... - IN THIS ISSUE /Veto eall Sialite4
PUBLISHED BY THE C
Vol. XVI I
IN THIS ISSUE
/Veto eall Sialite4
With passage by Congress of the new Civil Rights Act, integration of races becomes a matter of national policy. Every sub -unit of government receiving federal funds is covered by this act, including the Land -Grant
Colleges of Agriculture in the several states.
As one example of the workings of this new legislation, Experiment Station scientists and Extension Agents may participate only in meetings and activities in which all persons, regardless of race, color or national origin, may attend.
Specifically, the Experiment Station and Extension Service "cannot provide assistance to any organization that excludes any person from membership, or participation in any activities of the organization, or subjects any person to discrimination because of race, color or national origin."
This injunction probably applies less to Arizona than to any other state.
The earliest lessons in agriculture in
Arizona were taught by Indian and
Spanish- American farmers long before the White man arrived. In fact, early works of Forbes and Thornber, issued by this College of Agriculture, tell of lessons learned from Indian and
Today our Extension meetings and agricultural field days attract Negro,
Indian and Mexican visitors, including both Mexican citizens and Mexican- American agriculturists who are
U. S. citizens.
All of them are most welcome participants. Many of our own people, in turn, attend agricultural field days in the Mexican states of Sonora, Sinaloa, Chihuahua and
Coahuila. A lively exchange of research information flows constantly, aiding all participants.
One of the largest and most impressive agricultural research projects in the world involves cooperation between the San Carlos Apache Tribe and The University of Arizona. A key
Apache cooperator was pictured on
the cover of a recent issue of this
Indian youths are active and able 4 -H members in most Arizona counties.
Integration in Arizona?
Eusebio Kino started that trend in
1700, and it has been an accepted and most acceptable way of life here ever since.
College of Agriculture and
School of Home Economics
IN THIS ISSUE
Domesticating Native Gourds
Farm Radio Programs _
New Book on Farm Labor
Calendar of Events
New Bulletins Available
"Harvesting" Rain Water
3 County Agents Honored
Problems of World Agriculture
Visitors From Brazil
Can We Guide Honey Bees?
U of A Rodeo Queen
Rose Garden at Yuma
Forage Production in Brazil
Alfalfa Seed Production
4 -H Boys Get Scholarships
Cultivating Our Garden
Visitors on University Day
Permanent Press Fabrics
Herbicides for Cotton
Make -It- Yourself Calf Starter
New Year's Wish
Cover Picture Shows
First Citrus Grove
citrus trees at the Ingleside grove,
11 miles northeast of Phoenix. This was the first commercial citrus planting in Arizona.
Almost as interesting as the citrus trees and dating the picture is the automobile in the foreground. Bob
Hilgeman writes that "Mr. Talbott, who has been working over all these old pictures, feels that the date
( of the picture, as judged by the car ) is between 1908 and 1911."
In any case, it is a picture of great historic interest, and we warmly thank the Water Users and our own Citrus
Superintendent for this opportunity to publish it.
Too late to accompany Dr. Robert
H. Hilgeman's article, in our last issue, on citrus history in Arizona, came the picture appearing on the cover of this issue of Progressive Agriculture in
Arizona. So readers may construe the picture as a sort of postscript to Bob
Hilgeman's informative article.
The picture is from the file of the
Salt River Water Users.
When an inch of rain falls on a 160
acre farm, it delivers
4,356,000 gallons weighing over 18,000 tons.
To transport this amount of water would require
544 tank cars or 4 trains, each over a mile long.
January -February, 1966
Published bimonthly by the College of Agriculture, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, Harold
E. Myers, dean.
Entered as second -class matter
March 1, 1949, at the post office at
Tucson, Arizona, under the act of
August 24, 1912.
Second class postage paid at Tucson, Arizona.
Reprinting of articles or use of information in Progressive Agriculture in Arizona, by newspapers and magazines, is permitted, with credit.
Editor: John Burnham.
Editorial Board Members: Mildred
J. W. Stull, Norman F.
Oebker, William H. Hale and Director George E. Hull, ex- officio.
Shall We Domesticate
Our Native Gourds?
There are three species of wild gourds native to the desert regions of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Two of these species, Cucurbita digitata and C.
palmata are found growing wild in
Arizona. The third species C. cylindrata is found mainly in Baja California, Mexico. These three species differ primarily in leaf pattern but are quite similar in other respects and hybridize readily with one another.
One of the unique features of these desert gourds is their attractive and delicate- appearing leaves. They are, however, true desert plants and can withstand high temperatures and prolonged periods of drought. The vine growth, which may reach 20 feet or more during a good growing season,
By W. P. Bemis and J. S. Folkner
The authors are members of the Department of Horticulture.
Progressive Agriculture normally trails over the ground but
will act as a climbing vine when
The drawing at the top of this page shows the leaf patterns of the three species and the Fi hybrids between the species.
The leaves of palmata and cylindrata have a velvet like texture while those of digitata are course.
The leaves are green with a silver mottled area around the leaf veins.
The leaves remain green until killed by frost in the late fall.
Flowers are Short -Lived
Individual flowers are borne singly on the vines and remain in full bloom for a relatively short period from dawn until nine or ten a.m., when they shrivel and usually drop from the flower stem by nightfall. However, a single vine will continue to produce flowers throughout most of the growing season.
The flower petal color is orange and the flowers are about three inches in diameter.
The fruit or gourds are spherical, about two and one -half to three inches in diameter, with stems from three to six inches long. They are mottle green with longitudinal stripes. The gourds on palmata and digitata turn yellow when mature while those of cylindrata remain green. Once mature, the gourds will remain hard for many months.
These gourds may have upwards of
600 seeds in each gourd. Cylindrata is characteristic in having the smallest seed, about 950 seeds per ounce, while
palmata has about 575 seeds per
ounce and digitata about 475 seeds per ounce.
Roots Source of Strength
One factor contributing to the ability of these plants to survive under desert conditions is their root system.
The roots are tuberous and often reach weights in excess of five pounds during a single growing season. These tuberous roots have two desirable characteristics. First they are able to survive the winter freezes and are
able to produce new vine growth
every summer, making these plants perennial.
Secondly, under periods of extreme drought the roots become impermeable to moisture loss and remain in a dormant condition until moisture is once more available.
The vine growth may die back under these extreme droughts, but will initiate new growth when moisture is available.
These species of native gourds may be started from seed or by transplanting the tuberous roots. Seed germination is often low and requires temperatures around 90°F for maximum germination. Under natural growing conditions these species tend to form
(Continued on Next Page)
LARGE TUBEROUS ROOT of the desert gourd, viewed from the side.
This tremendous storage capacity helps the plant survive in a harsh desert environment.
VINES OF HYBRID wild gourd cascade up and over the patio wall in an ideal Tucson setting, contributing both beauty and native hardiness to the garden.
(Continued from Previous Page) colonies of plants by adventitious rooting at the nodes of the vines during periods of high soil moisture. A single colony may after a few years consist of several hundred individual plants, each having its own tuberous storage root.
under prolonged periods of drought, but also they will thrive under cultivation and irrigation. The wide range of conditions for growth merits consideration of the native gourds as landscape subjects.
Have Landscaping Use
The native gourds have been observed in various gardens of fanciers of native plants. They are not widely known by the public or even landscape specialists, limiting their use.
The landscape use of these vines is varied.
In a desert garden, particularly a hillside or bank that requires a ground cover, these are excellent, inasmuch as they require no irrigation, which is difficult on a slope.
Trained over a fence or wall or in a tree the attractive foliage as well as the gourd itself is displayed.
fruit may be used as are all other
gourds in decorative table arrangement.
These native gourds have the ability to grow under adverse conditions, and to survive as a dormant tuberous root
17 Today, New Topcoat
Birthday Gift for P.A.
We hope you admire our
new cover design.
With this issue, Progressive Agriculture in Arizona celebrates its 17th birthday. Like any teen-ager, it likes to be dressed well, so we went to a top designer to get the new winter
Designer of this new cover is Douglas Peck, award -winning artist in The
University of Arizona Press. We think he did an excellent job.
Our only concern now is that the quality of content of the magazine will live up to its bright new cover.
KAWT, Douglas -6:15 a.m. Mon.
KHIL, Willcox - Mon. thru Fri.;
KCLS, Flagstaff -Tues. and Thurs.,
KCLS, Flagstaff (Home Agent)
Wed., 9:45 a.m.
Fri., 2:30 p.m.
KIKO, Globe -Miami
Monday, 12:45 p.m.
KATO, Safford - Sat., 9:30 a.m.
Mon. thru Fri., 12:45 p.m. ( daily)
- Mon. thru Fri.,
- Tues. thru Sat.,
Club of The Air, 8:35 a.m.
Report, 12:40 p.m.
Thurs., Dairy and Livestock Report, 12:40 p.m.
Mon. thru Fri.,
5:30 a.m. and 12:30 p.m.
Mon., 1:15 p.in.
( Extension Home Economist)
Sat., 9:45 -10:00 a.m.
KPIN, Casa Grande
Sat., 6:55 a.m.; Mon. and Fri.,
9:30 a.m.; Tues., Thurs. and Sat.,
Thurs. and Fri., 4:15 p.m.
Fri., 6:25 a.m.
10:05 a.m., Sat.
Mon. thru Fri.,
Cottonseed Oil, refined
GRAPH ABOVE SHOWS Commodity
Credit Corporation holdings as of last
Arizona contributes slightly over one percent to the cotton holdings, practically nothing to other surpluses held by government.
By J i mmye S. Hillman an d Raymond O. P. Farrish
Arizona farmers and ranchers produce predominantly for the market, not for storage. Of the large variety of field crops, horticultural and specialty crops and livestock products which are produced in Arizona, small percentage finds its a very way into government warehouses. Many other regions of the United States so fortunate.
These are the areas
which have been responsible for producing the large accumulation of agricultural stocks during the post -World
War II era.
Arizona's Position Shown
A substantial amount of money has been spent by the Commodity Credit
Corporation ( CCC ) since World War
II in stabilizing agricultural prices.
Much of this went toward purchasing products for storage.
Table one indicates Arizona's relatively small con-
Dr. Hillman is head of the department and Dr. Farrish is extension marketing specialist, both in the Department of Agricultural Economics.
Progressive Agriculture tributions to CCC acquisitions of loan collateral surplus crops during recent years, and the small proportion of the current CCC surplus inventory that can be attributed to Arizona agriculture.
Although Arizona has provided the nation with approximately 1.51 per cent of its total crops by value during the past three years, it is responsible for less than an estimated 0.20 per cent of the CCC investment in surplus inventories as of June 30, 1964.
Six major national surplus crops are involved in the pattern of Arizona agriculture: wheat, corn, grain sorghum, flaxseed, barley and cotton. In only one year of the last half decade has wheat from Arizona been delivered to CCC ownership from loan collateral.
Corn never has.
Barley has not been delivered in the past five years, neither has flaxseed. Relatively minor amounts of grain sorghum have been delivered over the same period.
By far the largest Arizona contribution to the CCC inventory has been in the form of cotton. This might be regarded as Arizona's principal surplus crop.
Even here, however, it should be noted that Arizona produces
6 per cent of the national total, by value, while contributing only
per cent of the surplus. The pattern of agriculture in Arizona generates far less surplus than the national average, in relation to the value of its contribution to production.
Surpluses for Export
Table 2 shows recent trends of CCC inventory value and turnover. Special export programs have accounted for substantial proportions of dispositions in recent years. Were it not for these programs, the current inventory investment and its expenses would be somewhat greater.
Any national policy to support agriculture cannot avoid a three -pronged choice :
( 1 ) cut production, (2) build up increasingly burdensome inventories, or
( 3 ) find worthwhile and effective means of utilizing our inagricultural productivity.
These are not mutually exclusive choices. In fact, all three can happen at once. One or two may be emphasized in government policy in order to reduce pressure on the others.
(Continued on Next Page)
(Continued from Previous Page)
Food For Peace
The current "Food for Peace" effort is an attempt to emphasize utilization in order to reduce the pressure on the other two choices.
It is not likely, however, that it can eliminate the pressure of surpluses entirely.
Production cuts for certain crops still will be necessary to avoid intolerable inventory build -up.
A principal problem facing "Food for Peace" utilization is the commodity composition of our surplus. Our graph shows this composition as of April 30,
1965. Our surplus consists largely of cotton and a few different grains. We need to adjust our agricultural production to generate a more varied surplus geared to foreign food and fiber needs.
Finally, simply feeding people in foreign lands will not be very effective by itself in achieving U. S. foreign policy aims. We must be willing to continue with substantial aid in other resources, educational and industrial. Trying to use food by itself would be something like trying to build a car without tools. We may have a great opportunity to use food and fiber to help build strong, free nations abroad, but we must intelligently use other resources along with it to make it effective.
And we must, in all fairness to agriculture, point out to U. S. citizens in our cities that a vast portion of our effort to "make friends and influence people" throughout this troubled world is being met with gifts and subsidized sales of U. S. farm products.
This humane assistance to needy peoples of four continents has been charged against the much -criticized
"farm program." A substantial part should be charged to the military and foreign aid programs.
TABLE 1. CCC Acquisitions from Loan Collateral, Percent from
Arizona Loans and Estimated Share of Current CCC
Inventory Investment Attributable to Arizona Crops'
Per Cent From
( bales )
( bushels )
( bales )
( per cent )
( million bu. ) ( million bu. ) ( per cent )
( bushels ) ( per cent )
( million bu. )
( thousand bu. )
0 o o o o o
( $ million )
( dollars )
( dollars )
( dollars )
( dollars )
Total investment cost of national CCC inventory, June 30, 1964
Estimated cost attributable to Arizona crops
Proportionate share attributable to Arizona crops
( $ million)
( dollars )
( dollars )
9,780 o o o o o o o o o o
See Table 2.
CCC National Inventory Turnover, 1962 -1965'
(millions of dollars)
*Through April 30, 1965
Inventory April 30, 1965 = $4,206,751,672.42
1,869 sources: CGC Monthly Report of Financial Condition, Arizona Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Committee. The per cent and dollar estimates are the responsibility of the author. Proportionate Arizona shares estimates are based on first -in- first -out assumed inventory control.
Figures are not always strictly comparable, due to rounding errors.
When Our Neighbors Come to Visit With Us
4 -8- Arizona
9-10-Soil Fertility, Fertilizer and
U of A Campus, Tucson
River Road Farm,
19-FFA Field Day, U of A Campus, Tucson
Circular 274 -The Pink Bollworm in Arizona
( Revision )
Circular 289 -Drying
Folder 110 -Growing Sugar Beets in Arizona
Sugar Beets: Estimated Costs and Returns
Bulletin A- 43- Water,
Principles to Control Salt
Bulletin A -6 -Lawns for Arizona
( Revision )
It is flattering to us that research and extension methods used in Arizona attract favorable attention from visitors coming from other states and nations.
Here, at the UA Cotton Research Center, Phoenix, the Center's foreman, Fidel
Castorena (left), describes cotton field trials with Juan Canizales (center) and Cesar
Ing. Canizales, coming from Toluca, Mexico, is in charge of agricultural information for the State of Mexico.
Ing. Soto is information director of CIANO (Centro de
Investigaciones Agriculturas del Noroeste) at Cd. Obregon, in Sonora, Mexico.
New Book Describes
Recent Social Changes
In Arizona's Farming
"Farmers, Workers and Machines" is the title of
Authors a recent book published by the University of Arizona Press.
are Harland Padfield, assistant director of the U of A Bureau of
Ethnic Research and assistant professor of anthropology, and Dr. Wil-
Page 7 Progressive Agriculture
Liam E. Martin, associate professor of agricultural economics, both of the
U of A faculty.
Their book contains the first comprehensive description of the Arizona migratory farm laborer in each of the four social groups in which he is found, and in relation to three major crop industries cotton, lettuce and citrus and their labor pools.
The study includes careful consideration of cultural background as a relevant factor in the farm labor problern.
It is complete with both historical summaries and case studies.
The book is of particular immediate interest because of the discontinuance of the Mexican bracero program. Thus its subject affects not only farm industry and farm labor, but also Arizona communities in farming areas, political leaders and the general public.
The book grants that if the bracero law were still in effect, use of Mexican nationals as farm labor in the Southwest would decrease rapidly, because of technological and economic pressures already being felt.
The authors were aided in their work by a U. S. Department of Labor research grant of $30,000. The book is for sale for $7.50 by the University of Arizona Press or from any bookstore.
9t All SI4d Ma
T'o4 qiecs 49a With I/te LcweS and
Me Rczt ßczì,te1
Remember, years ago, the eaves trough which led rain water from the roof down to the "rain barrel" at a corner of the house?
Mother used to count on that supply of "soft" water for doing the laundry, back in the day of yellow laundry soap and the copper bottom boiler of hot water, heated on the
burning kitchen stove.
Today that same concept has renewed but far wider application. How about saving the rain runoff from all the "roof" of Tucson's streets and paved parking lots? Or from an entire mountainside? The quantity of water thus "harvested" would
Martin Fogel, acting head of the Institute of Water Utiliza-
tion in this college, discusses the possibilities.
By Martin Fogel
Water harvesting systems, a means for collecting and storing rainfall and treatment, if necessary is nothing new to many of the farmers and ranchers of the Great Plains and
Midwestern areas of the United States.
With the farmhouse roof as the catchment area and the cistern as a storage facility, many a farm family used this
"harvested" water for washing and, to a lesser extent, for drinking. The
"treatment" in these systems was a butterfly valve in the downspout which, after the first few minutes of a rainstorm, diverted the relatively clean water into the cistern.
Water harvesting systems are nothing new to Arizona. A few ranchers are using highways as catchment areas, while others are using butyl rubber catchments and storage bags.
The fish and game people have used paved catchments and storage structures to provide water for wildlife.
The Kitt Peak National Observatory uses a paved catchment area for its source of water.
New Methods and Materials
What is new then? For one, new materials and techniques are being constantly developed. Secondly, Ari-
The author is professor and acting head of the Institute of Water Utilization.
zonans must continue to demonstrate that they are doing everything possible to live within their own resources if they stand a chance of importing additional water, water which everyone agrees is urgently needed.
As is the case with other systems, it is necessary to look at the total operation rather than at each of the various components that make up the system.
The systems approach appears to be the logical way to produce the most economical product, water in this instance. Minimizing the size of the components, and using the best combination of materials that is available,
will be required to produce
water that will compete with other alternatives. The size of these components, interrelated as they are, will depend on such factors as water requirement, unit cost and expected life of the materials, the amount and probability of rainfall and the efficiency with which the catchment sheds rainfall.
To the livestock rancher who has to haul water at a cost of several dollars per thousand gallons, the cost of water is secondary to survival. But hauling is by far the most expensive means for obtaining a necessary supply of water.
Contrast this with the city -dweller, who has only to open his tap for a usually unending supply of clean water under pressure, for a very nominal charge of some 30 cents a thousand gallons.
Where are we now on the cost scale with water harvesting systems? Fortunately, we are in the area between what the rancher has to pay for hauling water and what the people living in cities have to pay. Thus, there is a place now for water harvesting systems based on currently -available materials and techniques.
In a cooperative effort with the
U. S. Water Conservation Laboratory of the Agricultural Research Service and suppliers of materials, the Institute of Water Utilization has planned and will shortly install a water harvesting system consisting of a 1
-acre catchment area and a 100,000 gallon below ground storage tank.
The basic materials for this system include pea gravel- covered plastic sheets for the catchment area and a plastic liner and butyl rubber cover for the storage tank.
Butyl rubber, while the most expensive material in this system, does serve several important functions.
It prevents water loss by evaporation, provides added catchment area through the use of valves which allow rainfall which falls directly on the cover to go into the tank and, lastly, it protects the inexpensive plastic liner from deterioration.
Expected installation cost for such a system is approximately $2,500.
Assuming what is believed to be reasonable life expectancies for the above materials and a realistic runoff efficiency for the catchment, the cost per 1,000 gallons of water will
be about $1.25 in
12 -inch rainfall areas and around $1 in areas where normal annual precipitation is
Where a storage facility is already provided, water could be produced at a cost of 40 to 50 cents per thousand gallons.
Expect Further Decreases
Since the largest single cost factor is for materials, the hope for obtaining water at a lower cost rests with the development of cheaper, longer lasting, more impervious materials.
The use of silicones for water- proofing areas is currently being investigated and so is common table salt.
It has always been thought that salts are detrimental to agriculture. They are, to plant growth. However, at a penny a pound they also provide a possible inexpensive mechanism for sealing soils and thereby inducing runoff. Researchers at both the Colorado State
University and The University of
Arizona are pursuing this line of endeavor. Test plots aid in determining
(Continued on Next Page)
National Group Honors 3 Arizona County Agents
OUR MYSTERY PICTURE
Arizona County Extension agents received top attention at the annual convention of the National Association of County Agricultural Agents last fall in Pittsburgh.
County Agent John L. Sears, Safford
( Graham County )
, is the 1966
NACAA national chairman of the association's Public Information Corn mittee.
Keith Jones, a Pinal County
Agent at Casa Grande, is the 1966 regional vice -director for the Western
The NACAA, with membership of
5,500 County Extension Agents from all 50 states, gave a 1965 distinguished service award to Amos H. Underwood,
Navajo County Agent located at Holbrook, Ariz.
Arizona representatives on NACAA standing committees for 1966, in addition to Sears, include:
Blackwell, Tucson, Pima County;
Robert G. "Pat"
Gray, Globe, Gila County;
Public Information - Robert L.
Halvorson, Phoenix, Maricopa County;
Extension Programs Paul
Lineberry, Yuma, Yuma County;
4 -H Committee
Eldon E. Moore,
Phoenix, Maricopa County;
Recognition & Awards Alvin Allen,
Prescott, Yavapai County.
The NACAA 1966 convention next fall will be in Hawaii.
V n r '": R S w.
W A J
L - \!
(Continued from Previous Page) the feasibility of using newly- developed materials for catchment areas.
Life expectancy and runoff efficiency of these new materials are learned from these test plots.
Up to now, little has been said about the treatment phase of the systern.
Fortunately, water for livestock requires little or no treatment with the types of water harvesting systems in existence or being planned.
This may not be the case where water will be used for other purposes.
For City Use, Too
In the past, agriculture has been the prime of water mover in the development resources in the west. Agriculture once again may lead the way in development of water harvesting systems which may also be used to provide water for municipal and industrial, as well as for agricultural,
Progressive Agriculture purposes.
After all, if we could capture and store all the rainfall that annually falls on the impervious areas of a city such as Tucson, it would be possible to supply each person with up to 50 gallons of water per day.
UN MUNDO CURIOSO
Antes del triunfo reconocido de los antibióticos, la población blanca del delta del
Mississipi sufría casi continuamente de anginas, mientras que la población negra de la misma región, aunque trabajaba laboriosamente, se protegía con eficacia contra este mal
por medio de amuletos.
Cada negro llevaba colgado del cuello un saquito llena de '`tierra mágica "; de vez en cuando estos negros echaban en su boca un bocadito de tierra y lo iban mascando
"para alejar el mal espíritu ".
Pues bien, después se ha descubierto que aquella tierra mágica de los amuletos es muy rica en mohos, de la clase que se utiliza ahora para preparar los antibióticos.
Our "Mystery Pictures" seem to be getting less mysterious all the time but still they are interesting views of the state we love.
This statue, of course, is widely known by northern Arizonans.
It stands at the juncture of two main highways, at a main business corner of the city of Springerville, in northeastern Arizona.
It is a wonderfully nice tribute to the pioneer mothers of covered wagon days, in those days when Indian raiding parties were more frequent than supermarkets, drought -borne hunger more often a companion than a self
defrosting refrigerator, and packaged foods came solely on the hoof.
1f#ide'i b4,je4e4 JVttaeøi
NITROGEN APPLICATION -LB. /A
FIGURE 3 - Barley grain yield, moisture use and M. U. E. as affected by the rate of supplemental nitrogen application.
ByChauncy0. Stanberryand Mark Lowrey
In a desert Arizona soil, barley yields may be increased by increasing one or more yield components (plants per acre, tillering or heads per plant, seeds per head, and weight per seed).
per acre and weight per seed weren't affected much, but heads per plant and seeds per head were almost doubled by nitrogen (N)
Much of this was accomplished with the first 60 pounds per acre applied.
Most of the resulting yield increase was from 120 pounds of nitrogen, although a maximum of 240 pounds of nitrogen per acre were applied.
( Figure 1) Nitrogen application itself increased barley yields about sixfold above no nitrogen application.
The "wetter" moisture level, actual-
ly irrigated oftener than a farmer
DEPTH (IN.) o
This is a joint contribution from the
Southwest Branch, Soil and Water Conservation Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, and the College of
Agriculture, University of Arizona.
The coauthors are Research Soil Scientist and Professor,
Agricultural Chemistry and
University of Arizona; and Physical Science
Aid (deceased), USDA, respectively.
FIGURE 2 - Zone of moisture extraction by barley roots from the surface four feet of Superstition soil.
Values for different levels, nitrogen sources, years and varieties were averaged.
Values given on chart are mean and extremes of the percentage of total moisture obtained from each vertical quarter of the rooting zone.
FIGURE 1- Yield of barley grain for the dry, medium and wet irrigation treatments as affected by the rate of supplemental nitrogen application.
customarily does, increased yields only about one -third (36% ) above the "drier" moisture level, slightly less than farmers' customary irrigation schedules.
However, when adequate nitrogen fertilizer and the "wetter" moisture level were both applied together, barley yields increased almost eighteenfold, showing the wisely managing fertilization rigation together.
value of and ir-
Where Do Roots Feed?
During the three -year barley study, several thousand soil samples were obtained to reveal where barley roots actually obtained moisture needed.
Formerly D. R. Shockley found that if a plant's rooting depth was divided into quarters, the plant obtained 40,
30, 20, and 10 percent of its needs from quarter, the surface quarter, second third quarter, and bottom quarter, respectively.
We determined in an open Superstition fine sand that barley obtained I nearly all of its water from the surface four feet of soil.
After each irrigation the wet soil was sampled by
12 -inch depths to 48 inches, to see how much moisture was held by the soil.
Then, just before the following irrigation, the soil was again sampled to learn how much had been used.
Shockley's claims were supported by our work as shown in Figure 2.
Moisture utilization efficiency
pounds of grain per acre inch of water ) was highest for the limited water application, "dry." However, this resulted in reduced grain yields.
Except for limited water applications, however, cultural treatments increasing barley yields increased M.U.E. proportionally.
Use Water Efficiently
Barley producing less than
500 pounds per acre required almost as much moisture for evapotranspiration as that producing 4,000 pounds per acre.
This favors good cultural treatments, resulting in high yields for efficient water use.
The relationship between moisture, yield, and M.U.E.I
may be seen in Figure 3.
Calorie Levels per Capita and Percentage of Calories From Food Groups by Subregion in Ascending Order of Percent of Calories from High Carbohydrate Foods, Average 1959
High carbohydrate Wheat foods
Other starchy crops
Pulses and nuts
Vegetables and fruits
Fats and oils
Milk fish and products eggs
Central America and Caribbean
Other South America
Other East Asia
Other South Asia
West Central Africa
By George Campbell and John Burnham
EDITOR'S NOTE: This is second and concluding portion of an article which began in the November- December 1965 issue of Progressive Agriculture in Arizona.
Actually, bined the size of population of the world population is less of a food problem than its uneven distribution.
Corn munist Asia, for example, accounts for a fourth of the world population
- more than all of Europe, including the USSR, and exceeding the corn the Western
Hemisphere, Africa and West Asia.
India's population represents 14 percent of the world total while, at the other extreme, Oceania, Canada, Central America and Caribbean, River
Plate and Southern Africa each has less than one percent.
The authors are extension economist and experiment station editor, respectively.
Despite the pressure generated by limited food supplies and burgeoning populations, efforts to control population have been few and ineffective.
By contrast, mortality rates have been reduced sharply, adding to the world problem.
Japan Controls Births
Among countries with a pressing population problem, Japan alone has faced the grim necessity of rebuilding its economy.
Since World War II,
Japan has faced the hard fact of
limited land resources and a large prospective population growth. Thus, the government took the lead in educating the nation in family planning.
By the late 1950's the population increase had dropped below one percent per year.
Efforts have been started in other population- burdened nations, but none has so far been materially effective. India has launched an ambitious program, but in India a large family for the parmeans economic security ents in their old age, an historic fact which has almost closed the door to effective family planning.
Thus we view a world where two thirds of the people face shortages of food, where diet- deficiencies reflect the low level of living in general.
While generous nations can alleviate this condition as a short time emergency effort, the desirable solution is a rapid increase in productivity of the peoples affected.
The rapid growth of population in the poorer countries, the wide gap between the rich and poor countries, creates a world environment in which war, revolution, and acceptance of dangerous political ideologies is endemic.
Thus special efforts must be made in economic and social development in general.
Since the underdeveloped countries have 60 to 80 percent of their labor force engaged in agriculture, strenuous efforts toward agricultural development are called for. Handicaps of an illiterate labor force, lack of capital, and lack of technical and managerial skills, must be faced. Insufficient food of itself causes impaired health, inertia, low stamina.
Some of these countries have unexploited land resources, where it is possible to increase productivity faster than the growth of population.
These areas can meet their problems with development of more tillable land.
But most people in diet -deficient lands are in countries where expansion of the cultivated area has not kept pace with the accelerating population in the past quarter century.
In those countries there must be, simultaneously, successful development of new arable lands and increase in labor and land productivity of lands already being cultivated.
Here the lack of capital and managerial skill shows up.
Uncle Sam, a beneficent neighbor with a surplus of food, has given vast amounts of foods to needy peoples throughout the globe. Such food aid has made important contributions to the direct improvement of diets as well as to economic development. But
(Continued on Next Page)
Reports UA People in Brazil Doing Excellent Job
The 10 -man team of agricultural scientists from this College of
Agriculture now working in Brazil is doing an excellent lob, and their relations with the host country and its people are excellent.
So reported Dr. Antonio Martins Filho, rector of the University of Ceard, visiting college and University of Arizona admin-
The UA team of agriculturists is attached to the
University of Ceará, in the city of Fortaleza, in northern Brazil. The
team has been on the job for nearly two years.
Shown above, left to right, Dr. Harold E. Myers of the UA
College of Agriculture; Dr. Martins; Dr. Darrel S. Metcalfe, director
of resident instruction in the college here, and at extreme right,
Dr. Porto, professor of English at the University of Ceará.
(Continued from Previous Page) the potentialities of such aid in directly improving diets are sharply limited.
An Impossible Sum
The cost of filling the world deficit in 1970 would total $6.8 billion ( $2.5
billion excluding Communist Asia ) while the level of exports projected for 1970 under the U. S. Food for
Peace Program is less than $1.8 billion. This program currently accounts for over 90 percent of the total food aid extended by all nations and international agencies. Uncle Sam has carried the lion's share of the burden but that cannot meet the need.
Expansion of commercial food imports into diet- deficient countries is difficult, simply because those nations do not have the buying power for such purchases.
Such imports, projected to 1970, would amount to $4.6
billion for all the diet -deficit subregions. Export earnings of most developing countries depend heavily on only a few commodities frequently subject to problems of oversupply, or low and sharply fluctuating prices, resulting in unstable export earnings from year to year.
Coffee, rubber, cocoa, oil, bananas are typical of such exports.
Thus, many of these countries face persistent unfavorable balance -ofpayment problems.
With limited foreign exchange reserves and many high priority demands for imports, food is generally not given a high priority, except in emergencies. Thus, caught between the upper and nether millstones
- a nutritional gap and
chronic balance -of- payment problems
the food lack in most of the undeveloped countries
must be met
largely by increased production within those countries themselves. This is a terrific problem.
Vast Changes in the U. S.
To look for a moment at the U. S., which has met its own food needs and
- as said above has been the provider for vast tonnages of foods for needy nations, imaginative techniques and new knowledge have brought vast changes.
In fact, the techniques of agriculture in America have changed more in the past three decades than in the three preceding centuries!
To list a few:
Hybrid corn has not only vastly increased production of that crop but placed the ears in position ideal for machine harvesting. The hybrid plant also has a sturdier root system, to hold the plant upright.
Artificial insemination of dairy cattle has removed the hazardous herd bull from most Midwest dairy farms, at the same time giving each dairyman opportunity to select sperm from sires carrying genes for tremendous dairy production.
The slow -flying, highly maneuverable crop dusting plane, which applies insecticide on fields in all areas of the
United States, now has broadened its chores to include rapid, even broadcast sowing of such small -seed crops as alfalfa, rice and wheat.
In the Southwest new Rube Gold burg machines march down a lettuce
row, mechanical "hands" feel each head for firmness, signalling knives to a cut marketable heads, which go into conveyor
belt on the
machine, thence to a platform where workers pack and seal cartons right on the machine, as it travels down the field.
Irrigated areas of America routinely use devices which measure moisture penetration, moisture depth and need, as a guide to irrigation needs.
New Era of Hybrids
Hybrid sorghum has followed hybrid corn into prominence, and work on hybrid barley, wheat and cotton is under way in the research laboratories, greenhouses and fields of the nation's agricultural colleges.
A multi- million dollar chemical industry disciplines plants and insects, selectively attacking harmful insects, increasing leaf growth of crops when that is desired, or defoliating before the crop is to be harvested. Separate chemicals are designed for distinct types of weeds.
A vast new knowledge of chemical fertilizers and their placement has made such plant nutrients vastly more efficient. The potato grower, for example, knows exactly what kind of fertilizer to use, at what depth, how close to the plant's root system, what time is best, and in what amounts.
Crops which a few years ago could not be contemplated as machine -harvested grapes, tomatoes, nuts, fruit are now being gathered by new kinds of machines.
New types of packing and shipping, too, bring them to market in tip -top condition.
The citrus grower, in an office in his orchard, can look at a panel and see exactly what the temperature is next to each tree on the ground and at fruit height, so that frost hazards can be met with operation of wind machines, smudge pots and other devices.
Larger Animal Units
Feedlot operators with 10,000 animals in their pens, poultrymen with a
50,000 bird flock, dairymen milking
500 cows daily, all now have an interest in computer card systems which measure feed use and efficiency, animal output, economical level of meats
(Continued on Next Page)
Can We Guide
Attract them for pollination?
Repel them from insecticides?
Developing methods to protect beneficial insects and help them help man is an important part of the research entomologist's job. A search for materials that attract or repel honey bees is a case in point.
As part of continuing studies of insect repellents and attractants, ARS and Arizona scientists have tested 195 formulations for the effect their vapors have on honey bees. They found four formulations that rate weak to moderate as attractants and 18 that rate moderate to strong as repellents.
Although the screening program is providing fundamental information about honey bee behavior, the researchers are looking toward the day when formulas might be used to at-
(Continued from Previous Page) gain, egg laying or milk production.
Computer arithmetic is helping to make many of the decisions of the
"big operators" in American agriculture.
Even the farm watering pond now has a chemical spread onto its surface to inhibit evaporation.
On Southwestern cattle ranches, where water is scarce and evaporation can total as much as 12 feet of water depth annually, that is important.
More and more, too, are products devised, selected and produced for specific market needs.
The cantaloup's planting date in the Yuma Valley of Arizona is carefully calculated to get fresh fruit on the eastern market early, when prices are best. The same with bell peppers, lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers and other produce. New cottons are grown to meet specific fabric needs.
The beef cow's figure is being remoulded, not with an eye for beauty or sturdiness, but to get the carcass size most desired by the supermarket butcher and his customer. Hens are selected to lay eggs of the customer prefers.
a size and color
The market support for whole milk products, and away from butter, has made the Holstein the nation's dominant breed of dairy cattle.
A marvellous new world of ingenious machines and chemicals, vast new
Progressive Agriculture tract honey bees for pollination purposes. They also say that a repellent added to an insecticide might someday keep bees away from areas in which toxic materials have been used.
Repellent materials might even be
used to keep bees away from the
The experiments were conducted by ARS entomologist A. W. Woodrow and chemist Nathan Green, both of ARS, statistician Henry Tucker of
The University of Arizona, and agronomists M. H. Schonhorst and K. C.
Hamilton of the Arizona Agricultural
The researchers noted the reactions of bees when vapors of various natural and synthetic compounds were wafted over them.
The tests were conducted in a specially constructed modified olfactometer, an instrument used to determine whether insects are affected by an odor.
If bees moved toward the vapors, the material was rated as an attractant; if they moved away from the vapors, it was rated as a repellent.
U of A RODEO QUEEN
knowledge about electronics, chemistry, cytogenetics, physiology and pathology of both plants and animals, and about packaging, shipping and marketing, have changed the face of
U. S. agriculture.
Grandpa Wouldn't Know It
The farmer of the 1920's would scarcely recognize the machinery on a farm today. The horse -drawn implements and hand tools are mostly gone. The planting, tilling and harvesting of crops, and the feeding and care of livestock, are machine operations, some of them automatic.
In fact, the American farmer today uses more petroleum products than does any other industry, and his use of electric power has made private utilities and the Rural Electric Cooperatives scramble to meet his needs.
America's commercial farm today is no longer a small operation, a family operation with small investment, heavy on sentiment and weak on income. Today it is a business, though often a family business, but a business with a six - figure investment and thousands of dollars expended each year for seeds, fertilizers, fuel and machinery upkeep.
Whether America can convey this new learning and efficiency to other nations through the Peace Corps, through the Agency for International
( AID ), through the teams of agricultural extension workers and research scientists from American colleges now working in scores of lands on four or five continents this may be more important to the future peace, welfare and political sanity of the world than any military or diplomatic effort.
The 1965 University of Arizona rodeo queen is
Keogh, as pretty and authentic a rodeo queen as ever was. Kathy's grandfather homesteaded in western North
Dakota at the turn of the century, and was a neighbor and associate of Teddy
Roosevelt when the former president had the Elkhorn and Maltese Cross ranches out near Medora, in western
Kathy's father, Brooks J. Keogh, is president of the American National
Cattlemen's Association, and past president of the North Dakota Stockmen's Association, oldest incorporated association in North Dakota - Roosevelt was one of the 10 incorporators, as was his ranch foreman, John Goodall, sheriff in that area. Also one of the 10 was Frank Keogh, Kathy's grandfather.
The Keogh ranch includes 20,000 deeded acres at Keene, on the edge of the Badlands. The ranch runs a thousand Herefords and also raises quarter horses.
Like most ranch raised girls, Kathy brought her saddle horse to college with her.
been North Dakota
Quarter Horse Queen, North Dakota
Rodeo Princess, and was all- around cowgirl at the North Dakota High
School rodeo in 1963. She attended
North Dakota University at Fargo as a freshman, transferred to College of
Paul for her
sophomore year, then came to the
University of Arizona last fall.
The photo above was taken by
Mike Prime, agricultural journalism student.
UNIVERSITY Of ARIZONA
COLLEGE Of AGRICULTURE
A NEAT SIGN along the highway tells passing motorists about the garden and the cooperation which has produced it.
UA ROSE GARDEN
ON THE YUMA MESA
By Ross M. Allen and H. W. Knowles
Two kinds of growers of roses are found among the home gardeners residing on the sandy table land called the Yuma Mesa.
There are those who have successfully planted a rose garden and maintained the same hushes in good health and flower productivity
over a period of several years.
Then, there are the unsuccessful ones, far outnumbering the
first mentioned group, who have tried rose -growing in the oven -hot
sands of Yuma, only to suffer near -total defeat during the first or second year after planting.
Many of these luckless ones are hesitant to try again because the defeats frequently represent substantial losses of both time and money. It is mainly for the latter group that this article is written, in the hope that they may be encouraged to try once again for success in growing the "Queen of the Flowers."
Possibly some of the methods in use at the University Rose
Test Garden, located on The University of Arizona Citrus Farm at Yuma, may be helpful to the more successful growers of roses, also.
The University Rose Test Garden was established in March, 1962, with several objectives including,
( 1 ) Determination of varietal adaptability to culture under Yuma's environmental conditions;
( 2 )
Studies on cultural practices including pruning, irrigation, fertilization, and insect and disease control, and ( 3 ) Beautification of the farm headquarters area.
used in the garden have been re-
stricted to those which are relatively inexpensive and readily available to the average home gardener of the
Dr. Allen is plant pathologist stationed at our Yuma Mesa Citrus Experiment Station, while Mr. Knowles is foreman at that station, active in helping establish the rose garden.
January- February Page 14
Nearly 100 Varieties
The garden, originally consisting of
68 bushes representing 17 varieties, has been enlarged each year and now contains 494 bushes, with 95 varieties of hybrid teas, floribundas, and climbers to be observed and compared. All of the rose bushes, field budded and grown in Arizona, have been donated to the university by Jackson & Perkins
Co., whose Arizona operations include approximately 4,000 acres devoted to rose production near Buckeye, Arizona.
Each variety in the garden is represented by at least four plants grouped together for mass effect and ease of comparison. For visitors' convenience, name plates designate the variety, bush type and date of planting. Visitors are welcomed to the garden, which is now included in the American Rose Society's latest national listing of "Private and Public Gardens."
The following is a summary of practices and experiences during the past three years:
Pre -planting preparations and actual planting are among the most important phases of establishing a successful rose planting. Beds measuring
6 x 88 feet were dug 6 to 8 inches deep to remove all silted phase soil so that all plants are being grown in pure Superstition sand like that predominant on the Yuma
Mesa. Treble superphosphate was broadcast on the bed surface at the rate of 4 ounces per bush as indicated on the planting plan, and beds were pre -planting irrigated.
All bushes were completely submerged in water for 18 to 24 hours prior to planting to replace moisture lost from the canes during storage.
Planting holes, 4 feet apart, 20 inches wide and 20 inches deep, were prepared one day after the pre -planting irrigation by placing 2 inches of well
rotted manure mixed with a handful of soil sulfur in the bottom of the hole, followed by 3 inches of soil, another
2 inch layer of manure and sulfur, and capped with 5 inches of soil.
Moist peat moss may be substituted for the manure, but the cost of this material may be prohibitive for more ambitious -sized gardens. In either case it has been found beneficial to pack the soil mix in the hole by tramping to prevent excessive settling of the plants.
Since all bushes obtained were of
No. 1 grade ( use of this grade is strongly recommended ) they were
thinned by pruning to 4 to 7 un-
injured canes approximately 8 to 12 inches long. Roots were cut back to about 8 to 10 inches.
Injured roots were removed.
In planting, roots were placed over a moist cone of soil so that the bud union remained 1 to 2 inches above normal soil level.
Soil filling the hole was settled by irrigating slowly by garden hose. A 4 to 6 inch mound of moist soil was placed temporarily over the bud -union, and lower canes and entire bushes were covered with gunny sacks to conserve moisture and prevent sunburn until after buds began to swell.
All pruning wounds were covered with an asphalt -tar cornpound after 3 to 4 days of drying.
Young bushes with new shoots were shaded by palm fronds stuck in the ground around them, especially on the west side, until rose foliage protected the canes from sunburn.
New bushes were flood irrigated twice weekly for the first 6 weeks.
For established plants, flood irrigations ( 4 inches of water ) are made weekly during summer and bi- weekly during winter. Since all bushes are mulched with 1 to 3 inches of barn-
(Continued on Next Page)
CLOSE UP VIEW of the rose garden. The trellis and fence add greatly to attractiveness of this test garden.
(Continued from Previous Page) yard manure all year long, no cultivation is needed except weed removal by pulling or digging to eliminate weed roots.
Early Planting Urged
Early planting of roses in the Yuma area is essential for obtaining maximum shoot growth and resultant cane shading by foliage before the arrival of continually hot ( 90° F. ) weather.
Planting dates for the Rose Test Garden during the past 4 years have ranged from Jan. 25 to March 5. The best planting period for the Yuma
Mesa is thought to be from Jan. 15 to
Later plantings may sunburn badly before the plants become thoroughly established.
Roses are relatively light feeders and do not require frequent nor heavy fertilizer applications.
For newly planted bushes, superphosphate is applied in the pre -planting preparations.
Nitrogen is supplied as ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate at the rate of 1 pound of material per 50 square feet of bed area in late March or early April. A second application of half the above amount is made in early September. Four ounces of soil sulfur per bush, applied in a circle
6 to 8 inches from the bud -head, is made in late September.
Established bushes are fertilized somewhat differently. In early February 4 ounces of treble superphosphate per bush broadcast over the bed, 1 pound of ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate per 50 square feet area broadcast, and 4 ounces soil sulfur per bush. In late March the nitrogen application is repeated. In early
September, % pound ammonium nitrate or sulfate per 50 square feet bed area and 4 ounces of soil sulfur about each bush yields vigorous fall growth.
Pruning Is Moderate
A moderate form of pruning is done in early January. We attempt to leave
5 to 7 canes about 12 to 16 inches high on hybrid tea varieties. One or two
Page 15 Progressive Agriculture canes are being cut experimentally to 4 to 6 inches to learn if cane renewal is increased. Floribundas are headed back lightly with little thinning of canes.
All pruning wounds are treated with asphalt -tar compound after wounds have dried 3 -4 days.
Insect and fungus disease problems have not been great in Yuma. Cygon
( Dimethoate ), 1 tablespoon per gallon of water, applied as a spray has controlled aphids, thrips and mites.
Dusting sulfur has been used for
powdery mildew fungus control during the cooler months of November to January. Mildew has not been a problem during the warmer months.
Iron chlorosis ( yellowing of foliage, terminal stunting, and tip die -back ) may be severe, especially on lighter colored rose varieties such as the whites, yellows, and light pinks. To correct or prevent this condition, chelated iron ( Sequestrene Fe 138 ) has been applied twice each year, in May and September, in addition to soil sulfur applications previously described ( sulfur acidifies soil and makes iron available to plants )
A solution- suspension of 3 ounces Fe 138 per gallon of water is an easy way of handling this material. One -third cupful is poured into each of four holes punched 8 inches deep around each bush approximately 8 to 10 inches from the bud -head. This application is always followed by a flood irrigation.
Some chelate may settle from suspension unless the mixture is stirred frequently during application.
A few special practices which have been helpful deserve mention. Early spring buds have been removed from newly planted bushes in order to encourage vegetative growth in the first season. This practice substantially reduces sunburn of canes and bud heads.
Very slow -starting bushes have been encouraged to grow in cool weather by placing waterproof paper cylinders
( 12 inch diameter, 6 to 12 inch height ) around each bush.
Cylinders are filled with wet peat moss covering the bush except for 2 to 3 inches of the cane tips to allow observation of bud shooting. Cylinders and peat are removed when tip shoots are
34 inch long.
This practice in hot weather
( above 90° F. ) may be harmful to the plant.
2- year -old bushes which had been planted too deeply were successfully lifted bareroot and re -set.
These plants were pruned back 50 percent more than normally practiced.
Occasionally newly -purchased bare root bushes arrive with long white or yellowish bud sprouts.
Such plants are pruned more severely than normal for planting. Premature bud sprouts rarely survive under Yuma's environmental conditions.
While most of the 95 varieties in the Rose Test Garden have performed creditably, some have shown more adaptability to this area than others.
Among the hybrid teas showing overall good performance in two or more years of observations are Avon, Charlotte Armstrong,
Chrysler Imperial, Eclipse, Hawaii,
King's Ransom, New Yorker, Peace,
Pink Duchess, Red American Beauty,
Rose Bowl, South Seas, Soeur Therese,
Tanya, and Tropicana.
Because of greater cane production and denser foliage most floribundas seem adapted to
Some of those with generally high ratings include Baby Blaze, Betsy
McCall, Fashionette, Fusilier, Ivory
Fashion, Malibu, Pink Chiffon, Spartan, and Vogue.
Follow the Rules!
Many other varieties in the Rose
Test Garden not listed above show much promise for local use but have not been observed sufficiently to warrant recommendation at this time.
With reasonable care, however, it is concluded that most roses can be grown successfully on the Yuma Mesa despite the sometimes severe environment. The most important obstacles may be overcome by attention to the following general rules:
Plan and prepare before planting time
Obtain strong, he al t h y plants whether bare -rooted or potted
Plant correctly at the proper time
Prevent sunburn and iron chlorosis
Avoid over -watering and excessive fertilization
Prune moderately while plants are still winter dormant
Follow the rules, and success with roses should be yours!
FORAGE PRODUCTION PROBLEMS IN NORTHEAST BRAZIL
By Robert R. Humphrey
Ceará, one of eight states lying partly or entirely within Brazil's socalled "Arid Northeast" has an area almost exactly half that of Arizona.
The state typically has a six -month dry season and is plagued periodically by severe and extensive droughts.
Despite these droughty features and despite its reputation as a desert area, the drier portion of Ceará has an average annual rainfall of about 32 inches. To an Arizona cattleman this doesn't sound like the precipitation of a desert -like area. Yet, it is.
Largely because of the monthly distribution pattern, the precipitation does not produce adequate forage yearlong. Most of the rain falls from
January to June, leaving the balance of the year with little or no effective moisture. Add to this high temperatures, and generally shallow sandy soils that retain water poorly, and we do not have a situation conducive to production of adequate yearlong livestock feed. Then, as a final clincher, at unpredictable but too -frequent intervals there may be whole years of periods of two or three years with little rain even during the normally wet season.
It Presents a Problem
To one accustomed to thinking largely in terms of perennial grass as a forage base the climatic and soil conditions present, if not insuperable, at least difficult, problems. As the various facets of the whole picture come into focus however, the problem no longer seems to be so nearly incapable of solution.
Although fairly extensive portions of the upland sites have a soil too shallow to support perennial grasses, they do grow annuals that provide good feed for about six months of the year.
These same areas are also generally covered with brush, some of which is palatable when green or the leaves of which are palatable and eaten during the dry season after they have fallen to the ground. Except during the occasional protracted droughts, on the other hand, the rainy season is
Dr. Robert R. Humphrey, veteran professor of range management, has depicted the range resources of all Arizona counties in a valuable series of bulletins widely distributed throughout this state.
Now, as part of the UA team at the University of
Ceará, Bob is applying those same talents to northeast Brazil.
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not a period of feed shortage but of surplus. However, this still leaves us with the critical six -month dry season.
In any forage improvement program it seems to make good sense to concentrate first on those areas with the best soil and the least aridity. A cursory analysis indicates that from
8 to 10 percent of the state of Ceará has deep, alluvial soils in the valleys of rivers or small drainages. In some of these, subsurface water is close enough to the surface to be reached by deep- rooted perennial grasses, a
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ABOVE, TYPICAL native vegetation in the state of Ceará before clearing and seeding.
practice that has already been proved practical. In other areas ground water is relatively shallow, and may be pumped to irrigate forage crops. Although the extent of these alluvial valley soils is known in a general way, they need to be carefully mapped and the availability and quality of their water determined.
These lands today are growing in part a mixture of brush and weeds
(Continued on Next Page)
(Continued from Previous Page) with, in places, an overstory of the wax- producing carnauba palm or the oil- yielding oiticica tree. Portions are also planted to generally low- yielding stands of bananas, manioc, beans or corn. Presumably, much of the fraction planted to these various food crops would not be available for forage production. The Carnauba -oiticica areas, on the other hand, are well suited to producing forage beneath and between the trees.
Considerable Productive Land
At this point we have to make certain assumptions because of the lack of essential data. Using eight percent of the total area of the state as the alluvial fraction gives a total of 4,640 square miles. Assuming that 50 percent of this is available for pasturage
( a conservative estimate ) we come up with 2,320 or, in round figures,
2,300 square miles of potentially highly productive alluvial land.
Because of the uniformly high tern
peratures - day and night, summer and winter in this region, plant growth and consequent forage production is high yearlong. Volume production of the commonly used giant panic (known locally as sempre verde ) or elephant grass is extremely high. Even such lower -growing species as Pangola grass or coastal Bermuda have a high production.
Although actual carrying capacity figures have not been obtained, it does not seem unreasonable to expect that their present carrying capacity is probably less
than 1/10 of the
Quadruple Carrying Capacity
On the basis of these figures, these bottomlands could be developed to support an absolute minimum of more than four times the number of cattle being produced in the entire state at present.
And, perhaps most important, these cattle would be well fed and fat the year round, eliminating the usual starvation losses of today and increasing growth rate, animal weights and health, and percentage calf crop.
The developed alluvial areas should be used in conjunction with the non improved or improved uplands. These uplands provide considerable forage during the 6 -month erally rainy season, genmore than can be used by the available animals while the forage is green. They do constitute an important fraction of the total feed pro-
Progressive Agriculture duced during a 12 -month period. As this forage consists largely of annuals and the leaves of deciduous brush, it is largely wasted by leaching, oxidation and consumption by termites when it is not grazed.
In conjunction with development of the alluvial areas, a consistent program of research is needed to determine the adaptability of specific grasses and legumes to particular dry
For the most part the
grasses studied should be perennials, the legumes either annuals or perennials, and either herbs or shrubs. The sites should be those without free water during much of the dry season, or where the water table is too deep to be reached by grass roots, or where for various reasons pumping may not be deemed feasible.
Because of the yearly hazard of almost complete desiccation of the soil to root penetration depth or to bedrock, the theoretical grass best suited to most sites should have the following characteristics:
It should be a perennial but should have the rapid and prolific establishment characteristics of annuals.
It should be highly drought resistant.
It should be a prolific seed producer.
The seed should be readily disseminated by natural means.
It should be at least moderately palatable and nutritious.
Research may indicate several grasses with these characteristics. On
"Man will conquer poverty, famine and disease only as he masters the problems of water supply.
"Water is our most vital resource. Man can exist without food for as much as 60 days.
Without water, he will perish in five. Three billion people on this
planet are competing for the
available fresh water but there is essentially no more water today than there was when civilization began.
"Furthermore, it is essentially the same water.
The dribble from a leaky faucet in our homes may be the liquid which slaked the thirst of a dinosaur, watered the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, or refreshed Hannibal at some Alpine stream."
Secretary of the
the basis of today's rather limited information, however, two grasses seem most nearly to meet these particular requirements.
They are Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) and Boer lovegrass (E. chloromelas).
Initial tests of these species look promising, and they will be included and more widely planted in the continuing research program.
ELEPHANT GRASS just six months after planting of vegetative shoots. Man in the picture indicates tremendous growth of this forage species.
FIGURE 1 -- Typical alfalfa roots which were dug from the different management schedules in this study.
Roots were cut six inches below the crown and separated from the crown tissues.
This portion of the main tap root was used for carbohydrate analysis.
l/ecv and Sisvi Co4e#tt
9HiJ1e#ice 4lialia Seed Pad.Scuz
By A. K. Dobrenz and M. A. Massengale
Much of the alfalfa seed produced in Arizona is from plants used for both forage and seed. Growers often produce forage during the spring when temperatures are cool, yields are high, pesticide residues are at a minimum and the price is favorable.
Then, during the summer months when growth is somewhat retarded and the competition for water is at a maximum, the alfalfa plants are used to produce seed. Research work conducted at The Univeisity of Arizona has shown that, in general, alfalfa plants produce higher yields of seed early in the growing season than in late summer and early fall.
Carbohydrate Level Important
Several studies concerning seed production have shown that the level of carbohydrates in the roots is one of the factors influencing seed yield.
Since the major food manufacturing areas ( the leaves ) are removed from the alfalfa plant at each cutting, carbohydrates stored in the roots and crown play a vital role in supplying energy for new vegetative growth.
The plant is completely dependent on this supply of carbohydrates stored in
The co- authors are a former graduate assistant and professor in the Department of Agronomy, respectively.
the roots until after new leaves are formed and functioning.
An alfalfa stem changes from a vegetative to a reproductive stage of growth very early in its development.
It follows that the quantity of carbohydrate fractions available in roots during this period may influence the number of flowers and thus potential seed production.
Also, the kind and amount of specific carbohydrate fractions present during the change from a vegetative to a reproductive stage of growth and seed set may determine the composition of nectar and therefore the attractiveness of flowers to pollinating insects.
This study was initiated to determine the concentration of fructose, glucose and sucrose found in alfalfa roots and their effect on seed production at different times during the growing season. Although these sugars are a part of the total acid- hydrolyzable carbohydrates reported in the literature, little research has been done to determine how these individual fractions vary at different stages of growth and development of the alfalfa plant.
Determination of Sugars
Alfalfa roots ( Figure 1) were dug from plots which had been managed so that growth for seed production began in each of three different months of the growing season. These roots were dug and retained for carbohydrate analysis when plants were first cut, and at intervals of one week extending for a period of five weeks after the initial forage removal.
Samples of alfalfa roots, which had been dried and ground in a Wiley mill, were placed in flasks, and the carbohydrates were then extracted by warming in an alcohol solution.
The chromatogram stripper
2 ) was used to place a small sample of the extracted sugars on the chromaatographic papers.
The "stripped" chromatograms were placed in a chromatography jar and the sugars were separated by using a solution of pyridine, ethyl acetate and water. Figure 3 shows a chromatogram on which the guide strips
( areas to the right and left of the vertical lines ) and sample areas have been developed.
Glucose, fructose and sucrose were removed from the paper chromatograms with alcohol and a biological filtering apparatus. Samples of these sugar solutions were placed in test tubes and the concentration of each determined by use of the Bausch and
Lomb Model 20 spectrophotometer and solutions containing known amounts of glucose, fructose, and sucrose.
Level of Sugars Declines
Data in Figure 4 show the percent -
(Continued on Next Page)
FIGURE 2 - Chromatogram stripper used for the uniform application of sample solutions in micro- quantities.
,o- - - -
- -o --
FIGURE 3 - Chromatogram which has been developed, showing the guide strips and sample areas of the chromatogram.
The spots on the strips are used to locate the sucrose
(top), the glucose (middle), and fructose (bottom) on the undeveloped chromatograms.
(Continued from Previous Page) ages of glucose, fructose, and sucrose in alfalfa roots during the five -week period after cutting in April, June and
August. There was a steady decline in the concentration of both glucose and fructose in alfalfa roots after forage removal.
Glucose, fructose and sucrose were highest in the roots of plants which produced seed in April and lowest in those plants producing seed in June and August.
of the data indicate
that high seed production was associated with higher levels of these carbohydrate fractions and that the number of seeds per pod and the number of pods per stem appeared to be correlated with fructose, glucose, and sucrose percentages.
The percentage of sucrose in alfalfa roots did not follow the same trends as glucose and fructose during the first five weeks after cut -off. The increase in sucrose concentrations after forage removal in June and August may mean that this sugar is more readily synthesized
in the warmer
periods of the growing season.
These data suggest that, under a management system which involves the production of both forage and seed from the seed yields same plants, highest can be obtained when
Arizona 1966 Cotton
Acreage I s 366,000
Arizona's 1966 cotton allotment will be 366,000 acres, the U. S. Depart-
WEEKS AFTER FORAGE WAS REMOVED plants are allowed to produce seed in the spring of the year. Although many environmental, managerial and physiological factors determine the amount of seed which is produced, the level of glucose, fructose and sucrose present in the roots of alfalfa when plants set seed appears to have a significant influence on seed yield.
AMOUNT OF GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE AND SUCROSE
STORED I N ALFALFA ROOTS DURING A FIVE-WEEK PERIOD
AFTER FORAGE WAS REMOVED IN APRIL, JUNE AND AUGUST.
ment of Agriculture reports.
Upland cotton takes up 330,674 acres and long staple 35,515.
Pinal County leads in upland cotton acreage, getting 130,280, followed by 122,180 acres in Maricopa; 29,960 in Yuma; 22,543 in Pima; 13,661 in
Cochise; and then 8,857 in Graham;
1,770 in Greenlee;
1,097 in Santa
Cruz; 267 in Mohave; 37 in Gila and
12 acres in Yavapai County.
2,761; Yuma 340; Cochise 201; Santa
Cruz 22 and Gila 13.
3 Arizona Boys Receive $500 4 -H Scholarships
Three 4 -I-I Club boys from Arizona, representing
Yuma, Coolidge and
Thatcher, were named national winners of $500 scholarships at the National 4 -H Club Congress in Chicago recently.
The winners are Tom Pritchard,
17, son of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Pritchard of Yuma, recipient of a $500 educational scholarship as a result of his work in the 4 -H agricultural program.
He received his award from International Harvester Company.
Dan Jones, 17, son of Mr. and Mrs.
Clyde B. Jones of Route 1, Coolidge, named a national winner in the 4 -H beef program. His $500 educational scholarship was donated by E. I. du
Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc.
Glade Smith, 17, son of Mr. and
Mrs. Keith E. Smith, Thatcher, who operate an 80 -acre quarter horse ranch. For his seven years of work in
4 -H electric projects, Glade won a
$500 scholarship given by Westinghouse Electric Corporation.
Tom, Dan and Glade were among
23 Arizona 4 -H Club members attending the national meeting in Chicago.
An Arizona highlight of the Congress was modeling of a wool dress and coat ensemble by Marianne
Richey, 17, of St. Johns, in Apache
County. Marianne was winner of the annual state 4 -H dress revue at the
4 -H Roundup on the U of A campus last July.
Cultivating Our Çarden
EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the third portion of the talk which Dr. Beattie gave before the meeting of Gamma
Sigma Delta, honorary society for agriculture. Readers will note that each published portion of the talk is complete in itself, making it a coherent unit of itself.
I should like to speak briefly of the role of reading in opening our eyes to the world about us, to the familiar scenes of daily life we so often, in our blind haste or deep preoccupation with trivial things, fail to observe.
You who are concerned with crops and cattle should take a special interest in reading which gives you a deeper understanding of our own region.
I should place in the foremost position among those writers who help us to see and know the Southern Arizona desert in which we live Joseph
Wood Krutch of Tucson.
I find myfrequently his books to students I am encouraging to gain a greater breadth of intellectual background -to students in the sciences who have an inadequate appreciation of literary style and of human values, and to students in the humanities whose interest in science needs to be developed.
Few writers are so effective in bridging the chasm between the scientific and the humanistic cultures as Dr. Krutch.
Wu need not turn to purely local and contemporary authors, however, to find readings which permit us to better comprehend the world about us.
Because of certain marked similarities in climate and terrain between
Southern Arizona and the lands where dwelt the ancient Hebrews, a reading of certain portions of the Bible can be most enlightening about our own locality.
One cannot live long in this region without coming to recognize the supreme importance of water in a dry and thirsty land. Through the ancient
Hebrew writings, the leitmotiv of water recurs constantly.
In biblical narratives the importance of water is evident.
Abraham's servant knows the preciousness of water, and determines to choose as a bride for Isaac that maid who will give him to drink and will draw water for his camels
the supreme act of friendship toward a stranger traveling in the desert.
And when Laban receives this man in his house, he pours out water so that he and those with him may wash their feet.
One has to know the dust and the heat of the desert to appreciate fully this gesture.
Life is not possible for many hours in the desert without water. We can understand the heartbreaking despair of Hagar, whom
Abraham had sent out into the wilderness with young Ishmael.
She took with her bread and water. "And the water was spent in the bottle," we read, "and she cast the child under one of the shrubs."
The Bible records disputes over the scant supplies of available water.
There is fighting over the wells Isaac has redug in the valley of Gerar, and were it not for Moses' aid the shepherds might long have delayed the daughters of Jethro from watering their father's sheep.
Disputes over water are not unfamiliar to me. (After all, I shared a well with a neighbor in the desert at the time he installed a swimming pool. )
There is scarcely a day that in the Tucson press we do
of conflicts over water.
Sometimes, a decision is sought with the aid of a gun, sometimes through an appeal to the courts.
After years of litigation, the United States Supreme Court not long ago handed down a verdict in a dispute between
Arizona and California over rights to the waters of the Colorado, but the problem is far from being resolved.
The water -rights disputes of the nomadic Hebrews are not remote to us who live in or near Tucson.
Much of my life has been spent near mountains in British Columbia and in Idaho.
It has long seemed to me understandable that the psalmist should sing, "I will lift up mine eyes to the hills
." I have sought, my-
(Continued from Previous Page)
Viziaeltelitv -7)aiv P4oftast
Fred T. Ash, who is an agricultural and business leader in
Pinal County, was one of 120 county officials and others from the state's 14 counties who attended the University Day program on
the U of A campus in late November.
Pictured with Mr. Ash, center, is Mrs. Ash, and, at left, Howard
Baker, assistant director of the U of A Agricultural Extension Service.
Mr. and Mrs. Ash live at Winkelman and own the P -Z ranch in Pinal County. He is president of the Kearney Rotary Club and member of the Pinal County Extension Board.
The 120 Arizona extension board members, county supervisors, county clerks and other officials heard, on University Day, talks by
U of A Pres. Richard A. Harvill, Vice President Marvin "Swede'
Johnson, Dean of Agriculture Harold E. Myers, and Extension
Director George E. Hull.
(Continued from Previous Page) self, in the contemplation of mountains, an escape from pettinesses and annoyances. What I had not known, however, prior to moving to Arizona, is the character of the high mountain in the desert. Day after day in the hot season I have seen a small, fleecy cloud form in the morning immediately about the summits of the Santa
Catalinas to the north, and the Santa
Ritas to the south, the mountain slopes, and atmosphere ture content as the air currents over the desert were deflected along in the cooler over the peaks their moiswas condensed.
Progressive Agriculture frequently watched that small, white cloud billow into a towering thunder
peak enveloping the whole mountain top, and from the hot, sunlit valley heard the reverberating thunder, and seen the discharge of such formidable voltages of electricity that the lightning might leap several thousand feet from thunderhead to thunderhead.
From my former office window, I have observed such storms far to the southwest over the lofty peak of Baboquivari. My reading has given me only a most superficial acquaintance with a few legends of the Papago Indians. Elder Brother, a divine spirit, dwells in a cave high up the peak of
His presence is manifest in such a storm. And knowing
the desert peaks, and the legends
about them, I think I can understand better how the story of Moses talking to God on the mountain arose, and when I read that story I can relate it to my experience here. "And Mount
Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly.
And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a voice."
In regions such as ours, when the rains come they fall as violent cloudbursts, turning dry washes into rushing torrents which carry huge boulders and great quantities of debris into the valleys. Perhaps the memory of such flash floods is in the mind of him who sings in Psalm 46, "There fore will we not fear, though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea." Any stranger to our region who his ignorance has purchased a in house in a valley or on the sands of the flood plain learns the following summer the aptness of Christ's allusion to him who built upon the sand.
"And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it."
Yet the desert depends for life on those same destructive rains. The sudden change effected by them is almost miraculous. Overnight, grass appears
seemed a lifeless branches are tangle of naked covered with green leaves; flowers blossom everywhere.
And as you know the Papagos of our region, when the floodwaters had softened the sunbaked soil of their valley fields, made holes in the ground with a sharpened mesquite stick hardened in the fire, and planted their corn and beans.
The Hebrews of biblical days knew well such transformations. We read, for example, "Thou visitest the earth, and waterest it: thou greatly enrichest it with the river of God which is full of water; thou preparest them corn, when thou hast so provided for it.
Thou waterest the ridges thereof abundantly; thou settlest the furrows thereof; showers; thou blessest the springing thereof thou makest
it soft with
The pastures are clothed with flocks; the valleys also are covered with corn; they shout for joy, they also sing.
SOMETHING NEW IN field days was the "Cotton Wives' " field day at the U of A
Cotton Research Center, Phoenix, last October, just before the annual field day for the ladies' husbands. Here Dr. Ruth Hall, director of the School of Home Economics in this college, discusses cotton fibers with a group of visitors. The article on this page by Miss Birong, by the way, is based on her presentation at this special field day for cotton wives.
Neu< 42ab!Uc 144ti.4
By Elizabeth Birong
Permanent press is the latest development in the field of fabric finishes and is a logical extension of wash and wear finishing.
It is achieved by escovalent chemical bonds between the molecules of the individual fibers.
The most important garment aspect is not the crease but the smooth appearance and the absence of seam puckering so typical of some wash and wear garments.
Permanent press can be achieved on 100 percent cotton or other cellulosics, and when cotton is used in a blend with nylon, polyesters or other specific synthetic.
The proper proportions for blends are determined through research and may vary with the synthetic used.
Miss Birong is an associate professor in the School of Home Economics.
A cotton yarn is more easily changed when it has a minimum amount of twist and when thicker and coarser. A cotton fabric is more easily influenced when there is plenty of
"give and take" between the warp and filling yarns.
Cotton that is mercerized before applying the permanent press finish will have improved appearance and increased wear life.
Structural changes in a garment, such as letting out darts or seams, removing pleat creases, etc., cannot be made in a permanently pressed garment. However, seams or darts can be taken in, hems shortened, trouser
cuffs cut off and
re- attached with some degree of success. Stretch fabrics can be given a permanent press finish also.
The permanent finish plied: can be ap-
By pre- curing the cloth before making the garment.
By post- curing (also called delayed or deferred) after the garment is constructed (commonly used).
By treating the creased areas with a thermoplastic finishing substance and finished under a hotbed press.
This is the poorest treatment for 100 percent cottons from the standpoint of abrasive wear on the creased edges.
A garment of 100 percent cotton is frequently favored over one that is a blend with synthetics for the following reasons:
Cotton is comfortable;
Easy care; the only fiber that can be washed in hot enough water to get fabric clean and sterile and dried in any manner yet give a garment free from wrinkles;
Does not get a gray cast in laundering since it does not pick up soil from the wash water;
Melt holes minimized;
Iron does not stick;
Absence of pilling.
Suggestion for Laundering
To keep your wash and wear and permanently pressed garments perfectly clean and retain the new appearance, follow these suggestions in laundering:
Check the interior of your washer
dryer. The porcelain glaze should be smooth not worn and rough.
Pre -treat soiled shirt collars, etc.
with a small amount of liquid detergent.
Turn trousers, pleated skirts, etc., inside out to reduce abrasive wear on creased edges and avoid lint collection.
If possible, tumble -dry wash -wear and permanently pressed cottons separately from untreated cottons, such as towels. Fabrics with these finishes dry approximately five minutes faster.
Avoid chlorine bleaches generally; specifically if the label says so, instead, use perborate bleaches.
Avoid letting garment get so soiled it needs bleaching.
Launder oily soiled white garments, as men's shirts, etc., at high temperature wash water.
7. Remove wash
-wear and permanently pressed garments from tumble -dryer immediately garment is dry. Over -drying causes abrasive wear on creased edges and allowing garments to heap up in dryer causes unwanted wrinkles.
Not all fabrics in the laundry are
If they are a blend with synthetics, follow the above directions with these exceptions:
Use warm, not hot water. Use low or medium setting for tumble drying.
Synthetics take even less time to dry than treated cottons, so remove them immediately after the dryer stops, to avoid wrinkling.
HERBICIDE COMBINATION IN COTTON
By K. C. Hamilton and H. Fred Arle
Interest in herbicides to control annual weeds in irrigated cotton started in 1954 when monuron was used to control annual morningglories. Many new herbicides have since been developed.
HIGHER QUALITY TEXTILES AT
LO Wt,R COST may result from some novel experiments being conducted by a New
Jersey firm under contract with the USDA.
The firm is studying the behavior of cotton when subjected to high- intensity sound waves of varying frequencies.
The waves, it is hoped, may prove capable of removing trash from lint cotton before it is processed into yarn and fabric.
Cleaning machines now in use remove only about
60% of the trash.
Moreover, because of the repeated mechanical actions involved, they often damage cotton fibers.
The following herbicides are now registered for use in cotton:
DCPA, dicryl, diuron,
DSMA, linuron, monuron, MSMA, norea, petroleum oils, prometryne, trifluralin and combinations of herbicides with various surfactants.
Some of these herbicides which are effective against grasses do not control all broadleaved weeds.
Others control broadleaved weeds but have little effect on grassy weeds. When the weed problem is a single species, one herbicide may provide effective control. However, in most cotton producing areas of Arizona annual weed infestations contain a mixture of grassy and broadleaved weeds. The best control for this type of infestation usually is a combination of herbicides.
Many Application Methods
Herbicide combinations can be applied one or more times during each season. They can be applied before furrowing, or preplanting irrigation, or seedbed preparation.
In limited areas one or more herbicides are applied immediately after planting.
After cotton emerges, herbicides can be applied in combinations in a single application or individually at two or more times. The choice will depend on the relative cost of herbicides and applications, the availability of labor and equipment, and the germination pattern of weeds.
The herbicide combinations of trifluralin and diuron the weed infestations are effective on at the Cotton
Research Center in Phoenix, where the dominant weeds are ground-
Dr. Hamilton is professor of agronomy at
The University of Arizona, Tucson, while H.
Fred Arle is agronomist with the Crops Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and stationed
Research at the UA Cotton
He is also father of Arizona's ton," the very gracious and attractive Miss
1965 -66 "Maid of Cot-
Progressive Agriculture cherry, carelessweed, and several annual grasses. The annual grasses and carelessweed can be controlled by an application of 34 pound per acre of trifluralin.
However, this herbicide does not control groundcherry.
Diuron at the rate of 1 to 11/4 pounds per acre gives season -long control of groundcherry but annual grasses are not controlled with the maximum cleared rate of 1.6 pounds per acre.
A combination of trifluralin and diuron will control annual weeds and with less herbicide than if either were used alone.
It can be applied pre
planting, postemergence, or one herbicide, preplanting; the other, post
Effects of the trifluralin
- diuron combination on cotton and weeds in one experiment at the Cotton Research
Center are summarized in the accompanying table. The combination produced excellent weed control and yields equal to those of hand -weeded cotton.
Trifluralin, alone controlled grass, but not broadleaved weeds.
Diuron achieved the reverse. Use of only one herbicide permitted increased weed competition which reduced yields.
Shift With the Opposition
Herbicide combinations should be altered for specific weed problems.
Where morningglories are present, monuron might be applied at layby in place of diuron. If small weeds became established in the row, DSMA or diuron with surfactant could be applied as a directed spray.
In fields where preplanting applications of trifluralin might injure cotton, DCPA could be used.
Combinations have several advantages over single herbicides, giving better control of mixed weed infestations, and minimizing the buildup of weed species resistant to one herbicide.
Combinations may permit a lower total rate than a single herbicide, resulting in less danger to cotton and usually costing less. Lower rates should mean less residues to affect following crops, and this may be their greatest importance.
To assure season -long control, selection of combinations should be based on performance of individual herbicides in the field.
The grower should vary herbicides, rates, times and methods of application from field to field, depending on weeds, soil type, irrigation practices and crop rotations.
Growers experienced with individual herbicides will have an advantage in selecting the best combinations.
Look at the Label
All use of herbicides should be in accordance with restrictions and directions on the manufacturer's label.
Before using the herbicides mentioned in this article, a potential user should consult with his local Extension Service representative for guidance.
Weed Control and Cotton Yield in Herbicide Combinations Test at the
Cotton Research Center in 1964.
Herbicide lb. /A
Date Herbicide trifluralin
6/18 diuron trifluralin
Check -cultivated and handweeded
Check -cultivated lb./A
Yield of seed cotton in pounds per acre
9Es 47de Po4tIS la Neu<
4.d Need ja4 /Veto
Future research in agricultural education will take on a wider scope, accelerated pace, and turn to many new areas of interest. So says Dr. Darrel
S. Metcalfe, director of resident instruction in the U of A College of
Speaking at an international gathering in Paris, France, Director Metcalfe said: "Research (in the future, in agricultural education) will focus on the range and kind of employment opportunities available. They will be assessed, as will be the competencies individuals need to enter and make progress in the new work.
"Questions to be answered will include:
"What are the current and emerging occupations for which vocational and technical programs are or should be available? What are the present and projected numbers of employees in these occupations by job title and other essential strata? What are the skills and knowledge needed for securing, holding, and advancing in these occupations and how are these skills likely to change? How well are we meeting the needs of persons now employed for retraining or continuing education? What are the logical job clusters for training purposes?
"Research," said Dr. Metcalfe, "will focus on people as we find them their origin and abilities, their knowledge, skills, aspirations and motivations. Research will study the implication of these studies in the over -all program of human resource development. Such questions as the following need to be investigated:
How Get Them Started
"(1) What specific steps can be taken to motivate the socioeconomically handicapped youth?
(2) How can programs be best designed to assist youth from the ethnic minorities?
(3) What can be done to motivate the potential dropout to continue in school and to achieve his highest potential?
(4) What can be done to
encourage students to aspire to prepare for levels of employment corn-
44eaS, *Jde'i Scope
mensurate with their abilities and interests?
"( 5) Why do people differ in apti-
tudes, and can these aptitudes be
( 6) How can we prepare rural people for employment and living in an urban environment?
How can we assist students to cope effectively
with career changes
(S) How can we
determine the potential occupational attitudes, abilities, and persistence interests of students?
( 9) How can we identify persons who will benefit from vocational education and types of training that would be most beneficial?
"(10) What psychological factors affect flexibility in anticipating and accepting change in employment situations?
(11) What basic skills are transferable from one occupation to another or which function in clusters?
(12) What psychological adjustments are required of persons when they leave the protective situation offered by the training program and face the competitive working world ?"
We Need More Research
The University of Arizona educator told his European audience that his studies have indicated the need for additional research in several areas of educational resources development and training.
"Under curriculum experimentation and development," said Dr. Metcalfe,
"research to these questions will be undertaken :
(1) What curriculum core content is common to various occupational categories? (2) What curricula are best for new and emerging occupational fields?
(3) What is the relationship between curriculum and the dropout ratio?
"Questions will be asked in instructional methodology and media:
What is the communicative effectiveness of teaching material? (2) How can we identify and compensate for individual differences in learning situations? ( 3) What is the influence of various instructional patterns on skill acquisition and retention? (4) What are the best procedures for evaluating student progress?
(5) What is the optimum mix of theory and practice?
A Call for Trained People
"Personnel must be recruited," he said, "and developed for program organization and administration with specific questions:
(1) What are the sources of personnel appropriate to specific needs?
( 2) What are the critical competencies of successful personnel? (3) What are the methods for forecasting local, regional, and national manpower needs and utilizing these projections in designing and operating vocational programs?
"In the area of vocational guidance and counseling, answers must be found to the following questions: (1)
What are the most effective vocational guidance and counseling procedures?
(2) What are the educational and occupational aspirations of youth? (3)
What is the nature of career patterns?
(4 ) How can placement and follow up of graduates be best handled?
What is the process of occupational choice ?"
Concluded the Arizona educator:
"The facts which govern the behavior of civilized man today are the products of yesterday's research, and the facts of tomorrow will be the product of today's research."
LESS TIME TO PRODUCE
It now takes only 12 man -hours to produce 100 bushels of wheat, compared with
44 man -hours in 1944 and 90 in 1920, according to a just - completed United States
Department of Agriculture study.
Major factors in the rise to a new high in wheat producing efficiency, says USDA, are increased use of fertilizer, and better seeds, methods and machinery.
January- February Page 24
AN EXAMPLE FROM southern Ceylon of the use of aerial photographic interpretation in agricultural Planning.
Photographs were used to map the present use of land in this part of the country. Some of the categories shown are: 2H - homestead garden; 3C - coconut plantations;
4C - shifting cultivation; 4P - paddy or rice fields; 7 - forests. The dam is earth filled and about one mile long.
It holds a tank or reservoir for irrigation water to grow the rice.
By Simon Baker
Almost as soon as the science and art of photography had reached a point where cameras could be used outside of the studio and exposure times for making images were shortened, experimenters began taking pictures from the air.
This happened in the middle 1800's, long before the invention of the airplane.
Cameras were mounted on kites or captive balloons, to be raised to elevations where the resulting photographs were true "bird's eye views."
An early practical use of such photographs was made by Union forces in the
Civil War, when cameras
Dr. Baker is a member of the Department of Geography of The University of Arizona.
However, originally he was "one of our boys," receiving his B.S. and M.S. degrees in the Department of Agronomy of this College of Agriculture.
Currently his teaching includes courses in aerial photographic interpretation and agricultural geography, so he is highly qualified to write the article appearing here.
Progressive Agriculture mounted in captive balloons were used to photograph Confederate positions in Virginia. When the newly developed airplane came into wide military use during World War I, cameras were mounted for photographing the enemy and learning of his strength.
In the years between World War I and World War II both aviation and photography developed to the point where good vertical photographs giving stereographic coverage could be made. During this same period, various agencies of the U. S. government began to use aerial photographs in their work. The Department of Agriculture, the Forest Service, and the
Geological Survey were among the earliest agencies to use aerial photographs.
The widespread and intensive use of such photographs, however, did not begin until World War II and the years following. Military examples of photo interpretation and intelligence spurred civilian use of aerial photographs.
In recent years there have been great advances in the instrumentation and technology for using photographs taken from the air.
Today, aerial photography is coming into its own as a research tool as well as an aid in regional planning and development, topographic mapping, and civil engineering. Agriculture is involved in all of these uses of aerial photography and benefits from them.
In Other Lands
A rather dramatic example of the modern use of aerial photography is the resources inventory survey of the type being carried out in many of the world's developing countries.
The writer participated in such an effort in Ceylon in 1957 and 1958. The government of Ceylon had earmarked a river basin in the south of the island for the construction of a large dam, and the opening of new areas to irrigation by the stored waters of the dam.
Production of food is a very press
(Continued on Next Páge)
Make -It- Yourself Cali Starter
Ration Can Be Better, Cheaper
By Robert W. Gardner
Dairymen can formulate their own calf starter rations, getting nutritional value and palatability - and at less than half the cost of some commercial starters.
To the dairyman who is
raising his own replacement heifers this can be a substantial saving.
In our research we started with the assumption that an acceptable calf starter must satisfy three requirements
-proper nutrients in the right proportion, palatable to the calf so it is readily eaten, and at reasonable cost when figured on basis of calf gains.
In the field of cost, we first turned
Dr. Gardner is a member of the Department of Dairy Science.
Research he describes was done, and is being continued, at the U of A Dairy Research Center in Tucson.
to combinations of locally grown and readily available grains which can be obtained at reasonable cost. We felt that the sooner a calf starts eating large amounts of grain, the earlier it is possible to wean the animal; and secondly, a larger fraction of total daily feed intake can be used for productive purposes in excess of the animal's basic maintenance requirements.
Started at 3 Days
Forty -eight Holstein calves, weighing an average of 92.7 pounds when we took them off their dams at three days of age, were divided into three groups.
One received our "simple" starter ration in mash form, a second group got the same ration formulated as pellets, and the third received a complex pelleted commercial ration.
Cost of the "simple" ration was $70 per ton, compared to $190 per ton for the commercial ration. Ingredients in the "simple" starting ration identical in mash and pellets are listed here:
TABLE 1. "Simple" starter
Trace mineralized salt
Vitamin A ( 30,000 I. U. /gm.)
Ingredients in the more complex commercial starter ration include feeding oat meal, soybean meal, ground yellow corn, dried whole whey, linseed meal, hominy feed, dehydrated alfalfa meal, animal liver and glandular meal, ground limestone
1.0 %, dicalcium phosphate 1.0 %, salt
, brewers dried yeast, ground fenugreek seed, vitamin A supplement, irradiated dried yeast
( source of vitamin D2 ) vitamin B12 supplement, niacin, calcium pantothenate,
(Continued on Next Page)
(Continued from Previous Page) ing problem in Ceylon and other socalled underdeveloped countries. The
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development refused to make the loan necessary to carry out the project because of the insufficiency of information about the river basin. Ceylon was faced with a problem which is all too common around the world - a lack of basic information about areas necessary to plan for their most productive future use.
To collect the kind of information needed about the river basin by means of ground survey techniques would have taken years and been extremely expensive. The food problem of Ceylon and other such countries is too pressing to be solved by the slow, though satisfactory methods of the past.
The solution in Ceylon and many other countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America has been to use teams of specialists trained to work with aerial photographs.
The same set of photographs was used by the geologist, forester, hydraulic engineer, soil surveyor, and geographer. Each specialist was able to extract from the photographs the information he required about the river basin.
Furnishes Important Data
The resulting reconnaissance survey report presented the most comprehensive collection of data and maps ever collected on the study area. The report did not tell the whole story, but it focused attention on the most promising areas for future development, and made possible the most efficient use of ground survey personnel. The whole process of information gathering, planning and development was speeded by years.
Thus, the use of aerial photography is contributing to a solution of the world food problem every day.
Of what practical value is aerial photography to the agriculture of a country like the United States, which has no food problem at present? Put very simply, one of the reasons for the efficiency of U. S. agriculture has been the application of the results of research to the farm. If our agriculture is to continue to prosper it must recognize and use the results of research carried out with the help of ordinary aerial photography now, and with satellite photography in the near future.
It is possible now, using infrared photography, to detect certain leaf diseases in plants before they can be seen on the ground. Surveys of range vegetation can be made more accurately and quickly from aerial photographs than on the ground.
Photographs may be used to make counts of grazing animals as an aid in establishing good range management practices.
Acreages devoted to various crops in a region may be determined very accurately without the necessity of taking a census. Soil mapping and land capability studies are speeded by the use of aerial photography.
Soil erosion may be rapidly mapped on aerial photographs and this can be accomplished more efficiently and at less expense than using ground survey methods. Irrigation works are planned with the help of aerial photographs, while watershed management and snow pack surveys are aided by such photography.
Scientists are only beginning to employ the great potentials of aerial photography.
The coming years should be marked by many startling new uses for aerial photography which will prove very beneficial for agriculture. For the scientist, the expanding use of such photography will provide him with his long- awaited opportunity to bring the world into his laboratory for close examination and research.
riboflavin, anise oil, ethoxyquin preservative ), trace minerals.
Crude protein, not less than
Crude fat, not less than
Crude fiber, not more than
Ash, not more than
Added mineral, not more than .... 4.0%
Moisture, not more than
Because of restrictions of a "closed formula" policy, the amounts of each ingredient in the starter are not available.
The calves were fed and housed individually. The starters and alfalfa hay were offered free choice. We kept records of daily feed weights and calf weights at the start of the trials and weekly thereafter.
For the first three days after birth the calves suckled their dams to gain the advantage of colostrum milk. After this initial time with the cow, milk was fed in addition to the starters and hay according to age and body weight as shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2. Milk feeding plan
Calf Age Whole Milk
(lb. /10 lb.
Weaned by 42 days
(lb. / 10 lb.
' Milk divided into two feedings.
2 Skim milk obtained in liquid form from
University milk processing plant.
The "simple" starter formulated by us and mined by a local feed manufacturer, was preferred by the calves, either as mash or pellets, as shown in the table listing feed consumption, daily
gains, and days required to
reach our target of 200 pound weights.
( Table 3 )
In fact, calves on our simple formula reached that weight eight days before those on the much more expensive commercial starling ration.
Calves on the commercial ration also ate much more hay - probably not because they liked the hay more but liked the starter ration less!
This same preference, as shown in starter acceptance, occurred both before and after weaning at 42 days of age, resulting in small daily weight gain advantages both before and after being weaned ( Table 4 )
When approaching the
200 pound weight, calves were consuming up to six and seven pounds of the "simple" starter ration per day.
An additional bit of information:
We found no advantage in pelleting the simple mix. The calves did selectively consume the molasses coated rolled barley in the mash, leaving large amounts of cottonseed meal and the wheat bran which was difficult for the calves to separate from the meal.
The fact that calves which shoved the cottonseed meal aside did as well as those forced to eat the cottonseed meal, because it
was part of the
pellets, suggests that not all of the protein provided by the cottonseed meal was required, and the amount could be reduced in future formulations to lessen costs and increase palatability. Accordingly, we are currently studying protein requirements on a free choice grain feeding program.
Also, we found no advantage in feeding a combination of plant and animal proteins. In fact, such a mixture seemed less palatable to the animals and was not consumed readily.
Fortunately, these good calf responses were obtained with only a limited amount of milk, as is indicated in Table 5.
TABLE 5. Average total milk consumption
Whole milk Skim Milk
The clincher for the simple ration, in addition to the fact that the calves preferred it and made their best gains on that ration, is comparison of cost.
In Table 6 we show that the simple starter cost between a third and half as much as the commercial mix, and even with the additional cost of hay the simple formulated mixture cost less than half as much as the complex starter ration in raising these Holstein calves to the 200 pound weights.
TABLE 6. Average total feed
and hay required to
raise calves to 200
Simple mash 6.86
TABLE 3. Summary of average feed consumption, days required to reach 200 lbs., and daily gains
Days to reach Average daily
Average starter consumption daily gains
TABLE 4. Weaning weights, average daily feed consumption before and after weaning, and weight gains after weaning.
Average daily starter consumption weights
Average daily gains weaning
Simple starters $70.00 /ton, complex,
2 Hay cost - $30.00/ton.
The work will continue in our effort to find the ration which best represents all three requirements nutritive value, acceptability and low cost.
Investigaciones recientes realizadas en estaciones agrícolas experimentales muy distantes indican que existen factores no identificados presentes en la alfalfa deshidratada que estimulan las funciones del rumen y contribuyen al bienestar del ganado vacuno y del lanar.
En Texas se encontró que la adición de harina de alfalfa deshidratada a la ración del ganado vacuno incerementa el aumento de peso en 15.4% con una disminución del 15.2% en los requisitos alimenticios por unidad de aumento.
Page 27 Progressive Agriculture
A Wish For The New Year
We hope the somewhat jesting
prayer you have seen or read frequently is not sacrilegious, for it seems to us to carry the germ of great common sense. In essence, it pleads for
"strength to do something about those things about which I can do something; the good sense not to attempt those things I cannot affect, and wisdom to discern between the two."
It is tiresomely repetitious to say
"We live in an age of change," but that is true. Change is the most important thing about us, in the world today.
For that very reason we need the great wisdom to discern between changes which are good and those
which endanger the future of our
nation and the world. We are traveling in fast company the company of the whole world and it seems we are usually picking up the check.
In our own lifetime we have seen a change in education, from the time when the son of the immigrant, the farmer and storekeeper was eagerly grateful for the meager educational opportunities offered, to the present day when the most refined, cultural and scientific education in the world is sometimes repudiated by hecklers and dropouts. Realizing that the unappreciative young people are in the minority, we must judge calmly and not emotionally.
In agriculture new techniques and learnings have transformed an entire way of life, one once dominated by the pitchfork and the walking plow.
Agriculture in the U. S. is picking up the tab, as its prodigious output feeds much of the world. In education the teacher and scientist roam the world, serving a global classroom and getting a global viewpoint.
The motives behind all these things are warmly gracious.
We hope they are for the best. In all honesty, we don't know. We hope the alert, smart younger generation will make wise decisions.
If we offer them, humbly, a tiny fragment of advice it is that occasionally they seek to withdraw themselves from this maelstrom of change. That they seek an afternoon in the country, the eye- enriching loveliness of a western sunset, the music of poetry and the poetry of music, and the stimulation of great literature.
John Burnham, Editor
Progressive Agriculture in Arizona
JOE METCALF (right), manager of the Sears -Roebuck store in Tucson, presents $3,000 in checks to officials of the U of A College of Agriculture. The money is for ten $300 scholarships - seven for freshmen in agriculture, one for a sophomore in agriculture, and two for home economics majors.
College of Agriculture officials, left to right, are Dean Harold E. Myers; Dr. Darrel S. Metcalfe, director of Resident Instruction, and
Dr. Ruth C. Hall, director of the School of Home Economics.
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