College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Extension Publications

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Extension Publications
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
Extension Publications
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nf A m o n g
College of Agriculture, Agncultuial Extension Seivice
P
H
RON0, DIRI ex OR
Cooperitive Extension Work in A^ruultuic md Home I lonomia*, the
University of Arizona College of Agriculture, md the United Stites Department of Agriculture coopentmg Distributed in lurthcimce of the
Acts of Congress of Miy 8 md June 30, 1914
The mateml m this circulir V»M> a^embled bv Mrs Mary Pntner
Lockwood, Assistant Stitt Home Demonstration Leader
Suggestionb hi\e been til en from
Clothing for Women—Lima I Baldt
Clothing Choice, Cire md Cobt—Mar) Schenck Woolman
How to dresi, well it small cost—Helen W Atwater and Gertrude L.
Wirren
Extension Bulletin No 365—Oregon Agricultural College
Extension Bulletin No 9—Ohio State Unn ersity
Extension Bulletin No 21—University of Nevada
Fxtension Bulletin No 42—Kinsas State Agricultural College
Thrift Leifiet No 7—U S D A Treasury Department (out of print)
ARIZONA BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBJ
GARMENT MAKING
SECOND AND THIRD DEMONSTRATIONS
GENERAL PLAN OF THE WORK
CLUB GOAL
Garment making is an industry that finds a place in every home.
Three demonstrations in garment making have been arranged so that a
girl completing this work should be able to make and keep in repair her
own clothes and help her mother with the family sewing. Progress in
the work may be slow at first, but skill will come with repeated efforts.
Girls soon discover that by doing their own sewing, they not only have
the satisfaction of personal independence and the ability to be helpful to
others, but they are also enabled to save considerable money. The girl
who sews for herself can afford to have more clothes, made of better
materials, than the girl who must pay some one else to make her garments. The objects of the work are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
To
To
To
To
her
To
train the girl to make simple, well-chosen garments.
teach the value of time by keeping records.
encourage economy and simplicity in dress.
stimulate the girl to become capable and self-reliant, both for
own sake and for the sake of others.
dignify home-making.
REQUIREMENTS
Members must be between the ages of 10 and 19 on January 1 of the
ensuing year. Each member must complete four exercises to finish the
demonstration. Additional credit will be given for the elective, but it is
not required.
SECOND DEMONSTRATION
EXERCISE I.
Choice of Envelope Combination or
Princess Slip.
EXERCISE II
_ r • ^ ',
Overhand Patch.
Buttonhole.
Garment Darn.
EXERCISE III.
Simple Wash Dress with set, in
sleeves. (May be new or made
over.)
EXERCISE IV.
All club member's own mending- for
6 weeks.
Repair two garments for some other
member of the family.
J
EXERCISE V.
Elective: Hemstitched Pillow Slip
with simple embroidery.
:
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CIRCULAR No 97
THIRD DEMONSTRATION
EXERCISE I.
EXERCISE III.
Laundeiing- the complete waidrobe
of club member for 4 weeks.
EXERCISE II.
General caie of clothing1,
Selection of clothing1.
Choice of Middy, Boy's Waist, or
Man's Shut.
EXERCISE IV.
Making new or imde-o\er diess.
EXERCISF V.
Elective Spoit Hit or Gaiment for
a member of the family.
Make final repoit and write story of work done.
BASIS OF AWARDS
In order to recehe her pin, a club member must finish Exercises I, II,
III, and IV, and must also write a story of her work and hand in a complete report on the form furnished for this purpose. Therefore, it is
neccKin that the club member keep a record of all the work that she
does.
The final leport will include a record of each exercise entered on the
form furni hed with this circular.
STORY
The club ston should give a summary of meetings, social activities of
the club and other matters not included in the more formal report.
In writing th~4 story uce all available aids in magazines and papers to
make the story interesting and worth while. Samples of suitable materials
and those actual]} chosen will help considerably in this connection.
SUGGFSTIONS T O T H E LEADER
The work of the leader is prlmaiily to guide and inspire the girls in
their efforts. It i« suggested that the leader have the president of the
club conduct the meetings and the secretary call the roll and keep a
record of the attendance and, as far as possible, of the progress of each of
the girls. For each meeting a piograrn should be prepared. This may
consist of group songs, readings, and individual numbers of various sorts.
Po^biblv it would be of interest for each girl to bring anything new which
she may see in magazines that bears on the activities of the club.
The following is given as an outline of procedure for a meeting:
1. Call to order by President of club.
2. Roll call by Secretary.
3. Minutes of last meeting by Secretary.
4. Reports of committees.
5. Unfinished business.
6. New business.
GARMENT MAKING
7
7. Instiuction on problem.
8. Discussion of problem.
9. Social time in charge of committee.
10. Songs, yells, games, etc.
Jn making the articles the leader will give the necessary instruction in
hand sewing and the use of the sewing machine. In case there is some
one in the community who is qualified to give instruction in one of the
lessons, it will be wise to seek this help. For instance, there may be a
person who has had experience in constructing or designing garments,
who would be willing to give a lesson or demonstration to the club group.
H O W T O BEGIN
At the first meeting take the enrollment, elect the officers of the club,
including the piesident, vice-president, and secretary. Plan the work of
the course and arrange the time of meeting. (Mail enrollment to your
county extension agent if not previously enrolled.)
GARMENT MAKING—SFXOND
DEMONSTRATION
BASIS OF AWARDS
TJie following is a list of the required sewing, together with a statement of the woik on which the awaids aie based.
The garments will be judged chiefly on workmanship, although consideration will be given to well "elected material^, suitable trimmings and
good design.
In each CXCIUM- the following points will be gnen special consideration:
EXFRCISE 1.—Fiench ^eams hems finish of netk and aimholc* (thib
last may include binding or hemming); whipping on of late 01 the application of fancy ititchc*.
EXERCISE II.—Follow inductions caicfulh. The work will be judged
on neatness, accuracy, and ^election of thiead and mateiiaR
EXERCISE III.—Seams; plain *eam with overcasting, notching or pinking; open seam with oveicasting, nouhing or pinkini*; French seams,
felled seams, and French fell. Hems: Hand placed or stitched, turning
or binding edge of hem. Othei finished Faungs, pLu Lets binding of
armhole, gatheiing, and tucking. If old mateiial is u ed5 the ripping,
repairing, and laundering of material will be consideied.
ExERcibE IV.—Mending will be judged on neatness and the accuracy
with which the club member has followed the instruction* ghen for the
hemmed patch and oveihand patch, the stocking darn and the garment
darn. Thread and mateiials should match. A club member should be
able to decide whether a hemmed or overhand patih i^ more desirable.
ExERCisr V.—Elective: Pillow Slip<\ Seam; quality of hemstitching,
evenness of embroidery and simplicity of design. An initial is suggested,
EXERCISE I
THE ENVELOP*, COMBINATION"
MATERIALS.—-Beikeley cambric, cotton nope, nainsook, barred muslin,
long cloth, etc., may be used.
Thread to match material, probably No, 70, white.
T?burning.—Embroidery, insertion, beading or edging, crocheting,
tatting, linen lace, hand embroideiy, feather stitching, etc. Designs
worked with French knots in soft colois or white are very effective.
Patter?i.—Select any commercial pattern you wish, according to bust
measure required. Consider economy of material and labor in making.
Patterns having a Qeam across the bottom require no buttons and buttonholes.
GARMEM
MAKING
9
To Cut.—Study pattern carefully, making suie you undeistand the
perforations. Test for bust measure and length.
Fold material lengthwise; pin all the pattern in place before cutting.
Try turning pieces end to end to make sure you have placed to best advantage. Be sure center front lies along the lengthwise fold, and thai
the double perforations are parallel with it.
Cut out. Mark notches with colored thread.
To make.—Baste all seams on right hide with notches matching; tiv
on, making any necessary alterations. Complete the scams following
directions given for seams.
To Finish Neck or Atmhole^—(!)
If }acey crocheting, or tatting is
used, make tiny hem and whip on lace.
(2) Face neck and slee\es with a bias piece cut fiom material, or bias
tape purchased at the store. Lingeiie tape may be run in the casing made
by the bias tape. If so, hem end of bias tape and start baiting at center
front, haung right sides together. Baste around neck, and when nearly
around, measwe amount lequired and hem end as before. Baste in portion so that hemmed ends meet but do not lap. Stitch. Overhand lace
to these edges holding lace side towards yon.
(3) If a plain finished edge is desired, turn hems and hold in place
with chain stitch or feather stitching. This is u^ed especially with silken
undeiwear, the color of the thread used matching that of French knots
used for trimming.
(4) Any pattern you select may be made straight across the top and a
piece of lace edge and beading u^ed to finish it, or hems may be turned
at the top and basted and finished with machine hemstitching. If embroidery is used, it may be applied with a bias facing, basting right side
embroideiy against right side of garment. The facing is then basted in
place, and all stitched together. Or it may be put on with a small French
seam. To do this, cut away the muslin to }i inch of embroidery. Place
wrong sides together, keeping edges even. Proceed as in a regular French
seam.
(5) Embroidery may be used for both facing and trimming around the
neck of a garment. To face with embroidery, trim off muslin edge to
within 54 * nc ^ oi* design. (Baste V^ inch from edge.) Place on right
side of embroideiy against right side of combination suit, letting raw
edges of embroidery extend Y% inch beyond raw edges of garment, and
baste J4 * nc ^ from edge of embroidery. If used on neck of garment,
start In center front; if on sleeves at underarm seam. Then turn, crease
Y& inch tinning and ba^te in place. Stitch both edges from the right side.
Run tape In beading thus formed. Unless this facing is used as casing
for tape, the seam in the embroidery would be less conspicuous at the
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PRINCLSS SLIP
To Make.—Baste all «cum<! on light ^de with notches matching, Try
on. Fit if necessary.
Baste again and tiy on once more. Stitch seam** the width of the
presser foot outside the basting stitches.
Tiim, turn and baste French seam. Stitch width of piesset foot from
first stitching.
Remove bastings and turn work.
Try on slip. Correct length around bottom. It is a good idea for the
younger girls to put a "growing tuck" just abo\e the hern. Trim neck
and sleeves to size desired.
Hem or apply flounce of embroidery to lower edge of blip. To apply
flounce use the tuck seam. Finish neck and sleeves as desired, following
directions given undei Envelope Combination.
EXERCISE II
THE OVERU\ND PATCH
The overhand patch is used to replace a piece in a gannent where there
will not be much stiain and where it h desiied to have the repaired place
show as little as possible. It is joined to the opening with only one -.earn
and each coiner is held by a single stitch.
Material*.—
1. A torn drc-s skirt,
2. A piece of the same material.
3. Thread to match.
If the dress h,\h faded it will be well to fade the piece u^ed for
patching.
Method,—Prepaie the hoh in the garment by cutting away the worn
portion to a sqtuie, alvwus keeping the cut edge on a thread of the goods.
Clip diagonally outward from the corners of the hole }{\ imh, and crease
the edges to the wrong side, baiting them in position if the material will
not hold the create easily.
Cut a piece of material for a patch Luge enough to cover the hole
easily. Place this patch on the garment, with the right bide of the patch
to the wrong side of the garment, matching perfectly the thread and
design. Babte in position.
Next mark the outline of the hole on the patch. This may be done in
one of several ways. If the material will hold a crease* crease the patch
along the four sides of the hole, If the material does not crease easily,
u«e chalk or bastings to mark the size of the hole.
GARMENT MAKING
15
equal distance from the edge on the upper side. Draw up thread but do
not pull. Sew over this stitch to bring a long thread on the surface.
Turn work and repeat on other side. When stranding is completed, the
buttonhole is in a "box" of straight threads or "strands" and needle is in
original position. Overcast sides of buttonhole, using three to five stitches,
according to size of hole. Do not let stitches go farther from the edge of
the buttonhole than the stranding thread. Cross to other side and overcast, bringing needle to original position as before.
Buttonhole Stitches,—Hold work as in stranding. Enter needle at
lower right hand corner of hole, pointing needle directly toward you.
Wrap double thread at eye of needle around the point from right to left.
Pull needle through and straight away from you so' that the knots or
purLs will lie evenly along the edge. Take another buttonhole stitch the
width of a thread to the left and repeat to the corner. Group three
slanting stitches at corner in a fan shape, the middle one being slightly
longer than the others and directly in line with the cut. This finish gives
added strength. Make second row of buttonhole stitches.
Finishing.'—To make bar end: Take two more stitches .overstranding
thread at end of buttonhole. Turn work and take buttonhole stitches
over these, taking up a few threads of the cloth each time. The purl
edges will be turned toward the inside of the buttonhole. Fasten thread
on the wrong side by running under stitches or by two small buttonhole
stitches.
Bar both ends of buttonhole if in a box plait.
Always try to have thread long-enough to work entire buttonhole. If
necessary to change, drop needle through the hole and fasten on wrong
side. Enter new thread in position, catching in last purl so there will be
no break in the edge.
THE GARMENT DARN
Select a garment with several tears; if possible, a triangular tear, a
diagonal tear, and one straight with the thread of the material.
Materials,-—If the garment to be mended is of woolen material, ravel
threads from the same material to use in darning. If you have no extra
piece of cloth, try to remove some from the seams of the garment.
If the material is silk, untwist some spool silk of the same color and
use one of the strands.
If cotton, get a very fine thread; use No. 120 for tears on white
dresses, etc.
If repairing a tear, start about % inch beyond the end and sew back
and forth, turning the thread about that distance beyond the tear each
time. This makes it strong so that it will hold. The loop at the turning
allows for stretching in washing. Keep edges even so that it will be at-
GARUFM Mik
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Pattern.—Choose any kind of pattern you prefer. Consider ease In
laundering, material lequired, time needed for making, and use to which
dress is to be put. Choose pattern according to age or bust measure,
Purchase mateiial required on chart.
To cut.—
1. Study cutting chart found in pattern en\e]ope.
2. Identify each piece of pattern.
3. Lay pattern on material, making sure none is wasted.
4. Check to be sure all pieces are accounted for, and that those to
be cut on lengthwise fold, etc, are properly placed. Pin.
5. Cut out, making a good even edge.
6. Mark notches and perforations with a colored thread.
If youi material has an up and down, or right or wrong side, or if it is
checked or striped, be careful to hive the two hahes of the garment alike.
To make.—Follow the special directions given on the pattern.
Follow the notches on the pattern in putting the dress together.
Probably your dress will be a one-piece dress, which is simply belted in at
the waist line.
Fitttng.—Try on to see that the shoulder seams are right and that the
dress hangs well.
Bottom of dress.—After the seams are finibhed, the sleeves in and the
belt on, put the dress on and have someone level the skirt for you. A
yardstick on which you have put a heavy chalk mark in white chalk for
dark material or colored chalk for light material, is excellent for marking
the hem. Stand the ruler upright on the floor and with one hand back of the
material, rub the material against the chalk. When all of the chalk has
rubbed off, rechalk the ruler and continue. Care must be taken to avoid
stretching the material.
Make the hem from 2 to 4 inches wide. Lay any fullness at the top
of the hem In plaits. Baste. Try on again to make sure that the dress
hangs evenly. Stitch the hem close to the edge, on the sewing machine,
or hem in pkee by hand.
PROBLEMS IN CONS1 RUCTION
1. Seams: For ginghams, lawns, voiles, tissue ginghams and other
thin materials French seams and plain seams are used. Flat felled seams
are used for heavier materials, especially in tailored garments.
2. Shrinking of material,
3. Stitches; overcasting, hemming.
4. Fitting.
5. Setting In sleeves.
6. Applying collar and cuffs.
18
7.
8.
9.
10.
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\» 97
Making belt.
Handmade buttonholes.
Bound buttonholes oi slip-in pockets.
Sewing on buttons smp fistenei8 oi hooks and e\e«.
EXERCISE V—KLI^CTIVK
PILLOW SLIPS
Matenal.—Good quality pillow slip tubing. This comes in several
widths, so purchase the light width for jour pillows. Buy one-third more
than the length of jour pillow for each case. Ube thread to match the
quality of the cloth.
Makmg.— Divide the material into hah ON foi the two cases Straighten
the ends of the cloth by the thread. Make a Fiench seam across one end
of the tubing. At the other end measure 6]4 inches up from the edge
of the tubing and pull threads for hemstitching. Then on the outer edge
turn J4 inch, turning to the wrong side. Then turn back a 3-inch hem to
the line of drawn thieads. Baste the hem carefully and hemstitch. The
hemstitching may be either plain, double, or diagonal.
Apply an embroidered initial or other bimple design.
OARMEM
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GARMENT MAKING—THIRD DEMONSTRATION
BASIS OF AWARDS
The following is a list of the requiied bewmg, together with a statement of the work, on which the awards are based. The garments will
be judged on workmanship, selection of materials, appropriate trimmings,
well-chosen colors, and attractive design.
In each exercise the following points will be gncn special consideration.
EXERCISE 1
Launder ing—
1. Vaiiety of garmc.nl>
2. White garments—dear color, odoi, care in handling, starching; bluing; ironing; folding.
3. Colored garments—coloi piesened, other points as for white
clothes.
Garments must be exhibited ior inspection.
FXERCISE U
Seletiion and Cate of Clothing—
1. Care of underwear and stockings.
2. Care of outside clothing—woolen and cotton garments.
3. Care of shoes, gloves and hats.
4. Selection of samples for color combinations and selection of cuts
from magazines to illustrate good lines for different types of
figures.
EXERCISE III
Choice of Middy, Boy's Waist or Marts Sfart.—Neatness and accuracy
in cutting and fitting of garment and of machine work in fell seams,
hems, sleeve plackets, application of collar and cuffs, braid trimming on
middy.
EXERCISE IV"
II.
New or made-over dress.—Same as simple wash dress, Demonstration
This may be a more difficult problem.
EXERCISE V
Sfort hat, fafer hat or child's hat.—Workmanship, design, color, appropriateness. Garment for other member of the family same as III and
IV according to problems involved.
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EXERCISE I
LAUNDERING THE COMPLF1E W \RDROBL Ol A CLLB MI MBER
In this exercise, we wish each rnembex to launder all the garments she
might wear in one day as nightgown, knitted underweai, one pair hose,
bloomers, waist or combination suit, petticoat, and dress. At least one of
these garments must be colored. Set color m this girment before washing.
Full directions are found in Firxneis' Bulletin 1099 which accompanies
this exercise. Use a naptha soap if clothes aie much soiled—never use
a yellow soap on colored materials. Practice removal of iron rust, fruit
stains, grass, ink, and grease stains.
Do not boil clothes over 3 minutes, as longer boiling makes them yellow,
Rinse very thoroughly as soap left in clothes when rinsing in the bluing
water will often leive iron ru>t. AJwav<* hmg clothes h\ the straight of
thread except in a high wind. Hing colored clothes in the shade. Sunshine whitens other gaiments. Drewe* hold shape better if hung on
hangers. Clean the clothesline with a dampened cloth before hanging
up the clean clothes. Clean clothespins in like minner if then hive been
left on the line.
When the clothe* are perfectly dry, gather md sprinkle for ironing.
Starched clothes will stick to the iron if they have not been completely
dried before sprinkling. Open all plaits, smooth collars and belts m
sprinkling or the garments will not be moistened e \ e n h , and the drier
parts will scorch when ironed. Linen and starched clothes will require
more moisture than the others. Roll tightly in a dampened towel and let
stand a while before ironing In warm weather, iron after about an hour
or they will be too drv. If unable to iron as planned, spread out to dry
before laying awav, otherwise they are likely to sour or mildew,
Be sure to have a clean iron. If it is rusted, rub with fine sand paper
or Bon Ami. Wash, heat, brush bottom with wax, and rub clean. Until
you. are experienced, it is wiser not to iron with too hot an iron. If you
cannot have an electric iron, very satisfactory gasoline irons may be obtained. These save heating the room with the stove on a hot day. Iron
lace first, then collars, sleeves, waist and last the skirt, of a drew. In
ironing a slip, iron lace first about neck and sleeves then flounce and
last, the body of the garment. Dry thoroughly, fold and put away all
garments except dresses and fine waists. Hang these on hangers. Hangers
may be made from heavy cardboard, shaped and hung with a string, or
whittled from pine wood.
In writing the report of this- exercise give a list of articles laundered
and of equipment used.
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EXERCISE II
CARE Or CLOTHING
Choose well-shaped, well-fitted garments, the^ wear better than those
that strain and pull.
Mend rips and teais when the\ first start. It bi\es stitches and prevents the garment from losing shape.
Keep clothing clean, brush or shake frequently; remove spots as soon
as the} appear. Launder or clem before the garments are bidly soiled.
Brushing.—Woolen gai merits should be brushed aftei each wearing.
Regular brushing keeps them clean much longei than an occasional
brushing. When dust is left on a garment it seems to sink in and to
collect more dirt and grease, thus becoming hirdcr and harder to remove.
Cotton clothing should be shaken rather than brushed, for brushing
roughens the fiber md mikes the dirt cling
Airing—Even
time a gaiment is worn it should be ined thoroughly
Hang on a chair m iront of an open window so it will be fresh m the
morning See thit vour night clothe*- ire aired before hinging them m
the closet. Hanging clothes m a closet without first airing gives a close
odor to the closet and to the clothe** Air your closet often, it is a good
plan to leave the closet door open at night
Storage.—After airing and brushing your garments, hang on coat,
skirt, or trouser hangers in the closet Hangers may be made or purchased for a small sum and will aid m preserving the shape of the
garment and aho m keeping order in the closet Your closet must be
kept m order or your clothes will be mussed
Garments that are not
used much should have a cloth co\er or paper Ing to protect them from
the dust. Peihips you have made one m your club work A paper sack
can be used to protect your verv good hat Clothing that cannot be put m
the closet should be folded and put m a drawer or a box.
The discussion at one of the club meetings should be on the daily caie
of clothing and should cover the importance of mending, sewing on
buttons and other fasteners, brushing and airing clothing, the Uhe of
dress covers and shield^ hangers shoe trees, etc.
The discussion at several meetings might well be given to consideration
of the problems involved in well-selected clothing
1. In selecting colors each girl should consider hei own type. The
color guide enclosed with this circular can be used as a reference.
2. Combinations of colors should also be studied. For this each girl
should bring samples of colors from the scrap bag at home and discuss
suitable color combinations.
3. Suitable kinds of materials for making different types of dresses,
such m school dre$se$j and afternoon dresses, should be studied. If the girls
22
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97
wish, to combine plain and checked ginghams in the tame coloi or the
same material in two colors and mount thete on cardb, it will increase the
interest in the stud).
4. Choice of pattern for the tall girl or the thin girl is another subject for discussion. This lesbon will be much moie valuable if the girls
select cuts from fashion magazines and catalogues illustrating good lines
for different types of figures. These pictures should be cut out and
mounted on cardboard or paper so that each girl will have a set of illustrations showing good lines for different types of figures.
5. Healthful clothing should be given consideration. The advantage
of having the weight hang from the shoulders, freedom of movement, the
right amount of clothing for the proper waimth of the body, well-fitting
bhoes, should all be included in this discussion.
6. How to buy wisely might well be discussed with tack exeicise.
Buy only what is really needed.
Choose material and garments that will harmom/e with what you h.\\Q.
Do not select those which will soil quickly.
Bu\ as good material as }ou can afford. It will pa\ in the end.
Notice the wea\e, finish, and color.
Select simple underwear.
Choose garments and hats that aic appropriate and wrell made.
Buy shoes of standard color and good leather with medium-low broad
heel See that they fit well.
Avoid styteb extreme in design and color.
Remember that good workmanship makes a mote effective garment
than elaborate trimming.
EXERCISE III
MIDDY, BOY'S WAIST OR MAN'S SHIRT
Materials.—Galatea, drilling, duck, or Indian head. Shrink the materal before making. The collar and cuffs may be of contrasting material.
Use a commercial pattern. A study of ready-made middies will suggest
variations of style. The stitched felled seam is used in the middy as
well as in the boy's waist and man's shirt. Strive for the tailored effect
in stitched fells.
To make.—Stud} pattern carefully and identify each piece. Place on
cloth and id just pieces for economical cutting of garment. After cutting
the middy the first step in construction is the facing for the opening.
Make a double row of stitching down the center front before cutting the
opening. Mark with thread the neck opening on both the front and the
facing. Place the right side of the facing to the right side of the garment and stitch on both sides of the marked line. Cut down between the
stitchings and turn the facing to the wrong side. Turn under the raw
GARWE\f
MAKING
23
edges of the facing T/J inch except at the neck. Babte and stitch.
When the facing ib finished, buttonhole around the bottom of the
opening for about V% inch on each side to prevent tearing when the garment is being put on.
Shoulder Seann.—Baste the shoulder seams with the wiong sides together and the notches matching, basting as far fiom the edge as the
seam allowance indicates. Before stitching, try on the blouse to see if it
fit% basting the underarm scam tempoianb for this purpose. Make any
necessarv alterations and finish the shoulder seam with a stitched fell
seam, turning it toward the front. The seam should be J4 to Y% inch
wide when finished.
Pocket.—The two tvpes of pockets commonh u^ed in the middy blouse
aie the set-on or patch pocket, and the set-in or bound pocket.
1. Patch Pocket. Baste and stitch the hem in the top of the patch
pocket. Turn ^\er the sides and bottom ]4 inch. Pm the pocket in
the correct position, baste, and stitch with machine close to the edge.
Especial cire is required to stitch the edge of the hem at the corner of
the pocket. Start the stitching *%i to ]/2 imh from the upper edge and
Y% to ]/\ inch towird the inside of the pocket. Stitch to the top of the
pocket, turn and «titch along the edge, and then turn again and stitch
around the edge of the pocket to the other side of the top, where this
double stitching i« repeated. Drnv ends of threads thiough to wrong
side and tie them.
2. Bound Pocket. The set-in or bound pocket used in middies resembles a bound buttonhole on the right side of the garment. The method
of starting this pocket resembles that for a bound buttonhole except that
the binding piece is usually large enough to complete the pocket as well
as to bind the edge of the opening.
Collar.—The collar of a middv is usually double and is made and attached as any double collar is attached. If braid and emblems are used on
the collar, sew them to the upper piece before attaching the lining.
Sleeves,—Lay the middy flat and sew the opened slee\e m the armhole
with a stitched fell seam on the right side. The finished seam should
turn down on the sleeve.
Underarm Seam.—The underarm seam and sleeve seam are made as
one continuous seam. A stitched fell seam should be used. This may
turn either to the front or to the back if a placket is to be made for the
cufT opening. If the opening for the cuff is to come on the seam line,
the seam must turn to the front.
Placket,—A regulation bound or faced placket may be made in the
sleeves, or the seam may be opened for about two inches and finished with
a binding on the under side and a facing on the upper side
(,iRME\TT MAKING
2<5
If woolen miteihl is used the special problems involved are Pressing
wool, finishes for wool "-earns, putting in a hem in a woolen dress, the
tailored placket and wa\s of tiimming a woolen drebs.
For the matl&ovei gaunenl.—If woolen material is used, rip carefully,
remove all threads, ind icnowtc the materhl according to instructions in
Faimeis' Bulletin 1099. The emphasis in this pioblem should be put on
the preparation of the materhl ind the handling of it, w> that the gaiment
when finished will look tailoied. Suits, coats, or dresses of older*members
of the family cm be mide over into ittncthe garments for children.
Whene\er possible, make your dress entiieb from old material; it
seldom pa\s io combine old and new material, as the new will outwear
the old. Collv, cuffs, belt, md pockets may be mide of new material
where neeesbaiv. A plain cloth combined with a check, plaid, stripe, or
mixed-weave muciial in which the color of the plain piece is repeated
will mike an attnethe garment Two phin materials in contrasting or
harmonizing colorb combine well, but two fancv materials should not be
used in the same garment.
Cutting.—Since vour material is old and in pieces, it will be necessary
for you to take great cire in placing vour pattern to avoid badly worn
places, so th it \ou get the best pieces where the\ will show most and get
the hardest weir. Plan the entire lav-out of the pattern before cutting
into the material.
Piecing,—You may find it necessary to piece the material If so, be
careful to match the design of the cloth and stitch your material together
in a plain seam. Spread the seam open. Dampen directly over the
stitching on the wrong side and press carefully. It is best to do this
placing before cutting out.
Small holes and thin places should be carefully darned with ravelings
of the material in order that they may be inconspicuous.
Try to have piecing come where it will show least. Piecing can sometimes be made to look like a decoration. For example, two pieces for
the waist are too short and need piecing. Why not put a yoke on the
dress? The skirt is too short. A band of material can be put on around
the bottom instead of hemming the skirt in the usual way. The material
is not wide enough to fit across the hips. A panel may be inserteds or
piecing may be done under the pockets.
EXERCISE V
ELECTIVE
A simple sport hat has been suggested for this elective., since a girl
often wishes to make a hat to complete her costume. The soft hat made
without a frame is shown below. This hat may have a pieced 01 ~ound
GARMFVl1 MAKING
11
machine h the shuttle cxrning a bobbin wound with thicid. Learn how
to lemove the shuttle, thiead the bobbin and put it bick into the shuttle
and replace the shuttle correcth. Find where the length of the stitch K
controlled and Team how it is adjusted. Studv the directions foi operating the muhmc. Loosen the stop-motion snew which releases the
balance-wheel md disconnect^ the sewing mechmibm s> thtt the needle
will not work while treading. Practice tiending until \ou can do it
evenly and eiMh. Running a muhine is not so tiring if the treadle is
piesscd fir^t with the toe and then the heel, ilternating the feet as in
running insteid of using both feet at once. Place a piece of paper
under the piesser-foot and practice with the mtthine unthreaded until
\ou can stitch straight, e\en rows Always hive something under the
presser-foot when the sewing pxrts are working to prevent injuiy to the
foot. Learn to thiead the machine and then practice on cloth until you
can do straight, even stitching. To turn a corner, stop the machine with
the needle in the cloth at the corner, lift the prcsser-foot, turn the material, using the needle as a pivot, lower the foot and continue stitching.
In removing the work from the m-uhint, hive the needle at its highest
point, rai e the pre*-ser~foot and drvw the material back and to the left.
Cut the thrcuU with the thread-cutter or with scissors. Draw the ends
of the threads to the wrong side md tie them. Perfect stitching with a
lork-stitch machine is alike on both side->. If one stitch looks looser
than the other the tension is not correctly adjusted. If the bobbin
thread is drawn to the upper side of the cloth, the tension is too tight.
If the <*pool threid is drawn to the lower side, the tension is too loose.
The length of the stitch should conform to the material, a longer btitch
being made on heavv cloth than on thin material. The needle should be
the correct size to carrv the thread which is being used. Keep the machine well oiled and always iclease the band when the machine is not in
use. Thi*- prevent** stretching.
TO MAKE PATTERNS LARGER OR SMALLER
The waist fat tern.—If your pattern is too large across the shoulders
and bust, but is the right length, lay a plait in the pattern from the
center of the shoulder to the bottom edge. Have this plait large enough
to take out one-half of the amount required to make the front fit. In the
same way, lay a plait in the back which will take out one-half of the required amount in the back. Remember the pattern is made for only onehalf of the garment
If the pattern is t<X> «apt#llj increase the bust measure by drawing a line
straight down from the <5ento of the shoulder through the waist line, on
bdth front and fcack piece* of the pattern. Cut through these lines.
(IRCVL1K \t> (h
Sepuatc the pieces of the front enough to i^i\t- one-fourth the whole
amount needed. Do the same with the l\uk piece.
If the pattern is too long, Lu a pi lit in the waist p.tit between the
aimseje and waist line, which will biing the wiist line in the lit*hi place.
To shorten front and back—Lav a fold across the pattern ibout two
inches thove the wi^t line, both back md front, taking up the extra
length. To make the pattern longei, cut 2 inches above the waist line
and separate for desiied length.
To mike a smaller armseve, cut higher undu the aim, In lengthening
the under-irm seim at the annseve.
Sleeve fat terns—To make a ^lee\e pitttrn wider dnd longer, cut it
through the middle aosswist and lengthwise, spieading the pieces apart
to give the required length and width.
To inciease the width of the sleeve more at the top thin at the bottom
Uy the pieces faither ipnt u the top than at the bottom, To make a
sleeve pittern nanower md shortei, fold it on the lines' given ibove instead of cutting it, taking up the e\tia width And length. To make a
fitted sleeve pattern longer, make two cuts in it, one hilf-way between
the slmuldei and the elbow and the othei half-wav between elbow and
wrist. Spiead the pieces apart enough to gue the desiied length. To
mike i fitted sleevcr pattern shorter, fold it across n the same points
above and below the elbow,
Skitt fattens.—To make a skirt pattern longer, tut the pieces across
12 inches below the waistline and separate them sufFuienth to give the
desired length. To shorten a ^kirt pattern, fold the pieces aeioss 12
inches below the waistline, taking up the extra length. To make a skirt
larger at the waistline than the pattern, slope the material out giadually
from the line of the hip measurement to the required width at the top.
To make a skirt pattern smaller at the waistline than at the hips, <*lope each
pieec in from the line of the hip measurement to the required width at
the top.
The whole skirt pattern may be made wider bv cutting each piece in
two lengthwise and spreading the piece* apart enough to give the extra
width required. It may be made narrower bv folding each piece through
the middle lengthwise, taking up the extra width.
FITTING GARMFN'IS
After pinning carefully to keep the pieces from stretching, baste as
much of the dress together as possible before the first fitting; shoulder
and undenrm seam% the hems at the opening of the waist, and the seams of
one sleeve. If there is any danger of the neck line stretching out of shape
while working with it, baste a tape or straight piece around it to hold it
temporarily.
6
iR
ML
\ 1
M
IKI\C
2l)
Try on the drebt> to see whether the shouldei and underarm seams are
right. If the shoulder scam draws, it mav be because the armseye is too
tight, or the seam itself needs changing. If the seam needs changing, rip
it out and place so that no wrinkles remain. Sometimes it is necessary to
raise or lower the front more than the back. A normal shoulder line
should run from the highest part of the shoulder to the neck, slightly
towaid the back at the neck.
The underaim seam should come diiectly under the arm and should
allow the proper fullness in the waist at this place. Take this seam in or
let it out to regulate the fullness of the waist under the arm.
Be sine that the armhole is laige enough so that it does not draw or
wrinkle, in either the front or back of the waist. If it is too tight, make
a few short cuts in the edge of the material in the under part of the armhole, continuing to cut and test for tightness until all is released. Never
cut away any of the material; clip it, but leave the original edge.
Place pins around the armhole to mark the pioper line for sewing in
the sleeve.
Mark the corrected neck line with pins. If the neck is too large, make
the shoulder seams deeper. If the neck to too tight, make the shoulder
seams smaller. If the neck is too high, clip the edges slightly to allow
the neck line to drop where it belongs. Remove wrinkles at the shoulder
by ripping the shoulder seam and refitting the backs and fronts, always
holding the back slightly full on the front. Alter a waist that is too
tight or too full across the bust by letting out or taking in the underarm
seams.
Sleeves.—Place the basted sleeve on the arm and pin it to the waist at
the top of the shoulder, at the underarm, and once in front and in back.
Test the sleeve for fullness and length, always bending the arm to
judge either. When in, they should be comfortable and the straight of
the material should be in line from the highest point of the shoulder to
the elbow. Before attaching sleeves or collars, turn the shoulder and
underarm seams toward the front.
Put the dress on again and determine the proper length. Be sure it fits
properly.
Turn the hem according to instructions on page
If the dress is
long enough to hem, the hem will be turned on the chalk mark around
the bottom. If tht dress is to be faced it should be cut evenly on the
marked line and a shaped facing applied.
A one-piece dress should not fit snugly, neither should it be large
enough to be sloYenly in appearance.
M)
£A7MS/0\ (IRtlLAR
V> 97
GARMBNI HNISHtS
Binding armhole.—Cut bias 1 inch wide. After slee\c is basted m
armhole, start bias strip at underarm seam, holding binding next to waist.
Stitch in with sleeve.
Ciease outer edge J4 inch to wrong side.
Baste and hem to Inside of seam, covering the first stitching.
For waists of heav) material or for tailored waists use the faced seam:
Prepare bias piece as before.
Baste to inside of sleeve. Stitch in with sleae. Ciease J4 inch turning on other edge, and turn back flat on waist. Baste carefully around
edge of armhole and edge of facing. Stitch in line with each basting.
Finishing the neck,—Follow directions given on pattern.
A single collar may be finished in any of the following wa>s*
1. Rolled edge. If thin material is used, turn tiny hem or roll edge.
To do this, hold wrong side of collar toward you; make tiny turning in
edge, rolling toward you, using the thumb and first finger of left hand.
Roll not more than an inch at a time, pass needle undei roll, not through
it. Overhand fine lace to this edge.
2. Bias facing. Edge may be finished with bias band of contrasting
material Cut desired width. Baste right side of facing to wrong side
of collar. Stitch. Miter corners if collar has point*. Turn and stitch
on right side.
To apply bingle collar place collar on dres« with notches matching.
Ba^te in place. Try on garment to see if collar lies smoothly. Face with
bias tape.
Lined collar.—Cut collar and lining. Pin together. Baste around
outer edge and stitch J4 inch- from edge. Turn to right side and crease.
Be sure this falls on line of stitching. Run a basting thread around collar
about midway between edges. This holds collar together when applying
to dress.
To apply lined collar, lay collar on dress with edges even, notches
matching, and right side of lining against right side of dress.
Baste }i inch from edge. Stitch on this line.
Remove bastings. Clip seam several times to avoid puckering. Do not
cut stitching.
Turn in raw edge of collar and baste down over the first stitching.
This covers all raw edges.
Hem in place or stitch, to avoid puckering. If material is very heavy,
the collar may be applied with a bias facing. If so, hem by hand any
portion at front of dress where stitching would not be covered by collar*
Sewing on buttons.—Always sew across the warp threads as they are
stronger. In four-holed buttons, the threads may be crossed on the top,
6 iRMFM
M lkI\G
31
or in parallel rows. Use rather coarse, single thread and do not draw up
tight as the buttonhole would pucker when in place. It is easier to keep
the thieads loose, if a pm is placed across the top of the button and then
sew over it. When finished driw out pin, biing needle out between
button and cloth, and wrap thread around several times to form a "neck."
Fasten thread underneath with a buttonhole stitch.
Sezctng on mafs.—Sew upper hahes of snaps at regulai intervals on
upper part of placket, using thiee or foui buttonhole stitches at each
opening. Fold placket in place; and with needle, take up a few threads
where center of snap falls on opposite side of placket. Dot with pencil
and place center of other hilf of snap on this point. Sew in place.
Never use snaps on belts where theie will be much stnin for they will not
hold.
Sezcmg on hooks and eyes.—Use buttonhole stitch and follow same
direction for placing as for bnaps. Buttonholing does not work as rapidly
as the plain overhanding stitch, but it will not pull out easily and so pa}s
in the end.
Plackets.—1.
Skirt placket. Cut a lengthwise strip of material 2
inches longer than twice the length of opening and from 1 to 2 inches
wide, depending on the kind of material. Pin first. Begin to baste at
the top of the placket, putting the right sides of the material together.
Baste down to the bottom of the opening and up the opposite side as
though both sides of the opening were in a straight line. Stitch. Crease
the side that is to lap over on the stitching and hem in place. Allow
the under side to extend to form the underlap of the placket. Fasten
securely at the bottom so that it cannot tear out. This is the most often
used of the different kinds of plackets.
2. Sleeve placket. Cut a strip twice as long as the placket opening,
plus 1 inch, and V/2 inches wide, for each sleeve. Cut a piece of the
same width but only once the length of the opening, plus 1J^ inches, for
each sleeve. Place the long strip with its right side to the wrong side of
the underarm edge of the placket opening, allowing the extra length to
extend beyond the end of the placket, and stitch in a ^ - i n c h seam.
Turn to the right side, creasing a seam depth from the last stitching.
Clip the strip the width of the first seam at the end of the opening,
crease the strip its entire length in a line with the crease where it is attached to the opening. Crease opposite side of strip its entire length so
that when finished it will be 1 inch wide. This crease, is to the wrong
side* of the strip. Baste and stitch the strip, like a facing, to the end of
the opening. Fold upper end of strip over onto the part stitched in
place, and crease across at the end of the opening. Lay the raw edge of
the opening over the strip, and baste down so that the two cut edges ar6
32
M/F\S/O\
(JRilLiR
\>
97
exactly together, taking care not to pucker the material. Ciease the
smaller strip along both its sides so thit the finished strip will be 1 inch
wide. Crease the upper end into a point.
Baste this smaller piece to the placket opening so that it extends 1J^
inches beyond the end of the placket and both bides, long and short strip,
exactly coincide. Stitch all around close to the edge.
3. Tailored plackets. Plackets in heavy materials aic finished in a
variety of ways, depending on the kind of mateiial and the nature of the
garment. There are two common ways of making placket*, in skirts and
dresses made from heavy materials; (1) finishing with the two-piece
placket, and (2) finishing with the "earn itself when the seam is wide
enough for the purpose.
4. Two-piece plackets. For the two-piece placket a binding, or extension, is made by the piece on the left side and a facing, or Lip, by the
piece attached to the right side.
Cut these pieces about 1 inch longer than the opening to be finished.
Apply them as any bindings or facings are applied and fasten the ends of
the pieces together at the bottom of the placket with machine or hand
stitching. The ends may be bound, overcasted, or turned in toward each
other to keep them from ravelling.
In the case of vory heavy materials and those which will not ravel,
finish the left side with a piece of material which is jubt the desired
width plui> one seam allowance. Attach it with a plain seam on the left
side of the skirt and allow it to extend under the right side. Pink or
bind the outer edge. Finish the right side with a facing, but pink or
bind the free edge and leave it loose instead of turning it under and
stitching it as an ordinary facing. Usually when this method is used it
is best to place a piece of seam-binding or selvage under the positon of
the fastenings to act as a reinforcement
Where a wide seam is allowed in the skirt, finish the placket with the
seam, the edges of which are bound or pinked. Fold the upper lap back
along the seam line as a facing and place a piece of seam-binding under
the lap near the fold as a reinforcement for fastenings.
Cut the seam on the side of the extension piece slightly below iht
placket and almost to the seam stitching in order to allow the piece to extend smoothly under the lap. Finish the outer edge with pinking or
binding. Place a piece of seam-binding on the under side of this extension also, to act as a reinforcement.
Bound buttonholes,—Bound buttonholes are made of material instead
of thread, and they are durable and ornamental as well as useful. TLey
can be made In any material but are especially good in thick cloth m wfcjcji
it is difficult for the average person to make good looking handmade but-
6 iRMEM
M lkl\G
33
tonholes. Bound buttonholes can be placed either crosswise or lengthwise
according to the demands of the garment. One-half inch or more should
be allowed between the end of the buttonholes and the edge of the garment. Bound buttonholes are finished on the wrong bide with a facing,
which may be a continuation of the cloth of the gaiment or i separate
piece sewed on for the purpose.
1. Mark the width and exact position of the buttonhole with basting
stitches.
2. Cut the binding piece 2 inches longer than the buttonhole ind
about 2}4 inches wide, and baste it directly o\er the buttonhole mark
with the right side of the binding against the right side of the garment.
3. On the mark for the buttonhole, stitch (with the machine) a
rectangle the length and the width of the desired buttonhole.
4. Cut along the center of the rectangle to within % inch of either
end, and from these points, cut directly into each coiner. The cut must
run exactly to the stitches in the corner but not thiough them.
5. Draw the binding strip through the cut to the wrong side. Fold
the binding evenly over the cut edges on the wrong side and lay the
fullness at the ends of the buttonhole in a box plait.
6. Hold this binding permanently in place with stitching made by
taking a small stitch on the right side in the crease and a long stitch on
the wrong side. The box plaits also should be held in position with
several small stitches. Trim off the surplus material to within l/\ or l/i
inch of stitching.
7. Catch-stitch the edges of the buttonhole together and press carefully.
8. Fold and baste the facing of the garment in position and cut it
directly over the opening of the buttonhole. Turn in the cut edges and
hem them to the binding. Again press the buttonhole.
The nature of the material in which the buttonhole is being made determines whether the cut edges of the seam are turned into the buttonhole or away from the buttonhole when the binding is fastened permanently over them. If the material is firm and reasonably heavy, the
edges can be turned away from the buttonhole; otherwise, they should
be turned into the buttonhole to add strength and body to the binding
piece.
Seams.—1. Plain Seam. This is the simplest kind of seam. Place
the right sides of material together and baste J4 inch from edge. Just
underneath basting, sew up seam, using running, halfback, or stitching
stitch, ov stitch on sewing machine, depending upon the use of seam.
TVipa tJxe raw edges and overcast to keep them from raveling. The edges
of the seam may be overcast together or pressed open, as in an open seam,
and each edge overcast. In some materials it is desirable to notch or
34
EXTENSION
CIRCULAR Xo. 97
pink the edges of the seams instead of overcasting, In woolen material,
plain seams are best. Stitch, according to the bastings and press open.
Use the sewing machine. If the material does not fray, no further finishing is required. For material which frays, the scams must be overcast or
bound.
2. Bound seam. This is like the plain scam except that a strip of
lining, silk, or binding ribbon is sewed over the edges to keep them from
fraying.
3. Tailored seam. Stitch on wrong side of material as for plain
seam Y2 to $4 inch from edge. Press the seam open and then stitch J^
to J4 inch on each side of the first stitching.
4. French, seam. Make plain seam on right side of garment. Trim
to Y% inch from edge. Turn, creasing exactly on first line of stitching.
Baste and stitch Y[ * n c n from edge or just enough to cover entirely the
raw edges of first seam. This finished seam is then on the wrong side.
Press. A French seam is possibly the easiest closed seam to make and'is
used on underwear and all thin materials.
5. Flat fell. Baste and stitch as for plain seam, only have raw edges
on the right side of garment, Trim one side.to j/8 inch, crease edge of
wide side and baste flat onto the garment, taking care to keep both sides
smooth. This seam may be hemmed, or stitched, or if in flannel underwear, the cut edge may be catch-stitched. This makes a flat seam and is
a good one to use when the seam comes next to the body and when two
lines of stitching are not objectionable.
6. Stitched fell. This is like the flat fell, except that both seam and
fold are stitched by machine. Stitched fells are finished on the right
side, therefore, baste with the wrong sides together.
7. French fell. Baste two pieces of cloth together so that one extends y^ inch beyond the other. Fold the piece that extends ]/& inch.
Crease again so that the edge of the fold just covers the line of basting.
Baste in place. Stitch. This is a good seam to use where no stitches are
desired to be seen on the right side. It is easily made, as it requires only
one row of stitching. It is suitable for thin materials.
8. Tucked seam. This is used to set on flounces and to apply ruffles.
Make tuck seam by making a YA i n c ^ t u c ^ around bottom of garment with
a % inch seam allowance below it. Baste wrong side of ruffle to wrong
side of garment. Stitch. This should bring stitching just under edge o£
tuck. Turn down tuck and stitch on edge.
Hems.—A hem is a finish for the edge of garments made by turning
two folds in the material. The first fold is % to YA inch deep, and the
second fold depends upon the desired width of the hem.
GARMENT MAKING
-35
1. Plain hemming stitch. This stitch is used to hold folded edges
together, as hems, facings, fells, etc. Hold work over forefinger of left
hand and keep in place with middle finger. Conceal end of thread by
taking a shallow stitch just through fold. Then, point the needle toward
the left and take up a few threads o£ the cloth and a few threads of the
fold. Continue working from right to left, taking stitches from 1/16
to l/% inch apart. The stitch will slant both on the right and wrong
sides,
2. Vertical hemming stitch. This is used for sewing hems of silk,
woolen,., or any material when invisible stitches are desired. Instead of
slanting the stitches as in plain hemming, fasten the thread in the edge
of the hem. Then, catch a thread of the cloth directly opposite and slip
the needle under the hem into edge of hem T/$ to J4 inch to the left.
This makes a vertical stitch on the wrong side and a stitch that does not
show on the right side.
3. Napery or damask hem. This hem is used on towels or table linen.
Fold a narrow hem. Turn this back to right side of the material, creasing so that two folds are formed. Overhand these two folds together.
When completed, open, turn the hem back in place, and press flat.
4. French hem. This is used on fine underwear, especially where
lace is to be sewed. It is made in the same way as the napery hem except
that the hem is first turned toward the right side instead of the wrong
side of the material. It is then folded back on the wrong side and overhanded. It is left on the wrong side instead of turning it back and pressing as described for the napery hem. Lace may be put on at the same
time by holding it so that the right side of the lace and the right side of
the material are together. In this case, the overhanding stitch is taken
through three thicknesses.
5. Rolled hem. This hem is used on -thin materials or on handkerchiefs. The edge is trimmed evenly, then rolled between the thumb and
first ringer of the left hand, keeping the hem toward the worker. An
overcasting stitch is used, inserting the needle under the roll, but not
catching it. Bring the needle through at upper edge of the roll. This
stitch does not show on the right side.
6. Faced hem. This hem is used where there is not enough material
to allow for a turned hem, or on curved edges where a facing makes a
smoother finish. For a straight hem, a straight facing should be cut
allowing Yz inch more than the width of the hem. This will allow for
J4 inch turn at each edge. Place the right side of the facing against the
right side of the material. Sew a J4 i n c n seam. Then turn the facing
to the wrong side, and continue as for a plain hem.
36
F\1E\MO\ CIRLLLiR \o T
If a facing is used on a curved edge, a bias piece, or a piece cut the
same shape as the curved edge must be used.
7. Scalloped hem. If the material is long enough, a hem may be turned
up on the right side first. The scallops are marked using a round object,
such as a cup, or a bottle. This object should be placed % inch from
the edge, and a curve marked halfway around it. Then mark another
scallop next to it, alwajs taking care that the point where the two scallops
join is an equal distance from the lower edge of the hem.
After the marking is done, stitch along this line. Do not stitch to a
sharp point where the scallops join but rather in the form of a curve.
Cut of! the material so as to le,we a J/g inch seam. Clip almost to the
stitching in several places along the upper part of the scallops. Turn the
scallops out so that the hem is on the wrong side, and hem and stitch. A
decorative stitch may be used on the right side at the top of the hem, if
desired. A very simple crocheted edge may be used on the bottom of
the scallops or the scallops may be left plain.
To hem a woolen dress turn the skirt up on markings for length. Make
the hem the same depth all around. The hem should not be more than
2 or 3 inches deep in heavy material and in light weight material should
not be over 3 inches. If the material is heavy it is better to bind the
edge of the hem,instead of turning it under. To do this, cut a bias strip
of cambric or lawn the color of the dress material (if possible) 1 inch
wide and long enough to go around the skirt. (Several lengths will need
to be stitched together.) Lay the right side of the cambric and the
right side of the hem together and stitch ^ inch from the edge. Crease
the cambric along the stitching so that the edge of the dress is out flat.
Turn under the other edge of the cambric and baste to the dress. Stitch
close to the edge of the cambric. Press the hem carefully under a damp
cloth.
Facings,—A facing is used in place of a hem: (1) Where there is not
length enough to turn in a hem; (2) where a hem would be unwieldy;
and (3) sometimes as a trimming. There are three kinds of facings:
those cut on the straight of the material, those cut on the bias, and those
shaped like the edges they are to face.
To apply a facing, baste to garment or article, placing the right side of
the facing to the right side of the garment and stitch in a seam. Remove
bastings and turn facings to the wrong side of garment. Do not turn
directly on the stitching but just beyond it so that the joining will not
show on the finished garment. Baste in place near the edge, if the material is not of the kind that will retain the crease. Turn under the raw
edge and baste in place. Hem by hand or stitch on the machine.
VikI\G
27
Gathering.—Gatheiing consists of fine running stitches. It is used in
joining a full part of a garment to a plain part. Make a crease J4 i n c ^
from the edge in the part that is to be gathered. Divide the material
that is to be gathered and the part to which this is to be joined into four
equal parts and mark with thread. Use a double thread or a coaise tingle
thread a few inches longer than the space which is to be gathered. Make
a large knot in the end of the thread so that it will not pull through.
Inseit the needle on the wiong side to conceal the knot. Hold the work
with the right side of the material toward you. Sew with fine running
stitches in the crease aheady made, taking several stitches before drawing
the needle through. When the space h gathered, make a knot in the
end of the thread taken from the needle. Place a pin in the cloth vertically close to the last stitch. Draw up the thread so that the gathers are
rather close togethei and wind it aiound this pin. Holding the gathers
between the left thumb and forefinger, with the eye of a coarse needle
stroke down bcbide the fold of each gather and press it close against the
next one, woiking from left to right. This makes the gathers lie smoothly when ironed. Tighten or loosen the gathering thread, if necessary, to
make the gathered part equal to the length of the band and fasten it by
wrapping it round a pin as before. Place the marks in the gathered part
to the corresponding marks in the bind, having the right sides together.
Pin each mark ind at the ends With the point of the needle adjust the
gathers so that the fullness is evenly distributed. Holding the gathers
toward you, ba«te them fast to the band with small stitches exactly along
the gathering thread. Stitch on the machine or sew with the back stitch.
Tucking.—Tucks are folds made in a garment for ornament or so that
the garment may be lengthened when necessary. Decide how wide the
tucks are to be and how far apart they are to be placed. Then make a
gage, having one part the width of the tucks and the other part twice the
width of the tucks plus the distance between them. Make the first
crease as far from the edge of the material as the long part of the gage.
Make the second crease as far from the first one as the short part of the
gage. The third crease should be as far from the second one as the long
part of the gige and the fourth create as far from the third as the short
part of the gage, and so on until enough creases are made for all the
tucks. Be sure each crease is exactly on a thread. Fold the cloth at the
first and third creases and baste the tucks in place along the second and
fourth creases and baste the tucks in place along the second and fourth
creases. Stitch the tucks on th& machine or sew witjj a fine running
stitch. Narrow tucks % inch apart, in groups of three or five, make a
pratty trimming.
HuM^g^Hemutitcking
must be done along the thread of the
$& tkre;&d& itxu$t be drslwri in preparation for the work.
IS
I\1F\SI()\
(IRilLlR
\ » 97
1. To prepare mateiwl, decide upon the width of hem to be made,
measure up from the edge of the material, twice this amount plus J^
inch for the first fold of the hem; at this point draw the thread from
the material. The number of threads to be drawn, or the width of open
work to be made at the top of the hem, will be determined by the weight
of the material, the depth of the hem and the size of the article which is
being made. When the threads are all drawn, fold and basic the hem to
place, being careful to ha\e the edge of the hem lie exactly along the
lower edge of the drawn space.
2. To work, hold the wrong side of hem toward you, the line of open
space along the cushion of imt finger of the left hand, pass the needle
from left to right through the first fold of hem; to conceal the end of
the thread, do not use a knot. Now pass the needle from right to left
behind a group of four QI fi\e threads in the drawn spate and pull the
threid thiough, again pj«b the needle behind the same group of threads
and through the folded edge of hem, but not through the doth behind
the hem, draw the thread tightly, thus holding the group of threads close
together, repeat with each new group of threads.
3. Double hemstitching. After the foregoing line of work has been
accomplished, turn the article around and repeat the same stitth on the
opposite side of drawn spate, using the same group of threads on this
side, thus making straight bars of threads across the open space.
4. Diagonal hemstitching. MAc the first row as in plain hemstitching.
In the second IOW, let the needle lift half of e«uh of the group of
threads in first iow, thus> making a /ig-/ag line of ban.
SHORT
ens
1. As soon as you have learned to u<sc the sewing machine and to stitch
accurately, you can pin seams and hems instead of basting them, putting
in a pin every 2 or 3 inches, placing the pins at right angles to the edge
so that they will not interfere with the needle.
2. After the garment has been fitted, stitch the shoulder seams and
the opening at the back and front, then open the underarm seams again
and finish the neck. This makes it possible to work on the neck with it
spread out flat.
3. To gather, loosen the lower tension, lengthen the stitch, and then
stitch along the edge to be gathered. The upper thread can then be
pulled up to gather the cloth as much as desired.
4. Learn to use the hemming attachments of your sewing machine*
They will save you a great deal of time and will make more accurate
hems.
GdRWPM MAKIVG
^9
5. To turn and crease evenly for hand hemming the hems of napkins
and tablecloths, unthread the needle of your sewing machine and run
them through the hemmer.
6. Press wrinkled patterns before putting them on the material.
7. Always press wrinkled material before attempting to cut it.
8. Press the second turn of a French seam.
9. In the case of cotton, linen, or silk, press both the first and second
turns of a hem.
10. Many times a bias piece can be cut more economically than a
fitted facing. It can be piessed to fit a rounding edge.
11. The binder may be used to finish the edges on aprons, collars,
and housedresses, the neck and armholes of underwear and the seams of
garments which require binding.
CARE OF CLOTHING
References: Farmers' Bulletin 1099, Home Laundering; Fanners'
Bulletin 659, The True Clothes Moth.
Outer garments.—(Thrift
Leaflet No. 7 ) . Hang carefully when not
in use. Plenty of rods and hangers save space and prevent wrinkles.
Keep covers over delicate garments or others worn only occasionally to
protect against dust and rubbing.
Do not keep partly-soiled garments in an unaired place. They are
likely to become discolored.
Fold carefully all garments kept in drawers or boxes.
In putting garments away for the season, guard against wrinkling,
stretching, fading, and insects. Fold so that creases will correspond as
far as possible with the folds into which the garment falls in use. Do
not allow weight to lest on folded garments. Garments of firm materials
may be left hanging, if carefully covered against dust and insects; but
sleazy materials, heavily trimmed garments, and circular skirts are likely
to be stretched out of shape by their own weight. Keep in the dark to
avoid change of color.
Removable and washable collars, cuffs, and linings save cleaning in
women's dresses, waists, and coats.
Brush and shake outer garments after each use. Brush with the nap.
Keep tailor-made garments carefully pressed. Cover with a thick
damp cloth and use a heavy, hot iron. Some of the special boards and
cushions used by tailors are convenient and may be made at home.
Remember that "shine" is caused by the wearing down of the nap and
sometimes by grease. Remove by sponging, pressing, and brushing up the
nap with a stiff brush. A tablespoon of ammonia may be used to a quart
of tepid water for sponging.
40
EXTENSION
CIRCULAR No. 97
Protect woolen garments against moths by brushing and shaking thoroughly, out-of-doors and if possible in the sun; then wrap carefully.
Remember that the harm is done not by the moths or millers, but by the
caterpillars which develop from the tiny eggs which the moths lay. Tar
bags, cedar boxes, mothballs, and other "repellents" may prevent moths
from getting in to lay eggs, but cannot be relied upon to prevent eggs
already there from hatching.
Remove dust from silk by wiping with a piece of velvet, a soft cloth,
or a soft brush.
Avoid pressing silk with a hot iron; the heat injures the fiber, and
sometimes the color.
Stockings.—Darn promptly small holes in stockings and other knitted
underwear. A stitch in time saves the garment. Rub a piece of soap
across the end of a run to stop it until you can mend it.
Wash stockings frequently. It prevents continued strain on the same
part of the stocking, and rotting and change of color from perspiration.
• Wash new stockings before wearing to remove the sizing; otherwise
holes may appear at once.
Wash out silk stockings, socks, and underwear frequently.; it prolongs
their service.
Shoes'.—Have shoes carefully fitted. Well-fitting shoes look better'and
wear better,' besides being more comfortable. Poor quality shoes are
seldom economical.
Alternate two pairs; they last longer. Slip shoetrees into shoes when
you take them off; it makes them keep their shape longer.
Keep shoes clean and well-brushed; a dressing made with a little oil
and well rubbed in prolongs the wear of leather and kid.
Clean canvas shoes on shoe-trees to prevent shrinking. Sponge with a
little water and soap that contains whiting or use a commercial cleanser*
Dry wet shoes slowly on shoe-trees or stuffed with paper.
Protect shoes with rubbers in wet weather. Even with careful drying
the moisture tends to rot the sewing threads.
Do not wear "run-down" heels; they spoil the shape of the whole shoe*
Have small rips mended at once; often they can be sewed at home.
Gloves.—Buy gloves of good material, well-stitched, and well-fitted:
they are cheapest in the end.
Prolong the life of gloves by blowing up and pulling gently into shape
after use and mending rips as soon as they start.
Hats.—Keep hats looking fresh by dusting them before putting them
away after each wearing. Use a soft brush; or, for fine felt, silk bearer
GARMEST MAKL\G
41
silk, satin, or velvet hats, a piece of silk or velvet. Get the dust out from
under the edges of bands, folds, and trimmings.
Do not allow bands, bows, trimmings, linings, or sweat bands to become
loosened; tack them In place as soon as they begin to rip.
Store your hats where they will not gather dust; paper bags or hat
boxes are good for those worn only occasionally.
TO REMOVE SPOTS AND STAINS
Stains should be removed before the garment Is laundered and as soon
as possible after the stain is made.
Some common stains and the method of removing them are given below:
Blood and Meat Juice.—Use cold water, soap and cold water, or starch
paste.
Bluing.—Use boiling water.
Chocolate and Cocoa.—Use borax and cold water; bleach if necessary.
Coffee and Tea.—
1. Clear. Use boiling water; bleach if necessary.
2. With cream. Use cold water, then soap and cold water.
Cream and Milk,—Use cold water, then soap and cold water.
Fruit and Fruit Juices.—Use boiling water; bleach If necessary.
Grass.—Use cold water, alcohol, or a bleaching agent.
Mildew.—May be removed when fresh, but Is very difficult to remove
if allowed to stand. Spread with a paste made of lemon juice, dissolved
soap and salt, and expose to sunlight. Mildew not too deeply set may be
removed by soaking in buttermilk.
Grease and Oils.—Use French chalk, blotting paper or other absorbents,
or warm water and soap; gasoline, benzine, or commercial cleaner.
Ink—
1. If stain is fresh, place stained portion in sweet or sour milk and
allow to stand for several hours.
2. Wet stain in cold water and drop dilute oxalic acid on the spot,
let stand a few minutes and rinse in ammonia water.
3. If a stain is dry and well set, cover with salt and lemon juice, or
use javelle water.
4. Soak stain in hot vinegar.
5. Ink eradicator may be used.
SELECTION OF CLOTHING
The Effect of Lines in Dress.—A line may give the figure the appearance of being large or small, tall or short, according to Its direction. The
horizontal lines appear to increase one's breadth, while the vertical lines
42
EXTENSION
CIRCULAR No 97
increase one's height. Lines may be made by seams, tucks, folds, plaits,
gathers, drapes, panels, openings, trimmings, also selected in materials as
stripes, plaids, etc.
1. Styles for Thin Girls. If you are tall and thin, wear garments
that make you appear shorter and broader. Broad collars and belts,
ruffles, flounces, puffs on the hips, and trimming that forms your proper
lines. A\oid all vertical lines, stripes or points.
2. StT les for Stout Girls. Tht stout girl should wear garments that
mike her appear tiller and more slender. Vertical lines and panels give
height, c-pecially if planned to come near the center of the figure.
Pointed effect^ in tunics, collars and vests are good lines for the stout
girl. One piece dre^es are better than waists and skirts. Avoid loose
>-lee\e , tight, short sleeves, large collars, full drapes, trimmings with
horizontal lines and full tunics.
Effe<t< of Material* m Design.—
1. Low lustre fabrics tend to reduce proportions.
2. Coarse weave m fabrics increases apparent size.
3. Rough surfaces increase size.
4. Lirge patterns in dress goods attract attention to the size of the
wearer, therefore vstout people should use plain and small figured
dress patterns.
5. An indistinct and narrow stripe is especially good to give height
to the stout person.
HOW TO CHOOSE A BLLOMING COLOR
Important e.—Color is one of the first things that attracts or repels in a
costume. The color of )our clothes expresses culture and refinement, or
the \cn opposite of these. Select }our colors carefully. Be sure they
are becoming to }ou and suited to the purpose for which they are to be
ired. Choose soft, rich colors rather than bright, gaudy ones.
Color gnes 1 iie and "feeling" to dress. Some people are born with
more of x feeling for colors than others, but such a feeling can be deuloped.
Study Color* and Study Yourself.—Before buying ready-made garments tn th.mi on. Before buying material for any garment, hold it up
to the L\cc and note its effect. The color should clear the complexion
and hiinr out to <f>od advantage the coloring of the hiir and eyes. It
houkl be dull eir ugh to form a background, so that the face will show
to g o d ad\antagc. If the garment is to be worn in the daytime, note the
effect of the color in good daylight. If it h to be worn at night, try it
in a good artificial light. \ color which is becoming in one material
GARMENT MAKING
43
may not be so in another. There are so many shades and tones of the
same color that you cannot depend upon any color, as blue, always being
becoming to you because one shade of it is. Below are given some general
ideas as to the becomingness of certain colors to certain types. Few people
are true to type, however, so that it is always best to try. (Study the
color chart enclosed.)
White intensifies a color. It brings out the pink in a face, but increases sallowness. Cream color counteracts yellow in the face. Gray
makes an adjacent color less brilliant, but at the same time it takes on a
tint of the complement of that color. Gray next to green appears faintly
pink. Black dulls a color, therefore is good with warm or bright colors.
It makes the face look pale. Black and white bring colors together.
One color will blend with another, if the second color contains a small
amount of the first. Greenish blue will blend with greenish yellow.
Medium blue will blend with rose that has a little blue in it. Complementary colors, as yellow and purple, red and green, orange and blue,
emphasize each other.
A line of some shade of white at the neck of a costume makes the color
of the garment more soft and becoming.
Transparent materials, such as chiffon and net, used on the neck of a
costume are becoming.
Mixed colors are worn more easily than pure intense colors.
Very light or very dark shades are usually more becoming than the intermediate shades of any color.
Yellow, neutralized or softened, is becoming to mixed types.
The color of the hair and eyes can be emphasized by a touch of the
same color in the costume.
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