N pl. XX, No. 3, College of Agriculture, l'iccrsity of

N pl. XX, No. 3, College of Agriculture, l'iccrsity of

Large

Uli t ersities Create

.

.

Lost Students?

--

One error in popular thinking is

the assumption that only in small colleges can a student receive personal attention. This club has been wielded unfairly at larger universities in recent years.

In this University of Arizona. in this

College of Agriculture as a number.

no student is ever -lost'! Or forgotten! Or treated

Our Director of Resident Instruc-

tion, Dr. Darrel

S.

Metcalfe. plans long and earnestly before the fall semester opens. Meetings with advisors are held giving detailed instructions on helping students especially new students

find their was- on this

campus.

When school opens. freshmen and

other new students meet with ad-

visors.

Hear upper classmen

give short informal talks to ease the atmosphere of newness.

Sample remark they will hear is We want you to enjoy your stay here, and you will. But, your first job is to do well in classes for you

So, came here to get an education.

hit the books!

After the first general meetings ad-

\IAl-

21 -22

- Arizona Cattle Feeders' Day: morning session, Animal Science Feedmill and Feedlot,

Casa Grande Highway

Farm; afternoon session will follow lunch at Campbell

Avenue Farm. Tucson.

Gila County Cattle Growers"

Association

Cattle

Sale at

Globe Auction

Sale Yard,

Globe.

JUNE

3- 7 - Annual Town and Country

Life Conference. University of Arizona campus, Tucson.

10 -14 - State 4-H junior Leader Lab

oratory.

S h a d o w Valley

Ranch, Prescott.

-4 -H Citizenship Short

Course. Washington. D.C.

jLTL1

?9-31 - State 4 -H Roundup. University of Arizona campus_ Tuc-

5oi1.

In this issue.

Editorial

Bring Top 8

Clothing Construction

Make Soils

Field Crop Farms

Boyce Thompson Arboretum

DDT in Alfalfa

Arimar Barley

Commercial Vegetables

Extraterrestrial Soils

Outdoor Recreation

Wily- Weed Bermuda

Stew Hens Disappear

Homemakers Meet

Diagnosis & Poultrymen

A Myth!

visors and students confer in private, a personal get- acquainted session.

Director Metcalfe chooses advisors from fields in which the student has an interest.

If a student does poorly in class,

the advisor is informed. He counsels

the boy or girl trying to find the

source of the problem and a remedy for it.

If failure continues parents are notified and invited to talk with the director and advisor.

Students on probation are given every possible help.

Is the load too heavy,? Then drop a course. Make it up next year, or in summer school. Are there too

)Want/ social diversions? Let's ask dad to keep the car at home.

Ironically, many young people find it more difficult to talk openly and freely with their parents than to other adults as our advisors know. Money problems? Rocky Shoals on the sea of romance? Frictions within student grown? Concern about the draft, or a job. cr obligations to family? Our advisors have heard them all and call upon their own youthful memories as well as soothe adult judgment to help the wounds.

Advisors are urged to Hear the student out.

Let him get it off his chest, and a confer-

ence svith an advisee takes prece-

dence over most other duties.

What starts as a student -advisor relationship often grows into a warm personal friendship.

Dividends for

student are mostly assurance of

a sympathetic ear to some one to talk that Someone has a warm inter-

Page

17

18

20

21

10

12

14

16

2

3

4

8

22

24 est and a knowledge needed to be helpful.

The advisor's dividends?

Perhaps he is the first to know when a pretty feminine advisee gets her diamond.

A young rancher remembers his advisor in the College of Agriculture when wedding announcements are sent out. Or there may be a continuing search for advice: My dad wants me to stay on the farm, but because

I majored in entomology this chemical company has offered me .

.

.

What should I do?

The advisor gets a cigar when that

first baby is born.

At homecoming many advisors get their first opportunity_ to admire the toddlers of a new generation, in person, or in billfold photos. Not dividends you can bank. But, richly worthwhile.

The Lost in a large school myth is just that

A MYTH. In our area Darrel S. Metcalfe has made it so.

r.

741,,e.4,

Dean

College of Agriculture and

School of Home Economics

PROGRESSIVE

AGRICULTURE Iti

ARIZONA

MAY - JUNE

1968

Volume XX

Number 3

Published bimonthly by the College of Agriculture, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, Harold

E. Myers, dean.

Entered as second -class matter

March 1, 1949, at the post office at

Tucson, Arizona, under the act of

August 24, 1912.

Second class postage paid at Tucson, Arizona.

Reprinting of articles or use of information in Progressive Agriculture in Arizona, by newspapers and magazines, is permitted, with credit.

Editorial Board Members: Nancy

Bagott,

John Burnham,

C.

Curtis

Cable Jr., W. R. Kneebone, J.

\V.

Stull, and Director G. E. Hull, ex officio.

Over the recent years we note a growing change in home sewing techniques as we observe the better class of ready -to -wear or as recommended in the Couture patterns.

For many of you who sew you have out

-grown the "jiffy" patterns and are choosing

American designers, or foreign Couture patterns. You are now anxious to create something truly distinctive and definitely flattering to your figure, coloring, and personality in style, color and choice of fabric. You shop around for the unusual fabric and you aren't concerned that the garment be cut and finished the same day! You want to take care in constructing this masterpiece as a builder or artist takes pains in executing his work.

The popularity of new and varied fabrics should influence the construction features we choose. Double knit wools and the bonded fabrics offer a challenge over standard woven fabrics although here, too, construction techniques are constantly changing.

INVISIBLE ZIPPERS

For example because knit and bonded fabrics are light in weight but more bulky than standard fabrics, with the exception of heavy wools, velvets, corduroys and velveteen, concealed zippers down the back of dress openings are much more desirable than standard lap zipper closing. In fact it is almost impossible to get

a flat lap closing in these fabrics.

These concealed zippers require a special presser foot which you purchase with your first zipper only. The advantage of this type zipper is that no machine or hand sewing shows on the right side of the fabric. To date, these

zippers are available by three

different manufacturers.

1.

Dawn Sicher, Phoenix, a junior in home economics education is modeling a lightweight, loosely woven, lime -green wool dress which is underlined, left. Above, back view shows concealed zipper, ring collar and self- covered buttons and thread loops.

íl1 at/ -June, 1968

Page 4

Clothing

Construction

Techniques

Are Changing

UNDERLININGS AND INTERFACINGS

With the need for shape -retention with certain fabrics and styles, manufacturers have come to the forefront in making every imaginable type of underlining; one could name at least thirty -four types of woven and fourteen non -woven on the market today in varying weights and fibers.

It's almost impossible to state which to choose for specific purposes since the choice of fabric and pattern dictate this. As a rule to follow the underlining should be the same nature as the outer fabric only lighter weight.

With the suggestions on the pattern envelope, help from sales clerk, and reading labels on the bolts of under linings made

-

a specific choice can be

but it may necessitate shopping around at various stores to secure the exact type and color. Some under linings are made to be washable, dry -

cleanable only, or both. They may

vary from very light -weight to heavy-

* Associate Professor of School of Home

Economics.

Page 5

Progressive Agriculture

has been cut identical to the garment, transfer all marks with

light carbon.

In this way it

is necessary to do only a minimum of marking on the garment fabric. In fact, if you cut the underlining first, use it with all its transfer marks as a pattern for the outer fabric this saves one step as the underlining will be pinned to the wrong side of the fabric.

Baste down the center of all large pieces to hold the two layers together then pin out to all corners and sides having the underlining free of any ease.

Now stay- stitch the two thicknesses together stitching three -eights or one half inch from the seamline toward the cut edge, using matching thread since these stitches are not removed.

Set the machine at 10 to 15 stitches to the inch and reduce the pressure on the presser foot slightly. Do not stitch in a continuous line about the

entire piece but run off and cut the

stitching at each edge then start over again. Leave the hem edge free except for later a running hand stitch can be used when marking hem. Be sure to have the garment fabric down next to the feed dog thus underlining side is up toward you and stay -stitch in the proper direction that is from wide to narrow edge for each piece.

by Elizabeth M. Birong*

weight, crisp to soft, and may be

woven, woven with press -on qualities, non -woven of either press -on or not quality. Of all of these the non -woven need to be chosen very carefully for

they have a tendency to make the garment appear too stiff if used as

only an interfacing in certain areas such as collars, lapels and garment fronts.

They have a tendency

to

"break" in unbecoming lines when the body is in motion. They do serve certain purposes very well. For example

--

the non -wovens make excellent interfacings for backing for linings at

the waistlines of skirts that do not

have waistbands and for reinforcing small areas

that may fray

readily

when stitched and slashed such as

pockets, buttonholes, and corners for insets using either the press -ons or plain. The press -ons are excellent for belts and waistbands and some cuffs.

It is very wise to pre -shrink under linings and all findings such as tapes and zippers even if the garment is to be dry- cleaned.

Soak in luke -warm or hot water for at least an hour let drip -dry and press.

Underlinings can be dry -cleaned if desired.

In applying the underlining, which

LININGS AND SLIP -LININGS

Your garment may call for a lining in addition to the underlining, or you may choose to add the lining.

This is especially true for dry- cleanable garments or fabrics that fray but are washable. For the latter the lining is apt to be a pre- shrunk batiste.

For the drycleanable fabrics sheath linings of rayon /silk blend or China silk are desirable; some garments need the body of taffeta.

To reduce the bulk of a self-fabric facing at the neckline and /or armhole

of a garment the lining can be cut with the same neckline as the gar-

ment and by interfacing the neckline

on the underside of the lining can

well serve as a slip- lining. Here the lining should match the color of the

garment. Use the facing pattern to

cut the interfacings which should be of a firm, somewhat crisp fabric. After

the lining has been assembled but

before joining it to the garment baste the interfacing to the inside neckline

of the lining. This could be stay

-

stitched at both the neckline edge

and again near the outer circle to prevent it from curling up when the garment is cleaned. This technique can be used for a garment with or with-

out a collar but should not be used

( Turn to page 6. )

1.

Model of a single silicon- oxygen tetrahedron.

The per spective, expanded view, left, and cutaway view, right.

Three of the oxygen atoms lie in a single plane while the fourth extends above this plane.

The

Making

of

Soils by Donald E. Post'

2.

Twelve silicon -oxygen tetrahedrons joined together to illustrate the sheet -like structure of rnica.

This model illustrates the way in which the silicon atoms ( darkened spheres ) share the oxygen atoms ( larger spheres ) lying in the horizontal plane.

Understanding the nature, evolution, and development of soils, and changes which take place with time, are necessary to explain certain soil -plant -water reactions.

This ultimately helps in the development of optimum methods of soil treatment and productive use of soils for the cultivation of crops.

Trained soil scientists working in the United States currently recognize over 8000 different kinds of soils.

These are called soil series and are usually named after a geographical landmark where they were first discovered and mapped. Three examples of soils found in Arizona are the Gila soil, named after the Gila River, and the Casa

Grande and Springerville soils named after their respective Arizona towns.

About 200 soil series are found in Arizona. Each of these soils have significantly different characteristics, important enough to affect their management and productivity.

What makes these soils different?

A soil as it exists today any place on the face of the earth is the result of five factors of soil formation: climate, living organisms, parent material, topography, and time.

If any two soils have different characteristics, it was because one or more of these five factors varied. Let's begin at the beginning.

Soils are formed from the rock surface of the earth by the process of weathering. This weathering of rock takes two principal forms, physical and chemical.

Physical weathering includes such processes as the action of water, as it freezes and melts, in cracking and chipping rock and breaking it into finer particles, thermal fracturing due to temperature changes, and the action of growing plants as their roots exert pressure and cause splits and breaks in the rocks of the earth's surface.

Chemical weathering encompasses all those changes of the rocks which result from chemical activity, principally in the presence of water and the various components of the atmosphere. One example of chemical weathering is the chemical modification of potassium feldspar minerals to clay and silica. Atmospheric carbon dioxide unites with water to form carbonic acid. The dilute solution of

* Assistant

Professor of Agricultural Chemistry and Soils.

Maly -June, 1968

Page 5

carbonic acid to which these feldspars are exposed in rain and soil water causes a chemical reaction wnich removes the potassium from the rock to form potassium carbonate, while the dissolved aluminum reacts with some of the dissolved silica to form clay minerals.

Physical weathering also plays a significant role in chemical weathering of this sort, since the finer the particles into which the feldspar is broken by various mechanical means, the greater the surface area available for chemical weathering processes and the more rapid the chemical reaction. For various types of rock, of course, the kind

and the rate of weathering undergone varies greatly.

Some rocks decompose with relative rapidity while others are most resistant to weathering.

It is in the process of

weathering, however, along with the accumulation of

organic debris, which is responsible for the genesis and growth of the coating of soil on the land surfaces of our earth.

In referring again to the five factors of soil formation, climate and living organisms are referred to as the active factors of soil formation. They supply the energy to the weathering" system.

Parent material, topography, and time are passive factors. Although the three passive factors do exert a great influence on the type of soil, it is a matter of chance how these factors combine in nature.

Weathering of rocks is important because ions are released and subsequently may be utilized by plants, but variable weathering conditions produce different types of minerals.

These different minerals have characteristics which greatly affect future fertility, management, and engineering properties of soils where they are found. This is especially true for the very small colloidal particles in soils.

Common minerals found in igneous rocks are the feldspars and micas. When subjected to chemical weathering, they produce minerals belonging to the clay min-

eral group. There are a great number of specific clay

minerals, but most of them fall into one of three principal classes, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite or mica. These clays are one or another form of oxides of silica. In addition, montmorillonite and mica and related minerals contain various amounts of magnesium, aluminum, iron and bound water.

The word "illite" is a term to describe clay -size mica

which had been weathered appreciably and could not

be readily characterized.

The feldspars and mica ( illite) are common mineral constituents of the igneous rocks found in Arizona and are very important parent minerals in Arizona soil clay formation. The micas are so called because of their peculiar glistening quality (in Latin this means "to shine ") .

The micas, in general, tend to be constructed in a sheet -like pattern, so that thin layers may easily be peeled off. The sheets of the various micas are joined in different fashion, but they all share this layering characteristic. The molecular basis for the layered structure of mica is the relationship between the silica atom and the oxygen atoms of the compound. Silicon has a valence of four, and so can be surrounded by four oxygen atoms. Three of the four oxygen atoms of this structure, called a tetrahedron, can

lie in a single plane while the

fourth extends above or below this plane.

( See Figure 1) The three oxygens in the common plane are shared by other silicon atoms while

the silicon atom has to itself the single oxygen which

Page 9

Progressive Agriculture

3.

Structural hedron arrangement.

model

The of mica white showing balls show the the sium ions in openings in the surface of the silicate.

tetrahedron -octaposition of potasextends above or below this plane.

( See Figure 2)

1 his

planar arrangment of the tetrahedra accounts for the

sheet -like structure of the micas. The single free oxygen atom of each tetrahedron is bonded with one or another metallic ion in an octahedron arrangement ( six oxygens surrounding the metallic cation)

, the role of which is to hold the sheets of mica together. In some micas this metal may be aluminum, in others, iron or magnesium. The double sheets bonded to each other by metallic ions are, in turn, bonded to other double sheets by potassium ions.

Since the potassium bonds are the weakest, the cleavage of mica sheets normally takes place along the potassium bond layer. The third figure represents a mica particle.

The structure of micas might be likened to a Chinese checker board - the marbles representing the potassium ions. The surface of a mica flake 2 x 1 micron in size ( a micron equals .000039 inches ) contains as many potassium

ions as a Chinese checker board the size of a football

field. The thickness of a single mica sheet is such that

25,000,000 of these would be required to make a stack 1 inch in height.

An understanding of the basic crystal structure of the clay minerals is necessary to fully understand why the

Springerville soil shrinks and swells, why the Gila soil has an abundance of potassium available for plants, or perhaps

"fixes" ammonia when applied as a fertilizer on cotton, and what type of management is best to use on the saline

Casa Grande soil. What basically causes these phenomena will be considered in later articles.

Cost and Returns

.. .

Field Crop Farms in Sulphur Skirings Valley

by V

.

Wilson Lee and Robert A.

oung*

This article reports the findings of a recently completed study of costs and returns for field crop farms in the Sulphur Springs Valley of southeastern Arizona.

Field crops, primarily grain sorghum, cotton and alfalfa, are grown under irrigation on some 120,000 acres in the Valley. The higher altitude ( about 4,000 feet) and shorter growing season lead to somewhat different crop yields than are observed elsewhere in Arizona. Much of this acreage is recently developed; it is estimated that over

50,000 acres of desert land have been brought into production tions )

( primarily on specialized grain sorghum operasince 1962.

Irrigation water comes from underground sources. The pumpage of water has greatly exceeded the small natural recharge, so the water table has been observed to be falling steadily, with attendant higher water costs. This trend appears to have accelerated following the recent expansion in irrigated land.

The basis for the estimates of costs and returns was a field survey of 58 farm operators in the Valley. Two types of farms were studied: established field crop farms whose crops typically include cotton, alfalfa and sorghum, and the newly developed farms which specialize in the production of a single crop, grain sorghum. The established farms were divided into three groups based on total acres: Group I, 30 -160 acres, Group II, 161 -480 acres, and Group III, more than 480 acres. These groups had, respectively, an average of 86, 288, and 891 acres. The

Former graduate Research Assistant and Associate Professor of

Department of Agricultural Economics.

"V. Wilson Lee, Economic Factors Affecting the Long Term Outlook for Irrigated Fanning in the Sulphur Springs Valley, Arizona,

Thesis for M. S. degree, University of Arizona, 1967.

new farms averaged 696 acres each.

Costs and returns were computed on the basis of price conditions and government programs in effect in 1966. In particular, cotton income and acreage used here reflect the assumption of diversion of 25 percent of the cotton allotment.

Larger farms achieve higher unit returns for a number of reasons. Most important are the spreading of fixed or overhead costs over a larger volume of output and the more effective and efficient performance of farm operations due to specialization in labor and management.

These points are well illustrated by the findings of this study.

Value of types of assets invested in the farm business for each class of farm are shown in Table 1. The invest-

ment per acre in machinery and equipment

( tractors, harvesters, field equipment) is quite striking when compared for different sizes of farms. The average value

( calculated by taking one -half the 1966 new cost of each item ) of machinery and equipment per acre farmed on the small farm was found to be $230, as compared with only

$105 for the Size II farms and $77 for the Size III farms.

This difference was slightly offset by an opposite tendency in the value of investment in irrigation equipment, which ranged from $120 per acre for the small group, to about $160 per acre in the large farm group. This difference is a reflection of the fact that the larger farms are located in areas where water is farther from the surface, requiring relatively larger investments in wells and pumping equipment.

Improved management practices on the larger farms

May-lime, 1968

Page 10

Table 1 - Average Value of Investment by Class of Farm, Sulphur Springs Valley, 1966.

Item

Power Units

Field Equipment

Irrigation Equipment

Trucks and Misc.

Landa

Total

Size I

( 86 acres)

13,660

6,070

10,580

1,950

18,490

50,750

Established Farms

Size II

(288 acres)

18,540

11,470

38,480

7,010

61,920

137,420

Size III

( 891 acres)

$

45,800

23,340

140,200

10,680

191,570

411,590 a Land, excluding irrigation improvements shown elsewhere, is valued at $215 per acre.

New Farms

( 696 acres)

$

10,680

4,290

65,010

3,420

149,640

233,040 apparently resulted in more favorable crop yields. The small ( Size I) farmers typically reported yields 20-25% below those for the larger farms for all crops.

The newly established sorghum specialty farms present a somewhat different case. The specialized nature of the operations permit a very minimal average investment in tractors and field equipment, amounting to just over $20 per acre farmed. These farmers typically relied on custom harvest, so their only machinery investment was in two medium size tractors, and a few items of tillage, planting and cultivating equipment. In contrast, the value of the equipment inventory of the typical Size III diversified farm, with about one -third more acres, was more than crop sales and government payments. Gross expenses are divided into Operating Costs ( seed, fertilizer, labor, water etc. ) and Cash Overhead Costs ( taxes, insurance, depreciation)

.

The balance, Return to Management and Investment, must cover interest charges and, if necessary, payments on principle, before any remainder is available for family income. In order to calculate return on investment, it is customary to deduct a charge for the coordinating and supervisory activities of the manager.

The last two rows of Table 2 graphically illustrate the now familiar plight of the smaller farmer. Under 1966 conditions, the sales of the typical Size I farm failed to even cover out -of- pocket expenses, let alone providing a

Table 2. - Costs and Returns by Class of Farm, Sulphur Springs Valley, 1966 Prices.

Item

II

I

III

IV

V

VI

Gross Sales

Gross Expenses

Operating Costs

Cash Overhead Costs

Total

Return to Management and Investment

Management Charges ( 5 Percent of Gross Income )

Return to Investment

Percent Return on Average Investment

Size I

$ 9,270

7,280

4,740

12,020

- 2,750

460

- 3,210

Established Farms

Size II

$35,690

21,940

10,250

32,190

3,500

1,780

1,720

1.3

Size III

$106,200

56,560

30,160

86,720

19,480

5,310

14,170

3.4

New Farms

$87,970

44,740

10,630

55,370

32,600

4,400

28,200

12.1

0, four times as large. It included six wheel tractors and one tracklayer, a cotton harvester and a grain combine, as well as a wider variety of field equipment. The new specialty grain farmers are now operating their machinery very intensively, lowering overhead at the sacrifice of some flexibility.

It would not be surprising to see them with more equipment after a few more years in business.

The specialty sorghum farms also have less pumping capacity per acre, presumably since they do not face the heavier water demands from cotton and alfalfa. This and the fact that they are presently pumping from lesser depths accounts for their lower investment in irrigation facilities.

The results of these differences in costs and yields on net income are gust-rated in Table 2. Gross sales include

Page 11

Progressive Agriculture surplus for mortgage repayments or family living expenses.

( Labor is charged as a cash operating expense.

If the

operator and his family perform such labor, this amount is available for family living expense.) Larger size and improved management will be necessary for economic survival of farmers now operating on these smaller acreages. The situation of the specialty sorghum farms suggests a higher net income alternative. If continued effective management can preserve the favorable yields and low overhead costs, large -scale specialized sorghum production can be a very profitable venture in the Sulphur

Springs Valley. These figures explain the recent extensive reclamation of desert lands for this purpose, although with no supplementary source of inexpensive water in sight, the time span for which these favorable conditions will be available appears to be limited.

A4

Boyce Thom

p

so

For a beautifully scenic trip through our thanks to the vision of one man and the

That man was William Boyce Thompso wealth

...

large in vision.

The university is the University of arboretum.

Thompson's obsession was that man ha world's flora and fauna in the same way sources.

It was for this reason he organiz our own Southwestern Arboretum in 1920

Joseph Thompson, Jr., nephew of the

1951 to 1965.

At this time the University acre Desert Biological Station devoted to

On these pages are a few pictures

At the left from top to bottom are: a ge drop, a shaded garden walk, and a richly ductions of plant life.

Above you see the Acacia Abyssinica below left, shows a closeup of a variety of a six -inch seedling by W. Boyce Thompson.

At the right from top is another path interior of the greenhouse cactus room.

This beautiful site is situated betwe, highways U.S. 60 and 70.

Take the trip. It's worth it.

vA

*aft

CHKXEP._

NIZC?

west

Arboretum

>mpson Southwestern Arboretum we owe

Durces of a great university.

who was large in stature

.

.

.

large in ias been maintaining this beautiful desert

I, catalogued and learned to utilize the

4ineers had done with Earth's mineral re-

Lsiences Institute in New York State and nder was in charge of the gardens from iuired the gardens as a nucleus of a 1,400 ducation.

w sights to be seen and photographed.

he arboretum with a mountainous back

-

-"way lined with native and foreign intro-

;ht from Africa and introduced to Arizona;

It a saguaro which was planted in 1929 as he gardens, an Aloe- lined -walk, and the

1 Apache Junction on the South side of

Profile of a Problem

.. .

D D T in Alfalfa by George W. Ware'

DDT, boon or bane? That is the

question. Among all modern -day insecticides DDT is undoubtedly the best known. Loved by millions and despised by thousands, it has become the insecticide around which more words have been written and more

research conducted than any com-

pound known.

It has become literally a byword in insect control recommendations and "scare articles."

And from all of this arises some of the confusion that prevails over

DDT's complex position in Arizona's agriculture.

The fertile Salt River Valley has a mixed agriculture consisting mostly of cotton, alfalfa, citrus and vegetables.

With cotton and alfalfa grown intermixed, resembling a patchwork quilt in almost equal acreages, the appearance of DDT in alfalfa following cotton insect control should come as no surprise.

DDT is probably the most eco-

nomical insecticide manufactured, has been used in greatest quantity of all insecticides, and has saved millions of lives in all nations throughout the world. No insecticide has a safer record.

There is just one catch! DDT has an extremely detrimental characteristic - in most instances, the longest residual life of any insecticide in crops, in soils, in man, and in ani-

* Head of Department of Entomology.

mal tissues such as the cow. In the lactating animal it is slowly released and excreted in the milk as DDT and a metabolite, DDE.

No medical evidence has ever been presented which would indicate that parts per million ( ppm ) dietary levels of DDT are in any way harmful to man. On the other hand, it has also not been conclusively demonstrated that such ppm residues are not harmful to man when exposed over many genera tions.

DDT is permitted in practically all fruits and vegetables at 7 ppm, and in the fat of beef, mutton and pork, also at 7 ppm. The reason for the very

low level permitted in milk

( 0.05

ppm) is that milk and its many prod-

ucts constitute the primary dietary

resource for infants, the aged and infirm.

DDT's extremely long residual life has resulted in a somewhat complex problem in forage crops in Maricopa

County.

Since DDT residues in alfalfa hay and green chop were not new problems, and several features were still unexplained regarding the appearance of DDT in sometimes remote fields, a set of experiments was conducted which would help explain

the how, when and where of

these residues in alfalfa.

Consecutive samplings were made in alfalfa fields along Baseline

Road in Maricopa County. The samplings from 12 fields throughout

1967 and into 1968, analyzed by gas chromatography, produced very interesting data. Green alfalfa samples from five harvest periods, March, May, August,

November and February, showed the

highest residues in August (0.40

ppm) and lowest in May ( 0.03 ppm)

.

The August high coincided with the agricultural use of DDT in that area, while the May low is in the relatively insecticide -free period.

This is also the time of most rapid plant growth and thus short exposure.

During the inactive insecticide season, March -May, the leaves contained more than twice ( 0.05 ppm) the DDT residuces of the stems

( 0.02 ppm), which is closely correlated with leaf surface area. Removal of the plant waxes from alfalfa at these same periods showed that about 23% of the total DDT was wax -associated.

But it also pointed out that most of the residue was tied up in plant tissues

( 77% )

.

Because wax makes up less

than 0.5% of the weight of green

alfalfa, the residue in ppm is higher

than in any other part of the plant

or soil.

In the March sampling, soil, roots and all above- ground plant parts were also examined. Roots contained the highest residue ( 0.97

ppm ), followed by soil

( 0.86 ppm )

, then a b o v eground parts

( 0.07 ppm) and finally

May- June, 1968

Page 14

the harvestable alfalfa

( 0.04 ppm)

.

Because the roots held such surprisingly high levels, the roots and soil were examined in detail. The outside or epidermal layer of the roots was removed and analyzed separately from the remainder or cortex of the root.

The epidermis had a general level of 4.5 ppm DDT -DDE while the cortex contained only 0.75 ppm. This suggests that the soil residue becomes attached to the root surfaces with very little actually penetrating to the interior.

DDT is metabolized to DDE in both animals and

plants, and on analysis of most tissues and soil, both products are found. During March -May, when no DDT was being used in agriculture, the residue in soil, roots, alfalfa, leaves and waxes was composed mostly of the metabolite

DDE. Here the roots had the highest level of about 85%

DDE. However, in November, shortly after agricultural insecticide applications had subsided, the residue was composed mainly of DDT, or about 58% in soil and 70%

in alfalfa. The root picture had not changed from the

March -May period.

In the November study the top 11 inch of soils was separated from the general 6 -inch samples and analyzed separately. Generally the 1/4" crust contained about 1.6

ppm while the lower 6 inches contained 1.4 ppm. Assuming that the top 6 -inch soil layer of an acre weighs 2,000,-

000 pounds, these alfalfa fields contained in the order of

3 pounds per acre of DDT and DDE combined.

Milk producers and alfalfa growers have questioned the trans- location of DDT from the soil into the aboveground portions of alfalfa. In attempting to answer this, radioactive DDT was injected into the root zone of potted alfalfa followed by periodic hay cuttings. The alfalfa was then extracted with solvents and the radioactivity measured by an extremely sensitive method, liquid scintillation.

In seven cuttings so far, no radioactivity of any

significance has been detected in the hay. This is very strong and convincing evidence that DDT is probably not moved from the soil through the roots to the green alfalfa.

Then how does the residue get into the alfalfa during the winter months? The Southwest is known for its wind, blowing dust, and "dust devils ". With 3 pounds of DDT and DDE per acre in the topsoil of Salt River Valey alfalfa fields, this alone could serve as a major residue source by being absorbed into the plant waxes from dust deposits.

Another, but unconfirmed, possibility is in the peculiar high -level air inversions which plague the Phoenix area in the form of smog and appear to captivate all aerial borne material from automobile exhaust gases to soil particles.

These high -level inversions, or layering of cool air, occur in all seasons over the valley and are an essential ingredient for smog conditions, which also occur in all seasons.

It appears then, from what is known about the wide distribution of DDT and DDE, that alfalfa grown in the

Salt River Valley area will probably bear detectable residues of DDT and DDE for several years to come, if from nothing else than the present soil levels.

In summary, DDT and DDE residues in alfalfa fields along Baseline Road, Maricopa County, Arizona, were found in the following order, from greatest to least: Wax, root epidermis, top 1/4-inch soil, 6 -inch soil, whole root, root cortex, leaves, alfalfa and stems.

The residues are acquired directly from drift of agricultural insecticides and indirectly from wind -blown contaminated soil rather than by translocation through the roots.

Page 15

1.

Insecticide residues on stored feeds may result from the direct drift of applications on nearby crops.

2.

Another source of forage contamination is from wind -blown lust bearing DDT and DDE.

3.

Residues also occur on green forage from application

Progressive Agriculture insecticides on adjacent crops.

of

1.

Arimar barley, right is shorter and less likely to lodge than

Arivat barley, left.

2.

Heads of Arimar barley showing the long, rough awns,

High Yields, Good Quality

.. .

Arizona's Arimar Barley

by A. D. Day, R. K. Thompson and F. M. Carasso*

Arimar' barley (Hordeum volgare

L. emend Lam. ), C.I. 13626, is a new feed barley for Arizona.

It was re-

leased in 1968 by the Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station. Arimar is a six-row, spring barley that originated from the cross `California Mariout' x

`Arivat' made by A. D. Day at Tucson,

Arizona in 1954.

The original plant was selected in 1959 and identified as

Arizona 5402 -6.

HIGH YIELDS OF GOOD QUALITY GRAIN

Yield tests were conducted at Mar ana, Mesa,

Safford, Tucson, and

Yuma, Arizona by the authors. In 17 replicated yield tests, grown from

1961 through 1967, Arimar produced an average of 7 percent more grain than Arivat ( Table 1 )

.

In these tests

Arimar produced grain that weighed

two pounds per bushel more than

grain from Arivat

( Table 1 )

.

The high bushel weight of Arimar should make it a popular barley for livestock feeding operations in Arizona.

* Agronomist, Research Associate and Research Assistant in the Department of

Agronomy, respectively.

LESS LIKELY TO LODGE

Since Arimar is three to five inches shorter and four to five days earlier than Arivat it is less likely to lodge when grown under irrigation and high fertility ( Figure 1 )

.

Table 1.

Arimar has rough awns ( Figure 2) and white seed.

It suggested cultural practices for Arimar are similar to those recommended for Arivat ( see Bulletin A -15, Barley in Arizona, Agricultural Experiment

Station and Cooperative Extension

Service.

Available from Your local county Extension office.)

Average grain yields and bushel weights for Arimar and Arivat barley grown in 17 replicated yield tests at Marana, Mesa, Safford, Tucson, and Yuma,

Arizona from 1961 through 1967.

Variety

Arimar

Arivat

Grain yield

Pounds per acre % of Arivat

5148

4810 is resistant to shattering at maturity.

Forage yields from Arimar are comparable to those from Arivat.

ADAPTATION AND CULTURAL PRACTICES

Arimar is adapted to the irrigated areas of Arizona and to other areas

of the southwest where Arivat and

California Mariout

are grown. The

107

100

Bushel weight in pounds

50

48

Breeder seed will be maintained by the Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station.

Foundation seed may be obtained through the Arizona Crop

Improvement Association, D e p a r tment of Agronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721.

May -June, 1968

Page 16

Agricultural Agent in Pima County, Jim Armstrong, is inspecting cucumbers in an experimental plot at the Marana Farm, north of Tucson.

This Agricultural Experiment Station farm was used to grow cucumbers, chili peppers, squash, sweet corn and pinto beans.

Many varieties of each were grown in the test program.

Armstrong points out after this experience that even though the crops can be grown successfully there are many other factors which determine a successful operation in commercial vegetables.

County Agent Looks at

.. .

Page 17

Vegetable Production

by J. F. Armstrong

Reduced cotton acreage, due primarily to government programs, and declining net farm income have become serious problems for Pima County agricultural producers.

There is an urgent need for alternative high -

value per acre crops to bolster the

agricultural economy.

Vegetables are potential high -value per acre crops that might possibly fill this need. Little or no data for local production of many vegetable crops is available.

In 1966 the Pima County Extension

Office began a program to generate information under local conditions.

Working closely with Dr. Norman

Oebker, Extension Vegetable Specialist and the Horticulture Department, several test plantings were established on the University

Marana

Fann.

Selections for the test plantings were sweet corn, three types of summer squash, peppers

( bell and chili)

, three varieties of watermelons, bush beans and several varieties of both tomatoes and cucumbers. Two separate plantings on March 1 and March

Progressive Agriculture

21 were made.

The experience from this test provided more information on what not to do rather than on what to do. For example,

it became most apparent

that timeliness of insect control was very critical. Applying insecticide for

corn earworm one or two days too

late was equivalent to no control at all.

The Zucchini and Yellow Crook necked squash produced at very high rates with minimum care.

It was recognized however, that the market for

squash was very limited thus pro-

duction of any sizeable quality would not be feasible.

On August 10, 1966 a planting of pinto beans was established comparing two varieties, San Juan Select and

Idaho III. Yields were good and the crop was fully matured by November

1.

Only three irrigations were used in obtaining this production.

The low cost of production, satisfactory yields, and short growing season required, indicate that some potential production may be warranted.

In early 1967, sources for summer planted

late fall or winter har-

vested potato supply

were being

sought. To examine the feasibility of producing summer planted ( June or

July )

potatoes to meet this need a test was established in July on the

Tom Clark Farm, South of Tucson.

The test was abandoned in August

because of poor stand.

Soil temperatures were too high to promote good stand establishment.

It was concluded that summer potato production in

Pima County was not feasible nor practical because of the high

soil temperature.

Potatoes perform best when soil temperatures do not exceed

70 degrees F.

Recently interest was expressed in producing onions locally for dehydration.

Plans for test plantings on the arana Farm are currently in progress. These tests would compare date and rate of planting, various adaptable varieties and their yield potential.

Experience to this point has yielded the following observations:

Ability to produce an econom-

-

ic crop does not necessarily guarantee success. Markets and marketing are major hurdles which must be considered.

Vegetable crops require high amounts of a scarce resource, hand labor.

The proper timing of most cultural practices is extremely critical.

In most cases specialized equipment is necessary for successful production.

Price fluctuations from year to year do not lend themselves to stable incomes.

* Agricultural Agent in Pima County Extension Service.

A desert laboratory? Who would want such a thing?

Isn't a desert just a barren wasteland where very little grows and few animals call home? Many might believe this. However, to Roy Cameron and others like him in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory ( JPL ), a desert is a storehouse of information.

and equipment.

It's a proving ground for new ideas

Since 1961 the JPL in conjunction with the National well known and seemingly harsh desert, he was totally unprepared for Atacama. Never did he expect such a barren salt desert ( Figure

1)

.

In Atacama, the annual humidity index is quite low.

The normal leaching rainfall is zero because the humid season is non- existent. In 1964, precipitation at the University of Antofagasta was recorded as 1 mm. In 1962, it rained 12 times for a total of 5 mm. There are some sections of the desert that have never recorded any rain, and for this reason it is sometimes termed as an "absolute"

Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA) has been collecting samples from arid and semi -arid regions.

At present there are approximately 200 samples from 100 sites that comprise the Desert Soil Collection. Most of the samples came from areas of Mexico, Argentina, Chile,

Baja California, Egypt and California. The purpose of collecting these soils is to furnish samples for various studies on soil -microorganism interrelationships in JPL's desert.

The desert covers 140,000 sq. mi. at an elevation from less than 1000 to more than 20,000 feet. As a result of its aridness, the desert is a vast collection of Borax and "dry" lakes. Until 1928, almost 100% of this region's economy came from its extensive nitrate deposits. The mining of

Desert I\-licroflora Program.

Why all the interest in deserts? Surely a sand dune would hold little economic value for anyone but a desert rat.

Perhaps the ideas behind all these studies are not entirely understood at first.

However, the answer lies in man's eternal dream to travel other planets.

More to specifically the answer is in this quotation by Cameron

who states that "Given the

same soil forming factors, the same kind of soil

will be

formed, whether it occurs on this planet or in some extraterrestrial environment." these deposits furnished the world with its primary source of nitrogen fertilizers. With the advent of synthetic fertilizers this industry became defunct.

Since that time, the diggings have been reanalyzed and great quantities

Extraterrestrial Soil Science

Knowing that very harsh

conditions exist on other planets of our solar system, sci-

entists believe that some

earth deserts closely resemble these conditions. Through the use of the Desert Soil Collection, a comparison of the unknown with the known soils and soil -like materials can be made. When the idea of the

Voyager landing on Mars becomes a reality, NASA will be prepared for its interpretation of the findings.

by James T. Conway'

of copper rich ore have been discovered. This discovery has placed Chile as the number one exporter of copper in the world.

Eventually man will be able to more closely study the conditions of other planets. At that time, the background work of the Desert Soil Collection will become more valuable.

It is this collection that will be the first step in extraterrestrial soil science and astropedology.

As mentioned before, science believes that some earth deserts resemble conditions on the planet Mars.

However, there is one desert that comes the closest to being like those found on Mars. This is the Atacama desert located in northern Chile just south of the Peruvian

Andes. NASA has become extremely interested in this desert. They hope to test some of the ideas and equip-

ment that they plan to use for the Voyager landing in

the Atacama desert first.

So far, of all the deserts tested, Atacama offers the greatest challenge.

It is often thought of as

a desert's desert. Although Roy Cameron has been to almost every

Geologically the desert is extremely old.

However, because of the lack of weathering factors, the soils themselves are termed as very young. One of the most distinctive peculiarities of the desert is its passiveness.

It initiates no change, but once it is altered, that change is eternally recorded on the deserts face. Long abandoned trails remain as they were a half a century ago when commerce among the small merchants in Peru, Bolivia, and Chile flourished in this northern region.

Microbial decomposition

on the desert is

virtually non -existent.

The trails are scattered with unfortunate pack animals who became lost and wandered into the desert to die. Their carcasses have exhibited very little change, except for some drying from the wind and sun.

Even in the Inca burial grounds at Indio Muerto, the skin of the deceased can still be found, after more than 500 years.

* Conway has graduated from the University of Arizona after being trained in Agricultural Chemistry and Soils.

While a UA student he submitted this essay to a national contest sponsored by the American Society of Agronomy.

He now is doing advanced work at

Colorado State University.

In comparing the microbial activity of Atacama with other soils, the observer is often shocked. Where a typical

May -June, 1968

Page 18

wA

1.

Typical scene from the barren portions of Atacama Desert in northern Chile, South of the Peruvian Andes.

Most soil samples came from areas of Mexico including Baja California, Argentina,

Chile, Egypt and California.

2.

At another location in the Atacama Desert these plant species presenting another contrast to the barren area in Figure 1.

Areas as these were studied because scientists expect to find such conditions on Mars.

) garden would contain four million aerobes ( organisms require oxygen ) per gram of soil in the first inch of soil, and a caliche desert soil ( Figure 2) would contain only

135 per gram, there are only 23 aerobes per gram in the

Atacama desert. A quick glance at table 1 shows that a comparison of anaerobes ( those organisms not requiring oxygen ), fungi, and algae is even more appalling.

Perhaps some of the low numbers are due to poor techniques in detection. Many of the organisms encountered in Atacama, although somewhat similar to known microbial species, have not been pin pointed in their classification.

Because of this difference in physiology from the better known microbes, the growing media used in detection is not as satisfactory as it should be. Thus there is some doubt as to the actual numbers of organisms in the soil.

Sampling is also a problem. When

it is done by hand, there would be

little doubt as to its precision. However, when a machine, thousands of miles away from its controls is doing the sampling, problems immediately arise.

have been found in the Gulliver ( Figure 3) .

The answer was thought to

It worked on the principle of

dragging a sticky string across the surface and then analyzing the soil

that had adhered to the string. Then it met Atacama, and there was a sudden realization that the possibility of dragging several strings across one area and never encountering any microbial life was not too remote.

With a great need for a perfected sampler, is

there any wonder that such an avid interest should be di-

rected to this "absolute" desert as a proving ground for new equipment.

Is there life on Mars? Perhaps the

Voyager will answer that

.

.

.

and

Atacama will lead the way.

Paue 19

Progressive Agriculture

Table 1- Number of organisms /g of soil in the surface

Atacama inch of selected soils.

Aerobes

(Bact. &

Actino )

Typical Caliche Desert

135

11.5

Anaerobes Fungi Algae

Typical Garden Soils

9.8x106

1.9x106

106

.5

1.2x105

30

1.7

2.5x104

100

0

3.

This illustrates the use of Gulliver.

left hand corner.

It projects a sticky string onto the desert.

As it is reeled in it collects samples of the soil.

The sticky string can be seen starting in lower

Recent Trends

Outdoor Recreation

by David A. King*

.

.

.

A recent publication by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation' ( BOR ) makes it possible for the first time to compare national outdoor recreation participation at two points in time, 1960 and 1965.

The data for 1960 were

gathered for the Outdoor Recreation

Resources Review Commission

( ORRRC ) while those for 1965 were gathered for the BOR's use in developing a national recreation plan.

Outdoor recreation participation

data showing increases in participation are often cited to show that the

"demand" for outdoor recreation activities, facilities, and resources has increased or shifted. This is implied in this BOR report.

However, recreation participation changes can be the result of changes in demand and /or the supply of facilities. The BOR report does not provide information on changes in the quantities of various facilities over the

five year period. Nor can it be as-

sumed the quantities of various types of facilities were in the same relative proportions in 1965 as in 1960. Thus, it is impossible to ascribe these participation changes to shifts in either demand or supply.

A great deal of caution is necessary in interpreting and evaluating the report. The following attempt at an interpretation will illustrate the problem while providing wider circulation

of some of the results of the 1965

survey.

Proportion Participating

There has been a rather startling

change in the percent of the population participating in the Walking for

Pleasure activity. The percent of the population ( 12 years and older) participating in this activity has increased o Associate Professor of Wildland Recreation in Department of Watershed Management.

Department of the Interior, Bureau of

Outdoor Recreation.

1967.

"Outdoor Recreation Trends, U. S. Government Printing

Office, Washington.

24 pp. illus.

15 points. A typical example of this activity is an evening stroll around the block or through a city park. Thus, no special facilities are needed to participate and this change seems to be an expression of a shift in demand for the activity. Are Americans beginning to listen to the charge that they are too sedentary?

The next largest increase in the

proportion of the population participating occurred for the Sightseeing activity

where the percentage

increased 7 points.

It is difficult to speculate what might have happened on the supply side for this activity.

Certainly the number of nationally prominent natural phenomena has not increased. But access to these areas and to less prominent scenic features may have improved.

Increases in the proportion of the population participating in the other activities are small and could be due to sampling error. No statement on sampling errors is made in the publication.

Frequency of Participation

The number of occasions on which an activity is engaged in is another measure of participation.

Again,

Walking for Pleasure stands out and it has taken over as the number one activity.

Swimming has also moved up in the rankings. However, the percentage increases for

Picknicking,

Camping and Sightseeing are greater than for Swimming. Again, because

Walking for Pleasure is probably less related to specific facilities, a shift in demand for it appears to be a reasonable conclusion.

Though the increase in the proportion of the population participating in various activities has been modest for most activities, the increases in occasions of participation are greater than the population increase of 8 percent. Those who participate are doing these things more frequently than was the case in 1960.

Occasions Per Participant

Still another way of looking at participation is the frequency with which those who participate engage in the activities.

This measure gives some indication of how important the activity is to those who do it. A better indication, of course, would include some measure of time spent at the activity.

Proportion of Population' Participating in Selected Outdoor Recreation ,

Activity

1960

Per cent of Population Rank

1965

Per cent of Population Rank

Picnicking

Driving for Pleasure

Swimming

Sightseeing

Walking for Pleasure

Fishing

Boating2

Nature Walks

Camping

Horseback Riding

Hiking'

Water Skiing

8

6

6

6

53

52

45

42

33

29

22

14

1

5

6

7

2

3

4

10

10

8

9

10

57

55

48

49

48

30

24

14

10

8

7

6

Population 12 years of age and older.

2 Other than canoeing and sailing.

3 With pack.

Source : "Outdoor Recreation Trends" Bureau of Outdoor

Recreation pp. 22 -24.

10

11

8

9

I

4

5

6

3

4

The increases in occasions per par ticipant are small in an absolute sense, but some are large relative to the 1960 base. Picnicking has shown the largest relative increase in occasions per participant.

Although the number of persons engaging in Water

skiing just kept pace with the population increase, the number of occasions per participant has increased, resulting in an overall increase in total) occasions.

(Turn to page 23.)

Math -June, 1968

Page 20

Wile Weed...

Bermudagrass Found World -Wide

by W. R. Kneel one*

Wherever man has gone, in tropical, sub -tropical and warm temper-

ate regions of the world, bermuda-

It springs up

grass has gone also.

along man's trails,

on his

rubbish heaps, in his corrals, and across his fields. It is a familiar and feared weed with names like quick and devil grass to describe its weedy activities.

It is also a very important forage, one of the best grasses for erosion control, and the most important turf grass in warm climates around the world.

Its distribution not only goes around the world but is amazingly wide from north to south.

In North America, bermuda has

been reported along the coasts as far north as Vancouver in the west and

New Hampshire in the east. It grows in Michigan and Ohio, and has been known in Pennsylvania since at least the early 1800's.

It is found in Argentina and Chile, in South Australia and Tasmania. In central Russia it is found in the deserts around the Aral sea.

A "Southern Bluegrass"

In the United States bermudagrass is to the South what bluegrass is to the North. Both are very similar with their foreign origin and their complete acclimatization in so many new areas.

To fully describe bermuda would take a combination of bluegrass with quackgrass, however.

Bermuda keeps spreading out and expanding its range, with or without the help of man. As an illustration,

in Kansas Bulletin 2, published in

April, 1888, E. M. Shelton reported on grass trials, including plantings of bermudagrass and Johnsongrass, on the Agronomy farm near Manhattan over the previous

14 years.

In his

notes for 1882 he observed that these

"would be dangerous pests but for the fact that they kill down to the

frost level every winter ".

Obviously

neither species had adapted types

there then. Today, Johnsongrass and,

to a much lesser extent, bermuda-

grass grows well up into Nebraska and Iowa.

My research program at Arizona is aimed at producing seeded varieties which will make not only good turf in the traditional "bermuda belt" but will be hardy in the "crabgrass belt" from here across to and up the Ohio

valley. The potential is there to be

exploited, and of course our program

is supported by seed growers who

want to sell better products and more of them.

Incidentally some of the present best quality seed sold commercially today is certified Arizona common bermudagrass.

This matter of potential is one of mudagrass. The three W's

-

Wordly,

Wily and Wonderful, provide convenient pegs on which to tie together a mass of what are interesting features of this paragon of weeds.

Obviously, in the matter of distribution, bermudagrass has gotten

around and for a long time.

It is

Worldly. Now worldly grasses and

worldly people were not born that way. They had to start somewhere

and work at it. Where and when did our hero start? It is a difficult thing to trace plants historically because,

for one thing, historians are often

more interested in costumes than botany and both are beneath the dignity of a genuine social, political or military historian. Only if the plant has some special social significance is it noted.

( This often does not mean food although in these days of popula-

tion explosion

demographers are somewhat more aware of its importance. )

With bermuda we are lucky.

It has some special attributes. ( Haven't

I said it was wonderful ?)

It is an

ancient sacred grass in India and it has long been used medicinally.

Page 21

Progressive Agriculture

Noted Early In History

So far as I know, the first written mention of a specific grass other than the food grains mentioned in cuneiform tablets and Chinese ceremonials, is in Vedic Sanskrit in the Rig Vedas, recorded about 2,000 B.C.

It is the sacred durbha grass used in sacri-

ficial ceremonies and "without which the cattle would perish ".

The common Hindi name today is doub and Indian seed occasionally is sold in world trade as doubgrass. As doubgrass, it is used throughout the east for erosion control and turf. Since the Vedas were written by Aryan invaders of India who came from the

Northwest they may have made sacred the bermudagrass of Afghanistan and

Persia and Central Russia. At present these areas appear centers of origin of the giant bermudagrass we have in our Arizona seed areas, and fight so strenuously to keep out of our certified common. It would be interesting if the original sacred grass was

giant, with the finer,

leafier, more turf -like Indian common, only acquiring the sacred label secondarily. Our

Arizona common and the usual Indian common are very similar and quite in contrast with giant.

Most of our common bermuda-

grasses in the United States are also like the Mediterranean types.

Since much of our western civilization is centered on

Mediterranean backgrounds this is not surprising. Nor is

it too surprising that it is here the

next earliest historical mention to the

Vedas is found. The earliest date I have yet uncovered is 900 B.C., in

Homer's writing, when bermuda, as

it can, took over land belonging to

one of his heroes. Aristotle is said to have mentioned it and Theophrastus uses bermudagrass as an example of rhizomes at about 300 B.C.

(Turn to page 23.)

* Professor of Department of Agronomy.

Stewing Hens

Disappear from Groceries

by Robert C. Angus

and F. D. Rollins*

Last month your editor asked why he could not purchase a stewing hen

in his local market. The answer to

this lies in the type of poultry industry which has developed in Arizona.

To explain this disappearance, we will describe the commercial poultry industry in Arizona, the changes which have taken place, the marketing and packaging problems for fowl as well as the demand for fowl.

The number of laying birds in commercial

( one with 300 laying birds or more ) poultry ranches in Arizona reached 1,129,025 in 1967. About 95

percent of these birds are concen-

trated in Pima, Maricopa, Pinal, and

Yavapai Counties. Pima County has the largest number of birds with 48.6

percent of the State's total. Maricopa

County is second with 31.6 percent,

Pinal is third with 9.2 percent, and

Yavapai has 6 percent.

The spectacular change in the industry is the movement toward larger flocks and fewer operations. In 1963 there were 167 commercial poultry ranches in Arizona.

By 1967 there were 84, a decrease of 49.7 percent.

The trend toward larger flocks is illus-

trated by the percent of birds

in flocks 50,000 and over, which changed from 26.8 percent in 1963 to 49.6 percent in 1967.

If we include birds in flocks over 30,000, we find that we

had 43.4 percent in 1963 and 65.4

percent in 1967. In fact, 84.4 percent

of the total birds were in flocks of

10,000 or over in 1967, and this accounts for 25 ranches.

It is clear that the poultry industry o Associate Professor of Department of Agricultural Economics and Poultry Specialist of

Cooperative Extension Service, respectively.

in Arizona is a table egg producing industry.

Practically the only breed

of chicken found in Arizona is

the white leghorn, an egg- producing type.

This bird weighs 31/2 to 4 pounds at the end of its laying period. The old dual- purpose bird is gone. That is, we have not found very many Rhode

Island Red s, New Hampshires,

Barred Plymouth Rocks,

or White

Plymouth Rocks in Arizona.

These

birds weigh 51/, to 7 pounds at the

end of their laying period. They make

a good stewing hen but not a very

good egg laying machine. The prod-

uct available for the market at the

end of the laying period, therefore, is a white leghorn, 31/9 to 4 pounds live weight which dresses out at approximately 60 percent. Not a very big package for the housewife's pot.

The second factor is the marketing and packaging problem. First of all, there are few poultry processors in

Arizona. The local plant in Tucson, which processed and marketed fowl, is not operating at present.

This leaves two processors in

Phoenix which can handle the product. Poultry packing plants must depend on a steady source of birds to operate effi-

ciently at a profit. A poultry plant

can be set up to process broilers and turkeys as well as cull chickens. The broiler industry in Arizona provides less than 5 percent of the State's consumption of broilers. On the surface this is not enough broilers to allow

a plant to operate at capacity other

than in an intermittent manner. Thus

the processing stage of the market

system is under change and develop-

ment. The question of "Where are

the cull laying hens going ?" at present is a good one. Substantial numbers in the local

Tucson area are being trucked live to Nebraska for processing into soup.

In the past some of these cull birds have been trucked to California for manufactured products such as canned chicken, soup, and the like.

Next, let's consider the

demand for

fowl.

The housewife would like a stewing hen dressed out at 31/9 to 4 pounds. This is possible with the dual -purpose birds. But the leghorn dresses out from 2 to 21/2 pounds, thus the use for this product is a commercial one.

This week we noted an advertisement for stewing hens in the paper.

The price was about 33 cents a pound.

The birds were not leghorns and

were shipped from Arkansas frozen in tray packs. When birds are bought when frozen and in tray packs, the price gets close to the price of broilers, which has been approximately 39 cents a pound in the Tucson area.

It is difficult to know whether the price difference between broilers and fowl compensates for the extra work in preparing fowl. The experience of groceries indicates that there is a de-

mand for fowl in Arizona, but the

quantity demanded is relatively small at these prices. Fowl must be brought in already processed in economic quantities. The turnover is then rel-

atively slow in the groceries.

The

solution to the laying hen disposal

problem which faces the producer will involve developing regular marketing channels to manufacturers of food products containing chicken.

May- June, 1968

Page 22

Recreation

(from page 20)

...

Two activities show a decrease in occasions per participant, Driving for

Pleasure and Horseback Riding, but the changes are very small and could be due to sampling errors. For Picnicking, Sightseeing, S w i m m i n g,

Camping and Waterskiing there have been fairly large increases in occasions per participant. Some of the reasons for this could be; on the supply side, more and improved facilities; and on the demand side, more leisure time, interest, experience, and higher incomes.

The actual annual average growth for the 1960 -1965 period has exceeded the projected annual average growth in participation for all activities except Driving For Pleasure. Large differences between projected and actual growth have occurred for Walking for

Picnicking, Camping and

Pleasure,

Sightseeing.

It is interesting that

ORRRC, in their projections with an assumption of an increase in supply, assumed there would be no change in supply for Walking for Pleasure. Thus, the conclusion of a shift in demand for that activity is strengthened. There

is no doubt that the total physical

supply of facilities for picnicking and camping has increased over the 5 -year period, but it is not known whether there has been a per capita increase.

Conclusions

The changes shown are interesting, but very little can be said about why they occurred. It is very probable that gj1

Douglas

KAWT Livestock Report, 6:20 a.m.

and 12:10 p.m .Monday thru

Saturday.

Phoenix

KOOL

Garden Show, 8:45 a.m., Sat-

KOOL

KOY

KPHO

KTAR &

KUPD urday.

Farm Report,

5:40 a.m.,

Monday thru Saturday.

Farm

Report, 6:50 a.m.,

Monday thru

Friday, and

6:55 a.m. Saturday.

Farm Program, 5:45

Monday thru Saturday.

a.m.,

KTAR -TV, Farm, 5:55

Monday thru Friday.

Farm, 5:50 a.m. & 12:28

Monday thru Friday.

a.m.

p.m.

Page 23

Progressive Agriculture

Town & Country Lite Conference

It's a bit early, folks, but Miss Jean

M. Stewart reminds it's time to start

making plans to attend the annual

Town and Country Life Conference.

The dates are June 3 through 7.

The place is the University of Arizona campus in Tucson.

Some 400 women and some men

participate in the conference each

year, and the people come from all

14 of the state's counties.

"Everyone is invited," says

Miss

Stewart.

Commenting on past conferences, she said, "most of the women tell me

they come to learn, to get a break

in their homemaking routines, and to make new friends from all parts of the state."

She urged that persons interested in attending, men and women alike, contact the

Cooperative

Extension

Service office in your county.

The list follows:

Apache - Miss Viola Koenig, St. Johns,

85936. Cochise - Mrs. Mildred Marrs, 112

E. Maley St., Willcox, 85643. Coconino -

Miss Peggy Putnam, P. 0. Box 790. Flagstaff, 86001. Gila - Mrs. Mary Kay Simmons, Globe, 85501.

Graham - Mrs. Darleen Kurtz, Safford, 85546. Greenlee - Miss Nancy Prugel, Duncan, 85534. Maricopa - Miss Edna

Weigen, 1201 W. Madison, Phoenix, 85007.

Mohave - Mrs. Audrey Davies, P. 0. Box

1111, Kingman 86401.

Navajo - Mrs. Ina Ward, Holbrook

86025. Pima - Miss Lee McGoogan, 112

W. Pennington St., Tucson 85701. Pinal -

Miss Shirley Weik, Casa Grande 85222.

Santa Cruz - Mrs. Willian Hagler, Nogales 85621.

Yavapai - Mrs. Katherine

Brittingham,

Prescott,

86301.

Yuma -

Mrs. Helen Wissner, 1047 Fourth Ave.,

Yuma 85364.

the growth in participation in Walking for Pleasure shows a shift in demand because of its freedom from specific facility requirements.

The BOR report implies that these

data show an increase in demand,

pressure on recreation facilities and resources, and a need for more facilities. This conclusion cannot be drawn

from the information in the report

since no information is presented on how the number or quantity of facilities has changed ( a general increase has occurred ) over the five -year pe-

riod. The data in the report cannot

be used to justify the provision of additional recreation facilities.

Participation in outdoor recreation activities will probably continue to increase as long as additional facilities are provided, given population

growth, since entrance fees are so

low as to be an insignificant portion of the visitors' total cost, as well as below the costs

of providing and

maintaining the facilities.

This increasing participation, then does not show a "need" for more recreation facilities, but shows the large quantity of recreation demanded at low prices for the existing physical supply of facilities. The question that should be answered is do we wish to continue to subsidize nonurban outdoor recreation activities at present levels. In order for the general public

and policy makers to answer that

question, explicit information on the public costs of providing alternative levels of facility supply is needed together with reasonable measures of the value of outdoor recreation experiences and resources.

Bermudagrass

.. .

(from page 21)

To Honor a Hero

One writer suggests that the grassy crown placed on the head of one Sic cius Dentatus, Roman tribune in 454

B.C. for 120 battle victories, was made of bermudagrass. The runners of bermuda would be handy for such construction and were used this way in at least one other Mediterranean area.

A French archeologist named Bonet,

digging among some first

century tombs in Egypt about 1900, found a leafy crown around the head of a female "magician ".

Part of this crown was bermudagrass. In the same tomb were preserved vases of plant material, again including bermuda. Since

Dioscorides describes bermuda in the same century as a medicinal plant, the lady magician probably used it in the same way. Relief of the bellyache or of kidney stones is a very wonderful piece of magic!

Dioscorides' description lists corn

mon names from the full circle of the

Mediterranean showing beyond doubt that bermuda was then found everywhere in this area.

Bermuda spread into Europe from the Mediterranean. For example there is bermudagrass growing along the coasts of Cornwall, probably brought there accidentally

by Greeks and

Phoenicians mining tin well before the Christian era. An English botany book published in the 1840's describes the Cornish bermuda as a "very pretty grass, of no practical use ". We know better don't we?

The Diagnostic Laboratory and the Poultryman

by J. J. .Sheldon'

All types of livestock and poultry production have faced increased costs and the need for more and more integration to increase production efficiency.

As the poultry industry has integrated and concentrated the poul-

try population in a limited area, the

potential disease problems and haz-

ards associated with infectious dis-

eases has certainly increased.

Even with increasingly better control pro cedures available to the producer for the various classes of infectious dis-

eases, the problems encountered in control and cost of disease control

have not decreased. To minimize the hazard and cost of infectious disease control the poultry producer is con-

tinually faced with developing pre-

ventive medicine programs that fit

his type of production at the least

possible cost.

Where the diagnostic laboratory plays a part in preventive medicine is a question in some producers minds. Accurate disease diagnosis is time consuming and expensive

but does serve as the only method whereby the poultry producer can

maintain accurate information on specific disease problems associated with

his type of production and his pro-

duction unit to constantly re- evaluate

his disease control and prevention

programs.

The poultry producer faces increasing problems with mixed infection in the flock, antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, strains of coccidia that are difficult to control with most cocci diostats and constant consumer pressure for control of organisms such as,

Salmonella sp. which may be present in the consumer poultry products. Because of these problems that every phase of the poultry industry faces, it becomes increasingly important to continuously monitor the potential source of infectious disease agents in a poultry flock

and to pinpoint,

if possible, the source of the problem and continually re- evaluate control procedures.

The diagnostic laboratory can help

the producer sort out problems re-

lated to mixed infections where more than one agent is involved. Gross examination, isolation of causative agents, strain identification, serological typing, antibiotic sensitivity, his

topathology, and therapy recommendations can be of definite benefit if the information accumulated is wisely used by the poultryman. Some of these procedures certainly take more

time than the producer is able to

allow in any given disease outbreak.

In these instances controlled proce-

dures must be initiated as early as

possible, but the long -term benefits in disease control programming are the major benefits to the poultry producer.

It must be kept in mind that any

material submitted to the diagnostic laboratory should be accompanied by as a complete and accurate history as possible. The material or birds submitted must be representative of the problem that the producer faces.

It is certainly of no benefit to the pro-

ducer to submit material such as a

bird suffering from leukosis, cannibalism, or other individual bird problems that do not represent the significant problem with which the producer is faced. The history should always include the age of the birds, strain, sex, number of birds of that age group on the premises, and the number in individual housing facilities where the problem is observed. Accurate mortality records up to and including the date the birds or material is submitted to the laboratory should also be included.

ledication history, vaccina-

PROGRESSIVE

IN

ARIZONA tion history, and overall disease control programs employed in the prob-

lem birds should also be includ

The history submitted from the hatot erymen, the breeder flock owner, the processor, would certainly be somewhat different than that outlined above, but must be as complete as possible if the diagnostic person to going to contribute signifi pinpointing the source of any given problem.

As this informatiol y is accumulated, it is important foi the producer to of

maintain recol

all of the findings reported by

the diagnostic personnel.

Witt this

information in hand, perioic

review of the disease control program employed can be much more accurate and, in the long term, be definite cost savings to the produci

With a close working relationshipbetween a diagnostic laboratory and the producer, significant directiore of research in poultry diseases aimed at specific problems for any given area can be the outcome. The poultry industry is rapidly approaching the point where federal, state, and local disease control programs, and economic pressure makes it impossible for him to live with poultry disease problems. Minimizing the cost of dis-

through the

accurate ease control evaluation of problem areas is one factor that can certainly reduce pro duction cost.

Official Publication of the

College of Agriculture and

School of Home Economics

The University of Arizona

94A.,9eot

Dean o Associate Professor of Department of Animal Pathology.

J

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