AN-2115 LM5046 Evaluation Board User's Guide 1 Introduction

AN-2115 LM5046 Evaluation Board User's Guide 1 Introduction
User's Guide
SNVA470B – February 2011 – Revised May 2013
AN-2115 LM5046 Evaluation Board
1
Introduction
The LM5046 evaluation board is designed to provide the design engineer with a fully functional power
converter based on the phase-shifted full-bridge topology to evaluate the LM5046 PWM controller. The
evaluation board is provided in an industry standard quarter brick footprint.
The performance of the evaluation board is as follows:
• Input operating range: 36V to 75V
• Output voltage: 3.3V
• Measured efficiency at 48V: 92% @ 30A
• Frequency of operation: 420kHz
• Board size: 2.28 × 1.45 × 0.5 inches
• Load Regulation: 0.2%
• Line Regulation: 0.1%
• Line UVLO (34V/32V on/off)
• Hiccup Mode Current Limit
The printed circuit board consists of 6 layers; 2 ounce copper outer layers and 3 ounce copper inner
layers on FR4 material with a total thickness of 0.062 inches. The unit is designed for continuous
operation at rated load at <40°C and a minimum airflow of 200 LFM.
2
Theory of Operation
The Phase-Shifted Full-Bridge (PSFB) topology is a derivative of the classic full-bridge topology. When
tuned appropriately the PSFB topology achieves zero voltage switching (ZVS) of the primary FETs while
maintaining constant switching frequency. The ZVS feature is highly desirable as it reduces both the
switching losses and EMI emissions. Figure 1 illustrates the circuit arrangement for the PSFB topology.
The power transfer mode of the PSFB topology is similar to the hard switching full-bridge, that is, when
the FETs in the diagonal of the bridge are turned-on (Q1 and Q3 or Q2 and Q4), it initiates a power
transfer cycle. At the end of the power transfer cycle, PWM turns off the switch Q3 or Q4 depending on
the phase with a pulse width determined by the input and output voltages and the transformer turns ratio.
In the freewheel mode, unlike the classic full-bridge where all the four primary FETs are off, in the PSFB
topology the primary of the power transformer is shorted by activating either both the top FETs (Q1 and
Q4) or both the bottom FETs (Q2 and Q3) alternatively. In a PSFB topology, the primary switches are
turned on alternatively energizing the windings in such a way that the flux swings back and forth in the first
and the third quadrants of the B-H curve. The use of two quadrants allows better utilization of the core
resulting in a smaller core volume compared to the single-ended topologies. Further, the ZVS of the
primary FETs results in low EMI compared to the conventional hard-switching full-bridge topology.
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1
Powering and Loading Considerations
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Vin
T1
Q1
Vout
Q4
T1
VCC
VCC
Q2
HO1 BST1
HS1
LO1
SLOPE
Q3
CS
LO2
HS2 BST2
HO2
VIN
UVLO
VCC
SR2
ISOLATED
FEEDBACK
COMP
OVP
RT
GATE
DRIVE
ISOLATION
SR1
PHASE-SHIFTED FULL-BRIDGE
CONTROLLER WITH
INTEGRATED GATE DRIVERS
RES
SS SS SR
RD1
RD2
REF
PGND
AGND
Figure 1. Simplified Full-Bridge Converter
The secondary side employs synchronous rectification scheme, which is controlled by the LM5046. In
addition to the basic soft-start already described, the LM5046 contains a second soft-start function that
gradually turns on the synchronous rectifiers to their steady-state duty cycle. This function keeps the
synchronous rectifiers off until the error amplifier on the secondary side soft-starts, allowing a linear startup of the output voltage even into pre-biased loads. Then the SR output duty cycle is gradually increased
to prevent output voltage disturbances due to the difference in the voltage drop between the body diode
and the channel resistance of the synchronous MOSFETs. Feedback from the output is processed by an
amplifier and reference, generating an error voltage, which is coupled back to the primary side control
through an opto-coupler. The LM5046 evaluation board employs peak current mode control and a
standard “type II” network is used for the compensator.
3
Powering and Loading Considerations
When applying power to the LM5046 evaluation board certain precautions need to be followed. A
misconnection can damage the assembly.
4
Proper Connections
When operated at low input voltages the evaluation board can draw up to 3.5A of current at full load. The
maximum rated output current is 30A. Be sure to choose the correct connector and wire size when
attaching the source supply and the load. Monitor the current into and out of the evaluation board and
monitor the voltage directly at the output terminals of the evaluation board, see Figure 2. The voltage drop
across the load connecting wires will give inaccurate measurements. This is especially true for accurate
efficiency measurements.
2
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Source Power
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Scope
Volt-Meter
Volt-Meter
+
85V, 4A
Power Supply
With
Current Meter
IN
-
Current-Meter
+
Evaluation
Board
OUT
100W, 30A
Electronic
Load
-
Figure 2. Evaluation Board Monitoring
5
Source Power
The evaluation board can be viewed as a constant power load. At low input line voltage (36V) the input
current can reach 3.5A, while at high input line voltage (72V) the input current will be approximately 1.5A.
Therefore, to fully test the LM5046 evaluation board a DC power supply capable of at least 85V and 4A is
required. The power supply must have adjustments for both voltage and current.
The power supply and cabling must present low impedance to the evaluation board. Insufficient cabling or
a high impedance power supply will droop during power supply application with the evaluation board
inrush current. If large enough, this droop will cause a chattering condition upon power up. This chattering
condition is an interaction with the evaluation board under voltage lockout, the cabling impedance and the
inrush current.
6
Loading
An appropriate electronic load, with specified operation down to 3.0V minimum, is desirable. The
resistance of a maximum load is 0.11Ω. The high output current requires thick cables! If resistor banks are
used there are certain precautions to be taken. The wattage and current ratings must be adequate for a
30A, 100W supply. Monitor both current and voltage at all times. Ensure that there is sufficient cooling
provided for the load.
7
Air Flow
Full power loading should never be attempted without providing the specified 200 LFM of air flow over the
evaluation board. A stand-alone fan should be provided.
8
Powering Up
It is suggested that the load be kept low during the first power up. Set the current limit of the source
supply to provide about 1.5 times the wattage of the load. As soon as the appropriate input voltage is
supplied to the board, check for 3.3 volts at the output.
A most common occurrence, that will prove unnerving, is when the current limit set on the source supply is
insufficient for the load. The result is similar to having the high source impedance referred to earlier. The
interaction of the source supply folding back and the evaluation board going into undervoltage shutdown
will start an oscillation, or chatter, that may have undesirable consequences.
A quick efficiency check is the best way to confirm that everything is operating properly. If something is
amiss you can be reasonably sure that it will affect the efficiency adversely. Few parameters can be
incorrect in a switching power supply without creating losses and potentially damaging heat.
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3
Over Current Protection
9
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Over Current Protection
The evaluation board is configured with hiccup over-current protection. In the event of an output overload
(approximately 38A) the unit will discharge the SS capacitor, which disables the power stage. After a
delay, programmed by the RES capacitor, the SS capacitor is released. If the overload condition persists,
this process is repeated. Thus, the converter will be in a loop of shot bursts followed by a sleep time in
continuous overload conditions. The sleep time reduces the average input current drawn by the power
converter in such a condition and allows the power converter to cool down.
10
Performance Characteristics
Once the circuit is powered up and running normally, the output voltage is regulated to 3.3V with the
accuracy determined by the feedback resistors and the voltage reference. The frequency of operation is
selected to be 420 kHz, which is a good comprise between board size and efficiency. See Figure 3 for
efficiency curves.
100
36V
EFFICIENCY (%)
90
48V
80
70
72V
VOUT= 3.3V
60
50
5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29
LOAD CURRENT (A)
Figure 3. Application Board Efficiency
When applying power to the LM5046 evaluation board a certain sequence of events occurs. Soft-start
capacitor values and other components allow for a minimal output voltage for a short time until the
feedback loop can stabilize without overshoot. Figure 4 shows the output voltage during a typical start-up
with a 48V input and a load of 25A. There is no overshoot during start-up.
Conditions: Input Voltage = 48V
Output Current = 25A
Trace 1: Output Voltage Volts/div = 1V
Horizontal Resolution = 5.0 ms/div
Figure 4. Soft-Start
4
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Performance Characteristics
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Conditions: Input Voltage = 48V
Output Current = 15A to 22.5A to 15A
Upper Trace: Output Voltage Volts/div = 100mV
Lower Trace: Output Current = 10A/div
Horizontal Resolution = 200 µs/div
Figure 5. Transient Response
Figure 6 shows typical output ripple seen directly across the output capacitor, for an input voltage of 48V
and a load of 30A. This waveform is typical of most loads and input voltages.
Conditions: Input Voltage = 48V, Output Current = 30A
Trace 1: Output Voltage Volts/div = 20mV
Bandwidth Limit = 20MHz
Horizontal Resolution = 2µs/div
Figure 6. Output Ripple
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Performance Characteristics
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Figure 7 and Figure 8 show the typical SW node voltage waveforms with a 30A load. Figure 7 shows an
input voltage represents an input voltage of 48V and Figure 8 represents an input voltage of 72V. When
one SW node is at the input voltage and the other SW node at the GND, it implies power transfer cycle,
that is, FETs in the diagonal, Q1 and Q3, or Q2 and Q4, are activated. Further, when both the SW nodes
are the same potential, that is, either at the input voltage or at the GND, it implies freewheeling mode.
Conditions: Input Voltage = 48V
Output Current = 30A
Trace 1: SW1 Node (Q2 Drain) Voltage Volts/div = 20V
Trace 2: SW2 Node (Q3 Drain) Voltage Volts/div = 20V
Horizontal Resolution = 1µs/div
Figure 7. 48V Switch Node Waveforms
Conditions: Input Voltage = 72V
Output Current = 30A
Trace 1: SW1 Node (Q2 Drain) Voltage Volts/div = 50V
Trace 1: SW2 Node (Q3 Drain) Voltage Volts/div = 50V
Horizontal Resolution = 1 µs/div
Figure 8. 72V Switch Node Waveforms
6
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Bill of Materials
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Figure 9 shows a typical startup of the LM5046 evaluation board into a 2V pre-biased load. Trace 2
represents the output current that is monitored between the output caps of the power converter and the 2V
pre-bias voltage supply. It can be inferred from the Trace 2 that the SR MOSFETs do not sink any current
during the power-up into pre-biased load.
Conditions: Input Voltage = 48V, Output Pre-Bias = 2V
Trace 1 (Channel 1): Output Voltage Volts/div = 1V
Trace 2 (Channel 2): Output Current Amps/div = 200mA
Trace 3 (Channel 3): SR Gate Voltage Volts/div = 5V
Figure 9. Soft-Start into 2V Pre-Biased Load
11
Bill of Materials
Item
Designator
1
AA
Description
Manufacturer
Printed Circuit Board
TBD
2
C1, C2, C3, C4
3
Ceramic 2.2uF X7R 100V
10% 1210
MuRata
GRM32ER72A225KA35L
C35
Ceramic 4.7uF X7R 16V 10%
0805
MuRata
GRM21BR71C475KA73L
4
C5
Ceramic 2.2uF X7R 16V 10%
0805
MuRata
GRM21BR71C225KA12L
5
C7, C8
Ceramic 2.2uF X5R 25V 10%
0805
TDK
GRM21BR71E225KA73L
6
C9
CAP CERM 1uF X7R 50V
10% 0805
MuRata
GRM21BR71H105KA12L
7
C10, C11
Ceramic 1uF X7R 16V 10%
0603
TDK
C1608X7R1C105K
8
C12, C15, C21, C32
Ceramic 0.1uF X7R 25V 10%
0603
AVX
06033C104KAT2A
9
C13
CAP CERM X7R 2000V
2700pF 10%
Kemet
C1808C272KGRACTU
10
C14
CAP CERM 0.1uF 100V +/10% X7R 0603
MuRata
GRM188R72A104KA35D
11
C16, C23
Ceramic C0G/NP0 470pF
100V 10% 1206
AVX
12061A471KAT2A
12
C17, C39
CAP 330uF 4V AL 4V 20%
0.012 Ohm ESR
Panasonic
EEF-UE0G331R
13
C18, C19, C20
CAP CERM 47uF X7R 6.3V
10%
MuRata
GCM32ER70J476KE19L
14
C22
Ceramic 0.022uF 16V +/-10%
X7R 0402
TDK
C1005X7R1C223K
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Part Number
AN-2115 LM5046 Evaluation Board
7
Bill of Materials
8
www.ti.com
Item
Designator
Description
Manufacturer
Part Number
15
C34, C36
Ceramic 1000pF 25V +/-5%
C0G/NP0 0402
TDK
C1005C0G1E102J
16
C26, C27
Ceramic 1uF 16V +/-20% X7R MuRata
0805
GRM21BR71C105MA01L
17
C28, R20, D4, L3
NU
NU
NU
18
C29
Ceramic 47pF 50V +/-5%
C0G/NP0 0402
MuRata
GRM1555C1H470JZ01
19
C30, C40
20
C24
21
Ceramic 100pF C0G/NP0 50V TDK
5% 0603
C1608C0G1H101J
CAP CERM 0.056uF 6.3V +/10% X7R 0402
Kemet
C0402C563K9RACTU
C25, C31, C37, C33
CAP CERM 0.01uF 16V +/10% X7R 0402
TDK
C1005X7R1C1103K
22
C38
CAP CERM 0.47uF 6.3V +/20% X5R 0402
TDK
C1005X5R0J474K
23
D1
Vr=100V Ir=150mA Vf=0.7V
Schottky
Vishay
BAT46JFILM
24
D2
Vr=30V Io=1A Vf=0.38V
Diodes Inc
B130LAW-7-F
25
D3, D7, D10
Vr=40V Io=0.2A Vf=0.65V
Common Cathode
Central Semiconductor
CMPSH-3CE
26
D5
SMT 5.1V Zener Diode
Diodes Inc
MMSZ5231B
27
D6
SMT 8.2V Zener Diode
Central Semiconductor
CMHZ4694
28
D8, D12
Vr=100V Io=1A Vf=0.77V
Schottky diode
Diodes Inc
DFLS1100-7
29
D9, D13
Vr=40V Io=0.2A Vf=0.65V
Common Anode
Central Semiconductor
CMPSH-3AE
30
D11
SMT 11V Zener Diode
Central Semiconductor
CMHZ4698
31
D16
Vr=30V Io=0.2A Vf=0.7V
Schottky
Diodes Inc
BAT54WS-7-F
32
D17
Zener Diode 4.7V 250mW
SOD-323
Central Semiconductor
CMDZ4L7
33
L1
Shielded Drum Core 2.2uH
4.15A 0.0165 Ohm
Coiltronics
DR73-2R2-R
34
L2
Shielded Drum Core 0.08A 11 Coilcraft Inc
Ohm
LPS5030-225MLB
35
L4
Inductor, Shielded E Core,
Ferrite, 800nH 45A 0.0009
Ohm SMD
Coilcraft
SER2010-801MLB
36
P1, P3, P5, P6
PCB Pin
Mill-Max
3104-2-00-34-00-00-08-0
37
P2
Test Point, SMT, Miniature
Keystone Electronics
5015
38
P4, P7
PCB Pin
Mill-Max
3231-2-00-34-00-00-08-0
39
Q1, Q3
NPN 2A 45V
Diodes Inc
FCX690BTA
40
Q2
PNP 0.2A 40V
Central Semiconductor
CMPT3906
41
Q4, Q5, Q10, Q11
32A 18nC rDS(on) @ 4.5V =
.002 Ohms
Texas Instruments
CSD17303Q5
42
Q6, Q7, Q8, Q9
MOSFET N-CH 100V 9.3A
PQFN 8L 5x6 A
International Rectifier
IRFH5053TRPBF
43
R1
RES 10 Ohm 1% 0.125W
0805
Vishay-Dale
CRCW080510R0FKEA
44
R2, R28, R33, R36
RES 10K Ohm 1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW040210K0FKED
45
R3, R4
RES 5.1K Ohm 5% 0.125W
0805
Panasonic
ERJ-6GEYJ512V
46
R5
RES 1.0K Ohm 5% 0.125W
0805
Vishay-Dale
CRCW08051K00FKEA
47
R6
RES 100K Ohm 1% 0.125W
0805
Vishay-Dale
CRCW0805100KFKEA
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Bill of Materials
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Item
Designator
Description
Manufacturer
Part Number
48
R7
RES 2.61K Ohm1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW04022K61KFKED
49
R8
RES 20 Ohm 1/8W 5% 0805
SMD
Panasonic
ERJ-6GEYJ200V
50
R9
RES 1.58K Ohm, 1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW04021K58FKED
51
R10, R12
RES 0 Ohm, 5% 0.063W
0402
Yageo America
RC0402JR-070RL
52
R11, R17
RES 4.99 Ohm, 1% 0.25W
1206
Vishay-Dale
CRCW12064R99FNEA
53
R13
RES 3.4K Ohm, 1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW0402340FKED
54
R14
RES 24K 5% 0.063W 0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW040224K0JNED
55
R15, R16
RES 20K Ohm, 1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW040220K0FKED
56
R18
RES 15.0 Ohm 1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW040215R0FKED
57
R19, R31
RES 10.0 Ohm, 1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW040210R0FKED
58
R21
RES 1.0K Ohm 1/16W 5%
0402 SMD
Vishay-Dale
CRCW04021K00JNED
59
R22
RES 25.5K Ohm,1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW040225K5FKED
60
R23
RES 499 Ohm, 1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW0402499RFKED
61
R24
RES 5.11K Ohm, 1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW04025K11FKED
62
R25, R26
NU
Vishay-Dale
NU
63
R27
RES 47 Ohm .25W 5% 0603
SMD
Vishay-Dale
CRCW060347R0JNEAHP
64
R32
RES 100 Ohm, 1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW0402100RFKED
65
R29
RES 15K Ohm,1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW040215K0FKED
66
R30
RES 1.82K Ohm,1% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW04021K82FKED
67
R37
RES 0.0 Ohm, 5% 0.063W
0402
Vishay-Dale
CRCW04020000Z0ED
68
T1
High Frequency Planar
Transformer
Pulse Engineering
PA0876.003NL
69
T2
SMT Current Sense
Transformer
Pulse Engineering
PA1005.100NL
70
U1
Phase Shifted Full-Bridge
PWM Controller
Texas Instruments
LM5046
71
U2
Dual 5A Compound Gate
Driver with Negative Output
Voltage Capability
Texas Instruments
LM5110
72
U3
Low Input Current, High CTR
Photocoupler
NEC
PS2811-1-M-A
73
U4
RRIO, High Output Current &
Unlimited Cap Load Op Amp
in SOT23-5
Texas Instruments
LM8261
74
U5
Precision Micropower Shunt
Voltage Reference
Texas Instruments
LM4041
75
U6
ISOPro Low-Power DualChannel Digital Isolator
Silicon Laboratories Inc
Si8420BB-D-IS
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AN-2115 LM5046 Evaluation Board
9
PCB Layouts
12
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PCB Layouts
Figure 10. Top Side Assembly
Figure 11. Bottom Side Assembly
10
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PCB Layouts
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Figure 12. Layer 1 (Top Side)
Figure 13. Layer 2
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11
PCB Layouts
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Figure 14. Layer 3
Figure 15. Layer 4
12
AN-2115 LM5046 Evaluation Board
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PCB Layouts
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Figure 16. Layer 5
Figure 17. Layer 6 (Bottom Side)
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13
PCB Layouts
14
AN-2115 LM5046 Evaluation Board
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Application Circuit
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13
Application Circuit
Figure 18. Application Circuit: Input 36V to 75V, Output 3.3V at 30A
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Copyright © 2011–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated
15
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Applications
Audio
www.ti.com/audio
Automotive and Transportation
www.ti.com/automotive
Amplifiers
amplifier.ti.com
Communications and Telecom
www.ti.com/communications
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Computers and Peripherals
www.ti.com/computers
DLP® Products
www.dlp.com
Consumer Electronics
www.ti.com/consumer-apps
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Energy and Lighting
www.ti.com/energy
Clocks and Timers
www.ti.com/clocks
Industrial
www.ti.com/industrial
Interface
interface.ti.com
Medical
www.ti.com/medical
Logic
logic.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Space, Avionics and Defense
www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Video and Imaging
www.ti.com/video
RFID
www.ti-rfid.com
OMAP Applications Processors
www.ti.com/omap
TI E2E Community
e2e.ti.com
Wireless Connectivity
www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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