe value of this water is multiplied many times in isolated areas where other water sources are unavailable. Conserva- tion of this water is of critical importance. In many of these areas, the evapo- ration loss may amount to as much as six vertical feet of water per year. Not only is this water lost, but the water left behind is of lower quality because of the concentration of dissolved salts. Evaporation Inhibiters Water that ordinarily would be lost to evaporation can be saved by applying a material that will form a monomolecular film on the surface of the water. Films of the fatty alcohols, hexadecanol and octadecanol, have proven most successful. These alcohols have a long carbon chain molecule, one end of which is attracted to water, the other end being repelled by Savings Up to 30 Per Cent The Australians were the first to try using the hexadecanol monolayer to prevent or suppress evaporation on reservoirs back in 1952. They reported that they obtained up to 30 per cent savings on small reservoirs by dispensing the hexadecanol in flake form from gauze floats. The Australian results interested various governmental research agencies in the United States where testing of mono layers on reservoirs began around 1955. Various estimates of the cost of saving water in large reservoirs have been made. These range from $4.50 to $300 per acre foot. There is no question that the mono layer film will reduce evaporation. The problem is trying to maintain a film coverage so as to maximize savings with a minimum cost of water saved. Factors .which break up or destroy the film coverage are wind, bacteria and sunlight. Of these, wind seems to be the most impor- tant, because if a wind is blowing the film will not remain on the water long enough to be destroyed by sunlight and water. bacteria. Since the evaporation rate is very cause the long alcohol molecules to stand perpendicular to the surface of the water maximum savings are to be obtained. These attracting and repelling forces in a monomolecular film. The thickness of this monomolecular layer is approximately one ten -millionth of an inch. Films of these materials are not toxic Mr. Cluff is a research associate and Mr. oldstein a research assistant, both on the staff of the Institute of Water Utilization within the College of Agriculture. Page 19 Progressive Agriculture In July 1961, the Institute of Water ciable resistance to oxygen or carbon dioxide diffusion, yet they have high Even at a cost of about 50 cents a Of all the world's natural resources, water is one of the most economically high during periods of wind, continuous application of the material is necessary if entered into a contract with the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation to find the best use, and the best apparatus to use for stock ponds and reservoirs under 10 acres in size. 'Film' Pond and Check For field testing purposes, duplicate ponds 53 by 78 feet in size were built and lined with vinyl plastic to prevent seepage. A stilling well and a hook gage at each pond is used to measure change in water storage. The testing procedure calls for applying the film on one pond and comparing the water loss with that from the untreated pond. To date, screened rafts with flakes of hexadecanol inside have been used with little or no savings. Solid material in the form of doughnuts have also been tried with no savings. Powder has been applied three times daily, resulting in savings of 6 to 10 per cent. A self- feeding grinder -duster, which is a scaled down version of the one the Australians developed, has been built. The grinder- duster consists of a small six volt motor and a wire brush, with a feed system where the hexadecanol is fed into the grinder, using a weight and pulley system. By using this duster, we have completely covered a 11/2 acre lake within a matter of minutes with a film of maximum cover. However, it may prove to be impossible to keep a pond covered dispensing from only one or two points during high winds. Solutions using common white gasoline as a solvent have been tested, using a simple dispensing apparatus which utilizes the difference in specific densities between white gasoline and water. A Can Be in Many Forms bottle containing fatty alcohol dissolved in white gasoline is placed on the bottom The various physical forms of fatty alcohols that can be applied are : (1) powder, (2) solid, (3) molten, (4) solu- of the reservoir and coming out of the bottle are two glass tubes. One tube extends to the bottom of the bottle. This (5) emulsion or slurry, and (6) tube allows the water to enter. The fatty alcohol in solution will float to the top of the bottle and will be forced out the plastic tubes leading to the surface. These tubes lead to wind vanes on the ponds tion, flakes. Of these forms, powders, solutions (in hot weather) and emulsions seem to be giving the best results. Molten hexadecanol can be sprayed through a nozzle to form a powder but (Continued on Next Page) What YOU Can Do Donald V. Robertson "Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what You can Jo for your country. . w Allhearts were stirred by this challenge voiced by Pres dent 'Kennedy in his inaugural address. All ears waited to hear what needed doing. All responsible citizens searched for 1 way to help their coann Aamericans responded in different ways to the challenge. Some joined the army. Some volunteered for the Peace Corps. Some hecame active in community affairs. But most (lent who plaYs and loafs and gets Karel- passing grades ey re good enough), all are unwitting participants in this silent eonspi,acY of mediocrity. Unless it is reversed, this eo n:pirac,, this unconscious treason, can make America second class more quickly and more surely than conspiracies that deliberately work for America's destruction. But the conspiracy of mediocrity can he reversed. Each person need only Arlo the best he can. He maj not achieve th7 perfection in has job; few are capahle of it and circumstances still wait for instruction as to the hest way they can serve their country. Jo not often allow it. But he must conscientiously strive for those who wait, we have a suggestions Jo Your hest, Only 1) V doing his Lest can a person realize his greatest potential as a citizen, an employee, and an individual. To By doing Your hest you can help combat a doctrine that is fast engulfing America -- a doctrine more dangerous than Communism or Fascism or anarchy -- the doctrine of Good perfection. so to serve yoaar country, to serve your employer, to serve yourself 1)o your best. Enough. The mechanic who does a half -wa eloh (it's good enough), the manufacturer who uses shoddy parts in his product (they're good enough) , the scientist who is satisfied with slipshod, inexact research (it's good enough) , the stn.. Editor's Note: The above was written by Donald V. Robertson, publications editor in the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Md. It was included in a writing assignment given University of Arizona and USDA personnel in Tucson a few months ago. We felt it deserved a wider audience. ___0_0_,>_.,,,..,_0_,._.,__,._0__1=1..__,._0_:.,,,_<>e__0_4,,_ __ ,_4a.sm., _ ,____ (Continued from Previous Page) that keep the material applied into the wind. Using this apparatus, savings of from 15 to 20 per cent were obtained. Before additional tests could be made in the fall of 1962, the temperature began to drop below 60 °F. at night. This caused the alcohol to precipitate out of solution, which plugged up the dispensers. Further tests made in the laboratory showed that the solubility of alcohol in white gasoline was very temperature dependent and not practical when temperatures dropped below 60 °F. Next as high as 30 per cent have been obtained using a 10 per cent concentration of Emulsions Because of this unforeseen development, testing with solutions was stopped. Emulsions were tried next. Various types of emulsifiers and alcohol concentrations have been tried. A stable emulsion containing as high as 10 per cent alcohol, which can be fed by gravity through a quarter inch plastic tube, has been used. Emulsions of various concentrations of alcohol and emulsifying agents will be tested further. To date savings of water alcohol, feeding the emulsion continu- ously by gravity. Although there needs to be a lot of additional research done to determine the optimum physical form and the best means of dispensing the monolayer, it now appears that emulsions fed througlip) a gravity feed system are the most prom ising, at least as far as small reservoirs and stock ponds are concerned. Most of the remaining time in this project will be spent in testing emulsions.
* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project