AGRICULTURE 1945 [

AGRICULTURE 1945 [
[
AGRICULTURE
1945
ORGANIZATION
BOARD OF REGENTS
SIDNEY
P.
OSBORN (ex
Governor of Arizona
Public Instruction
Tucson
Prescott
Tucson
Phoenix
Tucson
Phoenix
officio)
State Superintendent of
E. D. RING, B.A. (ex officio)
CLEON T. KNAPP, LL.B., President
JOSEPH H. MORGAN, LL.B
JACK B. MARTIN, Secretary
M.
O. BEST
CLARENCE E. HOUSTON, M.A., LL.B., Treasurer
MRS. JOSEPH MADISON GREER, B.A
W. R. ELLSWORTH
SAMUEL H. MORRIS, A.B., J.D
ALFRED ATKINSON, D.Sc
Mesa
Globe
-
President of the University
EXPERIMENT STATION STAFF
PAUL S. BURGESS, PH.D
RALPH S. HAWKINS, PH.D
Director
Vice- Director
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND RURAL SOCIOLOGY DEPARTMENT
GEORGE W. BARR, ED.D
ELZER D. TETREAU, PH.D
ELEANOR NIXON MCNEILL, B.A
Agricultural Economist
Rural Sociologist
Statistical Clerk
Pictures on cover as follows:
Cotton in Safford Valley
Native American (Navajo) bunching carrots
Removing grain sorghum silage from trench silo
Last two pictures courtesy state office Agricultural Adjustment Agency
ARIZONA AGRICULTURE
1945
PRODUCTION, INCOME, AND COSTS1
BY GEORGE W. BARR
More than two and one half million acre -feet of water was
applied to Arizona irrigated farms in 1944. Two fifths of this was
used on alfalfa, one fifth on cotton, one fifth on small grains and
sorghums, one tenth on vegetables and citrus, and the remainder
on pasture and miscellaneous crops. This water came from river
flow, reservoir storage, and groundwater storage in the following
valleys: Salt River and tributaries, 1,000,000 acre -feet; Santa Cruz
River, 450,000; Gila River above confluence with the Salt and not
including the Santa Cruz, 450,000; Gila River below confluence
with the Salt and including the New and Agua Fria rivers and
the Roosevelt Irrigation District, 400,000; Colorado River not including tributaries, 225,000; and the Little Colorado River and
tributaries, 50,000. The amount of water given represents measured
quantities delivered to farmers on large projects and estimates
of water pumped or delivered to farmers on small projects or on
individual farms, calculated from crop acreages and amounts of
water these crops use. A much greater amount of gravity water
is diverted from streams than that delivered to the farms.
Groundwater supplies made available for agricultural use by
pumping were a more important source of irrigation water in 1944
than that diverted from river flow and from reservoirs. About
1,300,000 acre -feet was pumped and 1,200,000 acre -feet was con-
sidered gravity water, although a small portion of this gravity
water had to be lifted by pumps to reach the land which it irrigated. An increase of 60 per cent in the amount of irrigation
water pumped in the three -year period, 1940 -43, was indicated in
a report by the Ground Water Division of the Geological Survey.
This study was confined to the Upper Gila Valley and the Santa
Cruz and Queen Creek areas. Part of the increase in pumping was
due to certain reductions in the electrical power rate. More important is the fact that the power cost for irrigation in 1944 was
a much smaller percentage of the total value of the crop than it
was in prewar years.
The underground storage from which comes all the irrigation
water used in the Santa Cruz Valley is being rapidly depleted,
particularly in the lower portion, according to reports of extensive studies made by the University of Arizona Department of
IIn issuing this fifteenth consecutive annual publication on Arizona's agriculture the University is indebted to many sources for data and comments.
Crop acreage and production figures were largely collected by the Federal
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Phoenix.
1
EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 194
2
Agricultural Engineering. It is indicated that this valley in the
years ahead will provide a diminishing share of the state's crop
production.
Cash Income
Cash income to Arizona agriculture amounted to about 124
million dollars in 1944, unchanged from 1943. Item by item, the
amounts are given in Table 1. Larger returns were obtained from
citrus, feed grains, dairy, and alfalfa, while other items were
either unchanged or lower. The cash income from all livestock
and livestock products amounted to 45 million dollars, while the
income from all crops totaled 79 million dollars. Lettuce and other
truck crops provided 29 million dollars of this income; cattle, 28
million; cotton lint and seed, 18 million.
What Is Irrigated Land Worth?
In the last six months of 1944 cotton -alfalfa land without
buildings in the Chandler area of the Salt River Valley sold for
TABLE 1. -CASH INCOME FROM ARIZONA FARM AND RANCH
PRODUCTION (IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
Commodity
Lettuce and other truck crops'
Cattle and calves
Cotton lint and cottonseed
Alfalfa and other hay
Dairy products
Citrus fruits'
Commercial feed grains (corn,
oats, barley, sorghums)
Eggs, chickens, and turkeys
Sheep, lambs, and wool
Seed crops
Miscellaneous crops
Miscellaneous livestock and
livestock products
Conservation payments (AAA)'.._.
1934 -43
1944
1943
average
$ 29.0
$ 31.0
28.0
18.0
28.0
21.0
8.0
7.5
3.8
$13.6
16.3
16.0
2.9
4.2
9.0'
8.0`
7.4
5.0'
1.4
1.1
6.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.9
6.1
2.0
3.0
1.3
1.7
1.0
2.5
3.7
3.5
2.6'
1.8
3.0
1.8
2.4
$68.0
$124.0
$124.0
Total cash income'
'For the year ended August 31. For citrus, return figured for fruit "on the
tree."
'Figures in the table represent cash sales. In addition to cash income, in
1944 hay fed by producers had an estimated value of 6 million dollars;
grains and sorghums fed by producers, 2 million dollars; dairy and poultry
products consumed on producers' places but not including output of home
gardens, 2 million dollars.
`Federal subsidy paid to farmers of $1,130,000 included.
'Alfalfa seed $900,000; Bermuda seed $750,000; sugar beet seed $700,000;
also vegetable seeds and guar. Does not include normal percentage of
other crops used in Arizona for seed nor the sorghum grain shipped to
points outside the state for seed.
'AAA payments for 1944 made for soil conservation practices were
$1,060,000, and for alfalfa seed production $197,000. Prior to 1944 the
figures shown include amounts paid farmers for adjusting cotton and
wheat acreage.
ARIZONA AGRICULTURE, 1945
3
about $250 per acre, while alfalfa- vegetable land in the Glendale
area sold at $275 to $300 per acre. A study made by the Bureau
of Agricultural Economics of noncitrus land transfers in the Salt
River Project during the third quarter of 1944 shows an average
sale price of $318 per acre on forty -three transfers. This compared
with $305 in the third quarter of 1943 and $196 in the third quarter
of 1942. The forty -three properties transferred averaged only
slightly more than 40 acres in size. The sale price included
buildings and other improvements, which often added substantially to the value of small properties.
The purchaser of land is not interested in what the price was
at some time in the past, but what the land is worth over a long
period of years. A close relationship exists between prices of
commodities in one year and prices of land in the following year.
Figure 1 shows this relationship for cotton -alfalfa land in the
Salt River Valley from 1928 to 1944. The dashed line showing
crop prices represents the income from 7 tons of Arizona No. 1
baled alfalfa hay priced in the field, from 1 bale of short -staple
cotton lint at the gin, and from 1 ton of grain (barley, grain sorghums) delivered at the mill. Land prices shown represent
typical sale prices for land without important building improve-
ments, or after deducting for building improvements. While there
is some variation from year to year, it appears that the sale prices
of cotton -alfalfa land in the Salt River Valley depend rather
definitely upon the prices received for the preceding year's crops
and that, roughly, an acre of such land without buildings has
SALE PRICE OF CROPS AND
SALE PRICE OF LAND FOLLOWING YEAR
300
/i i
COTTON- ALFALFA LAND IN SALT RIVER PROJECT
275
1
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
`_.
"
75
50
25
0
YEAR FOR CROP PRICES
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1934 1935 1936 1937 1938
YEAR FOR LAND PRICES
1935 936 1937 1938 1939
CROP PRICES
LAND PRICES
1939
1940
1941
1
1942
1943
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
Figure 1. -The price of land in the Salt River Project in any given year is
determined by the price of crops in the preceding year. The dashed line
represents the total value of 7 tons of hay, 1 bale of cotton, and 1 ton of
grain.
EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 194
4
sold for approximately the same amount as the combined return
for 7 tons of hay, 1 bale of short- staple cotton, and 1 ton of grain.
Land prices in 1945 and in the immediate years ahead will
likely follow the trend of prices of the crops grown. Crop prices,
and hence land prices, will be enhanced by any inflation but will
be adversely affected by any lowering of the national income,
which is the chief determining factor in the value of farm
products.
Prices of Agricultural Products
The year 1944 marked the end, or at least a halt, in the upward
movement of farm and livestock prices. Alfalfa and grain prices
were lower late in the year
(Fig. 2) The line showing
ARIZONA FARM PRICES
.
INDEX
price of milk includes the di-
22
rect government subsidy to
20
a
J
LL
á
18
.
,
/' .i -...
!/'AIrt/ \\
,`"1
w.
..
4
C:
P/o.
16
aq"
/ ,,e-.
14
i'
i
pI r
o?o+
/
,./ / c ;
e
120
60
..
..
C,
¡
2:
D
100
80
.
...
=,..
rf
1940
.Y'
P Ì9..tiá39=9Q_,
0.
shown in Table 5, page 15.
Price comparisons at any one
time in the year may be mis-
leading because the historic
seasonal price swings do not
follow the usual pattern, due
to the influence of price ceilings. Furthermore, prices as
reported tend to apply to the
same quality from year to
year, while the product on the
average falls in a lower grade
in times when harvesting is
delayed by labor scarcities.
f%-
1941
dairymen. December prices
for 1944 as well as for 1943 are
1942
1943
1944
Figure 2. -After four years of sharply
rising prices for farm and ranch prod-
Dollar profits are readily made
by almost all producers while
prices are rising. On the other
hand, some cannot make a
profit, and almost all operate
in the fall of 1944 with sharply lower with less profit when prices
are stable or falling.
prices for alfalfa hay and grain.
ucts, Arizona producers were faced
Crop Acreage Adjustments
The total acreage irrigated in the state in 1944 was almost the
same as in 1943, but the crops differed in amounts grown (Table 6,
page 16). More grain and alfalfa substituted for cotton. The trend
in acreage of crops in the five counties having the most irrigated
land is shown in Figure 3. Most striking is the change in acreage
of American- Egyptian cotton, which dropped from 129,000 acres
in 1942 to 8,000 acres in 1944.
ARIZONA AGRICULTURE, 1945
5
PRINCIPAL CROPS UNDER IRRIGATION
IN AVE ARIZONA COUNTIES
THOUSANDS OF ACRES
600
/
F//F
COTTON- AMERKAN
EGYPTIAN
IIIIIFLAA AND SUGAR BEET SEED
I
1 1
500
400
300
200
100
0
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
944
Figure 3.- Arizona's 1944 acreage of American -Egyptian cotton was the
smallest since 1916. On the other hand the acreage of alfalfa, winter grains,
and truck crops was the largest of the sixteen years shown.
COTTON
In 1944 cotton continued to be Arizona's leading crop, although
the cash income therefrom was exceeded by the income from the
combined vegetable crops. A major adjustment took place in cotton production. American -Egyptian cotton was produced on 8,000
acres, compared with 95,000 in 1943 and 129,000 in 1942. The
change was brought about by a decreasing interest on the part of
the federal government in American -grown extra long -staple lint
for war uses, with a consequent reduction in the support price.
While the year 1945 opened without any apparent interest on
the part of producers in long -staple cotton production, yet it is too
early to predict that this crop will no longer be important. Of
course, if foreign cottons of long -staple lengths are imported in
postwar years without tariff restrictions, it now appears likely
that American -Egyptian cotton will play a small role in Arizona
agriculture.
Acreage of upland cotton, on the other hand, increased in 1944
to 139,000 compared with 107,000 acres in 1943. The ten -year, 1934-
43 average, was 155,000 acres. Prospects in January, 1945, point
to further increase in short -staple cotton acreage for at least four
reasons. (1) The federal government guarantees a price for
upland cotton at 921/2 per cent of parity, calculated as of August
1, 1945. This indicates a price for the 1945 crop somewhat similar
to that obtained for the 1944 crop, which was considered profitable
by those who were able to get the cotton picked without long
delays. (2) Farmers expect that German prisoners will be available for picking cotton in 1945, possibly in greater numbers than
in 1944. Without such labor supply it is difficult to see how the
6
EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 194
crop could be picked. (3) Looking forward to a time when the
federal government may limit cotton acreage throughout the
United States, many growers will plant cotton to preserve and
maintain their "cotton history." (4) Reduced reservoir water
supplies, especially for Pinal County farming, is a factor encouraging the substitution of the lower water -consuming cotton for
alfalfa.
The cost of producing upland cotton as estimated for 1945 will
be between 17 and 18 cents per pound in the Salt River Valley
Water Users' area (Table 2). While costs, especially labor costs,
have risen very rapidly in recent years, the prospects are, as of
January, 1945, that labor costs will not be particularly higher this
year than in the preceding year. These costs represent one area
only and one yield only. With higher than average yields, costs
per pound of cotton lint are less. Upland cotton may be insured in
1945 under the new federal crop insurance program. The cost of
this insurance is not included in Table 2.
TRUCK CROPS
The important place taken by Arizona in providing winter
vegetables and early season melons is the result of intensive cultivation of a rather small acreage. Seventy -four thousand acres,
using only 6 per cent of the state's irrigation water, produced
about 34,000 carloads or carlot equivalents of truck crops. The
1944 acreage was 20 per cent larger than that of 1943, production
also larger, but total returns somewhat less than in 1943.
Lettuce
The 1943 fall lettuce deal consisted of 16,000 acres, about 12,000
of which were in the Salt River Valley; 4,000 in Yuma Valley;
and 200 in the Santa Cruz Valley at Sahuarita. The production
amounted to about 8,500 cars, including trucked shipments and
lettuce loaded in mixed cars. The equivalent of some 11,300 cars
of spring lettuce was produced in Arizona in the spring of 1944.
This came from 23,000 acres. Shipments of the fall deal of 1944
through January 16, 1945, amounted to 4,960 cars from the Salt
River Valley and 1,635 from the Yuma area, or a like quantity to
shipments through the same date a year earlier.
.
Cantaloupes and Honeydew Melons
Cantaloupe shipments from Arizona producing areas in the
summer of 1944 amounted to 3,954 cars, or 500 more than in the
year 1943, and compared with a ten -year, 1934 -43, average of
3,181 cars. Of these, 2,775 cars were produced on a reported 7,200
acres in the Salt River Valley and nearly 1,200 cars on 3,340 acres
in the Yuma Valley. Prices f.o.b. shipping point averaged around
$2.50 to $2.75 per jumbo crate.
ARIZONA AGRICULTURE, 1945
7
TABLE 2.- CALCULATED COST OF PRODUCING UPLAND COTTON
PER ACRE, SALT RIVER VALLEY WATER USERS' AREA, 1945'
Harvesting costs:
Interest, taxes, and water:
Interest 5% on $275
Land tax
$13.75
2.00
5.00
Per bale of 479 pounds net
Total
$20.75
including contractor,
Water (3 acre -feet)
Cultural costs:
Seed
Machinery operation, in-
cluding machine labor "_.
Hoeing and thinning
Irrigation and ditch labor ..
Dusting two times'
Fence and miscellaneous_
Production credit
Total cultural costs
$ 1.50
16.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
1.00
1.00
$33.50
lint from 1,400 pounds seed
cotton.
Picking at $2.50 per cwt.,
weighing cotton, a n d
securing and hauling
$35.00
workers
1.25
Hauling cotton
4.60
Ginning
1.85
Bags and ties
Insurance for twenty days
and sterilizing seed
.54
Less return from 809
pounds' cottonseed at
21.42
$53 per ton
Net harvest costs per bale 21.82
Per acre net harvest costs on
yield of 420 pounds net
lint"
$19.15
Calculated cost of producing
420 pounds net lint on 1
acre, management and risk
of crop failure not included
and no allowance made for
$73.40
land depreciation
'This table represents a budget based upon typical costs on owner- operated
farms, assuming average yields, and wage rates as of January, 1945.
"Plowing; disking twice, once with stalk cutter before plowing and once
afterward; floating, twice before planting, and dragging or harrowing
after planting; furrowing; planting; and five cultivations.
`One application of 18 pounds of 15 per cent Paris green in sulphur dust at
$7 per cwt. for dust and $4 per cwt. for airplane application would cost
$2 per acre. If this maximum application were made six times the cost
would be $12 per acre.
'After deducting 8 per cent trash.
'Average 1941 -43 yield on Salt River Project.
Shipments of honeydew melons from the state amounted to
1,211 cars compared with 1,062 in 1943. These came from both
the Salt River and Yuma valleys.
Other Truck Crops
Other vegetables of major importance in the year ended August
31, 1944, included watermelons, 3,900 acres; fall carrots, 2,500;
spring carrots, 3,600; onions, 2,400; cauliflower, 1,700; broccoli,
1,300. Cochise County's more than 400 acres of chili brought
farmers over $100,000.
8
EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 194
LIVESTOCK
Beef Cattle
Range producers and cattle feeders received total cash income
of 28 million dollars, counting each animal only once and after
deducting the value of cattle brought into the state. Cattle
marketed from Arizona ranches and feeding pens totaled 470,000
head in the twelve -month period ended November 30, 1944. This
number compares with 445,000 in the preceding year. The 1944
figure is made up of 343,000 head shipped from the state and 127,-
000 head slaughtered within the state, determined from records
of the Livestock Sanitary Board. More than four fifths of these
cattle originated on Arizona ranges, since the State Veterinarian
reports show importations of only 83,000 head in the twelvemonth period ended June 30, 1944. Importations into Arizona
continued at the same rate in the last six months of 1944. About
60 per cent of the cattle shipped into Arizona in 1944 came directly
from Old Mexico.
The principal market for Arizona live cattle in 1944 was California, 92 per cent going to that state. Cattle on pasture in irrigated valleys in southern Arizona were reported to number 125,000 in December, 1944, and in addition, 28,000 were reported in
feed lots. The use of feed per animal both on pasture and in the
feed lots is probably less than in the prewar years, due to the
tendency to ship cattle without as much finish.
Sheep, Lambs, and Wool
The number of breeding ewes in Arizona for the year 1944
amounted to only 488,000, according to the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics. This figure compares with 514,000 in 1943 and a ten year average of 626,000. These figures indicate a continued decline
in the relative importance of the sheep and wool industry in Ari-
zona. Shearing reports indicate that 632,000 sheep shorn produced 4,200,000 pounds of wool in 1944, or an average of 6.6 pounds
per pelt. This estimate includes an allowance for wool produced
on Indian -owned sheep on the reservations in Arizona.
Mohair
Arizona ranks third among the states in the production of
mohair. Texas is the leading state, with New Mexico producing
only slightly more than Arizona. Arizona's production was figured
by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics for the year 1943 at
824,000 pounds, the production coming partly from Indian -owned
goats and in part from producers in the central part of Arizona.
The central Arizona -produced mohair is shipped largely from
Kirkland in Yavapai County, from Clifton in Greenlee County,
and from Winkelman in Pinal County. The Arizona Mohair
Growers' Association reported that the average price received this
year for both the spring and the fall clip was 55 cents for the
mohair from goats and 75 cents from kids.
ARIZONA AGRICULTURE, 1945
9
CITRUS
Arizona citrus plantings now average about fifteen years of age
and have reached or shortly will reach the period of maximum
production. Sixty per cent of the grapefruit and the same percentage of the orange trees were planted in the four years 1929
to 1932 inclusive.
Grapefruit
The total desert grapefruit production in thg year ended August
31, 1944, amounted to 5,225,000 packed box equivalents of 65
pounds net weight each. To this production Maricopa County
contributed 3,600,000 boxes, Yuma County 440,000 boxes, and the
remainder was grown in Riverside and Imperial counties, California. Of the Arizona production a little more than one half
was processed. Maricopa County's 11,500 acres produced an
average yield of 10.1 tons per acre, while Yuma County's 1,160
acres averaged 12.4 tons per acre, or the highest yield of any of
the desert grapefruit counties.
The return to growers for fruit "on the tree" averaged about
$35 per ton, since the fruit sold as fresh fruit brought about $45
and the processed fruit about $26. Growers of grapefruit in
Arizona numbered about eight hundred in December, 1944. Nearly
60 per cent of the acreage was owned by two hundred eighty
growers, each having 10 or more but less than 100 acres. Only 25
per cent was owned by growers having 100 acres or more. About
one hundred fifty of the growers had less than 3 acres. Many of
the grapefruit growers had orange groves as well as grapefruit
groves.
The desert grapefruit marketing program effective October . 7,
1944, regulates by grade and size the sale of grapefruit for consumption in the state of Arizona. Its purpose is to establish and
enforce minimum standards for grapefruit, and juice and other
products of grapefruit; also to carry out research, advertising,
and trade promotion. This marketing program supplements a
marketing agreement order of the Secretary of Agriculture in
operation since 1941 regulating the shipments of desert grapefruit
into interstate commerce. Since 1941 a California program has
regulated the shipment of desert grapefruit from and to points
within that state.
Juice is no longer a by- product. It is now a major product of
the grapefruit industry and is likely to hold this position in the
immediate years ahead. In the season 1943 -44 there were twenty -
seven plants that packed fresh grapefruit in Arizona. Of the
reported fresh shipments of nearly 2 million boxes of Arizona produced grapefruit, 58 per cent went to California, 2 per cent to
Arizona points, 16 per cent to nine other western states, 14 per
cent to all other states, 5 per cent to Canada, and 5 per cent to
other export.
EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 194
10
Oranges
A production of 1,100,000 boxes of oranges in Arizona for the
year ended August 31, 1944, was an all -time high record for the
state and compares with a ten -year 1934 -43 average of 408,000
boxes. The December 1, 1944, forecast for the 1944 -45 crop was
1,220,000 boxes. Dollar returns for both oranges and grapefruit
have been large in the past two seasons due in the main to the
unusual demands of wartime.
Evidence now available points to a return of times during
which it may be difficult to market the large American production of citrus fruit. Studies being made by grapefruit and orange
producer organizations to find new outlets and new uses for these
fruits may make easier the marketing of citrus in the postwar
period.
HAY AND FEED
The largest alfalfa hay acreage in the history of the state,
237,000 acres, is reported for 1944. This increase in acreage from
about 160,000 in 1939 resulted from higher prices received for
hay. For a time in 1944 it appeared that there would be far too
much hay produced to find a ready market outlet. Large acreage
does not mean large production of hay, however, because the yield
per acre varies greatly, depending upon the amount of irrigation
water available.
Determination of the amount of irrigated hay and pasture is
rather difficult under the ordinary reporting systems. In the Salt
River and San Carlos projects the total amount of water delivered
to land owners, less the probable amount of water required for
the production of crops other than hay and pasture, indicates
major changes in the production of this kind of feed in the eight year period 1937 -44. A large production in 1937, about 650,000
tons of alfalfa hay and pasture on a hay equivalent basis, was followed by lower production on succeeding years until only 300,000
tons was produced in 1940. Following the heavy rains in the winter
of 1940 -41, about 600,000 tons were produced each year until 1944,
when the amount was estimated at 500,000 tons. Less accurate
data are available for the remainder of the state, but it appears
that an acre -foot of water will produce about 1 ton of this kind of
feed, and in 1937 the state's production amounted to about 1,250,000, decreasing to around 900,000 tons in 1940 and increasing again
to 1,150,000 tons in 1943, with a reduction to 1,100,000 tons in 1944.
It now appears that alfalfa acreage may be smaller in 1945
than in 1944, due to a somewhat less favorable outlook for water
supplies and due to the encouragement offered to the growers of
cotton, its chief competitor for the land. No guaranteed support
price has been granted alfalfa growers by the government as has
been done in the case of cotton.
Plantings of alfalfa on the newly developed lands of the Yuma
Mesa are expected to total 1,800 acres by March, 1945, and possibly
as much as 4,000 acres by March, 1946. Under the Reclamation
ARIZONA AGRICULTURE, 1945
11
Service's program of development and with the application of
rather sizable amounts of fertilizer, these new lands may be
expected to produce a rather substantial quantity of high -quality
hay. Much of this may move to the Los Angeles market area in
place of alfalfa that in recent years has moved to that market
from more distant points in Arizona.
It will cost the average producer $15.25 per ton to produce
alfalfa in the Salt River Valley Water Users' area in 1945, according to the anticipated costs listed in Table 3. These costs assume a
yield of 4 tons per acre. Higher yields reduce the cost per ton
but take more water. Water is a principal limiting factor in production. A sixteen -year record of the costs of producing alfalfa
is shown in Figure 4. Some cost items have remained rather
constant for the last ten years. Among them are interest,
property taxes, and water. As land has increased in value, interest rates have tended to come down. The addition of sales taxes
to the state program of taxation may have been responsible for
the reduction in property tax per acre. The cultural costs, and
especially the harvesting costs, have risen rapidly since 1941.
This change may be attributed largely to the high wage rates
paid for labor.
Barley and Grain Sorghums
The large production of grain in Arizona in 1944 was an outstanding achievement. Not only did the acreage of the winter
feed grains, principally barley, exceed the acreage of these grains
in any year in the past two decades, but also the acreage of grain
sorghum was the largest in the history of the state, and the yields
were good, resulting in a large crop. It appeared for a time in the
season that the grain crop of barley and later the crop of sorghum
TABLE 3.- CALCULATED COST OF PRODUCING ALFALFA PER ACRE,
SALT RIVER VALLEY WATER USERS' AREA, 1945*
Interest, taxes, and water:
Interest, 5% on $275 valuation
Land tax
$13.75
2.00
6.50
Total
$22.25
Water (4 acre -feet)
Cultural costs:
One fourth of seed cost
One fourth of land prep-
aration and planting cost
Irrigation and ditch labor._
Total
$ 2.00
3.50
9.25
Harvesting costs:
Mowing and raking -4 cut ings
$ 8.00
Baling -4 tons
Total
16.00
$24.00
Total cost per acre, through
harvest
$61.00
Cost per ton
$15.25
$14.75
*These calculations represent anticipated costs during 1945 on owner -
operated farms, assuming a yield of 4 tons per acre. No item was included
for farm automobile expense or for management and no return credited
for pasture.
EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 194
12
COST PER ACRE OF PRODUCING ALFALFA HAY
SALT RIVER PROJECT, 1929 -1944
DOLLARS
60
a
55
ON FARMS PRODUCING 4 TONS PER ACRE
HARVEST COSTS
50
CULTURAL COSTS
45
WATER
PROPERTY TAXES
40
INTEREST
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
o
1929
1930
1931
932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
940 1941 1942 1943 1944
Figure 4.- Although farm and ranch prices were lower in 1944 than in
1943, costs of production continued to rise, especially those costs involving
large amounts of labor such as cultural and harvesting costs.
would not all move into the normal market channels, but national
demand for grain and the unusually large demand for Arizona
sorghums to be used for planting in the other states have definitely
relieved the market situation.
It is estimated that 8,000 to 9,000 tons of grain sorghums were
shipped out of Arizona for planting purposes in 1944 from the
certified seed crop of 1943. This movement is expected to continue
in 1945, and the shipments from the 1944 harvest may be on an
increased scale.
The lower price for grains in the winter of 1944 -45, if continued,
probably will result in less winter grain in 1945; and if continued
until summer will result in a lower crop of grain sorghum. The
large acreages of grain in Arizona in 1944 apparently are the
result of a war demand and high prices and do not indicate a
permanent change in the direction of grain farming.
Production costs for growing grain in 1945 have been estimated
for the Salt River Valley Water Users' area at $45 per acre for
barley and $48 per acre for grain sorghum (Table 4). These costs
cover interest, land tax, and irrigation water and an adequate
amount to pay for the usual machinery operations on a contract
basis. Only one crop on the same land per year was the plan
used in the calculation of these costs. The double -cropping system
sometimes used tends to reduce the immediate cost, especially in
that interest and taxes may be divided between two crops. In
following such a practice it must not be overlooked, however, that
a land- depreciation item should be included when more than one
crop is grown on land in a given year.
ARIZONA AGRICULTURE, 1945
13
THE DAIRY OUTPUT
Arizona dairymen with about 48,000 dairy cows produced 260
million pounds or 130,000 tons of milk in 1944. A rather accurate
determination of the amount of milk was possible because of
records available through the subsidy program. Subsidies were
paid through the Agricultural Adjustment Agency on 98,000 tons
sold as whole milk and 5,000 tons sold as fat. Allowing for a little
incompleteness in reporting, it may be assumed that about 105,000
tons of milk equivalent were sold and an estimated 25,000 tons
were used on the places where the milk was produced. The government's direct subsidy program began in October, 1943. The
rates of payment during 1944 were as follows: January and
February, 50 cents per cwt. for milk, 6 cents per pound for fat in
cream; March and April, 60 cents for milk, 8 cents for fat; May to
August, 45 cents for milk, 6 cents for fat; and September to
December, 70 cents for milk, 10 cents for fat.
The commercial production came from about two thousand
dairies, while a very sizable part of the noncommercial milk was
produced on places with only one or two cows. Three fourths of
the state's commercial producers resided in Maricopa County in
1944. Graham and Pinal counties had seventy each; Cochise,
Greenlee, and Yavapai about forty each. Of the product sold in
the form of cream, half was produced in Maricopa County and a
fifth in Graham County. Reported sales of whole milk reached
TABLE 4.- CALCULATED COST OF PRODUCING BARLEY AND GRAIN
SORGHUMS PER ACRE UNDER SINGLE -CROP PLAN, SALT
RIVER VALLEY WATER USERS' AREA, 1945*
Interest and land tax
Water (21/2 acre -feet for barley; 2% for
sorghum)
Cost of seed
Plowing
Disking and dragging
Bordering
Disk, harrow attached, after preirrigation_.._
Drilling or planting
Irrigation labor, four to six irrigations
Ditch work and miscellaneous expense
Cultivating, $2.50; hoeing, $1.00
Combining
Sacks
Hauling
Barley
Grain
sorghums
$15.75
$15.75
4.25
2.00
3.00
2.50
4.60
.75
.75
1.00
1.25
2.25
1.00
3.50
6.50
3.20
2.50
1.00
1.25
2.25
.75
5.50
3.50
2.50
.20
3.00
2.50
$45.00
$48.00
Total cost per acre, through harvest
$36.00
Cost per ton
$38.40
*These calculations represent anticipated costs during 1945, assuming a
yield of 2,500 pounds of grain per acre. No item is included for management, farm automobile, fencing, or insurance. On the other hand, no
income is credited for pasture.
14
EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 194
a seasonal peak in March and April of 9,050 tons per month and
a low in September and October of 7,400 tons per month.
The amount of commercial production was not materially different in 1944 from that in 1943, according to the best indicators
available. The amount of noncommercial production may have
increased a little, and the farm production of butter, which is a
small factor in Arizona, may have increased somewhat.
SEED CROPS
Arizona produced about 2,700,000 pounds of recleaned alfalfa
seed in 1944 on 37,000 acres. While the acreage may not be much
different than in recent years the production was lower than in
any other of the eighteen years for which records are available, in
spite of the encouragement to production through a government
subsidy payment of $3.50 per acre and 21/2 cents per pound. The
total of the subsidy payments was $196,500 for the crop year. In
the preceding ten years Arizona production of recleaned seed
averaged 51/2 million pounds or about 9 per cent of the entire
American crop. Acreage and production of seed by counties in
1944 were as follows: Maricopa County, 17,000 acres and 1,200,000
pounds; Yuma County, 16,000 acres and 1,000,000 pounds; Pinal
County, 2,600 acres and 410,000 pounds; Graham County, 500 acres
and 56,000 pounds; Pima County, 450 acres and 10,700 pounds;
Coconino County, 140 acres and 9,200 pounds.
The major portion of the American crop of Bermuda seed comes
from Yuma County. The Mohawk and Yuma valleys lead the
country in this production. The North Gila and South Gila valleys
are also important producing areas. Most of the remaining Ber-
muda seed comes from the Blythe area and Imperial Valley of
California. Production was encouraged by the government up
through last spring, since the Army had taken all the crop that
was available at 53 cents a pound for unhulled seed. Now the
Army has withdrawn from the market and the growers may be
called upon to adjust to a somewhat lower demand.
A total of 5,470,000 pounds of sugar beet seed was produced on
2,405 acres in 1944. The yield of 2,274 pounds per acre was the
best in the entire ten years in which sugar beet seed has been
grown on a commercial scale in Arizona. The average of the preceding nine years was 1,416 pounds. Acreage planted for 1945
harvest is as follows: Maricopa County, 1,314; Graham County,
831. Contract price for recleaned seed for the 1945 crop is 13
cents per pound.
About 2,000 acres of vegetable seeds were planted for harvest in
1944. A somewhat smaller acreage was harvested due to some
abandonment. The major part of these seed crops was grown
under lend -lease arrangements. Important from the standpoint
of acreage was the onion seed crop and from the standpoint of
return, garden varieties of red beet and mangel seed. Grown
also was a substantial acreage of carrots for seed and lettuce for
ARIZONA AGRICULTURE, 1945
15
seed, the latter almost exclusively in the Yuma Valley. Vegetable
seed acreage planted for harvest in 1945 is about 1,200 acres and
consists mainly of red beets, mangels, and onions.
Nine hundred acres of guar was produced for seed in 1944. The
production was estimated at 650,000 pounds. More than half of the
acreage was contracted at 8 cents per pound for recleaned number 1 seed.
TABLE 5.- PRICES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN ARIZONA
December
December
December
Commodity
average
1944
1943
1934 -43
Alfalfa haya (per ton)
Alfalfa seed" (per cwt.)
Barley" (per cwt.)
Beef cattle` (per cwt.)
Cotton lint" (per lb.)
American -Egyptian
Upland
Cottonseed" (per ton)
Eggs" (per doz.)
Grain sorghums" (per cwt.)
Lambs" (per cwt.)
Milk fats (per lb.)
In Grade "A" milk
In churn cream
Wheat" (per cwt.)
$23.00
33.33
2.21
15.00
$25.00
31.00
2.71
14.90
$14.35
17.35
1.48
9.71
.465
.206
52.00
.58
1.76
11.30
.46
.19
53.00
.56
2.40
11.20
.28
.13
32.15
.39
1.34
8.06
1.09
.64
2.68
.37
1.01
.59
2.58
.33
.60
.40
1.69
.27
Wool" (per lb.)
'Arizona No. 1, baled at the ranch in the Salt River Valley.
"Prices on 15th of month, as furnished by the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics.
`Top fat steers at Phoenix, from Central Arizona Cattle Feeders' Association.
Delivered to creameries in Salt River Valley, and including direct federal
subsidy.
acres
74,000
67,000
38,000
10,000
83,000
78,000
24,000
16,000
15,000
3,200
74,000
34,000
19,000
12,800
12,600
130,000
7,300
41,000
139,000
138,000
8,000
4,000
237,000
628,000
total.
State
8,100
100
52,000
200
700
100
1,700
400
2,000
7,700
2,300
1,100
600
600
1,700
1,200
....
1,500
50,400
800
900
5,100
10,600
600
1,600
900
600
800
600
1,300
600
18,800
1,160
300
7,000
17,500
900
2,700
400
3,000
11,500
1,000"
800
1,000
800
3,700
900
800
1,300
20,100
2,200
1,600
12,000
900
0
26,000
Yuma
200
800
10,600
48,500
300
3,700
1,000
0
600
3,700
Yavapai
78,000
26,000
Pinal
2,700
1,100
200
7,000
0
1,700
Pima
0
2,200
500
3,100
41,000
160,000
800
3,600
1,300
Navajo
500
10,000
0
6,800
0
700
0
1,600
Cochise Coconino Graham Greenlee Maricopa
0
4,800
Apache
Tons harvested.
8,000
73,000
5,000
400,000
25,000 170,000
10,000
33,000
10,000
3,000
13,000
750,000=
Acres irrigated"
Source. -The Federal Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Phoenix, except as otherwise noted.
.State totals include estimates for Gila, Mohave, and Santa Cruz counties.
"Estimates of Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Arizona.
eIncludes grain in silage, and forage.
"Year ended August 31, 1944. Does not include 6,000 acres Irish potatoes.
.Year ended August 31, 1944.
"Figures represent both irrigated crops and irrigated pasture. In addition, it is estimated that dry -land crops were harvested from approximately
65,000 acres.
"Not including War Relocation Authority area.
Flax: acres
Tons harvested
Grapefruit: acres"
Tons harvested.
Oranges: acres"
Tons of grain
Grain sorghums: acres
Tons of graine
Wheat: acres
Tons of gran
Dry edible beans: acres
Tons harvested
Vegetable crops": acres"
Cars shipped"
Corn:
Bales of cotton
Feed grains
Barley: acres
Tons of grain
Cotton
Upland: acres
Bales of cotton
American -Egyptian: acres
Tons cut for hay
Alfalfa: acres
Crops
TABLE 6.- PRINCIPAL ARIZONA CROPS IN 1944- ACREAGE BY COUNTIES AND PRODUCTION FOR THE STATE
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