JAMES J. O'DELL,

JAMES J. O'DELL,

ANNUAL REPORT

OF

J.

H.

O'DELL,

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT IN CHARGE

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENTS

JAMES

.R. CARTER

OTIS G. LOUGH

ASSISTANT COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENTS

BOYCE E.

FOEIDfAN

ROBERT

ROBERT

E. GROUNDS

L. HALVORSON

DANIEL G.

HESS

MATTHEW B. LONSDALE

RAY L.

MILNE

LOWELL F.

TRUE

MARICOPA COUNTY

DECEMBER,

1956

TO DECEMBER, 1957

I N D E X

I.

Situation

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II.

Organization-

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III.

Program

Planning-

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IV.

Infonnation

Program

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V.

Projects-

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3.

Horticulture-

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a.

Citrus-

b.

c.

Vegetab1es-

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Deciduous Fruit

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d.

Small Fruit

e.

Nuts-

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f.

Ornamentals

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4.

Livestock

a.

b.

Beef Cattle

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Sheep

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Swine

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c.

d.

Small Animals

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5.

Dairy

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Feeding and

Hanagement-

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Dairy

Herd lmprovement

Association

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Disease and Parasite Control-

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Dairy Organizations

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6.

Poultry and Turkeys

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Feeding and Management-

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Disease and Parasite Control-

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Poultry Organization-

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7.

Agronomy-

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a.

Cotton-

b.

Alfalfa

c.

Small Grains-

d.

e.

Sorghum

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Pasture

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f.

Corn-

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g.

Castor Beans-

h.

Millett

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8.

Irrigation-

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10

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13

15

16

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19

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27

28

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31

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6

6

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35

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10.

Entomology

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Page

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13.

Agricultural Economics

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14.

Plant

Patho1ogy-

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VI.

Outlook and Recommendations-

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39

Summary of Activities

J.

H. O'Dell

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James R. Carter-

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Boyce

E. Foerman

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Robert L. Ha1vorson-

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Daniel G. Hess

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Matthew B.

Lonsdale-

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Otis G.

Lough-

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Lowell F.

True

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43

45

47

48

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52

I.

Situation

Mari,copa County continued to remain the states largest agricultural county.

Approximately 480,000 irrigated areas were farmed to a highly diversified crop and livestock production.

All farms are highly mechanized with elec­ tricity available in all areas and natural gas in some.

Acreage devoted to crops has decreased some

40,000 to 50,000

This has been due to the establishment of acres during residential, the last ten industrial and years.

recre­ ational facilities on lands in the farming areas.

This trend encroaches on farm land, makes farming of areas adjoining such areas more complicated, and above all uses water formerly used for farming.

Cotton continued to be the largest cash crop of the county.

There were approximately 125,000 acres of short staple and

15,500 acres of American­

Egyptian cotton grown this year.

The Soil

Bank program brought about a reduction of some

14,000 acres of short staple cotton when this acreage was put under the plan.

American-Egyptian cotton acreage increased some

7,000 acres over last year due to an increase in the county allotment.

It is estimated that short staple cotton will produce an average of

1,100 pounds of lint per acre while

American-Egyptian will be

700 pounds per acre.

This is approximately five percent below yields of last year.

A total of 62 were gins,

52 for short staple and 10 roller gins for long staple, operating throughout the county.

Of the short staple gins, approximately one-half are equipped with modern lint combers, five are weighing seed, and four have standard density presses.

Under the cotton

Smith-Doxey cotton growers were classing program, one hundred percent of the signed up by Agent Carter in cooperation with the

Maricopa County

Fann Bureau.

Members of the Fam Bureau Cotton Committee assisting in the program were,

K. B.

McMicken, Litchfield

Park;

Ivan Cluff,

Queen Creek;

Clifford

Dobson, Mesa; Spencer Wilson, Buckeye and Percy Smith,

Peoria.

Skip-row planting continued to be a popular method as growers feel this method increases insect yields and improves quality as well as facilitating better control.

From an economical stand point, the practice is still to be proven.

Alfalfa was the principal forage and pasture crop although the acreage drop­ ped some

30,000 acres from last year.

It is estimated that

80,000 acres were grown for hay and pasture while only 6,000 acres were devoted to seed production.

This rather drastic reduction in acreage has been due to losses last year from the effects of the spotted alfalfa aphid and the low price of alfalfa seed.

Where adequate control measures were used, growers produced average or better yields.

Small grains, barle.r, wheat and oats

,are a major cash crop in the county.

Approximately 85,000 acres of barley, 35,000 acres of wheat, 1,500 acres of oats were

Wheat grown for grain with 15,000 acres of barley or oats cut for hay.

gained in acreage this year due to market demand for a better milling wheat.

The Ramona variety was grown for this purpose, which has been the best milling wheat for a number of replacing years.

the Baart 38

Grain crop.

sorghum has been grown in quantity for years as a grain and forage

This year the acreage was estimated at only 50,000 acres for grain and been

25,000 acres for grown silage.

In the past years considerable acreage has for seed to be shipped into the states to the east.

This market has declined due to the hybrid types being grown in that area.

Castor beans and s�ybeans remained as minor crops due to harvesting

problems

which have not as yet been satisfactorily solved.,

Corn for was grown silage mostly was grown on approximately 5,000 acres.

Starr Millet on about

2,000 acres.

Citrus acreage continued to decrease turned into residential areas.

New quite rapidly due to plantings being plantings were limited and did not equal the acreage taken out of commercial production.

The county average was estimated at and

5,500 acres of oranges and tangerines, 4,500 acres of

1,000 acres of lemons.

'vind machines are largely used for grapefruit frost protec­ tion, but some heaters are also used in the colder sections of the valley.

Lettuce production was the main commercial vegetable crop during the year.

--

Approximately 39,000 acres were grown

20,000 acres as a fall crop.

A new area,

19,000 acres as a

Aguila, was spring planted to crop

1800 and acres and was produced the earliest crop ever grown in the county.

The first cutting made October 7th.

Cantaloupe acreage was reduced to only

80 acres in the Salt River were grown on

Valley and 850 acres in the

Harquahala area.

Honeydew melons

720 acres and watermelons totaled

3,800 acres.

Carrots, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, endive, celery and sweet potatoes were grown on approximately 3,500 acres.

Local markets were supplied with mixed vegetables in season by market garden.s, mainly Japanese and Hindu growers.

Acreages of small fruits including grapes remained static during the year as did the acreage of deciduous fruits, dates and pecans.

Fattening beef cattle has become a major operation in the county.

There were

92 feed lots with a capacity of over

200,000 head in operation during the year.

These feed lots finished the state for slaughter.

A over total of two-thirds

260,000 of the head were cattle fattened in finished and marketed largely on the

Los Angeles market.

A few pure-bred beef herds of

Hereford, Angu.s, Shorthorn, Brahman, and Charolaise are maintained in the irrigated parts of the county.

Range operations are confined to the desert areas and fluctuate with the availability of feed on the ranges.

Sheep operations consist of pasturing ewes and lambs on alfalfa and barley during the fall, winter and early spring months.

}lilk-fed lambs are shipped out for Easter trade to eastern and wes tern markets.

ewes are

During the summer the pastured on range land in the higher elevations of the state.

A few pure-bred flocks are maintained in the valley to produce breeding stock for range operations.

Swine production is a minor livestock enterprise but has undergone some expansion during the past year.

Interest in production may cause a rloubling of hog numbers during the corning year.

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Dairying is a major enterprise in the county ,�hich produces about

85% of the state production.

Some 400 herds averaging 85 cows were maintained in the county during the year.

Dairies are mainly of the Grade A type, only a few

Grade D herds exist at present.

Dry lot feeding is rapidly replacing the pasture type

24-hour basis.

operation.

All operations are highly mechanized with many on a

Using mechanical equipment, a milker is expected to milk from

200 to

250 cows in an

8-hour day.

Artificial the breeding is used to service county.

Three private breeding approximately services are one-third available to of the the cows dairymen in of the county.

These services offer one of the widest selections of proven bulls of any such service in the entire United States.

Harketing of milk is carried out under

Federal Milk

Marketing Order 104 which establishes minimum prices which the five major and seven minor distributors must pay.

Four "milk jug" operators are located in the county.

With one-half of the dairy herds of the county participating in the D.H.I.A.

production testing program, this county ranks first, percentage wise, in the nation.

Holsteins predominate but many fine pure-bred herds are maintained by breeders in the area.

In numbers

Jersey, Guernsey, Ayrshire, Milking and Brown Swiss follow in that order.

Shorthorn

At are present there are some

400 commercial poultry farms in the county.

These mainly for egg production since only about 25 percent of the total egg consumption is produced locally.

The average size of the 400 flocks is

1,800 birds although larger producers maintain from 5,000 to

15,000 bird flocks.

Cage operations predominate although this system has not proven the most economical for the area.

Turkey production declined during the year due to limited markets and in­ adequate processing and storage facilities.

Farm size has increased

All farms are slightly during the year and land prices remain high.

highly mechanized to cut down on labor costs.

Land is rapidly being levelled and irrigation ditches cement-lined or tiled to get greatest efficiency from irrigation water.

Sprinkler operations are few and limited in scope.

}.!any

fine fann dwellings have been built during the year.

In conducting the extension service program in the county, every effort has been made to get timely infomation to fanners and home owners in the area.

Television to a limited extent, radio, newsletters, circular letters, articles in daily, weekly and semi-monthly papers, extension service circulars,

University of Arizona and U. S. D. A. bulletins and reports, meetings and field days have been used as means of disseminating this information.

Field days have been held at the three

University of Arizona to

Experiment

Stations acquaint farmers and other interested persons with research work being conducted on farm well as crops.

Farm visits by extension service staff members as phone and office calls by farmers are also used to further the effectiveness of the program.

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II.

Organization

The Maricopa

County

Extension Service staff is housed in a

University of

Arizona building on property leased from

Maricopa County at

1201

''lest Madison

Street use.

in Phoenix.

This

Offices' are building was built especially for Extension Service provided for all Extension personnel, two

Specialists and an

Assistant Agricultural Chemist of the University of

Arizona

Experiment

Station with a laboratory for his use.

An assembly room seating some fifty is maintained for Extension Service use as well as that of several farm organizations which hold meetings in the room.

The Extension Service

County program has been under the supervision of

J.

H.

O'Dell,

Agricultural Agent.

The homemaking phase of the program was under the direction of Mrs.

Isabell L.

Pace,

Home

Agent, from December

1,

1956 to

June 30,

1957.

At that time Mrs.

Pace, having reached the retirement age of

70 was succeeded by

Miss Edna H.

Weigen as

Home

Agent who reported to the county on for

June 17,

,1957.

Mrs.

Betty Jo

Nelsen served as

Assistant Home

Agent the entire year and l-fiss Barbara L.

Freese,

Assistant Home

Agent from

December 1, 1956 to June 30,

1957 when she resigned to accept a another state.

She was succeeded position by

Miss

Peggy H.

Putnam, Assistant Home in

Agent, on

July 1,

1957.

Assisting in the far.m

program were

James

R.

Carter, field crops production;

Paul L.

Hudson,

Boys and Girls 4-H Club

Work;

Otis

G.

Lough, dairy and live­ stock production;

Robert L.

Halvorson, information;

��tthew B.

Lonsdale, poultr.Y production;

Ray

L.

l-lilne, horticulture, from December

1,

1956 to

December 31,

1956 when he resigned to accept another position; Daniel G.

Hess, horticulture from

June 17,

1957 to date;

Lowell F.

True, horticulture from

July 1, 1957 to date;

Robert E.

Grounds, horticulture from

July

1, 1957 to

September

30,

1957 when he was transferred to another coun.ty and

Boyce

L.

Foerman, field crops from

September 17,

1957 to date.

Messrs.

until

Carter,

Hudson and Lough were

Assistant

County Agricultural Agents

June 30,

1957 when their titles were changed to County Agricultural

Agents.

Messrs.

as

Halvorson,

Assistant County

Lonsdale, Milne, Hess, True, Grounds and Foerman served

Agricultural Agents.

The office staff of four

Mrs.

Theda stenographers has been under the supervision of

Apel,

Office

Secretary.

Extension

Extension

Specialists Dr.

J.

N.

Roney, Entomologist and Dr.

Ivan

J. Shields,

Plant

Pathologist, have had offices in the building and have been very to cooperative in assisting in the county farm program when not required be in other counties.

Assistant of the

Agricultural Chemist, George Draper of the Soil

Chemistry Department

University of Arizona has maintained an office in the building.

He has not engaged in soil, water or other material analysis since he has been assigned duties with the Interstate Stream Co�ssion of collecting and analyzing water samples which he collected on trips into California.

Extension personnel and others have submitted soil, water, and other materialS, to the

University of Arizona in Tucson for analysis.

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The have

Agricultural Extension Service and the Agricultural

F�eriment

Station cooperated in furnishing janitor service for the building.

Once a month a joint staff meeting of Home Agents and County Agents has been held.

Weekly meetings of

County Agents have been held to discuss current

problems

and proposed programs.

These staff meetings keep all members, both women and men, informed of current problems, coming events and new methods to be used.

Each day an

Assistant which he has answered all

Agent has been assigned office duty during phone and office calls relating to farm problems.

The in

Maricopa

County

4-H club fair was held at the Arizona State

Fairgrounds

Phoenix in cooperation with the

County

4-H Club Leader's Council and the

Phoenix of the

Rotary

Club.

expense of the

The

Rotary

Club furnished funds for the greater pro tf.on

two-day show and the remainder by the

Leader's Council.

Both organizations were very helpful in getting bidders out to the fat stock auction held during the fair.

The }�ricopa County Farm Bureau cooperated in the 4-H club program by paying one-half of the expense of each

4-H club member and leader who attended the annual 4-H

Roundup held at the Universi ty of Arizona at

Tucson.

The general assembly room has been used for leader training meetings in the homemaker progr.am and for farm program meetings held by staff members.

Regular meetings of the

Maricopa County Dairy

Herd

Improvement Association, the

Central Arizona

Poultry Association and the Chinchilla Breeders associ­ ation have been held in this room with some staff m.ember in attendance in an advisory capacity.

Agent

HUdson has worked in close cooperation with the 4-H Leader's Council and the Phoenix

Rotary

Club in carrying out the 4-H club program in the county.

Agent Lough has cooperated with the county

D.H.I.A.

in training all new testers and supplying all testers with proper record forms as needed.

He has also worked in harmony with the small pure-bred breeders organizations in the county.

His monthly newsletters have been well received by all dairy­ men.

Assistant Lonsdale has assisted the Central Arizona Poultry Association and the Chinchilla Breeders Association in conducting their regular monthly meetings.

His periodic newsletters to poultrymen have furnished timely information on matters pertaining to better poultry n�agement.

!gent

Carter has worked closely with the Arizona and the Arizona Cotton

Crop Improvement

Association

Planting

Seed Distributors in conducting the pure seed program in the the

Smith-Doxey county.

program

He also assisted in the in cooperation with sign-up personnel of cotton of the growers in

United States

Cotton

Classing

Office.

All staff members have cooperated with members of the staff in the Agricultural

Experiment Station, the U.S.D.A.

personnel at the

Poultry Experiment

Station at

Glendale, the Cotton Field Station near

Tempe, the

Vegetable

Insect Labora­ to� in

Phoenix, and the Cereal and

Forage Crops

Insect Laboratory at Tempe.

�ey have also assisted the

County

Farm Bureau Directors at all program planning meetings.

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III.

Program Planning

No organized group of farmers assists in planning the

County

Extension

Program except that the

4-H club program is outlined by staff members in cooperation with the 4-H Leader's Council.

The over-all plan of work is prepared by staff members after careful consideration of work needed in all fields of crop and livestock production.

IV.

Infonnation

Program

During 1957, as in the past, a.well-rounded extension information program covering all phases of agriculture, home economics, and 4-H club work was employed in

Maricopa County.

It embraced nearly every method of communi­ cation, including personal contacts, direct mail, public meetings, and the various mass medias.

Direct mail consisted chiefly of circulars, letters, and regular monthly newsletters.

The and contained latter, written by staff members, went to specific groups timely and helpful information of importance to them.

Public speaking engagements before service clubs, farm commodity groups, and other organizations were accepted by staff members at every opportunity.

Demonstrations and extension meetings were also held whenever the occasion warranted.

The use of part much of newspapers, the over-all extension information helpful radio, and other mass medias constituted an essential infor.mation

was passed on to program.

Through farmers, homemakers, these and outlets, the general public.

This was radio accomplished for the most part by means of two regularly scheduled programs and a countywide extension news service.

However, staff members made a number of guest appearances on radio and television also.

In all, the newspaper

Maricopa County extension office was responsible for at least 393 and magazine articles, 359 radio broadcasts, 6 television shows, and some

250 demonstrations and public meetings.

The county extension news service was provided to

4 daily newspaper�

15 weeklies, 11 monthly publications, 10 radio stations,

4 television stations,

1 regional farm magazine, and the National wire services.

It consisted of weekly news releases conforming to standards of good journalism and was for all purposes the principal source of agricultural news in the county.

Despite the importance of agriculture to the local economy, newspapers, radio the stations, and television broadcasting companies are apathetic toward subject.

It is for this reason that the news service was established.

To be taken into consideration is the fact that no clearly defined farm population exists in

Maricopa County and the

Salt

River Valley, making it difficult for farm publications to survive.

Material for the extension news releases stemmed from a number of

Most of it came from staff members places.

themselves, but Assistant

Agent Halvorson, in charge of the information program, picked up a good deal of information from other sources that proved helpful to farmers.

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Among these other sources were

Experiment

Station state extension specialists, University

personnel,

technical publications, and various local, state, and federal agencies concerned with agriculture.

Close of the cooperation was maintained throughout the year with local branches

U.S.D.!.,

A.R.S.

and A.M.S., the

Agricultural

Stabilization and

Conservation

Wildlife

Commission, the Soil Conservation

Service, the U. S.

Fish and

Service, the U. S. Weather

Bureau, and various state and federal regulatory groups.

Daily and weekly newspapers, radio stations, and Arizona

Farmer, a regional farm magazine, were the major outlets for

While it is difficult to measure such a extension thing, news in the county.

best results seemed to come from the

Sunday

Arizona Republic Farm and Ranch Life Section.

This section in the Arizona was made

Republic, the largest newspaper in the state, available to the extension service for the third consecutive year.

Through an arrangement with Orien

Fifer, managing editor,

Assistant

Agent

Halvorson supplied the section with two feature stories weekly.

afforded staff members an excellent opportunity to pass on

It helpful has information in an effective manner.

During the twelve-month articles period just past,

110 of the feature and news appearing in this weekly section were submitted from this office.

They covered varied subjects and in most cases were accompanied by photo­ graphs.

The bulk and dealt with topics pertaining to agriculture, although 4-H articles occasionally home economics stories also appeared.

Field crops was the principal agricultural topic.

At least one feature story on some phase or crop appeared weekly.

In February, an article appeared telling farmers of the disadvantages and advantages connected with treating cottonseed with the new thimet insecti­ cide.

alfalfa

Barley fertilization, news of a new nematode, skip-row costs, the aphid situation, and chemical weed control reconnnendations followed.

In

June, an article corn stalk appeared telling farmers how to best control the lesser borer.

A new method of counting aphids on alfalfa was explained in

July.

The next month saw the appearance of a tfmely article on cotton irrigation.

Local farmers at that time were worried about the crop's excessive vegetative growth.

Articles concernmg dairy and livestock appeared every month.

Among them were several on

Brucellosis eradication and hormone implants for beef cattle.

In another instance,

Federal grades for feeder cattle were explained.

Articles on citrus and the ornamentals also appeared regularly on this section and garden page.

They iacluded information on the frost warning system established by the U. S. Weather

Bureau, insect control, disease prevention, and advice concerning various managem.ent

and cul, tu.ral

practices.

Seven well-written and highly informative articles of intere'st to poultrymen appeared during the year.

Subjects included debeaking, water requirements, antibiotics, insect pest control, and the establishment of a new animal disease diagnostic laboratory in the valley.

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Commercial entitled

Vegetable Notes.

This feature is one of the most popular agri­ cultural columns in the county.

By�lined

John O'Dell, it has a format that is vegetable growers were reached through a regular weekly column flexible, light, and conversational in tone.

News articles and feature stories about 4-H club work publicized.

appeared on the Fam and Ranch life page on at least 11 different occasions during the year.

The stories dealt with local club activities for the most part, but National

4-H Club

Week,

State 4-H

Roundup, National 4-H Camp, and National 4-H Club

Congress were also

Assistant Halvorson also laneous prepared feature articles on a number of miscel­ subjects that were of importance to agriculture in the area.

The soil bank program was explained in a

January article.

In February, a story appeared telling of the new agriculnlral engineering courses being offered by the University.

University mobile research and other written about.

Field day experiment announcements, a story station on a doings new were also

U.S.D.A.-developed dusting rig, an article explaining the value of the U. S.

Crop Reporting

Service, an announcement of the gas tax refund deadline, and similar articles also stemmed from this office.

Weekly

Releases

During the year from three to five stories were prepared and mimeographed weekly for general release to daily, weekly, and monthly publications,

,the radio stations, and television stations in the area.

Subject matter was about evenly divided between agriculture, home economics, and 4-H club activities.

Articles on insect control, safety precautions, cooking and sewing shortcuts, various extension meetings, and occasionally human interest stories were among those dispatched.

During the cotton growing season, a weekly cotton report was sent out through this channel, and a weekly livestock market review was dispatched throughout the year.

The last was also sent to county agents throughout the state.

An attempt was also made to start a county agent's column, but lack of interest at both ends caused it to be discontinued at the end of

March.

Daily newspapers and radio stations used a good share of the releases as did most county weeklies.

However, the latter seem to be at best a question­ able means of and various disseminating information.

Circulation is limited and it is townspeople in the local community rather than fanners that sub­ scribe.

The far.mers

tend to look to the Phoenix

Gazette, Arizona Republic, regional and national fann publications for their generally, infonnation.

Arizona

Farmer

Regular weekly releases plus special articles were submitted to this farm publication throughout the year, and in most cases were used.

Their reporting staff continued to cooperate with staff members, with Ken

Bowyer being especially helpful where poultry information was concerned.

During the year,

Halvorson covered several extension meetings for the magazine.

In return, they printed articles and photos as requested.

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Should the farmer designate with productivity level be­ average for his

�a:ym.en1ts

operation, will be reduced ac­

At no than farm.

time, however to receive pa3rmEmti the rate established]

1.

Weekly Livestock

Market

Review

County

Agent,

11/2/57

Agricultural

Extension

Service, University of Arizona

Phoenix, Ariz.,

Nov,

2---Str-ong demand for beef on the coast last week gave

Arizona cattle feeders one of the most favorable markets they have had since mid-J�ly.

Direct feedlot trade on slaughter cattle remained active throughout, and prices ran

50 cents to

$1 more per hundred weight than th� previous week.

Volume of sales increased sharply.

At least 120 loads of fed steers and 27 loads of heifers were reported sold, Some 12 loads of slaughter cows and roughly

5 loads of calves also went at prices that were fully steady.

Steers grading low to average-Choice and weighing

850 to

1,100 pounds brought

$22 to

$22.25, with at least one load returning $22.50.

Slightly lighter arimals in the aver�ge to high-Good category cleared at

$21 to

$21.75.

Low to average-Good

�old at

$20 to

$20.50, while Standard grades sold mostly at

$19 to

$19.50,

The slaughter cows, mostly

950-pound

Utilities, went at

$13, with a

10 per cent cut at

$10.

The calves, mixed Good and Choice weighing

425 to

550 pounds, realized $21 to

$21.50.

Meanwhile, considerable activity on stockers and feeders also went on.

Confirmed range sales and contracts amounted to

3,600 head, which for the most part sold strong to

50 cents

�igher than a week ago,

At least

1,60�

Choice yearlings weighing

450 to

650 pounds brought $21 to

$22,50 on steers and

$19.50

to

$20,50 on heifers.

Around 1,200 mixed Good and Choice

575 to

700 pound animals were contracted at

$20 to

$20,50 for steers and

$18.50

to

$19 for heifers.

Choice, 450-pound stock calves brought $24 for steers and

$22 for heifers,

Mixed Good and Choice lots sold at

$23 for steers and

$21 for heifers,

Winter �ange prospects continue to look good, especially in the lower areas.

Auction markets handled some

2,000 cattle and calves during the week.

Practi­ cally all grades and classes brought prices.

th�t were strQ�g to

50 cents higher than the previous week.

30

Miscellaneous Releases

Besides the regular weekly service, a number of special articles were pre­ pared for release to various local, regional and national publications.

Assistant

Agent

Halvorson maintained a special mailing list for this purpose.

Special stories were prepared for the Cotton Trade journal, The Cotton Gin and Oil Mill

National 4-H

Press,

Western Farm

Life,

The Phoenix

Gazette, Citrograph,

News, Hoard's

Dairyman, and several local weekly papers.

Special coverage was given to state

4-H Roundup, the five University Experi­ ment

Station Field strations conducted

Days held in the county during the year, and the demon­ by staff members during the year.

"Troubleshooting," a by-lined column on gardening, appeared in Arizona Homes every other month throughout the year.

Radio and Television

Favorable progress was made insofar as coverage is concerned, but no new obtaining radio and television spot regularly scheduled programs were put into effect during the year.

In

Febroary,

Halvorson made arrangements for a home agent's show both on radio and television, but plans fell

�hrough.

No new attempt along this line has been made since, mainly because of the shift in personnel that occurred during the year.

Aside from the regular weekly garden show over radio station KOY and the daily five-minute radio broadcast over

KRUX, radio and television activities have been limited chiefly to guest appearances on the part of the members.

Through an arrangement with Sam

Maxcy,

Executive several

Secretary of the

County

Farm

Bureau, fmlvorson put on three announcements special and arrangement for

IS-minute radio shows.

on-the-spot coverage was also

Special made on spot occasions.

In April,

Halvorson and Dr.

j.

N.

Roney staged a special half-hour show on the subject of cockroach control.

Television stations also cooperated with this office insofar as spot news coverage of meetings and functions are concerned.

With the advent of block county, it appears much programming on nearly all radio stations in the easier to obtain radio time.

However, the situation has not improved to any degree when it comes to television.

The video stations, pre-occupied with national hook-up, are loathe to commit themselves to a locally produced show during

Class A time

(evening time),

especially if that time is public service in nature.

Hercules Powder Co.

expressed an interest in a locally produced county agent's show, but have stated that nothing will be decided definitely until the spring of 1958.

PhotographY

Special photography assignments are another function that contributed to the effectiveness of the county extension information during the year.

In january,

Assistant

Agent

Halvorson made close-up photos of curvularia fungus on rye grass have since for Dr. Ivan j. Shields,

State Extension Plant Pathologist.

These been submitted to Dr. Alice Boyle for use with a technical paper on the subject.

That same month,

Halvorson also complied with Extension

Dairy

Specialist \Y. R. Van sant ts request for photos at the 4-H Dairy Heifer Calf

Selection Sale.

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9

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In February, home agents were photographed in a television studio for

State

Home Economics

Leader

Jean

Stewart.

Thp.y

accompanied an article in

Progressive

Agriculture, the

College of Agriculture periodical.

Nematode met for photos taken by this office were supplied to county agents when they special schooling on the subject in

May.

v.

Projects

3.

Horticulture

A.

Citrus

1957 was a successful year crop.

for Maricopa County citrus growers.

The 1956-57 citrus

20

crop was not

24, affected by frosts.

Only during two periods,

November

1956' and December 22

-

23, 1956, was frost protection necessary.

1957 was the first time in 10 years that there was no frost damage of any kind to the citrus

The Valencia and lemon and the Navel crops were heavy, the grapef'ruf t production was somewhat light.

yield was average,

Although returns on oranges were not were quite as high as the previous year, they satisfactory, and most growers were pleased.

The lemon market was pleased.

fairly good and here again, most growers were well

In was grapefruit, 'however, there was great variation in grower returns.

This mainly due to methods of handling and marketing by the individual packing houses.

Packing houses that were'able to market 70 to

80 percent of their grapefruit as fresh fruit,

On the other enjoyed one of the finest years since World War II.

hand, there were several packing houses able to move only 48 or

49 percent of the grapefruit as fresh fruit, yielding lower grower return.

Agent

O'Dell and Assistant

Hess, in cooperation with other members of the

University of Arizona

Research

Staff,

Agricultural and U. S.

Extension

Department of

Service, University

Agriculture personnel, of Arizona conducted 4 citrus demonstrations, field days, and colored slide talks attended by

173 persons.

In addition to those attending the above demonstrations, Agent

O'Dell and

Assistant Hess presented information to

996 persons concerning the following subjects: Irrigation and fertilization for different soils in the Salt River

Valley; pruning methods; topworking practices; budding procedure; best varieties; time and procedure for planting seeds and time to transplant young trees; marketing methods; rootstock varieties; lath house uses; nursery practices; identification and methods of controling iron chlorosis in citrus; identification of other minor element deficiencies; methods of weed control in groves; wood and sunburn and frost protection; identification of freeze damage to fruit; identification of electric wind burn or mesophyll collapse; mechanical damage to trees; identification of

2,4-D and other weed killer damage to trees, identification and gummosis, foot rot gummosis, possible control of scaly bark, Rio Grande physiological gummosis, alternaria or black rot of

Navels, and false melanuse; identification of stubborn disease in

Navels; identification of boron toxicity; reasons for poor fruit set on

Algerian

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10

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tangerines; desert explanation lemon; of frost identification and warning possible service; control storage of green qualities stain of of the lemons in packing houses; identification and control of citrus thrips, cottony cushion scale, flat mite, soft brown scale, leafhoppers, stink bugs, and gophers; introduction and dissemination of vedalia beetles and luteolus wasps.

Assistant Hess served on the executive committee of the Citrus Institute.

A meeting was held in

August.

Plans were discussed for initiating a certain citrus areas in an attempt to curb excessive fruit patrol in stealing in the

Salt River

Valley.

In recent years this problem has become extremely serious, and some have growers have reported losses exceeding $500.

Many interested parties expressed dissatisfaction with the cooperation of law inforcement agencies in this area.

When fruit thieves are apprehended and brought to trial they usually receive only a suspended sentence and no fine.

Assistant Halvorson is currently writing a series of articles for local papers in which he is trying to bring this problem to the public's attention.

During

1957 Assistant

Hess, cooperating with Lawrence O'Conner of the Braun

Chemical

Company, conducted a series of tests with the new material, iron chelate,

Greenz 26.

It was tested as a foliage spray on different varieties, ages and sizes of citrus trees shewing varied degrees' of iron chlorosis.

Sufficient data has not been accumulated to recommend this material at present.

During September and October a serious fruit splitting occurred in the 1958

Valencia crop.

This problem exists to some extent each year, but was unusually heavy this fall.

It is believed due to several weeks of excessively high temperatures during

July and

August.

At such times all growth stops, and the fruit is apparently damaged.

When growth resumes the injured fruit can't stand the stress and splits.

Until the problem is understood more fully, no control measures can be recommended.

The year's

Navel crop was also hit by heavy cause.

Alternaria

�plitting, but from a different citri, or

Black rot of

Navels, affects an average of five percent of the Navel crop.

However, during 1957 it affected from fifteen or twenty percent how Alternaria of the crop in spreads, or some areas.

the conditions

Here again, little is known about which favor its development.

The a inability of many growers to obtain a good fruit set on

Algerian tangerine, great problem in years past, has continued in 1957.

There are many theories about the causes, but no definite answers have been worked out.

At the sent, cross pre­ pollination, temperature factors at bloom time, bud wood history, and fertilization seem to hold the greatest

There is a good promise for further investigation.

possibility that one, or a combination, of the above factors may greatly influence fruit set.

In the near future,

Assistant

Hess, cooper­ ating with Dr. Robert Hilgeman of the Citrus initiate a

ExPeriment

Station, plans to complete investigation of these factors.

On of to

September

17 and 18 Assistant

Hess, accompanied by

Paul Neitz and R. M.

Hess the

Desert

Citrus Growers

Company and Don Barto, a local grower, traveled

Yuma to attend meetings of the Yuma-Mesa Lemon Growers

Association, the

Desert

Lemon

Committee, and the Lemon Administrative Co�ttee.

The meetings were called to discuss fresh fruit problems developing from over supply of lemons on the market.

This condition is due mainly to the increase in lemon plantings in the Yuma area.

Although only a small percentage of the Yuma lemons are presently bearing, the increase has affected the lemon market to a great extent.

The

1957 desert area production of 880 cars is expected to

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11

-

increase to 5,850 cars by 1965.

"�en this production is reached, there will be a the huge over-supply of fresh lemons, and the growers will have to depend on juice and by-product market to absorb the excess.

The current grower return a for these markets is between twenty and thirty dollars a ton.

The growers cannot make a profit at this price.

As a result, more and wider by­ product, markets must be developed if the desert lemon growers are to receive satisfactory return on their investment.

During

1957 Assistant

Hess, in cooperation with Dr. Harold Reynolds and

John OtBannon,

U.S.D.A.

Nematologist, took test samples from a number of citrus groves

Assistant to see if nematodes were affecting the orchards.

On September

Hess, with Lew\1hitworth and Dr.

Reynolds, made a survey and took

5, soil samples from the groves of

Mr.

Henshaw and Hr. Clausen in the Hadison district.

The groves, although well cared for, were showing a constant decline.

The samples showed the Clausen grove was infested with several types of nematodes.

The Henshaw grove samples showed no nematodes, but it is suspected that in some areas of the grove a nematode infestation exists.

Mr.

Henshaw and Mr. Clausen are

Mr. OtBannon in presently cooperating with Dr.

Reynolds and testing a nematicide called

Nemagon.

On

August 5,

Assistant

Hess, Dr.

Reynolds, and

John OtBannon, applied varying amounts of

The

Nemagon to a grove owned by

Mr. Pattee in the Madison district.

grove was badly infested with the citrus nematode.

The application rates varied from 1 to

5 and no tree gallons per acre.

The heavy rates gave excellent control, inju� has been observed.

As yet, no definite improvement has been any noted in the grove, and it is expected definite results can be observed.

to be one to two years before

It is not known citrus grove.

exactly what effect a.heavy

nematode population has on a

The purpose of the above tests is to determine whether eradi­ cation of the citrus nematode will have any effect on the condition or pro­ duction of the trees.

Assistant Hess and Dr.

Roney made a survey of the cottony cu.shion and soft brown seale situation in west

Phoenix,

Glendale and Litchfield Park during

June.

Assistant Hess made a survey of the Arcadia, Mesa and south citrus areas, also in

June.

In all of these areas cottony cushion

Phoenix and soft brown scale had been well controlled by their respective predators,

Vedalia beetles and luteolus wasps.

On October

28, 29 and

30,

Assistant

Hess and Dr.

Ron.ey, with Harold Lewis and Bill of the

Schilling, of the Sunkist organization, made a citrus insect survey entire

Sal t

River

Valley.

The results of this survey were as follows:

1.

With one or two exceptions, all infestations of cottony cushion in the Salt River Valley have been cleaned out, and the area is generally free of cottony cushion at the present.

2.

Thrips damage was slight throughout the valley.

In one or two cases, thrips were beginning to show a tolerance to dieldrin, the recommended insecticide for thrips control.

3.

No serious infestations of soft brown scale were noted.

4.

The over-all citrus insect situation in excellent.

Haricopa County is

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12

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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION �JORK in

University of Arizona

AGRICUIJTURE AND Hm,m ECONOl-'IICS

State of Arizona

College of

U.

So

Agriculture

Department of Agriculture and �4ricopa County Cooperating

P,O, Box 751

Phoenix

Agricultural Extension Service

Home Demonstra tior.. "Jork

County Agent "Jork

October

17,

1957

DEAR

CITRUS GROWER:

This letter has two

Hess, your new

Assistant purposes, first to introduce myself to you.

I am

Dan

County Agent in citrus.

Hany of you I already know and I hope to have the chance to meet the rest of you in the near future.

Ifll try to be of service to you in any way I can.

Plea�e feel free to calIon me any time you would like some information or have a time I will ask your problem that is bothering you.

From time to cooperation in surveys and tests to

L�prove the citrus industry in

Haricopa County" at

The second the Citrus purpose of this letter is to rewind you that the Citrus

Field

Day

Experiment

Statioil will be en

October 31, 1957 at

2:00 p.m.

I strongly urge you to attend this field day if possible.

Dr.

Hilgeman has arranged an out­ standing program which is outlined below.

PROGRAM

What's Ahead in

University of Arizona Horticulture

••• �'"

Dr

.•.

Leland

Burkhart,

Head

Department of Horticulture

Research in the Citrus

The Me;dc�n Fruit

Universi ty of Arizona

Industry

•• �.*,�

••••••••••••••••••

Dr.

Harold

Myers, Dean

College of

Agriculture

University of Arizona

Fly as it Pe�tains to

Arizona4�""'" Dr.

Harold C.

Lewis

Entomologist

Sunkist Growers

The

Frost

Tour of

Warning Progra� for 1957-58

••••••••••

0 ••••••••

Dr.

Robert H.

Reece

Meteorologist

U.

S.

Weather Bureau

Experiment

Station

••• , •••••••• ,.� •• � ••••••••.•••

Dr.

Robert H.

Hilgeman

During the tour progress reports of the following experi�nts will be given:

1.

Citrus varieties

new strains that have been introduced

2.

Citrus Rootstocks

-

24 varieties

3, Nutrition

testing nitrogen,

4.

Micro-nutrition

testing phosphcrus, manure different che'La+ed forms of iron and zinc

5.

Soil

6.

management

Irrigation

-

tes ting evaluation of four methods applying of -;:illage different amounts of water and timing of irrigation

7.

Frost

Protection

evaluation of benefits from wind machines, heaters and irrigation

\ITa ter

8.

Insect Control

testing insecticides for control of citrus thrips, cottony cushion scale and mites

9.

Disease

testing varieties for virus diseases, stubborn disease problem in the

Salt

River Valley,

November in the

Bob Reece reports that, as usual, the frost warning service will begin about

15.

I think we all owe

Bob a big

"thank youil for the fine job he has done past two years.

Thrips populations sometimes early fall.

They can injure young

build

up on young citrus plantings during the growth: and controls might be profitable.

We advise you to check your young trees to see if this condition is present.

See you at the Field

Day.

Sincerely,

I

iJ#v

#&;;/d

Daniel G,

County

Hess,

Assistant

Agricultural

Agent

DGH:kl

600 cc

The tolerance to dieldrin

The groves appearing in thrips follows a standard pattern, where this condition is developing used dieldrin for thrips control one year before most other, Usually an insecticide can be used four to five years before the insects that a new control for develop thrips a resistance.

will be necessary

This soon, leads

1957 to the was belief the fourth year dieldrin has been in general use for thrips control,

The citrus last year,

1957.

flat mite, an insect that caused considerable damage has been well controlled with no serious infestations to tangerines reported in

Assistant Hess mailed a total of 200 circular letters to citrus growers giving information about the

Citrus Field

Day, frost warning service and other timely information.

B.

Vegetables

The vegetable situation in the county since July has been one of extremes.

A total of an

18,362 acres of fall lettuce was increase of almost planted in the valley proper or

4,000 acres over last fall.

In addition another

1,800 acres were

planted

in the Aguila-Salome area in the northwest corner of the county.

The first lettuce in the county was cut in this

Aguila area on

October

7, the earliest cutting that has ever started in the county.

Two vacuum cooling plants were erected in this area this summer to eliminate hauling the,lettuce from this area to

Glendale.

The first lettuce cut in the valley proper was on

October 11 from a

30 acre field west of

Litchfield

Park belonging to

Gerber Ranches.

All of this early lettuce was

659 or

669G variety and was excellent quality.

The lettuce cut from Aguila and the valley during the first two weeks of cutting went for an excellent price, most from

$3.00

to

$4.00

per carton and some for

$4.50.

Rains, starting on

October

28 and continuing through the 29th slowed harvest almost to a stand-still,

During this wet period much of the lettuce got too large for packing, quality dropped and the delay shoved too much volume into the period following the rains.

Price consequently dropped to

$1.00

-

$1,25 per carton and did not recover for the remainder of the deal.

Daily carlot shipments were far below nonnal throughout most of the deal with a high of only 202 cars going out on

November 13 or about fifty percent of the usual movement for this time of year,

Thei'tremd toward earliness in the western lettuce the fact that on

November 1 of this year the industry is reflected by

Federal-State Harket News Service reported that slightly over

1,400 carlots had been shipped from Arizona, to date this year compared to

335 for the same period last year.

Cantaloupe

acreage was reduced to only one

80 acre field in the valley this year due to the crown blight problem,

A rather large planting in the

Harquahala area, however, raised the county total to about 850 acres which yielded an average of

144 crates per acre.

Honeydew acreage for the county was set at about

720 acres

10.1

tons and a total of per acre average.

3,800 acres of watermelons which yielded

The market on cantaloupe and honeydews was very good due to the limited supply.

Most growers found that the extra packing and high freight rates on honeydews made it difficult to make a profit even with a between good market, The watermelon market held up very well also averaging

$80 and

$100 per ton for most of the season,

Acreages of other vegetables in the county reported by the Arizona Fruit and

Vegetable

Standardization Service were: carrots,

832 acres a drop from 1,480 acres in

1956; cabbage,

690 acres as compared to 1,170 acres a year ago; celerY,

514 acres as to compared to

238 acres a year ago and broccoli,

550 acres

450 acres in 1956.

compared

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.'

I

II

...

\

}tixed carlots dozen of vegetables moved out at a good rate with truck shipments carrying much of this type of movement.

This mixed deal was one of the bright spots

Green price-wise as prices have held at average or above throughout the season.

onions were one of the biggest movers and averaged 27 to 30 cents per bunches throughout.

About

850 acres of sweet year.

potatoes were grown in the county this year.

Price and quality were good throu.ghout

the season and some additional interest is being shown in sweet potato production.

The Puerto Rican was still the main variety grown but a were tried with good couple of success.

new varieties called

Sweet potato prices the Goldrush started as and Red Velvet high as

20 cents a pound early in the summer but dropped to an average of

7 to

8 cen.ts

later in the

Disease and insect

Loopers

Growers and got cation was problems were mainly confined to lettuce and cole crops.

ar.myworms

were again a big problem in the fall lettuce crop.

good control of wonms with a number of insecticides if the appli­ timely and material was properly applied.

A mixture of 10 percent

DDT,

10 percent used toxaphene and 10 and effective materials.

percent parathion was one of the most widely

Most of the growers again used foil barriers against the salt marsh caterpillar with good success.

Some damage was observed in mature lettuce from bollworms late in the season.

Loopers and other worms were also damaging cole crops early in the season with the same controls being used in general as on lettuce.

Cryoli te was in more common use than in other years.

This material gave good control if properly applied.

The main diseases and late occurring were downy mildew on broccoli and lettuce; early blight on celery and sclerotinia in lettuce.

Nematodes were also found in a few spots of tomatoes.

Lettuce in sweet potatoes and a heavy infestation mosaic and rib discoloration showed in two fields up in scattered instances but neither would be considered economically damaging.

Assistant

True two along with

Specialist

Shields inspected a broccoli field and lettuce fields infected with downy mildew.

A zinc material called Zineb was recommended in all cases.

Late and early blight in celery was quite prevalent in celery fields this fall.

Assistant

True and

Specialist

Shields inspected two fields infected with early blight and recommended the use of Zineb.

Assistant True inspecteci a field at

Beardsley and one in the Deer

Valley area infected with late blight and use of Zineb was recommended.

Assistant True and

Specialist Shields also inspected a celery field infected with black heart but no recommendation was made as the disease had not become severe enough to warrant it.

Assistant True and Dr.

Ivan J. Shields, Extension Plant Pathologist made an application of

Nemagon to a field of tomatoes in the Litchfield Park area which were showing a heavy infestation of root knot nematode.

Nemagon was also given out'to several home owners for use on ornamentals.

Assistant

True accompanied Dr.

J.

N.

Roney,

Extension

Entomologist on three calls to young lettuce and cole crop fields to inspect worm damage and identify insects.

Assistant True also accompanied Specialist Roney and

County Agent

O'Dell on a call to

Salome to look at potato fields infested with worms.

They were diagnosed as potato tuber moth larvae but no recommendations were made since potatoes were not to be replanted in the field.

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14

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Univers i ty

Colle,

�e

U,

S.

and of of Arizona

Agriculture

Department of haricopa County

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION HOme

IN

AGlUCULTU:'.E

AND HOHE

ECONOJv!ICS

Agriculture

Cooperating

State of Arizona

P.O.

Box 751

Phoenix

Agricultural

�rome

Extension S�rvice

Demonstration

County

Agent

\"To rl:

:ork november

30,

1957

Dllin POTATO G:1Ol'JEI::

Potato preparations planting time is almost here again.

Since most of you are now maki.ng

for planting,

I hope this information 'trill be useful to you.

SEED POTATO HANDLING M!D

DISEASES

Certified

Seed leaf

Bacterial diseases such as ring rot and blackleg, and virus diseases sUCh as roll, mosaic and calico, are all carried wi thin the seed.

Since i to-is often impossi�le to determine whether

·a potato is diseased or not by its appearance, it is very important to buy certified seed from a reliable source where a rigid rogueing program has been followed.

Tags of certification should be saved so that the respon­ sibilitv might be fixed if the seed does not come up to standard.

Crop

:1otation

Blackleg, scab, and black scurf may also be carried over in the soil and usually become more damaging if potatoes are grown in the same field year after year.

iii coarse or will increase its sandy soils, root knot nematode may also be a damage each year a susceptible crop is gro�m.

problem

Rotate which also with non­ susceptible crops.

A dry summer fallow wi th good weed cont.rol., is a very effective method of reducing the nematode population.

Soil fumigation �efore planting with one of t�e recognized fumigants is also effective.

Unloading and

Storage

The majority of the potato seed

Is shipped into Ari�ona by rail or trucks, and is of the usually contained in 100 pound sacks.

Rough hanOling and improper stacking bags.

will cause

�any bruises, which will soon start to rot.

Sacks shoUld not be stacked over five--feet high.

Tne potatoes shouLd be protected from frost and direct sunlight and air should be allowed to circulate freely while they are in storage.

If potatoes are held in storage for any period of time before cutt�ng, storage temperatures should range from

�·Oo to

450

F.

Seed Treatment

Before

.seed

s tocks deciding on seed treatment, the commercial grower shoula inspecf his carefully.

If any tubers are showing definite signs of scab or black sc�rf, it would be advisable for him to use an have scab or black acid-mercury dip •.

If'only a few tubers scurf, one of the o the r rna terials may be used as a dipping solution

When o using the acid-mercury solutions, treatment shoul.d be made before ther solutions may be used either before or after cutting.

The seed cutting.

may

The be treated several weeks before planting, provided they are allowed to drain well and dry in dis�nfected containers.

Haterials used as seed disinfectants are the ch10�ide, organic mercury compounds, and S�asen Bel,

Care should �e taken in hand­

-, ling these disinfectants, as they are poisonous.

For more information concerning the preparation and use of these acid-mercury dip, mercur=-c disinfectants, contact your County Agent.

�tting

the Seed ounces

Seed potatoes should be cut into each.

Tubers which weigh less pieces than three which waigh ounces one each, and one should be half to planted two whole.

Irtubers show th�n one-half inch prominent discoloration or di sco'Ioratdon which extends more

,into

the tuber� they should be discarded.

If cut potato seed is exposed to t�1e sun or··wind on a

�ot

<lay for any length of time,

It Il1J1Y start decavberore or soon after planting.

It is a good practice to shade all the cut seed taken to the field, including

--the seed left in the planter during the noon hour: Freshly cut seed 'should not be placed in unwashed fertilber bags.

Some growers dust freshly cut potatoes

''lith lime before their planting, to prevent sticking together',

Large quanti ties of seed 'shoul.d

not be cut unless tHey can be stored f-or 8 to

10 days

..

at"60o to

700, with relative

!1UmicJity

of

70%, to allow cut to surfaces to' suberize or heal over,

If suberize potato time and space allow, it is a good pieces to prevent decay and hasten emergence.

plan

The information used in this letter was

Extension Plant

Potatoes in supplied by

Dr-.- Ivan J. Shields,

Pathologist, and from the

University of Arizona bUlletin

269, uGrowing

Arizona," written by Dr. U.

D, Pew and Dr. R.

:8, Nar1att.

For this bulletin, or further information, contact your

1201 Hest

Hadison, Phoenix, or call

ALpine

8-8651.

County

Agent's

Office copies at of very truly,

Y;1S

!���

Lowell F.

True, Assistant

County Agricultural Agent

LFi':kl

40c.

Assistant

True and

Specialist

Shields were called to

Queen Creek to inspect a to potato rot.

field in which some of the

It was determined, newly planted seed pieces were beginning by talking to the foreman, that the portion of seed pieces which were showing this rotting condition had been cut and left out on a rather cold night previous to planting.

It was felt that this cold damage was to the chief cause of the break down but the farmer was not advised replant as sprouting had started in many of the pieces and damage was not extensive.

Weedicide trials

Assistant True worked with Fred Arle and Neil McRae of the U.S.D.A.

in estab­ lishing field plots of Vegedex,

The results of these tests were a new very weedicide, in lettuce and cole encouraging and it is hoped crops; that the supply of this material will be large enough next season for general use.

Assistants True and Hess and tested the use of a planted the KOY garden plot to various vegetables polyethylene cover on a portion of the beds to hasten emergence.

The use of these covers hastened germination somewhat and increased the percentage of seed germinating.

Assistant True helped prepare

"Vegetable Notes" for weekly release in local papers and also prepared three vegetable newsletters from information furnished by

Dr. Ivan

J. Shields,

Extension Plant Pathologist, Dr.

J.

N.

Roney

Extension

Entomologist, and

University of Arizona

Experiment

Station bulletins.

Duri�g

1957 Assistant

Hess has continued to of the cooperative University of Arizona plan, plant

Agricultural and direct maintenance

Extension

Service, radio station KOY and the Valley Garden Center demonstration garden at the inter­ section of Fifteenth

Avenue and

Palm

Lane in Phoenix.

This demonstration garden was established about 16 years ago.

It is the focal point of a weekly 25-minute radio the program on radio station KOY.

An informal discussion of the progress of vegetable and turf grown there; the insect and disease problems; and answers to letters from listeners make up this program.

Assistant Hess appeared on

12 of these programs during 1957.

c.

Deciduous Fruit

During 1957 interest in commercial production of deciduous fruit, early especially peaches, has greatly increased.

At the present time, however, only about 150 acres are planted for commercial deciduous fruit production.

There are a large number of deciduous fruit trees in home plantings, and there is a constant demand for information concerning the proper cultural methods for deciduous fruit.

During 1957

Agent

O'Dell and

Assistant

Hess conducted 7 demonstration.s

con­ cerning pruning of deciduous fruit.

These demonstrations were attended by

225 persons.

In addition to the demonstrations

352

Assistant Hess persons contacted

Agent O'Dell and by phone, office conference, letter or farm and home calls for assistance with one or more of the best varieties of deciduous fruit to following deciduous fruit problems: plant in

Maricopa County; irrigation and

-

15

-

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION l'lOPJ( in

University of Ari�ona

AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

State of Arizona

College of Agriculture

U. S.

and

Department of

Agriculture

Haricopa

County Cooperating

P.O.

Box

751

Phoenix

Agricultural Extension Servico

Home Demonstration Work

County Agent

Work

September 17,

1957

Dear Nurserymen:

A question often heard in the sununer and fall is,

"What is wrong with my deciduous fruit trees?

One of the limbs on it has died and sap is oozing out of its trunk." The answer in all that pften attacks prObahtlity is Crown Gall, a bacterial disease trees, roses, and many ornamentals in the valley.

CROWN GALL

Crown gall is a local swelling or over-groWth known to affect certain flowering plants and some cone-bearing plants.

The disease results from infection with a bacterium, disease because

Agrobacterium

tumefaciens.

The name

Crown tUe,

Gall was given to the

Pll,'often first develops on the affected plant at the junction of ste.: and root, a region tenned the crown.

It also occurs lower on the roots and on the stem above the ground;

The disease has been called "plant cancer." in the

Crown gall dwarfs and kills plants by interfering with the movement of water plant.

Also, materials f�r growth that are used in building galls &nd that should go to the nonmal tissues are wastefully used.

The crown gall organism enters the plant through wounds.

Broken and split roots are a common means of entry.

!he

crown gall bacterium can live in the soil for at least 3 or

4 years, possibly longer.

Crown gall is spread on infected nursery stock, on plants exchanged between gardeners and other growers, by pruning tools, in irrigation_water, and any way by which small amounts of soil or plant matter are transported from one location to another.

Once a plant is infected there is practically no effective means of control.

Some effective work with crude penicillin has been done by

Dr. Alice

Boyle and

Dr.

R.

B.

Streets, of the

University of

Arizona, but to the average homeowner this type of treatment is not possible.

Here are the symptoms to look for in identifying crown gall:

1.

Wilting, dying, and drying of the foliage on one or more branches.

2.

A gumming

3.

Stunted along growth.

the trunk or main scaffold branches.

4.

Over-growths or galls at the crown or on the roots, trunk or branches.

The galls can be covered or naked, irregular, soft or hard, and on some plants under favorable conditions, may be larger than the root or-shoot that bears it.

Underground galls may be anywhere from the soil surface to several feet underground.

stop the

You, as nurserymen, can do much disease before it gets started.

by using a preventive program designed

Here are the steps to take in trying to to prevent crown gall:

1, Be sure all nursery stock you receive is crown gall.

Inspect the roots of all absolutely free from

susceptible

plants reject any that show

.�n a slight swelling or deformity.

and

2.

Beware of nursory stock offered for greatly reduced prices.

3.

Do not accept any passed State

plant

out-of-state plant material that has not quarantine inspection,

4.

Disinfect all used on pruning shears and other equipment that has been susceptible plants.

5.

Careful pruning of split and cracked roots on new trees.

6.

Exclusive use of and budding antiseptic bandages and instruments in operations.

grafting

7.

Do not replant a susceptible variety of plant in an infected nursery row.

8.

Emmediately remove and infected with crown destroy any plant suspected of being gall.

Enclosed is a partial list of plants susceptible to crown gall.

"GREEN PLASMA"

The USDA has product called

"Green appeared reported that its turf specialists have never tested the

Plasma,," contrary to claims made in advertisements that recently in newspapers in various parts of the United

States.

Promoters describe it as a sensational color-restorer for lawns, discovered by a

German scientist and tested by the USDA.

The product is further clatmed to be "the very same type wonder treatment" used on the

Capitol lawn in

Washington, D. C.

Scientists of the USDA's

Agricultural

Research

Service, who test plant foods and fertilizers, point out that they have not tested the advertised tions regarding its use.

product and have no recommenda­

Sincerely,

r;�/jf�

Daniel G.

Hess,

'Assistant

County

Agdcultural Agent

OOH/a

Ene.

250 c.

fertilization practices; date of ripening of the various varieties; pruning methods; budding and of fertilizer

topworking

techniques; planting procedure; burn; identification of delayed identification foliation; identification and control of iron chlorosis and other minor element deficiencies; identification and control where

possible

of flat headed borer; June beetle, dried fruit beetle, stink bugs, peach twig borer, red spider, rusty plum aphid, and grass­ hoppers; identification and control where possible rot, nematodes and Verticillium of crown gall, Texas root wilt; pruning deciduous trees; identification of fruit; and identification of mechanical damage.

The major problem facing deciduous fruit growers in this area is crown gall disease.

It has been stated that this problem is the one limiting factor preventing heavy commercial plantings percent of in the

Salt River

Assistant Hess's deciduous fruit calls

Valley.

Almost 50 during the summer concern the identification and water prevention of crown gall.

It appears that project helps spread the disease and almost all trees irrigated with this water eventually contact the disease.

There is no known control for this disease on a commercial scale.

Some work has been done with antibiotics on a limited scale but this type of treatment would not be possible on a commercial acreage.

T�e only possibility is a preventive program designed to reduce the occurrence of the problem.

This type of program inclu.des

use of well water, virgin desert land, careful inspection of nursery stock, pre-planting antibiotic: treatment and special irrigation methods.

Assistant

Hess, cooperating with Karl

Minas, a local farmer, is currently completing plans for a five acre demonstration peach orchard in the

Kyrene area.

This acreage will be used to test crown gall control methods, iron chlorosis control, new varieties, fertilization, and other significant cultural methods.

Plans now call for planting the orchard early in 1958.

It now is hoped this demonstration orchard will help solve some of the problems facing deciduous fruit growers.

On the

November

26 a deciduous fruit meeting was conducted by Assistant Hess in

Agricultural Extension Service

Office, Phoenix.

This meeting was attended by local growers, representatives of the

University of Arizona

Experiment

Station at

Mesa, other extension personnel and members of the

University of Arizona faculty.

The program consisted of a discussion of deciduous fruit results.

1he problems and planning future meetings to present research meeting was well attended and a preliminary research program was

·laid out.

Additional deciduous fruit meetings will be held in

1958.

Assistants

True and Hess a deciduous grower spent a day with Dr.

Bessey of the Mesa Station and discussing the problems the grower had encountered in his particular grove and the general proble�� associated with deciduous fruit production in this area.

Assistants True and Hess also

Shields on a call to this same grower to accompanied Specialist observe a number of trees that had died out.

Specialist

Shields diagnosed the problem as

Texas root rot and the grower was advised to avoid this area as a planting site.

D.

Small Fruit

Grape growers enjoyed a very profitable year this year.

The grapes leavin.g

the valley were of high quality and

--a good price was received throughout the season.

An average of about $5.00

per lug was received for good quality

Thompson

Seedless and $4.00

per lug for Cardinals.

-

16

-

Assistant True and

Specialist Shields inspected two grape vineyards in the

Litchfield Park area and will be used by tagged vines showing zinc deficiency.

These vines

Specialist Tate and Dr.

Kuykendall in minor element studies during the coming year.

Early fall rains extending over a period of about a month caused severe loss in dates in most areas of the county.

Iteema, Khadrawy and

Hayany variteies were

practically

a total loss due to cracking and

fermenting

while in the early stages of maturity.

Rain resistant varieties especially Kustawy and

Halawy were not seriously affected.

E.

Nuts

Pecans are of small commercial importance in

Maricopa County.

The pecan is a very

popular

ornamental and shade tree.

Most requests for information come from home owners who have included pecans in their landscaping.

The

1957 pecan crop was excellent and many reports of limb over-loading were received by

Assistant Hess.

The pecan breakage due to aphid built up a very heavy infestation ,in most areas during the late fall.

During 1957,

98 persons contacted

Agent

O'Dell and Assistant Hess info�tion pertaining to fertilization and irrigation of pecans; requesting best varieties to plant; variety identification; identification and control of pecan rosette; time to harvest nuts; methods of curing and storing nuts; budding and pecans; identification and control· of pecan pruning aphids; prevention of limb break­ age due to heavy crops; and identification of woodpecker damage.

F.

Ornamentals

Due to the continued the Salt River expansion and development of urban residential areas in

V�lley requests for information on ornamentals, floriculture, and landscaping are continual�y increasing.

A need for more printed material in the ornamental field exists.

A great deal of the work load presently carried by the extension staff would be relieved if more accurate and complete printed matter concerning ornamentals was available for release to interested persons.

Assistant

U.S.D.A.

Hess, with great help from other Extension, Experiment

Station and personnel conducted 10 demonstrations and colored slide talks attended by

265 persons during 1957.

The demonstrations concerned pruning roses, home citrus, turf varieties, and garden bed preparation.

In addition, 1,301 persons contacted

Agent

O'Dell and Assistant

Hess for information on the following ornamental and turf problems: best turf varieties for

Maricopa County; proper irrigation and fertilization of different turf and ornamental varieties; methods of

planting

winter and summer lawns; control of nutgrass, crabgrass, watergrass,

Johnson grass, bermuda, prostrate spurge, and other weeds; identification and control of pearl scale, bermuda scale, seed webworm, bermuda weevil, control of

Southern leafhopper and other insects; identification and blight, brown patch, crown gall, summer blight, fairy ring, slime mold, and other turf diseases; proper methods of mowing grass; proper use of sprinkler system; identification and control of iron chlorosis; zinc deficiency; boron toxicity and othe�minor element deficiencies and excesses

-

17

-

Assistant

By

Dan Hess

Maricopa County Agent you of this have a

IF send it to gardening question,

"Troubleshooting," care magazine, or contact the

U. of A.

Agricultural Extension Serv­ ice, Post Office Box 751,

Phoenix.

Letters will be answered and the more promptly interesting ones discussed briefly in this column.

Here are sev­ eral that came in recently.

"Round, brownish dead spots hav started are to appear in my rye lawn.

small, but a few have

Some goUen a big as pie plates.

If acts like some sort of disease.

What is it, and what can be done about it?" writes a

Phoenix man.

From the like description given, it sounds curvularia, a fungus disease that is known to attack rye grass in this part of the country.

It generally shows up in mild weather after a rainy period or heavy irrigation.

Activity is usually confined to protected areas of the lawn, where there is little air movement or sun.

When curvularia kills the grass in cular fu:g__gus attacks, it sm�, distinct cir­ spots that may gradually gt larger.

Each spot has sharply defined edges, around which delicate, feathery, the fungus early in

At present, this controlled best by known as

"Tersan." to the manufacturer's dii·er.·tlons_ appear on the package.

"T}O,;MIiF�!

tree for a consicterabie, with no harm to fruit.

Lemons, to on pick around Octo the tree until Fe

in ornamentals and turf; identification

of

sunburn damage; identification and prevention of salt

burn,

identification and control when possible of Texas root rot; nematodes, crown gall, wet wood of ash,

Verticillium wilt, powdery mildew; bud rot and crown rot of palms; pythium infection of eucalyptus, damping off, gummosis, slime flux of mulberries and other ornamental diseases.

Assistant Hess was also £ontacted for identification and egg puncture, possible control of the following ornamental insect pests: flat headed borer, tent caterpillar, elm leaf beetle, red spider mite, thrips, leafhoppers, sow bugs, cottony cushion scale on pittosporum, bark beetle, ants, termites, crickets, snails, cicada long horned borers, and other ornamental insect pests.

Assistant Hess was also contacted for information on the following ornamental problems: seed bed and flower bed preparation; materials for use as mulches; preparation of composting piles; identification of date varieties, how to harvest, process and store dates; gopher control; proper planting times for various ornamentals; proper methods and times to prune various ornamentals; proper locations and methods of damage to planting ornamentals; 2,4-D and other herbicide ornamentals; culture and best varieties of flowers; identification of uncommon shrubs, trees and budding various flowers; times and methods of transplanting and ornamentals; and general culture of ornamentals.

Over-watering and the accompanying iron chlorosis continue to be the most serious occur ornamental due to problem in Mar icopa County.

Other common difficulties salt burn and sunburn.

During

1957 Assistant

Hess, in cooperation with

Larry

O'Conner of the Braun

Chemical iron

Company, conducted a series of tests on ornamentals with the natural chelate, Greenz

26.

The material was applied as a foliage spray in varying strengths to a number of different ornamentals.

Sufficient data has not been accumulated to recommend this material at present.

Further tests will be conducted during the spring and summer of 1958.

Assistant

Hess, an attended several honorary member of the Golf Course

Superintendents

Association meetings of the association and is starting a circular letter designed to help greenskeepers with their specific turf and ornamental problems,

On October 17 and 18 Assistant

Hess attended the turf grass conference at the

University of Arizona.

The conference, sponsored jointly by the University of Arizona, the Golf Course Superintendents

Association, and the U.S.D.A.

Greens

Section, was very informative and useful information.

provided

Assistant Hess with much

Starting in

August, 1957,

Assistant Hess directed the maintenance and fertilizers and insecticides to the applied cooperative University of Arizona Agri­ cultural Extension

Service, radio station KOY and

Valley

Garden

Center turf variety plots.

Starting in

July, 1957,

Assistant Hess sent circular letters to all nurserymen in Haricopa

County, at about three-week intervals.

These letters contained information on

Crown Gall, Texas Root Rot, common rose insects, Valencia orange splitting, electric windburn, new publications, and other timely information of interest to local nurserymen.

-

18

-

4.

Livestock

A.

Beef Cattle

Cattle

Cattle for feeding receives most of the feeding has one emphasis in the beef cattle project.

objective

-profit from growing and fattening cattle slaughter.

This profit can result in anyone of four ways:

1.

2.

l-fatching cattle, feed production and feed purchases wi. th the market situation.

Emphasis is placed on producing beef.

Feeding cattle so that animal manure is readily available to improve production of crop land.

The value of manure for crop production is emphasized.

If this is the only profit, the operator is satisfied.

He normally expects a profit from the sale of cattle, however.

3.

Cattle feeding for turning crop residue, and crops grown in rotation with cash crops, into beef.

4.

Custom of feeding

-cattle.

selling feed, facilities and service to owners

Two or more of these objectives are usually combined in a cattle feeding operation.

These objectives must be known and understood before sound recommendations can be made.

For this reason, much of the cattle feeding project is handled as individual enterprise problems.

Personal contacts tacts were made as by Agent Lough numbered

252 during the year.

These con­ phone, office or field calls.

Most calls concerned feeding with respect to:

(1)

type of cattle to feed;

(2)

compounding rations;

(3) use of crop residues and by-products;

(4)

use of feed additives, hor.mones, minerals, antibiotics, etc.;

(5)

production and storage of roughages, particularly silage;

(6)

plans and equipment needed.

Numerous contacts were also made to discuss disease and parasite control.

Use of hormones in cattle other feeding has affected this enterprise more than any single scientific advance in the field of nutrition.

Agent Lough placed much emphasis on understanding and informing cattle feeders as to the proper usage of these materials.

Use of the synthetic hormone implant, diethyl­ stilbestrol, was connnon during the year.

It stimulates growth without undesirable side-effects if individual cattle feeders to properly used.

Agent Lough worked with several explain and demonstrate proper use of this material.

Demonstration feed feeding tests were established lot, northeast of

Scottsdale, in in

January at the Keebler-Matthews cooperation with the Animal Science

Department of the

Universi� of Arizona.

The tests were the effects of

Stilbestrol and planned

Progestrone-Esterdial implants to with demonstrate and without the feeding of terramycin in the ration and in a free-choice salt mixture.

Due to complications the tests were not carried to completion as originally planned.

They did have value in that the results obtained agreed with other tests conducted by the UofA.

Their greatest value was to carry information in the local papers biotics.

concerning the proper use of hormone implants and anti­

-

19

-

A meeting was held on

October 21 to discuss the results of tests and research projects carried out by the

University of Arizona Extension Service and the

Animal Science

Department during

1956-57.

The most important objective of the meeting was to clear up confusion that existed concerning hormone implants.

Packer buyers used it frequently to

"beat-down" prices claiming it caused poor carcass finish and conformation.

When hormones are claims were improperly used, these justified.

Agent

Lough wanted to demonstrate the necessity of using hormones to compete in cattle ments at feeding and emphasize that proper usage is the

IIKey to

Success." He arranged the meeting in

Arizona Cattle Feeders

Association, who cooperation with the supplied the meeting place and refresh­ the Hotel Westward

Ho, in Phoenix.

Results of the cattle

Agent Lough.

feeding tests

Briefly they are previously mentioned were presented by

(1) little difference in the effects of stil­ bestrol as compared to progestrone-esterdiol;

(2)

ho�one implants increased daily gains six-tenths of a pound a day, or approximately 30 percent;

(3) terramycin feeding at continuous low levels increased daily gain

11 percent;

(4) combinations of hormone implants and antibiotic feeding gave better results than either treatment alone.

Al

Lane, extension livestock results specialist, discussed application of experimental dealing with roughage feeding and use of hor.mones

in cattle feeding.

Dr.

Bruce Taylor, Head of the

Animal Science

Department, discussed feeding stilbestrol and animal fats in cattle rations.

The meeting and related news coverage was very effective.

Direct mail was used to send the attached discussions to some

100 cattle feeders.

A summary of

Mr. Lane's and Dr.

cattle feeder

Taylor's mailing list is main­ tained and new publications of immediate interest were mailed direct.

Agent Lough plans to make more effective use of direct mail contacts in the coming year by developing a periodic newsletter.

Mass media was used more

Assistant

Agent

Halvorson effectively during the year in the beef project.

prepared copy and arranged for good news coverage in local papers, magazines and radio.

Circulars and bulletins that proved most useful were:

"Cattle

Feeding in Arizona"

Circular 131

"Effects of

"The

Roughage

Levels on

Fattening

Catt1e"- Bulletin

272

Trench

Silo in Arizona"

-

Bulletin 273

"Cattle Ailments and

''Livestock Pests"

-

Diseases"

-

Circular

185

Circular 252

Beef cattle organizations were given assistance with several functions.

Agent

Lough worked with the Arizona Cattle Growers Association in

December 1956.

He assisted in locating dairy cattle for the Mexican livestock delegation author­ ized to buy

Arizona cattle under the

Drought

Relief

Program.

The Arizona Cattle

Feeders Association requested

Agent Lough's assistance in organizing and conducting a feedlot tour for 425 delegates attending the

American National Cattlemen's Association convention held in

Phoenix

January 8, 9 and

10.

-

20

-

COOPERATIVE

EXTENSION WORK

IN

University of Arizona

College of Agriculture

AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

State of

Arizona

U,

Sf.

and

Department of Agriculture

Maricopa County Cooperating

P,O.

Box 751

Phoenix

Agricultural Extension Service

Home Demonstration WOl'k

County Agent

Work

November 19, 1957

G�NTLEMEN:

Here is the s��ary of the feeding meeting which you requested.

irJonuation presented at the recent cattle tests

Al Lane's discussion of

is summarized first.

alfalfa, gin trash and silage, hormones)and shade

Dr.

Bruce discussion of oral

TaylorVs explanation of the use of fats in cattle feeding and his feeding of stilbestrol conclude the surnmary�

You will find this an i�te�esting review.

y�[email protected]

Otis truly,

G.

t4Z/ il

Luugh

_1-/"

;:'-v-.y'

L

01

County At:";ricv.ltural Agent

OGL:kl

100 c.

Univ:rsity ot Arizona

�olwge ct

Agriculture and

Uo 51'

Depcu.-tment

or

Agriculture

r,�oparat1ng

CI \.';J.i!/

...

IT;� L.tTl-'�I.:'1.o

"IW .)�.r:

TIl J.Gl1ICUIL''tUP..E

I.lID

1ll.�;;;C rconomcs

State or Ar�ona

Tucson

Agricultural Erl.e:l3ion Service

ROUGHAGE FEEDD1G

1

2

3

4

,

6

7

8

At the harvested

Yuma

Experiment

Station a feeding trial on the value at alra.lra

by difterent ICethodS gave the remtlts shown below.

This te:)t was for

Lot

168 dqs with ye:J.rl1ng

steers that weighed 620 rJOUl"JLis starting on teedo

#1 was red oncyalfalfa hq, tb.e other lots received 3 to

4 pounds ot alfalfa etr;u daiq

plus

the feed listed belaw: toto Noo Ration Lb.

teed/lb.

or gain

Alf'alta

Alfalfa Green

Green

Chop

+

Chop

2i

lb.

BulGy

Green

Gr�

Green

Chop

Chop

Chop

+

+

+

5

lb.

Barlq

2!

1b

I)

MolasooD

S

lb.

Barlq

Rotation p� pasture

Strip pasture

1&82 leW

1.62

a.ra

1�8S

1.69

1.32

1.37

\ lot

Three

Iota stood out.". lot

US,

Green

Chop

+

#1,

h�J

lot 113, Green

Chop +

2!

lbo

barley',

2i

ltc mlasass.

Lot 112, Green

Chop

produced gaim u ch�ap]Jr

M l.ots

#3

ani

#$, but the steens tell a grade lcNer at the en:i ot tJ:1e to3t.

The other

lots,

from the cost

standpoint,

ere umatis.ta.cto1'7o coo.binationa or tbsss We» l7ere fad

91 rougbazas.

dqs on a g:rmring

Yearling

steers

..

starting ",�1ght

S6S lbsoJ ration,

and

96 d.tqs

on a finish ration.

During the

A second test using hegari a1lsga and gin trash points the wrq tovard growing period the,. received, in addition to s�ooo and gin

traDh,

h lb:so of suppleDOnt

d.ail.T

0

Tb1a

pelleted supplelttont

was approximatel3

la$

deeydrated altal£a

L2%

cotto:oseed 1'J93l

10%

JOOlasses

L%

stszmad bone meal

2%

mineral tJalt

+ vitamin

A

(Continued on p3.ge

2)

Durir.!g

i be fi.n.tr;hing

�l led

...

bnut

7 ll.Js.

J.

c.rl..in

(r..JJ.o

wd

1:

"'1.2:1f·.7) t�:

just

t".!ldcr

1 11:>0 or ml:s.ssea

l..."ero cdclc.i

to t,:J.C

rAl1ct� t'lcoo

dru,'ir3

tl::.e

groU"'t.:',,�

ptlrioU�

One third ot the stee1"3 wre

illplontac.l

rt til., 8tar� cf each

period

,rlth

�6

m�tI

atUb�strol,

end mother -third (;0'1:, tl l!:

L�Ct

:unpL'lut

:nont.h:cye

This lLill be disCllS3�d further lmj�r h�rD:!,nJs.

Lot

No.

P�tion

Ib.!.�wo

..

�1n

Grt"I�ln�

p:s---

',.ron�

;r�� inju

lD�it�o flj�

1

2

All oiU.L,l't3 1�90 h ollige to 1 tra.ch

1092

3 j

s�ge

to 2 tra=h

1094 h

2 s�o to

.3

tra�h

1�74

S

1 silica to

4

�'h

6 all gin trull i

1.74

a,e

5 l.65

2.15

2000

1.32

2

..

1$

1.09

1.24

2

..

.35

lcS1

1�20

2&08 1,)67

102,

1�82

1061

06$

li)97 lG71

Lbe" f'G�

Gro:-iin,z

�r

I

lb.

or r.

f':GI�

911>3

1001

1004

1104

13G8

2001

1002 lOe7

10$4 ll$l ll.3

12.S

..,.

The

Conoide:r1ng both pericds the tirot

.3

�i.,a �s tho beat use of U.oir f'et-i

..

it!plent

vho:qad lJOre recrpor..33 with co�1na.ticns or teed tl1C:Ul on olligc alon·':).

Comparing lot., #1

EM

113, tho t.wi

eo�t per

�I!d

or gain w'"aD

13

� in Lo·t;

III o.ni

just ttnder 15¢ por povnd in lot

113 (3

PDrt'1 t'i.tc

ge to 2 pJrl.a

t;-

ash)

Figuros based on thaoo feed pric

....

..

I

...

;

.ilo!:'3nt

SCEg3

Gin tnw!l

V..o

sic

�I l' p,�.I

11 r!

tt�n n

,;0

About l.r� gin tl�h sr.d

� oUnce

O�Ie..",:n 0 b a an ceone�:'deul

1'1

001 in�tio:: pror.uling gin trt.!lh iG �vcUt.'ble to tlll.1 i"ec.:!

,.

J'd nt ::"��H)U�

$7.,00 par ton in

U·.,e tl."mgor e

J

l:cri'l C::ii'!1

�JrrrI \..:,.

T l

.a

v u

19,.

.�,.� � .....

by

AI)

1'10 IGn�

StUbs strol

hplnntn:

�1?l�h haa been said snd vritkn on this aubj�

..

t llith u1de:cyd tfterl.nt

opinim;s", Hct.rave!",

thoea

,thineo are certain:

101

In'plants

will ir.crMsrJ

gld.ruJ

on ste'3� b

Tl�3 aVS:-ltge ioor:J&.�ed gain on all

EOCpel·:i.l1ct.tal

cattle in Al-.uona

hcJ been just under l/� lbo par doyo

2e

Feed errieiel1cy' is i!!f>rovcd, requiring 12% to the same pounds of beat

G

1$%

leas teed to

:£:,rodu

...

e j" Steere should be fed a mj.n1rnut:L ot

110 to 120

Don't be misled l:rJ crumge,g ill external tnt deys attar appearancoa, irplantw..go

40

Proper ls'Tels to

i!!plnnt

as

30 rJg

•.

to

36 mg. for

600 to

650

lb0 ntsHl'Oo

5.

Stilbestrol

1qll.ants

a.ra

the cheapest

�ttod of using hormones and

iP:planting

is a ve..7

sb:p1e

operation.

Th9S:3 things are not clear4r der1ned� &rsooc.ek

opirrl.ons

'h"ill vary.

10 There is no or si�loWl t dirtereno� on daily gain betueen ilq.>lanting feeding st1lJ:eatrcl or i�l.anting

wi tJl pregeateroaa

<!.rst.1-adiolo barer.

tJe have had

�re unif'orcicy in increasing gain with the

implant

thsn with Ol."a.l

feeding.

' 2.

Some side e.rt�i

0

..Jually

SW.ll trom 1n:plaltJ.ng

more tha1, taedingo

Proparq inplant.3d,

'tllsna afrcet� show in n l!t1nor1v

or cattle s,s elongated tento and raiaed ta1l.lw;].da

neither

CS7Clrao

3.

Dressing percen1.ag"3

1a ned.; reduced and grtd� onl3 sUghtly w not at alle

Follow up on more cattle is neaded her-so

40

I1l¥>lanting

of heii"era with

Do

15 mg.

or

18 lllgo

bplmt

MCNJS p:-ows but CD..tlr.ot be rccoll'll'OOnded at this tim without further te8tlDeo

The trW listed bJl.cv

is conclu.eiona

but it is oti1;y cne of several ths.t h:lve helped form tho above

't3,"p1eal of o��erall nsulu

..

Ona l1uL.ircd

rift',f

YE�l1ng ttf.,cro treze divided into three lots of 50 3teors each,

All staers were basic ration \11th Lot irdiv1dual�� weighedo The lots were all ted th(;, same

III as controL In addition lot

#2 had stilbestrol added to the

,ration at the r�te or 10 lt18. per head per standard ration dsyo

Lot

#3

also receive! the

plus

a stilbestrol iIrphnto

One-halt or

2$

steers received a on

24-mgo

ilrplant and the other half recehred a test or

36-mg.

iIrplant.

All steers were

9$ dqso The average

�tarting ueight of the cattle was

682ft

po�.mdso

The average finalveight tiM

900 pOUllflll.

The table ShCYdS the breakiota.'ll by lot of the gain, reoo.

require.oents

and cash on the various tl-ea.tmants.

Lot Treatment

1

Sta!ldard

Ration

(Co.trol)

I

I

2 stilbestrol

(Fad

in

Ratlo!l)

3a

Stilbestrol

3D

Stilbeatrol

(IIrplant 24 Inge) (Ilit>la.nt

36

tngo)

-

Noo of nteers

so

Days on feed

Avgo

9, 95

starting vlt.

678:>4 llJe

680.0

lb.

!'V'g

Ii final vt.

Q

Avgo gniD/head

gcixi*

936.,

lb.

943.2

lb.

26ob2 lh.

23'12¢

26.).2

!b.

Avgo gaL"l

Ibo bd./day

2�74

lb.

2.77

lb$ feed/cwto gain

96S

lhe

938 lb.

Cost/lh

0 or

21.61-

2$

95

68930 lb.

996.1

lb.

307.3' lb.

3024

lb.

2S

9S

689.4

lbo lOOSeO lh.

315.6

lbo

3032 lb.

8$9

lb.

2Q,,7¢

* Feed coat br.sad

on

C.S.,H� + y-Qrdls average

Stilbest.rol

price

-----$

(3D

llg.

daily)------

CeS.N.,

(u.;ei

in

T.Ilt1on)---------------

Cocts ot ll'9:umts approximately

---."-----

MolD/ton

69000/ton f:lJ.OO/wn o07/M.

The

in¥>lnnt;�

ste�"3 b(;i·�

24 li'..g. and

36

�.

levels gained signifieantly raster than either contJ'O:...;.

,.

d.

stilbestrol fed steerse However.

there was no significant d1f'tercnce cC'Nleen the control and stilbestrol ted lotso

The impls.nted

cattle gamed better than

20% taster than the controls end did it with 12% lass re�'d., '!.'he stilbestrol fed cattle �o requiroo lass to produe�

100 pounds ot bc:e: t..h..cn did tho controls.

The return from iml'lantUlg the stears iMrsased the return by $7.

10 per h� tor the feeding pel"1odo

This is baaed on a saving of gain

0

The cattle sold t.t

the same prics.,

2i¢

per pound of

------

CooperatiVG

test

G

Benedict F600 la...�,

Pinal

Coun-cy

Agricultural

Agont's Ort1ceo

*

"

I;�.

By

Dr" Dr-Ilea Taylor

S:>;n G.tt·!!"

Jo.�d:l ane c�;c'rkero it was

!ound ttJ.

t�

ITJllthesued

diethylstilbestrol,

in 1938,

10 It,

'lJa3 :m.')re

pott.nt

ihan the natural hormone estradiol.

20 It l':a.S

pot£nt or�.

8000

Thus, it:!

first use in human medicine vas via the oral

route,

but because

P!l.U311ts

tru.ffel\'d

!nte1t1.na1

distress from this use, it became comnon praetit'3 to give it

1.,. injeation� is

It) first

U33 in If'eat still permitted try

Food produotion was with and

pellet

implants tor

Drug, but littla used b7 producers.

poulteyo

��h1!5

the

Pellet

�lents for cattle, sheep.

'Uld swine were tried ear:cy- 19SO'c�

\"lrUight a�1n8 wore sti1llJ..1ated

in

cattle, exper1mental.ly

but aide effects in were

8�ere uith the dosaeas

��ied�

In

19S4

tJ:..e

Ior4�'\

Ei�per:troent

Stntion reported rather

phenomenal

increases in weight ga1n3 rQd :teed efficiency trom the oral usa ot stilbestrol and with no side lot e.tte-:ts.

Fe:rmisslon cattle or by

Food and

Drug tol.lawed

in October ot coo lbc.

or eter;

19Sh

tor teed

No recent the com belt

.findJ.r..$ of

11�OmllCa was accepted so c5.ttle

feeder

&3 the use or 10 mg. per

tattenir.g

ot C:lttle.

rapidly

or completely by dq ot stilbestrol in tb.t:l mant

A

� or tha lirnt s��tions 1ndica�gj:

19 experilnonte conducted by nine agricaltural expBl."iCP

10 A

16% imprc,",'e.zJllt

in rate ot gain.

20

A

3%

inereua 1L teed intake

.30

A

12%

1m:Pr.CT��t in feed ef:t1cieney.

40

No vffnet on c�s erade it the cattle were red jet aft long ns tl.tej'lrJ'lld ba"le been fed vith no stilbestrol in the ration.

Ge;le:.ral:CY-, the only e1de effect

raported

'With regularity' from the feeding of lrt.Ubest.rol

at t:lc ICTaJ� r-eccmrtendod rate is au elor�t1on or the rudimcmtar,y teats in ste�':!.

..

",

III is or

A rather Ct!,�,:.,1sts:r.t

obCJe"at�.on

seems to indicate that the eye or beet

(lllU5cle)

slightly'

weer

in stilbestrol ted cattle.

The snount of tat 18 sl1ght13 leas the eSllle

0

Ex:ep� tor a te�:r lrlrge feeders, atilhestrol is purchased as a part of a pro­ tein or mixed en,co per ton supp�e!:lto

17 th1�

The ir...elusion

prlcfJ of ot the this

supplement

drug.

is increased 'tV

$9.00

Thue the per steer cost is to approxi­

mately

l:o� to 7,; fo):"' tl':s feading periodo

Intc�cst, in anit."cl.. rata in beU£ cattle ratio:le has 8t�mnnd trcm our

eu.rplUZl

J hsnce, the rnlativaly lmr price or anj"!'l31 .fats

Old gre&!leso

sungf!tar

has ooincided with less in:iu.atrW.

US3 or

tats,

Heavy tlm3 tho livestock

g�rpluso

Tba poult�1 irrlustry has becc.lii� ve..,7 energy cOMcious and speak

1:'1 tenlO u£ high eDDrmr broiler diets and cnergy-protein ratioso Since tats i'urlli."Jh

� t�:v

�3 l'm.lch energy per unit or weieht

8!J

do earbobyer:lt.63

or

prot."9in3"

truv are t!J.(i loBical additionJJ it it is desired to rU&e tho 6:.'largy" conteL-t per lb.

of lIL3a.l

ndxta.rao

In addition the feed industry he.s

found added valuo in fats graln­ in

10duciz'.g

SJl an the dustine3s of dd in

pellating.

teeds,

in itproving the appearance or mal m!rc.ur6B &:.ld

boot

Tho Na't-raske.

Exparinont

St&tion ha3 bae.n

studying f'at3 as an

��d1eu-t.

,yr c�ttle ratic:ls since

19520

At

�t t1ta inedible ani.m:ll tal.lcr4 c� be purchased for

4¢ tQ

�r p�o

The llorth

C::.rol.ina,

Expcr:1JI.ant

Stationa have a4� studied the quutiouC'

Arizona

..

end

Waah;inztcI,1

In a recent 9J-d.ay

Arizona tr-'...al,

COntA.�cted in open lots during the

S'lJlZ'��:r l'OOnt.bsg

throo levels or 1'.:110 to rou� t.."Sre ecupnrodt

3S:$, SO:SO, and

6$1,3,$, re��etively'

0

A ISscond ceries or 8teer grot:ps

�;ero used to) test the same ratio�, but with

10% of the mlo

re-placed

by 10% tallw.

Th3

�aead

SO sSO

ratio proved clolperior to &r1' other ra.tio tested and the use of rat gai by

30%

and reduced the cost or gai.."l3 b7 $4.00

p�r c.ito

}Ictc�.lrb'

that was would.

on:cye.

9O� growing period �d deea liDt suggast that the33 dit.ferences

continua through too rattooing perlodo

In mother Aruons td��l tho

1l:lG or

oS

-

.8S

lbo or tat per steer

iD:prand gains and £&&d e.:f�:ieneY' in both the

&v.d� and

ra.ttening periodso Fat,?

C03t1ng 7¢ per pounds was a�� ",,,rth only

11;;

r1Gr pou:ad in the gro'.ii.ng

period,

b'\lt

�¢ per pound in th3 tat.tcnir..g pcrlod tb:lt follcrolSdo The value ot the

fat.g

in

replacing

other

tetdds,

tor the entire trial was the smns as

1ts COR

-

7

:?ex­

pound,

but it resulted in

tatter"

hizhcr gr� wd higher

y1aldL�g

cattlao mo:re

Tr� ttcm

�Ieb�ka.

workers�

in �lng �.e1r

�Grk;

state that om should mt p�

2i

twa the coat of a pound.

or corn tor a

pound

or fa.t ;.nd

�hould l1m1t tho �� per 8teer per dq to

oS

to 1 p(i1.mo

FAT AS AN

AID IN mE CONTr�L OF BUlAT

-_

........

_----

'Ita Ariaona e.ttltion hc.s

to'Qld that

05

t-o

.85

lb.

of tallov' per stter daiq­ hM roeiACed both the 1ncideree

Md raticn.

This wrk is nsverlty or bloat !rom

a heav

€,TSen chep being continued at the Yuma �t1on � is cof..Jidersd

llrpcrtrnt in th:lt the

tat, properl;r uced,

is a

'V�le nutrient.

&rJ v�ll u a.

help

in.

eor:"�l of bloato

American National Cattlemen's

Association

..

VALLEY

FEED LOT

TOUR

Including irrigation

and power facilities,

and

much of the

productive farming

area.

Courtesy of:

CENTRAL ARIZONA CATTLE FEEDERS

ASSOCIATION

SALT RIVER POWER

DISTRICT

ARIZONA

COTTON GROWERS ASSOCIATION

ANCA TOUR

AMERICAN NATIONAL

CATTLEMEN'S

TOUR

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A.

B.

C.

D.

Map of Salt

River refer to

Valley outlining tour route

(Numbers points of interest discussed in brochure.

)

County Facts

Preface: Cattle feeding and Ranching in Arizona

Points of interest visited or discussed on tour:

L

2

3.

4.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Tovrea's

Feed Yards

Smith-Kelly

Feed Yards

All-State Feed Yards

5 Spears

Feed Yard

Oscar

Walls Ranch and Feed Lot

McElhaney

IS Feed Yards

Sunshine

Farms

-

Feed Yards

Cliff Dobson Ranch and Feed Lots

W.

B.

Swahlen, Jr.

Ranch and Feed Lots

Upton's Feed

Lots

-

Salt River Power District

Kyrene

Facilities

Commercial Citrus and Flower Production

Overfield Ranch and Feed

Lots

Western Cotton Products Oil Mill

Ray

Eaton Feed Lots

Salt River Power District

Lizard

Acres

-

(formerly

M.

O.

Best)

Circle

One

Agua

Fria Facilities

Livestock

Co.

Feed Pens

Tal-Wi -vi Ranch

Luke Field

-

Goodyear Farms

J.

G.

Boswell Co.

Feed Lots

Crowder Cattle Co.

-

-

Feed Lots

Feed

Lots

ANCA TOUR

MARICOPA

COUNT1 FACTS

-�

1957

Total Area

.

• •

.

.

.

.

• .

5,904,640 acres

County Population:

Total

.

Rural

..

Urban.

..

·

..

.

510,000

50,000

460,000

Numbe r of c omme rc ia 1 fa rms

.

.

2300

Irrigated acreage.

• ..

..

..

.

• ..

All land

480,000 acres dependent somewhat on pumps; estimated that

180,000 dependent solely on pumps.

P rinc ip1� Crops:

A..

B.

C.

D10

E.

F.

G.

H.

I

J

/

Upland Cotton

(Short Staple)

American-Egyptian

.SuPima

Cotton

A 1 fa 1 fa

.

.

• • • • ..

:

Barley.

.

.

• •

Grain Sorghum.

.�

.

Vegetables.

Wheat

..

:-.

• .

•.

_1O

• •

..

.

..

• .

:

-;

.-

• .

.123,000 acres

(Long

Staple).

7,500 acres

.

..

..

..

• •

••

..

..

100,

000 acre s

80,000 acres

60,000 acres

45,000 acres

_ ..

25,000 acres

Corn.

..

.

orange s

,

• .'

.....

•.

Grapefruit.

..1O..,.

Lemons..

..

..

:.

• •

.

...

.

• e

'.

..

..

..

..

.

..

.

10,000 acres

6,000 acres

4,500 acres

1,000 acres

Agricultural Income:

Total.

Crops

• .

( a

11

).

..

• •

·

·

.

.

.

.

.

.

••

..

$155,61.(6,326

107,763,836

Field..

• .

Vegetables

• • • • .

.

• ..

Fruit..

...........1O..1O

Horticulture

(Specialities)

••

79,796,304

20,693,373

5,768,562

1.&:)0').697

Livestock �al1)

...

..

..

..

.

.

..

.

.

I

Dairy.

• • • ..

Poult ry.

.

.

Livestock

.....

.

..

..

.

.

..

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.$

47,881,990

10,752,337

1,394,948

35,734,705

(30,000 head'

Livestock sold:

Cattle and calves

•.•••

Hogs

.

• ..

• •

Sheep.

.

213,159 head

9,139 head

73,975 head

BEEF CATTLE INDUSTRY IN ARIZONA

By

Thomas M.

Stubblefield

11

Arizona is an important cattle

1955.

producing state.

About

50 million acres, out devoted to range of a cattle total state production.

area of

72 million acres, are

Virtually all of the barley, grain sorghum, and hay production in Arizona is used to support a cattle feeding industry whose feedlots have a capacity of 320 t nous'­

.' and head.

Income of the total from beef cattle accounts for around 20 per cent agricultural income of the state, amounting to

66 million dollars in zona

There are two

-range general types of beef cRttle production in Ari­ production and the fattening of cattle in feedlots

.•

Ranching operations are carried on in all sections of the state, usually on an extensive scale.

In most instances ranchers maintain a or breeding herd on the range and sell the increase as feeder calves yearlings.

However, in a few cases, ranches are stocked by pur­ chasing feeder calves or yearling feeders, which are then sold after they have used the available grass.

There are close to

1,600 ranches in the state.

__

Cattle

Valley feeding operations are concentrated in the Salt River

(Maricopa County) and Yuma areas, although there are feedlots located throughout the state.

Again, most of the operations are on a fairly large scale.

Feedlots with a capacity of 1,000 head or more account for

280 thousand head or seven-eights of the state

capacit�

Maricopa

County

204 thousand hea dv e«, has b3.7-5-DJ,

92 feedlots with a total

1�

�1:rC....f,

capacity of

It is estimated that out of Arizona feedlots in than was sold in

1955.

400 thousand head of fat cattle were sold

1956.

This was

100 thousand head more the the

Approximately

200 thousand head of cattle and calves move off ranges in Arizona each year.

More than this number was sold off ranges in

1956 due to drought conditions.

Most of the cattle sold in Arizona are sold at the place of production.

At least 90 per cent of the range cattle sales are made at the ranch and 90 per cent or more of the cattle sold by feedlots are sold at the feedlots.

11

Assistant

Agricultural Economist, Department of

Agricultural

Economics, University of

Arizona,

Tucson.

Agriculture

is

Arizona's most important industry and cotton is the largest segment of that very important industry, returning to the state about one-half the entire income received from

agricultur­

al sources.

-

COTTON

AND ARIZONA -

Cotton was first grown in Arizona as early as

1900 when the ex­ periments were made in the

Yuma area with Egyptian seed stocks.

First commercial plantings were of extra long staple

American­

Egyptian

cotton, commonly known now as

Pima.

In the early

1920ls the Acala variety of Upland cotton became the predominant type and continues to hold first place by a wide margin though Alizona continues to be the largest producer of

Pima type extra long staple.

From a more or less static position of planting about 150,000 acres per year with a production of

125,000 bales;

Arizona's cotton farmers expanded rapidly after

1946, reaching a peak of

667,000 acres and 1,125,000 bales in

1953.

In the latter year over half the entire irrigated acreage of the state was planted to cotton.

For the last three years cotton allotment programs have main­ tained acreage below

400,000 acres, producing around

800,000 bales.

Arizona has lead all the cotton producing states in production per acre since 1949, usually by a very substantial margin.

Average production per acre from the

1956 crop will be close to

1,120 1bs.

per acre, three times the national average and more than 200 tbs.

above the next closest state.

Cotton produced in Arizona is of high quality and finds a ready market in both domestic and foreign mills.

So well is the crop received that Arizona has had less of its crop go to government loan most years than any other state.

It is a good

quality fiber,

used in

broadcloths,

sheetings and print goods in large volume.

ANCA

TOUR

No.

1

-

Tovrea Land and cattle

Company -

East Washington at

48th

St

FEED LOT OPERATION:

Capacity:

35,000 head;

396 pens covering 175 acres.

Yearly turnover:

Approximately per year.

290,000

cattle handled through the yards

Classes of cattle:

Fat cattle for slaughter; feeder cattle to be fattened; stocker cattle resold to ranchers to restock their ranch.

Orig�n of Cattle

19��

(head)

Arizona

118,380;

Texas

72,430; New Mexico

8,757;

Louisiana

8,204;

Oklahoma

2,128;

Kansas

1,786i Colorado

1,022;

Mississippi

Arkansas

994;

Oregon 327;

Missouri 257;

239;

California

238;

Idaho

144;

Mexico 110;

Minnesota

65:

Montana

39; Wisconsin 25; utah

16.

Disposition of Cattle

(head)

Arizona

164,250;

California

48,773;

Texas 2,540 Colorado

285;

Montana

284;

Oregon

280; utah

269;

New Mexico 259;

Ohio

206;

Kansas

174;

Mexico

155; Nevada 99; Idaho

82;

Oklahoma

60;

Louisiana

44;

South Dakota 22.

Mill

Capacity:

35 tons of mixed feed per hour.

Annual

Feed

Usage:

82,000 tons tons

molasses;

27,000 tons hay;

26,000 tons grain;

6,000

15,000 tons cotton seed hulls;

8,000 tons cotton-seed meal.

Wa te r

Usage:

Daily average,

330,000 gallons.

Manure:

40,000 tons produced annually.

ANCA TOUR

No.

2

-

Smith-Kelly

Feed Yards

CAPACITY: 3500 head;

70 to 100 head per pen on size.

depending

FEED: 1.

All feed is

2.

purchased

Hegari ensilage stored in two

3500 ton trench s i los.

3.

Grain 1s contracted from feed mill and delivered in rolled form.

50% barley�

50% sorghum preferred.

4.

Cotton oil mill waste included in ration.

5.

Cottonseed meal and molasses also fed.

6. Silage� cottonseed meal, molasses� grain mixed and fed in

� feed trough space; meal�

7.

molasses, grain, hay, cotton mill waste

(dry mix) fed in remaining trough space.

Dry mix is

Equipment -

65% concentrates and

45% roughage.

percentage mill; 2 feed trucks; ensilage loader.

TYPE OF CATTLE FED:

1.

Feed own cattle

2.

(a)

Buy light calves in

fall,

300 to

350#:

feed 200 to

240 days; market at 700 to

800# as baby beef.

(b)

Cross-bred cattle are fed in summer

(c)

Some Arizona white face steers also purchased in fall.

SOURCE OF CATTLE:

Texas, Oklahoma and Arizona

CATTLE

SOLD:

MANURE:

To

packer-buyers

at the feed lot

Sold to custom haulers who clean out resell manure to farmers.

• pens and

ANCA TOUR

No.3

and

4

-

All-state Cattle

Louis

Company,

Spitalny and Bill

Erdwurm, owners

CAPACITY: 3,500 head

CORRAL WORKING AREA: Hydraulically operated squeeze chute and cutt­ ing gates.

One man sitting over squeeze can cut and sort cattle.

FEED EQUIPMENT:

FEED:

Batch-mix mill and barley roller located under grinding shed.

Two feed trucks, one has self­ powered unloading unit.

All feed is purchased; storage space for

1,200 tons barley, remainder of feed is purchased at harvest and stored at grain mill and delivered on order.

WATER

SOURCE:

TYPE OF CATTLE FED:

Light weight, cross-bred or

Oakie-type cattle that will feed out to grade standard and good.

SOURCE

OF CATTLE:

Well with pressure system.

CATTLE SOLD:

Primarily Oklahoma and Texas.

to packer-buyers at the feet lot.

The

All-State

Cattle

Yards listed as

No.

Company also operates the

Five-Spears Feed

4 on the tour nap.

ANCA TOUR

No.5

-

Oscar Walls

-

Broadway,

1/2 mi�e West of Mill Avenue (Tempe)

CROPS PRODUCED:

FEEDS

PURCHASED:

FEED STORA GE

:

171 acres cotton; 300 acres small cropped to sorghum.

grain double

Cotton seed meal and molasses also utilized.

)

(gin trash is

On the farm.

FEED Lor OPERATION:

1&

2.

Capacity:

1,000 head; 125 head per pen.

Labor: One man feeds

1,000 head per day.

3.

Type cattle fed: Cross bred Brahwan.

4.

Cattle

5.

Calves purchased: Through order buyer.

are used to pasture cotton stalks, clean alfalfa and is grain fields, etc.

When no pasture available, they are given ensilage and

1 to

2# cotton seed meal per head per day until they weigh approximately

600#.

6.

Full Feed:

8# barley

2#-

mala sse s

2# cotton seed

8#

to

10# hay

15# silage meal

Finishing

Ration:

10#

barley

2# molasses

12# hay

7.

Water Source: Domestic well with tank.

1,500 gallon storage

8.

Rate of gain:

Chec ked eve ry

30 days

9.

Cattle sold:

LOT)

To local packers or packer buyers

(F.O.B.

10.

Feed Equipment:

Hammer

Graver mill, feed truck with auger; percentage mill

(12 tons hay,

12 tons grain,

12 tons cotton seed meal with molasses capacity)

storage

and mixer.

Truck used to haul grain and cotton seed meal as well as to feed cattle.

11.

Manure:

Applied to crop land by custom manure hauler.

Approximately 1,200 tons available from 1,000 head.

ANCA

TOUR

No.6

-

McElhaney's Feed Yards

FARMING

OPERATION:

RANCHING

OPERATION:

500 acres of crop land; l/S in alfalfa; the remainder double ter and cropped to barley in the win­ sorghum for silage in the summer

..

The owner has interests in the near

Camp

Wood Ranch

Prescott and the Horse-track Ranch near

Florence Junction.

He is also a breeder of

Charollaise cattle.

FEED LOT OPERATION:

1.

Capacity:

6,soo head;

75% owned,

25% custom-fed.

Custom feeding rates are charged on a per ton of feed basis; are

dehorning,

branding, and other services extra.

2.

Feeds. fed: Silage, grain, cottonseed meal, molasses, hay, dehydrated alfalfa and mineral.

Some hay, grain, and silage is produced on the

SOO a c re s mentioned in the farming operation.

3.

Feed storage:

Two

10,000 ton silage trenches;

3,000 ton

grain st orage

4.

Rations: Vary from

2S% concentrate,

75% roughage to 70% concentrate,

30% roughage, depending on type of cattle and desired finish.

The number 1 finishing ration consists of:

120# hay

50#

cottonseed hulls

65#

cottonseed meal

45#

molasses

20# dehydrated alfalfa

220# grain

This 1s a

5# mineral

6S% concentrate ration.

5.

Feed

EqUipment:

Batch mixing mill; grain carried from storage by conveyor screw to steam roller and grinder, then to mill.

One of the few opera­ tions that adds silage directly to rest of ration in the batch mixer.

Two trucks distrib­ ute feed to cattle.

6. water source;

City of

Tempe

7.

�ypes

of cattle fed: All kinds, but preference goes to lighter kind of cattle; in at 500# to

550# fed to grade choice; heifers sold weighing 750-

8SO/I, stee rs

850-900#.

8.

Source of cattle:

Texas, Oklahoma,

New Mexico, Arizona,

Colorado, Montana, etc.

Source depends on availability and price.

9.

Cattle sold:

At lots to packer buyers.

10.

Manure: Spread on crop land by custom haulers or sold to crop f'a rme r-s

,

ANCA TOUR

No.7

-

Sunshine

Farms Broadway t mile east of Canal

Drive in Tempe

FARMING OPERATION:

Maricopa

County, 2,900 acres;

286 acres

500 acres cotton; remainder farmed to

lettuce,

alfalfa,

barley,

hegari� and atlas sorgo;

75 acres corn.

Yuma County, 2,200 acres;

500 acres lettuce, carrots, cantaloupes; 200 acres cotton, remainder produces green chop and pasture to carry

600-700

head of calves which are shipped to Tempe feed lot for finishing.

FEED LOT:

1.

Capacity:

2,000 head� Three men do the feeding.

Trough space

2' mature cattle,

It' yearlings, l' for calves.

2.

Standard full feed mix

-

Cattle are fed

3 to

4 times daily.

Alfalfa

Ground hay

(2 parts)

Barley hay

(1 part)

32% barley

24

Ground maize

Cottonseed meal

15

6

Cottonseed hulls

4

Molasses

Mineral, yeast mix

Silage

12

1

6

3.

Types of some cattle fed

-

Hereford, cross bred

Holstein steers and cows are yearlings, purchased.

and

Cattle are fed to grade commercial to choice, depending on type.

Calves are produced from their own cow herd.

A 300 registered

Hereford cow herd is maintained on irrigated pasture.

This is one of the few cow-calf operations in the County not being maintained on range land.

Cattle are bought occasionally at auctions; bought direct;

Arizona Herefords and Texas cross-breds.

4.

Feed storage tons;

tf2

-

-

Grain;

Four 90 ton bins.

Hay Barns;

1000 tons; Silage

-

#1

and

#2

#1 trenches,

-

600

1200 tons each;

#3 trench

2500 tons; cottonseed hulls are used for silo seal.

Molasses

underground storage

46 tons.

5.

Feed

equipmen�

-

2 feed wagons loader; tractor;

Draver

(one used as stand-by) silage percentage mill, hay bin

8 tons

capacity,

grains and meal bins 5 tons capacity.

Molasses added to mix just before feed enters holding bin.

6.

Rate of and gain out

-

Some lots checked weights every

30 days, otherwise in

7.

Water sourc�

8.

�elling

-

-

City water with stand-by

Cattle are sold direct to well.

packer.

9.

Manur�_ -

Applied to crop land by custom haulers

-

10.

Swine operation Approximately a

200 sow breeding herd is maintained:

This is one of the few commercial swine raising enterprises in the

County.

ANCA TOUR

No.

8

-

Cliff Dobson Ranch

CROPS PRODUCED:

FEEDS PURCHASED:

FEED STORAGE:

East

Baseline Road

1500 acres beet alfalfa; 500 acres cotton; 100 acres seed;

900 acres barley double cropped to g ra in sorghum.

Some barley" cottonseed meal

Hay;

3000 tons under

Grain;

3500 tons; shed, 1500 tons outside.

Silage; total capacity

16,000 tons.

Two trenches

4500

tons,

2 trenches 3500 tons.

Gin trash.

FEED LOT:

1.

9apac1ty

-

6000 head

2.

Labor

one man per

1000 head of cattle

3.

Machinery

-

Williamson type mill with batch mixer" 3 feed trucks,

2 feed wagons, tractor mounted scoop loader for ensilage.

44 Types of cattle fed

-

Hereford yearlings for fall delivery.

6.

5-

Cattle purchased direct or through broker.

Feeding

cattle are started on seed meal added to the ensilage.

ensilage.

The

2� pounds ensilage of is cotton­ fed in this manner until the last few weeks of the period.

finishing

Ensilage feeding is gradually tapered off as the following mill feed is increased in the daily ration.

No ensilage is fed at the end of the finishing period.

Standard full feed ration:

300# alfalfa and barley hay or alfalfa hay and straw

3001/

grain

75#

cottonseed meal

This mill mixture is fed twice daily.

The silage-meal­ mix, described above, is fed

3 or

4 times daily.

Some good quality hay is always included in the mixed hay fed.

7.

Length of feeding period

-

8.

Cattle fed

to choice average

5 months.

grade

9.

Average rate of gain

-

2.5#

per head per

10.

Water source as

-

2 stand-by.

wells with pressure day.

system.

One well used

11.

Selling

cattle sold to coast coast rna rket

• buyers and occasionally shipped

12.

Manure

A ve rage

disposal applied to farm land by custom haulers.

1.5

tons pe r animal.

ANCA

TOUR

No.9

-

Total

W.

B.

Acre��

-

Swahlen,

Jr.

-

McClintock

Road.

1

Dr3

2 mile South of Baseline

160

10 acres in crops.

farmstead and feed lots; 150 in

CROPS PRODUCED:

FEEDS PURCHASED:

FEED STORAGE

FEED LOT

OPERATIONS:

150 acres of barley for grain, winter; hegari silage, summer.

Cotton seed meal, molasses

1/3 of silage.

2/3 of grain, all hay,

Grain storage 700 ton total capacity; silage trench, 23500 tons.

1.

Feed lot of capacity: 1,000 head.

trough space per animal.

45-90

head per pen;

2

•.

Labor required: For normal feed lot

13/4 operation; one man.

feed

3.

Type of cattle fed: fall.

350#

calves to

700#

yearlings bought in

Some cross-bred Brahmans fed in summe r-,

4.

Cattle purchased: through order buyer.

5.

?tarting

on feed:

Hay for

2 days, then adds silage until they are and getting full feed of silage plus

2�!

cottonseed meal

2# molasses plus

1#

hay,

1# straw and 1

1/3# barley per head per day.

Kept on this ration until steers are

750# and heifers

650#.

6.

Full feed:

.

Gradually reduces silage over a months time and replaces with ration of

1/3 roughage and

2/3 concentrates

..

Cattle fed to grade choice.

Average iod, 135 to 250 days.

length of feeding per­

7.

Cattle fed: 1 to

3 times and ration fed.

daily depending on number of cattle

Cattle also fed 2 oz.

salt containing

2�% trace mineral daily, mixed into feed.

8.

Equipment;

Hammer mill grinds hay and barley.

Mechanical feed wagon mixes and distributes feed; tractor with hydraulic lift to load concentrates and silage on wagon

9.

Rate of gain:

De t e rmf.ned

by check lot every

30 days.

10.

Water supply:

From well.

Centrifugal pump operated with tractor, can pump water from ditch in emergency.

11.

Cattle sold at feed lot to packer buyers.

January to first of August.

Sells from last of

12.

Diseases and fever.

parasite control: Watched closely for shipping

Sprayed for fly control every

2 to

3 weeks in sunme r-,

13.

Manure: Spread on crop land vice.

by custom manure spreading ser­

Estimated amount of manure

produced,

(air dry basis)

1 ton per animal fed.

14.

Hormone at implant;

65O/f.

(progesterone-estradlal)

steers implanted

ANCA

TOUR

No.

10

-

A.

C.

Upton Feed Lots

TOTAL

ACREAGE: 25 acres;

10 acres in corrals and buildings;

15 acres in pasture.

FEED LOT

CAPACITY:

1,,000 head

�ffiTHOD

OF OPERATION:

Owner buys light

(300-600#) cattle and grows them at primarily on roughage which he purchases harvest time.

Roughage is inexpensive to store.

Little and feed a equipment is needed to compound good roughage ration.

When heifers reach

600#

and steers

700#� they are moved to the McElhaney

Cattle Co.

feed yards

(No.6) and put on a finishing ration.

If space is not available at

McElhaney's,

the finishing ration is moved to them are finished at the by truck and the cattle operator's pens.

Once feed is on it wheels, the difference in cost of moving

1/4 mile or

5 miles 1s comparatively small.

This operation is interesting in that a small operator who likes to feed cattle can remain small, yet he competes with large, industrial type cattle feeding operations.

Dovetailing his operation with the larger operation at the proper time and can be a place makes this possible.

It profitable arrangement for both parties.

ANCA rrOUR

No.

11

-

KYRENE

STEAM POWER PLANT: Operated by the Salt River

Power District

LOCATION:

12 miles Southeast of Phoenix near

Tempe

CONSTRUCTION DATE: Unit No.1

completed June 1952; Unit No.2

completed

June

1954

TOTAL COST:

$13

million

CAPACITY

:

COOLING FACTOR:

�OO,OOO kilowatts

96

million gallons of cooling water per day pass through plant to cool it.

This is returned to the Western Canal for reuse.

GAS USAGE:

STYLE:

At peak load, plant will cubic feet of natural burn gas per over

540

month.

million

Semi-outdoor southwest.

plant

first of its kind in the

PLANT

SITE;_:

BOILER:

BUILDER:

Occupies purposes.

47

acres

with

15 acres used for power

Stands steel steam

103 feet pressure high and contains

10 miles of tubing and will generate per hour at

642,000 pounds of

1,500 pounds per square inch at 955 degrees

Fahrenheit_

Bechtel

Corp.

ANCA TOUR

No.

12

-

Commepe!ai Citrus and

Flower Production

Grape fruit:

L.

2.

3.

4.

Harvested from November until

June.

Yield

10 to 20 field boxes per tree

(field box holds

50#

grape fru it,

60#

0 ra nge s

)

90 trees per acre in by

22 feet spacing)

Approximately typical citrus grove

5800

acres in county.

(22 feet

9ranges:

Lemons:

1.

2.

3.

Navels are the first to and ripen; harvested in November

December, yielding 2 to

6 field boxes per tree

(3'200 acres in county)

Sweet see d l

2 to

Lng s are harvested in December and

January

7 field boxes per tree.

1400 acres in county.

Valencias are harvested from March to

2 to 10 field boxes per tree.

May and yield

3400

acres in county.

Harvested from late

August through

December.

Yield­ ing 3 to 10 field boxes per acre.

1100 acres in county.

Tangerines & Limes are also produced on a limit�d scale.

Japanese Flower Gardens

Approximately

100 acres under intense cultivation

(high percentage of hand la bor required').

Winter and spring flowers produced are principally:

1.

2.

3.

Stock

Sweet Peas

Calendulas

Per acre

Flowers

States cost

--shipped to

$1,

000 to $1,500 large cities throughout the United by air express and rail.

No.

13

-

D.

E.

"Peanuts"

Overfield Ranch and Lots Lateral 17

FARMING OPERATION:

IRRIGATION:

PASTURING:

260 acres farmed; 35 acre cotton allotment in

1956; remainder of farm planted to small grain for winter pasture and grain production.

This land will be and he ga r-L cropped to Sudan grass for for pasture, silage and grain next summer.

Land is under Salt River also has an

Project but operator agricultural well.

All l� miles of irrigation ditch is cement lined.

The irrigation layout is such that all fields but one could be irrigated at the same time.

This is one of the few ope ra t f on s that still maintains a pasture program.

Cotton and grain fields are also pastured after harvest.

FEED LOT:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Capacity:

Types

2,000 head of cattle fed

all kinds.

90% of the cattle are bought one at a time through auctions throughout

Feeding: the year.

Silage, hay, straw, cottonseed hulls, grain, and cottonseed meal.

Standard finishing ration:

12-14# grain

2t# cottonseed meal

5-

4# cottonseed hulls

6#

sila�e

4#

hay

,3# hay to

1#

straw)

Feed

Feed

Water storag�3 trench silos hold

5500 tons equipment

-

Feed is put int

0

"Surmix" feed wagon in layers.

It 1s mixed as it is conveyed out of wagon into troughs.

sour��

-

Domestic well with pressure system.

Cattle sold

to packer buyers at the feed lot.

ANCA TOUR

No.

14

-

Western Cotton Products

Company

Cottonseed 011 Mill

Capacity a

-

550 tons of cottonseed can be processed in day

(24 hours)

Operational

Period

-

September 15th to June 15th

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE:

1.

2.

Cottonseed purchased from cotton

Seed Is held in

4 gins storage

"houses" of

10,000 tons capacity each.

Air circulation system eliminates danger of overheating.

3.

Lint is removed from seed twice.

by processing each seed

Lint from the first run is used in mattress

manufacturing

and upholstering; lint from the second run is used by chemical plants

(rayon manufacture, etc.) or during wartime in manufacturing of explosives.

4.

Seed is cracked and hulls removed, cottonseed hulls sold to cattle feeders.

5.

Seed meat is crushed and mixed with solvent which extracts oil.

Solvent is then drawn off leaving cottonseed oil.

6.

Cottonseed meal is remaining by-product of the 011 extraction process.

7.

Cottonseed meal is sold to ranchers and cattle feeders in the following forms:

(a )

(b)

f��

(e

)

Cottonseed meal

Cottonseed Meal flake or cake

Cottonseed meal pellets

Cottonseed meal-salt mixes

3:1 and

2:1

Cottonseed meal-salt flake cake

3:1 and 2: I

On� ton of cottonseed

yields

approximatelx.

370#

oil

230# lint

400# hulls

900# meal

100# trash,

losses,

etc.

ANCA TOUR

No.

15

-

Eaton

S�t�1e eempany

-

McDowell

Road and

49th

Avenue

FARMING

OPERATION:

800 acres of crcp land;

1/3 planted to alfalfa;

2/3 planted to small grains in the winter and to

hegari

and Sudan grass in summer.

Small grain is pastured in the winter; Sudan grass is pastured or

"green chopped" in the summer.

One thousand head of cattle are on pasture at pre­ sent.

Occasionally calves are put on summer range in northern mountains if feed is plentiful and range can be rented or leased.

FEED LOT:

1.

2.

Capac i ty

:

Feeding_:

3,000 head; average

100-125 head per pen

Alfalfa and barley hay; milo and barley grain; cottonseed meal and hulls; silage.

It is necessary to purchase hay and grain to that which is grown on the ranch.

in addition

Finishing ration:

66% concentrates

33% roughage

3.

Feed storage

-

2 silage trenches with combined capacity of

5000 tons; grain storage shed.

Grain is loaded on truck by screw conveyor and hauled to dump pit at mill.

4.

Feed equipment

-

Percentage tons.per

hour.

mill with

Auger capacity carries grain of

14 from to

15 dump pit to storage bin where it is fed to grinder.

One feed truck is used to feed cattle.

5.

water source -

Domestic well with pressure system

-

6.

Type of cattle fed

High quality Hereford yearlings and calves.

50% are Company owned and

50J6 are custom fed.

7.

Source of cattle

-

70-75% are

Arizona cattle.

8.

Cattle sold

TO packer buyers at the lot.

ANCA TOUR

No.

16

-

AGUA

FRIA

STEAM POWER

PLANT:

Operated by the Salt

River

Power

District

LOCATION: Northern and 75th Avenue

Glenda Le and Pe oria

(Lateral 20) between

CONSTRUCTION DATE:

TOTAL COST:

CAPACITY:

STYLE:

Unit No.

1 to be

2 completed

March completed March 1957; Unit

No

..

1958

$26 million

200,000

Kilowatts

-

Semi-outdoor plant similar in many features to

Kyrene

Steam Power Plant

MAJOR STYLE Administration offices in front of building makeup water

CHANGEs:al

b

Wells will furnish c

Freight and passenger elevator d

Two 17-inch television sets on closed circuit operation used to check fuel burning in fUr­ nace

..

PLANT

SITE:

FUEL:

BOILERS:

Occupies 80 acres units.

-with

40 acres for the two

Natural gas with

26 million used of per day per unit.

fuel oil available.

cubic

Standby of feet of

40,000 it barrelE

Rise to 110 feet, with two stacks projecting

10 feet above each boiler.

Bechtel

Corp.

BUILDER:

ANCA

TOUR

No.

17

west of

El

-

Circle

One

Livestock

Company

Lizard

Mirage on

Grand

Avenue,

Acres,

2 miles north­ t mile North of

Dysart

Road.

The

Circle

One

Livestock

Company is a commercial feed-lot establishment.

Approximately one-half section is farmed but the bulk of cattle feed is purchased.

FEED PURCHASED: Molasses, cottonseed meal, barley, milo, ensil­ age, and hay.

FEED STORAGE:

Grain; 7500 ton storage capacity.

Ensilage; 25,000 tons in

3 trench silos with capacities of 12,000,

9,000 and respectively

-

6,500 tons

3% molasses is added to ensilage at harvest time.

FEED LOT OPERATION:

Capacity

Machinery

-

Rations

-

-

13,000 head batch mixer; with bale barley steam roller,

24" hay mill shredder; ensilage· loader; conveyor equipped truck to haul ensilage to scales where it is weighed into feed trucks;

4 feed trucks.

one mill mix is made; cattle are started on small percentage of mill mix and high percentage of

Standard ensilage.

Finishing

Ration plus 5 to

-

65

to

70 percent

6 pounds of ensilage.

concentrate

Amount of Finish

determined by type of cattle.

Mineral

Feeding

-

"goofis"

Water

Source

domestic well

Parasite contrel

Worm

cattle sprayed for grubs, flys and lice.

analyses are made of droppings.

Records

feed weighed to each individual owners cattle.

Rate of gain checked by in and out weights.

ANCA TOUR

No.

18

-

Tal-Wi-Wi Ranch

This 1s a

Hopi

Indian name meaning in effect

"the fert

LLe land first touched by a direct ray from the rising sun."

Developed by

Col.

Dale

Bumstead starting in

1926.

\

Producers,

Packers, and

Shippers of

Grapefruit, Oranges, Grapes,

Lemons, Vegetables and Grain.

Total Acres

960

Grapefruit

Oranges

Lemons

Grapes

Vegetables and grains

Recreation Area roads, etc.

115 acre s

70 acres

80 acres

300 acres

440 acres

40 acres

5 electrically operated wells

13.2

miles of

14" and

16" c onc rete

18.5

miles of fencing irrigat ion mains

Office, parking, precooling and cold storage plants, mill and gra t na ry

,

23 residences.

Cwner:

Dale

Bumstead,

Jr.

Grape

Production in Maricopa

count�:

1,500 acres of

Thompson Seedless harvested in June and July.

Gross income approximately

$3,000,000.

ANCA

TOUR

No.

19

-

Luke

Air Force Base

This is an installation of the Crew

Training

Air Force which is a part of the Air

Training

Command.

The Air

Training

Command is the largest division of the United states Air Force.

cor�NDING OFFICER: Brigadier General

Robert

L.

of

Scott�

Jr., author

"God is

My Co-Pilot" and other books with a military aviation theme.

PERSONNEL:

5,000

military the base.

and civilian personnel operate

MISSION:

TRAINING:

PILOTS:

To teach pilots to use craft as a combat jet fighter-bomber weapon.

air­

Air to air and air to ground gunnery; dive skip-bombing; bombing with nuclear weapons.

and

Most pilots in

Air Force.

training

However, are many officers are members in of the the

U.S.

Air

National

Guard.

Some pilots of allied nations are trained under provisions of the

Mutual De­ fense Assistance Pact.

AIRCRAFT USED:

Chiefly F

84 jet fighterbombers.

FIRING AND BOMBING RANGE: Gila

Bend Gunnery Range Complex is located

50 miles southwest of Luke AFB.

Range is unequal­ ed anywhere in world for number and variety of facilities.

LOCATION:

HOUSING:

HISTORY:

Major assets of the base as a training installa­ tion are the unparaJ leled clear flying weather,

2 excellent

10,000 foot runways� a number of aux1.liary

emergency landing fields,· and the excellent gunnery range.

The present inadequate housing facilities for the

1,700 families assigned to the Base will be greatly improved in the near future.

Plans are presently in

Washington for final modification and approval of a housing development that will provide homes for 795 military families.

Land has been the base.

acquired for this development east of

At present most families live in the nearby towns or cities of

Phoenix, Glendale,

Litchfield

Park,

Goodyear, and Peoria.

Opened originally

in'

1941, vated afte r

World Wa r

II.

opened for training pilots conflict.

In April,

1956, installation of the United

Luke AFB was deacti-

In 1951 it was re­ during the Korean it became a permanent

States Air

Force.

The base was named in honor of

Frank

II

Arizona's World War 1

Ace and

Luke, Jr.,

Balloon-Buster."

ANCA TOUR

No.

20

-

Goodyear

Farms

titchfield

Park

CROPS PRODUCED:

FEED STORA GE

:

13,000 acres farmed to a

Lf'a

Lfa

, barley" sorghum" cotton,

lettuce"

sugar b�et seed" citrus and corn

(experimental basis).

A four year rotation is standard consisting principally of grain" cotton.

alfalfa,

Grain stored in

"Igloos"

-

200 to

225 tons capacity each

Hay sheds" 15 in number,

500 to

550 tons each.

FEED LOT OPERATION

---

Commercial Feeding

Practiced

Capacity

-

550 mature cattle; small pens

40 to large pens

80 head.

140 to 150 head;

Labor

-

Seven men during feeding time, of the day.

Types of Cattle

Fed

-

All kinds ranging

4 men remainder from

220#

to

950#

Finished

Origin of

Weight

cattie

-

475# to

1200#

Arizona,

New

Mexico" Texas, Idaho,

Montana, Kansas Missouri, and Oklahoma.

Feeding Charges

custom rates based on feed consumed head plus any miscellaneous expenses; per drugs, etc.

Feed

-

Equipment Williamson feed hay ground mill,

6,000 head capacity; through

I" screen; grain steamed and rolled; feed blended in batch mixer,

500#

per batch.

Grain conveyed from

"Igloo" storage to mill by drag.

Two tractors; one mechanical feed wagon;

4 h�y trailers

.

Water

Source

-

12" stand by irrigation well with pressure tank well and city water

(also available).

Water

Manure

tanks cleaned weekly_

Mounded in corrals once monthly, cleaned out once a year and applied to crop land by contract haulers.

ANCA TOUR

No.

21

-

J.

G.

Boswell

Company

FARMING OPERATION:

Cotton, duced.

alfalfa,

grain, and vegetables are pro­

The company also operates cotton gins and a cotton-seed oil mill.

CATTLE FEEDING OPERATION:

Primarily commercial cattle feeding is practiced although own cattle constitute a varying percent­ age of total head on feed, depending on condi­ tions.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Capacity:

Labo�:

12,000 head; pen.

Eleven men feedlot average employed

100 head in per operating

Type

of cattle feq: Depends on what custom­ ers ers, buy, but primarily steers, heif­ and calves.

Feed Source:

Nearly all feed 1s produced on ranch with exceptions of molasses and percentage of grain.

Feeds fed: hay, grain, cottonseed meal, cottonseed hulls and molasses.

Feeding equipment: Batch mixing mill with combination steam roll and grinder for grain, 3 feed trucks, 7500 ton grain storage.

Water source:

Well with

50,000

gallon stor­ age tank pressure feeding into 5,000 gallon tank.

Water system fully automatic.

Cattle sold:

To

Manure:

.packer

buyers at the feed l�.

Applied to crop land by custom manure haulers.

The company also has a

22,000 head capacity feeding opera­ tion in California.

ANCA TOUR

No.

22

-

Crowder Cattle

Company-Indian

School Road and 9lst Avenue.

FARMING AND RANCHING OPERATION:

40 acres

100 acres alfalfa;

40 acres lettuce; grain;

40 acres hegari ensilage.

Also operates a desert ranch near

Salome.

FEEDS

PURCHA SED:

Molasses, hay, meal and hulls.

grain,

cottonseed

FEED STORA GE

:

Grain, trench

2,400 tons capacity; two silos,

1,800 and

2,000 tons respectively.

FEED LOT OPERATION:

1.

2.

9apac1ty:

3,000 head; approximately

100 head per pen,

Labor: depending on size of cattle.

3 men; one operates mill, two haul hay and ensilage on a contract basis.

3.

Machinery:

Batch mixer; 2 feed wagons;

4.

�ypes

5.

Cattle ensilage conveyor.

of cattle fed:

Hereford calves and yearlings bought:

Direct or received from desert ranch.

6.

Starting on feed:

Hay and ensilage fed

7.

Standard full feed ration:

500#

batch

50#

dehy.;

40#

meal

215#

grain

70# hulls

Cattle are fed once

15#

straw

60#

alfalfa hay

50#

molasses daily

8.

Cattle fed: To grade choice

9.

Rate of Gain: In and out weights.

10.

Water source:

Well with pressure

11.

Cattle sold:

At feed

lot,

usually system.

to local buyers.

12.

Records: Lots are identified; steer feed and heifer

13.

Manure: feed kept separate.

Applied to crop land or sold.

The Maricopa

County

Fann Bureau requested that

Agent Lough serve on a joint dairy-beef committee.

The committee developed some basic plans for a dairy bull calf disposal

plan

to reduce the supply of beef and thus increase beef prices.

Practical procedures for accomplishing such a program could not be agreed upon.

In the meantime, cattle prices improved and the project was dropped.

Agent Lough attended various other beef throughout the year for the purpose of relation contacts.

organization meetings keeping informed and and functions making public

B.

Sheep

No definite progr.am in planned for sheep production.

Indi�idual questions and problems are answered as they arise.

Seventeen persons were given recommendations concerning sheep production during the year.

C.

Swine

General interest in swine production increased considerably during the yea�

Hog prices were the most favorable for some time.

Several operators have invested in an permanent appearing swine attempt be made to get the swine layouts.

producers

Agent together

O'Dell on a suggested meeting that

Where they could discuss mutual problems and make them known to the Agriculturel

Extensio�

Service and

College of Agriculture.

Agent Lough arranged such a meeting on

November 21.

Assistant

Agent

Lonsdale aided by making

35 mm colored slides of

3 swine operations.

Owners of the enterprises discussed their operational procedures with the aid of these slides at the meeting.

A1

Lane,

Extension Livestock

Specialist discussed cross-breeding and the meat-type hog.

J.:_� J. \{oolsey, D.

V.�f. of the Livestock Disease Eradication Division,

Agricultural Research Service, discussed prevalent swine diseases in

Arizona.

Twenty swine producers and 15 other persons attended.

The meeting was success­ ful.

Agent a

Lough plans to call other swine meetings in the coming year and develop

positive

swine extension project.

He hopes a swine association can event­ ually be fonned to help develop an.d

represent this growing agricultural industry.

With the ducted.

exception of the swine meeting, no definite swine project was con­

Fort,r-two contacts were made concerning swine production and breeding.

D.

Small Animals

No projects were conducted under this heading during the year.

Assistant

Lonsdale attended the regular momthly meetings of tile Arizona Chinchilla

Association and assisted in conducting two field days.

5.

Daiey

Agent Lough devoted approximately 50 percent of his time to the dairy project, making 780 individual contacts during the year.

-

21

-

An effective dairy project is complex due to the many interwoven and over­ lapping dairy organizations, sales and service organizations and marketing organizations closely identified with the dairyman.

They are all trying to sell ideas to the dairyman for one reason or another.

In most instances, they will help sell a sound, progressive extension dairy program.

occa­ sionally they are in direct conflict.

The public relations job that must accompany the dairy project is a tough one.

Three basic types of dairy enterprises are found in the county.

They must be identified before a good extension recommendation can be made.

a.

The first type is the dairy fann where cattle numbers are balanced against feed that can be produced on the available crop land.

Management, labor, machinery and investment are split between a milk production unit and a crop production unit.

This type of operation is decreasing.

b.

Dry-lot dairying is on the increase.

In this type of operation all time, effort and money is utilized in producing milk.

Feed and all other supplies are purchased.

Maximum utilization of labor and is equipment is possible.

Buying and selling in volume important.

c.

Marginal dairymen constitute the third group.

A few graduate but most fail in 2 to 4 years.

Due to the twice milk-check dairymen can operate longer on credit monthly than most other by agricultural enterprises.

This group is characterized marginal cows, marginal feed, marginal financing and marginal thinking.

They are a problem.

The dairy project is divided into

4 major fields: a.

b.

c.

d.

Feeding and management

'Dairy

Herd

Improvement

Association

Disease and parasite control

Dairy organizations,

Feeding

and

!-fanagement

Feeding reason problems of dairy cows, heifers and calves were the greatest single for contacts with dairymen.

Agent Lough handled these problems through phone, field or office calls.

Most problems were associated with roughage production and feeding.

Silage and pasture varieties, planting, fertilizing, harvesting, storing, and feeding in a balanced ration were discussed frequently.

Publications that proved very helpful were:

"Feeding

Arizona

Dairy Cows"

-

Circular 226

"Raising Dairy

Calves and Heifers"

-

Circular 198

"Alfalfa and Grass

Silage in

Maricopa County"

"Maricopa County Field

Crops

Guide"

"The Trench Silo in Arizona"

-

Bulletin 273

-

22

-

In concentrate feeding, ·emphasis was placed on getting enough energy or total digestible nutrients into the ration.

Dair.rmen

tend to over feed on protein and neglect total energy of the ration.

Feeding concentrates according to production has never been widely accepted by county dairymen.

They state it is not worth while or herds and practical in large milking parlors.

Agent Lough and Dr. Gerald Stott of the

University.

of

Arizona

Dairy

Science

Department have been collecting evidence from D.H.I.A.

records of both the need and mendation.

This practice practicability of this long standing recom­ will be emphasized in the 1958 dairy project.

Silage dry matter content as related to total yield was emphasized by Agent

Lough with the assistance of

Agent

Carter and Assistant

Agent

Halvorson.

A of large proportion of silage acreage in the county was planted to mixtures sorghum varieties.

Different maturity dates of the various varieties plus the urging of custom silage harvesting crews to cut the silage in the milk stage was resulting in a substantial loss of dollars and feed value to dai�en and cattle feeders.

The story told.

in the attached news clipping was also spread by other extension methods with the exception of television.

This was a very effective bit of extension work that aided county farmers criticism was voiced by custom-silage considerably.

Some short-lived operators and seed-houses.

Alfalfa hay standards were studied closely by Agent Lough and

Agent Carter.

U.

S.

Hay Grading indicates quality lot variation can be so great as to in a general discourage a way.

buying

However, program individual based on these standards.

Agent Lough

Milk Producers cooperated with

James Hussey, manager of the

Arizona

Association, in testing the practicability of purchasing hay on a protein and moisture content basis.

A·program

of this type is mechanically sound since the association manager acts as the buyer for a large number of individual little risk dairymen.

He can buy in volume at a better price as the seller has involved.

Buying on a adjusted moisture basis is sound.

An accurate, yet method for measuring feeding value is the most difficult problem practical to solve.

Protein content was selected as it should give a good indication of leaf content, stage of maturity, and handling methods in the 16 to 25 percent protein range.

Chemical analysis for examination for color and foreign protein matter was is quick and emphasized.

inexpensive.

Visual

Some

3,000 tons of hay were purchased under the above trial program during

1957; much more than was originally intended.

Agent Lough was largely responsible for bringing this program, with its problems and possibilities, to the attention of the University of Arizona Dairy Science

Department and the Arizona

Dairymens League.

This resulted in trials to be conducted by the

Dairy Science plans

Departm.ent

for and a series of financed in feeding part by the dairy associations.

These trials will, measure the reliability of chemical analysis of alfalfa hay in measuring the feeding value.

This is a good example of how extension can aid the experiment station in doing research work on immediate problems facing farmers.

Dairy on a plans are as basic to specialized dairy farms as the stripes and boundaries football field are to the game of football.

Size of the average dairy

-

23

-

1',0""

PER-'

ACRE

HAItVUTto

AT

£50%

MO I

STURe

&

Ranck·· ofl/e

Perce

OfSil

--_......·,·

..

f

Dry

Matter

Better

Measure

Crop

Than Over-All

Tonnage

Figures may not lie, can be all wet, especially comes to calculating the of cattle feed you acre of' sorghum, get com, forage cut for silage.

�-"'l..l__

15

HARVESTED

AT

70�

MO ISTURE

This fall, valley farmers

Ir porting yields ranging up tons first of silage glance, to the acre.

,this sounds 1111 good, but one thing is often gotten.

SILAGE MAY run from 65 to

80 per anyw cent wat depending on the stage of grow at harvest time. While a certai

.

amount of water

� is necessary the ensiling process, it doesn't g very far toward putting flesh on a beef animal or making milk in a dairy cow.

Thus, over-all tonnage always a good measure th

Aside 'from the high cost

Seepage

or corn t

Ire can for

.

SIlage that d�y matter, sorghum

IS.

8.0

per cent lose an additional 140 mois­ pounds after it is ensiled. This boosts actual

5 value of the silage crop.

DRV cost of cattle feed another $2 per ton and

,

TON8

MATTER

41

TONS

It's counts, percentage of rather than total assistant dry matter tonnage that according to

Otis

Lough, county agent.

Lough, of who has studied the matter closedry matter per ton through seepage

I ly, comes up with some startling ther 140 pounds of dry matter statistics to prove this point.

In ton.

er

Valuable nutrients may fact, even he was surprised at lso be leached out in the process.

what a little s imp 1 e arithmetic

The best way to get around this reveals.

D ry

F

"1

As shown by this graph, tons at 70 per cent moisture.

Dry matter

For

25 tons example, Otis of sorghum vested at

80 per f?und

SIlage.

that harcent moisture gly spectre of high moisture content, or rather low dry matter content, is to harvest at the proper there actually is little in the 25-ton,

80-per cent sorghum costs difference between the amount of dry

$11.25

per ton more than in the case of gives you lit,tle more actual cattle matter in

25 tons

,of sorghum silage harthe lower yielding but drier silage.

SOIIlefeed than 15 tons harvested at

70 pel' cent moisture. One gives you

1...3L&1;Qt'1L.alt-ltilL..ru�.cent...ll1I.OlJ·mJnL..§:ngdl..!1�5_]t�im�e�s�s!!i�la�g�e2n:!1�nl::S�"l�10up�e:r�c�e:n�t�m�0�i�st�u�r�e:._EfiVe

tons of dry matter.

The other time regardless of what total ton­ nage may be.

Best.

time to cut sorghum fo

.

silage

IS' when the gram m most ives 4Y2 tons wouI.d

t�nnag� of the heads has reached

l'fnd

�he the

TI:JIS

MEANS you actu-

By 'be farther ahead With sorj

..

dough stage.

At this stage development, a kernel can bare­ um tJle acre at

70 per cent moisture an

-ou nd yielding 15 tons of silage you wouldn't have to cut haul pack so much total

" ., ..

It It s still m

.

milk or soft would with that yielding dough moisture.

to have sta.ge, yo,: re almost sure high moisture content. If you let it get too far other way, the along the grain is liable to

,.0

get the same amount of matter.' d9'

Iy be mashed between the fingers.

pass through your cattle undigested," Lough explained.

reduces actual as yield to about the

�ame

15 tons to the acre at 70 per cent mois ture.

r-------�--------------

From a doll�rs-and-cents stand-

AS FOR CORN silage, the best time to harvest it is when the point, this is especially important to ers dairy farmers and

I c�ttle feedbuying silage.

At present prices, the 25-ton,

80-per cent moisture an acre.

silage would cost

$168.75

kernels.

age for

�IXes silage

P!ants

W

.

have started to dent. For­

In and other are t�e h�rder crops.

to used

Judge.

field may vary theIr sta e of rowth.

The

I silage

15-ton, 'lOoper cent moisture would cost only about

I

an acre.

Yet the amount of

�$10'1.25

dry matter per acre would be approximately the same.

"If you carry

..

it out a little farther, you find that dry matter costs $33.15

a ton in iliacase of

= f the 25-ton sorghum, whereas 5t

I:

costs ton only

$22.50

a ton in the 15yield.

This is a difference of

I

,$11.25

per ton," added Otis.

IN FIGURING this out, Otis used standard rates now in use throughout the valley-$4.50

a ton in the field for sorghum, $1 a ton to cut, $1 'a ton to haul, and

25 cents to pack in the trench.

I

f

This' isn't the worst of it either,

Lough reports.

Seepage while in

I the trench silo can rob the 80per cent moisture silage of an-

herd is growing rapidly.

Many dairymen are forced to relocate each year as the residential, business and industrial growth available to pushes into fannin.g

areas.

Many dairymen corrals, dairy have an opportunity to plan and build a well designed set of buildings and equipment.

Little published information is guide a specialized dairyman in developing a sound dairy layout.

Agent Lough the year placed considerable emphasis on developing by studying the such infonnation during problems involved on various typical dairy enterprises.

Enlisting the assistance of

Extension

Dairy

Agricultural Engineer

Ted WeIchert and

Specialist W. R. Van Sant

, much progress was made.

Hr. WeIchert hopes have completed plans ready for distribution in 1958.

to

Two basic layouts will be available:

1.

A a parlor barn and corral arrangement allowing one man to maximum number of cows in a highly efficient manner.

milk

Design will permit

24 hour-a-day operation with ease of handling stock, feeding and manure clean out.

This layout will be recommended for the dairyman who wishes to maintain a high producing herd, raise replacements.

and employ skilled, dependable help.

2.

A large flat stanchion barn and efficiently arranged corrals.

This type of layout is more will be recommended for the flexible and less efficient.

dairyman who buys

It replacements, employees average labor and covers up average mis-management wi th volmne.

Many of the basic ideas and designs will be developed from this extension project incorporated into the new

University of Arizona farm being developed at

Tucson.

Dairy

replacement

heifer recommendations were emphasized during the year.

A selection demonstration was by Agent -Lough and given at

Arizona State

College at Tempe,

January

25

Dairy Specialist Van Sante The importance of a sound heifer replacement program was the main theme of the annual meeting of the

Maricopa

County D.H.I.A. Inc. held March 8.

Several news" articles similar to the one attached

This emphasized this same theme.

project was successful in focusing the dairyman's attention on this growing problem.

Proper and .24.

milking recommendations were built around two meetings held

April 23

Securing good, dependable milkers is a major p'rob'Lem for most large dairymen.

The structure and function of the cow's udder was related to the job of milking a cow properly.

Agent Lough arranged to have Dr. Robert

Fossland and Professor

J.

B. Fitch of the Dairy Science

Department and

Dairy

Specialist

Van Sant participate in the program.

Dr.

Purchal, U.S.D.A.

Meat

Inspection Service, A.R.S.

was very cooperative in collecting various udder specimens used as teaching aids in the meetings.

The seventy-five persons in attendance and subsequent news releases re-emphasized the importance of good milking practices.

The effectiveness of such meetings are limited by many dairymens' attitudes.

They feel that a dairy meeting is a good place for their milkers to receive a job offer or compare notes with other milkers and become dissatisfied.

-

24

-

iBreeding,

Records

Backbone

ly.

Of

Tempe

Dairy

Qperation

By

BOB

HALVORSON

Assistant County keeps a

AgrIoultural cow.

In

0

Agent

Look into feed bunks on dairy farms and you'll' hay and other forage see lected at the bottom and but that.

fin his i�'s

Marvin e systems a just overall different

Polley place.

story

Polley, who farms 200 acres

56th St.

south of doesn't let' feed go

Instead,

Broadway, to waste he cleans for out on like Thus the milking corral mangers every day a,ftel' his 1(10 Holsteins have eaten

"

8

II th t. Th

."lefta vera

feYd wtan

county as purebred means of bull calves to rep acemen t h ave

};leifers in what Marvin

�avenger pen.

THIS

IS .JUST

one of many prooablY8lhas

In the h dairy er

'one

�se

operation. Polley procluctiop

I on' calli ways herd

_ the

Tempe farmer works his replacement program into

'of the' average cent of the herd. These animals are good

In

� purebred of artificial insemination.

dairyman idea of what

"IF

I COULD

�20 an� stages

ct1:l1s.

has a to control heifer of steady pretty ty expect fore the calf is ever born.

ah<?ut

fortunate

I� ,Jl6�

and'OI>thpQI't1;Wlty

probability f,resIlen,

P!-lt,-iri only accldents� prevents.

to.

ca}ves",rd the calf when it arrives.

everything licked," he sai_d..r

vanous

-place.

He cows ly

Polley

At present, from the and complete fact,.

Holsteins have a pedigree long as that of a animal.

ra�ses mated to just has growth out bulls supply

, by bethe ratio between on of mother-to-be are

Using herd

13!)-,head of young stock In all needs replacements,

Marvin a hJstory about on some of his registered strange sounds barn.

only those

,every this

,heifer calves

30 milking herd yearheifer calves. It's nomical, yet his herd

419 pounds.

haa

I.

a case of simple helped

"If. l10t

80 much a doinl him

�m a.

it costs what to to

These grouped age.

and replacement in nine

DOing aUows heifers corrals so close watch over him according helps c,p.t

to them, labor keep a

Marvin

I in, his to

'I"

Polley

WHEN pen, closely.

Polley

DUE

TO where recor e sys gives milk and these heifers with milking, giving them a chance become runs

"You'd be acquair and tbey can

VIta m replacement for a be but with the smells In' the surprised, how this calves that coming from sound cows calms them down when they do produce

10 the upper 60 per start to milk," Marvin remarked.

it.

gl\�es

d�entify

statIstics on of

P.oJle1

it will utilize matemi­ watched feed raising

..

about the un­

PQ4

$2'10.

produce more than the cow it re-

.......

modest­ naturally

..

"

Polte, stated

Breeding and are the production backbOne of hi.

placement program,

DHIA

> are the backbone of

III!!!!III_IIiliiO,.;�==_.....::.....:.;,...,.

sl7!Iteln

__'_

__ for raising herd re..

W,J.N:'DrC)<1Uction records,

Marv

!;�j,.,<1e:tieI·m:[ne which calf to

L eftovers

breeding history on

Polley keep

'and corral, known herd.

Such economy measures feeds 15-month-old heifers green

In this as forage the

.��"''''''"'����ilIiIIM�.",�··----·�;r-----_

........., ....

" scavenger

...

s

,,, ..., ....

pen, help hay placement program.

The heifers will collected remain in this pen until about two

"' ...I.M!

....

u6 keep feed costs down in bis herd re ..

nu'l&4\)1.l]11t�!1'l1S., f breedmz, I

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION

WORK in

University of Arizona

College of Agriculture

Uf S.

Department of Agriculture and

AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

State of Arizona

Maricopa County Cooperating p.O.

Box

Phoenix

751

Agricultural

Extension

Service

Home

Demonstration Work

County Agent

Work

April 18,

1957

APRIL DAIRY LETTER

LOOJ(

J 1'1 -r

0

-r

}-J

E

UDDER

Two Milker's

Meetings scheduled:

April

23

-

10:00 a.m,

Arizona State College Dairy Farm

South Mill

Avenue, Tempe

April

24

-

10:00 a.m.

Pendergast

School

9lst

Avenue,

*

mile south of Indian

School Road

PURPOSE: To study how the udder works and how it is put together.

Several types of udders will be used that have been taken from freshly slaughtered cows and heifers.

EXPLANATION:

Dr.

Robert Fossland. and Professor

J.

B.

Fitch from the

Dairy Science

Department of the

University of Arizona will lead the discussion and supply the "inside infonnation" on dairy udders.

INFO�AL: Overalls and rubber boots will be acceptable.

We hope to make this a working session

!!2.!

a

"dress-up" occasion.

If you have a cow going to the butcher Monday or

Tuesday, have the udder cut off and bring it along.

We can examine it along with the rest.

RETURNS: A man with.

usually does a better job when he understands what he's working

Bring your milkers.

ALFALFA HAY

QUALITY

It is an cuttings.

accepted fact that first cutting hay is better dairy hay than summer

Most folks seem to think that this is true higher in nrotein.

mostly because first cutting hay is

-

2

case�

Careful study of alfalfa hay analysis shows, hoveve;-, that this is

!!Q!

the

There is no indication that protein content goes do\·m in summer hay in Arizona.

Protein

Analysis

Protein analysis is becoming quite popular as an

Moisture content is also receiving considerable in'ti.cation

attentionQ These of are quality, important indicators when accurate or to

sampling

is done.

They should be l'sed in conjunction with suppl��ent a thorough visual examination and knowledge of what cutting the hay was made from,

Real Test

The real test is how well the cows eat the hay.

Chewical analysis and visual grading could both indicate that summer cuttings of hay are as high in quality as first-cutting hay.

Experience at the milk pail shows that this hay is not to� quality from the standpoint of milk production, ��y?

Evidently cows just donYt like summer hay as well as first cutting.

Feeding trials show that cows donYt produce as well on summer hay.

The trials also show that they wouldn9t eat as much summer hay.

We know then that

There

palatability

must be a major reason for summer hay being of low dairy quality.

may be other reasons yet to be discovered such as hormone-like substances or other unknown ingredients,

The big reason at present seems to be that the cows just donYt like to eat summer hay as well as they do fi�st eutting·h�.

Determining

Alfalfa Feed Value

Providing dairy cows relish a given lot of alfalfa, leafiness is the most important factor in determining alfalfa feed value.

much as do

Alfalfa leaves contain about

2!

times as much protein and calcium and twice as phosphorous as alfalfa stems,

Alfalfa ste�� contain about 3 times as much fiber the leaves,

How do we get leafiness in alfalfa hay?

1.

Harvest it early

2,

Handle it in such a manner as to preserve as w�ny leaves as

Leaf shattering starts at about

55% moisture.

possible.

This is old "stuff" but it is still the most table and draw your own conclusions, important.

Study the following

ALFALFA HAY

Stage of Maturity

Pre-bud

Bud

Early bloom

Full bloom

Ripe seed

1/10 tb protein

25

23

18

16

14

% leaves f; fin� stems

65 to

75

60 to

65

45 to

60

35 to

45

25

% main sterr.

25 to

35

35 to

40

40 to

45 to

75

55

65

-

3

-

Buy

Reputation

Get to

If you buy alfalfa hay, a highly desirable method is to buy "reputation.u

know the alfalfa grower that-produces your hay.

Let him know how your cows performed on his hay.

You know that you can afford to pay more for quality hay.

Let him know it.

It9s discouraging to put out a

quality

bale of hay and sell it for the srume price as a neighbor who just makes hay,

This is one reason why we have so much average hay.

The real reason is the lack of, or failure to use, satisfactory standards for determining hay quality, A price tag must go along with the quality.

determination to make it function as an incentive to farmers to produce higher quality hay.

Quality

Standards area.

The

It system of Federal is the best

Hay

Grading is a little used hay attempt to quality tool in this apply all of the known factors that indicate hay quality from vis.U-& observation.

This system is based on extensive research work.

It has its li�itations to be sure.

So do protein and moisture determinations, or iVbuying reputation,tt as has been suggested.

They all will have a tendency to make quality hay a more desirable product to produce as they place a dollar sign in front of the hay· grower and dealer.

The end result should be �ore quality hay from which

Maricopa County dairymen can choose.

OGL:kl

625 c.

AGENT

LOUCH

(BENDING

OVER

TABLE)

SHOtlING DAIRYMEN UDDERS

IN VARIOUS STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT.

DAIRY MEETING APRIL 24, 1957

An artificial insemination short course was attended by Agent Lough February

5,

6 and 7.

It was conducted

Maricopa County.

by the

Dairy Science

Department of the University of

Arizona.

As a result of this course he the hoped to be better able to evaluate place of emphasis for artificial breeding in the extension dairy program of

Butterfat variations as influenced by environment, feeding, management, and sampling and testing techniques were discussed with many individuals during the year.

The State Hospital Farm received considerable assistance with management recommendations and problems from

Agent Lough after he consulted with

Agents

O'Dell and Carter.

Foreign visitors were given assistance in studying the county's agriculture.

One of the most interested visitors was

Shalom Sharar of Israel.

He spent

September

4, 5,

6 and

7 with

Agent Lough studying dairy and livestock practices.

Dairy enterprise possibilities were discussed with many persons during the year.

The relatively high milk price or health problems prompted most inquiries.

Agent Lough emphasized the need for good stock, economical sized unit, and sufficient a capital.

He normally recommended the newcomer work for a year as milker for an established dairyman.

A management survey was made with the aid of the D.H.I.A.

198 D.H.I.A. herds involved represent

49.5

supervisors.

The percent of the total county dairy herds.

This yearly survey was started 5 years ago by-Agent indications of trends in equipment and management

Lough.

practices

It of gives county useful dairy­ men.

These trends help determine areas of emphasis for the extension dairy project.

Dairy

Herd

Improvement

Association

The extension objectives of the D.H.I.A.

program are:

1.

Provide county dairymen with useful management records, and

2.

Provide demonstration and for the teaching material and opportunities

Agricultural Extension Service.

The Maricopa

County

D.H.I.A.

is incorporated.

During 1957, nine full-time supervisors and a part-time secretary-manager were employed.

Agent Lough trained one

D.H.I.A.

supervisor and worked with eight others on special problems or situations.

He also worked very closely with the secretary­ manager,

Joe and annual

Hineman in reports were keeping the association functioning smoothly.

Monthly processed and forwarded to the extension dairyman as required.

Two-hundred

1957.

personal contacts were made concerning the D.H.I.A.

project in

-

25

-

.

,

��

�:

0

." r1

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(.)

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fit

-

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0;::

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I...,

.......

Agent Lough attended four Board of Directors meetings serving in an advisory capacity.

At these meetings he kept the Board members informed concerning state and national requirements, methods and procedures.

The Annual D.H.I.A.

Meeting was held March 8 with 50 D.H.I.A.

members in attendance.

This was one of the best meetings held in recent years.

Agent

Lough ment arranged and moderated a panel discussion

"Raising vs.

Buying Replace­

Heifers." George

Dibble of Scottsdale and Fritz Zimmennan of West

Phoenix discussed advantages of buying

Chandler and Ed }1cAllister of Glendale replacements.

Wendell

Eyring of pointed up the advantages of raising replacements.

This panel stimulated much audience participation.

Dr.

Fossland of the

Robert

University of Arizona Dairy

Science

Department discussed costs and breeding programs with reference to dairy replacements.

The annual D.H.I.A.

report by the attached copy.

is published in an attractive manner as can be seen

Agent Lough secured or prepared the educational articles.

Statistics were prepared by Dairy Specialist

Van Sant and edited by D.H.I.A.

manager

Hineman and

Agent

Lough.

Electronic computing machines

(IBM)

are being used by several states for computing

D.H.I.A. records.

Four county herds were carried through

1957 on the D.H.I-computing service at

Provo,

Utah.

One herd is at

Arizona State

College at Tempe.

They are continuing to keep the standard herd book :UP to date seems along with the IBM well satisfied with the IBM records.

A third records.

dairyman

A was second herd interested in the

Holstein-Acceptance program and having proven-sire records reported quickly.

He does

'not appear to be making much use of the

IBM records other­ wise.

A fourth

He dairyman discontinued to use the IBM service after a year.

felt the chief value was in teaching him how the standard record book should be used.

Agent Lough accompanied

Extension

Dairyman Van Sant to a dairy records conference at Provo, Utah, September

9 and 10 to become more familiar with this service.

The potential usefulness of electronic

computers

is readily realized.

However, the present system is not too well under adapted to take advantage of this

Arizona conditions and needs.

It does not put the potential dairyman enough closer to management decisions to warrant the added ��ense, time and effort in obtaining and learning to use the records effectively.

This is the opinion of

Agent Lough at the present time.

The major potential wou.ld

seem to lie in the direction of cost of production records,

D.H.I.A.

SUNMARY 1957

(with

cowparisons)

Ave.

No.

No.

of herds

Year Herds on reported test m.onth

per per year

Cow

Average

Years milk per reported cow

%

Butterfat

Ave.

fat

No.

cows per cow sold or culled

1957

1956

1955

1954

1950

196.7

200.3

203.0

211.6

194.9

182

181

187

205

144

16,713

15,136

14,353

13,764

8,173

-

26

-

10,118

9,900

9,326

9,176

9,078

3.81

3.78

3.82

3.88

3.84

385

373

356

355

348

28

25

31

22

21

ANNUAL REPORT

1956 maricopa Count'!'

"

2)air'!

J!erJ

!)mprove.me'nt'

�6doCiation

_','

."

M

(Includes Complete

State

Statistics)

I

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u:

m.;

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*

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'*

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'*

No herd is too large or too small, nor is any dairy too distant for us to serve you.

TYPICAL SIRE

Pacific

14

Slope

Burlce Dinah "Gold Medal Proven Sire" daughters

14 dams

15994

15269

3.8

3.5

609

528

+725 +.3

+81

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-

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LYLE E.

TRIMBLE,

INC.

641 WEST MAIN STREET

MESA

PHONE WO 4-5656

TRIMBLE

EQUIPMENT

CO.

1419 SOUTH

CENTRAL AVENUE

PHOENIX

PHONE AL 3-4103

-1-

RAVENGLEN TRIUNE PERFECT NO. 1082957

CLASSIFIED EXCELLENT

12

12

daughters

dams

13,308

11,636

+ 1,672

3.6

3.5

+.1

485

413

+72

Junior Herd Sire: PUGET SOUND

D'ESIGN NO.

1260364

From a

Gold Medal Sire out of a

VG dam with three 2x records as foUows:

2 yr.

/I

3 old

/I

4

/I /I

-----

660 Ibs. B. F.

723

785

/I

II

/I

/I

/I

II

BREEDING STOCK AVAILABLE

ALTA E. BUTLER

& sons

(WALDO, D.

H.

and KENNETH)

Route

4,

Box 29

-

Phone

__

AP

__

8-1750

43rd ,Avenue & Thomas Road

Phoenix, Arizona

-2-

MARICOPA

COUNTY

DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION

CR 4-8906 1520 W. MULBERRY DR.,

PHOENIX

1956

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

President-R. Jack

Vice-Pres.

-

Cartwright-Rt.

4,

Box 958,

Phoenix

George

Blendinger

-

2130 E. Thomas Rd.,

Phoenix

Sec.-Treas.

-

James Hussey

-

Rt.

4,

Phoenix

Assistant Treas.

-

Mrs.

Theda

Apel-

Phoenix

Manager

-

Director

-

Alfred Austin

-

Rt.

1,

Tolleson

Director

-

William

Lemley

-

4260 E.

Main,

Mesa

Joe Hineman -1520 W.

Mulberry Dr.,

Phoenix

-

CR 4-8906

SUPERVISORS

Richard F.

F. Hamilton Stout

-

2437

West

Bill

(Dick)

Williams -1429 East Brill Street

Hayward

Ave.

-

Phoenix

-

-

Phoenix

-

AL 4-0274

Wheatley

-

3152 North 26th Drive

Tim Rice

-

Rt.

1, Box 1070

-

Glendale

-

WI 3-9580

Phoenix

-

AL 3-1730

Roy Larson

-

18 Frazier Drive East

-

Mesa

-

WO 4-6918

J. Warren Bell- Box 52

-

Chandler

-

YO 3-3535

O. H. Gress

-

3025 West

Colter

-

Phoenix

-

AM 5-8980

Wm.

Park

-

650 West Dana

-

Mesa

-

WO 4-0397

John T. Davis2302 West Orangewood

-

Phoenix

-

WI

3-5892

STATEMENT OF CASH RECEIPTS AND

DISBURSEMENTS

January 1,

1956 to

December

31,

1956

Cash in Bank

-

January

1,

1956

Cash

Receipts

Dues and

Supervisors' Payroll

Taxes Withheld

Due from

Supervisors

-

January 1,

1956

__

Less:

Adjustment of

Prior Periods

Adjusted

Balance

-

Total Dues for Period

January

Total Taxes Withheld for

Period

1, 1956

__

__

$4,036.32

2,355.90

$ 479.26

---

8.00

471.26

6,392.22

$1,310.03

$6,863.48

1,016.72

Less: Due from Supervisors

-

December

31,

1956____

Resale Supplies

Advertising

.

-.

New Memberships

.--------------------------------"--------------"--------.-------

Refund of Social Security 'Taxes

-

Prior Periods

Industrial Insurance Dividend

DHI

Computing Service

.

Tot.al Cash Available

:

__

__

_

_

_

5,846.76

100.00'

585.00

90.00

132.19

82.45

136.54

$8,282.97

Cash Disbursements

Board of Directors Fees

Stenographic

Services

Manager's Salary and

,

Federal Income and

Social

Security Taxes

Withheld

Employer's Share of Social Security

Arizona Income Tax Withheld

Office Supplies

Testing Equipment

Resale Supplies

Industrial Insurance

.

"

.

Printing

Equipment Repairs

:

Bond on'

Employees

.,---------..

---------..

Refund of Social

DHI

Security Taxes to Employees

Computing

Service

Penalty and Interest

-

Director of Internal Revenue

Utility Expense

Auditing

Expense

Miscellaneous

Expense

Cash Short

.

____

Total

Disbursements

:.

Cash in Bank

-

December

31"

1956

"_.

._.

.

-.

..

,.

__

_

_

_

__

__

__

__

__

__

__

__

__

__

_

_

_

_

$ 172.50

260.50

2,003.06

1,870.68

83.97

224.07

707.80

103.97

329.49

561.76

9.21

77.62

64.20

161.40

30.12

18.00

32.00

10.44

.05

----

6,720.84

$1,562.13

-3-

I

�����

4

1J4/IlY f���

Southwest Flour & Feed Co. �.

a(tlDAL! STORE

:"1

\1ft

RED

ST'AR

FEEDS

*

"Arizona's

Quality

For 30 Years"

Feeds

CONGRATULATES THE

MARICOPA COUNTY

DAIRY HERD

IMPROVEMEN'T ASSOCIATION

ON THE PUBLICATION OF THE

FIFTH

ANNUAL REPORT

*

RED STAR DAI RY FEEDS have earned a annals place in the record also, for more than 30 years of maximum herd health, growth and production results on hundreds of Arizona

Dairy

Farms have established RED STAR DAIRY FEEDS as quality leaders.

We pledge continuation

RED STAR DAI RY FEEDS.

of strictly high quality

EST

FEED

UO.lNU.

GLENDALE

Phone Phoenix

_.

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4-1366 Phone Glendale

_

YE 7-9205

"Arizona's

Quality

Feeds For 30 Years"

-4-

PRESIDENT1S

REPORT by

R.

Jack Cartwright

The highlight of this the 36th year of

Dairy Herd

Improvement work in Maricopa

County centers around the progress that our members are making toward building effi­ cient and profitable dairy herds.

A striking example of this progress is the all-time high set this year for average milk and fat. The

9,900 pounds of milk and 374 pounds of fat produced on an average by the 181 herds are records of which we can be justifiably proud.

Although the number of herds on test decreased again in 1956 the number of cows on test showed a substantial increase.

Thus the average number of cows per herd went up from 75 to 82 an increase of 9 %.

It is our pleasure to welcome two new contributors to our report-Professors' Fitch and Fossland. We sincerely thank them for their articles as well as those written by

Ralph Van Sant and Otis

Lough.

We take great pleasure in presenting you with our annual report for 1956.

-5-

Arizona

Dairymen's League,

Inc.

5301

Transmission Rd.

P.

o. Box 337

Tempe

Telephone

WO 7-2029

What is the Arizona

Dairymen's League?

It is a state-wide nanced organization of active dairymen.

It is fi­ entirely by dairymen and its policies and actions are made by a

Board of Di rectors elected annually by the member­ ship.

What are its policies?

To produce a pure supply of Grade consumer commensurate to

II

A'I mi Ik at a cost to production cost, plus a legitimate profit to the dairymen.

To promote and support all programs that will benefit dairymen.

What are some of the activities?

The Doirymen's League has been the leader, since its or­ ganization in 19461 in any move that would bring the dairy­ men more money and in health officials and promoting better understanding with buying distributors.

It has consistently worked for a sound and stable milk market.

We can now help you reduce your production costs through cooperative purchasing,

Dairymen:

To insure a source of strong.

collective power, bargaining join the ARIZONA

DAIRYMEN'S

LEAGUE, INC.

II

All we have we owe to udders"

-6-

A FEW OBSERVATIONS ON D.H.I.A.

J. 8.

Fitch,

Head

Dairy Science Dept., Universiy of Arizona

In

1955,

D.H.LA.

cows in the United

States

9502 produced the all time high of pounds of milk and 375 pounds of butterfat. In each of the last three years the annual production per cow has been higher than the previous year,

In addition to this fact the number of cows on last four test has increased each of the years to make a total of more than 1

% million in 1955 an all time high.

The cows on

D.H.LA.in the United States are still only 6 % of the total dairy cow population of the United States.

Other systems of testing adopted by the Pure­ bred registry associations and private records might increase the number of cows on test to seven or eight per cent.

The number of cows on test in the

United

States is still much lower than several other countries of the world, es­ pecially

Denmark and New Zealand. Ari­ zona.

D.H.LA.

members are no doubt aware the that this state ranks highest in proportion of total cows in the state on

D.H.LA.

In

1955,

Arizona was credited with

37

% of cows on test followed by

California with

23

%.

There is some indication that the pro­ portion of United States cows on test is increasing.

The present economic con­ ditions are number of the size of tion per causing a reduction in the dairy herds and the number of dairy cows on hand and an increase in dairy cowan herds and the produc­ the other.

At the same time, the total

United States production of milk is estimated to reach 127 billion pounds in 1956 and at the present rate of increase will go to 129 billion in 1957.

The Herd very

Improvement testing plans, similar to

D.H.LA., adopted by the

Purebred registry associations which in­ cludes all the cows in the herd has in­ creased the number of test purebred cows on and has caused a reduction in the selective Advanced

Registry plan of test­ ing.

In my opinion, the dairymen of this country are fast of plan.

approaching one sys­ tem testing very similar to our present

D.H.LA.

In some spite of all the advantages that of us can see in belonging to D.H.

LA.

it is called surprising to me that some so dairymen are satisfied to milk cows without keeping records.

In this connection, I have been interested in the rapidity with which the dairymen of the

United States have adopted artificial breeding as compared to the slow accept­ ance of D.H.LA.

The first cow testing association, as they were called at the time, was formed in Michigan in 1906 with 239 cows that averaged 215 pounds butterfat.

It was not until

1950,

44 years later, that the number of cows on test in the United

States went over one million.

In the case of Artificial

Breeding, the first associations in the United States were formed in 1939 with seven associa­ tions and 646 herds. In

1947, more than a million cows were being bred artifi­ cialfy,

In other words, in a period of eight years the number of cows in artifi­ cial number of D.H.LA.

years breeding had caught up with the of resulting from

44 promotion.

In

1955, nearly

5% mililon cows were bred artificially or

25% of the United States total.

In the same were year, slightly over

1

% million cows enrolled in D.H.LA.

or

6% of the total.

Perhaps the comparison of the two dairy cattle improvement programs is meaningless but I will venture the state­ ment that the increase in cow as a production per resulting from information available member of D.H.LA. will be greater than the increased from artificial production resulting breeding in the same herd for any of given period of time. As a matter fact, the two programs should com­ plement each other and the information and experience gained in D.H.LA.

are es­ sential if a dairyman is to ge full benefit from the improved inheritance that can result from artificial breeding.

Apparently anxious to than

The

States get many' dairymen rid of their are dairy more bulls they are of low producing cows.

average dairy cow in the United produced an all time high of over

6000 pounds of milk and 222 pounds but­ terfat in

1956.

Since

1920, the average cow or same has increased

64

29%. The average pounds of butterfat

D.H.LA.

cow in the time increased from 247 pounds butterfat to 375 reflect the pounds or

56%. This may emphasis given by D.H.LA.

members on

Culling, Feeding, and Man­ agement.

It has been men vary in mation and my observation that dairy­ their use of D.H.LA. infor­ experience.

A high herd aver­ age regardless of feed costs can be very costly and very misleading as to the effi­ ciency of the dairy operation. High pro­ ducing cows, an adequate size herd and economy and in producing and feeding gain forage are necessary for dairymen to meet present dairy marketing labor conditions.

Records are and necessary to meet these requirements.

The return above all costs is a measure of man's ability and. is the best indica­ tion of the length of time a dairyman can stay in business.

Dairymen v-ho complain about market conditions deserve little are not keeping production records or fail to use the records sympathy if they they have.

-7-

?Jorden!

Bordens begins

Second

Century as the

Distributor of "If it's

Bordens,

it's got to be Good"

products.

Many

Qual

ity

Producers of Borden prod­ ucts are members of that 36 year old

D.H.I.A. and believe in their

slogan

-

"Test-Don't Guess."

Borden's 100 year

records,

like D.H.I.A.

records,

are marks of

Superior

Qual

ity.

Elsie and her family value your goodwill.

Sam Minor Phil

Production

Department

Mahr

Phone

AL 4-7107

-8-

HERD AVERAGES

-

A CLUE TO MANAGEMENT o. G.

lough,

Ass't Co.

Agricultural Agent

When looking over herd averages and other statistics compiled from D.H.LA

records, there is a natural tendency to compare column by column your figures with those of other dairymen.

On the the surface, this may seem to tell story, but it doesn't. Noone column of figures can stand by itself.

High average production doesn't necessarily indicate more fore any profitable production.

Be­ conclusions can be drawn one way or be the other, the entire picture must analyzed, taking into consideration what appears in all the columns.

To analyze the relative efficiency of anyone be dairy herd, several factors must considered.

Among them are herd size, number of times a day the cows are milked, percentage culled or replaced, and average number of days dry. Ignor­ ing anyone of these may result in a dis­ torted picture of the dairy operation.

Herd size has a definite effect on herd efficiency.

The larger the herd, the less personal attention each cow receives and the more difficult it becomes to maintain a given average production. Thus, man­ agement know-how is much more im­ portant with large herds than it is with small ones.

The number of times a milked is a cows good clue to what kind of comprise the herd.

Research over the years indicates that day the herd is milking three times a about 15 day per will increase production cent, but in cost cases this pertains only to a herd with high po­ tential production in the first place.

Actually, milking three times a day should be adopted to maintain high pro­ duction and increase good udder health rather to production.

The practice defi­ nitely complicates management, and ani­ mals and equipment must be geared to take it.

If anyone column in the herd averages comes close to telling how profitable and efficient a dairy herd is, it is the one de-

-9voted to culling. By checking this against the size of the herd, it is possible to get a fail' idea of how many their share of the load cows during carried the· D.H.

LA.

year.

Culling is not to be avoided. In fact, it is in some ways the backbone of good dairy management, but it can reach the point of diminishing returns.

Through judicious culling, low producers can be eliminated from the herd, thus bringing up average production and increasing herd ever, efficiency.

On the other hand, how­ a high rate of culling can boost production without actually increasing overall profit.

of

For example, one farmer with a herd

100 cows might chalk up an average production of

10,500 pounds of milk while replacing 20 cows during the priod.

Another farmer with the same size herd may average

11,500 pounds while culling

50 cows.

At first glance, it might seem that the farmer with the 11,500 average has the best he increased more money operation, but chances are prouction at the expense of buying cows.

The farmer with only

10,500 pounds average might be making in the long· run.

Dry days provide another good clue to dL.iry

herd efficiency.

Research shows that a dairy cow in milk 10 months and dry two months consistently produces better, year in and year out. In terms of percentage, this means that 16 cow out of every 100 is a good mark to years shoot at.

Under actual conditions, however, this figure may not go as high, since culling and replacement will influence it con­ siderably.

The preceding factors are included in

D.H.LA. herd averages.

They cannot re­ flect the important factor of environment under which cows must produce. By using all the factors available you can arrive at some idea of how your operation stacks up with others.

0

MARICOPA

COUNTY D.H.I.A.

HERD AVERAGES

CODE HERD OWNER

01-0001

01-0002

01-0003

01-0005

01-0006

01-0007

Ted Allert

___ .

______________________________

Bert Amator

_________________________

"

____

9-30-56

101-56

Jess Angle

_________________________________

10- 6-56

Arizona State

College

______________

9-21-56

Arizona State

Hospital

____________

9-21-56

Ralph Ashbury

___ -----------------------

9-30-56

Alfred W.

Austin 9-28-56

______________________

01-0009

01-0010

01-0011

01-0012

01-0013

01-0014

01-0015

George Barnby

__________________________

10-14-56

Joe W. Barnes

9-25-56

__________________________

H.

N.

Bennett

& Sons

______________

9-30-56

Mrs. John Birchett & Sons

____

10-

8-56

G.

Frank

Bittick

________________________

9-30-56

L. B.

Blackmer

___

______________________

9-30-56

01-0016

01-0017

01-0018

01-0019

01-0020

01-0022

George Blendinger

_________________

9-19-56

Henry

Boker

___________________ -----------

9-30-56

James

Bond 9-20-56

________________________________

Wilbur

Buckley

__________________________

9-21-56

Jay

Bunker

________________________________

9-24-56

Alta Butler & Sons 9-16-56

__________________

01-0023

01-0024

01-0025

01-0026

Chester

Byler

____________________________

10-21-56

Otis Carmichael

________________________

10-

8-56

Philo C. Carter 10-13-56

_______ __________________

R.

Jack

H. L.

Cartwright

__________________

9-30-56

Chandler

__________________________

10-11-56

01-0027

01-0029 W.

C. Cheatham

_______ ________________

10-11-56

01-0030

01-0031

01-0032

01-0033

Cheatham

Dairy

Inc.

________________

9-30-56

Chesney

Farm

__________________________

9-30-56

Neil

A.

Clark

___ .________________________

105-56

O.

L.

Cluff

__________________________________

106-56

01-0035

01-0038

01-0039

01�0040

Thayer

Collier

__________________________

10-12-56

Ralph Cooper

James

T.

____________________________

Cooper

______________________

103-56

9-28-56

Dean Couch 10-14-56

________________________________

01-0041 Louis Daily

________________________________

10-11-56

01-0043 M.

Deanda

__________________________________

9-26-56

01-0044 Carter Dietzman

______________________

10- 1-56

01-0045 George

W. Dibble

____________________

10- 1-56

01-0046 E.

B.

Dipple

, __________ __________________

10- 2-56

3

15

29

4

9

11

3

6

9

3

4

5

7

16

4

4

19

4

10

11

8

7

5

1

11

6

10

9

3

20

7

7

11

5

25

3

7

4

Test

Consecu-

Year tive Years

Ends In D.H.I.A.

Breed

Cow

Years

Mix

GH

GH

& J

RH & J

GH

GG & H

R & GG

GG &

H

R

R

& GH

& GG

GH

Mix

R&GH

RJ

GH

R&GH

GH

Miv

R

& GH

74.0

60.0

168.0

80.7

126.4

123.0

106.1

110.4

55.2

93.0

135.7

30.0

50.00

66.9

95.0

139.3

92.5

121.0

145.4

GG & H

GH

R

R

RJ

GH

GH

& GJ

& GG

R & GH

GH

R & GH

Mix

GH

Mix

R

& GH

GH

Mix

GG&H

60.5

96.4

63.0

88.7

133.2

91.1

521.2

57.2

113.8

120.0

84.9

114.9

67.4

57.0

109.0

55.0

74.4

RJ & GH & J 115.7

GH 62.0

7,219

9,516

8,451

10,918

9,731

9,867

7,509

9,062

10,290

7,122

10,990

8,040

10,275

6,919

10,850

13,092

10,477

9,616

11,455

9,358

10,730

6,577

8,226

11,185

11,100

10,774

8,137

8,400

9,383

8,084

7,203

9,306

8,307

10,191

11,113

10,423

10,700

8,635

Percent

Cow Yrs.

Dry

24.8

17.9

15.9

16.9

13.8

17.9

16.1

13.6

17.8

13.6

16.4

12.4

15.5

15.9

14.8

21.1

23.8

17.6

17.3

17.8

20.5

14.4

16.3

14.5

13.5

25.4

16.1

20.9

15.3

15.'7

15.9

16.5

14.2

20.9

23.3

10.8

16.7

16.8

Ave.

Milk

Percent

Butter

Fat

3.58

4.i6

3.78

3.95

3.61

3.48

3.49

3.55

4.14

3.68

3.66

3.67

3.44

5.01

3.59

3.59

3.57

3.58

3.55

3.87

3.73

4.48

4.67

3.76

3.36

3.55

3.74

3.74

3.63

4.60

4.12

3.35

4.11

3.51

3.66

3.86

5.17

3.78

Ave.

Fat

No. Cows

Over 400#

Fat

No.

Culled

Or

Sold

272

320

300

410

364

359

345

374

374

395

402

362

400

305

385

393

344

294

402

295

354

347

399

470

406

415

421

318

336

333

272

368

300

355

386

383

443

319

55

16

29

2

32

61

23

211

24

13

2

16

10

1

48

21

13

3

18

10

35

36

26

5

11

64

0

14

24

23

76

23

32

37

37

7

5

7

N.R.

11

44

3

13

19

20

14

182

16

33

23

22

30

29

40

25

7

6

30

17

24

33

23

27

20

13

11

19

27

5

11

13

28

22

17

37

25

--------

J.�--------JIj.

DAIRY FEEDS OUR SPECIALTY

PURDUE FORMULA MIX AVAILABLE

1920 West Van Buren Phone ALpine 3-4134

Phoenix,

Arizona

BECK DAIRY SUPPLY CO.

A

Complete

Line of

Dairy Supplies and

Equipment

Stop

At The Store Or We'll Deliver To Your Door

2308 Grand Avenue

Phoenix,

Arizona

AFTER HOURS

CALL DON

Phone

ALpine

3-8649

EG,LY,

AM

5-6237 or

LEE HENDRIX,

AM

6-8019

QUALITY

GOODS AT REASONABLE PRICES

-11-

t-"

MARICOPA COUNTY D.H.I.A.

HERD

AVERAGES

Consecu-

Test Year tive Years

Ends In D.H.I.A.

CODE HERD

OWNER

01-0048

01-0051

01-0052

01-0054

01-0055

01-0056

01-0058

01-0060

01-0061

01-0062

01-0063

01-0064

01-0065

01-0066

-01-0068

01-0069

01-0070

B. H.

Durby

________________________________

G. F. & Joe Ellsworth

______________

10-14-56

10-

9-56

Emerald Farm

-Kenneth

(Clyde Rowe)

__

10-10-56

England

____________________

10- 9-56

Eyring Dairy

J.

W.

Fincher

__________________________

____________________________

10-

10-

9-56

5-56

L. A.

Gammill

Herbert Gates

__________________ " _____ .---

____________________________

Chris J.

Giaconia

Milton Goldman

______________________

_______ ____ _ _______

J. S. Graham & Son

_________________

9-20-56

10-14-'-56

9-24-56

10-14156

9-16-56

Phillip

Greer

______________________________

102-56

J.

M.

Haley

________________________________

9-20-56

Lyle Hanna

______________________________

109-56

William

Hanger

________________________

9-30-56

Arthur Hart

______________________________

9-21-56

William

Hardison

____________________

104-56

01-0072

01-0074

01-0076

Pat Hays

____________________________________

9-19-56

Nellie Herster

___________________________

9-15-56

Carlin Hinton

____________________________

10-12-56

01-0077

01-0078

01-0079

Home Dairy

________________________________

10-12-56

Mrs. E.

Homrighausen

____________

9-26-56

Huber & Miller

__________________________

105-56

01-0082

J. J.

Hughes (Estate)

______________

106-56

01-0084 Clyde Hussey

___________________ --------

9-22-56

01-0086

Jacobs Brothers

________________________

9-17-56

01-0089

L.

A.

Johnson & Sons

______________

9-18-56

01-0090

J.

D. Jones

__________________________________

10-

4-56

01-0092 John W. Kerr

____________________________

101-56

01-0093

01-0097

01-0099

01-0100

Kibler

R. E.

Dairy

_____________________________

10- 9-56

Kruft

_______________

________________

9-25-56

Edwin Lamb

______________________________

107-56

01-0101

01-0102

John Lamb

__________________________________

9-27-56

Anthony

J.

LaSalvia

_________ .

______

9-30-56

V. Lasson

____________________________________

10-10-56

01-0107 Charles Lewis

____________________________

9-16-56

01-0108 Claude Lines

______________________________

9-23-56

01-0109 Long's Dairy

_________________

.:

____________

9-18-56

01-0111 McAllister Brothers

________________

9-21-56

9

10

4

19

12

6

16

9

30

5

6

17

14

2

6

4

9

3

5

4

4

6

13

7

10

7

11

4

4

4

9

3

8

3

10

9

7

5

3

Breed

Cow

Years

GH

GH

GH

R-& GJ

GH

GH

GH

R & GH

R & GH

GH

GG & H

R & GH

GG&H

Mix

GH

Mix

GG & H

Mix

GH

GG & H

GH

RH

GH

GH

RJ

GG &

H

RA

59.6

101.2

110.8

47.0-

96.0

143.0

60.6

282.5

56.7

147.3

63.3

60.0

124.0

111.0

45.5

39.0

106.0

36.6

208.6

44.0

82.7

60.5

126.6

117.1

69.3

105.0

73.4

Mix

RJ & GH

R& GG

GH & J

57.5

52.0

148.6

109.4

48.0

GH

GH

RMS & Mix 49.5

GH 69.2

GH

GH

69.0

41.6

102.0

GH

Mix

223.0

117.1

Ave.

Milk

12,002

9,044

8,349

7,956

7,136

11,391

10,098

9,810

10,439

9,496

12,696

8,573

10,560

10,702

14,560

9,393

11,426

9,668

8,477

8,148

9,156

9,120

7,135

10,662

6,486

6,596

9,503

12,025

11,643

7,649

7,171

9,419

11,897

8,130

8,897

9,673

11,911

11,384

8,395

Percent

Cow Yrs.

Dry

13.2

16.8

13.0

9.9

19.0

25.8

14.1

12.5

13.6

19.8

20.0

13.9

12.6

21.6

18.3

19.1

12.6

16.5

24.9

13.8

14.3

13.3

9.1

9.9

16.5

22.4

5.3

17.4

15.4

23.7

13.4

18.1

11.5

25.7

9.9

15.0

14.0

20.6

12.4

Percent

Butter

Fat

3.77

4.07

3.76

3.47

3.81

3.51

3.90

3.67

3.74

3.57

4.04

3.49

3.90

3.77

3.55

5.65

4.56

4.10

3.77

3.86

5.25

4.71

3.41

7.74

3.63

3.69

3.46

3.66

3.55

4.16

3.59

3.77

3.58

4.14

3.77

3.65

3.53

3.74

3.91

Ave.

Fat

No. Cows No.

Over 400# Culled

Fat Or Sold

379

404

521

389

277

278

419

415

351

402

338

321

445

295

328

423

331

496

323

380

366

301

389

453

449

335

436

404

350

431

353

299

305

359

349

290

452

355

318 58

7

9

33

11

53

_5

28

33

19

43

7

20

21

10

25

22

32

20

12

18

43

6

7

5

38

15

10

21

29

65

17

5

23

18

21

27

75

10

35

6

22

42

14

4

2

42

11

32

20

15

34

5

27

28

5

36

33

36

77

25

8

35

7

40

4

4

100

30

12

16

7

9

2

38

40

15

PRACTICALLY

FOR

EVERYTHING

FARM

-

HOME

-

INDUSTRY

INTERNAnONAL

HARVESTER

I

NTERNA TIONAL

HARVESTER

DEALER

Maricopa and Pinal Counties

HEight Stores To Serve You"

*

HARDWARE

SHEARS

TOOLS

APPLIANCES

HOUSEWARES

FENCING

PAINTS

SPORTING GOODS

CHANDLER

BUCKEYE

PHOENIX

COOLIDGE

GLENDALE

MESA

CASA GRANDE

MARICOPA

-13-

.....

MARICOPA COUNTY D.H.I.A.

HERD AVERAGES

CODE HERD OWNER

01-0183 Jack Webb

01-0184 Ed Wieler

....

___ .

__________________________

_____________________

� ____________

10-

10-

3-56

3156

01-0187 J.

Weusterman

01-0190

01-·0193

01-0194

Whiting

__________________________

& Lewis

Fritz Zimmerman

______________________

Robert Zimmerman

____________________

_______

.

__________

9-26-56

108-56

.10-10-56

9-27-56

01-0195

01-0217

01-0218

01-0219

01-0221

H.

D. Zum Mallen

____________________

10-10-56

01-0196 E.

J.

Tweed (Brusally Ranch)

__

9-27-56

01-0201 Don Anglin

________________________________

10-14-56

01-0202

George

H. Dodd

____ .... _________ ...

__ ..

01-0203 Seth D. Eades #1

._

....

_.

____ ....

____

9-21-56

103-56

01-0208 L. E.

Graham 9-19-56

______ _______ ______ ...

____

01-0210 Charles O.

Hayes

..

_.

_______ ._

.....

____

9-30-56

Steven

Sharp

________ ....

______ ._

....

____

103-56

Wayne Sherwood

..

_.

___

.

______ ...

_ ..

_.

105156

Jesse

I. M.

Shumaway

Ulmer

_________

..

_.

___

____________

__________ ..

...

___

______

9-27-56

9-24-56

01-0222 J. C. Truman

01-0225 Archie Jones

____ ._

_ ....

_______ ._

..

__ ____

___ .-......

-.----.------....

01-0228

J.

G. Osborn

01-0230 Garth Lamb

____ ._

______ ..

..

..

___________ ._

____________

..

__ ___

._.

________

01-0244 W.

L.

Chambers

__ _____________ ....

___

01-0246 F.

J. Cornwell

_ .......

_____ ...

____ ..

_.

____

01-0248 Anthon Cluff

01-0249 Cecil Nicholson

_____ .....

_.

________ ......

_.

___

._.

_____________

....

___

103-56

9-16-56

102-56

107-56

9-15-56

9-23-56

10- 6-56

9-24-56

01-0251

George

Dewitt

____

....... __

....

_________

10- 6-56

01-0253 Musselman

& Harrison

_______ ....

_

..

9-18-56

01-0254 Ish Thompson

._._

....

____ ...

_ ........

___

,

9-25-56

01-0255 Lucon

01-0256 John T.

Dairy

_________ ...

________ ._.

__ ____

9-17-56

Bearup

......

______ ..

_.

__

..

_ .....

9-23-56

01-0257

01-0260,

01-0262

01-0266

01-0267

01-0272

W.

O.

Tyler

__ _____

....

___ .....

_.

__ ____ ..

10- 7-56

Lloyd

Sharp

_ ...

___

.

_______

_______ ..

_

..

__

9-16-56

Milford Varney

.

__ .........

______

.....

___

9-22-56

David & Keith Shumway

_.

______

9-28-56

Hugh

Foster

___ __ _______ ______ ......

__

10-11-56

Norman Nelson 106-56

__ ._.

___ ....

____ ..

_ ..

___

01-0275

Henry

C. Hellman

____ ...

_____ __ ___

10-12-56

01-0276 Dewer Farms

_______ ..... __ _____ ._._....

104-56

01-0277 N. J.

Troug

_______ ._

........

_.

____ ....

____

9-19-56

5

9

6

4

9

8

9

2

2

2

5

3

2

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

1

1

2

2

1

2

2

3

2

5

2

Consecu-

Test Year tive Years

Ends In D.H.I.A.

Breed

Cow

Years

GH

Mix

Mix

Mix

GH

Mix

GH

GH

GH

Mix

GH

GH

GH

R

GH

& GH

GH

GH

GH

GH

GH

RA & H

101.0

83.3

26.4

47.4

56.0

98.1

44.0

149.0

GH

RBS

72.0

97.0

R & GH & J 119.1

GH 22.7

Mix

RH

54.0

11.2

R

GH

R

RG

&

& GH

GH

GH

GH

R & GG

Mix

GH

GH

Mix

GH 25.1

171.0

39.5

18.7

49.0

29.7

40.0

32.0

72.0

53.0

56.0

29.0

96.8

50.0

26.4

90.0

62.0

70.0

48.0

31.0

54.0

77.5

43.6

509.0

75.0

9,723

9,310

12,916

9,862

10,140

10,620

12,110

11,413

10,032

9,797

12,040

10,377

11,858

13,968

10,365

7,542

12,682

6,418

9,410

10,914

10,601

7,343

10,939

8,522

11,191

8,898

9,421

11,570

7,766

6,746

9,317

9,347

14,185

7,470

9,254

11,137

10,261

10,379

8,476

Percent

Cow Yrs.

Dry

22.1

19.9

19.3

24.8

18.5

16.2

12.5

21.9

14.6

29.0

14.6

16.1

17.6

16.0

10.4

11.6

13.2

12.1

19.2

17.2

14.7

12.4

15.8

24.4

18.2

19.4

13.7

21.6

17.2

19.3

16.9

15.8

16.1

30.6

19.3

14.1

15.1

16.6

15.5

Ave.

Milk

Percent

Butter

Fat

3.68

3.52

3.54

3.44

3.78

3.42

3.82

3.58

3.67

3.96

3.67

3.86

3.68

3.46

3.39

3.76

3.76

4.30

3.76

3.80

3.44

4.47

3.65

3.58

3.38

4.07

3.95

3.44

3.55

4.00

3.66

3.83

3.47

3.56

3.78

3.56

3.77

3.58

3.55

Ave.

Fat

No. Cows

Over 400#

Fat

No.

Culled

Or Sold

20

20

20

10

12

25

19

34

19

18

7

7

6

7

15

13

19

2

18

101

18

25

26

2

11

5

8

9

14

12

4

6

89

21

2

11

8

72

17

30

1

14

22

44

2

4

10

10

6

6

33

4

22

5

14

7

133

1

5

28

0

17

12

32

40

10

23

9

4

29

14

22

13

15

18

22

62

16

389

442

400

436

386

352

280

477

358

328

458

339

384

363

463

409

362

277

354

415

365

328

382

306

377

363

370

399

276

270

336

359

492

268

350

396

387

371

299

A,filicis/

those of

CURTiSS CANDY

SIres

Carrying

Inheritance for

Type, Production,

Reproduction, Persistency of

Producfion.Lonq

Life.

CURTiSS c���:�y

FARMS

IMwloltlJ

STU/)

SERVICE

--

Call Your CURTiSS Representative:

STALTER CATTLE

BREE.DING

SERVICE

2502 N. 53rd St.

-

Phoenix,

Ariz.

Phones

CR 4·5905

-

WH 5·5657

-17-

00

CODE HERD OWNER

MARICOPA COUNTY D.H.I.A.

HERD AVERAGES

Consecu-

Test Year tive Years

Ends In D.H.I.A.

Breed

Cow

Years

Percent

Cow Yrs.

Dry

Ave.

Milk

Percent

Butter

Fat

01-0278 Mrs.

Faith Sossman

01-0281

01-0284

01-0286

01-0288

Clyde

W.

M.

Fincher

Ong

________________

____________________________

__________________________________

9-20-56

10- 5-56

10-14-56

Jesse L.

Vining

__________________________

5-28-56

K. K. Skousen No.

2

__________________

10·-,11-56

01-0290

01-0291

01-0292

01-0293

01-0294

01-0295

01-0297

01-0298

01-0299

01-0300

01-0301

01-0302

01-0303

01-0301

R. B. Johnson & Sons

________________

9-22-56

L. P. Bowcut

___ .

__________________________

9-30-56

Eldon Beebe

________________________________

10-10·56

Indian Bend

Ranch

Sanderson Davis

__________________

10-

6-56

________________________

9-18�56

J. J.

Stiles

__________________________________

10-15-56

Bill W.

Mullins

__________________________

9-17'-56

Jim

Sharp

__________________________________

9-17-56

Henry

Van

Dyke

______________________

9-26-56

W.

E.

Weaver

____________________________

9-22-56

George Hussey

__________________________

9�20-56

William C.

Fosburg

__________________

9-28-56

R.

E.

Kruft No.

2

______________________

9-25-56

R.

H. Blackburn 10-13-56

________________________

01-0309

01-0310

01-0315

01-0316

01-0317

01-0320

01-0324

Carl Morris

________________________________

9-19-56

Keith Morris

_______________________ .

______

9-19-56

Clarence

A.

Hayes

__________________________

9-18-56

J. McNeal

______________________________

10-

9-56

Harold Curtis

___________ .

________________

9-20-56

M. J. Silva

__________________________________

10-

7-56

Hayte

&

Ray CampbelL.

_________

9-27-56

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

9

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

GH

GH

R & GH

Mix

GH

R &

R

GJ

& GH

GH

RH

GH

RG & H

GH

GH

R & GH

RJ

R & GJ

GH

RJ

GH

RH

RA & H

Mix

Mix

GH

GH & J

GH

50.0

28.6

38.1

93.7

59.7

19.1

28.0

47.0

57.0

·40.6

61.0

47.0

34.0

42.8

39.1

34.0

38.0

31.0

24.0

51.9

53.0

72.0

34.0

24.0

142.0

18.4

23.9

24.6

22.5

15.0

13.1

14.9

18.7

25.7

18.5

22.1

17.8

15.3

7.7

18.8

8.1

12.8

17.7

16.7

14.1

13.1

22.8

3.7

14.9

12.1

10.9

22.2

8,584

7,419

8,437

7,647

9,485

8,929

10,963

11,789

10,980

10,.322

10,640

9,686

7,703

12,584

7,030

6,204

10,820

8,176

10,435

12,672

12,272

10,285

11,437

12,275

13,135

10,515

3.56

3.68

3.81

3.79

3.62

3.53

3.49

3.53

3.51

3.55

3.56

3.53

3.56

4.16

3.52

4.99

4.57

3.72

5.69

3.72

3.82

3.72

4.09

3.54

4.55

3.56

PIMA-PINAL COUNTY

D.H.I.A.

HERD

AVERAGES

Consecu-

Test Year tive Years

Ends In D.H.I.A.

Breed

Cow

Years

Percent

Cow Yrs.

Dry

Ave.

Milk

Percent

Butter

Fat

CODE

HERD OWNER

02-0002

Arizona State Prison

________________

9-17-56

02-0005

Fair View

02-0008

Alvin

Dairy

______________________

Kempton

__________________________

10- 5-56

9-19-56

02-0011

W.

C. McAda

______________________________

10- 9-56

02-0012

W. T. McClelland

______________________

10- 2-56

02�OO13

H.

M.

Martin

______________________________

9-26-56

9

19

6

7

25

9

GH

RH

RH

GH

RG

GH

128.7

90.7

65.6

55.8

131.8

102.0

18.7

12.8

12.8

17.6

13.6

16.5

8,716

10,487

10,721

9,929

8,557

11,108

3.40

3.19

3.60

3.60

4.72

3.37

Ave.

Fat

No. Cows

Over 400#

Fat

No.

Culled

Or Sold

390

368

376

345

321

443

351

284

402

466

371

466

468

390--

415

434

460

372

320

282

315

313

336

406

390

414

0

8

14

8

5

1

1

4

2

5

5

18

11

1

9

33

4

1

0

41

7

8

9

14

-

12

-

3

45

0

22

0

10

18

5

10

14

1

12

9

28

11

0

6

10

29

8

0

14

27

29

25

296

335

387

358

404

374

Ave.

Fat

No. Cows

Over 400#.

Fat

No.

Culled

Or Sold

7

15

10

14

62

27

17

26

8

17

37

34

I

......

02-0014

02-0015

Nihighan

Ranch

________________________

·10-14-56

Shamrock Hill

_______________________ 0____

10- 6-56

02-0017 G. W.

Stephens

__________________________

10-11-56

02-0019 A.

Bruce Knapp (Sunset)

________

101-56

02-0021

02-0022

University of Arizona______________ 9-30-56

George Ziegler

__________________________

9-25-56

02-0024 Angus Busby

______________________________

8--8-56

02-0025 T. P. Drake

________________________________

9-18-56

02-0029 Tom

Kerr

____________________________________

9-31-56

02-0029 *Tom Kerr

02-0030

02-0031

02-0032

Rudolph

____________________________________

Farr No.

L

__________________

9-30-56

9-19-56

Rudolph Farr

____________________________

9-24-56

Tom Hunter

______________________________

9-18-56

02-0033 Paul Luellig

________________________________

9-25-56

8

16

2

2

3

2

1

3

19

8

9

9

3

1

RG

GH

GH

RH

& G

89.1

221.9

37.5

125.4

RH & J & G 75.2

GH 128.3

GH & G

GH & G

GH & G

GH & G

48.9

45.5

26.8

26.9

83.7

GH

GH

GH

RH

97.8

32.5

6.6

21.2

10.6

16.7

19.2

9.8

13.7

23.4

26.5

12.2

16.3

14.6

19.9

14.1

7.3

GRAHAM COUNTY D.H.I.A.

HERD AVERAGES

03-0001

Ed

Brown

__________________________________

109-56

03-0002 Alma Bryce

________________________________

10-18-56

03-0003 Dewey A.

Bryce

________________________

10-11-56

03"'0004

Osmer Crocket

__________________________

10- 6-56

03-0005

Ferrin Brothers

________________________

9-18-56

03-0006

Silas F. Jarvis

__________________________

10- 9-56

03-0007

M. M.

Larson

_______________ ____________

9-30-56

03-0009

W.

B.

Mattice & Sons

______________

9-21-56

03-0011 Frank Skinner

__________________________

103-56

03-0013 Zane

03-0014

Bigler

________________________________

9-20-56

Max Curtis

________________________________

105-56

03-0015

03-0016

Easton M.

Frazer

___

.-----____________

102-56

Mary

Lunt & Sons

____________________

9-27-56

9

9

6

3

1

3

3

2

5

9

4

5

6

GG

GH

Mix

Mix

Mix

Mix

GH

GH

GH

Mix

Mix

R

GH

& GG

42.9

32.0

39.7

37.5

42.8

38.3

161.6

201.4

55.8

44.6

-16.9

19.9

195.0

16.1

15.1

19.0

11.6

11.4

10.1

13.1

12.7

11.8

13.5

11.9

15.2

13.8

7,140

11,124

8,000

8,945

9,973

10,491

13,239

12,126

11,577

9,347

9,941

7,266

10,165

7,326

12,481

8,919

9,562

9,269

11,568

8,521

7,629

8,990

9,165

9,801

8,508

10,276

11,135

05-0002

04-0006

YAVAPAI COUNTY D.H.I.A.

HERD

AVERAGES

Edgar Wingfield

______________________

4-23-56

Harold Bullard

__________________________

9-30-56

3

1

GH

GH

75.4

54.1

14.9

11.9

10,114

9,882

YUMA AREA D.H.I.A.

HERD AVERAGES

04-0002

04-0003

George Bradley

________________________

5-31-56

Robert H.

Fram

________________________

23-56

04-0007 Richard Combs

____ --------------_______

1-20-56

5

3

5

R & GH

GH

GH

32.6

106.6

42.0

17.5

18.3

19.4

8,687

8,421

7,946

3.56

3.64

3.64

3.39

3.72

4.56

3.46

4.22

3.27

4.20

3.51

3.62

3.64

3.84

3.87

3.32

3.39

3.60

3.54

4.47

3.67

3.82

3.93

3.96

3.82

3.62

3.89

3.77

3.75

4.11

4.67

3.61

334

432

377

312

389

406

309

278

346

355

326

288

370

394

28

77

7

22

16

64

2

3

19

6

1

15

11

4

319

409

320

352

396

401

480

471

437

351

409

345

370

8

111

153

19

6

25

1

4

3

4

4

1

9

360

360

22

6

---.::::

14

17

4

11

8

14

16

19

52

50

6

6

14

·4

11

316

286

296

1

0

0

13

10

5

24

36

14

3

13

90

11

28

15

37

7

8

39

15

t-.:l

0

HERDS

PRODUCING 400 POUNDS OF BUTTERFAT AND

OVER

*These

Herds Milked

3x

(Test Year

-

October

1,

1955 to

September

30, 1956)

Test

Year

Ends

Consecutive Years

In D.H.I.A.

Number

Times over

4001bs.

Breed Cow Years

CODE HERD OWNER

*01-0127 Clifford Norton

........................

9-15-56

01-0051

01-0078

Emerald Farm

Mrs. E.

(Clyde Rowe) 10-10-56

Homrighausen

............

9-26-56

01-0262 Milford

*01-0153 C.

T.

Varney

........................

9-22-56

Sharp & Sons

..................

103-56

03-0007 M.

M.

Larson

..............................

9-30-56

01-0221 1. M.

Ulmer

................................

9-24-56

03

...

0009 W.

B.

Mattice & Sons

..............

9-21-56

01-0018

01-0310

James Bond

................................

9-20-56

Keith Morris

..............................

9-19-56

01-0309 Carl Morris

................................

9-19-56

01-0169 Mr. and Mrs.

Alfred

01-0303 R.

E.

Kruft

Stump

....

9-27-56

#2

..........................

9-23-56

01-0195 H.

D. Zum Mallen 10-10-56

....................

01-0134 Ira

01-0320 M.

Phillips

................................

9-23-56

J.

Silva

..................................

107-56

....

-0187 J.

Weusterman

01-0090 J.

D.

Jones

..........................

..................................

9-26-56

109-56

01-0064

Phillip

Greer

.............

................

102-56

01-0092

John W.

Kerr

............................

10- 1-56

01-0149

William Schrader 99-56

....................

01-0100

01-0056

John Lamb

................................

Geo.

W.

Dibble

........................

9-27-56

101-56

01-0299 Henry

Van

Dyke

......................

9-26-56

*01

...

0203 Seth

D.

Eads

..............................

103-56

01-0173 Pete Tregnboff

..........................

109-56

03-0011

Frank Skinner

..........................

103-56

01-0108

Claude Lines

..............................

9-23-56

01-0210

Charles O.

Hays

........................

9-20-56

01-0317

Harold Curtis

............................

9-20-56

02-0015

Shamrock Hill Farm

................

10- 6-56

01-0147

*'01-0055

01-0141

01-0076

01-0036

Ray

Shafer

................................

107-56

Eyring Dairy

............................

Wm.

J. Rasmussen

10- 9-56

#1

............

9-22-56

Carlin Hinton

............................

10-12-56

Chesney

Farm

.........................

_

9-30-56

6

3

1

1

1

1

3

3

1

1

6

2

1

2

6

3

1

2

2

2

1

1

1

3

6

7

1

6

3

1

6

5

4

9

2

7

6

13

19

2

14

3

3

4

6

1

3

6

7

4

10

1

9

6

9

5

3

1

6

9

6

9

1

1

9

9

4

9

3

15

10

29

47.7

40.6

26.4

57.5

60.0

52.0

141.5

69.0

115.7

142.0

119.1

58.8

55.8

102.0

54.0

57.0

221.9

77.6

96.0

40.6

44.0

52.7

182.0

110.8

60.5

48.0

215.8

161.6

39.5

201.4

139.3

19.1

59.-'7

36.5

38.1

44.0

RH

GH

RH

GH

R&GH

GH

R&GH

GH

R&GH

RA&H

RH

RH

RJ

GH

GH

GH &J

GH

Mix

R&GH

RJ&GH

GH

GH

RJ&GH&J

R&GH

R&GH&J

R&GH

GH

GH

Mix

GH

GH

GH

GH

RG

GG&H

RJ

Average

Milk

13,135

12,916

12,025

12,002

11,643

12,270

11,897

10,700

12,584

12,040

12,577

11,577

11,911

11,858

12,275

12,481

12,115

11,426

9,113

10,439

8,137

15,769

14,560

12,696

14,185

13,344

13,239

12,682

12,126

13,092

12,272

12,672

12,365

8,176

12,100

11,972

Percent

Butter-

Fat

3.31

3.58

3.90

3.47

3.63

3.62

3.76

3.89

3.59

3.81

3.68

3.77

5.69

3.82

3.85

3.49

3.54

3.77

3.76

3.86

3.65

3.74

4.14

3.52

3.67

3.50

3.77

3.66

3.68

3.53

3.46

3.55

3.77

4.70

4.04

5.17

Average

Butter-

Fat

477

471

470

468

466

466

466

463

461

460

458

453

523

521

496

485

485

480

452

449

448

445

443

443

442

441

437

436

436

434

432

432

431

428

423

421

"QUICK"

BRAND FEEDS'

A Feed For

Every

Herd

SPECIALIZING IN CUSTOM MIXES

BULK OR SACKED

QUICK

SEED & FEED CO.

Phoenix

-

ALpine

8-6151

Chandler

-

YOrktown 3-3193

-21-

I t-:l t-:l

HERDS PRODUCING 400 POUNDS OF BUTTERFAT

AND OVER

(Test Year

-

October

1,

1955 to September

30,

1956)

Test Year

Ends

Consecutive Years

In D.H.I.A.

Number

Times over

4001bs.

Breed

Cow Years

CODE HERD OWNER

01-0125 Nixon Brothers

........................

9-17-56

01-0070 Wm. Hardison

..........................

10- 4-56

01-0137 A.

M.

Polley

..............................

10- 7-56

*01-0030 Cheatham

01-0072

Pat

Dairy Inc

...............

9-30-56

Hayes

..................................

9-19-56

01-0228 J. G. Osborn

..............................

10- 2-56

01-0316

01-0122

01-0292

A.

J. McNeal

..............................

109-56

Neilson

Dairy

Eldon Beebe

............................

..............................

9-18-56

10-10-56

*01-0132 Gail Pew

....................................

9-29-56

01-0005

Arizona State

03-0002 Alma

College

............

9-21-56

Bryce

................................

10-18-56

01-0014

Max Curtis

...

_ ..

_.

__ ._

.......

:

..

_.

__ ......

10- 5-56

01-0196 E.

J. Tweed

02-0022

(Brusally Rch.)

....

9-27-56

George Ziegler

........

__ ...

......

...

__

9-25-56

01-0029

W. C.

Cheatham 10-11-56

....

........

_._

..

_

.....

01-0290 R.

B.

Johnson & Sons

..

........

_ ..

9-22-56

02-0012

W. T. McClelland

...

.........

......

_.

10- 2-56

01-0051

G. F.

& Joe Ellsworth

......

.......

10- 9-56

01-0109 Longs Dairy

........

..

.......

..........

9-18-56

01-0120 Ray Morgan

...

....

__ ..

_ ..

.........

...

_

10- 4-56

01-0013 Mrs.

John Birchett & Sons

....

10- 8-56

01-0022 Alta Butler

& Sons 9-16-56

.....

..........

01-0093 Kibler

01-0171

Dairy

.....

........

...

__ ..........

109-56

Franda Thude

......

_._.

__ ._

...........

_

9-22-56

01-0302 Wm. C.

Fosburg

....

_ ............

..

...

9-28-56

03-0006 Silas Jarvis

................................

109-56

01-0024

01-0208

Otis Carmichael

............ ., ..........

L. E.

Graham

............

e••••••••••• -

•••

108-56

9-19-56

25

9

17

8

16

3

3

3

20

4

1

4

1

25

6

10

9

1

6

4

2

13

15

9

5

1

6

:3

3

RA&H

GH

GH

R&GJ

RG

GH

GH

R&GG

GH

R&GH

R&GG

GG

GH

Mix

GH

GH

Mix

GG&H

GH

R&GH

Mix

GH

Mix

GH

GH

GH

RH&J

GH·

Mix

4

1

1

2

1

1

9

5

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

3

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

3

2

1

1

135.7

195.4

148.6

100.0

28.5

38.3

96.4

22.7

80.7

32.0

46.9

149.0

128.3

91.1

38.0

131.8

101.2

223.0

78.6

112.0

106.0

103.0

521.2

36.6

29.7

47.0

42.8

24.0

112.0

Average

Milk

11,750

8,557

10,702

11,384

9,071

10,990

11,455

7,649

9,847

10,820

10,491

10,730

10,377

11,391

11,346

10,774

10,098

10,914

11,437

11,844

11,789

11,465

10,918

11,124

9,941

11,413

11,568

11,100

8,929

Percent

Butter-

Fat

3.57

3.67

3.69

3.86

3.74

3.80

3.62

3.49

3.51

3.59

3.74

3.67

3.58

3.58

3.51

3.66

4.55

4.72

3.77

3.55

4.44

3.62

3.51

5.25

4.08

3.72

3.82

3.73

3.86

Average

Butter-

Fat

412

410

409

409

409

406

406

406

404

404

404

403

402

402

402

402

402

401

400

400

420

419

419

415

415

415

415

414

414

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FEEDS

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IT

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&

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YE 7-9158

YE 7-5761

GLENDALE

P.

O.

BOX

535

-23-

TEN HIGH HERDS REPORTED TO DATE

*

These herds milked 3X

HERD OWNERS

1.

2.

P. K. Mantius

P.

K. Mantius

3.

P.

K.

Mantius

P.

K.

Mantius

4.

5.

B. H.

Gladden

6.

Warren Kurtz

7.

8.

B. H. Gladden

B.

H.

Gladden

9.

Da vidson

Young

*10.

Steven

Sharp

1951

1949

1950

1947

1946

1943

1947

1948

1949

1955

Year

Under Fifty

Cow Years

Breed

Cow Yrs.

or

Lactations

R-GH-RJ

R-GH-RJ

R-GH-RJ

R-GH-RJ

RH

RH

RH

RH

RH

RH

18.0

15.1

28.6

14.5

251act.

13lact.

15.9

14.0

15.4

9.0

Milk

14,876

12,766

14,194

12,740

14,948

14,070

14,485

14,444

15,332

14,650

Test

3.70

4.10

3.77

4.18

3.54

3.73

3.60

3.54

3.36

3.48

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Fifty to

One Hundred Cow Years

Mrs.

E.

Hormighausen

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred

Stump

Carl Morris

1956

1955

1954

R-GH

RH

RH

60.5

50.4

83.1

12,696

12,760

12,785

Carl Morris 1956 RH 59.7

12,672

William J.

Rasmussen 1953 RG 76.6

9,173

J. D. Jones 1956 Mix 57.5

7.

Phillip

Greer

8.

John Kerr

1956

1956

R-GH

RJ-GH

60.0

52,0

12,025

12,002

11,643

9.

10.

Mrs. E.

Homrighausen

Emerald Farm

(Clyde Rowe)

1955

1954

R-GH

GH

60.8

95.5

12,255

12,398

Over One Hundred Cow Years

RH 182.0

*1.

Clifford Norton 1956

2.

3.

Emerald Farm

(Clyde Rowe)

Emerald Farm

(Clyde Rowe)

1956

1955

*4.

C. T.

Sharp

& Sons

1956

5.

M. M. Larson

1955

1956

1954

6.

M. M. Larson

7.

M. M.

Larson

8.

W. B.

Mattice

& Sons

9.

James Bond

*10.

Cheatham

Dairy

1956

1956

1951

GH

GH

R-GH

GH

GH

GH

GH

R-GH

R-GH

110.8

102.0

215.8

149.4

161.6

155.0

201.4

139.3

467.9

15,769

14,560

13,560

13,344

13,421

13,239

12,997

12,126

13,092

12,949

-24-

3.31

3.58

3.61

3.63

3.61

3.62

3.68

3.89

3.59

3.61

3.90

3.76

3.74

3.68

4.90

3.77

3.76

3.86

3.65

3.60

Fat

560

535

535

533

529

525

522

518

517

510

523

521

489

485

484

480

478

471

470

467

496

480

473

466

456

453

452

449

448

447

YES

.

BEST

••

.

.

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BRAND DAIRY FEED is the money can and the buy

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RESULTS!

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•••

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To promote heavy, continuous production and higher health levels

• throughout the herd

•• on

LESS feed.

It's the BEST

•••

•• and the CHEAPEST based on

"RESULTS".

Call CAPITAL

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SIX POINTS

LUMBER �

SUPPLY

[ON[RETE PIPE [0.

1933 W. McDowell Rd.

Phoenix,

Arizona

AL 8-7514

-25-

FROM WHAT KIND OF A DECK ARE YOU

Robert

G.

Fossland

Department of

Dairy

Science

University of

Arizona,

Tucson

DEALING?

There are card pl�ying many and analogies between breeding dairy cattle.

Every time a germ cell, an ovum in the cow or a know that the ovum or sperm in sperm the bull is formed we genetic material represents a in the sample half of the hereditary material of the animal producing it.

This is comparable to a dealing of a deck of cards. And as each deal of the cards yields a vast number of possible combinations of the cards so e�ch cell division in' the ovary or te�tis

YIelds a great number of possibilities.

The chances that two people or two cows have ever been identical (save for twins or other multiple births) is very remote.

More often we find identical card hands but that is merely because there ar� fewer

13 possibilities in the combinations of cards, representing the four suits of

Spades, Hearts, Diamonds, and Clubs.

The individual cards in a hand or a deal of the cards are analogous to genes those mysterious determiners of heredit�ry or to groups of genes which might be cahed chromosomes

01' parts of chromosomes.

We know that the inheritance of milk production involves the expression of many genes, how many no one has ever demonstrated to the satisfaction of prac­ tical breeders or scientists. Suffice it to say the number of genes involved is prob­ ably very large.

In the same manner that the total of point value for a hand of card� can either be large or small de­ pending on the cards drawn, so the in­ heritance for milk production for an in­ dividual cow can either be high or low depending up�n the number of genes for high production that the animal in­ herits from each parent.

Each animal receives some genes that contribute to­ war�s the expression of high milk pro­ duction and each animal inherits some genes that prO?UctIOn.

varIOUS do not contribute to

When this genes for and high milk animal, with its against milk pro­ duction in turn of these reproduces, a sample half good genes, called dominant by the geneticist, recessives IS and the poor genes, called passed on to each germ cell.

The germ cell then combines with an­ other germ cell and make up the new in­ dividual. Thus it is not difficult for us to understand how a high producing cow ma�ed to a bull descended from high pro­ ducmg ancestors can all too often be the parents of a mediocre or low produc­ mg cow.

When production is lowered it simply indicates that when dealing the

"hand" of genes, some hands get more than their fair share of deuces threes and other low point cards

(gene;

for lo� production) while other germ cells get more than an average share of

Aces,

Kings, and other high point cards or genes for high production.

If we ca!l

look at the demonstrate

.a

following table we number of interesting things about milk production.

In this table I have arbitrarily assigned a milk production value in terms of thousands of pounds of 4% Butterfat milk to each card in a normal deck, that is a two rep­ resents 2000

� pounds, a nine,

9000 pounds,

Queen, 12000 pounds, etc.

It is interest­ mg to note several characteristics of this distribution, namely that there are cows who produce as little as

2000-3000 pounds of milk per year and that there are cows we know who produce in excess of 14000 pounds of 4 % milk a year

(equivalent in en.erg·y value to

16000 pounds of 3.5% milk),

Most cows in DHIA work how­ ever, prouce can within this be noted that the range average

gi�en.

It value of th� cards in a deck of

52, is eight, and of this represents a level of 800 have a pounds we figure somewhat lower than aver­ age DHIA cows.

The average production of all cows in the U.S. is estimated to be about 5000 cates pounds per year which indi­ that the average cow is getting a very for low point value in the genetic deal high production.

If all the cards be­ low the nine ar culled from two decks of cards such that remain only the nine's or higher

(as in a pinochle deck) the aver­ age our point value then became 111/z or on scale 11500 pounds of milk which

!epresents

111 the production of good cows the better DHIA herds and the

DHIA averages.

The average higher of the Ace value of 14000 pounds represents the level of in

_DHIA production of the best of cows and the best herds in DHIA.

ThIS means that the genetic makeup of these herds and these cows consists largely of aces and face cards and a minimum of low ranking cards. Since re­ placements raised from the cows in these better herds are of high quality when good bulls are used we can assume that these animals are age of dealing a high percent­ good genes for milk production.

-

The question can thus be asked "from what

It a kind of a deck are standard you dealing?" Is bridge or poker deck with all

Or the cards, low and high represented and with opssihilities of high production low production and everywhere in betw�en.r?: is.

it a pinochle type deck with only high cards represented, or is it one of the cull decks with few high cards and mostly low ones?

In bridge terms it it a or

"Bust'� or hopelessly low point hand does

It have "slam" possibilities'?

-26--

How then, you may ask, does one tell what kind of a hand he is answer is not getting.

The simple, but there is one thing for certain that can tell, and that is continuous production testing, month after month, year after year, and gener­ ation after generation. Assuming that an environment good expression of the hereditary material

IS provided one can then select replace­ f;om the enough to allow the ments higher producing cows with more confidence knowing that there is a count greater chance

(i.e.

face of getting ':honor" cards) than there

IS from the average or lower producing cows.

In the same manner cows who produce at a low level can be thus eliminate from the consistently

�ulled genetic and makeup of the herd cows that are dealing for low production.

With successive generations of culling and selection, the deuces, threes and fours can be eliminated from the h�rd inheritance and the concentra­ tion of high cards can be increased and thus the level of production can be raised.

Pounds of

Card 4% Milk

Remarks

Ace

King 13,000

Queen 12,000

11,500 Average for a pinochel deck and good dairymen.

Jack

10

9

8

11,000

10,000

9,500 Average

DHIA production.

9,000

Lowest card in a pinochle deck.

8,000 Average for the deck. of 13 cards.

7

6

5

14,000

Level obtained by the best cows and herds.

7,000

6,000

5,000 Average production per cow in the U.S.

4

3

2

Joker

4,000

3000 Average production of

p�orer

cows and better dairy goats.

2,000

???

Since the average cow has but two or three chance to check on her all to daughters we do not get much' ability portant that we get as many to deal rarely to all breeders it is f�r high production which we call transmit, ting ability.

When we do, however, locate one of those jewels of brood cows known

�m­ offspring

-27from her sired able.

by the best bulls avail­

Since bulls are not commonly known to produce milk the problem of identifying the kind of bull to breed too is even more complex.

We can only in�er this infor­ mation from the his production records of daughters and better yet the produc­ tion records of his daughters as com­ pared to their dams

(I.e.

the mates of the bull) and to the breed and herd aver­ age.

It is therefore important that all daughters of a bull be tested, not just a few of the best.

By testing all daughters we get some idea of the genetic makeup of the bull as far as milk production is concerned, namely whether or not he is dealing high hands or

·low ones.

Many a breeder has bought a bull calf from a herd where only some of the cows are tested, and where only some of the best daughters of a bull complete records, and later learns to his sorrow that the bull was dealing for low production rather than the high production evidenced by a few of the selected daughters.

When it is shown that a bull is siring high pro­ duction he should be used more and in this respect

AI has spread better bulls.

In the same the use of manner, young, unproved bulls should be used sparingly until it is known what level of production they transmit.

Thus successful breeding is a matter of testing for the hands with the high cards and that discarding the low cards, so only high cards will be concentrated in the deck. When bringing in new ani­ mals it is ble of important that only those capa­ dealing high cards for high pro­ duction should be used.

There is one last analogy that I should like to draw, namely that some of the best card hands can be played so poorly that they don't win the tricks they should.

In the same way some animals inherit a potential for high production but are fed so poorly and cared for so badly and milked so carelessly that they never reflect their good inheritance.

Advice to dairymen therefore would be. Know what kind of a deck you are dealing from, discard the low count hands, select replacements from those animals that can transmit care

( deal ) high production, and having drawn the hand in the form of a new calf, raise, feed, and for her so that she produces at a maximum rate. For tion do we only in high produc­ get economical production.

I t..:l

00

I

COWS PRODUCING

650

POUNDS

OF BUTTERFAT AND OVER

ON INDIVIDUAL LACTATIONS

COMPLETED DURING

THE HERD TEST YEAR ENDING DURING

ASSOCIATION YEAR,

OCTOBER

1,

1955

-

SEPTEMBER

30,

1956

(Lactation of 365 days in milk or less)

Owner

Name of Cow and Registration Number

Breed

Cheatham

Dairy Inc

W. T. McClelland

W.

T.

McClelland

Cheatham Dairy Inc

Cheatham Dairy Inc

W. T. McClelland

M.

M.

Larson

Carl

Morris

M. M. Larson

Clifford Norton

W.

T.

McClelland

Kruft Jersey Ranch

Clifford Norton

Mrs.

E.

Homrighausen

Wm. Schrader

Cheatham Dairy Inc

J ames

Bond

Shamrock Hill Farm

Pete Treguboff

Longs Dairy

James Bond

Max Curtis

M. M. Larson

Clifford Norton

Mr. & Mrs. Alfred

M. M.Larson

Kruft Jersey Ranch

Clifford Norton

M.

M.

Larson

Clifford Norton

Eldon

Beebe

Stump

.

.

.

.

Lacconer Hazelwood

St. Albans A.V.

Gessie, 2657636

Boy's Maze, 1102324

Valley Prides Susan, 1292490

Dee Ann

Indian

Lucky Model,

3894610

Maricopa

Jan,

2756170

Goose Valley Lois, 1079632

._

Pee Wee

Home Acres Ormsby Bessie, 3235029

Skipper

Norcliff

Segis

R.A.

Nan, 3046449

Riverview's Princess Fashion, 853599

:

Masterman Standard

Norcliff Princess

Alexis, 1652667

Wayne, 2783087

Pearl Ormsby Woodmaster, 3609242

# 81 Billy

Dee Ann Black Elberta, 2973130

#24

Maggie Rue Model Fobes, 2nd, 3157289

Dorris

#162

#32

Bulah

#74

#244 E.T.

62599

Eilloc Farms Palmyre Regalette, 3404628

J osie

.

.

.

.

.

Marla Commando Favorite

N orcliff

Etta, 1914086

Wayne Prince

Fanny Evans,

2983969

Princess

.

Gravelholm Sovereign Queen, 3833181

Mary

R.H.

R.G.

R.G.

R.H.

R.H.

R.G.

G.H.

R.ll.

G.H.

R.H.

R.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

R.H.

R.H.

R.G.

R.J.

R.H.

R.H.

G.H.

R.H.

G.H.

G.H.

R.J.

R.H.

G.H.

R.H.

G.H.

Yr��o.

9-3

8-2

6-11

3-6

9-5

7-3

5-1

8-

11-3

7-9

10-6

3-4

7-1

4-6

5-10

13-0

8-

4-6

3-9

3-4

9-

5-

6-

Days in

Milk

352

362

365

365

365

365

365

365

358

362

365

363

365

311

365

314

338

352

365

365

365

365

346

365

365

348

365

365

365

365

345

Times

Milked per day

3x

3x

3x

3x

2x

2x

3x

3x

2x

3x

2x

3x

3x

2x

2x

3x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

3x

3x

3x

2x

2x

2x

3x

3x

Fat

902

899

886

877

856

842

810

801

782

779

777

775

771

770

765

758

755

750

748

747

747

746

743

743

740

740

739

739

733

728

724

Milk

21,845

17,482

17,427

17,970

23,410

19,057

20,620

18,516

21,954

26,820

17,748

14,726

23,950

20,734

19,357

23,595

19,406

18,750

21,910

20,143

19,213

21,470

20,456

18,220

19,641

19,252

13,355

22,920

19,889

18,600

15,950

COWS PRODUCING 650 POUNDS OF BUTTERFAT AND OVER ON INDIVIDUAL LACTATIONS

COMPLETED DURING THE HERD TEST YEAR ENDING DURING ASSOCIATION YEAR,

OCTOBER

1,

1955

-

SEPTEMBER

30,

1956

(Lactation of

365 days in milk or less)

Owner

Name of Cow and

Register

Number

W.

T.

McClelland

Mr.

& Mrs. Alfred

Mrs.

E.

Homrighausen

------

Alta Butler & Sons

_

W. B.

Stump

_

Mattice & Sons

_

_

R.

M.

Springfield

Carl Morris

Mr.

& Mrs.

Alfred

Stump

Ira Phillips

M. M.

Larson

--------------------------

W.

T.

McClelland

Clifford

Norton

_

_

_

_

Clifford Norton

_

_

_

James Bond

Mrs.

John Birchett & Son

Cheatham

Mr.

Dairy

Inc.

__

& Mrs.

Alfred

,

Stump

James Bond

Mrs. E.

W.

Homrighausen

T.

McClelland

W.

B.

Mattice & Sons

Mr.

& Mrs.

Alfred

Stump

Longs Dairy

R.

M.

Springfield

Mrs. E.

Homrighausen

Cheatham

Dairy

W.

T. McClelland

Ira

M.

Phillips

M. Larson

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

James Bond

M.

M. Larson

_

Ranchito

Clover

Thelma,

1067823

Fay Chief,

3521258

Vesta

I

_

_

_

Ravenglen

Triune

Roma,

3088366

_

Lucky

Ronald

W.I.S.

Lola

_

Sybil Wildspot,

1878882 Blossom

_

Ginger,

3427756

_

Eilloc Burke

April Day,

3404628

_

_

Flossie

_

Shamrock Farms General's

N orcliff

Sovereign Starshine,

Patrica Alcarta

Vallene

Ormsby

Sovereign,

Monogram,

Susan, 1418367

3225931

_

4150933

3468447

_

_

#18

Fayne

Carnation

Pieterje, 3066090

Peel

Lodge Sovereign Soo, 3171047

.----------

Lady

Cedav Laun

Abbie, 3776798

_

_

Mary Ann

_

Wey Acres Levity Lustie, 1024480

#37

Har Mar Regal Pathfinder, 3093137

#33

Spike

Edendale Portia, 3224226

#36005

Mira Lorna Farm Eloise,

.-_.

1074635

_

_

_

_

_

_

Rusty

May

#151

Betty

-

Breed

G.H.

R.H.

G.H.

G.J.

R.H.

G.H.

R.G.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

R.G.

G.H.

G.H.

R.H.

G.H.

R.H.

R.G.

R.H.

G.H.

R.H.

G.H.

R.J.

R.H.

R.H.

R.H.

R.H.

G.H.

R.G.

y/t'o.

7-7

6-8

4-10

11-2

3-4

5-6

5-6

6-

7-6

5-9

6-2

8-0

3-7

7-

7-

4-5

8-2

5-9

5-2

4-0

6-5

7-9

5-0

Days in

Milk

313

327

365

365

365

363

360

365

365

365

365

309

365

365

365

365

365

365

365

322

365

349

365

365

365

358

342

362

365

349

365

Times

Milked per day

2x

2x

2x

2x

3x

3x

2x

2x

2x

2x

3x

2x

2x

3x

2x

2x

2x

3x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

3x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

3x

3x

Fat

698

697

697

696

696

696

694

693

691

691

690

690

690

689

723

723

722

722

719

716

715

713

712

712

711

710

710

709

702

701

700

Milk

14,683

19,645

20,001

17,409

_19,610

15,701

16,115

16,857

22,011

20,300

13,067

21,330

18,600

17,541

19,265

18,849

16,973-

17,752

18,219

16,400

19,150

18,768

18,270

15,674

17,202

16,154

15,383

21,279

16,390-

15,769

20,090

I ce

0

COWS PRODUCING

650 POUNDS OF BUTTERFAT AND OVER ON INDIVIDUAL LACTATIONS

COMPLETED DURING THE

HERD TEST YEAR

ENDING DURING ASSOCIATION

YEAR,

OCTOBER

1,

1955

-

SEPTEMBER 30,

1956

(Lactation of 365 days in milk or less)

Owner Name of Cow and

Register

Number Breed

Henry

Schendell

......................

Schendale Besse's

Rosalie,

1095542

........................

Milton Goldman

......................

# 14

......................................................................

R.G.

G.H.

R.H.

Mr. & Mrs. Alfred

M. M. Larson

Stump

....

..........................

Ellioc Montric Princess

Jewel,

3665382

........

Nuget

....................................................................

M.

M.

Larson

C. T.

..........................

#44

................ " .....................................................

Sharp

& Sons

................

Southwest Model

Fobes,

3373963

.........

"

........

W.

T.

McClelland

C. T.

....................

............

St. Albans A UGG

Heiress,

1311948

..............

W. B.

Mattice & Sons

#39

......................................................................

Sharp

& Sons

................

Sarlwynn Royal Rag Apple,

3273407

.....

,

......

Seth Eads

................................

W.

T.

McClelland

Ira

....................

Phillips

..............................

Fat

........................................................................

James

Bond

..............................

#

3032699

............................................................

Adohr Beau's

Nellie Dream

Precise,

1199690

......................

Whitehall,

3094583

..................

L.

B.

Blackmer

.........

.:

..............

Beauty

Inka Walker

Homestead,

2869553

....

Jack Webb

................................

#178

....................................................................

James Webb

Millard

............................

Marsh Crescent

Ormsby Lassie,

3375400

......

Varney

........................

N ancy

..................................................................

Mrs.

E.

Nixon Brothers

C. T.

Homrighausen

..........

Border

Cornucopia

Gerben

Vale,

2308500

....

........................

Sharp

& Sons

................

#197

....................................................................

James Bond

..............................

'Hippie

..................................................................

Mission Ranch Admiral

Doris,

3490035

........

Seth Eads A 10765

................................

................................................................

G.H.

G.H.

R.H.

R.G.

G.H.

R.H.

R.H.

R.G.

G.H.

R.H.

R.H.

G.H.

R.H.

G.H.

R.H.

G.H.

G.H.

R.H.

G.H.

Clifford Norton

C. T.

........................

Nordcliff Lad June

Davis,

3012091

................

Sharp & Sons

................

Lyreedale

Adelaide Winnie

Heils,

2654696

....

.f> Ita Butler & Sons

#41

........................................................................

Mrs.

E.

Hominghausen

..........

Edendale Doris

Pat,

3159240

..........................

Clifford Norton

........................

W. R Mattice & Sons

Mary

Pat

Francis

Monogram,

1043409

........................

................................................................

Alta Butler & Sons

Cheatham

................

............

................

James

Bond

...............

" ..............

#10

...............................................................

......

Dairy Inc

...............

# 55611

................................................................

Ormsby Magie May, 3698102'

." ..

..

"., ...

,." ..

...

R.H.

R.H.

G.H.

R.H.

R.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

R.H.

Age

Yr.

Mo.

10-10

-

3-5

-

-

4-5

4-1

-

5-8

-

6-1

2-0

5-7

9-

6-

4-4

4-9

13-4

6-

5-0

3-5

-

8-

9-11

8-6

5-6

4-

-

6-5

4-6

2-11

Days in

Milk

365

365

336

311

365

365

365

355

365

285

332

323

365

362

362

365

301

272

358

365

365

338

365

365

365

315

323

300

300

365

365

Times

Milked per day

3x

2x

3x

3x

3x

3x

2x

2x

2x

2x

3x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

3x

3x

2x

2x

2x

2x

3x

2x

2x'

3x

2x

2x

3x

2x

Fat

683

682

679

670

678

677

677

677

676

673

673

672

671

689

687

685

684

684

684

684

683

671

670

669

669

668

668

667

667

667

666

Milk

19,010

19,280

19,733

19,230

15,262

20,263

18,119

17,850

16,060

17,477

17,461

21,590

18,924

16,650

20,159

17,780

17,725

15,995

13,645

15,660

14,920

16,020

17,570

19,600

17,600

18,053

12,317

18,670

17,504

17,750

13,771

ARIZONA STAR

Calf formula

Calf Starter

Milk Producer

J 4% or

J 7%

PROGRESS THRU

Research field

Testing

Application

Service

Get

STAR Performance

Buy

Arizona Star Feeds

Phoenix

Glendale

Mesa

• Tempe •

Safford

Tucson

Casa Grande

-31-

C/.:I t-:l

COWS PRODUCING

650 POUNDS OF BUTTERFAT AND OVER ON INDIVIDUAL LACTATIONS

COMPLETED DURING

THE HERD TEST YEAR ENDING DURING ASSOCIATION YEAR,

OCTOBER

1,

1955

-

SEPTEMBER

30,

1956

(Lactation of 365 days in milk or less)

Owner

Name of Cow and Register Number

Phillip Greer

............................

#32

......................................................................

Emerald Farm

........................

#09

......................................................................

W. B. Mattice & Sons

............

#78

......................................................................

Jack Webb

................................

#186

....................................................................

John Lamb

...............................

#55

......................................................................

M. M. Larson

............................

#58

......................................................................

Ira Phillips

..............................

Cheryl

..................................................................

Mrs. E.

Kibler

Homrighausen

..........

Edendale Jeanette

Netherland, 3383600

......

Dairy

............................

#395'

....................................................................

Emerald Farm

..........................

#A50

....................................................................

W.

B.

Mattice & Sons

C. T.

............

#45

......................................................................

Sharp

& Sons

................

#233

.....................................................................

Mrs. E.

Homrighausen

..........

Edendale Emma Netherland.

3224227

..........

M. M. Larson

..........................

Twittle

----------------------------------------------------------------

Pete

Treguboff

........................

Greta

....................................................................

Carl Morris

..............................

#99

......................................................................

Long's Dairy

............................

#160

....................................................................

Alma

Bryce

..............................

Picininni

..............................................................

James Bond

..............................

Nixon Brothers

#58

......................................................................

Wissie

..................................................................

........................

James Bond

..............................

Ormsby Roamer Babe, 3698104

......................

M.

M. Larson

M.

M.

Larson

............................

............................

Esther

..................................................................

Donna

.......................

..........................................

Wm. Hardison

Nixon Brothers

..........................

........................

#108

....................................................................

Arley

....................................................................

W. T.

McClelland

Kruft

....................

Shamrock Farms

Levity Lustre, 1024480

....

Jersey

Ranch

................

Advancer

Favorite

Ruth, 1789973

..................

Kruft

Jersey

Ranch

................

J ester

Advancer

Fan, 1828282

........................

Cheatham

Dairy

......................

#A 16917

............................................................

Ish

Thompson

..........................

#35

......................................................................

� m.

Schrader

...................

e e ••••

J. Weustermah

........................

!}:1,

..

���

..

��.������

..

::::�������::�:::�::::::�:::::::::::::::::

Breed

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

R.H.

G.H.

G.H.

R.H.

G.G.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

R.H.

G.H.

R.H.

G.H.

G.H.

R.G.

R.J.

R.J.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

G.H.

Age

Yr.

Mo.

3-3

-

6-

-

-

-

3-10

5-11

6-9

-

4-7

4-11

-

7-0

2-10

8-

-

5-6

6-

2-5

-

-

5-

6-

2-4

7-0

4-7

7-5

5-

-

10-11

Milk

14,921

18,372

19,695

17,340

18,360

17,720

19,428

17,799

10,571

19,394

18,516

18,234

16,087

18,400

18,340

16,255

20,020

18,050

17,683

19,836

17,920

14,620

17,536

16,682

16,376

14,017

10,609

13,516

15,410

17,619

15,390

19,140

Days in

Milk

365

318

365

336

365

365

365

304

365

317

365

365

365

365

326

329

364

365

365

348

365

365

305

325

365

365

365

365

351

346

282

300

Times

Milked per day

2x

2x

2x

3x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

3x

2x

2x

2x

2x

2x

3x

3x

3x

3x

2x

2x

2x

Fat

665

664

657

657

656

656

656

655

654

654

662

662

661

661

660

660

660

659

659

659

659

658

653

653

653

653

653

652

652

651

651

650

Adam W.

Bauer Henry D.

Goettl

GOETTL'S

STAINLESS STEEL VATS AND OTHER STAINLESS STEEL NEEDS

GENERAL SHEET METAL

TANKS

WELDING

REFRIGERATED AIR CONDITIONING

EVAPORATIVE COOLING

HEATING

RESIDENTIAL

--

COMMERCIAL

-

INDUSTRIAL

1548 E.

Main,

Mesa WOodland

4-6115

-33-

Owner

Year

1.

Mission Ranch

..................

1936

2.

3.

4.

Cheatham

Dairy,

Inc

.......

1955

Cheatham

Dairy, Inc

.......

1951

Mission Ranch

..................

1935

5. W.

T. McClelland

............

1955

6.

7.

8.

Cheatham

Dairy,

Inc

.......

1951

Cheatham

Dairy,

Inc

.......

1956

W. T. McClleland

..............

1956

9.

10.

Cheatham

Dairy,

Inc

.......

1952

V. L. Wildermuth

............

1939

TEN HIGH COWS REPORTED TO DATE IN D.H.I.A.

3)(

Milking

Name and Registration or

Eartag Number Breed

Rosenhedge Janie Lucke Aaggii, 1498848

......

RH

Laconner Hazelwood Jessie, 2657636

..............

RH

Central Aurelia Roderick Prince, 2652929

......

RH

Rosenhedge Janie Lucke Aaggii, 1498848

.....

RH

St. Albans A.

V.

Boy's Maze, 1102324

............

RG

Jule Queen Forbes, 2652115

..............................

RH

Laconner Hazelwood

Jessie, 2657636

..............

RH

St. Albans

A.

V.

Boy's Maze, 1102324

............

RG

Mission Ranch

Jayme Nedda, 2676552

............

RH

Giroflee Eminent

Betty 932156

........................

RJ

Age

6-5

8-0

9-8

4-10

7-0

6-9

9-3

8-2

5-8

7-6

Milk

365

365

365

365

365

361

365

365

365

365

Milk

29,367

25,513

29,705

29,512

17,597

26,063

2-,895

17,482

23,131

16,913

Fat

1085.7

1079.0

1037.1

989.3

975.0

925.6

902.0

899.0

895.8

892.7

I

I

0:> tl>-

Owner

1.

P.

K. Mantius

....................

2. P.

K. Mantius

....................

3.

L. A. Johnson & Sons

......

4.

L. A.

Johnson & Sons

....

5. B.

D. Gladdne

....................

6. M.

M. Larson

....................

7. W. B. Mattice & Sons

....

8. L.

A. Johnson & Sons

....

9.

Carl Morrts

...

_

....................

10.

James Bond

......................

Year

1947

1947

1948

1947

1947

1956

1955

1946

1956

1955

TEN HIGH COWS REPORTED

TO DATE IN D.H.I.A.

2X Milking

Name and Registration or

Eartag Number Breed

Molasses

.................................................................

GH

Aaltse Bessie

Salo, 2358685

..............................

RH

Desert Crest's Red

Fluff, 179689

.................

....

RA

Desert Crest's Miss

Maripost

Violet, 223362

..................

·RA

Pietertje Josephine,

2103088

............

RH

Pee Wee GH

................................................................

Lucky

......................................................................

GH

Desert Crest's Miss

Violet,

223362

....................

RA

Home Acres

Ormsby

Bessie, 325029

................

RH

Miller Farms Eileen PO-8ch, 2988052

................

RH

-

8-0

5-1

5-1

6-4

·Age

7-2

4-1

11-1

6-10

8-4

Milk

365

365

358

365

365

345

364

365

365

359

Milk

25,388

24,317

15,882

18,537

20,405

20,620

21,030

17,798

18,516

22,191

Fat

853.6

833.3

815.4

814.6

811.2

810.0

809.0

802.7

801.0

798.0

COMPLETE RECORDS ARE ESSENTIAL

By

W. R.

Van Sant

Poultry an,d

DaIry Specialist

AgrIcultural

Extension Service

University of Arizona

Your cooperaton in working with the

Agriculture

Extension Service of the

University of

Arizona has made this year's summary report possible.

N ow is the time for you to study the past year's results.

Then compare your records with those in the annual report to see

This where may improvement can include more be culling made.

of the lower your breeding and dry dates to reduce the per­ cent from producers in the herd, improve feeding program, closer check on of cow the years top dry and raising heifers sixty percent of the herd.

During the past ten years your princi­ pal problems have been to-improve your facilities, management and marketing.

These problems have received consider­ able attention and progress has been very gratifying. However, if additional pro­ gress is to be made it appears that more emphasis must be applied to increasing the average production per cow in the herd.

This means that you must improve your

D.H.LA records and make more use of them.

To be of maximum value to you as a dairyman, these records need to be com­ plete, accurate, and they must be used.

A

D.H.I.A

testing program cannot help you unless you in you your use the information to guide culling, feeding and breeding programs.

The completeness and accu­ racy of your you and herd your book is supervisor.

dependent

It is up to upon you to furnish:

1.

2.

The correct permanent identifica­ tion of the cows in your herd (D.H.

LA.

or tion disease, ear tag or registra­ numbers)

The correct dates.

freshening and dry

3.

The cows leaving the herd and why

4.

The proper identification and ear tagging

-of heifer calves (the new

D.H.LA.

or disease control ear tags)

.

5.

The amount and value of feed u=ed by the herd for the

(dry testing and period cows in milk)

'6,.

Also, follow the rules governing testing in D.H.LA.

as givenin your herd book.

7" In addition to the above informa­ tion, keep more complete breeding

-35data in order to get the proper dry period for each cow.

A continuous testing program is es­ sential for maximum results.

It is neces­ sary to herd each year.

Most culling is done ac­ cording to the base production period

.and

on the basis of the individual production record, primarily first calf records.

You cannot have a record on every cow each year get a record on every cow in the and the first calf heifers if you do not test.

To feed time feed economically and at the same enough to allow the cow to pro­ duce to. her inherited the use of capacity requires production records.

A better feeding program will increase the aver­ age per' cow in the herd.

Records are the basis of program.

All your breeding dairy cattle breeding pro­ grams are founded on the transmitting ability of the cows and bulls. Records are the only means to measure the transmit­ ting ability of the bulls and cows, arid cow families.

More emphasis must be placed on raising better herd replace­ ments for higher herd averages.

Records are essential to provide in­ forma tion on better management.

The percentages of cow years dry is impor­ tant.

Therefore, breeding dates are es­ sential in order to determine the correct dry period.

Long dry periods of indi­ vidual cows increases the percent of dry cow-years lowers the in the herds production average average.

and

Progressive dairymen are continuously making changes in their management pratices and types of records to be used.

Therefore, consideration must be made in regard to new developments in the D.

H.LA.

program whenever they are pro­ vided.

Records will guess help you to eliminate: the work in the breeding, feeding and management of your row herd, with the nar­ margins on which the dairymen are now operating, you cannot afford to be without D.H.LA. records.

A curate set complete, ac­ of records-if studied and used

-can enable and not an you to increase the production per cow in your herd. D.H.I.A.

testing is an investment for the future expense.

average

Be sure that you are getting the records that you need and can use.

ANNUAL

ASSOCIATION AVERAGES

1956

1955

1954

1953

1952

1951

1950

1949

1948

1947

Year

1956

1955

1954

1953

1952

1951

1950

1949

1948

1947

1956

1955

1954

1953

1952

1951

1950

1949

1948

1956

1955

1954

1953

1952

1956

1955

1954

12.7

12.5

11.7

10.7

11.2

10.8

7.7

9.0

9.7

19.9

19.9

20.3

19.4

21.0

24.7

26.7

24.0

20.5

15.0

MARICOPA COUNTY

Ave. No.

of Herds on per test

Mo.

No. of

Herds

Reported

200.3

203.0

211.6

180.9

168.3

180.2

194.9

150.0

116.3

88.0

181

187

205

165

159

140

144

113

88

64

Cow Yrs.

Reported

15,136

14,353

13,764

11,115

10,160

8,513

8,173

6,491

5,122

3,628

Percent

Cow Yrs.

Dry

16.9

18.9

17.8

Ave.

Milk

9,900

9,326

9,176

8,761

8,698

9,282

9,078

8,782

9,100

8,338

Percent

BuHer

Fat

3.78

3.82

3.88

3,82

3.93

3.86

3.84

3.84

3.75

3.76

20

20

20

17

20

20

24

22

17'

9

PIMA-PINAL

ASSOCIATION

1,616

1,667

1,480

1,422

1,482

1,306

1,562

1,579

1,300

577

16.0

14.0

13.3

9,922

9,428

9,643

9,093

9,175

9,707

9,439

9,231

9,349

9,072

.3.63

3.65

3.70

3.70

3.65

3.69

3.70

3.75

3.70

3.90

3.1

3.9

5.8

5.2

4.7

1.6

1.9

1.6

9

9

6

7

6

13

17

10

11

5

2

3

4

6

2

2

2

899

914

623

662

515

509

345

351

232

GRAHAM COUNTY

13.2

13.1

15.1

10,896

10,702

10,924

10,501

9,806

10,192

9,194

8,716

8,342

YUMA

ASSOCIATIO'N

181

195

314

195

46

18.4

22.5

18.6

8,385

8,585

9,421

9,516

11,851

3.51

3.43

3.53

3.76

3.70

YAVAPAI

ASSOCIATION

129

153

113

13.7

17.0

16.7

10,046

9,278

9,610

3.59

3.57

3.57

-36-

3.81

3.87

3.87

3.86

3.92

3.85

4.09

4.08

3.90

360.0

344.3

357.2

336.4

335.2

357.8

348.9

346.2

345.9

353.4

415.8

413.7

422.3

405.1

384.7

392.6

376.5

356.1

328.0

Ave.

Fat

374.2

356.2

355.0

334.2

342.0

358.2

348.2

337.0

341.0

333.1

No. Cows

Sold or

Culled

3,746

4,413

3,022

2,086

1,681

1,855

1,746

1,333

448

179

294.3

294.3

333.0

357.8

409.8

361.1

331.2

343.5

31

33

43

62

67

39

7

0

445

466

405

379

384

361

360

358

448

179

214

292

177

137

119

94

125

93

9

Year

1945

1944

1943

1942

1941

1940

1939

1938

1937

1936

1935

1934

1933

1932

1956

1955

1954

1953

1952

1951

1950

1949

1948

1947

1946

ANNUAL STATE AVERAGES

(25 years

Ave.

No. Herds Cow Years Cow Years

Reported Reported per

Herd

219

230

243

198

190

171

176

146

111

73

83

80

75

63

53

53

56

47

40

24

24

16

!

17,954

17,283

16,294

13,394

12,203

10,471

10,217

8,550

6,654

4,205

2,721

3,372

2,697

2,435

2,218

1,933

1,944

1,764

1,679

897

869

641

756

631

790

\

58.5

59.9

57.6

43.2

42.2

36.0

38.6

41.8

36.5

35.7

37.5

41.9

37.4

36.2

40.0

81.9

75.1

67.1

67.6

64.2

61.2

58.1

%

Yrs.

Cow

Dry

16.6

18.2

17.3

Ave.

Milk

9,937

9,399

9,29'3

8,893

8,811

9,357

9,103

8,830

9,122

8,870

9,018

8,424

8,089

8,457

8,127

8,130

8,341

8,252

7,869

8,483

8,860

8,171

8,257

8,888

8,232

%

B. F.

3.76

3.80

3.89

3.83

3.89

3.86

3.95

3.97

4.00

3.97

4.01

3.93

3.83

3.86

3.71

3.67

3.69

3.84

3.80

3.90

3.84

3.82

3.83

3.84

3.79

Ave.

Fat,

No.

Herds

Reporting

No. Cows

Cows Culled Culled or or sold Sold

374.2

357.2

357.3

338.3

343.2

359.0

348.1

339.3

342.1

335.0

360.6

323.0

314.9

327.8

320.7

322.5

334.0

328.0

316.0

333.1.

339.7

315.0

306.0

325.0

304.0

219

230

225

191

165

169

161

4,498

4,643

3,686

2,609

2,184

2,310

2,231

1,792

1,369

789

646

718

496

:S!I:RES PROVEN IN

ARIZONA DHIA DURING THE ASS'N YEAR

October 1, 1955-

September 30,

1956

ANIMALS RECORDS NAME

Guernsey

Rasmussen Farms Prince of Roses 438952

Bern:' 10-9-48; Pre-proof; 11-18-55

S:i:re,

343743; Dam,

470212

McDonald arms

Born: 1.2-25-46:

S.Lucky

Star 423200

Pre-proof:

2-23-56

Sire, 357051; Dam, 711738

McDonald arms

Born:

King

Earl 384107

7-6-45; Pre-proof:

7-9-56

Sire, 233983; Dam,

695545

5 daus

5 dams

Difference (3-4-2)

5

15 daus daus

5 dams

Difference

(3-3-3)

10 daus

9

9 daus dams

Difference

(6-5-7)

6

14

24

8

9

13

12

32

Hol'steins

MILK TEST FAT

8,598

8,512

5.1

5.0

439

424

+86 +.1

+15

8,596

5.1

439

9,461

4.9

,463

8,47'3

5.1

431

+988 -.2

+32

8,364

8,666

4.9

4.9

408

426

8,207 4.7

385

+45!!) +.2

+41

South;west

Ormsby

Ben 1007395

Eor»:

Sir.:

7-12-47;

8,93'738;

Pre-proof: 5-31-56

Dam: 1809007

7

6 daus daus

6 dams

Difference

(3-5-4)

15

13

24

11,597

11,637

11,947

-810

4.1

4.0

3.6

+4

472

471

429

+42

Mariposa King 972132

Born:

.3-'29-46; Pre-proof:

6-22-56

Sire:

893738;

Dam: 2400456

Lyreedale Junior Chieftain

Bora;

10-12'-48;,

Pre-proof: 8-24-56

Sire:

96199,9';

Dam, 1918913

6 daus

6 dams

Difference (5-3-6)

8

22

10daus

10 dams

Difference (5-5-5)

14

36

12,741 3.6

11,215

3.8

+1,526

-2

11,848

11,476

+372

458

422

+36

3.4

398

3.3

381

+1 +17

-37-

HIGH

COWS

_.

LIFETIME PRODUCTION

3000 Pounds Butterfat and Over

Name

Wescon's Queen

'Chrlstino

Oxford Kings Desire

Wescon's Norbecu's Antonette

Twin Elms Bonita

Border Tritonia Queen Heilo

Riverside Gem Rosebud

Oxford

King

Fern

Ruby

Arizona Farms Maddina

Holzona Vale Ywoone

Border Forforit

Heil6

Oxford

Oxford

Kings Violet

Kings Cocoa Blossom

Sunland Dolly

Dant

Border Fifi Heilo

Mariposa Pietertpe

Lady

Fair Flight Pride

Shirley Rag Apple Queen

Cala-Ore Phi Is Beatrice

Sir Royal Vanity Success

Border Princess Cinderella

Mission Ranch Ascalon Lovetta

Daizy

Bonnie Acres Bella

No. 42

Sir

Rcpol

Aim Betsy Lass

Border Forbes Netherland Vale

Laumont L' Adcina

Donut

No.

30

FYD Comanche Cora

Sun Valley

Nobel's Prim

Georgia

Tina

Border Lucky Carlotta

Bonnie-Aires Bella

No. 52

Barley

Dragmare

.'

Santa

Rita

Madonna

Pee Wee,

Creampot Fairy Betsy

Rocky Home

Rival's Fawn

Border Jean Carlotta

Border

Wcirts

Daisy Vrouka

Robby

Roxy

Brcvonle Resto ,Carrilation

Nonie

Brayvale Carnation Peaches

Brayvale Edenvale Lucy

Arizona Forms Sophie

Brcvvcle

Carnation

Peerlin Lacy

Belle

Breed

G

G

G

J

H

H

H

J

G

H

H

J

G

H

H

G

H

H

H

J

H

H

H

G

H

G

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

G

H

H

H

H

H

H

G

H

H

H

G

J

J

H

G

H

H

Owner

Wm J.

Rasmussen

Clyde Hussey

Wm.

J.

Rasmussen

R. Jack Cartwright

Alta E. Butler and Sons

Clyde Hussey

Clyde Hussey

Wm.

J.

Rasmussen

Fairview Dairy

Alta E. Butler & Sons

Clyde Hussey

Clyde Hussey

R.

Jack Cartwright

Nixon Bros.

ASU

ASU

Fred L.

Chesney

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Stump

R.

Jack Cartwright

Fred L.

Chesney

Alta E. Butler and Sons

Pete Trugaboff

Zumm Mallen Dairy

R.

Jack Cartwright

Alta E.

Butler & Sons

Fred L.

Chesney

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Stump

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Stump

Nixon Bros.

Alta E. Butler & Sons

Fairview

R.

Jack

Dairy

Cortwriqht

Pete Trugaboff

Zum Mallen

Dairy

Alta E.

Butler and Sons

R.

Jack

Cartwright

Alta E.

Butler & Sons

Nixon Bros.

Dee

Snodgrass

Wm.

J.

Rasmussen

Nixon Bros.

Fred L.

Chesney

Wm.

J.

Rasmussen

Alta E. Butler & Sons

Alta E. Butler & Sons

Nixon Bros.

Nixon Bros.

Treguboff

Davidson

Treguboff

Louis

Tryon

Bros.

Young

Bros.

Louis Tryon

Wm. J.

Rasmussen

Devidson Young

Zum Mallen Dairy

-38-

2,571

2,409

2,711

2,598

2,421

2,389

2,667

2,373

2,384

2,850

2,942

'1,663

2,135

2,483

2,717

2,590

2,872

2,872

3,275

3,576

3,325

3,736

3,631

2,950

2,973

3,098

3,749

4,445

2,951

3,384

3,406

3,646

3,228

3,386

2,406

2,�29

2,632

,2,287

2,153

2,750

2,493

2,058

2,192

2,701

2,178

2,270

2,324

2,034

1,809

2,122

2,275

2,580

2,152

1,668

2,577

Fat

3,771

3,762

3,718

3,717

3,672

3,654

3,651

3,615

3,612

3,590

3,561

3,492

3,489

3,488

3,479

3,473

3,447

3,440

3,421

3,401

3,398

3,367

3,274

3,23.7

3,14'3

3,114

3,095

3,076

3,068

3,059

3,058

4,187

4,181

4,105

4,090

4,062

4,002

3,996

3,960

4,577

4,566

4,513

4,495

4,423

4,359

4,340

4,298

6,393

5,689

5,592

5,134

4,851

4,724

4,689

4,683

Lactations

10%

8

9

9

9

7%

9

9

8

9

8

8

7YJ

7

6

6

7

6

8

7

7

8

9

8

5

8

6

'7

8

7

9

8

7

8

5

7

63,4

8

5

6%

9

7

8

9Y2

82jJ

8

11

11

8

11

9

10Y2

8

10

9

1956 DAIRY MANAGEMENT STUDY by

O. G.

Lough

Assistant

County Agricultural Agent is

A high degree of mechanism and specialization of dairy farms in

Maricopa County evident by the following study of 192 DHIA members representing approximately

45

% of the dairymen in the area.

BARNS-82 or

43% use stanchion type;

110 or

57% use in parlor barns over

1955.

parlor type; an increase of

7%

MILKERS-72 or

38% use pipelines over pail type;

1955.

120 or

62% use pipeline; an increase of 15% in

MILK STORAGE-ll or

6% use milk cans;

181 or

3% in farm tank use over

1955.

94% use farm tank; an increase of

FEEDS PRODUCE:D-67

49 dairymen produced hay; down 7% from 1955.

dairymen produced grain; no change from 1955.

81

106 dairymen produced pasture; down 2% dairymen produced green chop; down 8%

35

82 dairymen produced grass silage; down 2 % dairymen produced sorghum silage; down

[email protected]

56 dairymen produced corn silage; down 1 %

The trend toward purchase of all feed-stuffs by dairymen con­ tinued during 1956.

CONCENTRATES-127 or

36 or

66% purchase ready-mixed concentrates

19% contract special concentrate mix

29 or

15% mix own concentrate

FEED STORAGE-138 or

56 or

72%

2�% reported trench silos in 1956 used baled hay barns in 1956

FORAGE

EQUIPMENT-39 or

20% owned hay balers in 1956

122 or

[email protected] owned forage harvesters in 1956

BREEDING-96 or

50% used natural service only in 1956

40 or

21 % used artificial insemination

56 or only

29% used combination natural and artificial insemination

REPLACEMENTS-6 or

89 or

3% purchased all replacements in 1956

46% raised all replacements

97 or

51

% raised and

The trend is toward purchased replacements purchase of replacements and will probably continue as long as dairymen increase herd size.

MILKING-93 or

48% hire all milking done

66 or

33 or

[email protected] do own milking

18% hire milker and milk also

Van

This study was made with the aid of Maricopa County DHIA Supervisors and W. R.

Sant, Dairy Specialist of the University of Arizona.

The

Maricopa County Dairy Herd Improvement Association is happy to in­ clude in its annual report the results of

�ther county

Associations in the state of Arizona, namely-

PIMA-PINAL

ASSOCIATION

GRAHAM ASSOCIATION

YUMA

ASSOCIATION

YAVAPAI ASOCIATION

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The Directors of the

Maricopa

County Dairy

Herd

Improvement

Association

wish to thank the firms whose

advertisements

made this

publ·ication possible.

We also wish to· thank the University of

Arizona and the

Agricultural Exten­ sion

Service for their contributions to this

Report.

-40-

I

1

ARIZONA

MILK PRODUCERS

355 s. 9th

Ave�

Gleaclole, Arizona

VI 7-9538

The been

Arizona Milk continuously in

Producers was organi2;�d in

1928 and has operqtion since that time.

The purpose of the founding of the organization was to promote the general wel­ fare of the dairymen.

The aims and ideals of the founders of this organization are sti II prevalent today.

The Arizona Milk Producers are striving for better milk mar­ keting conditions and has made long strides in that direction by the execution of a full supply contract between our

Association and d distributor.

milk

Not only is the Arizona Milk

Producers striving for better marketing conditions, but also to give its members a re­ duced cost of production through cooperative purchasing.

The Arizona Mi Ik Producers is now in a position to offer membership to any dcirymon regardless of which distributor processes his milk.

There are three dairy organizations striving to better the conditions of the that everydai ry producer, regordless in Arlzono.

Each of them dairymen.

It is our belief of how large or small his operation, should belong to one of these organizations.

All inquiries of our program are welcome.

Cart us if we may be of service.

\

I

r

.,

FOR

AUTOMATIC

PIPE LIN E WUHING

SUR

G

'E

, ,

ELECTROBRAIN

, ,

The ONLY fully automatic

High Velocity, Push Button

Pipe

Line

Milker

Washer line

Now

...

have the time and labor saving advantages of pipe milking with the assurance of automatically controlled sani­ tation.

The Surge ELECTROBRAI N cdn be used with long stanchion lines or short

'parlor lines, with releases or milk pumps to auto­ matically and properly wash the entire system including milking units and hoses. All you do is switch your lines from milking to washing, load the ELECTROBRAI N dispensers with washing powder and sanitizer

push a button

...

and walk away.

Your pipe line is next milking.

rinsed, washed, sanitized and drained ready for the

Any

Surge

Milker

...

The

Surge

Pail

...

The

Surge

Siphon

..

'.

or the Surcingle Breaker Cup will milk with genuine

Surge Tug and Pull and no matter what your requirements are there is a

Fast and

Surge to fit your need

-.

all wi

II give you

Dependable,

Safe

Surge Milking.

f

\a

I

*

HAROLD Y. HEISKELL

Your Surge Service Dealer

1014

GRAND

AVE.

PHONE

-

ALpine 2�3591

Night

Phone -.AP 8.;.2692

PHOENIX,

ARIZONA

,

(

Nine of supervisors reported 16,713 cow years in 182 herds.

This is an increase

1,577 cow years and a decrease of

1 herd from 1956.

Average fat over production per cow year increased 218 pounds of milk and 12 pounds of

1956.

Disease and Parasite Control

Large herds and

,many competent veterinarians dictate a dairj�en as to when a veterinarian should be called.

policy of educating

The disease danger project is primarily one of familiarizing dairymen with disease signals.

Diagnosis and treatment recommendations are considered the job of the veterinarian.

Agent Lough has urged dairymen to have their veter­ inarian make use of the Animal Disease

Diagnostic Laboratory at the Mesa

Experiment

Station.

Dr.

Ned Rokey seems to have gained the confidence of practicing veterinarians, with whom he has worked.

Agent Lough, Dr. Gerald Stott and Dr.

Rokey did some concerning the development of a mastitis preliminary planning control program for county dairymen.

The

July Extension Dairy Letter carried an article encouraging county dairy­ men to

October qualify for a brucellosis-free herd rating as soon as possible.

The

Dairy Letter carried a warning concerning prussic acid poisoning.

The extension infor.mation

to dairy letter written by Agent Lough is used to convey timely dai�en.

The same topics are used for news releases to county papers and feature stories through the cooperation of

Assistant Agent

Halvorson as the attached copy will illustrate.

External parasite control is primarily concerned with flies.

This is a growing problem.

Agent Lough worked closely with Dr.

J.

N.

Roney,

Extension

Entomologist, in keeping dair.y.men

informed concerning latest control recommendations.

Internal being parasites are not a great problem.

However, many dairy cattle are imported from humid pasture areas and worm infestations are becoming more common.

Cattle importation is increasing.

Disease and parasite conditions new to t�e county can be expected.

This point will be emphasized and recommended practices for introducing new stock into the herd will be a positive part of the 1958 extension disease control project.

Thirty-four persons were aided with disease and parasite control problems during the year.

The following publications were very helpful:

"Cattle Diseases and

Ailments"

-

Circular

252

"Control of Livestock Pests"

-

Circular 185

The office of the State Veterinarian and the Animal Disease Eradication

Division,

A.R.S.

were very control project.

cooperative in carl1Ting out the dairy disease

-

27

-

Dairy

Organizations

Agent Lough cooperated with the Arizona Milk Producers and Arizona

Dairymens

League in an attempted merger of the two organizations.

This effort failed.

The hearing of proposed admendments to the Federal Milk Marketing Order held in

March strained relations of the two organizations to the breaking point.

Agent Lough spent considerable time and effort to keep the two organizations from reverting back to the open antagonism of a few years ago.

The alfalfa buying program mentioned under

"Feeding and Management" provided much of the common interest that kept the two organizations thinking together.

The neutral position of the differences by both

County'

Agents Office, which led to discussion of parties with

Agent Lough, may have helped avert a complete end to cooperative effort.

The American

Dairy

Association

of Arizona the advisory board.

He attended and monthly board meetings.

appointed Agent Lough to serve on participated in the majority of their

The

Maricopa County

Far.m Bureau appointed Agent Lough to serve as an advisory member of the

Dairy Commodity Committee.

This committee has an important influence on research and educational work in the dairy field.

Agent Lough attended and programs of the various participated in meetings, field days and classification

Dairy Cattle Breed Associations during the year.

The office of the Federal Milk

Marketing

Administrator was very cooperative in supplying information to aid in conducting the Extension Dairy Program.

A more positive extension dairy project is being developed through the cooperation and use of the various dairy organizations.

6.

Poultry

and

Turkeys

Feeding

and

Management

Assistant Lonsdale made 403 contacts with cerning various management problems.

valley poultrymen this year con­

In the beginning of the year,

Assistant Lonsdale worked with Mr. Ted

WeIchert,

Extension Agricultural Engineer, on plans for a suitable poultry house for southern Arizona.

Particular emphasis was given to design recommendations regarding roost space so that culling could be done with a minimum of effort.

An automatic waterer with an overflow system, that would lend itself to easy cleaning, was also worked on at this time.

A the construction of hoth floor and cage type complete set of plans for poultry houses are now available at the county office�

A management

This is done practice that is used by most of the county poultrymen is debeaking.

by cutting off a portion of both beaks to ward off any problem with cannibalism and resulting mortality.

Assistant Lonsdale worked with

Mr.

Hornung of Glendale who was having trouble with this problem.

In past years he was debeaking but getting some uneveness in his flock.

Assistant

Lonsdale instructed this poultryman and others in the proper way to debeak chickens.

A news article was published with the aid of Assistant Halvorson, a coPY of which follows.

-

28

-

o.:

Deheaking

A Mixed

Blessing

Unless

Poultryman

Careful

"Taking off more may poultryman has liable to find a correlation some­ cautioned.

More than one gone back over

'his management the line," Matt re­ interfere with the bird's eating." ractlces where marked.

along

WHILE DOING work tf'ying' to figure out graduate others nthrifty, and ible to every illness along; assistant swer of hy

A ens ceor e some remain di mg birds thrive while t

0 may often underdeveldped, generally suscep-

M 4-,t L county agent, be coming process e, dible.

the anright in front his eyes, or

!'Iathe'r the chick-

Th ey.es.

starving b· d s may b e

1 y to death as a result of

Debeaking is poultrymen balism nothing part of the upper, hooked man-

!�is to among generally more is done chickens, amounts than a

, canru­

The to removing tool eon­ tall1mg,' an electrically heated, razor-sharp cauterizes

Unless a.

method used dIsco�rage wit.h

blade that cuts and simultaneously.

b;y something like this is done, chickens may develop the at the

Hamp­ shire, Lonsdale conducted re­ search on this

Three groups of chickens were used in the test.

One severely debeaked, another prop­ erly debeaked, and a normal.

severely de­ beaked birds showed no cannibalism but were lighter on an average

\

University

At 10 subject.

weeks, of New the group was third left signs of

%.-pound than the pU

II t s, tak en

.

beak.

In' contrast, the combless, pal.

e bird

THE UofA se�ts mIxed.

care that

IS owners poultry expert debeaking l?lessm� unless extreme e?,ercIsed.

rum the can

Man�, as-

'be a flock production pohabit of or.

later blood is nibalism feather-picking.

drawn, and can­ develops in

Sooner the flock.

Poultrymen have lost up to birds out of 200 in

'One day

15 be­ other they

The two groups.

Besides, this, showed a

5 per tory disease.

cent death loss from chronic respiraproperly debeaked

'higher same flock, on of proper the right has demanible at all.

It bird on than the practically no upper weighs considerably less healthy bird and probably will

U.�'IV�Cl",n,�'''''

JJ,U."'!:'�I>:)O:;;,LU.� right.

Note the never be a heavy egg producer.

upper part of its rate is also 5 per cent higher in

The death such birds.

tential of their birds cause of this.

showed no indication of cannibalby removism either.

And they appeared as ing too much beak too early.

OTHER ME1HODS of con-

"I don't say that every untrolling cannibalism have proven th'rifty bird in a flock was lm- nowhere neal?

as successful as ro erl debeaked, but you're debeaking.

Flock owners have healthy and as untouched vigorous as group.

however, showed

The signs the latter.: of fea:th'el' tried anti-pick salves, hen spec­ tacles, and additional salt in the picking and "bare ly among pack," those fed especial-I pellet-type feed.

I

mash.

Some even went so far as paint pointed out that to debeaking may stop cannibalism their hen house windows

"It definitely but at the same time must be

I

I

:r----"---""

.......-'-------.......-..-----�-------------------�---�------'

I red, best.

but fornia tice deibeaking remained the done properly or

Since first tried in

Calimore than during the

30's, the prac- Lonsdale said.

has spread used on most until today commercial it is flocks.

er you you gain might from

THE COUNTY extension lose it," offered several other words of

'Debeaklng is generally done to advice about debeaking., chicks while very young, either at the tryman hatchery himself.

This, Lonsdale claims, is' a or mistake.

by the poul-

Day-old chicks have extreme-

"Make sure and that your knife sharp.

After debeaki ample feed is

av-aiur1l

the birds.

Last but not worki� t e

0 least au might try to get by without de­

[Iy soft beaks which can

: be

I

'crushed easily In the debeaking beaking at all."

I-"';""O"-.;;....-------........;;..-

......-

I'

I

I

I

I"

I

operation.

'Re'sulting deformities, may feed.

impair the bird's ability to i

I

"It's best to wait until their l beaks firm up before doing the

{job,"

explained until

Matt.

"At least they're ready to come

Iwait

I

THE IDEAL time 'to debeak is at 16 to 18 weeks, when the birds are being moved into the laying house.

They have few other

I

stresses on them at that time.

If cannibalism begins to crop up earlier, it might pay to try an anti-pick salve.

"A lot will dividual depend on operation, the the in­ strain of birds, type of feed, the housing

I conditions,"

Lonsdale pointed out.

Cannibalism, tends, to crop up 1

j

I when chickens are

�ive crowded or tQO

.warm.

'It><may also develop more uickly when feeding conditions the birds free time, as in the ase of pellets.

Then too, some of the more in­ ensively bred, high-s t run g trains are likely to pick up the abit.

Many poultrymen also make he mistake of uch beak, removing too according to

Lons­ ale.

"Never go' back farther than alf-way between the end of the

" lb e a!

e il

There are many factors that are responsible for cannibalism.

The main ones are: over-crowding, feeding of improper feeder and water space, over-heating, and the pellets.

Assistant Lonsdale sent out a newsletter to county poultrymen as an aid to helping them eliminate this problem.

During the hot weather the birds cool and prime concern of the poultn.�en is keeping their supplying them with plenty of drinking water.

:Host of the cage than operators are using a small nv" type waterer that doesn't allow more one-eighth inch depth.

Assistant Lonsdale worked with Mr. Hurliman who is installing a new system in his laying house that will allow a controlled flow at an inch or more in depth.

Assistant Lonsdale worked with Mr.

Coffman of Paradise Valley who was having difficulty in maintaining good hatchability in eggs from his breeder flock.

Hatchability in

August had conditions and dropped from 85 to

S5 percent.

reviewing work done at the Southwest

Upon

Experimental studying

Station the by

Mr.

that

Heywang, it was felt that the excessively high temperatures of

1120

F.

prevailed for several days in that area was responsible for the condition.

Mr.

Heywang's work indicated a severe loss in hatchability when outside temper­ ature exceeded

1050

F.

AssistaneLonsdale spent a day in the late sumner with Nr.

WeIchert, Extension

Agricultural Engineer visiting the fanns of Hr.

Berard of

Tolleson, and Hr.

Hornung of Glendale and gave design recommendations regarding the ventilation and cooling of their laying houses.

Mr.

Hornung, like most of the other poultrymen in the valley, is having a problem of wet spots in his house resulting from water dripping from the nozzles in the fogging system.

Recommendatio�s were made that would by

Mr. WeIchert that a solenoid valve be open placed above the fagger line when the system shut off and thus release the water and pressure in the line and eliminate the dripping.

Fly control is a very serious worm problem facing the county poultrymen, particularly those who have a for the house

"cageU system.

The manure provides an ideal breeding ground fly.

Assistant Lonsdale has worked with many of the poultrymen in obtaining a suitable control of this insect.

Apart from the fact that it soils many of the eggs and is a potential disease carrier, it is also of economic significance in that it acts as the intermediate host for the tape­ that is found in chickens.

The tapeworm seriously retards growth ann effects the overall productivity of the bird.

Several of the county poultrymen are using the soldier fly larval as a means of control.

This idea is the being fostered by several of the fieldmen representing major feed companies in the area.

Assistant Lonsdale has observed the effectiveness of this measure on many of the farms.

It is really doing a nice job.

Assistant Lonsdale has asked Dr.

J.

N.

Roney,

Extension

Entomologist to find out if a employing the soldier fly as a means of control would not also be health threat.

Disease and Parasite Control

Assistant Lonsdale aided 279 problems.

valley poultrymen with disease and parasite

Coccidiosis was the major problem during the damp weather, despite the use of preventative medicants in the feed by most poultrymen in the valley.

In

January,

Assistant Lonsdale helped in the control of a serious outbre�{ of

-

29

-

OOOPERATIVE

EXTENSION WOPJ{

IN

AGRICULTURE AND HOME

University

of Arizona

College

of

Agriculture

U. S.

and

Department of

Agriculture

Maricopa County Co opera ting

State of Arizona

P.O, Box

751

Phoenix

ECONOt-'lICS

Agricultural

Extension

Service

HOme

Demonstration

Work

County

Agent

Work

July

26,

1957

CANNIBALISM

-

FOWL PLAY

Dear

Poultrymen:

JJust had the

$64.00 question thrown at me, so thought while it· was fresh in my mind I'd jot it down for you,

The question:

What causes one answer cannibali�f There is no but we do know that outbreaks of it can be traced to any one or combination of the following practices: the

'em can

Feeding

Pellets or

Crumbles

-

Herets one of the best ways we know of to start vtfeathers fiying."

Chickens in a sense are like our juveniles

-you gotta keep busy to keep tem out of trouble.

\-Jhen you feed them crumbles or pellets they fill up in a hurry, Then they have time

O� their neighbor to kill, and invariabJy they choose the neighbor.

These two forms of feed have their place but we don't feel it's in the growing of a flock of

pullets.

Broilermen who are interested in getting the i'mostest" in the "leastest" are justified in using them because even though they have to debeak they get faster growth than if they used mash.

There is no evidence yet that shows that we benefit by forcing a bird into early production.

If she was bred to start sometimes result laying at

5 months, by �rying to get her

prolafse

and other

qtarted

at

42

months.

difficulties will crowd

CrowcU·gg them.

-

Chickens like "elbow room" too and seem to become more tense when we

Picking usually results.

To eliminate crowding, we r-eccmaended the

following:

Space per bird

1

8

In day to

8 weeks weeks to time they go into laying pen the or cage laying house

1 sq. ft.

2 sq.

ft.

3 sq.

ft.*

*This figure includes the roast area.

In other words a pen 30' less of whether you have roosts or not, will

8ccomodate 300 x

30', layers, regard

..

Improper

Feeder and Water

Space

-

I'm sure those of you that were in the service remember the mad dash for the "chow line."

We all wanted to get there first.

The old hunger drive affects chickens about the same way.

They don't like to wait around too long to satisfy it, and if theY·art9.aore

"bull headed" than the other they911 fight their way to the front.

Cannibalism is a 'pretty safe bet if you

don�t

give

Vem enough feeder and water space!

To maintain harmony in the hen house we recommend the following:

Feeder

Space

Age

of Bird

1st month

2nd month

3rd month

4th month to

1st

After 1st egg egg

Space per bird

1 linear inch*

2 linesr inches

3 linear inches

4 linear inches

6 linear inches** i�A hopper 4 feet long supplies 96 linear inches, providing they can eat out of both sides of itt iHfWi th automatic feeders you can g et by with between

4

-

5 linear inches.

Water

S'Oace

Age

of Bird o

-

4 weeks

4

-

8 weeks

8

-

16 weeks after 16 weeks

Space per 100 birds

3 one gallon waterers or

40 equivalent linear inches

80 linear inches

144 linear inches

-

Excessive heat in the brooder house is another good way to get the birds picking, not to mention losses due to heat prostration.

Our summer heat doesn9t help us in this respect.

The use of coolers or any oth�r device to of the room below that of the brooders is a good management keep practice the temperature whether or not we're interested in controlling cannibalism.

The Strain of Birds

-

It's true that some strains seem to have a greater tendency to pick than ethers but only when subjected to unfavorable management practices

01 or

How to

Stop

an

Outbreak

-

If you aren't don9t intend to and you have trouble with is the best way we know to control following the recommendations mentioned cannibalism, the practice of debeaking it.

We will have information out to you on debeaking very soon.

to

There is a new control product on the market that is supposed to be the "latest thing" cannibalism.

It is sprayed on the birds and because of its foul taste is supposed to discourage them from picking one another.

As soon as we find out more about it we'll let you know.

2nd

Poultry Meeting

-

Thursday, floor, at

Arizona State

August

15, at

8:00 p,m. in the Agriculture Bldg,

College, Tempe.

Make a note on your calendar now for a stimulating evening discussing some phase of our industry.

If that doesn9t interest you, and you're hungry, come anyway vcause we9ll have plenty of refreshments.

MBL:kl

240 c.

Sincerely yours,

-?����

Matthew

B.

Lonsdale, Assistant

County

Agricultural Agent

intestinal coccidiosis in a flock of eleven-week old

Jordan �nch in pullets on the Paul

Roosevelt.

Assistant Lonsdale had the use of the binocular microscope furnished by Dr.

Shields,

Extension Plant Pathologist, in diagnosing this and other subsequent disease and parasite problems in the county.

The use of this instrument proved most valuable in field diagnostic work.

Assistant Lonsdale diagnosed another outbreak of intestinal coccidiosis in a flock of seven-month old was decreased and pullets on the Boone Ranch.

in Laveen.

mortality fairly high as a

Production result of the disease.

Assistant Lonsdale recommended the use of of sulfaquinoxaline in the treatment the above mentioned cases as well as other outbreaks in the valley.

This drug is considered by

Assistant

Lonsdale to be the best available treatment and control of the disease.

in the

Assistant

Lonsdale was informed that Mr.

Jordan's birds had been fed a prevent­ ative his drug, nicorbazin, in the feed up until five days before the disease flock.

The birds owned hit

by

Mr.

Boone were also fed a coccidiostat at the preventative level during the growing period.

The drug in this case was bifuran.

It is the opinion of Assistant Lonsdale that the use of preventative medi­ cation is

"not a recommended practice for poultrymen raising chickens for egg production.

The theory behind the preventative medication program is that the birds are able to develop immunity to the disease while being pro­ tected idea, against an outbreak.

Field observations have not substaniated this particularly regarding the use of nicorbazin.

Assistant

Lonsdale feels that this drug is so effective against the causative agent of coccidiosis that it inhibits the development of natural immunity.

Assistant Lonsdale flocks diagnosed many cases of various types of lymphamatosis throughout the valley.

The visceral type is the most common found.

in

Some strains of chickens show a greater incidence of the disease than others.

There is no effective treatment for the disease as yet.

Recommendations for the control of the disease have been made by

Assistant

Lonsdale.

Brooding young stock under five months of age as distant as possible, at least 100 feet, from mature chickens has shown some benefit in its control according to research at the U.S.D.A.

Regional Laboratory, East

Lansing, }Iichigan.

Hemorrhagic Syndrome was diagnosed in several flocks by Assistant Lonsdale.

The cause of this disease or syndrome is UIDtnOwn, although there is strong evidence to indicate that it is flock had been treated for what agg�avated by the use of the sulfa drugs, particularly sulfaquinoxaline.

Assistant Lonsdale and Dr. Ned

Rokey diagnosed it in a flock of twelve-week old pullets on the Roth Farm in Roosevelt.

The appeared to be coccidiosis Witll a sulfa drug by the manager of the farm.

Fowl

Mr.

pox is still a problem on poultry farms in the county that fail to vaccinate their an birds.

Assistant outbreak of this disease on the

Lonsdale, with the aid of Dr.

Rokey, diagnosed

Seager

Ranch in Mesa.

A poultT1�An adjoining

Seager's

Ranch had vaccinated his flocks for the disease and the virus was carried over to the non-vaccinated carried by chickens.

Dr.

Rokey felt that it was mosquitos which are quite prevalent in that area.

-

30

-

An outbreak of infectious sinusitis was diagnosed in a flock of turkeys on the Parker Ranch in Laveen as an aid to control any by Assistant Lonsdale.

Terramycin was recommended secondary infections in the flock.

Tapeworms have been found in many of the flocks in the valley, particularly in birds raised in cages.

Assistant Lonsdale diagnosed a severe infestation of this parasite on the Teeter Ranch in

Kyrene.

This fann also has a serious housefly problem which is the intermediate host for the tapeworm.

Assistant

Lonsdale recommended the use of a vermicide containing dibutytin di1aurate which gives fairly good results

Production in this flock was in eliminating appreciably the affected tapeworm by the from the presence of intestine.

the tape­ wonn.

Roundworms have also been found in many of the

Lonsdale.

These worms were found in valley flocks by

Assistant large numbers in chickens owned by

Mr.

George Mahoney.

of Tolleson.

Assistant Lonsdale recommended the use of either piperazine or phenothiazine to eliminate the infestation.

The external county.

parasites, lice, mites and blue bugs are quite prevalent in this

Assistant Lonsdale worked with Mr.

Collett of Phoenix and Mr. Chandler of

Mesa in eliminating a heavy infestation of lice on their cage layers.

A mixture of one part mercuric ointment

'to one part of crude vaseline applied directly below the vent was recommended by

Assistant Lonsdale.

Lice are brought into our flocks the laying house with a primarily by one-inch mesh sparrows wire is and a other wild birds.

good way to

Enclosing control this problem.

Assistant Lonsdale found serious infestations of blue bugs on the

Frye

Ranch in

Phoenix and the

Boone Ranch in

Laveen.

Recommendations for the elimination and control of this

Lonsdale and also a pest were sent out in the form of a newsletter newspaper article with by Assistant the aid of Assistant Halvorson.

Poultry Organization

Assistant Lonsdale worked with J.lrs.

barbecue chicken for

Pace, Home Agent in demonstrating how to large groups at two of her homemaker club meetings.

Assistant

Lonsdale, with the aid of Mr.

Rovey of Glendale, built barbecue racks for the use of groups in the area to stimulate the idea of chicken barbecues.

Assistant Lonsdale attended the monthly meetings of the Central Arizona

Poultry

Association and recently was made a member of an advisory committee to the board of directors.

Assistant Lonsdale organized the first annual picnic the organization has held.

A chicken barbecue was the highlight of the event.

7.

Agronomy

A.

Cotton

The production of cotton is the most important fann enterprise in

Haricopa

County.

It is grown by fifty percent of the fanners in the county.

There

-

31

-

W

e

II Hot

-1

dd

en c

During the day, Note the end of the

'crow-bar at right

I' blue bugs hide in

Fowl ticks, or blue bugs

.are

capable of joint nn the roost in his clii,cken,hollse.

;-

Po�ultry

Pests",A�

�hown here, fowl ticks are eight -legged creatures with c�acl(s and crevice,S,

_�otnin�

out only

�t killing a

"chicken over a

'periodof time.

t rather f1�t, le�thery, oval-shaped bodi�s.

When en­ nigh -to feed on roosting chickens, ThIS nest of ticks was when he discovered by

Boone pried apart a seemingly tight

<.

Th e� pr,o house o_n

....

from which tb.�,

,-

r:��u��e_,

.-1 l� t

0

sl1af1Ow�tpr·-..th�

B oone

's h en gorged

WIth chicken blood, they range In color from used lumber

Wine-red to almost blue blue-black: hence the nickname of bug.

The adults generally are about the size of

Building

Was constructed.

a kitchen match head.'

�..:-�_

..,_�.

1' ..

_::_ _...!

__

Laveen

Poultryman

Battles

Infestation

0,£

BI�e

Bug�

All-metal' rare in the valley, but don't be and rebuild his

1,OOO-bird floor behind it, he surprised if

Dorothy and Ellis unit to route the pests.

f'

Boone way.

The

.,

��lorda��

h:er, t,�ey dU��.�nd

J°'rthg,

;�rkl?gk

.sel�df tthlCkS doi�g this." a commercial egg ranch on

43rd included those around the and Baseline have battling an infestation of blue

"

We found bugs.

It has

'left them half convinced that the best rid of way to pests, is the way in

India.

justfinished the get they do it everywhere, around the roosts,

Boone relates.

The plenty of blue bugs leathery but

.

"OIZed were roosts, worst treated the

Adult blue and legs

bugs can be recog­ by their flat, oval shape and appearance.

scorpions, they instead of six

When' fully fed, possess as an

Like

.

spiders eight insects do.

,In make their next one that

Lave�n that construct couple, country, metal. When blue, serious matter, straw a poultry hen match to it.

houses bugs become a presto!

houses, are

Ellis practically had to take apart good possibility that blue bugs are operators.

of poultrymen

'entirely of

They cram into the structure and touch

.

Ice,

�prayed floor

?lue.

In

E ac h i

[oint, eac had to be

�ests, h c:ac pried open and bar will with anthracene oil. This when and even

�ounryman

litter, applying 10 oroug y.

bugs, don spen pa a

,1 t e

.also

,a

� err 1 e k an d overhead.

per �e�t

It

10 t tic s, or habltu�lly ere.

crevoften to

"Start for may almost name range blue-black, 'hence the of blue be as thin as reports.

looking in paper.

logical places them," he advised. "A crowdwell fed for come adult tick in color from wine-red

'a time, in mighty .handy

bug.

When it hasn't it tends to become brownish-yellow in color and may

Blue fowl of spiders and scorpions.

men the world over

Poultryconsider them the worst external can

The bugs, more properly called ticks, are-small, flat cousins parasite that possibly infest a flock.

pected a

BOONE and his eve:

end

4nyth0n.

In.

;�ey

109 ucmg a had ago.

was

.tl

gomg ih�lr. �eg�orn layhers

tnew

�ife

��71

a

tl

first susbu�s at.

ong ab?ut

�eemed anld y tfl�e, conhigh

'oval-shaped adults; no rate.

According to Matt, pure cars bolineums give the best control.

although undiluted creosote oil may also be used. It should be sprayedInto every possible place blue bugs might hide.

larger than a match-head, hide in cracks, crevices, and other hardto-get-at spots.

during the day.

After dark, when the hen house is quiet, they sally forth to' dine on the blood of the nearest chicken.

� '"

Gradu�lIY, son, a bird for no

��re �al:!-d apparent rea

..

11

,�it.� there began looking, sick.

A few died.

Thinkin� it

�ay be a disease causing .the

trouble

Boone called

To

• treat litter, use

10 per, cent chlordane, at> the rate of two pounds per

'100 square feet.

However, .it

In

is�'_�_,,��'yi���le

"tp tr�at fliIS manner

If the house chicks less than weeks old.

three

An' infestation, of the bloodthirsty little pests almost always causes some

"chronic lag in egg

County mortem

_Ager�t

M�tt

.

showed

'no internal all- blue me?t, so blue, logical answer.

L0;tsdale.

'SO FAR as

Matt is bugs seemed the that bugs are like a disease in prevention is control.

concerned.

preferable to

Equipping poultry houses production., Anemic birds seldom lay regularly, and tJ:!.ey generally

Lonsdale feels are s�sceptible actua�ly to any virus or may have

'come in th� on the

I pest sparrows or with one-inch mesh screen help.

a great deal in

WIll hilopini:5>n.

bacteria that enough blue bugs are present, they which can.

period of time.

comes along.

If possibly on the used lumber froin It WIll

Boone kill a bird over a house. Blue most any bird, built bugs his will feed keep poultry ordinarily on and many of alour out sparrows, are, responsible whlch for bringing the pests into the poultry house.

wild

To make matters worse, a blue species are carriers.

Fowl ticks may also be brought bug infestation is almost sible to clean up once it foothold, as the

Boones will impos-

If you have anemic birds, medigains a ocre production, and an occasional testify, unexplained mortality.

there's a into a house on used crates and even on

This is the clothing of p ople, especially true

'Of

�oung,

I

.

/

"

Fow lTieks

Ellis Boone,

Lav�en poultryman, w i l l

testify

that cleaning up a blue bug in­ festation is no 'easy matter.

Here, he sprays anthracene oil into cracks and crevices.

Before doing so, he had to loosen up all joints with a crow-bar.

To

,route

blue bugs in the litter,

Boone ap­ plied chlordane. Creosote oil may, be t1;se$,l in place o� anthracene oil.

Fowl tickS

..

or blue bugs, are considered the worst external poultry pest in the

Salt

River

J

Valley,

are about 1,000

Egyptian cotton.

Upland cotton growers and about 450 growers of

American­

Cotton and production continued under the national program of acreage allotments price supports.

County growers received an increase in

Upland cotton of

6,989 acres over

1956, and the allotment of doubled

American-EgJ�tian cotton more than going from 7,695 acres in 1956 to

15,504 acres in 1957.

The soil bank program was in effect and

14,771 acres of Upland cotton were planted in the program.

The the following table past five years.

gives the

Upland cotton acreage and yield situation for

Year

Allotted Acres Acres Harvested Yield in

Pounds

Lint Per Acre

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

No control

141,000

121,422

127,209

134,198

244,000

145,760

121,410

123,500

125,000

(estimated)

855

1128

1091

1211

1100

(estiIDate)

Each year the Cotton Branch of the Agricultural �farketing Service �{es a survey on the total cotton varieties of cotton planted in the area.

Their report on the planted for the past five years for

Hariccpa County is as follows:

Percent of Total Cotton

Acreage

Planted

Varietv 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957

Arizona Acala 44

California Acala 4-42

Arizona Acala

33

Arizona Aca1a 28

Arizona

Aca1a P18-C

Arizona Acala 44\VR

Pima 32

Pima S-l

71.8

10.9

3.9

0.6

2.0

0.0

10.5

0.3

87.0

6.5

1.9

0.1

1.0

0.0

0.0

3.5

90.8

3.9

1.4

0.1

0.2

0.0

0.0

3.6

88.0

7.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

4.0

86.0

2.0

4.0

0.1

0.8

0.1

0.0

7.0

The following table gives the situation for the past five

American-Egyptian years.

cotton acreage and yield

Year

Allotted

Acres Acres Harvested

Yield in Pounds

Lint Per Acre

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

No Control

6,450

7,678

7,695

15,504

14,100

6,865

7,900

7,650

15,500

(estimate)

450

788

659

732

700

(estimate)

A one-hundred percent signup of all cotton growers for the Smith-Doxey Cotton

Classing program through the cotton �ins was obtained by Agent

Carter.

This program is sponsored by the

Haricopa

County Fann Bureau.

-

32

-

The members of the Farm Bureau Cotton

Committee who assisted in this program are:

K. B. NcMicken

-

Litchfield

Ivan Cluff

-

Queen Creek

Park

Cliff

Dobson

-

Mesa

Spencer

\'1ilson

-

Buckeye

Percy

Smith

-

Peoria

Three new long during the year staple roller gins were added to the county ginning capacity

--

Queen Creek,

Gilbert ancl Peoria.

One long staple gin was moved from the

Tempe area to

Scottsdale.

TI1is makes a total of 10 roller gins.

Three new short

Theba and staple saw gins were added during the year --

Queen Creek,

Harquahala.

All saw gins in the county are equipped with dryers and lint cleaners.

About half of these 52 gins have lint combers, five are weighing seed and four have standard density presses.

During the year staff members made 582 on all personal contacts with cotton growers phases of cotton production, harvesting and marketing.

Extension meetings on cotton production were attended by

180 interested persons.

Nine meetings were held during the year.

Five other meetings held by cotton commodity groups took place during the year with an attendance of

790.

The staff members mailed out 7,275 circular letters during the year on cotton production and marketing.

A weekly cotton news letter was started in

June and carried on through September.

This letter contained infonnation on insect control, fertilization, irrigation and other cultural practices.

All cotton

Arizona growers

1957.

n received extension circular

179,

"Cotton Insect Control

In

Half the personal contacts made by staff members concerned insect control.

Agent

Carter and

Specialist J.

N.

Roney held five meetings in

July on insect control in cotton

(Buckeye,

Litchfield Park, Laveen, Kyrene and

Ff.igley).

Both beneficial and harmful insects were identified at these were meetings.

Growers instructed on how to check fields for insects.

The "when" and "how" of insect control was discussed and the ��rsh and Sanders Aircraft companies gave a demonstration application

(using

wheat

flour)

on aerial application of dust.

Approximately 6,000 acres of cotton were planted with seed treated with a systemic type gave insecticide

(Thimet)

for early good to excellent control of thrips, insect control.

This material aphids and spider mites.for

4 to

6 weeks.

Some difficulty was observed at highly toxic character planting time, because of its

(see

news

article)

and the problem of cleaning equip­ ment following its use.

Cost of this method of insect control averaged

$4.50

per acre.

Arranged in order of their causin.g

economic losses to

County are the following insects: growers in

Maricopa

1.

2.

Lygus

Cabbage Looper

3.

Leaf Perforator

4.

5.

Thrips

Spider

Mites

6.

Fleahoppers

7.

Salt Marsh Caterpillar

8.

Bollwonn

9.

Annyworm

10.

Aphids

11.

Leaf Roller

12.

Stink

Bugs

13.

Cutworms

14.

Darkling

Beetle

-

33

-

University of Arizona

College of Agriculture

Uo S, and

Department of

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION woruc in

AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

Agriculture

Maricopa County Cooperating

State of Arizona

P.O.

Box

751

Phoenix

Agricultural Extension

Service

Home Demonstration Work

County Agent

Work

October 12,

1957

WEEKLY COTTON REPORT

Growth has all but stopped on the 1957 cotton crop in the Salt River

Valley and adjacent areas, and from the appearance of most fields, lint will average less per acre but grade out better than last year.

Average yield for cotton seems

Maricopa County?s 135,000 acres of Acala-44 short staple destined to be about 1,100 pounds per acre.

This is about

100 pounds less than a yea� ago.

average

The 15,500 acres of extra-long staple Supima cotton will probably yield an of about 700 pounds to the acre.,

In

1956, the avera.ge

was around 735 pounds.

Quality is up somewhat on both long and short staple cotton, according to the

U. S.

Cotton Classing Office.

The ai110lL."1t of rotten, greasy, and trashy cotton has been almost negligible.

While some spotted cotton is coming through, the amount is considerably less· than was seen in 1955.

Insects were responsible for a good share of the reduction in yield, with

Lygus baing the worst pest.

square

High populations of this insect resulted shedding throughout most of the growing season.

in excessive

Leaf perforators also caused considerable injury, especially during August and

September.

They proved extremely difficult to control, with three insecticide appli­ cations generally needed for satisfactory results.

tions of

Bollwor:ms were not as much of a problem as in previous years.

Worst infesta­ seemed to occur in fields where natu�al enemies were wiped out in the course controlling

Lygus and other pests.

Cabbage loopers, ordinarily not too much of a threat to cotton, did extensive damage this year.

Extremely high populations posed a problem throughout the county from often early August unt:!.!

mid-September.

Dela.y

because of weather and other reasons made effective control difficult.

An result of

1955.

estimated 8.5

per cent of diseases, This total is the ponsible crop was lost in the county higher than a year ago, but not quite as as.bad

a as in losses,

Bollrots of various kinds were responsible for nearly half of the disease

Seedling diseases and nematodes took a toll of about 2 per cent each.

Texas root rot losses were down to less than 1 per cent, while only a trace of verticillium wilt was reported.

This is useful to you.

growing season the final cotton report for the

1957 season,

I trust it has proven

Many thanks to those growers who have co-operated throughout the to make this infor.mation

possible.

JRC/tma

275 c,

j/�

/?

Ud::

//James

R.

Carter

County

Agricultural Agent

Lateral

'23 and 'We

Broadway, wears respirator, rubber ing while planting.

gloves,

Coit and full cloth­

Wells, loader, also needs full ly protection from the dead­ insecticide, There is no margin for error when working with

Thimet.

The following table gives the estimated cotton yield losses due to diseases for the past four years as submitted by Agent Carter to

Specialist

Ivan

J.

Shields.

Disease 1954 1955 1956

1957

Verticillium Wilt

Seedling

Diseases

Root Rot

Nematode

Root Knot

Bacterial

Boll Rots

Others

Blight

0.0

2.0

0.5

1.5

0.0

3.0

1.0

0.0

3.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

4.0

0.5

0.5

1.5

0.5

1.5

0.0

2.0

1.0

1.0

3.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

4.0

0.5

TOTAL

8.0% 9.0% 7.0%

10.0%

A cool spring during and following planting caused an increase in seedling diseases

-principally

"sore-shin." The incidence of

Verticillium wilt increased over last year.

In 1956 it was estimated that

15 percent of all cotton fields showed some wilt

-in 1957 35 percent showed wilt.

Generally it was of little economic and early fall.

It is importance and it did not show up until late summer being recommended to some growers that they switch varieties going from A-44 to

A-44WR.

More boll rots appeared this year and the one causing the most economical damage was

"Yellow

Spot"

(Aspergillus

flavus).

This disease is the most serious when it shows up in a sample to be classed and even a small amount will cause the bale to be graded down to light spot.

It seems that a lint comber used this during the ginning process will materially reduce the amount of yellow spot in the lint.

It is estimated that

25 chemical percent of all cotton growers used some type of weed control this season.

The two most commonly used materials were

Monuron and Dalapon.

About

10,000 acres of cotton were given an over-all treatment with Monuron for the control of annual grasses and annual morning glory.

About

20,000 acres of cotton were spot treated with

Dalapon for the control of

Johnson grass and bermuda grass.

Cotton the harvest was delayed this season because of unfavorable weather and delay of itinerant hand pickers moving in from the Texas-Oklahoma areas.

The first area frosts occured November 16

-

18.

Hand harvest started at

$2.50

per hundred and is now started at

$3.00.

·Hand

$1.50

for first snapping started at

$2.00.

Machine picking pick and

$2.00

for second pick.

The following table indicates in percentages the ways by which cotton is harvested in the area

(estimated).

Method 1953 1954 1955 1956

1957

Hand Picking

Hand

Snapping

Machine Picking

50

10

40

55

10

35

55

15

30

65

10

25

55

15

30

During the year

Agent

Carter of the

Experiment

Station in cooperated setting up with Dr.

three

Curt cotton

Tucker and fertilizer

James tests.

Abbott

Two of these tests were-on rates and dates of application of fertilizers and the other was on source of fertilizers.

The Wootton test at

Liberty failed and

-

34

-

first picking data has been taken on the other two tests.

Agent

Carter also cooperated with Drs.

Briggs and

Fisher of the

Experiment

Station on a survey of cotton collected qualities by areas.

Eight gins were selected

--

Gila Bend, Arlington,

Buckeye, Marinette,

Laveen, Mesa,

Ocatillo and Queen Creek.

A daily by the ginner and this sample is sample is run for all its fiber characteristics.

B.

Alfalfa

Staff members made 227 production personal contacts with alfalfa growers concerning their problems and contacted 51 in 3 meetings.

Also during the year

Agent

Carter discussed alfalfa

Arizona State production in the area with the forage class at the

College and with the forage class from the University of

Arizona.

The most of

pressing

problem that growers face is insect control and the majority personal contacts were on this practice.

Four insects caused the most economic damage during the year: and cutworm.

Other insects spotted causing alfalfa economic aphid, damage in pea some aphid, fields armywo�, were

Lvgus)

three-cornered alfalfa hopper, and mites.

The pea aphid caused most of its damage during February,

March and April.

The spotted alfalfa apliIid had three build-ups during the year

spring, summer and fall.

The cut worms and armyworms were

Insect control is difficult in forage bad during July, August and alfalfa as only a

September.

limited number of insecticides are registered for use.

At the and beginning of the year water supply for the Salt River

Project was limited mainlY because of this alfalfa acreage declined.

Also during the year unfavorable weather in the spring and fall caused a limited supply of quality hay.

Hay prices were good and

Yuma,

Parker and

Blythe areas.

substantial amounts were brought in from the

During the early spring, Agent

Carter and

Specialist fields with stem nematode.

These were in the

Shields found several

Mesa, Gilbert, Chandler and

Kyrene areas.

stand.

Usually only one cutting is affected, along with some loss of

Three in one national machinery manufacturers brought in windrowers

(cut

and winrlrow operation) for trial this year.

They seemed to work satisfactorily.

There

,are some strong indications that-a small revolution is place in harvesting alfalfa forage

-up from windrow and

"bricket"'forage field and elevate and store as bulk going to take

(1)

cut and windrow direct;

(2)

pick

(put in large

pellet)

and

(3)

move from grain is handled.

Seed yields were way off this year and the average seed yield is estimated at

100 pounds per acre.

�(enty growers with

3,421 acres entered the Seed

Certification program of the Arizona

Crop Improvement Association.

Five acres of mately

800

Moapa alfalfa were planted in the county in April and approxi­ pounds of seed was made available for seed increase.

Six growers planted about 180

�cres in

Maricopa County this fall.

The normal this year planting of alfalfa each year is

20,000

-

25,000 acres.

However, it is estimated that

35,000

-

40,000 acres of alfalfa were planted.

The most common variety being planted is

African.

-

35

-

C.

Small Grains

Staff m.em.bers assisted

313 smal.I

grain growers with their produc td on problems.

These problems generally were on varieties, rates and dates of planting, fertilizer use, irrigation and insect control.

Aphids were bad in some fields, especially during early spring.

Last year it was observed that an aphid population builds up for approximately 2 weeks and then is followed with a build up of beneficial insects.

It is difficult to judge when controls are necessary.

A large portion of the barley acreage

(about 10%)

had considerable trouble with lodging.

The variety Arivat has a fairly weak stem.

Harlan, a new variety being tested by,the experiment station, shows some resistance to lodging.

Agent

Carter an cooperated with one of the age chemical companies in setting up experiment with their material to see how barley responded to their use.

There was no difference in the source of both seemed, however, that a nitrogen and phosphorus.

It split application of nitrogen is a preferred method of fertilizing.

With the increase in acreage of wheat in the county over the and the estimated acreage of

50,000 acres in past two years

1958, it is expected that

��ricopa County will have acreage controls on wheat.

Excellent yields were obtained with all three small grains.

Barley

-

3000

Wheat

-

2800

Oats

-

2500 pounds plus per acre pounds per acre pounds per acre

Barley sold at harvest at

$2.25

-

$2.35

per hundred; wheat at

$3.35

-

$3.50

and oats at

$4.00

-

$4.25.

D.

Grain

Sorghum

Staff members worked with 179 growers in their

The sorghum production problems.

majority of these calls concerned insect control, fertilizer use, irrigation, varieties and harvesting.

Several of the sorghum hybrids were available to growers and generally good results were obtained yield-wise.

It is estimated by experiment station results that hybrids can increase yields by 15 to

20 percent.

One report by a grower was per checked acre was by Agent Carter and on a

10.2

acre field a yield of 8,240 obtained.

pounds

Insects were once again a

problem.

to sorghum growers

,

In order of their importance by the damage they did this year are the following insects: south­ western corn corn stalk stalk borer, aphids

(particularly rusty plum), armyworms, lesser borer, and corn earworm_

Control is a problem as only

3 insecti­ cides are registered for use on grain or forage sorghum.

An nirrometer" and six stakes were placed in a sorghum field by Agent Carter and Specialist Halderman.

This means of determining soil moisture was fairly accurate but it could not be used to anticipate a need for irrigation.

-

36

-

Because not of the fairly cool late spring the early planted forage sorghum did make size.

This is particularly true of hegari.

Price received for and went down to silage started at

$4.50

per ton standing in the field

$3.00.

Grain sold at

$2.35

per hundred during August and the fall harvest was most selling below support price

($2.05).

grain being harvested now is going into the loan.

Because of this,

The was sorghum certification program of the Arizona entered by

24 growers with 6,707 acres.

Crop lmprovement

Association

E.

Pasture

Staff members assisted 85 growers in

More establishing their pasture programs.

than half of these growers have small acreage

(10

acres or

less).

They are interested in a program that requires a minimum of equipment and as close to

100 percent availability of pasture as possible.

In most cases it is suggested that these small owners use bermuda as a summerpasture and Narkton.

oats as a winter pasture.

For larger growers a program of

Markton oats and sudan grass is suggested.

It is for estimated that 35 grain is also percent to

40 percent of the barley that is harvested pastured once.

About 85 percent to

90 percent of the alfalfa fields are also pastured or cut green at least once, generall� during the winter months.

F.

Corn

Staff members had 44 calls on corn that

5,000

-

6,000 acres were production in the county.

It is estimated planted this year.

Almost all the corn was cut were for silage.

Some cattle feeders and some dairymen prefer corn silage and willing to pay a premium for it.

One contact made before planting called for 200 acres of corn for per ton silage and all that would be produced went at

$6.50

standing in the field.

G.

Castor Beans

Castor bean. acreage were increased over last year.

It is estimated that

3,500 acres planted in

Maricopa County.

Harvesting is now in progress and the new equipment is working out fairly well.

Staff members had

22 requests for information on castor bean production.

H.

}1illet

Staff.members received 15 year.

Eleven growers with requests for infor.mation

on starr millet during the

2,196 acres entered the pure seed program of the

Arizona

Crop Improvement

Association in the county.

Most growers are selling at 7.5

cents per pound

•.

experiencing difficulty at harvest time.

The stalk stays quite green though the seeds are dry.

Yields are varying from 1,500 to 2,200 pounds clean seed per acre and it is

8.

Irrigation

No separate project was carried under this heading.

Growers of all crops, including home plantings of ornamentals, were given advice on proper methods of irrigation as one phase of crop production.

Increased use of land leveling and cement lined ditches has greatly increased efficiency of irrigation water.

This practice has been stressed at all tim.es

by staff members.

-

37

-

9.

Engineering

No separate project has been carried under this heading.

Specialist

WeIchert has been especially helpful in working up plans, in cooperation with staff members, of poultry houses for southern Arizona and dairy barns and lot layout suitable for use in this area.

10.

Entomologv

See 3A.

See,

3B.

See 3C.

See 3E.

See 3F.

See

See

See

SA.

6.

7A.

See 7B.

See

See

7C.

7D.

Citrus

-thrips, cottony cushion scale, flat mite, soft bro\� scale, leafhoppers, vedalia, luteolus wasp.

Vegetables

-cabbage loopers, armyworms, salt marsh caterpillars, bollwonns, tuber moth.

Deciduous fruit

-flat headed borer, dried fruit beetle, June beetle, spider mites, rusty plum aphid, grasshoppers.

'Nuts

-aphids.

Ornamentals

-flat headed pearl scale, bermuda weevil, sod l<lebworm, leafhoppers, borer, tent caterpillar, elm leaf beetle, spiner mites, thrips, sowbugs, cottony cushion scale, bark beetle, ants, tennites, crickets, cicadas, snails, long-horned borers.

Dairy

-flies, worms.

Poultry

--

Cotton

-mosquitoes, lice, mites, blue bugs, flies, soldier fly.

Lygus, cabbage looper, leaf perforator, thrips, spider mites, fleahoppers, salt marsh caterpillar, bollworms, armyworms, aphids, leafroller, stink bugs, cutworms,

�arkling beetle.

Alfalfa

-spotted alfalfa aphid, pea

Lygus, three-cornered alfalfa hopper, aphid, spider annyworms, mites.

cutworms,

Small Grains

--

Grain aphids

Sorghum

-southwestern corn stalk borer, lesser corn stalk borer, corn earworm, aphids.

13.

Agricultural

F.JConomics

The production cost study of egg production through the use of record books' by the poult�en was discontinued due to too few producers participating.

A revised program is planned for the cnming year.

14.

Plant

Pathology

See 3A.

See 3B.

See 3C.

See

See

3E.

3F.

See 7A.

See 7B.

Citrus

-scaly bark,

Rio Grande gummosis, foot rot gummosis, physiological gummosis, alternaria, false melanuse, stubborn disease, nematodes.

Vegetables crown blight, downy mi.Ldew, late blight, sclerotinia, nematodes, lettuce mosaic, rib discoloration, early blight, black heart.

Deciduous fruit

-crown gall, Texas root rot, nematodes, verticillium wilt.

Nuts

-rosette.

Ornamentals

-southern blight, brown patch, crown gall, summer blight, fairy ring, slime mold, Texas root rot, nematodes, wet wo�d of ash, verticillium wilt, powdery mildew, crown rot of palms, pythium rot, damping off, slime flux.

Cotton

-bacterial verticillium wilt, blight, boll rot.

seedling diseases, root rot, nematodes,

Alfalfa

-stem nematodes.

-

38

-

VI.

Outlook and Recommendations

Feeder cattle for prices will continue high as cheap feed in storage plus dewand restocking ranges continue.

This will result in a reduced margin for the 1958 which feeding season unless fat cattle price increases

��ceed expectations they usually do when prices first turn upward in the price cycle.

The ��tension program should continue to encourage livestock suitable crop farms.

production on

The Animal Science Department should continue their investigations of utilizing by-products of other agricultural enterprises as cattle feed.

Cattle numbers are expected to be down slightly, sheep numbers will remain about static.

Swine numbers and activity will Lnc rease

,

The Animal Science

Department should give some consideration to starting swine research work.

}li.lk

prices are expected to be slightly lower due to gradual increase of surplus milk.

Feed costs will remain steady.

Labor and materials ccs ts will continue to creep upward.

Specialization and increased herd size will continue.

The efficient and well managed dairy will continue to be profitable.

Nany marginal dairymen will go under in the coming year.

The organization and operation of the D.H.I.A.

needs serious consideration.

Use of electronically computed in the near future.

production records also should be resolved

Dairy cattle feeding and fly control are two problem areas that need attention.

Poultry raising for egg those production has proven a profitable enterprise for producers who have devoted full time to this work.

This type of farming will doubtless continue to increase during the coming year.

Marketing problems will arise and some study should be made as to methods leading to a solution to the problem.

A publication on commercial egg production is badly needed.

Production cost figures would be of great use to newcomers to the area and old producers alike.

Turkey and production competition will likely from other remain static.

states.

This is due to marketing restrictions

Citrus acreage will remain ,about the same during the year.

New plantings will about off set old groves going out of commercial production due to such areas being turned to residential property.

Production will be about the same as growers are not taking better care of their groves by proper fertilization, insect control and frost protection.

Harvesting may develop into a major problem in the near future.

Studies in control of cottony cushion and soft brown scales should be started.

Production cost in figures would also be helpful to the average citrus grower

developing

better management practices.

Vegetable acreage will likely remain about the same acreage although much of the will be shifted to areas outside the Salt River

Valley.

These areas are

Aguila, Tonopah and Gila

Bend.

More definite information on methods of

-

39

-

overcoming crown blight of cantaloupes is needed.

Some work on production of vegetables in greenhouses should be under way.

This form of commercial production shows great

possibilities

during the winter months.

Weed and nematode control studies should be stepped up as these two problems are major ones for the commercial grower.

Life history and control studies on all economic insects should be increased.

The effect of insecticides on beneficial insects should also be made known in order that injurious insects may be controlled with least effect on beneficial ones.

Better methods of application of insecticides would also be helpful.

Cotton acreage alloted acreage will remain about the same as last in 1959 will year.

The proposed cut likely cause growers to plant their entire allotmen.t

this year.

in

Grain sorghum will remain our varieties of principal forage crop.

However, unless new hybrids are introduced the acreage of this crop for grain will probably decline.

Some means of control for the southwestern corn stalk borer and the lesser corn stalk borer is badly needed.

Corn, soybeans and castor beans will be grown in limited acreages until such time as better harvesting methods are developed.

If these crops can be successfully harvested economically they should fit well into the, economy of the county as cash crops.

-

40

-

J. H.

SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES

of

1957

O'DELL, COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGE..ijT

The

County

Extension Service program has been under the direction of the County Agricultural Agent for the past year.

In spite of changes in personnel a full program of crop and livestock production, rural homemaking and

4-H

Club activity has been carried on successfully.

The staff responsible for the several phases of the work has consisted of from four to seven

Assistant

County

Agents, one home Agent, two

Assistant Home

Agents, two Specialists who devoted part-time service in the county, and an office staff of five.

A well-rounded information program has contributed to the effectiveness of the overall program.

Newspaper articles featuring timely information have appeared in daily a�d weekly papers throughout the county.

Demonstrations, field days at the three

University of Arizona

Agricultural Experiment Stations, meetings, news letters, circular letters, bulletins, circulars and reports, together with radio and a few television programs- have kept farmers and homeowners informed of improved and new methods.

'lhese means of communication were used in addition to farm visits, phone and office calls.

to and by farmers and homeowners.

Cooperative test plots with farmers, heads of several departments of the

University of Arizona

College of

Agriculture and the U.S.

Department of

Agricul ture have been important parts of the program.

Changes in personnel did cause a curtailment of activity in the field of horticulture but at the writing of this report a full staff is actively engaged in the overall program.

-

41

-

SIDfi1ARY OF

ACTIVITIES

of

JAMES R.

CARTER,

1957

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL

AGENT

Agent

Carter was responsible for the field crops projects in Maricopa

County from December

1,

1956 through

November 30,

1957.

Cotton is still the major crop of the area with about half the commercial farms growing cotton.

There was some increase in Upland cotton acreage allotment, but those acres going into soil bank make the acreage about the same.

Long staple cotton acreage allotment was doubled.

More acreage was planted to grain crops, particularly to wheat and sorghum.

More sorghum acreage was cut for silage and less acreage of alfalfa was available for hay.

The water supply continues to be critical with the water table cropping slightly in all areas

The water this year, but over the years averaging about ten feet per year.

supply of the main project in the county is only fair.

Agent

Carter gave assistance to farmers in selecting crops to grow; selecting adapted varieties; seed bed preparation; planting practices; cultural practices; selection of a good fertilizer and fertilizer application program; the identification of harmful and beneficial insects, and establishing an insect control program; the identification and control of crop diseases; the best use of available irrigation water; harvesting methods and marketing practices; and in planning for a balance in their whole farming operation.

Farmers were encouraged to treat their operations as a business as well as a way of life, and to plan for long-term problems as well as solving immediate cropping problems.

The annual revision of the Maricopa County cropping guide was completed by Agent Carter.

Approximately

1000 copies of this publication were distributed to farmers and interested persons during 1957.

Agent

Carter cooperated where possible in all programs of

Federal and

State agencies and with all local, state, and national organizations.

-

42

-

BOYCE R.

SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES

-

1957 of

FOERMAN,

ASSISTANT COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT

Assistant

Agent

Foerman started work in

Maricopa County on

September

16, 1957.

Transfering from the Purdue Extension

Service,

Lake

County, Indiana, this staff member's primary concern during the latter part of 1957 was to familiarize himself with Arizona agriculture and especially as it exists in

Maricopa County.

This was accomplished by working very closely with all other staff members in the Maricopa County Extension Office and reading as much local agricultural information as possible.

Since this staff member's background has been in the fields of agronomy and horticulture, these categories have received more attention than others, however, it has been the desire and intention of this Agent to become as familiar with all phases of agricultural extension work as is feasible and as quickly as possible.

Work done by this staff member during the last four months of

1957

(in

order of time

spent)

were cotton, alfalfa, grain sorghums, vegetables, citrus fruits, and livestock, and problems relating to the production, harvesting and marketing of these items.

When discussing farming operations with local producers, this staff member encouraged investigation of available alternatives to solving production problems and the management farming operations on a business-like basis to ease the economic squeeze that agriculture is experiencing.

Assistant

Agent

Foerman attended the

County

Agents' Conference held at the Cotton Research

Center, September 19 and

20, 1957.

This conference dealt with the production and handling of alfalfa in Arizona.

This type of meeting is extremely helpful to new and inexperienced agents and of considerable value to all extension workers.

This staff member also attended the

Cotton Field Day on

October

4, 1957,

held at the Cotton Research Center

Farm,

Tempe, and the crops field day on

October

11, held at the Mesa

Experimental

-

43

-

Station, Mesa, which were equally beneficial from an information stand point.

Field Days are very helpful in anticipating future agricultural developments.

�ther informative meetings were attended by this

Agent not mentioned in this report.

Whenever feasible,

Assistant

Agent

Foerman cooperated with other federal and state agencies, as well as other organizations on a local, state and national level.

Assistant Foerman has enjoyed working in

Maricopa County, Arizona, since arriving in

September

1951.

It is this staff member's sincere desire to become of increasing value to local agriculture as his service progresses.

-

44

-

roBERT

L.

SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES

-

1957 of

HALVORSON, ASSISTANT COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT

From December 1, 1956 through November

30,

1957, Assistant

Agent

Halvorson was responsible for the extension information program in

Maricopa

County, especially insofar as mass communication is concerned.

With respect to this,

Halvorson's activities during the l2-month period can be divided roughly into four categories.

TI1ey include

(1)

gathering, preparing, and distributing extension information and news;

(2)

photography;

(3)

expanding and improving the over-all county extension information program; and

(4)

miscellaneous activities.

Most of Assistant

Halvorson's time and energy was devoted to gathering, preparing, and distributing information.

During the year, he produced some

350 written articles, fou� l5-minute radio farm shows, numerous special radio spot announcements, and a half-hour television show.

In all cases,

Assistant Halvorson took special pains to put the material in a form suited to the media for which it was intended.

\vritten articles conformed to the standards of good English and journalism, with

Associated Press style used except where something to the contrary was demanded.

For his material,

Halvorson relied on other members of the staff,

University of Arizona

Experiment

Station personnel; various local, state and federal agencies concerned with agriculture, local, state and federal regulatory organizations, local, state, and national farm groups, technical publications, and farmers, homemakers, and 4-H club members and leaders.

In distributing the material, Halvorson maintained close contact with four daily newspapers, 15 weeklies, 10 radio stations, 4 television stations,

11 national publications, and I regional fann magazine.

-

45

-

Photography, his second most important activity, entailed the use of a

4 x

5 Crown

Graphic press camera.

During the year,

Halvorson took some

330 photos, most of which accompanied stories and articles.

However,

��ny were taken at the request of state extension specialists, experiment station personnel, and staff members for use in reports, bulletins, and circulars.

In an effort to expand and improve the over-all information program,

Halvorson offered advice and assistance to other staff members on the matter of news writing, art-work and poster construction, and the development of newsletters.

He also ghost-wrote numerOus features, columns, and stories for them, and arranged for news coverage of demonstrations, meetings, and functions.

Miscellaneous activities during the year included participation on the program at the annual extension service conference in December and assisting extension information specialist Joe

McClelland with a home agents' information workshop in

January.

Halvorson arranged television, radio, and news coverage for state

4-H

Roundup in Tucson and the various

University

Experiment

Station field days held in the county during the year.

He also supplied county agents throughout the state with a weekly livestock market review.

Technical assistance with tape recorders, public address systems, movie projectors, slide projectors, and photography was also given to staff members by Assistant Halvorson.

-

46

-

DANIEL G.

SUMMARY OF

HESS,

ACTIVITIES

of

1957

ASSISTANT COUNTY AGRICULTURAL

AGENT

Following his arrival on

June

18,

Assistant

Hess was primarily responsible for conducting an

Extension program in the field of horticulture relating to citrus, deciduous fruit, dates, nuts, turf, and ornamentals.

A general program was followed to bring information to growers and hame owners by meetings, demonstrations, office conferences, letters, phone, circular letters, farm calls, home calls, timely radio and television programs, and newspaper articles.

During the year Assistant Hess participated in 13 radio shows, one television show, and made approximately 1250 personal contacts by phone, office conference, letters, home calls, and farm calls.

Demonstrations and slide talks were held with an attendance of approximately

200 persons on the following subjects: three gopher control, one citrus budding, one home citrus culture, one turf varities, one seed bed preparation, and one insect control.

Assistant Hess also helped with the Citrus

Field

Day and the Turf

Grass Conference.

Seven circular cards and letters were sent out,

2 to the citrus growers and

5 to the nurserymen.

The citrus letters, with a total of approxi­ mately

1200 sent out, concerned the program for the Citrus Field

Day and the u.s. Weather Bureau frost warning service.

The five nurserymen's letters, with approximately

450 mailed, concerned new publications, crown gall, Texas root rot, common rose insects,

Valencia split, electric wind burn, and other timely information of interest to the nurserymen.

-

47

-

l:ATTHEN

B.

S,(]l�,�"ZY 0:2 .A.CTIVITIES

-

1957 of

LONSDALE,

ASSIST.A1JT COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT

Poultry

Assistant Lonsdale worked with poultrymen in the county engaged in the production of eees, fryers, and turkeys, and assisted them in whatever problems or projects they had regardine their over-all program of management, and disease and parasite prevention and control.

The major management problems concerning the county poultrymen were: adequate feeding and water space, the cooling of the laying house during hot

weather,

the control of cannibalism, and the control of houseflies.

Assistant

Lonsdale, with the cooperation of the state Extension specialists and the U.S.D.A.

Southwest

Experiment Station, provided poultrymen with information regarding these problems.

Assistant Lonsdale sent out, in the form of newsletters or articles in the local newspapers, with the aid of Assistant Halvorson, information concerning the abovementioned management problems.

Assistant Lonsdale aided county poultrymen in their disease prevention and control program, by making recommendations regardinG a good vaccination program and by offerina diagnostic assistance.

Upon the completion of the Animal Pathology Laboratory at the resa

Experiment

Station,

Assistant Lonsdale cooperated with Dr.

N.

Rokey in disease diagno stic work.

The major disease and parasite problems were: coccidiosis, leucosis, hemorrhagic syndrome, fowl pox, r oundworms

, tapeworms, lice, mites, and blue bugs.

Assistant Lonsdale, with the a.id of

Assistant

Halvorson, made available in the form of newsletters and articles in the local newspapers, speoific information regarding the prevention and control of the above-mentioned diseases and parasites.

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Or�anizations

Assistant Lonsdale attended the monthly meetings of the

Central

Arizona Poultry

Association.

Suggestions were presented to the associa­ tion by

Assistant Lonsdale on possible ways to stimulate the consumption of their products on the local market.

�ith the cooperation of Emil

Rovey, of Glendale, barbecue racks were built and are now available, free, to any group in the county wishing to hold such an event.

Assistant Lonsdale attended, in an advisory capacity, the nonthly meetings of the Chinchilla Growers Association.

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SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES

of

OTIS G.

LOUGH,

1957

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT

Agent Lough is responsible for the Livestock and

Dairy Agricultural

Extension program in

Maricopa County.

LIVESTOCK:

Proper use of synthetic hormones in cattle fattening was stressed.

Demonstration feeding tests were conducted to show results and methods of implanting hormones and feeding antibiotics.

A very successful meeting also stressed proper use of hormone implants.

Practical application of recent experiments conducted by the

University of Arizona was discussed at this meeting.

A summary was mailed to the 90 county cattle-feeders and other interested persons.

Livestock organizations were assisted with several activities and cooperated very well with Extension activities.

A successful swine meeting was held as a start in giving more emphasis to this phase of the livestock project.

Some 311 individual contacts were made by phone, office or field calls.

DAIRY:

Roughage buying and harvesting practices were emphasized by Agent

Lough.

Much effort was devoted to having dairy plans and layouts developed.

Dairymen's attention was focused on the problem of heifer replacements.

Proper milking practices were stressed at two Extension meetings.

Dairy enterprise possibilities were discussed with many interested persons.

A management survey of DRIA herds was made to help guide the Extension dairy project.

Over

50% of the

400 county dairy herds were enrolled in the DRIA program.

Use of electronic computing machines in the DHIA program was studied.

Brucellosis certification was stressed as was fly control.

The many dairy organizations were given assistance in various ways.

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Agent Lough devoted approximately

50% of his time to the dairy project.

There were

780 individual phone, office and field calls made.

Assistant

Agent

Halvorson played a vital part in making the dairy and livestock projects effective.

Agents

OIDel1 and Carter were valuable consultants.

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LO'�L F.

SUNHARY OF

ACTIVITIES

-

1957 of

TRUE,

ASSISTANT COUNTY

AGRICULTURAL

AGENT

Assistant Co�ty

Agricultural Agent

True was responsible for the extension program in small fruit culture and vegetable production during the period July 1,

1957 to

November 30,

1957.

The extension program in grapes has been centered mainly on investi­ gations of some minor element deficiency symptoms.

Several trips were made to vineyards with other extension and university personnel to locate vines showing these symptoms.

Copies of the new

University of Arizona bulletin,

"Growing Grapes in

Arizona" was distributed to grape growers and others interested in grape culture.

Extension information was presented to vegetable growers by newsletters, weekly vegetable notes column and personal contacts.

This information covered such topics as insect identification and control, disease identification and control, weed control and fertilization practices.

Assistant

Agent True worked with U.S.D.A. workers in establishing field plot experiments, of a promising new herbicide, in fall lettuce and with

Specialist Shields in establishing nematode control plots in a tomato grower's field.

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THE ANNUAL NARRATIVE

REPORT for

Assistant

Robert E.

Grounds

County Agricultural Agent from

July 1, 1957 to

September

30, 1957

Introduction:

The first week upon introduction.

After being accepted by the this, I was

University sent to the

Maricopa was one

County of orientation and

Office in Phoenix where

I saw and worked with the everyday problems of the

Extension Service.

Vegetables:

Vegetable tempo reached low in

August after the end of melon and grape harvest in

J� and the beginning of the lettuce planting in

August and

Septa�ber.

Cantaloupes are a decreasing commodity in the Salt

River Valle,r as of now.

The price held good all summer due to shortage and even this only brought comment from former growers due, of course, to their fear of crown blight disease.

New areas do not· seem to be showing this effect, so interest could be stimulated in this direction and might bring back a much needed crop.

Watermelons were an unexpected but pleasant surprise for growers by hitting a strong high market which held till the last week of harvest.

The main problem is a breakdown of the melon rind in shipment which is a browning of the rind and effects the appearance

-only.

Dr. Shields pointed out this is mostly caused by a virus disease called

"watermelon pimples" which is spread mechanically by the differential grasshopper.

Grapes were another good crop this year by hitting and holding a high market which held up through the entire harvest.

This was due to good grapes, and quality, lateness of the California earliness of the crop here.

Disease and other troubles are very minor in most well managed vine.rards.

If poor management practices exist, the effect is ve� evident in the vineyard.

This writer noted that zinc deficiency is becoming prevalent in some areas.

Lettuce, the big one of the vegetables in the Salt River

Valley, started out with indications of a large planting and really followed through with atleast

l6�OOO

acres now planted.

This fall has seen more early lettuce planted

'With the addition of 'YTillcox and a than ever before in Arizona.

larger acreage at

Aguila, harvest will be from mid-September on

The price summer of till late and reaching a high about the lOth lettuce held exceptionally

August.

The market high

near.,the

weakened to

of$November

�1.75

4 to per in the Phoenix area.

carton of

$2.50

and

24' s mark all then a slow rise to

$3

near the last of

September.

Included with this spreading the harvest out is the fact that other areas

Hereford Texas Area also to the 1st of increased and w�ll

November, so even normally early planting like New increase idea of

Mexico and the harvest from the

1st of though these are not areas of

Octobe:

large consequence the�r effect will be felt.

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Loopers were the main insects to contend with in lettuce and did their main damage to early lettuce near cotton-or alfalfa fields.

The control recommendations as put forth

,� by Dr.

Roney will handle any of the problems if timed and applied correctly.

This problem of timing and applying the correct insecticide was noted by the

1nriter as the weak now point in management at this stage of early lettuce development.

Also to mention the importance of correct variety like

#659 is another necessar,y item in early growing of lettuce.

Aguila had hard luck with too much rain early in the season but is now in good shape and has appearances of having an excellent crop.

Willcox is harvesting heads of lettuce a little on the large side, but of good quality_

There is an interest among seed men and growers on

Mosiac

Free, or

�l of index tested seed.

This compares with normal seed which tests 4% or

1% less.

or less

The decrease in melons has left a gap which a few growers are tr,ying to fill by increasing their plantings of mixed vegetables.

These include cabbage, endive, green bunching onions, has been in green broccoli, carrots, beets and chard.

Of these the main increase bunching onions which have been increased 100% eve� year for the past three years and as yet haven't oversupplied the market.

The is main trouble with bunching onions is cont.ro'Ll.Lng

the weeds in early growth.

This being done by oil just prior to emergence and recommendation of 5% solution of sulfuric acid and water in a spray for post-emergence by Dr.

Pew of the

Experdmerrt

Station.

ANNUAL NARRATIVE REPORT for

Ray L.

County

Miln�, Assistant

Agricultural Agent

III.

HORTICULTURE

B.

Vegetables

The vegetable harvest season continued to be active in December and was generally later than in previous years.

New varieties ideal harvest season caused the season to be extended of lettuce and beyond the normal an period.

Prices were much lower in December than in October or

November; however, the growers were receiving 40 to

50 cents per carton above growing and harvesting costs.

Over 6000 cars of fall lettuce had been shipped by

December 31 and this total was less than the total shipped in 1955.

and

The sweet potato market improved during

December with increased demand higher prices.

Other vegetables marketed during the month were rapino, cabbage, turnips, carrots, endive and broccoli.

Assistant Milne and Nematologist Reynolds were called to the

Glendale district to check a carrot field for nematode infestation.

The carrots were forked and split as well as having the growth restricted approximately three inches under the soil surface.

The carrots were taken to the checked for infestation.

Dr.

laboratory and

Reynolds reported no nematodes present.

first

One-half of the same field was planted to carrots

30 days after the planting with no apparent ill effects.

In talking with the operator it was decided the injury was the result of a cultural practice which was not properly timed.

It is possible it resulted from spiking or unscheduled irrigations.

D.

Small Frui t of

Grape pruning was started early in December in all vineyards with

90% the total acreage pruned at the end of the month.

The vines had matured completely because of early frost conditions in the valley.

Strawberry plantings were developing and showing increased growth during

December.

One grower used a sprinkler irrigation system to reduce the salt content of the from soil.

The sprinkler system irrigation reduced the salt

26,000 p.p.m.

to

860 p.p.m.

The grower was very pleased with the results and plans to use the sprinkler system in his annual growing program in the future.

Assistant Milne and

Specialist Tate checked the three strawberry variety plots in the Glendale area.

Several varieties had been injured by salt while three or four varieties looked very promising.

Mr. Tate will check the varieties for quality and yield with each grower cooperator.

Assistant Milne developed a planting plan for two growers in the

Harquahala Valley and

Chandler

Heights districts.

The growers also asked

for a check sheet of cultural

The Chandler practices and approximate costs of operations.

Heights field had been leveled for a north and south row system of planting.

A north and south row system leaves the grapes exposed to afternoon sun and considerable sun scald results.

This grower was advised to check with a grower in Deer

Valley who had planted on a north and south row system.

The Arizona

Grape

Growers Association held their annual meeting in conjunction with the Extension Service.

Dr. Shields gave a report on grape virus diseases and recommendations for regulation and quarantine laws for grape diseases.

attend the

Assistant Milne asked Dr.

meeting.

A

Vanvig and

Specialist Campbell to plan was developed to establish a program for a grape cost and study in 1957, All growers agreed to cooperate in developing the study provide the survey team with the required data.

Mr.

Tate was designated as the project leader to coordinate the efforts between the University of

Arizona and the grape growers.

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