Howard R.


Assistant Director


1, 1947 to















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Decamber 1, 1947 to November 30,




The Director of the Agricultural Extension Service has complete responsibility for the program activities of the




The Assi stant Director of Extension has been assigned certain administrative and supervisory responsibilities pertaining to special­ ists' and county agents' programs of work.

A staff of specialists assists the county agricultural agents in conducting a program of exten­ sion 'Work in the- counties.

An organized extension program is being carried in tv/elve of the fourteen counties of the state, with some assistance peing given to the farmers in the two and nearby county unorganiz ed counties from.

the s tate office offices.

The program of


Service in the various counties has continued to expand,


and its size is evidence of the growing need for additional personnel.

The special­ ist staff is probably sufficient when all vacancies have been filled, except for possibly two additions.

These are a soils specialist and a plant pathology-specialist.


County personnel in 1948 included the following county workers:

Agri c.

Agent s



AgrJ.c. Agents































1 o o o o

4 o


1 o o o


















Part-Time **

1 o o o o

2 o o o o o o o






One agent serves both Apache end Navajo Counties.

agent serves,

Coconino, Gila, and



agent serves

Graham and Greenlee Counties.



state specialist personnel in

1948 was as fo llows:

Speoialist in



Norris W. Gilbert

Specialist in Animal






Specialist in



Extension Horticulturist


J. N.



F. Tate

Extension Information Specialist


Joe McClelland

Specialist in

Poultry & Dairying


Vi. R.



Specialist in Rural








4-H Club Work


Kenneth L.


Unfilled positions

Economist, and a in 1948 included an

Specialist in



Agricultural Engineering

0 andExtension



Certain administrative responsibilities


Certain financial have been assisned to the Assistant relationships with the county

Boards of

Super­ visors have been assigned to the



He is responsible for the preparation of county budgets and their presentation to county officials.

He has a certain amount of responsibility in securing county personnel for ,the county offices, with final selection and employment subject to the Director of


The Assistant Director has super­ vision of certain county agents.

Additional expenditures made by the county agricultural responsibilities assigned to the Assistant Director of Extension include office county office location and arrangement, county management, the purchase of county equipment and the annual inven­ tory of that equipment" the educational leave program" the life and accidant insurance program, and the retirement program for all personnel.

Supervisory responsibilities assigned

Extension include the responsibility to for the Assistant Director of the arrangement of programs for county agent meetings, ordination of' assistance specialist with county staff programs in the extension programs, the counties" and the c

0over-all supervisory include responsibility meeting for with Federal

4-H club agencies work.

Other in the absence responsibilities of and at the ze­

�uest of the Director of at nany of their monthly

Ex�ension" meeting directors meetings" with the State Farm Bureau and in the absence of an extension economist

A large number of assisting with an agricultural economics program.

meeting s of commodity groups are attended during the year with a view to assisting those organizations in any way possible.





Personnel problems


Selection and

Employment of county extension agents

The problem of securing and retaining qualified personnel in the

Extension Service during the past few years has been an important one.

It had been improvement hoped that the situation might improve in 1948.

but the was only moderate.

Few individuals with adequate training



and experience were available, and it was necessary to employ recent college graduates for the vacancies which occurred.


Few changes were made during the year.

The county agent in

Yavapai County resigned to work with a local bank and it was necessary to replace him with an inexperienced man who has since proved his capa­ bilities.

.An assistant county agent in horticulture in

Maricopa. County


in Novamber, 1948, and this position was vacant at the year end.

The policy has been to advance our own agents when an opportunity pre­ sents itself.

When the

Yuma county agent resigned to go with a local implement company, he was replaced by the county agent from Cochise


In turn, the county agent from Greenlee

County was advanced to agent in Cochise


The Greenlee

County position was filled with a recent graduate from Michigan state College.

A Uni versity of Wisconsin graduate was employed as county agent at large and subsequently was placed in charge of

4-H club work upon the r esignati on of the



agent and the advancement of the assistant agent to the county agent position.

Briefly, the policy bas been to name an itinerant county agricultural agent who, after spending six months in training in both the state and vacancy occurs county offices, can be named as assistant agent when a in a county.

The qualifications desired in new e.mployeesare

that they be adequately and broadly trained in an accredited agrioultural college; that they have initiative and aggressiveness and have had the practical experience of having been raised on a farm or spent some working time on a work farm; and with finally people.

that they like people and have the ability to



changes have been nade in tile organization of the county offices.

Thought is being given to the best method of organizing the 4-H club program.



County as it increases in size.

This county is the largest agricultural tialities of 4-H club work are county in the state and the unsurpassed in any count,y in poten­ the state.


Induction training and apprenticeship

A definite training program for inexperienced agents has been established.

When first employed, they are assigned to the state office for at least a month.

They wor.k

with the various specialists and under­ stand thoroughly the plan of operation at the state office.

By working with the specialists they learn the methods in use by specialists and also secure important information concerning that specific field of agriculture.

After a period in the state office, county for at least one month.

They may be sent they are sent to a to two or three counties tor training purposes.

Finally, if time permits they may be given a special assignment that will give them experience in analyzing a problem and determining its solution.

This last training is exceptionally im­ portant in that it will aid th e agent in analyzing his problems when he is given the responsibility of a county.





Professional improvement organization.

There ment may be secured.


All several ways in w�ch that professional advance­ personnel literature in his own and related is interested fields.

in the

Encouraganent reading is given of current extension personnel to spend some time in study in organized


This will in all

Professional probal:iity be improvement is a necessity in any type of progressive summer' school attendance.

A leave of absence is avail­ able under certain circumstances to extension personnel who wish to take advantage summer of it.

Assistance is given school program, and in the to agents planning in of the the planning work in the of the county so that the advancement of the extension program wi 11 not be endangered.


Improvement of county staff relationships

A major objective in the county extension program is that the program be built around the needs of the fanners in the county.

A gradual approach is being made to a program in the county which is built around the individual farm the family.

In other words, a single program set up for county which ,includes the efforts of both county agricultural agent and home demonstration must of mcessi ty agent in its fulfillment.

Certain phases of work be done individually.

On the other hand, other pba ses wi 11 be done co operati vely by the agent s in the county.


Assistance to in the county agents in the development of the extension program of the

A primary function of a supervisor is to aid in the determination major problems in a county.

The supervisor has an opportunity to look at the problem from a strictly objective viewpoint.

In an effort to better analyze the problems in the county, surveys of agricultural resour ces ha ve been under way for some time in several of the counties.

The information so obtained can then be used in an analysis of the problems 1Vhich are of greatest importance to the rural people.

With all data assembled and the various problems thoroughly analyzed, the object­ ives of the extension program can be established.

In any planned work with rural people, those for whom it is planned should have a definite part in the planning.

Organization of farmers for the purpos e of county planning is as yet not fully developed, but progress is the planning being of the made toward county greater extension participation program.


A 4-H club farmers in council, com­ posed primarily the 4-H program of 4-H in leaders, takes an active part in the planning of several counties, which is, a forward step in program planning.


Assistance in the received from farmer planning of the county extension program is connnodity groups.

The commodity group is always greatly interested in the advancement of its own welfare and otten seeks a s sd sbance from the county agent in the solving of its problems.

In these cases.

the county agricultural agent, often calling in the specialist, sits down �th the commodity group representatives and plans the method of, procedure to solve the problem at hand.




When the principal problems in the county have been decided, extension speoialists are oalled in to plan the method of procedure which will be follcwfed to attain the objective.

Their knowledge of subject matter offers a proper solution the lead in to the carrying background of information in planning the problem.

The county agent must of course take out the planned pr-ogram with the assistance of the specialist or the supervisor in certain phases of the problem.

The oounty extension plan of work is moving nearer to the goal of an integrated county plan of work set up for the farm family as a unit.

The 4-H club program in


County was reported as a unit program in 1948 for the first time in the history of the


Extension Servioe.

The Cochise set up and


4-H program during

1949 will be operated a s a single program for 4-H club members.

There are no urban county agent s in

Ariz ona at the present tine.

Considerable a.ssistance is two given to urban residents, especially in the largest oities of Phoenix and

Tucson, but no definite steps have as yet been taken to appoint an urban county agent.

The urban work loan on the county agent in charge of horticultural work in



is especially heavy at the present time.

The service is primarily in regard to landscaping, pruning ornamentals, and disease and insect control.


Ass istance to agent s in carrying out extension programs

In carrying out the planned extension program, the agent is given the responsibility for its execution and fulfillment.

With this in mind, he is given latitude in determining the method of procedure.

With the suggestions of the specialists involved and the supervisor at hand, the decision as to the best approach is often left to him.

The question of the use of local leaders is left to him ina&much as he knows the program.

with capabilitie s of his local 1 eaders and their reaction to the'

The county other farmers in agent the knows area.

their interests and their influence

The supervisor

'checks closely on the program from time to time

-throughout the year, offering suggestions as to


changes in procedure whichmigbt improve either the efficiency of the operation or the objec­ tive to be reached.

There is constant need for with the newer policy interpretation, especially agents.

The need for assistance in working with people is often important and requires the careful analysis of a supervisor.

The younger agent often needs assistance in the analysis of his relation­ ship with his farmers.







Extension conferences

The extension conferenoe is a most important feature of the supervisory program.



It offers an opportunity to aocomplish se�era1

Extension personnel is brougnt closer together through conferences, resulting in better



The extension oonferenoe offers an opportunity to present subject matter infornation and discuss methods of procedure.

It is conducive to a closer working relationship with Experiment Station personnel.

Every conference should be a morale builder.

Finally, it offers an opportunity to discuss the major problems affecting the agriculture of th e state.

was kept fully

This is the philosophy in mind in the of the extension conference and preparation of the conference programs.

Three extension coIlf erenoes were held in 1948.

The annual extension conference held in extension early

December stressed methods of procedure and subject matter material.

Two out-ot-state speakers assisted in the program with inspirational talks.

Two regional conferences were set up for county agricultural agents in


The spring conference, held in

May of

1948, disoussed subject lIB.

tter, extension policy soils,

4-H club work, new and methods.

The program centered around insecticides, and news writing.

The fall conference, held in stressed

September, was a similar type of conference and fertilizers, weed control, photography, and 4-H club work.


4-H club work


The most important single project in the extension program is club work.


3,300 young people were enrolled in

4-H club work in 1948.

Of'this effort is number, approximately two-thirds were girls.

Every being made to build a strong 4-H club program throughout the state.

Every assistance has been given to the state leader in planning the program for the state and in the

4-H planning club members.

It is felt that each of special events tor county should have at least one county-wide event which can be

4-H club members in the county.

planned in the interests of' all

The 4-H

University of


Roundup was held in June on the campus ot the

Arizona with approximately 300 club members in attendance.'

Assistance was and given as chairman of the boys' demonstration in the various other contests held at this annua

L event.

team contest

During the, year, five county

4-H club fairs were held, which were attended by either the Director or the Assistant Director or both.

Two 4-H club camps were held during the year, and these camps likewise were visited by the supervisor.

The supervisor also acted as a member ot the com­ mittee to and judge the state winners for the National 4-H Club

Congress the National 4-H Club





4-H indicated club work is showing definite progress in the state, as by the number of events for club members in the various contests, and the interest shown at these events.

Club work is re­ ceiving popular support throughout the state.


County office arrangement and equipment

An necessary extension efficiently organized county extension office with all equipment is an essential in carrying on a successful county program.

A well-arranged and neat-appearing office is attractive to rural

An people when they come to the office for assistance.

efficiently organiz ed office is tine-saving and wil1 reduce the amount of energy necessary to carryon an effective program.

Con­ siderable progress was na de in 1948 in the physical reorganization of county extension offices and in securing needed equipment.




The rearrangement of the Yuma

County extension orficewhich was initiated late in 1947 was completed in 1948.

Separate offices were partitioned for the use of the various agents.

The home different demonstration location, was agent, who had previously been officed in a brought into the county agent

"s office, and an office was set up for her there.

In anticipation of future needs, a fourth office was set workroom and storeroom.

up, which

With all is being uaed+bempora.rd Iy county extension as a agents officed in the same room, tacHi tated.

Some additional the equipment was purchased county office.

With the Yuma

County office well in 1948 for equipped, pri­ mary effort the can now planning of be the county extension program will be placed on the carrying out of the extension program.

Yavapai County


Yavapai County has one county agricultural agent, one home damonstration agent, and the secretary.

Initial steps were taken in late 1948 in the rearrangement and equipping of this office.

A separate office was partitioned for the county agricultural agent, and some rearrangement done within the office.

Initial steps were also taken to secure necessary office equipment.

The reorganization of this office should be completed in 1949.

Greenlee in a rented office



The Greenlee and

County extension office is therefore does not lend itself as readily to rearrangement.

Initial steps were taken in late 1948 to secure additional equipment for the office.




With the appointment of a new county agricultural agent and a new home demonstration agent to the


County office in 1948.

some rearranging was dona in accordance with the wishes of the agents.

Additional equipment was secured.

and the reorganization of that office will be completed in 1949.





Program planning

A properly planned program is essential to progress in county extension work.

The greatest success in program planning can only be secured with the county program cooperation of those for whom planning is done.

Every must of necessity include some service work for rural people.

There should also be short-term projects which can be quickly set up to answer the immediate should contain several questions which arise.

long-term projects which may

Every take program several years to complete.

The long-term project is quite often aimed at solving potential a


which is expected to arise.

Long -berm projects are also based on problems which have already arisen.

FrQ:! m..' the major problems of a service nature should be developed the short-term and long-term projects which can give answers to problems of a large number of patrons.


Over-all assistance was given to all agents in the state in planning in 1948.

The program planning was carried on in much the same in way as it has been

1947 and

1948 a rather over a thorough recent

�tudy period was in of years.

progress to

However, determine the most desirable method of been county program planning.

Not as much has accomplished along this line as had been hoped, but progress is being made.


Program planning was continued through


initiated in Graham

The specialists and

County in the state late 1947 supervisor met with the county agent to discuss the

After considerable discussion, a trip was agriculture made over of the the county.

major agri­ cultural areas in the county in order to get a first-hand picture of the problems.

These problems were discussed in the field and again upon the return to the office.

A tentative progrrum was then established.

As an example of this program planning by the county agent and the specialists" the Lebanon area in Graham

County was thoroughly analyzed.

This is an area of poor low sta.ndard of soil, with ppor water supply, and with a rather living, due primarily to the low incomes.

A survey of the agricultural resources was made and a brief report prepared for the

Lebanon area.

Meetings of the people in the area were called and a report was made to them of the results of the survey.

W9:s the recei ved from the repiir of the


Church community building headquarters and in the at


Salt Lake landscaping.

City in

An effort was na de to improve the water supply to the area.

Soil improvement practices are being advocated.

A somewhat different plan was set up to be initiated in Yuma

County in December.

The illness of the county agent prevented estab­ lishing this procedure in that county, but it will be carried on in


This plan contemplated the calling together of commodity groups to discuss their major problems.

From the major problems pointed out



by each commodity group, projects would be set up and, insofar as possible, work initiated.

The extension specialist works closely with the county agent in this program planning.

Some preliminary work may be done program by the state supervisor with the county agent, but before the is fully established the specialist is given a definit e part in it.

With the experience gained in the work in Graham

County and


County, it is expected that a definite plan of program planning will be established in the state.


Selecting and training personnel of


Extension, the final selection of county agent personnel is made supervisor has some by the Director responsibility in the preliminary work of locating and selecting extension personnel.

This are problem has been a serious one throughout 1948.

Several positions open in the specialist staff, and two assistant agent positions are unfilled.

Every effort is being made to locate qualified personnel.

The training of personnel is an important responsibility state office.

During 1948, four individuals received training of the in anti­ cipation of final assignment to county extension work.

The training period for the county extension work included a preliminary period of one month in the state office.

During this time the trainee was made fully acquainted with state office procedure.

He worked with the various specialists in order that he might know how they carried on their work.

He was also able in this manner to secure additional in­ formation he regarding their subject matter fields.

At the state office also became acquainted with extension policy.

The trainee was then placed in the county to work with the county agent on the problems which arose in the county.

This from one month to three months, period of work in the county depending upon the general lasted situation.

If time and facilities pennitted, the trainee was sent to two or three different count ies in the state in order to get a better knowledge of county problems and county agent procedures.

The above procedure was changed in one instance and the training period shortened due to the emergency need in the county office.

The greatest need of the more experienced county agricultural agents is fo r subject rna tter.

The extension conferences planned and carried out

Methods of during the year 1948 were planned with this idea in mind.

procedure are exceedingly important and were also included as training purposes for all agents.

Every effort was made in 1948 to develop a definite summer school or post-graduate educational program for extension personnel.

Extension gram for personnel was urged to plan a professional improvement pro­ themselves through attendance at recognized colleges or universities.

One member of the county extension force and one member of the state staff attended summer school in






Miscellaneous supervisory responsibilities and accomplishments

A principal function of the state extension office is to assist the county extension agents in the development and execution of the


extension program.

The following brief resume briefly indicates several types of assistance given both to county extension agents and the state staff in 1948.


County fairs

One of the responsibilities of the county extension agent is a.ssistance in a.nce

planning and holding the annual county fair.

This assist­ generally includes suggestions for the preparation of the premium book, the mechanical organization of the fair, and assistance in the operation of the fair itself.

With several new their first agents appointed during

1948 who would have experience with'the county fair, it was decided that a brief publication conbaining suggestions for the organization and operation of a county fair would prove valuable.

The state supervisor contacted th e fair committee of the Extension Service and the special­ ists-and outlined briefly to the committee and specialists the type of publication whieh would assist a county agent in organizing and manag­ ing his fair.

The various subject matter specialists prepared pertinent information in their own fields of work, and the state supervisor pre­ pared that portion of the tion of the fair.

This bulletin pertaining to the physical organiza­ publication discussed fully the various types of records to be kept on entries, judging, and other pertinent infor­ mation.

The completed publication carried a suggested premium list from which county agents could select those entries which would normally be exhibited in his county.

This report was mimeographed and copies sent to all extension agents in the state.

The state supervisor attended three county fairs during the fall months of the

1948, including the Cochise


Fair on

September 25,

Yavapai County Fair on

September 30, and the Graham


Fair on

October 28.

Some assistance was fairs, especially in organization given to the agent in each of these and operation.

The state Fair was visited one day and the various exhibits reviewed.

The 4-H club exhibit at the ous

State Fair proved to be a very activities in 4-H club worko satisfactory display of the vari­


County extension school

Apache County in northern Arizona is rather distant from the state headquarters of the

University of Arizona.

For this reason, far.mers in that county seldom get down to the University and thus are not able to meet as otherwise nany of the

College of

Agriculture staff as might.

In order to carry more information to them, an they extension school was planned for the farmers in

,Apache County.




This school, consisting of one full day, was held at St.



At the

Eagar meeting,

65 different individuals were present for the morning, afternoon, and evening sessions.

At St.


Ari zona, where the attendance program was repeated on the second day,

45 farmers were in during the three sessions, with an additional 46 high school students being present for the day sessions.


This extension school was held early spring fann work.

A early in March prior to the start survey of the two areas had been made prior to the extension school in an effort to determine the need for such a school and the essentially the type of subject matter desired.

The program was same at both locations.

It covered soils and crops, home gardens, orchards, home beautification, dairying, poultry raising, general livestock, and agricultural economics.

The county extension agent was thoroughly satisfied with the school and felt that it was an excellent method of bringing the latest agricultural information to the farmers of these communities.

The program will be continued in 1949.


Special assistance to county agricultural agents

Two special reports were prepared during the year on

Arizona crops and nailed survey was to the extension agent s concerned.

A rather complete made of the flax situation and the information assembled tt into a brief publication entitled ttThe

Flax Situation.

This publica­ tion showed the the past production and utilization of flax in this country for twenty-five years.

It also includes figures on imports and exports, supplies on hand, the prospective 1948 and the flax crop and carry-over its impact each upon year.


It discussed already large supply of the commodity.

The report included a rather complete analysis of the Government program for flax.

A personal letter to the agent accompanying market price each report carried the recommendation that at the current f for flax farmers should sell rather than place their flax under a

Government loan.

The chief reason for this recommendation was that supplies were so heavy there was little chance of the market price rising above the support price.

In that case, farmers holding flax for a higher lJ8.rket

price would be forced to pay the carrying charges and the freight to a buying center, probably Los Angeles.

tion was to the effect that

The recommenda­ advantage should be taken of the market price offered of $6.25

per bushel as harvested.

At the request of a county agent from one of the northern pinto bean situation growing counties, a brief survey was made of the pinto bean including the Government program and recommendations made.

With plentiful supplies of beans and a loan price of approximately

$8.25, it was felt that the price of pinto beans in a free market would closely approximate the support price.

This brief report on pinto beans discussed the the price support for supply pinto situation, beans.

the demand situation, and tural

Both of the above agent s in counti es reports were sent to those county agricul­ producing flax or pinto beans.

It was then urged that these reports be mailed to farmers.





Soils school and soils committee


September best method of of 1947 the state carrying subject matter supervisor to the determined that the county agricultural agents was to have an extension school for county agents.

With this in mind, he discus sed the idea with the Soils

Department in an effort to secure their the cooperation.

They whole-heartedly agreed program for the soils school, which was held early in to be on


The school was sufficiently successful that it was decided to carry the idea a little farther.

A soils committee was suggested to the county agricultural agents and to the



Originally, a soils committee composed of


Station representatives and


Service visor.

This was representatives was suggested by the state super­ changed to a committee of extension workers only, at the suggestion of one of the specialists dealing primarily with soils problems.

The thought was that the extension committee could serve as an organization to bring problems to the Experiment


Three county agents were named to this committee

one from

Navajo County, one from Maricopa County, and one from Pinal County.

The primary purpose of thi s committee was to determine the major field of soils and select those which seamed of most problems in the importance to present to the Soils


The attacked.

A problem meeting of hard of the spots soils in alfafa committee was the chief and members of problem the


Station staff in

Maricopa County in

July resulted in soil samples being taken from eight different farms in Maricopa County.

These samples were thoroughly analyzed by the Soils

Department for nitrogen, phosphorus, pH values, total soluble salts" sodium calcirmu ratio, and other characteristics.

To date, nothing final has been worked out, but progress is being made.


The second phase of the program of the soils committee was preparation of a handbook for county agricultural agents.

Co­ operation was received from the Soils Department and a member of the extension staff in the preparation of this handbook.

Completion of the handbook is expected in early



Subject matter information for agents county agents informed methods of other regarding research information and extension colleges and universities.

As research bulletins were

Another obtained in responsibility of the state office is to keep the fields not represented by speCialists, copies of the bulletin� were obtained and mailed to the extension agents.

matter of several of these bulletins sent to the agents were

Subject weed control, cooperative marketing, and special publications of the



Department of


Many agricultural commodities are included in the price support program of the




An effort was made dur

ing the year to keep county extension agents fully regarding the price supports on those commodities included in the program.





Price indexes of

In an effort to assist the agents in obtaining a better knowledge price movements over a period of years and prospective price movements in future years, charts were

Arizona commodities for a prepared showing period of the approximately prices of six twenty-five major years.

The commodi ti es for which grain sorghums, price charts were made were alfalfa, barley, cotton, wheat, and beef cattle.

These price charts carried the prices of these individual commodities from 1925 to the present.

Thus, these prices were shown


the inflation period of 1929, the depression of the early 1930's, and the period of the last war.

Another chart included in this series was a chart of the four most important indexes of general business conditions.

This chart is for use in the county agent's office and carries index figures


1929 to the industrial of the production; price present.

The four indexes included on this chart are wholesale level in the

United commodity prices,

States; farm.

whioh prices, in is indicative which rural people are most interested; dicative of the and spending being department done by store sales, the .American

which is in­ people.

It was felt that these four indexes would more nearly present the picture of general business conditions in the United States than any other price indexes.

All four indexes were based on the £i ve-year peri od 1935-39 as equal to 100.

This made them more comparable.


Pinto bean survey


The state supervisor participated in a pinto bean survey in

Valley early in the summer.

Four major problems were found by the plant pathologist to be of importance in this bean producing area.

These were primarily rhizoctonia, bean blight, chlorosis, and wilt.

These diseases were found to be rather widespread throughout the Valley.

In discussing the matter with the county agricultural agent, it was decided to send a letter to all farmers telling them of the problems facing them.

It was further decided to set up a control program to be followed the next spring prior to planting time.

This program stressed the use of disease free seed and effort will urged seed treatment.

Some probably be made to cooperatively treat the seed for the




Some assistance was gi.

ven to the annual regional meeting of the home demonstration rather agents at Flagstaff in August.

Two subjects were fully discussed.

One was the various sources of information pertaining to rural areas and their utilization by home demonstration agents.

The other topic of discussion was eoonomic conditions in the

United States.




The Assistant Director is a member of the retirement committee, which deals

'wi th retirement

University staff.

Complete information on the Civil



Program was assembled and sent to extension personnel throughout the state.

Mandatory and optiona.l payments were figured for the entire staff and this informs. tion sent to extension personnel.

In cooperation with the retirement committee and

University authorities, a plan was developed whereby assistance would be given extension personnel in get­ ting into the Federal Civil Service Retirement


A great deal of preliminary work on the development of the final plan was done.

With the Civil Service Retirement

Program made available to extension personnell all but three of the staff members made application for the


University problems of Arizona of the entire

Two out-or-state

Administrative meetings were attended during the year.

Workshop at Baton


Louisiana, was attended in



This was a supervisory workshop administrative problems.

The with a program based on

Assistant Director worked �th the group on program planning.

The other out-or-state


Oonf er ence held in meeting was th e annual




in the fall of 1948.

Detailed informs.

tion concerning the current economic situation and future prospects was obtained.

Upon his return to the state, information was disseminated to farm.ers

and to extension this personnel through meetings, radio, and the press.

As a member of the radio committee of the

College of

Agricul­ ture, three meetings were program for the Farm attended and Home Hour.

during the year to develop the

Program subjects were outlined by the cotmni ttee and speakers secured.

The University of Arizona radio committee also met three times during the year to prepare the program titles and participants for the Radio Forum programs.

A large number of meeting s were attended during the year.

These included the annual meetings of several commodity groups in the state.


Among these were the state


Association, the

Crop Improvement Association, the Arizona State Farm Bureau, and the Arizona



Several county associations annual meetings were attended, including cattlegrowers those of Gila,

Yavapai, and Greenlee counties.

Two Bureau of Reclamation meetings were attended, both in Yuma

County and referring to the Gila







The following is a brief summary by counties of the extension accomplishments for the year 1948:


The livestook most important phase industr,y.

There are of agriculture in

Apache County is the approximately 7�000 to 8�OOO aeres of irrigated land in the county

� and a snaIl aoreage of dry farm land.

Crops grown include alfalfa� corn, and sne.ll


In the dry-farming ar ea a

, the oats is a irrigated crop area is commonly grown.

A problem of major importance in the shortage of irri gation water.

Of major importance the control of grubs, lice, in the extension program is the and flies.

A program for the project control of for these insects is trolled through fairly well established in the county.

Grubs are con­ the use of a spray mixture of

5 Lbs

, of

5% rotenone,

10 lbs.

of wettable sulphur in 100 gallons of water.

This spray is applied to the backs of the cattle under pressure.

Under certain cir­ cumstances, the dusting program for warble control is used.

The mixture, to be of used as a dust and rubbed into the backs of the equal plrts of sulphur and cattle, is composed

5% rotenone.

Five demonstrations on grub control were given during the year, with a total attendance of 43.

Flie3 and lie e were controlled by means of a spray composed of


In an eftort to secure a spray formula best adapted to Apache

County, three different formulas were used in 1948.

The formula which contained benzene hexachloride of' the deer proved to be the best spray to use.

This formula gave control fly as well as lice.

Nineteen meetings on the control of flies and lioe were held, with a total attendance of 406.

This inseot oontrol program also includes the control of ear ticks in cattle county.

through the use of the pine tar and cottonseed oil in equal parts.

In addition to meetings on the control of insects" a circular letter containing al1 of the information was sent to cattlemen in the Lumpy jaw con­ tinues to be a problem in

Apaohe County, and in view of this three meet­ ings were held, with a total attendance of


at which lumpy jaw was discussed in detail.

It is felt that a certain number of cattle could be ted in the county on locally grown feeds.

thus better utilizing the crops grown in the area and retaining the manure for fertilization purposes on the farms.

With this in mind.

the with 72 individuals county agent held nine meetings during the year, present, to discuss the question of feeding cattle.

The county agent gives assistance to poultr�1lllen in the county primarily along management lines.

Proper feeding ot poultry" adequate and proper housing.

and control of diseases in poultry are stressed.

Poultrymen are being assisted

�n keeping records.




Soils and irrigation problems are important in

Apache County agriculture.

After a.

supply of water is secured, a properly leveled piece of land is the most important requisite.

Farmers have been encouraged to level their land and to borrow the extension owned farm.

level if' necessary.

Well measurements are being made at various loca­ tions in the county in an effort to determine depth to water and under­ ground water movement.

Soil sampling continues to be done by the agent in an effort to determine the needs of soils.

A field test plot in one area of the county indicated the pre­ ferred varieties of in barley, oats, and wheat.

Weed control is important

Aplche County.

Sodium chlorate has been used very effectively for years.


In an effort to improve in 1948 on the use of the weed


Twelve spraying program, tests were meetings on weed control were held with 137 in attendance.


The extension program. in horticulture is built spraying and primarily around pruning of small home orchards in the county.

Eleven m.eetings pertaining to the pruning of fruit trees were held, with 93 individuals in attendance.

orchards in the

Codling moth is a serious insect in apple county.

Twenty farmers in Round

Valley tree-banded their apple trees for control of codling moth at the suggestion of the county agent.

Two applications of DDT spray were also recommended for the oontrol of' the codling moth.

Wodly aphis in St.

Johns has been controlled this by means of a.parasite

introduced a few years ago.

In 1948.

parasite was placed in apple orchards in Concho and Round Valley in order to control the woolly aphis there.

Red spider has been un­ affected by dormant lime


with DDr.

The control measure recommended is a sulphur spray applied twice during the winter months, once just after dormancy begins and the second spraying just before the buds break.

Six me the etings with a total· attendance of

38 were held to di scuss grasshopper problem in the county.

During the year, 440 acres of crops were baited for grasshoppers.

The county agricultural agent

Agricultural Conservation

Pr-ogram, has cooperated closely with the the Soil Conservation Service program, the



Commission, and other agencies and organizations in the county.

An extension school was held in two locations in the with 125 individuals present.

The primary purpose of this county, school was to instruct rural people in the latest information regarding agricultural production.

In an effort to keep rural people more fully informed, every possible means was taken to disseminate information among them.


Eighteen press articles were prepared during the year, carrying mation ot value to rural people.


Three boys'

4-H clubs were organized during the year and carried completion.

Leadership is again a problem in Apache County.





Irrigated acreage in Cochise County has increased materially in the last two or three years.

There are now approximately 22,000 acres of irrigated land in Cochis e

County, of which about half is in the southern part of -the county.

The remainder of the county is given over to the rang� the few livestock years, industry.

Rainfall has been at, a minimwn during which has bad its effect upon the range and upon the water supplies underground.

Almost the entire acreage is pump irrigated, and with the shortage of rainfall in the last few years water shortage problems are anticipated.

The livestock industry in Cochise

County is the most important phase of agriculture.

The drought in 1948 resulted in :many requests for assistance in the program of supplemental feeding of range cattle.

The spray the Extension Service has been widely accepted in Cochise

County, and is being even more widely stressed in 1948.

A circular letter discussing the spray program in detail has been sent to all cattlemen.

One dan on strati on was-held with 63 present, at which time

300 head of cattle were sprayed with the rotenone, sulphur, benzene hexachloride spray.

The organization of the Cochise

County Dairy



Association was completed early in 1948.

A tester was trained by the county agricultural agent and the dairy extension specialist and assigned to the


Assistance was given by the agent during the first few months in order that the Association pr-ogram otf to a smooth start.

Assistance was also given in the might

Bangs get and TB control program in the county.

poultry producers throughout

County agent

1948 as assistance requested.

was given to

Poultry management problems were of greatest importance, including feeding, housing, and disease eontrol.

Much attention is because of the various given to the soils program in Cochise

Count,y types of problems which arise.

Basic in the program is the taking of soil to deter.mine the needed samples and their analysis in an effort soil amendments and fertilizers.

In general, soils tend to be somewhat heavy, with a rather high salt content.

Recommendations have centered primarily on gypsum, sulphur, and, most important the of all, barnyard manure,in the control of soil problems in


Considerable subsoiling has been done on one of the farms with especially heavy soil, and this project is being watched closely in an effort to determine its value for the area as a whole.

Water penetration was greatly improved after subsoiling.


Cotton acreage grown in 1947 has bave increased greatly over



2,000 expanded to 8,500 acres in 1948.

Average production was approximately three-fourths of a bale.

The cotton produotion project of the Extension Service covers several prinCipal points in cotton production.

Chief among these are soil preparation,



cultural county practices, and insect control.

Assistance has been given by the agr�tural agent in the releveling ot land where necessary.

�hirty-two tarmers were given individual assistance on cotton.

Insect control circular practices were discussed individually with farmers and through letters to cotton growers.

Publicity in the form of press artioles and radio articles were presented.

Approximately 900 acres of pinto


were produced in Cochise

County in 1948, of which 700 acres were anoe was in the

Willcox district.

Assist­ given to bean growers in selection ot adapted varieties, cul­ tural praotices, and harvesting.

Bean test plots were continued in an effort to find better adapted varieties.

Chili production continues to be an important source of income to farmers in Cochise


In an effort to develop a better type of chili plant, eighteen different seed selections of chili the plants were planted in one community.

Several of plant s are promising and will be increased for future seed supplies.

Test best plots were carried for the purpose of determining the varieties adapted to Cochise

County conditions.

Small home orchards are rather widespread in Cochise


Pruning dEmonstrations were held in six different communities during the year.

Assistance was given in soil managEment problems, cultural prac­ tices, and disease control.

Home beautification continues to be an important phase of the county extension program, with considerable indi­ vidual assistance home being given to home owners in the grounds.

Landscaping demonstrations were given landscaping at their in three different communities in 1948.


The corn variety test plot carried in previous years was continued


Yield data will be collected and combined with that of previous years in an

Cochise effort to determine the variety of corn best adapted to

COlmty conditions.

Permanent pastures are not as prominent in


County agriculture as they have been in past years.

Ap�rently alfalfa offers as much or more feed with a somewhat lower water require­ ment.

wi th been

The extension program in irrigation practioe and farm agricultural engineering deals primarily building plans.

Some assistanoe has given during the year in land leveling.

An overhead irrigation system has been established by one farmer in.


County, and it will be watched closely fo� possible application to other areas.

Its economic value is doubted by the agent.

Added attention is being given by the Extension

Servic e to underground water supply within the county.


There were many ins ect and di sease requests in 1948 for information and assistance problems.

The county agent made regular checks on insect populations in cotton and issued weekly cotton insect reports on his findings.

These reports were distributed to farmers in the county regularly and to the state extension entomologist, who incorporated the report in his state report.

This state report went to farmers and agents in all counties.

Three cotton meetings were held during the year, with




137 farmers and their present.

Discussed at these meetings were cotton insects control, cultural practices, and labor problems.

Farmers were shown hOW' to check their fields for cotton insects, and in many cases they were able to make their own insect population counts.

Most of the dusting was done with ground machinery, although some was done.

In general, insect airplane dusting damage was light, especially in fields where control measures had been practiced.

Many requests were received during th e year for information on the control of insects on other field crops and on ornamental


A most serious disease in the county was verticillium wilt which attacked cotton.

Some root rot loss in cotton was also experienced by a number of farmers.

The grasshopper situation was watched carefully in an

Control measures were not eff'ort to necessary.

anticipate a serious outbreak.

Seventeen 4-H clubs were organized in Cochise

Cotmty in 1948, of' which nine were school enrolled clubs and eight were community clubs.

twenty adult leaders and one junior leader assisted with these clubs.

Four leadership training meetings were held during the year.

128 club members completed

144 projects.

Publicity concerning

4-H club work in­ cluded eight radio programs and twelve news stories for the local papers.

Judging teams and and demonstration teams were trained during the club year represented the county at the 4-H



Club members

'ex­ hibi ted their project work at the Cochise



Achievement days were held by all of the clubs.

Beef calf club members exhibited their calves at the Coohise


Fair and auctioned them on the last day of the Fair.


Livestock in Coconino production is the most important phase or agriculture


There is a small acreage of' irrigated land in the county and a considerable acreage of dry fanning.

With an a.ltitude

ranging betwe�n 7,000 and 8,000 feet.

the crop growing season is rather short, with injury from trost always a possibility.

The greater part or the land area is given over to the range industry.

With this in mind, the extension program in the county is built around the of beans and small grains on the farm land a.nd

the range production industry.

The dipping and spray program tor lice and grubs was again carried in 1948.

Plans for a dipping vat were given to one of the largest livestock cam­

�nies in the county in furtheranoe of this program.

Probably 15,000 head of cattle were sprayed in 1948.

One spraying demonstration and one warble control demonstration were spraying dEmonstration was

35 given individuals, in 1948.

Attendance at the with 28 indi 'fiduals present at the warble demonstration.

Individual service was given to several small hog producers duriDg the year

Poultry numbers he.

ve declined in the county, due primarily to high labor and feed costs.

Assistance was given to the few pOUltrymen in the county in feeding problems and in the raising of baby chicks.




Soil erosion continues to be a principal problem in Coconino


Terracing was initiated by the

Extension Service a number ot years ago and continues as a primary project in Coconino


Strip cropping and farming across the slope are also recommended in the soil conservation project.


The several principal farm.

crop in Coconino

County is pinto beans.

There phases of the extension program in pinto bean production.

Two bean test plots were carried in the extension program in 1948.

In one test plot, four varieties of' beans were planted in an effort to deter­ mine the best yielder.

These were importati ons from


In another test plot, two newly introduced strains from New Mexico were tested for adaptability and yield.


Wyoming introduction also being tested yields somewhat less than native beans but matures earlier and is safer fram frost.

It is consequently being watched carefully and tested thoroughly.

The second is cultural phase of the extension program with beans in Coconino

County practic es


Proper planting in order to take advantage of soil moisture and correct culture are stressed.

The control of insects is ot some importance.

The third phase of the extension program in pinto bean production is assistance in the marketing of beans.

Complete informati on regarding support prices was mailed to bean growers.

Market news service was also given them during the marketing season.

Potato acreage in Coconino

County has declined to less than 40 acres, compared with 800 acres six years ago.

Same ago, Coconino



County was the most important potato producing county in the state.

Acreage reduction in potatoes has been due to disease and also to the fact that

Work with pinto bean production is much more profitable.

potato growers is being continued, however, in anticipation of a larger potato acreage in future years.

Three farmers were asslrt;ed in securing disease-free Pontiac seed potatoes from Colorado.

Seed tram this production is being saved for 1949.

Potato diseases were watched closely, and at the proper time circular letters were sent out to pro­ ducers warning against the diseases and recommending the proper methods of control.

A demonstration

Canadian the field peas are grown one year as next; is being continued.

project started several years ago, in which a green manure and potatoes

A hybrid corn

-variety test using twelve varieties of corn was carried during the year.

Two varieti es were chosen as will be continued in a test plot in 1949.

Practically superior all ot and the wheat, oats, and barley grown in Coconino

County were introduced by the Exten­ sion

Service in experimental grain nursery test plots in previous years.

Markton oats, Hannchen

'barley, and Reliance wheat are the principal varieties of these three crops.

Nursery work with small grains is being continued, with

DeW ilIt roductions successful varieties.

Five being compared with the older and more replications of ten varieties of oats, thir­ teen varieties of the small barley, and fifteen varieties of wheat, constituted grain nursery in


A green manure project recommends

Austrian winter peas in an effort to increase the organio matter in the





-variety test of nine varieties of sorghums was planted in 1948.

Result s of one year's test are inconolusi ve.

In three test plots the agent attempted to secure wilt resistant varieties of tomatoes during the year.

Ommeeting with the

Garden Club was held with 17

Flagstaff present.

A Smilar group met in another area of the county ot Coconino with 12 present.

OrchardiDg is important in the agriculture


The extension program includes projects on pruning, disease control, and cultural practices.

A projeot on the control of red spider was set up during the year.

Previous dustings bad not controlled red spider, as apparently it is resistant to DDT.

A test program on the use of lime sulphur spray as a dormant application is being made.

A project has also been set up on the control of root rot in Oak Creek


Fertilizer application is likewise recommended in the extension program.

A test was set up during the year to check the effect of DDI' bees in an orchard.

The test showed that DDr did not kill bees.


Weed oont rol continues to be an important phase of the extension program.

Bindweed is the most serious weed in the date indicate that the ester form of county.

Results to

2.4-D is the proper one for the dry climate of Coconino


Control is fairly effective if followed through.



Soil Conservation District made weed control its major project and requested the assistance of the county agent in this project.

Results of testing by this District indioate that

2,4-D applied in June is most effective.

A weed spraying demonstration in mid-June was attended

The by

23 farmers.

This demonstration encouraged others to spray.

spray program is also attempting to control milkwee�" another serious weed in the county.

Three 4-H clubs were organized in three communities in Coconino

County in 1948.

The leaders, supplying county agent's office kept in close touch with club them. With literature as needed and assistance in the carrying

One on of the work.


Thirty attended the club members

Roundup at completed


Two the year's work.

others attended the 4-H Club

Camp at Prescott.


The county agent agencie s in his cooperated closely county, including the with various


Fair organizations

Commission, the

Soil Conservation

Service, the



Program, and also with local agencies.


Three hundred fam and home vis!

ts were made by the


County agricultural agent in carrying on the extension program during


603 office calls and 127 telephone calls were received on matters per­ taining to agriculture.

A total of twelve method and result demonstra­ tions were held during the year 'With an attendance or 78.

Twenty-eight other meetings attended and participated in had a total attendance of'






County is primarily a range county with very little farm land.

The extension program is based primarily upon range problems.

The external parasite control program bas been rather widely adopted throughout the county.

This program deals with the cont rol of lice and flies.

as a

There are now ten spray rigs on ranches Ln the result of the extension program.

Each ot these county, rigs mainly is used by several different ranchers.

The extension program on warble control is not as widespread as the fly and lice control program, primarily because treatment for warbles must be given in December and January when cattle are out; on the range and demonstrations were held in rather inaccessible areas.

Two lumpy jaw during the year.

Individual assistance was given to several ranchers during the year in disease problems and in­ juries to cattle.

A listing service :b:f< cattle for sale is prepared each year and mailed to prospective buyers.

Assistance is given the



Cattle Growers Associati on in their annual meeting and in plans for their monthly meetings.


The county agent is assisting in the TB and Bangs control program dairy cattle.

There is' no

TB in dAiry cattle in the county and only a an small number of

Bangs reactors.

One milk fever control demonstration was held in the during the year.

Assistance was given a number of horse owners handling of distemper.

There are only a few commercial


floc�s in Gila

County, and therefore assistance must necessarily be of iIldi vidual type.

This assistance pertains primarily to feedi'ng, pousing, 8l1d disease control.

Considerable assistance has been given in the compounding of rations for poultry.

Poor quality, yet high-

];I"i ced

, teeds have caused several poultry.menL: to go out of business.


Three grain sorghum test plots with twelve varieties of.

sorghums planted in ],948.

The lack of rainfall caused the abandonment of these plots.

Tests will be rerun in 1949.

Several planting of permanent pasture

'Were made on irrigated farms during the year.

A few small orchards in th e county require that an orchard project be carried.

Dill was recommended for the control ot codling moth and proved ver.y successful.


'With au methods for lphur thrips for red in two spider orchards also were proved very successful.

suggested, the

Control recommendation being tree that the spray be put on before the blossoms opened.

One fruit grafting demonstration was held and a number ot pruning demonstra­ ti ons

, on

The home in the garden project of the Extension Service has been carried county for several years.

Adapted varieties, cultural prac­ tices, and disease and insect control have been included in this program.

Four meetings were held during the year on farm fire and safety programs for rural people.


Two 4-H clubs were organized during the year and given assistance carrying on their work.

They were both insect clubs.

Meetings were held, end achievanent days at the conclusion of the work.

Assistance was given the San Carlos

Indian tribe at an


Fair at San Carlos in


Assistance was crops and given in planning the

Fair, also in judging the livestock exhibited by the Indians.



County agricul­ tural agent also judged at the

Navajo County and

Apache COl.mty

Fairs duriIlg the fall months.





The relationship between the Extension Service and other agencies organizations in Graham

County is excellent.

The county agent works closely with the chambers of commerce in the county.

the rural churches.

and the local service clubs.

Good cooperation is received trom the County

Farm Bureau.

The bers in the


National Bank: assists in financing

4-H club mem­ purchase of better livestock.

Other local business concerns are also very cooperative.

The spraying program for the oontrol of lice and flies in the county is being continued, as is the warble oontrol program.

One demon­ stration was pressure given showing sprayer.

the spraying of cattle with 350 to 400 lb.

using 4 Ibs. of benzene hexachloride.

5 lbs.

of 5% rotenone.

and 10 Ibs.

of wettable sulphur mixed in 100 gallons of water.

65 were in a tteIldance at this demonstration.

Assistance has been to given hog men.

in the control of lice and internal parasites with hogs.

Work with program hogs is being encouraged through at the local packing plant was

4-H club work.

A established.

fly control

The dairy extension program is built around several phases of dairying.





Association is well under way.

after having been set up in

1947, and receives considerable assistance fran the county houses have been agricultural agent.

Plans for dairy barns and milk­ given to several dairymen in the county.


:ta va also been assisted in the control of dairy cattle diseases and insect pests.

Cooperation is given in the

Bangs and TB test programs.

One meeting was' held with 40 dairymen present to di scuss the question of artificial insemination of dairy cattle.

There are few commercial poultrymen in Graham.


but a large number of individual small farm flooks.

One was also given to poultry culling demonstration was held.

Assistance poultrymen in the control of parasites, in their housing problems.

and in the purchase of better quality baby chicks.

In put years,


County farmers depended largely upon the flOW' of water in the

Gila River for their irrigation water supply.

When use supplemental of water became necessary. wells were dug.

However, the this well water has increased the salt content of the land.

A soils project has been set up to develop proper handling methods of soils with high salt content.

Soil samples and water samples have been taken and sent to the soils laboratory at the University_

One meeting was held with 55 farmers soil amendments.

A present to discuss soil analysis and necessary project was set up to test the problem of hard spots in alfalfa fields.

Soil samples from both hard spots end adjoin­ ing normal spots were taken, but the analyses showed no great difference.

Assistance bas been given farmers in running levels on their land in order to improve water distribution and water penetration.

One-half of the irrigated acreage in Graham

CoUnty is in cotton" mostly

California Acala.

In an effort to use improved varieties of cotton, two meetings were held to discuss cotton varieties.

As a result at these meetings.

over one-third of the cotton grown in 1948 was the




New Mexico 15-17 test, strain, which is resistant to wi lt

A field variety using six varieties of cotton, was planted in -three locations in order to determine best adapted varieties of cotton.

This test proved that the 15-17 New Mexico cotton was the most resistant to wilt.

It also yielded well.

The ccurrby agent oooperates olosely with the Crop


Association in the production of pure seed.

A field test of commercial fertilizer was set up on one farm to determine the results trom the fertilization of cotton.


African alfalfa is growing of a small acreage of being recommended on a trial basis.

Work continues to be done in the seleotion of corn varieties adapted to Graham.

County conditions.

Results to date indicate that the local Mexican June corn still is the best the adapted corn for the county.

Assistanoe was given


Station in the annual field day at the Graham.




The 250 acres of pecans in the valley require considerable attention end help from the county extension agent.

Assistance is given in budding, grafting, rosette control, fertilization and general cultural in

Graham practices.

Chlorosis bas been a serious problem in fruit trees


Eleven field tests were carried on in 1948 using iron

,sulphate and

�ron citrate as controls for chlorosis.

An effort to locate a curly top resistant tomato proved unsuccessful.

Home beautification and landscaping is an important phase of the extension program.

Five rose pruning demonstrations were given during the year.

Ten demonstra­ tions were given on the pruning of fruit trees, with 55 people in attendame.

Colored slides and motion pictures are being used success­ fully in the co unty in an effort to encourage home beautification.

Newspaper publicity and radio talks were presented on home beautif'ice.tion.

Weed control is a project of the


Service in the coUIIty.

Tests on the spraying effective if started of

Johnson grass indicate that spraying can be early in the life of the plant.

Six field test plots for the control of bindweed with 2;4-D were set up.

Eradication ms not been too successful to date.

Three field tests horse nettle were successful, using

2:4;"D for only one spraying being neoessary.

Field tests for the conbrol of other weeds were

Considerable assistance was given fairly successful using 2,4-D.

during the year in the rodent control programs which in the county.

Chief among these rodents is the pocket gopher, severely damages canal banks and alfalfa stands.

A cotton

Insect pests continue to be a serious problem in



insect control program.

has bean.

carried on for several years in the county.

Insect counts are taken and when insect populations become during serious the year dusting in various locations, recommendations are sent out.

Two fi eld insects, meeting a were held to acquaint farmers with cotton sweeping technique, and dust controls.

For the first time, benzene hexachloride has been included in the dust mixture for the con­ trol of stink: during bugs.

The grasshopper

81 tuation was watched closely the year in an effort to determine the need for baiting.




baiting was necessary in

1948, but in 1949 will be watched closely.

"Chlordane dust has been recommended tor the control of ants in Graham




Five 4-H Ii vestook 'uiubs were organiz ed, and one

4-H crops club was organized in Graham

County in 1948, maki n gat

0 tal six clubs in six communities.

Livestock judging and of demonstration teams were trained and taken to the 4-H club Roundup at Tucson.

They also com­ peted at the Tucson Livestock


Club manbers were assisted financially in purchasing improved livestock by the


National Bank.



Fann Bureau and the local Kiwanis Club assisted club members to the financially in sending

Roundup; Eighteen.

4-H club boys had entries in Ii ve­ stock at the


4-H Club



Fair in



Twenty individuals attended the at the



With the in Greenlee exception of 2,500 acres under irrigation, the land

County is given over almost entirely to the production of beef' cattle.

The extremely dry weather of the la st few years has severely reduced range carrying capacities.

The drought was most notice­ able in the southern


of the county where altitudes are somewhat lower.

ApF oximately one-third of the irrigated land is used in the produotion of cotton.

Other crops grown include alfalfa, grain sorghums, and truck orops.

The extreme reduction in oattle drought of the last few years has forced a decided numbers, espeoially in the southern part of the county.

With reduced numbers of cattle on the range, their condition was somewhat improved over the last few years despite the drought.

Many cattlemen have bought small far.m.s

in order to produce supplemental feed and pasture.

The spray program set up by the county extension p±':8ice for'the control of lice, grubs, ticks, and flies has not been fully adopted throughout the county.

However, progress is being made.

The supplemental feeding of range oattle with a mixture of cottonseed and salt ba s been. advocated during the year and followed by many of the oattleEn.

Several demonstrations on blackleg vaccination were given by the agent during the summer months.

Also included in this demonstra­ tion was the proper method ot castration of calves.

An experimental project on the conf:irol of pinkeye through the use of trisulphanol was set up during the fall months.

Ranchers were given assistance with management problems throughout the year.

The county agent assisted the TB and

Bangs control program with dairy cattle owners.

Eight cases of milkfever were diagnosed and treated during July and August.

Complete instructions were given on the feeding ot dairy cows in an effort to eliminate or reduce milkfever cases.

The intravenous injection ot calcium gluoonate is a standard practice with dair,

A mastitis control program was established at the only dairy in the Duncan


Sanitary precautions are being taken and penicillin



sticks used.

Ten demonstrations with 30 individuals present were held by the agent on the abdominal method of the castration of young pigs.

This method has three trom.

screw advantages worms, and less

namely, faster healing, less danger danger from injury by other animals

Poultry flocks are greatly r'educed in numbers over previous years.

The extension poultry program recommends the purchase of accredited baby chicks.

The greatest need or poultry producers in Greenlee

County 'is better equipment and more attention to sanitation methods.

This is included in the exten­ sion program.

The extension program in soils


based on three important soil problems


plowing improperly le�eled land, low under of all crop fertility, residues for soil and poor soil structure.

improvement is recommended together with the use of green manures.

Fanners are also encouraged to plow their land rough and leave it in that condition during the winter in order to improve soil structure and increase the moisture cont ent.

Much assistance has been given farmers in the leveling of their land.

Field tests of fertilizer on cotton were established in



Sulphate of ammonia, treble superphosphate, and a node fertilizer check plot were set up.

Fertiliz ers were applied at different rates in order to check the proper application rate.

Two plots were also set up in a field of oats and.

a field of alfalfa to check fertilizer response.

Results to date are inconclusive.

Soil samples and water samples continue to be taken and sent to the

University laboratory to determine 'oil needs and the that quality of the water used for irrigation.

Tests to date indicate organic matter is the biggest need in


County soils.

A fertilizer test was established on a fall lettuce field with the tion of 250 lbs.

of applica­

26% ammonium sulphate.

The contrast between the fertilized and unfertilized lettuce


so great that the farmer is planning to fertilize his entire lettuce crop in

1949 with ammonium sulphate.

the land.

A major problem in


County is the proper leveling of

Acreage of cotton in


County in 1948 was approximately

2,000 acres, all of which was planted to the

New Mexico 15-17 Acala variety, alnost entirely to the wilt resistant strain.

Assistance was given farmers in securiDg registered seed for planting purposes.

In turn, this registered seed produces certified seed, which is sold in both New Mexico and Arizona.

Some foundation seed was secured and allotted to three farmers in the Valley.

The county agent works closely with th e


Valley Pure

Seed Association.

The agent assists the

Association in the establishment of seed price of certified and quotas and the registered seed.

In an attempt to eliminate any dissatisfaction among growers, the tered seed was made the same to the price grower.

for certified and

The price is, regis­ of course, sanewha t different to the purchaser.

A meeting of cotton growers was held early in the year to discuss the possibility of cooperating



New Mexioo in their lint certification program.

Eight cotton produc­ ers attended the registered meeting.

district and the farmers


County is a one variety cotton cooperate fully in th e growiDg of their and certified seed.

The Association markets the seed tor the tarmers.




Another phase of the.

cotton program of the Extension the ins ect oontrol program.

Cotton fields were checked

Service regularly tor was insect populations and insect damage.

Dusting during the year was un­ necessary.

Government grades on cotton produced in

1948 were the highe st ever received.


Assistance was the year.

given farmers in their small grain production

Alfalfa variety test plots established in 1947 were checked carefully in 1948.

In this test, African, India, and Chilean 21-5 are being compared.

Little difference is noted in yield to date.

One test checking and adaptability the value ot guar as a green manure _s established in 1948.

A home beautification project carried by the county agent is show­ ing definite results.

Two demonstrations on the pruning of shade trees were given at the high school during the year.

The effective control of caterpillars on cottonwood trees was secured through spraying with lead arsenate.

Two demonstrations were given on the control of weeds in lawns,

2,4-D being used as the spray material.

A home beautification program pu·t; on by the Rotary Club of Duncan is being given assistance by the county. agent.

Potatoes and onions continue to be the chief vegetables grawn commercially in -the county.

acres of


of onions and thirty-five potatoes were grown commercially in the county.

Considerable assistance was given by the agent in insect and disease control on both

�hese crops.

As a result of previous test for adapted varieties, the

White Rose potato is being used exclusively.

Eighty acres of cantaloupe were planted in


Disease control assistance was given melon growers as requested.


Some work is being


done on demonstrations were presented during chlorosis in orchards in the county.

the year.

Iron sulphate is recommended.

A circular letter on the spraying of fruit trees was sent to all producers prior to spraying time.


The storing of water in the soil through winter irrigation is a practice recommendation' of the Extension Service.

Assistance was gi ven in a rodent comrol program throughout the county.

Several demonstrations on the use of sprays for the control of weeds were given during the year.

The use of

2,4-D sprays on

.field bindweed has proved fairly satisfactory.


4-H clubs were organized in


Leaders were secured for these clubs and a


among the boys.

program outlined for the year.

Judging practice and demonstration team training were carried on during the year, with the teams m.embers

participating also exhibited their in the


at Tucson.

Club projects at the Greenlee



Clubs met regularly throughout the year, with an achievement meeting at conclusion of their work.





A great deal of assistance was given by th e agent to various organizations in the county.

A fly control campaign was carried on by the agent in Duncan end

C lifton, and in other smaller areas throughout the county.

Publicity on fire carried prevention and accident prevention was throughout the year.

Assistance was given the Fair

Commission in planning and conducting the Greenlee



The county agent cooperated closely with the




Growers Association, the U. S.

Employment Service, the Em.plo�ent

Security Commission" the

Farmer� Home Administration, the


Administre.tion, the

Agrioul­ tural Conservation

Program, and the Soil Conservation Service.


With mor e than half the irrigated land in the state in


County, this county is the largest and most important agricultural coUDty in the state.

Chief crops are cotton, alfalfa, grain sorghums, barley, and wheat.

Livestock cattle, enterprises: center around the fattening of beef dairying, poultry, and sheep.

The extension program is built around the problems vrhich have appeared in the county.

The county agricultural agent cooperates closely with the many different agencies and organizations in the co.unty

the Soil Conservation

Service, the



Program, the chambers of connnerce, and the any commodity organizations of the farmers in the county.




Improvement Program is an important phase of extension work.

In 1948, 172 herds with over

7,000 cows were on test in the


the number





county showed an increase of

7Cf/o in

The se seven both number associations of herds and of cows under test in


Considerable assistance has been given by the county agent in disease control of dairy animals.

Assist­ ance wi th feed rations has also been important.

Many requests come in during the year from poultrymen in the coun�y.

277 requests for infor­

Dation on poultry diseases were received


the year.

The extension program stresses the and purchase of quality baby chicks, the proper feeding housing of laying pullets and hens, and proper sanitation and disease control.

Several fertilization tests were carried on by the county agent during the year.

Prior to fertilization, soil samples were taken in an effort to analyze the needs of the soil.

Test work with phosphate appli­ cation indicates that soils which will respond to phosphate fertilization will have a higher phosphate basis.

This is a most test on a important dry soil basis than on a wet soil determination of the work with fertiliz­ ers.


It is not conclusiVe, but will be followed up in future years to its accuracy.

Field fertilization tests were carried on with barley, definite results being found from the use of nitrogen fertiliza­ tion.

A total of six field test plots were established to check ferti­ liz er needs of small grains, cotton, and sorghum.

Results to date indicate that definite results can be expected from the use of nitrogen fertilizer on small grains.




In field crop rotati ons crop work, 27 individual were assisted in for their farms.

A large part of one agent t working out s time is spent in assisting the



Improvement ings of the Association were held during the



to discuss

Ten meet­ va.rious


The pure seed program as carried on by the

Crop Improvement

Associa ti on is rather extensive.

163 growers made certification of

23,167 acres of appli cation for grain sorghums, consisting of twelve varieties.

3,609 acres of small certified seed purposes.

grains were approved for registered and

This was for oats, barley, and wheat.

1,476 acres of Chilean 21-5 and African alfalfa were

Santan Acala cotton seed were accepted.

471 acres of accepted, and 170 acres of

Punjab flax.

In this


Improvement Association program, the county agent accepted applications from growers, sent out information regarding regulations for handling and grovting th.

e crops, made the necessary inspections dur­ ing the growing season, and made final inspections prior to harvest.

Combine inspections, gin inspections, and seed house inspections were made at the for proper times.

A large acreage of seed was thus produced planting both within and without the state.

An exhibit at the

State Fair shoured the work of the Crop Improvement


The extension program on alfalfa in

Maricopa County is likewise an important one.


The'program deals priJIarily with cultural practices, fertilizing, control, and the production of quality alfalfa hay.

Assistance was given during the year in setting up a hay and seed grading service tor farmers and dealers.

Assistance was given in the

Gins were contacted and the



Classing program.

necessary information gathered on the cotton producers.


Necessary papers were signed in order to secure this classing

Twelve method.

demonstrations on the trees, grapes, and ornamentals were viduals.

These demonstrations were ties.

93 individuals were assisted pruning of deciduous fruit presented and attended by

358 indi­ presented in ten different communi­ during the year in the

,pruning or various end types of plants.

Three method demonstrations on the topAworking budding of pecans were presented during the year, with a total of

81 people in attendance.

One demonstration

On the care and processing of is dates was presented to 46 individuals at a meeting.

Citrus production important in

Maricopa County and project work is carried on with citrus grove owners.

trees were

Three attended method demonstrations on the budding of young ci true by

81 individuals.

26 individuals were assisted in top working mature grapefruit trees into �·,�',other varieties.

A root stock: variety test was also established.

Weed control is an important problem in Maric0I=6- County receives close attention from the county agent's office.


Information on weed control was furnished in 1948 to

211 different individuals.

A weed control test not too plot on flax was carried throughout the year.

Results were satisfactory, which indicates that the control program is not tull,.

worked out.

Two weed control demonstrations conducted in th� county showed rather good results.

The, clipping of alfalfa was demonstrated as



one method of killing young weeds in alfalfa.

Clean cultivation was danonstrated as a method of controlling weeds.

The use of

2.4-D has been proved very satisfactory on certain weeds, as demonstrated by five weed control plots established in the county.

Irrigation practice is important in

Maricopa County.

With a shortage of irrigation water.

uti lization must be effected.

A problem arose in citrus groves where water was limited to two acre feet.

A badly defoliated condition appeared and in some cases the trees died.

Thorough testing by the county agent ulation due to insufficient water t s office indicated that salt accum­ supplies


probably the cause.

The matter is being looked into further.

Several field tests were set up during the year to determine the necessary soil treatment to secure water penetration.

Insect and disease control problems continue to be pare.mount


Maricopa County.

353 individuals were given advice on insect control duri� the year.

Tartar emetic has been fairly effective throughout the years in, the control of thrips,


there is reason to believe that thrips are now becoming somewhat resistant to this spray.

Tests are be­ ing made with DDT as a control measure for thrips.

Damage to new growth on top-worked citrus trees is in evidence.

Apricot damage by thrips was controlled through a spray mixture of


wettable DIYr at the rate of

6 to 8 lbs. per 100 the fruit is young.

the necessary bait s gallons of water.

This spray should be applied when

Four meetings were held on grasshopper control and put out for control on several thousand acres in the county.

The us e of chlordane and chlorinated camphene on harvester ants was tested and is being recamnended.

Insect pest control was discussed at two garden club meetings held during the year.

539 individuals were assisted with disease control problems during the year.

handle d

An emergency situation arose by the county agent's during the year and was quickly offic e.

Indi vidual citrus trees and even entire groves citrus began to die.

In an effort to fully solve this problem, specialists from

California were brought to the valley to make a survey.

At the citrus growers conclusion of the survey a meeting was held with 150 present, at which time citrus growers were told that the quick decline which had been so injurious in California was not the cause of the present problem.

They did find some other problems and the exten­ sion oftice was made solutions.

The fully acquainted with these other problems and the previous recommendation of the Extension

Service that trees budded on rough lemon stock were shorter lived and less tolerant of salt was verified cided that the by the California specialists.

It was finally de­ death of the citrus trees was due primarily to insuffi­ cient water.

salt accumulatid>n.

and in certain cases nematode injury.

The cantaloupe' acreage in the valley is a large one and presents nany in ins ect and disease cantaloupe fields problems.

Mosaid was found to be quite prevalent throughout the valley.

A survey was made and it was determined that the disease was seed borne.

Crown many deciduous fruit trees and o rnamerrt aLs in the gall is prevalent on valley.

Chlorosis is likewise a problem and is being worked on by the county agents.




Twenty-nine communities in

Maricopa County carried 4-H club work


42 local leaders assisted in this program of 4-H club work.

During the year livestock judging schools were held and participated in by a large number of livestock club members.

later on, these livestock judging members competed at the annual 4-H club fair and at the 4-H

Roundup in Tucson.

Six field days have been held for the purpose of giving instructions in judging.

Seven local junior fairs were held where 4-H club boys and girls competed.

The annual 4-H Club Fair was held as usual with 1506 entries.

Club members also participated in the annual State Fair and the Tucson and



A total of 709 boys girls were enrolled in agricultural

4-H club work, with 438 complet­ ing their work.

,Thirty-five students at the Arizona State

College at

Tempe carried on a leadership training course at the college with of them completing the work.

A leadership training conference was


held early in the club year for the purpose of training leaders for the coming year's work.

Fifty leaders were in attendance, including several junior leaders.

This prog� discussed the local, state, and national contests, the year's program for club work, projects, record keeping, and other matters pertinent to 4-H club work.

The leadership group from Arizona State

College conducted the annual 4-H Club Fair.

Cfhe fat stock auction was held at the conc

Iusd on of the Fair, at which time 17 head of fat steers and a considerable number of members hogs and sheep were sold.

Fifty-five Maricopa County 4-H club attended the annual 4-H Club

Roundup and competed in the various contests, and including judging contests, fitting and showmanship contests, demonstration team contests.

Two junior leaders and five adult leaders also attended.

Teams were selected for judging at the state


Club members also share of the awards.

competed for national contests, winning their

Twenty-eight boys and girls attended the 4-H summer camp at Prescott.


Range livestock production is the most important phase of agri­ culture in



As a result of more rainfall in 1948, range conditions have from the county improved somewhat over the previous year.

Assistance agricultural agent and the Extension Service has been prinarily along the line of a disease and insect control and pod son weed control program.

'Calf pneumonia has been a problem again in 1948, and the county

A lice and agent is stressing a program of vaccination prior to shipping.

fly control program and a grub control program on cattle has bean fully established, but not as widely received as desired.

Range management practices have also received attention from the c ounby agent's office.

Supplemental feeding cottonseed and meal in the has been proportion encouraged, primarily of three to one or a mixture four to one.


Additional range of stock improvements have been made during the year in the rom watering tanks and spreader dams.

A cedar control plot has been



set up in the

A county to test the best means of eradication of cedar.

juniper test eradication plot is receiving consideration.

and is moder.n

in the

Assistance cont inues to be beginning given to the dairymen of the county to show results.

Several of the dairies have made

�provements in their equipment, and all of the larger dairies county now have pasteurizers.

Some also have homogeniz ers


All of the milk in the county is marketed through one of the dairies that has modern equipment throughout.

The poultry industry in the" county is on the upgrade.

Assistance ha s been given in one area to the organiza­ tion of a cooperative which plans to build a processing and frozen food locker to carry poultry, meat, and eggs from surplus periods into per­ iods of shortage.


Grain production in

Navajo County is primarily for local needs.

county agent is encouraging the use of fertilizers to increase pro­ duction on irrigated and dry farm lands.

A great deal of assistance is being given to the irrigation problems in the county.

This includes water supplies, as well as distribution and methods of application.

A settling pond is in reduces operation tremendously in the one area.

amount of

This si settling pond

It carried on or to the desilting land.


Assist­ ance has been given irrigation companies in the improvement of their dit ches and river embankments.

In an effort to more nearly determine the needs of the soil, many soil samples have been taken during the year.

Fertility, ti llage practices, watering, and irrigation methods are the ohief problems.

Lack of organic matter is also a serious problem, and through a program of encouragement of the hoped that this problem can be solved.

growing of green manures it is

The home garden projeot is an important one in


County, and considerable assistance is gi van to home gardeners farmers were assisted in disease and insect control in this problem.

problems during

Truck the year.

A weed control program for the and Russian knapweed control of bindweed, camelthorn has bean established.

The new weedicides are


being us ad on these demonstration trial plots.

Fifty-two club members were enrolled in club work during the year, primarily in livestock and crop projects.

Meetings were held by club members and achievement days held at the conclusion of their work.

Club members also attended the annual 4-H Club

Roundup at




The Pima

County agricultural agent cooperated closely with local, state, and national agencies during the year.





Improvement Association, the Southern Arizona Poultry Association, the



Fair Commission


the Tucson Livestock Show Commission



Soil Conservation Service


Service were a few of the and the Pima

County Agricultural

Conservation organizations with which the Pima

County agent




The very closely.

Local farmer commodity groups were also assisted.

Dairy Herd Improvement Association now has 21 herds, with

1,501 cows on test.

Three herds are on official test.

Considerable assistanoe was given men to the Southern Arizom in the


Assooiation, a group of 200 poultry­ oounty.

Monthly meetings were held, the agent assisting in the in preparation of the program.

Assistance was disease control, feeding, and culling.

given poultry producers

One demonstration on soil amendments was carried in 1948.

The application of sulphur showed little result, possibly due, in the agent's opinion, to laok of sufficient water to leach thoroughly.

No improvement in crop yields was noticed through the application of sulphur.

A field test' on the fertilization of cotton was carried test was for throughout the year.

The type of fertilizer as well as placement and time of applica­ tion.

Result s to date are rather inconclusive.

It would appear from the test that fertilization on poor soils is very worthwhile.

Four cotton variety tests were carried throughout the year.

These tests compared two new varieties with the old standard its u1timte variety.

To conclusion, a bale of cotton from each oarry the test to variety planted was sent to the mills in the east for sent to lAboratories for the spinning.

Split samples were also testing of stapl,e length, quality, etc.

Several meetings were held during the year, at which time information on cotton varieties was presented.

One meeting with farmers dealt with in­ sect counts and dusting procedures.

The county agent assisted in the increase of three newly developed varieti es of cotton.

Farmer coopera­ tion was secured in a seed increase program of these three new vari aties.

The the county agent worked closely with the Crop Improvement

Association in produotion of pure seed.

Field tests were also carried on the appU.­ cation of ammonium factory results.

sulphate and ammonium phosphate to barley with satis­

Permanent pastures are receiving some attention from the county agent.

Fertiliza.tion trials on permanent pastures are bing na de in an attempt to secure increased production.

The extension program.

also includes a projeot on alfalfa production.

Field tests with phosphs.

tes indicate that increased yields b:f'c alfalfa hay can be secured with the proper application of phosphates.

Broadcasting on the surface gave very poor results.

Peanut production has bean an important develop­ ment of the last two or three years.

Considerable assistance was given to the few peanut growers in the c ounty

� Fertilization tests were carried on in an effort to build this new tests and agricultural variety indus­ try.

Ehdouragement bas been given in tlae growing of home gardens in the county; the planting of small home orchards

peaches. plums, and apricots

a is being encouraged.

Home beautification arid landscaping is likewise project in the county extension program.

Weed control through the use of oil sprays and

2.4-D has been encouraged.

Tests are being made on the most effective sprays to use for Johnson grass and bindweed.





4-H clubs.

with a total enrollment of

242, and completions

101, were carried in boys' and girls' olub work in Pima

County in 1948.

Completion peroentages were high.

Aotivities during the year included the training of judging and demonstration

Tucson, the 4-H Club Fair, and the annual teams for the livestock show at

Roundup at the University.

Twenty radio talks were gi ven during the year pertaining primarily to the

4-H club program.

club members.

264 farm and home visits were made to

Twenty tours were taken by projects of 4-H club members to visit other projects and for judging training purposes.

Achievement days were held at the conclusion of the year's work.


The extension program in Pim.1

County serves all twenty-one com­ munities in the county.

During 1948,

460 farm visits were made; 1,650 office calls were received; and

770 telephone calls.

178 news stones were prepared for publication.

A news column entitled n

Front, was carried in the f our local papers.

UA10ng the Farm.

Wor k with livestock prodoo ers was carried on in sixteen communi­ ties.

Twenty farmers were furnished information on feeding practices" eighteen on external parasite oontrol, and fifteen on internal parasite control.

The is a definite spray program for the control of lice



and grubs phase of the extension program.

Assistance was given to hog producers in the county in an outbreak of cholera in several small herds.

The agent works tion.

Assistance was closely given to with the




Associa­ dairymen in nine connnunities in the county, emphasizing principally better feeding practices


the use of green pa ebur e

, and grain feeding.

Cooperation has been furnished the Bureau of Plant

Industry in the

Bangs disease eradication program.

Five days were spent with poultry growers in the c oun1?1; with assistance being given to 21 pro­ ducers in 18 communities.

paper articles

Poultry production was emphasized during the year.

in six news­

Assi stance in field crops was gi ven in

19 of the 21 communities in the county.

The agent worked closely with the Crop Improvement

Asso­ oiation prog� in the certification of practically 3.500

acres of grain sorghums,

647 acres of

'barley, 59 acres of

Markton oats, and 23 acres of

Punjab flax.

A field test on small grain fertilization was carried out very successfully, indicating soils.

The treatment of seed the value of fertilizers on low fertility grain was stressed.

Twelve farmers were assisted in securing improved varieties of alfalfa seed, fourteen were assisted in the control of injurious insects.

seven in the control of noxious weeds.

and four in the protection of their crops from rodents.

A test to planting or winter peas has been made in one area in an effort determine their value as a green manure crop.

With cotton a principal crop in the growers.


48 days of the agent's time were spent with cotton

Eleven local leaders assisted the program in twelve communities.

65 farm and home visits were made regarding cotton.

A five varieties of' cotton was established to determine variety test of adapted varieties.




Three fertilization tests were established on testing the value of cotton.

Five local leaders assisted in a soil reclamation fertilizers project.

A tann level owned by the county agent's office has been used very effectively during the year by

57 farmers.

A project to determine the benefits from deep plowing has been set up.

'The prinary purpose of this deep plowing is to mix some of the sand at lower depths with the heavier surface soil, thus aiding water penetration.

The lining of irrigation ditches is being stressed by the county agent.

17 different soil analyses and 18 water analyses were made to aid in soil reclamation work.


A siderable home garden project is being carried in the county, with con­ publicity included.

Preparation of the soil, fertilization, practices, and disease and insect control are included in this project.

Home beautification is an important phase of the extension pro­ gram.


The growing of ornamental plants, landscaping of the grounds around house, and control

�f insects and diseases on these ornamental plants is included in this program.

Newspaper publicity and radio programs are pfesented on this project.

Assistance has been given to market, garden, and truck crop growers in the county through improved seed, fertilization, and disease control infornation.

The county agent las worked with 32 farmers in developing farm plans, wi.:hh 16 in analyz ing their farm. busd.neas

, and with 21 in discussing better leasi� arrangements.

Assistance has been given farmers in the narketing or t heir products, including the marketing of flax, alfalfa seed, cotton, and barley.

Fifty-five visits were made primarily in community welfare vities.

Assistance was acti­ given to the



Research Committee in determination of water supplies of 178 news stories were and water prepared and needs for the published.


Assistance was

A total given tarmers in their fann labor activities.

The agent pa.rticipated

in four meetings with a total of' 147 farmers" pointing out the need for a labor recruitment program for cotton picking.

The program was established.

206 farm and home visits were made in furtherance of the 4-H club program in the county.

167 telephone calls and 476 office calls were received in


of the 4-H club program.

79 news articles were the inlierats of

4-H club work.

prepared in

165 boys and girls were enrolled in agricultural 4-H clubs during the year in eight communities.

Activities engaged in by club members during the year included the 12th annual Pinal




Fair, at which a were mjority of club members made exhibits.

950 separate exhibits displayed, an increase of' 400 over the 1947 Fair.

There were eight boys demonstration teams, six livestock judging teams at the

4-H Club

Fair, which was attended by

7,000 people.




As sistance was also given during the year to the Women's Club


and this group held their exhibit at the 4-H Club Fair.







club members from Pinal

County attended the annual

Roundup at Too son.

The county agent put on a

4-H club summer camp for

PiIIll., Greenlee, Graham, and

Pinal counties, with 95 club members in attendance.


The county agent's office in Yavapai County continued to cooperate closely with various local and state organizations in the county.

Close cooperation was had with the Yavapli

Cattle Growers

Association, and with other farmer organizations in the county.

Assistance was given in planning their programs, and in.

carrying out those programs.


Bangs and TB pro­ grams with dairy cattle received considerable assistance from the agent during the year.

Some assistance was given to the Mohair Growers Associa­ tion, which has only six members at the present time.

Dairymen were assisted with pasture

:n:arketing of their management products.

The problems poultry


feeding problems, industry in the and the county is in­ creasing in importance after several years of downtrend.

Several new and inexperienced operators are going into the poultry business, and they make r epeabed calls on the agent for assistance.

Three operators were assisted in disease remodeling their poultry buildings.

One case of Newcastle appeared in a laying flock.

The soils program is an different soil conditions important one in

Yavapai County.

Many require a number of different methods of handling.

Soil amendment tests are also been being carried on in the county.

Attention has given during the year to a chlorotic condition in certain crops.

The ot county agent cooperated with the wells in several areas in the


Station in the measurEment county in an effort to determine the underground cates a water lowering supplies of and water movement.

apprOximately one

Information foot per year over the to date indi­ last few years in the water table.

beans in

A rather intensive campaign in the control of diseases on pinto being carried on under the pinto bean proj ect

A survey was made or the various diseases present and a circular letter sent to all producers in anticipation of the problems which might arise.

Proper seed treatment and the securing of disease tree seed were included in this project.

A seed treating project on a community-wide basis is being planned tor 1949.

A test on bean varieties gave no conclusive results.

Work with permanent pastures for dairymen in the county is continuing.

Fruit production is important in

Yavapai County.

This project included the diSSEmination of information on prumng; spraying, and cul­ tural practices to all orchardists in the county.

Two tomato variety test plantings were made during the year, with results rather Lncon­ clusi vee

The weed control program is an important phase of the extension program, but considerable more test work must be done before final



recommendations can be made.

Plant diseases and insect diseases are round in almost every part of the county and require constant attention.


Two 4-H clubs were organized during the year and carried through completions.

Club members attended meetings, held an annual achieve­ ment day, and attended the annual 4-H


Roundup at Tucson.

A vegetable judging team from one of the clubs was taken to the




The an

The Yuma

County extension office faced new problems in 1948.

opening of new lands of the Gila

Project brought new problems with entirely new type of soil.

Some background information was avail­ able for the handling of these soils, but considerable information re­ mains to be obtained.

'lAben all of the lands in the Gila

Project have been brought under irrigation, the irrigated land in


County will be more than doubke d


Many requests from veterans looking to the open­ ing of this new area were received during the YeAr.

A drawing held distributed 54 units to veterans of this last world war.

Over one-third of the irrigated area in


County is planted to flax.

The extension program on flax deals primarily with weed control in the earlier part of the season and with insect and disease control throughout the grmying period.

A test on flax varieties resistant to fusarium wilt

The brought application out that the of larvacide to

Dakota variety was highly resistant.

soils in an effort to eliminate wi It was not particularly successful.


DD applications showed some possi­ bilities.

Test plots were carried during the year, testing the local varieties of alfalfa


Chilean 21-5 and hairy



African, India, and ranger alfalfas.

From these tests�

African and

India alfalfa tend to lose their stands rather rapidly.

Fertilization tests have fairly well proved the fertilizer needs of alfalfa.


Ranger alfalfa continues to be grown for seed production.

4,650 acres were c ertifi ad under the


Improvement program in 1948.

Bermuda grass continues to be an important seed crop in Yuma


The extension program has been built primarily around insect controls on

Bermuda grass.

Cotton variety tests were carried during 1948" looking to the time when alfalfa acreage might again return to the valley.

Paula' showed to Yuma very well in the tests, and is aprarently rather well adapted

County conditions.

Flax fertilization field tests were carried on in the county in an effort to determine the best fertilizers for flax.

Moore barley was grown in a seed increase project for Minnesota and Wisconsin.

This Moore barley was grown under the regulations of the

Crop Improvanent


Test plantings of sugar beets were made



in an effort to determine the cially.

Assistance was possibility of growing sugar beets commer­ given vetere.ns

on the f'arms on the Mesa in the handling of their soils and in other management dur ing the year.

The county agent's office problems which cooperated closely arose with the

Crop Improvement

Association in 1948.

alfalfa seed were

Approximately certified, 154 acres of small

4,700 grains, acres of and a small acreage of flax.

of truck

A large acreage in crops.


Assistance was their insect and disease control

County is given over to the production given to the vegetable producers with problems, and to a certain extent with their fertilization problems.

The county agent's office has been. work­ iDg closely with melon producers in Yuma County in an attempt to secure a watermelon which is wilt resistant.

Some effort is being made to improve.

certain qualities of cantaloupes grown in the county.

Insect and disease control continues to of the extension program.

The control of red require a lot of time spider in alfalfa fields is an being successfully handled with sulphur.

Clover mite has also become important insect in alfalfa fields and is spreading from alfalfa fields to to cantaloupe fields.

After a series of tests, it was decided dust with 325 mesh sulphur on alfalfa.

Lygus on alfalfa continues to be an important pest.

Tests in recent years indicate that DDT and chlorinated camphene dust is effective.

Soil problems continue to be important in Yuma


A pro­ gr� based on been set up the problem of high water table and improper drainage has for the valley.

The use of high salt content water in the

Roll-Wellton area conbinues to be a problem there.

With the development of

Colorado River water, this problem should be handled satisfactorily.


The 4-H club program in Yuma in the county is approximately

County continues to grow.



67 boys and girls and two leaders attenied the 4-H club camp this year, as


The annual compared with 60 in recognition banquet for club members and club leaders bad an attendance double that of 1947.


4-H club members attended the annual 4-H Club Roundup, four demonstration teams and four livestock judging teams competing at the Roundup.

Fair had double the number of entzies this year as



4-H Club compared with last.

53 beet calves sold at the highest average price ever to be received for fat club calves.


29 calves were exhibited and sold last year.

club council continued to take an active interest in planning

The the club program for the year.

The livestock at the Tucson Livestock Shav.

judging team took first place

Completions in 4-H club work averaged

85% in 1948.






Several changes in personnel were made during the year


In Greenlee



Page resigned, effective June

30, and was trans­ ferred to Cochis e



Sears was named as county agent in


County as of July 1.


From Cochise



Young was transferred to



February of 1948, and Mr.

Page was moved to

Cochise County on July


In Yuma assigned

County, to Yuma


Moody resigned

County as county in

January of 1948, and Mr.

Young was agent.




Young resigned, and Mr.

Face, the assistant county agricultural agent, was later made county agricultural agent.



Maricopa County,

Mr. Harold B.

Powers resigned in November.

replacement has been secured to date.



Yavapai County, Mr.

McLernon resigned February 15, and in following August




Thacker was made county agent.

In Pima





Dishaw resigned, effective and�. Allen was appointed assistant county agricultural

July agent.




The state extension office cies in 1948.

Among cooperated closely with Federal agen­ these were the Soil Conservation

Service, the Pro­ duction &


Administration, the Bureau of Plant

Industry, and the Bureau of Reclamation.

The Extension Service a handbook fo'r the veterans on the Mesa cooperated in prepe.ring

Project and on the



This handbook was prepared in cooperation with the Bureau of


Pt meeting of the Bureau of Plant

Industry and the Bureau of Reclamation in the

Roll-Wellton area was attended.

The primary purpose soil of types this meeting in the

Mohawk was to survey


The and evaluate annual the various meeting areas of the Bureau of and


Industry, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the

University of Arizona, held in

July, 1948, was attended.

At the request of the state project leader of the Food Cons erva­ tion

Program, considerable assistance was given to that program in the latter part of

1947 and in early


This assistance took the form of deter.mining

those enterprises in which feed conservation could be advan­ tageously practiced.

Plans were developed whereby the program would be taken to each of the fourteen counties in the state.

The state supervisor acted as a judge for the state oratorical contest of the Future Farmers of America.






Extension work in Arizona faces a grea�er challengh than ever before.

There is every evidence of surplus production in certain phases of agriculture, and it is quite likely that this surplus situation will be accentuated in the period immediately ahead.

With the development of these surpluses will come declining prices for agricultural products unless the far.m program farm commodities heavy places in rather

'surplus high support prices production.

With under those surpluses and result­ ing decline in prices, there will be additional need for assistance to the farmers in cutting their costs of production and marketing more efficiently.

The Extension Service will be called upon for aid in this situation.

Because of the farm programs in recent years, farmers have been accustomed to contact the county agricultural agent at frequent intervals.

More office calls were received in 1948 than in any year, and there is little previous question but that this practice will continue to increase.

Many veterans and others unaccustomed to farming are going into some phase of agricultural production.

These individuals need deal of assistance and will come first to the county agent's a great office.

More time will be with the required per individual call on these problems than longer established farmers.

Briefly summarized, the need for assistance to far.mers will be much ahead than in any previous greater in the years immediately period.

This increased need must be met through a better planned extension program and through increased personnel.

Probably improvement of the greatest program need within the state is the need for planning.

The increased needs of the rural people can only be met through better planning.

The service phase of extension work is taking an increasingly greater amount sonnel and it will be necessary to plan a of time project of the to meet county persome of +he­ service needs through the mass teaching method.

A basic need in improved planning is better organization of farmers who can give greater support to the extension program.

They will be far more willing to conduct a program which they haxe helped to plan.

The extension program must be planned carefully with all groups, both among farmers and the College of

Agriculture, fully represented.

4-H club work is the most important phase of the extension pro­ gram.

Additional effort must be the club program.

placed on the planning and execution of

County 4-H club programs must be prepared, based on the individuals and the agricultural resources wi thin the county.

Lead­ ership training a county-wide must receive greater event in order that a emphasis greater and each number of county must have club members may partiCipate in the program.




Marketing must receive even greater emphasis it has in the pa sb


With the almost inevitable in the surpluses future than which are accumulating in certain agricultural commodities, improved marketing practice must be developed.

Subject matter needs are rather numerous in the state and effort must be made in 1949 to prepare additional subject matter greater bulletins for use in the state.

Publio policy has become of even greater importance in recent years because of th e agricultural planning which is being done in Washing­ ton.

A great deal of this where there is a better planning should understanding be done of' the needs in the rural and where the areas practic­ ability more of the need for the planning can reorganization be and carefully weighed.

There is a continuing improvement of county offices in order to efficiently serve the needs of the rural people.


In order to satisfactorily meet these increased demands, addi­ personnel is unquestionably needed in the

Extension Service.

On the state staff there is need for several speoialists.

Each field should be under the direction of a addition to present specialist if it is to receive the personnel.

attention necessary.


A soils specialist specialist, a plant pathology speoialist, and a mar­ could be very effectively used in the state office in

In t�e county extension offices there is added need for probably three assistant club work could be u sed to advantage.


Added personnel for 4-H

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