t FOR THE YEAR ENDINa JUNE 30, 1948 FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

t FOR THE YEAR ENDINa JUNE 30, 1948 FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

FIFTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

FOR THE YEAR ENDINa

JUNE 30, 1948

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AGRICULTURAL EXPER

UNIVERSITY OP

T STATION idi

BOARD OF REGENTS

DAN E. GARVEY (ex officio) Acting Governor of Arizona

LINNE D. KLEMMEDSON, M.S. (ex officio) ....State Supt. of Public Instruction

MRS. JOSEPH MADISON GREER, B.A., Secretary

CLARENCE E. HOUSTON, B.A., LL.B., M.A

W. R. ELLSWORTH

SAMUEL H. MORRIS, A.B., J.D., President

CLEON T. KNAPP, LL.B

JOHN M. SCOTT

WALTER R. BIMSON

LYNN M. LANEY, B.S., J.D., Treasurer

Term expires Jan., 1949

Term expires Jan., 1949

Term expires Jan., 1951

Term expires Jan., 1951

Term expires Jan., 1953

Term expires Jan., 1953

Term expires Jan., 1955

Term expires Jan., 1955

JAMES BYRON MCCORMICK, S.J.D., LL.D

ROBERT L. NUGENT, Ph.D

President of the University

Vice-President of the University

January 1, 1949

PRESIDENT JAMES BYRON MCCORMICK

UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

DEAR SIR:

I have the pleasure of presenting herewith the Fifty -ninth Annual Report of the Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948.

fiscal statement.

It contains reports of progress on active research projects, brief summaries of other station activities, and the summarized

Respectfully submitted

P. S. BvRC:ess,

Director

Note: The illustration on the cover shows experimental plots of cotton on the University Farm near Tucson.

EXPERIMENT STATION STAFF

P. S. BURGESS, Ph.D

RALPH S. HAWKINS, Ph.D

Director

Vice -Director

AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY AND SOILS DEPARTMENT

WILLIAM T. McGEORGE, M.S

THEOPHIL F. BUEHRER, Ph.D

HOWARD V. SMITH, M.S

GEORGE E. DRAPER, M.S

EDW. L. BREAZEALE, M.S

JOHN L. GRAY, B.S

Agricultural Chemist

Physical Chemist

Associate Agricultural Chemist

Assistant Agricultural Chemist

Assistant Agricultural Chemist

Assistant Agricultural Chemist

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

GEORGE W. BARR, Ed.D

R. E. SELTZER, M.S

SCOTT HATHORN, JR., Ph.D

CHAS. E. ROBERTSON, B.S

Agricultural Economist

Associate Agricultural Economist

Associate Agricultural Economist

Assistant Agricultural Economist

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT (IRRIGATION)

HAROLD C. SCHWALEN, B.S. in M.E., M.S. in C.E

GEORGE E. P. SMITH, C.E., D.Eng

EMMETT R. HOLEKAMP, B.S. in A.E

Agricultural Engineer

Agricultural Engineer

Assistant Agricultural Engineer

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

R. L. MATLOCK, Ph.D

WM. I. THOMAS, B.S

LARUE CHAPMAN, M.S

H. P. CORDS, M.S

*KARL HARRIS, M.S

Agronomist

Assistant Agronomist

Assistant Agronomist

Assistant Agronomist

Associate Irrigation Engineer (Phoenix)

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEPARTMENT

ERNEST B. STANLEY, MS

MAX E. ROBINSON, M.S

BARTLEY P. CARDON, Ph.D

ANIMAL PATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT

WILLIAM J. PISTOR, B.S, D.V.M

BARTLEY P. CARDON, Ph.D

MARION KLINE, B.A

Animal Husbandman

Assistant Animal Husbandman

Assistant Animal Husbandman

Animal Pathologist

Assistant Animal Pathologist

Research Assistant in Animal Pathology

BOTANY AND RANGE ECOLOGY DEPARTMENT

W. S. PHILLIPS, Ph.D

JOHN J. THORNBER, M.A

ROBERT A. DARROW, Ph.D

FRANK W. GOULD, Ph.D

J. C. DIBBERN, Ph.D

E. S. SPOERL, Ph.D

HORACE HASKELL, M.S

Botanist

Taxonomist

Associate Range Ecologist

Assistant Botanist

Assistant Botanist

Assistant Botanist

Research Assistant

DAIRY HUSBANDRY

RICHARD N. DAVIS, M.S

F. G. HARLAND, B.S

ENTOMOLOGY AND ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY DEPARTMENT

CHARLES T. VORHIES, Ph.D

LAWRENCE P. WEHRLE, Ph.D

Dairy Husbandman

Assistant Dairy Husbandman

Economic Zoologist

Associate Entomologist

HORTICULTURE DEPARTMENT

L. M. PULTZ, Ph.D

LELAND BURKHART, Ph.D

STEVE FAZIO, B.S

C. W. VAN HORN, M.S

Z. M. FINEMAN, Ph.D

PAUL B. BROWN, B.S

NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

ARTHUR R. KEMMERER, Ph.D

M. G. VAVICH, Ph.D

ROSALIE E. ACOSTA, B.S

Horticulturist

Associate Horticulturist

Assistant Horticulturist

Associate Horticulturist (Yuma)

Associate Horticulturist (Tempe)

Assistant Horticulturist (Tempe)

Nutrition Chemist

Associate Nutrition Chemist

Research Assistant

PLANT BREEDING DEPARTMENT

WALKER E. BRYAN, M.S

ELIAS H. PRESSLEY, M.S

PLANT PATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT

JAMES G. BROWN, Ph.D

RUPERT B. STREETS, Ph.D

PAUL D. KEENER, Ph.D

ALICE M. BOYLE, M.S

POULTRY HUSBANDRY DEPARTMENT

HARRY EMBLETON, B.S

HUBERT B. HINDS, M.S

Plant Breeder

Associate Plant Breeder

Plant Pathologist

Associate Plant Pathologist

Assistant Plant Pathologist

Research Assistant

Poultry Husbandman

Associate Poultry Husbandman

In co- operation with United States Dept. of Agr., Bureau of Plant Industry.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

RESULTS OE THE YEAR'S RESEARCH

5

Agricultural Chemistry and Soils

Chlorosis

Field Experiments

Soil Minerals

A New Phosphate Fertilizer

Soil Analysis

Soil Surveys

Pump Engine Exhaust

Feeds, Fertilizers, Economic Poisons, Agricultural Minerals

Agricultural Economics

Agricultural Engineering

Groundwater Studies

Continuation of Groundwater Investigations

Cotton Mechanization

The Annual Water Supply Forecast

The Tamarisk Tree and Its Wood

8

9

Agronomy

Alfalfa

Cotton

Guar

Oil Seed Crops

Castor Bean Seed

Flax

Peanuts

Sesame

Sunflowers

Small Grains

Sorghums

Miscellaneous

Animal Husbandry

Cattle Fattening Tests

Vitamin A, Folic Acid and Thiouracil as Supplements to

Cattle Fattening Rations

Pasture Studies

Digestion Studies

Animal Pathology

Idiopathic Hemoglobinuria

Leptospirosis

Cyanide Poisoning

14

23

24

24

Botany and Range Ecology

25

Arizona Range Resources and Their Utilization

25

Grasses Adapted to Aritificial Reseeding in Desert Grasslands 25

Economic Value of Some Range Plants Under Cultivation

26

Dairy Husbandry

Lactating Factors for Dairy Cows in Dried Grapefruit Peel

Dried Citrus Meal as a Feed for Dairy Cows and Calves

Minerals

Permanent Pastures

29

29

30

30

30

Entomology and Economic Zoology

Economic Zoology Investigations

Entomology

30

30

31

25

25

25

25

18

19

19

19

20

21

23

14

16

17

18

18

23

23

9

11

12

12

13

5

6

6

5

5

5

5

8

7

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

Horticulture

Citrus Investigations

Miscellaneous Studies

Vegetable Investigations

Snap Beans Promising as a Fall Crop

Nutrition

Nutritional Status Co- operative Project

Physiological Availability of Food Factors

Amino Acid Contents of Fruits and Vegetables

Dried Citrus Meal in Rations of Dairy Cows

Plant Breeding

Alfalfa

Wheat

Upland Cotton Breeding

Long Staple Cotton

Plant Pathology

Alfalfa Bacterial Wilt

Verticillium Wilt of Cotton

Phymatotrichum (Texas or Cotton) Root Rot

Miscellaneous Studies

Barley Diseases

Citrus Root Diseases

Diseases of Guar

Control of Flax Wilt

Lettuce Drop (Watery Brown Rot)

Poultry Husbandry

Breeding Inheritance Studies

Thyroprotein Feeding

X -Ray Treatment of Hatching Eggs

APPENDIX

Analytical Service

Twenty -sixth Arizona Egg Laying Test

Weather Observations

Climatological Summary for the University of Arizona

Weather Station, 1947

Summary of Station Publications

Technical Bulletins

General Bulletins

Mimeographed Reports

Annual Report

Other Publications

Financial Statement

PAGE

31

31

33

34

35

36

36

36

36

36

37

37

37

37

39

39

39

40

40

40

40

41

41

41

41

42

42

44

46

46

46

46

47

48

49

49

49

49

49

49

51

RESULTS OF THE YEAR'S RESEARCH

AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY AND SOILS

CHLOROSIS

Studies on lime- induced chlorosis have been continued during the past year with some attention being given to deciduous fruits and hegari. The former was shown to give a quick response to injection of dry iron citrate in the trunk. The hegari responded to side dressing with a sulphur- manure mixture containing iron and manganese sulphates. In both cases leaf analyses after treatment showed an increase in per cent active iron in the leaves, a reduction in per cent citric acid, and an increase in oxalic. Our research has shown that these three factors play a major role in lime -induced chlorosis, that is, chlorotic leaves are lower in active iron, higher in citric acid, and lower in oxalic acid than green leaves.

FIELD EXPERIMENTS

Under this project fertilizer experiments are being conducted on farms in the Salt River Valley. Studies comparing surface and deep applications of phosphate are being conducted with cotton, alfalfa, and grains. The most significant observation made to date is a 40 -acre field of which 20 acres had just come out of alfalfa and the other 20 acres had been in cotton for five years previous. In both blocks a response to fertilizer was obtained but the unfertilized cotton in the area just out of alfalfa gave a greater yield than the fertilized cotton from the area which had been in cotton for five years previous.

SOIL MINERALS

Soils of very poor structure and difficult to reclaim are predominantly montmorillonite mineral types while those that can be more easily reclaimed are predominantly illite mineral types.

The principal difference between these two mineral types is that in illite potassium holds the layer packages of the clay structure together. The structure of montmorillonite clay has been improved by treating with potash salts. The resulting colloids are notably more friable and granular.

A NEW PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER

Tests were conducted during the year with a new phosphate fertilizer called thermophos. This is a "glass" type phosphate made by fusing serpentine, a magnesium silicate, with phosphate rock. The sample used in our tests contained 20.3 per cent total phosphate and 10.8 per cent available - soluble in neutral ammonium citrate.

5

6

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

Neubauer tests and pot experiments were used to measure the availability of this phosphate for calcareous soils. In the past we have found that the particle size is an important factor in the availability of these lesser soluble phosphates. Therefore the material was ground to several degrees of fineness for comparison with the factory run of single superphosphate and treble superphosphate. Barley seedlings were used in the test and the soil used was one on which a phosphate response has been positive in the field. Both the Neubauer test and the pot experiments showed that the availability of thermophos increases with increase in fineness of particle size. Tomatoes were used for the pot experiment. The values obtained from the Neubauer tests with barley are given in Table 1.

TABLE 1.- AVAILABILITY OF THERMOPHOS

Fertilizer

Mgm. P2O5 added

Sand

Soil

Soil none none

Thermo. 18 mesh

Soil

Thermo. 100 mesh

Soil

Soil

Soil

Soil

Soil

Soil

Single factory

Treble factory

Thermo. 18 mesh

100

Thermo. 100 mesh

100

Single factory

Treble factory

0

0

30

30

30

30

100

100

Mgm. P2O5 uptake

31.1

36.2

36.4

49.2

50.0

52.6

42.4

52.3

58.8

66.4

Mgm. P2O5 Per cent P2O5 taken up uptake from from fert.

fert.

0.2

13.0

13.8

16.4

6.2

16.1

22.6

20.2

0.6

43.3

46.0

54.7

6.2

16.1

22.6

30.2

Availability of Thermophos increases with fineness but even at

100 mesh is less than single superphosphate or treble superphosphate.

SOIL ANALYSIS

The department annually analyses about 2,000 soil samples for farmers over the state. The methods in use are based largely on soil research conducted in our laboratory. In order to properly interpret these analyses correlations between laboratory analyses and crop performance in the field must be established. For several years our Phoenix laboratory has been making phosphate tests on soils from alfalfa test plots where the Extension Service has conducted fertilizer tests. Table 2 shows that the correlation between laboratory analysis and field test is quite good.

The figures in this table represent percentage increase in yield of alfalfa. In the interpretation of our soil analyses we classify all soils below 5 p.p.m. as needing phosphate fertilization, those within the range of 6 -10 p.p.m. as probably needing phosphate fertilization, and those above 10 p.p.m. as probably not needing fertilization.

SOIL SURVEYS

During the past year the department has co- operated with the

U.S.D.A. Soil Survey Division in revising the soil surveys in Yava-

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

7

TABLE 2.- RELATION BETWEEN SOIL ANALYSIS AND PHOSPHATE

RESPONSE IN ALFALFA

Test number

6

10

11

1

2

12

14

Avge.

p.p.m PO4 in soil

Surface application cuttings

1 2

3

0 -

5 p.p.m. phosphate test on soil

Covered application cuttings

1

2

3

3

3

3

2

3

2

5

20

60

370

40

10

100

30

10

70

50

30

10

40

30

10

60

20

24

6 -

10 p.p.m. phosphate test on soil

20

50

150

30

50

50

30

40

30

10

32

30

40

40

40

10

32

3

8

15

19

Avge.

13

17

7

7

8

8

0

40

10

17

10

10

Over 10 p.p.m. phosphate test on soil

0

70

35

25

14

0

0

0

0 pai County and in the Sulphur Springs area. This field work is now complete and the reports are ready for publication.

Chemical and physical laboratory studies are being made on samples collected during the major surveys that have been made in the state during the past fifteen to twenty years. The object of this work is to learn more about the soils listed under the different classifications by the surveyors and especially to correlate the chemical and physical properties with field performance.

PUMP ENGINE EXHAUST

A new problem in connection with irrigation agriculture in Arizona is the use of pump engine exhaust in the irrigation water.

The exhaust from pump engines fueled with natural gas and diesel oil contain 10 - 12 per cent carbon dioxide which is a weak and rather unstable acid when dissolved in water. Exhaust from diesel engines may also contain some sulphur dioxide, and about

80 per cent nitrogen. The nitrogen is of course inert and therefore not absorbed by the water. A few pH tests on irrigation waters made during the year show that in waters where the pH is as high as 8.5 the gas may reduce the pH, temporarily, about 1 pH unit but the reduction is less for waters of lower pH values. This is illustrated by the following analyses: pH of water pH of water before treatment after treatment

8.3

7.4

1

7.8

7.5

2

7.6

7.6

3

8

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

These tests show that there will be a slight reduction in pH of water when the pump engine exhaust is run into the irrigation water. Whether this lower pH will benefit the soils and whether the increase in carbonates and bicarbonates will injure or improve the soil remains to be seen.

FEEDS, FERTILIZERS, ECONOMIC POISONS, AGRICULTURAL

MINERALS

The head of the Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soils is designated by law as State Chemist for the enforcement of four control laws concerned with the sale of feeds, fertilizers, economic poisons, and agricultural minerals in Arizona. The following table shows the number of registrations and number of samples analysed:

Fertilizers

Mixed feeds

Cottonseed meal

Mineral feeds

Economic poisons

Agricultural minerals

Number of brands registered

131

1947

23

126

767

27

Number of samples analysed

77

485

33

16

129

24

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Several attacks were made during the year on the problems connected with the marketing of desert grapefruit. In the first place, an analysis was made of the acreage, production, shipments, and prices applying to desert grapefruit. The findings and compilations of data were issued in Agricultural Experiment Station

Miscellaneous Report No. 83, Production, Shipments, Markets and

Prices of Desert Grapefruit.

A study of the weight per packed box of desert grapefruit was made because the weight on which freight charges are based was believed to be too high. Boxes were weighed at several shipping centers and periodically throughout the season, approximately ten thousand boxes in all being weighed. While the study is incomplete, the findings through June 30 showed the following: actual weight 75.5 pounds, rate on which freight is calculated

76 pounds.

A retail store survey to determine brands, prices, and retail margins for fresh and processed grapefruit products was conducted in Tucson. One hundred and twenty -four stores were visited. At the time of the survey grapefruit was selling in some stores for 3c per pound, in others for as much as 15c per pound.

Prices were lowest in large stores serving customers in the medium income group.

A yellow, 8 -pound bag for fresh grapefruit was introduced and tested by comparing sales with the standard red bag now in use.

It was found that the yellow bag was more attractive to most customers. This bag has been adopted by packers at Phoenix and it may be instrumental in giving a separate identity to Arizona grapefruit.

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

9

In co- operation with the Container Corporation of America, a new paperboard secondary container for bagged citrus was developed. Carload lots were shipped from Phoenix to Chicago in order to make direct comparisons between different types of paper boxes and wooden boxes. The findings indicate that paper boxes may have a place in the future shipment of citrus.

Miscellaneous

Report No. 84, Possibilities of Paperboard Containers For Fresh

Grapefruit, summarizes the results of this study.

A complete analysis of cost, practices, and returns was made on about fifteen alfalfa farms during the year. This study shows the practices being followed by successful farmers and compares the cost of operation under different practices and marketing routes. Alfalfa Production Practices and Cost Comparisons, Experiment Station Bulletin 215, depicts the findings.

Farm income was large in Arizona in 1947 not only as a result of high prices but because of the substantial increase in acreage irrigated. A publication (Arizona Agriculture, 1948, Experiment

Station Bulletin 211) issued in January, 1948, pointed out that

100,000 acres of land had been developed for irrigation in a four year period ended with 1947. A map was included showing the location of the more than one million acres of land that was irrigated in 1947 or had been irrigated in recent years.

A new field entered during the year was market research directed at opening up channels of trade for irrigated cotton. Most of the year's work was an attempt to analyze the market practices of the producer in Arizona. The work was carried on in co- operation with workers in ten other cotton growing states and is being continued the following year.

AGRICUTURAL ENGINEERING

GROUNDWATER STUDIES

Upper Santa Cruz valley

A comparison of water levels in October and November of 1948 with those a year previous indicates a general lowering of the water table except for a short distance below the Mexican Boundary. In the vicinity of the Nogales City pumping plant the maximum lowering of 7 feet occurred, between here and Calabasas the lowering averaged about 1.5 feet. Between Calabasas and Continental a lowering of between 1 and 2 feet was observed in this period.

The Continental -Sahuarita areas were subjected to very heavy pumping during the 1948 season and this was reflected by a general lowering of water levels in wells varying between 2 feet and 6 feet. Variations in residual lowering in individual wells must be accounted for by the differences in opportunity for recharge, both from the Santa Cruz stream channel and from adjacent valley side slopes.

In the San Xavier area average residual lowering of approximately .50 of a foot occurred with individual wells showing no lowering. Between here and Tucson pumping during the irri-

10

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION gation season and almost continuous pumping at the City of

Tucson's well farm has resulted in lowering of between 2 feet and 5 feet.

Recharge to the entire Upper Santa Cruz Valley from stream flow was limited for the most part to a short period of flood flow during the first three weeks in August with no opportunity for recharge during the preceding winter of 1947 -48. Water levels in the fall of 1948 were the lowest for the period of record (since

1939) for this time of the year.

The Tucson area

Except for a few small sections of the area data for a water table contour map have been obtained. The map has been completed and the quality of waters study has now covered almost the entire area. Additional information as to the character of the aquifer, particularly in the fringe portions, is being acquired.

Water level measurements in the spring of 1948 as compared with those taken in 1947 show that a general lowering of between

2 to 4 feet occurred in the central portion of the area extending northeastward toward Rillito Creek and Pantano Wash. This is the area of heaviest pumping by the City of Tucson and suburban water companies. Spotted areas along the Rillito and the Flowing

Wells Irrigation District showed lowering of from 4 to 6 feet as the result of irrigation draft on the groundwater basin. Less than average or normal recharge accounts for part of this lowering, but probably does not account for all of the residual loss to the basin.

Cortaro -Marana district

Average annual pumping draft in the Cortaro area for the ten year period 1937 -47, inclusive, amounted to approximately 22,000 acre -feet with an average residual lowering of the water table in the pumping area of about 2 feet. The draft in 1947 was about

29,000 acre -feet and the lowering, as shown in the spring of 1948, was about 3.6 feet. Water levels reached the lowest point in the history of the project and continued underdrainage of the valley side slopes occurred. The accelerated lowering due to 1947 pumping draft was due to increased pumping draft and the limited opportunity for recharge from flood flows in the Santa Cruz River.

The combined flow of the Santa Cruz River and Rillito Creek was only 8,300 acre -feet in 1947.

In the Marana well area the pumping draft was somewhat less than 14,000 acre -feet with resultant residual lowering of the water table of about 1.8 feet. In 1948 four additional wells were

put in operation by the project and the pumping draft was

greater than previously. Pumping draft adjacent to the project on the southwest has also increased and some competition from about 2,000 acres under irrigation in this area will be felt.

The Eloy district

Overpumping of the Eloy area continues and accelerated lowering of the water table has taken place. At the unused Wagner well in the S. E. corner of Section 24, T 8 S, R 7 E, which serves

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

11 as an indicator well for the central portion of the area, the depth to water was 171.1 feet in February, 1947, about 189 feet early in

September, and had recovered to 181.5 feet by February, 1948.

Thus a residual lowering at this well resulting from the 1947 pumping season is indicated to be 10.4 feet.

A water table lowering map prepared for the State Water Commissioner shows an area of maximum lowering in the central part of the area of over 90 feet as compared with virgin conditions. Studies also show a reversal of groundwater flow toward the Eloy area in the Santa Cruz Valley south of the Casa Grande

Mountains. The deepest part of the groundwater trough now lies two miles west of Eloy and extends in a north -south direction.

The original slope of the groundwater was approximately 13 feet per mile in this area in a northwesterly direction. The present slope appears to be not much over 3 feet per mile in a northerly direction along the axis of the trough, the water drains toward the trough from both sides in the unwatering process.

CONTINUATION OF GROUNDWATER INVESTIGATIONS

Little Chino valley

The irrigated acreage in the Little Chino Valley artesian area has continued to increase from approximately 2,100 acres in 1946 to 2,400 acres in 1947, and to about 3,000 acres in 1948. In addition several wells in the Chino Valley Irrigation District have been put into operation to augment their gravity water supply.

Artesian pressure and water level measurements are made prior to the irrigation season in March or April of each year as a measure of the effect of the previous season's pumping upon the artesian basin. Because of the early and out -of- season pumping in

1947 the results of that spring's measurements cannot be compared with those in 1948. A comparison of the measurements made in the spring of 1948 with those of 1946 shows an apparent residual lowering, as the result of two years pumping, in the artesian area of 3.75 feet. The well at the Prescott airport showed a lowering of 3.1 feet for the same period. This well is over 7 miles south of the pumping area. To the east along Granite Creek and in Lonesome Valley four wells showed a lowering of 3.7

feet. The farthest distance of these wells from the pumping area is over 6 miles and their consistent and almost equal annual lowering to those in the artesian area cannot as yet be explained.

In 1944, upon recommendation of the Agricultural Engineering

Department, the City of Prescott drilled a test well at the airport in search of an auxiliary water supply. The results were disappointing and at that time it was suggested that the city go down into the proven artesian area in Little Chino Valley for their water supply. Apparently, the consulting engineers, later employed to design extensive improvements to the city water system concurred in this recommendation, for the city now has two wells in the artesian area. Water is pumped through about 15 miles of pipe line to a storage reservoir in Prescott. Maximum pumpage during the summer of 1948 amounted to 92 acre -feet in the month

12

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION of July. This is equivalent to about the same amount of water used in the irrigation of about 30 acres of crop land per season.

COTTON MECHANIZATION

Studies were initiated this year to determine the effectiveness of mechanical cotton pickers with three varieties of cotton -

Santan Acala, BX -33, and Paula. These varieties were planted with 5, 6.8, 8, and 10.7 pounds of acid delinted seed per acre with some additional plantings of 12 -inch hill spacing. A good stand was secured in all plantings. One -half of the rows were thinned to a standard spacing of approximately 12 inches for comparison of effectiveness of machine picking of closely spaced planting versus standard spacing in the rows.

Seed was planted on beds for furrow irrigation which were disked and harrowed down to about one -half their height just prior to seeding. Seed was placed at a depth of about 2 inches and followed by two 12 -inch cultivator disks, throwing a ridge about 4 inches high over the seed rows. Just prior to emergence this ridge was knocked off with a heavy wood drag to approximately the original surface of the seedbed.

Tests will also be run to determine the value of cleaning

machine -picked cotton before it is packed and tramped into trailers for hauling to the gin. A burr extractor type cleaner has been mounted on a trailer for this work. It is hoped that, the grade of machine -picked cotton may be improved to more nearly equal that of the hand -picked cotton by precleaning.

THE ANNUAL WATER SUPPLY FORECAST

The annual forecast of expected irrigation water supplies was broadcast over an Arizona radio network on March 23, 1948, and was given wide publicity by the newspapers of the state. Normally by this time the winter season of precipitation is over and some information is available as to the condition of the snow pack at higher elevations on the watershed areas. At this time of the year the farmer must make his decision as to his planting program for the coming season on the basis of the water supply which may be available. The three driest months of the year,

April, May, and June, follow and no rainfall of appreciable amount may be expected until the undependable season of summer rains.

Winter precipitation was again below normal over most of the watershed areas and even though the snowfall in February and early March gave early promise of fair supplies, this snow was dissipated by a great mass of dry polar air with strong westerly and northerly winds. A repetition of 1939 stream flow conditions appeared likely with slightly greater runoff than in 1947, but not nearly enough to replenish the supplies in the nearly empty reservoirs of the state.

Groundwater supplies would again be pumped to the limit in the 1948 season and further residual lowering of the groundwater table in all our major pumping areas could be expected. Average residual lowering of the water table as the result of the 1947

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

13 pumping season had been about 4 feet in the Safford

Valley, 7 feet in the Salt River Valley, and 10 feet in the Eloy and Casa

Grande valleys.

Most critical was the outlook for the farmers in the San

Carlos

Project, where it was estimated that the available water supply from stream flow and storage in the Coolidge Reservoir up to the summer rainy season would amount to only 34,000 acre -feet.

Later measured records of stream flow showed they actually obtained 34,600 acre -feet. Pumpage for the calendar year

1948 was limited to 125,000 acre -feet, with a maximum of 15,000 acre feet in any one month. Farmers in this project were advised to plan on adequate water supplies for not more than 50 per cent of their acreage before the summer rainy season, for alfalfa not more than one -third.

The Salt River Valley Water Users' Association also faced a difficult year, the seventh consecutive year of below normal runoff. They started the irrigation season with 150,000 acre -feet less water in storage than in 1947. The Board of Governors had made an allotment of 2 acre -feet of pumped and stored water per acre.

It was recommended that only those farmers having early natural -flow rights, special pump rights, or private wells should plant more than two -thirds of their acreage.

The forecast stated that only in the Yuma Valley, and in Navajo and Apache counties were adequate normal water supplies to be expected. The Little Chino Valley Irrigation District would be entirely dependent upon its pumped water, available only to a part of the north end of the District. Safford and Duncan valleys would again have to secure most of their water from groundwater supplies although they could expect slightly more gravity water than in 1947 when 80 per cent of their supply was pumped water.

THE TAMARISK TREE AND ITS WOOD

Preservative treatment of tamarisk fence posts

The annual winter inspections of treated posts set in or near fence lines showed:

1. Of the twenty -five posts treated in 1934, no failures.

2. Of the 140 posts in east fence line, George Kinne ranch near

Coolidge, two more failures making a total of thirteen in twelve years, about equally divided between the posts treated green and those treated after seasoning.

3. Of the posts treated and set in the ground in 1942, the forty nine posts on Trowbridge -Page ranch, no failures; of the fifty posts set on University Farm, four new failures making a total of nine, of which six had been treated with wood -tar creosote and three with pentachlorophenol.

The Experiment Station furnished five gallons of pentachlorophenol to W. A. Schafer for experimental treatment of fifty aspen fence posts about 6 inches in diameter. The preservative was diluted with 25 gallons of stove fuel oil. The posts were stood in the treatment barrel for two to four days, with the depth of liquid

14

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION about 30 inches. About 10 gallons were absorbed, making the cost for preservative 7.2 cents per post. The posts were treated and set in the ground in November, 1947, and the test for length of life begins at that time.

Plantings of tamarisk trees for saw logs

Fertilizer tests and forest management tests are continuing on the two blocks of tamarisk on the Yuma Valley experimental farm. Heavier applications of nitrogen showed definite response in contrast with the earlier tests with nitrogen; and where "mineral mix" was applied in the same furrow with the nitrate, even greater diameter growth resulted. Still heavier applications should be tried.

The pathologic or nutritional condition developed in October,

1943, on both blocks. The north block recovered voluntarily in

1946. Efforts are being continued to determine the cause and the remedy of the strange condition.

The best grove, which is in the south block, was topped in

March, 1946, and one row in the north block in June, 1946. The resulting effect on growth of trees in diameter is delayed, there being little growth the first year after topping but excellent growth the second year. New tree tops developed rapidly. The best grove should have been thinned also. The center of north block was thinned in June, 1947, and subsequent diameter growth of the "released" trees has increased.

Neither block has been irrigated for several years, except a few irrigations on fertilized rows to make the fertilizer available.

The east part of the north block has not been irrigated since 1942, but the growth has equalled that of the west part. The water table has varied between 3 and 6 feet depth.

The young sprouts in 1942 were thinned to one as follows: the odd -numbered rows in June, the others in September. The latter have shown a slightly better growth through the succeeding years.

Mr. J. Donny, a man with considerable experience in forestry, became interested in tamarisk as a source of wood for bobbins.

Assistance has been given him. Some wood was sent to manufacturers of bobbins, and bobbins of excellent quality were made.

Dogwood is ideal for such use, but the wood of tamarisk is very similar to that of dogwood trees, very hard and strong with high shock resistance. The tendency of tamarisk to check would require special care in drying.

AGRONOMY

ALFALFA

Fertilizer test, Mesa Farm

In the third year of this test of Hairy Peruvian alfalfa all the plots fertilized at seeding time continued to produce more hay than the unfertilized. The heavier rates of phosphate fertilizer

(about 250 lb. P2O5) produced better yields than the lighter rates

(about 85 lb. P205)

.

In the third year, plots which received 10 T.

manure plus 200 lb. treble superphosphate were producing better

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

15 in relation to the other non -manure treatments. Manure alone

(10 T.) had scarcely repaid its cost through the second year. The plots given 200 lb. treble superphosphate produced yields above the checks (untreated) sufficient to return in two years about

$40 over fertilizer costs.

Variety test, Gila Project Farm, Yuma

Southwestern varieties only were included in this test started during the winter of 1946 -47. All plots were given 100 lb. or more of P.,O; in treble superphosphate. They were irrigated alike

(about twenty -five irrigations) and cut together the first season.

The first cutting was discarded because it contained considerable barley from the nurse crop.

Yields from four additional cuttings were as follows: African

-8,530 lb., Hairy Peruvian -8,090 lb., India -8,060 lb., Arizona

Chilean (Common) -7,410 lb., and Chilean 21 -5 -7,400 lb.

Variety test, Mesa Farm

A well -replicated seeding of six southwestern varieties was made in November of 1946. Yields of field -cured hay during the first year were as shown in Table 3.

After the second cutting the varieties were cut in two groups because of the difference in speed of recovery. While the new, fast -recovering African and India varieties recovered more rapidly all season, they made the same total hay crops as the others.

Varieties, cutting dates, and yields are shown in the accompanying table.

TABLE 3.- ALFALFA VARIETY TEST, MESA FARM -1947

Ariz. Chilean

Hairy Peruvian

Chilean 21 -5

India

African (big seed)

African

3/24 5/20 6/30

8/11 10/4 11/13 19,188

3/24 5/20

6/30

8 /11

10/4

11/13 17,749

3/24 5/20 6/30 8/11 10/4

11/13

17,170

3/24 5/20 6/26 7/23 9/16

11/3

16,891

3/24 5/20

6/26 7/23 9/16 11/3 16,337

3/24 5/20

6/26

7/23

9/16 11/3

16,275

The data in Table 3 should not be taken as conclusive proof that our common variety- Arizona Chilean -is superior in yielding ability to all the others for Salt River Valley conditions.

Such a test needs to be continued for at least two or three years before final conclusions can be drawn.

Variety test, Safford Farm

At the new Experiment Station Farm a seeding of southwestern varieties was established early in the spring of 1947. Safford

Common was seeded as a check and all varieties were cut together the first year. The yields secured from the three cuttings are only indicative of what may be expected over a three- or four -year period.

Hay yields, calculated from green weight samples, were as follows: African -8,600 lb., Chilean 21 -5 -8,590 lb., Hairy Peruvian -8,410 lb., Safford Common-6,600 lb., India -6,460 lb., and

Arizona Chilean -6,450 lb. All varieties maintained full stands

16

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION through the summer of 1948 despite a winter minimum of 80°F.

and several temperatures below 15 °F.

COTTON

Variety tests, Mesa Farm

Results from the 1947 cotton variety test are presented in

Table 4. Considerable interest has been shown in the Paula -C variety of cotton as it is very early but still has the ability to yield well.

Its use on root -rot land is clearly indicated, and it may be of considerable value under other conditions where an early crop is desirable. Three hundred acres are being tried in

Santa Cruz County where the growing season is a little short for the Acala variety. Four plantings have been made in the warmer regions to test its ability to get ahead of the heavy insect damage generally encountered in those areas. Tests are also being made with this variety to see if it can be raised with less irrigation water.

TABLE 4.- COTTON VARIETY TEST -MESA EXPERIMENT FARM, 1947

Variety

Pounds per acre lint

Acala Pressley (BX -33)

Acala

Paula C.

1187

1155

1106

Delta & Pine land No. 14

1104

Cokers 100 staple

Cokers 100 -6 (wilt)

979

871

Difference required to be significant

.01

.05

189

140

Percentage of lint

36.6

37.2

34.9

39.6

35.5

39.6

1.0

.5

Staple length

(inches)

1 -1/8

1 -1 /16

1 -1/16

1 -1/32

1 -1/8

1 -3/32

.6

.5

Bolls per lb.

seed cotton

66.2

64.7

68.5

78.6

80.4

70.5

Strength

(PI)

847

743

811

742

784

776

4.0

3.0

37

28

Defoliation

A number of defoliating compounds supplied by various chemical companies have been tested during the past year. No completely satisfactory defoliant has been found, but results in detail are being sent to those companies to guide them in their opera-

tions. A number of new materials are much better than the

old calcium cyanimide used for several years, but they are costly and do not do the job unless some moisture is present on the leaf surface.

Calcium cyanimide still must be recommended for cotton growing areas above 2,400 feet where it has proved fairly satisfactory when dew conditions exist. For areas below 2,400 feet no recommendation can be made yet.

Fertilizer test, Mesa Farm

Cotton fertilizer tests conducted during the past two years indicate a definite need for nitrogen at a rather heavy rate (60 -100 lb. N. per acre) on worn out cotton land. Increased yields were also obtained with phosphate alone, but only about enough to pay for the fertilizer. The combination of nitrogen plus phos-

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

17

TABLE 5. -COSTS AND RETURNS FROM FERTILIZING UPLAND

COTTON, MESA EXPERIMENT FARM, 1947

Treatment i

Cost of fertilizer plus applications

Check (no treatment)

300 lb. Ammonium Nitrate

500 lb. Ammonium Sulfate

$15.00

20.00

300 lb. Treble Superphosphate

12.50

300 lb. Treble Superphosphate

300 lb. plus Ammonium Nitrate

27.50

or

500 lb. Ammonium Sulfate 32.50

Yield -lb.

per acre seed cotton

Increased return per acre after deducting extra cost of picking, ginning, fertilizers, etc.

1300

1800

1800

1450

2200

2200

$35.00

30.00

None

62.50

57.59

phate gave the highest yields, and the highest profits. Table 4 presents a summary of much detailed data that may serve as a guide to growers in the purchase of commercial inorganic fertilizers for worn out cotton land.

Date of planting triais, Mesa Farm

The date of planting trials over the years has clearly shown that early planting greatly increases yields. During the past year an early variety of cotton was included in the date of planting trials. Results indicate that even early maturing varieties must be planted early for best results.

Moisture in cotton lint and cotton spinnability

Work on this moisture phase of cotton spinnability has been completed during the past year and the results published in

Arizona Technical Bulletin, Number 115. Studies are now being made on the effect of climatic factors on fiber maturity and strength in order to develop means of further improving the intrinsic value of Arizona cotton.

Cotton mechanization

Work on this project has indicated that rate of seeding is not critical in cotton production. If the seedbed is not conducive to a good stand, extra amounts of seed will not prevent failure. Thinning also seems unnecessary from a yield standpoint. Experiments are being conducted in the use of field cleaners on picker machines to improve the grade and staple of machine - picked cotton so as to improve its value in relation to hand -picked lint.

GUAR

Considerable experimental work has been done by this Station with this legume crop, a relative newcomer to Arizona agriculture. In 1947, tests with guar were conducted at Experiment

Station Farms at Mesa, Safford, Tucson, and Yuma. Included were tests of different varieties for seed production; date of seeding; an irrigation test; plant spacing; and a test to determine whether guar could be grown and cut for hay, then be allowed to regrow to produce a profitable seed crop.

18 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

An Experiment Station bulletin on guar is in publication. It

carries rather complete reports of experimental work done

through 1947.

OIL SF.F.D CROPS

Prices for various kinds of vegetable oil have continued on a high level since the war. Arizona growers have been producing seed flax for oil for several years. Recently interest has developed in producing peanuts for oil. Other oil seed crops on which some experimental work has been done are castor seed, sesame, soybeans, and sunflowers. Reports of work done in 1947 on some of the foregoing crops are given in the succeeding section.

Variety test, Mesa Farm

CASTOR BEAN SEED

This test was run in co- operation with the Bureau of Plant

Industry, U.S.D.A., and the Baker Castor Oil Company of California. Six varieties were planted on April 8 in well -replicated, pre- irrigated plots.

Six irrigations were given after planting and the crop was grown rather easily except for considerable watergrass invasion. The crop was hand harvested, although machinery for harvesting castor bean seed now has been developed. Yields by varieties were as follows: Kentucky 38 -2,200 lb.,

No. 93 -2,123 lb., Conner -1,917 lb., No. 71 -1,844 lb., Wieman-

1,334 lb., and No. 227 -1,090 lb. Differences between the first four varieties were not significant. If and when suitable harvesting machinery becomes available, castor seed production offers interesting possibilities to Arizona growers.

FLAX

Variety test, Mesa Farm

A selection from Punjab (C. I. 1115) which is replacing that variety in California, was again the leading variety in our tests.

It has averaged 8 per cent higher yields than the parent variety during the three -year period in which the two have been compared at Mesa.

Variety test, Yuma Valley Farm

This test was designed to determine the relative yielding abilities of a number of wilt- resistant northern flax varieties in comparison with adapted flaxes, which have no resistance to this disease. None of these introduced varieties was particularly promising; the highest yielding of the northern sorts (Dakota) produced only 75 per cent as much seed as Punjab and the Punjab selections tested. Two of the Punjab selections (C.I. 1114 and

C. I. 1115) produced slightly higher yields than the parent variety in this test.

Fertilizer test, Mesa Farm

This test again emphasized the importance of nitrogen in flax nutrition at Mesa. Phosphate applications produced no increase in yield when used either alone or in combination with nitrogenous fertilizers.

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

19

Applications of as much as 100 units of nitrogen per acre again were highly profitable. The test indicates that the full amount of nitrogen should be applied rather early. Applications made at the flowering stage were less effective than those made earlier.

A treatment receiving the full 100 units of nitrogen per acre prior to planting produced yields comparable to the best in the experiment.

PEANUTS

University Farm, Tucson

Considerable interest has developed in peanut production in southern Arizona. About 1,500 acres were planted commercially in 1948. Three tests were established using fourteen varieties obtained from the Georgia Experiment Station. The Spanish types which seem to do best are well suited to mechanical handling. Yields have ranged from a ton to a ton and one -half an acre. The crop, of course, has additional value in the forage which amounts to about a ton per acre. That has value either as a feed or a fertilizer.

An increased acreage of this crop seems probable unless crop production goals restrict it.

Culture is the same as for cotton except that peanuts may be planted much deeper and early planting is less important than with cotton. While peanuts are semi -drought- resistant, they respond well to extra water. The rows should be well hilled up to assist in "pegging." Rolling the plants to promote pegging is of doubtful value. They may be dug with a potato digger and threshed with a standard combine with special attachments.

SESAME

Variety and date of planting tests

Plantings of several varieties were made at different dates on five Station Farms. Satisfactory stands were secured only at the

Gila Project Farm, Yuma, at Mesa and at Tucson. June plantings at Mesa and Tucson were much more heavily fruited than July plantings.

Sesame proved to be very well suited to southern Arizona conditions. On Mesa and Tucson Farm soils five or six irrigations after planting are sufficient. More, of course, are needed on the very sandy Yuma Mesa soil. Hand harvested yields for the three locations ranged from a low of about 600 lb. to a high of over 1,600 lb. per acre. In most cases, due to delayed harvesting, considerable seed was lost from shattering.

If harvesting problems can be overcome, sesame production, at current prices of about $200 a ton F.O.B., Los Angeles, has definite possibilities.

SUNFLOWERS

Work with sunflower seed production is being carried on in co- operation with a grower. Information on date of planting, irrigation, and general culture is being obtained. A combine to harvest sunflowers has been developed by a national farm machinery

20

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION concern. A limited acreage may develop for local consumption because of the apparent drought- resistance of the crop and the value of the seed for certain special purposes.

SMALL GRAINS

Variety tests, Mesa Farm

A selection from Arivat, which in past years has been referred to as Arivat 18, has been approved for certification by the Arizona

Crop Improvement Association and named Improved Arivat. It is being released this year. This variety again leads all others in the advanced variety test, and is the only one which has consistently produced more grain than Arivat.

Two selections from the Cross Vaughn X Scarab made several years ago by Dr. A. T. Bartel show enough promise to be included in the advanced barley variety test next year. One of these Appears to be superior to Vaughn for pasture, as well as having out yielded Improved Arivat in grain production.

Attempts to find an oat variety superior in yield to California

Red for Southern Arizona again have been unsuccessful.

Awned Onas, a soft white wheat, again led all other varieties tested at Mesa. This variety is being increased for early release.

Two other varieties (Lemhi and Fedawa) have produced significantly higher yields than Baart 38 during the three -year period that these varieties have been compared at Mesa.

Variety tests, Safford Farm

These tests, although hampered by nonuniform soil conditions and insect attack, indicate that those varieties adapted to Salt

River Valley conditions are in general also well adapted to the

Safford area. Tentative recommendations for this area are as follows: Barley - Arivat or Improved Arivat for grain, Vaughn for pasture; wheat -Baart 38 at present, Awned Onas when released; oats -California Red for grain, Markton for pasture.

Fertilizer test, Mesa Farm

In this test, treatments receiving 90 units of nitrogen per acre showed an increase over those receiving 65 units per acre which little more than paid for the additional fertilizer. This indicates that under Mesa conditions, higher rates would be unprofitable.

This experiment was conducted on soil which had been heavily cropped to nitrogen depleting crops. However, fertilizer response may have been limited by the poor physical condition of this soil.

Fertilizer tests, Gila Project Farm, Yuma

An experiment to test the relative values of several organic nitrogen sources as compared to ammonium sulfate showed that two of the organic materials, Thiourea and Cyanamid, have promise for sandy soils such as those on the Yuma Mesa.

Other tests on the Gila Project Farm indicate that barley has possibilities as a profitable crop on the Yuma Mesa. With nominal amounts of fertilizer and less than 4 acre -feet of water, excellent yields have been obtained.

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 21

Barley breeding project, Tucson

Approximately 300 selections from two composite crosses were continued this year and tested in a preliminary way for grain yield. This test included only those selections which in the past have shown themselves to be smut resistant and of high agronomic quality.

Sixty -one of the leafiest of the selections made last year were included in a clipping test simulating pasture conditions.

Some of the selections grown in 1947 exhibited some degree of aphis resistance. The more promising of these sorts were sown at the Safford Farm in January, 1948. Three of them showed a promising degree of resistance to the Green Bug aphid.

SORGHUMS

Aftereffect study -Mesa Farm

Results in 1946 -47 indicated that nitrogen could overcome this effect on the yield of wheat. In 1947 -48, Vaughn barley was used to study the aftereffect. On one half of the plots ammonium nitrate was added at the rate of 150 pounds (50 pounds of nitrogen) to the acre just prior to sowing the barley. The yield of barley from the nitrogen treated plots outyielded the untreated plots almost ten to one.

Previous experimental work had indicated that the depressing effect of sorghums might have been due to the large amount of carbonaceous material that was turned under. With this in mind and after harvesting the heads, three subtreatments were carried out as follows:

(A) all the stalks and as much of the roots as possible were removed; (B) all the stalks were removed, but the roots were turned under; and (C) all the stalks and roots were plowed under.

The results show again a wide difference in aftereffect from different varieties. Best yields, generally, were from the check plots which had grown no sorghum.

Treatment B, in which the stalks alone were removed, showed a significantly higher yield than the other treatments. This work will be repeated with certain modifications in 1948.

Fertilizer test, Mesa Farm

Fertilizer work done at the Mesa Farm during previous years has given unexpected results with sorghums. It is of interest to note that in 1946 phosphates used alone actually depressed the yields. Nitrogen used alone increased the yields by about 600 pounds over the check. The combination of nitrogen and phosphate (64 lb.

N2 and 80 lb.

P205) gave the best yield increase about 940 pounds over the check.

In 1947 it seemed desirable to test these effects further with deep and shallow applications of phosphorous. Two varieties, hegari and Early hegari, were used. Phosphate was applied 14 inches and 8 inches deep respectively on July 10 prior to planting, by use of an attachment on a subsoiler, at the rate of 300 pounds of treble superphosphate per acre. Where fertilizers were applied

22

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION as a continuous band, the fertilizer was mixed and applied at planting time, July 17, 2 inches below and 2 inches on either side of the drill row.

Both ammonium nitrate and calcium nitrate were used. The following conclusions were made: 1. There was but little difference between hegari and Early hegari in response to the different fertilizers. 2. The combination of nitrogen plus phosphate, as in

1946, gave best yields. 3. The increase due to the 300 lb. of treble superphosphate (in addition to the nitrogen) would not have paid for the phosphate. 4. Nitrogen alone gave the most profitable increase.

5. The additional nitrogen in the ammonium nitrate

( as compared with calcium- nitrate -about twice as much) was paid for by the hegari but not by the Early hegari. 6. No significant increase resulted from the phosphate either alone or in combination with nitrogen. 7. No advantage was shown for the deep placement (14 inches) of phosphate.

Variety test, Mesa Farm

This test included the shorter, so- called combine types with a

20 -inch spacing between rows and the taller growing types with a 40 -inch spacing between rows. As a check, Double Dwarf 38 milo was planted at both row widths.

The results indicated considerable varietal difference with

Double Dwarf 38 milo in 20 -inch rows giving the highest yield.

The 20 -inch spacing with this variety produced a significant yield increase over the wider spacing. Early hegari, plainsman, and hegari, in that order, followed in yield.

Breeding nursery, Mesa Farm

Work was continued with the sorghum nursery. It consisted of ninety -four selections, mostly from the Ajax X Kalo cross. Other crosses were hegari X Atlas; Fargo X Algeria; Standard Kafir X

Finney. Grain yield and quality are being used in evaluating the new material. Grain yields varied from 14.2 bu. per acre to

99.7 bu. per acre. This work is being continued in 1948.

Sudan and other sorghums for pasture -Mesa Farm

This test was conducted in an effort to determine the best date of planting, and the best variety of sorghum for summer pasturage in the Salt River Valley. These varieties, listed in their order of yield, are as follows: California No. 23 Sudan, Common

Sudan, Sweet Sudan, Honey sorgo, Atlas sorgo, Black Amber,

Sumac, and Manko. Three dates of planting were used -May 15

(yielded four cuttings) , June 23 (yielded three cuttings) , and

August 4 (yielded two cuttings)

.

Results show, under simulated grazing, and from one year's results, that the coarser stemmed sorghums yield less, make a slower recovery, and are less able to withstand close grazing than the finer stemmed types such as the sudans. For grazing purposes, an early planting date is advisable in order to extend the grazing season, and increase the yield.

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

23

MISCELLANEOUS

Corn, variety trials

Using Arizona Mexican June as a check, various hybrid corn varieties were tested at the Safford Experiment Farm. A new yellow hybrid (United Hybrid 7320) outyielded all others in this first year's trial.

By several years of co- operative testing in Cochise County,

Junk's G -711 has been proved to be well adapted. In 1947, Texas

9 -W, a white hybrid included for the first time, showed promise by yielding almost 10 bushels per acre more than any other.

Silage -corn, sorghums, sunflowers

In a preliminary test at Tucson, sunflowers produced more tonnage in less time than either corn or sorghums.

Weed control, cotton

Pre -emergence applications of various promising weed -killing chemicals on cotton grown at the University Farm produced no injury to the cotton, nor did any one effect satisfactory control of annual weeds.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

CATTLE FATTENING TESTS

A comparison of different rations for fattening cattle was studied in a single test conducted at the Salt River Valley Experiment Farm from which the following results were obtained:

Oat hay was equal to alfalfa hay when fed with hegari silage, rolled barley and cottonseed meal. Satisfactory results were also obtained with oat hay when fed with barley and cottonseed meal exclusive of silage.

Hegari silage was 48 per cent of the value of oat hay when fed with this feed in addition to barley and cottonseed meal.

Satisfactory gains were obtained with a ration of alfalfa hay, hegari silage, and rolled barley for fattening yearling steers.

This ration may be recommended only if alfalfa of good quality is available and the price of meal is considerably above that of barley.

There is some evidence that alfalfa hay from fertilized land is superior to alfalfa from unfertilized land when fed in a ration with hegari silage and barley.

Guar hay did not prove to be a desirable feed in this test.

The African variety of alfalfa appeared to be less palatable than the other varieties obeserved in the test, and the India and

Chilean 21 -5 varieties were consumed in greater amounts.

VITAMIN A, FOLIC ACID, AND THIOURACIL AS SUPPLEMENTS TO

CATTLE FATTENING RATIONS

The effect of adding two vitamins, vitamin A and folic acid, and a synthetic hormone, thiouracil, to rations for fattening calves and yearlings was studied in two tests on the Tucson farm in co- operation with the Animal Pathology Department. No evident benefits resulted from any of the introduced products.

24

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

PASTURE STUDIES

Co- operative plantings of promising pasture species were made by the Departments of Agronomy and Animal Husbandry and the Soil Conservation Service Nursery. Studies are being made of the various forage plants to determine their adaptability for grazing in pure stands and in mixtures under southern Arizona conditions.

Nutritional studies were made of calves pastured on alfalfa.

Correlations were made of the trends of nitrogen, lignin, dry matter content, stage of plant maturity, and the degree of utilization of pasture forage with livestock gains. Studies were made of the effects of these various factors on digestibility. From data analyzed thus far, it appears that correlations exist for:

1. per cent nitrogen in the forage and livestock gains, 2. per cent nitrogen and per cent dry matter in the forage, and 3. per cent utilization with per cent nitrogen and per cent lignin. The extremes of high and low per cent nitrogen in alfalfa forage is associated with negative gains, whereas good gains were associated with utilization of forage of intermediate nitrogen content. The per cent nitrogen and per cent dry matter of the pasture forage varied inversely -the higher the dry matter content the lower the nitrogen. Associated with an increase in the per cent utilization of the alfalfa pasturage was a decline in the per cent nitrogen and an increase in the per cent lignins of the forage. There was no correlation between per cent lignin in young alfalfa pasture forage and rate of livestock gains.

DIGESTION STUDIES

Digestion studies were made on alfalfa using lignin as the reference substance to determine digestibility of other constituents.

In this method it is only necessary to determine the percentage of lignin in a representative sample of the feed and feces as well as the percentage of the constituent being studied. Because lignin is not digested the ratio of lignin in the feed and feces to the ratio in the feed and feces of the constituent being studied will indicate the digestibility. This method was applied in several test determinations and found to be valid.

Since large quantities of salt are fed to range cattle under certain conditions it was decided to determine the effect on a cow of large salt consumption and specifically the influence of high salt intake on the digestion of protein and cellulose in alfalfa hay.

Results indicate that the feeding of 0.16 lb. of salt per 100 lb.

of body weight in the regular ration had no detrimental effect on the animal and in no way inhibited the digestion of protein or cellulose. In fact, during the two -month period of the experiment the digestion of cellulose was significantly increased.

When this quantity of salt was given twice daily as a drench, scouring usually resulted with the consequent reduction in apparent digestibility of cellulose and protein. In the few cases where scouring did not occur the digestibility values were normal.

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

25

ANIMAL PATHOLOGY

IDIOPATHIC HEMOGLOBINURIA

Idiopathic hemoglobinuria as it occurs in Arizona pastures presents the similar group of symptoms and lesions as reported in other hemoglobinurias. These are in general due to hemolysis and changes caused by the elimination of the debris due to hemolysis.

Correction of symptoms has been obtained in most outbreaks by changing animals from pasture to dry feed. Aerobic and anaerobic cultural studies and animal inoculations were negative. Calcium and phosphorus blood studies were insignificant.

Toxic plants that might contain hemolysins were not found. Feed analyses were of no value. Molybdenum studies although not extensive showed forage to contain nontoxic amounts. Leptospira infections were suspected early and were definitely diagnosed in one outbreak. Subsequent studies have not substantiated the diagnosis. Because of these studies a definite diagnosis of this hemoglobinuria has not been reached.

LEPTOSPIROSIS

The distribution of canine leptospiral jaundice was determined on a limited number of dogs in the Tucson area. Of twelve dogs examined, seven were positive for lysins and agglutinins against

Leptospira icterohemorrhagia and L. canicola. Five of these cases were fatal and Leptospira were isolated from the kidneys of three of the fatal cases.

CYANIDE POISONING

The cyanide content of a series of Acacia constricta plants known to have a high value during the summer was determined each month during the past year. It was found that most of the cyanide occurs in the leaves of Acacia constricta. Cyanide content of stems during the winter and early spring was uniformly low. As soon as the leaves appeared, however, the cyanide content rose to a high level and remained high until the leaves were lost the following fall. During the rainy season there was only a slight lowering of the per cent of cyanide occurring in the plant.

BOTANY AND RANGE ECOLOGY

ARIZONA RANGE RESOURCES AND THEIR UTILIZATION

The work on Cochise County was published in 1944 as Technical Bulletin No. 103. The material on Coconino County has now been completed and the manuscript is being prepared for the printers. With work on these two counties out of the way, preparations are being made to continue work on other areas of the state.

GRASSES ADAPTED TO ARTIFICIAL RESEEDING IN DESERT

GRASSLAND

Adaptation trials of native and introduced species of grass (carried on at the Santa Rita Experimental Range in co- operation with the Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station and the

Nursery Division of the Soil Conservation Service) gave severe

26

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION tests to the species under observation. Rainfall for the year was extremely low and spotty, and many plantings were completely wiped out. In this year's trials, observations were made under seasons which were about the worst that one could expect to encounter in the desert grasslands. With a year of normal rainfall the recovery of the species under observation will be carefully studied.

ECONOMIC VALUE OF SOME RANGE PLANTS UNDER CULTIVATION

In the fall of 1939 work was begun on a project to test the growth of certain range plants of unknown economic value under cultivation. The original list included five plants to be studied, of which four are reported here.

1. Cockroach plant (Haplophyton cimicidum A. DC.)

This plant was tested by the Division of Drugs and Related

Plants of the U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry and found to be very toxic to certain insect pests. For use as an insecticide it was deemed appropriate to try to grow this plant under cultivation.

Seeds were collected from various canyons in this region during several years but the viability of the seeds was always low, few seedlings developed to' any size, and none set viable seeds. The few plants that did develop to maturity were spindly and nearly leafless. In the wild state this plant reaches a height of several feet and produces numerous leaves which are ground and mixed with molasses for an insecticide. Under cultivation proper plants did not develop, and with soil conditions as found on the University Farm a commercial crop of this plant hardly seems feasible.

2. Canaigre (Rumex hymenosepalus Torr.)

This plant was first discussed in Bulletin No. 5 (April, 1892) by Director F. A. Gulley, in Bulletin No. 7 (February, 1893) by

Collingwood, Tourney, and Gulley, and again in Bulletin No. 21

(July, 1896) , when a thorough discussion of the plant was taken up and directions for its cultivation were given. The high tannin content of the thickened roots of this plant would make it an obvious source of tannic acid if the plant could be brought into cultivation. A 1940 crop of this plant at the University Farm was exceptionally good and selections were made from this planting for high yielding plants (see Fifty-second Annual Report, p. 48)

.

These selection plantings never yielded positive results. The plants are still occasionally sprouting but the sterns never attain any size before they die back. The die -back of the aerial parts of this plant is not confined to our plantings but can be observed on plants growing in the wild. Treating the roots at the time of planting had no effect and until this die -back is stopped, commercial plantings seem to be impossible.

3. Soaptree or palmilla (Yucca elata Engelm.)

This plant is adaptable to commercial plantings. Seeds sown in flats in the greenhouse in 1939 and transplanted to the farm in

1940 have grown and shown very low mortality (see Plate I)

.

Fibers from the leaves of this plant have been used commercially but the costs cannot compete with other commercial fibers. To

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

27

Plate I. -Yucca elata -top: November 10, 1940; bottom: October 12, 1948.

grow this plant on level land with an occasional irrigation is possible but the cost of the fibers produced would make them prohibitive on the market. The swollen roots of this plant have been investigated as a source of certain medicinal compounds but with no success to the present time.

4. Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneid.)

The seeds of this plant contain an unusual liquid wax which, if it were available in quantity, would find a good market. The liquid wax has been examined by the cosmetic industry, the

28

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

Plate II.- Simmondsia -top: November 10, 1940; bottom: October 12, 1948.

paint industry, and by medical science and found to have certain valuable properties. In its native habitat the plants are scattered, the yearly fruit -set is variable, and rodents get a large percentage of the crop.

Plantings of these seeds germinate well, growth is slow but steady (Plate II)

.

Cuttings and transplants have never proven very successful. Two main features prevent the adaptation of this plant to cultivation. First, it is dioecious, that is, each plant either produces male flowers or female flowers, and only the fe-

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 29 male flowers set seed. A few male plants would be needed as pollen producers, but not the normal one -half of the plants that occur in nature. Secondly, the slow growth and maturity of the plants make quick crops impossible. The first plants to produce flowers were the males, four years from the time of planting. The first female flowers did not appear until the fifth year. The following table shows the development of these plants. Ninety -four original seedlings planted in 1940 produced:

Undetermined

Males

Females

Died

1944

35%

34%

18%

13%

1948

22%

37%

27%

14%

Some commercial plantings of Simmondsia have been attempted here in Arizona. One feature of these plantings is the unnecessary growth of male plants that are nonproducers. Studies have been made on the seeds and seedling anatomy to see if there were distinguishable features in the early stages that would be useful in eliminating some of the male plants early in cultivation so that they would not compete with and slow down the development of the female plants. So far, studies of the seed and seedling characters have yielded no discernible differences between the sexes during the early stages.

Of the plants tested in this project Simmondsia shows the most promise of becoming a commercial possibility. It can be grown on level lands with only infrequent irrigations. However, with the long period of growth required for a crop to be produced and the high number of nonproducing plants that occur in

Bach planting, it is rather expensive to produce under present conditions.

DAIRY HUSBANDRY

LACTATING FACTORS FOR DAIRY COWS

IN DRIED GRAPEFRUIT PEEL

Eight cows -four Guernseys, two Jerseys, and two Holsteins

-were fed alfalfa hay ad libitum until milk production definitely decreased. At the end of this period the ration was supplemented with 4 pounds daily of dried grapefruit peel for five weeks. After this the dried citrus was replaced with an equal amount of a mixture consisting of rolled barley six parts, wheat bran six, cottonseed meal two, and beet pulp two. After four weeks this ration was supplemented with oat pasture.

Four pounds daily of dried grapefruit peel added to an alfalfa hay ration increased milk production. An equal amount of a grain mixture did not maintain this increase. Supplementing a ration of alfalfa hay and concentrate mixture with oat pasture definitely increased milk production. It is concluded that dried grapefruit peel contains factors which stimulate milk production in dairy cows.

A detailed report on this experiment will appear in an early edition of the Journal of Dairy Science.

30

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

DRIED CITRUS MEAL AS A FEED

FOR DAIRY COWS AND CALVES

Two groups of five dairy cows each were paired according to age, stage of lactation, and milk production. One group was fed the regular herd grain mixture; the second group was fed the same ration except that dried grapefruit meal replaced one -half of the concentrate mixture. The meal consisted of grapefruit peel, pulp, and seeds. Three double reversal periods of thirty days each were used. Then, the cows which began the feeding trials on the regular grain are to be continued on dried citrus meal for the balance of their current lactation. Daily milk weights for each group are being analyzed statistically and no significant difference has been noted in milk production between the two groups.

Dried citrus meal is being compared with the regular calf grain ration. A group of twelve calves are being fed 2 pounds of dried citrus meal per day as compared to the second group of fourteen calves which receives two pounds of regular concentrates per day. The two groups will be on the experiment from six months of age until they become one year old. Both groups receive alfalfa hay. Pasture is given both groups when available.

The results of monthly weight and height show no significant difference to date between the two groups.

This experiment will be continued and additional information will be forthcoming when these heifers freshen and complete their first lactations. A bulletin will be published during the coming year reporting results and recommendations for feeding dried citrus meal to dairy cows and calves.

MINERALS

Three mineral mixtures have been offered to the milking herd as follows:

(1) Equal parts of calcium carbonate and salt.

(2)

Equal parts of steamed bonemeal and salt. (3) Two parts salt and one part each of calcium carbonate and steamed bonemeal. Block salt is available ad libitum.

The study represents 576 days and 22,051 cow days. Mineral consumption during this period was 4.53, 5.57, and 4.88

grams per cow per day for the respective lots of minerals or a total of 14.98

grams per cow per day in addition to block salt.

No preference was shown for any particular mixture.

PERMANENT PASTURES

New plantings were made in September in which five different mixtures were used. Seventeen different grasses and clovers were used. Dallis grass, Alta fescue, button clover, Harding grass, and

Perennial rye grass are most promising.

ENTOMOLOGY AND ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY

ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY INVESTIGATIONS

Following termination of the long -time project on grazing range rodents, as reported last year, this department has no project upon which to report progress at this time. A new project,

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

31 in which we are experimenting with certain new possibilities in control of bird damage to sorghum crops, has been inaugurated.

Routine additions to the vertebrate collections have continued, but no unusual specimens have been secured this year. Requests for assistance on vertebrate problems and consultations with state and federal wildlife agencies are increasingly frequent.

ENTOMOLOGY

Insects and mites have done some important damage to crops the past year. Grasshoppers were injurious to citrus as well as many other plants. Poison bran mash and chlordane were both effective in grasshopper control. Ten per cent chlordane dust is especially useful against grasshoppers on citrus and low- growing plants.

The clover mite seriously damaged cantaloupes in the Yuma area in March and April. Tetraethyl pyrophosphate seemed to be effective, but certain difficulties attend use of this material. This outbreak may possibly have been caused by the use of DDT for

Lygus on near -by fields of alfalfa. Wheat and barley were seriously damaged by an undetermined species of mite in Cochise

County in April.

Biology and control of the serpentine leaf miner, epidemic on cantaloupe in the Salt River Valley, were investigated in June.

This pest was associated with a plant disease which caused major damage to cantaloupes. It is possible, if not probable, that the natural insect enemies of the leaf miner were destroyed by DDT, applied to cantaloupe in the spring for control of thrips.

Insects are often carriers of plant disease -producing viruses. A number of crop plants in this state are affected by virus diseases.

To determine the relationships of insects and virus diseases of

'plants necessitates extensive collections of the insects found on diseased plants and on crops known to be subject to virus diseases.

Aphids are common on various crops and may be disease vectors.

Leafhoppers seem to be most consistently present. The beet leafhopper, known to transmit curly top of beets, tomatoes, beans, and other crops, is a common species here. Curly top was very injurious to tomatoes in 1947.

HORTICULTURE

CITRUS INVESTIGATIONS

Hormones reduce grapefruit drop and cause firmer fruit

Sprays of 2,4 -D applied to grapefruit at the Salt River Valley

Citrus Research Farm, April 16, 1948, at the rate of 16 parts per million reduced the drop of fruit by August 6 from 57 per cent on unsprayed trees to 27 per cent drop on sprayed trees.

The hormone sprays also affected the quality of the fruit held.

When harvested on August 6, 39.5 per cent of the sprayed fruits were firm and of excellent quality, compared with only 18.2 per cent of the fruit on the unsprayed trees.

Large scale tests with 2,4 -D sprays will be tried in 1949 in an effort to find a method of "on- tree" storage that will enable Ari-

32

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION zona grapefruit growers to hold fruit for the higher summer prices.

Oil spray for weed control in citrus

Experiments with oil spray for control of weeds in oranges, in progress at the Salt River Valley Citrus Farm since 1944, have not indicated that oil spray is more economical than the usual disking practice. However, the effects on soil condition and tree productivity have been very favorable.

One of the main advantages of the oil spray program is that it maintains healthy root growth in the upper zones of the soil.

Under the usual system of disking three or four times a year, an impervious soil layer develops which retards water penetration and interferes with soil aeration.

Under the conditions of water shortage that have existed on the Citrus Farm during the period of the experiment, the oil spray system of weed control has proved to be the most efficient water conserving practice. There is evidence that the organic matter content of the soil has not decreased as a result of oil spray treatment.

The cost of oil spray treatments can be reduced by using mixtures of diesel oil and water in place of straight oil. A mixture of half water and half oil has proved satisfactory when used with an emulsifying agent such as Tricon X -100. The amount of oil

water mixtures needed for weed control was lowest with weeds sprayed when less than four inches high.

Results of the oil spray program on grapefruit have not been as favorable as with oranges. Large, rough- skinned grapefruit develop following the use of oil for weed control and present evidence indicates that it cannot be recommended for grapefruit.

Thrip control in citrus orchards

On Yuma Mesa and in the Salt River Valley, there is evidence that the usual spray treatment with tartar emetic in many groves has not controlled thrip infestation and subsequent damage. In

1947 thrips showed resistance to tartar emetic sprays in the Mesa area of the Salt River Valley and on the Yuma Mesa. During

1948 new resistant areas developed in the Arcadia and Baseline areas of the Salt River Valley. It became apparent that the thrips in these areas had built up an immunity to tartar emetic so that other materials needed investigation for controlling this insect.

In the spring of 1948, various insecticides and methods of application were tested at the Yuma Mesa Citrus Experiment Orchard.

This test has indicated that treatment with 8 pounds of 50 per cent wettable DDT supplemented with 3 pounds of wettable sulfur per acre gave good control. Tartar emetic failed to control.

Red spiders appeared in tangerine blocks where DDT was used without sulfur.

Top working grapefruit

At the Salt River Valley Citrus Farm 2 acres of grapefruit are being worked to Washington Navel oranges and five acres to Va-

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

33 lencia oranges. The following orange varieties have been assembled in this experimental orchard:

A. Navels- Washington, Robertson

B.

C.

D.

Early, few seeds -Trovita, Hamlin, Jordan, Diller, Early

Valencia, Pineapple, Ruby Blood

Early, seedy -Oasis (Casa Grande) , Butler

Late - Valencia, Temple

Red Blush grapefruit, Pink Marsh grapefruit, Algerian tangerines, and Eureka lemons are included in the variety collection.

Rootstock effects on citrus production and fruit quality at Yuma Mesa

A comparison of sour orange and rough lemon rootstocks is in progress at the Yuma Mesa Experiment Orchard. Valencia orange, Algerian tangerine, Red Blush grapefruit, and Eureka lemon are being tested on these rootstocks. The following table indicates the effect of rootstock on fruit characteristics for the

1947 -48 season:

TABLE 6.- EFFECT OF ROOTSTOCK ON YIELD AND SIZE OF FRUIT

(Trees budded in place

1941)

Valencia orange

Algerian tangerine

Red Blush grapefruit

Eureka lemon

Yield number of fruits per tree

Rough lemon

Sour orange

161

180

221

199

50

64

55

121

Size number of fruits per packed box

Rough lemon

Sour orange

167

253

68

278

192

299

69

373

It is apparent that the rough lemon rootstock is far superior to sour orange rootstock from the standpoint of yield. Also larger size fruits resulted from rough lemon rootstock in all cases except

Red Blush grapefruit. Rough lemon rootstock produced thicker skinned fruit and lower percentage of juice. Higher percentage of solids and higher vitamin C content were obtained from sour orange rootstock.

MISCELLANEOUS STUDIES

Pecan investigations

The emphasis on pecan production research in Arizona is being shifted from the lower Colorado River Valley where winter temperatures are too high to induce dormancy, to the more favorable elevations of the Salt, Santa Cruz, and Upper Gila valleys.

It appears that pecans can be grown successfully at elevations ranging from 1,100 feet in the Salt River Valley to 3,000 feet or more in the Upper Gila Valley where soil and water conditions are favorable.

The withholding of irrigation water from late August until harvest increased the yield of good quality Burkett nuts at the

Mesa Experiment Farm. Quality tests were made on various varieties grown in this orchard during the 1947 season. On the basis of the weight of a hundred nuts the Success and Burkett were su-

34

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION perior to other varieties, while Halbert, San Saba, and Mahan were definitely inferior. Delight, Schley, Humble, and Western had the highest specific gravity, whereas Mahan was lowest. From summarized yields of good nuts, Desirable, Millican, Schley, Success, Halbert, and Western were superior to other varieties.

Sour -bug control in date orchards

Chlordane and toxaphene have been tested for controlling sour bugs (Carpophilus hemipferus and C. dimidatus) in date orchards in the Salt River Valley. Since the sour bugs pupate in the soil, periodic and thorough dustings of the soil seem to be a promising method of reducing the insect population.

Damage from sour bugs can be greatly reduced, without dusting, by careful orchard sanitation. This involves picking up and destroying all fruit which falls during harvesting operations. Decaying fruit should not be disked into the soil, since such fruit is an ideal medium for sour -bug development.

VEGETABLE INVESTIGATIONS

Cantaloupe variety test

Twenty -four varieties of cantaloupe were included in the 1948 variety test at the Salt River Valley Vegetable Research Farm near Tempe. The yields per plot (5 feet x 25 feet) ranged from

55 pounds to 126 pounds. The seven highest yielding varieties included in Table 7.

are

TABLE 7.- LEADING VARIETIES IN 1948 VARIETY TEST AT SALT

RIVER VALLEY VEGETABLE RESEARCH FARM

Pounds per plot

Soluble solids

Half slip

Full slip

Variety

Imperial 45

Hales Best 45

Arizona 45

Sulphur Resistant V -1

Early Surprise

Mildew Resistant #6

Hales Best Triumph Jumbo

100

103

107

113

105

101

126

8.63

8.47

8.67

8.32

7.88

8.91

8.20

9.82

9.78

9.48

9.24

9.11

8.82

8.68

Soluble solids (mainly sugars) were determined

on all va-

rieties at half slip and at full slip. Several of the varieties reached maximum sugar content at half slip, indicating that it may be possible to develop a shipping melon with high sugar content that can be harvested before it reaches full slip.

Fruit quality of citrus varieties grown on Yuma Mesa

The following fruit characteristics of several citrus varieties grown at the Yuma Mesa Citrus Experiment Orchard were measured:

A.

B.

Physical -size, external color, weight, volume, skin thickness, per cent juice.

Chemical -soluble solids, total acid, solids -acid ratio, vitamin C.

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 35

These determinations were made on fruit collected at monthly intervals from November, 1947, to May, 1948. Of the nineteen varieties of oranges tested, the following seemed to have superior quality:

Variety

Washington Navel

Trovita

Oasis

Enterprise

Diller

Mediterranean Sweet

Hamlin

Valencia

Temple

Season of good quality

November - December

November - December

November - December

November - January

November - February

November - February

November - April

February - May

April - May

A solids -acid ratio range of 12 to 20 was considered desirable as an index of good quality orange juice in connection with the above table. The Enterprise variety gave the highest per cent juice (45 per cent) at best quality in December. The highest soluble solids (13.3 per cent) was found in the Valencia juice at the time of best quality in March. This variety was also highest in vitamin C (79 mg. per 100 ml.) .

Algerian tangerines which have considerable promise on the

Yuma Mesa were found to be of good quality from November to

January. At best quality in January, the fruit contained 16 per cent soluble solids and was high in vitamin C (80 mg. per

100 ml.)

.

The Dancy tangerine was of good quality during February.

The Minneola tangelo which is of considerable interest was of good quality during January. No further testing of this variety was done during the remainder of the season.

Potato variety test

The 1948 potato variety test was grown on the John Jacobs'

Farms in Deer Valley. Twenty -one varieties and selections were planted on March 10, 1948, and harvested on June 30, 1948. Three of the Minnesota Seedlings exceeded the standard varieties in yield (Table 8) .

SNAP BEANS PROMISING AS A FALL CROP

Green snap beans have produced over 8,000 pounds of marketable beans per acre when planted on August 15 in the Salt River

TABLE 8. -YIELD IN BUSHELS PER ACRE OF POTATO

VARIETIES,

DEER VALLEY, 1948

Variety

Minnesota 118

Minnesota 21

Minnesota 127

Cobbler

Pontiac

Triumph

Red Warba

613

574

553

525

509

485

471

36 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

Valley. Similar results have been obtained with August plantings at the University Farm at Tucson. Beans planted in August begin to bear in late September or early October with the peak of the harvest coming about October 15.

At the Salt River Valley Vegetable Farm near Tempe, Florida

Belle, Sensation Refugee, Canadian Wonder, and Refugee were the leading varieties. In the test at Tucson in 1948, Bountiful,

Florida Belle, and Logan ranked in the order named.

NUTRITION

NUTRITIONAL STATUS CO- OPERATIVE PROJECT

A Regional Co- operative Project on nutritional status of population groups finished its work in Oregon in June, 1948, and moved on to California. This project eventually will operate in Arizona.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AVAILABILITY OF FOOD FACTORS

Work during the past year indicates that factors inherent in animals themselves affect the availability of vitamin A in foodstuffs. Young rats seem to store vitamin A more efficiently than older animals. Also rats of one strain will utilize vitamin A more effectively than rats of another strain.

AMINO ACID CONTENTS OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Brocolli, cauliflower, and several varieties of carrots, and sweet corn have been assayed for the ten amino acids essential to man; namely arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Brocolli and cauliflower are fairly high in all the amino acids and are good sources of valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine, and arginine. Carrots are low in all the essential amino acids. Sweet corn is exceptionally low in tryptophan but good in phenylalanine, valine, and leucine.

DRIED CITRUS MEAL IN RATIONS OF DAIRY COWS

Dried grapefruit meal was found to contain factors which increased milk production approximately 10 per cent in dairy cows receiving only alfalfa hay. These factors were lacking in the herd grain ration but were found in green pasture grasses.

Other experiments with dried grapefruit meal showed that it is an economical, palatable feed for dairy cows and calves. Dairy cows which received 50 per cent dried grapefruit meal in their concentrate grain rations produced as much milk as cows which received a 100 per cent grain concentrate ration. Calves which received dried grapefruit meal and pasture grew as well as calves receiving a grain concentrate ration and pasture. From these results it is recommended that the grain concentrate rations of dairy cows and calves may consist of 50 per cent dried grapefruit meal. At present prices (August, 1948) of grain and dried grapefruit peel, this procedure will materially lower feed costs.

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 37

PLANT BREEDING

ALFALFA

From the 2,000 plant progenies originating from individual plant selections made in commercial fields of Indian and African alfalfas, nine progenies have been selected on the basis of seed yield and hay quality. These selections were made on the basis of the performance of triplicate, second seed generation plantings. The nine progenies selected were compared directly with their respective first seed generation parent progenies growing in an adjacent plot at the same time. These nine selected progenies in both the first and second seed generations showed the same high seed yield and hay quality. The triplicate second seed generation of these progenies permitted a determination of those progenies which breed true, at least in part, to their respective parental types. Seed for the further propagation and testing of these nine selected progenies has been taken from the first seed generation in order to preserve their original types as much as possible. The seed of these progenies will be planted in plot rows on the Yuma farm in the fall of 1948 for seed increase and further testing for the purpose of establishing a superior type for the alfalfa growers.

WHEAT

From the 600 hybrid wheat progenies grown at Yuma, derived from backcrossing Baart 38 on a very strong strawed segregate of Baart 38 in a double cross involving Martin and Federation, twenty -three strong strawed progenies were selected.

These progenies were grown in 10 -foot rows and compared in grain yield with 10 -foot rows of Baart 38. The twenty -three strong strawed selections were each equal to or above the yield of the average of ten Baart 38 rows of the same length.

In addition, 109 selections of first backcross, second backcross, and third backcross of Baart 38 x the Timopheevi derivative were made from the 1947 -48 crop for planting the 1948 -49 crop. The purpose of all these crosses is to produce a strong strawed, rust resistant wheat with high yielding ability suitable for growth in the irrigated valleys of the state.

UPLAND COTTON BREEDING

Progeny rows of four new varieties were grown on the Mesa

Experiment Farm in 1948. Two of these varieties were crosses between Santan Acala and N. M. 1517, while two are backcrosses of Santan on Santan x N. M. 1517. Each row was replicated six times. Differences in progeny rows indicate the possibility of further increasing yields of these four varieties.

The results of yield tests made at Mesa, Sacaton, and Casa

Grande in co- operation with the U.S. Cotton Field Station at

Sacaton are shown in Table 9. Twelve varieties were grown in randomized plots at each location. The average yield of each variety for the three locations, and averages for three laboratory spinning tests on each of nine of the varieties are shown in the

half mean and card in card web

(2) High values indicate poor grades (3) High values indicate strong fibers (4) High values indicate fine fibers

(a) Developed by Plant Breeding Department, U. of A. (b) Developed by U.S. Field Station, Sacaton

(c) Developed by U.S. Field Station, Shafter, California (d) Developed by Sacaton Station and Plant Breeding

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 39 upper part of the table. The averages of nine varieties for each location are shown in the lower part of the table.

Particular attention is called to differences in yield per acre, yarn strength and appearance, neps, waste, fiber strength, and fineness between the Mesa, Sacaton, and Casa Grande tests.

Increase fields of X1 -44 -7, BX1 -28 -6, and BX1 -33 -1 were grown in 1948. Through the co- operation of growers and ginners, bale lots of these varieties are now on hand, and it is hoped that the mill reaction to them will soon be available.

Breeding for resistance to Verticillium wilt was begun at Safford in 1948. Varieties and new strains from New Mexico, Arizona, and California, as well as considerable hybrid material from California, were used in the initial plantings. These plantings were made in conjunction with the Safford wilt test conducted by the Sacaton Station.

Selfed seed were obtained and crosses made for use in 1949.

LONG STAPLE COTTON

One hundred and sixty -five plant selections of the long staple hybrids, described on page 31 of the Fifty- eighth Annual Report of the Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, were planted in the spring of 1948. Owing to cold weather at the time of germination of the seed, a very poor stand was obtained, but a sufficient number of plants grew to enable the project to continue, although some of the superior plants must have been lost.

The major objective with these hybrids is to determine whether a highyielding, long staple cotton can be produced having a small plant, increased boll size, and strong lint. As an indication of the progress which has been made in lint strength, it may be re-

ported that the lint

strengths, determined individually on eighteen plants of progeny 205, varied from 838 to 952 units with an average strength of 892 units for the progeny. The average strength of SxP cotton, the standard variety, when grown under the same conditions, and with four different samples was 774 units. In this comparison the lint of progeny 205 is 15 per cent stronger than that of the SxP variety. Progeny 205 has also a larger boll size as determined by volume than that of SxP, although it has not been determined whether the lint weight per boll is proportional to the increased size.

PLANT PATHOLOGY

ALFALFA BACTERIAL WILT

Two alfalfa varieties from Ecuador (one from Guaranda, and the other, "Pansaleo," from Ambato) are being tested for their possible resistance to Corynebacterium insidiosum (McCul.)

Jensen, the cause of the well - recognized bacterial wilt disease.

One promising cutting from a Turkistan alfalfa (F. C. 19316) which had survived inoculation with the wilt pathogen in 1942, died during the summer of 1948. Although exhibiting promising wilt- resistant qualities, this specimen lacked vigor. Sub -cuttings

40

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION were successfully rooted from the parent plant and are now undergoing examination for any possible wilt- resistant properties.

VERTICILLIUM WILT OF COTTON

The relation of the wilt fungus, Verticillium albo- atrum,

Reinke and Berth., to seed infection is in course of study. Bolls, pedicels and adjacent stems were inoculated with pure cultures of the fungus. Tissues from these parts have been and are being sectioned, stained and made ready for study in the effort to trace the growth of the fungus. Both Acala and SxP varieties of cotton are included in the study.

PHYMATORICHUM (TEXAS OR COTTON) ROOT ROT

Rotation experiments: With the 1948 crops we have five years' results on rotation experiments designed to explore the possibilities of profitable use of root -rot infested land. Data secured this year confirm results previously reported.

Returns from cotton rotations listed in order of yield of seed cotton (1947) are as follows:

1. Guar cover crop '46, hubam clover '47, 50 lb. ammonium sulphate, 2,231 lb.

2. Sulphur and ammonium sulphate turned in with guar

3. Manure, sulphur and a.s. furrowed

4. Papago peas, liquid phosphate, ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphate 16 -20

'

2,046 lb.

1,774 lb.

5. Spot treatments, manure, sulphur and as., heavy

6. Manure, furrowed

7. Cyanimid, average of three rates of application

8. Check

1,653 lb.

1,555 lb.

1,448 lb.

8911b.

523 lb.

Papago peas have been found to produce more growth through the colder weather of winter and early spring than hubam or sour clover and have been substituted in rotations calling for a winter legume.

A bulletin on the first five years' results is being prepared for publication, and the entire rotation schedule has been revised and modified to take advantage of information secured.

MISCELLANEOUS STUDIES

Packages of diseased plants for diagnosis received from County

Agents and other sources have been very numerous and have made additional help necessary.

BARLEY DISEASES

During the season considerable loss in barley resulted from attacks of Helminthosporium. In order to determine the prevalence of the fungus in grain imported into the state for planting, approximately 3,600 cultures of barley grains were made for growers. Present in several lots were the cause of stripe (Helminthosporium gramineum Rabh.), rusty blotch (H. californicum

Mackie and Paxton) , and spot blotch (H. sativum Pammel, King and Bakke) .

Surface and internal infections together varied from 0 to 7 per cent; internal infections alone ran from 0 to 1.2

per cent.

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

41

CITRUS ROOT DISEASES

Heavy infestation of roots by the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semi -penetrans) especially in combination with winter injury of unusual severity has resulted in such severe damage to several groves that they were removed. This type of injury has been particularly noticeable in groves budded on rough lemon rootstock rather than the customary sour orange. About thirty trees showing this type of injury were given applications of manure, sulphur, and ammonium sulphate in basins around the affected trees, but the response was not as favorable as obtained by treating trees with typical dry root rot.

The shortage of irrigation water during the past three years is believed to be responsible for the poor condition of a considerable number of groves. This aggravates the accumulation of alkali salts in the root zone to the detriment of the feeding roots.

DISEASES OF GUAR

The literature of diseases of guar is very meagre and when this crop (new to Arizona) was introduced into our root -rot rotations in 1944, observations on diseases affecting the crop were begun.

These data have been assembled into the first general account of diseases of guar and published as a section of a bulletin on the culture of guar.

CONTROL OF FLAX WILT

The large increase of flax acreage in the Yuma and Salt River valleys in recent years, brought on by the high price of flaxseed, has been accompanied by the appearance of a number of flax diseases to an extent damaging to the crop. This is particularly apparent in the case of flax wilt, which has been aggravated by the repeated or frequent planting on the same soil of one commercial variety, Punjab, which is very susceptible to wilt.

Experiments on the control of wilt were begun at the request of growers in the fall of 1947 in the Yuma Valley. Data from the 1947 -48 crop are as follows:

(1) Calcium cyanamid, applied at three different dosages prior to planting, failed to control flax wilt. (2) Two of the volatile fungicides applied to the soil for the disinfestation of small spots in otherwise disease -free fields gave promise.

(3) Greenhouse tests with wilt- infested soil showed sodium cyanamid to be more effective with copper or zinc cyanamids.

(4) Extensive tests with Dakota, a northern variety introduced to Arizona last year, indicate that it is highly resistant to flax wilt in heavily infested soil and is a taller, less branched plant, but yields only 75 per cent as much seed per acre on wilt free soil as Punjab.

LETTUCE DROP (WATERY BROWN ROT)

Investigations into this disease were continued in an effort to determine the effectiveness of "Aero" calcium cyanamid as a soil fumigant in the control of drop in lettuce.

Soil- surface applications of varying amounts per acre of the chemical were made on wet and dry soil as well as by different methods such as by

42 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION hand (to secure uniform distribution) and by banding with the usual fertilizer machines. Applications were made in replicated

1/4 -acre areas and in each instance the chemical was disked into the soil to a depth of 3 to 4 inches, after surface applications.

No differences in the incidence of the disease in Imperial No. 44 lettuce were noted under the variable conditions of these experiments. In replicate plots where calcium cyanamid was applied to wet soil, 0.5 to 1.2 per cent of the plants were affected while 0.8

to 1.4 of those in plots where the chemical had been applied on dry soil showed evidence of attack by the drop fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) Mass. In addition, no significant differences in the numbers of diseased plants were noted in areas where calcium cyanamid was applied by hand and in regions where it was banded by machine, either on wet or on dry soils.

Percentages of diseased plants in those % -acre plots receiving surface applications by hand, on wet soil, varied from 1.0 to 1.2

while in similarly treated plots on dry soil, percentages of diseased lettuce plants varied from 1.0 to 1.5

per cent.

In areas where the chemical was applied by machine in the form of surface- banding before disking into the soil, wet soil treatment plots yielded percentages of diseased plants ranging from 0.5 to

0.9, while the corresponding range for diseased plants in dry soil plots, was 0.8 to 1.4 per cent. In nontreated plots symptoms of attack by the crop fungus appeared in 0.8 to 2.3

plants.

per cent of the

POULTRY HUSBANDRY

BREEDING INHERITANCE STUDIES

Establishing a high and low egg producing strain of SC White Leghorns

Foundation matings. -From a previous year's foundation mating twenty -seven progeny were raised and their first year's egg records established. The mating consisted of dams averaging 247 eggs headed by a male from a dam that laid 271 eggs her first year.

The twenty -five progeny to finish the year had an average egg production of 198 eggs, in itself very good production but not as high as expected from a mating with an average egg production of dams and male's dam of 259 eggs.

Sixteen of the twenty -five pullets laid better than 200 eggs. Two others, however, laid only 89 and 78 eggs respectively. The four high individuals laid 270, 262, 251, and 249 eggs respectively.

This seems to have followed the usual patterns of results from our high foundation matings; an average production much lower than the foundation and extremely low- producing individuals even from a mating of very high egg production, and with a small per cent laying close to the average of the mating.

Another foundation mating was set up consisting of thirteen females with an average egg production of 226 and mated to a male from a dam that laid 289 eggs her first year. Twenty -five progeny will be carried over the next twelve months from this mating.

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 43

Family Matings.- Within the eighteen progeny carried over from the previous year's mating four died. The fourteen remaining pullets produced an average of 183 eggs each. The average production of the females in the mating was 241 eggs, and the male came from a dam which produced 271 eggs her first year.

The progeny's egg average was 80 per cent of that of the mating while from the foundation mating this equivalent figure was 76 foundation mating represented per cent. The 76 per cent from the more eggs than the 80 per cent from the family mating because of the higher egg average of the foundation mating. It has always been possible to select higher egg production for a foundation whether than from a family mating. This raises the question as to the family mating is superior to a foundation mating in getting the greatest number of eggs from the progeny.

Six dams were selected for a mating this year from which fourteen progeny were obtained to establish their egg record for the following year. This pen was mated to a male from a dam that laid 227 eggs her first year.

Establishing a sixth character, prolonged economic production, to be added to the five - character system.

Foundation Matings. -From a mating consisting of ten dams which averaged 253 eggs during their first year's production, and

233 eggs during their second year; and a male from a dam laying

252 eggs her first year, 225 eggs her second, and 187 eggs her third year, twenty -three progeny were obtained. Of these two died. Four others had abnormal records and were not included.

The remaining seventeen averaged 191 eggs their first year. With the mating averaging 252 eggs, this represented 76 per cent of the lay of the mating, much lower than would be expected from such a good foundation.

Due to insufficient funds, with increased costs of feed and labor, the birds usually carried over to establish their second year's record were put on the market.

Eight dams with an average egg production of 255 eggs their first year and 256 eggs their second year, were mated to a male from a dam laying 230, 245, and 213 eggs for three consecutive years. From this mating nineteen progeny were obtained and will be carried over to establish their first and second year's records.

Family Matings. -From a mating of four dams that averaged

231 eggs their first year and 218 eggs their second year; mated to a male from a dam laying 241 eggs her first year and 174 eggs her second year; seven progeny were obtained that averaged 188 eggs their first year. These will be carried over for their second year's record.

A pen of eight dams with an average egg production of

251 eggs their first year and 227 eggs their second year, were mated to a male from a dam laying 230, 245, and 213 eggs for three consecutive years. From this mating twenty pullets were obtained which will be kept to establish their first and second year records.

44 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

Forty -four birds in all from the foundation and family matings will be carried over the next year to establish their second year records.

Inheritance of egg size

Foundation Matings. -From a foundation mating of two dams with an average egg size of 25 ounces to the dozen, and mated to a male from a dam of 27 ounce eggs, four progeny were obtained with an average egg size of 24.9 ounces to the dozen. This represented 96 per cent of that of the mating. Within the eggs from the four progeny there was a variation from 24 to 28.7 ounces to the dozen indicating that this particular factor of egg size was not well established in the mating.

No foundation mating was established in 1947 -48 so that there will be no progeny test in 1948 -49.

A foundation selection of nine dams has been established for

1948 -49.

Family Matings. -From a family mating of ten dams with an average egg size of 26.3 ounces to the dozen, and mated to a male from a dam with egg size of 27 ounces to the dozen, thirty -eight progeny were obtained with an average egg size of 22.9 ounces.

This egg size represents 86 per cent of that of the mating which is about the proportion it has been in previous years.

Seven families with four or more birds to a family were involved in the progeny. There were no outstanding families which exceeded or even approached the average egg size of the mating.

The egg size of the families ranged from 22.2 to 23.5 ounces to the dozen.

In 1947 -48 six dams were mated from which thirteen progeny were obtained and these will establish their egg size the following year.

For 1948 -49 five dams will be mated for future progeny records.

Establishing two inbred strains for crossing to develop hybrids

The purpose of this work is to establish the merits of hybrids by developing two inbred strains of brother and sister matings for at least three generations, after which the strains will be top- crossed to find out if egg production is increased or decreased by this method of breeding.

The two separate strains have been subjected to one brother and sister mating thus far. Another similar mating will be made in the spring of 1949. From one selection, 114, eight progeny were obtained which will establish their egg record in 1948 -49.

From the other strain, 115, seven progeny were obtained.

THYROPROTEIN FEEDING

Poultrymen are aware of the fact that egg production is materially retarded during the hot summer weather. This means an appreciable financial loss.

It has been suggested that a possible cause for this condition was a lowered metabolism of the hen due to reduced thyroxin

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

45 output in hot weather. Thyropin is a metabolic stimulant and is now available in an inexpensive synthetic form. If feeding of this product would maintain uniform thyroxin blood level during the summer, production drop might be averted.

Five pens of White Leghorn pullets were divided as follows:

1. Check.

2 and 4.

5 grams thyroprotein (Protomone) per 100 lb. total ration.

3 and 5. 10 grams thyroprotein ( Protomone) per 100 lb. total ration.

Duplicate pens are reported as one pen.

The test began on January 1 and continued until October 1. All lots received the same ration, except that the treated groups had thyroprotein added in the amounts given above. These birds were fed the treated mash from April 1 until the conclusion of the tests.

Rate of lay (April 1- October 1) . -Was greatest in the check pens. These birds averaged 113.62 eggs or at a 62 per cent rate.

Birds receiving 5 gram thyroprotein supplement, 94.92 eggs, or

51.8 per cent production. The third groups produced at a 54.4

per cent rate or 99.51 eggs per bird.

Body weight. -All birds lost weight. The loss was in proportion to the amount of thyroprotein received. The decreases in body weight were as follows; check, 3.42 per cent; 5 gram thyroprotein addition, 5.83 per cent and 10 gram thyroprotein addition,

12.61 per cent. This is in agreement with reports of other stations.

Feed per dozen eggs. -The check pen required 3.96 pounds of total feed to produce a dozen eggs. The pens receiving 5 grams of thyroprotein supplement, 4.63 pounds and the 10 gram supplement lots, 4.54 pounds of feed for each dozen eggs.

Average egg weight - Individual egg weights were averaged and showed that the check pen laid the largest eggs. The average weights were: check, 23.1 ounces per dozen; 6 gram supplement,

22.2 ounces per dozen, and 10 gram supplement, 22.6 ounces per dozen.

Egg shell quality. -Was not given. consideration in these tests but reports indicate a favorable reaction in summer shell quality when thyroprotein was fed. The tests now in progress will include this question, since thin shells are a major problem in Arizona during hot weather. The correct amount of thyroprotein that will maintain good shell structure and still not cause a loss in body weight is a question that should be given consideration.

Other questions that need attention are the length of the feeding period and the season of the year, as they affect the amount of thyroprotein necessary.

A second phase dealing with the effect of thyroprotein on rate of growth and fattening in broiler chickens was terminated, due to unauthorized persons liberating the birds. This problem will be continued.

46

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

X -RAY TREATMENT OF HATCHING EGGS

The treatment of seeds, prior to planting, by X ray has. in some cases resulted in mutations that were superior to the parent plants. Increases in yield and germination were obtained.

The use of X ray on hatching eggs was under preliminary investigation during the past hatching season.

A pen of fifteen Rhode Island Red pullets were mated to a

Rhode Island Red cockerel. The females were from a color mating while the male was selected on the basis of vigor and was very poor in color.

All eggs from the first four hatches were treated with 10,000 volts of X ray for various lengths of time. The fifth hatch was untreated. Eggs from each hen were exposed to 10,000 volts for the following length of time (in seconds, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 65,

90, 120, 150, 210, and 300)

.

time period.

Each hen was represented in every

Hatchability was very high in all periods and color was outstanding. The number of abnormal chicks was exceptionally low.

The progeny from one hen were selected to continue this work.

APPENDIX

ANALYTICAL SERVICE

Table 10 gives a tabuulation of the chemical analyses made in the Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soils during the year. These analyses are made without charge for farmers in the state. The analyses made in the Tucson and Phoenix laboratories are given separately.

TABLE 10.- COMPILATION OF ANALYSES MADE IN THE

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY AND SOILS

Waters

Soils

Manures

Feeds

Gypsum

Plant materials

Miscellaneous

Phoenix

1075

964

10

31

2

0

20

Tucson

682

972

4

1

10

366

46

Total

2102 2081

TWENTY -SIXTH ARIZONA EGG LAYING TEST

The end of the twenty -sixth Arizona Egg Laying Test, September 21, 1948, found the White Leghorns owned by Orval C. Groves of Wichita Falls, Texas, in first place, having produced 3,052 eggs with a point value of 3,119 for the 357 -day period. This represented a rate of production of 65.8 per cent. In second place was another pen of White Leghorns owned by Foreman Poultry

Farm of Lowell, Michigan. In third place was a pen of Rhode

Island Reds owned by Parmenter Reds, Inc. of Franklin, Massachusetts.

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

47

The first -place individual was a White Leghorn owned by the

Siek Poultry Farm of Benson, Arizona. This individual laid 295 eggs with a point value of 317. In second place was a White Leghorn owned by Rusk Poultry Farm of Windsor, Missouri. A New

Hampshire owned by the Missouri Valley Poultry Farm of Marshall, Missouri, was third.

The entire test of 533 birds laid at a rate of 57.3 per cent.

Four individuals exceeded 300 eggs during the 357 days.

Seventeen laid 290 eggs or more.

The breed distribution was as follows: White Leghorns, 24;

Rhode Island Reds, 5; New Hampshires, 2; Barred Rocks, 1;

Hybrids, '7; Crossbreeds, 1; and Black Australorps, 1.

The entries came from the following states:

Missouri, 10;

Michigan,, 3; Arizona, 6; Idaho, 3; Oklahoma, 3; Pennsylvania, 1;

Massachusetts, 1; Iowa, 2; Nebraska, 3; California, 4; Texas, 2;

Wyoming :,

1; Minnesota, 1; and Oregon, 1.

WEATHER OBSERVATIONS

Weather observations which were started in 1875 have been continued' since that date. The data for 1947 are given in Table

11. Precipitation was below normal with about one half the normal rainfall. Temperatures were about normal. The last frost in the spring occurred on January 31 which accounted for the exceptionally long growing season.

FIFTY -NINTH ANNUAL REPORT

49

SUMMARY OF STATION BULLETINS

TECHNICAL BULLETINS

No. 114. -Honeybee Losses as Related to Crop Dusting with

Arsenicals, by S. E. McGregor, A. B. Caster, and Marvin H. Frost,

Jr.

No. 115. -The Effect of Moisture Content, Field Exposure, and

Processing on the Spinning Value of Arizona Upland Cotton, by

R. S. Hawkins and Wm. I. Thomas.

GENERAL BULLETINS

No. 185. (Revised) -Swine Raising in Arizona, by E. B. Stanley.

No. 208. The Cost of Production of Eggs and Pullets in Southern Arizona, by H. Embleton.

No. 209.- Fertilizer Handbook for Arizona Farmers, by W. T.

McGeorge.

No. 210. -The Irrigation of SxP Cotton on Clay

Loam Soils in the Salt River Valley, by Karl Harris, R. S. Hawkins, H. P. Cords, and D. C. Aepli.

No. 211. - Arizona Agriculture, 1948, by George W. Barr.

No. 212. -Root Knot in Arizona, by J. G. Brown.

No. 213. -Control of Rose Diseases, by R. B. Streets.

No. 214.- Upland Cotton Production in Arizona, by W.

I.

Thomas.

MIMEOGRAPHED REPORTS

No. 83.- Production, Shipments, Markets and Prices of Desert

Grapefruit, by Raymond E. Seltzer.

ANNUAL REPORT

Fifty -eight Annual Report for fiscal year ending June 30, 1947.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Burkhart, Leland, Citrus Leaf Nitrogen. Citrus Leaves, Vol. 28,

No. 2, p.10, February, 1948.

Davis, R. N., Harland, F. G., Caster, A. B., and Kellner,

R. H.,

Variation in the Constituents of Milk Under Arizona

Conditions.

I. Variation of Individual Cows Within Breeds by

Calendar

Months. Jour. Dairy Sci. 30:415 -24, 1947.

II. Influence of the Month of Lactation in Cows of Different

Breeds. Jour. Dairy Sci. 30:425 -33, 1947.

III. Variation in Milk from Jersey, Guernsey, Holstein, and

Mixed Herds. Jour. Dairy Sci. 30:435 -42, 1947.

Davis, R. N. and Kemmerer, A. R. Lactating Factors for Dairy

Cows in Dried Grapefruit Peel. Abs. 43. Meeting Dairy

Science

Association. Dairy Science 31, 691, 1948.

Davis, R. N. and Kemmerer, A. R. Lactating Factors for Dairy

Cows in Dried Citrus. Jour. Dairy Science 31, 1948.

Fazio, Steve. Lawns for Arizona. University of Arizona

Agricultural Extension Service Circular No. 135. March, 1948.

50

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

Gould, F. W. Nomenclatorial Changes in Elymus with a Key to the California Species. Madrono, Oct. 1947 Vol. IX, No. 4, pages

120 -128.

McGeorge, W. T., and Pearson, G. A. Field Test for Available

Phosphate, in Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 39; 733, August 1947.

Seltzer, Raymond E. Retailing Grapefruit and Grapefruit Products in a Sample Area and Consumer Preference for the Yellow

Bag. (Unnumbered mimeograph report.)

Vavich, M. G. and Kemmerer, A. R. The Effect of Two Isomers

Upon the Determination of Beta Carotene. Abs. 112 Meeting

Amer. Chem. Soc. 30A, 1947.

Vavich, M. G. and Kemmerer, A. R. Biological Availability of

Beta -Carotene in Cantaloupe. Abs. 112 Meeting Amer. Chem. Soc.

30A, 1947.

Vorhies, C. T. A Chest for Dermestid Cleaning of Skulls. Jour.

Mammal. 29: 188-189.

Tenth Annual Report of Arizona Fertilizer Control Office, 13 pages. Year ending December 31, 1947.

Tenth Annual Report of Arizona Feed Control Office, 63 pages.

Year ending December 31, 1947.

Second Annual Report on Economic Poisons, 33 pages. Published July, 1947.

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