EFFECT OF CLAYS AND SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE

EFFECT OF CLAYS AND SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE
EFFECT OF CLAYS AND SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE
INFILTRATION OF WATER IN SANDY SOILS
by
Jehangir K. Khattak
A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the Degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE
In the Graduate College
THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
1969
STATEMENT BY AUTHOR
This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is
deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers
under rules of the Library.
Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable without special
permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made.
Requests for peLuhission for extended quotation from or reproduction of
this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head of the
major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in his judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interests of scholarIn all other instances, however, permission must be obtained
ship.
from the author.
SIGNED:
APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR
This thesis has been approved on the date shown below:
GORDON R, DUTT
Assoc. Professor of Agricultural
Chemistry and Soils
Date
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to express his gratitude to Dr. Cordon R.
Dutt for his guidance, encouragement, and helpful discussion and review of the manuscript.
Thanks are extended to Dr. Wallace H. Fuller,
Dr. David Hendricks, and Dr. Donald F. Post for their review and help.
The author also wishes to thank Mr. George Draper and Mr.
Larry L. Broome for their help with the laboratory analyses.
The author is indebted to the United States Department of the
Interior, Office of Water Resources Research, for funds provided in
partial support of this research, as authorized under the Water Resources Research Act of 1964,
111
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
vi
LIST OF TABLES
vii
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
viii
1
.
LITERATURE REVIEW
3
THEORY
13
METHODS AND MATERIALS
15
Materials
Rainfall Simulator
16
17
ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES
20
Preparation of Clay Suspension for X-ray Diffraction
Determination of Cation Exchange Capacity
Exchangeable Cations
Determination of Soluble Salts in Artificial Soil
Calcium and Magnesium Determination
Calcium Determination
Carbonate and Bicarbonate
Analysis of Runoff Water for Sodium
Conductivity of Runoff Water
Sodium Determination
Chloride Determination
Sulphate
Determination of Clay in Runoff
Determination of Moisture in Artificial Soils
Estimation of Exchangeable Sodium Percent From
Soluble Cations
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
.
.
.
20
20
21
21
21
21
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
23
23
25
Calibration of Rainfall Simulator
X-ray Diffraction of Clays
Cation Exchange Capacity of Colloidal Clay
Cation Exchange Capacity, Soluble Ions, and Moisture
Equivalent of Artificial Sandy Soils
iv
25
25
27
29
V
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Continued
Page
Exchangeable Sodium Percentage and Its Effect on Runoff
Quality of Runoff Water
Exchangeable Sodium Percentage and Sodium Adsorption
Ratio in the Soils
.
29
37
38
S1JNMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
40
APPENDIX
42
LITERATURE CITED
47
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
Page
Rainfall Simulator
18
Calibration of Rainfall Simulator
19
X-Ray Diffraction of Bentonite, Kaolinite, and Illite
Saturated With Magnesium and Air Dried
26
X-Ray Diffraction of Bentonite and Illite Saturated
With Magnesium Glycerol Solvated
28
Runoff Versus Exchangeable Sodium Percentage in Soils
33
Percent Increase in Runoff Versus ESP
35
vi
LIST OF TABLES
Page
Table
Exchangeable Ions and Cation Exchange Capacity
of Clays
30
Exchange Capacity, Soluble Ions, and Moisture
Equivalent in Artificial Soils
31
Average Runoff, Electrical Conductivity, Sodium
Concentration, and Amount of Clay Eroded
32
Theoretical, Computer Predicted, and Experimental
ESP and SAR
39
vii
ABSTRACT
Calcium bentonite, calcium kaolinite, and calcium illite each
were mixed with salt-free sand in the ratio of 1:9 in order to make
artificial sandy soils.
These soils were then treated with sodium
chloride so that they contained 8,
15, and 30 percent exchangeable
sodium, and then subjected to artificial rain.
It was observed that
the runoff was increased in the following order with these soils:
bentonitic soil) kaolinitic soil) illitic soil.
Runoff from the bentonitic soil was increased from zero in the
untreated soil to 43.0, 55.6, and 111.3 percent when the exchangeable
sodium percentages were 8, 15, and 30 percent, respectively.
Similarly,
runoff is increased from zero to 41.6, 201.0 and 214.0 in the kaolinitic soil and from zero to 72.3, 131.5, and 143.4 in the illitic soil
when the exchangeable sodium percentage is changed from untreated soil
to 8, 15, and 30 percent, respectively.
The experimental values for
exchangeable sodium percentage were lower than the theoretical values,
due to increased moisture content and erosion of soil.
It was concluded from this investigation that if the artificial soils used in this work contained from 8 to 15 percent exchange-
able sodium, maximum runoff would be achieved, without producing any
harmful effect to the soil.
The quality of the runoff water would be
satisfactory for irrigation purposes.
viii
INTRODUCT ION
Arid and semiarid areas occupy about one-third of the earthts
land.
Part of this area is irrigated by water from rivers, streams,
and springs, while the rest is dependent upon the natural rainfall.
It is estimated that the amount of water needed in such areas far exceeds the present available supply and does not properly satisfy agricultural, municipal, and industrial needs.
Usually a part of the
runoff is stored in reservoirs and subsequently used for irrigation.
In most areas it is observed that natural rainfall and water from these
reservoirs are not sufficient for good irrigation practices.
Much of
the rainfall water infiltrates into the soil and consequently the runoff in watershed areas is appreciably decreased.
Various proposals and plans are suggested in Arizona in order
to reduce water shortage for the future - for example, desalting, re-
charging of underground aquifers, and the Central Arizona Project.
These projects are not only expensive, but willtake a long time to
develop.
C. B. Cluff and C. R. Dutt (5) showed that by spraying sodium
chloride on sandy watershed areas winter runoff increased twenty-five
times without producing any harmful effect on the soil and vegetation.
The added salt dissolves and moves downward into the soil and interacts
with clay.
The clay swells reducing the permeability of the soil and
consequently runoff is increased.
1
2
The purpose of the present work is to study the type, placement, and amount of clay in sandy soils and the ESP that must be present in order to obtain maximum runoff.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Early literature r.eviews showed that the effect of various
factors on soil permeability has been known for many years.
For
example, Sally (44) observed in Bengal, India, that seepage from the
canals in a heavy clay soil is so slow that the lining was unnecessary.
King (23) and Slichter (46) showed the effect of grain size and particle arrangement on the permeability of sand.
Ellison and Salter (10)
attributed the greater part of the difference between infiltration capacities of different soils to differences in their aggregation and
clay content.
They found that two soils having the same clay content
had different permeability due to soil structure and aggregation.
Similarly, two soils with the same level of aggregation showed permeability difference and were related to clay content.
Salter (45) stated that the permeability of a soil might vary
widely, depending on the extent to which its structure could be maintained.
Some of the aggregates must be broken down in order to keep
the clay most effective in the sealing process.
The fineness of the
aggregates would be an indirect measure of the amount of clay dispersed
in any specific soil, but because the clay content varies from one soil
to another, it is thought necessary to use both the fineness of the
aggregation and the clay content for comparing results for different
soils.
Firman and Bodman (12) showed that a clay loam soil, containing
predominantly kaolinite clay had greater peimeability than a similar
3
4
soil containing predominantly montmorillonite clay.
Both soils showed
a very similar initial permeability, but due to the swelling of montmorillonitic clay, permeability decreased more rapidly on the montmorillonitic soils.
Huberty and Pillsbury (18) found that fertilizer composed of
ammonia and sodium salt tended to depress the rate of penetration of
irrigation water, whereas calcium fertilizer as well as organic fertilizer tended to increase the rate of penetration of water.
The Emerson (11), Martin and Richard (29), and Reeve (42) in-
vestigations revealed that the presence of divalent ions such as Ca
and Mg
in percolating solution generally increased the permeability,
while the presence of Na+ ions in the percolating solution or on the
ion exchange complex frequently decreased the permeability at low salt
concentration.
Harris and Evan (15) studied calcareous soil and deteluLined a
relation between soil permeability and replaceable sodium ions.
They
showed that the permeability decreased exponentially as the sodium content increased.
Kelley (22) stated where high-Na irrigation water was
applied, the soil usually remained fairly permeable to the water despite
the undesirable adsorption of Na by base exchange, because of the flocculating effect of the salts of the water; but when an irrigation water
of much lojer concentration was substituted, it markedly reduced the
permeability.
This point of view was in accord with the laboratory
work of Firman and Bodman (12).
Quirk and Schofield (40) saturated
soils with Na, K, Ca, and Mg ions and then successively leached these
soils with more dilute solutions. Below a certain concentration, which
5
is specific for each ion, decreases in permeability of the soils were
observed.
The following threshold concentrations were obtained:
2.5 x
l0'M
NaC1
6.6 x 102M KC1
1.0 x
103M MgCl2
3.0 x 104M CaC12
According to Lutz (28), Antipov-Karatajev reported that the
rate of filtration was a function of the colloid content of the soil
and the filtration velocity through soils depends upon the nature of
the exchangeable ions present.
The rate of filtration followed the
series:
Fe> CaMg NH4>' Na
It is apparent from the literature that the swelling and dis-
persion of clay played a very important role in controlling the infiltration and/or permeability of soils.
Mattson (30) studied the effect of adsorbed cations on swelling
of soils and found that the swelling followed the ionic series:
Na>'K>Ca>'Mg>Hmethylene blue.
Winterkorn and Bayer (49) showed that the swelling of the col-
bid varies with the nature of the cations on the exchange complex.
bentonite swelling followed the ionic series:
LiNa)KCa
= Ba
H
Hoon and Sing (16) treated Kashmir and Jodhpur bentonite with
5.3 and 1.3 percent of sodium carbonate, respectively.
As a result,
In
6
When 3 or 4 percent of the
their swelling properties were increased,
Kashmir bentonite was mixed with sand, the rate of percolation was reduced to 0.12 or 0.05 cc of water per minute, respectively.
Norrish and Quirk (38) used electrolytes to control the swelling of montmorillonite in water suspensions.
The Na-montmorillonite
immersed in sodium chloride solution of 4.0, 1,0, 0.5, and 0.3 N showed
x-ray dOOl values of 15.4, 18.7, 18.9, and 40.0
,
respectively.
The
Ca-montmorillonite immersed in calcium chloride solution of 8.0, 2.0,
and 0.2 N and water showed dOOL spacing of 15.3, 18.7, 19.0, and 19.0
respectively.
These results showed that electrolytes could be used as
a convenient means of controlling swelling.
McNeal et al. (34) concluded from their investigation that per-
meability of a soil in the presence of NaClCaCl2 solution decreased
markedly with increasing clay content and with decreasing free iron
-H-.
oxide content.
.
-H-
.
Replacement of the Ca in solution with Mg
measurably
decreased soil permeability.
McNeal and Coleman (32) showed that swelling would be dominant
in soil containing large amounts of expandable minerals.
Dispersion
and translocation would be dominant for decreases in the coarse textured soil and those containing small amounts of expandable minerals.
Harris (14) studied the effect of moisture content on the degree of di3persion and observed that an increase in soil moisture was
associated with an increase of dispersion on shaking.
Kolodny and
Joffee (25) found that dispersion varied with change in moisture content between the limits of air dryness and saturation,
The method of
7
wetting also had a profound effect on the degree of dispersion.
This
was illustrated by t.he difference in time required to attain dispersion
equilibrium at a given moisture content,
Browing (4) pointed out that the dispersion of several soil
series investigated was only slightly affected by air drying,
In gen-
eral, it could be expected that changes in moisture content would af-
fect the intensity of dispersion in different soils,
Nankayana (37) studied the dispersive behavior of three soils
when treated with different rates of NaC1, Na2SO4, Na2CO3, and Na(P03)6,
The soils differed in the magnitude of deflocculation,
Dispersion of
various soils was in the order
Na(PO3)6Na2CO3. Na2SO4
NaCl.
Where the exchangeable Cof the soil was high, Na2CO3 might be as effective a dispersing chemical as Na(P03)6.
The NaCl and Na2SO4 treat-
ment resulted in flocculation of the particles with increasing treatment
rates, possibly caused by an increase in the electrolyte concentration.
On the other hand, the Na2CO3 and NA(P03)6 treatment increased deflocculation with increasing rates.
Johnson and Norton (21), working with extremely pure kaolinitic
suspension, showed that for maximum dispersion the medium must be somewhat alkaline.
This presented the possibility that the OH ion as such
might have an influence on flocculation and dispersion.
The work of the investigators (22, 32, 38, 40), which was mentioned earlier, is in agreement with the theories of Helntholtz, Gouy,
and Stern (in H. Van Olphen, 39; and in Taylor and Glasstone, 43).
8
Helmholtz suggested that an electrical layer is generally
formed at the surface of separation between two phases.
By making the
assumption that the double layer is virtually an electrical condenser
with parallel plates no more than a molecular distance apart, he derived the following equation:
4'd7r
(1)
whet e
is the zeta potential
d
is the thickness of the double layer
6
is the charge density
is the dielectric constant of the water.
Gouy (in H. Van Olphen, 39) developed a theory of the diffused double
layer at a planar surface.
The concentration of the counter ions is
highest in the immediate vicinity of the surface and decreases at first
rapidly and then asymptotically to the inner solution of uniform composit ion.
Using Maxwell, Boltzman, and Poisson's equations, Gouy obtained
the following expressions:
46-lr
1000 kT
8 Ne2p i7
where
9
/1
2
=
concentration of cations
c
z
=
valency of cations
e
=
electronic charge
T
absolute temperature
k
Boltzman constant
N
Avogadro's Nurtiber
2, and 3 that
is equivalent to
In other words, -
gives the thick-
It is clear from equations 1,
thickness of the double layer
ness of the equivalent Helntholtz double layer.
We can relate equations
2, and 3 in the following form:
1,
1000
T
8 liNe
Here, this equation shows that the thickness of the double layer and
the zeta potential vary with electrolyte concentration, even though the
surface charge density does not vary.
Besides the effect of dispersion and swelling on the permeability of a soil in the presence of exchangeable sodium, many investi-
gators studied the effect of rainfall under various conditions on the
permeability of soils.
-
Law (26) reported, "It was found that as the drop size in-
creased, the infiltration rate decreased by as much as
7070tT
Brost and Woodburn (3) reported similar results when they elim-
mated most of the drop-impact with straw supported an inch above the
10
soil.
Many investigators have pointed out that mulches and crop
canopies which protect the surface of the soil against raindrop impact
will help to preserve its
infiltration
capacity.
Ellison (9) has pointed out that raindrop impacts break down
the aggregates, splash the soil particles to make them muddy, and cause
puddling and compaction.
Each one of these actions tends to destroy
the infiltration capacity of the soil.
-
Duely (6) concluded from studies in Nebraska that surface water
seal developed under rainfall, and it was the most outstanding factor
affecting infiltration.
Twenty-nine infiltration experiments were com-
pleted at Coshocton for purposes of studying the effect of drop size,
drop velocity, and intensity on the infiltration capacity of four soils.
These experiments showed that a variation in either drop size or drop
velocity will cause a change in the
infiltration
capacity of the soil.
Changes in drop velocity have the greatest effect, changes in drop size
are second, and changes in rainfall intensity have the least effect.
It was also found that the velocity of surface flow did not affect the
rates of infiltration.
Duely (7) showed that a thin compact layer which forms over
bare soils during rains has had a greater effect on intake of water
than has had the type, slope, moisture content or profile characteristics.
For nigh intake of water by a soil, the immediate surface should
be in a condition to absorb water rapidly.
Munns and Lassen (36) explained that compaction of the soil may
increase runoff.
A common cause of compaction is falling raindrops
11
striking exposed soil, creating mud water which partially clogs the
surface pores.
Ellison (9) showed that splash caused by raindrop impact is
harmful to the infiltration capacity of the soil and that a principal
objective of the conservationist must be to prevent the dispersion of
the clods and aggregates and the splash of the soils by raindrop impact.
Izzard and Augustine (19) indicated that raindrops falling on
shallow surface flow may retard the translational velocities.
However,
experiments have shovm that this retardation does not reduce the amount
of soil transported by the flow.
Lowdeunilk (27) observed the beneficial effect of forest litter
and attributed the slow rate of intake by the bare land to a plugging
of the pores by the suspended particles settling into them from the
muddy runoff water.
The increased runoff from bare land as compared
with cropland has been explained in general statements as being due to
the beating effect of rain.
C. B. Cluff and G. R. Dutt (5) indicated that watershed treat-
ment with sodium chloride may provide additional water at a low price
for irrigation.
To test the NaCl treatment in Arizona, 10 pans were
filled with three different soil types and subjected to normal rainfall.
Three pans were treated to attain a 15 percent exchangeable
sodium percentage in the surface inch of soil.
One pan was treated
with a double amount of sodium salt in order to achieve a higher percentage.
Water yields ranged from zero on the untreated soil to 497
water yield from the heavily treated soils.
Later, these results were
12
tested at Atterbury Experimental Watershed near Tucson, Arizona.
It
was found that NaC1 treatment increased runoff from winter storms about
25 times.
The quality of the water was also tested, and it was found
that water from the treated plot contained less than 200 ppm dissolved
salt.
THEORY
Various investigations showed that the rate of infiltration is
a variable factor,
It is changed with alteration in soil structure,
temperature of the air, moisture content of the soil, and the degree of
biological activity within the soil profile,
Despite these factors, it
is recognized that infiltration of water into different soils is asso-
dated with the physical characteristics of the soils and their mineralogy.
Earlier workers showed that the infiltration in a certain soil
is greatly affected in the presence of exchangeable sodium ions.
The
infiltration rate (31) is decreased with the amount of exchangeable
sodium ions, especially when the soils contain 2:1 type of clay, while
on the other hand soils high in 1:1 type of clay are virtually insensitive to exchangeable sodium ions,
The infiltration rate (32) in a soil is decreased due to two
processes which take place in the soil:
Swelling
Dispersion and translocation of the clay particles.
Swelling and dispersion occur simultaneously (12, 35) which is
followed by the subsequent translocation of the dispersed particles.
Due to the translocation of these dispersed particles, the conducting
pores in the soil become clogged, resulting in a decrease in the infiltration rate of water In the soil.
From recent work concerning clay it could be concluded (17, 33, 34,
and 35) that the runoff in sandy soils is a function of the mineralogy
13
14
of the clay and the amount of exchangeable sodium present in the soils.
With this in mind, the following research was conducted.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
Diffraction patterns of all the clay samples were obtained in
order to know the impurities which are present in these samples,
The
sand was repeatedly leached with distilled water, so that all of the
soluble ions present in the sand were removed,
All of the clay samples
were saturated with 2 N CaCl2 solution in the form of approximately 2
percent suspension of clay.
The suspensions were mechanically stirred
for one hour four separate times at regular intervals of four hours,
Then the suspensions were equilibrated for 24 hours, washed repeatedly
with distilled water until the conductivity of the supernatant became
0.2 millimoh/cm, and dried at 80°C,
The sand and the calcium saturated
clays were then mixed in the ratio of 9:1,
These mixtures were consid-
ered to be artificial sandy soils for the present investigation's pur-
pose and were called bentonitic, kaolinitic, and illitic soils,
depending upon the clay mineral which was present in the soil.
Cation exchange capacity, exchangeable ions, and soluble ions
were determined according to the methods listed under Analytical Procedures.
A computer program (Appendix) developed by 0, R. Dutt was used,
in order to know the amount of sodium chloride needed to bring the surface inch of soil to 8, 15, and 30 percent exchangeable sodium,
The
calculated amount of NaCl was mixed with the artificial soils, and the
treated artificial soils thus obtained were placed over sand in the
containers.
These containers were then subjected to artificial
15
16
rainfall for a period of one hour.
The intensity of the rain was main-
tamed at 4,34 cm per hour,
Infrared lamps were used for drying the soil columns after
each rain treatment.
The distance was between lamps and the top of the
soil columns was kept at about 16 cm.
Runoff was collected in a beaker
and measured volumetrically with a graduated cylinder.
Finally, a
saturated paste extract was prepared (46) and analyzed for Ca, Mg,
and Na
+
Materials
Three clays were used for treating sand in combination with
NaC1.
They were Wyoming Bentonite, Georgia Kaolinite, and Illinois
Illite.
Pure, colloidal, gel-forming bentonite was obtained from
Magnet Cove Barium Corporation, Greybull, Wyoming, and Houston, Texas.
The Georgia Kaolinite used was the coLumercial grade.
by the Georgia Kaolin Company.
It was supplied
The Illinois Illite was supplied by
Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Inc., Rochester 3, New York.
This illite was of the same standard as that used in American Petroleum Institute Clay Mineral Standard Project No. 49.
Crystal white
silica sand was used in combination with various clays and sodium
chloride.
California.
This sand was supplied by Cryst-Silica Company, Oceanside,
Analytical sodium chloride was used which was supplied by
the J. T. Baker Chemical Company, Phillipsburg, New Jersey.
17
Rainfall Simulator
In order to know the effect of rainfall on artificial sandy
soils, a rainfall simulator1 was constructed.
This rainfall simulator,
which is depicted in Figure 1, consists of a Mariotte flask which functions as a constant head control in the top column of the rainfall
simulator.
The water is passed through hypodermic needles which are
fixed in the lower part of the top column.
is 15.75 cm.
The height of this column
The top column is moved in the form of a circle by the
electric motor in order to provide uniform rain on the soil which is
placed in the bottom column.
soil is 15.24 cm.
The container at the bottom for holding
The middle column which connects the top and bottom
columns is 133.96 cm in length.
glass.
All of the columns are made of plexi-
The internal diameter of all of the columns is 12.70 cm.
The
calibration curves for the rainfall simulator are shown in Figure 2.
Degassed distilled water was used for calibration.
The simulator was designed by Brent Cluff, who also supervised its construction, in the Water Resources Research Center of the
University of Arizona, Tucson.
1.
18
Bubble Tube ----
Motorized Revolving Rod
Siphon
Constant:
Hydraulic Head
-
L
--
()
rrr,1n1
CO
Hypodermic
Needles
18 c
The Mariotte Flask
for Constant Head
Control
Clear Plastic
Wooden Frame
Pan for Holding Sand
and Artificial Soil
48.26 cm
Beaker for
Collecting
Runoff
Figure 1.
Rainfall Simulator
19
y = 0.48x -. 0.43
= ± .24
5.0
-2
5
0.0 L__
10
Figure 2.
(Hydraulic Head in cm)
Calibration of Rainfall Simulator
ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES
Preparation of Clay Suspension
for Xray Diffraction
Ten-gram samples of each clay were dispersed in 6-mu
ethylene bags in the ultrasonic bath for one hour.
poly-
The dispersed
clay samples were then transferred to 250-ml polyethylene centrifuge
bottles and centrifuged at 750 rpm for 5.3 minutes (24).
International
centrifuge size 2, No. El004, 3/4 H.P., was used for this purpose.
The
clay samples were mounted on porous ceramic slides using a modification
of the paste method (2).
The mounted clay samples were then washed
with 0.1 N HC1 and Mg (ACO)2, x-rayed, then washed with glycerine and
x-rayed again.
Diffraction patterns for the oriented samples on ceramic plates
were made using a Norelco x-ray diffraction unit with a copper K
=
0
1.54 A, and the clay minerals were identified using the basal spacing
(20, 2).
Determination of Cation
Exchange Capacity
The clay samples were repeatedly saturated with 1 N NH4ACO in a
centrifuge tube and washed repeatedly with 98 percent isopropylalcohol.
An estimation of the exchanged auimonia on the clay complex was made by
transferring a 10-mi dispersed clay suspension into a Kjeidahl's flask
for distillation.
A parallel 10-mi clay suspension was dried in an
20
21
The cation exchange ca-
and the concentration of clay was determined.
pacity was calculated as follows:
ml of H2SO4 x N of H2SO4 x 100
CEC
=
weight of the clay used
Exchangeable Cations
Exchangeable cations were determined according to U. S. Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 60.
Determination of Soluble Salts
in Artificial Soil
Saturated paste extract was prepared (47) either with 1:1 or
1:2 ratio, depending upon the physical character of the soil.
The ex-
tract was then analyzed.
Calcium and Magnesium Determination
Cy DTA of .01 N was titrated against 10 ml of the soil extract
using NH4C1-NH4OH buffer and methyl red and calmagite as indicators.
The calculation follows:
Ca
-H-
4-F
meq./L
+ Mg
= meq.of .01 N Cy DTA used (41).
Calcium Determination
Cy DTA of .01 N was titrated against 10 ml of soil extract with
KOH buffer and calcein indicator.
ml of Ca4± titration
-H-
ml of (Ca
-H-
+ Mg
=
The calculation follows:
meq of Ca4±
- ml of Ca
-H-
=
meq. of Mg
-H-,
4l
22
Carbonate and Bicarbonate
Fifty ml of the extract was titrated with standard acid, using
a phenolphtholein indicator.
For bicarbonatebromocresol green indi-
cator was used (41).
ml N/b
H2SO4 x 12
=
ppm CO3
ppm CO3
(total ml N/50 F12SO4 - 2CO3 titration) 24.4
ppm HCO3
61
- meq. CO3
=
ppm HCO3
- me.HCO3
ysis of Runoff Water for Sodium
Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for the determination of sodium in runoff water (13).
Conductivity of Runoff Water
Conductivity Bridge Model R C l6B2 was used in order to measure
the conductivity of the runoff water (47).
Sodium Determination
Beckman D U Spectrophotometer technique was used for sodium
determination (47).
Chloride Determination
Twenty-five ml of the extract was titrated with AgNO3 using
K2CrO4 as an indicator (41).
The calculation follows:
23
ml of AgNO3 solution used x 40
ppm of Cl
35.46
=
ppm x Cl
= meq. of chloride
Ten ml of the extract was titrated with barium chloride (.43 gm
BaC12/L of water) using ethyl alcoholic thorin indicator (41).
The
calculation follows:
ml of BaC12 used x 20
SO4 ppm
SO4 ppm
48
meq. 504
DeteLlitination of Cla
in Runoff
DeteLLuination of clay in runoff water was obtained by finding
the difference between the weight of a suspension and the weight of
clay after baking to dryness at 110° centigrade.
Determination of Moisture in
Artificial Soils
Saturated paste extract was prepared as described in U.
S. D. A.
Handbook No. 60, and percent moisture was determined.
Estimation of Exchan eable Sodium
Percent From Soluble Cations
Saturated paste extract was prepared (47) and determined the
calcium, magnesium, and sodium ion concentrations in the saturated
extract.
The calculations are as follows:
24
100 (-0.0126 + 0.01475x)
1 + (-0.0126 + 0.01475x)
7 ESP
where x is equal to the sodium-adsorption ratio.
+
Na
=
2
where Na+,
Ca, and Mg
refer to the concentrations of the designated
cations expressed in milliequivalents per liter.
A nomogram, which relates soluble sodium and soluble calcium
plus magnesium concentrations to the SAR, is given in Figure 27 in the
U. S. D. A. Handbook No, 60.
Also included in the nomogram is a scale
for estimating the corresponding ESP percent based on a linear equation
given in connection with Figure 9 (Chapter 2).
For accurate calcula-
tion of ESP, a computer program was used as given in the Appendix.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Calibration of Rainfall Simulator
In order to calibrate the rainfall simulator, rainfall in
centimeters versus hydraulic head in centimeters was plotted on graph
paper.
It was observed that the data were very scattered due to sever-
al variable factors concerning the simulator.
Using the method of
least squares, a straight line was calculated and is shown in Figure 2.
The standard deviation was calculated to be ± .24 from the experimental observation.
This deviation in rainfall could be attributed
to the following causes.
During calibration, gas is absorbed in water
which affects the flow of water drops through the hypodeLlihic needles.
At
After every hour, the simulator was adjusted for hydraulic head.
this stage it was difficult to judge whether all of the hypodermic
needles were functioning properly or not.
X-ray Diffraction of Cla s
X-ray diffraction analyses were perfotiued to identify possible
impurities in the clays which were used in this work.
patterns were obtained following two treatments:
air dried, and Mg
++
Mg
saturation and glycerol solvation.
X-ray diffraction
saturation and
Figure 3 shows
0
a peak of 14.73 A corresponding to montmorillonite when the bentonite
sample was treated with magnesium and air dried.
This is the first
order basal reflection (001) spacing for montmorillonite.
When the
0
0
bentonite was treated with magnesium and glycerol, 17.70 A and 10.00 A
25
26
0
14.73 A
0
7.15 A
0
10.04 A
0
3.35 A
Figure
3.
X-Ray Diffraction of Bentonite, Kaolinite, and Illite
Saturated With Magnesium and Air Dried.
27
peaks corresponding to montmorillonite and illite, respectively, were
noted (Figure 4).
It was concluded that the bentonite has illite as an
impurity.
Kaolinite was saturated with magnesium and air dried; three
0
0
0
peaks of 7.15 A, 4.09 A, and 3.59 A were observed.
The prominent first
0
0
and second order basal reflection at 7.15 A and 3.59 A, respectively,
are du
to kaolinite (Figure 3).
is present in the ceramic tile.
The 4.05
Peaks at 10.00
served when the il1lite was treated with
(Figure 3).
peak due to
-Cristobalite
were ob-
and 7.15
and solvated with glycerol
0
0
The lQ.00 A peak is due to illite and the 7.15 A peak in-
dicates the presence of kaolinite as an impurity.
Cation ExcheCf
Colloidal Clay
Routine chemical methods were used to determine the cation exchange capacity of the clay samples, but none of them was found satis-
factory due to the dispersion effect of sodium, which was present in
the bentonite clay samples.
A large amount of clay was lost during
washing and centrifuging the clay samples.
The sticky nature of
bentonite was very inconvenient in the process of determining its CEC
by the standard method (47).
Attempts were made to use the standard
method, but it was found difficult to duplicate the results.
Therefore,
an indirect method was used for CEC determination in order to overcome
these difficulties.
Clay suspensions were saturated with ammonia acetate, and then
the amount of aulihionia on the clay complex was determined.
This
17.70
Figure 4.
X-Ray Diffraction of BentOnite and Illite Saturated
With Magnesium Glycerol Solvated
29
exchanged ammonia on the clay complex gave a measure of cation exchange
capacity of clay.
The cation exchange and the exchangeable ion of
these clays are shown in Table 1.
a.pacity, Soluble IonsjIoisture
Cation Exehang
Equivalent of Artificial Sandy Soils
Table 2 shows the texture cation exchange capacity, soluble
ions, and moisture equivalent of the artificial sandy soils.
Exchan:eable Sodium Percentae and
Its Effect on Runoff
Three artificial soils containing 0, 8, 15, or 30 percent exchangeable sodium ions were subjected to artificial rainfall.
During
the application of water, the hydraulic head on the simulator was kept
constant (i.e., the height of water in rainfall simulator was 11.20 cm).
Table 3 shows the average runoff in ml, electrical conductivity
in mmohs/cm at 25°C, concentration of sodium ions in ppm in runoff
water, and clay transferred in grams with the runoff water.
It may be
seen from this table that the runoff is increased when the exchangeable
sodium percentage in the soil is increased (Figure 5).
It is also noted that at any given sodium percentage the increase in runoff from bentonitic soil is higher than that of the kaolinitic and illitic soils.
swelling of bentonite.
This may be explained on the basis of interlayer
It is known (1) that the swelling of clay is de-
pendent upon its crystal structure.
In the case of 2:1 expanding type
of clay mineral, the bonds which hold the individual sheet of clay are
much weaker than the non-expanding type clay minerals.
In the case
Cation Exchange
Capacity (meq./L)
93.00
14.40
20.40
Bentonite
Kaolinite
Illite
11.75
6.14
14.65
Ca
1.33
0.04
0.81
0.01
T
1.35
2.51
0.02
41.25
Exchangeable Cation (meq./L)
K
Na
Mg
Exchangeable Ions and Cation Exchange Capacity of Clays
Name
Table 1.
90
90
90
Kaolinite
Illite
'70
10
10
10
70
1:2
4.98
30
1.13
1.46
0.26
0.76
4.74
2.04
40
0.64
0.08
0.91
0.20
--
0.18
1:2
1.44
70
85
HCO3
Mois ture
1.28
1.25
4.72
4.18
1:2
9.30
0.40
0.62
Ca
Soluble Ions (meq./L)
Anions
Cations
SO4
CO3
Cl
Mg
Na
Paste
Soil:Water
Ratio
Cation
Exchange
Capacity
Exchange Capacity, Soluble Ions, and Moisture Equivalent in Artificial Soils
Texture
Clay
Sand
Bentonite
Soils
Table 2.
Illitic
Soil
Soil
0.071
0.337
838±153
30
5.55
0.041
801±137
15
0.065
1.098
3.10
0.059
596±22
8
5.07
0.466
2.11
0.075
346±12
untreated
0.423
6.33
0.209
1390±20
30
0.397
3.38
0.397
0.177
0.032
4.19
0.035
5.72
1331±5
626±12
0.032
0.788
15
8
442±13
11.97
0.209
2043 ±20
30
untreated
10.62
0.063
1505
15
0.707
0.605
6.14
0.062
1392±30
8
Average Gms
of Clay
Transferred
0.385
Average Na
Concentration
ppm
2.24
Average3
EC x 10
at 25°C
0.047
in ml
Average
Runoff
967 ±30
untreated
Soils
ESP in
Average Runoff, Electrical Conductivity, Sodium Concentration, and Amount
of Clay Eroded
Kaolinitic
Bentonitic
Soil
Soils
Table 3.
500
1000
1500
2000
Figure
0
5.
(ESP)
L5
Runoff Versus Exchangeable Sodium Percentage in Soils
8
SoIlS
Illitic Soils
Kaol1fht
30
0
34
of bentonite the attraction arises from the Vander Waals forces between
sheet system, and of these of kaolinite the attraction arises from hydrogen bond,
Hydrogen bonds are much stronger than Vander Waals forces.
Thus, bentonite swells spontaneously when mixed with water, while
kaolinite does not.
As the degree of hydration of bentonite is increased,
C-spacing is also increased due to water penetration in the crystal lattice of the clay.
In the case of kaolLriite (49), the hydration energy
of water is not sufficient to break all of the bonds between the sheets,
and thus kaolinite behaves as a non-swelling clay.
Illite is an example
The
of 2:1 type of clay but behaves as a kaolinite-type clay mineral.
non-swelling character of illite (49) is attributed to a specific linking effect of the unit layers by the potassium ions.
These ions are of
the right size to establish a 12-coordination with opposite hexagonal
oxygen rings of adjoining unit layers, being embedded in the space
created by opposite holes.
In the case of kaolinitic and illitic soils, only dispersion
occurs, which results in the partial blocking of the conductive pores,
and thus the infiltration rate is decreased.
Figure 6 shows the percent increase in runoff versus exchangeable sodium percentage.
Runoff from bentonitic soil is increased by
43.0, 55.6, and 111.3 percent when the exchangeable sodium percentage
is changed from untreated bentonitic soil to 8, 15, and 30 percent, respectively.
Similarly, under identical conditions, the runoff is in-
creased by 41.6, 201.0, and 214.0; and by 72.2, 131.5, and 143.4 percent,
in the case of the kaolinitic and illitic soils, respectively.
It is
0
0
0)
0
0
'1-1
50
100
150
200
Figure 6.
Percent Increase in Runoff Versus ESP
15
(ESP)
o-
Soil
Kaoliflitic Soil
30
36
noted from these results that the percent change in infiltration due to
sodium in these clays follows the order shown below:
kaolinite> illite
bentonite.
It could also be concluded from Table 4 (see page 39) that if a soil
contains predominantly kaolinite and illite, less sodium would be required to raise the sodium percentage as compared to the soil containing
predominantly bentonite.
The overall increase in runoff from these three types of clay
follows the order shown below:
bentonite> i11ite
kaolinite.
Bentonite, kaolinite, and illite are clay minerals and are
found generally in abundance in soils.
Results for these clay minerals
would reflect the behavior of soils in the fields
Thus, it could be
concluded from the entire research that the soils in the field may be
treated with sodium chloride in such a way that they contain from 8 to
15 percent exchangeable sodium in order to achieve maximum runoff.
It
may be pointed out that a soil is saline if the electrical conductivity
of the saturation extract is in excess of 4 mmohs/cm, but the ESP is
less than 15 (48).
If the electrical conductivity of the saturation
extract is greater than 4 mmohs/cm and the ESP exceeds 15, then the soil
is saline and alkaline.
Thus Table 3 shows that the soil would not be
adversely affected for agricultural purposes with such treatments.
It was concluded from this investigation that if the artificial
soils used in this work contained from 8 to 15 percent exchangeable
sodium, then maximum runoff would be achieved without producing any
37
harmful effect to the soil, and the quality of the water would be satis-
factory for irrigation purposes.
Runoff Water
The electrical conductivity of runoff water (Table 3) ranges
from 0.032 mmoh/cm (untreated bentonitic soil) to 0.337 mmoh/cm (illitic
soil containing 30 percent exchangeable sodium).
The sodium concentra-
tion varies from 2.11 ppm (untreated illitic soil) to 11.97 ppm (bentonitic soil containing 30 percent exchangeable sodium).
Taking into
consideration the maximum concentration of salt present in runoff water,
the water class, with respect to salinity, was evaluated by means of
electrical conductivity, and the sodium hazard by means of SAR.
found to be C2S1 (46).
and contains low sodium.
It was
This shows that the water is of medium salinity
Medium salinity water C2 can be used if a mod-
erate amount of leaching occurs.
Plants with moderate salt tolerance
can be grown in most cases without special pre-actions for salinity
control.
Low-sodium water S1 can be used for irrigation on almost all
soils with little danger of the development of harmful levels of exchangeable sodium.
However, sodiumsensitive crops may accumulate
injurious concentrations of sodium.
Since this water class was evalu-
ated on the basis of maximum salt concentration in runoff water, it
could therefore be concluded that the overall quality of runoff water
would be quite satisfactory for irrigation purposes.
38
Exchangeable Sodium Percentage and
Sodium Adsorption Ratio in the Soils
Table 4 shows the amount of salt (needed by the soil to have
required ESP), predicted ESP, experimental exchangeable sodium percentage, and the sodium adsorption ratio.
It is noted from this table that the experimental values of ex-
changeable sodium percentage are lower than the theoretical values.
The
low experimental values could be expected, due to the following factors:
increase in moisture content
erosion.
The estimation of exchangeable sodium percent was done in 2:1 soil
paste; therefore, the low exchangeable sodium percent is expected.
Raindrop impact disturbs the soil due to its beating effect which subsequently helps in erosion and downward movement of the clay with rainwater.
Most of the sodium ions are either exchanged on the clay surface
or adsorbed on it; thus the amount of exchangeable sodium would also be
decreased in the soil due to the loss of clay.
Soil
Illitic
Soil
Kaolinitic
Soil
Bentonitic
Soils
0.473
0.134
449.70
128.50
30
0.288
0.714
274.00
681.40
15
30
8
0.162
154.20
0.063
15
60.00
1.659
1578.50
30
8
0.651
0.296
Gms. of Sodium
Chloride Required
to Treat 350 Gms.
of Soil to Have
Theoretical ESP
619.10
281.90
Lbs. of Sodium
Chloride Required
to Treat One Acre
of Land to Have
Theoretical ESP
0.20
0.20
0.20
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.40
0.40
0.40
in the
Soil
Pre sent
ESP
7.80
3.20
1.50
29.90
14.00
7.90
21.70
9.90
4.80
E SF
Predicted
6.67
3.30
1.09
21.05
8.35
7.51
18.36
9.85
6.45
Average
Experimental
ESP
Theoretical, Computer Predicted, and Experimental ESP and SAR
15
8
ESP
Theoretical
Table 4.
4.87
2.33
0.75
18.46
5.78
5.50
15.24
7.41
4.67
Average
SAR
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Bentonitic, kaolinitic, and illitic clays were saturated with
calcium chloride and then mixed with sand in the ratio of 1:9 to simu
late artificial soils.
Portions of each of the artificial sandy soils
were treated with sodium chloride to achieve 8, 15, and 30 percent exchangeable sodium.
Each of these treated artificial soils were then
placed in a container and subjected to artificial rainfall.
They were
repeatedly dried and again subjected to artificial rainfall until five
measurements were made.
The runoff from each artificial soil was
collected, measured, and analyzed.
It was found that the runoff was
increased with exchangeable sodium present in the soil.
A sharp in-
crease in runoff was observed in all of the artificial soils when the
exchangeable sodium was raised from 8 to 15 percent in the soils.
It
was also noted that the runoff was increased in the following way with
these soils:
illite< kaolinite (bentonite.
The experimental values for the exchangeable sodium percentage
were found to be lower than the calculated values, due to increased
moisture content, downward movement of clay, and its erosion with runoff water.
The electrical conductivity of runoff water ranges from 0.032
rnmoh/cm to 0,337 mmoh/cm, and the sodium concentration ranges from
40
41
0.09 rneq./L to 0.52 meq./L.
The irrigation water class with respect to
salinity and sodium hazards was evaluated and found to be C2S1 (47).
This shows that the water is of medium salinity and contains low
sodium.
It was concluded from this investigation that if artificial
soils containing any of the above clays and containing 8 to 15 percent
exchangeable sodium were used
maximum runoff would occur and the
quality of runoff water would remain satisfactory for irrigation.
Since these clays are found in abundance in soil, we could, therefore,
use these results to apply to soils in the field.
XIUNadCTV
NVHOOad
V
)rVLLVH)1
3
'IDYN
3
YD =
3
OHV
QHSHIVM LNW1VHL
NflIDTcTD 3NO3
NI Hm1rI/bN
WflISNOVN 3NO3 NI i/bi HaLT
SOS = NflIGOS 3NO3 NI
ULLI'I/bfH
= Iard01H3 3NO3 NI
1Th1I'I
OS = LV1flS
DN0D NI
32ILI'I
= NOLLV3 2ONVHDXJ AJJDVdV3 NI
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3
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ddS = 'ISYONVH3Xa
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=
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0001
(Tm)
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(cv9T)ivwo,
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oo=aii
aai
ivwio,
o
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ivwao
1
0S'D'SOS'DNV'V3'0
(oiic)
1'ddS'O3H"IVD''S'1
oo=cxx
JNflId
(O119)
NVN'IO
ioc
IIosHLTxo)3vTnio SISA'WNY 'cvgro,i (
1OO 9,IX17'Z9XZOH1)1VWIO,ff 9JX17'Z9dX'Z9JX7'
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zoc
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H0L)1vWdO1
'i/bw i/baw
'-i/öz
(
'11
LMIId
(9x'9x"z
S'ODH'0S''S0S'OWV'VD'1O
((z/(oNvvD))Jis)/sosws
O+=dsa uvs-cL?Io
DdsJ=cvs
ooisaasa
'i/bw
i/bw
/bai'i
43
SA5=SA5/1000.
RA=CA/(ANG*. 625)
C5=ZE/(RA+1.)
E5=ZE-05
E5=E5/2000.
C5=C5/2000.
SO=SO/2000.
CL=CL/1000.
s0s=s0s/1000.
HCO3=HCO3/1000.
D=. 623
CA=CA/2000.
DA=. 608
ANG=ANG/2000.
U=SQRT( 2 o*( CA+AMG+S0)+O 5*( SOS+CL+HCO3))
IF(CAL) 602,602,603
602 IK=1
ZE=2.OE-8
GO TO 604
603 IK=2
ZE=(CA*HCO3**2*EXP (_2.341*U/(1.±U)))
604 A=2 .*CA*B 1/B
G=2.*SO*B1/B
F=2 *j4C*B 1/B
H=2 .*CL*B1/B
S=2.*SOS*B1/B
HCO3=2 . kHCO3*B1/B
B=1.E5*2./B
ET=E5
CT=C5
SAT=Sk5
XXT=XX5
24 A1=A
IF(XXT)4,4, 26
4 U=SQRT(2.O*(A+F+G)X0.5*(S+H11CO3))
AA=EXP (-9 .366*U/(1.0+U))
IF(2.4E_5_A*G*AA)26, 18,18
26 X=O.O
U=SQRT( 2. 0*(A+F+C)±0 . 5*(S+I-I+HCO3))
BB=A+G
EX=(9 .366*U)/(1.0+U)
CC=A*G-(2 . 4E5)*EXP
R=SQRT(BBBB-4. o*cc)
x=(-BB+R)/2 .0
CAS1=4.897E-3-CASO
DEL=B*XXT- CAS 1
IF(DEL-X)27, 28,28
27 X=XXT*B
XXT=0.O
CAS1=O.O
(Ex)
1717
x±v=v
)1Iös=n z ox(--i-y)o° Fn+s)c ((oDn
clxa=vv 6-)
1/n99 ((n+
L
(ov+vv-j--i6l7)-=88
l7-V;'.VV=DD OSVD-i16
l79999rzXXXX DDVV;0
9'c'c
(xxxx),ai
cc
oo=ix
9c
0 01 L
(vvoz)/((xxxx)aibs-sq-)=ix
L
IX+OSVD=OsVD
1x-v=v
TX-D=O
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91 1I
(o)
9'1'I
9 Ti
(v)
L'1'T
L'ill7'ilil
I I
(osYD)
9Z X+v=v
x+o=
1XX=1XX 9/X
ISVD+OSVD=OSVD
1XX=LXX SYD 9/1
y=zv
ii (s)
08'181'02
191 o8'c1c'o8(J.vs)JI
o z=ri
17017
ZO17
oil'oYzot'(L-1vs)aI
O1/1VS=Z
z z=_[
o
o c
01/]2=Z
Z=TZ
O17
c
dX=X
((n-i-oI)/(nP7cz-))
qvci-vaO
z+x)-'.-o
(svava+1VERO
vS+v)XIO 17( vava-'O
17)xivs=aa ivs+vO z+( vciva-O
xavLVSLVS= ssva;'-vGl7=3
18
z/zzzzz
zz+z=z
(ioo-(zzz)sv)aI
zI+v=v
zIc'olc'olc(v)aI
zcc
)s z
+zvvO)))=zzZ z+z(crnO (au+z(O
zzzlzz=zz
:s
z±ia)
z-1VS=1VS
r'9'8
s.&s.'vava-(s;&O
(s+O
45
551 ET=ET+Z
550 S=S±2.*B*Z
510 A=A-B*Z
z=-zl
GO TO 81
512 S=S-2.*B*Z
IF (5) 550,550,513
513 ET=ET-Z
IF (ET)551,551,514
514 SAT=SAT±2 . 0*Z
IF (SAT) 552,552,515
515 A3=A
BB=A+B* ( CT+D*ET ) +D*F
AA=B*(1 o-D)
.
CC=(A*CTDF*ET)
R=SQRT(BB*BB4 . 0*AA*CC)
Y=(-BB+R)/(2.o*AA)
A=A+B*Y
F=F-B*Y
ET=ET-Y
CT=CT+Y
A4=A
GO TO (600,6o1),IK
601 AA=4,O
BB=4 . *HCO3-FA
CC=HCO3**2+4 .
DD=A*HCO3**a-ZEEXP
(2. 341*U/(1 .+U))
IF(HCO3-A)61, 61,62
61 Z=-HCO3/4.
GO TO 650
62 Z=-A/2.
650 Z1=Z
63 ZZ=- ( ( (AA*Z+BB )*Z+CC)*Z+DD)
zzz=((3 .O*AA*Z+2.0*BB)*Z+CC)
zz=zz/zzz
zzz=zz/z
z=z+zz
IF(ABS(ZZZ)-.001) 64,64,63
64 A=A+Z
HCO3=HCO3+2 .
IF(HCO3)752, 752, 651
752 HCO3=HCO3-2.Z
A=A-Z
z=-z1
GO TO 63
651 IF(A) 752,752,753
753 CAL=CAL-Z
600 ZX=(CA*ECO3*2*EXP
(-2. 341U/(1
.+ufl)
46
48
49
50
51
52
IF(DEL+1.OE-5)24,48,48
IF(DEL-1.OE-5)49,49,24
DEL=A-A2
IF(DEL+1.OE-5)24, 50,50
IF(DEL-1.OE-5)51,51,24
DEL=A-A3
IF(DEL+1.0E.5)24,52,52
IF(DEL-1.OE-5)8,8,24
8 DELA-A4
IF(DEL+1 .OE-5) 24,66,66
66 IF(DEL-1.OE-5)67,67,24
67 GO TO (400,4o1),JI
400 ESPL=100.*SAT/(2.*CT+2.*ET+SAT)
IF(ESPP-ESP1-. 1)201, 201, 200
200 DELS=(ESPP-ESP1)*EC*B/100.
TRT=TRT+DELS/1000.
S=S+DELS/1000.
H=H+DELS/1000.
GO TO 24
201 TRT=TRT*1 .948E7/B
PRINT 2O2,ESP
202 FOBMAT(3X56HTHE EXCHANGEABLE SODIUM PERCENTAGE PRESENT IN THE
SOIL 1ISF5.1,55H. THE POUNDS OF NACL REQUIRED TO TREAT ONE ACRE
OF LAND)
PRINT 2O21,TRT,ESPP
2021 FOBNAT(1X2HISF6.1,56H. WITH THIS TREATMENT IT IS ESTIMATED THAT
THERE WILL BEF5.1,48HPERCENT EXCHANGEABLE SODIUM IN THE SURFACE
INCH. 2)
B=B/(1 .E5*2)
A=A*B/B 1
G=G*B/B 1
F=F*B/B 1
H=H*B/B 1
S=S*B/B 1
HCO3=HCO3B/B 1
B=1.5E5*a/B1
JI=2
GO TO 24
401 ESP1OO.*SAT/(2,*CT+2,*ET+T)
PRINT 500,ESP
500 F0NAT(1X52HTHE ESP FROM A SATURATION EXTRACT IS ESTIMATED TO BE
1F5 .1)
CAL=CAL-1 .0
PRINT 1001,ZE,CAL
1001 FORMAT(1HO2XE1O.3)
GO TO 1000
99 STOP
END
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