AN-2082 LM3444 -120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver User's Guide 1

AN-2082 LM3444 -120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver User's Guide 1
User's Guide
SNVA454E – September 2010 – Revised May 2013
AN-2082 LM3444 -120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED
Driver
1
Introduction
This demonstration board highlights the performance of a LM3444 based Flyback LED driver solution that
can be used to power a single LED string consisting of 4 to 8 series connected LEDs from an 90 VRMS to
135 VRMS, 60 Hz input power supply. The key performance characteristics under typical operating
conditions are summarized in this application note.
This is a two-layer board using the bottom and top layer for component placement. The demonstration
board can be modified to adjust the LED forward current, the number of series connected LEDs that are
driven and the switching frequency. Refer to the LM3444 AC-DC Offline LED Driver (SNVS682) data
sheet for detailed instructions.
A bill of materials is included that describes the parts used on this demonstration board. A schematic and
layout have also been included along with measured performance characteristics.
2
Key Features
•
•
•
3
Applications
•
•
•
4
Line injection circuitry enables PFC values greater than 0.99
Adjustable LED current and switching frequency
Flicker free operation
Solid State Lighting
Industrial and Commercial Lighting
Residential Lighting
Performance Specifications
Based on an LED Vf = 3.57V
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
VIN
Input voltage
90 VRMS
120 VRMS
135 VRMS
VOUT
LED string voltage
12 V
21.4 V
30 V
ILED
LED string average current
-
350 mA
-
POUT
Output power
-
7.6 W
-
fsw
Switching frequency
-
79 kHz
-
PowerWise is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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Performance Specifications
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Figure 1. Demo Board
2
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LM3444 120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver Demo Board Schematic
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5
LM3444 120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver Demo Board Schematic
V+
T1
VLED+
D4
C1
R2
R1
D1
C3
R7
R3
+
C4
+
D5
D3
Q1
R22
VLED±
D8
D7
VCC
C7
1 NC
C8
NC 10
R16
2 NC
VCC
9
3 NC
GATE
8
4 COFF
ISNS
7
5
GND
6
R12
Q2
C12
FILTER
R15
FILTER
R13
R14
LM3444
C11
C13
R6
RT1
L1
LINE
C2
C6
D2
V+
F1
NEUTRAL
L2
R24
INPUT EMI FILTER AND RECTIFIER CIRCUIT
WARNING
The LM3444 evaluation board has exposed high voltage
components that present a shock hazard. Caution must be taken
when handling the evaluation board. Avoid touching the evaluation
board and removing any cables while the evaluation board is
operating. Isolating the evaluation board rather than the
oscilloscope is highly recommended.
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LM3444 Device Pin-Out
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WARNING
The ground connection on the evaluation board is NOT referenced
to earth ground. If an oscilloscope ground lead is connected to the
evaluation board ground test point for analysis and AC power is
applied, the fuse (F1) will fail open. The oscilloscope should be
powered via an isolation transformer before an oscilloscope
ground lead is connected to the evaluation board.
WARNING
The LM3444 evaluation board should not be powered with an open
load. For proper operation, ensure that the desired number of LEDs
are connected at the output before applying power to the
evaluation board.
6
LM3444 Device Pin-Out
NC
1
10 NC
NC
2
9 VCC
NC
3
8 GATE
COFF
4
7 ISNS
FILTER
5
6 GND
Table 1. Pin Description 10-Pin VSSOP
4
Pin #
Name
Description
1
NC
No internal connection.
2
NC
No internal connection.
3
NC
No internal connection.
4
COFF
5
FILTER
OFF time setting pin. A user set current and capacitor connected from the output to this pin sets the constant
OFF time of the switching controller.
Filter input. A capacitor tied to this pin filters the error amplifier. Could also be used as an analog dimming
input.
6
GND
Circuit ground connection.
7
ISNS
LED current sense pin. Connect a resistor from main switching MOSFET source, ISNS to GND to set the
maximum LED current.
8
GATE
Power MOSFET driver pin. This output provides the gate drive for the power switching MOSFET of the buck
controller.
9
VCC
Input voltage pin. This pin provides the power for the internal control circuitry and gate driver.
10
NC
No internal connection.
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Bill of Materials
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7
Bill of Materials
Designator
Description
Manufacturer
Part Number
AA1
Printed Circuit Board
-
551600530-001A
C1
CAP .047UF 630V METAL POLYPRO
EPCOS Inc
B32559C6473K000
C2
CAP 10000PF X7R 250VAC X2 2220
Murata Electronics North America
GA355DR7GB103KY02L
C3, C4
CAP 330UF 35V ELECT PW
Nichicon
UPW1V331MPD6
C6
CAP .10UF 305VAC EMI SUPPRESSION
EPCOS
B32921C3104M
C7
CAP, CERM, 0.1µF, 16V, +/-10%, X7R,
0805
Kemet
C0805C104K4RACTU
C8
CAP CER 47UF 16V X5R 1210
MuRata
GRM32ER61C476ME15L
C11
CAP CER 2200PF 50V 10% X7R 0603
MuRata
GRM188R71H222KA01D
C12
CAP CER 330PF 50V 5% C0G 0603
MuRata
GRM1885C1H331JA01D
C13
CAP CER 2200PF 250VAC X1Y1 RAD
TDK Corporation
CD12-E2GA222MYNS
SMAJ120A
D1
DIODE TVS 150V 600W UNI 5% SMB
Littlefuse
D2
RECT BRIDGE GP 600V 0.5A MINIDIP
Diodes Inc.
RH06-T
D3
DIODE RECT GP 1A 1000V MINI-SMA
Comchip Technology
CGRM4007-G
D4
DIODE SCHOTTKY 100V 1A SMA
ST Microelectronics
STPS1H100A
D5
DIODE ZENER 30V 1.5W SMA
ON Semiconductor
1SMA5936BT3G
D7
DIODE ZENER 12V 200MW
Fairchild Semiconductor
MM5Z12V
D8
DIODE SWITCH 200V 200MW
Diode Inc
BAV20WS-7-F
F1
FUSE BRICK 1A 125V FAST 6125FA
Cooper/Bussmann
6125FA
J1, J2, J3, J4,
TP8, TP9, TP10
16 GA WIRE HOLE, 18 GA WIRE HOLE
3M
923345-02-C
J5, J6
CONN HEADER .312 VERT 2POS TIN
Tyco Electronics
1-1318301-2
L1, L2
INDUCTOR 4700UH .13A RADIAL
TDK Corporation
TSL0808RA-472JR13-PF
Q1
MOSFET N-CH 600V 90MA SOT-89
Infineon Technologies
BSS225 L6327
Q2
MOSFET N-CH 600V 1.8A TO-251
Infineon Technology
SPU02N60S5
R1, R3
RES 200K OHM 1/4W 5% 1206 SMD
Vishay-Dale
CRCW1206200KJNEA
R2, R7
RES, 309k ohm, 1%, 0.25W, 1206
Vishay-Dale
CRCW1206309KFKEA
R6, R24
RES, 10.5k ohm, 1%, 0.125W, 0805
Vishay-Dale
CRCW080510K5FKEA
R12
RES 4.7 OHM 1/10W 5% 0603 SMD
Vishay-Dale
CRCW06034R70JNEA
R13
RES 10 OHM 1/8W 5% 0805 SMD
Vishay-Dale
CRCW080510R0JNEA
R14
RES 1.50 OHM 1/4W 1% 1206 SMD
Vishay-Dale
CRCW12061R50FNEA
R15
RES 3.48K OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD
Vishay-Dale
CRCW06033K48FKEA
R16
RES 191K OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD
Vishay-Dale
CRCW0603191KFKEA
R22
RES 40.2 OHM 1/8W 1% 0805 SMD
Vishay-Dale
CRCW080540R2FKEA
RT1
CURRENT LIMITOR INRUSH 60OHM
20%
Cantherm
MF72-060D5
T1
Transformer
Wurth Electronics
750311553 Rev. 01
TP2-TP5
Terminal, Turret, TH, Double
Keystone Electronics
1502-2
TP7
TEST POINT ICT
-
-
U1
Offline LED Driver, PowerWise™
Texas Instruments
LM3444
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Demo Board Wiring Overview
8
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Demo Board Wiring Overview
TP3
TP4
LED +
J6
J5
NEUTRAL
LINE
LED TP2
TP5
Figure 2. Wiring Connection Diagram
6
Test
Point
Name
I/O
Description
TP3
LED +
Output
LED Constant Current Supply
Supplies voltage and constant-current to anode of LED string.
TP2
LED -
Output
LED Return Connection (not GND)
Connects to cathode of LED string. Do NOT connect to GND.
TP5
LINE
Input
AC Line Voltage
Connects directly to AC line of a 120VAC system.
TP4
NEUTRAL
Input
AC Neutral
Connects directly to AC neutral of a 120VAC system.
AN-2082 LM3444 -120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver
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Demo Board Assembly
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Demo Board Assembly
Figure 3. Top View
Figure 4. Bottom View
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Typical Performance Characteristics
10
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Typical Performance Characteristics
Original Circuit: R14 = 1.50Ω; Modification A: R14 = 1.21Ω; Modification B: R14 = 1.00Ω; Modification C:
R14 = 0.75Ω
86
86
84
8 LEDs
EFFICIENCY (%)
EFFICIENCY (%)
84
82
6 LEDs
80
82
80
Mod B
Mod C
4 LEDs
78
Original
Mod A
78
76
76
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
80
LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS)
90
100
110
120
130
140
LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS)
Figure 5. Efficiency vs Line Voltage
Original Circuit
Figure 6. Efficiency vs. Line Voltage
Modified Circuits
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.7
ILED(A)
ILED(A)
Mod C
6 LEDs
4 LEDs
0.4
0.2
0.7
Mod B
0.4
0.2
Mod A
8 LEDs
Original
0.0
0.0
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
80
LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS)
Figure 7. LED Current vs. Line Voltage
Original Circuit
8
AN-2082 LM3444 -120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver
90
100
110
120
130
140
LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS)
Figure 8. LED Current vs. Line Voltage
Modified Circuits
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Typical Performance Characteristics
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1.000
15
0.996
POUT(W)
POWER FACTOR
12
0.992
8 LEDs
9
6 LEDs
0.988
6
4 LEDs
0.984
3
80
0.980
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS)
90
100
110
120
130
140
LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS)
Figure 9. Power Factor vs. Line Voltage
Original Circuit
Figure 10. Output Power vs. Line Voltage
Original Circuit
15
Mod C
POUT(W)
12
Mod B
9
6
Mod A
Original
3
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS)
Figure 11. Output Power vs.Line Voltage
Modified Circuits
Figure 12. Power MOSFET Drain Voltage Waveform
(VIN = 120VRMS, 6 LEDs, ILED = 350mA)
Figure 13. Current Sense Waveform
(VIN = 120VRMS, 6 LEDs, ILED = 350mA)
Figure 14. FILTER Waveform
(VIN = 120VRMS, 6 LEDs, ILED = 350mA)
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PCB Layout
11
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PCB Layout
Figure 15. Top Layer
Figure 16. Bottom Layer
10
AN-2082 LM3444 -120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver
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Transformer Design
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12
Transformer Design
Mfg: Wurth Electronics, Part #: 750311553 Rev. 01
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Experimental Results
13
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Experimental Results
The LED driver is designed to accurately emulate an incandescent light bulb and therefore behave as an
emulated resistor. The resistor value is determined based on the LED string configuration and the desired
output power. The circuit then operates in open-loop, with a fixed duty cycle based on a constant on-time
and constant off-time that is set by selecting appropriate circuit components.
13.1 Performance
In steady state, the LED string voltage is measured to be 21.38 V and the average LED current is
measured as 357 mA. The 120 Hz current ripple flowing through the LED string was measured to be 170
mApk-pk at full load. The magnitude of the ripple is a function of the value of energy storage capacitors
connected across the output port. The ripple current can be reduced by increasing the value of energy
storage capacitor or by increasing the LED string voltage.
The LED driver switching frequency is measured to be close to the specified 79 kHz. The circuit operates
with a constant duty cycle of 0.28 and consumes 9.25 W of input power. The driver steady state
performance for an LED string consisting of 6 series LEDs is summarized in the following table.
Table 2. Measured Efficiency and Line Regulation (6 LEDs)
VIN (VRMS)
IIN (mARMS)
PIN(W)
VOUT (V)
ILED (mA)
POUT (W)
90
60
5.37
20.25
216
4.38
Efficiency (%) Power Factor
81.6
0.9970
95
63
5.95
20.47
238
4.87
81.8
0.9969
100
66
6.57
20.67
260
5.38
81.9
0.9969
105
69
7.23
20.86
285
5.94
82.1
0.9969
110
72
7.89
21.05
309
6.50
82.3
0.9968
115
75
8.59
21.23
334
7.09
82.5
0.9967
120
77
9.25
21.38
357
7.65
82.7
0.9965
125
80
9.94
21.53
382
8.23
82.8
0.9961
130
82
10.62
21.68
406
8.80
82.9
0.9957
135
84
11.26
21.80
428
9.34
83.0
0.9950
Table 3. LED Current, Output Power versus Number of LEDs for Various Circuit Modifications (VIN
= 120 VAC)
# of LEDs
(1)
12
Original Circuit
(1)
Modification A
(1)
Modification B
(1)
Modification C
(1)
ILED (mA)
POUT (W)
ILED (mA)
POUT (W)
ILED (mA)
POUT (W)
ILED (mA)
POUT (W)
4
508
7.57
624
9.55
710
11.05
835
13.24
6
357
7.65
440
9.58
500
11.02
590
13.35
8
277
7.69
337
9.59
382
11.00
445
13.00
Original Circuit: R14 = 1.50Ω; Modification A: R14 = 1.21Ω; Modification B: R14 = 1.00Ω; Modification C: R14 = 0.75Ω
AN-2082 LM3444 -120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver
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Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
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13.2 Power Factor Performance
The LED driver is able to achieve close to unity power factor (P.F. ~ 0.99) which meets Energy Star
requirements. This design also exhibits low current harmonics as a percentage of the fundamental current
(as shown in Figure 17) and therefore meets the requirements of the IEC 61000-3-2 Class-3 standard.
Figure 17. Current Harmonic Performance vs. EN/IEC61000-3-2 Class C Limits
14
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
The EMI input filter of this evaluation board is configured as shown in the following circuit diagram.
R6
RT1
L1
LINE
V+
C2
C6
D2
F1
NEUTRAL
L2
R24
Figure 18. Input EMI Filter and Rectifier Circuit
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Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
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In order to get a quick estimate of the EMI filter performance, only the PEAK conductive EMI scan was
measured and the data was compared to the Class B conducted EMI limits published in FCC – 47, section
15.
Figure 19. Peak Conductive EMI Scan per CISPR-22, Class B Limits
If an additional 33nF of input capacitance (C6) is utilized in the input filter, the EMI conductive
performance is further improved as shown in Figure 20.
Figure 20. Peak Conductive EMI Scan With Additional 33nF of Input Capacitance
14
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Thermal Analysis
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15
Thermal Analysis
The board temperature was measured using an IR camera (HIS-3000, Wahl) while running under the
following conditions:
VIN = 120 VRMS
ILED = 350 mA
# of LEDs = 6
POUT = 7.3 W
The results are shown in the following figures.
Figure 21. Top Side Thermal Scan
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Thermal Analysis
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Figure 22. Bottom Side Thermal Scan
16
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Circuit Analysis and Explanations
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16
Circuit Analysis and Explanations
16.1 Injecting Line Voltage Into FILTER (Achieving PFC > 0.99)
If a small portion (750mV to 1.00V) of line voltage is injected at FILTER of the LM3444, the circuit is
essentially turned into a constant power flyback, as shown in Figure 23.
V+
R2
LM3444
NC
NC 10
2 NC
VCC 9
3 NC
GATE 8
4 COFF
ISNS
7
5 FILTER
GND
6
1
R7
COFF
FILTER
R15
C11
Figure 23. Line Voltage Injection Circuit
The LM3444 works as a constant off-time controller normally, but by injecting the 1.0V rectified AC voltage
into the FILTER pin, the on-time can be made to be constant. With a DCM Flyback, Δi needs to increase
as the input voltage line increases. Therefore a constant on-time (since inductor L is constant) can be
obtained.
By using the line voltage injection technique, the FILTER pin has the voltage wave shape shown in
Figure 24 on it. Voltage at VFILTER peak should be kept below 1.25V. At 1.25V current limit is tripped. C11
is small enough not to distort the AC signal but adds a little filtering.
Although the on-time is probably never truly constant, it can be observed in Figure 25 how (by adding the
rectified voltage) the on-time is adjusted.
VFILTER
t
Figure 24. FILTER Waveform
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Circuit Analysis and Explanations
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For this evaluation board, the following resistor values are used:
R2 = R7 = 309kΩ
R15 = 3.48kΩ
Therefore the voltages observed on the FILTER pin will be as follows for listed input voltages:
For VIN = 90VRMS, VFILTER = 0.71V
For VIN = 120VRMS, VFILTER = 0.95V
For VIN = 135VRMS, VFILTER = 1.07V
Using this technique, a power factor greater than 0.99 can be achieved without additional passive active
power factor control (PFC) circuitry.
As line voltage increases, the voltage across the
inductor increases, and the peak current increases.
750 mV
1M
Nearly a constant ontime as the line varies
PWM
I-LIM
D x LED Current
1.27V
1k
ISNS
1V
1V
LEADING EDGE BLANKING
FILTER
The PWM reference increases
as the line voltage increases.
PGND
RSNS
125 ns
CFILTER
Figure 25. Typical Operation of FILTER Pin
18
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DSP
dsp.ti.com
Energy and Lighting
www.ti.com/energy
Clocks and Timers
www.ti.com/clocks
Industrial
www.ti.com/industrial
Interface
interface.ti.com
Medical
www.ti.com/medical
Logic
logic.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Space, Avionics and Defense
www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Video and Imaging
www.ti.com/video
RFID
www.ti-rfid.com
OMAP Applications Processors
www.ti.com/omap
TI E2E Community
e2e.ti.com
Wireless Connectivity
www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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